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Publication Number Twenty-six 



OF THE 



ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL LIBRARY 



Transactions 



OF THE 



Illinois State Historical Society 



FOR THE YEAR 1919 



Twentieth Annual Meeting of the Society, Springfield, IlHnois, 

May 12, 1919 



Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library 



[Printed by authority of the State of Illinois.] 



iLLixois State Journal Co. 

Springfield, Illinois 

State Printers 

19 2 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

Officers of the Society 5 

- Editorial Note .' 7 

Constitution of the Illinois State Historical Society 8 

An Appeal to the Historical Society and the General Public 11 

PART I.— RECOED OF OFFICIAL PROCEEDINGS, 
ANNUAL MEETING, 1919. 

Annual Meeting 1919 

Business Meeting 15 

Secretary's Report 20 

Report Genealogical Committee 26 

PART II.— PAPERS READ AT THE ANNUAL 
MEETING 1919. 

Thomas C. MacMillan, M. A., LL. D., Annual Address. "The 

Scots and Their Descendants in Illinois 31 

George A. Lawrence. "Clark E. Carr, Late Honorary President 

of the Illinois State Historical Society." A Tribute 86 

Mrs. Joseph T. Bo wen. "The War Work of the Women of Illinois"' 93 

Eugene Davenport. "The Agricultural Development of Illinois 

Since the Civil War ". 101 

Elizabeth Duncan Putnam. "The. Life and Services of Joseph 

Duncan, Governor of Illinois, 1834-1838 107 

Anna Edith Marks. "William Murray, Trader and Land Specu- 
lator in the Illinois Country" 188 

PART III.— CONTRIBUTIONS TO STATE HISTORY. 

John F. Snyder, M. D. "Captain John Baptiste Saucier at Fort 

Chartres in the Illinois, 1751-1763 215 

Index 264 

List of Publications of the Illinois State Historical Society and 
Library following Index. 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 

President. 
Dr. Otto L. Schmidt Chicago 

First Vice President. 
George A. Lawrence Galesburg 

Second Vice President. 
L. Y. Sherman Springfield 

Third Vice President. 
EiCHARD Yates Springfield 

Fourth Vice President. 
Ensley Moore Jacksonville 

Directors. 

Edmund J. James, President University of Illinois. .Urbana-Champaign 

E. B. Greene, University of Illinois Urbana-Cliampaign 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer, Webee. ., Springfield 

Charles H. Eammelkamp, President Illinois College Jacksonville 

George W, Smith, Southern Illinois State Normal Uni- 
versity. .1 1 Carbondale 

William A. Meese Moline 

EiCHARD V. Carpenter Belvidere 

Edward C. Page, Northern Illinois State Normal School DeKalb 

Andrew Eussel Jacksonville 

Walter Colyer Albion 

James A. James, Northwestern University Evanston 

H. W. Clendenin Springfield 

Col. D. C. Smith Normal 

Clinton L. Conkling . Springfield 

John H. Hauberg Eock Island 

Secretary and Treasurer. 
Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Assistant Secretary.. 
Misg Georgia L. Osborne Springfield 

Honorary Vice Presidents. 
The Presidents of Local Historical Societies. 



EDITORIAL NOTE. 



Following the practice of the Publication Committee in previous 
years, this volume includes, besides the official proceedings and the 
papers read at the last annual meeting, some essays and other matter 
contributed during the year. It is hoped that these "contributions to 
State History'^ may, in larger measure as the years go on, deserve their 
title, and form an increasingly valuable part of the Society's transac- 
tions. The contributions are intended to include the following kinds 
of material : 

1. Hitherto unpublished letters and other documentary material. 
This part of the volume should supplement the more formal and exten- 
sive publication of official records in the Illinois historical collections, 
which are published by the trustees of the State Historical Library. 

2. Papers of a reminiscent character. These should be selected 
with great care, for memories and reminiscences are at their best an 
uncertain basis for historical knowledge. 

3. Historical essays or brief monographs, based upon the sources 
and containing genuine contributions to knowledge. Such papers should 
be accompanied by foot-notes indicating with precision the authorities 
upon which the papers are based. The use of new and original material 
and the care with which the authorities are cited, will be one of the main 
factors in determining the selection of papers for publication. 

4. Bibliographies. 

5. Occasional reprints of books, pamphlets or parts of books now 
out of print and not easily accessible. 

Circulars letters have been sent out from time to time urging the 
members of the Society to contribute such historical material, and 
appeals for it have been issued in the pages of the Journal. The com- 
mittee desires to repeat and emphasize these requests. 

It is the desire of the committee that this annual publication of the 
Society supplement, rather than parallel or rival, the distinctly 
official publications ,of the State Histatical Library. In historical 
research, as in so many other fields, the best results are likely to be 
achieved through the cooperation of private initiative with public 
authority. It was to promote such cooperation and mutual undertaking 
that this Society was organized. Teachers of history, whether in schools 
or colleges, are especially urged to do their part in 'bringing to this 
publication the best results of local research and historical scholarship. 
In conclusion it should be said that the views expressed in the 
various papers are those of their respective authors and not necessarily 
those of the committee, Nevertheless, the committee will be glad to 
receive such corrections of fact or such general criticism as may appear 
to be deserved. 



CONSTITUTION OF THE ILLINOIS STATE 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



ARTICLE I— XAME AND OBJECTS. 

Sectiox 1. The name of this Society shall be the Illinois State 
Historical Society. 

Sec, 2. The objects for which it is formed are to excite and 
stimulate a general interest in the histoiT of Illinois; to encourage his- 
torical research and investigation and secure its promulgation ; to collect 
and preserve all forms of data in any way bearing upon the history of 
Illinois and its people. 

ARTICLE II— OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY— THEIR 
ELECTION AND DUTIES. 

Sectiox 1. The management of the affairs of the Society shall 
be vested in a board of fifteen directors, of which board the President of 
the Society shall be ex officio a member. 

Sec. 2. There shall be a President and as many Yice Presidents, 
not less than three, as the Society may determine at the annual meet- 
ings. The board of directors, five of whom shall constitute a quorum, 
shall elect its own presiding officer, a Secretary and a Treasurer, and 
shall have power to appoint from time to time such officers, agents and 
committees as they may deem advisable, and to remove the same at 
pleasure. 

Sec. 3. The directors shall be elected at the annual meetings and 
the mode of election shall be by ballot, unless by a vote of a majority of 
members present and entitled to vote, some other method may be adopted. 

Sec. 4. It shall be the duty of the board of directors diligently 
to promote the objects for which this Society has been formed and to 
this end they shall have power : 

(1) To search out and preserve in permanent form for the use of 
the people of the State of Illinois, facts and data in the history of the 
State and of each county thereof, including the pre-historic periods and 
the history of the aboriginal inhabitants, together with biographies of 
distinguished persons who have rendered services to the people of the 
State. 

(2) To accumulate and preserve for like use, books, pamphlets, 
newspapers and documents bearing upon the foregoing topics. 

(3) To publish from time to time for like uses its own transac- 
tions as well as such facts and documents bearing upon its objects as it 
may secure. 



(1) To accuinulato J'oi' like use such articles of historic interest 
as may bear upou the history of persons and places Avithin the State. 

(5) To receive by gift, grant, devise, bequest or purchase, books, 
prints, i^aintiugs, manuscripts, libraries, museums, moneys and other 
property, real or personal, in aid oi' the above objects. 

(G) They shall have general charge and control under the direc- 
tion of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library, of 
all property so received and hold the same for the uses aforesaid in 
accordance with an act of the Legislature approved May 16, 1903, en- 
titled, "An Act to add a new section to an act entitled, 'An Act to estab- 
lish ilie Illinois State Historical Library and to provide for its care and 
aiaintenance, and to make appropriations therefor,' "' approved May 35, 
1889, and in force July 1, 1889 ; they shall make and approve all con- 
tracts, audit all accounts and order their payment, and in general see 
to the carjying out of the orders of the Society. They may adopt 
by-laws not inconsistent with this Constitution for the management of 
the affairs of the Society; they shall fix the times and places for their 
meetings; keep a record of their proceedings, and make report to the 
Society at its annual meeting. 

Sec. 5. Vacancies in the board of directors may be filled by elec- 
tion by the remaining members, the persons so elected to contiime in 
office until the next annual meeting. 

Sec. 6. The President shall preside at all meetings of the Society, 
and in case of his absence or inability to act, one of the Vice Presidents 
shall })reside in his stead, and in case neither President nor Vice Presi- 
dent shall be in attendance, the Society may choose a President pro 
tempore. 

Sec. T. The officers sliall perform the duties usually devolving 
upon such offices, and such others as may from time to time be prescribed 
by the Society or the board of directors. The Treasurer shall keep a 
strict account of all receipts and expenditures and pay out money from 
the treasury only as directed by the board of directors; he shall submit 
an annual report of the finances of the Society and such other matters 
as may be committed to his custody to the board of directors within 
such time prior to the annual meetings as they shall direct, and after 
auditing the same the said board shall submit said report to the 
Society at its annual meeting. 

ARTICLE III— MEMBERSHIP. 

Section 1. The membership of this Society shall consist of five 
classes, to wit: Active, Life, Affiliated, Corresponding, and Honorary. 

Sec. 2. Any person may become an active member of this Society^ 
upon payment of such initiation fee not less than one dollar, as shall 
from time to time be prescribed by the board of directors. 

Sec. 3. Any person entitled to be an active member may, upon 
payment of twenty-five dollars, be admitted as a life meml:)er with all the 
privileges of an active member and shall thereafter be exempt from 
annual dues. 



10 

Sec. 4. -County and other historical i^oeieties, and otlier societies 
engaged in historical or archaeological research or in the preservation 
of the knowledge of historic events, may, upon the recommendation of 
the board of directors be admitted as affiliated members of this Society 
upon the same terms as to the payment of initiation fees and annual 
dues as active and life members. Every society so admitted shall be 
entitled to one duly credited representative at each meeting of the 
Societ}', who shall, during the period of his appointment, be entitled as 
such representative to all the privileges of an active member except that 
of being elected to office; but nothing herein shall prevent such repre- 
sentative becoming an active or life memljer upon like conditions as 
other persons. 

Sec. 5. Persons not active nor life members but who are willing 
to lend their assistance and encouragement to the promotion of the 
objects of this Society, may, upon recommendation of the board of 
directors, be admitted as corresponding members. 

Sec. 6. Honorary membership may be conferred at any meeting of 
the Society upon the recommendation of the board of directors upon per- 
sons who have distinguished themselves by eminent services or contribu- 
tions to the cause of history. 

Sec. 7. Honorary and corresponding members shall harffe the privi- 
lege of attending and participating in the meetings of the Society. 

x\RTICLE IV— MEETINGS AXD QUORUM. 

Sectiox 1. There shall be an annual meeting of this Society for 
the election of officers, the hearing of reports, addresses and historical 
papers and the transaction of business at such time and place in the 
month of May in each year as may be designated by the board of 
directors, for which meeting it shall be the duty of said board of 
directors to prepare and j)ublish a suitable program and procure the 
services of persons well versed in history to deliver addresses or read 
essays upon subjects germane to the objects of this organization. 

Sec. 2. Special meetings of the Society may be called by the board 
of directors. Special meetings of the boards of directors may be called 
by the President or any two members of the board. 

Sec. 3. At any meeting of the Society the attendance of ten mem- 
bers entitled to vote shall be necessary to a quorum. 

ARTICLE V— AME^^DMEXTS. 

Sectiox 1. This constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote 
.of the members present and entitled to vote, at any annual meeting: 
Provided, that the proposed amendment shall have first been submitted' 
to the board of directors, and at least thirty days prior to such annual 
meeting notice of proposed action upon the same, sent by the Secretary 
to all the members of the Society. 



. 11 



AN APPEAL TO THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY AND 
THE GENERAL PUBLIC. 



OBJECTS OF COLLECTION DESIRED BY THE ILLINOIS 
STATE HISTOEICAL LIBEAEY AND SOCIETY. 

(Members please read this appeal.) 

Books and pamphlets on American history, biography, and gene- 
alogy, particularly those relating to the West; works on Indian tribes, 
and American archeeology and ethnology; reports of societies and insti- 
tutions of every kind, educational, economic, social, political, cooperative, 
fraternal, statistical, industrial, charitable; scientific publications of 
states or societies; books or pamphlets relating to all wars in which 
Illinois has taken part, especially material illustrating Illinois' part in 
the late great world war and the wars with the Indians; privately 
printed works; newspapers; maps and charts; engravings; photographs; 
autographs; coins; antiquities; encyclopedias, dictionaries, and biblio- 
graphical works. Especially do we desire. 

EVERYTHING RELATING TO ILLINOIS. 

1. Every book or pamphlet on any subject relating to Illinois, or 
any part of it; also every book or pamphlet written by an Illinois citizen, 
whether published in Illinois or elsewhere; materials for Illinois history; 
old letters, journals. 

2. Manuscripts; narratives of the pioneers of Illinois; original 
papers on the early history and settlement of the territory; adventures 
and conflicts during the early settlement, the Indian troubles, or the 
War of the Rebellion or other wars; biographies of the pioneers; promi- 
nent citizens and public men of every county, either living or deceased, 
together with their portraits and autographs; a sketch of the settlements 
of every township, village, and neighborhood in the State, with the 
names of the first settlers. We solicit "articles on every subject con- 
nected with Illinois history. 

3. City ordinances, proceedings of mayor and council; reports of 
committees of council; pamphlets or papers of any kind printed by 
authority of the city; reports of boards of trade and commercial asso- 
ciations; maps of cities and plats of town sites or of additions thereto. 

4. Pamphlets of all kinds; annual reports of societies; sermons or 
addresses delivered in the State; minutes of church conventions, synods, 
or other ecclesiastical bodies of Illinois; political addresses; railroad 
reports; all such, whether published in pamphlet or newspaper. 

5. Catalogues and reports of colleges and other institutions of 
learning; annual or other reports of school boards, school superinten- 



12 

dents, and school committees; educational pamphlets, programs and 
papers of ever}- kind, no matter how small or apparently unimportant. 

6. Copies of the earlier laws, journals and reports of our terri- 
torial and State Legislatures; earlier Governor's messages and reports of 
State officers; reports of State charitable and other State institutions. 

7. Files of Illinois newspapers and magazines, especially complete 
volumes of past years, or single numbers even. Publishers are earnestly 
requested to contribute their publications regularly, all of which will be 
carefully preserved and bound. 

8. Maps of the State, or of counties or townships, of any date; 
views and engravings of buildings or historic places ; drawings or photo- 
graphs of scenery; paintings; portraits, etc., connected with Illinois 
history. 

9. Curiosities of all kinds; coins, medals, paintings; portraits; 
engravings; statuary; war relics; autograph letters of our soldiers in 
in the service, or of distinguished persons, etc. 

10. Facts illustrative of our Indian tribes— their history, charac- 
teristics, religion, etc., sketches of prominent chiefs, orators and war- 
riors, together with contributions of Indian weapons, costumes, orna- 
ments, curiosities, and implements ; also, stone axes, spears, arrow heads, 
potter}^, or other relics. 

In brief, everything that, by the most liberal construction, can 
illustrate the history of Illinois, its early settlement, its progress, or 
present condition. All will be of interest to succeeding generations. 
Contributions will be credited to the donors in the published reports 
of the Librar}' and Society, and will be carefully preserved in the State 
house as the property of the State, for the use and benefit of the people 
for all tinn.-. 

Members of the Society are urged to help in the preservation of all 
historical material relating to the part taken by Illinois in the World 
war. Now is the time for this work. 

Communicr.tions or gifts may be addressed to the Librarian and 
Secretary. 

(Mrs.) Jessie Palmer Weber. 



PART I 

Record of Official Proceedings 

1919 



15 



TWENTIETH ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING OF THE 
ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



The annual business meeting of the Illinois State Historical Society 
was called to order in the Supreme Court Eoom, Springfield, Illinois, at 
10:30 o'clock, May 12, 1919, the President of the Society, Dr. Otto L. 
Schmidt, presiding. Doctor Schmidt called the meeting to order and 
asked the Secretary, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, to read the minutes of 
the last meeting, which she did. Mrs. Weber called the attention of the 
members of the Society to the fact that last year was a special centennial 
meeting, the annual business meeting being held on the ir)th of May. 

On motion, the minutes were approved and placed on file. 

The President then called for the report of the Secretar}^, which 
was read. Mrs. Weber stated that in the report of the Secretary given 
last 3^ear a great deal of the present report was incorporated but that 
she would repeat it as it may be of interest. It had been read to the 
directors and by them referred to the Society. On motion, it was ap- 
proved and placed on file. 

The report of the Genealogical Committee was called for by the 
President. Miss Georgia L. Osborne, chairman of that committee, gave 
her report. It was moved and seconded that this report be received and 
placed on file. 

Further reports were called for. Mrs. Weber made the report for 
the program committee. 

Doctor Schmidt asked that Mrs. Weber make a few remarks on the 
progress of the work on the Centennial Building, He stated that after 
many many years there was now the promise of a permanent home for 
the Society. 

Mrs. Weber spoke of the crowded condition of tlie Library and said 
ic now looked as though the realization of the dream of many years was 
to come to pass. The plans for the new building are practically ready, 
although plans for the interior are not entirely completed. Mr. Edgar 
S. Martin, the State Architect, has taken great interest in the work of 
the Library. He is much interested in Lincoln, and it is a labor of 
love for him. The building will provide for the State Historical Li- 
brary, Natural History Museum, the State Library and the State Super- 
intendent of Public instruction. There will be adequate book stacks, 
a beautiful small assembly room which will take care of about 500 and 
will be used for meetings of the Society, and various other purposes 
for which a small assembly room will be convenient. Adequate stacks, 
consultation and study rooms, directors' rooms, facilities for shipping 
and above all storage facilities will be provided. Mrs. Weber said she 
should not say "above all" perhaps, but that the storage is very iriiport- 
ant, though our needs in all respects can be met, it is hoped in this 



16 

building, which will be a really modern fire proof building, with all that 
the term implies. Mrs. Weber spoke also of a Department of Archives, 
but stated that this matter was not entirel_y settled and said that the 
Secertary of State, in his official capacity, is the legal custodian of the 
archives. It has been suggested that a conference of archivists and 
historians be called in this city and that Mr. Emmerson be invited to 
issue the call and the matter of State Archives be thrashed out. A few 
years ago a bill was passed authorizing county authorities to deposit in 
the Historical Library archives which were no longer necessary for their 
current business. This law is not mandatory and so far no county com- 
missioners have been anxious to part with these records. They say 
'"your state house is uo more fire proof than our court house.' 

Mrs. Weber told how from time to time the Historical Society and 
Library have been compelled to decline gifts when the provision that the 
gift be placed in a fire proof building was one of the conditions. She 
stated that all of these objections would be removed within the next few 
years with the completion of the Centennial Memorial Building. One 
of the princi^jal features of this building will be a Lincoln Hall, where 
will be shown our Lincoln relics, etc. Mrs. Weber then said that she 
would be glad to answer questions but that she was not enough of an 
architect to answer technical ones. She stated that the building will 
be beautiful and memorial in its character. The back of the building 
will be devoted to office rooms, etc. 

Doctor Schmidt stated that the report of the chairman of the 
Illinois State Historical Library was in order, but that Professor Greene 
w^as not present at that time and his report would have to be deferred. 
He asked if there were any other reports. There being none the Society 
proceeded to the transaction of miscellaneous business. The President 
asked if there were any matters which any of the members would care 
to bring up for discussion. 

Mr. Ensley Moore of Jacksonville thought that the matter of the 
county archives ought to be under the authority of the county judge. 
He stated that as a general rule the county commissioners were ]iot the 
kind of men to take care of those things and thought this matter should 
be looked into. If necessary, he thought this change should be made 
by law, making the county judge the custodian of the county archives. 

Mr. Dixon of Chicago, who is very much interested in genealogy, 
told of an experience of his at a county seat of one of the sister states 
and which he thought possibly occurred frequently in Illinois. The 
county he visited had recently erected a new court house and he had 
occasion to consult some of the earlier marriage records and land records. 
He was informed that when the records were moved into the new court 
house they ordered all of the old marriage records destroyed and he was 
told that some of the land records which Avere mildewed might as well 
be destroyed. Practically all their records previous to 1850 were de- 
stroyed. 

Doctor Schmidt said he was glad Mr. Dixon spoke of the matter. 
He stuted that about eight years ago the State Historical Library had all 
of the countv records of the State examined by Messrs. Pease and Coles 



17 

and that their report was published. He said he thought it would be 
well that all of the people of the nation read that report, as it would 
show the neglect of these most important records. He stated that the 
subject was a complicated one and that action should be taken by legis- 
lation. That there should be a central organization to take charge of 
such records. In the report referred to, statement is made that the 
records of a number of county seats had been destroyed up to a later 
date even than 1850, and in other instances some of the earliest records 
in the State had been lost and officials do not know what they repre- 
sented or where they are. There is no law that can be brought to bear 
on these county officials. In Missouri, through the efforts of Judge 
Douglas, the old records from St. Genevieve, Kew Madrid and other 
places have been deposited in the Missouri Historical Society at St. 
Louis, but that has not been possible in this State although attempts 
have been made by the Society. 

Mr. Ensley Moore of Jacksonville moved that a committee on county 
archives be appointed, the President and Secretary of the Society to be 
e.\ officio members of that committee. This motion was seconded and 
carried. 

Doctor Schmidt' asked Mr. Moore if it was the sense of his motion 
that the President appoint this committee and Mr. Moore stated that 
it was. 

Mrs. Weber then took up the subject of the war records and asked 
for expressions from the members on this subject, 

Mrs. I. Gr, Miller of Springfield stated that she found that it was 
the sentiment of soldiers who were in camps in this country but who had 
never gone across (although willing to go but for reasons best known 
to the officials of the Union were never sent), that they ought not to be 
in that book. She said that she had this to contend with in her own 
family, her son and many of his friends contending that they should not 
be in such a history. 

Mrs, Weber told of her nephew a volunteer in the navy who said 
"I didn't do Uncle Sam any good but I did my best," She said, "They 
are entitled to enrollment and were a part of the army, Mrs, Miller's 
son is too modest." 

Mr. George W. Smith of Carbondale then spoke. He felt that the 
collection of clippings, etc., would be a poor way to preserve the material 
on the war history. That in the course of time it would be next to im- 
possible to do an3^thing with material so collected as it would be dis- 
jointed and disconnected. He told that in some counties such material 
was being commercialized. In Jackson County they are gathering up 
photographic material, biographical sketches, histories of campaigns, all 
to be put into a book and sold, the subscribers themselves to pay for it. 

He stated that in most cases the matter of funds interfered with 
the collection of this material as far as private individuals was con- 
cerned. It takes time and is expensive. He suggested that some organi- 
zations in each county appoint an official collector to make this 
history. Lots of material could be gathered up by these men and saved 

— 2 H S 



18 

that otherwise would be lost. He thought the whole movement lacked 
organization. Somebody ought to think out a plan for uniformity, the 
work to be done locally if possible. 

Mrs. Weber suggested that a county scrap book might contain a 
manuscript history of war activities, liberty loan drives, Eed Cross, 
children's war gardens, any and all activities along this line. 

Mr. Smith said there was no trouble now in getting the typewritten 
material to be put in bound volumes. He thought definite and uniform 
instructions should be sent out. 

Mrs. Weber told of the circular that she had sent out. ]\Ir. Smith 
stated that nothing had been done in his county. 

Mrs. Weber spoke of the collections of the State Council of Defense 
and of the Adjutant General's records and said that she could see no 
reason why it should not be possible to have county scrap books with 
manuscript accounts of the various war organizations. She said that 
it should be the duty of somebody in each county, even if the Historical 
Society does not do it, to get the organizations to turn over these books 
and we will have an incomplete but at the same time a good source book 
for each of the 102 counties of the State. She said she would like a 
committee appointed to take up this work. 

Doctor Schmidt said that Illinois had been derelict in gathering 
war material. He said that the State Council of Defense had intended 
to do this work and that its chairman, Mr. Insull, had planned it, thus 
dividing the work into the civilian part of the work and the military part. 
He told how the adjoining states had taken hold of this matter, the 
State of Minnesota planning at one time to send their secretary to 
France. Wisconsin, Michigan and Iowa are working hard in gathering 
this material. He also S2>oke of the bill before the Illinois House of 
Eepresentatives for undertaking this work on a larger scale and thus 
to reach into each of the counties. 

Mrs. Weber told how the material gathered by the State Historical 
Society would be source material for the preparation of historical works 
by the historian and asked that a committee be appointed. 

Mrs. Arthur Huntington suggested that a uniform scrap book could 
be easily obtained by the Historical Society suggesting the size, etc. 

Mr. H. E. Barker of Springfield asked if the work of jSTellie Brown 
Duff did not apply in this case. 

Mrs. Weber stated that the work of Miss Duff was confined to 
Sangamon County and that lots of material that we would get she could 
not ; and later Miss Duff' would come to the Historical Library and 
would cull from the collection made by that department such material 
as she would wish to use in her compilation. 

Mr. H. E. Barker then made a motion that a committee of five to 
be called the Committee on War Eecords be appointed. 

This motion was seconded by Mrs. I. G. Miller and carried. 

Doctor Schmidt then asked if there was any further business. There 
being none he asked that some one move that a Nominating Committee 
be appointed. This motion was made by Mr. George W. Smith and 
carried. 



19 

Doctor Schmidt appointed Mrs. Isabel Jamison, Mrs. I. G. Miller, 
Mr. Henry Conway, Mr. L. J. Freese, Mr. J. H. Collins. Mr. Collins 
having left the meeting Mr. H. E. Barker was appointed in his place. 

While the Nominating Committee was deliberating the program 
for the morning was continued. Mr. George A. Lawrence a close 
friend and neighbor of Col. Clark E. Carr of Galesbiirg, gave a memorial 
on Colonel Carr, late honorary president of the Society. 

Mr. -Clinton L. Conkling of Springfield moved that the thanks of 
the Society be tendered to Mr. Lawrence for his admirable address. 
Carried. 

Doctor Schmidt asked that those assembled rise and stand for a few 
moments in deep respect for the memory of Colonel Carr. This being 
done he called attention to the fact that the Society had lost by death 
Judge J 0. Humphrey who was always at the service of the Society and 
worked largely for the historical interests of the State. He asked again 
that the audience arise and stand for a few moments out of respect for 
the memory of Judge Humphrey. 

The report of the Nominating Committee was called for and Mrs. 
Jamison, the chairman of the committee stated that it was the desire 
of the committee to nominate the officers who had served the Society 
so well and faithfully for the past year. 

Doctor Schmidt asked what should be done with the report of the 
Nominating Committee. Mr. James M. Graham of Springfield moved 
the adoption of the report of the chairman of the committee which 
was made unanimous and the Secretary was authorized to cast the ballot 
of the Society for the election of the officers nominated by the committee. 

This she did and the officers as suggested by the nominating com- 
mittee were declared duly elected. 

Mrs. Weber read the paper prepared by Mrs. Joseph T. Bowen, 
Chairman Woman's Committee Council National Defense, Illinois 
Division and member of the Illinois Council of Defense, who was not 
able to be present. 

Judge Michael Girten of Chicago stated that word had been received 
of the illness of President E. J. James and thought that it would be 
appropriate if the Historical Society would send a telegram of condo- 
lence and best wishes. The motion of Judge Girten was seconded and 
carried and Mrs. Weber the Secretary of the Society was instructed to 
send the telegram. 

Doctor Schmidt asked that a vote of thanks be extended to Mrs. 
Bowen for her paper. Mr. Graham moved that a vote of thanks be 
extended to Mrs. Bowen for her remarkable paper. Seconded and 
carried. 

There being no further business the Society adjourned to meet 
at the afternoon session. 



20 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 



To the Board of Directors of the Illinois State Historical Society. 

Gentlemen : On May 19, 1899, almost exactly twenty years ago, 
a feAv persons interested in the History of Illinois met at the University 
of Illinois, Urbana, in response to a call issued at the State University 
and signed by Judge H. W. Beckwith, E. J. James, George ^t. Black, 
E. B. Greene, J. 0. Cunningham, J. H. Burnham, David McCulloch 
and others interested in State history to form an Illinois State His- 
torical Society. 

The Illinois State Historical Library had then been in existence 
nearly ten years. The three members of the board of trustees of the 
Library were among the signers of the call. A temporary organization 
was formed with H. W. Beckwith of Danville, President, and E. B. 
Greene of the University of Illinois as Secretary. These officers were 
made permanent officers at the regular meeting of the Society held in 
Peoria the January following. 

The Society has had five Presidents, Judge H. W. Beckmth, Dr. 
J. F. Snyder, Gen. Alfred Orendorff, Col. Clark E. Carr and Dr. 0. L. 
Schmidt. 

As I have stated the first Secretary was Prof. E. B. Greene, In the 
absence abroad of Professor Greene, Prof. J. W. Putnam served as Sec- 
retary. He was succeeded by J. McCan Davis, and in 1903 the present 
Secretary was elected. 

In 1900 the Secretary reported that there were about sixty mem- 
bers of all classes. Today in my report you will learn that we have 
about fifteen hundred members and we have never made a membership 
campaign. 

The Society is the largest State Historical Society in point of 
numbers in the United States. 

At this our twentieth annual meeting the Secretary has the usual 
story of progress. In the Journal mention is made of the principal hap- 
penings of the Society and this report must be a repetition of much of 
this information and of that transmitted to the Board of Trustees of the 
Library in my report as Librarian. 

The Centenary of the State. 

The observance of the Centennial of the State was an important 
part of the work of the Society for the year 1918. The Historical 
Society observed in cooperation with the Centennial Commission. De- 
cember 3, 1917, April 17-18, 1918, and December 3, 1918. 

The Historical Society also cooperated with the Springfield Minis- 
terial Union in the observance of a Eoosevelt Memorial meeting held in 



21 

the State Arsenal, February 9, 1919. As you, of course, remember, our 
principal meeting of the Centennial year was on April 18, the Centenary 
of the Enabling Act. This was our special Centennial meeting. The 
Constitution of the Society requires that the regular annual meeting be 
held in May each year. Accordingly on May 15, 1918, a meeting was 
held, a very small one, it is true, but a sufficient number of members of 
the Society were j^resent to constitute a quorum for the transaction of 
business. 

The principal matter brought before the regular meeting was the 
question of the collection and preservation of the history of the part 
taken by Illinois in the great World War. Of this I Avill speak later. 
The special Centennial meeting was a notable one. The plan of the 
meeting was to have addresses from representatives of Virginia, and the 
States of the old Northwest Territory, of which Illinois had once been 
a part. Connecticut and New York had claims to parts of the Northwest 
Territory, though rather shadowy ones as far as it related to territory 
as far west as Illinois. The result of this plan was the presence of 
representatives from these various States, who gave us some splendid 
addresses which are printed in the Transactions of the Society. 

The President of the Society, who is also chairman of the Centen- 
nial Commission, called the meeting to order and presided over the meet- 
ing of April 17. On the evening of the 18th, he introduced Governor 
Lowden as the presiding officer of the Centennial meeting and the Gov- 
ernor introduced the speakers of that evening. 

Mr. H. J. Eckenrode represented Virginia, Prof. Elbert J. Benton 
of the Western Eeserve University represented Ohio; Mr. Charles W. 
Moores, Indiana, and Prof. Allen Johnson of Yale University repre- 
sented Connecticut. All made admirable addresses. The Centennial 
address was presented by Mr. Edgar A. Bancroft. His subject was 
'•Illinois, the Land of Men." 

A letter from President John H. Finley of the University of New 
York was read. Mr. Einley had expected to attend the meeting, but 
was called away to head the Palestine Relief Expedition. He was born 
in Illinois and retains his devotion to his native State, though his 
duties take him far away from his beloved prairies. 

A most inspiring address was delivered by M. Louis Aubert of the 
French High Commission to the United States. Its title was a "Mes- 
sage From France." ]\Ir. Aubei-t surprised everyone by his knowledge 
of Illinois History and the message he brought was touching and in- 
spiring. 

It would be interesting to recount for you the different observances 
and those held by different local associations throughout the State, 
but I will only mention those in which the Historical Society officially 
took part. 

On December 3, 1918, Illinois completed her first Century of State- 
hood. A meeting was held in the House of Eepresentatives, with Gov- 
ernor Lowden as presiding officer. Lieutenant Governor John G. 
Oglesby gave an historical address on the office of Lieutenant Governor 
of the State. Hon. James H. Cartwright told us about the Supreme 
Court of Illinois and Speaker of the House, Hon. David E. Shanahan 



0-) 



gave an address on the oflBce of Speaker of the House, and an acconnt 
of the eminent men who have occupied that position. 

The principal address of the occasion was by President John H. 
Finley, who had but a short time before returned from liis mission to 
Palestine, and thus was able to make one of the principal addresses 
during the Centennial observance of his native State. Governor Lowden 
was much gratified at the success of the Centennial observance to which 
he gave enthusiastic support. 

Membership. 

The membership of the Society grows, though not rapidly, as we 
make no campaigns for members. Our publications, which of course 
are sent to all members of the Society, are so expensive, paper, labor 
and all printing materials have advanced to such an extent during the 
war, with no apparent decrease in sight, as to make our publications 
real luxuries. 

When the Centennial Memorial building is completed and we have 
adequate quarters, we ought to make a campaign for members. At 
present very large editions of our volumes are out of the question, on 
account of their expense, lack of storage and shipping space, lack of 
library force to handle the books, and many other reasons. 

Some of our members constantly work in the Society's interest, tell- 
ing the best citizens of the State of its work and interesting them. This 
results in many new and desirable members, who are most welcome. 

The membership now includes: Nineteen honorary members, 
twenty life members, 1466 annual members. This list includes officials 
of the State of Illinois to whom publications are sent; and in addition 
there are 273 newspaper or Press Association members, 353 Libraries 
and Historical Societies in Hlinois, to which we send our publications; 
and 158 Libraries and Historical Societies outside the State to which 
we send our publications on an exchange basis. A total of 2289 volumes 
are sent. Our editions are but three thousand, and so we are left only 
about seven hundred copies above our first distribution. These are soon 
exliausted. As we have practically no storage space, and are storing preci- 
ous material in warehouses out in town, we cannot keep large supplies 
of our back numbers on hand, so they are soon out of print. Some time 
ago one of our members, Mr. H. E. Barker, advertised for publications 
of the Library and Society. I protested, saying if the State gives them 
away and you pay for them, you will place us in an embarrassing posi- 
tion, but he said I need not have been concerned, as none were presented 
for purchase. 

Of course in the case of the death of a member of the Society and 
the sale of his efl:ects or his librar}', our publications come on the market, 
but not in large quantities, and they command respectable prices. The 
book dealers' catalogues sometirues list them, but not more frequently 
than happens with all historical publications, or I believe it may be said, 
not more often than any other serial publications. I have never seen a 
complete set of the Library and Society publications offered for sale. 



23 

The Transactions of the Society for last year, 1918, are printed, 
waiting only for the Index. It will be an interesting number, as it con- 
tains the Centennial addi'esses. 

The Journal is several numbers behind, but we are hoping to catch 
up and be on time within this year. The Centennial work has taken 
much time, and as you all know State printing is slow and when a 
piece of work is begun there are many vexations and delays. There is 
still another reason. The editor of the Journal earnestly recjuests more 
active cooperation from the Society. Contributions and suggestions are 
much desired. The editor is proud of the Journal and receives many 
kind and appreciative letters commending it. It is the organ .of the 
Illinois State Historical Society and the editors Avish it to be repre- 
sentative of the organization. It is your magazine. Help it to become 
a better rei^resentative of you. 

The othcers of the Society would like suggestions from the members 
for addresses for the annual meetings, both as to interesting or neglected 
topics and competent speakers. 

Deaths op Members. 

The Historical Society has suffered severely since my last report in 
its loss of members by the hand of death. Our beloved Honorary Presi- 
dent, Clark E. Carr, passed away on March 28, 1919. Mr. Lawrence 
will address the Society on the services of Colonel Carr. Judge J Otis 
Humphrey of Springfield passed away on June 11, 1918. Judge Hum- 
phrey was a native of Morgan County, Illinois. He was born December 
30, 1850, the son of William and Sarah Stocker Humphrey. Judge 
Humphrey was in his sixty-eighth year. The Humphrey family is of 
English extraction. The great grandfather of J Otis Humphrey was a 
Major in the Ehode Island Infantry in the War of the Eevolution. 
Judge Humphrey graduated at Shurtleff College, Upper Alton, Illinois, 
and taught in that institution after his graduation. He studied law in 
Springfield in the office of Eobinson, Knapp and Shutt, one of the most 
prominent legal firms in Central Illinois. In 1883, Mr. Humphrey 
formed a legal partnership with Henry S. Greene, a distinguished law- 
yer, and this partnership continued for sixteen years. 

Mr. Humphrey as a young man had the happy faculty of inspiring 
the confidence and respect of older men. He was a great favorite with 
Hon. Milton Haj^, and of Senator Shelby M. Cullom. He was very 
prominent in Eepublican politics in this State until his appointment 
by President Mclvinley in 1897 as Judge of the United States District 
Court for the Southern District of Illinois. Mr. Humphrey belonged to 
a number of fraternal organizations. He was a very prominent member 
of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and was a member of the 
Masonic fraternity. 

Judge Humphrey was one of the group of devoted men who in 1909 
formed the Lincoln Centennial Association to perpetuate, by yearly 
meetings on Lincoln's birthday, the name of Lincoln and the significance 
of the observance of his natal day. Judge Humphrey was president of 
the organization from its founding until his death. 



24:' 

He was ver}' active in the affairs of his church, the Central Baptist 
Cliurch in Springfield. He loved his native State and its history. He 
vas an early member of the Historical Society.* He prepared and read 
at the annual meeting of the Societ}', 1907, an able paper on the Baptist 
pioneer preacher and teacher, John Mason Peck, the founder of Shurt- 
leif College. This address is published in the Society's Transactions for 
that year. 

Judge Humphrey was married in 1879 to Miss Mary E. Scott, the 
daughter of the Kev. A. H. Scott, a Baptist clergyman. Mr. and Mrs. 
Humphrey luid five children. A sou, 0. Scott Humphrey, a soldier in 
the service of the United States, who is still in France, and four daugh- 
ters, Mary, Maude and Grace Humphrey, and Euth, the wife of J\Ir. 
Booth Grunendike. 

Judge Humphrey's chief happiness was in his family, and he took 
great pride in the work and attainments of his children. Mrs. Hum- 
phrey died in February, 1919. An adequate address on Judge Hum- 
phrey's career will be published in the Journal of the Society in an early 
number. 

Biographical notices are published in the Journal. Please inform 
the Secretary if you have knowledge of the death of one of our members. 
Other members as far as known to me who have died since my last re- 
port are: 

Avery N. Beebe, Yorkville, III, April 14, 1919. 

Charles A. Bond, Chicago, September 25, 1918. 

Mrs. J. McCan Davis, Chicago, September 23, 1918. 

Dr. W. 0. Ensign, Rutland, May 8, 1918. 

Miner S. Gowin, MeCune, Kansas, July 23, 1918. 

Eobert A. Gray, Blue Mound, December 3, 1918. 

Ernest Hertzberg, Chicago, June 25, 1918. 

John T. McComb, Chicago, 1918. 

Miss Louise Maertz, Quincy, 1918. 

James H. Matheny, Springfield, December 11, 1918. 

Edwin S. Munroe, Joliet, October 4, 1918. 

William A. Vincent, Chicago, March 21, 1919. 

John F. Wicks, Decatur, February 5, 1919. 

(Mr. AVicks was Secretary, Macon County Historical Society, a 
devoted and indefatigable historical worker.) 

C. E. Wilson, Mattoon, 1918. 

Collection of Histoeical Material Eelating to the Great War. 

Members of the Society, one of the most important pieces of his- 
torical work that is before you, one of the most important tasks that 
has confronted this or any Historical Society is the collection and pre- 
servation of material relating to the history of the great war just ending. 
A circular has been sent you calling your attention to this work. I make 
no further recommendations. It is rather, now, your duty to discuss 
this question in all its phases. The history of all the war activities is 
wanted. Letters, diaries, photographs of soldiers, all records and official 
reports, military matters, civilian war relief associations and children's 



25 



work. The circular letter sent you was only suggestive. If this Society 
can do any practical work it is this war history work. If some skilled 
historian shall write the history, it is our part and our duty to collect 
and preserve the material from which it can be written. 

Members of the Society, I know you are interested in the work. 
Show your interest. Contribute to the Society by your presence at the 
meetings, and advice and suggestions. We have a strong and highly 
representative membership, let us make it the most effective. 
Very respectfully, 

Jessie Palmer Weber, 
Secretary Illinois State Historical Society. 



26 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON GENEALOGY. 



To the Members of the Illinois State Historical Society: 

I Avisli to report to the Society that we have published, and it will 
be ready for distribution in a short time, a supplemental list of the 
genealogical material in the Illinois State Historical Library. This 
will be Xo. 25 of the publications of the library and a supplement to 
publication Xo. IS, published in 1914. 

This is a small edition but will be generally distributed to the 
libraries of the State and to those on our regular exchange list such as 
State Libraries and Societies, and to such members of the Historical 
Society as are working along this line. 

Our reference work by mail increases, and we try to give it as much 
attention as we can, consistent with our other duties in the library. 

As our books do not leave the department this necessitates a great 
deal of research work, besides the time given to copying the material 
necessary in order to supply the desired information. 

We have had lately many valuable contributions in our Journal 
from members of the Society in the way of articles on famil}* history. 
These have attracted attention, and many inquiries have been made con- 
cerning the writers and asking for additional information. We are still 
in search of county histories (\diich give biographical sketches of the 
pioneer families) in the southern states and those comprising the 
states that were formerly a part of the Xorthwest Territory. 

As we mentioned in our last report, ^Ir. Ensley Moore continues 
in his newspaper articles in the Jacksonville Journal to contribute to 
the history of Morgan County the records of old families and events, 
which he sends to the department. I trust this will be taken up by other 
members of the Society in the various counties of the State and by them 
sent to us to be of use to students, working along genealogical lines. 

I would suffsrest that the Committee on Genealosrv' in the Society 
be reorganized, as many on this committee like Mrs. E. S. Walker and 
Mrs. E. G. Crabbe have left the State, and others are unable to serve. 

We appreciate the help we have received at different times from the 
members of the Society and ask their further cooperation, so that we 
can make this department of the library still more useful to students 
and workers. 

Eespectfully submitted, 

Georgia L. Osborne, 

Chairman, Genealogical Committee, Illinois 

State Historical Society. 



27 



PROGRAJI. 

Order of Exercises. 

SUPREME COURT BUILDING. 

Tuesday, :May 20, 1919. 
Db. O. L. Schmidt, President of the Society, Presiding. 

9:00 o'clock A. M. 

Meeting of the Board of Directors of the Society. 

10:00 o'clock A. M. 
Annual Business Meeting of the Society. 
Reports of Officers. 
Reports of Committees. 
Miscellaneous Business. 
Election of Officers. 

A Memorial of the Life and Services of Clark E. Carr, Late Honorary 

President of the Society Mr. George A. Lawrence 

A Sketch of the History of Woman's "Work in the Illinois State council 

of Defense Mrs. Joseph T. Bowen 

Chairman, Woman's Committee Council National Defense, Illinois 
Division, and Member State Council of Defense. 

Mrs. Bowen's address will be read hy the Secretary of the Society. 

12:45 o'clock P. M. 

Luncheon at the St. Nicholas Hotel. 

Price Seventy-five Cents. 

(Please make reservations through the Secretary of the 

Society as early as possible.) 

SUPREME COURT ROOM. 

2:30 o'clock P. M. 

The Life and Services of Joseph Duncan, Governor of Illinois, 1834- 

1838 Miss Elizabeth Duncan Putnam 

Davenport, Iowa. 

Songs Mrs. Mose Salzenstein 

Some Phases of Agricultural Development of Illinois Since the Civil 

War Dean Eugene Davenport 

University of Illinois. 
Music. 

William Murray, Trader and Land Speculator in Illinois 

;Miss Anna Edith Marks 

University of Illinois. 

8:00 o'clock P. M. 

Centennial Music Mrs. Westenberger 

Annual Address — The Scots and Their Descendants in Illinois 

Mr. Thomas C. MacMillan 

Chicago, Illinois. 

Music Mr. Ridgely Hudson 

Reception — In Supreme Court Building. 



PART II 



Papers Read at the Annual Meeting, 

May 20, 1919 



31 



THE SCOTS AND THEIR DESCENDANTS IN ILLINOIS. 



[Thomas C. MacMillan, M. A., LL. D.] 

The pages of American history contain the names of men of Scottish 
birth and blood, whose notable achievements have reflected credit upon 
the land and race of their forebears ; and, we may venture to add, have 
shed luster upon the cherished country of their adoption. In almost 
every decade of America's development, subsequent to Great Britain's 
entrance upon the scene of action, are to be found records of the enter- 
prises here of Scotland's sons. 

Full and cheerful recognition is accorded the varied and valuable 
contributions of other European peoples to the upbuilding of the several 
Commonwealths, which, nearly a century and a half ago, united to form 
our Nation. What is here asked for is a fair consideration of the claims 
of Scotsmen for the services rendered by their fellow countrymen and 
their descendants in this undertaking; and a just recognition of their 
share in the preparation for, and the creation and construction of the 
United States. 

The Scot in America has ever been so occupied in making general 
and local history that he has not given much, if any, time or attention to 
the writing of his own history. It has come to pass that historical data 
concerning the Scot, in the earlier years of his advent to these shores, 
were not collected, and preserved, by those most interested, to such an 
extent as we would have desired. However, we may catch glimpses of 
him here and there; occasional mention; incidental reference; until, in 
recent times, his personality is more clearly revealed and his influence 
traced. 

When the earlier Scots emigrated to the American Colonies, they 
but responded to the racial instinct of expansion, and accepted the oppor- 
tunity to establish themselves as free-holders. With them religious and 
civil liberty had ever been a master passion. As "political prisoners" 
many were transported hitherward by Charles I, by Cromwell, by 
Charles II, and by James II. As pioneers, they became independent. 
As patriots, with such a heritage, they grew into leadership. As State- 
bnilders, they had some considerable share in the establishment of the 
new Eepublic. We may guess, that those who were able, were also ready, 
to aid their less fortunate fellow-countrymen; and did so; for, in 1657, 
the Scot's Charitable Society, of Boston, was established, and continued 
to do a service of untold help and hope to the expatriated ship-loads 
of Scotia's sons who were practically slaves, sent here to work for the 
already settled colonists. 

From Bunker Hill to Port Eoyal, and from Manhattan to the AUe- 
ghenies, when the Eevolutionary War began, there was scarcely a thriv- 



32 

ing ccmimnnity in all that region which did not have settlers of the 
Scottish race. To enumerate them would be but to repeat the name of 
every important district. They readily adapted themselves to pioneer 
conditions. Their native parish administration, with its larger shire 
(county) system, made it an easy matter for them to understand, to 
adopt, and to put into successful operation, the Xew England town- 
meeting, and the Virginia county organization. 

It has well been pointed out by Scottish writers, that the early 
emigrants from the home-land traversed the Atlantic in two main 
streams. One came direct from Scotland. The other was by way of the 
extreme northeast Province of Ireland, called Ulster. At this point, 
Scotland and Ireland are separated from each other by channels which 
are only from twelve to twenty miles or so in width. Intercourse between 
the two countries has always been easy and frequent. It is not either our 
pirovince or our purpose to enter into the details of how Ulster came to 
be peopled by Scotsmen. It is merely necessary to state that the Scots 
who crossed over to Ulster took with them their own language, literature, 
laws, religion, customs, and occupations, and maintained them there. 

The Hon. Whitelaw Eeid (quoted by Rev. D. MacDougall, in his 
admirable work, "Scots and Scots' Descendants in America") remarks: 
"If these Scottish and Presbyterian colonists (who went from Scotland 
to Ulster) must be called Irish because they had been one or two gen- 
erations in the North of Ireland, then the Pilgrim Fathers, who had 
been one generation or more in Holland, must by the same reasoning be 
called Dutch, or at the very least 'English-Dutch.' " 

This much is said to explain the substantial unity of the Scotch, 
and those whom Americans popularly designate as the "Scotch-Irish," 
but who more appropriately may be called "Ulster-Scots." It will require 
slight reflection, therefore, to suggest the oneness of these peoples, and 
to indicate the impossibility of separating them nationally and historic- 
ally. The battles waged by these strains of Covenanters— that is, those 
religious and civil reformers, who believed in, and subscribed to, what 
was Scotland's Declaration of Independence, known as the "Solemn 
League and Covenant" — before, during and after those years called "the 
killing time," because of its martyrdoms and persecutions, had prepared 
them for the contests in America in which they ranged themselves in the 
ranks of the Colonial Patriots against what were familiar to them as 
royal aggressions. The blood of thousands of Scotland's devoted sons 
and daughters has dyed the heather of her glens and bens, as witness 
that they determined to continue the struggle until the dawn of the 
day sung in heroic verse by Eobert Burns, their nation's bard : 
"When man to man, the world o'er, 
Will brithers be, for a' that." 

As our story has to do largely with the results of the American 
Eevolution, we may be pardoned for what may seem to be a digression. 
The well-informed student of our national history does not need to be 
reminded that four of Washington's major-generals, at the time of dis- 
charge, were Scottish: Henry Knox (Mass.); William Alexander* 



33 

(X. J.j ; Alexander MacDougall (X. Y. ; aucl Arthur St. Clair (Pa.). 
( MacDoiigalPs "Scots and Scots' Descendants''). 

It is also to be noted that this race, besides its signers of the 
Declaration of Independence, and other patriots, gave Washington 
thirty-live other generals; "three out of four members of his cabinet; 
and three out of five Judges of the first Supreme Court;'' (Herbert X. 
Casson in "Life and Work of Cyrus Hall McCormick," p. 20) ; while 
of the British Colonial Governors, who served before, and, under Provi- 
dence, prepared the way for the Eevolution, more than forty were of 
Scottish birth and blood. 

The history of Illinois, during the period of early French occupa- 
tion, would be incomplete were there no reference to, and no understand- 
ing of, the relation to it of John Law, author of the so-called ''Missis- 
sippi Scheme," and its successor, the ""South Sea Bubble;" who how- 
ever, never visited this country. 

Law was a native of the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, Avhere he was 
born in 1671. If heredity is to be trusted, he came naturally by his' 
faculty of financiering, as his father was engaged in what now would be 
termed ""the banking business." He was given an excellent education. His 
abilities are said to have been good. After a varied career in London, 
Holland, and elsewhere, and after having made a special study of bank- 
ing, he devised a plan for the establishing of a governmental financial 
institution, which, however, he failed to induce either Scotland or France 
ro adopt. Meanwhile, he had amassed a large fortune. Then followed 
his introduction into some of the most powerful court circles of France. 

For years close social and political relations had been sustained 
between France and Scotland. The royal house of the Stuarts had long 
been the beneficiaries of the Bourbon dynasty. The object of this policy, 
on the part of France, was to meet and curtail the increasing power of 
England. William of Orange, warrior and statesman though he Avas, 
never seemed to foster the northern part of his kingdom ; Scotland could 
not easily forgive him for the dreadful '"'Massacre of Grlencoe;" nor for- 
get his persistent and successful opposition to the Scottish enterprise of 
colonizing the Isthmus of Darien, as Panama then was designated — an 
undertaking conceived and promoted by William Paterson. the son of a 
Dumfriesshire farmer, who had founded the great bank of England, and 
whose vision of Panama and its commercial possibilities was more than 
two centuries in advance of his day and generation. 

In 1712, Antoine Crozat,a> favorite of Louis XIV, obtained a mo- 
nopoly of the commerce and trade, with the control, of the "Illinois 
Country." In 1717 this grant was surrendered. The spectacular and 
extravagant reign of Louis the Grand had brought financial confusion, 
if not practical bankruptcy, to France. It was then (1717) that John 
Law's project was launched. Law believed in the "omnipotence of gov- 
ernment." His plan was to combine foreign and domestic finance into 
one all-powerful monopoly to be controlled by the Xation. 

The "Company of the West" was created by Law, with himself as 
its governing head. To it was given the exclusive control of the trade 
and commerce of this region, as France then claimed dominion over 

— 3 H S 



34 

Canada and the Mississippi Yalley. This grant carried with it the 
powers of administration, and the French Government was to receive 
large returns from the monopoly. The "Company of the West" had the 
entire trade in tohacco, and in the mines, which the region was supposed 
to contain; and, later was awarded a monopoly of commerce with the 
East Indies, China, and that indefinite something denominated "the 
South Sea;" hence the organization under this grant of "the East India 
Company.'' 

These conditions and circumstances are cited, so that we may have 
an understanding of several results which affected the growth and 
development of the "'Illinois Country." 

The important effects of these were: 1. The detaching of the 
Mississippi Valley territory from its relation to and its dependence 
upon, the French authorities in Canada; and its transfer to Xew 
Orleans, which center was established in 1718. 2. The creation, in the 
Mississippi Yalley, by the French, of nine military and civil districts, 
each with its own Commandant and Judge, under the supervision of the 
Council at Kew Orleans. Thus the "Illinois Countrj^" became next in 
influence and importance to the New Orleans district. 

This change of jurisdiction at once, and for years afterward, con- 
tributed materially to the upbuilding of the "Illinois Country." It had 
been too remote from the center of Canadian control; while, because of 
river communication, it was in direct and easy connection with the 
Crescent City. It led to the founding of Fort Chartres and to the 
strengthening of the other posts in this region. It had a direct relation 
to the transfer, by the conquest of General Clark, of Illinois, to the 
United States. It also came, in the beginning of the nineteenth century, 
to have a not inconsiderable indirect influence in furthering the negotia- 
tions which culminated in the "'Louisiana Purchase" from France by 
the United States, in President Jefferson's administration; a policy of 
peaceful territorial expansion of which, like Alaska, we have had sev- 
eral examples. 

The period of British rule in the "Illinois Country" extended from 
1765 to 1778. During that time there were few events of historical im- 
portance with which our study has to do. 

The continuous opposition of the British General Gage, to the 
settlement and development of the North-West Territory had decidedly 
deterrent effects. This policy was the reverse of that of the last royal 
Governor of Virginia, Lord Dunmore (James Murray), a Scot, who 
heartily encouraged the colonization of this region. Under the latter's 
system, pioneers from Virginia, from the Carolinas, and from Georgia 
made their wav to Kentuckv and to Tennessee, and later removed to 
Illinois. The records of the epoch show that these settlers largely were of 
Scottish birth and descent. Among the best known of the leaders then 
of the border of Kentucky and Tennessee were Daniel Boone, Simon 
Kenton, and George Eogers Clark, all of Scottish ancestry. 

Eegarding the- Scottish settlements in the Colonies, at the begin- 
ning of the Eevolutionary War, MacDougall in his "Scots and Scots' 
Descendants in America" (Vol. 1, p. 28) says: 



35 

'^There were nearly twenty communities of Scots and Ulster-Scots 
in New England, including Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massa- 
chusetts and Connecticut; from thirty to forty in- New York; fifty to 
sixty in New Jersey ; more than one hundred and thirty in Pennsylvania 
and Delaware; more than a hundred in Virginia, Maryland, and East 
Tennessee; fifty in North Carolina; about seventy in South Carolina 
and Georgia; in all, about five hundred settlements (exclusive of Eng- 
lish Presbyterian congregations in New York and New Jersey) scat- 
tered throughout all the American Colonies." 

These were the sources from which flowed the streams of settlers 
to the Northwest. 

In 1758 Scottish Highland soldiers appeared in the Ohio Country, 
under command of Major Grant. In 1765, when France relinquished 
control of the territory, after the French and Indian War, Captain Stir- 
ling, with troops of the 42d Highlanders, the famous "Black Watch," 
proceeded from Fort Pitt, down the Ohio river, and up the Mississippi, 
to Fort Cliartres, and took possession of that stronghold in the name of 
the British Crown. Captain Stirling's successors included Captain Sin- 
clair, or St. Clair, as it is also written, both having names that suggest 
their ancestry, as their troops indicate their nationality. 

From Kirkland's and Moses' "History of Chicago," (Vol. 1, p. 
27-28) we learn the story of Colonel Arent Schuyler de Peyster, who, 
for several years before the Eevolutionary War, commanded the British 
forces at Mackinac, and therefore the district of which Chicago was a 
part. 

Colonel De Peyster was a New Yorker of ancient Dutch stock. His 
wife was a Scotch lady. When the peace between the United States and 
Great Britain was signed, in 1783, the colonel retired, and settled in 
Dumfries, Scotland. There in 1813, he first published a volume entitled 
"Miscellanies." This was edited by Gen. J. Watts de Peyster, of Yon- 
kers, and republished in 1888. 

The colonel in Dumfries commanded a regiment of militia, of 
which the poet Eobert Burns was a member. In his "Miscellanies" are 
some verses — for he wrote rhyme — entitled "Speech to the Western In- 
dians." This "poem" mentions Clark, and also Chicago, which is 
spelled "Eschikagou," that in a foot note, he describes as "a river and 
fort at the head of Lake Michigan." 

It may be considered significant — and Scotch — that the warlike 
colonel, who was childless, bequeathed his property to his wife's people, 
who, General De Peyster remarks, were "MacMurdos or whatever was 
the name of her nephews." Perhaps this is another illustration of the 
influence in Illinois, and elsewhere, of the thrifty Scot ! 

The acquisition by the Colonies, in 1778-9, of what came to be desig- 
nated as "The Northwest Territory," out of which were organized Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, is a well known story. It 
has furnished abundant material for historian and romancer alike. 

Gen. George Eogers Clark was the central figure in the conquest 
of the country northwest of the Ohio Eiver, as has been well said by 
Hon. W. H. English of Indiana, in his exhaustive history of that great 



36 

enterprise. He (Clark) was born in Albemarle Count v, Virginia, 
November 29, 1752. Mr. English states that the traditions of Clark's 
ancestry are "meager, vague, and unsatisfactory;'' but he adds — without 
giving authorities therefor — that his paternal ancestor came from Eng- 
land. The same author records that this pioneer "met and fell in love 
with a Scotch girl who became his wife," and that she was described as 
"a red-haired beauty.^' It is a matter of history that John and Jona- 
than Clark, descendants of the "red-haired Scotch lady,''' and the fore- 
bears of Gen. George Rogers Clark, lived for some time in the parish of 
Dpysdale, in King and Queen County, Virginia; and also that the light 
hair of their handsome ancestress was noticeable in the family of her 
descendants for several generations. 

]S"ow let us read what MacDougal says (in his "Scots and Scots' 
Descendants in America," Vol. 1, p. 54) concerning Gen. Clark's 
descent: "John Clark, great-grandfather of General George Eogers 
Clark (1752-1818), came to Virginia in 1630 from the southwestern 
part of Scotland." This is certainly distinct and unequivocal. 

A word with reference to the name "Drysdale" may here not be 
out of place. It is still a not uncommon one in southwestern Scotland, 
from which, MacDougall says. General Clark's ancestors came to 
America. It seems scarcely necessary to direct the attention of the 
student of history to the origin of county, town and settlement names, 
as this is elsewhere noted. The name "Drysdale" is as distinctively 
Scottish of the Lowland, or southern, districts, as are MacDonald, Mac- 
Leod, MacPherson, and Cameron of the Highland; and, when we recall 
what MacDougall says (supra) regarding the "more than a hundred 
(Scottish communities) in Virginia, Maryland, and East Tennessee," 
we are not surprised to find a "Drysdale" within the bounds of these 
Colonies. 

"George Eogers Clark," says Kirkland and Moses (in their "His- 
tory of Chicago," vol. 1, p. 24), "was a typical pioneer, frontiersman, 
Indian fighter and American soldier. He embodied the best qualities of 
Daniel Boone, John Todd, Simon Kenton, William Wells, and the other 
hardly pioneers who made possible the 'New West. In brilliancy of 
achievement, and permanency of results, he is head and shoulders above 
them all. It is not too much to say that to Clark we owe it, that, at 
the Peace of Paris, the whole upper Mississippi Valley fell to us instead 
of England," meaning, of course. Great Britain, for Americans have a 
habit of speaking of the Island Empire as if it were composed only of 
the Southern part; quite as though we were to call the United States 
after the Empire State; while Scots affirm it was not "Great Britain" 
until the union of England with Scotland. 

It is to be observed that the John Todd referred to was Col. John 
Todd of the Kentucky family to whom Mrs. Abraham Lincoln was re- 
lated — certainly a Scottish name. 

General Clark's family were people of substance and standing in 
Virginia. His younger brother, William, was the Captain Clark of the 
"Lewis and Clark Expedition," sent out by President Jefferson, in 1805, 
to explore, to the Pacific Coast, the recently acquired territory of "Lousi- 



37 

ana/' ana who made the memorable journey from St. Louis to the mouth 
of the Columbia Eiver and return. 

At the age of nineteen, General Clark was on the border among the 
adventurous spirits of his native Colony. He made several trips back 
and forth to A^'irginia in the interest of the settlers of Kentucky. By 
his twenty -fourth year he was a recognized leader. He had served in a 
campaign against the Indians, under Major Angus McDonald — observe 
this name — which, quaintly remarks one of his biographers, ^'developed 
him in military and political sagacity." He was one of two delegates 
sent from Kentucky to the Virginia I^egislature, to seek aid for the 
settlers against the Indians, in which he was successful. Then came the 
conception of the plan to make conquest of the North-West. 

tfudge John Moses (in "Illinois: Historical and Statistical," vol 1, 
pp. 145 et seq.), relates how the prominent men of A'^irginia^ during 
the second year of the Eevolutionary War, had their attention directed 
to the "Illinois Country," then British territory. 

Before entering upon his enterprise General Clark deemed it neces- 
sary to learn directly the conditions at Kaskaskia, and the adjacent 
settlements in Illinois, and their attitude toward the Americans, were a 
descent upon them to be made by Colonial troops. Judge Moses adds: 
''To confirm his views he (General Clark) sent, in 1777, to Kaskaskia, 
two trusty spies, one of whom was James Moore, afterwards a distin- 
guished settler." His vision revealed to him that the way to meet and 
master the threatened overrunning of Kentucky by the British, and their 
Indian allies, was not merely to prepare for a defense of the American 
settlements, but also to assume the offensive. 

Mr. IST. Matson (in his "Pioneers of Illinois") tells this story of 
the other spy. He relates that "John Duff, a Virginian of French 
descent/" visited Illinois in 1777, and upon his return east reported to 
General Clark what he had seen and heard; how the French inhabitants 
of the "Illinois Country," who comprised by far the largest part of the 
population here, were dissatisfied with the British, and were ready to 
change their allegiance to the Americans. Thereupon General Clark 
and John Duff laid the situation before the Governor, Patrick Henry, 
of Virginia, who authorized General Clark to recruit troops for an expe- 
dition to conquer the territory, although the ostensible object was to 
protect the frontier; and Governor Henry furnished the means and 
equipment to prosecute the enterprise. 

Where and how Mr. Matson learned that John Duff Avas of ''French 
descent" does not appear. Let it be borne in mind that General Clark 
and John Duff must have been intimate, else he (Clark) never would 
have entrusted so important a mission to Moore and Duff. The name 
"Duff'" is not at all "French," but decidedly Scottish. The Duffs and 
the MacDuffs of Virginia were directly descended from Scottish fam- 
ilies. Then, too, we recall the Scottish settlement of "Drysdale/' as 
well as General Clark's Scottish descended associate, Simon Kenton, and 
many other members of this expeditionary force who were, as their 
names show clearly, Caledonian by ancestry, if not by birth. Later 
Duff and Kenton both were given lands in "Clark's Grant" in Indiana, 



38 

for their services during his campaigns. Mr. English speaks of Kenton 
as standing "with Daniel Boone in the front rank of Western pioneers." 

Patrick Henry (1736-99), the Governor of his native Virginia, who 
made possible the expedition of General Clark to the Northwest, was 
the son of a Scottish father and mother. His father was John Henry, 
and his grandmother was a kinswoman of Principal Eobertson, the 
Scottish historian, and of the mother of Lord Brougham, the British 
(Scottish-born) statesman. 

L. E. Jones, in "Decisive Dates in Illinois History^' (p. 96), writes 
that Governor Henry "was a relative of George Eogers Clark," which 
confirms the statement regarding the latter's Scottish extraction. 

The years immediately following the passage by the United States 
Congress of that remarkable and historic instrument, known as the 
"Ordinance of 1787," by which the North-West Territory was created, 
were troublous ones, both for -officials and for people. Political con- 
struction, or reconstruction, is always attended by difficulties and dan- 
gers, even under the most favorable circumstances. 

It was no small task to organize, and no light labor to institute, 
the administrative agencies provided by the Congress in the act of organ- 
ization. Its initial operation would have tested the wisdom, patience, 
and skill of the ablest statesman of the time. 

The territory affected was vast. The settlements were small, 
and were scattered from the Ohio Eiver to the Great Lakes, and from 
the Alieghanies to the Mississippi. Within these bounds roamed pow- 
erful tribes of hostile Indians, led by able and warlike chiefs, whom 
it took Gen. William Henry Harrison long to subdue, and then only after 
several hard-fought battles. The seat of government — Marietta, Ohio — 
was remote from Kaskaskia, and the adjacent communities in Illinois; 
and was not accessible save by circuitous river routes, or by hazardous 
journeys overland. 

Many of the members of General Clark's command, after the con- 
quest, had remained in or had returned to the North-West Territory, 
and had "taken up" land here. The rivers afforded favorite settlement 
centers and sites. 

The first Governor of the North-West Territory was Major-General 
Arthur St. Clair. "His career reads like a tale of fiction, so varied, so 
romantic, and, ultimately, so tragic" was it. When the Eevolutionary 
War closed, he was one of the four Major-Generals under Washington 
who were of Scottish birth. 

General St. Clair was a native of Thurso, Scotland, where he was 
born in 1734. Educated for the medical profession in the University of 
Edinburgh, he forsook the healing art to enter the British army. Com- 
ing to the Colonies, he served successively under General Amherst in the 
Louisburg campaign, and with General Wolfe at Quebec. In 1764 he 
settled and married in Pennsylvania. Vfhen the Colonies began their 
struggles, he promptly cast in his lot with them, and became a patriot 
leader. At the beginning of the Eevolutionary War he was awarded a 
Colonelcy. In 1776 he was promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General. 



39 

In 17T8 he was made a Major-General, which, he retained until he became 
the head of the army. 

In 1787 General St. Clair was chosen President of the United 
States Congress. When that body created the North-West Territory, he 
^/as appointed its first governor. In 1790 he visited Illinois, and organ- 
ized this entire territory into one county, which he named after himself. 
This and others of his acts gave rise to adverse comment. 

It is not our purpose to recount, or even to give a resume of, his 
official course while he was chief executive of this Territory. The his- 
torians agree that, in this capacity, his administration was open to criti- 
cism. It may be explained, in partial extenuation, that, from the first, 
there were serious differences between the executive and the judicial 
branches of the territorial government, which one, by taste and train- 
ing a soldier, could not easily adjust. Besides, the internal affairs were 
much disordered when he came, matters which his successors took a long 
time to settle. 

A kindly estimate of General St. Clair is quoted from Judge Moses' 
"History" (Vol. 1, p. 212) : 

"■He was brave in battle and faithful to his friends. He advanced 
large sums from his private means to sustain the Government in the 
darkest hour of the Eevolution, as well as to defray the current expenses 
of the territorial government, which w^ere never repaid him. His for- 
tune, once a large one for the times in which he lived, had been mainly 
spent in the service of his Country, and he found himself in his old age 
reduced from affluence to poverty, until at the age of eighty-four years" 
(in 1818, that in which Illinois became a State) "he closed his days in 
a log cabin in Pennsylvania, a striking illustration of the proverbial 
'ingratitude of republics.' " 

Following a period of what consists somewhat of tradition the real 
history of Chicago begins with John Kinzie. It is to be observed that 
Mr. Kinzie came to what grew to be Chicago the same year in which 
Captain John Whistler arrived to undertake the building of Old Fort 
Dearborn. Here again our Army, as in many other instances, was a 
pioneer of civilization; for the Fort made this a seat of authority and 
commerce, to which the tribes and traders came. 

John Kinzie was the only son of his father, whose name was John 
McKenzie, a Scotchman. Like many other members of his race, he had 
made his way across the Atlantic, and at the time of his son's birth, in 
1763, the family lived in Quebec. That city then was the center of 
Canadian commerce with the posts and settlements of the entire St.. 
Law^rence basin. There the hardy trapper, traveler, and fur-trader out- 
fitted, and to it and from it went their expeditions. This was the 
atmosphere in which John McKinzie began his life. His father died 
when the son was an infant. The widow, some time afterward, married 
William Forsyth, a Scotchman of devout Presbyterian stock. Several 
children were born of this union, whose names appear in early Detroit 
and Chicago annals. 

John Kinzie dropped the "Mc" from his name, and that of Kinzie 
was adopted, and has remained the family name ever since. Why this 
discontinuance of the "Mc" came about, we may only conjecture. It 



. 40 

may liave been because of the popular prejudice to anything savoring 
of British origin or rehitionship, as the feeling of the Americans then, 
and for a long time thereafter, was pronounced against Great Britain. 
But this has never since existed among Americans regarding Scotchmen. 
Mrs. .lobn Tl. Kinzie, the interesting and informing author of 
"Wau-Bun," who was John Xinzie's accomplished daughter-in-law, says 
that he was "of an enterprising and adventurous disposition," as well 
he might be with such a progenitor, and with such surroundings as were 
in Quebec and Detroit. When the Forsyths lived in Detroit, Mrs. Kinzie 
states, Jolm Kinzie "entered the Indian trade, and had establishments 
st-t Sandusky and jMaumee, and afterward pushed further west about the 
year Ih'OO, to St. Joseph" (Michigan). But the lure -was still westward, 
and he came to Illinois in 1803 to look the ground over with a view to 
settlement. In l8(J-± he brought here his wife and son, John li. Kinzie. 

As to why he chose Chicago, instead of remaining in the St. Joseph 
river region, we may reasonably make inferences. It has already been 
intimated that his coming to Chicago was nearly that of the arrival of 
Captain Wliistlcr who built Old Fort Dearborn. Captain Whistler also 
came from Detroit. It is not unlikely that Mr. Kinzie was aware of the 
work to be undertaken by Captain Whistler for the War Department. 
He certainly perceived the strategic position of the new military post. 
It was on the lake ; a stream was here ; the portage from Lake Michigan 
to the inland river and country was made at or near this point ; here 
several affiliated tribes made their headquarters ; and from here the red- 
men of Indiana, Michigan, Illinois and Wisconsin could be brought into 
trading relations. The Indians who hunted and fished in what are now 
Southwestern Michigan and Northern Indiana were within easy reach 
of the new fort, and with these he had already established friendly 
relations. 

Ai Chicago, the military post then was everything. There were only 
a few log-houses outside of it. The fort afforded some society and con- 
veniences which an isolated Indian post lacked. Mr. Kinzie may have 
had a dream of a future center, for it would surprise none to learn how 
often the pioneers were also prophets. His active mind and enterprising 
spirit again readily expressed themselves. Soon he had established sta- 
tions for trade among the tribes on the Illinois, and on the Kankakee, 
and among the Menominee Indians in AVisconsin. 

We may obtain a picture of the life of an Indian trader from Mrs. 
John H. Kinzie, who wrote : 

"Each trading post had its superintendent and its complement of 
engages, its train of pack-horses, and its equipment of boats and canoes. 
From most of the stations the 'furs and peltries' were brought to Chicago 
on pack-horses, and the goods necessary for the trader were transported 
in return by the same method.. The vessels came in the Spring and fall 
(seldom more than two or three annually) to bring the supplies and 
goods for the trade, and took the furs already collected to Mackinac, the 
depot of the Southwest and American Fur Companies. At other seasons 
they were sent to that place in boats, coasting around the lakes," 

Mr. Kinzie possessed qualities which secured for him the friendship 
of many of the chiefs of the tribes inhabiting this region. In periods 



: 41 

qf peril, as during the year 1812, that of the "Fort Dearborn Massacre," 
this friendship stood him in good stead. He could speak their language. 
Indeed, there is a tradition that he prepared some books of an educa- 
tional nature of the Winnebagoes, as well as of the Wyandots or Hurons. 

After the troubles of 1812, covering an interval of three or four 
years, he returned to Chicago and resumed his activities. Fort Dear- 
born had meanwhile been rebuilt, this time on a larger scale. It was 
for years alternately abandoned and occupied on account of the Indian 
troubles, its final evacuation taking place in 1836. Mr. Kinzie died 
January 6, 1828. His descendants became honored and prominent citi- 
zens of Chicago. A leading street, a public school, and a land addition 
of Chicago bear his name; and, as has been said, historians call him 
"the Father of Chicago," as he. was its first permanent civilian white 
settler. 

From the days of Father Marquette, the heralds of the Cross had 
large part in the opening up of the North- West. Their devotion was 
proverbial. No tribe was too hostile to deter them from attempting its 
conversion. No journey was too dangerous to keep them from the 
prosecution of their self-sacrificing task. As explorers, they not only 
accompanied as spiritual advisers Joliet and La Salle, but also often 
themselves were far in advance of these adventurous men. 

When the Territory had passed beyond the era of trapper and 
trader, and became the home of the permanent white settler; the Mis- 
sionaries of the Gospel ministered to the people in the distant and 
isolated communities. 

One 0^ these splendid men was John Clark. Of him. Dr. Peter 
Eoss (in his work on "The Scot in America," pp. 160-1), says: 

"Turn to a lay preacher who did magnificent work for the Master 
in his day and generation, and around whose name many fragrant 
memories yet linger. This was John Clark, better known as "Father 
Clark," whose only educational training was that which he received in 
the school of his native parish of Petty, near Inverness ( Scotland) . 
He was born in 1738, and in early life is said to have been a sailor. In 
the course of one voyage he landed in America, and concluded to associ- 
ate his future with it. He settled for a time in South Carolina, where 
he taught a backwoods log-school, and then moved to Georgia, where he 
joined the Methodist Church, and became a "class-leader." In 1789 
he became an itinerant preacher in connection with the Methodist body. 
He was a man of devout spirit, outspoken in his views, and ready to 
denounce wrong wherever he found it, without regard to church affilia- 
tion, general polic)', or self-interest." As might be expected, he was a 
bitter foe to slavery, and it is on record that he twice refused to accept 
his annual salary of $60 because the money was obtained through slave 
lahor." 

"Father Clark" made his way to Illinois. Here he taught school, 
and preached when opportunity arose. He quitted the Methodist 
Church, and joined an anti-slavery organization, known as the "Baptized 
Church of Christ, Friends of Humanity," and labored as a traveling- 
evangelist. It is stated of him (Judge Moses' "History," vol. I, p. 235), 



4X5 

that he was the first Protestant minister to cross the Mississippi, and 
to preach to the Americans there in 1798. He died in St. Louis in 1833. 

One of the great preachers of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 
modern times was the late Bishop Eobert Mclntyre. His career was 
remarkable. By birth and ancestry Scottish, he worked as a brick- 
mason until he reached man's estate. When the call to preach came, 
lie was laboring with the trowel. It involved a mighty soul struggle. 
Once over and settled, he threw himself into the work with a zeal that 
knew no obstacles. It was as if the fires of his spirit had been lighted 
at the divine altars. Here was a field for his imaginative spirit to soar 
in. He became minister, preacher, evangelist, orator. In spiritual 
fervor, opulence of reference, aptness and abundance of illustration, 
finish of expression, and force of utterance, he was a marvel in pulpit 
or on platform. Few if any of the preachers of the denomination — al- 
ways noted for its preachers — could be classed with him. The older 
people who heard him were reminded of that other great Methodist 
Episcopal preacher. Bishop Simpson, also a Scot. Before he was chosen 
a bishop Dr. Mclntyre was for years pastor of an influential and large 
church in Chicago-St. James : M, E. — which has contributed four bishops 
to the denomination, and has had many other strong preachers in its 
pastorate. 

Bishop Wm. E. McLaren, of the Protestant Episcopal diocese of 
Chicago, was the son of a Scotch descended Presbyterian minister who 
was well known and highly esteemed in his denomination. The bishop 
was rector of a large church in Cleveland when he elected and confirmed 
as bishop in succession to Bishop Whitehouse, who was a scholar and 
administrator of eminence in his time. The career of Bishop McLaren 
in Illinois was marked for its uniform success, the admirable spirit 
which he manifested, and for the growth of the church throughout his 
jurisdiction. 

John Laurie was a Scotchman w^ho came to Illinois in the first third 
of the nineteenth century. He settled on a farm in Morgan County. 
He had several sons, three of whom were educated in whole or in part in 
Illinois College, Jacksonville, and all three became ministers. Thomas 
the oldest, was born in what the Scots delight to call "the Athens of the 
North" — the city of Edinburgh. He was scarcely ten years of age 
when he came with his family to the United States. Graduating from 
college in 1838, he resolved to devote himself to religious service in for- 
eign lands. The field to which he was assigned was inhabited by that 
interesting people, the Nestorians, among whom he labored until his 
health compelled him to relinquish what he had hoped would be a life- 
work. Upon his return to the United States, and the restoration of 
some degree of strength, he preached, and wrote: one of his books was 
entitled,""Dr. Grant and the Mountain Nestorians'" which passed through 
several editions. Inglis, the second son, held pastorates in Minnesota. 
James completed his literary course at Williams College, and went to 
Andover for his theological training, becoming a minister of promi- 
nence in his day. There were other sons who were farmers, respected 
and useful citizens in their community. 



43 

President Charles M. Stuart, of Garrett Biblical Institute, Evans- 
ton, the Methodist Episcopal Theological Seminary (whose career is in- 
dicated elsewhere), is one of the Scottish leaders of his denomination 
whose services in behalf of education and ministerial training are widely 
known and appreciated. 

Of "well-kenned" (well-known) Scottish ministers there have been 
many, and of "leal-hearted" ones not a few, who have occupied the pul- 
pits of Illinois. As preachers, they were counted theologically sound, 
but not by any means only "sound." To give even a limited list of 
them would be as difficult as to condense into a paragraph Dr. McCosh's 
two volumes on "Realistic Philosophy," or to summarize the "Shorter 
Catechism" into a sentence. Some of them used until the last the 
"Doric," as the Scots' language — for it is a distinct language — is affec- 
tionately designated by the natives of the land of the heather. But the 
majority adapted themselves readily to the speech of their new country, 
with perhaps just a gentle flavor of their OAvn to make it attractive. 

Eev. Wm. Horace Day, D. D., son of the late Eev. Dr. Warren 
Day, formerly of Ottawa, Illinois, is Moderator (1919) of the National 
Council of Congregational Churches of the United States. He is the 
grandson on his maternal side of a Scot; "Dr. Day is now minister of 
the leading Congregational Church in Bridgeport, Conn. Another man 
of Scots' birth and lineage, who was Moderator of that body (1907-1910), 
is a resident of Cook County, Illinois, and was Moderator of the Illinois 
State Congregational Association in 1899-1900, and has been a State 
Senator. His home is in LaGrange, Illinois. 

Eev. John M. Farris, some fifty odd years ago, was one of the best 
known and highly esteemed ministers of the Old School Presbyterian 
Church in all this territory. He served with success and satisfaction 
as financial representative of the then North-Western Presbyterian 
(now the McCormick) Theological Seminary. He was an Ulster-Scot, 
the worthy son of, stalwart ancestry. His home in the later period of 
his life was at Anna, Union County, where he devoted himself to horti- 
culture. His son, Eev. Wm. W. Farris, a graduate of the old Chicago 
University and of the North-Western Presbyterian Theological Semi- 
nary, became a useful minister, and an author, as well as a frequent 
contributor to the periodical press of his time. 

Eev. George C. Lorimer, D. D., for a number of years, was one of 
the most eloquent and engaging pulpit orators of Chicago. A Scot, 
he was an adopted American, whose loyalty and learning made him a 
power for civic betterment and moral uplift throughout his extended 
pastorate of one of the leading and most influential Baptist Churches 
in the Garden City. As a lecturer he was sought from far and near. 
As a preacher he is remembered with Dr. 0. H. Tiffany, Bishop Charles 
H. Fowler, Bishop Eobert Mclntyre, Dr. W. H. Eyder, Dr. Herrick 
Johnson, Dr. Eobert Collyer, Prof. David Swing, Dr. Eobert W. Patter- 
son, Dr. E. M. Hatfield, Dr. H. W. Thomas, Dr. J. P. Gulliver, Dr. 
Brooke Herford, Bishop Chas. E. Cheney, Dr. E. P. Goodwin, Dr. Clin- 
ton Locke, Dr. F. A. ISToble, and others who in their time were outstand- 
ing leaders in their several churches. 



44 

Among the settlers who came to southern Illinois during the first 
quarter of the nineteenth century, no group furnished more sturdy, in- 
dependent, successful, religious, law-abiding citizens that did the Ee- 
formed Presbyterians. The name by which they were popularly known 
was "Covenanters." They wei^e, to a man, woman, and child, Scotch and 
Ulster-lScotch. 

The Covenanter was a product of the despotism of the House of 
Stuart upon a people who had an over-mastering zeal for civil and re- 
ligious liberty. This conviction followed the Covenanter in his migra- 
tion overseas. It made him the foe of slavery, and the apostle of free- 
dom. When the attempt was made in Governor Coles' administration, 
to have slavery formally recognized by law and established in Illinois, 
the Covenanters, who had made their homes in Eandolph County, at 
once ranged themselves among the anti-slavery people, and by voice 
and vote did their full share in deciding, once for all, to make, and to 
keep, Illinois a free State. 

In their public worship, these intelligent, earnest, courageous, use- 
ful, liberty-loving citizens used in their praise service the "Psalms in 
Meter," and the "Paraphrases," that is, Bible themes set forth in verse. 
In their public worship they stood while prayers were offered, and they 
sat while they sung. They eschewed instrumental music in their public 
worship and would allow no "kist of whistles" to lead their singing. 
They believed in a national as well as a personal conscience, in the exist- 
ence and consequences of national as well as personal repentance, and in 
personal supplications. 

Some sixty years ago, or so, there were in Cook County two Re- 
formed Presbyterian Congregations. Though relatively small, it is 
remarkable how productive they were in developing denominational 
leadership. Indeed, this fact is to be noted in connection with the little 
churches throughout this State. Church leaders almost as a rule have 
come out of the small or rural, not the large or city churches. 

Out of the church of the Covenanters in Chica*go, and that — an 
Old School Presbyterian Church — into which it grew, came a group who 
were leaders in religious, benevolent, and educational fields. Its minister 
was an Ulster-Scot. Eev. Eobert Patterson, D. D., not to be taken for 
Eev. Eobert W. Patterson, D. D., who for many years was minister of 
the Second Presbyterian Church of Chicago, and who was reared in 
Bond County, Illinois, and was educated at Illinois College, Jacksonville. 
Three of the young men may be named Avho were products of this Cove- 
nanter and Old School Church — John C. Hill became a missionary to 
Guatemala, after which he returned to the United States, and preached 
in Illinois ; for some time he has been in a leading church in Ohio. 
John Currer and Alexander Patterson, sons of the ministers, have long 
since finished their work here. Mr. Currer came from a Dumfermline, 
Scotland, family; preached in Hebron, Illinois, in Girard, Kan,, and in 
LeSuer, Minn., Mr. Patterson devoted himself first to evangelistic 
service, then became a denominational educator, and the author of sev- 
eral bible-text books. Miss Lillian Horton, who was a^ member of the 
later — the Old School — church, went to Korea as a missionary. It is 
worthy of note that in this church also, in his earlier life, was the late 



45 

Thomas Templetou of Evanstou, avIio for years was prominently con- 
nected with the Marshall Field Company, and who left provisions in his 
will for the disposition of about a million of dollars for denominational 
and charitable purposes. The late James Crighton, for a third of a 
century a member of the Chicago Board of Trade, another young man 
of this church, for more than twenty-five years was superintendent of 
one of the most important city missions of the Presbyterian denomina- 
tion. This little church had in its membership a number of well-known 
and successful teachers. One member became an editor and a State 
Senator, and, as elsewhere intimated. Moderator of the National Con- 
gregational Council (1907-1910). 

The other church Avas in the town of Bloom, Cook County, whose 
minister Avas Eev. Mr. Phillips. In this church Avas reared the late 
State Senator William J. Campbell, of Chicago and Riverside, Avho, dur- 
ing the administration of Governor John M. Hamilton, Avas President 
of the State Senate, and thus was Lieutenant-Governor; Avas prominent 
lawyer; and Avas a member of the National Committee from Illinois of 
his party. 

The interesting group of people whom Ave know as Covenanters may 
not be passed Avithout the recital of an incident illustrative of the man- 
ner in Avhich they expressed their convictions. It is published in a 
pamphlet issued in 1918, by the "Sunday School Times Company," in 
which is a discourse by Eev. Paul Eader, pastor of the Moody Church, 
Chicago, entitled, "Hoav Lincoln Led the Nation to Its Knees." Mr. 
Eader said : 

"Thank God for the little group of men in Ohio Avho could see God's 
ways well enough to meet for deliberation and prayer, and for the aom- 
pany in Sparta, Illinois, who adopted this pledge: 'To labor to bring 
the Nation to repentance toAvard God, and to a faithful administration 
of the Government according to the principles of the Word of God.' " 

Under the provisions of, and by request of the United States Sen- 
ate, expressed in resolutions introduced by Senator James Harlan, of 
loAva, President Lincoln issued a proclamation, dated March 30, 18G3, 
setting apart April 30, 1863, "as a day of National humiliation, fasting, 
and prayer," and requesting "all the people to abstain on that day from 
their ordinary secular pursuits, and to unite at their several places of 
public worship and their respective homes, in keeping this day holy to the 
Lord and devoted to the humble discharge of the religious duties proper 
to that solemn occasion." 

These were "the darkest days" of the Civil War. Mr. Eader adds : 
"The day of prayer came April 30. In a little moi'e than two months 
the sky was flooded Avith decisive victory. By the morning of tbe 5th of 
July, Lee Avas on his way in retreat to the Potomac Avith one-qiiarter of 
his AA'hole army gone, and seventeen miles of Avagons Avith the wounded. 
Vicksburg had fallen, and there Avas the victory of Gettysburg." 

This is the interpretation given the gloom and the succeeding light 
of 1863. In his proclamation, fixing August 6 as a day of Thanksgiving, 
President Lincoln said : "It has pleased Almighty God to hearken to 
the supplications and prayers of an afflicted people, and to vouchsafe to 
the Army and Navy of the United States victories on land and sea so 



46 

signal and effective as to furnish reasonable grounds for augmented 
confidence that the Union of these states will be maintained, their Con- 
stitution preserved, and their peace and prosperity permanently re- 
stored." 

Eev. W. J. Smiley, of Sparta, states of Eev. Samuel Wylie that he 
planted the Eeformed Presbyterian Church there. j\Ir. Wylie was an 
Ulster-Scot, having been born in Antrim, February 19, 1790. Concern- 
ing the Eeformed Presbyterian Church, Mr. Smiley remarks : "Her in- 
fluence for liberty has been felt, and her testimony against slavery, 
lifted up at the close of the last" century, (since 1800 no slave-holder 
was retained in her communion), has been vindicated." 

With the "Covenanters" here, sixty years ago, the "Communion 
Season" was the important semi-annual event. It was observed in the 
spring and autumn. Usually the resident minister was assisted in this 
sacrament by one other clergyman. The preparation was serious and 
thorough. The minister and elders, who comprised the "session," care- 
fully examined all applicants for membership. Those who came for the 
first time were well-versed in the Bible and the "Shorter Catechism." 
So far as recalled, there was no "Lachlan Campbell," of "Beside the 
Bonnie Brier Bush'" fame, to be grand inquisitor of the young and 
timorous. The week preceding the "Lord's Supper Sabbath" — for it 
was never known by the pagan name of "Sunday" — was devoted to 
special preparatory services. In some parishes there was a "fast day," 
and it was a real "fast." Each intending communicant was given a 
"token," which entitled its holder to a seat at the Communion-table; 
for a table occupied the space between the front row of pews and the 
pulpit. It was covered with a spotless table-cloth. The communicants 
moved down from their pews by the right-hand aisle, with slow and 
solemn step. The "precentor^' led in the singing of a Psalm in meter, 
to some impressive tune familiar to all. At the end of the aisle two 
elders stood, and to them each communicant handed the "token." The 
officiating minister occupied a seat in the center of the table facing the 
congregation. When the seats were filled, the minister began the service 
with prayer; then a short discourse; after which the "elements" were 
distributed. When all were partaken of, the "precentor" resumed the 
singing, the communicants arose, slowly moved out of their places by 
the left-hand circle, while another group or company came down the 
right-hand aisle, and took the vacated seats. These exercises made the 
service a lengthened one, for it was the only worship in the church that 
Sabbath-day. 

On such days there were no "liot dinners" in the family. Indeed, 
all Sabbath preparations were always completed on Saturday night. 
"Thou shalt cut neither horn nor hair on the Sabbath-day" was faith- 
fully observed. All bathing, changing of linen, polishing of shoes, and 
making ready for Sabbath meals as far as possible, were completed the 
evening before. Hence, on Sabbath morning, the Sabbath garb was as- 
sumed without hurry, and the worshipper did not need to rush into 
church on Sabbath morning "as a warrior hasting to the battle-field." 

The Bible was carried to church. In the back part of it were the 
"Psalms in meter" and the "Paraphrases." When the minister read the 



47 

■^'Scripture lesson," each member turned to the chapter, and carefully 
followed the reading. There was a running exposition of the passage. 
Where some difficult verse appeared, it was critically explained, and the 
meanings of the original Hebrew or Greek given. The sermon was 
rarely less than from a hour to an hour and a quarter in length. It 
was preached without manuscript, or even "notes." It abounded in 
analyses ; tlie historical setting was given ; there were from three to five 
main "heads" each with as many subdivisions; it was delivered with 
clearness and fervor; throughout it was scholarly; closing with a reca- 
pitulation, and the powerful application. It contained sufficient material 
to keep the congregation busy until the next "diet of preaching." 

The records of the first schools in Illinois are fragmentary. The 
county histories, for the most part make only incidental mention of the 
early teachers. They are composed of accounts of the methods of form- 
ing "subscription schools," as they were called : that is, where petitions 
and subscription papers were circulated by persons who desired to "take 
up" or to "keep schools;" with descriptions of the crude quarters in 
which the schools were held; and with certain picturesque features 
which prevailed. 

That was before the establishing of free public schools. The com- 
pilers of the local annals of long ago emphasize the popular phrase that 
*'lickin and larnin" then invariably went together. They relate interest- 
ing tales of the "loud schools," or, as they used to call them in Kentucky, 
the "blab schools;" that is, where the pupils studied their lessons aloud, 
— a type which long preceded the "silent schools" of our day. Several 
of these histories contain references to schools which were "kept" by men 
who had served with Gen. George Eogers Clark during his conquest of 
Illinois. 

One of the pioneer teachers was Eev. John Clark (see the section 
on Eeligion" for his sketch), a Scotchman, who, about l&Oo-G, labored 
with much usefulness in this behalf among the settlers. 

The venerable author, the late Dr. Samuel Willard, in his "Brief 
History of Early Education in Illinois" (published by State Superin- 
tendent Henry Raab in the fifteenth biennial report, 1884, pp. XCVIII- 
CXX), states that Eandolph County, the home of many of the Scotch 
Covenanters, followed close upon Monroe County in establishing schools, 
in 1805-6 and in 1817. He adds, that, in 1821, a school was taught near 
Sparta, a center of these Scots. In St. Clair County, in 1811, a school 
was opened at Shiloh, and the Scotch settlement. 

It was not however, until 1824, or six years after the admission of 
Illinois into the Union, that any definite action was taken by the State 
for the creation and maintenance of free public schools. This measure 
was introduced into the General Assembly by State Senator Joseph 
Duncan who later sensed three terms in the United States Congress, 
and was elected Governor of Illinois. 

Governor Duncan was born on February 22, 1774, in Paris, Ky. 
His father was Major Joseph Duncan, a native of Virginia of Scotch 
ancestry. The home of the Duncans was Kirkcudbright, in southwestern 
Scotland. His daughter, the late Mrs. E. P. (Julia Duncan) Kirby, 
of Jacksonville, preserved among her family treasures a picture 



48 

of Kirkcudbright, which the writer has often seen, and of which that 
lady frequently spoke with pride, as showing the nativity of her father's 
ancestry. 

The Duncan Act of 1824 was for the establishment and support of 
free common schools in Illinois, It became a law. However, it was far 
in advance of its time, and was subsequently repealed. It "led in 
1854-55, to the passage of a bill prepared by Xinian W. Edwards, for 
the system of common schools which we now have, and the provisions 
of which are similar to those of the law adopted in 1824 of which Sena- 
tor Duncan was the author" (Mrs. Kirby's "Sketch," p. 34). 

Although his measure had been nullified. Governor Duncan did not 
cease to advocate the advisabilit}' and necessity of popular education. 
In his inaugural address as Governor he devoted a large part to a "dis- 
cussion of the benefits to be derived from the establishment of a system 
of public schools, which he stronglv recommended" (Judge Moses, "His- 
tory," vol. 1, p. 402). 

For many years the Governor was a trustee of Illinois College, 
Jacksonville, founded in 1829. To its support he was always a liberal 
contributor; a deep interest which his daughter and lier husband (Judge 
and Mrs. E. P. Kirby) maintained to the end. 

Among the pioneer-educators of Cook County the name of Stephen 
Forbes holds an honored place. He was of Scottish ancestry. Assisted 
by his wife, who was a true help-mate, he opened a school in Chicago in 
June, 18S0, near Michigan Avenue and Eandolph Street, not quite two 
squares south of Old Fort Dearborn. He was engaged by Colonel Beau- 
bien and Lieut. David' Hunter, who was of Scotch descent, and who 
was afterwards a general in the U. S. Army. Mr. Forbes' school had 
some twenty-five pupils, children of families connected with the Fort 
and of civilians residing near by. 

Hon. William H. Wells, w^ho sixty years ago was superintendent of 
Chicago's public schools, and who was a competent authority on the 
subject, wrote a history of early education in Chicago. Of Mr. Forbes* 
school, Mr. Wells said: "This, no doubt, deserves to be recognized as 
the first school in Chicago above the rank of fi family school." 

Scots claim a share in the honor of the services accomplished for 
popular and higher education by the dean of Illinois schoolmen. Dr. 
iSTewton Bateman. His ancestry is traced by his biographer, Paul Selby, 
both to English and Scotch sources. Educated at Illinois College, he was 
successively teacher, principal, county superintendent, and professor. 
In 1858 he was elected State Superintendent of Public Instruction, a 
position which literally he filled for fourteen years, the longest term 
that office was ever held by any one. Later, Dr. Bateman was President 
of Knox College, Galesburg (1875-1893), and then became President- 
Emeritus. His activities included the editorship of educational jour- 
nals. He was one of three to foimd the National Bureau of Education. 
Of his seven biennial reports as State Superintendent, it may be recalled 
that, in whole or in part, they have been re]mblished in five different 
languages in Europe, and that his volume of "Common School Deci- 
sions," issued originally by order of the Legislature, is "recognized by 
the courts, and is still regarded as authority on the subject" (Paul Selby, 



49 

in "Illinois, Historical and Statistical"). It was during Dr. Bateman's 
State Superintendency that our public school establishment as it exists, 
was really established and developed along the lines marked out by State 
Senator Duncan. Dr. Bateman's State reports are classics. They contain 
a wealth of information, a source of inspiration, and a breadth of view 
never surpassed, if ever equalled, as official publications in the Missis- 
sippi Valley, or elsewhere, since the time of Horace Mann. 

The old Chicago University was for years one of the cherished in- 
stitutions of the city. In its beginnings it was called the Douglas 
University. In 1854, Senator Stephen A. Douglas, who was of Scotch 
descent, donated a tract of land, along Cottage Grove Avenue, at 
Thirty-third street, for an institution of learning. A provision was 
attached to the gift, that $100,000 be raised to erect buildings thereon. 
On July 4, 1857, the corner-stone of the main building was laid. This 
was the year of the disastrous financial panic, which seriously crippled 
many of its friejids. Senator Douglas, in view of the conditions, ex- 
tended the time in which to secure the necessary building funds, and 
subsequently deeded the land to the university without reserve. The 
institution had many vicissitudes, between the panic and the Civil War, 
and at last had to succumb. The idea, hoAvever, never failed, for a few 
years after its close was born the present University of Chicago. The 
alumni of the old university include not a few distinguished men. 

A Presbyterian of Ulster-Scot ancestry was engaged, some three- 
score years ago, in extending his already large manufacturing business 
throughout the Middle West. He was a man whose principle was that 
"there was religion in his business and business in his religion." He 
was deeply impressed by "the rough immorality of the new settlement." 
These places, he conceived, needed more and better-trained ministers. 
It came to him as a real "call" that he should do something to help this 
want. He sprung from a family and race of earnest, intelligent. God- 
fearing people, and to see a spiritual or moral need, was to find and to 
provide means to meet it. This was the ideal which Cyrus Hall Mc- 
Cormick entertained when, in 1859, he offered $100,000— then con- 
sidered a princely sum — to establish a Presbyterian Theological Semi- 
nary, in the city where he had made his money and his home. It was 
at first called the North-Western Presbyterian Theological Seminary. 
Such were Mr. McCormick's large gifts to and interest in it, that later 
it was named in his honor. The life of Mr. McCormick is a history of 
industry, genius, vision, public spirit, devotion, and generosity — an ex- 
ample which his widow and children have fully maintained in their con- 
tinued and large contributions to educational, religious, and philan- 
thropic objects. 

Blackburn University, at Carlinville, was named after Eev. Dr. 
Gideon Blackburn, a minister of the then New School Presbyterian de- 
nomination. Born in Virginia, August 27, 1772, his father was Eobert 
Blackburn, and his mother was a member of a well-known family named 
Eichie. Both parents were Ulster-Scots, and devout Presybterians. At 
the age of twenty-one he was licensed to preach. Beside becoming a 
minister, all his life he was deeply interested in education, especially 

— 4 H S 



50 

iu the higher branches. In the decade from 1830 to 1840, Illinois made 
great advances in the building of churches, schools, and colleges. Dur- 
ing that period Dr. Blackburn was the linancial agent of Illinois College 
at Jacksonville. In 1837, he conceived the idea for an institution of 
learning, which, in 1857, was formally incorporated, and for a time had 
courses of study especially adapted to young men preparing for the 
ministry. The curriculum later was extended so as to include prepara- 
tory and collegiate departments. It was another instance of "one sowing 
and another reaping," for Dr. Blackburn died in 1838; as well as an 
illustration of that other saying of a good man's works following him. 
Not only in the institution was this true. Two of his sons became mini- 
sters, and a third would have been had he lived. Of Dr. Blackburn, it 
has heen said that of "all the men who ever lived and labored for the 
benefit of Macoupin County, he stands in the foreground;" also, that 
"he was a man among men, and a man of God." His influence has been 
widely felt for four-fifths of a century, and will continue while Black- 
burn University lives and bears his name. 

llonmouth College, at Monmouth, Warren County, is the product 
of pioneer Scotch Presbyterians. Its founders were two ministers of 
vision and devotion. They were Eev. J. C. Porter, pastor of Cedar 
Creek, and Eev. Robert Eoss, pastor of South Henderson. In 1852, they 
conceived the plan of founding an educational institution for higher 
scholarship on the rich prairies of Western Illinois. In this enterprise, 
they had, as might be expected, the hearty indorsement and support of 
their denomination of stalwart United Presbyterians. In 1853, it was 
opened as an academy, and two years later steps were taken to raise it 
to the rank of a college. In 1857, it was granted a charter. The year 
before Eev. David A. Wallace, D. D., LL. D., had been elected its 
President. Dr. Wallace had faithfully ministered to Scottish churches 
in New England, and was one of the clergymen who were prominent 
in combining several bodies which took the name of United Presbyterian. 
For twenty-two years he was its executive head. His successor was Eev. 
J. B. McMichael, D. D., who was president for nineteen years. These 
two able educators were respectively founder and builder. The endow- 
ment was increased under the presidency of Eev. S. E. Lyons, D. D. 
The present President, Eev. E. H. MclMichael, D. D., is the worthy son 
of the former executive, and for more than sixteen years has with un- 
varying success conducted its affairs. The college has eighteen hundred 
in its alumni ; many others have received their training there ; forty-five 
per cent of its young men have entered the ministry; a fifth of the 
ministers of the United Presbyterian denomination are Monmouth Col- 
lege men ; over fifty have gone into foreign missionary w^ork ; and others 
have entered the learned'professions in forty-three of the forty-eight 
states, and five hundred of its youth have been with tlie Colors in the 
recent European conflict ; while two hundred-flf ty of its young men went 
into the Civil War. In the list of graduates are: Maj. E. W. Mc- 
Claughvy, the noted penologist; and John M. Glenn, the able secretary 
of the Illinois Manufacturer's Association, Chicago. 

McKendree College, at Lebanon, is one of the group of colleges 
begun in the early "30"s." The others were Illinois College at Jack- 



ie 



51 

sonville, and Sliiirtleff College at Upper Alton. That was an era of 
great intellectual activity in sontliwestern Illinois, Many new settlers 
had come and were arriving from the East. In the latter "30's" 
financial clouds had begun to darken the State's horizon. However, 
school, college, and church building progressed rapidly. Among the 
institutions founded during the decade from 1830 to 1840, was Mc- 
Kendree College, which at first was named McKendreean College, The 
Methodists, as is their custom, were energetic and thoroughly alive to 
the needs of the situation. Of the leader for whom McKendree College 
was named. Bishop E. E. Hoss thus writes in his biography of Bishop 
William McKendree : 

"If anything at all has been preserved concerning his (Bishop Mc- 
Kendree's progenitors, it has wholly escaped my search. The family 
name, however, shows that they were of Scotch origin, though, as was 
the case with thousands of others of the same blood, they probably 
reached America by way of the north of Ireland. The transplanted 
Scotchmen are a masterful race." 

The Armour Institute, of Chicago, ranks high in the educational 
world. As has been aptly expressed, "Mr, Armour's idea in manual 
training was, that all shall be taught and done so that muscles shall not 
be more thoroughly trained than the moral character, and the perception 
of truth and beauty." The Institute has always had a close relation 
on the one side to the public school and on the other side to the uni- 
versity. Its founder was the late Philip Danforth Armour. His birth- 
place was Stockbridge, Madison County, N. Y., where he was born May 
16, 1832. His father was descended from James Armour. That part 
of Scotland where the Armours have lived for generations is Argyllshire. 
The chief city is Campbelltown, named after the powerful and noted 
Duke of Argyll's family. The channel which here separates Argyllshire 
from Ulster is only twelve miles wide. The intercourse between the two 
countries for centuries has been easy and constant, as elsewhere indi- 
cated in this paper. Mr, Armour's Ulster-Scottish ancestor came to 
America during the middle of the eighteenth century, and settled in 
New England; and his descendents removed to New York in 1835. 
Mr, Armour was one of the most widely known of Chicago's great 
business men. He was a patron of art. His interest in higher practical 
education was deep and abiding. He was one of the most generous sup- 
porters of the Scottish organization known as the Illinois Saint Andrew 
Society. It was entirely through his benefactions that the Institute 
which bears his name was founded and endowed. His plans for the 
large ideals of the Institute have been well carried out by his son, J. 
Ogden Armour. 

Every one who was a student in or acquainted with the University 
of Illinois during the first two score years of its history will remember 
Prof. Thomas J. Burrell, As of Virgil's hero, it may be said of Pro- 
fessor Burrell tliat he himself was a great part of its achievements. He 
was the sympathetic adviser of the undergraduate, and to the end 
remained the friend of the alumni, Scots and their brethren, the Ulster- 
Scots, claim him, for his ancestry was in part of that blood. Born in 
the Bay State, he came with his family to Stephenson County, Illinois, 



52 

where his father was a farmer. In former times the head of the Uni- 
versity was called the Eegent. When a vacancy came in this office, the 
Trustee's urged him to accept it, but he was fully satisfied to continue a 
member of the faculty, although he was defacto President until the 
election of Dr. Draper. Educated in the State Xormal, at Normal, 
during the "60's", he had the good fortune, soon after graduation, to 
receive an appointment as botanist in one of the expeditions of Maj. 
J. W. Powell, the noted geologist and anthropologist, whose explora- 
tions of the Colorado Eiver and Canon form a thrilling chapter of 
Western history. Upon the organization of the University of Illinois, 
he was elected to a professorship, and was the first librarian of that 
institution. He closed his long and honorable career as a man loved and 
esteemed by all who had the privilege of knowing him. 

Prof. David Kinley is one of the leading educators of the present 
generation. He occupies a position of distinction in the University of 
Illinois. His birthplace was Dundee, Scotland, where he was born 
August 2, 1861. In 1872 he came to the United States; was educated 
at Yale; pursued post-graduate studies at Johns Hopkins; and for a 
time taught in several well-known institutions. He has specialized in 
economics, and served on a number of international industrial and 
financial commissions. He is the author of several standard works, and 
has been a frequent contributor to the leading periodicals. His services 
as a University Dean led to his selection (1919) as acting-President of 
the University of Illinois during the year's absence on leave of Dr. 
James. Professor Kinlev is a loval American whose affection for the 
homeland has made him a much-sought after speaker at Saint Andrew 
Society and other Scotch anniversaries. 

When Chicago was nothing more than a straggling, struggling 
village, something like three-quarters of a century ago, Lyons Township 
had become a well-known settlement among the communities of Cook 
County. Its nearest corner to Chicago was a dozen miles to the south- 
west. So important had it grown, that in 1836' there assembled within 
its borders delegates to the first political convention ever held in the 
county. This meeting took place on the Vial farm, south of the present 
suburb of Western Springs. The meeting-place wiis a log house on the 
farm now owned by the venerable Eobert Vial, who has lived on the 
identical spot for eighty-five years. 

Opposite the Lyonsville Congregational Church, on the Joliet road^ 
was built in the early "40's" the first public school-house in the Town- 
ship. It was of logs. One of those who helped to "raise" it was the 
late Samuel Vial, an older brother of Robert, then a young man. Its 
first teacher was Miss Margaret McNaughton, a Scotch lass, who came 
to America with her parents from Aberdeen. She became the wife of 
Samuel Vial, who died a nonagenarian, in October, 1911. One of their 
sons, the late George MclSTaughton Vial, became the Moderator of the 
Illinois State Congregational Conference, and was for many years a 
leader in the National Councils of the denomination, Joseph Vial, the 
other son, has been Township Treasurer for nineteen years. 



53 

In Chicago, Scots and the sons of Scots have contributed their part 
to the public school establishment of the city. This has been acknow- 
ledged by the Board of Education in the naming of at least twenty- 
seven of its largest grammar schools after distinguished Scots and 
descendents of Scotsmen. The services for popular education of Daniel 
E. Cameron, John McLaren, Graeme Stewart, and John J. Badenoch 
can scarcely be properly estimated by this generation. Mr. McLaren 
was for many years a trustee of the Lewis Institute, one of Chicago's 
educational establishments. 

To these annals should be added the names of Prof. Hugh McDonald 
Scott and Prof. Wm. Douglas Mackenzie. Both were Scotch, and both 
were members of the faculty of the Chicago Congregational Theological 
Seminary, at Union Park; both were preachers, teachers, and authors; 
and both were leaders in their denomination in their city, State, and 
J^ation. Professor Scott was killed in a street-car accident; and Pro- 
fessor Mackenzie went from Chicago to become President of Hartford 
Theological Seminary, Connecticut, which office he still holds. 

Another Scot, whom his countrymen delight to honor, is President 
Charles M. Stuart, of the Methodist Episcopal Theological Seminary 
at Evanstou, known as Garrett Biblical Institute. President Stuart is a 
native of Glasgow; educated in its noted High School; graduated in 
1880 at Kalamazoo College, and later at Garrett Biblical Institute; was 
assistant editor of the "Northwestern Christian Advocate" from 1888 
to 1896, and its editor from 1908 to 1913; was Professor of Homiletics 
in Garrett Biblical Institute from 1896 to 1908 ; and has been its Presi- 
dent since 1912; a record of educational and editorial service deserving 
of a large recognition in these chronicles. 

The long, successful and satisfactory labors of President Thomas 
McClelland, late of Knox College, Galesburg, deserve an honored place 
in the college annals of Illinois. He is one of the sons of the sturdy 
Ulster-Scots, who have planted the church and the school side by side. 

In Perry County, in early day, among the teachers mentioned are 
Francis Thompson McMillan and Martha McMillan. In Eandolph 
County, at the Plum Creek settlement, we find among the Presbyterians 
who came from South Carolina those who had the "energetic traits which 
have marked the race in all parts of the United States." It is related 
that that staunch Covenanter, Rev. Samuel Wylie, "frequently had 
private students," probably preparing for the ministry. Adam W3die, 
a brother; taught in 1833-5 at Sparta. It is related by S. B. Hood, that 
"in the summer of 1832 G. T. Ewing, afterwards a Covenanting 
minister, taught school in Section 9, east of Eden." 

In the records of the early schools in McDonough County are to be 
found the names of Scots who did good service in building up education 
throughout the "Military Tract." And this is duplicated in many other 
counties and districts. 

The story of the early publications of Illinois is that of change in 
ownership, editorship, places of issue, policies, and affiliations. The 
small and scattered settlements of pioneer days, and the scarcity of 
money, were not conducive to their sustained and substantial support. 



54 

The news of the separated communities found among its most efficient 
disseminators the traveling preachers or circuit-riders, and the itmeranu 
peddlers. These, with their more or less novel narratives and unusual 
tales, were welcome visitors in the log-cabin and the wayside tavern. 

In those times the habit, now practically universal, of subscribing 
for, and of reading, the local paper had not been acquired. Touching 
authorship, as at present understood, there was little if any in Illinois, 
unless we except the well written and useful works of Morris Birkbeck 
and George Flower, of the English colony of Edwards County. 

The excellent sketch of Governor Joseph Duncan ("Fergus* His- 
torical Series," No. 29), by his daughter, the late Mrs. Julia Duncan 
Kirby, of Jacksonville, contains the following: 

"Capt. Matthew Duncan'* (Governor Duncan's brother) was edu- 
cated at Yale College, and after completing his education, and return- 
ing to his native state "(Kentucky)," he for a time edited a paper in 
Eussellville, Ky., caUed "The Mirror." On removing to Illinois, in 

1814, he edited and published at Kaskaskia "The Illinois Herald," the 
first newspaper published in Illinois. In December, 1814, he published 
the first book or pamphlet that was published in the State. In June, 

1815, he published the first volume of what was known as "Pope's 
Digest." In 1817, Matthew Duncan sold his paper to Daniel P. Cook 
and Eobert Blackwell. He abandoned journalism and entered the army. 
He resigned after four years of service, and engaged in business in 
Shelbyville, Illinois, where he died January 16, 1844, only a few hours 
after Governor Duncan, neither knowing of the illness of the other. 
"For the Scotch ancestry of Matthew, see the sketch of Governor Duncan 
given elsewhere in this paper. 

" Other historians state that Matthew Duncan '^'brought a press and 
a primitive printers outfit from the state" (Kentucky). Hooper War- 
ren, who was the founder of the third paper established in Illinois, 
afiirms that Duncan's press "was for years only used for public printing." 
The oldest issue of "The Illinois Herald" known to be in existence is 
Yol. I, Xo. 30, and bears date December 13, 1814. It was a three-column 
paper. When Cook and Blackwell acquired it, they changed it to "The 
Intelligencer," and increased it to four columns. In 1820, it followed 
the State Capitol from Kaskaskia to Yandalia. 

Eobert Goudy (writes Hon. Ensley Moore), of Jacksonville, Illinois, 
in "Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Societ)^" 1907, pp. 
315-23), was presumably born in the neighborhood of Armagh, County 
Tyrone, which is in the province of Ulster, in the north of Ireland, 
November 2, 1785. The Goudies were, and are to be found in Ayrshire, 
next to Wigtownshire and Argyllshire, Scotland, the nearest to that part 
of Ireland where the Protestant population is largest and where lived 
the Ulster-Scots. The Scotch poet Eobert Burns had a friend, "John 
Goudie, the terror of the Wliigs," to whom he addressed some character- 
istic verses. In the migrations of those who bore the name, it was 
variously written Goudie, Goudy, Gowdie and Gowdy. Mr. Goudy 
married Miss Jane Ansley, who was of Scotch descent. The Scottish 
spelling of the name Avas and is Ainslie. Like many others, it too was 
changed, as it were, in transportation finally to Ensley. Mr. Goudy 



55 

early learned the art oi' printing. The family lived for a time in 
Indiana, and in June, 1832, came to Illinois, settling in 1833 in Jaclv- 
sonville. It is believed that he, like Duncan, brought with him his 
printing plant. In 1834 he published "The News" in Jacksonville. The 
i?ame year was issued from the Goudy press "Peck's Gazetteer of Illinois," 
a book, now rare, that became an authority, and, aside from official 
publications, probably the first book printed and bound in Illinois. Then 
began the publication of "Goudy's Farmer's Almanac," which contained 
much varied and valuable information. Mr. and Mrs. Goudy had nine 
children, all of whom were to become noted in their respective homes 
and walks of life." 

Hon. Calvin Goudy, M. D., was their second child. When Jack- 
sonville became their home, he attended Illinois College, and had among 
his associates, War-Governor Eichard Yates, and Eev. Eobert W. Patter- 
son, D. D., long the pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church, Chicago, 
whose sons, Eobert W., and Eaymond were prominent newspaper men, 
the first the editor, the other the Washington correspondent, of the 
"Chicago Tribune." In conjunction with a brother, probably Ensley 
T., in 1837, Calvin published the "Common School Advocate," the first 
journal of its class in the west. He studied medicine, and practiced his 
profession in Taylorville, Christian County. In 1850 he was elected to 
the Legislature, and, as indicated elsewhere, took an active part in edu- 
cational advancement. He died March 8, 1877. His services in pro- 
moting education and periodical literature were many and useful. Of 
his distinguished brother, Hon. W. C. Goudy, mention is made in that 
section of this paper entitled "Bench and Bar." 

The growth of the newspaper business in Illinois from 1830 to 1900 
has been marvelous. During the first half of this seventy-year period 
it is impossible now to trace the antecedents of their founders, owners, 
and editors in the State at large. 

. As Chicago developed, there were long connected with its press num- 
bers of Scots whose writings in their specialties made them noted, A 
few may be mentioned. 

James Ballantyne, during the Civil War decade, was an authority 
on financial and commercial matters. His department on the old "Ee- 
publican" was a standard. 

James Chisholm, before and after the Great Fire of 1871, was a 
dramatic critic of local fame. His articles in the "Inter Ocean" were 
universally read by the theatrical world. The weekly review which he 
prepared and published under the whimsical pseudonym of "John 
Barleycorn" Avere inimitable, "pawky;" delightful for their wit, with a 
flavor and expression that reminded one of Charles Lamb. 

E. ]Sr. Lament, writer for the same paper, was a man of rare attain- 
ments, retiring, with a fine, graceful style, an essayist whose counter- 
part is George P. Upton, so long one of the charming contributors to 
the columns of the "Tribune." Lament's book-reviews were unexcelled 
for discrimination and taste. He had no superior as a literary Scot in 
the Garden City. 

At one time on the writing-staff of the "Inter Ocean" alone there 
were no fewer than five Scots and descendants of Scots. Indeed in tliat 



5fi 

journalistic group Virgil's Avell-known line was playfully paraphrased 
to the "cultivating of literature on a little oat-meal." 

In the circle of the religious press of that period was Eev. E. 
Erskine, who edited the "North- Western Presbyterian" an influential 
publication of the denomination : genial, alert, capable, a preacher who 
was also an excellent editor. 

Cyrus Hall McCormick, once owner of the "Times," before Wilbur 
F. Storey's advent, founded and maintained the brilliant "Interior," 
whose editor. Dr. Wm. C. Gray, in his day was next to Dr. J. A. Adams, 
of the Congregational "Advance," the best paragrapher on the American 
religious press. 

Dr. Charles M. Stuart, long associate editor, then editor, of 
Methodist Episcopal "North-Western Christian Advocate," published in 
Chicago, was a journalist who ranked with p]rskine, Gray, and Adams. 

Gen. Daniel Cameron, who always retained the "burr" of the "r" 
in the heather-r-r, was a virile editorial writer, who a half century ago 
was a i^olitical, as well as a journalistic power in northern Illinois." His 
brother, A. C. Cameron, was long a prominent local publisher of news- 
papers. 

In these latter days the Scots in Illinois and throughout the North- 
West take great pleasure in recalling the useful and esteemed George 
Sutherland, of the "Western British American;" courteous, courageous, 
quiet, pure, he was beloved of all. 

In a county history of 1883, appears the following: "D. F. Mc- 
Millan began the publication of the 'Eandolph County Eecord' at Sparta, 
May 28, 1844." It is said he went there from Kaskaskia in 1842, and 
removed to Chester in 1846. He was one of the few of the name in 
Illinois who were newspaper men. 

The history of Illinois could not well be written were the names of 
Robert Fergus and his son, George Harris Fergus, omitted. In 1839, 
Eobert Fergus issued the first directory of Chicago, and other similar 
works in subsequent years as late as that of 1857, including reprints 
of the same after the Great Fire of 1871. His son, George, was his 
close companion and cordial coadjutor from the early "60's." Eobert 
Fergus also printed the first decisions of the Illinois Supreme Court, 
known as "Scammon's Eeports." 

Father and son published "The Fergus Historical Series" which 
embrace some forty volumes and pamphlets bearing on early Chicago, 
Illinois, and the North-West. Today "The Fergus Historical Series" 
comprise collectively the most authoritative history of pioneer days in 
Chicago and the State. The complete "Illinois : Historical and Statis- 
tical," by the late Judge John Moses, is a work in two volumes of over 
1,300 pages, and was published through the sole enterprise of George 
Fergus. 

Both Eobert and George Harris Fergus, all their active and useful 
lives, were deeply interested in civic betterment. Although neither of 
them ever held public office, both — Eobert from 1839 to 1860 and George 
from 1860 to 1911 — were upbuilding and influential factors in city. 
State, and National affairs, and were always on the side of good gov- 
ernment. 



57 

Eobert Fergus was born in Glasgow, Scotland, August 4, 1815. His 
father was John and his mother was Margaret Patterson (Aitken) 
Pergus. He was educated in the schools of his native city, and at the 
age of fourteen years entered the University Printing Office at Villafield. 
In those early days he "worked at the case" on Sir Walter Scott's "Mar- 
mion," "The Lady of the Lake,'' and "The Lay of the Last Minstrel." 
He also took part in "setting up" Sturm's "Piefiections" and Meadow's 
Prench, Italian and Spanish dictionaries. His training in the "art pre- 
servative," and in publishing was practical and thorough, and laid the 
foundation for his future career in Chicago, where he arrived one month 
prior to his twenty-fourth birthday, and where he lived for sixty years. 
His wife's maiden name was Margaret Whitehead Scott, who, too, was 
a native of Glasgow, and was the daughter of James Scott, a merchant 
weaver and a burgess and freeman of the city. Mr. Fergus founded in 
Chicago the printing and publishing house that bore his name, and he 
•continued actively in that business until his decease. 

George Harris Fergus, their eldest son, was born in Chicago, Sept- 
ember 1, 1840. He was educated in the public schools of the city, and 
became a partner of his father, and continued the business until his 
death, November 24, 1911. 

During the late "50's" George became a member of the famous 
company known as "Ellsworth's Zouaves." When the first call for troops 
was issued by President Lincoln, he was appointed First Lieutenant of 
Company K, 11th New York Infantry, under Colonel Ellsworth. This 
command was mustered into service at Washington, D. C, May 7, 1861, 
and was the first regiment sworn in for the Civil War. Colonel Ells- 
worth, in the fall of 1860, entered the office of Mr. Lincoln at Spring- 
field to study law, and accompanied the President-elect to Washington 
on the way to his inauguration. Lieutenant Fergus served with his 
I'egiment in May, 1861, when it was detailed to guard President Lincoln 
at the White House. He was present when Colonel Ellsworth, while 
attempting to haul down a Confederate flag, in Alexandria, Va., was 
shot. May 24, 1861. Mr. Fergus was married to Mary Electa Stocking 
on November 24, 1867. Mrs. Fergus is an honored resident of Chicago 
(April, 1919). 

The characteristics of father and son are revealed in all their work. 
Both gave their lifetime to historical research and investigation, and 
their publications bear witness of their almost faultless accuracy. Robert 
Fergus was thoroughly Scottish, and George was as thoroughly Ameri- 
can in spirit. They had much in common. Both were intense in thought 
and action. Eobert was a great reader of the best literature. George 
was an esteemed, companion to many famous men. George was direct, 
forcible, retiring, but always responsive, and ever master of himself. 
Both were true to their respective traditions — Scottish and American. 
In their useful careers, they exemplified the ancient motto of the Clan 
Fergus — "Ready, Aye Ready." 

In Northern Illinois, just before the Civil War, the abolitionists 
-were unusually active. They were open in their advocacy of uncon- 
-ditional freedom for the Slaves, and they were daring in their efforts to 



58 

aid fugitives. The "agents" and "stations^' of the "Undergroiind Eail- 
road" had greatly increased in numbers and efficiency in all this section. 

La Salle County had become important as a district where the 
"lines" from the South converged, to be continued from there to Chicago. 
In Ottawa, particularly, there was an aggressive anti-slavery society. 
In 1838-9 there had been organized in that place three churches, the 
Congregational, Baptist, and Methodist, whose members were ardent 
in the anti-slavery cause. 

Xo braver or bolder man in all this region was there than John 
Hossack. He was a stalwart Scotchman, who was born in Caledonia 
in 1806. Love of liberty has always been a notable trait of his country 
men. 

From an interesting paper, by Eev. John H. Eyan, of Kankakee, 
entitled "A Chapter from the History of the Underground Railroad in 
Illinois," published in the "Journal of the Illinois State Historical 
Society," (April, 1915, vol. 8, Xo. 1, pp. 23-30), the following, largely, 
has been gathered : 

John Hossack had settled in Ottawa about 1849. It is related of 
him that the first fugitive, slave whom he helped to freedom was sent to 
him by the fearless and fertile Rev. Ichabod Codding, a Congregational 
minister and anti-slavery lecturer, who had traveled much. At that 
time, John Hossack was evidently a man of recognized force. 

The incident, in connection with which his name has come down to 
our time, involved a fugitive slave named Jim Gray, or "Xigger Jim," 
as slaver}-'s supporters called him. "Jim" had escaped from his master, 
one Richard Phillips, and had made his way from Missouri to Union 
County, Illinois. There he was captured and put in prison. A Mr. 
Root interested himself in the fugitive, and sued out a writ of habeas 
corpus in the State Supreme Court. The case was taken before Judge 
J., D. Caton, who sat at Ottawa, then one of the grand divisions of this 
jurisdiction. 

John Hossack had been notified that the slave and his captors were 
to arrive in Ottawa at a certain time. He was at the station to meet 
them. The party who had "Jim" in charge consisted of Phillips, his 
son, a constable, and "three kidnappers, Jones, Curtley, and McKinney." 

The "kidnapping" of negroes had long been practiced in the 
southern counties of the State. Two or three men were usually asso- 
ciated together for this business. One would establish himself at St. 
Louis, or at one of the other border towns, and work up a reputation as 
a seller of slaves. The others would move about the Illinois counties on 
the lookout for negroes — slaves or free. The "kidnappers" never stopped 
to inquire whether a colored person was free or not. The question simply 
was, could he be carried off in safety? The slave-hunters seized their 
victims secretly, or enticed them to accompany them under false pre- 
tences, placed them in a wagon, and 'drove as rapidly as possible to the 
borders of the State" (Prof. N. Dwight Harris' "History of Xegro 
Servitude in Illinois," pp. 54-5). Then they were sold down South." 
When John Hossack met the Phillips party, "Jim," says Rev. Mr. 
Ryan, "had a trace-chain fastened to his legs, his arms pinioned and a 



£9 

rope aroi;nd his neck, and down between his legs — the end held by a 
white man, the negro walking in front." This was too much for John 
Hossack. He demanded of Jim's guard to know of what crime the negro 
had been guilty that he should be thus treated. The answer given was 
so unsatisfactory that Hossack exclaimed: "'I^o man can be taken 
through the streets of Ottawa thus humiliated — not while John Hossack 
lives I" This fearless, public protest led to some abatement of "^Jim's" 
treatment. 

This exhibition of slavery's inhumanity caused intense excitement 
in the community. In deference to public sentiment, the Phillips party 
took their prisoner to a hotel instead of putting him in jail that night. 
In the evening church bells rang, meetings were held, plans were made 
for the hearing before Judge Caton the next day, and attorneys were 
retained to defend the fugitive. 

On the hearing, and after evidence was submitted and the argu- 
ments were presented. Judge Caton discharged "Jim" from custody. 

]^ow came the crisis. There had been some understanding that this 
would be done. When, therefore, the United States Marshal was re- 
moving his prisoner, the crowd gathered around captors and captive. 
Those most instrumental in separating "Jim" and the Marshal were 
John Hossack and Dr. Stout and Dr. Hopkins, and some dozen or fifteen 
others. A carriage was in waiting close by. Mr. Campbell (his name 
certainly sounds Scotch) had charge of the team. The rescuers quickly 
put "Jim" in the carriage, and away they went. The fugitive was con- 
veyed to a place of safety a few miles from the present city of Streator, 
where he remained concealed until he was taken by friends to Chicago. 
There he was received by Philo Carpenter, and later sent to Canada 
and freedom. 

John Hossack, with Dr. Joseph and James Stout, and ten or fifteen 
others were indicted by a United States grand jury for their participa- 
tion in the rescue from the Marshal of a prisoner. They were tried in 
Chicago in the United States District Court, and convicted. John 
Hossack was defended by Messrs. Isaac N. Arnold, Burton C. Cook, and 
E. C. Larned, all able and distinguished lawyers, and all personal friends 
of Mr. Lincoln. 

In his own defense, when asked what he had to say why sentence 
should not be pronounced, Hossack made an address of which Eev. Mr. 
Eyan says: "It will become memorable as later generations appreciate 
the heroism of our ]!*3'ational crisis." Hossack was sentenced to serve ten 
days in jail, and to pay a fine and costs amounting to $591. 

It was a dearly won victory for the pro-slavery people. "Jim" had 
escaped, literally Scot-free, Hossack's courageous course, his manly 
bearing during the trial, and his stirring speech in court, were as fuel 
to a conflagration that spread through, and lighted up, all of the northern 
part of the State. His prison became a Mecca to which crowds flocked. 
The newspapers reported every incident in connection with it in detail. 

Many who had hitherto been indifferent on the subject of slavery 
were now won over to the side of the oppressed black man. His friends 
were greatly encouraged by the change in public sentiment. Indeed, 



60 

probably no single act, in 1859-60, in northern Illinois had more in- 
fluence in advancing the cause of the anti-slavery people; nor did more 
to create a local atmosphere lor the ^National Convention which met in 
Chicago and nominated Mr. Lincoln for the Presidency. 

At that time Hon. .John Wentworth was Mayor of the city. He also 
owned and managed a newspaper published in Chicago. In its columns 
the following was one of his clarion utterances regarding the penalty 
visited on the sturdy Scot, John Hossack, for his acts in behalf of Jim 
Gray: 

"Scotchmen, patriot's and citizens, visit John Hossack ! Eemember 
our friends of freedom as bound with him!'' Then he added: '"Let 
their fines and costs be paid !" 

And the public response was general and generous. The slave- 
hunter's trade in Illinois was dead. John Hossack and his brave asso- 
ciates had killed it. 

In 1848 there died in Chicago a Scot, whose varied adventures read 
like a romantic tale of Eobert Louis Stevenson or Mayne Eeid. His 
name occurs frequently in "Astoria," that interesting book of Washing- 
ton Irving, himself the son of a native of the Orkney Islands. If the 
reader would learn of the hazards and harvests of the fur-trade of the 
JSTorth-West of a century ago, let him peruse the delightful pages of 
Irving's "Astoria." 

Eobert Stuart was born at Callander, Scotland, which is familiar 
to every American tourist who has taken the charming trip through the 
district made famous by Sir Walter Scott in "The Lady of the Lake." 
The story of the life of Stuart (related by Dr. Peter Eoss, in his "The 
•Scot in America," pp. 59-63), is that Eobert was a grandson of Alex- 
ander Stuart, who, as "Allan Breck'^ would say, had "a King's name." 
Alexander was the bitter enemy of that notorious cateran, Eob Eoy. 

Eobert came to America when about twenty-one years old. As a 
fur-trader in Canada he had seen life; on the coast of Labrador he had 
been a fisherman; with the voyageurs he had made various expeditions 
into the interior. The first John Jacob Astor found in him a trusted 
partner and fearless pioneer in his almost empire-visioned enterprises in 
the Far North-West. 

In 1819, Stuart quitted Oregon, struck the trail for the East, and 
found his wa}' to Mackinac Island. The summer visitor to this well- 
known place in "The Straits" will remember the old "Astor House." 
Still to be seen there are some of the hewn-log structures of a century 
ago, in which the furs brought in by hunters and traders were sorted 
and stored, preparatory to shipping them to the sea-board. There, too, 
may be inspected the interesting records of Eamsay Crooke, the Scotch 
factor, who was in charge of the post. Stuart continued his work on the 
Island as a fur-trader. His knowledge of, and influence with, the 
Indians led to his appointment by the Government as Commissioner to 
the tribes of the region. In 1831 he removed to Detroit, and was chosen 
Treasurer of the State of Michigan. The tribes with whom he had been 
associated sincerely respected and trusted him., as he was a man whom 
by long experience they had come to know as their friend; whose 



61 

promises to them had never been broken ; a reputation by no means uni- 
versal of those to whom the Government has entrusted its Indian ad- 
ministration. 

His son David, a leading lawyer, and a Congressman from Michi- 
gan, came to Chicago, as attorney for the Illinois Central Eailroad; 
volunteered in 1861; became Colonel of the Fifty-fifth Illinois Infantry; 
commanded a brigade in General Sherman's army; was wounded at 
Shiloli, and served brilliantly at Corinth and elsewhere. He was a 
gallant and talented officer, and exhibited in his life and services the 
loyalty of his father to the United States. 

Of the one hundred and two counties in Illinois at least twenty-five 
bear the names of men of either Scottish birth or blood. As may be 
inferred, these names are of those distinguished in the military and 
civil service of the United States, during and since the Eevolutionary 
War. They began with St. Clair, the first county organized, and extend 
to next to the last, Douglas County, created in 1857. 

In upwards of sixty counties, from Alexander, on the extreme south, 
to Jo Daviess and Lake, on the north line, there are more than a hun- 
dred cities, towns, villages, and communities which have distinctively 
Scottish names. 

Of the original of the names of Elgin and Dundee, in Kane County, 
there need be no question. In Scotland, however, the "g" in Elgin is 
given the "hard sound" and in the United States it is given the "soft 
sound." 

In regard to the naming of Dundee, a local historian relates the 
following : 

"Early in 1837, all were convinced, from what was going on at the 
crossing of the Fox Eiver, that a town would soon grow up at that point. 
The people began to discuss a name for it. A meeting was called to 
consider the question. ISTearly every one had some favorite that would 
recall some locality back at the old home. " Finally a young Scotchman 
named Alexander Gardiner rose, and in his rich Scotch dialect proposed 
the name 'Dundee' after his native town. The name was unanimously 
adopted." 

Wheatland Township, Will County, had, in 1843-4, several additions 
to its settlers, who, with their descendants, have exercised a determining 
influence in its development. Among them were William and John 
McMicken, who came direct from Scotland. It is recorded that in 1844 
Stephen Fridley founded the "Scotch settlement" there. In the same 
year Eobert Clow arrived, also Mungo Patterson. In 1847 the Scotch 
Church was organized, and its house of worship, a mile north of 
Tamarack post office, was erected a few years later. Eobert Clow lived 
until 1880, when at the age of 83 he passed on ; a useful widely known 
and respected citizen, whose descendants have been identified with the 
best interests of the community, and have contributed their full share 
to its up-building. 

An interesting custom was transplanted to this "Scotch settlement" 
some forty-five years ago, and found firm root there. It is the annual 
"plowing match" which has come to be the most popular agricultural 



62 

function in the County, and for years has exceeded in attendance any 
of the old-time County fairs which once were quite an institution. This 
"plowing match" anniversary owes its creation and continuance to the 
late James Patterson, whose birthplace was in the southwestern part of 
Scotland, celebrated for its plowmen. While yet a young man, J\Ir. 
Patterson, who had thoroughly learned farming in his native province, 
came to Will Count}', bought laud, and became one of the widely known, 
respected, and successful farmers in a district famous for masters in that 
profession. He also brought with him an enthusiastic zeal for the best 
customs of his Scottish forbears' land. One of these was the celebration, 
with the aid of capable workmen and under farming conditions, of the 
Ayrshire, W^igtownshire, and Kirkcudbrightshire — indeed of all agricul- 
tural Scotland — customs of yearly "plowing matches." These took place 
in the autumn, when the crops were harvested, and the fields were ready 
for "fall-plowing." Their objects were, to cultivate thoroughness in 
soil-preparedness and treatment, speed and skill in turning the furrows, 
and general interest and efficiency in all kinds of field-work. Prizes 
were awarded the successful plowmen. The competition was keen. The 
day set apart for the trials was an event. Then horses were employed 
before this day of the tractor. The teams were selected with care. The 
place where the work was done took on the appearance of a popular 
fair. The farming-implement manufacturers and dealers were there in 
evidence with their out-puts. This was the custom which Mr. Patterson 
introduced, and until the end of his life maintained with success at the 
"Scotch Settlement." The last one which the writer attended (1917) 
was held in the district, and it was reported that there were lined-up 
around the fields upwards of 1,200 automobiles, and about ten thousand 
spectators. The visitors represented practically every County in 
Northern Illinois, and considerable delegations were in attendance from 
the adjoining States of Iowa, Wisconsin, and Indiana. 

In McDonough County, the heart of the Military Tract, the Scot 
early found a hospitable abiding place, and was rewarded by having a 
township named after his native land, Scotland. 

Among the early events of public importance in the County is 
recorded the work of Charles Hume, son of a Scot, who taught the first 
school in Hire Township; he became County Judge, and was a gallant 
soldier in the Civil War. William McMillan was a State Senator from 
the district in 1844-8. William CoAvan, of Tennessee Township, a 
prominent citizen, was of Scotch parentage. In Scotland Township, 
were James Clark, John and Alexander Watson, and the Barclays — 
John, James, Andrew and Eobert — and Andrew Binnie, whose names 
tell their ancestry. In Prairie Township were Hugh Eobertson, and J. 
M, and C. W. Hamilton. In Industry Township was James Allison. 
In Chalmers Township (Scotch) was Wm. M. Reid. In Bushnell Town- 
ship, David Eobinson taught the first school, and Martha Campbell Avas 
the first teacher in New Salem Township. In Macomb, James M. 
Campbell was long a leading citizen, and also Lewis W. Ross, William 
Job, and John and James Vance, and others of Scot and Ulster-Scot 
lineage. 



63 

No man was better known throughout that section, a third of a 
century ago, tlian the genial Alexander McLean. A native of Glasgow, 
he and his brother John were long active in public affairs. He (Alex- 
ander) was appointed in the first tenn of Governor CuUom a member 
of the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois, and served on 
that body, it is believed, longer than any other man. Mr. McLean was 
the son of Hector and Catherine McMillan McLean, and came to the 
United States in 1849. He was a Presidential elector in 1ST6. There 
was another brother, Duncan, who became a judge in Idaho. 

Adam Douglas, John McMillan, Andrew McCandless father of the 
well-known family, all were of Scotch blood, and reflected credit on their 
ancestrv. 

In Madison County we find such familiar names as that of David 
Gillespie, and his sons, Mathew and Joseph, who were Scotch, although 
of Ulster birth. The father came to Illinois in 1818, and delighted to 
trace his ancestry to the Clan Campbell of Argyllshire. Samuel Mc- 
Alilly was also of Scotch descent, and settled during the same period in 
Madison County. 

In early days AVinnebago County's settlers often were the victims 
of the depredations of organized bands of outlaws, who stole, intimidated, 
and sometimes murdered, the peaceful pioneers. At last the conditions 
became so serious, because of the boldness and badness of these bandits, 
that the settlers formed companies who were called "Eegulators," to put 
a stop to the operations of the high-handed thieves. John Campbell, a 
Scotchman, a devout Presbyterian, and an esteemed citizen, was chosen 
to be the leader of the law-abiding people. In one of their enterprises, 
the outlaws killed Mr. Campbell. A desperado named Driscoll was held 
to be the murderer, and he was promptly executed for the crime. The 
summary punishment thus dealt out to one of their chief men rid the 
country of these ruffians. 

Among the well-known early settlers of Winnebago County, were 
Scots who were prominent in private and public affairs. No attempt 
is here made to give anything like a list of them. Those mentioned 
may be taken as illustrations of how the Scot has made his way. These 
are named with the year of their arrival in the country ! Thomas D. 
Eoberston, 1838 ; Duncan Ferguson, 1839 ; D. H. Ferguson, 1839 ; Daniel 
Dow, 1811, and G. Tulloch, 1811. Mr. Piobertson was an influential 
banker of Eockford. Duncan Ferguson was educated at the University 
of Glasgow, and was a leading citizen and official, D. H. Ferguson, who 
was an infant when he came, served (1866-1870), as Collector of In- 
ternal Eevenue for the district, and was a banker. 

The town of Caledonia, numerically not large, and conunercially 
not considerable, is one of the most prosperous and best known in Boone 
County. The locality was settled in 1838 ; and, when the county was 
organized two years later, it began to show marked growth. The officials 
who had the matter in hand gave it its name upon the presentation of a 
petition which set forth that it had been chosen by the residents of the 
locality. Like its successful .and not distant kith and kin, Argyle, its 
leading residents in the beginning were from Argyllshire, Scotland. 
John Greenlee, whose sons became prominent and prosperous business 



64 

men in Belvidere, was from the parish of Southend. The native Scot 
understands that the village of Southend is just east of the Mull of 
Cantire, and in sight of the famed ruin of Dunaverty, which stands like 
a sentinel on the shore. Alexander McXair and James Montgomery 
were of Argyllshire birth, and John and A. D. Ealston bore names of an 
influential family in Scotland, one of whose members became distin- 
guished in California history. 

To give in detail, within the limits of this paper anything like a 
complete account of the various "Scotch Settlements,'' in Illinois and 
their early residents, would be an impossible task. However, enough 
has been intimated to suggest somewhat of their members, locations, aud 
the characters and lives of those who established them. It may be said, 
without fear of successful contradiction, that in no community has the 
Scot settled in Illinois where he has not left an impress that did not 
make for its betterment in every particular. 

Xortheast of Eockford, in Winnebago County, and near the western 
border of Boone Coimty, is the "Scotch settlement," Arffvle. It is the 
home of the Willow Creek Presbyterian Church. From the history of 
this congregation, prepared and read by D. G. Harvey, at the semi-cen- 
tennial, "held June 6-7, 1895, are taken many interesting annals, as 
well as valuable data that are published in the pamphlet containing the 
details of that celebration. 

James Armour, of Ottawa, took up a claim of prairie and timber 
land, afterwards, known as "Scotch Grove," on Willow Creek. This 
claim came to be owned by George and John Armour, and then by 
George Picken, Wm. Ealston, and Eobert Armour. In 1836. Jolm 
Greenlee, "the pioneer and founder of the Argyle Settlement." lo- 
cated on the line between Winnebago and Boone Counties, and in 
1837 he brought his family "to their new home, being the first Scotch 
family to locate in this part of Winnebago County." Others soon 
followed. We find among them, the names of Hugh Eeid (1838); 
George Picken, Eobert Howie, Andrew GifEen, and Alexander Mc- 
Donald (1839); Wm. Ferguson, James Picken, John Andrew, Alex- 
ander Eeid, Eobert Armour, (1840) ; Gavin and David Ealston, Wm. 
Harvey, John McEachran, and John Picken (1841) ; David Smith, 
James Montgomery, Peter Caldwell, James and Alexander Eeid, and ^Ir. 
McXair (1842) ; and in 1843, the families of Peter and Alex. Ealston, 
Charles Picken, and Lionel Henderson ; thirty families who located there 
before the church was organized. There were fifty-one charter members, 
who represented seventeen groups of different names. 

The Dukes of Arg\'ll (written here Argyle) were and are chiefs of 
the distinguished Clan Campbell. The histories tell of the most of them 
as men of high character and excellent reputation. Some of their land- 
agents — "factors" they are called over there — were not so favorably 
known. In the decade between 1830 and 1840 some of these "factors" 
treated the tenant-farmers of the then Duke with great harshness. These 
measures became so severe that an exodus of many of the farmers to 
Illinois followed. 

The large settlement in Winnebago County in which they made 
their homes thev named Argyle after the shire in the home-land. 



65 

In the early years, religious meetings were held in the homes of the 
people, for the settlers did not fail to "assemble themselves together for 
prayer, praise and reading of the Scriptures." In 1842, a log-house was 
erected, which was used for day-school, Sunday School, and public wor- 
ship. Frontier fraternity prevailed. The people were ministered to, 
when possible, by Baptist and Methodist clergymen. In 1843, an effort 
was made to organize a church, but it was not until December, 1844, 
that this was done. In January, 1845, the church decided to unite with 
the Old School Presbyterian body. The church was staunch in doctrine, 
and pronounced in its anti-slavery convictions. 

In those olden days the congregational singing was led by a "pre- 
centor,'' as in Scotland. The "elders" were ordained and installed ac- 
cording to time-honored Scottish custom. Those who held positions in 
the church as trustees, treasurer, and clerk, were styled "office-bearers." 

There was a "manse," as the Scot^i call a parsonage: When a 
minister was engaged to preach for a, tinie,il)Tlt not as a settled pastor, 
he was known as a "supply." The iDiistoi^ pre\failed of having "candi- 
dates," if there was a vacancy in the pulpit. If a janitor of the church 
were needed, "bids" for the place were received by the trustees. Calls 
to the pastorate were "prosecuted before Presbytery ;" that is, submitted, 
and Presbyterial action follo'w'^d. When a minister resigned, the "pas- 
toral relation was dissolved." These things are familiar to Presbyteri- 
ans, and are merely mentioned here for the information of those not 
uiembers of that body. 

The ministers of Willow Creek Church included Eev. James Mac- 
laughlan, well known two score of years ago in Chicago as the pastor 
of the Scotch Presbyterian Church, and at the time of his decease, some 
two years ago, one of the oldest members of Chicago Presbytery, and 
minister of the Brighton Park Presbyterian Church. 

A number of the ministers became prominent in the denomination. 
The church in this respect has a remarkable record. 

Among the young men who grew up in this church, was Eev. John 
•A. Montgomery. He was a son of Elder James Montgomery and his 
wife Jane Caldwell ]\Iontgomery. Mr. ]\Iontgomery was l^orn in Argyll- 
shire, Scotland, December 18, 1839, and came to the United States with 
his parents when a child. He was educated in the Marengo Academy, 
in Wheaton College, and in the Chicago Congregational Theological 
Seminary, at Union Park. He graduated with the highest honors from 
college and academy. The late venerable President Pranklin W. Fisk 
of the latter institution, was ever a w'arm personal friend of Mr. ]\Iont- 
gomery, and expressed his deep appreciation of him to the effect that 
"you (Mr. Montgomery), have been a constant joy to me all the years 
since you went from the Seminarv." Mr. ]\Iontgomery served in the 
active ministry for twenty-five years, in three Congregational Churches 
— Dwight. Morris and LaGrange. In his pastorates, he drew about him, 
men like Dr. Keeley, Edward Kemeys, the sculptor of the lions in front 
of the Art Institute, Chicago ; Gen. P. C. Hayes, Member of Congress ; 
Justice Orrin X. Carter, of the State Supreme Court : F. D. Cossit, the 
Founder of LaGrange; George M. Yial, ^Moderator of the Illinois Con- 

— 5 H S 



6G 

gregational Conference; and Eev. J. C. Armstrong, D. D., of the well- 
known Armstrong family of La Salle County, and for more than a third 
of a century Superintendent of the Congregational City Missionarj- 
Society of Chicago. Mr. Montgomery was always a close student, an 
indefatigable worker, and was held in high esteem by Jiis ministerial 
brethren. He was an honored official of the State Cono^resrational Asso- 
elation, and was a delegate from Illinois to the First National Council 
of Congregational Churches, in 1871. 

The Argvle Church history shows that three other voung Jnen of 
the parish became ministers, namely: John Giffen, Mattliew Howie, 
and James A. Harvey. This is another instance of the country church 
being the '"'mother of ministers.'' All of them discharged faithfully 
their duties as preachers and teachers, "rightly dividing the word." 

It may here be recorded that some of these independent former 
Argyllshire farmers at times seriously considered the advisability of 
sending back to the hard-hearted "factors" of the Duke a testimonial 
which should fittingly express their deep appreciation of the exactions 
that had caused them to leave their ancestral farm-steadings. They felt 
that but for the severities imposed upon them by the "factors" they 
would probably never have come to America, and never have achieved 
the prosperity and peace which had fallen to their lot in their adopted 
country. Here they came to own their own farms. In their native 
land they would always have been tenants. So they often talked of 
showing the despotic "factors" what a blessing their course had been, 
although it was never thus intended; and they would have rejoiced to 
show their gratitude in some way to the "factor bodies" whose vigors 
had made them in on6 way exiles, but in another way, had led to plenty. 
And yet, it has been remarked b}' some who do not know the true nature 
of the Scot, that he has no sense of humor. 

The name Cantire is also written Kintyre. It's headland — the Mull, 
as it is called — is the last prominent landmark in the Scottish coast to 
which the Scot sailing from Glasgow bids farewell on leaving his native 
Caledonia, and the first which greets him on his return from journeying 
in foreign climes. It used to be said of the stalwart and hospitable 
Scots of Arg}-le, "W^innebago County, that any chance visitor to their 
neighborhood was certain of a hearty "Highland "Welcome" if he but 
correctly pronounced "Machrihanish" or "Southend." 

Such were some of the products of this "Scotch Settlement" at Ar- 
gyle. It would be impossible to trace their influence. Only the "book 
of remembrance" will reveal it. But so much of it as we know intimates, 
in a fragmentary way, perhaps what a community of God-fearing, honest, 
industrious, intelligent people may accomplish for the promotion of good 
government, for the encouragement of education, and for the advance- 
ment of the race. 

Scots and their descendants have never comprised any considerable 
part of the legal profession in Illinois. What they have lacked in num- 
bers, however, they have fully made up in the character, ability, and 
achievements of their representatives. 

From the time of Senator Stephen A. Douglas to the diplomatic 
services of Hon. William J. Calhoun, the men of the race, who have 



67 

occupied official position, or have been active in the practice, have left 
records to which their countr3anen may now refer with satisfaction. The 
brilliant career at the bar, on the bench, and as a statesman of Senator 
Douglas need not here be recapitulated. His public life belongs to the 
Nation, although Illinois claims him as one of her most distinguished 
sons. 

A great lawyer, and an able and honored jurist, was Judge Thomas 
Drummond. Born in the State of Maine, his father, James Drummond, 
was a farmer of direct Scottish descent, noted for his sound sense and 
excellent judgment, qualities which his eminent son possessed in a high 
degree. 

We may infer the insignificance of Chicago, and the importance of 
Galena, in 1835, when we recall that the latter city was described, by 
the writers of that day, as so many miles north of St. Louis, while no 
reference whatever was made to its distance from the present metropolis 
on the shores of Lake Michigan. The bar of Galena even then was 
composed of "some of the ablest practitioners in Illinois." Mr, Drum- 
mond soon was acknowledged as one of the leading lawyers in that entire 
circuit. The characteristics for which he was noted are epitomized by 
his biographers as "intense application to the solid work of his pro- 
fession ; investigation of facts and precedents ; cautious and thorough 
analysis of the principles of law involved in the case at bar ; and ,above 
all, absolute integrity, sincerity, and candor. (Kirkland's and Moses' 
"History of Chicago," vol. I, p. 161). He was appointed at the age of 
41 by President Ta3dor to the office of United States District Judge for 
Illinois. In 1855, when the State was divided into two districts, he be- 
came the Judge of the Northern District. In 1869, he was promoted 
to the United States Circuit Court, which comprised then, as now, the 
states of Indiana, Illinois and Wisconsin. The period of his service was 
one during which many importa^jt causes were decided, especially those 
involving railroads. It is related that in this latter class alone, receivers 
were appointed representing bonded indebtedness of perhaps a hundred 
million of dollars. All this business came directly or indirectly under 
Judge Drummond's care, and his name passed through the long ordeal 
unassailed by a breath of suspicion, not only of corruption but of im- 
fairness" (Idem, p. 161). He was a patriot in the true sense, never a 
partisan. His attitude towards the bar was invariably considerate, dig- 
nified, modest, firm. He ranks with the great judges who have adorned 
the United States Courts of this country. 

Hon. William C. Goudy's name occupies a deservedlv high place 
among lawyers in the general practice. The Goudie family's members 
were of Ayrshire, Scotland, origin. As elsewhere stated, the name was 
written in Scotland, Goudie. When the tyranny of the time led the 
Scots to emigrate to the Province of Ulster, and later to America, the 
orthography was changed to Goudy and Gowdy. As those who held it 
removed still farther westward, they settled in western Pennsylvania, 
Ohio, Indiana, and then came to Illinois. As one of his biographers 
(Hon. Ensley Moore, of Jacksonville, Illinois, in "A Notable Illinois 
Family," "Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society" for 
1907, pp. 315-323), has well said: "He was born Mav 15, 1824, an era 



68 

when so many great men M-ere born, and he "was destined to become, or 
to make himself, the most prominent and distinguished member of the 
family. There was much in common, in the early days, of the various 
struggles of such men as Douglas, Lincoln, and Grant, with poverty and 
other adverse circumstances, and Wm. C. Goudy belonged to that class 
of men." 

He was successively, school teacher, college-graduate, lawyer. State's 
Attorney, and State Senator ; a power in the choosing of United States 
Senators ; in the naming of Presidents ; and in the selection of members 
of the Supreme Court of the United States. It is related of him that 
"in 1855 he argued his first case before the Supreme Court of Illinois. 
One hundred and thirty volumes of these reports have been issued (up 
to 1894), and in every one of them cases have been reported which have 
been argued by Mr. Goudy. In the higher courts of other Western 
States, and in the Supreme Court of the United States, he has been 
almost as conspicuous a figure." In his church relationships he was a 
leader, having long served on the Board of Directors of the McCormick 
Theological Seminary. Like Hon. Milton Hay, of Springfield, often he 
was consulted by distinguished public men, who held his opinion and 
advice in high esteem, and were largely guided in their course by his 
views. 

Hon. William J. Calhoun was bom in Pittsburgh, Pa., the son of 
a member of the Scottish Clan of Colquhon, as the name is written in 
Scotland. The Colquhons were of ancient lineage, and their chiefs were 
prominent in Dumbartonshire, and in other western districts of Scot- 
land. One sect of the clan removed to Ulster, where the name came to 
be spelled more nearly as it was pronounced — Calhoun. The families of 
this latter branch were the progenitors of the Calhouns who l>ave become 
disting-uished in the United States. Mr. Calhoun's parents Avere Eobert 
and Sarah (Knox) Calhoun. The hisitorian, Francis Parkman. makes 
frequent mention Qf "Knox's Diary." This was the record kept by Capt. 
John Knox, a British officer Avho was Mr. Callioun's great-grandfatber. 
At the age of sixteen Mr. Calhoun enlisted in an Ohio Volunteer infantry 
regiment. AVhen the Civil War ended, he removed to Illinois, worked 
on a farm, taught school, studied law, and became an attornev in Dan- 
ville. In 1882 he was elected to the Legislature. Two years later he 
was elected State's Attorney for Vermilion County. In 1892 he was 
chosen general attorney for the Chicago and Eastern Illinois Eailroad. 
He had been acquainted in Ohio in youth with President McKinley, and 
in 1896 was active in bringing about his nomination. In 1897 he was 
appointed upon a difficult governmental mission to Cuba, which he dis- 
charged with fidelity and success. In 1898 he was selected as a mem- 
ber of the United States Inter-State Commerce Commission. The Vene- 
zuela difference called him into service in South America as a special 
commissioner, and there again he displayed great skill. Fl'om 1907 to 
1913 he served as our Minister to China, and added to his already high 
reputation as a displomat. His record was even that of a man of marked 
ability and integrity. He died September 17, 1916. 

Several other names of men of Scotch birth and ancestry will illus- 
trate as many different types of service performed. 



69 

Andrew Crawford, born in Ayrshire, Scotland, in 1831, was the son 
of an old and respected family. The Crawfords of that district in 
Scotland were eminent in the nation's history for centuries. ]Mr. Craw- 
ford's mother was of the Hay family, also a distinguished one. At the 
age of twenty-one he came to the United States; settled Geneseo, Illi- 
nois; studied law; in 1868 was elected to the State Senate; in 1873 made 
his home in Chicago; became a prominent attorney; was a specialist in 
railroad law; and when he died in 1900 was reckoned one of the wealthy 
and influential members of the bar. 

Judge James A. Creighton, of Springfield, was elected to the State 
Circuit bench for six successive terms, a record only duplicated by the 
late Judge Joseph E. Gary, of Chicago, before whom the anarchists were 
tried. Judge Creighton was a native of Illinois. His biographer states : 
"He was always proud of the fact that his parents, John and Mary 
Creighton, were both born in Illinois, as well as that they were direct 
descendants of an old Scotch family that came early to the United 
States, and removed from South Carolina to Illinois in 1817." The 
name in Scotland is also written Crighton and Crichton, and one of the 
distinguished men who bore it will be remembered as "The Admirable 
Crichton." The name of his brother. Judge Jacob B. Creighton, of 
Fairfield, is well known in Southern Illinois. Judge James A. Creighton 
died in Springfield in 1916. He was a highly respected jurist, and an 
esteemed member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Hon. James McCartney, who was Attorney General of Illinois from 
1880 to 1884, was the son of Scotch parents, although he himself was 
bom in Ulster. He served a^ a volunteer in the Union Army succes- 
sively in the 17th and 112:tH Illinois Volunteer Infantry. At the close 
of the war he settled in Fairfield. During his administration, as the 
chief legal officer of the State, the "Lake Front Suits" of Chicago, were 
instituted, whicli resulted, after extended litigation, in a decision in 
favor of the city. He was a painstaking lawyer, a faithful official, and 
a citizen who enjoyed the regard of the community. 

Judge John M. Scott, lawyer and jurist, born in St. Clair County, 
,August 1, 1824, was of Ulster-Scot ancestry. For half a century he 
lived in McLean County. He was County School Commissioner (that is. 
Superintendent), County Judge, Circuit Judge, Judge of the State 
Supreme Court. One of his notable works was his "History of the 
Illinois Supreme Court." He died in Bloomington, January 21, 1898. 
He wrote several valuable papers on the Ulster-Scots and their services 
in Xation-building. 

In Illinois, as indeed the world over, the Scot as a banker has been 
conspicuous. The intelligent reader need scarcely again be reminded 
that the founder of the great Bank of England was William Paterson, 
the son of a Dumfriesshire farmer, who inaugurated the most compre- 
hensive system of financiering of the last two centuries, which has since 
influenced the transactions of every civilized country. 

The most widely known financier in the jSTorth-West, during the 
first half of the last century, was George Smith. He was born in 1806 
in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, a district noted for its men of affairs. 



70 

ministers, scholars, military chieftains, and scientists. Like General 
St. Clair, in his youth Mr. Smith studied for the medical profession; 
like that soldier he came as a young man to America; but here their 
similarity ends, for Mr. Smith devoted his talents exclusively to civil 
pursuits, and became and remained wealthy. 

When he arrived in Illinois, in the middle "30's," he came to a 
place which was only ''in the gristle,'^ and not far in, at that. Even 
then, however, he saw something of its possibilities, because of its 
geography, as did Wm. B. Ogden, its first mayor, and John Wentworth, 
Congressman, mayor and editor, and Isaac N. Arnold, lawyer, legislator, 
and historian, and others whose names are inseparably connected with 
the beginnings of the Garden City. 

For several years he was engaged in various business enterprises. 
He extended his interests to Milwaukee, with whose large concerns he 
became closely connected. In these he was associated with Hon. Alex- 
ander Mitchell, another Scot, who was a banker, railroad builder, and 
Katioual legislator. He was one of the early promoters and directors of 
the Galena and Chicago Union Eailroad — now the Northwestern sys- 
tem — the first line west out of Chicago. He was a charter member of 
the Board of Trade of his city. In 1839-40 he established his bank in 
Chicago, which became probably the most important and influential 
financial institution in tlie North- West in its time. In 1860 he was 
accounted one of the richest and most successful men of the oS^ation. He 
strongly supported the Union in the Civil War. Upon his retirement 
from active life, he returned to Great Britain. He contributed liberally 
to the educational institutions of his native land, and was held to be one 
of the. foremost financiers of his generation. 

Kirkland's and Moses' ^'History of Chicago" (\^ol. T, 517-18) con- 
tains the following: 

''From 1837 to 18-10, Strachan and Scott were bankers — an enter- 
prising firm of Scotchmen associated with George Smith. In 1840, the 
banking firm of George Smith & Co., was established, and continued to 
be the leading house for about sixteen years, when it dissolved, and the 
senior partner retired to his native Scotland with an ample fortune, and 
a reputation of being one of the shrewdest and most enterprising busi- 
ness men, who had up to that time made Chicago their home. George 
Smith of Chicago and Alexander Mitchell at Milwaukee, were two 
Scotchmen who enjoyed, the latter until his death, a few years since 
(this was written in 1894) "a most successful career in finance and 
other enterprises. Their resources were boundless, and their energy 
untiring, and although many attempts were made by their rivals to 
crush them, they always discomfited their opponents and carried their 
enterprises to successful conclusions.'^ Their institutions were popularly 
known as "Smith's Bank" and "Mitchell's Bank." 

In Eockford were two Scots bankers — Thomas D. Robertson and 
D. H. Ferguson, who were known as leaders far beyond their own com- 
munities. 

The brothers, James B. Forgan and David E. Forgan, are recog- 
nized as among Chicago's prominent bankers. When Lyman J. Gage 



71 

was appointed Secretary of the Treasury iu President McKiuley's cabi- 
net, James B. Forgan became President of the First National Bank of 
Chicago, an office which he filled for nearly a quarter of a century with 
signal ability, satisfaction, and success. David E. Forgan was founder 
and is President of the National City Bank of Chicago. 

Of John Crerar the "History of Chicago," by Kirkland and Moses 
(Vol. II, pp. 730-31), thus speaks: 

"Mr. Crerar never married, and left no posterity, to inherit his 
estate and perpetuate his memory. He made the public his heir, and 
erected a monument which will endure after marble has crumbled to 
dust, and the fame of mere earthly deeds shall have faded from the 
memories of men. By the provisions of his carefully prepared will he 
left the greater portion of his estate, amounting to two and a half 
million dollars, for the founding and maintenance of a free public 
library. A million dollars were bequeathed to religious, historical, liter- 
ary, and benevolent institutions, one hundred thousand dollars for the 
erection of a colossal statne of Abraham Lincoln, and six hundred thou- 
sand dollars to relatives and friends." 

Mr. Crerar was born in New York City, the son of Scotch parents. 
His father was a native of Crief, Perthshire, his mother's maiden name 
was Agnes Smeillie. His father died the year of the son's birth. In 
1862 he came to Chicago, and was long the senior member of the Crerar, 
Adams & Co. firm. He had large holdings in a number of leading 
manufactnring and transportation corporations, banks, and insurance 
companies. His benefactions embraced many charities, and religious 
and other societies. He was a member of the Second Presbyterian 
Church, Chicago. The only office he ever held was that of Presidential 
Elector in 1888, when a Presbyterian elder was chosen Chief Magistrate 
of the Nation. He was a generous supporter of the Illinois Saint 
Andrew Society, the oldest chartered charitable organization in the 
State. 

The fund which he provided for the library has been well expended. 
Two of its original trustees were the late Col. Fluntington W. Jackson 
and the late Norman Williams, both intimate friends. That it might in 
no way compete with the great Newberry Library which is in the North 
Division, he provided that it should be located in the South Side. His 
hisfh ideals are seen in this statement in his will : "I desire that books 
and periodicals be selected with a view to create and sustain a healthy 
moral and Christian sentiment. I want the atmosphere that of 
Christian refinement, and its aim and object the building up of char- 
acter." Truly the library which bears his name is a memorial of the 
most enduring nature. 

"The Crerar Library," says S. E. Winchell, in his "Chicago" (1910) 
"is exclusively a reference library, and aims to cover especially the field 
of scientific and technical literature, in order that the scope of the 
leading libraries of the city may not be duplicated." 

Two companies of a semi-military character, organized for, and 
devoting much time and attention to, training in arms before the Civil 
War, won recognition in Illinois, and made fine records during the 



72 

Great Conflict. P^ach had a distinctive uniform. The members of botli 
rei^reseuted some of the choicest young men of Chicago. In the case of 
one, its leader met an untimeh' death earl}' in the war; in the other, 
the Commander served throughout the war, and returned home in safety, 
after having passed through many hazardous experiences. These com- 
panies were the Ellswoi'th Zouaves and the Highland Guards. In tlie 
chapter of this paper entitled "■Historical Publishers" mention is made 
of the first-named troop, in this connection reference will be made 
to the second. 

The Highland Guards were organized in Chicago, on ^May 3, ISoo. 
The members were Scotchmen. Their uniform was the Highland garb — 
kilts. On public occasions the Guards were in constant demand. In 
1859, when the Centennial celebration of the birth of the poet, Robert 
Burns, was observed, and when probably 'the largest and most striking 
procession which Chicago had witnessed up to that time took place, the 
Highland Guards were the most picturesque division of the day. In 
1859-1860, the records show these officers : Captain, John McArthur; 
First Lieutenant, Alexander W. Eaffen; Second Lieutenant, J. T. 
Young; Third Lieutenant, Andrew Quade; Fourth Lieutenant, Eobert 
Wilson; Secretar}-, T. McFarland; Treasurer, John Wood. Capt. John 
T. Eaffen was in command when the Civil War began. The Guards were 
among the first to answer the call of President Lincoln. They were 
mustered in as Company E of the Nineteenth Illinois Volunteer In- 
fantr}', and soon were at the front. Thereafter their record is part of 
that -of the splendid "Old Nineteenth." 

One of this regiment's exploits was at the battle of Murfreesboro, 
otherwise called Stone Piver. General Eosecrans' gallant army there 
met the seasoned troops of General Bragg. The fighting had been heavy 
and protracted. At a critical hour the Confederates had made vigorous 
and successful inroads on the Union left. All along that sector the 
peril was so great that it seriously threatened other parts of the Federal 
lines. 

The "Old Nineteenth," by a magnificent charge, achieved glory on 
the field that day. The apparently overwhelming tide of the opposing 
hosts was effectually stemmed. The impending disaster was turned into 
complete victory. General Eosecrans' army held the battle-ground. 
General Bragg's forces filed away to Chattanooga. In the rain of shot 
and shell, the valiant Colonel Scott, commander of the Nineteenth, was 
so severely wounded that he died soon after. Col. Joseph B. Scott Avas 
born in 1838 in Brantford, Canada, of Scotch parentage, and was one of 
the youngest colonels in the Union armies, having been made com- 
mander of his regiment in August, 1862, (James Barnet's "Martyrs 
and Heroes of Illinois," published in Chicago in 1865). The Highland 
Guards, with high courage and dauntless deeds, maintained the tradi- 
tions of their countrymen at the relief of Lucknow; when they held "the 
thin red line" at Balaclava; and in the desperate engagemejit at Tel-el- 
Ivebir; — a reputation which the Scotch troops perpetuated in many a 
sanguinary struggle during the late AVorkl War, when the kiited soldiers 



73 

came to be known and to be designated by the Germans as "the Ladies 
of Hell." 

The contribution of this State to the Union armies during the Civil 
War is told in the ringing words of Dr. Chamberlin's popular song: 
"Xot without thy wondrous story, 
Illinois, Illinois, 
Can be writ the Nation's glory, 
Illinois, Illinois." 

Men of Scotch birth and blood had no small or inconspicuous part 
in that history. Vre may but remind the student of our National 
chronicles of some of those whose achievements are known and read of 
all. We, therefore, need but recall the names of Grant, and Logan, and 
Kawlins, and McClernand, and Dlavid Hunter, and McNulta, and Owen 
and D'avid Stuart, and McClurg, and Daniel Cameron, and Beveridge — 
all Illinois men of Scotch nativity or ancestry, who served in our armies, 
and whose deeds are large parts of our State's and Country's history. 

Gen. John McArthur was the most prominent Illinois soldier of 
Scottish birth who was a Civil War Commander. He was born in the 
parish of Erskine, in Eenfrewshire, on February 17, 1836. At the age 
of twenty-three he came to the United States, and settled in Chicago. 
For some years he was engaged in the manufacturing business. Amid 
all the activities incident to the establishing of his concern's enterprises, 
he found time to give to the building up of the Highland Guards. The 
year before the Civil War he was chosen its Captain. When Fort 
Sumter was fired on, he promptly volunteered, and was commissioned 
a captain in the Twelfth Illinois Infantry. His promotion to Lieutenant- 
Colonel and Colonel was deserved and rapid. For gallantry at Fort 
Donelson he was made a Brigadier-General. He participated in the 
battle of Shiloh, where he was wounded, but immediately upon having 
his injuries dressed, he returned to the fighting line. 

When the lamented Gen. W. H. L. Wallace fell mortally wounded. 
General McArthur succeeded to the command of his diAdsion. In the 
operations against Vicksburg, he commanded a division of General 
McPherson's corps. At the battle of Nashville, commanding a division, 
his services were so signally satisfactor}^ that he won a brevet Major- 
Generalship. Upon returning to his home city, at the close of the war, 
he was for several years a member of the Board of Public Works, in 
which he repeatedly gave evidence of his honesty and ability. From 
1873 to 1877, he was Postmaster at Chicago. General McArthur de- 
lighted to wear the "Scottish bonnet" which accompanies the fidl-dress 
Highland garb. In his residence of nearly three-score years in Chicago 
he was the recipient of many honors at the hands of his fellow-citizens. 
When he died on March 16, 1906, his passing was considered as a public 
bereavement. 

Col. James McArthur, a 3^ounger brother of the General, and Maj. 
George Mason, a nephew, were brave soldiers, and respected by former 
comrades-in-arms, as well as by a large circle in civil life. Major Mason 
is a well-known and esteemed resident of Chicago. 



As a born Scot would say, "it's a far cry," that is, a long wav, from 
tlie Black Hawk War of 1832 in Illinois to the fateful held of Culloden 
of 1746 in Scotland. And yet, they are "sib" which as Eobert Louis 
Stevenson might say, in our manner of speaking, means, related or con- 
nected by blood-ties. 

Drumtossie, or, as it is generally known in history, Culloden, is 
a moorland situate only a few miles from "the rose red town" of Inver- 
ness, Scotland, also cailled "the Capital of the Highlands.'' It was on 
Drumtossie, or Culloden Moor that "Bonnie Prince Charlie," sometimes 
styled "the Pretender," met total defeat, on April 16, 1746. and put an 
end forever to the attempts of the luckless house of the Stuarts to regain 
the British crown. The victorious army of King George was commanded 
that day by the Duke of Cumberland. 

Many of the chi^'tilric Highland chiefs had advised strongly against 
the "uprising," as the campaign of Charles Edward was designated. 
Among them was the gallant Lochiel. AVhcn, however, the Prince per- 
sisted in undertaking the enterprise, they threw themselves into it with 
characteristic abandon, although they foresaw inevitable disaster to the 
allied clans from the numerous and disciplined hosts that were mar- 
shaled against them. Scottish song and story perpetuate their loyalty 
and sacrifice on behalf of the scion of a dynasty that fell far short of 
their Highland idealism in his later life. The clans were decimated. 
The survivors became fugitives. Government offered large sums for 
the apprehension of Prince, chiefs, and other participants. Some, 
hunted like game, and hiding in caves and clachans, among woods and 
moors, at last made their way to the Continent. Others, after number- 
less hair-breadth escapes, succeeded in reaching the American Colonies. 
One of these latter was the grandfather of our Gen. Winfield Scott, who 
settled in Virginia. And, thus, Culloden's calamitous field gave the 
Colonies, in the Eevolutionary War a gallant patriot soldier, and, sub- 
sequently, the United States the commander-in-chief of its armies. 

The student of our history may read into this tragic incident of a 
decadent dynasty several strangely suggestive lessons. 

Whatever may be said of the personal qualities and of the impos- 
sible dreams of Black Hawk, the war which bears his name was under- 
taken by many of the allied tribes as their final, desperate stand for what 
they beelieved to be their right to their ancient home and hunting- 
grounds, as against its invasion and occupancy by the white race. 

It may interest the American reader to be reminded of tlie not 
inconsiderable contribution to Scottish literature which grew out of the 
various, though futile, attempts of the Stuarts to wrest the crown from 
the house of Hanover. The important fact is, that many of the distin- 
guished Americans of Colonial, Eevolutionar}', and later times, were 
direct descendants of men who "came out in '45," that is, who joined 
"the Pretender" in that "unsuccessful endeavor. The remarkable feature 
is, that they, followed a leader, and, forfeited their all for a cause, that 
represented in its extremest form "the divine right of kings," to become 
in this land the champions of personal liberty, and the founders of popu- 
lar government on this side of the Atlantic. 



75 

Old Fort Dearborn occupied the site of what is now a business block 
opposite the south approach to the Eush Street Bridge, Chicago; on 
which business block was a tablet commemorative of the fort. The name 
connected with the building of Old Fort Dearborn is that of Capt. John 
Whistler. He was of Ulster-Scot blood. During the Revolutionary War 
he served in America under Burgoyne at the battle of Saratoga. After 
peace was declared, he entered the United States Army. In 1803-4 he 
was stationed at Detroit, and was detailed to the command of the post 
at Chicago, and to build there three forts. He remained in charge until 
1810, when he was succeeded by Captain Heald. He became a major, 
and died in 1827. His grandson was James McNeil Whistler, the brilli- 
ant etcher and painter. 

Col. A. J. Nimmo, of Jonesboro, Union County, was the son of a 
native of Virginia of Scotch ancestry. The colonel was a gallant volun- 
teer soldier in two w-ars — the Mexican, and the Civil. He recruited and 
commanded the One Hundred and Ninth Illinois Volunteer Infantry 
in the great conflict, and made a record wdiich was one of high credit. 
He was repeatedly honored by his fellows-citizens in having been elected 
to offices of trust, and discharged their duties with fidelity and ability. 

Maj. John Wood,^a leading citizen of Cairo, was a native of Scot- 
land, having been born near Edinburgh. He came to the United States 
when he was seventeen years of age (in 1850). He was a brave and 
capable volunteer in the Civil War, and rose to the rank of major. He 
was a member of the commissions that built the State Hospital at Anna, 
and the Southern Illinois Normal at Carbondale. 

The reports of State Adjutant General Allen C. Fuller, contain a 
complete roster of the Civil War Volunteers from Illinois, and also an 
outline-history of each regiment and batter}' engaged in the service from 
1861 to 1865. From these voluminous and valuable records some in- 
teresting facts are learned. Thirty-one Illinois regiments, beside their 
numerical designations, had distinctive names, by which they were 
known. The Twelfth Eegiment, whose first commander was Col. (after- 
wards Maj. Gen.) John McArthur, was called the "First Scotch." Its 
chief used to wear the "Scotch bonnet," which crowned a handsome and 
soldierly figure. The Sixty-fifth Eegiment, commanded by Col. (after- 
wards Brig. Gen.) Daniel Cameron, was known as the "Second Scotch," 
also called the "Highlanders." The achievements of both regiments are 
among the most creditable of the Prairie State's Volunteers. 

Of the officers who served in the Illinois regiments, and who at- 
tained the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, and above that, we find in Ad- 
jutant General Fuller's records upwards of sixt}' who were of Scottish 
birth and ancestry. The officers from Major to Second Lieutenant of 
Scots descent number into the hundreds. These officers represent every 
arm of the service, and entered the army from practically every district 
in the State. It is needless to remind the reader that these Scots and 
Ulster-Scots and their descendants include the one who became the 
General of the United States Army as well as the most distinguished 
Volunteer Major General of the era. It may be added, that no instance 
is recorded wherein a single one of these patriot leaders was found dere- 
lict in the discharge of his duty, or who came out of the great conflict 
with a blot on his escutcheon. 



76 

TJie most distinguished literary man to whom Illinois may lay 
claim probably was Hon. John Hay. Lawyer, journalist, statesman, 
author, he was descended from John Hay, who fought with famous Scots 
Brigade in the Low Countries, and whose son emigrated to America. 
The family history relates that two of the sons of this soldier served 
on the side of the Patriots during the Eevolutionary War. Although 
Indiana was the state of John Hay's birth, his active public life was 
shaped and begun in Illinois, and will always be held as a part of our 
. State's heritage. Educated at Brown University, he studied law in 
Springfield, and in 1861 was admitted here to the bar. He became 
secretary to President Lincoln, and served in several military capacities 
during the Civil War. Called to important positions in our diplomatic 
service, he was successively connected with the United States Legations 
at Paris, Madrid, and Vienna. For a period he was engaged in journal- 
ism, having been editor of ''The Illinois State Journal"' of Springfield, 
and upon the staff of the "Tribune" of Xew York. In 1897 he was 
our Ambassador to Great Britain, and from 1898 to 1905 was Secretary 
of State of the United States. It was during his administration that the 
Panama Canal negotiations were carried to a successful issue; the in- 
tegrity of China Avas recognized by the United States; also, the dispute 
settled with reference to Samoa, and the Alaska gold-boundary question. 
In the realm of literature his works include the well-known "Pike County 
Ballads," the "Castilian Days," the "Bread "Winners," and, in collabor- 
ation with John G. Nicola}^, the "History of the Life and Times of 
Abraham Lincoln." Several of his poetical contributions have included 
notal)le hymns of a religious character. His early impressions and ex- 
periences received while he lived in Illinois remained with him to the 
end of his career, and afford us warrant for claiming him for our State. 

James Barnet, a half century ago, was one of the best known print- 
ers in Chicago. He and his brother Alexander were typical, loyal Scots, 
and were among those who organized the Scotch Presbyterian Church 
of that city. James was a book publisher and writer, and many pamph- 
lets and not a few books, issued before the Chicago Fire of 1871, were 
from his pen and press. JsTearly all these have disappeared. One, how- 
ever, survives, and is in the writer's library. It is entitled "The Martyrs 
and Heroes of Illinois," and was edited and published in 1865 by Mr. 
Barnet, who was an industrious compiler. It contains a brief and appre- 
ciative biograjjliy of President Lincoln, and sketches of some seventy 
Illinois soldiers who were killed or died of wounds and disease during ■ 
the war. ; 

Peter Grant, born in the beautiful valley of the Spey, one of Scot- 
land's largest and noted rivers, was for years the popular "Bard of the 
Caledonian Society of Chicago, before he made his home in Detroit, 
]\Iich. Like so many other Scots who have the f»pirit and gift of song, 
he began to compose while still a lad tending the flocks and herds in 
his native strath. To Illinois he brought with him the warmest recol- 
lections of the land of heather and heroes, which find fitting expression 
in his varied verse. Loyalty to his adopted country is frequently and 
forcefully voiced in his limpid lines. Among historical collections, none 
furnishes more or better illustrations of the versatility of his muse than 
"By Heath and Prairie," published in 1900. Here we h?.ve the lyric. 



77 

the ballad, the love song, the nature study, the sturdy defense of the 
revered religion of his forefathers, the championship of freedom and 
right as they live in the Eepublic; mingled with a lighter vein that is 
characterized by pawky humor ; and all having the lilt that reveals the 
true son of song in delightful doric and in present American. 

In all of the Fifty-one General AssemlDlies of the State of Illinois, 
since its admission into the Union, the Scot has been a more or less 
prominent factor. The first chief executive of this Commonwealth who 
was of Scottish extraction was Joseph Duncan, of whom mention is 
made in the chapter devoted to "Education." The other Governors to 
whom we may refer who were of Scotch descent have been John L. 
Beveridge, John M. Hamilton, William J. Campbell (President of the 
State Senate and x\cting Lieutenant Governor), and Frank 0. Lowden. 
All served in the State or National Legislative Branch of the Govern- 
ment. Gov. Eichard J. Ogiesby (who was elected three times chief 
State executive, and also was a United States Senator, and a Major 
General in the Civil War) liked to trace his ancestry to Scotland. 

The Scots and the descendants of Scots wh^ were either Members 
of Congress or State Senators and members of the Legislature number 
close to two hundred. They have come from some sixty different counties 
of the one hundred and two in the State. In every one of the sessions 
of the General Assembly from 1818 to 1919, the impress of these Scots 
is seen in the framing of the session laws. Their woi'k has covered 
practically every chapter of the State Statutes. As an illustration of the 
kind of legislation in which they have been prominent, it may be noted 
that members like Dan McLaughlin, Wm. Mooney, and W. H. Steen, 
of Will Coimty, Wm. Scaife, of Grundy County, and David Boss, of La 
Salle County, have made records of the utmost value to the coal miners 
of the entire State, in providing for safety appliances and intelligent 
and rigid inspection of the mines where so many men are engaged in 
this hazardous occupation. The long and distinguished careers of Joseph 
Gillespie, of Madison County, and John McISTulta, of IMcLean County 
(later of Chicago), are examples of the useful public services of descend- 
ants of Scots whose memories this State delights to honor. In the 
several Constitutional Conventions the Scot has had his part, as well as 
in such measures as Illinois shares in the World^s Columbian Exposition, 
and in the commission which drafted the bill creating the great Chicago 
Drainage (Sanitaiy District) Canal, one of whose members, a Scot, then 
a State Senator, was largely instrumental in securing the passage in 
1889, of this act which has secured to the Garden City a perpetual supply 
of pure water for its millions of people. 

Few if any of the stalwart citizens of Kane County compared with 
Hon. John Stewart, of Elburn, commanding as he was in stature, he 
was even more so in character and al)ility. Farmer. luml)erman, capital- 
ist, legislator, traveler, he was a remarkable man. Born in New Bruns- 
wick of parents both of whom were Scotch, he passed over sixty years 
of his active, useful, and honorable life in Illinois. As a business man, 
his word passed current wherever it Avas given. As a member of the 
Legislature, he, was incorruptible, capable, and courageous. In the coun- 
cils of his political party, he was a leader. He was a man Avho did things, 
never one who was noted for his "much speaking." His brother, Hon. 



78 

Alexander Stewart, represented the Wausau, Wis., district in Congress 
for a number of terms. His son, Hon. Tliomas Stewart, of Aurora, has 
served in the State Senate. Both brother and son worthily sustained the 
fami]}' reputation. Mr. Stewart was one of the famous "103" wdio 
elected, in 18&5, Gen. John A, Logan to the United States Senate, the 
last time he Avas chosen to fill that office. 

Hon. Eobert A. Gray, of Macon County, was a member of the 
Thirty-fourth and Thirty-fifth General Assemblies. He was of Ulster- 
Scot ancestry. He was a farmer, legislator and poet. His career as a 
law-maker was one of intelligence, industry, and honesty. He had in an 
unusual degree the ability of writing verse. Several of his lyrical pro- 
ductions have been widely published. They found a well-merited place 
in the "Readers'' of the late Dr. Eichard Edwards, who for four years 
"was State Superintendent of Public Instruction of Illinois. One of the 
most pathetic and popular of these poems was entitled, from a line it 
contained, "There's But One Pair Stockings to Mend Tonight," tender, 
touching, and revealing the spirit and power of the true songster. 

"P^ce hath her victories 
Xo less renowned than war." 

Sir William Keith, a Scot, was related to the "Illinois Country" 
during the era of French Dominion. As far back as 1718 — the time of 
John Law — Sir William, who was royal Governor of Pennsylvania, sent 
out an agent, James Logan (also a Scot?), to explore this region, with 
the object of discovering some routes to the Mississippi which might be 
of use to the British. The report made by Logan is quoted in Andreas' 
voluminous and valuable "History of Chicago" (Vol. I, p. 79). Says 
Logan: "From Lake Huron they (the French) pass by the Strait of 
Michilimakina four leagues, being two in breadth, and of great depth, 
to the Lake of Illinois (Michigan) ; thence one hundred and fifty leagues 
to Fort Miami, situated at the mouth of the river, Chicago. The fort 
is not regularly garrisoned." It is stated, in the same history, that "this 
fort (at Chicago) was doubtless a stockade, erected by the French to 
facilitate the trade between Canada, via the lakes, and their settlements 
at Kaskaskia and Fort Chartres." 

The introduction to Chicago of the oi'chard and garden products 
of southern Illinois was an enterprise of considerable value to both dis- 
tricts. The originator of this project was D. Gow, Avho was born near 
Edinburgh, Scotland, February 15, 1825, and, settling in Cobden Town- 
ship, Union County, became one of the leading fruit and vegetable gi'ow- 
ers in that region. Those of the older generation who were acquainted 
with the late John B. Drake, whose name was so long connected with 
the famous Grand Pacific Hotel, Chicago, may recall that it was to him 
that Mr. Gow shipped his products w^hich made that popular place one 
of the best in the Garden Ciij. 

Among the well-known and successful manufacturers, by whose en- 
terprise the city of Cairo was built, was John T. Eennie, born May 20, 
1819, in the "Auld Town o' Ayr," the native place of Scotland's National 
Poet, Eobert Burns. 

Family names have undergone numerous and radical, changes in the 
United States, especially in the West, including and since the days of the 



79 

pioneei'S. The historian is frequently confused in his endeavors to trace 
these names to their parent-stems. The orthography has greatly A^aried 
with localities. This has been due to the peoi)le themselves, and to the 
public registrars of lands, marriages, births, and deaths. In many fron- 
tier communities, a century or so ago, there was little "book learning." 
Schools were few and far between. Teachers were rarely able to do 
more than impart the rudiments of the "three E's." Family records, 
generally were not kept. When it became necessary to make record of 
names, the writers were often compelled to enter them on their books 
"as they sounded." Therefore, it came to pass, that a family name would 
be spelled one way in, say, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, Kentucky 
or Ohio, and quite differently in Indiana and Illinois. Even in adjacent 
settlements these variations obtained. 

A few illustrations will serve to show how these changes were brought 
about. It will be remembered that John Kinzie, "the Father of Chicago," 
was the son of John McKenzie, a Scot. Why John dropped the "Mc" 
and wrote "Kinzie" for "Kenzie" is now a matter of conjecture. In 
Scotland, Sinclair, (pronounced "Sinkler" with the accent on the first 
syllable) is that also written here St. Clair or Saint Clair. In Wig- 
townshire, Scotland, the name Hanna (from which Mark Hanna, of 
Ohio, descended), was long ago written "Hannay." MacMillan 
is variously written as McMillan, M'Millan, McMillain and Mc- 
Millin. Jamieson becomes Jameson and Jamison. Stuart is also 
Stewart, Steuart, and Steward. Ainslie is changed to Ainsle}', Ansley, 
and finally Ensley. Paton is Patton, and Patten. Tait is made Tate. 
Ballantyne becomes Ballantine and Ballentine. Goudie of Ayrshire, was 
written Goudy in Ulster, and when it reached Ohio, Indiana and Iowa, 
it was and is Gowdie and Gowdy. Mathieson of Gairloch, Scotland, is 
written Matteson in Colorado. But perhaps the most remarkable trans- 
formation is that of the Highland MacPherson, where the "Mac" was 
discontinued, and the "Pherson" became Person, and at last by some is 
written Parson. MacCutcheon has been so changed that Cutcheon is 
now Cutchen. These are but a few instances which will show to the 
reader how pioneer names, properly understood, can be traced back to 
their originals. The interested reader may find in this brief remark 
that which will aid in connecting present-time families with their remote 
ancestors, who in early day came across the Atlantic to these then dist- 
ant parts of the American Continent. 

Samuel Muir was the son of a talented Preshyterian minister, Eev. 
James Muir, a Scot who preached at Alexandria, Va., from 1789 to 1820, 
the year of his death. The son was born in the District of Columbia in 
the year of his father's settlement at Alexandria. He studied medicine 
in the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. In 1813, he became a surgeon 
in the United States Army. The year Illinois was admitted into the 
Union (1818), he resigned his commission, and married the daughter 
of the then chief of the Sac or Fox Indians. Settling among the people 
of his wife, he assumed their ways, and came to be considered as a 
leader. In 1828, he quitted the Indians, and went to Galena, where he 
practised medicine. In 1832, the 3^ear of the Black Hawk War, there 
was an epidemic of cholera among the United States Troops, and he 



so 

volunteered his services, which were accepted. Dr. Muir saved many 
lives b}- his skill, but fell a victim to the disease within a few months 
(Dr. Peter Ross in ''The Scots in America,'' p. 160). 

David McKee was the first blacksmith in what is now Chicago of 
whom we find any mention in the early histories. He was born in Vir- 
ginia, in 1800, of Scottish ancestry. He married Wealthy Scott, 
daughter of Stephen J. Scoft, who presumably was of Scotch lineage. 
It is said that he arrived at Fort Dearborn (Chicago) in 1822 or 1823. 
At all events, it is of record that he paid taxes in 1825, and voted in 
1826 and 1830, and his name appears on the poll-list as an elector. He 
was employed for a time by the Government at his trade. He built a 
home and shop at what is now the corner of Kinzie and Franklin Streets. 
The other civilians' houses, outside the Fort, were then chiefly if not all 
on the north side. In 1828, he was the mail carrier between Chicago 
and Fort Wayne, Ind. He rode this mail route on horseback, and it 
took a month to make the round-tri}D — now by rail 151 miles, one way, 
and traversed by train in about four hours. He could speak fluently, 
the Indian language (probably the Pottawatomie). It is stated that he 
met at Chicago the families of the Israel P. Blodgett party, and guided 
them out to their future homes in what is now Du Page County. One 
of the early histories states that he served in the Black Hawk War in 
1832. .He died A^p'ril 8, 1881, and is buried in the Big Woods Cemetery. 

Capt. Joseph Xaper, for whom Xaperville, DuPage County, was 
named, was a prominent early citizen of the northern part of the State, 
and was of Scotch descent. In the early histories the name is spelled 
"jSTapier," that being still the recognized orthography followed in Scot- 
land, where the family has not a few distinguished members. (S. 
Augustus Mitchell, published in Philadelphia in 1836.) 

John Eobertson, one of the leading men of Morgan County, and in 
his day probably the richest, was the son of Alexander and Elizabeth 
Eobertson, both of whom were Scotch. He was born in 1823, and here 
became a leading banker. His Americanism was pronounced. In the 
time of President Lincoln and War-Governor Yates, he was reckoned 
among their most enthusiastic and capable supporters. When the Gov- 
ernment, in Civil War times, needed financial assistance, as those of the 
past few years may well imagine, John Robertson, like Joshua Moore, 
and other loyal men of the county, liberally subscribed for its bonds, and 
otherwise labored to keep going the machinery of the Xational adminis- 
tration. 

Two brothers, John and Samuel McCarty, were the founders of 
Aurora, Kane County, and were the sons of Charles and Mary (Scud- 
den) McCarty, who were descended from old Protestant families of 
Scotch and English extraction. Samuel donated the land in Aurora 
on which was built the first Presbyterian Church. This place became 
famous as the one on which the first Republican State Convention was 
held, and where it received its name.* He was a fi^enerous contribu- 



* The first Republican or Anti-Xebraska State Convention was held at Bloom- 
ington. May 29, 1856. This convention nominated for Governor of the State 
William H. Bissell who was elected and was the first Republican Governor of 
Illinois. 



81 

tor to education, especially in building up Jennings Seminary in that 
city. 

In the north entrance of the Federal Building, Cliicago. wliich was 
wrecked, in 1918, by the bomb of an anarchist, stands a bust of Cleorge 
Buchanan Armstrong. It was erected by the clerks of the United States 
Eailway ]\Iail Service, in honor of the founder of that branch of the 
Post Office Department. Mr. Armstrong, for whom a public school in 
Chicago is named, was an Ulster-Scot. 

Says Dr. Boss (in "The Scot in America") of one who was an 
interesting figure half a century ago : "Very considerable space might 
be given to the exploits of Allan Pinkerton, the ablest detective who 
ever assisted justice in America. -Sketches of this man's career are 
j)lentiful enough, and his successes and experiences have been told in a 
series of volumes bearing his name." Pinkerton was born at Glasgow, 
in 1819, his father being a policeman. He certainly became one of the 
best-known detectives in America, and was a terror to evil-doers of all 
classes. His home and headquarters were in Chicago, where he died in 
1884. He performed valuable services for the United States during the 
Civil War. 

When a native of Scotland would express his high appreciation of 
the ability of a youth of his acquaintance, he "cannily"' describes him as 
"a lad of pairts." Such undoubtedly was Dr. Andrew Eussel, the grand- 
father of Hon. Andrew Eussel, of Jacksonville, former State Treasurer, 
and now (1919) State Auditor of Illinois. Dr. Eussel was born in 
Scotland, in 1785, and his wife, Miss Agnes Scott, daughter of John 
Scott, was a native of Glasgow. In that city the Doctor received his 
literary and professional education. Upon his coming to Illinois, he 
bought a large farm some ten miles south of Jacksonville, remaining 
upon it until his removal to the County seat of ^lorgan Countv in the 
spring of 1853. There he continued to live until his decease in 1861. 
The Doctor was one of the prominent men of Morgan County. He and 
his wife, who lived to be octogenarians, were deeply religious, and were 
staunch Presbyterians. They left a record for loyalty, usefulness, and 
goodness which their children and their grandchildren have sustained. 
Auditor of State Eussel is a banker of his home town, Jacksonville, and 
has long been associated with M. F. Dunlap, who also is well knojwn 
throughout Illinois. Mr, Eussel is one of the founders and a director 
of the Illinois State Historical Society. 

In the realm of reformatory Avork for and among the erring, no one 
in Illinois occupies a more conspicuou.s place than Maj. Eobert W. Mc- 
Claughry. A native of Hancock County. Illinois, his ancestrv was 
Ulster-Scotch, and Presbyterian by faith. Ho graduated in 1860 from, 
^[onmouth College, and when the Civil War began he volunteered, was 
elected a captain, served throughout that conflict, and rose to the rank of 
major. In 1874 he Avas appointed warden of the Joliet Penitentiary, 
filling that office until 1888; was superintendent of the Beformatory at 
Huntington, Pa.: was largely instrumental in framing and securing 
the passing of the act creating the Illinois Eeformatory at Pontiac, of 
which he became Superintendent (1893-97) ; again Avarden of Joliet 

—6 H S 



82 

(1897-99) ; and warden of the Federal Prison at Leavenworth. Kansas, 
from 1899 until his retirement from active service. As a penologist he 
has been recognized throughout the Xation. 

D'r. J. D. Scouller, a native of Ayrshire, Scotland, was for many 
years the Superintendent of the Eeform School for Boys at Pontiac 
before it became a State reformatory for older persons, and previous to 
the founding of the School for Boys at St. Charles. He had remarkable 
aptness for and success in this line of work. 

The Illinois Saint Andrew Society is the oldest charitable organiza- 
tion chartered by the State. It was instituted in 1846 and was incorpo- 
rated in 1853. Like all the other bodies of that name the world over, 
its object is to aid those of Scottish birth and ancestry Avho are in need. 
It has built, and maintains, near Riverside, Cook County, the establish- 
ment known as the "Scottish Old People's Home." This is endowed 
amply, and furnishes a beautiful, comfortalile, and commodious retreat 
in their old age to nearly forty women and men. The Scot does not 
take kindly to a poor-farm or work-house, and the "Home" is a place for 
guests, not "Inmates." The building and endowing of this "Home" are 
due to the untiring efforts of John Williamson, a Scot, who has been 
President of the Illinois Saint Andrew Society, and is Vice President 
of the People's Gas Company of Chicago. 

Every civilized nation was represented at the World's Columbian 
Exposition in Chicago in 1893. Those who visited it will recall the 
matchless "Court of Honor." It was the center to which all naturally 
gravitated. The most striking feature of that surpassing scene was the 
Colossal Fountain. It has been reproduced oftener perhaps than any 
other one part of the entire exhibition, and with reason, for easily it was 
the most beautiful. To it was and is attached the name of the gifted 
artist whose inimitable creation it was. The "'MacMonnies Fountain" 
will live when the memories of the ornate structures which adorned the 
ample grounds are forgotten. The sculptor, Frederick MacMonnies, 
may here be named because of his many contributions to the plastic 
arts, and on account of his lineage. He came of a Dumfrieshire, Scot- 
land, family, although he first saw the light in BrookljTi, N. Y. The 
influence of his marvelous conception is not measurable. And we may 
claim a part of this "Court of Honor" as of a son of one of Scotia's sons. 

John Finley Wallace ranks among the great engineers of the United 
States. His father was Eev. Dr. David A. Wallace, the first President 
of Monmouth College, which is referred to in our chapter on "Educa- 
tion." Dr. Wallace's four sons have all made records for usefulness that 
are well worthy of, mention. These are: John Finley, Eev. William, 
Eev. Mack H., and Charles, who has reached high rank in the United 
States Signal Corps; while his daughter is the wife of Judge Taggart, 
who has been Superintendent of Insurance of Ohio. John Finley Wal- 
lace, the oldest, studied at Monmouth, and has occupied important 
positions in the river and harbor work of the Mississippi, in railroad 
engineering and administration, as general manager of the Panama 
Eailroad and Steamship Line, as engineering expert for the Chicago 
City Council's Committee on Eailway Terminals, and in other important 



83 

» 
enterprises of a similar na-ture. His professional standing is evidenced 
by his election to the Presidency of the American Society of Civil En- 
gineers. His home and headquarters in recent years have been in New 
York, and yet Illinois does not waive the right to hold him as one of 
its sons of Scottish ancestry. 

Malcolm McNeil and John McNeil, brothers, Scotch of ancestry, 
birth, and training, for upwards of half a century have contributed 
largely to the business history of Illinois. The wholesale grocery house 
of McNeil and Higgins is known widely and well. The brothers estab- 
lished themselves in Chicago after the Great Fire of 1871, and the firm 
has since then been one of the most prominent and prosperous. Malcolm 
McNeil, now (1919) 87 years of age, retains his active connection with 
its large interests and has his home in the North Division of Chicago. 
John McNeil, whose home was in Elgin, traveled for years to and from 
Chicago, covering a distance in his time of a million of miles. He passed 
to the great beyond in April of this year (1919) at the age of four score. 
For nearly half a century he was an honored officer in the First Baptist 
Church of Elgin, and was president of the Home Trust and Savings 
Bank of that city. Malcolm McNeil is one of the representative men of 
Chicago, esteemed throughout the communit.y, one in whose entire 
career are illustrated the sterling qualities characteristic of the best of 
his race. 

Where the Scot has cast in his lot — and where has he gone? — he 
has made a place and a name for himself, in the city and country alike. 
A few only, out of a number, are here mentioned, as time would fail, 
and space be utterly wanting, even to enumerate more than a limited' 
list of those whose contributions have gone into the developing of Illi- 
nois. For from the days of John Kinzie — the son of a Scot, and known 
in all the histories as the "Father of Chicago" — until the present time, 
there has not been a decade in which Scotchmen have not been familiar 
figures, and played prominent parts, in the upbuilding of the city by the 
lake. Carlisle Mason and John McArthur had their names linked to- 
gether before the Civil War. Mr. Mason is stiU represented by Maj. 
George Mason, who gallantly served his country during the Great Con- 
flict. John Clark, a manufacturer, was a stalwart Eeformed Presby- 
terian elder, who lost his life in the Chicago Fire of 1871. His name 
was continued by his son Eobert, who with John T. Eaffen formed the 
firm of Clark and Eaffen. Eobert was prominent in municipal councils, 
and was a generous supporter of the Illinois Saint Andrew Society. 
Captain Eaffen Avas a brave soldier who went into the Nation's armies 
at the beginning of the war with the "Highland Guards." James S. 
Kirk founded the company of fine toilet soap manufacturers which 
carries his name. John T. Pirie and Andrew MacLeish, of the dry- 
goods house of Carson, Pirie, Scott & Co., are known not only as mer- 
chants, but also as benefactors of church and educational enterprises. 
George Armour was one of the "grain kings" of his time, a loyal and 
liberal Presbyterian, one of whose memorials stands in the public square 
in his native city of Campbelltown, Scotland, to refresh with its cooling 
waters the passer-by. David E. Eraser and Thomas Chalmers were as- 
sociated in the Eagle Works, of which P. W. Gates was president, and 



84 

later they established the Fraser and Chalmers Company, whose great 
shops were in Chicago as well as in Erith, near London, England, and 
whose machinery has found its way into mills and camps in every civil- 
ized land. Their sons, respectively, Xorman D. Fraser and William J. 
Chalmers, sustain well their forbears' reputations. ^Yhen Chicago was 
the world's great lumber market, John Oliver, John Sheriff, and John 
McLaren were among the leaders in that line. John Alston was at the 
head of the paint house of his name. Andrew \\'allace was the success- 
ful manager here of J. H. Bass, manufacturer and banker, of Fort 
Wayne, Ind. William Stewart, wholesale grocer, of the firm of Stewart 
and Aldricli, was the father of Graeme Stewart, of wdiom mention is 
elsewhere made. The extensive ship-yards and dry-dock of Thomas E. 
and Brice A. ]\Iiller, brothers, on the North Branch, were patronized 
by vessel men of the Great Lakes from Buffalo and Duluth to Chicago. 
William McCredie, whose home was in Hinsdale, Du Page County, was 
for many vears an official of the Burlington Bailroad. John Crighton, 
a member of the Board of Trade, occupied a leading place as Presby- 
terian elder and business man. Sjdvester Lynd sixty years ago was a 
prominent capitalist. George MacPherson was a pharmacist of high 
standing, a thorough and accomplished Gaelic scholar and one of the 
founders, and long an elder, of the Scotch Presbyterian Church. Hugh 
Templeton, a baker, well known, was one of the founders and an elder 
of the Jefferson Park Presbyterian Church. 

The Scot in Illinois, as elsewhere, in the United States, entertains 
a sentiment for, and maintains a relationship to, his adopted country 
akin to the homeland, which, perhaps, cannot be more aptly described 
than by likening the former to the faithful husband and the latter to 
the affectionate son. He holds to the Scriptural injunction of leaving 
the parent, howsoever devoted, and cleaving to the wife. Hence, he 
becomes the patriotic naturalized American citizen, whose contribution 
to all that is best, in the body politic is considerable, conscientious, and 
continuing. He sees to it that his children go and do likewise. He has 
never been known to pervert his nativity, nor to employ it, to obtain 
political position before the electorate. He has given America its most 
popular out-of-door pastime o;olf. In his anniversary celebrations he 
always links the toast of ''The Land We Left" with tliat of "The Land 
We Live In." His countrymen are well aware that the "cottage where 
our Eoblne Burns was born" is the shrine to which more American pil- 
grims annually travel, and is more popular, than even the home of the 
"divine William" at Stratford-on-Avon. He becomes and remains an 
American through and through. 

The historical and biographical data herein given are necessarily 
incomplete. The object of the writer has been only to suggest somewhat 
of the field to be covered, and to intimate the sources from which the 
information expressed and implied have been obtained, together with 
the immediate and indirect influences of those who are named upon the 
creation and development of our Prairie Commonwealth. To the his- 
torian of the future miist be committed the task" — which here has been 
in the nature of a labor of love — of preparing a fuller, more compre- 
hensive, accurate, and satisfactory chronicle of the Scot and his descend- 



85 

ants in Illinois. It is hoped that in this direction a beginning has been 
made. This has become possible by the courtesy of the Illinois State 
Historical Society, which already has accomplished so much in the pre- 
servation in permanent form of our State records, without which these 
annals would soon forever be lost to coming generations. Sincere thanks 
are also acknowledged to the Society's capable Secretary, Mrs. Jessie 
Palmer AVeber, for kindly cooperation. 

Note. — It is frankly admitted that, in tlie foregoing paper, there has been 
made scarcely more than a, preliminary study of the subject, so far as known the 
first in Illinois. 

Many State and local, as well as National, authorities have been consulted. 
The writer acknowledges his indebtedness to these, and to all who have cooperated 
throughout the collection of the data, and whose suggestions have aided materially 
in their preparation. 

Particularly are thanks due, and hereby expressed, to these friends for cordial 
and valuable assistance : 

Hon. Ensley Moore, Jacksonville. 

J. Ritchie Patterson, Chicago Public Library. 

Miss Caroline Mcllvaine, Chicago Historical Society. 

President Charles M. Stuart, Garrett Biblical Institute, Evanston. 

President McMichael. Monmouth College, Monmouth. 

Hon. Millard R. Powers, LaGrange (formerly of McDonough County). 

Robert Collyer Fergus, Chicago. 

E. E. Gore, LaGrange (formerly of Carlinville). 

A. M. Langwill, LaGrange. 

William J. Thompson, Chicago (formerly of Randolph County). 

James G. Wolcott, Assessor Lyons Township, Cook County. 

Mrs. Geo. M. Vial and family, LaGrange. 

Charles Paterson, President Paterson Institute. LaGrange. 



86 



CLARK E. CARR. LATE HONORARY PRESIDENT OF THE 

ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. A TRIBUTE 

BY GEORGE A. LAWRENCE. 



"I was born in a beautiful valley of Western Xew York, more 
beautiful to me than any other I have ever seen." Such are the opening 
words of ''The Illini." The Day and Generation of its author was spent, 
and his full career terminated in Illinois. 

Clark Ezran Carr, of Galesburg, Illinois, Honorary President of the 
Illinois State Historical Society, and its honored and efficient President 
from 1909 to 1913, after a lingering illness, due to the infirmities of age, 
■ peacefully passed away on the evening of February 28, 1919. 

His death calls for appropriate action by this Society, which he had 
so long, so well and so ably served. Not only by reason of that service, 
however, but by reason of the likewise substantial fact, that in his death 
the Stat-e of Illinois has lost one of its most distinguished citizens, who 
for more than sixty years has been intimately associated with its progress 
and prosperity along many lines. 

It has been given to but few men in the history of the State to have 
lived a career, embracing so many avenues of activit}^ in all of which he 
was especially prominent, efficient and successful. 

An epitome of his life, necessarily briefly stated, will furnish a faint 
idea of the scope of his activities. 

Clark E. Carr was born at Boston Corners, Erie County, X. Y., on 
May 20, 1836, and had he lived until today would have been eighty- 
three years of age. He was the son of Clark Merwin Carr and Delia 
Ann (Torrey) Carr. His mother died when he was but three years of 
age and when he was five years old his father married Fannie LeYaw, 
who became a devoted and affectionate mother to him and his brothers. 

The family came West around the lakes in March, 1850, landing in 
Chicago. Here teams were purchased and they made their journey in 
prairie schooners to Henry County, Illinois, locating on a farm near 
Cambridge. In t)ie autumn of 3 851 they moved to Galesburg, where 
he maintained his residence from that time until his death. 

Colonel Carr's paternal ancestry reaches back to Caleb Carr, former 
Colonial Governor of Ehode Island, and to Rev. John Clark, who was 
driven out of the Massachusetts Colony for preaching the doctrines of 
the Baptist Church. Like Eoger Williams, John Clark went to Rhode 
Island (then a wilderness) and afterwards became its Governor. His 
great-grandmother was a Miss Clark, descended from Governor John 
Clark, and "Clark" has been the Christian name of his grand father, 
his father, of himself, and of the son who died just upon reaching his 
maturity. 




J^gJ^/<^L>J^ ^ 



at't.<y*y^ 



^^^^^,^ /f(^^. 



87 

His father, Clark M. Carr, was a man of unusual ability, interested 
in public affairs and with high ideals for his family. He provided early, 
educational advantages for them, of the better sort, and the son attended 
the District School of the village until he was eleven years of age. He 
then went to Springfield Academy, Erie County, N. Y., where he re- 
mained two years. At fourteen he arrived at Galesburg; entered Knox 
Academy and afterwards the Collegiate Department of Knox College, 
leaving at the end of his Sophomore Year, to commence the study of 
law. After a year at the Poughkeepsie New York Law School, he sul)- 
sequently entered the Albany Law School, where he graduated in 1857, 
with the degree of LL. B. Eeturning to Galesburg, he entered into the 
acti\e practice of law, which was interrupted after a few years, by his 
advent into active politics, and official life. 

Colonel Can- came upon the field of action at a time when great 
movements were taking shape, regarding both personal and national 
destiny. Hardly more than a lad, he took part in the Fremont Cam- 
paign of 185G; became vitally interested in and closely followed the 
Lincoln-Douglas Debates. While an admirer of Douglas, he became the 
ardent champion and follower of Lincoln, and took an active part in the 
Presidential CamiJaign of 1860, in lijs behalf. 

He had great gifts as a public speaker and had sedulously cultivated 
them under great teachers at the Albany Law School. 

At the beginning of the war, he was appointed on the staff of 
Governor Yates, with the rank of Colonel, and throughout the war was 
engaged in the organization of regiments; in visiting the army to ascer- 
tain and improve its condition; and in bringing the sick and wounded 
home. 

In 1863, he spoke at a Mass Meeting in Chicago, held for the pur- 
pose of sustaining Lincoln in the issuance of the Emancipation Procla- 
mation, and his great speech from the Court House steps in Chicago at 
that time gave him a wide reputation as a finished and convincing orator. 

His four brothers all filled important positions in the Army of the 
Eepublic. The splendid career of Gen. Eugene A. Carr is knoM-n to 
everyone. Byron 0. Carr attained the rank of General in the Volunteer 
Army. Ecv. H. M. Carr, D.D., served throughout the war Avith the 
rank of Chaplain, while the younger brother, George P. Carr, arose to 
the rank of Captain. 

Colonel Carr was a delegate to the Eepublican l^ational Convention 
at Baltimore, in 1864, and Avas a delegate at large in 1884, to the 
Xational Convention, which nominated Blaine and Logan ; and it may 
be said in passing that he attended every Xational Convention of the 
Eepublican Party for more than fifty years. 

In 1861, President Lincoln appointed him Postmaster at Gales- 
burg, Illinois, a position which he filled with rare ability until 1885. 

In 1889, he was appointed by President Harrisoii, Minister Eesi- 
dent and Counsel General to Denmark, and while a Conference of 
Counsel Generals (of which he was a member) was in session at Paris, 
he received notice of his promotion, to the rank of Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary and Envoy Extraordinary, in which position he represented our 
country in that brilliant Court for four years. 



88 

I tliink it may well be said that uo member of the Dii^lomatic Corps 
of tlie United States was ever more cordially received and intimately 
treated by the Court, to which he was delegated, than was Colonel Carr. 
lie had all the graces of the polished gentleman and at the same time 
the frank comraderie so natural to him that it admitted him to the 
closest relationship of friendship, while never giving offense. 

Xegotiations for the acquisition of the Danish West India Islands 
were begun while he held the position of Embassador, and could liave 
been successfully comijleted at that time, but public sentiment in 
America was not yet ripe for their taking over, wdiich has since been 
accomplished. 

His championship of maize, and the introduction of American 
meats into Europe, led to his election as President of the American 
maize propaganda, and in further recognition of this work, in 1900 he 
was appointed to organize the famous corn kitchen at the Paris Expo- 
sition, the features and success of which the world is familiar with. 

Perhaps one of the crowning services of his life was rendered as 
Commissioner of the State of Illinois, for the Soldiers Xational Ceme- 
tery at Gettysburg, to ^\iiich he was appointed in 1863, and he was the 
last survivor of that distinguished body of men. He sat upon the plat- 
form at its dedication, verv close to President Lincoln, and drank in 
every word of the Gettysburg Address. He was among the very first to 
aj)preciate that greatest speech that ever fell from human lips; he did 
not need to see it in print, for it was graven upon his memory. It 
became a passion with him, and perhaps more to him than to any other 
man, we are indebted to the universal knowledge and appreciation of it 
the world possesses today. The little book, "Lincoln at Gettysburg," 
published in 1906, contains nraterial of world wide interest, to be found 
nowhere else. 

Other public posts of responsibility and trust, undertaken by this 
man, were many; Illinois Commissioner for the Omaha Exposition in 
1898; Trustee and Member of the Executive Committee of Knox Col- 
lege, since 1881; Director of the Galesburg Public Library Association 
from 1898 until his death; President of the Knox County Historical 
Society; President of the Illinois State Historical Society from 1909 
to 1913; and Honorary President of the Illinois State Historical Society 
at the time of his death. 

He had spoken for the Republican Party in nearly every northern 
state in every Eepubliean Xational Campaign since 18-56. 

You wall recall the custom of Henry C. Bowen, Editor of the "Xew 
York Independent"' to celebrate Independence Day at his beautiful home 
at Woodstock, Conn. Year after year were invited the most distin- 
guished orators of the country to take part on the program there held, 
which became of national importance. 

On the Fourth of July, 1887. in response to an invitation to take 
part in the exercises, Colonel Carr delivered his great address on "The 
Life and Character of John A. Logan," which published in full in the 
*'Xew York Independent" gave him a national reputation as an orator 
and historian of the first rank. 



89 

It will be interesting to note, as also showing a side light upon his 
ability, that in the published account in the ""Independent" of date July 
7, 1887, the program shows that the '"Battle Hymn of the Republic" 
was sung bv the \ast audience there assendjled, led b\' Colonel Chirk E. 
Carr. 

The closing words of this great oration may well be quoted here, as 
they concern another great son of Illinois, of whom we are justly ]3i-oud : 

"From time immemorial, men have vied with each other in com- 
memorating the achievements of the brave. Statues and towers and 
arches, and great edifices, wonders of art, have been erected to their 
memory. The sublime epic of Homer, recounting their deeds of valor, 
is older than any inonument of granite, of brass, or of marble, and will 
be read when those that are now being builded shall have crumbled to 
dust. The eloquence of Pericles and Lincoln^ in honor of brave men, 
will go forever ringing down the ages; but no other man ever lightened 
llie burdens, supported the tottering limbs, and assuaged the griefs of 
so many worn and weary and wounded patriot heroes as did John A. 
Logan." 

Colonel Carr will ever be connected with the prosperity of Gales- 
burg, Illinois, his home, through his efforts to induce the Santa Fe 
Eailroad to build its Chicago line through Galesburg, instead of follow- 
ing a line, practically decided upon, about twelve miles south of that 
cit}'. Through the efforts of citizens, headed by Colonel Carr, the com- 
pany was induced to prospect a line through Galesburg, which was 
finally adopted, under conditions involving personal subscription and 
personal financial responsibility, which he, in connection with other 
citizens of Galesburg, gladlv and successfully met. The result was, as 
prophesied by him, in his letter to President Strong of the Santa Fe 
System: "They would find a town of about fifteen-thousand people, 
which with the added impulse the coming of the Santa Fe would give 
it, would make certain a town of twenty-five-thousand people," which 
has been more than justified. 

The foregoing is but a part of the civic and political activities of 
Colonel Carr and, briefiy stated, as they are known to all. 

Colonel Carr was married on December 31. 1873, to Grace Mills, 
only daughter of the Hon. Henry A. Mills, of Mount Carroll, Illinois. 
One daughter, the wife of Brig. Gen. William P. Jackson, now in 
France, one grand-daughter Margaret Jackson, and his widow survive 
him. An only son, Clark Mills Carr. born on March 16, 1878, served 
with credit during the War with Spain, in the 9th Illinois Regiment In- 
fantry, He later met an accidental death bv drowning in the Xorth- 
West. 

In his public career, before mentioned, reference might be made 
to his candidacy in the 70's for the nomination to Congress. In 1880 he 
was candidate for the Republican nomination for Governor, and again 
in 1888, having a strong following in both Conventions. 

In 1887 he was candidate for the caucus nomination, of his party, 
for the United States Senate and had the unanimous and hearty support 
of his own coimty and senatorial district. While failing in achieving 



90 

these honorable ambitions, reverses never embittered Colonel Can', nor 
caused him to swerve in his party allegiance, but it did give him an inti- 
mate relation with the politics of his State and a wide acquaintance with 
its men of public affairs. His whole experience and later promise 
brought him in contact with the gi'eat men of the State and of the Na- 
tion; and no man in Illinois had a more comprehensive knowledge of 
the State's political history, or could treat of its men and measures with 
greater charm. 

A natural orator, he was at the same time an accomplished elocu- 
tionist, and could not only repeat in words the great speeches of men 
and the stirring lines of actors, but could accurately reproduce them in 
tone and expression. The thorough knowledge of men and history of 
his time, which he possessed, was a very valuable asset in the work of 
his closing years, along literary lines, which I now approach. 

His retirement from public life did not mean for him a life of case 
and pleasure. Without communicating his ambitions to his friends, at 
the outset, he began putting into permanent literary form his recollec- 
tions and reminiscences. His first book, "The Illini," (the manuscript 
prepared in his own handwriting) was practically finished before it was 
submitted for criticism or suggestion, to even his closest friends. It 
treated in the pleasant form of fiction, of the development of Illinois, 
and the stirring events that preceded the Rebellion. Its dominant 
character had been a member of the Galesburg Colony in the early days 
of the Underground Railroad, and many of the people prominent in the 
development and growth of the State were interwoven in this most 
pleasing romance, which achieved a distinguished literary success and 
has passed through 15 editions, still finding ready sale. 

Following this was the "Life of Stephen A. Douglas," which is 
today the authoritative life of that great man, and commends itself to 
every impartial historian. 

In "My Day and Generation" are preserved very many interesting 
sketches of men found nowhere else, of permanent value to his "day- 
and generation" and to succeeding generations, all drawn from his 
prolific memory and embellished by his felicitous expression. 

"Lincoln at Gettysburg" I have already referred to, as perhaps 
having accomplished as much as any other one thing the re-awakening 
and quickening of interest in the life of that great statesman, while the 
history of the coming of the Atchison & Santa Fe Railroad and of the 
Postal Railway Service, though of minor and to some extent local im- 
portance, are still of great historical value. 

His activities in promoting the memory of Lincoln and deepening 
the public's appreciation of him, were noteworthy. He was especially 
interested in the celebration of the anniversaries of the Lincoln-Douglas 
Debates throughout Illinois, at the various points at which they were 
held, and succeeded in assembling the great orators and statesmen of 
the country to give prominence to such celebrations. Xotably at the 
celebration under the auspices of Knox College at Galesburg. Illinois, it 
was his personal influence that procured Chauncey M. Depew, ex-Goyer- 
nor Palmer and Mr. Robert T. Lincoln, as speakers upon that occasion. 



91 

It is impossible, in the brief time j^ermitted here, to do justice ade- 
quately to the public life of this man; for he was a man. He played a 
man's part in the discussion of the grave questions preceding the war; 
a man's part when the Union was in danger, and was the last of that 
score of Immortals, who have dignified and glorified the name of Illi- 
nois, chief among whom was Abraham Lincoln ! It was a brilliant 
galaxy of men, who were his co-workers and compatriots : Stephen A. 
Douglas, Orville H. Browning, John Wentworth, Jonathan Blanchard, 
Lyman Trumbull, David Davis, John A. Logan, John W. Bunn, Richard 
J. Oglesby, Newton Bateman, Norman B. Judd, John M. Palmer, 
Leonard Swett, Joseph Medill, Shelby M. Cullom, Richard Yates, and 
Ulysses S. Grant! Of these names, (and there are others) only the one 
remains; the friend of Lincoln and the intimate associate of them all — 
John W. Bunn, "The grand old man" of Springfield, (and may I say) 
the first citizen of Illinois ! 

I have attempted to give a brief outline only, of the life and accom- 
plished service of Colonel Carr, as the public knew him and as impartial 
history will measure and place him. I feel that this memorial would be 
incomplete to all of us here present, who personally knew and loved 
him, if I did not make special reference to him as a friend and co-worker 
and to the man as he was known and understood by those, who were in 
close relationship to him. 

I have spoken of his oratorical and literary ability, but his greatest 
charm lay in the fact that he made such constant use of them in every 
day life, that he shed abont him and upon all who came in contact with 
him real enlightenment, and under the wizardry of his personal charm, 
palest prose became poetry; and mere music, a swelling s3^mphony. 

His tastes were all of the uplifting order. He loved music, art, 
literature, in all its forms; whether in the printed page or when spoken 
in words. He knew intimately much of the world's best literature. His 
wonderful gift of memory enabled him to convey it to his friends and 
listeners, with all the freshness and fire of the original; a memory 
remarkable in its capacity and scope that would permit him to recite 
entire acts from Shakespeare with the impressiveness of a Booth or 
an Irving; that could quote the "Elegy in a Country Churchyard" 
throughout, without hesitation; that treasured np the immortal words 
of statesmen, orators and poets of all the ages, and could reproduce them 
to our edification and delight. 

Especially was he fond of sacred music, and the old hymns, all of 
which he knew by heart. He once said "There is more power and 
persuasion in 'Coronation' and in 'The Portuguese Hymn' tlian in the 
assembled volumes of the most brilliant skeptics combined !" 

His library was a working library, and within its walls he was at 
his best. It was a veritable "sanctum sanctorum" and there he spent his 
declining years. Wide-awake to the present; interested in the progress 
of human events the world over; loyal, patriotic, apprehensive of his 
country's danger in these days of stress, but resigned to the fact that his 
activities were of the past. It was there he sought and invited the com- 
panionship of those he loved. 



92 

His home was ever of the most hospitable sort. He was a host 
beyond compare. At his home, the most distinguished men and women 
of the day have gathered. On one occasion the President of the United 
States and his entire cabinet, with one exception, were guests beneath 
his hospitable roof. 

He was the very soul of kindness, and beneath at times a brusque 
exterior, there beat a warm, sympathetic heart. I recall not so many 
years ago, when a faithful man-servant was stricken with small-pox, and 
removed to the pest-house, the close attention that he gave to see that 
everything possible was done for him. Dnmb animals loved him, and for 
3'ears a large deer-hound was his constant companion. Were he out of 
the cit}^, the faithful dog was inconsolable. 

He was not a rich man in the sense of dollars. He had not given 
himself to large acquisitions, but he had achieved through his long life 
a remarkable culture, that while personal to himself, was of benefit to 
others in that his kindly nature placed it freely at their disposal and 
command. 

He was a notable figure in any assembly. Did he spend the evening 
at the social club his chair was sure to be surrounded by interested 
listeners, held there by the charm of his discourse and the overflow of 
his well filled mind. Emphatically of this generation, in that he was 
alive to all of its necessities, opportunities, and requirements, yet it can 
be as truly said of him that he was a rare representative of the "old 
school gentleman." Choleric, if you please, on occasion, yet ever digni- 
fied, courtly and benign, his memory will be cherished in Hlinois as one 
of the "Men," the meaning of the word implied, and, the verdict of 
Illinois, in passing upon his enrollment in that List of Honor, will be 
"He has well served his 'Day and Generation.' " 



93 



THE WAR WORK OF THE WOMEN OF ILLINOIS. 



[Mks. Joseph T. Bowex, Member of the Illinois State Council of Defense, 
and Chairman of Women's Activities for "War Work.] 

At the begiimmg of the war, the Council of Xational Defense in 
Washington appointed a Woman's Committee to have charge of women's 
war work throughout the country. In every state in the Union a tem- 
porary chairman was appointed who was asked to call together a meeting 
of all the women's organizations in the State and to elect their own 
officers. 

In Ma}', 1917, the heads of all the women's organizations in Illinois, 
gathered together, elected their officers and formed the Woman's Com- 
mittee of the Council of Xational Defense, Illinois Division; I was 
elected chairman. At the same time the Governor did me the hoJior 
to appoint me on the State Coimcil of Defense and I was made chairman 
of women's activities throughout the State. The two organizations were 
thus combined in one under one set of officers but always kept their two 
names, which was found to be of great value on occasions. For example, 
when the legal advisor of the State Council of Defense gave as his opinion 
that aU the mone}' raised by the State Council's various committees, 
should be put into the hands of the treasurer of the State Council and 
requisitioned out only hy ilie State Council, it was a great comfort to 
be able to say that our money was raised under the name of the Woman's 
Committee, Illinois Division. 

We were told in the beginning, to prepare for a long war and be- 
lieving that organization was more important than anA-thing else, we 
built a very solid foundation. From Cairo to Kockford, from Quincy to 
Paris every county, city, town and township in Illinois added its unit, 
one by one, to make up the most complete organization of women that 
Illinois has ever attained. An organization including women of all 
classes, creeds and nationalities united in one democratic force, working 
under one standard ■■'TTw ilie TTar." We have in the State 2,136 local 
units. The work of the committee was initiated as various needs pre- 
sented themselves, until finally there were 18 full departments of the 
committee whose work was directed by 7, TOO chairmen. The active 
workers in these various departments, numbered 3"26,323. The com- 
mittee was housed at 60 East Madison Street, Chicago in a large vacant 
store donated by Burley & Company but later moved into the State 
Council of Defense building at 120 West Adams Street where it occupied 
an entire floor with several rooms on other floors. The State Council 
gave this space with telephone, heat and light, rent free and, in addition, 
furnished the services of two stenographers, postage and office supplies 
amounting to abotit $1,000 a month. 

After the armistice was signed tlie committee gave tip its rooms 
in the State Council of Defense Building and moved into offices in the 
Fine Arts Building which will be kept open until October 1. 1919. 



94 

When the war began we felt that one of the most important things 
to be accomplished was to take stock and find out how many women 
could be depended upon to render war service ; we therefore asked women 
to register ; First — :that we might know how many there were who could 
take the places of men as post women, taxi cab drivers, chauffeurs, census 
takers, elevator women, gas inspectors, etc. Second — that we could clas- 
sify those who registered in order to call upon them for service. The 
committee registered for war work 692,229 women. The registration 
cards (which were the same all over the United States but which were 
prepared by Illinois) were kept in every city and town where registration 
was taken and have been of great value in furnishing workers for gov- 
ernmental drives, for the exemption boards, for nurses in the recent 
influenza epidemic and for many other purposes. In Chicago alone, the 
registration was very small, compared with the State, comprising only 
150,000 women, yet out of this 150,000 women, whose cards Were kept 
in our office, 7,052 lists of women and the names of 17,000 individual 
workers were given to various war associations asking for volunteers. 
In Chicago, 300 regular workers were provided for the exemption boards 
and over 300 nurses were at one time furnished the Eed Cross, saving 
the situation and bringing help to the influenza victims, in one of the 
recent epidemics. 

In Chicago, the registration cards were kept in the department 
known as the "Yolunteer Placement and Filing Department" and as 
many as 18,000 calls a month were sent out by this department. The 
women who registered offered every type of service, from the stenographer 
who worked all day and offered to give every evening to help win the 
war, or the little cripple confined to her bed who, because she had trained 
a canary bird, felt that she could train carrier pigeons for the United 
States Army or the woman who registered that she "Was willing but 
nervous and could pray if necessary" to the woman of wealth who offered 
her machine, her house and all her employees for the use of wounded 
soldiers. The registration in Illinois would undoubtedly have been 
larger if the women had received more education on the subject but, 
although there were 10,000 registrars in Chicago alone, German propa- 
ganda hindered registration as there were repeated stories among the 
foreign born to the effect that if a woman registered she would have to 
leave her family and go abroad. For this reason the registration in 
Chicago was not as large as it should have been, yet the State registered 
a larger number of women than any other state in the Union except one. 

The Finance Department raised most of its money in a democratic 
way. Every woman who registered was asked to contribute 10 cents if 
she felt she could afford it and $73,000 was raised in this way. Half 
of this amount was sent to the State Treasurer and the other half was 
kept by the city or town where the registration was taken. In addition, 
nearly $100,000 was raised by subscription or in business ventures. At 
one time, when the War Department was urging the use of potatoes in- 
stead of bread, the Finance Department put upon the streets of Chicago 
and in some of the towms throughout the State, packages of potato 
chips which they called "Liberty Chips" and these chips, selling for 5 
cents a package, in Chicago alone netted $7,000 in three days. At an- 



95 

othci; time a moving picture called ^'Belgimii, the Kingdom of Grief'"' 
was shown at the Auditorimn. There were French nights, English 
nights, and Belgian nights and the net proceeds of tlie performance, for 
one week, was $11,000. In addition, the committee raised $485,000 
by Tag Days for various war and other charities and sold $3,250,000 
worth of Liberty Bonds. The expenditures to date have been $97,793.98. 

The Speakers Department, numbering 300 women and 265 men, 
has sent its speakers to all parts of the State. They have attended 2,408 
meetings and have reached 600,509 people, carrying the war message as 
an off-set to German propaganda, to even the most remote hamlets in 
the State. Of course, some of the requests for speakers were absurd; 
one club wrote that they wanted "an atrocity sent them who would tell 
war stories set to music," but on the whole, the demand for information 
was genuine and was sorely needed. At one meeting, whose subject was 
^'Thrift and War Saving Stamps," the opinion seemed to prevail that 
these stamps were something like the Eed Cross Tuberculosis Stamps 
and were to be attached to the envelope of every letter. At another 
meeting where the subject of "Liberty Bonds" was being discussed, a 
foreign woman arose and said she did not think it was right for the 
Government to put out these bonds, they were the kind her old man 
bought when he wanted to get out of jail and she did not think it was 
right for the Government to make it any easier for him. This depart- 
ment will continue its work as the Speakers Committee of the Com- 
munity Councils of Illinois. 

At the beginning of the war we found that large numbers of women, 
most of them over 40 years old, whose husbands or sons had gone to the 
war, came to us for employment which was necessary in order that they 
might live. Some of the officers of the committee were so besieged with 
applicants, that it was found necessary to open an Employment Depart- 
ment. About twenty volunteers, women of experience, were put to work 
interviewing the applicants and it was a touching sight to see, in the 
waiting room of this department, as many as seventy-five women at a 
time, well dressed and with gray hair, all waiting for an opportunity to 
get some kind of employment. At first, when they were told to go to the 
free employment bureau of the State or the Government, they would 
say that they could not as it was too humiliating but that they did not 
mind coming to a war organization to ask for help in this crisis of their 
lives. We have registered 9,082 such women and have found positions 
for 2,205. One of the first difficulties encountered in placing them was 
that they had had no training; they all wanted positions of responsi- 
bility and they all felt they were capable of filling them although they 
had never had any previous experience. One woman wanted to be put 
in charge of the keys of an association and dozens of women asked for 
the position of office manager as they seemed to feel that this was an 
honorable position which did not require much skill. Many of them 
wanted to look after children and felt- that they knew all about them, 
their reason being no better than that of the Irishwoman who had borne 
ten and lost nine. The majority asked for a position as housekeeper be- 
cause, having kept their own home they seemed to feel that in this 
matter they would be experienced. 



96 

We found it was necessary to establish training courses in -order 
that these women might secure sucli instruction as would enable them to 
take clerical and other positions. Training courses were therefore estab- 
lished in Go cities of the State and 90 courses were offered in Chicago. 
These courses included TelegraphV;, Filing, Indexing, Stenograpliy, Home 
Xursing, Economics, Wireless, Motor Driving, Engineering, Dramatics, 
Story Telling, and special courses in the Public Evening Schools. When- 
ever there was a sufficient demand for a certain course of instruction 
a way was found to secure teachers and form a class in that particular 
study. Even after the armistice was signed, women and soldiers, who 
had had experience in telegraphy and clerical courses, still offered to 
give their evenings in order that they might train those Avho desired 
instruction. This department has paid a teacher in the Favill School 
for the Handicapped and given her $1,500 worth of equipment. It also 
gave $5,000 for the Bureau of Eeturning Soldiers and Sailors. This 
Employment Bureau met with such success that early in the w^ar it was 
taken over by the United States Government who paid all of its expenses 
but allowed the entire direction of it to be under the Woman's Com- 
mittee, Council of National Defense and all its volunteers to come from 
that body. 

In connection with this department it was found necessary to estab- 
lish a Mending Shop for very old women, some of them over 70 years 
of age who were too old to take a regular position. This shop has been 
very successful, is nearly self-supporting and gives steady work to about 
thirty women. Its headquarters are in the Venetian Building and it has 
now been placed under the management and is being supported by one 
of the large clubs of Chicago. 

The State Council of Defense has done a magnificent piece of work 
all over the State but its activities have largely had to do with questions 
concerning Military Matters, Finance, Crops, Labor, Business, etc., while 
Ihe Woman's Committee has had more to do with women and children 
and with the practical details of the home; it has dealt mainly with 
human beings. 

The Child Welfare Department financed and managed by the Eliza- 
beth McCormick Memorial Fund has weighed and measured 325,000 
children and has instructed the parents of these children as to their 
proper care. It has 1,000 child welfare chairmen throughout the State 
and has put out 1,750,000 pieces of literature and 227,000 windows 
cards, posters, buttons, etc. 

This department has succeeded in stirring up the State to the neces- 
sity of conserving its children, even the school boys became interested in 
the subject; one boy wrote a composition in which he said, "Now that 
we are at war, it is everybody's business to have a baby and to save it." 

This department has also conducted the "Back to the School" drive 
Avhich was ordered by the President of the United States and it is mak- 
ing its work permanent by the establishment of the child "welfare centers, 
community nurses, increased medical inspection in the public schools and 
the education of mothers in the care of children. 

Diiring the war the government called upon the women of the 
country to practice conservation and our Conservation Department has 



97 

given throughout the State, in ahnost every town and city, demonstra- 
tions concerning substitutes for sugar and flour, the re-making of clothes 
and the necessity for the elimination of waste. It has been very difficult 
to get any figures from down-State and it would be impossible, in a short 
report of this kind, to give an account of the various cities Avhere stores 
have been taken, demonstrations given, canning done, and other efforts 
made to conserve food for ourselves and our allies. In Chicago alone, 
205,000 women were reached by these demonstrations, which were held 
in vacant shops, department stores, settlements and even on motor vans 
which were turned into portable kitchens. One store at 28 ISTorth Wa- 
bash Avenue, was fitted up as a kitchen, demonstrations were held here 
every day and the articles cooked, sold for a moderate amount. This 
store alone, in six months, was visited by 60,000 people. The vice-chair- 
man of this department was the head of the States Eelation Service in 
Chicago and had her office with the Illinois Food Administration De- 
partment so that when an order was received by this department, from 
the Government, it was at once transmitted to this vice-chairman who 
gave it out to the city and the State. 

The Eecreation Department tried to reach the girls of the State by 
forming them into Girls Patriotic Leagues. Twelve thousand members 
were thus enrolled; these girls taking a pledge which stated that they 
promised to do better than they had ever done before, the particular 
thing which they were then doing. Each girl wore a button and in differ- 
ent parts of the city, many girls were drilling as they wanted the physi- 
cal exercise. Once a month, or oftener, these Patriotic Leagues held 
meetings where they had some inspiring speakers and, occasionally, 
3,000 or 4,000 of them gathered together in the big Auditorium of the 
Municipal Pier. This department was taken over by the War Camp 
Community Service of the United States Government. 

The Social Hygiene Department, just taken over by the State of 
Illinois, whose chairman has been made supervisor of Health Instruction 
for Women of Illinois, has had a corps of over 50 phy^sicians who have 
given instruction to girls and women, in shops and factories, and have 
shown moving pictures called "How Life Begins" and "The End of the 
Eoad," etc., which have attracted large audiences to the State Council 
of Defense Building. Fifty-four thousand women and girls have been 
reached in Chicago by this department and these lectures are being 
booked and the films shown in various parts of the State. 

Tlie Food Production Department immensely stimulated the raising 
of crops throughout the State. It issued primers for the school children 
giving instructions "When and Hoav to Plant Cold Frames," "When to 
Plant in the Open," "How to Eaise Vegetables," etc. It found, upon 
investigation, that only one out of every four farmers in Illinois, raised 
their own vegetables and an appeal was made to the farmers' wives to 
start their own gardens and "take their families off the market." This 
committee had 110 school gardens and 90,000 war gardens manned by 
children reported to it. 

Appreciating the fact that if the war continued, Avomen must do 
the work of men upon the farm and that they must have some training, 

— 7 H S 



98 

a farm of 250 acres at Libertyville, Illinois, was loaned us, rent free, 
where women were trained for agricultural and dairy ])ursuits. This 
farm had eighteen cows, hogs, sheep, chickens, etc. The girls all lived 
in a large new cow stable where the stalls were made into bedrooms, 
76 girls were made into farmers; they drove a tractor, cultivated the 
land, planted the crops, gathered them in, made and sold butter and 
cheese and did all the work of a farm. One thousand applications were 
received from girls who were interested and 40,000 people were addressed 
on the subject of agricultural pursuits. The equipment of this farm, in- 
cluding its stock, has been given to Blackburn College, Carlinville, Illi- 
nois, where an agricultural course for girls is to be opened. 

Knowing that a "Singing ISTation is a Winning Nation," we have 
tried to arouse patriotism by Community Sings and 265 Liberty Choruses 
were organized through the State and 81,000 song books have been 
distributed. On Thanksgiving Day, 1918, 125 Community sings were 
given in the State and at stated intervals the Community Choruses of 
Chicago, including a Children's Chorus of 1,000 children, met in the 
Assembly Hall of the Municipal Pier and gave most stirring concerts. 
This Department has been taken over by the Federation of ^lusical Clubs. 

The Women and Children in Industry Department has bettered the 
condition of women and children in industry, throughout the State. It 
published a report on Standards for Women's Work. It investigated 
munition factories and made certain recommendations concerning women. 
It has had an investigator throughout the State, looking after the in- 
terests of school children. It has made investigations where women 
were employed by the Government on woolen underwear. It persuaded 
one of the large railroads in Chicago not to employ women for 
handling heavy freight. It has reported on all violations of the 
Child Labor Law and has had an exliilDit on women in war time. The 
woman's division of this department has been taken over bv the Woman's 
Trade I'nion League and the children's division bv the Elizabeth Mc- 
Cormick Memorial Fund. 

The War Information Department has supplied public school prin- 
cipals and others throughout the State, with war information. At one 
time, within a period of three weeks, it sent 143,000 pamphlets to its 
500 war information chairmen. It has supplied the public schools of 
Chicago with over 10,000 pamphlets ; has stimulated the principals of 
these schools to have the children write essays upon certain subjects 
connected with the war and which in many instances, especially in for- 
eign neighborhoods, have done much to bring parents to the realization 
of the meaning of the war. This department has also supplied speakers 
and others connected Avith the Woman's Committee, with information 
concerning war work for women not only in this country but abroad. It 
has published several pamphlets on the subject and has sent out thousands 
of letters and circulars containing valuable information. This depart- 
ment will be continued as "The Information Committee of the Com- 
munity Councils of Illinois." 

The Publicity Department has not only managed the publicity for 
the Woman's Committee, getting articles in the paper every day, but 
it has sent throughout the State every week, a "Xews Letter" and, in 



99 

addition, lias published two camouflage recipe books, has awarded prizes 
for sugarless puddings and candy and at one time, with the Conservation 
Department, took a vacant store, made and sold 4,000 pounds of sugar- 
less candy. It has also conducted a "Do Without Club" of over 2,000 
people. At one time it held a large meeting for the cooks of the city, 
at this meeting, patriotic speeches were made and an attempt made to 
impress upon the cooks the necessity of consen'ation. 

The Americanization Department, although organized late in the 
summer of 1918, has conducted three institutes for the foreign born; 
has had large meetings for different nationalities and has reached over 
50,000 people. This department will, in the future, be conducted by the 
Woman's City Club of Chicago, Federation of Clubs and other organi- 
zations. 

The Social Welfare Department has made connections between 
1,516 volunteer's and social agencies and it is estimated, has saved these 
agencies $100,000 which, if it had not been for the volunteers, they 
would have had to pay to their social workers. In addition, this depart- 
ment provided wool for the "Shut-Ins" in hospitals, insane asylums, old 
peoples homes and prjsons, where the inmates, for the first time, felt 
that they were doing something toward winning the war. One cripple 
who had been on his back for thirty j^ears, in the poor house, was almost 
made over when he found he could knit socks for the soldiers abroad. 
In the Old Ladies Home, one old woman who had been in the habit of 
knitting all day and unraveling at night what she had knitted, in order 
that she might knit it over again the next day, burst into tears when she 
was told that she could have all the wool she w^anted to knit into useful 
articles for the soldiers. This department has been taken over by the 
Central Council of Social Agencies. 

The Allied Belief Department raised for relief $788,130.68 and has 
sent to Europe 705,140 hospital supplies; 182,035 garments; 27,188 kits, 
and has adopted 8,844 fatherless children. 

I want to take this occasion to make recognition of all the help 
which has been given to the Woman's Committee, not only by firms, who 
have given us, rent free, stores and offices, who have done our printing 
for nothing or at reduced cost and who have in every way aided and 
encouraged us, but I also wish to thank the individuals who have given 
us generously of their time and money and I want to express to every 
one of the women who have helped the Woman's Committee, my thanks 
for their loyalty and their willingness to cooperate. 

The Woman's Coinmittee of the State Council of Defense and the 
Woman's Committee of the Council of National Defense, Illinois Divi- 
sion, will go out of business when peace is declared and proclaimed by 
the President of the United States or at least, as soon afterwards as it is 
possible to close up their affairs. However, the United States Govern- 
ment, through the Department of the Interior and the Department of 
Agriculture and the Field Division of the National Council of Defense, 
are asking all the State Councils of Defense and all the Women's Com- 
mittees throughout the country, to throw the strength of their organiza- 
tions into community councils. Organizations in every town and city 
or in every ward in the larger cities, composed of representatives of every 



100 

organization both men and women^ will come together, form a com- 
munity council and take up whatever work comes to their hand; it may 
be clean milk or it mav be clean streets but this centralizing of the 
organizations of a town will prevent duplication of effort, will be demo- 
cratic and will have a tendency to do away with the insidious propaganda 
which is spreading through Europe and which is even menacing our own 
country. 

The Community Councils of Illinois have already been organized 
with headquarters in Chicago and a temporary State coimnittee of 
fifteen people elected by representatives from all over the State. 

When we went into the war we saw in our mind's eye, the shell torn 
battlefields of France, the ruined villages, the desolate homes, the long 
dusty highways full of artillery wagons, guns, cannon, motors, ambu- 
lances and all the paraphernalia of war and that endless procession of 
khaki clad men who had crossed the seas to fight for the most righteous 
cause for which any nation ever fought. 

^N'early two years have passed since that time; two years full of 
momentous events and we know now, that those boys of ours with a 
smile on their lips and the spirit of a crusader in their hearts, went into 
the fight at the crucial moment and, by the sheer weight of their will t(5 
win, turned the tide and pushed back the foe. 

Most of these men, thank God, are coming back to us, but some of 
them sleep in France. All honor to them and to the brave and noble 
dead of our allies. ''They found their lives by losing them, they forgot 
themselves but they saved the world." 

Toward the men who are returning, we feel a deep sense of obliga- 
tion; they laid aside all the shams of life and dealt only with its 
realities. Thev learned all that sacrifice and suffering could teach : thev 
understand the real meaning of fellowship and these men have today a 
vision of better things, a vision of a happier home, a cleaner city, a 
better State, a greater Nation. Thev have been fisrhtin2r for democracy 
but we will never have a real democracy in this country, that democracy 
of which we caught just a glimpse during the war when we were brought 
together by a common danger and by a common s\Tapathy, until we 
once more continuously work together for the ffood of our community; 
until we learn to reverence, not the aristocracy of birth and wealth and 
position but only the aristocracy of service ; until we can assure to eyerj 
human being in our great Eepublic, equal opportunity for health, for 
education, for work, for decent living, for love, for happiness. 

These men will look to us to help them realize their vision. Shall 
we fail them? The Community Councils of Illinois offer a method for 
this democratic experiment. Let us try it. 



101 



ON THE AGRICULTL-PLAL DEX'ELOPMENT OF ILLINOIS 

SINCE THE CIVIL WAR. 



[Deas^ Eugexe Davestobt, College of Agriculture, University of Illinois.] 

There are four rather vrell-defined stages in the development of a 
country such as this. First come the explorers led on by the spirit of 
adventure, the missionaries interested in converting the primitive races, 
and the traders interested not in the country but in what they can make 
from the people in trade for their skins and furs. 

Following these come the home builders, moving out of older 
countries to better their conditions, looking not for trade nor indeed for 
profit but for a place where the family may live and by dint of hard 
work grow up into independent manhood and womanhood. It was this 
period which we had reached in Illinois at the opening of the Civil War. 

If the country is naturally poor in its resources it will stop about 
here, but if it is rich in its soil, kindly in its climate, and favorable as to 
its contour, the time is certain to arrive when the possession of its acres 
becomes a ruling passion with its inhabitants, and eve^^illing is sacri- 
ficed for getting land while yet it can be had. This was the passion that 
overtook our people immediately after the Teconstruction, and it charac- 
terized the activity in the Mississippi Valley during the last quarter of 
the last century as it has never characterized any other c-ountxy on earth. 
It was then that men and women and little children made almost a 
religion out of work, not for wort's sake as has been erroneously sup- 
posed, but in order to get land while yet it could be had. It was then 
that men sold improved farms farther east and came west to enlarge 
their holdings. It was then that land rather than money was the ruling 
passion of most people. 

Following this stage comes the period of finished agriculture when 
money rather than land is the object in farming, and when the best 
utilization of acres rather than their exploitation is the test of good 
farming. TVe are beginning to enter that period now and it is not with- 
out profit that we analyze somewhat closely the prominent features that 
characterize the period just passing; namely, the land-acquiring period 
in Illinois development, covering roughly the last half century. 

"VThen we remember that the total value of farm property in IS 60 
in the State of Illinois was given as only $500,000,000, it seems that 
those were davs of small things as measured against the valuation of 
^,000,000,000 in 1910. But it must not be forgotten that the 
$5b0,0'00,0'00 valuation of 1S60 represented nearly a 300 per cent in- 
crease over the ten years preceding. That is to say, things had begun to 
move somewhat rapidly about this time. There are other evidences that 
the period from 1S50 to 1S60 was one of great activity in matters agri- 



103 

cailtnral in all the cat^teni portion oi' the Union, and the impetus was 
strough' felt iu the Mississippi A'alley in the decade immediately pre- 
ceding the Civil War. 

In 1860 only a little over 50 per cent of the land in Illinois was in 
farms as against 90 per cent in 1910. TheState was producing in 1860 
a little over 100,000,000 hushels of corn as against 400,000,000 in 1910. 
It was producing something over 20,000,000 bushels of wheat, or about 
two-thirds the present vield. It had approximately 750,000 horses as 
against 1,750,000 in 1910; 1,500,000 cattle as compared with 2,500,000 
fifty years later; and 2,500,000 swine as compared with 4,500,000 in 
1910. The value of the'domestic animals in the State in 1860 was given 
as $72,000,000 as against $308,000,000 in 1910, and the farm imple- 
ments and machinery were valued at $17,000,000 as against $74,000,000 
a half century later. 

These figures, however, give but an inadequate conception of the 
changes that have come to the State since its boys in blue went out to 
fight. The reaper and the mower had but just come into use and were 
regarded as horse-killing inventions; and hay which was raked together 
by the new-fangled machinery was considered unfit for a horse to eat. 
Some of us remember the burning of self-binders immediately after the 
close of the war by angry mobs of workmen for the reason that such a 
machine would deprive them of harvest wages. And yet it was the very 
scarcity of labor that forced the rapid development of American farm 
machinery. 

AYhile the Civil War resulted in a very great industrial develop- 
ment, yet it also marked the period of the beginning of the struggle for 
land which has lasted imtil the present day. Every man who had a farm 
enlarged it if he could, running into debt to do so, or he sold his farm and 
moved west to acquire more acres and grow up with the new country. It 
was impossible to work all these acres by hand labor or by such crude 
machinery as had been in use before the war. Speedily the great ques- 
tion in farming became this: How many horses can one man drive and 
how many acres can one man farm ? 

And so the matter went, through the '70's, the '80's and even well 
into the '90's before anything like high-priced land or a tenant system 
could be said to have developed in the State. ^Yhen 1 first came to Illi- 
nois in 1895, land was considered well sold at $75 an acre ; within twenty 
years of that time a considerable amount of the best land of the State 
had lain untouched at 50 cents because of lack of drainage, and this in 
the very region where land is selling from $275, $300, to even $100 an 
acre without regard to improvements. 

The struggle of the people for land has been nowhere more pro- 
nounced or more significant than in Illinois. While there have been 
some large holdings, this has not been a State of bonanza farming. Corn 
has been its ruling crop and live stock its most prominent industry, and 
the natural combination of the two has led to the development of a kind 
of farming which means high values in land. While it is not and never 
has been a range State, yet the cattle industry has always been relatively 



103 

large and the luovemeut for high-grade live stock dates from almost 
exactl.v the middle of the last centin\y. 

The Illinois State Board of Agricnlture was founded and held' its 
first show in 1853. It was the result of the activities in the Legislature 
of Capt. James X. Brown of Grove Park, Sangamon County, who was 
one of its first and most successful exhibitors. It was about this time that 
the enthusiasm for the impoi-tation of high-class cattle passed from iSTew 
York, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, and Ohio to the prairies of Illinois, and 
at the first great sale of the Illinois Importing Company in 1857, this 
same Captain Brown bid of? the two-year-old heifer, Eachel II, at the 
then very unprecedented price of $3,025. The sale as a whole made an 
average of $1,165, and from this time dates the beginning of high-class 
live stock for this great State. It is notable too that this importation 
contained four cattle from the herd of Amos Cruickshank, a Scottish 
breeder then almost unknown, but whose herd a few years later became 
the most famous in short-horn history. 

It was during the '70's that this enthusiasm for high-class cattle 
developed strength. The Illinois State Fair, under the management of 
the Illinois State Board of Agriculture drew to its show ring some of 
the best animals then bred, and I was told by the late Col. Charles F. 
Mills that he had personally, as secretary of that body, organized the 
pedigree associations for one-half the breeds produced in America — ■ 
showing the extent of the influence exerted at that time by the Illinois 
State Board of Agriculture. A little later came the Fat-Stock Show in 
Chicago, which sealed the doom of the four-year-old steer and proved 
beyond any doubt that the cheapest beef could be made from young 
animals. 

The introduction of our best pasture, the Kentucky blue grass, dates 
from this same period and owes to these early cattle men the influence 
which spread it broadcast over the prairies. It came with the cattle from 
Kentucky, and while the prairies are not the natural home of the blue 
grass, it after all has no equal for pasture purposes and has developed 
in this State as in few others. 

As the value of land rapidly increased in the '90's, it became 
economically impossible to produce market cattle in competition with the 
western range. From then on, feeders were grown in the west and 
shipped east to be finished on Illinois corn. With this new condition has 
gone something of the glory of the old-time breeding herds, but even as 
this is written the range itself is being broken up and the problem of 
raising our own feeders is returning to the farmers of Illinois. 

With the development of the herds of the State and with the in- 
creased production of corn, a new shipping center was inevitable. 
Hitherto Cincinnati had been called "Porkopolis," but the title and the 
distinction were destined to move to Chicago. Cincinnati was the 
natural outlet of the Miami Valley, one of the greatest live stock regions 
of the timberland states, but the prairies were seeking outlets, and 
Chicago, Kansas City, and Omaha were inevitable choices. Isaac Funk, 
one of the gi'eatest shippers of cattle and swine in an early day was ac- 
customed to drive from Funk's Grove to Chicago in successive herds. 



104 

putting iu each bunch as many cattle and pigs as the Chicago shiughter 
house could handle in a single day. 

The Union Stock Yards Company for handling the increased ship- 
ments was organized and opened for business in 1865. Nothing shows 
the extent and the growth of the live stock business in this State as do 
the records of the receipts of this company for the fifty-three years since 
its opening, and they are listed here for record, by ten-year periods : 

Cattle. Calves. Hogs. Sheep. 

1866 393,007 961,746 207,987 

1876 ..1.096,745 4,190,006 364,095 

1SS6 1,963,900 51,290 6,718,761 1,008,790 

1SH6 2.600,476 138,337 7,659,472 3,590,655 

1906 3.329,250 413,269 7,275,063 4,805,449 

1918 3,789,922 657,767 8,614,190 4,629,736 

It is sufficient for purposes of reading to note that whereas the total 
receipts of cattle at these yards in 1866 was but 393,000, they amounted 
in 1918 to over 3,750,000. During the same period hogs had increased 
in shipment from fewer than 1,000,000 to over 8,500,000, and sheep 
from 207,000 to over 4,500,000. By this we see, of course, that these 
great stock yards, in later years particularly, have drawn from far be3'ond 
the limits of our own State. 

Eealizing the value of the old Fat-Stock Show to the live stock of 
this State and region, this company- has for a number of years conducted 
an annual exposition which is without doubt the greatest live stock 
show in the world, and from here have come and gone in recent years 
the very pink of perfection in the breeder's art. 

Even a hasty sketch of the agricultural progress of Illinois in the 
last half century would be exceedingly incomplete without special men- 
tion of what this State has done for heavy horses. It has of course had 
its light horse champions and interests, but in an early day the Xorman 
horse was brought into various sections of this State for farm purposes, 
and later on it was Mark Dunham of Wayne more than any other single 
man who was responsible for bringing the best breeding of la telle France 
into the middle west. jSTo enthusiast whom I have ever known was 
prouder of his achievement than was Dunham of the mark which 
"Brilliant" put upon the American horse industry, and of Eosa Bon- 
heur's picture of that wonderful animal. 

It is evident to the most casual student that the earlier development 
of the last half century was in acreage, farm machinery, and live stock. 
It was not until practically the opening of the present century that the 
State took much interest in the scientific study of the principles under- 
lying agricultural practices or in the education of the 3'oung for the 
profession of farming. It was the current belief in those days that if a 
man was to have a good herd it must be founded by his grandfather, 
and that the only way to become a successful farmer was by being to 
the manner bom and bv associating long and intimatelv with those 
who succeeded. It was the worship of the ancients over again, and 
while there were veritable giants in those days in matters agricultural, 
it is also the fact that a great many of the things they assiduously be- 
lieved were at the same time untrue. The last generation has been 
somewhat busy in the attempt to separate tradition from truth and to 
learn what are the underlying principles of successful farming. 



105 

Accordingly the University of Illinois has been authorized, in- 
structed, and endowed to conduct investigations along certain prominent 
lines, particularly in the feeding and breeding of animals, the control 
of diseases in fruits and vegetables, and in such methods of production 
as shall prove most economical and effective. For example, it used to be 
supposed that deep cultivation is the sine qua non of good farming. Ex- 
perimentation has shown, however, that the deeper corn is cultivated the 
more the roots are cut off and the more the crop suffers. It had been 
said that corn was cultivated in order to preserve moisture, but scientific 
methods have shown that it is done mainly in order to kill weeds. Plants 
are now bred as are animals, and there is no more significant work done 
in the State than is that of the Funk Brothers' Seed Company, which, 
like the Vihnorins of France, is interested not only in dealing in seeds 
but in producing the best varieties. 

Perhaps the most notable single piece of work undertaken in the 
State of Illinois for the betterment of agriculture is the soil survey, 
whereby each separate type of land of which the State is possessed is not 
only located as to its boundaries and mapped accordingly, but also studied 
in the laboratories and in the field as to its physical and chemical quali- 
ties, so that when the map is published each man may know how many 
and what are the distinctive types of soil on the land he occupies and 
what are the treatments that should be employed. The forty experimental 
fields upon the various types of soil scattered over the State each under 
all possible combinations of fertilizer treatment constitute by far the 
most extensive and exhaustive inquiry into the character of land that 
is to be found anywhere on earth. 

Such a sketch of agricultural progress would be entirely incomplete 
without a word upon the strictly educational side. Not only has the 
Agricultural College of the State developed from a half dozen students 
in 1890 to twelve hundred and fift}^ at the opening of the war, but there 
are now more than forty high schools in the State organized to do work 
under the Smith-Hughes Act. A definite department is established in 
the high school under the charge of its own instructor, usually employed 
for twelve months and always teaching under the project system. It is 
not too much to expect that another generation of careful research and 
the systematic training of the young will produce agricultural results 
in this State that will be no discredit to the record of the great men 
who have gone before. From now on our progress will be marked not 
by the individual achievements of a few phenomenal men, but by the 
systematic procedure of the citizens of the State. 

Illinois has developed within the last generation one of the best 
farmers' institute systems of any state in the Union. It is under the 
direction of a body of farmers recognized by the Legislature as the State 
Farmers' Institute. The meetings held under the auspices of this body 
of representative farmers, whether of State or local character, afford a 
steady forum for the discussion of the many questions that constantly 
arise touching the interests of agriculture. The extent to which such 
a foruni can operate as a safety valve and a balance wheel both for pub- 
lic opinion and for the farmers' state of mind is beyond computation. 



106 

The State is now served by a most etficient agricultural press by 
no means confined to the boundaries of this particular commonwealth 
yet serving its distinctive interests exceptionally well. These journals 
constitute the great avenue for the exchange of ideas, experiences, and 
practices back and forth between the farmers of this State and other 
states and between the practices of the farm and the findings of the 
various scientific bodies scattered over the world. 

Perhaps the most distinctive single item of progress made in Illinois 
in the last half century lies in the principle now well recognized that 
the farmers themselves through their own organizations assume the 
responsil)ility of leadership in all matters of agricultural progress. The 
farmers in this State are neither led nor driven. They are themselves 
a forward-looking body of men with a well recognized objective, the de- 
velopment of the agricultural resources of the State. They are therefore 
regarded as the special sponsors of agricultural education and research, 
whatever may be the particular machiner}' devised for the detailed man- 
agement of schools and experiment stations. 

Pursuant to this general principle the development of the so-called 
extension work in this State is sroinof forward imder the direction of 
county farm bureaus which are self-directing agricultural associations 
projecting their affairs especially along business lines. Over sixty of 
the counties of the State are now so organized, and the creation of the 
Illinois Agricultural Association for the further development of agricul- 
ture as a cooperative enterprise, particularly in selling, was so logical 
as to be inevitable. 

It is not too much to say that since the Civil War, agriculture has 
developed from the old self-sufficing system of pioneer days to that stage 
where it is recognized in its full meaning, both as a productive industry 
to those engaged therein and as a sisjnificant economic factor in the 
social fabric of the State. The idea of a permanent agriculture is defi- 
nitely fixed in the minds of nearly all the progressive farmers of Illinois, 
whereby the fertility of the lands shall be maintained and not mined out 
as the generations pass. To that determination we are now beginning 
to add the idea of a finished agriculture, by which is meant not neces- 
sarily intensive farming but rather systems of farming which shall be 
more diversified than heretofore and Avhich shall recognize more com- 
pletely the peculiar demands of the consuming public and the particular 
resources of the various localities. 



107 



THE LIFE AND SERVICES OF JOSEPH DUNCAN. 
GOVERNOR OF ILLINOIS, 1834-1838. 

[By Elizabeth Duncan Putnam.] 



PREFACE. 



The request of the Illinois State Historical Society, in 1019, for a 
sketch of Governor Joseph Duncan led me to search through the papers 
preserved by the family to^ see if there was any new material that would 
throw light on the life of one of the pioneers of Illinois. The sketch pre- 
pared at that time for the annual meeting has since grown, by the ac- 
quisition of new material found in the Library of Congress and other 
libraries, into the present more extended life. 

His daughter, Mrs. Julia Duncan Kirby, wrote a biographical ^ 
sketch of Joseph Duncan for the Jacksonville Historical Society in 1885, 
containing many reminiscences of Mrs. Duncan and of her friends and, 
quoting, nearly in full, the interesting diary kept by Mr. Duncan while 
lie Avas in congress.^ Mr. E. W. Blatchford, an old family friend, wrote 
a brief sketch in 1905 for the Chicago Historical Society. 

Aside from these two sketches, there has been no life written of 
Governor Duncan. Most of the histories of Illinois are influenced 
in their estimation of him by the opinion given by Thomas Ford in his 
history of Illinois written in 1847. As Ford was a political opponent of 
Governor Duncan and party feeling ran high at that time, he naturally 
wrote from a prejudiced point of view. Unfortunately Mr. Duncan's 
papers have suffered irreparable loss, as the most important ones were 
burned in the Chicago fire of. 1871 and others in our home fire in Daven- 
port in 1887. 

There are still preserved- a few family letters, many expense ac- 
counts from Kentucky and Illinois ; diaries^ of Governor and Mrs. 
Duncan ; an interesting note book of Governor Duncan's ; a brief anony- 
mous life addressed to "Governor Joseph Duncan, Jacksonville, Illinois," 
and dated 1840, obviously an original document;'* and finally there 
are a few political hand bills and cartoons. Another note book, evi- 
dently for use in the campaign of 1842 with clippings and notes, is in 
the Library of the University of Illinois. 

I have consulted the Journals of the House of Eepresentatives and 
the Senate of Illinois and the Journal of the House of Eepresentatives 
of the United States for the records of his political life and the news- 

' Chicago : Fergus Printing Co. 1888. 

- At present deposited in the Historical Library of the Davenport Academy 
of Sciences. Davenport, Iowa. 

3 The diary of Governor Duncan kept while he was in Congress in 1829 is 
printed in the appendix. 

■•It was printed in the Illinoisan, Jan. 19, 1844, four days after the deatli of 
Governor Duncan. 



108 

papers of the time for contemporary opinion. Use has been made of j\irs. 
Duncan's reminiscences and diaries to give an account of a journey west 
in 1828 and a picture of their life later in Jacksonville. 

Many traditions have come down in the family but I have only used 
those that seem to help in drawing the.portrait from out of the shadows 
of a century ago of this pioneer of Illinois, a strong man of action, of 
independent opinion, with a keen sense of law and right, modest and 
unassuming. Tradition says that he had great social charm, which is 
borne out by the letters that describe the cordial reception he received 
whenever he went east. The same Scotch honesty and allegiance to duty 
and principle which was sho'wn as a boy of eighteen in his providing for 
his widowed mother and younger brothers and sister before he left home 
in the war of 1812, dominated his ideals and public acts in his later 
career as soldier, state senator, congressman and governor. 

I am indebted to Prof. A. M. Schlesinger and to Prof. Theodore 
Calvin Pease for valuable suggestions, to Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber of 
the Illinois State Historical Society and to Miss Caroline Mcllvaine of 
the Chicago Historical Society for assistance in obtaining material, and 
to Miss Puth Putnam for criticism and encouragement. My brother 
Edward K. Putnam has aided me in the arrangement of the materials 
• and the review of the political speeches of Governor Duncan. 

Elizabeth Duncan Putnam. 
Davenport, Iowa. 
January 15, 1921. 

CHAPTER I. 
Early Life: War of 1812: Eemoval to Illinois. 

Joseph Duncan was descended oh both sides from Scotch and Scotch- 
Irish ancestry. The family first settled in Virginia, from there Major 
Joseph Duncan went to Kentucky in the early days but returned to 
Virginia to marry Anna Maria McLaughlin of Cumberland A'alley, and 
in 1790 the family moved to Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky. Here 
Joseph was born on February 22, 1794, the ihird son. 

The Duncan house is still standing in Paris, a substantial stone 
house, with an interesting entrance doorway and panelling in the rooms. 
A lease of 1815 describes it as "the old stone house on the square with 
kitchen, billiard-room, smoke house, lower stables, etc., and two parti- 
tions to be run across the ball room." 

In 1806 Major Duncan died. There was apparently a great deal of 
property but much confusion in affairs. Mrs. Duncan married in 1809 
Captain Benjamin ]\Ioore, of the regular army. He lived but two years, 
dying in 1811. One son, Duncan Moore, was born of this marriage. 

Joseph was but twelve years old when his own father died. The two 
older sons had been sent, Matthew to Yale and James to Transylvania 
College, Lexington, Kentucky, but there was probably no ready money 
to send Joseph to college. He assumed the responsibilities of the family, 
paying bills and arranging financially for his mother. He was appointed 
guardian to his two younger brothers and sister and later paid for at 
least part of their education. All through his life he manifested an in- 
terest in education, probably intensified by the lack of college training 



109 

in his own life. In his informal correspondence he was a poor speller, 
as were many of the men of his time. 

From his father and step-father Joseph naturally was interested in 
military affairs. War with England was not declared until June 18th, 

1812, but a month beforehand, on May 12th, we find Joseph Duncan 
had paid to F. Loring, Paris, Kentucky : 

To making undress coat f 10. 00 

To 5 % yards of silver braid 2.75 

To making a Cockade 75 

To making- 2 pair pantaloons and 2 vests ' . 1.00 

To finding pading and thread 50 

To 1 hank of white silk 12% 

$15.12i/o 

He entered the army as an Ensign in the lUh U. S. Infantry and 
remained in service throughout the war. 

He at once began securing recruits. As he was leaving to join the 
northern army in 1813, he gives the following note, — "The above bill of 
eight pounds and eleven shillings, I am bound to pay unless my mother 
pays it. Kelly and Brant may deduct it out of the money I now leave 
in their hands, and should she apply for any- other articles in their store 
they will let her have them and charge them to her account." It is 
worth note that the credit and word of an eighteen year old boy carried 
sufficient weight to take care of the family. 

There is no record where Joseph Duncan was the first year of the 
war. On June 13th, 1813, he passed' Kaskaskia on the Mississippi, with 
the 17th Regiment of U. S. Infantry, on his way to St. Louis, Missouri 
Territory, as is shown by the letter from his brother, Matthew Duncan, 
who tried to overtake the boats at Little Eock Ferry. On August 2nd, 

1813, Duncan was at the defence of Fort Stephenson, near Sandu.sky, 

Ohio. A copy of a letter written by Joseph Duncan and describing the 

attack has been preserved. It was written many years later in response 

to inquiries from Gen. C. F. Mercer, but it gives a graphic and detailed 

description of the battle. 

Washington City, March 25, ISS/f. 
Dear Sib: 

Your letter of the 20th has been received and I most cheerfully comply 
with your request in giving such an account of the transactions at Sandusky 
as my memory at this late period and my time will enable me to do. 

About the 20th of July, 1813, General Harrison, then at Lower Sandusky, 
hearing that the British Army had crossed Lake Erie to Fort Meigs, being 
about five thousand strong, immediately changed his headquarters to Seneca, 
seven or eight miles up the Sandusky River, where he assembled his forces, 
leaving Major Croghan with about 150 men to defend Fort Stephenson, with 
an understanding or an order, as it was understood by me at the time, that 
the Fort then in a weak and wretched condition, was to be abandoned should 
the enemy advance with artillery, but if not, to be defended to the last ex- 
tremity. 

Harrison with his force, then small, had scarcely left us before Croghan 
commenced putting the fort, which was only a stockading of small round 
logs and a few log storehouses, in a proper state of defence, in which he 
evinced great judgment and the most untiring perseverance. 

During the ten or twelve days that intervened between the time that 
General Harrison left us and the appearance of the enemy, a ditch was dug 
four feet deep and six feet wide entirely around the Fort outside of the 
stockading — the ground for two hundred yards round the fort was cleared 
of timber and brush and many other preparations made for the enemy. 



110 

About this time General Harrison received information that the enemy 
had raised the siege of Fort Meigs and had started in the direction of San- 
dusky and Camp Seneca. On receiving this intelligence he determined to 
retreat from his position, and immediately sent an express to Fort Stephen- 
son, which arrived about sunrise, ordering Major Croghan to burn the fort 
with all the munitions and stores and retreat without delay to Headquarters, 
giving also some precautionary instructions about the route, etc. 

On receiving this order, Croghan instantly placed it in the hands of the 
officers, who were all present, and required them to consider it and express 
an opini'on as to the propriety of obeying or disobeying it. The Board was 
formed and on putting the question, beginning as is usual with the youngest 
officer, [Duncan] it was ascertained that a majority of us was for disobeying 
the order. Croghan returned to the room and being informed of our decision 
remarked, "I am glad of it, I had resolved to disobey it at all hazards," and 
Immediately dispatched an express to General Harrison giving him that in- 
formation. Immediately on the arrival of this express General Harrison 
dispatched Lieutenant-Colonel Ball with his squadron of Dragoons, with 
orders to arrest Croghan, bring him to Headquarters (which was done) and 
sent another officer to take his command. By this time, in consequence of 
our not arriving agreeably to his expectations and orders, the General 
abandoned all idea of a retreat, although his munitions and stores were all 
piled up ready to be set on fire as soon as Croghan should reach Seneca 
and it is doubted that if Croghan had arrived according to orders. General 
Harrison would have retreated instantly, leaving the whole Frontier, our 
fleet at Erie and the boats and stores at Cleveland, (the destruction of which 
was the object of the invasion and movement down the Lake) at the mercy 
of the enemy. 

After being detained one night, Croghan was returned to Sandusky and 
reinstated in his command — an occasion which gave indescriable joy to the 
officers and soldiers in the Fort, and which could only be equaled in intensity 
of feeling by the chagrin and mortification felt at his arrest. Especially was 
this event pleasing to those officers who had sustained him in disobeying the 
order, resolved as they were, when he was arrested, to share his fate, be it 
good or evil. 

Soon after his return, the enemy, so long expected, made his appearance 
and demanded a surrender. Croghan answered by directing Ensign Ship to 
assure General Proctor that he would be blown to Hell first. 

I need hardly say after what has been related that their appearance, 
relieving us from our long suspense, was hailed with seeming joy by the 
Major, and most, if not by all, of his command. 

The excitement produced by what had occurred, and his return just in 
time to meet the enemy, inspired his command with an enthusiasm rarely, 
if ever, surpassed, and which alone renders man Invincible. 

The Fort was forthwith besieged, cannonaded and bombarded from the 
Gun Boats, and the batteries on land for nearly forty hours, without cessa- 
tion — during all which time every officer and soldier appeared to be animated 
by the cool and manly bearing of their commander. 

I well remember his expression at the first sound of the bugle given 
by the enemy as a signal for the charge upon the works. We were sitting 
together — he sprang upon his feet, saying — "Duncan, every man to his post, 
for in ten minutes they will attempt to take us by storm. Recollect, when 
you hear my voice crying relief come to me with all the men that can be 
spared from your part of the line." He instantly passed up the line repeating 
the order to every officer, and had scarcely got the men in place, before the 
whole British Army, divided into three columns marched upon the Fort, and 
made a desperate assault, continuing it for near an hour, when they were 
repulsed with a loss of killed and wounded, estimated at the time to near 
double the number in the Fort, and is stated by the English writers to be 
about ninety. 

During the engagement I saw Croghan often and witnessed with delight 
his intrepid and gallant conduct, which I firmly believe has never been sur- 
passed at any time or on any occasion. 



Ill 

The sagacity displayed in arranging tlie cannon so as to open a masked 
embrasure to rake tlie enemy in the ditch at the point evidently selected by 
them for the breach, in placing logs on pins near the top of the pickets 
which could be tilted off by one man, and being from 20 to 30 feet long, of 
heavy timber, swept everything before them, his tact in placing bags of sand 
against the pickets wherever the enemy attempted to make a breach with 
their cannon, by which means each point lof attack grew stronger from the 
moment it was assailed, — are worthy of any General of any age. 

You are right, Sir, in my judgment, in saying that the Government has 
not done justice to Colonel Croghan for his conduct in that affair, which is 
without parallel in the Military annals of our Oountry. 

As to myself, having acted but a very subordinate part, I never did, and 
do not now, set up for any' claim for distinction. To know that I did my 
duty to my Country, though not hardened into manhood, was then and is 
now, enough for me. But of him I feel no delicacy in saying that great in- 
justice has been done to him, in being overlooked by the Government, and 
by the erroneous statements of historians. 

McAfee, the historian of the late War, and Dawson, the Biographer of 
General Harrison, have studiously kept out of view that the object of the 
invasion was the destruction of our ships under Commodore Perry at Presque 
Isle, and the boats and stores at Cleveland. These were looked upon with 
great solicitude by the British — were reconnoitred, and on one or two occa- 
sions were attempted to be destroyed by landing the small force on boara of 
their fleet. They have also failed to account for the movement of the whole 
British forces down the Lake in the direcion of Cleveland and Erie, before 
their defeat, at Sandusky, which was attacked to gratify their Indian allies 
who demanded the scalps and plunder of the place. They have kept out of 
view the fact that General Harrison had determined to retreat to the interior 
after having burnt all the supplies which he had collected — that he ordered 
Major Croghan to abandon and burn Fort Stephenson — that his refusal to 
obey, and failure to arrive at Headquarters, prevented this retreat and con- 
sequent destruction of our Fleet, millions of public stores, and exposure of 
five hundred miles of frontier to the combined enemy. 

Both have stated that General Harrison never doubted that Major 
Croghan w'ould be able to repulse an enmy of near two thousand, with one 
hundred and twenty men (his effective force on the day of battle), one 
six pounder, with ammunition for only seven shots and about forty rounds 
for the small arms; when the fact was notorious that General Harrison was 
heard to say during the siege, when the firing could be heard in his camp, 
speaking of Croghan, "the blood be on his own head. I wash my hands of 
it," not doubting for a moment, nor did any one with him, that the Garrison 
would be cut off. 

With great respect, 

Your obdt. Servant, 

Joseph Duncan. 
Gen. C. F. Mercer. 

Congress passed a resolution on June 18, 1834 "Presenting a gold 
medal to George Croghan and a sword to each of the officers under his 
command for their gallantry and good conduct in the Defence of Fort 
Stephenson in 1813." 

The young Kentuckian remained in the army throughout the war. 
August 10, 1814, there is an order from "Colonel Tod from Chillicothe 
to Lieutenant Duncan for recruiting service, for the 17th Infantry, at 
Lexington, Kentucky." 

The following winter however, he was in the north, apparenth' on 
scouting duty. By an order dated Fort Shelby, Xovember 4th, 1814, 
signed Harrison H. Hickman, Captain 17th Infantry, Lieutenant Dun- 
can W'as placed in command of a detachment consisting of three sergeants, 
three corporals and forty privates. This detachment seems to have been 



112 

sent lip close to the enemy in Canada. On Janiiar_y 7, 1815, Lieutenant 
Duncan was ordered to cross the river and eight days later, January 
15, Captain Hickman sent this express letter from Detroit to "Lt. Jos. 
Duncan, Commanding Detachment, Fort Thrasher." 

"I have this moment received yours of the 10th by express. Detain the 
two men until you bring them or have an opportunity of sending them down. 
I need not request you to use every exertion to procure information of the 
positions and movements of the enemy. When you write again be so good as 
to give me what information you can collect in regard to the quantity of 
wheat and flour there may remain in the river and the prospect of its trans- 
portation to this place. Our papers by the last mail brought no news of 
importance, otherwise I would have sent you some. My respects tio Mr. 
Stewart. 

Should any of your men meet with eight Indians who will show them my 
name written on a piece of paper — they will let them pass without any ques- 
tions. Breath not a lohisper of this to a living mortal, except to the leader 
of such scouting parties as you may send out and let that leader be such a 
man as will keep the secret." 

The Treaty of Peace was signed at Ghent on December lith, 18 li, 
and the last battle of the war was fought at New Orleans on 8th of 
January, 1815, and still this letter says "there was no news of import- 
ance" at Detroit on January 15th, 1815 ! 

There are traditions of other feats in the wilderness — of crossing 
Lake Erie in an open yawl during a winter storm — of being the bearer* 
of dispatches — of swimming his horse across a swollen river where the 
Indian guide refused to follow — of coming upon a block house late at 
night and instead of finding friends, to be greeted with a savage yell — 
of his presence of mind in throwing coin upon the hearth and while 
the Indians were scrambling for it, making his escape. 

In August, 1815, Joseph was appointed guardian for his younger 
brothers and sister and on September 13, 1815, the court approved a 
division of the estate of the father. Major Joseph Duncan. There is men- 
tion of slaves but none in Joseph's portion. Checks show that the son 
was at Paris then, as he was in the summer of 1816, when his report as 
guardian to his younger brothers and sister was recorded. There are 
on record other documents showing that he acted as "attorney" for his 
older brothers as well as "guardian" for the younger children, in whose 
education he took a special interest. 

There is among the family papers a curious old statement of "Mr. 
Joseph Duncan in acct. Avith Allen & Thomas, drs.," running from x\ug. 
14, 1815, to June 28, 1816, which shows that Joseph was looking after 
the needs of his mother, brothers and sister. For his mother there is the 
purchase, among bther things, of 6 yards of calico for 9 shillings. There 
is 5 yards cotton cloth and a "Posam hat" for Thomas, the latter costing 
£1.10.0. For John there is 51/0 yards "long cloth" and pumps. For 
James a vest and leather gloves. There are many entries "per sister." 
She had 5 yards of "long cloth, a "beaver hat draped", (£3), several 
pairs of shoes, stockings, gloves, "ribbans" on frequent occasions, a pen- 
cil, letter paper, a "bowl for holding paints," etc. There are not many 
items for Joseph himself, but he purchases a pair of beaver gloves, a pen 
knife, powder flask, 1/0 pound of powder, padlock, and wafers. The only 
items of food are such things as were not grown in Kentucky — an occa- 
sional 14 pound of tea or 2 lbs. of sugar, once 1/0 lb, of ginger, and onco 



113 

3 shillings for raisins. Soap was probably made at liome but one cake 
was bought for 9d. There is one entry for "1/2 doz. Sigars per Thomas, 
9 shillings.'' There are several entries for buttons, needles, ])ins and 
thread. Cash was sometimes paid on account and sometimes advanced 
by Allen and Thomas to members of the family, as : "Cash for Miss 
Polly Anne 1/6, ditto for John, 6'/-" or "Cash per John for Mothei' 
$5.00, £1.10.0." Under March 11, 1816, are the following entries: 

18.1.6 

Mch 11, Cash lent voii $100.00 in Feby 3ii. 0.0 

" Cash paid Bayler for your Taxes $8.19 2. S.lVi 

" Cash pd. ditto for your Mother's Taxes $22.4 4.12.3 

These last items were taken care of in April w^hen Joseph Duncan gave 
a check for $130.23. 

January 19th, 1817, he was at Detroit, Michigan Territory, and 
again in the summer of 1817 was at Paris, seeing a brother off to school 
as the following letter from his brother Thomas shows. It was written 
from Washington, D. C. 

* * * "I paid my tuition with the money you gave me when I left 
Kentucky. I have read the Odes of Horace and made some progress in Greek, 
Witherspoon on Moral Philosophy, etc. Sold my horse for $20, $15 of which 
I have not, nor do I expect to get at least for sometime, as the student to 
whom I sold him, has since been expelled and is, I believe, destitute of money 
at present." * * * 

There has come to light a curious U, S. government bond that 
proves that Joseph was at this time a real Kentuckian, as on May 10, 
1817, "Joseph Duncan and Tandy Allen and Ann Duncan" gave a $50 
bond to the United States to pay "on the 2-lth of May next to the col- 
lector of revenue for the 4th collection district of Kentucky the sum 
of twenty dollars and fifty-two cents, on a still of the capacity of 114 
gallons * * * to be employed in distilling spirits from domestic 
materials." It was later in life, when living in Illinois, that he became 
an ardent supporter of the temperance cause, giving to it half his salary, 
$500, when governor. 

Joseph Duncan, with the same pioneer spirit as his ancestors, moved 
from Kentucky to Illinois in ISIS. He had seen the prairies of Illinois 
while in the army in the war of 1812 and no doubt had been attracted 
by their future possibilities. 

His eldest brother Matthew Duncan had moved from Eusselville, 
Kentucky, where he had edited a paper, "The ]\Iirror," to Kaskaskia on 
the Mississippi Eiver in Illinois. Through Ninian Edwards, formerly a 
lawyer in Eusselville, Matthew secured the printing of the first edition 
of the Illinois Territorial Laws in 1813. He moved his press to Kas- 
kaskia in 1814 and began the Illinois Herald, the first newspaper pub- 
lished in Illinois. In December, 1814, he issued the first pamphlet pub- 
lished in Illinois and in June, 1815, the first book, A'olume I Pope's 
Digest. 

On November 19th, 1819. there is a note from Joseph to Matthew 
Duncan for the sum of ten thousand dollars. "I have this day pur- 
chased from ]\[atthew Duncan an equal interest in the mill upon the 
outlet of the big lake, together Avith an equal interest in 209 acres [in 
Jackson County, Illinois]." In September, 1820, he was able to pay 

— 8 H S 



114 

$1,822 on this note and eventually the note was receipted iu I'liU but with 
no date. This is among the first records of his purchases of property. 
He began to buy land in many counties of the State. The family con- 
nections were around Kaskaskia but later he owned land in the northern 
part of the State, including a tract in what is now Chicago, 

The family moved from Paris, Kentuck}-, to Brownsville, called 
Fountain Bluffs, Jackson County, Illinois, sometime before 1820. About 
this time Joseph began an interesting note book^ that for quaiutness 
might be printed entire. Beginning with quotations from Seneca, Young, 
Proverbs, he continues with a "Memorandum of Boats of all kinds that 
pass my house on the Mississippi going up and down in 182-i.^' There 
are 13G entries, from January 2, to August 5, 1824. There is a "cure 
for rheumatism — " "Law of Louisiana for inspecting Beef and Pork 
1826," "Potatoes to be planted the second week in June" — "Policy of 
the Jackson Party — ." Notes for campaign speeches in 1842 (when he 
ran the second time for Governor) — question of the standing arm}'- — 
list of land owned by him in various counties in Illinois, etc. 

There is an interesting letter from his younger brother Thomas, 
written on November 28, 1820, from Eusselville, Kentucky, to his 
mother, "care of Maj. Jo. Duncan'^ in Brownsville, Illinois, defending 
Joseph from an unjust attack. 

"I have this naoment heard that Joseph has been charged with defrauding 
my father's estate and with reducing the family to penury. I regret the 
occasion but I glory in the opportunity of doing justice to a man, whose 
unbending integrity, no temptatiion could seduce and whose disinterested 
generosity to yourself and every member of our family imposes claims not 
to be forgotten, bare remembrance of which excites feelings which I cannot 
express. At the tender age of 15 or 16 he attracted the notice and admiration 
of all who knew him by the correctness of his deportment and the skill and 
assiduity he displayed in the management of an estate, which by the prema- 
ture death of my father, was left in a state of confusion and complexity. 
At the commencement of the war he took his station among the defenders 
of his country's rights. But his patriotism did not make him forgetful of 
his widowed mother and his little orphan brothers and sister; without funds 
in his hands belonging to the estate, he had even at this early period of his 
life, acquired a reputation which enabled him upon his own responsibility 
to lobtain such conveniences as were necessary for the comfort of the family 
in his absence. To trace him through the variety of scenes that were ex- 
hibited from that to the present period — and in which he has uuiformily 
acted the same magnanimous part, would greatly exceed the limits of a 
letter. But there is one observation which I would make because it not only 
acquits him of taking any advantage but shows beyond the power of contra- 
diction that he acted disinterestedly. In 1814 the estate was divided by 
persons appointed by the court for that purpose — Joseph was selected by 
each of the infant heirs as their guardian. The rent of my part of the estate 
was nothing like enough to defray my expenses at school even in Kentucky, 
yet he sent me to Pennsylvania to college and defrayed my expenses while 
there. The part of the estate alloted me is still mine and never was of any 
benefit to him, but to the contrary has been a trouble and I believe an ex- 
pense to him. His high standing in this state cannot be affected by the foul 
aspertions of those from another quarter." 

I have been interested in the. journeys of Joseph Duncan and finally 
made as complete a record as addresses to letters, old bills, military 
orders, etc., could give. Considering that all these journeys were made 
on horseback or boat, it shows indefatigable energy. We are apt to think 

^ Deposited in the Historical Library of the Davenport Academy of Sciences. 



115 

of the picturesqueness of this period, forgetting the hardships entailed. 
The majority of the pioneers died young. My mother was born in 1832 
hut even in her youtli, she said the prevalence of chills and fever and the 
almost daily dose of quinine were taken as a matter of course. Out of 
their family of ten children but three survived to maturity. 

Joseph Duncan had spent most of his life on the frontier and knew 
the hardships of the pioneer. Later when in Congress Mr. Duncan con- 
stantly plead the cause of the settler of small means. The pioneers were 
"brave, hardy, enterprising" men "possessing an ardent love of liberty, 
freedom and independence," who "endured privations and hardships" 
giving up "all the comforts of society," overcoming "difficulties which 
most gentlemen in Congress know nothing about," and with "no other 
view in settling than to secure an independent home for their families." 
We feel he was speaking of a subject of which he knew first hand. 

During these years Duncan was studying the state and the people 
and unconsciously laying the foundations for the popularity that over 
and over again elected him to office. At this period it was the man, and 
not the party, that was elected. 

He must have taken an active part in the militia as in October 1822 
his uncle, Eobert T. McLaughlin, asks him to appoint Colonel Ewing of 
Vandalia "to the place you held previous to vour election as Major 
General of Militia." 

Apparently he entered politics early. We know that he was Justice 
of the Peace in Jackson County from LS31 till 1823.^ Heharl many and 
diverse interests, even appearing as a director and later president of the 
Brownsville Branch Bank." Of his resignation from this last position, 
the Illinois Intelligencer of ISTovember 17, 1824, says : "Joseph Dun- 
can, the Senator from Jackson County, has resigned his office of Presi- 
dent and Director in the Branch Bank at Brownsville. It is perfectly 
in character for this gentleman, when on the eve of taking his seat in 
the councils of his adopted state, to divest himself of everything which 
might even be supposed to give a bias to his judgment on subjects which 
came officially before him." Mr. Duncan had already had a varied ex- 
perience, therefore, when in the summer of 1824 he ran for the State 
Senate. 

CHAPTEE II. 

Meimber of Illinois State Senate. 

the public school bill. 

On jSTovember 15, 1824, the Illinois State Legislature convened at 
Yandalia. A year before the town was the scene of an intoxicated pro- 
slavery mob, who had rioted through the village, with their cries of "Con- 
vention or death." Their insults to Governor Coles, the quiet, deter- 
mined Virginian, who had come to Illinois to free his slaves, and to his 
valiant band of anti-slavery men, had turned the tide of public opinion. 

' Copies of warrants in note book beginning June 21, 1821, and continuing to 
February 23, 1823. 

= Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IV. d. 130-132 (Governors' Letter-books, 
Vol. I). 



116 

Ford saA'S, "The people had been so long under the influence of an in- 
tense excitement that they required rest."^ 

The recent election of August, 1824, had brought many new men, 
with new views to the Legislature. We can picture the primitive village 
— the burnt State House repaired by the citizens, the members arriving 
on horseback, with their saddle bags, bringing the news from the north 
and from the south. Among them was Joseph Duncan, from "the county 
of Jackson." He was thirty years old at this time. He had won dis- 
tinction in the war of 1812 ; had settled in Illinois from Kentucky, in 
1818; Justice of the Peace in Jackson County from 1821 till 1823; 
Major General of Militia, and elected to the State Senate in August, 
1824. 

Judging from the portrait, painted some years later, he nmst have 
been a striking man in his youth. Erect, with dark eyes, that look 
directly at you out of the old portrait, high cheek bones and exceedingly 
sweet expression on the firm lips, the resourceful face of a man of affairs, 
who had lived all his life in the open; independent and fearless in his 
\news. These Scotch characteristics were tempered by a genial expression 
and an optimistic point of view. "He was a man of genteel, affable and 
manly deportment : with a person remarkably well adapted to win the 
esteem and affection of his fellow citizens. * * * He had a sound 
judgment, a firm confidence in his own convictions of right, and a moral 
courage in adhering to his convictions, which is rarely met with."^ 

The brief anonymous life of the Governor written in 1840 gives this 
sketch of his appearance and character: 

Governor Duncan in person is a large man, considerable above the ordi- 
nary size, his features are strong, and manly, crowned by a high intellectual 
forehead, and large black eyes, expressive and penetrating, speaking the 
language of the heart. To a person thus prepossessing is united a mind 
imbued with rich and practical knowledge. As a speaker he is perspicuous, 
plain and forcible, fixing the attention more by his knowledge of the subject 
than by any attention to the graces of oratory. His conversation is inter- 
esting and replete [with] apt and characteristic anecdotes.' 

Mr. Duncan at once took an active part in the business of the Senate. 
One of his first votes was for Birkbeck as Secretary of State. This vote 
indicates his independence and belief in the best man for the place irre- 
spective of party, a policy he carried consistently through life. Birkbeck 
was a strong anti-convention and anti-slavery man, a warm friend of 
Governor Coles. In the Senate on January 14, 1825, Duncan moved that 
the nomination of ]\Iorris Birkbeck be confirmed and, undiscouraged by 
defeat, the following day offered a resolution "that ^Morris Birkbeck, Esq., 
late Secretary of State, has discharged all the duties of that office with 
ability and strict fidelity." He ranged himself on the side of the man, 
who, next to Governor Coles, did inore than any one else to save Illinois 
from becoming a slave State.* Sometime afterward Duncan said. "I 
came to Yandalia with every prejudice against Mr. Birkbeck as Secretary 
of State but when I looked into the office and saw the order and man- 
agement, especially when contrasted with the previous confusion, my 
opinion was completely changed.'"^ 

^Pord, History of Illinois, page 55. 
-Ford, History of Illinois, page 169. 
^Anonymous life, 1840, anong- family papers. 

* Illinois State Journal. 1825-1826. 

* Sketch of Governor Coles by E. B. AVashburn, page 197. 



117 

Mr. Duncan was made Chairman of the Committee on Military 
Affairs, "to draft, arrange and compile a complete militia law,"^ and 
also Chairman on the Committee on Seminar}^ Lands. The following 
recommendation contained in Governor Cole's Message of November 15, 
1824, had been referred to this committee: "The United States has 
made liberal provisions, through grants of lands, for the establishment 
of township schools and a university. Is it not our duty to make pro- 
visions for the establishment of local schools throughout the State ?" 

This recommendation led to the introduction and enactment of a 
public school bill remarkable for its time. Mr. Francis G. Blair, Sup- 
erintendent Department of Public Instruction, State of Illinois, has 
described the passage : 

"This recommendation fell upon more willing and intelligent ears. For- 
tunately for the cause of public education and for the purpose of Governor 
Coles there had come to the Senate a man from Jackson County by the name 
of Duncan. He proved himself to be a patriot and a broadminded statesman 
in his attitude toward all the large questions which came before the General 
Assembly. He was chairman of the Committee on Seminary Lands, the only 
committee which had to do with educational questions. 

This reciommendation of the Governor was referred to that committee 
and on the first day of December a bill that provided for the establishment 
of a wide flung system of free common schools was reported out of that com- 
mittee with the recommendation that it pass. Evidently some of the more 
conservative members of the Senate were alarmed by the provisions of this 
bill for the Senate resolved itself into a committee of the whole to discuss its 
provisions. Several amendments were offered some of them weakening and 
some of them strengthening the general purpose of the bill. When the 
committee arose and reported the bill with amendments back to the Senate, 
Senator Duncan moved that the bill with amendments be re-referred to his 
committee in order that the amendments might be written into the bill so 
as to make it harmonious. 

Within forty-eight hours the bill was reported back to the Senate with 
the amendments so incorporated as to strengthen in every instance the main 
purpose of the bill. On the 14th day of December, just two days less than a 
month after the recommendation, the bill passed the Senate. It moved a 
little more slowly through the House but on the 25th day of January, 1825, 
just a little over two months after Governor Coles had made his recommen- 
dation, the bill passed the House, was signed by the Governor and became 
a law. 

And that law providing for the establishment of free common schools 
throughout the State was from twenty-five to fifty years in advance of any 
school enactment in any of the commonwealths of the Union. It not only 
provided that these districts when formed should levy a tax for the main- 
tenance of the school, a thing which was resisted bitterly in every common- 
wealth, but it went still farther and provided that out of every $100 which 
came into the Stale treasury two dollars should be set aside for a fund to 
encourage the establishment and maintenance of these common free schools 
throughout the State. "- 

The preamble of this bill as introduced by Mr. Duncan reads as 
follows : 

"To enjoy our rights and liberties, we must understand them; their se- 
curity and protection ought to be the first object of a free people; and it is a 
well established fact that no nation has ever continued long in the enjoyment 
of civil and political freedom, which was not both virtuous and enlightened; 
and believing that the advancement of literature always has been, and ever 
will be the means of developing more fully the rights of man, that the 

1 Senate Journal. 1824. 

2 Francis G. Blair: Governor Cole's Contribution to Freedom and Educa- 
tion in Illinois, in Journal of Proceedings 64th Annual Meeting, Illinois State 
Teachers' Association, 1917, pages 87, 88. 



118 

mind of every citizen in a republic, is the common property of society, and 
constitutes the basis of its strength and happiness; it is tlierefore considered 
the peculiar duty of a free government, like lOurs, to encourage and' extend 
the improvement and cultivation of the intellectual energies of the whole." 

The preamble reflects the general type of the famous Ordinance of 
the Northwest Territory, of 1787 : 

"Religion, morality and knowledge, being necessary to good government 
and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall for- 
ever be encouraged." 

Mr. Blair, in the article quoted from, suggests that there are "strong 
suggestions" that Governor Coles " had much to do" with the writing of 
the law, adding that its preamble "bears internal evidence of the magic 
touch of his pen." If Coles was the author, he allowed it to pass with a 
discrimination against the blacks. But is there any reason why Duncan 
should not have written the bill ? Throughout his whole life, as a youth 
in Kentucky, as a young man in Illinois, as State Senator, Congressman 
and Governor, he was always interested in the question of education. 

Mr. Duncan came of a family who appreciated the advantages of 
education but on account of his father's death, the war of 1812, and later 
assuming the responsibilities of the family, he missed the education at 
Yale and Transylvania that his elder brothers had received and, which 
through his personal sacrifices, his younger brothers later attained. 

There are several quotations in the Note Book started in 1818 about 
education : one of special interest : "It is the want of equal education 
that makes the great difference between man and man : and the bar that 
divides the vulgar man from the gentleman is not so much a sense of 
superior birth, as a feeling of difference, a consciousness of different 
habits, Avays of thinking and manners, the result of opposite situations." 

In 1829, the Illinois Intelligencer mentions a meeting in New York 
"for the purpose of devising means to aid Illinois College. It seems 
that our representative in Congress General Duncan and the Eev. Mr. 
Ellis were able to hold out such inducements as- have enlisted the feelings 
of some of the wealthiest citizens of New York in favor of the best in- 
terests of our State. A proposition was made to the non-resident pro- 
prietors of land in Illinois."^ Mention is made later of the contribution 
of $900 from "eight gentlemen from New York who own lands in this 
State." 

Hon. Joseph Gillespie whites of knowing Mr. Duncan personally: 
"He was a staunch friend of education and gave that subject his constant 
support. He believed it w'as better to govern the country through the 
schools ihan the courthouses, the jails and the penitentiaries."- 

Eev. Dr. Edward Beecher of Illinois College, of which Mr. Duncan 
was trustee, wrote of his interest in education : "I regarded with deep 
interest his life and influence as a stateman, and in all the relations of 
social life my feelings toward him were those of absolute confidence in 
his integrity and in his wisdom as a counsellor in every good work, as 
well as in his energy as a worker in the great cause of education in all 
its departments."^ 

^ Illinois Intelligencer, December 12, 1829. 

^ Recollections of Early Illinois and her Noted Men, Hon. Joseph Gillespie. 
Chicag^o Historical Society, 1880. 

* Letter, May 12, 1885, quoted by .Julia Duncan Kirby, Biographical Sketch 
of Joseph Duncan, page 66. 



119 

While ill Congress, 'Mr. Duncan, in his speeches on the })ub]ic hmds 
question, constant!}' referred to the benefits of education and of the j'ub- 
lic school S3'stem, especially in the pioneer states. 

And there is contemporaneous evidence that Duncan Avrote the law. 
In the anonvnious life, written in 1840 and printed in the Illinoian 
Januarv 19, 1844:, occurs this passage: 

"He will be regarded by many of the rising generation of Illinois as a 
benefactor and as an instrument in the hands of Providence in improving 
their morality and intelligence — for he was the author of the first law for 
a public scbool ever enacted in the State, to which he wrote the following 
preamble, to wit: — " (here follows the preamble). 

This early life calls attention to the unpopularity of the law among 
certain classes who objected to the tax feature. Duncan is reported to 
have closed one defense with : "If it was wrong for a free o-overnment 
sustained by the intelligence of the people to take care that all are edu- 
cated, then he confessed he had done wrong and labored under a delusion. 
If so he could only pray as Cicero did in relation to the immortality of 
the soul that all mankind might labor under the same delusion." 

The most important evidence that Mr. Duncan wrote the bill- is that 
he quotes its preamble as his own in his passage as Governor in 1836 : 

"In all ages, and under every circumstance, education has decided the 
relative greatness of men and nations. Placed beyond its genial influence, 
man becomes a savage, and a nation a wandering band of lawless depredators. 
Education, under all forms of government, constitutes the first principle of 
human happiness; and especially it is important in a country where the 
sovereignty is vested in the people. Entertaining such views in 1825, while 
a member of the Senate, I submitted, (in a preamble, to a bill, for the estab- 
lishment of free schools) a sentiment, and still considering it sound and 
just, I beg leave to quote the following extract: [Here follows the preamble 
as above.] 

"Since then I have reflected much on the subject, and am more fully 
convinced that such a policy is perfectly consistent with the rights and in- 
terest of every citizen, and that it is the 'only one calculated to sustain our 
democratic republican institutions; in fact, general education is the only 
means by which the rich and the poor can be placed on the same level, and by 
which intelligence and virtue can be made to assume its proper elevation 
over ignorance and vice." 

It is inconceivable from a general knowledge of the character of Mr. 
Duncan that he should claim credit for something in which he had no 
part. 

It is much more likely that the enthusiastic, energetic, young Sena- 
tor took the suggestion of the highly educated, reserved Governor and 
worked up the law to the honor of Illinois. There was a long friendship 
between Governor Coles and Mr. Duncan, even through an election in 
which Coles had been defeated for Congress by Duncan. As late as April 
10, 1836. Mr. Duncan in a letter describes stopping to see Governor Coles 
in Pliiladelphia where he had removed. 

Ford gives an explanation of why this law was not continued that is 
a curious illustration of the point of view of the pioneer — quite different 
from a century later: 

"Doth of these laws worked admirably well. [The other was a road tax]. 
The roads were never, before or since, in such good repair, and schools 
flourished in almost every neighborhood. But it appears that these valuable 
laws were in advance of the civilization of the times. They were the subject 
of much clamourous opposition. The very idea of a tax, though to be paid 



1-30 

in labor as before, was so hateful, that even the poorest men preferred to 
work five days in the year on the roads rather than to pay a tax of twenty- 
five cents, or even no tax at all. For the same reason they preferred to pay 
all that was necessary for the tuition of their children, or to keep them in 
ignorance, rather than to submit to the mere name of a tax by which their 
wealthier neighbors bore the blunt of the expense of their education."' 

The Coininittee on Military affairs, with ilr. Duncan as chairman, 
which had boon called npon to draw up a militia law, reported "an act 
for the org-anization and government of the militia." This was finally 
passed January 19, 1827, was agreed to by the House, and ordered 
printed with the rules of inspection and review, and the articles of war.- 
Duncan's military experience through the War of 1812 and his services 
as Major General of the State Militia of Illinois, qualified him to be 
of great service in this important field of legislation. He wanted the 
militia organized for efficiency and for this reason the staff officers should 
be selected by the field officers and not appointed either by the Governor 
or Legislature. He, therefore, objected to certain appointments by the 
Governor.^ 

The State Senate in those days consisted of only eighteen men and 
in a new state they had to pass on a great variety of subjects. Duncan, 
although a young man and new member, took an active part in all the 
proceedings of both sessions of the Leg^islature during his term as Sena- 
tor. The Public School and Military bills were only two of many. He 
also had opportunity to act on the repairs of the State House, on the 
incorporation of the Illinois & Michigan Canal Company, on appropria- 
tions, on drawing up a digest of "the most important laws of the state" 
(for which the committee was allowed legal talent), on the leasing of 
seminary lands, on an act to establish "the ISTorthern, Western, Southern, 
Eastern and Central Academies of Illinois," on compelling the contrac- 
tors to cause the cornice or water spouts of the State House "to be 
finished as to conduct water off the walls," on the naming of Jo Daviess 
County "to perpetuate the memory of Colonel Joseph Hamilton Daviess, 
who fell in the battle of Ti,ppecanoe," and on the question of the survey 
of the Xorthern boundary of the state. 

After the close of the first session of the Senate which lasted from 
Xovember, 1824, to January, 1825, Duncan apparently made a trip to 
the East as his diary while in Congress refers to his having been in Wash- 
ington at the time of the inauguration of President John Quincy Adams, 
(Mar. 4, 1825). His eyes may have already been turned toward the 
lialls of Congress. 

During this summer he also made a trip, at his own expense, to the 
northern part of Illinois to obtain first-hand information on the question 
of the Illinois-Michigan canal,- a subject on which he was called upon 
to act both as committeeman and senator, and which later absorbed so 
much of his attention as Congressman and Governor. 

The Fourth of July, 1825, was celebrated in Vandalia by a dinner 
at the hotel of "Messrs. Thomas and Dickerson," at which Governor 
Coles presided as President, assisted by E. Iv. ^McLaughlin. Governor 

1 History of Illinois. Ford, page 58. 
= Senate .Tonrnal, .Tan. 19, 25. 1827. 
3 Senate Journal. Feb. 15, 1827. 
^Anonymous Life of Joseph Duncan, 1840. ' 



121 

Coles responded to the toast "Our Free Institutions," and General Dun- 
can tu '•Washington and Bolivar the Patriots of tAvo Centuries, may the 
finale of the latter be as glorious as that of the former." Two of tlia 
thirteen toasts were to Henry Clay. Some of the others were : "The 
Cross must triumph over the Cresent and Liberty over Despotism,'' "To 
the memory of George Eogers Clarke," "The Will of the People, Let 
the Servant who Disobeys Tremble," "General Jackson, May he be our 
next President, Daniel P. Cook to the contrary, notwithstanding." 

The following month Duncan was to annoimce himself as a candi- 
date for Congress. When the second session of the Legislature met, 
December, 18,26, Duncan had already been elected to Congress but he 
continued to do his full share of the business of the Senate, resigning 
February 19, 1827, at the close of the session. 

CHAPTEE III. 

MoiBER OF Congress From Illinois. 
1827-1834. 

In August, 1826, Daniel P. Cook was a candidate for re-election to 
Congress. He had been first elected in 1819, when he was only about 25 
years old and he had continued to be the sole representative of Illinois 
in Congress for four terms, while his father-in-law, jSTinian Edwards, 
had been one of the two LTnited States Senators from Illinois during the 
same period. Together, with their friends, they had dominated Illinois 
politics. Cook was a young man of pleasing personalit}-, with the confi- 
dence of politicians and statesmen, both in Washington and Illinois, and 
with the promise of a brilliant future. As early as 1817, President ]\Ion- 
roe had sent him to London, on a special mission inviting John Quincy 
Adams, then minister to England, to become Secretary of State, this 
leading to a friendship with ]\Ir. Adams. In Congress, Cook had served 
on the Committee on Public Lands and later on the Ways and Means 
Conunittee. He had secured a grant of government lands in aid of the 
proposed Illinois-Michigan Canal. Several of his acts in Congress, how- 
ever, had been criticized in Illinois. At the time of the Presidential 
contest in 1824, he had as sole congressman cast the vote of the state for 
Adams, this practically deciding the election. The state had, in regular 
election, given two electoral votes for Jackson and one for Adams. Cook 
had said he would follow the clearly expressed desire of the voters, but 
as there were four candidates and Adams, Jackson and Clay ran close 
on the popular vote, no one receiving a majority. Cook defended himself 
by declaring that there was no clear expression. On the land question 
Cook and his father-in-law, Senator Edwards, were both accused of 
opposing the reduction in the price of land, a matter of vital interest 
in a pioneer state. The old price was $2 an acre, 50 cents cash and the 
balance in five years. Cook and Edwards opposed the bill making the 
price $1.25, all cash, on the ground that it did away with the credit 
feature.^ There was also a growing feeling that too much infiuence was 
in the hands of Edwards, Cook and Pope, constituting what was called 
"a family of rulers."- On January 28, 1826, Cook wrote to Edwards: 

^ Pease, Centennial History of Illinois, page 104. 
''Washburne: Edwards Papers, pagre 255. 



122 

"Mr. Clay told me that the President wanted to send me abroad. This I 
shall prefer but would not like to do anything until I am elected again 
and 1 wish a large majority, if it can be had."^ This family question, 
influenced by Edwards' plan of campaign for the governorship at the 
same time, had its effect on Cook's chances. 

All these things were preparing the way for a new figure to enter 
into national politics. The old opponents of Cook apparently felt that 
it was useless to oppose him. He had previously beaten McLean, Kane 
and Bond, powerful factors in Illinois life. The election of 182G was in 
danger of going by default, when, according to William H. Brown,- a 
contemporaiy, "the people of the State were astonished at the temerity 
of a young gentleman, then but little known, in announcing himself as a 
competitor with Mr. Cook for this office." This was Joseph Duncan, 
state senator from Jackson county. "His chances of success," Brown 
goes on, "were apparently hopeless; and it is supposed that a betting 
man * * * would not have risked one to one hundred dollars upon 
his election. He canvassed the State with diligence and assiduity 
* * * He was unaccustomed to public speaking, and in this respect 
compared very disadvantageously with Mr. Cook. Yet he had a faculty 
of presenting his ideas in a plain and simple way, easily understood 
by the masses, and to a great extent effective in such a population as 
then constituted the state * * *. The old opponents of Mr. Cook, 
of course, united upon him. As a candidate, he was a perfect God-send 
to them. If he failed in his election, it would be attributed not to the 
weakness of the party, but to the absence of all claims on the part of 
Gen. Duncan to such a position." 

Of Mr. Duncan's canvass it was said: "His [Duncan's] speeches, 
devoid of ornament, though short, were full of good sense. He made a 
diligent canvass of the State, Mr. Cook being much hindered bv the 
date of his health."=^ 

Probably Duncan's "unassuming manner" alluded to at the time of 
his death by his fellow citizens, united with his independent spirit which 
held him aloof from alliance with any faction or political party, were the 
real reasons why he had not been considered a formidable opponent. 

On the other side, Duncan had been steadily growing in favor with 
the people of Illinois. According to Governor Ford, his political oppon- 
ent in later years, Duncan's character was such as "to win the esteem and 
affections of his fellow-citizens. He had not been long a citizen of this 
State, before he was elected major-general of the militia, and then a 
State Senator, where he distinguished himself * * * by being the 
author of the first common school law which was ever passed in this 
State." He had a brilliant record in the War of 1812. He was more- 
over at this time, before the development of Jackson's later policies, a 

^ Letter in Chicago Historical Society coUections. 

= History of lUinois and Life and Times of Ninian Edward*: 'iv X'lip" W. 
Edwards, page 260. A memoir of Cook by Mr. Brown occupies pages 253-273 of 
the Edwards History. 

3 Davidson and Stuve : History of Illinois, pase 338. [Tn connr-rtion with th-^^r. 
references to Mr. Duncan as a speaker, I find a note made of an interview in 1896 
with an old cousin, Mrs. Jane Duncan Snow, daughter of General James M. Dun- 
can, in which .■'he savs : "Joseph Duncan had a great power in speaking. He gave 
an address at Elm Grove, on the election of Henry Clay, in pouring rain, three 
hours, and people would have stayed all night. He was plain but powerful speaker 
and had a talent for making himself popular — like Lincoln." — E. D. P.] 



123 

"thorough Jackson man/' being "attached to General Jackson from an 
admiration of his character and tlie glory of liis military achievements.'''^ 
Duncan well represented the pioneer spirit of the west, but his popularity 
must have been based on his worth and sincerity, or he would not have 
been kept in office continuously for over fourteen years. 

Joseph Duncan had announced himself a candidate for Congress in 
August, 1825, a year before the election. - 

Duncan received 6,322 votes to Cook's 5,G19, with 824 votes going 
to a third candidate, James Turney. The result was received with sur- 
prise and amazement by Cook's friends who had difficulty in picturing 
another man occupying his seat in Congress. A contemporary letter 
expresses this feeling: "What will the old members of Congress say 
when D. [Duncan] is seen to rise (if he ever should be so unfortunate) 
in the place of C. [Cook]. They must believe us madmen and fools."^ 
On the other hand, Mr. Brown, the author of the memoir of Cook, says : 
"It is but just to General Duncan to say that his constituents were; 
happily disappointed in his subsequent development of talents and tact, 
rendering him a worthy successor to our second representative."* "Gen- 
eral Duncan," he continues in a footnote, "remained in Congress until 
1834, having been elected Governor in that year. Before this time his 
original supporters had left him and he was sustained mainly by Mr. 
Cook's old friends." 

When Mr. Duncan took his seat in Congress in 1827, John Quincy 
Adams was President. The young Illinoisan had been present at Adam's 
inauguration in 1825 and in his diary later he contrasts the military 
parade of that inauguration with the simplicity of Jackson's to the 
advantage of the latter. There was an unusual group of men at the 
Capital at the time — Webster, Clay, Calhoun, Benton and others. 

Duncan, being the sole representative from Illinois in Congress from 
1827 to 1833, was especially interested in the matters that concerned the 
west. The Congressional Debates show that all his speeches directly or 
indirectly deal with policies that affected the new and growing part of the 
country — land, internal improvements, protection of settlers, etc. Even 
his speech on the United States Bank dwelt largely on its usefulness in 
developing the west. The land question was his special interest and he 
became an active member of the Committee on Public Lands, a position 
he held during his four terms in Congress. It must be remembered that 
many of the great questions to be solved involved the development of the 
territory west of the Alleghenies and little knowledge of this region could 
be expected from eastern congressmen. In 18'25, Senator McLean writes: 
"I heard Webster observe better than a year ago that King had no idea 
that the country west of the Alleghany formed any part of the United 
States. * * * There was much truth in the remark."^ From this 
new region, on account of the spare population, the few states sent a com- 
paratively small number of Congressmen. Each one of these Congress- 

' Ford, History of Illinois, pa.ges 75 and 169. 

=> Illinois Intellig-encer, Aug-. 19, 1825. 

3 Letter of Joseph M. Street to Governor Edwards, Shawneetown, July 28, 1827, 
in Chicago Historical Society collections. 

■• Brown. Memoir of Cook, in Edwards History of Illinois, page 266. 

5 Letter of John McLean to Governor Edwards 25 April, 1825. Chicago His- 
torical Society Collections. 



124 

men had to be most active in reiDiesenting the interest of his section of 
the country — the Debates of Congress sliow that Duncan performed his 
duty. 

His first motion was on February 18, 1828, in connection with the 
pay of the llliiiuis and Michigan Militia on account of the recent Indian 
disturbances. 

Coming fresh from the frontier, Mr. Duncan made his first real 
speech April 1, 1828, in introducing a resolution for mounted volunteers 
for the better protection of western settlers. The resolution read as 
follows : 

"Resolved, That the Committee on Military Affairs be instructed to in- 
quire into the expedience of attaching to the Army of the United States, 
eight companies of mounted volunteer gun-men, to be stationed on the West- 
ern frontier of the United States, and of disbanding from the present peace 
establishment, one regiment of infantry." 

On the resolution he spoke as follows : 

"Mr. Duncan said he considered the change in the army which was con- 
templated by the resolution he had submitted, was one of very great import- 
ance, and especially so to the settlers on the Western frontier of the United 
States, who had so often suffered for want of a more efficient protection from 
the armies of the United States. He said it was a fact well known, that the 
Indians do not dread an army of foot soldiers, or any number of troops 
stationed in the forts on the line; that small parties of Indians were fre- 
quently known to pass by those forts with impunity, and commit the most 
shiocking outrages upon the defenceless citizens, and make their escape un- 
hurt. 

He said he was aware that the House would receive with reluctance, any 
proposition to make a material change in an important branch of the Gov- 
ernment, without the most conclusive proof of the necessity or propriety of 
such a change, in consequence of which, be had written to General Gaines, 
and Governor Cass upon the subject, knowing them both to be intimately 
acquainted with every thing which relates to the defence of our Western 
frontier. He said he had received their answers; and moved that the cor- 
respondence with them be printed; which was agreed to."^ 

The resolution was adopted, but as Mr. Duncan had to bring up the 
same subject at several later sessions of Congress, it appears to have 
taken time to secure action. 

On May 13, 1828, Mr. Duncan married Elizabeth Caldwell Smith 
of Xew York City. She was a granddaughter of Eev. James Caldwell 
of Xew Jerse}', Chaplain in the Eevolutionary Army who was killed 
shortly after his wife, Hannah Ogden, had been deliberately shot by the 
Hessians under the command of the British. Their daughter, Hannah 
Ogden Caldwell, married James E. Smith, of Xew York City. Mr. 
Smith had come to this country as a lad from Kirkcudbright, Scotland, 
and by energy and ability had become a successful merchant in New 
York City. He evinced his shrewd business ability by buying property 
along Broadway up to and beyond Thirty-fourth Street. He lived in 
Pearl Street and had a summer home in Greenwich near what is now 
Washington Square. He drew up a remarkable will trying to entail 
the property till the youngest grandchild (which would have been Mrs. 
Julia Duncan Kirby of Jacksonville) should be of age. 

Miss Smith, after the death of her mother made her home in Wash- 
ington, D. C, with her sister Mrs. Matthew St. Clair Clarke, whose hus- 

1 Congressional Debates, 20 Congress, 1 Session. 




^ ^ . m^^Tut^U^fi'oiX. 



125 

baud was for many years clerk of the House of Representatives and their 
home was a popular social center. 

In her reminiscences^ Mrs. Uuncan writes of studying French, logic, 
music and dancing, a curious preparation for her future life in the west. 
She also naively mentions that she was quite "a belle^^ and gives the 
names of her swains. These glimpses are rather refreshing as her mature 
diaries are mostly taken up with texts of sermons ! Throughout life, 
in spite of being more or less an invalid, she was exceedingly fond of 
society. 

Mrs. Duncan's reminiscences continue : "I was invited to President 
John Q. Adams to dinner, when I wore a crimson silk [dress], hair in 
three puffs on the top and three puffs on each side of the head — High 
tortoise shell comb. I tell this to show the fashion of the day. Em- 
broidered silk stockings and black satin slippers. I was introduced to 
General Duncan from Kaskaskia, Illinois, by William Carroll of Carroll- 
ton. Henry Clay at dinner told me of his [Duncan's] goodness to his 
mother — said he was not only a good looking fellow but was a good son 
and brother, having taken care of his mother and educated his sister and 
two brothers. * * *^ 

* * * ''j\fy sister, Mrs. Clarke, gave me a select Avedding. Two 
weeks after we came out to Kaskaskia to visit his sister, Mrs. Linn. His 
mother, Mrs. Moore, lived with her. His brother Mat and his wife lived 
at Fountain Bluff where my husband owned a saw mill. Mrs. Colonel 
Mather lived there at that time. Mrs. Conn lived near there. 

"My husband and I rode on horseback to the river to take the boat 
to go and visit General Jackson at the Hermitage, Nashville, Tennessee. 
But just as we got in sight, the boat pushed off' and left us. As my 
husband was electioneering and was limited as to time, we were never 
able to make the promised visit. 

"^Ye crossed the mountains in a stage. Steamboat at Wheeling to 
Cairo, from Cairo to St. Louis in company with Mr, and Mrs. James K. 
Polk of Tennessee, little thinking he would ever fill the President's chair, 
such a common place man. In St. Louis, Mrs. General Ashley invited 
us to her house. We spent a delightful week there. * * * St. Louis 
was settled by the French. x\t that time they owned most of the business 
part of the city and the streets were narrow and dirty and the weather 
was warm and I was glad to take a boat to Kaskaskia. We went to 
Fountain Bluff on horseback, Mr. Duncan's sister, Polly Ann, going by 
boat with the provisions. The boat was delayed and we reached there 
to find no one in the house but an old colored man servant, who my 
husband left me in charge of and rode awav to the landing with the 
horses to meet his sister. It grew dark before they returned and I asked 
for a candle. Found to my dismay there was not one in the house. He 
said Missus would bring the tallow and he would soon dip some. That 
evening was as dark and frightful to me as the Dark Day was to our 
Fathers, and from that night I was never caught without both candles 

' Copy is preserved in Mrs. Julia Duncan Kirbv's handwriting dated "Jack- 
sonville, Illinois, September 28, 1875." 

Introduction ; ** "j have thought it would not be without interest some day 
to my little niece (Bessie Duncan Putnam) to read what I shall be able to write 
for her of her Grand Mother's life.*** Your Grand Mother says, I was born in Pearl 
Street, X. Y. City March 28, 1808, •' etc. 



12 G 

and matches with me. And although a troublesome thing to always 
think of once it saved the lives of a whole party in crossing the moun- 
tains ( which by the way I did 8 times in a stage or private carriage), 
the driver got oil" the road. ^Vllen he called out he wished that nervous 
woman whom he had scolded for carrying a candle would hand it out 
that he might see w^here he was. When I did so he found he was within 
an inch of a frightful precipice. Another step of the horses would have 
plunged us hundreds of feet below.'^ 

Mrs. Duncan stayed with her husband's relatives at Fountain Bluff 
and at Vandalia while Mr. Duncan electioneered throughout the State. 
Ninian Edwards speaks in a handbill of August 1 "that General Duncan 
posted through Belleville with much haste." 

During the summer he visited the lead mines about Galena near 
which there had been trouble with the Indians the year before. It was 
supposed that these mines were in Illinois but as the official government 
surveys had not been extended that far there was some doubt as to 
whether the mines were in Illinois or Michigan Territory. On July 10, 
1828, Mr. Duncan writes to his wife from the '"Steam Boat Indiana" 
of the Fourth of July celebration when a party of "42 ladies and 53 
gentlemen from Galena visited an Indian village, near what is called 
Labukes [Dubuque?] mines where we saw a large number of Indians 
spent a few hours made them some presents and returned. I never have 
witnessed a celebration of the Fourth of July with as much pleasure as 
I did this, everything conspired to make it interesting except your ab- 
sence. The fact alone of witnessing more than forty intelligent and 
accomplished ladies chiefly married, who had followed the fortunes of 
their husbands five hundred miles in the wilderness and in an Indian 
country was enough of itself to create feelings of the warmest admiration. 
* * * The people in the mining country are generally intelligent 
and enterprising and appear to have assembled from the four quarters 
of the globe and as each depends upon his own industry for success there 
is no rivalry amongst them of course more than usual cordiality. 

"I left Mr. Davidson o\\v Greencastle friend at the mines. We 
ascended the river in the same boat. I shall send this letter to St. Louis 
and may write you again from Alton when I land, should nothing inter- 
fere I will be at Vandalia about the 16 of this month and shall pass 
through Greene, Morgan, Sangamon and Mt. Gomery counties on my 
way." 

Later in the summer, 1828, after a few days at Jacksonville, which 
was to become their future home, Mr. and Mrs. Duncan returned to 
Washington for the Second Session of Congress. Mrs. Duncan's papers 
continue : "Mrs. Mather took us in their carriage to Carhde several days 
journey two nights and two days. We stopped for the night at a log 
cabin Wt one room, so four of us slept in one room^ not an unusual 
occurrence in those days. At Carlyle we took the stage, went through 
the State to Indiana over cordoroy roads through Ohio and Michigan 
to Cleveland. The lake was so rough and the boat so poor we coasted the 
lake in a covered wagon to Buffalo. Through Xew York State in a 
stage to Albany. In a steamboat from there to New York then stages 
to Washington City. We were three weeks in reaching my sister's house. 
Mv husband was re-elected to Congress was the reason for our return. 



127 

In ISTovember the weather was beautiful. It Avas a rough journey. I 
felt I was going home. I never liked the west and was so glad to get 
back." 

In this session the only speech of ]\|r. Duncan recorded in the Con- 
gressional Debates was on the question of the survey of the northern 
boundary of Illinois, involving the lead mines he had visited the pre- 
ceding summer. There were two bills, one appointing a commissioner 
to run the boundary, the other assigning the work to the U. S. Engineer 
Corps. Mr. Duncan urged prompt action, saying : 

"Much interest was felt on the subject in Illinois, particularly in the 
northern part of that State, where rmore than 20,000 people were now settled 
in the vicinity of the lead mines. Great inconvenience was continually 
sustained, for want of having this line definitely settled. A portion of these 
lead mines was claimed by Michigan and by Illinois, and it was all-important 
that the controversy as to jurisdiction should be brought to an end as 
speedily as possible."^ 

Mr. Duncan said he understood that "Colonel McCrea, surveyor 
general now designated in the bill, was a most competent engineer, very 
scientific, and a practical man, who enjoyed, and he believed justly, a 
high reputation." However, the bill was laid on the table. ]\Ir. Duncan 
through his Congressional career watched the interests of the lead mines. 
In ]\Iarch, 1829, for instance, his diary shows he opposed a purely 
political appointment as superintendent. 

In 1828, Andrew Jackson was elected President. Duncan was evi- 
dently an ardent supporter of him at this election. Though Jackson was 
nearly thirty years older there is a curious similarity in the public careers 
of the two westerners ; both had fought and distinguished themselves in 
the war of 1812; both had been Major General of MiKtia in their re- 
spective states; both had served in Congress. While Jackson was in the 
United State Senate, Duncan was in the State Senate. They evidently 
knew each other from the mention in Mrs. Duncan's diary of the in- 
tended visit to the Hermitage. 

From Mr. Duncan's diary begun just before Jackson's inauguration 
it is apparent he looked forward with anticipation to Jackson's presi- 
dency. The diary gives a contemporaneous view of this important 
period and is published entire in the appendix. From the first entry it 
is evident that Duncan disapproved of the men surrounding the General 
and evidently felt he was liable to be unduly influenced. 

"1829 

Feb. ( ) 

Various applications for me to support D. Green for Public Printer. 
Could not consent to do so, knew too much of him. Believed and told his 
friends that they would soon get tired of him, he was arrogant, dictatorial 
and possessed no fixed principles. General Jackson arrived in Washington 
City. Major Eaton met him on the road and escorted him in." 

Mr. Duncan called on the President several times and on February 
21st called again to introduce a friend. 

"Saw Mr. Tazewell with the President, the only suitable companion I 
had met. Saw Capt. Taylor of the U. S. Army. Says he heard Genl. Jackson 

was to call that day upon President A that he met Genl. D. G. and 

told him that he understood that Genl. J. was to call on Mr. A. that day. 
Genl. D. G. said that he would not believe the report and that he would go 
and see, if it was so he would very soon put a stop to it. Arrogance enough. 

' Cong. Debates — 20 Cong., 2 Session. 



128 

Disgusted to see W. M. L. Genl. D. G., J. P. V., etc., constantly with Genl. J. 
to the exclusion of his or the countries friends. 

"Feby. 23rd. From the persons who surround the Genl. I fear he is 
to be improperly influenced in his first appointments. The Central Com- 
mittee appear to consider him their own game. Some of them are constantly 
with him or about the doors, so I am informed for I do not know them all 
by sight. I called to see Genl. J. at 7 o'clock in the evening with two friends, 
M. S. C.^ and Lt. Johnson. The president expressed much pleasure at seeing 
us. Said he was more gratified to see us at that hour, as Duff, as he called 
him, had presumed to set his hours for him to receive his visitors, but he 
said that would all be right as he had ordered Green to correct the statement 
in his paper regulating his hours for receiving visitors. What e.xcessive pre- 
sumption was the first feeling I had. but it is all right, as it must very soon 
place this character in his proper hole." 

There are rumors aboiit the cal)inet and the various appointments. 
Then comes another interview with the President in which "he says lie 
will remove no officer on account of his political opinions unless he has 
used his office for the purpose of electioneering. He appears liberal 
and I agree perfectly with his views." 

AYe can imagine Mr. Duncan's rejoicing over this assurance as 
through life he believed in an efficient civil service. Unfortunately Jack- 
son did not maintain the high standard expressed in this remark but soon 
inaugurated sweeping removals from office. 

"4th March: Attended the President's inauguration. He walked from 
Gadsbies Hotel with his hat off, in a great crowd. Having a fine view from 
the west room in the clerk's office in the Capitol, I could see him & the 
vast crowd at every point until they ascended the great steps which enter 
the Capitol. Saw nothing that I disliked but the conspicuous station and part 
acted by the Central Committee. Stood near the President when he read his 
address. Was struck with the profound attention of the multitude while he 
read, especially as I am convinced that three-fourths of all present could not 
have heard the sound of his voice at least so as to distinguish one word. 
The expression of the p&ople on his first appearance was very fine and showed 
that he has a strong hold on their affections. The number present is vari- 
ously estimated, opinions of intelligent persons vary from 15 to 30 thousand. 
No parade of the military present except one or two oompauies and they were 
very far off. I think they were from Alexandria as I saw one of them 
coming from that direction. With this I was much pleased. I am opposed 
to great parades and especially military parades on such an occasion. Had 
rather see the honors done after the service is performed, but in this District 
where most of the people are servants or connected with the government 
[it] is natural they should worship the rising sun. I was forcibly struck 
with the contrast between Mr. Adams entering on and closing his official 
duties as President. I was present in 1825 when his inauguration took place. 
It was a fine day and from the moment I first looked into the street on the 
4th of March until dark, I saw nothing but a bustle [of] people moving in 
all directions and many of them by sunrise in full military dress, and by 10 
o'clock the Avenue was crowded with armed soldiers which I took to be a 
mixture of marines, infantry and artillery of the U. S. and militia of the 
District. It was certainly the finest display I ever witnessed. Was informed 
that many of the coats had been bought to honor Genl. Lafayette. I was glad 
to hear it for the idea of their having been bought lor this occasion was too 
ridiculous. In 1829 Mr. Adams was not seen on the 4th of March and I 
suppose would not have been thought of but for a coffin hand bill that was 
circulated in the crowd announcing his death in the most digusting manner. 
It produced general disgust. Did not go to the Palace to see the President 
receive his friends after the inauguration. Understood that the crowd was 



' Matthew St. Clair Clarke, Mr. Duncan's brother-in-law and Clerk of the 
House of Representatives. 



129 

very great, all sorts of folks, some on fine satin chairs and Sofas, mahogany 
tables, &c., with their feet. A report was circulated that the gold & silver 
spoons were stolen on this occasion, I believe it was not true. 

The city is filled with office seekers. There is general disappointment 
in the appointment of the cabinet. Clay says that they charged Mr. A. with 
making a bargain, that he thinks Genl. J. had better have made one." 

The State appointments came np for discussion between the two 
Senators and the one Eepresentative. McLean and Duncan "opposed 
removals except for some good cause other than political. * * * 
Kane rather differed in opinion about removals." 

The question of removals from office for political purpose was the 
cause of the first strain on Duncan's allegiance to Jackson. From the 
time in the State Senate when he had voted for Birkbeck on account of 
his efficiency — consistently through life he refused to concur in what be- 
came a political tenet of the Democratic party of that period. The 
ruling passion of Duncan's political career seems to have been an efficient 
civil service. It has not been possible to find a trace of inconsistency 
in the career of Joseph Duncan in the stand he then took on the ques- 
tion of removals from office for other than inefficiency and which he held 
till the day of his death. It was the chief charge he held against Van 
Buren in his joint debate with Douglas in 1840 in Springfield. He had 
refused offers of the Jackson administration to appoint relatives if he 
would recommend them. "This I cannot consistently do as I am un- 
willing to ask or receive a favor wdiich would place me under obligations 
to the executive power of the government while I am a representative of 
the people." 

His cousin, James Finley, writes on January 24th, 1824: "In 
speaking of the appointment of your brother you .say that it was made 
in opposition to your recommendation. This, all who are acquainted 
with your uniform policy will readily believe." 

At this time Congressman Duncan was active in connection with the 
Illinois and Michigan Canal : 

"March, 1829. * * * Called to see the President & Secretary of War 
about getting the Illinois & Lake Michigan Canal located & the route from 
the Illinois River to Lake Erie examined. Saw Genl. Gratiott, got him to 
go with me to the War Dept., find him very friendly to my views and to the 
West. Secretary thinks the law does not authorize him to send engineers 
to locate. Refer to the case in Indiana under the same law: He appears 
disposed to do right and says if the favor has been done to Indiana it should 
also be extended to Illinois, promises it shall be ordered. 

Later in his congressional career considering this as more than a 
State affair, he spoke on January 4, 1831, on the National government 
assisting in financing the improvement. From the vantage ground of 
90 years, we can see that the advocates of the canal were optimistiG 
about its cost and importance.^ It is to be remembered that there were 

^ It is now more than a hundred year.s since the canal between T.a1--e Aticbiean 
and the Illinois River was definitely proposed. It has been the subject of endless 
debate in both Spring-field and Washington. It was built, served a useful purpose 
for many years before the railroads were fully developed, and in time became neg- 
lected. With the construction of the Chicago drainage canal and the revived in- 
terest in waterway transportation it has in recent years again come into the lime- 
light of debate in Springfield and Washington. With the appropriation of $20,000,000 
for a modern waterway connecting Lake Michigan and the Mississippi River it may 
again become a factor- in commerce as well as in debate. 

— 9 H S 



130 

no railroads in Illinois at this time and tlir travel was largely by water. 
The canal system was an important element in the transpoi'tation facili- 
ties of the east and was steadily spreading west. The importance of 
connecting the different parts of Illinois both for commercial and for 
future political reasons cannot be lost sight of. The south was mostly 
settled from Kentucky and the slave states while the settlers of the 
north were from Xew England. The records of Congress show that Mr. 
Duncan was a strong advocate of the canal connecting Lake Michigan 
and the Mississippi and also of a National road for the free use of the 
east and the west, and again on June 4, 1832, he urged the improvement 
of the harbors on the Great Lakes: ''Commerce upon the lakes had in- 
creased beyond all calculation, yet it was exposed to innumerable dangers 
for the want of better harbors. For the want of these improvements 
much property and many lives had been lost. On Lake Michigan a valu- 
able engineer had unhappily perished." 

On May 26, 1829, Congressman Duncan left Washington for Illinois, 
and early in July went to Kentucky, visiting relatives and attending to 
family business. He went on to Xashville, Tennessee, to visit his brother 
Thomas. At Nashville he met Colonel Wilson, an editor, who had just 
returned from Washington, and entered in his diary: 

"I asked liim if he had seen much of Geiil. Jackson while in Washington. 
He had. I inquired if he had observed any changes in his intellect. He re- 
plied that he visited Washington in consequence of having observed that the 
Genl's. mind had sunk about the death of his wife and he regretted to find 
that it was still sinking. He dreaded the news by every mail for he and the 
Genl's. friends generally fear his total [incompetence (?) ] 

In Paris, Kentuck}', he spent the time from July 30tli to August 
.12th "'rather unpleasantly owing to the political controversies among 
many o'f my old friends." He sold certain lots, including "the stone house 
<& attached ground for six hundred dollars in cotton at 15 cents per doz." 
He closed up most of the accounts, including one that recalls how he had 
helped his brothers secure an education : 

"The money or cotton received for stone house I expect to sell to pay 
my checks as I owed the debts to Garrard & Hickman on account of money 
borrowed out of bank to send my brother Thos. A. Duncan to school which 
with the interest amounts to much more than the price received for said 
house, but I never expect to make further claim for this and other monies 
I have advanced to and for my brothers." 

In 1830, Thomas Duncan, a brother, was killed in Louisiana. It 
was probably accidental, but the foUow^ing letter, written by Joseph 
Duncan from Washington to his brother. Gen. James M. Duncan who 
went south to investigate the circumstances, shows his respect for law 
and justice. Considering that he was a Kentuck'ian and had lived most 
of his life on the frontier where people acted impulsively, it seems to be 
indicative of an unusual .character. 

"Feb. 21, 1830. * * * in any event I hope you will indulge no feel- 
ings of revenge. ' If the law acquits him, leave him with his God, who has 
said, 'Vengeance is mine.' I hope you will see that he has strict justice done 
him, and will employ such council as will insure him a fair trial and if it 
shall be a punishable offence, I sincerely hope that the law may be satisfied, 
but avoid anything like persecution, and indulge no malace. * * * Even 
though this wretch has murdered our brother, I would not for the world 
do him injustice. — * * * but at the same time I hold it a duty that 
we owe ourselves, and to society, and to the memory of our beloved brother. 



131 

to see that the law shall be fairly and fully administered, and when this is 
done we should leave the rest with Providence." 

On August first. 1830, Mr. and Mrs. Duncan returned to Jackson- 
,vi]le which then became their permanent home. Mr. Duncan was re- 
elected to Congress by a large majority, receiving 13,052 votes to 4,652 
for Breese, and to 3,30T for Coles. Leaving his wife and children in 
Jacksonville' he returned to Washington alone. 

On December 18, 1830, he writes from Washington City to Mrs. 
Duncan : 

"How I would delight to be restored to our fire-side, surrounded by our 
little family. * * * All the gayety and splendid entertainments of this 
city, have no charms compared with the pleasure of such a scene, but the 
time is rapidly passing and I hope soon to meet you all in good health. 
* * * I write too often to tell you much news at a time and indeed I 
have too little intercourse and take too little interest in this city to know 
much about it." 

"Dec. 22. I dined yesterday at Mr. Wni. T. Carroll's.^ They live in fine 
style, he has a great many fine things in his house, you might know that 
however, from your knowledge of him, his wife appeal's to be very amiable. 
I dine again tomorrow with the President after which I may write you some 
news as I hope something may occur worth telling you." 

Unfortunately the letter alluded to is not with this collection. It 
was probably with the papers of political importance burned in the Chi- 
cago fire. 

"December 25. I dined yesterday with Mr. G. Dyson, in company with 
your two sisters, Mrs. Black, Mr. C. etc; that aunt of theirs is too fulsom 
for my taste altogether, she talks of nothing but learned authors, critics, 
ministers of state and her humble self.* * Tomorrow I dine with the Post 
Master General, the day before yesterday. I dined with the President and 
last night I supped with Mr. Ingham. So you [see] I am in no danger 
of starving and as Capt. Jack Nichols of the Navy would say, I have the 
run of all the kitchens in the city, more indeed than I would wish, but I do 
not let it interfere in the least with my business." 

"December 31. I have been so engaged the last two days that I have 
not written to you. * * * i fin(j my business increasing rapidly and it 
may be that I will write less frequently in future but if I do Sister Janet 
and Anna Maria C. [Caldwell] will make up for me. * * * It is now just 
after daylight and I am writing by candle light. I am uneasy about the 
horses, etc., at home. I fear Mr. Guin will not feed and water them well, 
you must get Mariah to look to them and see that they are regularly attended 
to. I expect to go to the British Minister's tonight. I will send you the 
invitation as you are invited. how I would delight to have the pleasure 
of your company even to go to a heartless levee for a single night but how 
much greater would be the happiness of being restored to the bosom of 
my dear little family at our own fireside. * * * Tomorrow is the great 
day at the President's so of course I must make my appearance." 

Trouble that could not be overlooked began with the Indians, under 
Blackhawk in 1831. They returned to their old village in Eock Eiver 
Yalley near the present city of Bock Island, where it is said they drove 
ofF the settlers, killed the cattle and threatened the people 'with death if 
they remained. The land had been previously ceded to the government 
and the settlers protested to Governor Reynolds. He referred the matter 
to General Gaines, in command of the U. S. troops at Jefi^erson Barracks, 
Missouri, offering the aid of the State troops. General Gaines asked 
for 600. On May 27, 1831 the Governor issued a call for volunteers to 
assemble at Beardstown on June 10, The response was enthusiastic, it 

^A groomsman at their wedding in 1S28. 



132 

was a busy time on the farms but 1,500 men, mostly on horseback, pre- 
sented themselves eager to defend the frontier. As they hoped to intimi- 
date the Indians and avoid bloodshed, the entire force was taken. "The 
whole brigade was put under the command of j\Iajor General Duncan of 
the State Militia. This was the largest military force which had ever 
been assembled in the State and made an imposing appearance as it 
traversed the then unbroken wilderness of prairie. * "^ * Much 
credit is undoubtedly due to Governor Eeynolds and General Duncan 
for the unprecedented quickness with M'hich the brigade Avas called out 
and oro:anized and marched to the seat of war.^ 

Under date of 18th June, 1831, Governor Eeynolds writes from 
Beardstown to Governor Edwards at Belleville : 

"We will have about fourteen hundred men ready to move against the 
Indians. There are so many that we must have a Brigade. I called Gen. 
Duncan to act as Brigadier-General. There will be an election for 2 Colonels 
and 4 Majors. I think we start about Monday next. The companies are 
divided to make about 50 or 60 men each. 

I received another letter from Gen. Gaines of the 13th inst. He advises 
to be 'vigilant' and to go 'soon.' 

I have no news to inform you of. A great spirit of harmony prevails. 

A junction was made with the U. S. troops under the command of 
General Gaines near the mouth of Eock Eiver, on the Mississippi.^ In 
the council meeting held that evening, to arrange for the attack the 
following day. General Duncan naturally accepted the statements of 
General Gaines about the topogi'aphy of the land, as the latter had been 
in this vicinity for some time. The U. S. troops went by steamer to 
Vandruff's Island in Eock Eiver where the volunteers met them. General 
Gaines' plan included attacking the Indians from both the Island and 
the bluff overlooking it. The island was a dense thicket in which the 
troops became entangled. When they finally reached the main shore, they 
found that the Indians had quietly retired during the night to the west 
bank of the Mississippi. 

The Indian village was destroyed by fire. Blackhawk and his chiefs 
signed an agreement on June 30, 1831, at Fort Armstrong "to reside 
and hunt upon their own lands, west of the Mississippi Eiver." "The 
enemy being apparently humbled and quiet restored, the army was dis- 
banded and returned home in the best of spirits, not a single person, by 
disease, accident, or otherwise, having lost his life.''* 

The Chicago American of July 18, 1842, has an interesting quota- 
tion from the Alton Telegraph : 

"Governor Duncan was at this time, [Black Hawk War] a candidate for 
election to Congress which rendered his position one of great delicacy. Under 
such circumstances men are too apt to expect indulgences. But never was 
an army commanded with more sternness. He performed his whole duty 
himself, and compelled every office and soldier to do the same. * * *. 

This campaign was in the spring of the year at a rainy, disagreeable 
season, over an uninhabited portion of the country, full of streams, which 
the army was frequently compelled to cross in the prairies, with mud banks 
and bottoms, which would have retarded its movements for many days but 

1 Ford, History of Illinois, pages 112, 115. 

- Washburne, Edwards Papers, page 572. 

'History of the War [Blackhawk] by John A. Wakefeld, page 6. 

* Davidson and Stuve, History of Illinois, p. 380. 



133 

. for the invention of a grass bridge to cross tliem, which Governor Duncan 
made by tying mowed grass in large bundles or fagots and causing a com- 
pany of men to carry a bundle and in quick succession throw them into the 
stream until it was filled; at the same moment the army commenced crossing 
rapidly so as to keep the grass pressed to the bottom. In this way he usually 
crossed his whole force over in about thirty minutes, which otherwise would 
not have been passed in twenty-four hours. 

When General Gaines was informed of the invention of these bridges, 
which had enabled Duncan to come to his relief ten or fifteen days sooner 
than he expected him, he declared, "If one of Napoleon's officers had dis- 
played such tact, it would immediately have raised him to the highest honors 
of the nation.' It was owing to the use of these grass bridges that our army 
was enabled to overtake and capture the same band of Indians when they 
Invaded the country again in 1832." [From Alton Telegraph.] 

Mr. Duncan in a speech in Congress on June 9, 1832, when the 
second Blackhawk war was in progress in Illinois, reverted to his early 
and forceful plea for mounted troops to defend the settlers on the fron- 
tier. He submitted "a letter giving some very shocking details of the 
massacres committed by the Indians upon the defenceless inhabitants,"* 
and advocated a mounted force for defending the frontier. He "firmly 
believed that all the distress and bloodshed that had just been heard of in 
Illinois would have been avoided if Congress had adopted the plan he 
then (18'28) and now suggested. The government had the power and it 
was j)i"oper that it should protect everyone of its citizens while engaged 
in their usual pursuits. On great occasions, he thought the militia 
should be relied on for the National defence but it was ruinous to any 
people engaged in civil pursuits to be compelled to defend their own 
firesides or to be required to march in defense of their neighbors, on every 
invasion of an enemy, however small their force. The militia on the 
frontier had always given the highest evidence of patriotism, by turning 
out at a moment's warning to defend the country, even though it de- 
prived them of raising a crop for the support of their families, which 
was the case last year and he did not doubt it would be so again this 
season."'^ 

The bill, embodying principles which Mr. Duncan had been urging 
since his first entry into Congress, was finally passed after being amended 
by the Senate. 

Mr. Duncan appears to be always interested in reward of bravery. 
On February 5, 1831, he supported the granting of a pension to a mail 
carrier wounded while carrying mail through the Indian country.^ (Bill 
was lost.) March, 1834, he voted with John Quincy Adams on the exten- 
sion of pension laws to revolutionary soldiers. 

On March 26, 1832, in a discussion of a bill to organize the Ordi- 
nance Department^ he offered a resolution "To extend all the other staff 
departments of the army where it ma}^ be required for the public service, 
so that each corps or department shall be perfect and distinct without 
a detail from the officers of the line, * * * to provide that no pre- 
ference be given exclusively to cadets educated at West Point in filling 
vacancies which may happen in the army, "increasing pay of non-com- 
missioned officers and soldiers and providing a bounty for serving two 
terms of five years each.'' 

1 Cong. Debates, 22 Congress, 1 Session. 
- Cong. Debates, 21 Congress, 1 Session. 
^ Cong. Debates, 22 Congress, 1 Session. 



134 

On June 1, 1832, Mr. Duncan spoke in favor of appropriating sub- 
sistence to friendly Indians who may seek refuge during the present 
Indian disturbance. "One act of hostility committeed on one of these 
friendly tribes would be sufficient to involve the whole frontier in trouble 
for years." ^ 

On March 13, 1834, on the military appropriation bill, he approved 
the policy of establishing "a line of posts with suitable stables" from 
the Arkansas Eiver to the Northern Lakes for the accommodation of the 
dragoons or mounted troops. He favored "displaying a force on the 
whole frontier at least once a year."- 

The opening of the west was making immediately necessary the ex- 
tension of the government survey. Speaking January 12th, 1831, on a 
•bill for the survey of public land, the Congi-essman from Illinois said: 

"A very large portiion of the State of Illinois was yet to be surveyed — 
only twenty-seven out of forty odd millions had been surveyed. Mr. D. spoke 
of the quality of the soil and beauty of the country in the northern section 
of Illinois,, and north of it, and the prospect of its immediate settlement 
when surveyed and brought into market. He said there was now, and had 
been for several years, a large number of citizens, estimated at near ten 
thousand, residing in the northern part of Illinois, far beyond the present: 
surveys; that an equal or greater number resided north of the State, in the 
Northwest territory, where there was not an acre of public land surveyed. 
He hoped that a statement of these facts would sufficiently show the necessity 
of extending the surveys in Illinois and Michigan." 

Mr. D. proceeded, and said, "that the whole argument of the gentleman 
(in opposition) was in favor of keeping up the price of public land, by keep- 
ing the public land out of market; which he said was a piolicy peculiarly 
favorable to the land speculator, and oppressive to the poor, who has his 
home yet to purchase. He said that a farmer, who wanted his land for his 
own use, cared but little whether it was estimated at a high or low price; 
nor did such men generally care at how Low a rate their poor neighbors 
purchased their homes, it was only those, he said, who had land to sell, 
that felt much interest about the price it bears." 

"Mr. D. believed it to be the true policy of the Government to survey all 
the lands within the States and Territories as soon as possible, and bring 
them into market. He thought it quite probable that there were enough 
settlers at this moment on the imsurveyed land, who are prepared to purchase 
their homes, to pay enough at once to defray the expense of surveying all the 
public lands yet to be surveyed in the States. He thought it was too late for 
gentlemen to succeed in an attempt to arrest the emigratiion to the West. 
People, he remarked, are now settled, in large or small bodies, in nearly 
every district of the public lands where the Indian title has been extin- 
guished; and he held it to be the duty, as well as the best policy of the 
Government, to afford them an opportunity of purchasing their homes as 
&oon as possible, and on the most favorable terms. "^ 

On February 23, 1832, Mr. Duncan spoke in a debate on surveys 
of public lands. 

"It was the settled policy of the Government to survey the public lands 
as fast as possible. The enterprising emigrants alluded to by the gentleman 
from New York (Mr. Root) were continually making farms beyond the 
surveys. It was good policy to enable them to become free holders of the 
soil and enable them to commence improvements."* 

The Illinois Eepresentative, realizing as he did, the importance of 
waterway transportation wherever available, spoke on ^lay 3, 1832 in 

1 Cong:. Debates, 22 Congress, 1 Session. 

- Cong-. Debates, 23 Congress, 1 Session. 

^ Cong. Debates, 21 Congress, 2 Session. -^ 

* Cong. Debates, 22 Congress, 1 Session. 



135 

reference to a dangerous shoal in the Mississippi Eiver, and proposed 
an amendment to the act of 182-i providing for the removal of obstruc- 
tions in the channel of the Upper Mississippi between St. Louis and 
Galena. This would include rocks and shoals as well as snags. 

In the midst of this busy session of Congress Mr. Duncan was 
selected to attend the Baltimore Convention. He regretted anything that 
would take him away from his duties as representative, as shown by the 
folloAving letter: 

House of Representatives. 
April 18, 1832. 

T. W. Smith. 

Dear Sik: You wish to Icnow whether I will attend the Baltimore Con- 
vention and intimate that your attendance will depend, upon my answer. 
Being the only representative in this house from the State, I have always 
thought the selection of myself as one of the representatives to that con- 
vention was ill-advised. This convention meets about the close of this 
session of Congress, which is the time that most of the bills are usually 
passed, and as there are many now before both houses of great interest 
to our State, it may be out of my power to attend. 

I therefore would by all means advise you to attend this convention. 
You say that more than seventy counties have met and approved my appoint- 
ment and that it is the general wish that I should attend. These facts 
impose a strong obligation upion me to go and if at all compatible with my 
other duties, and there should be a necessity for it, I intend to do so. 

With great respect, 

Your obedient servant, 

Joseph Duncan. 

The Baltimore Eepublican of May 25, 1832, gives the names of the 
delegates from Illinois at the Convention as Elias K. Kane and John M. 
Eobinson. Apparently Mr. Duncan did not attend. 

Mr. Duncan was a member of the Committee on Public Lands dur- 
ing his entire service in Congress. Benton, in the Senate, was urging 
the reduction in the price of lands to make it possible for the poorest 
settler to own land. "In this agitation lay the germs of the later home- 
stead system, as well as of the propositions to relinquish the Federal pub- 
lic lands to the states wherein they lay."^ 

In the house Mr. Duncan spoke frequently on the land question. x\s 
this is part of the history of the State, his speeches are worth preserving. 
His first one was on December 29, 1829. 

He pointed out that the grants, or donations, of land by the gov- 
ernment to the new states, consisting chiefly of the sixteenth sections 
in each township given for the use of schools to be established in the 
township, were more "justly considered as a part of the consideration 
and an inducement to the purchase of all the remaining lands in the 
township." Moreover these grants "were made upon the express condi- 
tion that those states would never tax the public lands within their limits, 
nor those sold by the General Government within five years after the 
sale. Surely this is no donation, it is a fair bargain, and the new states 
have the worst part of it, as they have given up a right which Avould be 
worth more to them now than a hundred times the quantity of land they 
have received.'" Replying to the objections that land had in some cases 

' Rise of the New West by F. J. Turner, p. 143. 



136 

been given to certain new states to assist them in making internal im- 
provements, such as roads and canals, he said: 

"That it was a fact well known to every man of common observation, 
that every valuable improvement in a country, such as a road or a canal. 
is calculated to increase the value of the lands through or near which they 
are constructed; and as the general Government owned much the largest 
part of the land in the new States, and especially where some of those im- 
provements are to be made, he thought he should hazard nothing in saying 
that, in every instance where the improvement is made, the increased value 
of the public lands occasiioued exclusively by the improvement will amount 
to ten times the value of the donation. He said that a policy which would 
be wise in an individual owning large quantities of wild land, would also be 
wise in a Government; and he appealed to any gentleman to say whether 
he wiould not consider a portion of this land well appropriated in this way, 
when there was a certainty of its hastening the sale, and increasing the 
value of the residue. 

"He said that about eighteen-twentieths of all the lands in the State he 
represented belonged to the General Government, and that his constituents 
were burdened with a heavy tax to construct roads and bridges, which, 
though necessary to their own convenience, had a direct and certain tendency 
to raise the value of all the lands over which they are made. He said 
he knew the States had no power to compel the General Government to 
contribute its part to these improvements; but he hoped that a sense of 
justice would prevent its receiving such advantage without contributing its 
full portion towards it. 

He said he believed his constituents would be satisfied with having their 
just and reasonable claims satisfied, which were, that the price should be 
reduced, and the sales so regulated as to enable all the settlers to obtain their 
homes on reasonable terms. "^ 

In the debate on the Illinois canal January 4th, 1831, he spoke on 
the public land question and the fact that no encouragement was helcli 
out to settlers to improve the land belonging to the United States. Xo 
one would venture to settle on or improve land without a hope of ever 
owning it. He continued, according to the record, in defense of the 
pioneers and ''squatters" : 

"Gentlemen in this House appeared to think that all lands of equal 
quality and situation ought to sell for the same price, but in this they were 
greatly mistaken. He said that improvements and good society gave value 
to land; if that was not the case, he asked, why were not all the wild lands 
already sold? Mr. D. said he had heard much said against squatters, as they 
are called, on the public land, but he did not hesitate in affirming that they 
had been the means of selling nine-tenths of all the land that had been sold 
by the government. He said that it was the hardy, enterprising, poor man 
that first ventured into the wilderness, and suffered all the privations and 
dangers incident to such an enterprise, who, acting as pioneers, were fol- 
lowed by the more fortunate or wealthy, and too often deprived by them of 
their homes, and driven further and further into the woods. "= 

In the first session of the Twentj-second Congi-ess, on December 27, 
1831, the Illinois representative again brought up the public land ques- 
tion especially in reference to the use of the proceeds of sales of land for 
internal improvements and for education. He asked that the Committee 
on Public Lands be instructed to inquire into the expediency of appro- 
priating one-third of the proceeds of the future sales of public lands to 
objects of internal improvements within the states in which said lands are 
sold; one-third for the construction of roads and canals from the Missis- 

^ Cong-. Debates — 21 Cong., 1 Session. 
-Cong. Debates— 21 Cong., 2 .Session. 



137 

sippi, the Ohio, the lakes and the St. Lawrence to the commercial cities 
ot the Atlantic, the remaining one-third for purposes of education. 

His idea was that the proceeds from the sale of lands should be 
spent in the states in which the land is located. He objected to the pres- 
ent manner of disposing of the proceeds which operated ''oppressively to 
the citizens of the new states, by exacting from them the higiiest prices for 
their lands, and spending nearly every cent of the money on the seaboard, 
in building ships, harb(n's, etc. It was difficult to impoverish a people 
by a tax, however high, if the same money was expended among them; 
but that it was equally difficult to stand for a very long time a perpetual 
drain, however small, without return of it." The people of Illinois were 
taxed five days work or five dollars per annum for making roads. The 
State made appropriations for roads and bridges, the counties had often 
done the same. All these improvements, however necessary to the con- 
venience and prosperity of the State, were calculated to benefit and give 
value to the public lands six or eight times as much as it did that of the 
citizens. The United States owned about six-eighths of all the land in 
the State. Every principle of justice would require the government to 
contribute its full share of every expenditure which went directly to in- 
crease the value of the public lands, and make them sell. He said that 
gentlemen both in and out of Congress are greatly mistaken about the 
real value of the public land in its present wild condition. "How does 
it sell for one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre," he asked, "unless 
it receives its value from the improvements made by the money and labor 
of the settlers?" 

Mr. Duncan remarked that Congress had bargained the new states 
out of any right to tax the public land, and had even gone further by 
compelling them not to tax for five years land sold by the United States. 
It was perhaps too late to correct this error, but he hoped it was not too 

late to do justice. 

"He said that the first branch "of his proposition was to give one-third 
of the proceeds of the sales of the public lands for works of the impnovement 
in the States in which they are sold, which would create a fund sufficient to 
adorn and beautify the country, and would ensure such an increased value 
to the remaining portions of the land, as to render, through all time, an 
inexhaustible fund for the accomplishment of the other objects contemplated 
in his amendment. 

He said the second branch of his proposition was to appropriate one-third 
of the proceeds arising from the sale of those lands to the construction of 
roads and canals, so equally throughout the Union as to connect this ex- 
pansive valley with every seaport on the Atlantic, which, he said, independent 
of the great commercial and military importance to the Government, would 
do more to unite and harmonize the States than any thing that had been 
done since the revolution. 

As to the third branch of his proposition, which was to appropriate a 
third of this fund for purposes of education in all the States, he thought 
it enough to say (as was universally admitted) that the freedom and inde- 
pendence of the Government and the happiness of all depend upon the intelli- 
gence and virtue of the people."^ 

It is especially significant to note in this plea for the support of 
education a repetition of the sentiments he had expressed in the Illinois 
Senate when he introduced the first public school lull and which later he 
expressed as Governor of the State. 

^ Cong. Debates — 22 Cong., 1 Session. 



13S 

It is also a pleasure to note in connection with iuipiovcnients the 
use of the words '"adorn and beautify/' an idea to which he recurs in his 
first message as Governor. 

Public lands being again up for discussion on March 27, 1832, Mr. 
Duncan modestly assured the House ''he always felt reluctant to consume 
a moment of the time of the House"'' but as it is a question of public lands 
he continued speaking ! The report of the Commissioner of the General 
Land Oliice filled him "with feelings of indignation." It had furnished 
the arguments for the opposition of his colleague on the committee, Mr. 
Hunt of \'ermont, and had convinced him that the officer who made it 
was unfit to fill the station he held. That officer had used his official 
station to unjustly injure and insult the very persons over whose par- 
ticular interests he was appointed to preside. He replied especially to a 
charge that the privilege of pre-emption to settlers had been abused and 
had led to speculation by "intruders and trespassers." The charge, if 
true at all, was so in only a few individual cases and it was unfair to 
make it against a whole community. 

"Most of his life had been speut on the frontier. He knew it to be a fact 
that all the new States had been settled first by enterprising men, who had 
gone ahead of the land sales, often of the surveys of them. He had never 
before heard them denounced as trespassers and intruders; they had never 
been so regarded in that country, or by this Government. It was true that 
there had been an old resolution of Congress, near fifty years ago, forbidding 
such settlements, which had never been regarded, except as a gross absurdity. 
And, so far from prohibiting, the Government had always encouraged those 
settlements, by making liberal donations, and grants of the right of pre- 
emption. From the passage of that resolution up to the present time, many 
of the most respectable citizens in all the new States had been settlers on 
the public land. Most of them had commenced poor; they were generally a 
brave, hardy, and enterprising people, possessing an ardent love of liberty, 
freedom, and independence; who, so far from speculating upon the bounties 
of the Government, had on all occasions evinced the most disinterested 
patriotism and ardent love of country, by encountering every danger, hard- 
ship, and fatigue, in defending the frontier during the late war, and the 
savage invasions and attacks which have always retarded and embarrassed 
the settlement of that country. 

Mr. D. thought it a great mistake to suppose that it was a gracious 
bounty to allow a man to purchase a tract of public land to include his 
improvements, at one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre. He said, if a 
tract of land was given to such settlers, it would scarcely compensate them 
for the privations and hardships they must necessarily encounter, who give 
up all the comforts of society to settle a new country. These settlers had 
to overcome difficulties which most gentlemen in Congress knew nothing 

about." 

"And If it was true that settlers who were unable to pay for the land 
had sold these improvements, was it a fit subject for the taunt and attack 
made by the commissioner, and so earnestly and warmly urged by the gentle- 
man from Vermont? Certainly not. Is it possible that any orflcer of this 
Government, or any member of Congress, will seriously urge that the poor 
man who penetrates the forest, subdues it by his labor, reduces it to culti- 
vation, and builds a house on the public land, shall have nothing for it? 
What other public officer ever staked his reputation by recommending that 
the house and improvements of a poor man should be sold to the highest 
bidder, and the Government pocket the money obtained by the profits of his 
labor? Yet such is the effect of the commissioner's recommendation. And 
this is not all. After recommending the sale of the lands, and opposing the 
grant of pre-emption, he tauntingly and insultingly recommends that these 
"intruders and trespassers be left to the local tribunals of justice." Sir, said 
Mr. D., what man acquainted with the brave and enterprising men who have 



139 

settled all of our frontier States, can read this report without feelings of 
indignation?'" 

Mr. Duucan replied to certain detailed objections that had been 
raised and made a special plea for making possible the sale of land in 
forty aci'e tracts, a provision which "will, as it is mainly intended, benefit 
the poor, by, enabling every man who could raise fifty dollars to secure a 
home for his family." 

The bill finally passed, 119 to 44. 

In the next session the old discussion as to pre-emption was revived 
by a proposal to extend the act of 1807 to prevent settling on public lands 
until authorized by law. Mr. Duncan on February 20, 1833, spoke as 
follows : 

"He objected to reviving a law which had remained near forty years a 
dead letter on the statue books; an act which had never and could never be 
enforced. Public opinion had long sipce fixed the seal of reprobation upon 
any attempt to punish individuals for settling or trespassing as it is called, 
upon the public lands. Suits had often been brought under this act and the 
result had universally been, that the Government paid the cost. He was in 
favor of extending the power of the President tx) lease the mines west of the 
Mississippi on the same terms that those east of that river are now leased. 
Such a policy would receive the sanction of the people; would produce a large 
revenue; and be the means of preserving the timber, and of husbanding the 
resources of the country. 

He was opposed to the bill on account of the impossibility of enforcing 
it, the principles it contained, and the vexation and violence which he thought 
would certainly ensue if an attempt should be made to enforce it, under the 
policy now pursued in relation to the mines east of the river. He said 
it was in the power of the Government agent to protect the timber and mines 
from waste; and when that country is offered for sale, which must soon be 
done, it would command a high price, after having paid, in rents received 
from the mines, largely more than the original cost of the whole country. 
He was not very favorable to the leasing system; it would be much better 
to sell these mines as soon as possible; and the Committee on the Public 
Lands agreed with him on that subject, and had reported a bill for selling 
all the mineral lands east of the Mississippi. But one thing is certain, 
that the enterprising citizens of that country cannot be kept out of this 
newly acquired territory; and it was a question now to be settled, whether 
we should admit every good citizen, or by attempting to exclude all, only 
admit those who are independent of, and will disregard all laws."- 

The lead mines around Galena were authorized to be sold by the 
President in a bill introduced June -j, 1834. On this subject Duncan 
said: 

"The people of Illinois felt a desire that the country should be perma- 
nently settled, rather than leased out as it now was. Under the present 
system, the expense of leasing was said to be nearly equal to the avails from 
the leases; and, in the meanwhile, the lands were ruined by the operation. 
Those who leased them, trenched the country in all directions and threw out 
the clay over the soil, so that, when they gave it up, it was in many places 
rendered wholly useless for agricultural purposes. Whereas, were the lands 
sold instead of being leased, they would bring a high price, both on account 
of the mineral riches they were known to contain, and on account of the 
fertility of the soil. But after the land was spoiled by the diggings, that 
covered it like the tracks of so many moles in a garden, it would bring little 
or nothing. As property of the United States, it was becoming less and less 
valuable every day."^ 

^ Cong. Debates, 22 Congress. 1 Session. 
^ Cong. Debates, 22 Congress, 2 Session. 
^ Cong. Debates, 23 Congress, 1 Session. 



140 

In the closing days of his eight years of service in Congress Mr. 
Duncan spoke again on Jnne 13, 183-4 on the land issue, his favorite 
subject. There is something inspiring in the picture of the representa- 
tive from Illinois in Congress d-efending consistently all these years the 
rights of the sturdy settlers in Illinois. It should entitle him to recog- 
nition in the histories of his State. His last speech on this subject is 
similar to others but, as the dust and oblivion of years have rested on this 
epoch of his life in Congress and as it gives more details of the picture 
of the early settlers of Illinois, we will quote a part of it : 

"He said * * * his constituents were no speculators; those who 
settled on the public land were generally poor men, or men in moderate 
circumstances, who live by their honest labor, and had no other view of 
settling than to secure an independent home for their families. They were 
no trespassers. They had been encouraged to go on and improve the public 
lands by the repeated acts and settled policy of the government — a policy 
well known to be as favorable to the sale of the lands and the public interest 
as it is just to the settler. It was owing to this wise policy of inducing 
the hardy sons of the west to encounter all the privations and hardships 
incident to such an enterprise, that the seven new states in this Union owe 
their unexampled prosperity. Who, he asked, ever heard of a wealthy man 
leaving ease, luxury, and society, and going into the forest, as our enter- 
prising settlers had often done, at every sacrifice, encountering the wild 
beasts and savages, and depending for the first year or two upon the rifle 
for a precarious subsistence? He never knew an instance; and he believed 
if the vast valley of the Mississippi had never been settled until those able 
to purchase the land should become the pioneers, that it would not have 
reached its present state of improvement in a century to come. He con- 
sidered it the interest of the whole Union to adopt a liberal policy in dis- 
posing of the public domain. To build up great and prosperous communi- 
ties, he said was, infinitely more important than all the gain that ever had 
or would be received into the treasury from the sale of these lands. But, 
he said, his friend from Alabama (Mr. Clay) had plainly shown that noth- 
ing had been gained for many years by selling the lands at auction; it had 
added nothing to the treasury, though it had some times been the means of 
oppression to the settlers. He said he considered the present as a question 
whether this government is willing to sell the poor man's improvement to 
the highest bidder, and put the profits of his labor into the public treasury, 
which is now full to over-flowing. He could not believe honorable gentle- 
men, understanding the subject, could ever consent to such gross injustice. 
Much objection, he said, had been made to this bill on account of an idea 
which had been suggested, that some persons might make speculations by 
taking up mill-seats, ferries, etc. He had no doubt some Instances of the 
kind might occur; but in all probability, if this advantage was not secured 
to the settler, it would be reaped by a combination of speculators, who gen- 
erally contrived to pay no more than $1.25 per acre to the government. 
Mills and ferries, he said, are necessary to tlie settlement of the country, 
and those who first establish them are entitled to great favor; and no im- 
provements could be of more benefit to the public.'" 

He Ijelieved it would be found to the best interests of the govern- 
ment and permanent improvement of the country, to allow the settlers 
to select their homes as soon as the land was surveyed. 

On June 14, 1834, Mr. Duncan writes to the Alton Spectator- from 
the House of Eepresentatives : 

"The pre-emption bill has just passed and only waits the President's sig- 
nature to become a law. This bill is more favorable to our settlers than any 
ever passed. It revives the act of 1830 and continues in force for two years 

1 Congr. Debates. 23 Congress, 1 Session. 
= Published July 1, 1834. 



141 

from this time which will give the settlers, virtually, 2 years to pay for 
their lands, both on lands now subject to entry at private sale and those 
which have not been offered at public auction unless they shall sooner be 
sold by the proclamation of the President. 

This act gives the right of pre-emption to all who are settlers at its 
passage and extends the act to those persons who were settlers on the public 
land in 1829 and who were deprived of their right by the construction placed 
on the law by the Secretary of the Treasury. We had a warm debate in the 
House of Representatives which lasted six hours but it passed by a large 
majority. 

The question of internal improvements was constantly to the fore 
during Jackson's administration. To the representative of a sparsely 
settled frontier State like Illinois, knowing the isolation of the communi- 
ties, the difficulties of travel and of bringing the produce of the farms 
to market, the importance of a National road connecting the different 
parts of the country was almost a necessity. The taxes of the State, with 
the government owning eight-tenths of the land and not allowing the 
land to be taxed for five years after it was sold, would be inadequate 
to build the necessary roads for many years. Mr. Duncan does not seem 
to have gone the lengths of some of the politicians of the day in advocat- 
ing government assistance, but he asks for a liberal interpretation of 
the law. 

We find a few speeches on this subject in the Congressional Debates. 

March 1, 1831, Mr. Duncan spoke against the toll taxes of the 
Xational road in Ohio, which would exempt her own citizens and throw 
all the cost of keeping the road in repair upon the people residing in the 
states west of Ohio : 

"It would drive the constituents, and all the people west of the Ohio, 
from this road as they could not and would not pay so unjust a tax especially 
as the road was made by compact and out of the funds of Indiana, Illinois 
and Missouri as well as those of Ohio. He could see no hope for his constitu- 
ents except to tax the citizens of Missouri traveling to the Atlantic cities. 
This tax would make It impossible for his constituents to drive their stock 
on this road."^ 

The bill passed and toll gates were permitted. 

On June 17, 1834 the question of the Cumberland road came up and 
Mr. Duncan said : 

"It was a high, a vital object to connect this almost unbounded country 
by roads and public highways and especially was it the duty of the govern- 
ment to overcome great natural obstructions — such as separate the west from 
the eastern section of the country. Such improvement would make us a 
united, prosperous and happy people."- 

The last speech of Mr. Duncan recorded in the Congressional De- 
bates was on June 24, 1834, an amendment proposed by him to continue 
the act incorporating the present bank of the United States for twenty 
years with certain limitations and regulations. "He rose to support his 
amendment with great reluctance at a moment when members were pre- 
paring for their journeys home." 

"He was governed by no feelings either favorable or unfavorable to the 
present bank or its directors, in bringing forward his bill; he had no per- 
sonal acquaintance with any of them; he did not owe the bank; he had not 
one cent of interest in it ; nor was any one of his friends, so far as he knew, 

^ Cong. Debates, 21 Congress, 2 Session. 
- Cong. Debates. 23 Congress, 1 Session. 



142 

in the slightest degree interested in it. He could not be charged with having 
any political object in view in introducing his amendment: he believed 
every member of the House would acquit him of such a charge: he was 
governed by no such motives; his object was now, as it had been on all 
occasions, w^hen called upon to act in that House, to do the best for his 
constituents and country, according to his judgment, without reference to 
party. He had taken part, it was true, in some of the political struggles 
in the country, and would probably do so again, but his conduct, as a Repre- 
sentative, never had been, and never should be, governed by any such con- 
siderations. He cared less for who was in power than for the manner in 
which it was used by those in whose hands it was placed, he had never asked 
or received a favor of the government, and never would while he was 
honored with a seat in Congress. 

"He was opposed to any plan making the State or local banks the treas- 
ury of the nation; it could answer no good purpose. The million and a half 
of dollars of broken local bank notes now lying useless in the treasury, with 
the numerous banks which are daily breaking or stopping payment, had 
taught him they were wholly incompetent to answer the purposes of govern- 
ment as fiscal agents, but admitting them to be safe, who does not know that 
they cannot furnish a sound and uniform currency? He was alarmed at the 
array of local banks springing into existence in several of the states last 
winter, after the removal of the deposits, and when the downfall of the 
United States Bank was considered probable. It reminded 'him of the host 
of spurious banks which rose up, like mushrooms, in a night, after the wind- 
ing up of the old bank of the United States. From 1812 to 1818, he said, 
the country was literally inundated with their paper, until the best judges 
of that day could not tell a good note from a bad one, or whether the bank 
had a location in fact or only in the imagination, as very many of them 
were the production of speculators on the public credulity. Hundreds, nay 
thousands of poor men were swindled and suffered much then from the 
dreadful derangement of the currency, and he was greatly surprised, after 
so much experience, and with such an example before us, to see so large a 
party in this country, and in that House, disposed to place the currency 
in the same fearful situation. He knew the evils too well to give such a 
measure any support. 

But sir, said Mr. D.. if the United States Bank is put down, the embarras- 
ment to the west will be two fold. Their sales of produce are made in the 
south, at New Orleans, where specie, which is too cumbersome to carry, or 
the local currency, must be taken in payment, and their purchases are 
made in the north. Thus subjected to a double discount upon their money, 
it must fall heavily upon the products of the country. But this is not all. 
The large cities contain all or nearly all the capital employed in carrying 
on commerce, and they will receive no note of the west except at a very 
heavy discount. This was the case in the days of unsound currency previ- 
ously mentioned, and would certainly be the case again. But, sir, said Mr. 
D., the evil does not stop here. While there is no uniformity or confidence 
in the currency, people can neither travel nor emigrate to the west. No 
man will venture to sell his property- in one of the old States for local bank 
notes, and start to the west, uncertain how soon the bank would break, or 
being certain, as he would be, that he must change his money with a broker 
at the line of each State through which he was to pass. Such a condition 
of affairs must retard the settlement and improvement of all the new States 
again, as It did from 1819 to 1826, a period of the greatest embarrassment 
he ever knew, and which was occasioned by the previous deranged state of 
the currency. The general confusion which, in his opinion, would certainly 
grow out of the proposed destruction of the United States Bank, presented 
to his mind a fearful picture of the future condition of the country. 

"He said some such measure as his was necessary to give relief to the 
country from the pressure now felt, and which must, in his opinion, inevit- 
ably increase, if the present bank should be compelled to wind up and collect 
in its fifty-four millions of dollars of outstanding debts. JSIo new bank, he 



143 

said, can be created until after March, 1836, and, of course, more than two 
years must elapse before a substitute can be put into operation. This was 
one of the reasons why he preferred to recharter, under proper restrictions, 
the present bank; but this was far from being the only one: his bill proposed 
to distribute nearly two-thirds of the stock among the states, and he knew, 
by observation, that the high credit of this bank would secure to the stock- 
holders a larger dividend and more certain profit upon their capital, tlian 
any new bank, with a prudent charter, could possibly do; and, by making 
the States interested, additional stability and character would be given to 
this institution. 

"He was of opinion that Congress should have the most unlimited power 
to investigate all the books, accounts, and official acts of the bank and its 
officers, and had endeavored, by a provision in his amendment, to secure that 
right in the fullest extent, and punish any officer or director of the bank 
who should oppose such an investigation. But, sir, said Mr. D., suppose all 
the dangers to exist, and the abuses, as alleged, to be true, was this an argu- 
ment against the value and importance of the bank? What created being 
or institution, he asked, had ever existed, that was capable of doing much 
good, that was not also capable of doing great harm? Was it not the persons 
selected for the management of the bank, and not the bank itself, that had 
given such offence? If its officers had acted improperly they could be dis- 
placed; it was to his mind no argument against any institution, and especi- 
ally to one that had performed so many important services for the govern- 
ment— an institution which was in fact the treasury, and the best possible 
treasury that could be established — 'an institution, which kept the public 
money safely, paid it out on the order of the Treasurer, without risk or 
charge, at any point required; which had paid a bonus to the United States 
of one million five hundred thousand dollars, and by his bill was to pay 
two millions more for the use of the public depositea and the benefits of the 
charter. He a'sked, has it not done more than all this for the country, in 
furnishing the best currency in the world, better than gold or silver, for all 
commercial purposes, its notes being preferred in most cases, and especially 
in large sums, to either? Had it not extended the commerce of the country 
beyond all conception, by furnishing the means of carrying on and enlarging 
trade? Built our steamboats, which, in proportion as they gave facility and 
cheapness of transportation, had increased the value of the products in the 
west? He would not say that all of the prosperity which had recently spread 
over and blessed every portion of the great valley of the west w^as owing 
to the means furnished by this bank for the improvement of the country 
and carrying on commerce, or to the uniform and sound currency it had 
supplied; but much, very much, of it was. 

Mr. Diiucan suggested that if the alleged misconduct of some few 
of the officers were a sound argument against the bank itself, the same 
might apply to other departments of government, but no one would seri- 
ously think of abolishing the Post Office Department in consequence of 
the abuses charged to exist there. 

"It is the duty of wise legislators, he said, to preserve the government 
pure in all its parts, and, as experience pointed out defects or abuses, to 
rectify them, and guard, by timely checks and limitations, against their 
recurrence, and by every possible means to keep the political and moneyed 
institutions as distinct as possible. 

He regarded the bank or a bank of the United States as intimately con- 
nected with, and in fact a branch of the government; though but remotely 
under its control, it was almost as valuable, in the performance of its 
peculiar functions, as any other department, and more intimately connected 
with all the wants and interests of society. But being an institution that 
required the jealous care and support of the National Legislature, it should 
have nothing to do with politics or political partisans; nor should they, 
tinder any circumstances, be permitted to control or molest it while acting 
within its proper sphere. The political wheel, he said, was in motion, and 



144 

no one could tell what party might be placed in power by its next revolution. 
If the party favorable to the present hank shall succeed, they, like most 
parties elected on a particular question, may recharter without those whole- 
some guards and checks which experience has shown to be necessary. On 
the other hand, if another party rises into power, much is to be feared from 
the establishment of a political bank, managed by and subservient to the 
ambitious views of government officers — a power more to be dreaded than 
the brandished sword of a tyrant. The one warns you of danger to come, 
while the other embraces but to corrupt and subdue. 

The present he thought a most auspicious moment for settling this great 
question. The parties were nearly balanced, and nothing could be done by 
either except by the consent of the other, on the principles of a compromise. 
He appealed to the patriotism of both parties to settle this important ques- 
tion of the currency without reference to former prejudices. It should have 
nothing to do, he said, with politics; and now, before the candidates for the 
presidency were brought out, he thought a bank might be established on such 
a basis as to secure the confidence and good will of every party and every 
citizen in the country. 

He had carefully reviewed all the opinions of the President, and believed 
his bill or amendment met and obviated all of his objections to the present 
bank charter, and could not doubt, should the amendment pass, it would 
meet with his approval. This, however, was to him a secondary consider- 
ation; he had discharged his duty according to his best judgment, and would 
leave other public servants to do the same."^ 

With lii.s vote in favor of re-chartering the United States Bank^ 
the independence of Mr. Dnncan's views and actions led to a practical 
Avithdrawal of his adherence to the Jackson party as then constituted. 

After the adjournment of Congress in July 1834, Mr. Duncan was 
detained in the east by illness in his family. The election for Governor 
occurring in August he allowed his name to be used as a candidate and 
received 17,349 votes to 10,229 votes for William Kinney and 4,320 for 
Eobert Iv. McLaughlin, Duncan's uncle. He was the only Governor of 
Illinois elected without electioneering or the making of speeches. Mr. 
Duncan resigned from Congress and returned to Jacksonville with his 
family in the fall of 1834. Up to the last year of his service he had 
been the sole Congressman from Illinois. In the last Congress he was 
one of the three representatives from Illinois, being elected from the 
northern district, 

CHAPTEE lY. 
GovEKXOR OF Illinois, 1834-1838. 

After an absence of eight years in Congress, Mr. Duncan returned 
to Illinois in the fall of 1834 to take up his duties as governor. Some- 
old letters and notes make clearer his relation wdth state politics and 
the gradual growth of his dissatisfaction as to Jackson's policies and the 
final severance of his relationship wdth the Jackson party. 

The year 1834 was a confused period in Illinois politics, as previous 
to this time, factions had formed around leaders or groups of leaders. 
A contemporary notes : "It is difficult to catch the hang of parties here 
for although there is considerable party feeling there is very little party 
organization."^ Mr. Duncan was not alone in his change of political 

1 Cong. Debates, 23 Congress, 1 Session. 

' Dr. Finley from Jacksonville, Illinois, letter to Representative Duncan, May 
27, 1834. In family pacers 



145 

views. There was a small but strong minority who from the ardent ad- 
miration of General Jackson, the man who "was to reform all abuses," 
came a disappointment in his acts as President especially when he came 
under the influence of his "kitchen cabinet" and Van Buren. 

Before the inauguration of President Jackson, Mr. Duncan notes 
in his diary "Called to see the President, He says he will remove no officer 
on account of his political opinions, unless he has used his office for the 
purpose of electioneering. He appears liberal and I agree perfectly 
with his views." In his note book Duncan writes : 

"Policy of the Jackson party up till 1830 and — 

.1, One Presidential term. 

2. Economy. 

3. Eetrenchment. 

4. Reform of all abuses. 

5. Prevent officers interfering in elections. 

6. Hold officers to strict accountability." 

When Jackson announced his candidacy for a second term and more 
so when he selected his successor, Van Buren, it was self evident, from 
previous knowledge of the man, that Duncan would never accept, against 
his judgement and conscience, the dictates of the Jackson party as it 
had now become. 

In a letter published in the Western Observer, June 14th, 1831, he 
explains his views : 

"Many complain that I have not sufficiently supported the party in my 
votes in Congress. To such I would say, I have investigated every subject 
upon which I have been called upon to act, with a sincere 'desire of obtaining 
correct information. My votes have been governed by my best judgment, 
and an ardent wish to promote the true interest and honor of the country, 
without regard to what either party supported or opposed. Having been 
led to observe in early life that a man who had firmness and independence 
enough to do right in high party times though condemned by the ambitious 
and selfish demagogue is certain to be sustained by the patriotic and honor- 
able men of all parties. I was at no loss what course to pursue when I 
entered Congress. 

That man who is so weak or so wicked as to vote under the influence 
of party feelings, or party discipline, will be compelled almost every day to 
abandon his principles if he has ever assumed any — the interests of his 
constituents — his own honor — and his independence — and I envy them not 
the praise they may receive from any party."' 

Mr. Duncan "had maintained a policy of independence towards 
Jackson's measures for which in 1831 he had been criticised at home. 
He voted to pass the Mayville turnpike bill over Jackson's veto."- How- 
ever this criticism of his independent attitude by those who still sup- 
ported Jackson did not prevent his being re-elected to Congress in 1832 
or his election as governor in 1834. 

The debates of the last session, of Congress that Mr. Duncan at- 
tended, are interesting as showing the trend of his votes irrespective of 
party lines. On February, 1834, he voted with Adams and the Whigs 
for the extension of pensions to revolutionary soldiers. In March he 
voted with the administration to "appoint a Committee of Ways and 

* Quoted from the ananymous life, 1S40. in family papers. 
2 Centennial Hist, of 111. Pease, Vol. II, page 143. 

—10 H S 



146 

Means to inquire into the expediency of a plan accompanie'd by a bill 
to reduce the revenue to the necessary expenses of the government." In 
June he voted for the re-chartering of the Bank of tlie United States. 
Here came his final break with the Democratic party. 

Later great capital was made by the Jackson men of this "defection" 
of Duncan's and he is spoken of as a "traitor," etc., to his party. He 
was simpl}' an independent thinker v/ith the courage of his convictions, 
a man who refused to follow blindly party leadership. 

Ford has written of this period more graphically than any contem- 
porary man and as he was a political opponent of Duncan his views 
of the latter's change of party cannot be accused of flattery, or partjality. 

"A public man has a perfect right to his own opinions and predilec- 
tions. Governor Duncan was a brave, honest man, a gentleman in his inter- 
course with society, and possessed a rare talent for conciliating affection 
and inspiring confidence. But his great error was in becoming attached to 
a party and a cause, in the first instance, without knowing the principles 
by which he was governed. Thousands of others were in the same predica- 
ment, many of whom, both before and after Governor Duncan, left as he 
did, when the Jackson party began to be developed. * * * Without as- 
serting that Governor Duncan was right in his change, for such would mot be 
my opinion, yet it would seem from his example and many others that it 
would be better for politicians, if they could reverse the order of their ex- 
istence, come into the world in their old age and go out when young. He is 
to take a party name and, however, much he may afterwards become en- 
lightened, or parties shift ground, he is never to change, under penalty of 
being branded as a traitor to his party. But perhaps this is one of the means 
appointed by providence and implanted in man's nature to keep the opinion 
of the governing party united and give some stability to the councils of 
Republican government."^ 

The gradual affiiliation with the Whig party as more nearly repre- 
senting his views offered a target to his political opponents that con- 
tinued during future campaigns till his death in 1844 and that has 
affected his reputation to an astonishingly important degree in the his- 
tory of Illinois. The long life of service to the State and a marked 
integrity of character, is lost sight of in view of this change of party 
affiliations, or rather the chance it gave his political opponents to warp 
the acts of Duncan's life, both public and private. 

The four following letters give an interesting, gossipy picture of 
life in Illinois and especially of the political situation before the election 
of Governor in 1834. They were written by a cousin, James C. Finley, 
who had come from the east to take charge of Mr. Duncan's affairs in 
Jacksonville while he was iii Congress. He speaks of himself as a mere 
observer, asking no political favors. 

The letters begin Avith the building of the Duncan house in Jack- 
sonville which was started in the fall of 1833. The house known as 
Elm Cjrove is still standing in the midst of the half circle of stately elm 
trees, planted by Mr. Duncan. 

On jSTovember 9, 1833, the masons were going on very well with the 
foundations. 

"I send you by mail the last number of the Illinois Patriot, in which 
you will find a very ungenerous and insidious attack upon you about the 
United States Bank and the Patriotic money. I remonstrated with Edwards, 
[Editor of a paper in Jacksonville] upon the propriety and injustice of 

^ Ford, History of Illinois, pages 75-77. 



147 

associating the two but his hands appear to be tied by a small faction here 
who are very bitter against you and who are probably urged on by men Avho 
would like to preserve some terms with you. The report has been very 
industriously circulated here that you announced yourself hostile to the 
bank a few days before you left Jacksonville. Judge Evans asserts that, 
last winter, while you were holding out to your friends here that you were 
in favor of the bank, he heard you say to President Jackson, that you con- 
curred with him in his objections to the bank. He and Bredan are very 
noisy upon your inconsistency about the bank. Coddington says he saw a 
roll of the Patriotic notes in Wilkinson's store as large as his arm, and 
Edwards says he is told that you pay your agents 6 per cent for passing 
them off. The idea they are trying to pass upon the people is this: That 
you say you see so much corruption in the politics of the country, that you 
consider the cause of the Republic desperate and they think you are disposed 
to come in for your share of the spoils: they say further, that the Patriotic 
bank will lend you a large amount of money, say perhaps |100,000 at a very 
low interest — 3 per cent — perhaps for nothing, for the sake of getting their 
notes in circulation, and that you, for the sake of producing a scarcity 
of money and compelling the people to take them, will use your influence 
to put down the U. S. Bank and that you have put out the present small 
amount as a feeler to see how the thing will take. Hardin has taken the 
matter up warmly in your behalf and written a reply." 

On Xovember 30, 1833, Dr. Finley writes : 

"* * * Crawled up to the post oflSce to hear the news and as the mail 
has not closed I will take time to add a few more lines to a letter I have 
already put in the office. I there found a pretty considerable crowd of people 
and among them Evans and Edwards. The former was very polite and 
affiable and the subject of the bank being introduced he expressed his 
regret that his name had been dragged into the controversy and gave such 
a version of the conversation and controversy as at once cleared you from 
every suspicion of duplicity in relation to the bank business. When I told 
Edwards of his version and reminded him of the. caution I had given him 
about giving credit to so improbable a tale, he blushed like a damsel of 18 
when her sweetheart first popped the question. He affected a great deal of 
candor, however, and prom.ised to retract everything that cannot be sus- 
tained. * * * There is nothing kept secret here and men appear to take 
a pride in revealing both their own secrets and the secrets of their friends." 

On December 27, 1833, Dr. Finley writes: 

"Cassels saw the man today with whom he contracted for the hewed 
timber and says that they are all ready for delivery and will be on the 
ground by the first of January. The additional timbers requisite for the 
new plan will delay them but a few days. I am very much afraid that delay 
will arise from Johnson's disposition to procrastinate. He now promises 
to commence on Monday and run the mill night and day until your bill is 
complete. 

"As regards your reply to Edwards I am at a loss to know whether to 
publish it or not. The attack was evidently gotten up by one or the other 
of the two parties here — the Prosser or the Lockwood party — for the purpose 
.of intimidating you on the bank question or forcing you to take sides. 
Poor Edwards of whom it is difficult to say whether he is most the object 
of compassion or contempt, has been evidently a mere automaton in the 
affair; and now that his advisers are disposed to shrink from the position 
of principals, feels himself in a most unpleasant attitude. He now wishes 
to say that the publication was intended as an act of kindness to you in 
order that surmises and insinuations which were secretly circulating much 
to your injury might be brought before the public in an attitude that would 
give you a fair opportunity of meeting them. An office of charity, so un- 
thankful, as I intimated to him today, that a prudent man would very 
willingly leave the conferring of it to others. Mrs. Edwards says that she 



148 

opposed his having anything to do with it until shp made herself sick 
about it. 

"The active movers have been Gillett, Gorden, Hedeuburgh, Bredan and 
Forsyth and Dr. Jones, the most insolent, self-conceited and contemptable 

that ever passed current in decent society. Gillett, a strange fellow. 

He appears to be, and I believe is, your personal friend and would be happy 
to do anything to serve you, but he probably thinks that he has a large 
pecuniary interest in the rechartering of the bank and that he has reason 
to complain of you for disappointing your constituents on the subject of the 
bank. Forsyth is "the respectable merchant" referred to in the Banner 
who said you offered them money if they would circulate it in the country 
but not to pay debts at Pittsburgh. Besides the clamor raised by the 
politicians, the merchants have pretty generally taken a stand against the 
money, principally because they supposed it had been placed in the hands 
of other merchants to whom it would give facilities for transacting business 
that they would not possess. Commercial jealousy therefore may reasonably 
be placed to the account of much that has been said. 

"All persons here are prodigiously anxious to ascertain the political 
course you mean to adopt. Some from one motive, some from another and 
some from no motive at all. It appears to be the intention of all to let you 
run for Governor without opposition. If you side with them they are will- 
ing to receive you with open arms but they intend to hold themselves as 
loosely connected with you in order that if you take sides against them ihey 
may take advantage of the difficulties which surround the Gubernatorial 
office in this State to break you down and deprive you of what they suppose 
to be the ultimate object of your ambition — a seat in the United States 
Senate. 

"As we are now on the subject of your political relations, I will remark 
that intimations have been made to me that an attempt is being made to 
Injure you by secretly circulating a report about the Meridosia lots which 
is represented as being very much to your discredit. It is said that you 
gave no consideration for these lots and therefore your taking them can be 
considered in no other light than as a bribe to do that which you were 
already bound to do by the relation between you and your constituents. 
The individual who related this to me (as an act of friendship to you to put 
you on your guard) named Hackett as one of his authorities, who told him 
if he would call at his house he would exhibit to him the most satisfactory 
evidence of the fact. This is one of the things Edwards alluded to in his 
publication as something much more prejudicial to you than anything which 
had yet appeared. As an evidence that the purchase of the lots on your 
part was not bona fide, it is alleged, that the contract was to be null and 
void if the preemption right was not obtained within a certain time. I 
declined making any inquiries about it, as my informant wished, because 
I saw nothing to be gained by doing so, but I mention it to you because 

I know that great pains have been taken to obtain certificates to 

[tornl when the time comes. I saw Hackett a few days ago and inquired 
about the deeds. He had neither received them nor knew why they were 
not made out. 

"We have had Mills here lately electioneering, Williams, too, a member 
of the Senate from the :Military District, called here on his way from Van- 
dalia and was very anxious to organize an Anti-VanBuren party upon the 
principals of the bank, the Land Bill, etc. Jones and he have written to 
Casey upon the subject and would have liked to have written to you upon the 
subject, if they could have taken the liberty. They promise to build you up 
a partv and establish you a popularity that will last as long as you live. 

"But I have so much to say about politics that I am forgetting what I 
doubt not will be much more interesting to you— your private business. 
How high do you want the windows of the first story from the floor— I saw 
Hawkins yesterday going after some of your cattle which had been strayed 
since you left here. * * * The scarcity of money in this country is 
unexampLed." 



149 

January 24th, 1834, Dr. Finley writes : 

"As Hackett was disposed tio be very surly and Hardin was absent 
in Kentucky I got Walter Jones to inquire into the cause of the delay in 
the acknowledgements of those deeds. He caught Hackett at Brochen- 
borough's discussing the matter in full Divan. He told him that there was 
no consideration paid for the lots and that Mrs. A. T. C. was unwilling to 
convey their dower. Furthermore he stated that a fellow by the name of 
Stetes, who claimed the right of preemption, is making arrangements to 
commence suit against the whole of you for the whole of the land." 

"* * * I told Hawkins nothing about your being willing to give him 
additional wages. He is very attentive to your interests and anxious to se- 
cure your approbation. His labors, it is true, were very great for a few 
weeks while he was gathering in the corn. * * * Your cattle, horses and 
mules are in very fine order. Your Kentucky stud that you bought of Price 
departed this life very suddenly a few days ago. We have inquired every- 
where for stock hogs but have only been able to find ten. 

The Springfield papers have sent some a proof sheet of your letter in 
advance of their paper. The whole thing has so perfectly died away that I 
thought it perfectly unnecessary to publish your letter to me. Jones is a 
fool, so perfectly made up in every joint, and the public consider it unneces- 
sary to answer him. Poor Edwards has suffered a thousand deaths, and is 
so humble and penitent that I am glad you touched him lightly. He has a 
hundred times requested me to explain his feelings to you and tell you that 
all he published was intended as a pure act of friendship — merely to appraise 
you of the rumors that were afloat. If the opinion of the leading politicians 
can be relied upon you are very certain to get three-fourths of the votes 
of this country, although the scullions of the Kitchen Cabinet will all in- 
fluence against you. * * * i could tell you of other things equally 
curious, but you have seen too much of this business for it to have aught 
of interest to you. It is fortunate for this part of Illinois that there are too 
many aspirants for office for the present state of things to continue. Prossen 
and Turney and a host of men of their level are aspiring to Congress, and, 
because May has pre-empted the ground as the VanBuren candidate, are 
determined to come out against the whole concern. 

By the way why has your name never been formally announced as Gov- 
ernor?^ The Editors say that your name has not been announced and some 
of your enemies are very industrious in conveying the impression that it is 
your intention to withdraw from the field in favor of your uncle. Edwards 
and Jones are both anxious to come out for you. Will you permit them 
to announce you? * * * The pressure on the money market has been 
very severe and I regret to say that I have not been able to collect any for 
you although I have made considerable effort to do so. 

The Sangamon Journal has taken a very scurrilous notice of your letter 
and published an article, also, intimating that you will not be a candidate 
in opposition to your uncle, and that Kinney and McLaughlin would be the 
only candidates for Governor. This article is signed "A friend to Mc- 
Laughlin" but it doubtless comes from a friend of May's who wishes either 
to make you occupy such a position as will remove him from all appre- 
hension that you may oppose him or to injure your popularity, by leading 
the people to suppose you mean to play a double game upon them. Evans 
of this county, is to be the candidate for Lieutenant Governor. 

"In speaking of the appointment of your brother you say that it was 
made in opposition to your recommendation. This, all who are acquainted 
with your uniform policy will readily believe, but some color is given to a 
different statement by an assertion that you told Weatberfield you were 
authorized to make the appointment and had the commission with you. 
It may never be used against you, but if W. is hostile to your election it will 
perhaps be prudent to be on your guard. 

^ The Alton Spectator for May 1, 1834, gives official notice of the candidates 
for the August election : "For Governor : Joseph Duncan, Robert K. McLaughlin, 
William Kinney." 



150 

Mr. Dimean's reply to the attack of the two editors, to which Dr. 
Finley refers, is dated Washington City, Dec. 16, 1833. He explains 
the circumstances under which he had borrowed a small sum from the 
Patriotic Bank, and to settle the question as to whether or not he had 
misled Jackson on his position on the U. S. Bank, Duncan went directly 
to the President: ''* * * In addition to my own clear knowledge 
that it is false I called on the President a few days since and asked him, 
in presence of General John Carr, a member of Congress from Indiana, 
how he had always understood my opinions to be on the question of re- 
chartering of the United States Bank — to which he replied that so far as 
vvus known to iiim, they had ah\ays been in favor of rechartering it, and 
said, though we had differed, he always regarded it as an honest differ- 
ence of opinion, etc."^ 

February 15, 1834, Dr. Finley writes : 

"Great efforts are being made to bring General Henry out in opposition 
to you for Governor. Other instruments are said to be at work to bring 
him out in opposition to May for Congress. Who are the movers in these 
things I know not." 

The latter part of the following letter is important as a contem- 
poraneous view of the confused state of politics. 
On May 27, 1834, Dr. Finley asks : 

"Have you any idea when Congress will adjourn or when you will be 
home? Dunlap has two fine young mules, a year old that he offers for thirty 
dollars a piece. Do you want any more? 

In politics we have a perfect calm. Every man is going for himself 
(with the exception of one or two who go for their party) and avoiding 
excitement as far as possible. It appears to be a very general opinion here 
that you will not receive less than three-fourths ef the votes both of this 
and of Sangamon and so strong is this impression said to be that althouglx 
the friends of Kinney were sometime back pretty tolerably noisy, not a 
candidate for any office ventured to electioneer for him openly. 

Mills is here very confident of success and May is expected here daily. 
The latter trying to ride Jackson and the former trying to saddle him with 
VanBuren. With what success I know not. It is difficult to catch the hang 
of parties here, for although there is considerable party feeling there is very 
little party organization. The Clay party go for you very universally. Of 

the Jackson candidates Henry and Cloud go for you. Wy [rest of 

name torn], Weatherford profess to be neutral and May complains bitterly 
that his opponents try to sew him up with VanBuren. So much for politics. 

I will be very much obliged to you to send me the African Repository, 
commencing with the present volume, and the last annual report." 

Into the midst of this political upheaval and to a state greatly in- 
creased in population, rapidly losing its pioneer spirit and becoming 
identified in political and commercial interests with the East, the newly 
elected Governor returned after eight years in Congress. 

The Legislature convened in Vandalia December 1, 1834. 

A contemporary describes the scene, "Yesterday, last night, all night 
nearly this town has been a scene of busy, buzzing bargaining, etc. It 
is said 150 persons, some from the most distant parts of the State [are 
seeking] for the appointments of Sergeant at Arms of the Senate and 
Doorkeeper of the House of Eepresentatives.^ 

1 Alton American, Jan. 30, 1834, copied from Sangamo Journal. 
2D. J. Baiter to Kane December 1, 1834, copy Library of University of 
Illinois. 



151 

Another contemporary writes on December 20, 1834 : 

"The political character of the Legislature of Illinois may properly 
l)e estimated to be abont 60 for the administration and 21 against it."^ 

In his first message Governor Duncan speaks of being absent from 
the State "a greater part of the last seven or eight years on public 
duties/"' 

Like most messages the recommendations are general but they show 
his continued interested in land questions and education. He speaks of 
Illinois as being among the first states to abolish imprisonment for debt, 
and feels '"that the time has now arrived to continue this policy still 
further" and to exempt the homestead from execution "so as to secure 
the families of the unfortunate against those casualities and misfortunes 
to which we are all liable." 

Most fitting for tlie man who introduced the first bill to provide 
for public schools in Illinois, his first message should discuss education, 
recommending that the fund of over one hundred thousand dollars which 
the State then possessed for education should be divided up, by a system 
to be devised, and applied to the purposes of education leaving "to those 
who come after the rich revenues to be derived from the lands, canals 
and other improvements, to form a permanent fund for the purposes of 
education." He also urges the establishment of colleges. He advocates 
the "setting apart the entire revenue arising from it [the canal | for the 
promotion of education." 

The distinction he draws between the general government allowing 
pre-emption right on public lands, which he advocated during his serv- 
ice in Congress, and the State, "under a mistaken view of the object and 
condition of the grant and of what was due the public and the nation 
who gave them" granting pre-emption claims to the settlers on seminary 
lands, shows his regard for law. "It should be the duty of the Legisla- 
ture on the contrary faithfully to execute the trust confided to them and 
to sell those lands which were given for the common benefit of our citi- 
zens, for the full -value which their quality or location may impart to 
them." 

One of his arguments in favor of the beginning of a general system 
of internal improvements seems to have shown foresight. The State was 
at present so sparsely settled that the "road, trackways, railroads and 
canals, can be made straight between most of the important points with 
very little expense and difficulty, compared wath what will result, if their 
location is postponed until lands increase in value and settlements are 
formed." 

My attention Avas caught by the use of a word in this message and 
also in other speeches, which in the pioneer days is unusual. There was 
much said of "virtue, enlightenment, liberty," but here our eye is caught 
by the simple word "beauty." Improvements for "the convenience, 
beauty and commerce of our country." It is a thought to which we are 
but just awakening in recent years — to preserve the beauty of the land 
along with the utilitarian improvements. The idea was evidently a defi- 
nite one in Grovernor Duncan's mind as he had used it three years before 

^Greenup to Kane December 20, 1834, copy Library of University of Illinois. 



153 

in a speech in Congress on internal improvements, reference to which 
has already been made. 

It makes one realize the distance we have travelled in inventions 
to read that the Governor iu 1834 considered canals as more useful than 
railroads, which "are kept in repair at a very heavy expense and will last 
but about hfteen }ears/' This was written in the year Xew York was 
about to construct lier first railroad from the Hudson River to Lake 
Erie. On A'ovember 8, 1838, just before Governor Duncan retired to 
private life, he rode on "the first locomotive that ever turned a wheel in 
liie Mississippi N'alley' a distance of eight miles from Meredosia on the 
"Northern Cross Line" which was to connect the Illinois Eiver with 
Spriuglieid via Jacksonville.^ To the man who had travelled by boat 
and on horseback up and down the State when it was a wilderness this 
must have been a wonderful experience, the beginning of a new and great 
era. 

The next subject Governor Duncan took up in his message, was one 
that he knew from actual experience, "The ease with which our prairies 
may be brought under cultivation." "The fertility of the soil which 
yields a rich product, its lightness renders it easy of cultivation, while 
its depth- almost certainly secures the prudent and industrious farmer 
against those vicissitudes of the season which so frequently destroy the 
crops in other countries." The canal connecting the Great Lakes with 
the Mississippi was to provide an outlet for the farm produce raised in 
Illinois. He advocated a steamboat canal, a plan which the engineers of 
today regard as the only practical one. 

He warns that the "utility and success, as well as its expense [of the 
canal work] will depend upon the kind of improvement that the Legis- 
lature shall adopt and upon the plan of its construction." 

With a realization of the troubles ahead he closes his message with: 

''That we should be divided in opinion on these great questions of power 

and public policy, which have recently divided, and which are agitating the 

whole nation, and threaten to shake its center, is no more than is to be 

expected. 

In conclusion permit me again to urge that no party spirit shall be per- 
mitted to distract and interrupt our councils, or to interfere with our duties 
and obligations to those we represent."^^ 

From this distance of time, one cannot help but admire the imagi- 
nation of these men who built for the future of Illinois, a future that 
exceeds their dreams. I quote from the Nicolay-Hay Life of Lincoln: 
"They addressed themselves at once to the Avork required of them and 
soon devised, with reckless and unreasoning haste, a scheme of railroads 
covering the vast uninhabited prairies as with a gridiron. The scheme also 
provided for the improvement of every stream in the State on which a 
child's shingle-boat could sail; and to the end that all objections should be 
stifled on the part of those neighborhoods which had neither railroads nor 
rivers, a gift of two hundred thousand dollars was voted for them, and with 
this sop they were fain to be content and not trouble the general joy. To 
accomplish this stupendous scheme, the Legislature voted eight million 
dollars, to be raised by loan. Four millions were also voted to complete the 
canal. These sums, montrous as they were, were still ridiculously inade- 
quate to the purpose in view. But w^hile the frenzy lasted there was no 
consideration of cost or possibilities. These vast works were voted without 



^Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois. Bateman and Selby, p. 360. 
== Senate Journal, Dec. 1, 1834. 



153 

estimates, without surveys, witliout anj- rational consideration of their 
necessity."' 

The State was without debt and with these visions of tlie future "'the 
great plenty of money had made every one morally drunk."- 

Governor Duncan's first nominations were confirmed by the Senate, 
but when on February 13, 1835, he followed the nomination of Edward 
Coles as President of the Board of Canal Commissioners with that of 
John H. Hardin as Commissioner and Treasurer, the latter was defeated 
by a vote of 11 to 12. Later William Linn was confirmed for the office 
10 to y." GoverDor Coles was at this time in Philadelphia and was 
appointed a special representative of the State to visit eastern cities and 
negotiate the loan. He was imable to do this without the credit of the 
State. Later a law was passed, authorizing a loan of half a million 
dollars on the credit of the State for the building of the canal. Governor 
Duncan went east in 1836 and negotiated this loan. He paid his own 
expenses, ''refusing to receive compensation therefor, because he believed 
in so doing he would be virtually offering violence to the Constitution 
of the State."-^ 

Only a few family letters of this period have been saved and unfor- 
tunately they tell of the meeting with relatives, and old friends instead 
of the business and political side of the journey. For instance he writes 
from Philadelphia, April 10, 1838 ; "I saw Governor Coles last evening 
and went with him to a literary club where I met many of the first citi- 
zens and spent a delightful evening." Here met the two men who had 
framed the first law creating public schools in Illinois in 1835, who had 
been rival candidates for Congress in 1830, and now were both interested 
in the canal project. If the historian could but have heard their re- 
miniscences and their views on the questions of the day ! 

Governor Duncan went on to New York where a few items in his 
letters show that domestic troubles existed then as now: April 30, 1836, 
"I will do all I can to send you some servants. E. Dyson expects 500 
emigrants in one of his ships and thinks I can get some to suit." 

April 33 ; "I have partly sold some of my land and am in great hopes 
something can be done with the Eailroad. If money was more plenty 
there would be no doubt. I dine at home today, the second time since 
1 came. Yesterday I had three invitations and am engaged several days 
next week, so you see I am likely to be well fed." The servants did not 
materialize but he is not deterred from extending western hospitality, 
as he writes a few da3^s later, May 8 ; "Mr. Alexander Hamilton and his 
wife start to Illinois in their own carriage in a few days on a trip of 
pleasure. I have invited them to visit you and remain in our house while 
they stay in Jacksonville. As they are the first people here I know you 
will be pleased to entertain them. I have dined with them twice since 
I have been here. They live on Broadway in very fine style. "° 

May 39, 1836: "I hope to start tomorrow — I have taken a seat in 
the stage at Albany for Tuesday morning and have a stateroom on the 

^ Nicolay-Hay, Lincoln, Vol. T, pase 135. 

^ Ford, Historv of Illinois, page 15. 

3 Senate Journal. 1834-35. 

♦Alton Telegraph, April 23, 18-12. 

' There is preserved in the family a time-stained copy of the "Geographical 
View of the World" with the inscription "Colonel Alexander Hamilton to Henry 
St. Clair Duncan of Illinois, aged 7 years, New York, 6 October. 1837." 



154 

steamboat Michigan A^liicli leaves Buffalo on the 4th of June for Cliicago. 
I Avas never so heartily tired of Xew York. Xothing is so much talked 
of as a scarcity of money and as I came to raise money, it is of course a 
disagreeable subject to me/' 

On July 4, 1836, work on the canal was begun with a great celebra- 
tion at Canalport on the Chicago Eiver. Before the close of Governor 
Duncan's administration the entire line of canal was under contract 
except 23 miles between Dresden and Marseilles. Financial difficulties 
augmented by unwise extension of other internal improvements in the 
State, also by the financial panic of 183T and the failure of the State 
Iknk in 1842 delayed its completion till 1848. "Itself the cause of more 
than one-third of the enormous debt that threatened to drive Illinois into 
bankruptcy, the canal furnished the means of escape from impending 
ruin. The canal played an important part as a commercial route l^efore 
the use of railroad transportation. Its influence on economic develop 
ment of the region was even more marked as attested in growth of popu- 
lation, industry and commerce in that portion of the State from 1835 
to 1855. It not only transformed a wilderness into a settled and pros- 
perous community but it made Chicago the metropolis of the ^lississippi 
T alley. For half a century the influence of the canal was felt as a trans- 
portation route and as a freight reguhitor.'"^ 

"During the Civil War the canal was a s^reat factor in meeting the 
transportation demands of that period. From 1860 to 1880 the records 
sliow this canal not only handled a large tonnage but its revenues were 
sufficient to more than pay its cost of construction and operating ex- 
penses. "- 

In his message to the Tenth Annual Assembly of Illinois December 
5th, 1836, Governor Duncan tells of his efforts to negotiate the loan in 
the east for the Illinois and Michigan Canal. He took a loan of $100,000 
at 5 per cent advance, but did not consider the terms favorable for a 
larger loan. He calls attention to the act of Congress directing the 
deposit wit,h the states 'of the surplus revenue of the United States and 
suggests that this be placed in a fund for internal improvements. He 
again urges the establishment of "a general and uniform system of in- 
ternal improvement in the State," and again urges a general law pro- 
viding that the State may take a certain amount of the capital stock in 
all canals and railroads. He reports that contracts have been let for the 
construction of several sections of the lUinois and Michigan Canal and 
from these it appeared the cost would exceed the estimates, but adds, 
"The work is of the highest importance both to this State and the United 
States and no ordinary difficulty or expense, should for a moment deter 
us from its vigorous prosecution." 

In this message the Governor called attention to the educational 
needs of the State in a passage already quoted in connection with his 
school bill when State Senator in 1825. 

Governor Duncan then takes up certain questions of vital national 
interest, the chief of them being the "spoils" system of President Jack- 

1 ininois and Michigan Canal by James AViUiam Putnam, Ph. D., University 
of Chicago Press. 1918. 

= Inland Waterways and Transportation Costs by Mortimer G. Barnes. Chief 
Engineer, Division of Waterways, Department of Public Works and Buildings. 
State of Illinois. 



]55 

son and what lie considered the dangerous assumption of power by the 
National executive. On this ]Joint, he says : 

"Under our liberal, free and happy form of government the people 
possess all power, elect and cause all officers to be elected or appointed, and 
as a matter of convenience alone it is made the duty of the President of the 
United States, who is not the government, nor^ the "fountain of honor, and 
who may do no wrong," to nominate, and by and with advice of the Senate 
(which is made a check upon his appointing power) to appoint all public 
officers. It is a principle of our declaration o-f rights, that all governments 
should be instituted for the good of the governed, and for the public officers, 
or the party who happens to be called by the people, to administer its affairs. 
If these axioms be true, then the claim set up of late by a political party 
in this country, that the appointment of public officers and patronage of the 
government is given to the President of the United States for the purpose 
of sustaining his authority and extending his power and influence, is unjust 
and fallacious. To sanction the power of the President to remove men from 
office for an independent expression of opinion, or an honorable opposition 
to his measures, is a species of oppression and proscription wholly incom- 
patible with the spirit of our government. When the public officer is ap- 
pointed for his support of the party in power, he knows that his retention 
in office does not depend so much upon his qualifications and fidelity, as on 
the zeal and ability he displays at elections, in supporting his party. If the 
President may thus fortify himself, who does not see the influence he can 
exercise over the people, either to extend his own power, or to build up and 
establish that of his favorite. Should this new principle obtain, and it be 
acknowledged that the executive branch of the government is to exercise 
such unlimited power over the destiny and liberties of the public officers, 
and they become at once'a trained band, backed by all the influence of place 
and the money of the country, to corrupt, manage, and plunder the people; 
such principles are not more novel in our country than they are dangerous 
to its liberties." 

He objects to the principles involved in the President's protest 
against the authority of Congress to question his official conduct. 

He objects "to the chief executive putting himself in possession of 
the public revenue so completely that a man by the name of Whitney, 
a private individual bound by no bond or oath of office, and whose char- 
acter would seem to disqualify him from holding any public trust, has 
had the acknowledged direction of the whole public money for several 
years, which amounts to near $40,000,000." The reference is to Eeuben 
M. Whitney who in 1836 became agent for the deposit banks which re- 
ceived the deposits removed from the United States Bank. 

Keeping in mind the contrast between Jackson, the hero, and Jack- 
son, the autocrat. Governor Duncan continued: 

"It is immaterial whether the President in assuming this power was 
actuated by a desire to break down the restraints that the Constitution im- 
posed upon his authority, or by those high and patriotic principles which 
influenced him to set at nought the law and Constitution in 1815 at New 
Orleans when the safety of the country called for all his energies. The 
question now to be settled is, whether this power does or does not belong 
to the executive branch of our government." 

The Governor objects further to the President's abuse of the power 
of removal, due to the building up of the system of patronage which has 
encouraged men "who make politics a trade for the purpose of managing 
the voters at elections and procuring an office by which they may subsist 
without work." 



156 

"Indeed such are the temptations that this patronage holds out to allure 
our Industrious and virtuous citizens from their honest occupations that the 
inordinate love of office is rapidly becoming one of the prominent vices of 
our country. The long cherished principle that offices in a republic should 
never be accepted unless freely given, and never declined when freely offered, 
is only remembered as the phantom of an idle dream." 

This power can also be used to "influence and dictate" the official 
conduct of officers, thus putting into jeopardy "the life, liberty and prop- 
erty of every citizen." 

The Governor looked with alarm on the improper influence over the 
freedom of the press by the appointment of so many public printers in 
the states, and the appointment to other offices of "a long list of violent 
party editors." 

He calls attention to the President's frequent appointment of mem- 
bers of Congress to high positions, thus directly reversing the position 
he held before his election as chief executive. 

In closing the Governor emphasizes his policy of placing the good of 
the country above party: 

"In presenting these subjects to your consideration, gentlemen, I have 
discharged what I consider a solemn duty, and should the manner or the 
substance be unpleasant to any individual, I shall regret it much, and can 
only say that nothing is further from my wish or intention than to excite 
any party feelings (which I consider the bane of our government), or to 
wound the feelings of the most sensitive. They are grave and important 
subjects, and however unpleasant the task, we myst meet them fearlessly 
and frown them down, if we would not have them considered precedents 
for the conduct of future administrations. 

Now that this election is over, and all party strife, it is hoped, has 
ceased, and a new administration is just coming into office, appears to be 
the most auspicious moment for a calm investigation and safe decision of 
these objects. They can only be decided by public sentiment expressed by 
the Legislatures of the several states, and by the people in their primary 
assemblies and upon that decision in my opinion, depends the fate and 
future destiny of our Free Repuhlican Government. 

In bringing these subjects before you I have been influenced by no 
ambitious views. The principles are intended to apply without distinction. 
Actuated by a sincere desire to sustain and perpetuate our free institutions, 
I leave the subject with you, gentlemen, praying that patriotism, virtue and 
harmony may guide your deliberations."^ 

In the House, that part of the Governor's message that related to 
the general government was referred to a committee. The report, pre- 
sented December 23, 1836, concurred with Governor Duncan in his 
"broad and republican principles," but was convinced never-the-less that 
the President had the right of removal. Hardin led in the defense of 
the Governor, l)ut the report was adopted, 57 to 24.- 

A few letters written to Mrs. Duncan, who remained in Jacksonville 
during the winter of 1836-7, indicate that Governors, even in those days, 

had their troubles. 

December 7, 1836. Vandalia. 

"I have had my message printed and will send you a copy but it is un- 
certain when I will deliver it to the Legislature as they have not been able 
to elect a President of the Senate. Davison and Hacher are tied. 

"I want it understood by all the hands on the place when they have 
nothing else to do that they are to cut down the underbrush in the grove 



1 Senate Journal, Dec. 5, 183G. 
= House Journal, 1836-7. 



157 

and pile it up. Mr. Linn and Dr. Blackman have gone to tlie State House 
to attend an Internal Improvement meeting." 

"I hope Mr. Barber will find time to set out trees all round the yard 
this winter and in every place round and through the front lot also " 

December 18, 1836. Vandalia. 

"I would come for you if I could, now the snow is so fine for sleighing. 
But I cannot leave here until the appropriation bill passes which will not be 
much before 20th or 25th. * * * p^^y j^^^ |-^jj.g Linn] wants me to 
tell Anna Maria [Caldwell] to bring some of the girls with her, for company, 
as there are no young ladies in Vandalia." 

January 22, 1837. 

"I was truly disappointed that Judge Lockwood came in the stage last 
night without St. Clair. * * * j ^^^^ sincerely regret that there is so 
much difficulty in organizing the new church. I feel determined to go for- 
ward. As to the numbers with which we begin it is less than no objection. 
God has promised that where two or three are gathered together in His 
Name, He will be in the midst of them. I have always thought there were 
too many Christians influenced by fashion, so if we have but few and these 
unpretending Christians to begin our church, we may feel our weakness and 
thereby be taught humility. I assure you I would prefer organizing our 
church with Mr. Gowdy as the only elder than with ten rich influential men 
to fill such offices. For my part I like small beginnings. 

February 16, 1837. 

"Anna, Mrs. Hardin, and Lucy were to have gone in the stage but we 
have had a violent snow storm and the stage driver says that they cannot 
go, indeed I very much doubt if they get away from here before March. 

If you get word of the blue grass seed being at Meridosia I want a team 
sent for it immediately as it should be sowed as soon as possible. There is 
some little hopes of the Legislature adjourning on the 6th of March, though 
they have fixed no day and it is quite uncertain. This is my own opinion 
only. 

The next letter should be a sufficient refutation of the political 
charges brought against him by some of his political opponents that he 
planned the railroads so as to increase the value of his own land. 

February 23, 1837. Vandalia. 

"The Legislature is progressing better with their business and will prob- 
ably adjourn by the 6th of IMarch. You want to know if I cannot hurry 
them, certainly not, as they have generally made it a point to oppose all my 
icislies and recommendations. They have passed a bill to construct several 
railroads which will add greatly to the value of some of my property, but as 
I think it was bad policy, I intend to vote against it today, in the council of 
revision. 

I suppose the girls are at home safely. Tell Lucy that Mr. has 

been here twice. Anna's beau has not looked towards the house since she 
left it, that I know of, but is still in Vandalia. You may tell them also that 
I have slept quietly ever since they left. Not even a door shutting or a 
loud laugh to interrupt me." 

The Council of Eevision on February 25, 1837, returned the bill 
entitled, "An Act to establish and maintain a general system of Internal 
Improvements." To the objections of the other members of the Council, 
Governor Duncan added "The under signed concur in returning the bill, 
for the reasons given by Judges Brown and Lockwood and in addition 
objects to the bill on the ground of expediency. He is of the opinion 
that such works can only be made safely and economically in a free gov- 
ernment by citizens and by independent corporations aided or authorized , 
by the government." The Internal Improvement bill became a law Feb- 
ruary 27, 1837. In reviewing this period Ford writes, "It is a singular 
fact, that all the foolish and ruinous measures which have ever passed an 



158 

Illinois Legislature, woukl have been vetoed by the Governor for the 
time being, if he had possessed the power. The laws creating the Lite 
banks and increasing their capital by making the State a stockholder 
to a large amount and the Internal Improvement system, would have been 
vetoed by Governor Duncan. In all these cases the veto power would 
have been highly beneticial. The Democrats helped to make the banks, 
but the Whigs controlled the most money which gave them the control 
of the baiiks."'^ 

"Governor Duncan took a conservative attitude on the question of 
Jnternal Improvements. He favored the construction of the Illinois 
Canal but urged that other improvements be left to private initiative. 
He joined with the Council of Eevision in their unsuccessful attempt to 
prevent the adoption of the so-called "system" of 1837 and on the State 
banking system took a similar position. He opposed the chartering of 
the State Bank but was again overruled and his administration closed 
in the shadow of a great financial depression which liegan with the panic 
of 1S37.'"- 

The Legislature adjourned March G, 1&3T, but the condition of the 
country was such as to require a special session during the summer. The 
tide of immigration had been flowing into the State by road, river and 
canal, and had been overtaken by the panic which followed the fever of 
reckless speculation. 

A vivid contemporaneous description of the scenes in Chicago when 
the speculative boom was rising to its height, was written by Harriet 
Martineau, who visited Chicago in 183G and drove out as far as Joliet 
to see the "prairies."' A negro, dressed in scarlet and mounted on a 
white horse, announced the sales to the crowds in the streets. "The im- 
mediate occasion of the bustle Avhich prevailed, the Aveek we were in 
Chicago, was the sale of lots, to the value of two millions of dollars, along 
the course of a projected canal." She was struck with wild land along 
a canal not even marked out, selling for more than rich improved land 
along the Erie canal in the Mohawk Valley. She calls the rage for 
speculation a "prevalent mania" and said the bursting of the bubble must 
come soon. She mentions one lot bought for $150 in the morning sell- 
ing for $5,000 in the afternoon. She does not worry over the speculators, 
but she is sorry for the young men and the simple settlers.^ 

The panic of 1837 caused the banks throughout the United States 
to suspend specie payments and in May the banks in Illinois were in 
difficulties. Governor Duncan called a special session of the Legislature 
in July, 1837. From his point of view these disasters were to be attri- 
buted to the evils resulting from the removal of the government funds 
from the bank of the United States. In his niessage of July 10, 1837, 
he contrasts the former prosperity of the country with the present "al- 
most universal bankruptcy, in prostrating alike its business, its energies 
and confidence." He traces the causes of the evils to find out the remedy 
for them. "The inquiry, however, is important and useful, as the dis- 
covery of the cause not unfrequently suggests the remedy." 

^ Ford, History of Illinois, pagre 189. 

2 Governors' Letter Books. 1840-18i53. Greene and Thompson. Illinois His- 
torical Collections, Vol. VII. page XX. 

' Printed in Fergus Historical Series, Chicago, No. 9. See pages 37-8. 



159 

"In the midst of the disasters whicii have already fallen on the com- 
mercial world and which are still threatening us on all sides, a favorable 
opportunity occurs to escape from the perils of that system of Internal Im- 
provements adopted last winter, which to my apprehension, is so fraught 
with evils, and for the reason assigned when I refused my assent to the 
enactment passed in its favor, as well as from existing pecuniary troubles 
and derangements, I now recommend its repeal. Let the present pernicious 
system be rescinded, and in its stead adopt the safer, the more generous, 
more economical, more expeditious, and in every respect the preferable plan 
of encouraging private individuals and corporations by suitable aid from 
the State." 

"The Public Treasury must again be firmly placed in the custody of the 
law, and all power and control over it by the Executive of the United States 
must be repudiated, a violation of law to collect the revenue in one quarter 
of the country in specie only, and in another to collect in bank paper. The 
patronage of the Executive must be reduced, and his power to remove public 
officers modified so as to prevent his displacing a faithful and competent 
man, either to gratify party malice or to intimidate him in the free and 
independent exercise of the elective franchise. 

"Party spirit in its mildest form has ever been found an enemy to Lib- 
erty and sound legislation but when it is the offspring of ambition and 
avarice, directed by designing' bad men in high places, it begets a blind 
devotion and infuriated zeal which shuts the door against all reason, justice 
and patriotism. No power must be allowed to exist in this country superior 
to that of the people, or that does not acknowledge the supreme and in- 
flexible authority of the laws as the rule of action both for the President 
and every other functionary of the government."' 

The House by a vote of 52 to 31 and the Senate by 19 to 11 laid 
on the table the bills for the repeal of the Internal Improvement Law. 
"So here ends we hope forever the opposition to our noble system of im- 
provements, the Govei'nor to the contrary. "- 

By a vote of 42 to 24 the House passed resolutions disavowing the 
"truth of the charges of Governor Duncan in his late message that the 
present calamity in the moneyed concerns -of this country is the result 
of the General Government upon its currency." Among the men who 
sustained the Governor were Lincoln, Stuart and other prominent Whigs, 

There is a relief in the midst of the general depression to find a 
record that Governor Duncan was following his favorite hobby about 
political appointments. He informs the House that they violated the 
19 Section of the 2 Article of the Constitution by two appointments 
to positions in the State of men who were members of the Legislature 
and aVo increased their salary contrary .to law.^ 

This respect for the authority of the law runs all through his private 
as well as his public papers — as we have seen in 1830 he wanted the man 
who shot his brother in Louisiana "to have strict Justice done him and to 
employ such council as will insure a fair trial."' In the ex'citing times 
of the anti-slavery agitation Governor Duncan wanted the law respected 
by both sides. 

The Alton riots occurred in the fall of 1837, resulting in the death 
of Elijah Parrish Lovejoy. The Governor was not called upon to exercise 
his authority. 

He writes to an abolitionist, Eev. Gideon Blackburn, on December 
12, 1837: 

1 Senate Journal, July 10, 1837. 

-The State Register July 15. 1837. 

= House Journal July 10, 1837, page 33. 



160 

"The outrage at Alton must be disapproved and regretted by all good 
citizens, and nothing has happened within our peaceful State that has filled 
me with so much regret as this event. The restless spirit of the people of 
the United States, so frequently developed of late in mobs, has made a deep 
Impression on my mind and is evidence that all is not right with us. 

I hold that no power in this country is superior to the law, and that a 
violation of it with impunity is impossible without giving a serious wound 
to the liberties of the people and impairing the strength and value of our 
free institutions; but little, however, you must know, is left to the executive 
branch of this State ^government in such cases, as all offenders are to be 
tried by the courts and juries of the country, which is the only safe tribunal 
to entrust with such power. * * *_ 

While thus condemning mobs and all sorts of lawless violence, which I 
do from the bottom of my soul, for I believe they are never necessary and 
generally judge and execute their judgements improperly, to say nothing 
of the violence done the law and the Constitution which is an attack on the 
rights and liberties of every citizen and especially the poor and the weak 
part of them, yet I must at the same time express my decided disapprobation 
of any attempt while the public mind is in such a state of excitement, to 
agitate the question of abolishing slavery in this country, for it can never 
te broached without producing violence and discord, whether it be in a free 
or slave state. I confess I am one of those who believe it will neither be 
consistent with sound policy or humanity by a single effort to free all the 
slaves in the Union, ignorant, vicious and degraded as they are known to be, 
and then turn them loose upon the world without their possessing the least 
qualification for civil government, or knowledge of the value of property, 
or the use of liberty. * * *. 

Mr. Lovejoy's death was caused by a lawless mob and whether he killed 
the first man or not, they were aggressors and must stand condemned in the 
eyes of every virtuous and peaceful citizen. I am bound in candor to say 
that I disapprove of Lovejoy's determination to persist in the publication 
of sentiments that had driven him from St. Louis and twice before had 
caused the destruction of his own press in Alton; * * * i cannot, hoAv- 
ever, from my knowledge of the man, for a moment doubt the purity of his* 
motives. 

You call Mr. Lovejoy a martyr. I consider no man entitled to the dis- 
tinction of martyrdom who is the first to shed blood and who dies with 
arms in his hands." 

Later, Governor Duncan wrote a letter to the president of Illinois 
College, on a report that abolition principles were being taught in that 
institution : 

"Believing that it is wrong, morally and politically, for any citizen or 
public institution to teach or advocate doctrines or principles in this country 
which can not be carried into practice peaceably without violating the Con- 
stitution of the United States, or forcibly, without civil war, the risk of 
disunion, and the destruction of our free and happy government, I can not, 
with my present convictions of the course pursued by its faculty, consist- 
ently hold any connection with this institution.'" 

As the report was disproved this letter was not sent. 

Governor Duncan disapproved of slavery as "a great moral and 
political evil." Like many other Kentuckians in Illinois, Hardin, 
Browning, Mather, etc.. he hoped a peaceful solution could be found to 
end slavery. It was while Mr. Duncan was Governor that Abraham Lin- 
coln, on March 3, 1837, just before the adjournment of the Legislature, 
introduced into the lower house his famous protest, stating that "the 
institution of slavery is founded on both injustice and bad policy" and 

^ Julia Duncan Kirby, Biographical Sketch of Joseph Duncan, page 54. 




ODUNCAN HOME, ELM GROVE, JACKSONVILLE, ILL. 



161 

;ontiiiuing: '*Tlie j^i'oniulgation of abolition doctrines tends rather to 
increase than abate its evils. '"^ The first of these declarations of the 
young Lincoln is frequently quoted; the second is apt to be neglected. 

Mr. Duncan did not run for Governor in 1838. Thomas Carlin 
was elected. 

On December 4th, 1838, on retiring from office. Governor Duncan 
addressed the Legislature again on the Internal Improvement policy — 
the same as before — recommending "the Illinois and Michigan Canal 
fi? a national highway to be kept as free as the waters of the Mississippi 
or the St. Lawrence;" admitting that many mistakes had been made, 
as "in a country almost entirely destitute of skill and experience in 
such works, was to have been expected," objecting to pul^lic officers being 
used by politicians for purpose of influencing the elections, urging a 
sound money system, and closing with : 

"In taking leave of you, gentlemen, allow me to offer the assurance of 
my sincere good wishes and friendly feeling for every one of you. The vio- 
lence with which I have been assailed, by my political opponents, during 
the whole time I have been in ofHce has caused no rankling in my bosom. 
The plain manner in which I have felt it my duty to speak of what I sin- 
cerely believed to be errors, and abuses, of the party now in power, I knew 
well would bring their vengeance with all its force upon me, and had I loved 
ease and office more than my duty, I should have chosen a different course. 
But I owe too strong a debt of gratitude, to the people of Illinois and hold 
the Constitution and freedom of our country, in too much esteem ever to 
shrink from the discharge of my duty." 

Thus ends his public career of fourteen years. 

CHAPTER V. 
Eetirement to Private Life. * 

The Christmas of 1838 found Mr. Duncan at home in Jacksonville, 
a private citizen after fourteen years of continuous public service. The 
friendship and respect of his fellow citizens, a beautiful home which 
was the centre of hospitality and which today maintains its dignity of 
structure, a large and growing family of children, lands, farms and 
cattle, all promised a future of quiet and ease. 

Mrs. Duncan's reminiscences give a vivid picture of their early life 
in Jacksonville whither she had gone in 1832, dressed "in white India 
muslin dress and long sky blue sash," No wonder people asked "what 
brought you so far from the city out into the wild country. I said, 
^my husband, I followed him.' People were kind but they appeared very 
rough in their home spun clothes but I learned to love and appreciate 
them after living among them. Wherever I went they turned my trunk 
inside out, tried on all my clothes and admired them generally. It was 
funny and often annoying to have them cut patterns of every thing they 
could, often ruining them past use. 

uv * :;= jj^ ^.^,Q dsLjs we came into tov.'n and there being a small 
hotel and court in session we slept in Murray Mc Conn el's office. The 
next morning the office was filled with men before I got out of bed and 
it was with difficulty I got a chance to dress. jSText move was Mrs. 

^ Nicolay-Hay, Lincoln, Vol. I. page 140. 
—11 H S 



10-? 

Matthew Stacey's garret where it was so low I could not stand up to 
dress. I am only 4 feet 5 inches so you can imagine the height of the 
ceiling. After that we removed to the country three miles east of town, 
Mrs. James Kerr. We lived a good deal on peaches. Maria (the nurse) 
used to drive for me and we took old Tom and the two boys and came 
in for my husband every night while he built me a small frame house 
one mile west of the square. It was completed in four weeks from the 
day it was commenced. Three rooms and an entry. It was beautifully 
situated. It was opposite the college which was only the south wing. 

* * * 1830 was the winter of the deep snow. In the morning when 
1 looked out of my cottage window it was above the sill. Mr. Duncan 
Avas in Congress. His mother was with me. Eunice Conn was with me 
that night and she cried, thinking she would be buried alive in the snow. 

"The next fall I went to Washington with Mr. Duncan. James 
was 2 years 7 months old. He died at Wheeling, Virginia and we buried 
him on the hill in sight of the river. I was very ill at the time. 

* * * \Yl^en I arrived in Washington they were all grieved that 
James was not with us — none more so than Peggy who had his little 
chair sitting in the window for him." 

The summer of 1833 was spent in the east and on account of the 
cholera in Washington Cit}^ they went to Mrs. Anne McLaughlin Myers, 
Mr. Duncan's aunt in Greencastle, Pennsylvania, where their daughter 
Mary Louisa, my mother, was born. The following summer they came 
west, finding the cholera in Jacksonville. Mrs. Duncan writes: 

"We entertained Mr. T. M. Post, nephew of my beloved pastor, 
Eev. Eeuben Post, the same that united us in marriage, the same that 
found me a girl very fond of dancing and gay society and that led me 
to give it all up and be a Christian it being one of the requirements 
of the Presbyterian Church. Though I felt sure in regard to simple 
dancing, my father's views on that subject were correct, for in my child- 
hoods home after we had our dance, at ten o'clock the piano was closed, 
the servants called in, the family bible opened and although we used 
Eouse's version of the Psalms, singing of the dolorous music, never 
affected unpleasantly our dreams, after kissing our parents goodnight, 
we retired refreshed in body and mind. 

"Mr. Post came to us the day Mr. Duncan had a barn raising. 
About twelve or fifteen men were to have their dinner. Mr. Duncan 
constructed a table out of planks nailed to the trees back in the grov(; 
and the men stood around it. .1 sat on a chair placed on a box to bring 
me up on a level with the rest of them. Maria was a good cook and 
gave them a good meal. Mr. Post enjoyed our little home after the long 
journey from the east. He spoke of waking in the night and passing 
his hands over the linen pillow cases and sheets and feeling as if he 
was in heaven." 

It is interesting to read Dr. Post's description of this same scene, 
written in 1884 when he was a noted preacher in St. Louis. He had 
intended to follow the profession of a lawyer and was tempted to settle 
in Piichmond, Virginia, "attracted by its social culture, and advantageous 
inducements offered me by Senator Elvers but through the influence and 
representations of your father I was induced to determine I would visit 
him in Illinois before permanently settling elsewhere. In view of this 



163 

fact I have ever regarded your father as one through whose influence 
Providence has permanently touched the history of my life, turning its 
course toward a new world and fixing its field in the then far west. 

"In pursuance of this plan, in May, ISSS, I visited Jacksonville, 
Illinois, then an extreme out-settlement toward the Northwest. In this 
region I found your father at his home, not far from where the family 
residence now stands, about one mile from the town, which was then a 
crowded village of log cabins. His home, a small initial pioneer struc- 
ture, quite shanty-like compared with those which afterward arose in 
its place. It was the only attempt at a wooden frame dwelling I can 
now recollect in that vicinity. I remember as I approached it I was 
much struck with the contrast it presented to your mother's former 
luxurious surroundings and delicate culture, and to your father's repu- 
tation and reality of proprietorship of great wealth; and I saw I was 
looking upon the beginning of a new world. 

"I found your father and mother under the shade of large trees 
in front of their house, surrounded by a company mainly of crude, 
rough, stalwart men with manner, garb and speech of plain and quite 
primitive type, with bronzed strongly marked, shrewd faces, the back- 
woodsmen political leaders of the newly emerging commonwealth. It 
was near the dinner hour and rough tables were set in the shadow of the 
lofty trees. Then, as we gathered around them, I shall never forget 
how your mother, a little delicate brave woman, solitary amid that 
company of men, arose and as your father was not at that time a com- 
municant of the church, offered thanks and asked the divine blessing 
on our repast. The scene and the incident give us a glimpse of the life 
of those times and are also characteristic of the Christian heroism of 
your mother. I shall never forget it. It affected me peraianently in 
various ways, besides impressing me ever with a high admiration for 
her Christian principle and bravery." 

Mr. and Mrs. Duncan returned to "Washington for the winter session 
of Congress. Mrs. Duncan was ill during the summer of 1834. She 
writes, "In the fall without any electioneering my husband being elected 
Governor of Illinois we came west to remain.^ He brought me on a 
spring bed in a close carriage, another carriage followed with my three 
children, Cousin Anna Caldwell, an English wet nurse for Nannie, John 
McClusky, an Irishman came as driver and remained with us 14 years 
— a more faithful man never lived. We came to the cottage till the large 
house was completed. James Finley we had got to superintend the 
building. He changed the plans of the size of the windows and doors, 
which I always regi"etted. We moved into the house in the summer of 
1835.2 

^ Mrs. Duncan's account of the return to Illinois malves no nipntion of the oft 
repeated story of the meeting of Governor Reynolds and Governor Duncan. The 
latter was returning to Illinois to be Governor and tlie former Governor was on 
the way to take Duncan's seat in Congress. "Yes," said the old ranger, "and we 
are changing horses politically, too. You are riding the Yankee mule and I am 
going to keep astraddle of Old Hickory." Quoted in the Biographical Sketch of 
Joseph Duncan by Julia Duncan Kirby, page 27. 

- The grounds in front of the hou.se were given m'any years ago by Mrs. Dun- 
can to the town of Jacksonville as a park. Recently, in 1920, the house was bought 
by the Daughters of the American Revolution to be used as a club house and also 
by the local Historical Society. It is doubtful if there are many other houses 
left in Illinois of this early period and of as interesting architecture. It resembles 
the old Duncan house in Paris, Kentucky, but is larger and the rooms in better 
proportion, with a finely designed vestibule and hall. The outside of the house 



- 164 

"Daniel Webster made us a visit in 1837, My husband gave a bar- 
becue in our grove in his honor. They roasted a steer whole. Webster 
made a speech which was as eloquent as his always were, calling out 
cheer after cheer, from his delighted audience." 

Dr. T. JST. Post of St. Louis describes this occasion in a letter written 
Dec. 23, 1884: ''* * * One evening of unique and memorable in- 
terest I distinctly recall spent by myself and my wife with your father 
and mother and Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Webster and their daughter, at 
your father's house. Mr. Webster had changed somewhat since I had 
seen him in Washington, in the pride of his strength in the great con- 
stitutional battle of the Titans, wrestling with Callioun and those of 
his school. Time, with its work and wear and worriment, was telling 
somewhat on him, yet still his stalwart strength was on him, and per- 
haps his manhood, as well as his ambition, was never greater. I shall 
never forget his conversation with me on the ''Book of Job" that evening, 
by your father's fireside, and he will ever continue as one of the grand 
historic figures I met w^ith in those years in your father's home of 
princely hospitalities."^ 

The hospitality of the house was unbounded; and Mrs. Duncan's 
diary shows no surprise at relatives and friends "dropping in" for a visit 
of several weeks though there are occasioned requests for Christian 
patience and fortitude to cope with the difficulties of housekeeping. The 
tradition of an old colored cook who said "Massa Joe, all this here house 
needs to be an hotel, is the hanging out de sign," is verified by an entry 
in the diary of 1841. "For the first time in 6 months we ate breakfast 
and dinner alone. In the evening Mr. Norris the gentleman who is to 
deliver the lecture on the orphan asylum, accompanied by Mr. Wilkinson 
came to remain a week with us * * * both very agreeable gentle- 
men," and a few days later — "Had the pleasure of 3 friends coming 
unexpectedly to spend the day with me, had the meat of a bear for 
dinner but cannot say that I would prefer it. 

"January 14, 1841. Took a ride with my husband in the sleigh 
with an unbroken colt and all the children," and a few days later, 
"attended a maternal meeting with my four eldest children. Was 
pleased with Mary and Ann Elizabeth answering so promptly their text 
in relation to keeping the Sabbath day. * * * The dear children 

has been altered by the addition of porches. The original clapboards of black wal- 
nut have recently had the paint removed and are of a beautiful tone. All the 
furniture and china that has come down in the family from this period are choice 
and beautiful. 

There is a small square mahogany piano, an unusual piece of furniture to 
have in those days, and, with other articles shows a love of the fine arts. In this 
connection it is of interest to mention a large mahogany French magnifying glass 
with colored lithographs of Versailles, St. Cloud and curiously enough one of Kirk- 
cudbright, Scotland (the home of JMrs. Duncan's father) a collection of eight 
French lithographs by Grevedon : a large mahogany centre table and book case 
with columns which tradition saj's were the work of a local cabinet maimer, cer- 
tainly a good one : the glass in the small panes is primitive. Unfortunately all the 
books were stored and lost. 

There are beautiful pieces of furniture, silver and glass, belonging to Mrs. 
Duncan's father and the bills of lading show they either went by ship from New 
York to New Orleans and up the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers to Meredosia and 
then by wagon to Jacksonville, or "avoiding the dangers of the seas" as one bill 
states, came by canal, across the mountains and down the Ohio River. 

With the exception of a short time when it was rented, the old house was occu- 
pied by the family from the time it was built in 1833 until it was sold in 1920. 
For many years it was the home of Judge and ^Nlrs. Edward P. Kirhy. Mrs. Kirby 
died there in 1906. Seldom in the west does it happen that a person is bom, 
marries and dies in the same house. 

^Letter to Mrs. Julia D. Kirby, ciuoted, Biographical Sketch, page 69. 



165 

were asked if the}' would like to educate a Heathen child and call him 
Edward Beecher they showed their spirit by holding up their right 
hands. 

"February 5, 1841. Snowing all day. * * * spent the even- 
ing in reading the lives of General Jackson and Daniel Webster as com- 
parisons are odious I will Tiot make any. 

The next day "the sun shone brightly, rose at 6 o'clock." 

"February 22, 1841. "Washington's birthday, felt a little better 
and rode down town and saw a procession going to church a new society 
by the name of the Washingtonians who appear to do a great deal of 
good. My husband also appears much engaged about it. It was also his 
birthday, being 48 years old." 

"March 11. * * * In the evening prepared to go down to meet- 
ing and found the horses cutting up and remained at home. I fear I 
should not be able to give my body to be burned if it was necessary. 
Lord enable me to search myself and see what manner of spirit I am." 

"May 19, 1841. Took my usual ride of a mile on horseback. 

"July 20. Great excitement in town concerning the robbery of 
the Illinois Bank. Satan appears to be walking up and down on the 
earth." 

There were lectures by the abolitionists, meetings of the Coloniza- 
tion Society and on March 29 — "attended a meeting to do something 
for the education of females." This was the beginning of the Ladies 
Educational Society which still is doing good work in enabling girls to 
obtain an education and then repay the money advanced. Scattered 
through the pages are little human touches, as when on March 15 she 
writes, "Judge Eobbins the temperance agent staid with us the Sabbath 
and Monday he related many interesting anecdotes in relation to it. 
I still however feel a degree of foolish feeling in regard to it that if I 
join it I shall then feel inclined to di'ink it when I never did," and 
a few days later "an old countryman came in at tea time and was a 
[illegible] on my pleasure as all vulgar people are. Lord forbid that 
I should indulge improper pride." 

Intermingled with the serious affairs of life is mention of calls, 
teas and great neighborly kindness. 

Mr. Duncan went east in 1840 and again in 1841 — and there are a 
few letters of that period written to Mrs. Duncan in Jacksonville. 

New York, June 3, 1840. 

"You will hardly believe how anxious I am to leave this place — but I am 
resolved not to leave here until my business is satisfactorily arranged and 
from present appearances it may take all this month for I never found men 
here so reluctant to do anything. * * * General Thornton went out in 
the British Anna. It is nothing now to go to Europe. The vessels all go 
out full of cabin passengers and return crowded to overflowing with all 
kinds; thousands of emigrants are coming here from Europe every week. 

Nc « 4: 

Everything in this city is very dull. There is a dutch girl here, Fanny 
Elssler, a dancer that is turning the brains (if that be possible), of all the 
fashionable and the soap locTcs of this city. It is said she is no better than 
she should be, yet she is worshipped here as a being from another world, 
so much for taste and fashion. 

Mr. Page the artist who painted my portrait three years ago thinks he 
has improved since and as he does not like the likeness he has offered to 



166 

paint another for nothing so I am now sitting for it and may possibly bring 
it home with me." 

June 16, 1840. 

"I forgot whether I had written you that I have had a splendid portrait 
painted of me. It is said to be very fine." 

A few of his letters home in 1841 are quoted: 

Washington City, November 27, 1841. 

"Nothing has occurred since my arrival worthy of note. I have however 
called on the President and several of the heads of departments. Mr. Web- 
ster enquired particularly for you. They all look unhappy indeed. I think 
they have no great reason to bfe otherwise. I have done nothing with ray 
business here and I begin to fear it will be out of my power to effect any 
arrangements though I am very glad I came on as I shall have to provide 
for defending the suit." 

New York, 18th December, 1841. 

"You see I am still here and for my life I cannot tell when I shall get 
off. My patience is almost exhausted with the Dysons and if they do not 
settle with me very soon I shall put my claim into the lawyers' hands. I am 
also trying to arrange to get something for Janet and that has already been 
and may still be a cause of detention. 

I have not had time to visit but intend to see all of our friends the day 
before I leave as It would be impossible to go out much to dine and that 
is the only way to avoid it. * * *. 

I have not bought you a thing yet, as I have collected no money and 
unless I do It is going to be scarce times with me." 

19th, Sunday night. 

I went to hear Dr. Haux, the celebrated Episcopalian. There I met 
Colonel and Mrs. Hamilton and also old Mrs. Hamilton, widow of Gen. Alex. 
Hamilton, of the Revolution and went home with her and took dinner and 
never was more delightfully entertained by any young lady, though she "s 
now 84 years old. She is as active and her mind as clear as that of any lady 
I have seen in the city. Indeed she is more animated and intelligent than 
any I have seen. She is very much interested in several benevolent societies, 
one of which she founded 40 years ago. She said to me with great anima- 
tion, Sir, our accounts never get confused and our treasury is never empty 
— I keep them myself." 

Washington City, 7th January, 1842. 

"I assure you that nothing shall detain me that I can avoid after my 
suit is decided and I hope that may be done next week as the Supreme Court 
meets on Monday next but it would be madness to leave before it is settled. 
If the court tried this case soon after it sits as I hope it may, I shall start 
home next week and if not, I shall have to wait their own time. 

There is nothing going on here worth relating to you. I am staying 
with your sister and spend my time as pleasantly as I could anywhere out 
of my own home. I take but little part in politics as the Wliigs are split 
into factions, on some questions about which sometimes one. and sometimes 
both are wrong but I believe all will in the main come right. Therefore 
I take no active part with either. 

Finding that I have a large space left, I will fill it with an account of my 
visits for want of something better to write about. 

On the first of January I went with the crowd to pay my respects to the 
President. It was a lovely day and I never saw so great a crowd at the 
White House. There was nothing like it even in General Jackson's day. 
Whether it was the President's popularity, the fine day or the facilities of 
getting to the city by railroads that brought such a multitude together I 
cannot tell. On the 3vd I went to the Buchanan levee and it was crowded 
as well, a splendid affair. I have dined out by invitation only four times 
and am to dine with the President today. Yesterday I dined with Mr. Gales 
and met Mrs. Madison there. She looks exceedingly well and is now, as sh» 
ever has been a very great favorite. 



167 

Mr. Webster has paid me no attention. I met his wife with liim in the 
street. She made particular enquiries about you. I cannot suppose his neg- 
lect is intentional for he is said to be very much depressed by the abuse 
his old friends are giving him and I suppose he thinks I feel as every one 
else acts towards him. 1 forgot that I dined also with W. T. Carroll, it was 
given to Miss Taylor and was a splendid entertainment." 

The charm of the old Jacksonville still lingers about its spacious 
homes with the atmosphere of generous hospitality reminiscent of the 
South, and along the elm-lined streets which remind one of a New Eng- 
land town. For into the life of Jacksonville have gone these two ele- 
ments. From Xew England came the Yale Band to found Illinois 
College on "The Hill" — with Sturtevant, Turner, Kirby, Adams and 
the others. From New England came also Dr. Hiram K. Jones, the pla- 
tonic philosopher carrying on the Emerson-Alcott tradition.^ From Ken- 
tucky came the Duncan's, Hardin's,- Clay's, Brown's, and a large group, 
equally influential in contributing toward the chaxacter of the city in 
which the features of New England and the South are so happily blended. 

CHAPTER VI. 

Last Political Campaign: Business Affairs. 

In 1840 Governor Duncan took an active ^aart in the campaign 
against VanBuren for re-election as President. His note book contains 
material he gathered for speeches, a hand bill announcing one of the 
meetings, and numerous newspaper clippings. 
The hand bill reads : 

"GOVERNOR DUNCAN, Will make a speech to the original supporters 
of General Jackson, and all who may please to come and hear him in 
CARROLLTON, ON MONDAY, OCTOBER 26, 

HE WILL ENDEAVOR TO PROVE, 

1st. — That the present administration does not now, and that it never 
has, since 1830, acted upon the principles avowed by General Jackson and 
his friends, previous to his election in 1828. 

2d.— That Mr. VanBuren's policy has generally been anti-Republican, 
has a tendency to the destruction of public liberty, and that his professions 
of Democracy and love for the people, are false and hypocritical. 

3d. — That Mr. VanBuren has, in violation of General Jackson's pledge, 
increased the standing army — is seeking to establish a large standing army; 
and that his late denial of having recommended the plan submitted by the 
Secretary of War, for recruiting and keeping in the service of government 
200,000 troops, under the pretext of organizing the militia, is a gross mis- 
representation of facts, for the purpose of deceiving the people, and avoiding 
responsibility. 

As truth is the only object, and that can be best known by hearing both 
sides, he invites any friend or supporter of Mr. VanBuren to answer his 
speech, and to discuss those charges with him. 

October 24, 1840.'' 

Governor Duncan criticised VanBuren for his opposition to the 
War of 1812, for his opposition to the original Jackson policy of 1824- 

^ Even as late as the nineties Dr. Jones continued giving his weekly Platonic 
lectures. One of the writer's most impressive childhood recollections of her visits 
to Jacksonville was attending tliese Saturday morning monologues. It remains 
unsolved whether she was taken as a matter of course, or whether ihere was a hope 
of her becoming interested in transcendental philosophy. 

- Colonel John J. Hardin was one of the closest friends of Governor Duncan. 
The Hardin papers have not been edited and may contain much of interest on the 
early period of Illinois history. 



168 

1829, for his lack of true democracy, for his extravagance, for advocat- 
ing what was considered a standing army, and for his abuse of patronage. 
At Governor Duncan's speech in Springfield September 25th, 1840, 
Stephen A. Douglas accepted the challenge to answer, the result being 
a joint debate interesting as anticipating the joint debates between 
Lincoln and Douglas. 

In 1841 Governor Duncan went to Washington in connection with 
his personal business. 

There has been preserved a copy of a letter to the President, inter- 
esting as giving his views on the political questions of the hour: 

Washixgtox, 2Gth November, 1S41. 

Dear Sir: It was my intention, had an opportunity offered, when I 
called to see you yesterday evening, to have suggested verbally, what 1 
am now [doing] upon reflection the better way, as your time must he mucli 
occupied at present with your official duties. I shall offer no apology for 
this letter, or for the suggestions I am about to make, as it is the duty of 
every citizen to do everything in his power to secure the peace and pros- 
perity of our country. My object then, sir, is to call your attention, (in 
hopes you may notice it in the message you are about to submit to Con- 
gress), the following proposed amendments to the Constitution of the United 
States, viz: 

1st. — To render the President of the United States ineligible for a re- 
election to the same office. 

2nd. — To limit the Executive control over the public moneys, until after 
they may have been appointed by law. 

3rd. — To restrict the President's power to remove all public officers (ex- 
cept members of his Cabinet and diplomatic agents) to causes of incom- 
petency, infidelity, or want of usefulness, the evidence of which, to be sub- 
mitted to the Senate for their approval. 

4th. — To prohibit members of Congress from accepting appointments 
from the Executive. 

The last twelve years of this country shows the great importance of 
these amendments. With such guards thrown around our free institutions 
we may reasonably hope that they would be perpetual. Without them, 
should the administration ever again get into the hands of an ambitious 
man at the head of a great organized party, we may expect again to witness 
the same scenes of corruption, and the same violent action of the government 
on our elections and on all the institutions of the country, which have so 
recently agitated and convulsed every portion of it. 

"The correction of these abuses was the great subject that occupied the 
public mind in on/ late struggle, and in my opinion this limitation of 
Executive power, is the first reform that the people expected this adminis- 
tration to recommend and Congress to ca*rry out." 

With great respect, your friend, 

Joseph Dunca' . 
To the President of the United States. 

Mr. Duncan had for four years been attending to his private in- 
terests, although, as has been shown, he took a keen interest in the 
changing political conditions. 

In 1842, he was again induced to run for Governor. He made his 
campaign on his record in public life, in his speeches paying special 
attention to a sane policy of internal improvements and banking. The 
Mormon question was also an issue. His opponent Adam W. Snyder 
died during the campaign and Thomas Ford became the rival and suc- 
cessful candidate. Probably no better man could have been elected in 
this crisis in the financial affairs of the State than Thomas Ford. 



169 

This was Governor Duncan's last political campaign. He was a 
statesman of the frontier and pioneer days, the days of blazing trails 
in government as in the western wilderness. There was soon to come 
a time when the vision, daring and vigor of the pioneer was not so much 
needed as the more systematic and business-like building up of the new 
states, and this work, important but perhaps not so fascinating, was to 
be done by other men. 

This last campaign was clouded by the references to Mr. Duncan's 
private business affairs — complicated by a lawsuit of the government 
against the sureties of William Linn who had defaulted as receiver of 
]Hiblic monies in Vandalia. • Mr. Linn had married Polly Ann Duncan, 
Joseph Duncan's sister. Mr. Duncan was one of these sureties and 
apparently took the burden of the suit on his shoulders. 

Linn on February 13, 1835, was re-appointed receiver of public 
moneys at the land office of the district of Vandalia for the term of four 
years from January 12, 1835, it becoming publicly known later that 
his record at the time had not been clear. Over a year later, on April 
1, 1836, Joseph Duncan, with eight others, became his sureties, a new 
bond being apparently signed August 1, 1836, Linn appears to have 
used the money in his hands for land speculation and became a defaulter. 
The government made a demand for an accounting November 23, 1837, 
and again April 2, 1838. Suit was brought in the Circuit Court of the 
United States for the district of Illinois against Linn and his sureties. 
There were several technical points introduced, one of these the fact that 
the first instrument was not properly sealed, and another that the in- 
strument was executed over a year after Linn had been in charge of the 
monies. Logan & Brown are mentioned as the attorneys for Joseph 
Duncan. The case was carried up to the United States Supreme Court 
in the January term of 1841 and the January term of 1843. The 
Supreme Court by a divided opinion reversed the decision of the lower 
court which had favored the defendants. Joseph Duncan appears to 
have been the only one of the nine sureties who was solvent and the 
government proceeded to collect the whole debt from him. 

"Thousands of acres of the best and most carefully selected lands In 
Illinois were sold at ten cents an acre; some of the handsomest residence 
properties in Jacksonville at three and four dollars a lot and nearly forty 
acres comprising Duncan's Addition to Chicago, now in the heart of the 
city, were sold from five to seven dollars a lot."^ 

As a result of the. ruthless and unbusiness-like method by which the" 
execution was carried out all of Governor Duncan's fortune and part of 
his wife's was swept away. The amount realized was less than half the 
amount of the judgment. Had it been handled differently the judgment 
could have been paid in full and something saved for other creditors and 
for the family. 

In an endeavor to clear up this complicated case I have recently 
consulted Mr. Stuart Brown, of Springfield, Illinois, as to the records 
of this case and at his suggestion include the correspondence between 
Mr. Duncan and Solicitor of the Treasury in which the former states 
his case in a straightforward manner and the reply of the Solicitor 

^ Julia Duncan Kirby: Biographical Sketch of Joseph Duncan, page 64. 



170 

indicates his appreciation of the strength of the chaini l)iit that liis ollice 
has no legal authority to take action. 

Four law suits were brought in the District Court and two in the 
Supreme Court of the United States. The records of the District Court 
of the United States of Illinois, when the District of Illinois was sepa- 
rated into two districts, called the Xorthem and the Southern Districts 
of Illinois, were removed to Chicago in 1855 and were destroyed by the 
Chicago Fire in 1871. Because of this loss of the files and records an 
accurate statement of all the points in controversy cannot now be made. 

It appears from the Eecords of the United States Supreme Court 
that in the first case there was a division- of opinion on the question 
whether an instrument not a bond was yet a binding contract at Common 
Law.^ The second case was brought in the Circuit Court of the United 
States for the District of Illinois upon a declaration in three counts. 
Joseph Duncan and others plead Non est factum to the first count. 
Joseph Duncan filed a special plea to the second and third counts. To 
this plea the Government filed a special demurrer and the court gave 
judgment for Duncan on the demurrer. The first count went to the 
jur}'- and on instructions by Court there was a verdict for the defendants 
upon the issues of fact. 

The United States then took the case to the Supreme Court of the 
United States on Writ of Eri^or, which court reversed the case and sent 
it back to the Circuit Court of the United States for the District for 
Illinois for further proceedings.^'- 

It must be assumed that in such "further proceedings"' the Govern- 
ment obtained judgements against all the sureties. It is regrettable that 
the destruction of the records in the Chicago Fire prevents us from 
analyzing the proceedings or finding out who were the judges and the 
lawyers acting. 

It is thought advisable to reprint the correspondence of Mr. Duncan 
with the Solicitor of the Treasury. This was printed in the Alton Tele- 
graph and Democratic Eeview, Alton, 111., Saturda}^, June 11, 1842. 
Charles B. Penrose, Esq. 

Solicitor of the Treasury: 
Sir: You are apprised that three judgments were obtained against A. 
M. Jenkins. J. Griggs, C. Will, J. M. Duncan, Wm. L. D. Ewing, R. J. Hamil- 
ton, M. Duncan, J. Whitlock. L. F. Watwood, John Echols, J. Allen. H. Foster, 
John Fleming, J. Long, S. Alphin, B. W. Brooks, Wm. M'Connel, A. P. Field, 
J. Linder, L. Lee, J. Hall, A. Lee. D. B. Watterman, Wm. C. Greenup, and 
myself, at the June Term, 1841, of the District Court of the United States, 
for the State of Illinois, for several sums, amounting to $28,597.20, as securi- 
ties, on part, or on all, the official Bonds of Wm. Linn, late Receiver of 
Public Moneys at Vandalia, in said State. 

The Marshal has now an Execution in his hands against us. and will 
be compelled, of course, to make the money out of our property, which must 
prove ruinous, if carried out with all the rigors of the law, to several of our 
most valued citizens. Under these circumstances, I have voluntarily come 
to Washington, for the purpose, if possible, of making some arrangement 
for the payment of this large and most unjust claim, by which that ruin 
may be obviated which usually follows the sale of property under execution, 
for cash; and especially in such times as these. 

' 15 Peters page 29 0. 
= 1 Howard page 104. 



171 

I propose, therefore, to pay the above debt in real estate, to be valued 
under oath, by two persons chosen by the United States and one by the 
securities; by which arrangement the whole claim will be secured to the 
Government, and as they can afford to wait for some time, the whole would 
be realized. Thus relieving the securities from debts which can not be paid 
otherwise; and which, being a lien upon their property, must, to a great 
extent, paralyze their energies, and usefulness as citizens, so long as those 
judgments hang over them. 

I have said that it is an unjust debt; and believing it to be so, I should 
not hesitate to appeal to a just Executive, if it were in his power, to relieve 
us from its payment; but, as that is impossible, I confidently anticipate the 
most favorable arrangement that can be made, consistent with law and 
justice. All these transactions, except the judgments and executions, trans- 
pired under the VanBuren administration; and I shall refer to them as 
briefly as possible, for the purpose of showing that this debt is unjust, and 
such as a virtuous people, could it be submitted to them, would never allow 
to be collected and put into the public Treasury. 

You are aware of the requirements of the laws of Congress, that deposits 
shall be made every three months, whether the sum in the hands of a 
Receiver be large or small; and that the Treasury regulations are explicit 
and positive, that, whenever the sums received shall amount to Ten Thou- 
sand Dollars, the Receiver shall forthwith make a deposit of it. 

Relying upon the Executive to see that these laws were faithfully ex- 
ecuted, as he was sworn to do, I felt confident, and so must all concerned 
have felt, that the risk could not be very great, in signing his first bond: 
much less could any of us have anticipated that the Receiver would have 
been appointed a second and third times, and we again and again induced 
to sign his bonds, when he was known to the Executive, as they now say, 
to have been a defaulter all the time. Who could possibly have supposed 
that the chief officer of Government, having so high a trust, could be either 
so careless or corrupt as to have retained him in office, without warning 
his securities that they were holden, under his previous bonds, for a defal- 
cation. None of his securities were so warned; his default was studiously 
concealed from us all, except from one gentleman, a prominent supporter 
of the party, who had been security on the two first bonds, who may have 
had notice, as he did not renew his security on the third, or the collateral 
bond; and that he was thus warned and protected by Executive favor, is 
strongly to be inferred, from the fact that he has not been sued on the two 
bonds that he did sign. 

It will be seen, from the Records of the Treasury Department, that Linn 
was first appointed a Receiver on the 11th of June, 1830. He was reappointed 
on the 2d of May, 1831. At this time he is found to have been a defaulter, 
on the trial of the suit, in the small sum of $621.99. As it is possible his 
accounts may not have been adjusted at this time, I am not disposed to 
attach any importance to it. But he was .again appointed in 1835, for which 
no excuse can be given; as Mr. Woodbury and the President both knew that 
he was a large defaulter at the time; which they studiously concealed from 
the public, thereby bringing this ruin upon his unsuspecting securities. At 
the date of this appointment, it will be seen from the correspondence, that 
Linn was a large defaulter. He was then considered a man of substance; 
and, if his securities had been notified of his default, they would not only 
have compelled him to pay up, but would have declined signing the bond 
then taken, on which the United States have recovered a judgment for the 
full amount, say $20,000.^ 

On the 20th October, 1834, (Doc. No. 297, 2d session 25th Congress) Mr. 
Woodbury writes to Mr. Linn: 

1 ''There were not wantinR- those that said that his (Linn's) reappointment 
under such circumstances was a scheme of the Jackson men to break down Dun- 
can, who they knew would remain surety on the bond of his brother-m-law. inat 
such was the hope and expectation of the Democratic leaders in Washington was 
once admitted to the writer by the Hon. Murray McConnell." — Mrs. Kirby s Bio- 
graphical Skstch of Joseph Duncan, page 63-4. 



172 

"Observing from your monthly return of the 30th September, 1834, that 
notwithstanding the positive injunction contained in a letter from the De- 
partment, dated 23d June last, (of which a copy is here enclosed) the public 
moneys have been permitted to accumulate in your hands, in violation of 
law, and the instructions of the Department; and that it amounted, on the 
30th ultimo, to the sum of $10,936.39." 

Under date of the 4th December, 1834, (same Doc, page 37), Mr. Wood- 
bury again writes to Mr. Linn: 

"Sir, allow me to inquire why it is, that your letter, of the 16th ultimo, 
is entirely silent as to your neglect to comply with the positive instructions 
in a letter from the Department, dated 23d June last; and that you still 
neglect to pay over the public moneys in your hands." 

Thus he stood a public defaulter for a large sum, when Mr. VanBuren 
reappointed him in 1835, as will be seen by reference to the same Document, 
page 41. Mr. Woodbury writes, under date of 12th February, 1835 — "To 
William Linn: 

"Sir, although it has pleased the President, under the explanation given, 
notwithstanding your past neglect in some cases, to deposit the public moneys 
as required by law and the instructions of the Department, to renominate 
you for the office of Receiver of Public Moneys at Vandalia, Illinois, and your 
nomination has been confirmed, yet it is not to be inferred from this evi- 
dence of his regard, that any farther omission in this respect can be over- 
looked." 

From the above it will be seen that Linn's default was known and 
connived at by the Government; and I leave you to judge of the motive for 
concealing the fact from the Senate, when he was renominated for its ap- 
proval, and of the measure of justice to his securities, who had no means 
of knowing that he had been using the public money from the first, in vio- 
lation of law% with the full knowledge of the President, as is shown conclu- 
sively by Mr. Woodbury's correspondence above referred to. I call your 
attention also to the fact, that Mr. Woodbury's letter of the 12th February, 
1835, disguises' the truth, when he says, "Your past neglect, in some cases, 
to deposit;" when the whole correspondence, and result of the suits, show 
him to have been a continued defaulter from the beginning; and if all the 
correspondence be examined, it will show that he did not only neglect or 
refuse to deposit the money in his hands up to the time referred to, but con- 
tinued to withhold them up to the time of his resignation in 1838. 

What would a faithful and honest Executive have done in such a case? 
You will doubtless answer — He would have promptly dismissed the officer, 
and given immediate notice to his securities. Was there any honorable 
reason why this was not done? I venture to say, the President himself will 
not venture to offer one. No, it is impossible that any one can suppose 
that he was kept in office for the public good, or that he was not retained 
to be used, and made a scape-goat of, by the Government party. If you 
should doubt this, I refer you to a letter from Wm. J. Brown, one of the 
traveling political agents of the late Administration. [See same Document 
No. 279, page 199.] He writes to Hay ward of Linn thus: 

"The general character of the Receiver, so far as I could learn, was that 
of a gentleman of honor and probity. In the transactions of his official 
business as a public officer, he seems to be polite and accomodating. Of his 
fidelity to the Government I have no doubt." 

That this meant "fidelity" to the party, who can doubt? Y^Tien it is seen 
that Linn could not even then, wuth every aid, show the amount of public 
money he acknowledged to be in his hands, and that a very large portion 
of the money for which Linn's securities are now held responsible, was 
expended in supporting the Executive party, there can be no doubt. I have 
recently ascertained, to a certainty, that large sums of money w^ere advanced 
by him to support the VanBuren party; and that, in addition to consider- 
alDle sums actually given by him to import into Illinois two Editors and 
presses, he advanced to one of them, (who was taken from this city) the 
Editor of the State Register, the sum of $1,200,, which he has never since 



173 

been able to recover, although he is still the PRINCIPAL VanBuren EDITOR 
in the State. 

From these and other facts, I am perfectly satisfied that this large de- 
fault was mainly owing to the exactions of an unprincipled band of political 
gamblers, who, knowing his good nature and pliant disposition, and being 
apprised of his default and consequent servile dependence upon the Ex- 
ecutive, did not hesitate to tax him freely to support the party; especially 
as there was a prospect of saddling his whole default upon their political 
opponents. 

The Secretary's correspondence and the records, show that Linn con- 
tinued to be a defaulter, after the third bond was given; and instead of dis- 
missing him and warning [his sureties, he resorted to the] dishonorable and 
unjust expedient of requiring him to give a collateral, or as Mr. Woodbury 
calls it, a strengthening bond, in the penalty of $100,000; a sum large enough 
to save them any further trouble of looking after his accounts; and from 
this time he appears to have been allowed full latitude to use the public 
money as he pleased, which he no doubt did to the entire satisfaction of the 
Government party, as his previous default had called forth such regards for 
him by the President as are contained in Mr. Woodbury's letter, notifying 
him of his third appointment in 1835. Under this and the third bond, his 
default pose in about three years to a sum over $50,000; and if he had not 
then voluntarily resigned, there is no doubt it would have been permitted 
to increase to $100,000, the full penalty of the bond. His resignation took 
place in 1838; and I solemnly aver, that I never kneiv or heard of ?iis default 
until after that time, nor do I believe that any of his securities ever did, 
unless the individual heretofore alluded to may have received warning, as I 
have reason to suppose he did. My residence is ninety miles from Vandalia; 
and I could only judge of Linn's solvency by public report and external 
appearances, which were all very much in his favor, — The public, and that 
portion of the securities residing at Vandalia, were equally deceived as to his 
integrity as a public officer, by the extravagant encomiums passed upon his 
punctuality and lofiicial conduct by General Spicer, and W. J. Brown, two 
government agents sent there under pretext, as I now believe, to examine 
his accounts, when the real object was to ascertain, whether there was any 
doubt of his fidelity to the party; and if he was found to be true, his default 
was to be concealed, by praising his official conduct, as they did publicly 
in the village. 

Now, sir, I beg leave to assure you, that I am not disposed to ask or 
receive any favor from this or any Administration, that is not wa.rranted 
by law and strict regard to the public interest. I am here without consul- 
tation with my co-securities. Knowing the situation of most of them, I came 
with as anxious a desire to shield them from ruin, as to relieve myself from 
debt and suspense; and although I may ever regret to see money so unjustly 
obtained put into the Treasury of the nation, I do not, and I am sure they 
would not, wish to evade the payment of one cent, that We are legally bound 
for. My only request now is, after having been prosecuted by the VanBuren 
Administration for two or three years, with the expense and vexation of 
defending four law suits in the District Court, and two in the Supreme 
Court, of the United States, that I may be allowed to pay the debt without 
ruinous sacrifice of our property in times like the present. 

Your obedient servant, 

Joseph Duncax. 

Washington City, 1st Dec, 1841. 

New York, 11 Dec, 1841. 

Dear Sir: Not having received an answer to my letter, bearing date 
about the last of last month, I beg leave to call your attention to my proposal 
for paying the judgments against myself and other securities of the late 
Receiver of public moneys at Vandalia, Illinois. Since the date of that letter, 
I have received satisfactorv information THAT MR. WOODBURY WROTE 
A CONFIDENTIAL LETTER TO THE HON. LEWIS F. LINN, ONE OF 
THE SECURITIES OF WM. LINN, informing him. that said Wm. Linn was 
a defaulter to Government for a large amount. This confidential letter was 



174 

inclosed to Wm. Linn by Dr. Linn, just before his third appointment; at 
which time he urged him strongly, by a letter from himself, to pay over the 
Government money in his hands. These facts establish beyond a doubt that 
Mr. Woodbury did not only connive at Linn's default, but that he used secret 
and dishonorable means to relieve his partisans and to entrap and if possible 
sacrifice his political opponents. No one can now doubt, that Dr. Linn, the 
near relation and intimate friend of the Receiver, would have signed his 
third bond for $20,000, and his strengthening bond taken soon after for 
$100,000. but for the secret warning thus given him by the Secretary of the 
Treasury. I learn by a letter from home, that the Marshal has again been 
at my house to levy on more property to satisfy these executions, as what 
I gave up in the first instance falls very far short of satisfying them. I also 
learn that he has received instructions from the Government to select a per- 
son to purchase the property of Linn's securities in, for the Government, at 
two-thirds of its value. Although I frankly confess, so far as I am indi- 
vidually concerned, that I should even prefer this sacrifice of my property, 
rather than to have every thing I own incumbered by judgments, which 
prevent the disposal of any portion of it to satisfy just demands against me, 
yet I am unable to perceive the justice or the propriety of the Government's 
claiming such an advantage of individuals who have evidently been circum- 
vented by the oflScial misconduct of unworthy and designing public officers. 

I should despise myself, if I could, under any circumstances, be tempted 
to solicit or receive a favor at your hands, or from any other officer of Gov- 
ernment:- and I could not fail to condemn any public officer, who would, 
from feelings of friendship or from party relations, swerve from an inde- 
pendent, honorable and just discharge of his official duties. With these 
views, I submit with confidence to your sense of right and wrong, and of 
justice to all the parties (under the circumstances) whether the Government 
should not protect those securities from sacrifice by buying in their property 
at a fair cash valuation; which at present, when every kind of property 
is depreciated so much, must (under our law which requires the appraise- 
ment to be made on oath with reference to its cash value) cause great 
sacrifice of property, even if it should sell for its full appraisement. 

In conclusion, I would beg leave to inquire whether justice to the other 
securities, does not require, that suits should now be instituted, or other 
means resorted to, to compel the Hon. Lewis F. Linn and the Hon. Charles 
Dunn, who were securities on Linn's two first bonds, to pay their portions 
of the judgments obtained on those bonds. Mr. Dunn is a United States 
Judge in Wisconsin, and Dr. Linn, you know, is Senator from Missouri. 
Hoping to hear from you soon, and to have this business brought to a 
speedy close. 

I remain your obedient servant, 

Joseph Duxcax. 

To the Solicitor of the Treasury. 

21st Dec, 1841. 
Office of the Solicitor of the Treasury. 

Sir: I have to acknowledge the receipt of yours of the first, and 
eleventh instant, on the same subject; and to say that I regret that the de- 
mands upon my time of more pressing official business have delayed the 
consideration of the proposition submitted by you, which its nature and 
Importance demanded, and a reply to it. 

You propose on behalf of yourself and others, sureties of William Linn, 
late Receiver of public moneys at Vandalia, in Illinois, against whom judg- 
ment was rendered at June term of the District Court of the United States, 
on the official bonds of Mr. Linn, for several sums amounting to $28,597,21, 
"to pay the above debt in real estate to be valued under oath by two persons 
chosen by the United States, and one by the sureties." 

The ground upon which you urge this proposition is, that "the laws of 
Congress" require "that deposits shall be made every three months, whether 
the sum in the hands of a Receiver be large or small ; and that the Treasury 
regulations are explicit and positive, that whenever the sums received shall 
amount to ten thousand dollars, the Receiver shall forthwith make a deposit 



175 

of it;" and that these laws and regulations were disregarded by Mr. Linn, 
who was a defaulter at each successive period of his re-appointment. And 
you allege that this fact was well known to the President of the United 
States, Mr. VanBuren, and the Secretary of the Treasury, Mr. Woobury, who, 
as you say, "studiously concealed it from the public," and from all the sure- 
ties "except one gentleman, a prominent supporter of the party," who you 
say was secretly informed by the Secretary that Mr. Linn was a defaulter, 
and that in consequence of it he did not become his surety on his last bond. 

You declare that this conduct of these high officers was a fraud upon the 
sureties; and that the default of Linn "was connived at by the Government," 
because he freely applied large sums of money to import into Illinois two 
Editors and presses, and to support the VanBuren party. And all this and 
the evidence to which you refer in support of it is presented as a ground 
for the just interposition of this office, so far to protect those sureties, as to 
permit the payment of the judgments obtained against them in lands at a 
fair valuation. 

However reprehensible may' have been the conduct of the officers re- 
ferred to by you, you will readily perceive that if it did not constitute a 
defense to the bonds in favor of the sureties — and that I take to be the 
settled law in such cases — it cannot be made the ground of action by this 
office, or by the Executive government, in any way not warrented by law. 
However it might form a strong inducement to treat with lenity within the 
competency of the Government those unfortunate sureties, who have been 
made to suffer by the concealment complained of, there is no power here to 
relieve them. Congress, in my apprehension, alone possess this power. 

What can be done to make the payment of the judgment recovered as 
easy to them as possible, and which may be compatible with my duty, I 
shall be prepared to do. But you well remark, that, however it may comport 
with the just policy of a benevolent government such as ours, to avoid as far 
as practicable, harshness towards those who, as sureties, have become liable 
to pay a debt, the power in regard to the collection of debts, is vested, and 
regulated by law, which only admits of the exercise of this spirit within 
prescribed limits. Indeed, I do not understand you as asking that anything 
should be done not strictly warranted by law, but on the contrary, you very 
properly disclaim any intention to do so; and I should not have made any 
remarks on this point; but from the fact that the case you present IS CER- 
TAINLY A STRONG ONE FOR RELIEF. AND I CONSIDER IT DUE TO 
YOU TO SAY, THAT IT IS ONLY BECAUSE NO AUTHORITY. IN MY 
JUDGMENT, IS GIVEN TO THE OFFICE TO ACCEPT YOUR PROPOSI- 
TION, THAT I AM CONSTRAINED TO SAY I CANNOT ACCEDE TO IT. 
I am not authorized to permit real estate to be taken upon any terms in 
satisfaction of a debt, with the collection of which this oifice is charged. 
Power is given by express enactment to the Solicitor, to appoint an agent 
to purchase for the United States, lands of its debtors, sold under execution 
in their favor. The express and specific power so given excludes the idea 
of any other power to be inferred from the general duties enjoined upon the 
office. 

You are misinformed in regard to the appointment of an agent to pur- 
chase in the lands of Mr. Linn for the United States — The Marshal has re- 
ported the name, as he is required to do by the general instructions of this 
office, of a suitable person to be appointed; but he at the same time informed 
me that he waited for a report of the District Attorney as to the titles. 
I have instructed him not to proceed with the sale until I have this report. 
When it comes in, the appointment of an agent will be made. The law of 
your State requires that lands sold on execution shall sell for two-thirds 
of their appraised value; and it has been the practice of this office to in- 
struct agents to purchase only when lands sold, sell for less than that. Your 
information, no doubt, is in consequence of this practice. My letter of in- 
structions to your Marshall was written a few days since. 

. Very respectfully, 

Chas. B. Penrose, 

Joseph Duncan, Esq. Solicitor of the Treasury. 



The Linn ufl'air is referred to by Mrs. Duncan in her diary. On liie 
19th of March, 18J:1, Mrs. Duncan writes * * * "felt somewhat 
depressed from hearing of some persons taking advantage of my husband 
and they professing Christians. My pride wounded in regard to some 
tilings. The case has gone against Mr. Linn and I presume my dear hus- 
band will have to pay for it. He feels now as if every cent would go. I 
trust we shall be able to keep our home but if God sees best to take 
that from us I trust we shall be enabled to say thy will be done. I have 
been trying for some time to be enabled to be passive in the hands of 
God but oh how difficult." * * * There is frequent mention in her 
diary at this time of Mr. Duncan being absent in Springfield, going back 
and forth by stage. 

The shadow of the anxiety of this affair is seen in the few remaining 
letters of Mr. Duncan. They are mostly concerned Avith business and 
trying to clear his property. In the last letter, written on the way to 
Washington, he emphasizes that his children must never, never go security 
for any one, and longs to be free. "If it takes all I possess"' and then 
with fine courage the man of forty-nine is ready to begin over again and 
says, "L can easily provide a living." 

On a trip to Washington a few months before his death Mr. Duncan 
writes home the following characteristic letter: 

Steamboat Ohio Mail, 7th September, 1843. 

"We are in hopes to reach Wheeling tomorrow evening though the river 
is very low. My time is spent in reading and sleeping. 

I forgot to leave any money to pay the men 25 cents for bringing in the 
cattle from the springs. I hope they were paid. About the loth of this 
month I expect a man to have 4 mule colts for me. Tell King to turn then 
with the other colts in some place where they can get plenty of water and 
plenty to eat. * * *. 

We are now within a half days journey of Wheeling and the river is 
rising so I hope to have plenty of water on my return. If we get off in the 
morning, I hope and nothing happens I expect to be in Washington City 
on the 10th inst., and I sincerely hope to see you again within this month 
and to bring the glad tidings of having settled with the government and 
thrown off one of the greatest burdens that has been borne. Even if it 
takes all I possess to get rid of it. it will be a blessing. I shall at least be 
free and when so I can easily provide a living. I pray if I never see my 
children again that you will inculcate it upon them, as never to be forgotten, 
never to go any ones security. It has bound me in fetters for the last four 
or five years which have caused evils and losses that I can see, but which 
no one else would believe, if I were to tell them. Tell them that I never 
have gone security in my life, for great or small sums, without having had 
reason to repent of it and for them, never, never, under any consideration. 
Poverty is not to be dreaded, but the slavery of a debtor is abhorrent, and 
should be guarded against with as much care as they would preserve virtue 
and honor, for it drags them but too often in its drains. 

I hope King will see that my hogs are properly fed and all kept in the 
proper place. I hope to make them pay off Wm. Brown's claim so as to free 
the Morgan House but if not he will be able to collect his pay or I can raise 
the balance somehow and when he, Wightman and Hughes are paid, you 
and our dear children will have enough secured to support you and educate 
them, a thing I have greatly at heart, as I should not die happy if I were 
to neglect to apply the funds left by your father for that purpose." 

The Linn case was a severe blow to Governor Duncan and clouded 
the later years of his life up to his death in -184:4. Hon. Wm. Thomas 
was appointed administrator of the estate and did his best to effect a 



]77 

compromise but without result. Mrs. DuiicaJi did not claim her third 
of her husband's estate and would have been reduced to complete poverty 
if it had not been for the trust fund left her by her father, which was 
not to be divided till her youngest child w^as of age. For this trust fund 
Mr. Duncan had set aside land in her name, of which Dr. Stnrtevant 
was trustee. She was forced, from time to time, to get an order of 
court, to sell pieces of land to maintain the family and. educate the cliil- 
dren. My mother told of Colonel Hardin coming to the house on horse- 
back "one day, and protesting that General Duncan's children must be 
educated. The family kept the old home but the life for many years 
was reduced to the barest necessities. Mrs. Duncan, however, strove to 
give the children what opportunities she could. When Jenny Lind sang 
in St. Louis, Mrs. Duncan sold a cow so that her danghter Marv could 
hear the great singer, paying $35 for a seat. The incident illustrates the 
spirit with which she rose above her misfortunes. 

Mrs. Duncan survived her husband many years, dying at the home 
of her daughter, Mrs. Julia Duncan Ivirby, in Jacksonville, May 23, 
1876. I remember her as a delicate, kindly little lady, always dressed 
in black silk and lace, and always expecting to be waited on. 

CHAPTER YII. 
Deatii January 15, 1844. 

Governor Duncan returned to Jacksonville late in the fall of 1843 
and died January 15, 1844, after a few days illness. Surrounded by his 
wife and seven children,^ with his mind clear to the last, fearlessly he 
met death, leaving among other messages the following: 

"My Friend: Let me beseech you to drop everything until you have 
made your peace with God. There is nothing in the wealth, in the pleasures 
or honors of the world, to compare with the love of the Saviour shed abroad 
in the human heart."- 

Mrs. Duncan's diary has an unusual account of his last journey and 
siil)spquent illness. 

Christmas (1843) was a day not to be forgotten. * * * h^ ga,id in 
the morning before he arose, I must go to St. Louis today. I expostulated 
with him and remarked Mr. Duncan you are not well enough. Oh yes I am. 
As he had been obliged from cold to stay from Church the day before and 
the weather so unpleasant, I could not bear the thought. * * * he feared 
the river being closed so after breakfast he sat off in the stage. * * *. 

He returned 2nd of January with a heavy cold — a few days later he com- 
plained of "taking my Death Chill" — I tried to persuade him to retire. No 
he would take the old Kentucky plan of lying down in front of the fire and 
he lay there till 6 o'clock. [When the doctor was finally sent for] Mr. Dun- 
can said, "Dr. I am afraid I shall be like some man who never was sick but 
once in his life and then died." 



^ Of Governor Duncan's ten children onlv three readier] maturity: INfar-.- 
L.ouisa Duncan, wife of Charles E. Putnam of Davenport, Iowa ; .lulia Smith Dun- 
can, wife of Hon. Edward P. Kirby of .lacksonviUe. Illinois; and .loseph Duncan 
of Chicago, Illinois. His only grandchildren were the eleven children of Mr. and 
Mrs. Putnam. Of these five are now living: Henry St. Clair Putnam, New York 
City ; George Rockwell Putnam, Washington, D. C. ; Elizabeth Duncan Putnam, 
Davenport, Iowa; Edward Kirby Putnam, Davenport, Iowa; and Benjamin Risley 
Putnam, E.xeter, California. There are .six great-grand-children. His eldest grand- 
son, Joseph Duncan Putnam was a noted entomologist and influential in the build- 
ing up of the Davenport Academy of Sciences. He died December 10, 1S81. 

=* Funeral discourse delivered by President Julian M. Sturtevant, January, 1844. 

—12 H S 



178 

On 15th January * •= * the last remedy was used to no purpose [he 
had been bled a quart of blood). * * * "Dr. Pierson," said he, "I die 
at peace with all the world. I wish to have the sacrament administered to 
me. I wish to commune with your Church. I bear malice to no one. Don't 
leave me Dr. till I die." To Dr. Jones he said the same. The Doctor re- 
marked. "Gov. I have a lecture at three o'clock." "Leave that today." "I 
will Gov." he said. To Dr. Todd [of Springfield] he said, "I understand you 
do not belong to any Church. Lay aside your business till you find the pearl 
of great price. What avail is anything in comparison with the interest of 
tJie soul." * * * [to the children] Speak the truth **=;=. Hi^ mind 
was clear to the last. 

Sabbath — [Jan.] 21, [1844]. Dr. Pierson met me at the Church door and 
handed me to my pew with my little family of 7 — the eldest 11 and the 
youngest 13 months. Mr. Eddy preached from Collossians 3rd Chap. 2nd 
verse. In the afternoon went to the Congregational Church and heard Dr. 
Post. 

Dr. Truman X. Post of St. Louis wrote of this scene in a letter to 
Mrs. Kirby in 1884— 

I was with him as he died and I received the confession of his dying 
moments. I shall never forget that night nor the figures and the grouping 
around that bed of death. The night winds were out and there was a stir 
in the elements, as seemingly in sympathy with the hour when a great and 
strong soul was departing. * * * The sword given him by an admiring 
and grateful country hanging on the wainscoting over the bed. * * * 
That form of grandest manhood, strongest and noblest of all its physical 
types that were grouped around him in that chamber and seemingly assur- 
ing its possessor of the longest life, was in the wrestle with death. * * * 
Just as the pale, silent seal was set. I asked him: "Governor Duncan, is 
Christ precious to you at this hour?" Brokenly, but to our hearing dis- 
tinctly came the response, the last words spoken by him till the earth and 
sea give up their dead: "Ever precious, ever precious" — and so the soul 
of our prince and brother passed to his Father and God. 

Governor Duncan's last thoughts lay stress upon religion and the 
education of his children. Education had always appealed strongly to 
him both in its large aspects and in reference to his own family. 
Tor fourteen years he was a trustee of Illinois College and gave $10,000 
in land to the institution. He was one of the first trustees of the State 
Deaf and Dumb Institution at Jacksonville. He took great interest in 
the temperance question and gave $500, half of his salary as Grovernor,^ 
to the first society started in Jacksonville in 1837. In 1836 he sub- 
scribed $1,000 for the erection of a Presbyterian Church in Jackson- 
ville.'''- He had joined the church the year previous. 

He was very democratic and the views he impressed upon the mind 
of his daughter, Mary, (my mother), who was but 11 years old when he 
died, went with her through life. One of the stories she told was of 
coming home from school and laughing at a girl so poor, that she wore 
a linsey woolsey dress. Mr. Duncan said nothing, but the next day ap- 
peared with a bolt of linsey woolsey material which was made up and 
worn by his daughters for many a long day. Mary was trained to be 
ail exi:)ert rider, going with her father when he hunted. She drove 
"^'Dancing Feather" while her father shot quail between the horse's ears. 
His word to control the horse must be carried out. The children were 



^ In this he followed the example of Governor Coles who save his salary to 
tlie anti-slavery movement. See Nicolay-Haj% Lincoln, Vol. I, page 144. 

- Letter of Mr. Cnttin. Batavia. Illinoi.s. to ^Irs. Kirby, December, 1S85. 



179 

trained in a most spartan manner in obedience and to endure hardship. 
He was adored by his children and famil5^ 

Thus died at the age of forty-nine Joseph Duncan, one of the pioneer 
builders of the State of Illinois. Independent and fearless in his views, 
honest and with respect for the law uncommon among the frontier men 
of his day, beloved by family and friends. He had traveled the untrodden 
prairies and forests and seen the Indians disappear and dreamed of the 
improvements- "for convenience, beauty and commerce of our country," 
and had lived to see many of his dreams come true. He had defended 
the rights of the frontier settlers in all public land discussions in Con- 
gress during his entire service from 1827 to 1834, believing that the 
pioneers who endured hardships to open up a wilderness deserved justice 
and encouragement. 

He appreciated the value of education, which he helped other mem- 
bers of his family to attain. He had introduced and secured the passage 
of the first public school law of Illinois. Throughout his public and 
private career he kept in mind the interests of education, and showed an 
appreciation for the higher things of life, all the more remarkable in a 
man coming from a pioneer state. 

He believed in wise constructive internal improvements as essential 
for the development of the new western states, but when Governor from 
1834 to 1838 he endeavored in vain to restrain and keep within bounds 
the lavish expenditure of the peoples' resources. 

He consistently held to his ideals of law and justice through all his 
life. Every question that came up was considered from the point of 
view of law and order. In Congress he did not join in the claim of cer- 
tain western states to the public lands within their bounds because this 
was contrary to the acts creating the states but he advocated a liberal 
interpretation of the law. While Governor he went east to negotiate a 
loan for the State for the canal and paid all his own expenses, "refusing 
to receive compensation therefor, because he believed in so doing he 
would be virtually offering violence to the Constitution of the State." 
He vetoed a railroad bill while Governor that would have greatly in- 
creased the value of his property because he thought it against the best 
policy for the State. In the Alton riots he felt both sides had done 
wrong in their lack of observance of the processes of law. In the same 
spirit he wanted counsel to be procured to defend the man who shot his 
brother in order that justice should be done him. 

He maintained throughout his life his insistence on an efficient pub- 
lic service, insisting on no removals from office except for just cause and 
appointments made for fitness for service rather than for patronage. He 
refused to use his influence to procure offices for relatives. He placed 
the welfare of the State or nation above party interests. This inde- 
pendent view was shown as State Senator and continued throughout, 
life. Parties might change their platforms and party leaders their views 
but he continued his way regardless of attacks of enemies and sometimes 
the loss of friends. 

The records of his service in the Legislature, in Congress and as 
Governor prove his consistency in steadfastly maintaining these high 
principles in public life. 



180 

At a mass meeting held in Jacksonville the day nfter his death his 
felloAv citizens adopted resolutions using these simple words: 

"In the walks of both private and public life, a modest and unassuming 
spirit was his peculiar characteristic. As a private citizen or as a public 
officer, he was a man of uncommon decision of character. He had private 
interests, as other men, but, if circumstances required, these were ever the 
victims of principle. He indeed dared to be honest in the worst of times. 
This Is no flattering portrait — it is strictly true." 

APPENDIX.^ 

DIARY. 

Joseph Duncan. Washington, 1829. 

Feby. [ — ] 1829. Various applications for me to support D. Green 
for public printer. Could not consent to do so. Knew too much of him. 
Believed, and told his friend that they would soon get tired of him, he 
was arrogant dictatoral & possessed no fixed principals, believed he 
would use all of his influence to bring Govr, Edwards into favor with 
Genl. J. and his administration. G. threatened a member from Va. 
with his power for not voting for him. 

Bearded a Senator from Pennsylvania made a false communication 
to the Senate about Blake of Boston the Senators generally disgusted 
with him Imt appear to be afraid to oppose him. B. K. McK. B. of Pa., 
K. of A. and several others say they dislike him and will vote for any 
other J. man in preference. 

February, 1829. Genl. Jackson arrived in Washington City Majr. 
Eaton met him on the road and escorted him in. On the 17th I called 
to see him. 20th caled again found him engaged in another room, as 
I was informed by Capt. D. with the corps of Editors, after waiting 
a while Genl. Jackson entered the room followed by D. Green, Noah 
Karole Hill and several other persons that I did not know. 

21st called again to introduce a friend saw Mr. Tazewell with th^ 
President. The only suitable companion I had met — called again a few 
days after Mr. Badwin was present from his kind reception supposed 
he had come by request. Saw Capt. Taylor of U. S. Army says he heard 

that Gen. J Avas going to call that day uppon President A 

that he met Genl. D. G. and told him that he understood that Geni 
J. was to call on Mr. A. that day Genl. D. G. said he did not believe the 
report but that he would go and see, and if it was so, he would very soon 
put a stop to it. Arrogance enough, Disgusted to see W. M. L. Genl. 
D. G. I. P. V. &c. &c. constantly with Genl. J. to the exclusion of his 
or the countries friends. This brings to my mind McKee of A. when 
he parted with The President at The Hermitage he took a very im- 
pressave leave of Genl. J. The Genl. observing something unusual, re- 
marked whe Wl. [ ?] I hope we shall soon meet again, McKee replyed 
yes Genl. we shall both soon be in Washington but there is no certainty* 
that we shall meet, for I expect your new friends will be so zealous that 
all the old ones will be crowded into the back grounds McKee told m« 
this anecdote before the Genl. arrived in the city. 

' The diary is among the family papers. 



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181 

Feby. 23. From the persons who surround the Genl. I fear he is to 
be improperly influenced in his first appointments. 

The central committee appear to consider him as there own game 
some of them are constantly with him or about the doors so I am in- 
formed for I do not know them all by sight. 

I called to see Genl. J. at 7 o'clock in the evening with two friends 
Mr. S. C. & Johnson, the president expressed much pleasure at seeing 
US; Said he was more graitfyed to see ,us at that hour as Duff as he 
called him, had presumed to set his hours for him to receive his visitors 
but he said that would all be right, as he had ordered Green to correct 
the statement in his paper regulating his hours for receiving visitors. 
What excessive presumption, was the first feeling I had, but it is all 
right, as it must very soon place this character on his proper hole. 

Various rumors about the appointment of the cabinett Tazewell to 
be secretary of State Hayne Xavy, McLean War Baldwin Treasury, 
Ingham P. M. G. all agree that the cabinet will be composed of five of 
the following persons Tazewill A^anburen McLean Baldwin Hayne 
Hamilton (Ingham P. M. G.) & Chevis. My own choice T. of Ya. 
S. S. McL. S. T. B. of Pa., War, I. of Pa. P. M. G. 

Genl. Ogle arived in the city came into the H. of E. his red vest 
attracts great notice every one whispers to his neighbour to know who 
he is. 

Several new Senators have arived McLeane of Illinois, letters have 
been received stating that he obtained his election by a union with the 
E. & A. party, hope it is not so, have a better opinion of him. 

Called to see the President he says he will remove no officer on 
account of his political opinions, unless he has used his office for the 
purpose of electionering he appears liberal, and I agree perfectly with 
his views. 

Herd various rumors about appointments in the cabinett wrote the 
following letter to the President 

[Page in diary not filled] 

4th March. Attended the President inaugeration, he walked from 
Gadsbies Hotell with his hat off, in a great crowd, having a fine view 
from the west room in the clerks office in the Capitol I could see him 
and the vast croAvd at every point untill they assended the great steps 
which enters the Capitol, saw nothing that I disliked but the conspicuous 
station, and part acted by The Central Committee, Stood near the Presi- 
dent when he read his address, was struck with the profound attention 
of the multitude while he read especially as- 1 am convinced that three 
fourths of all present could not have heard the sound of his voice at least 
so as to distinguish one word. The expression of the people on his first 
appearance was very fine and showed that he had a strong hold on their 
affections the number present is variously estimated opinions of intelli- 
gent persons vary from 15 to 30 thousand. Xo perade of the Military 
present except one or two companies and they were very far off. I think 
they were from Alexandria as I saw one of them coming from that direc- 
tion with this I was much pleased. I am opposed to great perades and 
especially Military perades on such an occasion, had ratlier see the honon 



183 

done after the service is performed, but in this District where most of 
the people are servants or connected with the Government is natural 
they would worship the rising Sun. I was forcably struck with the 
contrast between Mr. Addams entering on and closing his oflScial duties 
as President. I was present in 1825 when his inaugeration took place 
it was a fine day and from the moment I first looked into the street 
on the 4th of March untill dark I saw nothing but a bustle people mov- 
ing in all directions and many of them by sunrise in full military dress 
and by 10 oclock the avenue was crowded with armed soldiers, which 
I took to be a mixture of Marienes Infantry & Artilary of The TJ. S. 
and Militia of the district it was certainly the finest display I ever wit- 
nessed was informed that many of the fine coats had been bought to 
honor Genl. Lafayatt. I was glat to hear it for the ideah of tliere having 
been bought for this occasion was two ridiculous, in 1829, Mr. Adams 
was not seen on the 4th of March and I suppose would not have been 
thought of, but for a coffin hand bill that was circulated in the crowd 
anouncing his death in a most disgusting manner it produced general 
disgust did not go to the Palace to see the President receive his friends 
after the inaugeration understood that the crowd was very great all sorts 
of folks some on the fine satin chairs and sofas mehogna tables &c. with 
their feet a report was circulated that the gold and silver spoons were 
stolen on this occasion. I believe it was not true. 

5th. The City is said to be filled with office hunters. There is 
general disappointment in the appointment of the cabinett Clay says 
that they charge Mr. A. with making a bargain that he thinks Genl. J. 
had better have made one. Genl. H. at the request of the T. deligation 
went to see the P. to oppose E . . . . s appointment, Says it was not well 
received & that he will be appointed McL. of 0. told me that he had 
agreed to accept the W. D. Learn since that E. wont take G. P. 0. 
Strang things going on. 

March, 1829. Governor Kinney & E. J. W. wish me to request the 
removal of certain officers from office which I decline as I am opposed to 
removing competent and worthey men on account of a mere difference 
of opinion. They appear to be dissatisfyed but that will make no differ- 
ence in my conduct as such a course would be averse to all of my notions 
of propriety. 

Went with Govr. K. to see the President, recommended West for 
Secretary of Legation to G. P. M. Minister to Columbia Genl. J. says 
he will try and provide for him. 

Went to see Secretary of the Treasury, in favour of G. T. Pell 
he thinks he will appoint him examiner, the senators join in this recom- 
mendation, he is recommended by many members of the Legislature of 
Ills. 

March, 1829. Kane McLeane & Myself met in McLeans room to 
consult about appointments in the event of any removals or vacancies. 
McLeane and myself opposed removals except for some good cause other 
than political (I had recommended the removal of James j\Iason for 
having speculated in the purchase of script while a public officer 
in possession of public moneys & possessing the records & law so as to 
give him an advantage over the poor people of the country for whos 



183 

benefit the script was granted.) K. rather differed in opinion about 
removals We agreed to recommend C. Slade for Marshall in the event 
of Conners removal as charges had been made against him, we did not 
all agree upon any one else nor can I say that we disagreed very much 
although several were named, 

March, 1829, Still in Washington waiting on my wifes health 
called to see the President & Secretary of War about getting the Illinois 
& Lake Michigan Canal located and the rout from the Ills. River to Lake 
Erie examined. Saw Genl, Gratiott got him to go with me to the 
War Dept, find him very friendly to my views and to the west Secretary 
thinks the law does not authorize him to send Engineers to locate, 
refer to the case in Indiana under the same law. he appears disposed 
to do right & says if the favour has been done to Indiana it should also 
bo extended to Ills, promices it shall be ordered, 

March, 1829, Met Majr. Campbell of Tennessee near the Treasury 
Dept, he told me that the President & Secretary of War had given him 
the appointment of Superintendent of the lead mines on the Upper 
Mississippi River in Illinois & Michigan, I resolved to remonstrate 
against this appointment and informed Mr, Campbell of my intention, I 
Avent immediately to the President and told him that the appointment 
of a man frord Tennessee to hold an office in Illinois would be treating 
his friends in that State very badly and that it could not help exciting 
much displeasure, he assured me that he would do nothing that would 
displease his friends any where if he knew it that Mr. Campbell was 
the only applicant. That he was not acquainted with the fact that so 
large a portion of those mines was in Illinois he wrote a note to the ' 
Secretai7 of War uppon the subject, and assured me that it should be 
satisfactorily arranged. I called the same day to see Majr. Eaton he 
appeared anxious to appoint Campbell I assured him that it would be 
resented by every Citizen of Illinois if he was appointed. I knew and 
so did all concerned know that C. was bankrupt for a large sum I urged 
the necessity if a change was made of their compelling the Superin- 
tendent to give bond and security as contemplated by my bill upon the^ 
subject of governing the mines, left the Secretary without much satis- 
faction, but convinced that he would insist on Campbells appointment,. 

Confined for several days on account of my wifes situation Saw 
John Reaves formerly of Ills, he told me that he saw Campbell the day 
before and that he told him of my opposition to his appointment, but 
that it had not availed as he was told to return home and the appoint- 
ment should follow him, I immediately wrote the following letter to the 
President as I was determined that I would clear my self of the respon- 
sibility of transporting a man from another state who was notoriously 
insolvent in to Illinois to hold an office which placed in his hands $40,000 
per annum of public property without check or security to protect the 
interest of the government (jSTote, cannot lay my hand on the letter) 
Got a letter from J, M, D, he wants to be appointed Indian agent in 
place of Graham or Hamtramock who he says Genl. Smith of Missouri 
informs him are to be removed he requests me to use my influence this 
I cannot consistently do as I am unwilling to ask or receive a favour 
which would place me under obligations to the executive power of the 
government while I am a representative of the people as the appointment 



184 

of my brother upon my request would have that tendency and I think 
every person applying for an office should have the recommendation of 
the people with whom he resides, or with whom he is to serve. This I 
do not doubt my brother could obtain if he pleased, he requests me to 
mention his wishes to the two Senators from Illinois which I have done 
and they both say they intend to recommend him. 

Dined at the Presidents a splendid entertainment all the Secretaries 
W. E. Davis Genl. A^arnum & myself of congress, Genl. McComb, Jessup 
Gibson & Gratio, Col. Gowson, and all the foreign ^linesters in full 
dress were present with several other auditors &c. Ma jr. Eaton in- 
formed me that he had concluded not to change the nature of the agency 
at the mines that he had or would detail another officer of the U, S. A. 
to succeed Lt. Thomas and that he would have several assistants to ap- 
point and invited me to recommend some persons to fill tliem 1 agree 
to see him the next day. 

\Yent to War Office met D. Green coming out wondered if he had 
any person for one of those places & was told that he wanted Dr. Green 
of St. Louis appointed. I recommended the retention of McXight also 
recommended Col. Wight E. W. C— Col. S. A. & E. B. L.— could re- 
ceive no answer, he spoke of others out of the State for some of the 
places to which I objected. 

Called again at the W. D. saw Com. Warrington go in while I Avas 
waiting in the ante chamber understood from Secretary that he was 
urging the appointment of his brother in law Capt. for one of 

the appointments at the mines, and felt satisfyed that he had received a 
promice, also learned that Campbell of Tennessee was to the best situa- 
tion, not well satisfyed but must submit. 

Understand that J. M. D. is sick in Boston. 

Wrote to Genl Gratiott about sending Engineers to Locate Ills. & 
Lake Michigan Canal &c, 

April, 1819. E. J. W. returned to the City Left K in Balti- 
more he has a strong recommendation from Merchants and other persons 
of distinction in the City of Xew York recommending for Charge De 
affairs to 

I went with him to see the P. and Y. they say they would appoint 
him but the appropriation for that purpose is exhausted. 

Govr. Kinney arived very anxious for Wests appointment delighted 
with his trip to the Xorth says he left Jas. M. D. in Boston getting 
better to come on with Capt. S. D. Eichardson went with K. to see the 
president he tells the Pr. that his appointments in Boston gave genl. 
Satisfaction says the people expects the Adams men to be returned out. 
The P. expressed pleasure at hearing his appointments gave such satis- 
faction K. urges the necessity of removals says the republicans had 
fought hard and had gained a great A-ictory but if the old Federalists 
were left in office the same l)attle will have to be fought over again, he 
said if it Avas left to him he would drive them all out as he would a, 
parcle of dogs out of a meat house. 

The P. laughs hartily at this remark but made no' reply returning 
we met Handy of Indiana at Wiliamsons K. asked him if he had been 
here ever since he saw him — he said he had. K. advised him to go home 
or some one would administer on his estate. The little fellow bore tho 



185 

joke very well & replyed that they would he poorly paid for their trouble 
if they did There is many others in the city who were running the 
same risque. 

• Kinney came to see me said that Eaton would appoint a citizen of 
Ills, to one of the offices at Galena if I would recommend one which I 
rather declined as felt indignant at the appointment of citizens of Ten- 
nessee & Va. to hold offices in Illinois K. wants May appointed I could 
not join him as I had promised Col. A. G. S. W. to recommend him for a 
place at the mines. 

Went with K. to W. D. and recommended A. G. S. W. never done 
any thing with more reluctance as I feared that it might be considered 
as a surrender of the ground I had taken agains the other appointments. 
E. asked me if I had heard from my brother, who was sick in Boston 
expressed a wish to see him &c. Ky. said something about his appoint- 
ment of I. A. Eaton said that he had come to no conclusion but thought 
he would appoint him & requested me to recommend him which 1 de- 
clined b)^ saying that my brothers must rely upon others to recommend 
them, dont like the proposition believe it was intended to get me so 
committeed so that if I complained of the other appts. it might be attri- 
buted to disappointment in this. 

Kinney informs me that he has Wights commission that the salery 
is less than the rest and less than was promised. 

24th May, 1828. Received a letter from S. B. Munn to J. M. Dun- 
can which informed me of his having left K. York for Washington. 

26th. Left Washington for Illinois in com})any with 2 Indian 
agents Govr. Kinney & E. I. West West has some hopes of an appoint- 
ment of charge De affairs next winter. 



About the 1st of Juh^ 1829, left Illinois for Hopkinsvill in Ky. 
Arived at My aunts on the 3d. 

4th of July was invited to a public barbacue by the citizens of 
Plopkinsville, was tested and made a speech. 

5th.' Mrs. Morehead died very sudently, 

6th. Court commenced. 

7th. Settled my business and agreed to pay the Executor of J. 
McLaughlin one thousand dollars one half on the 15th of Feby. 1830 
and one half on the 15th of Feby. 1831 for which I gave checks on the 
U. S. Bank at Washington City in full of all claim. 

[Note : — written across page] — Have paid those checks and owe the 
estate of Jas. H. McLaughlin nothing. 

8th. started for Nashville & lodged at Ben Kellies. 

9th. Stayed . . 10th stayed at Tirees or White Creek 

Springs. 

11th. Went to Nashville found Thos. family from home, dined at 
Edmonsons & went to Mc Stothartt. 

12th. Thomas returned from an electionering tour. 

loth. Pursuaded him to decline running for the Senate Dined 
with J. Bell. 

16th. Went to theatre with Col. Foster & Family Eeturning from 
J. Bells rode in with Col. Wilson Editor of a paper published in Nashville 



186 

he had just returned from Washington City. I asked him if he hatl 
seen much of Genl. Jackson while at Washington he had, I enquired if 
he had observed any changes in his intelect he replied that he visited 
Washington in consequence of having observed that the Genls. mind had 
sunk about the death of his vi^ife and that he regreted to find that it 
was sinking he dreaded the news by every mail for he and the Genls. 
friends generally feared his total incompitelly [word not distinct. In- 
competency?] 

Eeceived a letter from James M. D. after his return to Illinois, he 
says that Majr. T. P. M. was informed by Majr. W. B. Louis that he 
would not be appointed Indian agent owing to my being opposed to the 
measures of Genl. Jacksons administration, that Majr. Eaton talked 
about the duty of men to make sacrifices about patriotism &c. &c. 

In answer I wrote the following letter : 

[Page in diary blank] 



July 25th arived at Glasgow. Sold my horse for $50, and went 
to see Jo. Duncan, 

• July 26th. Sold Jo. Duncan two hundred acres of land belonging 
to the heirs of my father at one dollar & fifty cents per acre amounting 
to three hundred dollars at a credit of two and three years. 

July 28th. Arrived at Harrodsburgh Springs in company with 
bishop Eavenscroft of N. Carolina found him very agreeable and inteli- 
gent Saw H. Clay just starting to Danville to attend a dinner [?] 
Eat breakfast and went to Lexington same night. 

July 29. Sunday went to hear the Bishop preach to to hear Mr. J. 
Young at night, got at Harrodsburgh a handbill of Kinkade charging 
M. V. B. W. T. B. & others with writing letters to influence the election. 

1829. July 30. Arived in Paris visited many of my old friends 
the next day, remained in Paris untill the 12th of August Spent my 
time rather unpleasanth' owing to the political controversies among 
many of my old friends Advertised lots for sale had an auction but 
effected but little, sold pond lot for fifty two dollars to Pike This 
was all I sold at auction Sold one other lot of my sisters to Pike for 
one hundred and fifty Dollars sold brother Johns lot to Wm. Alexander 
for one hundred and ninety dollars in cotton sold him the stone house 
& attached ground for six hundred dollars in cotten at 15 cents per doz 
Sold II. Brent my lot on public square for one hundred • and fifty 2 
dollars gave checks to Garrard Hickman Bain Moreland McElvain & 
Ingles & Burr and closed all of my accounts and liabilities in Paris 
except a small balance to Garrard & Hickman which will remain after 
the checks are paid Sold one of Jo. Duncans notes for one hundred 
and fifty dollars to Wm. Alex.r for $145. in cotten at 15 cts per Doz 
transfered the other to Thos. & Will Kelley of Paris to pay brother 
Johns debt for same amount $150 the money or cotten received for Stone 
house I expect to sell to pay my checks as I owed the debts to Garrard 
& Hickman on account of money borrowed out of Bank to send my 
brother Thos. A. Duncan to school which with the interest amounts to 
mucJi more than the price received for said House but I never expect to 



187 

make further claim for this and other monies I have advanced to & for 
my brother. The one hundred and fifty dollars is to be paid my sister 
for the lot I sold to Pike for that amt. only, having sent cotten for the 
one sold for fifty two to her at Illinois. 

20th March 1830 Handed Mr. Kane by request two recommenda- 
tions to the Secretary of War in favour of James M. Duncan for Indian 
agent The 1st signed by James Hall, Charles Prentice, R. K. McLaugh- 
lin, James Black, E. C. Berry, Wm. H. Brown & James Whitlock (30th 
Nov 1829) The 2nd was signed by T. W. Smith, J. D. Lockwood, Wm. 
Wilson and Thomas C. Brown dated Dec 8th 1829 

E. K. K. senator told H. H. Maxwell & myself that he had dined 
twice & had the 3d invitation to dine with the president 18th of March. 
This is to my mind another conclusive proof that the President does not 
rely upon the propriety of his acts or appointments for the support of 
the. senate as I have heard of no member of the H of II being invited 
more than once but this is only one of many instances that I have ob- 
served of an effort to conciliate the senate to use no worse term. 



18S 



WILLIAM MURRAY, TRADER AND LAND SPECULATOR 
IN THE ILLINOIS COUNTRY. 

" By Anna Edith Makks.* 



I. IXTRODUCTORY SURVEY. 
II. WILLIAM MURRAY, TRADER IX ILLINOIS. 
III. WILLIAM MURRAY, LAND SPECULATOR IX ILLIXOIS. 
CONCLUSION 

CHAPTER 1. 

IXTRODUCTORY SuRVEY. 

The untold possibilities of the extensive and fertile Mississippi 
Valley were practically unknown to the British Avhen they became sover- 
eigns of this region by the Treaty of Paris in February, 17G3. It was 
evident that a colonial policy needed to be determined and inaugurated 
in order to protect the Indians from exploitation by the unscrupulous 
traders; and thus dispel their well founded distrust of the English. 
But the many conflicting opinions as to the nature of such a policy and 
the dissensions among the ever changing ministries in England proved 
an insurmountable obstacle to the launching of whatever policy was 
planned. 

In England, westward expansion was viewed from three angle? — 
there were some ]>ersoiis Avho heartily favored it as a means of produc- 
ing markets for English goods; others who favored a gradual process; 
while there were those who, deeming its primeval condition more con- 
ducive to fur trading, absolutely disapproved of any settlements west of 
the Appalachian Mountains. 

The first definite constructive work towards a colonial policy after 
1763 was done by the youthful Lord Shelburne, then President of the 
Board of Trade. Realizing the emigrating spirit in the eastern colonies 
and the temptation to occupy the rich lands in the West, he wished to 
satisfy this tendency but at the same time to pacify the anxious fears 
of the Indians who saw their hunting grounds gradually shrinking in 
size. For these reasons, building upon the work of his predecessors, he 
l)roposed that a boundary line be run beyond which no white settlements 
could be founded until the Imperial government had purchased the land 
from the Indians. The ministry, considered this boundary line merely 
a flexible and temporary demarcation which would be extended west- 
ward as new purchases would from time to time be made by the Euglish 
government. This plan would allow for a gradual and legitimate settle- 
ment of the West. 



* Thesis for the Degree of Bachelor of Arts in History. College of Liberal 
.\rts and Sciences, University of Illinois, 1919. 



189 

Unfortunately fate doomed its execution to be postponed. Pontiac's 
War allowed no time for the establishment of such a carefully laid 
boundary line; and so on October 7, a proclamation naming the Appa- 
lachian Mountains as the termination of settlements was issued by Lord 
Shelburne's successor, Lord Hillsborough. It was not until the Treaty 
of Fort Stanwix in November, 1768, that the boundary line favored by 
Lord Shelburne was accepted by the Iroquois Indians. 

The regulation of fur trade was one of the paramount considera- 
tions of the ministries when they viewed western policies. The only 
restriction upon fur trading, according to the Proclamation of 1763, 
was the need of licenses Avhicli the governors of the respective colonies 
were to issue to prospective western traders upon their jDromise to obey 
any new trade regulations. In the summer of 1764, the Board of Trade 
proposed that an Imperial department of Indian affairs, dependent 
neither upon the military commander-in-chief nor upon the colonial 
governments, be credited. A detailed administrative system was worked 
out and a corps of officials, including superintendents for the territory 
north and south of the Ohio, were to be appointed. 

But once again the hope of obtaining a system of administrative 
control for the West was blighted. A tax on fur trade had been sug- 
gested as the means of defraying the expenses necessary for such a cen- 
tralized organization by the Old Whigs, who were responsible for the 
repeal of the odious Stamp Act, were adverse to passing an act of 
colonial taxation. As a result, no Imperial plan was put into execution 
by the home government. In March, 1768, the control of Indian trade 
was again placed in the control of the individual colonies.^ Since the 
latter did not agree as to one common policy, uncontrolled trading re- 
sulted. In this same month, steps for some regulation had been taken 
in Illinois. Captain Forbes, the commandant at Fort de Chartres, 
ordered all traders to state the number of packs that they were sending 
down the Mississippi and also to give a security of £200 to the eff'ect 
that these goods were destined for a British post. The governor of 
Louisiana was notified to keep the people of his province from ascending 
the Illinois, Ohio, and Wabash Elvers. But these measures actually did 
little to prevent New Orleans from receiving most of the Illinois peltry. 

No complete system of civil government for the West was provided 
until the passage of the Quebec Act in 1774. This negligence, most 
likely due to the prevalent ignorance of the character of the villages 
and to the desire of promoting the fur trade rather than settlement, 
caused the French much discomfort. Consequently we find the task of 
maintaining order devolving upon the English commandants. This 
duty, which did not legally belong to their office, was very poorly exe- 
cuted by the military men.- 

Although several attempts had been made to relieve the French 
garrison at Fort de Chartres during Pontiac's War, it was not until 1765 
that the Illinois country was actually occupied by the British troops.^ 
The British and Colonial governments felt that once the British garri- 
son took possession of the posts, trade, which followed its natural outlet 
through New Orleans, could be directed eastward up tlie Ohio and 
centered in Pennsylvania. Meanwhile traders in Pennsylvania watched 



190 

conditions with a hopeful eye, ready to seize their first opportunity to 
participate in any advantages resulting from the Treaty of 1763. 

Fort Pitt at the head of the' Ohio Eiver was the rendezvous of groups 
of eastern merchants interested in fur trading. The first company to 
enter actively into the exploitation of Illinois was that of Baynton and 
Wharton, later known as Baynton, Wharton, and Morgan, when the 
name of Baynton's son-in-law, George Morgan, was added. Morgan, 
young and full of optimism, became their personal representative in 
Illinois. As early as March, 1766, five bateaux of their goods, to be 
exchanged for the Indians' peltry, were making their way down the 
Ohio, under the command of John Jennings.* In order to discourage 
the Shawnee from carrying their furs to other traders at Fort Pitt, 
this firm had established a post on the Scioto Eiver. But certain mer- 
chants had no intentions of allowing Baynton, Wharton, and vMorgan, 
to monopolize the fur trade. On October 4, 1766, Simon and Milligan, 
John Gibson, Alexander Lowrey, and others at Fort Pitt protested to 
Sir William Johnson, Indian superintendent, against the establishment 
of the Scioto post.^ 

Especially opposed to Baynton, Wharton, and Morgan was the Lan- 
caster gToup of merchants whose pioneering and speculative spirits were 
as fresh in 1768 as in 1748, when they expended their first efl:orts to- 
wards the West. The mere mention of names of Joseph Simon, David 
Franks, George Croghan, and William Trent recalls a host of trading 
operations in which they figured prominently. Probably the most im- 
portant merchants of this group were Joseph Simon" and David Franks 
who composed the firm of "Levy and Franks." In addition to their 
individual enterprises, it was customary for these men to enter from 
time to time into special partnerships with each other. Their special 
interest was fur trading and Lancaster was early the origin of many 
such expeditions into the present states of West Virginia, Ohio, and 
Kentucky. 

To be concerned in the activities of this group was a practical pre- 
paration for western fur trading. Two enterprising young men, Barnard 
and Michael Gratz, were especially fortunate in receiving such a business 
education. Each in turn became a clerk in David Franks' Philadelphia 
counting house, Barnard in 1754, and Michael in 1759; and thus ac- 
quainted with David Franks' associates. Their relationship was further 
enhanced by the marriage of Michael in 1759 to the daughter of Joseph 
Simon. After 1760, the two brothers were often concerned together in 
various business operations, but in 1768 they formed the wholesale firm 
of B. and M. Gratz of Philadelphia. Their natural interest in the West 
was greatly stimulated in the summer of 1768, by their knowledge of 
the Iroquois Confederacy's intention to cede land in the present state of 
Virginia to traders who had suffered losses during Pontiac's War.'^ It 
was in that year that William Murray made his debut into Illinois his- 
tory as their agent. 

But who was this William Murray and why was he chosen to repre- 
sent the Gratz Brothers in Illinois, one may well ask. The question 
of his identity is moot. In November, 1764, a Capt. William Murray 
of the forty-second regiment of Eoyal Highlanders, commanded five com- 
panies at Fort Pitt. It is probable that he had taken part in the 



191 

critical battle of Bushy Run, the year before, under Colonel Bouquet.^ 
We have record of him still acting as commandant at Fort Pitt late in 
the year of 1760.*^ While in charge of Fort Pitt, he became intimately 
acquainted with George Croghan, the deputy agent of Indian affairs, 
and possibly with his associates. In this frontier post, he learned first 
hand the frontier practices — the squatters, and the ensuing Indian re- 
sentment, and at one time was ordered to remove some homesteaders at 
l\ed Stone Creek. ^° Being in frequent communication with Major 
Farmar and his successors at Fort de Chartres, Captain or Major (these 
titles Avere used intercliangeably) Murray was no stranger to the condi- 
tions existing in Illinois. Moreover, the Western traders and merchants, 
Avaiting to embark on new ventures and returning from previous ones, 
gathered at Fort Pitt where they talked over their anticipations and 
disappointments, sold their peltry, purchased new merchandise, and 
gossiped about conditions in general. Captain Murray himself, pur- 
chased merchandise from Baynton, Wharton, and Morgan with Avhich to 
alleviate the almost continuous complaints of the Indians. The fact 
that Captain Murray was Avell acquainted with western conditions and 
men added to the absence of his name in the Pennsylvania Archives 
after William Murray appears in Illinois, suggests that they may have 
been one and the same man. Of course, it is possible that he may have 
sailed with those Pi oval Highlanders who left America in 1767.^^ At 
in-esent, the question has not been definitely decided. 

CHAPTER II. 
William Murray, Trader in Illinois. 

William Murra}^ trader and land speculator, before going to Illi- 
nois was not unacquainted Avith the East. Such reference as : "You 
knoAV him (David Franks)," by Michael Gratz in writing to Murray, 
"^Svhen he takes a thing into his head, it is not so easily forgot,'^ and 
^'Since my Brother Barnard's letter to you, mentioning his going to 
London in company Avith your old and esteemed friend. Miss Eichi 
Franks," lead us to infer that Murray kneAV the Franks family exceed- 
ingly Avell.^- As an "old and esteemed" friend, Murray must have 
knoAvn "Miss Eichi" for many years. ^^ His letters to and from the 
Gratz display much intimacy and regard for each other. Almost every 
letter contains some personal touch. The Gratz continually send Avishes 
for Murray's health and remembrances to his family in which Mrs. 
Gratz and her children- joined. Such allusions as the following are 
characteristic of the friendliness and good will of the Gratz toAvards 
Murray ; "I am glad to hear you made so good a hand of the goods you 
took with you, Avhether we are concerned in them or not, and I shall 
always be glad to hear of the Avelfare of our friend, Avho I hope Avill not 
forget us.^* In Philadelphia, Murray had a large circle of friends who, 
John Ormsby wrote Murray after he reached Fort de Chartres, joined 
him in his Avishes for his safe arrival and future success. ^^ 

Ormsby Avith whom Murray had had business relations, AA^as well 
acquainted with the Murray family. The latter consisted of Mrs. 
Murray, Franky and Miss Jennv, all of Avhom folloAved Mr. Murrav to 
the West.^° 



192 

Murray had named Gratz as his attorney to dose u]) his affairs in 
the East — to settle all outstanding dehts and to lind a purchaser for his 
land in Shearman's valle3^ Having much faith in Barnard Gratz's 
fairness he left the terms of its disposal to his discretion.^' The disposal 
of his land would seem to indicate that he regarded his future home in 
Illinois as rather permanent, an assumption strengthened by the fact 
that his wife and two children soon joined him. 

j\Iurray's partnership with the Gratz must have been formed in the 
early sunmier of 17G8, for he intended to accompany Lieutenant-Colonel 
Wilkins to the Illinois country. The latter with five companies of the 
eighteenth regiment was to relieve Captain Forbes and the garrison at 
Fort De Chartres. Although Wilkins left Philadelphia early in June, 
due to obstructions from the inhabitants in the back parts of Penn- 
sylvania, he was unable to embark upon the Ohio before July 20.^^ 

These intervening weeks gave Murray ample time in which to make 
the final preparations for his new venture. On his way up to Fort 
Pitt, he stopped at Lancaster and visited ]\Ir. Simon, whom we are not 
surprised to find a factor in Murray's expedition. Indeed part of his 
cargo to the value of £600 had been purchased of "Levy and Franks" 
(of which Mr. Simon was a partner) and £100 of silver work, including 
jings, bracelets, and earbobs, of Mr. Simon. ^° These invoices, however, 
were both on the account of Moses Franks, Arnold Diiimmond, and 
Company of London.^'' The Gratz were likewise sending an adventure 
in this cargo.-^ Thus we see how closely interwoven were the interests 
of the London and American merchants in the Avestward movement 
and how they both were gaging probable benefits to trade from the com- 
ing Fort StanAvix conference with the Indians. Murray's personal ac- 
count amounted to £320, and consisted mostly of shoes and stockings 
for soldiers. -- 

The Fort Pitt wharf on the hot July day of embarkment was the 
scene of much commotion. Moving excitedly amongst the scarlet clad 
soldiers and roughly dressed traders, was William Murray — noAv shout- 
ing orders (often mingled with his fluent and colorful profanity) to 
the men busily engaged in unloading the casks of rum, the sacks of 
sugar and coffee, and the precious rifles and silverwork from the wagons 
as they slowly came up ; now hastening to see that they were carefully 
reloaded upon the large fiat boats ; noAV assigning new tasks to his clerk, 
]\Ir. Burk, or himself taking a hand in the loading. And yet he was 
not a little pleased when he stopped to reflect, for the King's bateaux 
were carrying his cargo. This arrangement saved him the cost of 
bateaiix men's Avages and proA'isions, not a small item in transportation 
expenses. The long journeying about the intricate windings of the Ohio 
RiA'er for over a thousand miles to its mouth, Avas enlivened by the pur- 
suit of game, AA'liich proved very abundant after the Scioto Elver Avas 
reached ;^^ by occasional trading through Avhich Murray fortunately dis- 
posed of most of his shoes and rum; and by shooting the falls of the 
Ohio,-- Avhich Avas reached August 8. When about 150 miles beloAv the 
falls, the ncAvcomers Avere initiated into the gruesome side of their neAV 
life, for ncAvs came of the murder of several hunters by Indian Avar 
parties. The journeyers met Avith no great impediments, until the rapid 
and muddy ilississippi Avas reached. In spite of their greatest exertions 



193 

they were unable to ascend the strong current until scouts, going ahead 
to Fort de Chartres, sent back boats in which part of the cargoes were 
loaded.-^ 

Fort de Chartres was reached early in September and on September 
5, Colonel Wilkins took charge of the fort. The sight of the square 
stone fort with its many loop holes and bastion at each corner and the 
nearby stone barracks, commanding a view, on the one side, of the 
Mississippi, and on the other, of the vast expanse of meadows with their 
tall swaying grasses stretching out till they mingled with the distant 
horizon, must have soothed their fatigued spirits.'" 

Upon his arrival at Fort de Chartres, Murray lost no time in start- 
ing the business for which he had come to Illinois. His activities fall 
into three classes : trading, provisioning the garrison at Fort de Chartres, 
and land speculation. Although the thread of each can be discerned 
as distinct in character, still being discharged by the same person and 
at the same time, they tend to overlap at many points. Due to the 
often seeming complexity of his duties, we shall consider each one not 
only separately but also as related to each other. 

Being desirous of establishing a business in Illinois, Murray soon 
became acquainted with his new surroundings. Of course he was not a 
total stranger, for on his trip he had learned to know Colonel Wilkins 
and most of the troops. Then too, as provisioner of the garrison, he was 
almost immediately thrown into constant communication with the mili- 
tary population. But there was one person who watched Murray's activi- 
ties with no little concern. Murray's venture was not unknown to the 
far-sighted George Morgan, agent of Baynton, Wharton, and Morgan, 
who long before Murray's arrival had been anticipating such a business 
rival with no few misgivings and had sent each tiny scrap of informa- 
tion concerning him to his firm. He had tried, however, to minimize 
the probable results of his competition with Murray, writing : "Depend 
upon it unless Mr. Murray be an adapt in business and the French 
tongue, he will not soon make himself master of the trade here."-" 
What he feared most was that Murray might have negroes to sell, which 
at that time commanded anything in the market, such as flour, cattle, 
and furs. 

Baynton and Wharton had not remained inactive in the East where 
they had gleaned much knowledge of the business intentions of their 
prospective competitor.^^ They and Morgan were both aware of Mur- 
ray's appointment as the Illinois agent not only of B. and M. Gratz but 
also of the London syndicate of Messrs. Franks, jSTesbitt, and Sir Eobert 
Colebrook who had contracted to supply the British garrisons in 
America. 

Soon after Murray reached Illinois, Morgan had frequent conver- 
sations with him. Vigilant as ever, he wrote his colleagues : "Most 
of ]\Iurrays other goods (that remained after his vendues along the 
Ohio) will remain with him unless we find it prudent to purchase the 
whole from him — which I assure you I am no w^ays anxious to do — I 
shall exceed my own judgment rather than let him into the spirit of 
the trade. But in doing this I shall be in no hurry — for except for a 
few quarts of rum and some pairs of shoes he has sold nothing."-^ 

—13 H S 



194 

Morgan admitted, that he was particuhirly anxious to deprive Murray 
of his silver work which was greatly coveted by the Indians. But being 
desirous of selling Murray provisions, he acted very civilly toward him. 
Morgan, well educated and a man of cultured tastes, could prove a 
charming companion if he so desired and Wilkins and Murray could 
frequently be found dining with him. Occasionally, commissary Cole, 
McMillan, and Richardson joined this trio. 

With Mrs. ]\Iurray's coming in November, life in Illinois became 
more comfortable and happy for jMurray, especially as his home was 
enlivened by his two children, Frank and ^liss Jenny.^*^ Murray soon 
became very attached to his new home and developed much confidence 
in the possibilities of the Illinois country. "•With a number of indus- 
trious Germans," he felt Illinois would make one of the finest countries 
in the world. Proper settlement in his estimation would certainly tend 
to drive away the common and distressing ague.^^ He had himself, 
made a small ]nirchase of land which he felt if he has a "genius for 
husbandry would turn to good account.^' By land conveyances and 
vendues he was sure he could more than clear himself.^^ 

Let us follow Murray in his activities as a w^estern merchant. To 
understand more clearly his trading activities it is advisable to consider 
them as dividing into the following periods : from his arrival in Illinois 
in September, 1768, until his partnership with James Eumsey formed on 
May 19, 1770; from the formation of this partnership, until the fall 
(probablv October 19) of 1770 Avhen it was merged into that of "David 
Franks and Company;" from the fall of 1770 until April 3, 1773, when 
Murray was appointed their attorney to close up their business in Illi- 
nois; from April 3, 1773, until his final departure from Illinois, during 
which period he acted now independently and now in partnership with 
others. 

Before turning to an examination of each individual period, let us 
consider some general considerations which are true for the whole time. 
The merchandise sent to Illinois was diverse in nature, extending from 
rat and mouse traps (for the preservation of the peltry) to soap which 
lost in its competition with the homemade brands of the industrious 
French housewife. The "Indian goods,-" often sent," included among its 
scores of articles, guns, axes, kettles, pipes, blankets, scarlet cloth, linen, 
ribbons, laces, and silver trinkets as, hair ornaments, earrings, bracelets, 
and arm bands. Of course, large qiiantities of clothing were sent. There 
were occasional orders for shoes — as one order by Eumsey for one dozen 
"women's neat clogs.""^ In the cloth line, coarse goods, and checks 
were found the most salable. There was always a large demand for rum, 
wine, tea (green and bohea), coffee, spices and sugar, with which the 
inhabitants were prone to vary their plain diet. We have record of one 
shipment by the Gratz to "Franks and Company" consisting of fifty 
pounds of loaf sugar at lli/^ pence (25 cents) a pound and thirty-two 
gallons of spirits at 51 pence ($1.05) per gallon, totaling over £9 or 
$45.^* When we stop to think that today we complain if sugar sells at 
ten cents a pound, and then consider the scarcity of money in those days 
and its greater purchasing power, we realize that it was indeed a luxury 
for the frontiersmen. The beverages were especially welcome during the 
frequent and distressing epidemics of the malaria. 



195 

The greater portion of this merchandise was shipped from Eng- 
land, often in the boats of Mr. David Sproat,^^ a Philadelphia merchant 
and boat owner. These goods were either spoken for in advance by the 
American merchants, or purchased in England by them (if they chanced 
to be there) or by tlieir relatives and friends who were constantly on the 
lookout for goods suitable for western trade.^*^ These wholesalers, ,such 
as David Franks, Joseph Simon, and the Gratz Brothers in turn for- 
warded this merchandise in the contractor's bateaux, carrying provisions 
for the troops, to the traders such as Murray and Eumsey actually 
stationed in Illinois. 

During Murray's independent trading and his brief partnership 
with Ptumse}'', sometimes he was concerned alone in these shipments as 
his portion (valued at £320) of the first Gratz cargo to Illinois — or 
sometimes the Gratz were concerned alone. When he was concerned 
alone, the Gratz merely acted as wholesalers, as did "Levy and Franks." 
The latter concern sent the largest amount of the goods which was sold 
on Murray's own account or on that of Gratz and Murray. The usual 
practice was for Murray and the wholesalers to be jointly concerned in 
them. Interesting is the consignment of jewelry valued at (£95:8:6) 
sent by the Gratz as adventure for their children, Eachel, Solomon, and 
Frances. We note that the Gratz agreed to have it sold either on com- 
mission or else by allowing Murray and Eumsey to be one-quarter con- 
cerned in it.^^ Due to the complexities of the business arrangements 
between IMurra}^ and his associates, it is impossible to estimate his profits 
accurately. 

Murray's first cargo turned out exceedingly well. By June, 1769, 
he was able to remit the Gratz, £239:19:0 ($1,167) assuring them if he 
had had time to get in fees, vendue commissions, and outstanding debts 
of his own private sales he could have made this check for £500 ($2,430) 
more. He had also sent David Sproat, of whom he had purchased his 
first goods with a bond payable in December, the full amount of this 
bond with interest till the twenty-ninth of August. 

xAfter 1768, due to the transference of the management of the Indian 
affairs to the colonies, Wilkins was forced to manage the local Indian 
affairs. Fortunately for the business interests of the traders, Wilkins 
succeeded in keeping most of the Indians pacified. There were, however, 
continual rumors of an Indian war and threatened attacks upon Fort de 
Chartres in 1769 and several white settlers about the Post were 
murdered.^® Murray, somewhat worried, warned the Gratz brothers 
that he feared mischief on the Ohio. By the spring of 1769, Murray 
had already felt the effects of the competition with the French traders 
at St. Louis and Sainte Genevieve, who succeeded in keeping many 
Indians away from the stores at Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Chartres vil- 
lage. But he was too clever a business man, knowing the conditions, 
to "stock up" in Indian goods, and therefore advised the Gratz not to 
send much goods. ^'^ In spite of his wish that they should send him other 
goods on their joint account by the first bateaux, Michael Gratz refrained 
from doing so partly because of fear of a war by the discontented Sene- 
cas,''° because of the scarcity of goods (due to the non-importation act) 
and because Mr. Franks insisted upon using for other purposes the goods 
coming in Mr. Sproat's boat, although the Gratz Brothers had spoken 



196 

for tliem.*^ Knowing that the purchase of the goods in Philadelphia 
would be more expensive, they deterred from forming a cargo. 

Meanwhile Murray was in the depths of despair in not receiving a 
large cargo. He sent a letter to the Gratz full of disappointment. So 
disheartened was Murray, that he even suspected that the goods were not 
sent because his partners doubted his ability to pay for them. If this 
were the case, he felt that Mr. Franks would have advanced the money — 
besides " [he] would have made [a] remittance before the goods produced 
[it].''*^ It was not the real Murray, buoyant and optimistic, who spoke 
thus. Being attacked for the sixth time with the fever, we can well 
understand his mood, especially when he concluded with the saying so 
common during our recent epidemic, "I must go to bed and sweat." His 
despondency only accentuated his tastes for the luxuries of a more 
civilized life, for he exclaimed : "A plague ! why, did you not send some 
good spirits, sugar, tea. Port wine, if possible, and some little et ceteras 
for my own use?"*^ This plea was answered by a cask of madeira, as 
with thorough searching Michael Gratz was unable to procure any port.** 
Murray's letter of September, brought a very gracious and reassuring 
reply from Michael Gratz. He was assured that it was not any possible 
diffidence in his honor which prevented a shipment of goods, but merely 
a lack of goods, when the last bateaux left for the west, due to the non- 
importation act.-^ Furthermore he was gathering a cargo to be shipped 
in the spring. He kept his promise faithfully, notifying Murray in 
April, 1770, that he had sent goods to the amount of £608 :11 :4 Pemi., 
($1,760) in the contractor's bateaux. It is interesting to note that Gratz 
credited Murray in their accounts with £186:7:111/2 ($906) as one-half 
share of the profits of this venture.^^ From such transactions, we see 
that their profits were often one hundred per cent. One must remember 
that their risks were correspondingly great. 

We are rather surprised to find George Morgan's right hand man, 
James Eumsey,*^ going over to the enemy. Morgan had written of him 
on September 19, 176^9, "It would be a principal part of my happiness 
to go hand in hand with a union of souls with Mr. Eumsey, through the 
different stages of life enjoying and partaking of each other's blessings 
or sorrows. This associate of Morgan, entered into partnership with 
Murray on May 19, 1770. 

The articles of agi'eement stated that Murray and Eumsey were to 
be partners at Kaskaskia for three years. Murray was not to be hindered 
in functioning as Commissary to the troops at Fort de Chartres nor as 
the agent of the Gratz Brothers. The £340 of goods which Murray had 
on hand were to be put up on their joint account, and they bound them- 
selves to the amount of £1,000. This agreement stipulated that David 
Franks, if he so desired, should be admitted as a joint partner.*® TMs 
latter step was taken in the fall of 1770. The Gratz Brothers and 
Alexander Eoss became the other members of this firm designated as 
"David Franks and Company." 

James Eumsey entered immediately into the spirit of this new part- 
nership. In January, he intended to take invoice of the unsold goods 
belonging to the Gratz and to put them on the joint account. By the 
first of the new year he had disposed of the most salable part of the 
spring cargo sent by the Gratz Brothers. On January 26, he sent them 



197 

a public bill for the amount of £640 in order to show them how much he 
had the interest of "Mr, Murray's friends" at heart. Since Murray had 
gone East on a business trip, he was very busy attending to their three 
stores, performing his duties as Secretary to Wilkins, and counteracting 
the machinations of his former friend, Morgan, whom he now character- 
ized as a "Bedlamite."''^ Morgan's relations were also severed with 
Wilkins, and between 1770 and 1772, Illinois was torn with party strife 
— Morgan leading the opposition, composed mostly of disconnected 
French, against Rumsey and Wilkins. °° 

•Baynton, Wharton, and Morgan determined to withdraw from Illi- 
nois in the Spring of 1771. Murray informed Gratz on May 7, that he 
and Eumsey had |)urchased a large part of that firm's residue of mer- 
chandise.^^ This transaction caused the Gratz no little concern, and 
they wrote October 2, — "was sorry to hear of the large purchase which 
was made of B. W. and Morgan's old goods, which I suppose must be a 
great deal of damaged and unsalable goods amongst. Such a large sum 
as we are told they expect in payment for the goods next month- — I am 
sure they cannot get without a large remittance from you."^- Gratz 
seems to have had suspicions of Mr. Eumsey and cautioned Murray to 
be frugal, industrious, and careful. They had received from Mr. Franks 
only £640 (sent by Eumsey) on all the goods they had sent up and 
begged him for a small remittance. ^^ 

The firm of "David Franks and Company" did not confine its oper- 
ations to Fort de Chartres, but on August 8, 1771, purchased three lots, 
a stone house, and a mill for £300 Penn., ($850) in Ivaskaskia. The 
indenture was made in the name of Moses and Jacob Franks of Phila- 
delphia, James Eumsey, and William Murray of Illinois."''^ Murray and 
Eumsey made frequent business trips east as the letters forwarded took 
so long to reach their destination that there were continual misunder- 
standings. On one return trip a blacksmith and a distiller, accompanied 
Eumsey in order to enlarge further the firm's undertakings. 

Besides his partnerships, Murray had his own personal afl^airs. He 
still maintained a correspondence (mostly of a business nature) with 
Messrs. Callender, Thompson, Eoker, Murphey, Simon, and Burke of 
Pennsylvania. With some of these he was debtor, as with Callender and 
Thompson, and with other a creditor as with Mr. Cameron. In such 
relations, the Gratz acted for hijn in the East. During 1773, Murray 
officiated as the executor of the estate of Capt. James Campbell, a former 
member of Wilkins' Court. In this capacity, he sold the estate at 
auction, paid the laborers who had worked on it, and compensated 
"Franks and Company" for supplies furnished the slaves."^^ 

Although the Gratz and David Franks were very much concerned 
in these trading ventures, yet that was not their all-absorbing interest. 
Ever since Samuel Wharton had sailed to London on behalf of the 
Indiana Grant, these prominent easterners had watched his progress 
with breathless interest. Wharton had received a private opinion from 
Lord Camden and Lord Chancellor Yorke in 1769 to the effect that 
titles to land purchased directly from the Indian tribes by individuals 
or groups of individuals would be upheld in the British courts.^^ In 
spite of ^\Tiarton's attempts to keep this opinion secret, it. leaked out 
about 1772. The knoAvled^e of it most likelv led to the decision of 



198 

"Franks and Company'' in 1773, to discontinue their trading operations 
and take advantage of this opinion by entering into land speculations 
of their own.^' On April 3, consequently, Murray was appointed their 
attorney with full power to settle and close up the business of this com- 
pany whose jaartnership was soon to expire.^* 

In this settlement we gain some idea of the way in which they had 
conducted this business and its magnitude. From October 19, 1770, 
to April 24, 1773, the Gratz furnished "Franks and Company'^' with 
£1,953:104% ($9,li00) worth of merchandise. On July 1, 1773, they 
had a balance of £1,560:0:11 ($8,392) with this concern.^^ They 
profited as wholesalers on the goods which they sent and besides, shared 
in the profits after the goods were retailed. It is probable that David 
Franks did likewise. We have record of one shipment alone by him 
amounting to £724:10:10 ($3,520). Murray and Eumsey in addition 
to the profits on the final sale of the goods, must have received remuner- 
ation for their services. Murray continued to be in account with 
"Levy and Franks" on November 20, 1772, they credited him with 
£14,611:6:101/4 ($71,157) because of disbursements he made at the Illi- 
nois between June 25, 1770, and September 10, 1772.^° We see by the 
last statement that Joseph Simon, member of "hevj and Franks" was 
also concerned in Murray's affairs. Eumsey made his final settlement 
in September, with "Franks and Company" through William Murray. 
His account consisted of 10,634 livres (French money) most of which 
was to be paid in flour and other provisions for the garrison. "^^ 

We can see that the trading operations were often closely associated 
with the provisioning of the troops. Before following these merchants 
in their land speculations let us take a brief survey of the history of 
the provision branch. From Ivaskaskia on July 11, 1768, Morgan had 
written of a contract made by Mr. Moses Franks and two other London 
gentlemen for provisioning the troops there at 131^ Sterling per ration 
or twenty-seven cents per person per day. Moses Franks, Mr. Nesbitt, 
and Sir Eobert Colebrook had for several years supplied the British 
armies in America with food.*^'- It was William Murray who acted as 
deputy for David Franks at Fort de Chartres where he was to personally 
supervise the fulfillment of the contract mentioned by Morgan. The 
failure to receive this contract was a great disappointment to Baj'nton, 
Wharton, and Morgan. ^^ So apprehensive was Morgan of its detriment 
to their interests, that he urged the senior members of his firm to 
arrange with Mr. Franks to supply William Murray with the rations 
at 131/4 pence Pennsylvania, or Neiv YorJc currency.®'* In this way their 
firm could profit from the sale of provisions while the London company 
could profit by the difference of exchange. 

]\Iorgan did achieve his end in this branch, for within a few weeks 
after ^Murray reached Fort de Chartres, he procured his order for 35,000 
pounds of meat to be delivered by February for the garrison at Fort de 
Chartres.®^ Morgan charged ]\rurray higher rates for these provisions, 
except the pork than had been formerly charged, by agreeing to deliver 
the provisions in the English Aveight which was 12 per cent, to 9 per 
cent, higher than the French weight. He was also to be allowed one- 
half bushel of salt for preserving the meat, for ever}- barrel of beef of 



199 

220 pounds. Thus, although competitors, Murray and Morgan found 
themselves dependent upon each other. 

Murray in turn received vouchers from the government through 
Mr. Eeed, commissary at Fort Pitt.*^^ It appears that in 1769, a Mr. 
Eoss was manager of the contractors at Fort Pitt. In this capacity he 
was in the habit of supplying the contractors, of whom Murray was one, 
with provisions from the East. We might well infer that the Franks 
by this time preferred to fulfill their own contracts rather than to pur- 
chase the provisions from Baynton, Wharton, and Morgan. Murray, 
however, embarrassed Eoss by not sending him an account of what he 
needed; and so Eoss knew not how to supply him. Eeed, perturbed by 
Murray's actions wrote Wilkins that Murray might deem it below him 
to send the account, adding : "Trade which makes the contractor's people 
rich often make them above their business."^'^ Murray may have sent his 
order directly to Mr. Franks or to the Commissary General. 

The provisioning of the garrison never seemed to have been satis- 
factory to the military officials. Murray and Wilkins in the late spring 
of 1770 had a dispute about the provisions. Wilkins wrote Eumsey: 
"I must beg that there be an end to this dispute and that the troops are 
regularly served as I have ordered, and which is the only manner they 
can be fed at present vizt as at Xew York or Philadelphia or other places 
where cattle is to be got when demanded. I cannot see in wdiat manner 
Mr. Murray proposes to make a deposit of fresh meat otherwise than I 
have directed weekly, shall desire Lieutenant De Berniem to consult him 
on that head. Am not surprised at Mr. Murray's insinuation with re- 
spect to the credit he has given me for deposits made in my name but 
must declare that I have never asked any price but left the matter to 
him and yourself at any rate I cannot boast of my farming scheme but 
am happy to find all articles so much reduced since I took the same 
in hand I have myself much to do at present, therefore must beg that if 
Mr. Murray and yourself have more to say in the present dispute (where- 
in I have nothing in view but justice to the public and contractors) 
that you -will make me a visit so as to put an end to the afl;air, and 
if Mr. Murray imagines he hath given me a partial credit — he pleased 
to apologize for my not remitting to him at present."®* But Wilkins 
was soon again on terms of friendship with Eumsey and Murray. He 
wrote Eumsey, on October 25, that he hoped the excesses which he had 
suffered at Fort de Chartres would cease at Kaskaskia, and sent his re- 
gards to Mr. Murray. .^^ 

Lieutenant-Colonel Wilkins was discharged from the service in Sep- 
tember, 1771, on the charge of falsifying accounts and taking large sums 
to himself. ^° He was succeeded by Maj. Isaac Hamilton who after 
abandoning and destroying Fort de Chartres left fifty soldiers at Fort 
Gage, near Kaskaskia, under Capt. Hugh Lord."^ 

Gage ordered Capt. Hugh Lord to inquire into frauds suspected 
of the contractor's agent — Mr. Murray. Captain Lord informed Gage 
that in September, 1772, Colonel Wilkins had made a requisition for a 
deposit of provisions, but that the buffalo beef had to be condemned. 
He stated further that Murray, who was at that time acting for the con- 
tractors and most of his emplo3'ees were away; and so he was prevented 
from giving tlie requested information. '^^ After the abandonment of 



200 

Fort (le Cliartres in Septeniljer, and the withdrawal of most of the troops, 
we have scarcely a mention of the provisioning of the troops except, when 
Murray wrote the Gratz in 1773 from Pittsbnrg that if Croghan's in- 
formation be correct "that the administration (intended) to send a 
battalion to the Illinois country, as they had at last found it to be the 
master key to Canada they would not fail doing something worthy,"'^ 

CHAPTER III. 
William Murray, Laxd Speculator ix Illinois. 

It was during Murray's brief sojourn with Croghan mentioned in 
the previous chapter, that Murray was assured by that latter that Lords 
Camden and York had personally confirmed to him their opinion con- 
cerning Indian titles, when he was last in England. Murray quite elated 
over tliis confession transmitted it to the Gratz adding, "So courage, my 
boys. I hope we shall yet be satisfied for past vexations attending our 
concern at the Illinois." A traveler whether by land or canoe or barge 
was almost always the deliverer of some letters or goods at his destina- 
tion. ]\Iurray brought three horses here to Mr. Mahon. Light-hearted 
and jestingly he ^vTote, "By two of them (horses) he sold in a few 
minutes after he gained possession, he gained eleven pounds. You see, 
Michael, that a Scotch-Irishman can get the better in a bargain with 
a Jew. I cannot have it in my power to transgress the Mosaic law by 
eating swine's flesh here. Not an ounce of it can be had in this beggarly 
place ."^* 

Murray did not tarry long in the East but returned soon to Illinois 
in order to make the land ^uirchase, which he and his partners had 
planned during his stay, as quickly as possible. Murray continued his 
journey down the Ohio with brighter prospects than those which had 
attended his former returns. Already twenty-two stockholders had 
signed the proposed new land affair, including Thomas Marshall of York 
County, Capt. John Campbell, Eobert Callender, and William Thompson 
of Cumberland County. All of these men were Pennsylvanians." Thus 
as early as May, fairly definite plans for the Illinois company had been 
formulated. Murray upon arriving at Kaskaskia on June 11, made 
known the opinion of the British lawyers to Captain Lord. But the 
latter, far from acquiescing and allowing himself to encourage such 
schemes, replied that: "he should not suffer him to settle any of the 
lands as it was expressly contrary to his Majesty's orders" — referring 
of course to the provisions of the Proclamation of 1763.'^^ But Murray's 
spirit was not one to he daunted by pessimistic denunciations of one 
of his Majesty's less important servants. During the month of June, 
Murray held several public conferences at Kaskaskia with the Illinois 
tribes, to which the British officers and the residents of the village were 
invited. Such an open meeting together with his orders against giving 
the Indians liquor, he thought, would show he had no intentions of 
trickery. He allowed nearly a month for their transactions, in order that 
the chiefs and sachems would have plenty of time for deliberation and 
consultation with the tribes which they represented." 

The bronzed Indians with their blankets wound about them — some 
standing in majestic dignity, others lounging about smoking their long 



201 

pipes ; the red coated soldiers ; the buckskin clad Frenchman — all gazing 
upon the purchase price consisting of piles of bright red blankets, shirts, 
stockings, shining brass kettles, steel knives, sacks of flour; and even 
cattle and horses — must have formed a peculiarly striking and impressive 
setting for the signing of the agreement perfected on Juh- 5 at Kas- 
kaskia. By this contract, William Murray purchased for himself and his 
colleagues two tracts of land east of the Mississippi liiver — one between 
the Ohio and the Mississippi Elvers just below Kaskaskia, and the other 
from the mouth of the Missouri north to that of the Illinois, and thence 
along the latter's course. But even more impressive was the ceremony 
itself — the translation and explanation into French of the complicated 
and formal deed, by Eichard Winston to Michael Dane and Piero Bloitj 
Indian interpreters, who in turn repeated the lengthy explanation, in 
the most ceremonial manner, to the Indians.'^ The Indian chieftains 
before the entire assemblage assented to this transference and, one by 
one, set their characteristic seals, in the form of bear's heads, fish, or a 
cross, if baptized, upon the parchment. The cost of this purchase was 
later stated to have been $37,326.17.'^ 

The interpreters were duly sworn before the commandant of the 
Illinois, Capt. Hugh Lord, who certified this act on July 20, 1772. In 
all, it took about fifteen days to complete the transaction. On examin- 
ing the list of the twenty-two grantees we find that all except Moses 
and Jacob Franks of London, William Murray of Illinois, and James 
Eumsey, late of Illinois, were Pennsylvanians. Most of them had had 
business dealings with the Franks Company (all of whom were gran- 
tees). We notice the familiar names of David Sproat, Milligan, and 
John Inglis of Philadelphia; Joseph Simon and Andrew Levi of Lan- 
caster; Thomas Menshall of York County; Eobert Callender of Cum- 
berland County; and John Campbell of Pittsburg who with the Gratz 
formed Croghan's closest associates. All of these men had been con- 
nected with trading with Illinois and being naturally speculative, it is 
not surprising to find them venturing together in a quicker realization 
of profits. We have seen that Murray had not tried to get the consent 
of the British Council before making this purchase but had worked on 
the assiimption that the Indian tribes were sovereign nations who could 
grant lands and that, although the British Crown was the possessor of 
this territory, it did not personally own the soils since it had never pur- 
chased or leased the land itself. 

This deviation of policy to buy lands without government sanction 
— which seemed a defiance to British control and even in direct opposi- 
tion to the Proclamation of 1763, caused an almost continuous exchange 
of letters between the British authorities. In a letter written September 
30 to Haldimand, Superintendent Johnson condemned such purchases 
in these words : "I think Mr. Murray's proceedings very extraordinary. 
The spirit of purchasing and pushing settlements into the back country, 
remote from the influence of government and where they do as they 
please, is already so prevalent that unless his Majesty shall fall on some 
vigorous measure to prevent it, I despair of its ever being done.^° From 
this letter we see Johnson feared such purchases would cause no small 
administrative problem. Haldimand replied to Johnson that he was 
glad to hear that the latter's opinion concerning these purchases corres- 



202 

ponded with his own, in their representation to the Secretary of State, 
[Dartmonth] .**^ Haldimand sent his objections to Dartmouth in Nov- 
ember. Although no actual settlements had been made, still he feared 
that settlements which were rumored to be made in the spring by emi- 
grants from the East, would irritate the Indians and make the region 
one of lawlessness. ^- 

The grantees, realizing the opposition of the crown to their pur- 
chase, when they could receive no aid from their own state, Pennsylvania, 
cleverly seized upon the plan of obtaining the sanction of Virginia, which 
by her charter claimed the whole Northwest. ^^ Accordingly Murray 
went East, and on April 19, 1774, presented a petition on behalf of the 
Illinois Land Company to the Earl of Dunmore, Governor of Virginia, 
asking that: "Virginia extend her laws and jurisdictions over their 
purchase since it was within her limits.®* Their reasoning follows logic- 
ally: That they wished for well regulated commerce and to avoid the 
evil consequences which come with irregular and lawless emigi'ants, that 
such regulated settlements would form a frontier for the present frontier 
of Virginia as well as for the other states, and that they would comply 
with any rules, such as quit rents, which Virginia should choose to im- 
pose. 

Murray knew the way to a true speculator's heart, such as Governor 
Dunmore's of Virginia, and most likely promised him due compensation 
for his support. Dunmore strongly urged Dartmouth to act favorably 
on this petition of April, a copy of which he sent him in May,®^ and spoke 
highly of the names attached to the petition.^'' The three men were 
known to him, especially, Mr. Murray, of whom he said, "[He] has been 
long a merchant in the Illinois country, knowing well the country which 
they were about settling and thoroughly understands the advantages that 
may be derived from their settlement there, to trade which is the prin- 
ciple of their undertaking and therefore cannot be prejudicial in any 
sense to His Majesty.^' Dartmouth, who did not react favorably to his 
proposal, wrote Johnson that Dunmore's reasons had not weight with 
him.®" 

Meanwhile Murray was busy planning his "compensation" for Dun- 
more. As early as May 16, 1774, he spoke of the "old and new affair" 
about which he had had letters sent to the Franks Brothers of London. 
His activity shows him to be the prime instigator. Plans were well under 
way as he wrote the Gratz on that day: "Further exploring has been 
determined upon at last meeting; some settlement to be made by way 
of taking possession, and all former transactions fully approved by those 
who were not formerly concerned, as well as on the part of the new 
hands."®® Eight Marylanders had already signed the new affair. 

Murray's hopes once again seemed high and gave rise to such ex- 
clamations as "My rib presents her compliments to you" — and his little 
joke at the expense of Michael Gratz of whom he writes : "Now as the 
Devil will have it, you must be informed forsooth, that Moses was upon 
the top of a mount in the month of May — consequently his followers 
must for a certain number of days cease to provide for their families, 
though perhaps he may be promoted to such high rank above that he 
may think it beneath his dignity to associate with his countrymen." 



203 

The border warfare on the Ohio in 1774, increased in gruesomeness. 
Murray wrote the Gratz from Philadelphia that verbal reports of the 
murder of thirty-eight or forty-eight Indians by white people had reached 
them. "If this intelligence be true," he anxiously wrote, ''it would mean 
much against us and greatly endanger my scalp. I hourly hope to hear 
that the report is void of truth."^^ These rumblings bespoke of the 
Dunmore War which soon broke out. This war involved Virginia and 
Pennsylvania and made the western Indians restless and Illinois the 
scene of frequent raids.^*^ Murray was still in Philadelphia in June 
and Michael Gratz hoped he would not leave until he learned the reports 
of the raids along the Ohio Avere groundless and advised that he return 
via New Orleans. 

Meanwhile the British ministry had not viewed Murray's purchase 
as favorably as had Lord Dunmore. General Gage then in England 
urged the ministry very strongly against validifying the grant. As early 
as May, the Secretary's opposition was known to the speculators through 
a letter written by Samuel Wharton to his brother stating that : "Lord 
Dartmouth had sent orders to Lord Dunmore not to grant a foot of 
lands to any person on the Ohio and for him to make null and void the 
patents he has already granted.''^ 

Gage wrote to Capt. Hugh Lord commending his opposition to« 
these land purchases which greatly pleased Lord Dartmouth. He then 
related the following commands: "you will therefore take all opportuni- 
ties to acquaint the Indians with this, His Majesty's concern for their 
happiness and Avelfare, in preventing persons taking advantage of them 
and* purchasing the lands which it is the King's determined resolution 
to reserve to them, and to prevent as much as lays in your power any 
purchase so contrary to the royal will and regulations * * * and 
that his Majesty's new subjects may not be deceived and persuaded to 
act contrary to the intent of it [i. e. the Proclamation] you will be 
pleased to order the Notary Public to erase from his Eegisters any of 
the proceedings relative to the purchase already made and publicly to 
protest against them, and to declare all that has been or may be done 
hereafter relative to it void and of non-effect.^^ 

It Avas these unlawful purchases Avhich caused the British ministry 
in the Quebec Act of June, 1774, to include Illinois in the province of 
Quebec.''^^ By so doing they hoped to discourage settlements in Illinois, 
since the residents could not enjoy English law; and thus fur trading 
would be encouraged. An annulment of Murray's deed Avas attempted. 
"Eighteen months subsequent [about January, 1775] to this transac- 
tion [July, 1773 purchase]" stated Murray, "General Gage ordered — 
[Captain Lord] to convene the Indian chiefs afresh after I purchased 
the lands, and to inform them ; 'That notwithstanding the sale they had 
made, and the consideration that they might hold these lands and that 
they Avere still their property." After some deliberation, the chiefs re- 
plied: 'That they thought what the Great Captain said was not right; 
that they had sold the lands to me and my friends not for a short time, 
but, as long as the sun rose and set; That I had paid them what they 
had agreed for and to their satisfaction and more than they had asked 
for — and they would protect us against our enemies and we do the same 
for them when we settled.' "^^ Murray, was content with the Indian 



204 

repl}^ and ignored the rebnlce from the crown. In September he com- 
menced a series of negotiations similar to those of 1773, at Post St. 
Vincent and Ouiatenon with the different tribes of the Piaukashaw and 
Wea. 

He was not acting merely on the Camden opinion, for he wrote: 
"Previous to my commencing to negotiate either purchase, I had records 
examined [kept since early days by the French.] to see what lands were 
ceded by — the Indians for garrisons or use of the inhabitants and by 
what titles the latter held them."^^ If the Crown could stop his pur- 
chase could they not nullify, the French claims? And what an uproar 
such reasoning would cause among the French. By consulting the oldest 
Indians and the earliest French settlers, he learned that their land hold- 
ing "originated from cessions obtained for a valuable consideration from 
Indians,'^ stated that his purchases were made from the same Indians.°*^ 
These Indians he claimed were sovereign and not tributary to the Six 
jSTations or any other Nation. 

Was the idea that Frenchmen who once bought land from the 
Indians could do so again, the reason for having his French partner, 
Louis Viviat, act as the purchaser of the Wabash lands P^'' Did he reason 
that the English Crown would not dare oppose such a prominent French- 
man as Louis Viviat who was merely reiterating the acts of other French 
settlers — on a larger scale of course? By using him, Murray could of 
course gain the good will of the French. In any case, Louis Viviat, 
prominent French merchant and former judge at Kaskaskia, held public 
conferences, similar in nature to those held in 17T3, at Post Vincent and 
Vermillion. There he obtained from their chiefs on October 18', 'tw^o 
large tracts of land, one above and one below A'incennes. Merchandise 
similar in chara^^ter to that used for the first purchase but valued at 
$12,-477.73 ($5,000 in excess of the former purchase) was paid for this 
land.'-"^ The Earl of Uunmore's name stands prominently among the 
grantees, in fact his name is the first of the eighteen on the list and is 
followed by that of his son, John Murray, Maryland had a fair repre- 
sentation and we note that William Murray's brother, Daniel, is now 
engaged with him. This deed was duly registered on December 5, 1775. 
In the deed again appears the names of our old friends Moses and Jacob 
Franks, who with Slurray and David Franks are the only grantees of 
177s. The names of Eumsey, Gratz, Campbell, Simon are conspicuous 
by their absence. With the American Eevolution, their most prominent 
sponser with the ministr}', Lord Dunmore, was dropped from their 
journals. 

Events 'w^ere moving with lightning rapidity in America during the 
fall of 1775 and the year 1776 — hopes of the removal of grievances began 
to engender thoughts in bolder minds of independence ; parties were be- 
ginning to form ; and the conservatives, neither Tory nor Pro-Independ- 
ent, began to be forced to cast their lot in with one of the two sides. 
"William Murray must have watched these events with some apprehen- 
sions and yet with some hopes — w^ar certainly would delay the settlement 
of these newly acquired lands, but now that Britain had shown her abso- 
lute disapproval of his undertakings by direct criticisms and by the in- 
clusion of Illinois in the Quebec Province, would he not have a better 
chance bv casting his fortunes in with the Eevolutionists. Besides his 



205 

Scotch blood probably seized the opportunity to side in with the Colonies 
against England. 

In the early summer of 17 T6, Murray left Illinois for the East, in 
order to exert more direct influence for his grants. Before leaving Kas- 
kaskia, he instructed his brother Daniel, whom he left in charge of his 
western affairs, to give every assistance to any American troops that 
miglit arrive there. These instructions he repeated through Col. George 
Gibson who came from New Orleans to Illinois. ^°° 

Faithful to his brother's commands, Daniel Murray preferred valu- 
able aid to George Eogers Clark upon his entry into Kaskaskia on July 
4, 1778'. It is even suggested that the loyal Daniel opened the door of 
the fort to him.^°^ By the morning of the fifth he and Winston had 
plenty of provisions for the fatigued and hungry troops, whose gratitude 
to such friends of the American cause must have been very great.^°^ 

Daniel Murray continued his assistance and supplied Clark with 
large quantities of flour, beef, pork, salt, tallow, liquor, and merchandise. 
For these commodities, he accepted continental money at gold valuation 
without stopping to consider depreciation, and he later claimed to have 
induced the French to do likewise. ^"^ Not only did Daniel Murray act 
as voluntary provisioner of the troops, but he also acted as commissary 
and quartermaster, and served in military operations under Clark. His 
assistance to the Virginians proved very detrimental to his interests and 
those of his brother. In a memorial on December 29, 1781, to the Vir- 
ginia Delegates in Congress, he prayed them to save himself and his 
brother from ruin by the payment of two bills for $6,-181% and $1,590, 
which were drawn by Colonel Montgomery. ^°* 

Although it is not within our scope to pursue Murray's activities 
outside of Illinois in any detail, yet the following account seems neces- 
sary. Clark's undertakings were not unknown in the East. After a 
long interval of no meetings, the Illinois and Wabash Land Companies 
held a joint session in Philadelphia on November 3, 1778, thirteen days 
before the news of Clark's achievement reached Williamsburg. Could 
not their western sympathizers such as Daniel Murray have sent them 
news of Clark's success? At this meeting, the companies determined 
to unite, to rectify the indefinite boundary lines of the Illinois Eiver 
tract of the 1773 purchase, to cede sufficient land to pay the soldiers 
enlisted in the American cause, and to present a memorial to the Vir- 
ginia Legislature. William Murray was appointed as executor of many 
of their ' proposed plans — to supervise the correction of the northern 
boundary (for which £600 to be increased to £1,000 if necessary was 
approximated) and to present their memorial to Virginia. Seeing that 
it was Virginia who actually occupied the Illinois country, the pro- 
prietors were anxious to make their claims formally known. On De- 
cember 26, 1778, William Murray presented this memorial to the Legis- 
lature at Williamsburg. After stating briefly that they had purchased 
lands on the Wabash Eiver, the Illinois and Wabash Companies tactfully 
added that when conditions allowed for the settlement of these lands 
they had no intention to dispute the jurisdiction of Virginia or any other 
state rightfully claiming jurisdiction over them.^°^ 

In 1779, frequent meetings of the companies were held.^"'' George 
Eoss, signer of the Declaration and now chairman of these companies 



206 

sent Capt. John Campbell, their surveyor-general, instructions for the 
founding of a town at the junction of the Ohio and Wabash Eivers, and 
the terms of settlement proposed. They informed him that Murray was 
their agent in this alfair. 

In spite of Virginia's reiteration on May 18 that no persons could 
purchase any land within her limits, the companies went hopefully ahead 
in completing their organization and plans. In August, they divided 
their lands into eighty-four shares, two of which were soon after sold 
to Mr. Eobert Morris, renowned financier of the Eevolution, and Mr. 
John Holder, Counsel of France, for £8,000 each. With the names of 
these prominent members added to those of Gerard, the French minister 
who had a large following in Congress, and Governor Thomas Johnson 
of Mar^'land, in addition to the ten members from Maryland, we are not 
surprised at Maryland's opposition to Virginia's obtaining permanent 
sovereignty in the West. On April 29, 1780, a definite constitution was 
drawn up; a resolution was passed ordering that £4:,000 (from the sale 
of the shares to Messrs. Holder and Morris) be paid to Murray, for de- 
fraying the necessary expenses of the Companies ; and detailed provisions 
were made for settlements at the mouth of the Ohio and Illinois Rivers 
as well as at the mouth of the Wabash. They decided to postpone the 
actual settlement of these sites until peace was declared. ^°^ The various 
events leading to Maryland's ratification of the Articles of Confederation 
on February 2, 1781, showed plainly that the Companies could now hope 
for little success by working through Maryland alone. Knowing Mary- 
land's intention of ratification they presented a memorial to Congress 
on February 3, 1781, which found no favor.^^^ The members of the 
United-Illinois-Wabash Companies refused to cast entirely aside their 
visions of golden prosperity, and we accordingly find them petitioning 
the Continental Congress in 1788,^°® the United States Congress in 1791, 
1797, and 1804.^^" The petition of 1791 had been presented by James 
Wilson, the eminent Pennsylvanian, and his friends. The House acted 
favorably on it but a deadlock in the Senate prevented any action.^^^ 
iSTo better fortune favored that of 1797. The whole matter was finally 
repudiated on January 30, 1811.^^^ 

During this period of the futile attempts of the Illinois-Wabash- 
Land Companies to gain official sanction to its purchases, we have but a 
fleeting glimpse of William Murray. The affairs of these United Com- 
panies had become his chief interest. Besides, the Eevolutionary War had 
greatly curtailed western trading, not only by making western expedit- 
ions hazardous, but also by discouraging the Indians from trapping. 
Shortly after the March meeting of 1779 of the land companies, the 
Gratz JBrothers intended to m^ake a final settlement with Murray. Michael 
cautioned his brother to take care when he settled with him to get 
'^lard" money instead of the depreciated paper.^" Murray may have 
gone West in the interest of their companies for Daniel Murray wrote 
Bentley that he expected him.^^* We hear nothing of him in the years 
folloAving, until 1786, when he is the bearer of a letter from Barnard 
Gratz then in Eichmond, Virginia, whither his business interests had 
moved, to Michael.^ ^^ He still maintained business relations with the 
Lancaster group. In June of that year, he deeded one-half of his 2,000 
acre land tract, in Jefferson County, Virginia, to Joseph Simon.^^^ This 



207 

land adjoined the militai^ survey of Col. John Campbell which lay 
within the present site of Louisville, Kentucky. 

His holdings in Kentucky and the subsequent failure of the Illinois- 
Wabash Companies to maintain their title, cause us to wonder if he was 
not the William Murray who appeared so prominently in Kentucky's his- 
tory as the opposer of the Kentucky Resolutions, in 1798. Sine© 
the interests of the Gratz were turned in that direction he may have 
followed in their path. If he is this William Murray, he emigrated to 
Xatchez, Mississippi, in 1803, and died there in 1805.^^^ But the 
proof of this case is still wanting. Thus we see the finale as well as the 
beginning of the life of this dramatic personage remains still to be ascer- 
tained. In my discourse I have attempted to trace his activities in Illi- 
nois alone; and so I must leave the solution of this problem to later 
researchers or to others, ambitious of throwing light upon some of the 
truly eminent pioneers who gave their most previous years to laying a 
cornerstone for our State of Illinois. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Manuscript Sources. 

Baynton, Wharton, and Morgan. Manuscripts : in the Pennsylvania 
State Library (Harrisburg). 

Draper, Lyman C. Manuscripts: preserved in the library of the State 
Historical Society of Wisconsin (Madison). 

Etting. Manuscripts: in the Pennsylvania Historical Society (Phila- 
delphia). 

Great Britain. Public Record Office. Colonial Office Papers (London). 

Haldimand, General Sir Frederick. Manuscripts: in the British Mu- 
seum, Additional Manuscripts (London). 

Johnson, Sir William. Manuscripts : in the New York State Library 
(Albany). 

Kaskaskia Manuscripts, preserved in the circuit clerk's office (Chester, 
Illinois). 

Morgan, George. Letter Book : preserved in the Carnegie Library 
(Pittsburg, Pennsylvania). ■ 

Pennsylvania Division of Public Records : in the Pennsylvania State 
Library (Harrisburg). 

Pennsylvania Supreme Court Records : in the Pennsylvania State Library 
(Harrisburg). 

Transcripts of the above manuscripts are found in the Illinois Historical 
Survey of the University of Illinois. 

Published Sources. 

Account of the proceedings of the Illinois and Ouabaclie Land Com- 
panies, in pursuance of their purchases made of the indedent natives, 
July 5, 1773, and 18th October, 1775 (Philadelphia, 1796). 

Alvord, Clarence W. Caholcia Becords, 1778-1790 [Ill'mois Historical 
Collections, vol. ii, Virginia series, vol. i], (Springfield, 1907). 

KashasMa Records, 1778-1790 [Illinois Historical Collections, 
vol. V, Virginia series, vol. ii], (Springfield, 1909). 



208 

Alvord, L'lareiice \V., ami L'larejice E. Carter. Critical Period, ITGJi- 
17()5. [Illinois Historical Collections, vol. x, British series, vol. i], 
(SpriiigiieUl, 11)15). 

Alvord, Clarence W., and Clarence E. Carter. New Regime, 1765-1767. 
[Illinois Ilistorical Collections, vol. xi, British series, vol. ii], 
(Springfield, 1916). 

American State Papers, class viii, public lands, vol. ii, edited by Walter 
Lowrie and Walter S. Franklin (Washington, 1834). 

John P. Branch. Historical Papers of Piandolph-Macon College, edited 
by Charles H. Ambler, vol. iv, (liichmond, 1915). 

Byars, William Y. B. and M. Gratz, Merchants in Philadelphia, 17 SJ^- 
179S. Transcripts from the Gratz papers with introduction and 
notes (Jefferson Cit}', 1916). 

Calendar of Virginia State Papers, edited bv William P. Palmer (Eich- 
mond, 1881). 

Documents relative to the state of New York, edited by Edmund & 
O'Callagiian, vol. viii, (Albany, 1857). 

Historical Magazine, edited, bv John G. Shea, vol. viii, (^ew York, 
1854). 

James, James A. George Roger Clarlc Papers, 1771-1781, [Illinois 
Historical Collections, vol. viii, A'irginia series, vol. iii], (Spring- 
field, 1913). 

Memorial of the Illinois and Wabash Land Company, 13th January, 
1797, referred to Mr. Jeremiah Smith, Mr. Kittera, and Mr. Bald- 
■win, published by order of the House of Eepresentatives (Phila- 
delphia, 1797). • 

"Memorial of the Illinois and Wabash Land Companies;" in American 
State Papers, class viii, public lands, vol. ii, p. 108 ff. 

Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections, vol. xix, (Lansing, 1892). 

Pennsylvania Archives, fourth series, edited by George Edward Eeed, 
under the direction of [the] secretary of the commonwealth, vol. 
iii, (Harrisburg, 1900). 

Thwaites, Eeuben G. and Louise P. Kellogg, editors. Revolution on the 
Upper Ohio, 1775-1777, (Madison, 1908). 

Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, vol. xvi, (Eichmond, 
1908). 

Secondary Works. 

Alvord, Clarence W. CahoMa Records, 1778-1790 [Illinois Historical 
Collections, vol. ii, Virginia series, vol. i], Introduction (Spring- 
field, 1907). 

Kaskaslcia Records, 1778-1790 [Illinois Historical Collections, 
vol. V, Virginia series, vol. ii], Introduction (Springfield, 1909). 
Mississippi Valley in British Politics, (Cleveland, 1917), 2 
vols. 

Carter, Clarence B. Great Britain and the Illinois Country, 17 63-177 J/., 
(Washington, 1910). 

Collins, Lewis, History of Kentucky, [Eevised edition, Eichard Collins], 
(Louisville, 1877). 

Fisher, George H. 'Brigadier-General Henry Bouquet," in Pennsyl- 
vania Magazine of History and Biography, vol, iii, (Philadelphia, 
1879). 



209 

Gayarre, Charles. Ilislonj of Louisiana, The French Domination, vol. 
iii, (New Orleans, 1903). 

Green, Thomas M. "Spankli Conspiracy," (Cincinnati, 1891). 

James, James A. George Rogers Clark Papers, 1771-1781, [Illinois 
Historical Collections, vol. viii, Virginia series, vol. iii]. Introduc- 
tion, (Spring-field, 1913). 

Kohler, Max J. ''The Franks Family as British Army Contractors," in 
American Jewish Historical Society Publications, vol. xi, (Balti- 
more, 1903). 

"Some Jewish Factors in the Settlement of the West," in 
American Jewish Historical Society Publications, vol. xvi, (Balti- 
more, 1907). 

Shaler, N. S. Kentucky, A Pioneer Commonivealth, (Boston, 1885). 

1 On March 18, 1768, the Ministry definitely accepted the principle of allowing 
the colonial government to manage the trade of the Wp.st, the proposition of estab- 
lishing a tentative boundar3' line, and the retention of the offices of Indian super- 
intendents. Alvo'rd, Mississiiipi Valley in British Politics, vol. ii, 31. 

- For a thorough discussion of these policies see Alvord. Mississi2ipi Valley in 
British Politics, passim. 

^ It was chiefly due to the influence and efforts of George Croghan that peace 
was made with Pontiac in July. Learning of Pontiac's promise that the Knglish 
troops would not be hindered in their passage to Illinois, Captain Sterling left Fort 
Pitt on August 24, and arrived at Fort de Chartres on October 9. Great Britain 
and the Illinois Country, 38-45. 

■» Carter, Great Britain and the Illinois Country, 83-84. 

5 October 4, 17G6. in Alvord and Carter, The New Regime, 397. 

" Joseph Simon, one of the wealthiest Indian traders in Pennsylvania, came to 
Lancaster about 1740. Byars, (?) B. and M. Gratz, 3. 

' For a detailed discussion of this cession, see Alvord, ^Mississippi Valley in 
British Politics, vol. ii, chap. iii. 

* In 1763 Colonel Bouquet commanded at Philadelphia when the new rising of 
the Indians was instigated by Pontiac, he marched to the relief of Fort Pitt. On 
August 5, he defeated the Indians in a long and stubborn contest at Bushy Rim. 
Four days later he reached Fort Pitt. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 
vol. xvi, 151. See also Parkman, Conspiracy of Pontiac, vol. ii, 67, 76, 370. 408. 

^ Baynton, Wliarton, and Morgan to Johnson, December 28, 176G, Alvord and 
Carter, The New Regime, 466. 

"Clarkson's Diary, August 6, 1766 — April 16, 1767, Alvord and Carter, The 
New Regime, 349. 

" Gage wrote to Shelburne about the disposal of the troops of the forty-second 
regiment on August 24, 1767. Alvord and Carter, The New Regime 591-593. 

'= September 1. 1769, Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 102. 

^^ Mr. Byars' explanation of this allusion is as follows : "If he is the Captain 
Murray of the Royal Highlanders ordered to Lancaster after the Conestoga Mas- 
sacre, and stationed at Fort Pitt, — he certainly would have spent some time hi 
New York on landing there with the troops, and his acquaintance with Miss Franks 
might have begun then." Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 103. .Miss Richi Franks, daugh- 
ter of Jacob Franks, sailed for London not long after lier father's death in 1768, 
probably in order to consult her brothers, Moses and Napthali, then in London, 
about the management of her father's estate. American Jeicish Historical Society 
Publications, vol. xxii, 139. 

"Michael Gratz to William Murray, September 1, 1769, Byars, B. and M. 
Gratz. 102-103. 

^"September 15, 1768, Pennsylvania Historical Society, Btting Collection. 

" In his very first letter to the Gratz from Carlisle, Murray asked that they 
would please not "forget the Little ones down the River," and wished that they 
might be bound out to some honest tradesman in town or country." June 8, 1768, 
Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 84. He repeated these requests, speaking of them as "the 
two poor Little Chance Boys." Ibid.. June 8, 1768, Idem.. 9 5. The Gratz in turn 
wrote of visiting "Your Little Ones down the River" and of "clothing them and 
paying their board." April 4, 1770, Idem. lO'i. 

In the Record of Apprentices of Philadelphia we find that on March 13, 1773. 
Barnard Gratz had apprenticed William Murray with consent of his father, to 
Alexander Hamilton of Philadelphia. Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Bi-. 
ogruphy, vol. xxiv, 121. Murray must have had another son, for Mary Robertson 
wrote him from Scotland in 1775 concerning the education of his son, Willie, then 
in Scotland. This son can hardly have been the one spoken of above. Byars, 
B. and M. Gratz. 353. 

1' William Murray to Barnard Gratz, June 8, 1768; Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 
88. 

—14 H S 



210 

"Gage to Hillsborough, August 17, 1768, in Public Record Office, Colonial Office 
Papers, vol. v, folio. 291. Major WHlkins, commandincr at Niagara was made Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel of the Eighteenth Regiment, Royal Irish in June, 17G4. Historical 
Magazine, vol. viii, 258. 

" "The silver ware," wrote George Morgan to his partners, "is a good parcel, 
but the principal articles thereof and many of the small ones are charged from 20 
to 50 per cent too high." October 30, 1768, Pennsylvania Division of Public Rec- 
ords. 

2" See IMcl. 

"Michael Gratz to William Murray. .Tuly 8. 1768. Byars. B. and M. Oratt. 87. 

"William Murray to Barnard Gratz, .Tune 8. 1768, Idem., 84. For this goods 
pui-chased from Sproat and Company Murray gave his bond pavable in December, 
1768 fnex-t). Morgan to Baynton. ^T^^arton and Morgan, October 30. 1768, Penn- 
sylvania Division of Public Records. 

" Indeed so plentiful was the game that Ensign George Butricke asserts each 
company was commonly served with one buffalo a day besides quantities of deer, 
geese, turkeys, ducks, turtles and the extremely large catfish. Butricke to Captain 
Barnsley, September l.'^. 1768. Historical Magazine, vol. viii, 259. For a biograph- 
ical note of Barnsley. see Idem. 258. 

24 "The falls appear tremendous at first sight," wrote Butricke. "and startled 
our people." It was only after he had gone safely over them that the rest followed. 
Ibid, 

"-^Ihid., 260. 

=« "Fort Chartres." Butricke added, "is a midline- sized Fort — the walls about 
2 foot thick and 2ft foot high — with Loon lioles to fire small arrrts thro' — [andl — 
some port holes for great guns. But they seldom use them for they shock the 
works too much, the barracks are very good built of stone, but they will not con- 
tain more than 200 exclusive of officers." Fort Chartres was built in 1720, at a 
distance of a mile from the Mississippi. It was repaired in 1750. 'Bv 1768. owing 
to a new channel formed by the river, was not over eighty yards from the water. 
After the surrender of the West to the British. St. Ange de Bellerive. an old and 
experienced French officer, held it through the period of Pontiac's consniracy. 
On October 1ft. 1765. Captain Stirling took charge of it for Great Britain. History 
Maga-sine. vol. viii. 257. 

=' Morgan to Baynton and WHiarton. .Tuly 20. 1768, Morgan Letter Book. 

=8 Ibid. 

=' Morgan to Baynton, Wharton, and IMorgan. October 30. 1768. Division of 
Public Records. Pennsylvania State Library. This remark seems ironical in view 
of the fact that it was later Murray who purchased the merchandise of Ba.vnton. 
Wharton, and IMorgan. Poste., 24. 

'"Mrs. Murray and her children left Philadelphia on .Tuly 8, and arrived at the 
mouth of the Tvaskaskia in Xovcmber. Ibid. November 7. Later Murray sent 
Franky East — probably to be educated. In 1771. the Gratz wrote that they had 
seen him and that he was growing into a fine fellow. Byars. B. and M. Grnt^. IIP. 
In the account books of "Levy and Franks." Murray is charged with £104:18:6V2 
for payments made (March 3ft. 1771 — April 2, 1773) to .Tames Cannon for Franky's 
maintenance. Pennsylvania Historical Siocietv, Ettino Collection. 

"William Murray to B. and M. Gratz, April 24, 1769, Bvars, B. and M. Gratr, 
93. 

^Ibid. 

'•'' .Tames Rinn«ey to Barnard and Michael Gratz. January 26. 1771, Bvars. E. 
and M. Gratfs, 115. 

•'^ Messrs. B. and M. Gratz. account current with Franks and Company, 1770- 
1774. Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Etting Collection. 

^"^ During the Revolution David Sproat was Commissary of the Naval Prisoners. 
The mortality of the prisoners under his care at New York was very great. He 
was attainted of treason in Philadelphia and his estate was forfeited. 

'" Michael Gratz wrote Murray that he hoped Barnard who was in London 
would bring home an assortment of goods suitable for Illinois, Michael Gratz to 
William Mui-ray, April 9. 1770, Byars. /?. and M. Gratz. 109. 

*' B. and M. Gratz to Messrs. William Murray and James Rumsey, May 24, 
1772. Byars, B. and M. Grats. 123-124. 

2" Carter. Great Britain and the Illinois Conntry 1763-74, 73-74. 

=>' Byars. B. and M. Grats, 93. 

••"Michael Gratz to Barnard Gratz, August 21. 1769, Byars, B. and M. Grats, 
100. "The Seneca Indians," wrote Michael Gratz to his brother then in England, 
"are much discontented on account of the purchase money that was given at the 
last treaty [referring to Fort StanwixT to the Nether Indians, and their share not 
yet received by them, which makes them very insolent and daring, though it is 
thought they want nothing but presents and rob. if they can in the ineantime. So 
I am in no ways sorry that we did no£ send any more, as I am much afraid of 
what we have there alreadv. if an Indian war should happen." 

"/btd. September 1, 1769, 102. 

^Idem. 104. 

« William Murray to B. and M. Gratz, September 22. 1769. Ibid. 

" B. and M. Gratz to William Murray. Anrll 4. 1770. Idem. 109. 

••'IMichael Gratz to William Murray. December 28. 1769. Idem. IftS. On 
October 25. 1765. "the merchants and other citizens of Philadelphia." including 
David Franks and the Gratz. adopted the "Non-Importation Resolutions" in which 
they agreed not to have anv goods shipped froin Great Britain until the Stamp 
Act was repealed. Morals, The Jcivs of Philadelphia, 22. It still was in force in 



311 

1770, although the Stamp Act had been repealed. In that year Michael Gratz pro- 
posed to Barnard, who was still in London, that they would ship their goods to 
Illinois by the way of Baltimore, Maryland, for canvass goods, linens, cloth from 
4 to 6 shillings per yard, blankets and rugs could be imported there. Byars, B. and 
M. Grats, 112. 

■"I William Murray's Account Current with B. and M. Gratz, 1773-1774. This 
account further states "as per Sales in Franks and Company Books." 

""Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 98. Lieutenant Rumsey accompanied Lieutenant 
Stirling to Illinois in 1765. He vvas soon after appointed royal commissary at Fort 
de Chartres. He became prominent in Illinois, serving in the court, established 
by Wilkins in December of 1768. He associated himself early with Morgan. Carter, 
Great Britmn and the Illinois Country, 50, 68, 69. 

*^ Pennsylvania Historical Society, Etthig Collection, Miscellaneous manuscripts, 
vol. i, 133. 

« James Rumsey to B. and M. Gratz, January 26, 1771, Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 
116. 

=» Carter. Great Britain and the Illinois Country, 71. "Wilkins had formerly 
been very friendly with Baynton. Wharton, and Morgan, and had made them grants 
of lands, in which he, himself, was interested. Gabriel Cerrg's Testimony Concern- 
ing Illinois. July, 1786, Alvord, Kaskaskia Records, 384. 

"The cost of this purchase was £9,955 :14 :4, excluding £1,000 of goods chargedl 
to the firm hut rejected by Rumsey. Pennsylvania Historical Society, Supreme 
Court Becwds. April Term. 1773. In May, 1774, Thomas Wharton wrote his 
brother that David Franks had not yet paid this bill although he had obtained) 
judgment for it "12 months" since. Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Bi- 
ography, vol. xxiii, 333. 

52 Byars, B. and M. Ch-ats, 118. 

" Ibid. 

•'* Draper Manuscripts. 12 s 29 3. 

"August 31, 1773, Estate of Captain James Campbell, in account with William 
Murray. Executor. Supreme Court Records, April Term, 1773. Pennsylvania His- 
torical Society. 

•"'■Wharton to .Johnson. .Tune 14. 17f!9, in .Johnsoii .^ff/)M'.s'•)■^)^<t. vol. xvM, 190. 

5' The demolishment of Fort de Cliartres in the fall of 1772, the reduction of 
the size of the garrison stationed in Illinois, and the talk of doing likewise to Fort 
Pitt must have greatly discouraged these men and made them even more eager 
for land speculation. See HilLsborouah to Gage. Decf»m'ier' 4. 1771. in Pnblic 
Records Office. Colonial Office Papers, 5:90, p. 5; and Gage to Hillsborough, Sep- 
tember 2. 1772. in Idem. p. 113. 

^^ Kaskaskia Court Record. 265. 

5' Pennsylvania Historical Society, Etting Collection, Gratz Papers. 

*" Pennsylvania Historical Society, Etting Collection. Miscellaneous Manuscripts, 
vol. i, 141). 

8^ Recognition of Indebtedness to Franks and Company, by J. Rumsey, May 15, 
1773. Kaskaskia Manuscripts. Court Record, folio 273. 

" David and Moses Franks were sons of Jacob Franks of New York. During 
the French and Indian War. the armies in America were supplied with provisions 
by Me.ssrs. iMoses Franks. Nesbitt. and Colebrook. The latter two are probably the 
"other two men" referred to by Morgan. Contracts to the value of £76,400 were 
made for provisioning British Armies and Garrisons in North America, particularly 
in New York. Maryland. Fort Pitt, and the Illinois Country. Both Moses and 
David figure prominently in the correspondence of this firm (1759-1779) as its 
agents. David Franks managed their interests in Pennsylvania. American Jewish 
Historical Publications, vol. xi. 181-183. 

*3 Baynton. Wharton and Morgan did however receive large contracts for sup- 
plying the Indian department with goods to be \Tsed as presents to the Indians. 
Carter. Great Britain and the Illinois Country, 83. 

'■•July 11, 1768, Morgan Letter Book. £100 fiterliirg v,-as ennivp.lent to ?170 
Pennsylvania. 

«' Morgan to Baynton and Wharton, October 30. Morgan said he thought they 
could arrange matters so as to lav in 50.000 pounds. Ibid. 

«"Reed to McMillan. April 16. 1769. in J. P. Branch. Historical Papers, vol. 
iv. no. 2. 109-110. Reed is not to be confused with Lieutenant-Colonel John Reed, 
stationed at Fort de Chartres in 1766-1768. 

"'.Tune 6. 1769. in J. P. Branch, Historical Papers, vol. iv. no. 2, p. 110. 

'* Illinois Historical Survey. 

«» Pennsylvania Historical Society. Gratz Papers. This statement shows that 
Murray was .aroing to make Kaskaskia the center of his business and connects with 
the purchase of the lots "etc" made there in Auanist. See ante, 25. 

""Carter. Great Britain and the Illinois Country. 155. 

"Hillsborough sent Gage orders for its demolishment on December 4. 1771. 
Public Record Oflfice. Colonial Office Papers, 5:90, p. 5. Its abandonment and de- 
molishment was reported to Hillsborough by Gage on September 2, 1772. See 
Idem. p. 113. 

"April 9, 1773. in British Museum, Additional Manuscripts, 21730 f. 27. ■ 

"May 15. 1773. Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 130. 

■*Ibid. This acknowledgment of his being Scotch makes us naturally think 
of him as possibly being the Captain Murray of Fort Pitt. 

" Ibid. 

'•Lord to Gage, July 3, 1773, Johnson Ma/iiu scripts, vol. xxv, no. 211. 

^''Account of the Proceedings of the Illinois and Ouabache Land Companies. 

''^Ihid. Richard Winston was an inhabitant of Kaskaskia. 

'"'Ibid. This e.stimate covered the purchase price, the cost of the treaty, and 
the interest on the balance of the goods. 



212 

*» In British IMuseum, Additio)Uil Manuscripts, 21670, f. 82. 

"October 20, 1773, in British Museum, Additional Manuscripts, 21670, f. 91. 

K* November 3, 1773, in the British Museum, Haldimand Papers: Correspond- 
ence with Liord Dartmouth (1773-1775). 

»3 Alvord, Mississippi Valley in BHtish Politics, vol. ii, 203. 

"Public Record Office, Colonial Office Papers, o, 1352, p. 141. 

*5 Mav 18. 1774, in Idem. 

'8 David Franks, John Campbell, and Murray were the "names attached to the 
petition." 

"July 6, 1774, New York Colonial Docit^ments, vol. viii, 468. 

^ Byars, B. and M. Grats, 140. 

^^ Idem. 141. 

"See Alvord, Mississippi Valley in British Politics, vol. ii, 188 ff. 

"L. A. Levy to Michael Gratz, May 28, 1774, Byars, B. and M. Grats, 142. 

^- Haldimand to Lord, March 9, 1774, in British Museum, Additional Manu- 
scripts. 2169.3, f. 355. 

*3 Alvord, Mississippi Valley in British Politics, 2: 237 ff. 

^* Account of the Proceeding of the Illinois and. Ouahache Land Companies. 

»' Ibid. 

»« Ibid. 

*' After his brother's departure from Illinois, Daniel Murray declared the part- 
nership between William Murray and Louis Viviat dissolved, as "Viviat had acted 
in a. manner unjust and illegal since the absence of his partner." April 13. 1777, 
Kaskaskia Mam(,sci-ipts, folio 111. This estrangement may have been caused by 
their different political affiliations — Murray being pro-American and Viviat being 
pro-British. 

^^ Accortnt of the Proceedings of the Illinois and Ouabache Land Companies. 

^Account of the Proceedings of the Illinois and Ouabache Land Companies. 

i"" Captain George Gibson left Fort Pitt, July 19. 1775, and reached New Orleans 
in August. Thwaites and Kellogg, Revolution on the Upper Ohio, 2 27, contains an 
account of Gibson's mission to New Orleans. Alvord states this letter must have 
reached Daniel Murray in 1777. Alvord, Kaskaskia Records, Introduction, xx. 

'"'Alvord. Cahokia Records, Introduction, xiii. Murray was a close friend of 
Thomas Bentley who was accused of aiding the Americans. For an account of 
their activities, see Alvord. Kaskaskia Records, Introduction, xvi-xxv. 

"•-Clark's Memoir, 1773-1779, in James, George Rogers Clark Papers, 229. 

103 Yirginict State Papers, vol. ii, 675, Clark must have been surprised to find 
the continental money passing at par. It is said that many merchants tried to 
buy up goods in Illinois on this basis. Alvord, Cahokia Records. Introdui,-tion 1. 

1"* Virginia State Papers, vol. ii, 675. 

"» Virginia State Papers, vol. i, 314. 

i"^ On March 13. August 20, and November 8. Account of the Proceedings of 
the Illinois and Ouabache Land Companies. 

^0' Account of the Proceedings of the Illinois and Ouabache Land Companies; 
American State Papers, Public Lands, vol. ii, 109. 

108 Ibid. 

"» Ibid. 

"0 Ibid. 

"1 Ibid. 

"-Idem., vol. ii, 253. 

"3 Michael Gratz to Barnard Gratz. April 13. 1779. Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 180. 

'"Daniel aiurray to Thomas Bentley, May 25, 1779, 2Iichigan Pioneer and His- 
torical Collections, vol. xix, 417. 

"» Michael Gratz to Barnard Gratz, January 20, 1786, Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 
232. 

"" This deed is recorded in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, Byars, B. and M. Gratz, 
374. 

"'Collins, History of Kentucky, 277. William IMurray representative from 
Franklin County, led the debate against these resolutions. Collins states that his 
contemporaries spoke of him in terms of admiration and he was probably the most 
eminent scholar in his day. Ibid. Shaler suggests that Murray's opposition was 
given "in order to lialance his as yet unpublished relation'' to the intrigue of the 
Spanish governor, Carondelet, in gaining the secession of Kentucky from the I'nion, 
Shaler. Kentucky. 141. For an extended treatment of this conspiracy, see. Green, 
The Spanish Conspiracy. 



PART III 

Contributions to State History 



CAPTAIN JOHN BAPTISTE SAUCIER 

At Fort Chartres in the Illinois, 
1751-1763 



By 
JOHN F. SNYDER, M. D. 

Ex-President of the Illinois State Historical Society 



Reprinted with Some Additions, and Correction of Certain Errors in the 

First Edition 



CONTENTS. 

PREFACE. 

Chapter I. 

The Sauciers in France. 

Chapter II. 
The Boyhood and Education of Jean Baptiste Saucier. 

Chapter III. 
Fort Chartres in the Illinois. 

Chapter IV. 
Social Life at the Fort. 

Chapter V. 
Rescue of the Commandant's Daughter. 

Chapter VI. 
Early Navigation of the Mississippi. 

Chapter VII. 

A Second Visit to New Orleans. 

Chapter VIII. 
A Brush With Southern Indians. 

Chapter IX. 
Death of the Commandant's Daughter. 

Chapter X. 
Defeat of Washington at Fort Necessity. 

Chapter XI. 
In New Orleans Again. 

Chapter XII. 
The Mysteriou.s Woman in Black. 

Chapter XIII. 
A Miraculous Escape From Death. 

Chapter XIV. 
Marriage of Captain Saucier. 

Chapter XV. 
Surrender of Fort Chartres to the English. 



217 



PREFACE. 



Every intelligent man should learn all he can of his ancestry, and 
transmit that knowledge to his descendents, in order that the traits and 
tendencies of the stock, if elevating, may be emulated ; if degrading, may 
be corrected and improved. 

This view prompted the writing of the biographical sketch, here pre- 
sented, of Captain John Baptiste Saucier of the French Army, who 
assisted in designing the plans of the second Fort Chartres, in the Illi- 
nois, and superintended its construction. 

Since the first edition of this little Avork was published, in 1901, 
diligent investigation of the Saucier family history has resulted in the 
discovery of new facts, and elimination of several errors in the original 
text. This revised edition is therefore believed to be substantially cor- 
rect, and an inconsiderable, but reliable, contribution to the early his- 
tory of Illinois. 

Documentary evidences verifying many of the statements herein 
related, were lost nearly a century ago in the destruction by fire of his 
son's residence. 

The known facts, and family legends, concerning Captain Saucier, 
have been collected, in this narrative form, by one of his descendents, 
to perpetuate the name and history of a brave soldier and honorable, 
upright citizen. 

Virginia, III, , J. F. S. 



218 



CHAPTER I. 

The Sauciees in France. 

At the beginning of the Eighteenth Centur}' Monsieur Jean Beau- 
mont Saucier — or Saussier, as the famil}- name was then spelled* — was 
a prominent and prosperous merchant in the quaint old city of Orleans, 
in France. He was descended from a line of merchant ancestors, who 
had transacted business at the same place, the eldest son succeeding his 
father, from time immemorial. He had been carefully trained in the 
mercantile art by his father, Beaumont Saucier, who had, on retiring 
from business, a few years before, transferred to him the real estate, 
goods, credits and good will of the old establishment. 

Jean Beaumont Saucier was then, in 1700 about twentj^-five years 
of age; was happily married, and in the enjoyment of life's chief bless- 
ings, in the venerable family home situated midway between the house 
of Joan D'Arc and the ancient city wall. His only brother, Felix Xavier 
Saucier, a few years his senior, had chosen the military profession, and 
was then an officier in the Eoyal Guards at Versailles. 

In the passing of time, with its swiftly shifting scenes and ceaseless 
changes, two sons were born to Monsieur and Madame Jean Beaumont 
Saucier; the first receiving the name of Louis Beaumont Saucier, and 
the other that of Paul. The thrifty young merchant was then blessed 
with possession of all the choicest gifts of life — health, success in busi- 
ness, friends in abundance, and angelic wife and two jjromising children. 
The world seemed to him radiant with joy, and the future full of buoyant 
hope. But suddenly a deep shadow fell upon his bright and happy home ; 
caused by one of those subtle strokes of Fate, or inexorable Law, so diffi- 
cult to reconcile with generally accepted doctrines of Omniscient mercy 
and goodness. By an accidental fall, down a tortuous stairway in the 
rambling old mansion, the young wife and mother received injuries that 
caused her death in a few hours. 

M. Saucier was almost distracted by the shock, and for a long time 
was broken down by the intensity of his grief. But time compassionately 
assuages the pangs of suffering it inflicts, and mitigates the acutest sor- 
row. The terrible blow fully tested the young merchant's power of men- 
tal endurance; but he survived it, finding solace in the care and educa- 
tion of his children, and preparing them for the great battle of 1) :o before 
them. 

The elder of the two, Louis Beaumont, destined to succeed his 
father, and perpetuate the Sa^^cier mercantile house, received, at Paris, 
as thorough business training as was at that time practicable to obtain. 
Paul, who was gifted with his mother's gentle disposition, in course of 
time, was educated for the Church; and, after taking holy orders, was 

* See Note A in the Appendix. The French descendents of this family retain 
the original spelling of the name — Saussier — pronounced So-se-a. 



219 

installed as coadjutor, or assistant priest, in the old Cathedral of his 
native city. 

The time at length approached when M. Saucier, according to 
ancient family custom, would retire from the active management of his 
business, and relinquish it to his son, Louis. The thought of leaving the 
old homestead where he was born, hallowed by so many tender and en- 
dearing memories, cast a shadow of melancholy upon his mind, and 
induced a feeling of indescribable lonesomeness. He had purchased a 
little estate a few miles from Orleans, and fitted it up to suit his tastes, 
contemplating passing there the remainder of his days. This change of 
residence removed him but a few miles from the city; yet, it separated 
him for the greater part of time from his sons, and isolated him in the 
silence and solitude of the country, with servants as his only associates. 
This condition, contrasted with his former active life on the busy, noisy 
street, with genial, pleasant surroundings, seemed to him intolerable, and 
suggested — as is often the case with old widowers — the desirability of 
securing a sympathetic companion to share his elegant retirement. 

While revolving the propriety of this momentous step in his mind 
an amusing incident occurred that dispelled any doubts or misgivings 
he may have entertained on the subject; and, like a stroke of magic, 
relieved him of all ennui and despondency. For years horseback riding 
had been his favorite exercise for the promotion of health, and relaxation 
from long hours of mental and physical business drudgery. 

Mounted on his trusty horse, one fine evening in early summer, he 
cantered out beyond the limits of the old town, as was his custom, and 
turned his course into the great forest, preserved there for ages in its 
primitive wildness, to enjoy a view of nature in one of its grand and 
majestic forms. As he rode on he became so absorbed in the freshness 
and fragrance of the budding and blooming shrubs, and the wide-spread- 
ing leafy branches of the stately old trees, the chattering of squirrels 
and songs of birds, and, perhaps, in deep reveries of more tender kind, 
that he lost all note of time, direction and distance, and wandered on, 
along by-ways and obscure paths, until the light of day was fast dis- 
appearing. Great banks of black clouds now floated up from the south 
and overspread the sky; and, soon, intense darkness ushered in the 
approaching night. 

He had often before ridden through the forest, and was familiar 
with the windings of its roads; but now, unable to see any object to 
guide his course, he realized the fact that he Avas lost. It was not, how- 
ever, his first experience of that sort. He had before lost his way in the 
forest at night, when, trusting to the sagacity of his horse, the faithful 
animal had safely and speedily carried him out of the dungeon-like gloom 
back to his home. He now dropped the reins, and, holding fast to the 
pommel of his saddle, bowed his head and urged his horse forward. 
Cautiously and steadily his four-footed servant pursued his course, across 
ravines, up one hill and down to another, turning now to the right, then 
to the left, and again straight on through the dense blackness that sur- 
rounded them. In his dreamy meandering before sunset, M. Saucier 
must have penetrated far into the depths of the old woods; for an hour 
or more had passed since his horse had commenced its unguided effort 
to retrace his course. So long indeed, that his confidence in the animal's 



220 

iii.<tiiict Ijegaii to waver, and the hori'id thouirlit occiin-ed to him that all 
this groping in the (hirk had been aimless, and that every step, perhaps, 
carried them farther into the interior of the vast wilderness. He began 
mentally to debate the advisability of sto])ping there, where he was, to 
await the return of day, when the rumbling of distant thunder, and 
flashes of blinding lightning, portending an advancing storm, strength- 
ened his resolution to proceed yet a little farther. Just then the clatter 
of the horses' hoofs, and his accelerated gait, proved that he had reached 
a broad, well-beaten road. In a few minutes a glimmering liglit in the 
distance revived the despairing traveler's drooping spirits. 

The light, when approached, was found to emanate from the window 
of a farm house. M. Saucier, though his horse manifested no disposition 
to slacken his brisk pace, concluded to stop and dispel his utter bewilder- 
ment by inquiring of the inmates of the house his exact whereabouts. 
Dismounting, he made out a gate that obstructed his course to the light. 
Securing his horse to the fence, he entered the premises and walked up 
a graveled way to the veranda, which now the interior light, and fitful 
lightning, disclosed from the impenetrable darkness. He had advanced 
to within a few steps of the house, when, to his utter amazement, a 
female figure came bounding from the door to meet him. She threw 
her arms around his neck, and kissing him fervently, exclaimed : "Oh, 
Papa ! I am so glad you have come. You were so late getting home, 
I was fearful you had met with some accident." 

Eecovering from his surprise, and comprehending the young lady's 
mistake, he replied, "You are mistaken, Madame ; I am not your father ; 
but be not alarmed. I am Monsieur Saucier, a merchant on Rue Dupont, 
in Orleans; and having lost my way I stopped here on seeing the light 
in your window, to inquire where I am, and by w^hat road I may the most 
speedily get back to my home." The young lady was obviously much 
confused ; but regaining her composure, invited her accidental guest into 
the house, where he at once discovered her identity, and recovered his 
lost bearings. 

Much to his relief he saw before him Mam'selle Adelaide Trotier, 
daughter of his old friend and patron, Jaques Trotier; and was in a 
house he had frequently before visited, situated on Trotier's farm, not 
quite a league from the old city wall. The girl explained that her father 
had gone to town early in the afternoon, and that she was anxiously 
expecting his return when she heard M. Saucier open the gate and come 
up the walk ; and that she was feeling quite uneasy about his protracted 
absence ; as he was very seldom detained in town to so late an hour. She 
had scarcely finished her last sentence when a step was heard on the 
veranda, and the door was opened by M. Trotier, w'ho was no little 
astonished upon the unexpected meeting with his friend there. Expla- 
nations followed, and though the belated merchant was hospitably pressed 
to remain until morning, he declined, and, mounting his impatient horse, 
arrived at his own home as the threatened rain began to fall. 

The adventures of that evening — most probably that impetuous kiss 
he received in the dark — wrought a notable change in M. Sander's train 
of thought; and, also, in his plans for the future. His depression of 
spirits vanished and was replaced by marked cheerfulness. His eques- 
trian excursions became more frequent and less extended, usually ter- 



221 

minating at the Trotier farm. In short, it was soon noticed by his inti- 
mate associates that he had once more capitulated to Cupid, and, when, 
a few months later, his nuptials with the motherless Mam'selle Adelaide 
Trotier were announced in the Church, it elicited a variety of gossiping 
comments, but no surprise. The young lady was twenty-four years of 
age, handsome, tall and muscular; with some education and much amia- 
bility and sweetness of disposition. M. Saucier was then fifty-two years 
old — a little passed the middle period of life, — but in the prime of 
vigorous manhood. 

The union of a man, some years passed the meridian of his probable 
existence, to a lady several years less than half his age, is usually — and 
justly — regarded as a violation of the natural order of things, and a 
consummate act of folly on the part of both. Yet, marriage under any 
auspices — the most flattering, or least promising — is always, in its happi 
ness-producing results, a mere matter of lottery — an untried experiment. 

CHAPTER II. 
The Boyhood and Education of Jean Baptiste Saucier. 

Four leagues below Orleans, on the right, or northern bank of the 
river, is situated the pretty little village Lachapelle; and half a league 
beyond it, nestled in the vine-clad hills overlooking the picturesque valley 
of the Loir for miles, was the tasty, yellow-roofed cottage of M. Saucier, 
where himself and bride were domiciled a few weeks after their marriage. 
Their ticket in the matrimonial lottery, fortunately, drew the highest 
prize ; for, notwithstanding the disparity of their ages, their natures were 
compatible, and their days were redolent with unmarred happiness. 

The doctrine of special Providence perhaps cannot be sustained; 
l»ut surely none will deny the special mercy vouchsafed poor humanity 
by its total impotency to penetrate the future. With this knowledge 
given to mortals, suicide would depo]nilate the earth; without hope life 
would be a dreary blank. Among the many useful articles ]\I. Saucier 
had taken with him to the country from his town residence, was his 
factotum, Pierre Lepage, a young man of unexceptionable habits, in- 
dustrious, honorable, and strictly reliable. Moreover, he was a broad- 
gauged optimist, with splendid flow of spirits and humor. Pierre was 
installed as general manager of the little estate, and saw to trimming 
the vines, pruning the trees, cultivating the garden and miniature fields, 
and took care of the pigs, the poultry, the cows, and horses. All the day 
lie was busy from dawn till bed-time; and was usually singing or whist- 
ling when not talking or laughing; and if not working or eating, was 
often fiddling or dancing. 

Tbe sentiment of love is not contagious as measles or whooping 
cough, but may be communicated by examj^le or association. Pieri-e was 
exposed to this infection, and was a very susceptible subject to its in- 
fluence. The connubial bliss he daily witnessed in the cottage profoundly 
impressed him, and strengthened his conviction that it is not best for 
man to dwell alone. He pondered the matter over for some time, and 
the more he thought about it the more assiduous he became in his devo- 
tions, or rather, in his attendance at church. Heretofore the priest had, 
•n several occasions, reprimauded him for his neglect of this duty, and 



222 

Pierre always excused himself on the plea of want of time. Now, how- 
ever, he was, every Sabbath, the first one at the church door, and was a 
frequent caller at the priest's residence during week days, especially in 
the evenings. His neighbors, and the villagers, were for a time consider- 
ably surprised at this sudden manifestation of zealous piety, and began 
to surmise that Pierre's sins must be weighing heavily upon his con- 
science. This view seemed confirmed when he was seen to enter the 
confessional, supposedly to invoke the holy man's aid in lifting the 
burden from his sin-stricken soul. But they were mistaken. About all 
that Pierre had to confess to Father Jarvais was the fact that he was 
in love with his sister, Mam'selle Marie Jarvais ; and that what he needed 
to ensure his happiness, and incidentally that of the young lady also, 
was not absolution so much as the good Father's consent to their union. 
This he obtained, and in due time they were married. 

A year and a half had passed since M. Saucier had inducted his 
blooming young bride in their new home; and the fleeting days and 
months had brought to her increasing joy and happiness, and rose-tinted 
anticipations of a future blessing that would add new charms to that 
home, and gladden the hearts of its inmates. But, oh, how merciful it 
was for their sanguine hopes that no power could reveal to them the 
hidden calamity the future had in store for them. 

On July 35th, 1726, the event occurred to which they had looked 
forward with glowing expectations, not unmixed, very naturally, with 
feelings of grave anxiety. On that day a son was born to them; 
and, for a short time it seemed that heaven had smiled upon them in 
the realization of their fondest wishes. The young mother had received 
the congratulations of her delighted husband and sympathetic friends 
and relatives around her; and had impressed on her infant's lips an 
impassioned kiss, when she was suddenly seized with horrible, agonizing 
convulsions, that continued at short intervals, baffling the skill of able 
physicians, and unceasing efforts of heroic nurses, until death mercifully 
relieved her of her suffering. 

Marie Lepage, whose honeymoon had scarcely passed, remained 
resolutely by the stricken young woman's bedside, rendering every service 
in her power, until the aw^ful scene was closed ; and then took charge of 
the motherless child, constituting herself its foster mother and most 
affectionate and devoted nurse. 

It is .needless here to dwell upon the effect of this great bereavement 
upon Monsieur Saucier. Its crushing shock can much more readily be 
imagined than described. This pitiless stroke wellnigh bereft his life 
of every charm and hope. But from the almost intolerable misfortune 
there yet remained to him one incentive to live, and to continued exertion. 
The young life consigned to his love and care by the holy affection and 
confidence of the one who gave her life for it, demanded, and must re- 
ceive, his unsparing attention for the balance of his declining years. 

One bright Sunday morning the babe was taken down to the village 
church and baptized by Father Jarvais, receiving the name of Jean 
Baptiste Saucier, after a favored relative of his father, one Jean Baptiste 
Saucier, who had recently gone to America in the King's service.* 

* See Appendix, Note B. 



223 

Pierre and Marie Lepage enjoyed the special privilege and honor 
of appointment as his god-father and god-mother. No more willing or 
faithful sponsors for the motherless child could have been selected. Un- 
der the angel-like watchfulness of Madame Lepage he thrived and grew 
apace, developing robust proportions, and rather more than average 
activity and intelligence. 

Three years then passed over the house of mourning, when the gloom 
of its great sorrow was measurably dispelled and enlivened by a gleam 
of joy, this time unattended, or followed, by casualty or disaster. To 
Pierre and Marie was born a daughter, which event the proud father 
lost no time in heralding throughout the neighborhood and village. All 
went well, and the sunlight of love and joy again illuminated the cottage. 
The time for another baptism was soon at hand. By this time Pierre's 
exuberance of happiness had settled down sufficiently to permit him to 
think coherently, and he asked Marie if she had yet thought of a name 
for their girl. 

''Yes, Pierre, I have", she said, ''as a testimonial of our respect and 
affection for the sainted dead, and a token of gratitude to M. Saucier 
for the kindness and benefits we have received at his hands, I think we 
should name our child Adelaide ; don't you ?" 

"Indeed I do, Marie", said Pierre, "and for the additional reason 
that Adelaide was my good old grandmother's name also." 

And, so, the child received that name; but for convenience it was 
abridged to Adel. The two children infused new life and light in the 
cottage; and it regained much of its former cheerful home-like appear- 
ance. They were reared together as brother and sister, sharing alike the 
love and tender care of the young mother, and of Pierre and the old 
gentleman. In time they grew strong enough to follow Pierre about 
when at work in the garden, or among the vines, and to ride with him 
in the cart to and from the fields. And when Marie dressed them out 
in gay attire, M. Saucier experienced great pleasure and pride in taking 
them with him in his gig on his frequent visits to the village, where 
they were petted and admired by friends and relatives. In course of time 
they daily walked to the village together, when the weather was fair, 
the boy carrying their dinner basket, and attended the village school, 
and learned the catechism. It Avas a long walk, but as other children 
joined them dlcmg the road, they enjoyed the exercise and were bene- 
fitted by it. In bad weather, or muddy roads, Pierre bundled them in 
his cart and took them to the school house, and returned for them when 
School was dismissed in the evening. 

Jean Baptiste rapidly grew to be a manly lad; stout, athletic, and 
courageous. He learned quickly, was fond of active sports, and, though 
neither ill-tempered or quarrelsome, was not slow to resent an insult, 
or redress a Avrong. In consequence, he often had occasion to test his 
muscular power, and was not long in being accorded the pugilistic cham- 
pionship of the school. 

Adcl Avas of quiet and retiring disposition, but brave and spirited 
enough to admire her foster-brother's knightly traits. They were brought 
up, as their parents and ancestors had been, in the Catholic faith, and 
together received elementarv religious instruction at Father Javvais' 



224 

parochial school: and together they knelt at the altav in their first Coni- 
mimiou. 

But the happy childhood days were fleeting, and the inevitable time 
at length arrived decreeing their separation, and diverging their young 
lives into different channels. The boy would ere long have to assume 
his part in the serious drama of life, and needed to be well prepared 
for it. He had exhausted the old village teacher's resources and learn- 
ing, and must seek higher instruction at the Academy in Orleans. He 
left his home for the first time, and though his destination was but a 
few miles away, the leave taking left no dry eyes in the cottage. He 
visited his home at the close of each week; yet, his absence left a dreai-y 
void that dampened the hilarity of the family circle. 

He was graduated at the Academy at the head of his class, and then 
accompanied his father to Paris, to visit his uncle. Col. Felix Xavier 
Saucier, and to see the many attractive sights visible in the splendid 
metropolis. It is a family tradition that Colonel Saucier bound the 
iboy's liands together behind his back with a handkerchief, when he took 
him through the great palace at Versailles, in order to restrain his in- 
tense desire to touch or handle the swords and other glittering arms he 
saw there at every turn. 

Jean Baptiste was so captivated by the fine martial bearing of 
Colonel Saucier, and the perfect discipline and gorgeous appearance of 
his regiment of Eoyal Guards, that he determined then and there to 
.emulate his uncle's course in the profession of arms; and to consecrate 
his life to the cause of his king and his country. His natural aptitude 
for that calling, and erect, soldierly, figure, won the Colonel's admiration 
and encouragement. After much persuasion he gained his father's con- 
sent; then through the influence and efforts of his uncle, was admitted 
into the Eoyal Military School as a cadet. 

This disruption of home ties — destined to be prolonged indefinitely 
— cast upon the inmates of the cottage overlooking the Loir a deeper 
cloud of sadness. M. Saucier wandered about the fields and vineyards 
aimlessly as though lost, and Adel wept in secret. Pierre was not so 
jolly as" of old, and had frequent* moments of serious reflection. And 
poor Marie, diligent as ever with her routine domestic affairs, often 
blamed the onions, or mustard, or the dust or smoke, for bringing tears 
to her eyes that she wiped away with her apron. 

Jean Baptiste was too thoroughly engTossed in his studies and duties 
to be homesick. His excellent scholarship, assiduous application and 
intellectual alertness enabled him to readily master the curriculum and 
training of L'Ecole Militaire; from which he emerged at the early age 
of twenty-two with a commission of Lieutenant of Engineers in the 
Eoyal x\rmy. 

He returned to his cottage home on a brief leave of absence, arrayed 
in the tinseled trappings of his newly attained rank, a superb type of 
physical manhood and gallant soldier. All gazed on him with pride, 
and feelings akin to ado'ration. Pierre no longer called him pet names, 
but doffed his hat in respectful obeisance; and Marie, in happy amaze- 
ment, addressed him as Monsieur Jean Baptiste. Adel could scarcely 
realize that the handsome young military officer, in showy uniform, 
now before her, was the impetuous boy companion of her childhood; 



225 

and she awoke to the consciousness that her sisterly affection for him 
had somehow changed to a different and loftier sentiment. This dis- 
covery caused her to be strangely demure and reserved in his presence. 
Too soon the limit of his furlough expired; and he received orders from 
the War Department at Paris, to report for duty at once to Major 
Makarty at Brienne. Then came the trying ordeal of taking final leave 
of his dear old home where he had passed all the early and happiest 
years of his life, and of the loved ones he was destined never to see 
again. 

Feeling his fortitude about to desert him, he tore himself away, 
after receiving the tremulous blessing of his gray-haired father, the 
tearful farewell of big-hearted Pierre, and fervent embrace of his beloved 
foster-mother, Marie, and lastly, the parting kiss of Adel, now a charm- 
ing maiden with lustrous black eyes, rosy cheeks and queenly figure, 
who, with mighty effort, repressed her tears until the young soldier had 
disappeared down the winding road leading to the village. 

It is altogether probable that the order of the Ministre de Marine 
to the young officer, to join Major Makarty's command for service in 
America, was in compliance to his own request. The romance and 
glamour of the new world, centering in highly colored representations 
of wild, free life on the great Mississippi, were still attracting there 
many from the better classes of the French people. Moved by the spirit 
of adventure usually exuberant at his age, and by aspirations for attain- 
ing distinction in the service of his country, Lieutenant Saucier did not 
hesitate to sever the sacred bonds of kindred, home, and friendships, in 
responding to that call to duty. Two considerations, however, tended 
to ameliorate the pangs of that sacrifice and his prospective exile; one 
was the vague hope that his absence would not be of long continuance, 
and the other that lie would meet relatives of his father there who had 
preceded him to the new empire, one of whom, in particular, a civil 
engineer, who had long been em})loyed in the construction and preser- 
vation of old Fort Chartres.* 

CHAPTER III. 

Fort Chartres in the Illinois. 

In the autumn of 1718, Pierre Duque Boisbriant, recently appointed 
Commandant of the Illinois, by the Company of the Indies, arrived at 
Kaskaskia with a detachment of troops for the purpose of constructing 
a fort in that region to protect the Company's interests there, and the 
French colonists in that portion of N'ew France. Boisbriant, a Canadian 
by birth, and cousin of Bienville, then Governor of Louisiana, arrived at 
Mobile on the 9th of February, 1718. Proceeding to Biloxi he there 
made his preparations, and then commenced his long voyage up the great 
river, which he accomplished by fall without incident of note. Gov. 
Bienville and a colony of French accompanied him from Mobile to a 
point on the east bank of the Mississippi, thirty leagues above its mouth, 
where they founded a post they named Iberville, subsequently re-named 
Xew Orleans. 



* See Appendix. Note B. 
—15 H S 



226 

The site selected by Boisl)riant for his fort in the Illinois, was near 
the east bank of the Mississippi, on the fiat allnvial bottom land, sixteen 
miles above Kaskaskia; having a long slongh, or lake, the remains of 
an ancient channel of the river, on the east midwa}' between it and the 
bluffs four miles away. This slough, he supposed, would add materially 
to the strategic strength of the position. The fort he erected there was 
a wooden stockade reinforced on the interior with earth taken from the 
excavations of the exterior moats. It was completed in 1720, and named 
Fort de Chartres, as a compliment to the Eegont, whose son was Le Due 
de Chartres. 

This fort was for many years the chef-lieu, or seat of civil as well 
as military government of the Illinois district embracing the territory 
from the mouth of the Ohio to Canada between the Mississippi and 
Wabash rivers. In 1731, the Company of the West failed and surrend- 
ered their charter to the king. The Illinois was by this act receded to 
the crown of France. 

For the protection of Kaskaskia from threatened incursions of the 
fierce C'hickasaAvs, below the mouth of the Ohio, a stockade fort, was 
in the year 1733, erected on the bluff just east of the town, and a portion 
of the trooiis at Fort Chartres were sent there to garrison it. This 
Kaskaskia fort has been known, erroneously, since the conquest of the 
Illinois by George Eogers Clark, as "Fort Gage." Its name, and the 
name of its Iniilder, are lost. It was a French fort, and when the dis- 
heartening news of the cession of the country by the craven King of 
France to the English, in 1763, reached the town of Kaskaskia, the in- 
dignant citizens set fire to the fort and destroyed it, determined that the 
hated ensign of England should not float over it. The ^'Fort Gage" 
entered by Col. George Rogers Clark, on the night of the 4th of July, 
1778, was the stockaded Jesuit buildings in the town, occupied by the 
British under the command of M. Eocheblave.* 

It is much to be regretted that s6 few of the records and official 
documents of old Fort Chartres have been preserved to reveal to us the 
story of its occupants in their daily life; of the stirring events, and 
strange, thrilling scenes transpiring there ; of the busy throngs that came 
and went ; of the military expeditions marching from its gates to repel 
invasions, or attack distant enemies: of the Indians lounging about its 
gates, or camped near by; of the joys and sorrows, deaths and griefs, 
hopes and disappointments of its inmates in their remote exile from 
civilization. 

About the close of the first half of the Eighteenth century France 
and Ensland were again at war because of a disasfreement l)etween 
Frederick the Great and Marie Theresa; and this produced serious dis- 
turbances in the settlements in the Illinois. Some Englishmen lurking 

* Fort Chartres passed into possession of the English in 17G5. Seven years 
later, in 1772, occurred an extraordinary rise of the Mississippi that inundated all 
the low lands along- its borders. The water rose in Fort Chartres to the depth of 
seven feet. The northwest bastion, and greater part of the western wall fell into 
the river. The Fort was abandoned by the English, who took possession of the 
large buildings of the .Jesuits in Kaskaskia, siu-rounding them with a stoc'<^ade, 
which thev named Fort Gage, and there estal)lished their seat of government, 
military and civil, for the Illinois. At the period of Capt. Bossu's second visit 
to Fort Cliartres, in 175-5, the fort on the hill, east of Kaskaskia. was garrisoned 
by French troops commanded by Captain :i\rontcharvaux. It was destroyed in 1766. 

See "The Armament of Fort Chartres." a paper in the 1906 Transactions of the 
Illinois ,^tate Historical Society, page 225. 



237 

on the Mississippi were arrested as spies and confined in the dungeon at 
Fort Chartres. Then rumors came of a contemplated English and In- 
dian attack on the Fort in retaliation. Chevalier de Bartel, the Com- 
mandant of the Post was sorety perplexed. The Fort was sadly out of 
repair, and supplies of all sorts very nearly exhansted. Many of the 
soldiers of the garrison, tiring of idle confinement had deserted to try 
free life in the woods and prairies. "Many of the old-time Indian allies 
v/ere won over by the British, and had agi-eed to destroy the French post 
during the moon of the fall of the leaf ; but in this were thwarted by the 
skill and address of De Bartel."* 

The peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1748, gave the dissolute King of 
Fi-ance, Louis XV, brief respite from contention with England and 
profitless continental wars, only to sink deeper in vice and debauchery, 
and to become more completely under control of the beautiful, soulless 
Madame de Pompadour. He had impoverished France by his profligacy, 
and support, with his armies and treasury, of his father-in-law's claims 
to the throne of Poland, and in the wars of the Austrian succession. 
Meanwhile his American colonies were utterly neglected, and some of 
his Avestern military posts, including Fort Chartres, on the verge of 
abandonment. This latter calamity, however, was averted "when", again 
quoting from Mr. Mason's paper, "the Marquis de Galissoniere, Governor 
General of Canada, presented a memorial on the subject to the home 
government. He (therein) said, 'The little colony of Illinois ought not 
to be left to perish. The King must sacrifice for its support. The prin- 
cipal advantage of the country is its extreme productiveness; and its 
connection with Canada and Louisiana must be maintained'." Again in 
January, 1750, he urged upon the King the importance of preserving 
and strengthening the post at the Illinois; describing the country as 
open and ready for the plough, and traversed by an innumerable multi- 
tude of buffalos. 'And these animals', he says, are covered with a species 
of wool, sufficiently fine to be employed in various manufactories'. And 
he further suggests, and doubtless correctly, that the buffalo, 'if caught, 
and attached to the plough would move it at a speed superior to that of 
the domestic ox'." 

The King was at last aroused to a proper understanding of the de- 
plorable condition of afi'airs in his far western possessions, and decided 
upon a vigorous policy to defend and retain them. He ordered Fort 
Chartres to be rebuilt with stone, and garrisoned with a l:)ody of regular 
troops. For the reconstruction of the Fort he appropriated a million of 
crowns; and ordered large quantities of munitions, and other supplies, 
to be sent up the Mississippi at once. 

In the summer of 1751, Chevalier Makart}',! a Major of the Engi- 
]ieer Corps, a rugged soldiei' of remote Irish descent, ai-vived at the 

* Old Fort Chartres. A paper read by Hon. E. G. Mason before the Chicago 
Historical Society, June 16th. 1880. Fergus Co., Chicago. 

t This is the correct spelling of his name, as written by himp^lf on the parish 
records of the Church of St. Anne of New Chartres. Of Major IMatcarty, who was 
Commandant at Fort Chartres during the very interesting period of its construction, 
unfortunately but little is known. Of his i^ersonal history and characteristics we 
know absolutely nothing. But meagre mention is made of him in any of our local 
histories ; and the records of his official acts are lost, or stored in the state archives 
at Paris. In 1753, M. DuQuesne, Governor General, wrote to the Minister of 
Marines, at Paris, charging Commandant Makarty with illicit sales of liquor to 
the Indians and French settlers, and advising that he be relieved therefor of his 
command. But no attention was paid to this charge, and he was not relieved until 
1761, and then by his own request ; as, at this time, he was incapacitated for active 
ser^-ice by reason of disability from rheumatic gout. 



228 

Fort, from France, with a considerable military force and a large num- 
ber of artisans and laborers, and boats ladened with tools, ammunition, 
arms, provisions and clothing. The Major assumed command of the 
l)ost, and lost no time in beginning the great work he had been sent 
there to do. In this era of scientific military engineering it is difficult 
to imagine any reason for locating a defensive work upon such a 
wretched site as that selected for Fort Chartres. It was situated on 
sandy, alluvial soil but little elevated above the river's level, and continu- 
ally subject to the river's encroachments; with a slough between it and 
the river bank, and a large slough between it and the bluffs; and in the 
midst of pestilential malarious, mosquito-infested, swamps. And why 
an Engineer of Chevalier Makarty's presumed attainments erected a 
splendid fortress, at immense expense on the same ground is beyond 
comprehension, excepting on the supposition that he acted in obedience 
to positive instructions. His arrival at the post, with well equipped and 
well disciplined soldiers and their sprightly officers, accompanied by a 
small army of skilled mechanics ancl laborers, and a fleet of keel-boats 
of stores, produced a great sensation not only at the decayed and nearly 
deserted post, but all through the settlements in the Illinois. Fort 
Chartres awoke from its lethargy and was transformed to a scene of 
busy animation. The hum of a new activity resounded in the forest 
and" distant hills. The habitants of the bottom were elated; and the 
Indians gazed upon the new arrivals in mute surprise. 

Captain M. Bossu, who came up the Mississippi with a company 
of marines, the following spring, 1752, writing from Fort Chartres, says, 
'•'LeSieur Saussier, an engineer, has made a plan for constructing a new- 
Fort here according to the instruction of the Court. It will bear the 
iiame of the old one, which is called Fort de Chartres." The stockades 
of the old fort were decayed beyond repair, though the buildings they 
enclosed were yet tenable and in fair condition. The site chosen for 
the new structure was not half a league above the old Fort, and but a 
short distance from the river.* 

At that point a mission for the Kaskaskia Indians had many years 
before been established — which was perhaps one reason for locating the 
new Fort there — and it served as the nucleus of quite a town at the gate 
of the Fort, subsequently known as Xouveau (New) Chartres. 

Chevalier Makarty began operations by sending a large force of 
workmen to the bluffs at the nearest escarpment of limestone, about four 
miles east, where they built temporary quarters of logs covered with 
clapboards, there to blast the rock and cut the detached masses to re- 
quired dimensions. "The place in the bluff may be seen to this day 
Avhere the stone was quarried to erect the fort."t Another force of 
laborers, with carts drawn by oxen, conveyed the dressed stone, around 



* I acknowledge with pleasure mv indebtedness to Hon. H. W. Beckwith. Presi- 
dent of the Illinois State Historical Society, for important references corroborating 
this fact, and correcting- the common impression that the new fort, built of stone, 
w-as a reconstruction of the old stockade. Captain Bossu, w^ho again visited the 
fort in 1755, says — in his Travels en Louisiane — "I came once more to the old tort 
Chartres, where I lay in a hut, till I could get lodging in the new fort, which is 

almost finished." ,,^, ^ . -^, i • v, *v,„ „„«-« 

t Reynold's Pioneer History of Iimwis. "The finer stone, with which the gate- 
ways and buildings were faced, was brought from beyond the Mississippi. i^. br. 
Mason. 



239 

the end of the slongh, in the dry season, to the builders by the river; 
and in the wet season to the slough, or lagoon, across which they were 
ferried in flat boats, and then taken on to the required place. Beside 
these Avere lime burners, mortar mixers, wood choppers and whip-saw- 
yers, carpenters, blacksmiths, boatmen, teamsters, hunters, cooks and 
servants, comprising, with the soldiers, a population of several hundreds. 
The new fort was projected on a more modern plan than the old one, 
and was much larger; a quadrangle, comprising an area of four acres. 
The exterior walls of massive masonry, thirty inches in thickness at the 
base, and loop-holed for musket and artillery firing, rose sixteen feet in 
height, with square bastions at each corner, and midway in the west wall 
was a small gate for convenience of access to the river landing. The 
northeastern bastion having the flagstaff was higher than the others. In 
the southeastern bastion was situated the magazine of stone, laid in 
cement now as hard as flint. It is yet in sound preservation ; its vertical 
end walls twenty-five feet in height, closing the arch between. Its floor, 
seven feet below the surface, and its interior, well plastered with cement, 
measuring twenty-five feet by eighteen; and twenty-two feet from floor 
to apex of the arch. There were also long lines of barracks, officer's 
quarters, and store rooms. 

The period occupied in building the new fort was one of unprece- 
dented prosperity for that portion of New France. Kaskaskia, the me- 
tropolis of the Illinois, the center of its widespread commerce, and of 
its wealth and industries, profited largely by its proximity to the mili- 
tary post. Its citizens of French lineage, were not distinguished for 
energy or enterprise, but were thrifty and self-reliant. With this con- 
tinuous round of mirth and festivities they were not unmindful of their 
own interests. Cahokia, twenty-eight miles above the fort, on the 
Mississippi, rivaled Kaskaskia as a trading point, was almost its equal in 
population, and its people were as noted for their social gaieties and 
generous hospitality. Prairie du Eocher, settled in 1722, and nestled 
at the foot of a high perpendicular cliff of the bluffs, four miles south- 
east of the fort, gained much importance during the construction of the 
new fortification. St. Philip, founded by Eenault, five miles above the 
eld fort, on his extensive land grant, had passed the zenith of its growth, 
and was already known among the settlers as "Le Petite Village". New 
Chartres in the parish of St. Ann, near the main gate of the new fort, 
gained the proportions of a considerable town having absorbed the 
greater part of the population of the town below, near the old fort,* 
with a large part -of that of St. Philip, and comprised the temporary 
homes of the mechanics and laborers employed on the new structure; 
also of some of the officers and soldiers having families. 

These settlements constituted an isolated community surrounded 
by Indians, having only periodical communication with the outside 
world by way of New Orleans, or the northern lakes and Quebec. They 
were all situated on the alluvial "bottom" of the Mississippi, a region 
of unsurpassed fertility, teeming with wild fruits and nuts, and overrun 

* "The site of this viUag-e was swept off by the Mississippi ; so that not much 
of any vestige of it remains at this day. This viUage had its common field, com- 
mons for wood and pasture, its church and grave-yard, like the other settlements 
of Illinois." Reynolds' Pioneer History of Illinois. 



230 



by herds of buffalo, doer, turkeys, prairie chickens, and other varieties of 
game; its numerous lakes and sloughs visited by myriads of water fowls, 
and alive with the finest of fish. Xature lavishly supplied, in a great 
measure, tlie simple wants of the people, and left both old and young 
to regard the pursuit of pleasure the chief object of existence. 

PLAX OF FORT CHARTRES. 




B 



I) 



D 



Bffl ^S 




G 



G 



□ 





Each 96 feet in length and 



Main gate : facing the east. 

The river gate. 

Officers' quarters, hospital and store rooms. 
36 feet in breadth. 

Soldiers' barracks. Two stories high, 135 feet in length and 36 feet in 
breadth. 

Storerooms and guardhouse. Each building 90 feet long and 24 wide. 

One of the several weUs. 

The magazine. 

The wine and kitchen cellar. 

The bake oven. 

A ravine marking the limit of erosion by the river in 1772, and the por- 
tion of the walls then washed away. 
The large council hall back of the officers' quarters, is not shown in the cut. 
The bastions were more nearly square than the artist has represented them 
in the above diagram. 





B. 




C. 


D 


D. 


G. 


G. 


H. 


H. 




E. 




F. 




I. 




K. 


li 


. L. 



CHAPTER IV. 

Social Life at the Fort. 

The household of the Commandant, Chevalier de ^lakarty, con- 
sisted, with himself, of his son and daughter, his wife having died some 
years before of that entailed curse upon humanity, pulmonary consump- 
tion. The son, Maurice, acted in the capacity of his father's secretary 
and personal assistant. The daughter, Eulalie, a tall, .slender, hand- 
some girl of twenty summers, with very fair complexion, blue eyes and 



231 

auburn hair, though French by parentage and education, possessed some 
marked traits of her father's 'Celtic ancestry, with the physical consti- 
tutional frailties of her deceased mother. As some of the officers in the 
Chevalier's command were accompanied by their wives and families, she 
had come with her father and brother, by advice of her physician, in 
quest of health and vigor that a change of climate might offer. 

She was by no means an invalid; and the rough, wild life at the 
post, for a time, greatly improved her strength and animation. In the 
(juarters she enlivened the garrison with her music and laughter, when 
not engaged in alleviating the sufferings of the sick by her kind and 
patient attentions. A great deal of her time was passed in the open air 
when the weather permitted, as she was much interested in the progress 
of the work, and in everything she saw in the strange new country. She 
had for a companion — who followed her everywhere like her shadow — 
a mulatto servant, named Lisette, a native of Martinique, a few years 
her senior in age; strong, agile as a cat, and absolutely fearless. This 
maid was devoted to her young mistress almost to infatuation. In 
pleasant weather with bright skies, the two could be daily seen together, 
mounted on their ponies, galloping over the prairie ; or on the high bluff 
viewing the grand panorama before them; or in a canoe, paddled by the 
intrepid Lisette, on the broad Mississippi; or fishing on the marais; or 
gathering wild flowers, nuts, or grapes near the Fort. Occasionally 
some of the ladies from the officers' quarters joined them, and quite 
often a gallant officer, then off duty, offered his services as an escort 
to guard them from harm, and to enjoy the young lady's smiles. Eulalie 
and her tlusky maid needed no countersign to pass the camp sentinels; 
but were prudently restrained from going beyond the cordon of out- 
liding pickets without an escort of armed horsemen. 

The nmltitude of people at the Fort engaged in the gigantic work, 
and the number of officers and soldiers quartered there, rendered it an 
attractive place for all surrounding settlements; not only for sale of 
produce, and other traffic, but also for social enjoyment and pastimes. 
The Fort was frequently visited by parties of ladies and gentlemen from 
Kaskaskia, or Cahokia, or both, to spend the day in rowing, fishing, 
or picnicing, followed, after candle lighting by dancing. 

Strict discipline was at all times enforced by the Commandant of 
the garrison. The troops were regularly drilled; sentinels and picket 
guards, or videttes, were constantly on duty, and the distant stone and 
wood workers and teamsters were guarded by squads of well armed 
soldiers. These precautions, apart from maintaining discipline and 
order, were necessary because of the defenseless condition of both forts, 
the old and the new, during the erection of the latter, in view of the 
many rumors of Indian hostilities, and possible attacks at any time by 
Ihe despised English.* 

* In 1752 six Indians of the Outagami, or Fox tribe, then residing west of 
I^ake Micliigan, came down the country on a hunting expedition, and were cap- 
tured bv the Cahokia Indians, who burned five of them at thp stake. The sixth 
one escaped to return to his people and report the fate of hi.s companions. A 
council was called, and revenge determined upon. One hundred and eighty bark 
canoes filled with Foxes and their allies, the Kickapoos and Sioux, descended the 
river, passing the fort at Cahokia, then commanded by Chevalier de Volsci, at 
night without being seen. Tlie Cahokias and Michigamis were encamped, as Bossu 



232 

Lieutenant Jean Baptiste Saucier reported for duty to Major Ma- 
karty at Brienne ; and there, before sailing with his command from 
France, received from the Minister of Marine specific instructions re- 
garding the character of fort tlie king desired to be erected. During 
the long, tedious voyage across the Atlantic, and the laborious ascent of 
the Mississippi, the young lieutenant was much in the company of the 
Major's daughter, Mam'selle Eulalie. And after their arrival at the 
old Fort, his relations with the Commandant continued confidential and 
intimate, his assignment as Chief Designer requiring his presence at 
headquarters much of his time. While there at work the young lady 
Avas frequently at his side, assisting in his drawings and calculations; 
and, when off duty, he was often her companion in morning excursions, 
and in the evening cotillions and waltzes. This continued association 
of the handsome young officer and the brilliant girl, in their distant 
exile, naturally engendered in both sentiments of mutual regard higher 
and more fervent than mere respect. And indeed, with her, this senti- 
ment gradually deepened to an absorbing passion. He would probably 
have fully reciprocated this feeling, but for the everpresent image before 
him of his childhood's pla^Tnate, schoolmate, and more than sister, the 
stately Adel, far away on the sun-kissed hills of the Loire. He admired 
Eulalie, but loved Adel. 

CHAPTER Y. 

Rescue op Commandant^s Daughter. 

All through the winter and succeeding summer the adjacent forest 
resounded with strokes of the woodman's axe and mason's hammer ; and 
heavy blasting of rocky cliffs above Prairie du Rocher was reechoed like 
distant peals of artillery. The Indians watched the progress of the work 
in silent amazement, and the Creole settlers were loud in praises of their 
good and munificent King. The second winter passed pleasantly at the 
Fort with no cessation of labor in preparing building materials; or in- 
terruption of the usual exchange of polite courtesies between the officers 
and the elite of Kaskaskia and Cahokia. Unrelaxed military vigilance 
was maintained ; and the peace and quietude of the post was undisturbed, 
save by frequent false alarms of Indian uprisings, or English invasions. 

The second Easter came and passed, and the snow and ice dis- 
appeared. The hickory buds were bursting in the woods tinged with 
green ; and the prairie lark, just up from the south, enlivened the scene 
with his cheery notes. One beautiful morning in the early spring, Lieu- 
tenant Saucier had passed out of the river gate, on a tour of inspection 
of that portion of the structure, when he was suddenly startled by the 
discharsre of a musket and loud shrieks of the sentinel stationed on the 

o 

says, but a league from Fort Chartres. The day on which the avengers arrived 
happened to be one of tlie numerous fast davs of tlie Catholic church, when sevfral 
of the Indians from the village had gone to Fort Chartres to witness the cere- 
monies of the Church there. They were aU who survived the vengeance of the 
Foxes, who slew every man, woman and child remaining in the village, excepting 
a fifteen year old girl who ran to Capt. Bossu for protection and was not mo- 
lested. Capt. Bossu says he witnessed this massacre "from an eminence near by" : 
but it is difficult to understand what "eminence" he found there, without it was 
one of the ancient prehistoric Indian mounds. The Foxes reascended the Missis- 
fippi river, firing their guns in triumph as they passed the Cahokia stockade. 



233 

river bank scarcely a rifle shot distant from where he stood. Eushing 
to the spot he saw the soldier wildly gesticulating and loudly calling for 
heljj. Glancing over the river bank, the Lieutenant saw the cause of his 
agitation — a sight that almost paralyzed him; but only for a moment. 
Eulalie and her maid, lured by the brilliance of the perfect day to re- 
sume their canoe excursions suspended during the long winter, had 
rowed some distance up the great stream, and returnipg, when but a 
short distance from the landing, a puff of wind blew the young lady's 
hat off into the water. In her effort to recover it she capsized the canoe, 
and the two girls were struggling for life in the turbid current of the 
river. Lisette was clinging to the upturned dugout with one hand, and 
with the other had grasped her young mistress and was endeavoring to 
support her head above the treacherous waves. The sentinel on duty 
there, a few yards away, witnessed the accident, but as he had never 
learned to swim, was powerless to afford help; yet, had the presence 
of mind to fire his gun to attract assistance. 

As the Lieutenant reached the water's edge Lisette lost her hold of 
Eulalie who sank beneath the surface. Quick as thought, he threw aside 
his coat and hat and plunged into the stream. He w^as an expert 
swimmer, and though encuml^ered with his clothing, and the water was 
very cold, he caught the girl as she was disappearing, and, by exertion 
that only such an emergency could inspire, succeeded in bringing her 
to the shore. 

When Lisette saw her mistress sink she quit the canoe to attempt 
her rescue ; but the Lieutenant, who had by this time grasped the drown- 
ing girl, called to the servant to save herself, which she readily did by 
swimming to the bank. The report of the sentinel's gun and his frantic 
cries were immediately answered at the Fort by the long roll of the drum, 
and the company then on duty, led by its officers, came dashing to the 
place of supposed attack. A hand litter was quickly improvised upon 
which Eulalie, exliausted, pale and imconscious, but still breathing, was 
placed, warmly enveloped in several of the coats that nearly every mem- 
ber of the company divested himself of and offered for the purpose. She 
was hurriedly taken to her apartments, where the post surgeons, aided 
by all the ladies of the garrison, in time, resuscitated her. From the 
river bank Lisette, fatigued and, of course, dripping wet, walked brisklj^ 
behind the litter borne by the soldiers, and could not be induced to lose 
sight of her mistress until assured that all immediate danger was passed. 

Eulalie was saved from death by drowning; but the shock she re- 
ceived, together with the cold immersion, resulted in a severe attack of 
pneumonia that brought her to the verge of collapse. She was confined 
to her room for some weeks, for several days in the balance between life 
and death, the beam finally turning in her favor. The wild roses and 
sunflowers were in bloom when she had gained sufficient strength to sit 
in the dearborn, or caleche, cushioned around, for exercise in the prairie 
in the early mornings and evenings. A cough she had contracted during 
the Christmas festivities became aggravated and persistent. The melan- 
choly fact that she was now an invalid, with serious pulmonary trouble, 
was apparent, with but little doubt of its ultimate result. 



234 

CHAPTEK VI. 
Eaklx Xavigatiox of the Mississippi. 

L'omniuuieatiou with France, by the residents of the Illinois, was 
at that era slow and uncertain. The best sailing vessels required from 
two to four months to cross the Atlantic; and often that length of time 
was consumed in propelling keel boats, or lighter craft, from Xew Orleans 
to Kaskaskia, or the Fort. About half the same j)eriod of time was 
necessary for the transmission of despatches and letters from Quebec, by 
friendly Indians, or hardy Canadian couriers, to the Illinois settlements. 
Traveling bv either route was irksome and laborious, and attended bv 
many dangers, particularly when passing through hostile tribes of In- 
dians. 

Lieutenant Saucier called frequently on Eulalie, and by affecting 
much cheerfulness himself, sought to stimulate her hopes, and inspire 
her with courage. And her spirits always revived when in his presence, 
or within sound of his voice. 

Several weeks had passed since Eulalie' s thrilling experience in the 
river when, one day, a courier, accompanied by several Indians, arrived 
at the Fort from Quebec, bringing official despatches from the Governor 
General, and also from the home government, and European mail for the 
Fort and surrounding settlements. When the Lieutenant called that 
evening, as usual, at the Commandant's cjuarters to enquire how the 
young lady had passed the day, and to assure her that she looked better, 
he received, among other letters from France, one with familiar super- 
scription closed with a black seal, which he pretended not to notice as he 
Imrriedly put it, with the others, in his pocket. He soon excused himself 
on the plea of duty, and, reaching the privacy of his room, tore the 
black-sealed missive open with trembling Jiands, and quivering lips. 
It was from Adel, and its contents caused a conflict of emotions ; of 
profound grief and joy, of sadness and pleasure, that plunged him in 
deep thought, oblivious to his surroundings for a long time. Slie in- 
formed him of the death of his father ; how he calmly passed away Avith 
his two sons and military brother by his side; how his priest son lutd 
administered to him extreme unction; and how in his last conscious 
moments he had spoken of, and invoked the blessings of heaven upon his 
youngest and beloved son, now in the King's service far away in New 
France. She described the funeral ceremonies, and told of the great 
concourse of friends of the deceased that followed his body to the grave. 
She then said that by this sad event her father, Pierre, would be thrown 
out of employment, as the estate would pass into other hands, and that 
he had concluded to emigrate to America and try his fortunes there. 
She added that they had engaged passage in a vessel named L'Etoile du 
Xord, for New Orleans, and would sail from the port of Brest about the 
tenth of February. In a postscript she told him he need not answer 
her letter, as their preparations for leaving the dear old cottage were 
then nearly completed. 

Young Saucier was deeply affected by the death of his father, 
though he had passed the three score and ten allotted to humanity and 
succumbed to the inexorable law of nature. His grief was mitigated by 



235 

the reflection that he woukl again meet Adel and her dear, dear parents, 
much sooner than his most sanguine hopes had permitted him to expect. 

After entering tlie military service the Lieutenant was always re- 
ticent about his family history and relatives, and confided to no one the 
profound and sincere love he entertained for Adel. For reasons of his 
own he mentioned to no one the information Adel's letter had conveyed, 
excepting to tell of his father's death to Chevalier Makarty. 

He was now moody, silent and reflective, in such marked contrast 
with his usual social, jovial disposition, as to attract the notice of his 
associates, who charitably attributed the change to his tender solicitude 
for the invalid girl in the Fort, now slowly fading away. How to dispose 
of Pierre and Marie Avhen they arrived gave him no uneasiness, as he 
was well able financially to situate them comfortably in aiiy of the 
neighboring settlements. But there was another matter he could not so 
easily dispose of, that he now had to consider. He was fully aware of 
Eulalie's fervent regard for him; now intensified by gratitude for having 
saved her life at the risk of his own; and his sense of honor upbraided 
him for permitting her to be longer deceived respecting the true senti- 
ments he entertained for her. He concluded he would frankly tell her 
that another had a prior claim to his affections. But then, Adel had 
never spoken or written to him of love, save that of a sister; and, for 
aught he knew, she might then be the plighted fiancee of another. Hav- 
ing nerved himself to the point of making a full disclosure of his per- 
plexing thoughts and sentiments to Eulalie, he called upon her for that 
purpose. His resolution, however, failed him when, seated by her hed- 
side, he took her feverish hand in his and looked into her shrunken, 
haggard face. He saw that her frail condition could not bear such a 
revelation; and he esteemed her too highly to subject her to the angTiish 
of mind it would cause, and thereby endanger her slender hold upon 
life; and, so, postponed his intended confession to a more propitious 
time. 

The days sped by and he continued dreamily to discharge his 
routine duties in silence. 

The time had arrived for the annual descent of the fleet of keel boats 
to New Orleans for supplies for the post. The voyage that year Avas one 
of unusual importance, as engineer's reports and other weighty des- 
patches were awaiting transmission to France, and a consideral)le amount 
of specie, large supplies, and a company of recruits for the Fort, must 
be brought up from Xew Orleans. The annual voyages to and from Xew 
Orleans were generally in charge of a subaltern of the Commissary, or 
Quartermaster's department ; and they were by no means mere pleasure 
jaunts. The lading and unloading of the boats, their navigation, con- 
trolling the crews of boatsmen, and gaiarding against the many dangers 
by the way, involved grave responsibilities, and entailed many hardships, 
with much exposure and hard labor ; requiring vigilance, prudence and 
great firmness. The boats commonly employed in this service, called 
pirogues by the French river men, were large, unwieldy, clumsy affairs, 
constructed of hewed timljers and whip-sawed plank fastened together 
with wooden pegs. Floating Avith the current and the use of oars, ren- 
(k-red descent of the stream comparatively easy: but stemming the river's 
current in its ascent for over a thousand miles Avas accomplished only 



236 

by persistent hard work. To suriuount the force of the swift current for 
long stretches of the way, or to jsass strong eddies, the boats were "cor- 
deled"; that is, a long line was taken ashore and carried far above, where 
it was made fast to a tree on the river's bank. The boat was then drawn, 
by hand, or capstan, to that point; and this was repeated again and 
again until calmer water was reached, when the oars were once more 
plied. When practicable, the boats were drawn by the united strength 
of the crew walking along the shore, as horses draw canal boats. At 
night, when going up stream, the boats laid by in willow thickets border- 
ing sand bars, or islands, for safety from surprises or night attacks by 
hostile Indians. 

CHAPTER VII. 
A Second Visit to New Orleaxs. 

The Commandant w^as about to detail a non-commissioned officer 
for that summer's voyage, when he was much surprised by receiving an 
application from Lieut. Saucier for this duty. While Major Makarty 
would not have ordered a commissioned officer for this onerous service, 
he was pleased when Lieut. Saucier volunteered for it ; for he knew that 
it could not be entrusted to anyone more reliable, or more capable to 
conduct it successfully, and gladly assented to his request. 

Having perfected his preparations, the Lieutenant took leave of 
Eulalie, promising to return as soon as possible, and expressing the hope 
that he would find her much better when he came. His boats were fur- 
nished by the merchants of Kaskaskia and Cahokia, free of charge except- 
ing the transportation down the river of their export produce. Some 
of them were loaded with lead in bars from Eenault's mines at New 
Potosi, in the Spanish territory across the river; others carried cargoes 
of furs obtained in trade from the Indians; others with beeswax, dried 
venison, buffalo meat, and other products of the country. Even at that 
early day much wheat was raised by the hahitants, and flour, ground by 
the water mills, was one of the principal exports of the country. 

The Lieutenant's progress, with his fleet, down the river was rapid 
and without extraordinary incident. The tedium of the voyage was 
lightened by his anticipations of joy in meeting, at his destination, the 
loved ones who had left France some months before, and were probably 
then at New Orleans awaiting his arrival. In imagination he pictured 
the surprise of Pierre and Marie upon meeting him, and wondered how 
Adel looked, and what she would say. 

Arriving at New Orleans, after securing his boats, he eagerly en- 
quired along the river front for the expected vessel, L'Etoile du Nord, 
and was grievously disappointed when told that nothing had yet been 
heard of it. After paying his respects to Colonel Kerlerec, the then 
Governor of Louisiana, he secured pleasant lodgings, and proceeded in- 
dustriously to discharge the duties of his mission. The Governor court- 
eously took charge of his despatches, to transmit them, with his own, to 
the Minister of Marine by special messenger. Overhauling and refitting 
his boats; keeping his crews of boatsmen under control; receiving, re- 
ceipting for, assorting and stowing away his cargoes of munitions, and 
supplies of various kinds, occupied his time for many days. Though he 



237 

was the recipient of many invitations from the Governor, ofifieers, and 
citizens, to dinners, balls, and other social entertainments, he declined 
all that he well could on different pretexts, feeling that in his state of 
mental anxiety they would afford him no pleasure, and he could not 
acquit himself as a gtiest with credit. 

He arose every morning with the sun, and took long walks along the 
river levee, or about the straggling town; and often during the day he 
scanned the great river southward hoping to catch sight of an incoming 
ship. Occasionally he was elated by seeing in the distance a sail slowly 
moving toward the landing. With feverish impatience he awaited its 
arrival, to be again overcome with disappointment when it proved to not 
be the vessel he was expecting, nor bringing any news of it. One evening, 
after an unusually busy day, he again, as was now his custom, sought the 
river side, with a lingering hope of perhaps gaining some tidings of 
those he longed to see. As he approached the river he was astonished 
on seeing a large ship moored near the wharf, from which its passengers 
and their luggage were being put ashore. The setting sun had touched 
the line of verdure that fringed the western river bank, and its departing 
rays converted the broad surface of the stream into a sheet of burnished 
gold. The resplendent beauty of the scene, however, was lost to the 
Lieutenant as he hurried to the water^s edge to see the name of the vessel. 
He saw it painted in large letters above the rudder, and almost sank 
from revulsion of overwrought hope again blasted. The name he read 
was not "L'Etoile du ISTord", but ''La Cygne", and, as he soon learned, 
from Bordeaux, France, having touched on the way in at Fort Eoyale, 
in Martinique. Eallying his drooping spirits he clambered aboard to 
make inquiries for the object of his weary watching. Accosting the 
Skipper of the vessel, he asked if he coulct give him any information 
of "L'Etoile du Nord" that sailed from Brest four months ago. The 
burly old seaman, apprised by the questioner's uniform, that he was a 
military officer in the King's service, touched his cap, and answered 
courteously, regretting that he kncAv nothing of the ship ; Init said his 
Commis (Purser) over there perhaps did; and added, so far as he knew, 
that craft had not been heard from since it left the French port. The 
Purser, a brisk young man, busy with pencil and entry book, overheard 
the question and the Skipper's answer, and without looking up from his 
book and ;papers, said, "Is it of the French ship, L'Etoile du Nord, 
Monsieur is enquiring?" 

"Oui, oui", gasped the Lieutenant, "can you tell me where she 
now is?" 

"Yes" ; answered the 3'oung man, between rapid strokes of liis pencil, 
"she is in the bay of St. Pierre, in Martinique, undergoing repairs, hav- 
ing had a disastrous transit of the ocean. One of her passengers who 
came aboard this ship at Fort Eoyale, and has not yet gone ashore, can 
probably give you any additional information you may desire". 

With great effort to appear calm the Lieutenant asked the busy 
Commis if he would be so kind as to point out to him the person men- 
tioned. 

"Certainly, Monsieur ; there is the man, in white clothing and broad 
brimmed hat, sitting on the chest by the main mast". 



238 

The iiulividual in wliite clothing, a middle aged man of gannt frame, 
with grizzled hair and thin sallow face, evidently emaciated by prolonged 
sickness, was instantly confronted by the agitated vouns: officer, who 
asked : 

""'Were you a passenger from France on L'Etoile du Nord?" 

^'Yes, Monsieur, I was", the man dryly answered. 

"Tell me, please, were Pierre Lepage and his family on that vessel?" 
was the next anxious inquiry. 

''They were", said the man with ominous emphasis on the "were". 

"Can you inform me Avhere they now are?" faintly asked the ques- 
tionrer. 

"Yes, Monsieur, I can", replied the weary looking individual, 
"they are all three dead and at the bottom of the sea". 

"Mon Dieu-" gasped young Saucier, "•that surely cannot be pos- 
sible'". 

'"'Yes : it is indeed possible, and too true. Did you know them, 
Monsieur ?'" 

To this question the Lieutenant responded that he did. 

"Pardon me, Monsieur", added the stranger, eyeing him closely, 
"may I ask who you are?" 

"I am Jean Baptiste Saucier, from Lachapelle, near Orleans, in 
France, now in the King-'s military service"'. 

"Ah, yes, yes", remarked the man musingly, "and so you was not 
slain by the Indians as was reported? I see how you knew Pierre Le- 
page and wife. They kept house for your father, whom I knew well; 
and I remember you when a school boy at the village near by your 
father's place. My name is Isadore Brusier. I lived in Tours, and my 
business occasionally called me to Orleans, and there I became acquaint- 
ed witli your father and his son Louis" 

'"Pardon me, Monsieur Bruiser", interrupted Jean Baptiste, "but 
please tell me of the fate of the Lepages". 

"Ah- Mon cher enfant", feelingly replied M. Brusier, becoming 
quite communicative, now that he knew to whom he was talking, "I 
have a very sad story to tell you. You have, I presume, heard of the 
death of your father? Yes; well, after his burial, his estate was sold 
lor partition and passed into possession of strangers; so Lepage con- 
cluded to leave France and seek a new home in America. About that 
time — fortunately after your father death — the report came that you 
liad been killed in battle with the savages. This report, believed by all 
to be true, very nearly caused Lepage to give up the voyage and remain 
in France, — and would to God that he had done so ! But his prepara- 
tions were completed, and he went to Brest with his wife and daughter, 
and took passage on the ill-fated ship on which my brother and myself 
embarked. 

"The voyage, though tedious, was not unpleasant until we had 
traversed about two-thirds of the way, Avhen we were struck by a terrific 
storm, coming from the northeast, that continued Avith unabated fury, 
for six days. Two of the seamen were washed, or blown away, as was 
also the main mast ; and the ship sprung a leak that threatened to sink 
us to the bottom. We could do nothing but keep the vessel in line with 



. 239 

the course of the gale, and that carried us far out of our way iu tlie 
direction of Brazil. It is well that L'Etoile du ZsTord was staunch and 
Avell built, else none of us would have ever reached dry laud — and not 
many of us did, as it turned out. 

'"But we all worked the pumps, night and day, and kept afloat. 
AYhen the storm at length abated, and the raging sea subsided, the leak 
m the hull was securely closed, and by crowding on all the sails the two 
remaining masts could carry, we regained our course and made fair 
headway, being driven by the African tradewinds. All this was bad 
enough ; but as nothing compared to what fate yet had in store for us. 

"What with calms, and storm and very slow sailing we had been 
on the sea for three months or more. Our supplies of water and pro- 
visions were running low; but we were all well, and buoyed up by the 
expectation of soon sighting some one of the West India Islands. The 
weather was intensely hot and the little water remaining in. our casks 
was scarcely fit to drink. Suddenly, one day, one of the passengers was 
taken violently sick, and soon died. Then another was prostrated with 
the same symptoms and lived but a short time. Then we realized the 
appalling fact that the plague" had broken out among us and we were 
doomed to destruction by this horrid pestilence. Lepage was among 
the first victims, and lived but twenty-four hours. He was always jovial 
and good humored, and by his fine flow of spirits, had materially miti- 
gated the dreariness of the voyage, and greatly aided in sustaining the 
flagging hopes and courage of all on board throughout all our troubles. 
We gently lowered his body into the sea; but had no time to indulge 
our grief, as he was quickly followed by others. 

''The terrible disease attacked the strong as well as the weak, the 
old and the young alike, with pitiless severity. The only mercy it ex- 
tended was to render its victims speedily unconscious. The ship's cap- 
tain, surgeon, half the crew, and more than half of the passengers fell 
before the awful scourge and were consigned to the deep. Madame 
Lepage, who had been untiring in ministering to the sick and dying, was 
s])ared for some time; but, at length she was stricken down and soon 
breathed her last, following Pierre to an unmarked grave. We were 
now approaching the West India Islands, and very eager to reach land 
— any land — so that those of us who survived might abandon the in- 
fected vessel and flee to the shore for our lives. Only a day and a night 
after we had given to the waves the body of Marie Lepage, her daughter, 
Adel. already exhausted by grief and attention to the sick, was seized 
by the dreadful epidemic, and quickly succumbed to its deadly viru- 
lence. I was bathing her head with sea Avater, in her death struggles, 
when all at once I felt very sick. The ship seemed to be rapidly whirl- 
ing around; everything becanje dark, and I fell to the deck unconscious. 

''When I awoke, as though from a long, troubled sleep, I was in a 
large shed-like house thatched with ])alm leaves, on the highlands in the 
northern part of the island of Martinique, where my brothei-, who was 
of the number not attacked by the plague, had me immediately brought 
from the ship— avp having entered the Bay of St. Pierre, in that island a 
few hours after I liad fallen. There he and others took can'-<ir me until 

• Probably a virulent form of Asiatic cholera. 



240 

I recovered. My brotlior haviii<i^ secured employment at Fort Koyale 
will remain there until winter and then join me here where we will en- 
gage in business. As soon as the anchor was dropped in the Bay of St. 
Pierre my brother had me carried to the highest part of the island — as 
far as he could go from the death smitten ship — without stopping, and 
I have seen none of our surviving fellow-passengers since. I learned, 
however, before leaving Fort Eoyale, that L'Etoile du Nord was at once 
deserted by all the survivors aboard, and is still in the Bay of St. Pierre 
being thoroughly repaired." 

CHAPTEE VIII. 
A Brush with Soutiieen Indians. 

Lieutenant Saucier sat as though stupefied while listening to Mon- 
sieur Brusier's startling narrative, and only by a mighty effort could he 
control his emotions when the narrator depicted the closing scene of 
AdeFs young life. How he left the La Cygne and got back to his quar- 
lers in the town he never could remember. In the solitude of his room 
he contended with his great grief through the sleepless, restless, night. 
He was literally prostrated with the weight of sorrow that taxed all his 
fortitude to bear. His glowing day dreams were cruelly dissipated, and 
even hope had vanished and left him dismally alone in the world with 
nothing further to live for. The next morning was ushered in with 
rain; and dense black clouds covered the sky like a pall, as though the 
very elements were testifying their sympathy with the young soldier's 
woeful wretchedness. Pleading indisposition, he remained in his room 
and excused himself to all who called on him. In the evening a messen- 
ger from the Governor informed him that the company of recruits for 
the force at Fort Chartres, he was expecting, had arrived, and begged 
him to call at the executive office next morning to arrange for their 
transportation up the river. This had some effect to divert his mind 
from, and somewhat relieve it of, the dark gloom that had fallen upon 
him. 

The next morning, he arose early, as usual, resolved, if possible, 
not to be overcome by his misfortunes ; but to assert his manhood, and 
continue the conflicts of life with all the firmness he possessed. At the 
appoinied hour he called at the Governor's office with little, if any, exter- 
nal indication of the soul-racking torture he was enduring. Arrange- 
ments for additional boats and provisions Avere perfected in a few days; 
and then, having neither incentive or desire to longer remain in the 
melancholy place, he hurried the preparations for his departure as 
rapidly as possible. In less than a week after his interview with the 
Governor he was ready to start, courting, rather than dreading, the 
perils and hardships that he knew awaited him. 

As the prevailing winds at that time of the year are from the south, 
Lieutenant Saucier concluded to try the experiment, when they blew 
with sufficient force from that direction, of utilizing them in propelling 
his boats. Accordingly he caused a light, strong and movable mast to 
be stepped in each of his pirogues, rigged Avith spars and sails. Several 



241 

of his recruits, enlisted about the seaport towns of France, were familiar 
Avitli the management of sailboats, and these he installed as his navi- 
gators. 

At length all was in readiness, his bills were all settled, his cargoes 
snugly stowed in the boats, and his round of farewell calls ended. His 
men were in superb condition for service, and at the dawn of one of the 
closing days of July, he left New Orleans with his fleet having every 
sail set and filled by a stiff breeze from the Gulf. Not a sail was furled 
during the entire day, and they proved valuable adjuncts to the oars. 
The sun in setting must have passed the new moon, as it appeared in 
the early twilight a little way above the western horizon, and was pro- 
nounced by the sages amojig the crews, a "dry" moon, angering a pro- 
pitious voyage and pleasant weather. The river was at .that season at 
ils lowest stage, and its current, in consecjuence, at its slowest rate; so, 
the progress of the flotilla, if not rapid, was quite satisfactory. In pro- 
jjelling the boats the men had regular relays at the oars, and when off 
duty, some slept, others fished, and a few, with musical talent, enlivened 
tlie toil of their comrades with exhilirating strains of the violin. 

Everything went well until the mouth of the Arkansas was passed. 
Indians at several places along the river, had come to the boats in their 
canoes in friendship, to beg, or to barter game they had killed for calico 
and brass ornaments; but though manifesting no unfriendly disposition 
then they were known to be treacherous and utterly unreliable. To 
guard against night attacks of hostile savages ashore — for there was no 
danger whatever from them in midstream, or in day time — keelboatmen 
cautiously landed on one side of the river in the evening, or on an island, 
and there made fires and spread their meals. Then extinguishing the 
fires, resumed their course for a short distance, and tied up on the oppo- 
site shore rmtil morning. 

On the evening of the fourth day after having passed the mouth- 
of the Arkansas river, the sky became heavily overcast with dark clouds, 
and the rumbling thunder and vivid lighting were sure harbingers of an 
approaching storm. The boats that had been lined up on the Arkansas 
side of the river for the evening repast, w^ere hastily cast loose, and, as 
customar}^, rowed to the opposite side, in the rain and darkness, and 
made fast to the overhanging trees there for the night. Not an Indian 
had been seen during the day on either side of the river; or any indi- 
cation of their presence observed anywhere. By the time the boats were 
secured to the river bank, and the tarpaulins drawn over each, the rain 
descended in torrents, and continued for the greater part of the night. 

At early dawn next morning, the rain had ceased, but the sky was 
still obscured by clouds, and the air was hot and sultry. The men, glad 
to escape from the sweltering confinement of the boats, leaped ashore 
M'ith the first rays of light in the east, and began to kindle fires to pre- 
pare their breakfast. A few of them had the precaution to take their 
arms with them as they left the boats, probably from force of habit. Of 
this number was Lieutenant Saucier, who never went ashore without his 
tnisty carbine. While all were busily engaged in search of fuel dry 
enough to feed the flickering fires, they were suddenly assailed by a 

—16 H S 



242 

shower of bullets from the surrounding trees and undergrowth, followed 
by a chorus of unearthly yells and whoops, as a large band of hideously 
painted savages rushed wildly upon them. The few Frenchmen armed 
stood their ground, and with steady aim returned the fire of their assail- 
ants as they advanced, then clubbing their guns went fearlessly into 
tlie fight. Those without their arms fled to the boats to secure them, 
and very soon returned with the balance of their comrades who had not 
before landed, all well armed, and lost no time in coming to the support 
of those holding the Indians at bay. They charged upon the horde of 
red demons, who had not had time to reload their guns, with such fury, , 
that they fell back, and scattered in full retreat. In this brief but 
spirited engagement the Frenchmen fought with the courage and pre- 
cision of well-trained veterans. They followed up the advantage their 
first charge gave them, and advanced in quick time, firing at the retreat- 
ing foe as long as one of them could be seen. At the first appearance 
of the Indians, Lieutenant Saucier fired and killed the one nearest him ; 
then seizing his carbine by its muzzle he brained the next one, and struck 
right and left, at the same time cheering his men on, until his reinforce- 
ments came up, when he led them on until the enemy was dispei*sed. 
He was twice wounded, but not seriously, and was not aware of having 
received any injury until the fight was all over. The Frenclunen lost 
but one man, one of the new recruits was killed, but several of the others 
were more or less severely wounded. Seven of the Indians were left dead 
on the ground, and several more so badly wounded they could not escape, 
and they, the infuriated boatmen despatched vrithout mercy. They 
breakfasted without further molestation, then pushed off, continuing 
their voyage, taking with them the liody of the dead soldier which they 
buried at evening on the western side of the river. The wounded were 
made as comfortable as possible, and they proceeded, with more caution, 
and without further incident or accident, to their destination. 

CHAPTEE IX. 

Death of the CoiiMAXDAXT's Daughtee. 

The first frosts of early autumn had tinged the dark green maples 
with scarlet and gold, and the ripening hickory nuts and pecans were 
beginning to fall, when the long line of boats were drawn up to the Fort 
landing. The commander of the successful expedition, who had not yet 
recovered entirely from his wounds, looked haggard and careworn. 
Leaving the boats, he marched the recruits, not disabled from wounds 
or sickness, to the barracks, and then repaired to the Commandant's 
quarters. His knock at the door was answered by Lisette who to his 
hurried inquiries, told him her young mistress was very low, and daily 
failing in vitality; also, that as long as she could speak she had asked 
abouthim every day, and prayed that she might see him again before 
she was called away to her mother. Following the devoted servant into 
the sick chamber he was shocked upon seeing the ravages wrought by the 
unrelenting disease during his absence. The sunken cheeks flushed with 
hectic fever, the glistening eyes, the cruel, persistent cough and hot, dry 
hands, plainly told that the fair young girl was doomed and her life 



243 

nearing its dose. She spoke his name in a husky whisper as she extended 
her thin bloodless hand, and a gleam of radiant joy lighted her wan 
features when he pressed it, and implanted a kiss upon her forhead. 
She was too far exliausted to speak to him; but the mute eloquence of 
her expression assured him that his presence afforded her real comfort 
and happiness. Almost heartbroken already by M. Brusier's narrative, 
the pathetic sadness of Eulalie's condition very nearly overpowered him. 
All the strength he could command was required to control his feelings 
while by her side, and not add to her distress by an exhibition of emo- 
tional weakness. With great effort he appeared cheerful, and tried to 
speak to her in the pleasant, airy strain of other days — and partially 
succeeded. But he could not long sustain this unnatural simulation, 
and, with a promise to call again in a short time, he took leave of her 
and hurried to his own quarters, and there found relief in unmanly tears 
that could no longer be repressed. 

The arrival of the boats with stores, mails and recruits, was an 
exciting event at the Fort. From the Commandant down to the serv- 
ants, all were elated and eager to hear an account of the voyage, and 
learn what was going on in the outer world. The pirogues were unloaded 
and sent back to Kaskaskia ; the sick and wounded were carried to their 
separate wards in the hospital ; the munitions were safely placed in the 
magazine, and other supplies in the store rooms: and the voluminous 
mail matter promptly distributed. Lieutenant Saucier was weak and 
still suffering from his wounds, and sorely depressed in mind; but re- 
fused to be billeted by the post surgeon to the hospital, and applied him- 
self as diligently as his condition permitted to writing the report of his 
transactions in Xew Orleans, and of his fight with the Indians, and all 
other important incidents of his memorable descent and ascent of the 
great river. He visited Eulalie exevj day as often as his duties per- 
mitted, and experienced some assuagement of the oppressive affliction 
he was bearing in silence, by his eft'orts to soothe and mollify the fleeting 
hours of her waning life. He recounted his adventures • on the river, 
and told her of amusing incidents and strange sights he had witnessed 
at Xew Orleans : and by interesting her in that way sought to detract 
her attention from the gloom and misery of her mournful fate. 

A week, or more, had passed since the arrival of the boats at the 
Fort, and the commotion that event caused had gi-adually siibsided to 
the ordinary routine life of the post. One beautiful morning in the 
mellow haze of lovely Indian summer, the bright sunshine streaming 
through the invalid's open window, and the soft, invigorating breeze 
fanned her wasted form, the Lieutenant sat by her side with her small 
hand clasped in his : her brilliant blue eyes were fixed upon his sad face, 
a sweet smile played upon her pallid lips, and then, without sigh or 
tremor, her spirit took its flight, so gently and quietly that, for several 
moments, those around her could scarcely realize that the struggle was 
ended. 

"Eulalie is dead*', was whispered throughout the garrison, and all 
was hushed ; all labor suspended ; the flag floating from the highest 
bastion was lowered to half mast and the great fortress became at once 
a house of mourning. They draped her cold body in robes of spotless 
white, and laid it in state in the large hall, where she had, in health, 



244 

reigned as qneen of the dance and joyoiis festivities, and received the 
homage of all in her social realm. Then placed in a coffin covered with 
white velvet, they conveyed her to the church in Kaskaslria, preceded by 
a guard of honor with arms reversed, the flag craped and drums muffled, 
followed by all the officers and ladies of the Fort, and a large concourse 
of civilians from the adjacent settlements. After the sacred offices of 
the priests she was tenderly consigned to the grave in the village ceme- 
tery near the church and buried with military honors. 

CHAPTEE X. 

Defeat of Washington at Fort Necessity. 

The grand object to be the attained in rebuilding Fort Chartres 
was the permanent security of French possessions on the Mississippi, 
and, incidentally, the maintenance of peace. But the great work was 
not completed when hostilities between England and France again com- 
menced. Their respective military forces in America, ever at variance, 
were not long in engaging in earnest conflict. In the month of May, 
1754, one George Washington, a Virginian, in the service of the English 
King, commanding a body of militia from his native state, then stationed 
in Pennsylvania, surprised Conlon de Jumonville with a small detach- 
ment of French soldiers, near the Youghiogeny, (not far from the pres- 
ent city of Connellsville, in Fayette county), and defeated him, Jumon- 
ville falling at the first fire, shot through the head.* 

The report of this affair, and its resultant disaster to the French 
arms, when received at Fort Chartres produced the wildest consterna- 
tion, and fired the military ardor of the inactive garrison. Neyon de 
Villiers, the senior Captain of Chevalier Makarty's command, a brother- 
in-law of Jumonville, asked leave of the Commandant to march to the 
scene of conflict and assist in avenging the death of his relative and re- 
gaining the lost prestige of France in that quarter. This leave he readily 
obtained; and, with alacrity, began his preparations for the expedition. 

To the depressed mind of Lieutenant Saucier the excitement and 
hazard of this undertaking offered alluring promise of relief. He felt 
willing to undergo any hardships ; or risk any danger that would tend 
to revive his broken spirits and divert his thoughts from the sad occur- 
rences of the past few months. He volunteered his services, and was 
granted permission by the Commandant to accompany Capt. de Villiers 
as one of his Lieutenants. A hundred picked men were selected and 
fully equipped with everything necessary for the long journey. The 
boats were overhauled and put in order. Embarking, they proceeded 
down the Mississippi, then up the Ohio to Fort du Quesne, where they 
joined the force of Coulon de Villiers, an elder brother of the Captain. 
They there organized their men in four companies under trusted offi- 
cers, and sallied forth in the quest of the enemy. Washington, apprised, 
l)y Indians friendly to the British, of the advancing French, retreated 
to the Great Meadow, a short distance from the spot where he had as- 
sassinated Ensign Jumonville, a short time before. There he sought 
safety in Fort Necessity, a temporary defense of little strength, and 

• "Judge it as we may. this obscure skirmish began the war that set the world 
on fire." Montcalm and Wolf. By Francis Parkman. Vol. 1. p. 150. 



245 

tnvaited the avengers. He had not long to wait. De Villiers was soon 
upon him, and investing his entrenchments, poured in upon him a mur- 
derous fire from all. sides. The engagement lasted nine hours. Wash- 
ington seeing the futility of contending longer with such a superior and 
determined foe, after a short parlay, surrendered. 'The French, mag- 
nanimously permitted him to march out with side arms and camp equip- 
age. In tiiis affair Washington lost twelve killed and forty-three wound- 
ed. He returned to the east side of the Alleghanies, leaving not an 
Englishman or English flag on their western side. On leaving Fort 
Necessity, Washington's Indian allies killed all his horses and cattle, 
plundered his baggage, knocked his medicine chest in pieces, and killed 
and scalped two of his wounded men. Left Avith no means of trans- 
portation his men were obliged to carry their sick and wounded on their 
backs.* He commenced his retreat on the fourth of July, a day after- 
ward made glorious to a new born nation. The Fort Chartres contin- 
gent returned to the Mississippi flushed with victory, and without loss 
of a man. 

They received a royal welcome from the garrison, and their suc- 
cessful humiliation of Mr. Washington and his loyal militia was cele- 
brated in all the settlements around the Fort with prolonged festivities. 

Not long after the return of this expedition a courier arrived at the 
Fort from Montreal with important despatches from the home govern- 
ment and from the Governor General of Canada. Among those papers 
were commissions of promotion, as rewards, for several of the officers 
and men who had faithfully discharged their duties in the erection of 
the new Fort. Of those thus rewarded by the King, Major Makarty was 
advanced to the rank of Colonel, and Lieutenant Saucier to that of 
Captain. 

English emissaries were soon busy among the Indians all through 
the west attempting to win them over to their cause. And by liberal 
presents, more liberal promises, and misrepresentations, were successful 
in seducing several of the tribes from their allegiance to, and friendship 
for, the French. This change of policy by the savages caused much 
uneasiness and some trouble at Fort Chartres. A British invasion was 
among the possibilities expected; but no immediate danger of a general 
uprising of Illinois Indians was apprehended. Yet, the scattered settle- 
luents required protection, particularly from threatened inroads of the 
Chickasaws about the mouth of the Ohio river. Companies were de- 
tailed for police duty to different points, and frequent excursions were 
made in the interior of the country by detachments of soldiers to punish 
marauding bands of Indians. Chevalier de A^olsci and his men having 
been ordered to Canada, Major Makarty sent Capt. Saucier to take com- 
mand of the fort at Caliokia. This stockade was situated near the center 
of the village just across the road from the church, and was spacious 
enough to contain the entire population of the town in case resort to it 
for protection was at any time necessary, f Captain Saucier was quite 

* Montcalm and Wolf. By Francis Parkman. Vol. 1. pp. 147-161. 

t In the course oi' certain improvements on the old .Jarnot place in Cahokia. 
made in 1890 by Nicholas McCracken, the proprietor, there was dug up part of a 
large mulberry post, much decayed, believed to have been one of the gate posts 
of the fort, planted there 150 years before. 



■MO 

a favorite among the Cahokians; and Avhile conimaii(1ing there was very 
suecessfnl. not in fighting the discontented Indians, hut in pacifying 
them and regaining their friendship. 

When spring returned peace i)r('vaiU'd tliroughout the Illinois, and 
the scattered soldiers were recalled to the Fort. The tribes in upper 
Louisiana : or, more i)roperly, along the Mississippi river l)elow the Ohio, 
l}o\vever, were reported to have joined the English — as all the eastern 
colonists were called — , and were harassing the whites engaged in navi- 
gation of the river. One of the first pirogues enroute for Xew Orleans 
was captured by them, and its crew were all slain. 

The time had again arrived for dispatching the boats to Xew Or- 
leans for the garrison's annual supplies. In the then hostile attitude 
of the southern Indians, it was necessary to select for this service men 
of tried courage and endurance, and a commander of prudence, firmness 
and experience. Besides the supplies that might be drawn from the 
Quartermaster's and Commissary's departments in Xew Orleans, it 
would be necessary to purchase considerable quantities of stores there 
for the troops at the Fort. There were also expected at Xew Orleans 
important despatches, and a large sum of money, from France, for the 
Commandant, and Paymaster at the Fort ; and it was very desirable that 
all these valuables should be brought up the river in safety. 

After pondering the matter over for sometime. Col. Makarty sent 
for Captain Saucier, and asked him if he woitld undertake the manage- 
ment of the voyage, stating that he would not detail him for that service 
if he preferred not to go; but that he would regard it a personal favor 
if he would accept the perilous office. The Captain answered, without 
hesitation, that he was one of the King's soldiers, ready at any time to 
go wherever required, and this duty would suit him as well as any. 

The late spring rains had long since ceased. The waters had re- 
ceded from the low, overflowed lands, to the lowest level of their ac- 
customed channels. The sandbars had reappeared with barren promi- 
nence above the river's surface, when Capt. Saucier repaired to Kas- 
kaskia, and put his fleet of boats in readiness, as before. He was fortu- 
nate in finding the best men of his former crews, whom he engaged; and 
takino- from the Fort a few of the most reliable enlisted men who were 
with him on his former voyage, he once more bid adieu to the Illinois, 
and set his flotilla in the current of the great river. He again took his 
departure when the young moon was a silvered crescent about to drop 
into the dark western forest; choosing this phase of that orb for leaving, 
not from superstitious notions ; but because he would have light at night 
for some time, enabling him to continue his course with the least possible 
delays. 

At only two points on the river were hostile demonstrations made 
by the Indians, and these he repitlsed without trouble, being constantly 
im his guard. By the exercise of cool judgment and careful manage- 
ment he reached his destinatimi in comparatively a short time, without 
casualties, or encountering oxtradrdinary hardsliips. 



"~ 247 

CHAPTER XI. 
In New ()i;leaxs AciAix. 

Thirt.v-sevcn years had i)asse'(l since the first settlement was made at 
Xew Orleans by Bienville; and it was already a pretentious town*, the 
metropolis of all the vast territory claimed by the French Crown from 
the Gulf to the great northern lakes; and the commercial and military 
gateway to all that region. The primitive architecture of the place gave 
it the appearance of an irregular collection of huts with streaks of mud 
for streets. Yet, that early, much wealth was concentrated there, which 
— as in older communities— had the effect of creating social distinctious 
ranong its people. Squalor and poverty were conspicuous in some quar- 
ters of the place, while in others Parisian opulence and splendor, and 
Parisian styles and fashions were lavishly displayed. An aristocratic 
class had been fostered there by the late Governor of Louisiana, Pierre 
de Eegaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil, who, a short time before, was trans- 
ferred to Quebec as Governor General of Canada, superceding there M. 
de Gallisouiere. De Vaudreuil's pomp and state; his sumptuous style 
of living, punctilious etiquette and courtly manners, which found many 
servile imitators, caused his official residence, or chateau, on Pue Pon- 
chartrain, to be named by the populace "Le Petite Versailles". The 
shipping interests of the town were represented by large and commodi- 
ous warehouses, and the many gay shops and elegant stores gave evidence 
of commercial prosperity. The Jesuits were there, of course, since 1?27 ; 
i)ut the only edifices yet erected i)y the church were the Ursuiine Con- 
vent, Hospital, and Chapel. Xew Orleans was made the capital of Louis-' 
iana in 1T21. On going ashore from his boat, near the spot where the 
Captain had met Monsieur Brusier when last here, the memory of that 
gentleman's doleful story was revived, with the wretched dispiriting 
efl'ect he had experienced when listening to it.^ A feeling of extreme 
misery crept over him as he reviewed the cruel fate of those he loved, 
his blighted hopes, and lonely life. The vision of two angelic young 
(rcatures, now still in death, wdiose love had illumined his soul and lent 
a charm to existence, arising before him, with the shades of his revered 
father and foster parents beyond — all now gone forever — almost over- 
powered him with a sense of heart-rending despondency. Philosophy, 
however, came to his rescue. It argued to him tbat nothing could be 
gained by repining and brooding over ill-fortune. The dead were beyond 
his reach, the living had claims upon him, and he was yet 3'oung enough 
to dispel the incubus of grief, and to benefit humanity and his country. 
Pallying all the strength of his resolute mind, he determined to hide 
his sorrows in the recesses of his own thoughts, and act to the best of 
his abilities, the part assigned him in the world's affairs. 

To further this resolve, he concluded no longer to mope in seclusion ; 
hut to reenter society, and seek forgetfulness in its pastimes and frivoli- 
ties. This course, he correctly judged, Avould be the most effective to 
ijanish melancholy. Social gaieties and amusements in jSTew Orleans 
Avere not, in that era, restricted to certain seasons. There was then no 

* By the close of the year 1752. forty-five brick hou.=cs liad been built in XTew 
Orleans. Gayarre's History of Louisiana. 



248 

hegira of the favored class to iiortlieni \v;\toring places, or seaside re- 
sorts, during the heated term; but pleasure there, considered — next to 
obtaining the necessities of life — the chief duty of existence, its pursuit, 
in feasting, dancing and visiting, Avas always in order from one Christ- 
mas to another. 

The Captain's presence in town was soon generally known, and 
but little time was left him to feel lonely. His military rank, his youth, 
manly figure and handsome features, with his gentlemanly bearing and 
manners, made him a desirable acquaintance; and the knowledge that 
he was an accredited government agent disbursing large sums of money 
for military supplies, gave him ready admission into the highest circles 
of society, in which he soon became conspicuous. He was lionized by the 
wealthy mercenary traders, by the educated and refined, and also by 
shrewd mothers having marriageable daughters. By accepting pressing 
invitations from all quarters, he was quickly inducted to the whirlpool 
of social entertainments, and was in a short time, one of society's chief 
attractions. He was a graceful dancer and interesting talker, and ever 
ready to take part in current amusements ; but detested the coarse revelrj' 
and dissipation of the barracks and messroom. 

Among the wholesale dealers and importers whose stocks of goods 
he inspected preliminary to making his purchases, was a merchant 
named Antoine Delorme, one of the wealthiest citizens of the town, a 
leader in its business circles, and an affable, hospitable gentleman. His 
residence on Eue Ponchartrain, in what was then known as the aristo- 
cratic quarter, was exteriorly plain, but large, roomy, and furnished 
interiorly with taste and munificence. Patterned after the gaudy man- 
sion of the former Governor, the Marquis de Yaudreuil, it had all the 
appointments and accessories of luxurious comfort that wealth could 
provide, including a retinue of negro slaves perfectly trained for personal 
and domestic service. 

Monsieur Delorme's family comprised only his wife and daughter, 
at home. Another daughter, who was married, resided in France, and a 
son, also married, was the principal merchant and shipowner in St. 
Pierre, on the island of Martinique. Madam Delorme was, in many re- 
spects, the antithesis of her husband. He had married her when both 
were young and poor, from a social stratum below that to which his 
parents belonged. She was a peasant's daughter, coarse, illiterate, and 
a stranger to the usages of refined society in which he had been nurtured. 
But she was a pretty girl, strong, healthy, industrious, and a shrewd, 
economical household manager. She had proven an efficient coadjutor 
in the accumulation of his large fortune, a true wife and exemplary 
mother. Advancing age had wrought serious changes in her girlish 
figure and rustic beauty; and her altered station in life had developed 
the, too common, arrogance and foolish vanity of riches displayed by 
vulgar people becoming wealthy. She was corpulent, florid and broad- 
faced, and spoke very ungrammatically ; but dressed in fine, showy clothes 
made in the height of fashion, that illy became her rotund form, and 
wore a profusion of flashy, costly jewelry. Coming, as she had, from the 
mudsills of society, she seemed to have forgotten her early hardships anil 
privations, and now looked down upon the plebeians with uncharitable 
contempt. 



249 

Her daughter, Mani'selle Eosealie, the young-est of her children, was 
reared iu luxury and indulence, receiving considerable polish — if not 
much erudition — in a French convent in Paris. Her face was pretty 
hut wanting in expression. With a tendency to obesity, she had in- 
herited none of her mother's former energy and force, but all of her 
mother's later weakness for fine raiment and sparkling ornaments. She 
was blessed with an easy, good-natured disposition and pleasant voice; 
was a fair musician, a voluble talker and fine entertainer. To secure 
for this girl a husband of wealth, or rank — both preferably — was now the 
object for which Madame Delorme lived. No means were spared in 
making her salons attractive, and eclipsing all others in the sumptuous- 
ness and brilliancy of her entertainments, not excepting those of the 
late Governor De A^audreuil. Her balls and dinners were grand, and 
her musicales and garden dejeuners superb. 

Captain Saucier was not wealthy; but for business reasons, and 
because of his official position in the King's service, he soon became a 
frequent and welcome guest at the Delorme mansion. He was among 
the first invited to the Madame's fetes and parties, and was always graci- 
ously received when he dropped in, informally, to pass an hour in pleas- 
ant chat with Mile. Eosealie. 

CHAPTER XII. 

The Mysterious ^YoMA^T ijg- Black. 

A month had passed since the Captain's arrival at New Orleans, in 
which he had been busily employed every business hour each day. He 
had made all his purchases, but was still detained awaiting the expected 
despatches from France. Time however did not hang heavily on his 
hands. He had.formed many agTeeable acquaintances who extended to 
him the cordial hospitality of their homes, and vied with each other 
in their efforts to enchance the pleasures of his visit. He received 
flattering attentions in these charmed and charming circles, from the 
ladies particularly, who allowed him but little opportunity for serious 
retrospective reflection, and impressed upon him the axiom that life is 
for the living and should be enjoyed while it lasts. 

Calling one morning before the sun's rays became oppressive, at 
the Delorme mansion, his knock at the door was answered, as usual, by 
a colored servant who ushered him into the small parlor, or drawing 
room, and then went to apprise her young mistress of his presence. As 
he entered the room he casually glanced through the open folding doors 
into the adjoining room and saw there a woman, apparently young, 
sitting in a large alcove engaged in sewing. Her hands, he saw, were 
white; but he did not see her face. She arose on his entrance into the 
parlor, and gathering up her work basket and the material upon which 
she was plying her needle, left the apartment without so much as glanc- 
ing in his direction. He saw. as she flitted out of the room like a shadow, 
that her tall, well-molded form was plainly but neatly dressed in black. 
As Mile. Eosealie directly made her appearance, the woman in black 
passed out of his mind, and the pampered daughter of fortune amused 
and interested him for a time with her vivacious conversation and music. 

The climate at New Orleans has not materially changed since the 
administration of affairs there by the "Grand ^Marquis" Vaudreuil, a 



250 

century and a half ago. In the late summer the nights and mornings 
are pleasantly cool, with uncomfortable heat during the middle part ot 
the day. In the olden days, however, the rush and bustle of business 
of the present time were unknown there, and through the heated hours 
business pursuits and pleasure-seeking were suspended until a fall of 
temperature in the evening. 

A few days after the Captain's last morning call at the Delorme 
abode, he was again there one evening with a gay party of young gentle- 
men and ladies, who had met him on the street, and prevailed upon him 
to accompany them. Such impromptu gatherings of young society people 
were then of almost daily occurrence, and always highly enjoyed by 
hostess and guests alike. While the Captain was recounting to a group 
of girls some of his experiences in Kaskaskia and Cahokia society he 
chanced to look, from the piazza where he sat, towards the flower garden, 
and saw the same figure in black he had seen a few mornings before 
sewing in the alcove, enter the garden from the street, by a side gate, 
and passing through the shrubbery and flowers, disappear beyond the 
rear angle of the building. She wore, as before, a plain, neatly-fitting, 
black dress and her head was covered by a sunbonnet that concealed her 
face. He looked at tlie retreating woman as long as she Avas in view, 
though she seemed, from her garb, to occupy no higher station than 
that of an upper menial — -a hired seamstress perhaps — and of no conse- 
quence. It may have been the striking contrast she presented to Mile. 
Eosealie, in the perfect symmetry of her form and her graceful move- 
ments, that attracted his attention and curiously interested him. On 
two or three other occasions when at the Delorme mansion he again 
caught glimpses of that mysterious retiring young woman in the dist- 
ance ; and though he strove to dismiss her from his mind, as one in whom 
he was in no manner concerned, she strangely impressed him, and he 
found it difficult to suppress the desire to learn who she was. 

The long looked for ship from France at length arrived, bringing 
the expected despatches and mails. The Captain, much relieved, now 
began earnestly to complete his final preparations for his long and 
trying return voyage. Early and late he was in the large Delorme ware- 
jliouse, where his goods were stored, superintending and directing the 
assorting and transferring of bales, boxes, and casks to the boats, and 
seeing to arranging them there securely and compactly. 

Comino^ into the spacious buildins' on the first mornins,- to hurrv 
for^vard this work, he was hailed by old Michael ^lallait, the clerk and 
guardian genius of this department of the Delorme establishment who 
had been in the Delorme service since its commencement, witli this 
cheery greeting : 

"Ah! bon jour; bon jour; Monsieur le Capitaine. You are quite 
well, I am happy to see. And, so, you are going to leave us, eh ?" 

'"Yes, Uncle Michael : I expect to bid Xew Orleans a long, and 
perhaps last, farewell, on next ^londay morning, Dieu volante,'' said the 
Captain. 

"Ah ! mon cher fils'', continued the old man, "we will ail miss 
3'ou very much when you are gone: and you don't know the devastation 
your departure will cause here." 



251 

"You are surely jesting, my friend; for what calamit}' can my leav- 
ing occasion?" 

"Broken hearts among the demoiselles, of course," answered the old 
man, with a knowing smile; and then added; "T don't know how they 
will manage to get along without you in their fine balls and parties. And 
Mam'selle IJosealie, poor thing! will be inconsolable in your absence". 

"Bah !" retorted the Captain, with some impatience, "she will very 
soon forget that I was ever here." This allusion to Rosealie reminded 
him of the plainly-attired young woman he had now and then seen about 
the Delorme premises, and seeing no impropriety in interrogating him 
about her, he asked, "Now that I think of it, mon oncle ; can you tell me 
who that strange young woman is, of whom 1 have sometimes caught 
sight, up at the mansion?" 

"No, I cannot; only this of her have I learned, that she has but 
recently arrived here — since you came — , from France, I think, and that 
she is a distant relative of Delorme's, an orphan, destitute, and trying to 
support herself with her needle. I have heard her name, but cannot 
now recall it. Of course she is not admitted into Mam'selle Rosealie's 
set." 

Their conversation then turned on business affairs and each was 
soon engi'ossed in matters that concerned him most, and which gave them 
ample occupation for the balance of the day. This routine work con- 
tinued until Saturday evening, when the Captain had everything in 
readiness to start away the next evening, or on Monday morning. His 
boats were all in first class condition, each with its cargo in place ; his 
arms and ammunition carefully inspected ; his bills all settled, and his 
men at their respective posts ready for duty. He would have given the 
order to shove off that evening, but for the conscientious scruples of the 
men, who could not agree to embark on such a perilous journey without 
first attending mass, and receiving absolution from the priest, on the 
Sabbath. 

The Ca])tain had a snug little cabin fitted up in his boat, walled 
around with bales and boxes, and covered with tarpaulin. At either end 
Avas a small window looking fore and aft, a carpet covered the floor, and 
a cosey l)iink and a couple of chairs imparted to it an air of home-likel 
comfort. The termination of his stay in New Orleans had arrived. He 
had paid all of his farewell visits, and bid adieu to all his social and 
business acquaintances including the Governor and military officers, 
then gladly left his quarters in the town, and took possession of his cabin 
and boat, prepared for the arduous task before him. 

After retiring for the night he reviewed the time he had just passed 
in New Orleans ; the mission he had successfully accomplished, inter- 
spersed and varied, as it had been, with many pleasant episodes, with 
courtesies, and the respect and kindness accorded him by his many new 
acquaintances, and many charming ladies. All this was gratifying to 
his self-esteem. He found that he had gained much of his former cheer- 
fulness and interest in life, and ambition for an honorable career. He 
fell aslee]) congratulating himself that he had overcome the poignancy 
of grief without impairment of his loyalty to the memory of the dead, 
successfully resisting the arts and l)landishments of the city beauties. 



252 

CHAPTER XIII. 
A Miraculous Escape Fro:m Death. 

The golden light of the Sabbath dawn shone resplendent in the east 
beyond Lake Borgne, and as the sun arose above the horizon, the cur- 
tain of fog, settled on the bosom of the great river during the night, was 
sJowly furled and floated away. 

From force of habit, observed in camp, at the Fort, and on the 
march, the Captain arose at the reveille hour. His daily practice while 
sojourning in the town was to be up before the rising of the sun, and 
take long walks before breakfast, for exercise. Sometimes he strolled 
along the levee above the river bank; or out to the lakes; then again, he 
walked through the noisy and odorous markets; or by the slumbering 
residences and perfume-ladened flower gardens in the opulent quarter; 
or among the lowly huts of the poor classes. 

On this refreshing Sunday morning, seeing that everything about 
the boats was quiet and in order, he took his course to the old Place d' 
Amies, and then into the deserted streets, with no aim in view but to 
look for the last time on some of the objects and localities he had become 
familiar Avith. His unrestrained thoughts dwelled upon the possibili- 
ties and probabilities of his voyage; then wandered to the more serious 
problem of impending war with the English; mentally discussing its 
consequences in the Illinois, and its ultimate results, and how it would 
aft'ect his individual plans and aspirations, and in what way he might 
licst serve his King and country, and at the same time promote his own 
interests. 

He walked on slowly, in deep reverie, heedless of his course; past 
the silent rows of closed shops and stores, and on through the, little park, 
or commons, then towards the Ursulinc Convent and Chapel, seeing no 
one astir but the devout few on their way to the Chapel to attend la has 
messe, or matin services. Arousing himself from his meditations to take 
his bearings and see where he had wandered to, he noted that he was 
then passing the Chapel into which a few shuffling old people and young 
girls were noiselessly creeping, like straggling bees into a hive. He 
stopped, and concluded to retrace his steps, and regain the river and his 
boats by the most direct route. He walked 'back a short distance, but 
a sudden impulse caused him to again turn and continue in the direc- 
tion he had been walking, as by that course he could, with a few detours, 
reach the boat landing without much loss of time or distance. Going on 
he passed by some of the better class residences where he had been, in 
the last few weeks, royally entertained; and, for a moment felt a pang 
of regret in exchanging those generous luxuries for the rough fare of 
the river and camp. 

A little farther on he came in sight of the well-known gables and 
piazzas, and spacious grounds, of the Delorme mansion now wrapped 
in the stillness of profound repose. As he proceeded toward the house, 
along the apology for a sidewalk, the side gate of the flower garden next 
to the street suddenly opened, and the black-garbed figure of the young 
woman he had occasionally seen about the mansion, emerged, with rosary 
and prayer book in hand, and head bowed in devotional attitude, evi- 



253 

dently on her way to matin worship at the Chapel. She came on toward 
him with downcast eyes, walking slowly, as though in deep thought, or 
burdened with some secret sorrow. Thougii ]:)enuiless and alone in the 
world, and consigned by fate to a life of toil and obscurity, as old Michael 
Mallait represented her, she moved with grace and dignity strangely at 
variance with her lowly station. 

As they approached each other on the narrow walk, she raised her 
eyes slightly as he was about to step aside to let her pass by. His gaze 
was fixed upon her, and as she momentarily looked up he saw her face 
for the first time. Starting back in bewildered amazement, he exclaimed 
"Merciful God ! Can this be but a mocking dream ! Pardon me, 
Madame, will you please tell me who you are? " She did not faint 
or scream ; but stood — like a statue — transfixed with surprise. The color 
left her cheeks for a moment, but regaining her presence of mind she 
answered firmly, "My name is Adel Lepage." 

"Adel Lepage!'", he repeated, with agitation; "But Monsieur 
Brusier told me that my — that is — I mean — the Adel Lepage whom I 
knew in France, died of the plague aboard the ship, L'Etoile du ISTord, 
at sea." 

"I escaped death almost by a miracle"', said she; but, pray sir, who 
are you?" 

"I am Jean Baptiste Saucier", answered the Captain, as he clasped 
the astonished girl in his arms. 

"Oh ! Jean Baptiste", she cried half incredulously, "can it be jjos- 
sible that it is really you ? They told us you were killed by the savages, 
and my poor parents and myself mourned for you \vith bleeding hearts." 

He turned and walked with her in the direction of the Chapel ; but 
so intent were they with mutual explanations of causes why they were 
not dead, and accounts of events transpiring in their lives since they 
had seen each other last, they passed the Chapel without seeing it, and 
proceeding to the Convent lawn sat down on one of the rustic seats there, 
and continued their animated conversation perfectly oblivious to all 
surroundings. 

"Did you", she asked, "receive my letter giving you an account of 
your father's death, and of my father's conclusion to emigrate to Xew 
France ?" 

"Yes", he answered sadly, "and that was the last letter I received 
from you. You perhaps forgot to write to me again." 

"Oh ! Jean Baptiste, how can you say that ?", she said reproachfully, 
and her eyes became suffused with tears. "I will tell you why I did not 
write to you again" she continued: "You no doubt remember Jo. 
Michot?" 

"I do, indeed", said the Captain ; "'and I will hardly ever forget — 
nor do I think he will — the thrashing I gave him, when we were at 
school at Lachappelle, one recess, for meanly kicking over our dinner 
basket." 

"Well", continued Adel, "he annoyed me very much by his persist- 
ent attentions, after you left home, and asked me to marry him. I, of 
course, refused; for I always cordially detested him. It was just after 



254 

your iaiher"a death — a lew dav? aiu-r 1 liad written to you of it — and we 
were preparing to start to Americ-ii. tliat he brouirht the intelligence 
from Orleans that you had been slain in i)attle with the Indians. From 
the accounts you had written us of those terrible savages. I believed the 
sad news he brought was true. He then told me 1 need not go to 
America to look for you, as you were dead : and I might as well marry 
him and remain in France. This not only pained, but infuriated me, 
and I replied that I was anxious to go to New France, and would go 
there, or anywhere else, if for no other reason than that I might be where 
! would never .see. or hear of him again.'" 

•'Mille Tonnerrel". interrupte<l the Captain vehemently. "I wish 
the lying poltroon was here now. so that I could show him whether I 
;im dead, or not." 

"8o then'", continued Adel. "Monsieur Isidore Brusier told you all 
about the awful misfortunes that befel us on the ocean. Oh I it was 
dreadful beyond any human power of description. In an hour or two 
after I was attacked by the plague I lost all consciousness, and only 
know what followed by having been told of it by others. All were satis- 
fied 1 was tlying when Monsieur Brusier was stricken down, and they 
made ])ieparations to throw me into the sea to toUow my poor father 
and mother and the others who had died. And two or three times again 
it was thouirht I had breathed mv last: but when the unfortunate ship 
next morning, cast its anchor in the Bay of St. Pierre, in the island of 
Martinique. I was still alive. All on board, sick and well, were imme- 
diately sent- ashore. 

"Monsieur Brusiers l)rother. who escai)ed the scourge, and who had 
cared for him every moment of his sickness, employed natives at once to 
carry the sick man to the northern part of the island, so as to be near 
relatives of theirs at Fort Royale. The other sick persons, who had 
friends or relatives with them, were also carried away to the hills as soon 
as possible; but I. having no one left to care for me, was taken on shore 
and placed in a vacant native hut under the palms, with no thought 
that I could survive many hours — or minutes, perhaps. The arrival of 
our vessel, and its disastrous voyage, were soon known in St. Pierre, 
and the citizen there lost no time in offering such relief as was in their 
power. 

•'Augustine Delorme. son of M. Antoine Delorme of this place, the 
wealthiest merchant in St. Pierre, and himself a shipowner, and whose 
grandmother was a Lepage, on learning from our ship's register my 
name, and my parent"s names, as passengers, from near Orleans, thought 
Ave might be relatives of his, and sent an agent to the ship right away to 
enquire about us. On learning the facts he came himself immediately 
with a lot of servants, and caused me to be ]daced in a covered litter, 
or iialanquin, and conveyed, by relays of carriers, to his summer house 
upon the mountain side. There a corps of physicians and nurses, super- 
intended by Monsieur Augustine's good wife, bravely contended with 
the horrid disease that was consuming me, for many days, and finally 
triumphed. 



jj 



255 

CHAPTER XIV. 

Marriage of Captaix Saucier. 

"I told them my .^tory"', continued Adel, "when sufficiently recovered 
to he able to talk, and when able to sit up my newly found relatives 
removed me to their home in St. Pierre, and installed me there as one of 
their family. I there did all I could for them to repay their great 
benevolence, by such services as 1 could render; and, while there, learned 
to be quite an expert dressmaker. Though every comfort was at my com- 
mand, and every want gratified, I could not avoid the feeling that I 
was a dependent and object of charity. I begged M. Augustine to per- 
mit me to come to this town on one of his ships, where 1 might find better 
opportunities to earn my support. They all tried to dissuade me from 
the view I had taken and the purpose I had formed, and implored me to 
remain with them. It must have been some destiny impelling me, for 
i could not resist the constant impulse to come here. 

"With reluctance and regrets, they at length consented ; but only 
on my promise to go directly to AI. Antoine Delorme's house, and make 
it my future home, and if I was disappointed in my expectations here 
to return immediately to them. 

"I arrived here four weeks ago, and found the Delorme mansion a 
very pleasant home, and have been treated very kindly. I soon dis- 
covered, however, that my place there was that of a poor, dependent re- 
lation, and that I was expected not to transgress its bounds by intruding 
myself into Mam'selle Rosealie's circle. 

■'This situation has its twinge of humiliation; but not of hardship; 
for society has no allurements for me, and I long only for the quietude of 
•obscure retirement — that Madame Delorme and Mam'selle Rosealie seem 
quite willing for me to enjoy. I have though, without consulting them, 
made arrangements to leave the mansion tomorrow morning, and com- 
mence work in Madame Durand's dressmaking and millinery establish- 
ment, on Rue St. Charles, where I can earn good wages and be measur- 
ably independent." 

The Captain listened to this recital with deep interest, and to some 
of its passages, with illy-suppressed emotions. He then told her of Fort 
de Chartres and the country in which it was located ; of Kaskaskia, 
Cahokia, and of the peo'ple who lived there. He told her of his life at 
the Fort, and of his former voyage down the river, and the great joy he 
anticipated in meeting her and her parents in Xew Orleans, and of his 
plans for their future settlement in the colonies near the Fort. He re- 
counted his eager watching for the arrival of their ship, and of his heart- 
rending disappointment and grief when he met Monsieur Brusier, and 
heard from him the terrible reality, with assurance of her death also. 
He then informed her of his present mission to Xew Orleans, its objects 
accomplished, and his arrangements all perfected for starting that even- 
ing, or early the next morning, on his return, not omitting a description 
of the perils and hardships of the voyage. Then taking her hand in 
both of his, he said. "Adel, will you be my wife, and go with me":"*' 



2r^G 

She raised lier eyes to hi>, heaiuiii^i' willi joyous eonrKli'iice. as she 
answered unhesitatingly; "Yes, Jean Baptiste, 1 will; and will go with 
\6\\ anywhere." 

■' They again met early next morning at the TJrsuline Chapel, and 
knelt together at the altar. The othciating priest, informed of the 
Captain's situation, dispensed with the Church's rule in ordinary mar- 
riages, of publishing the bans from the altar for three consecutive Sun- 
days, and proceeded to solenmly pronounce the ceremony that made 
them man and wife. 

The only witnesses present were old Michael Mallait and jNIonsieur 
Delorme; Madame Delorme and Maniselle Eosealie, if invited, did not 
deign to even send their regrets, much less to offer either reception or 
wedding feast for the young couple. An hour later the boats were mov- 
ing up stream, with Adel as mistress of the Captain's cabin, envonte'to 
a new, strange world to found a new home under novel auspices. 

Their progress up the tortuous river was laborious, and not alto- 
gether free from exciting adventures and narrowly averted dangers ; 
but in due time; all arrived safely at the Fort. 

New Chartres, the town, near the entrance to the Fort, so named 
in contradistinction to Old Chartres, near the gate of the old fort 
below, had grown to respectable dimensions. Commencing with tempo- 
rary habitations of artisans and laborers, it had absorbed the population 
of the old town, and the greater part of that of St. Philip.^' Several 
traders settled in it and some of the officers and soldiers of the garrison 
having families resided in the village in preference to the restricted 
limits within the walls. A beautiful lawTilike esplanade, or drill ground, 
of twenty acres, laid between the great gate and the town. We can well 
imagine the maneuvers here of gTenadiers, in pleasant weather, viewed 
with patriotic pride, by the officers and their friends, from the large 
stone platform surmounting the carved arch of the principal gate. Cap- 
tain Saucier's cottage was the newest and neatest in the village "officers 
row," its attractiveness aiid embellishments due to the taste and industry 
of his handsome wife. As a token of his special regard for the Captain, 
Chevalier Makarty transferred Lisette to Adel, for whom she formed an 
attachment at their first meeting; and the true, worthy servant remained 
in the Captain's household, through its fortunes, the rest of her days. 

For several years after his marriage Capt. Saucier remained steadily 
on duty at the Fort superintending the work 6i the builders, until, at 
last, in 1763, the great structure was almost completed. The broad 
stone platform over the fine arch of the main gate was placed in posi- 
tion ; and also the stone stair case and balustrade leading up to it. The 

• "On the first-named grant. Renault established a little village, and as is the 
fashion in more modern times, honored it by his own baptismal name — St. Philip. 
It was on the rich alluvion and had its common field there, the allotments inade 
by himself and within five miles of Fort Chartres. then just erected on a small 
scale, and with no view of durability or strength ; within its shade grew up 
'Chartres Village' as it was called, with its 'common field' also, and 'commons' 
embracing a large scope of the unappropriated domain, and with a chapel served 
by a Franciscan friar and dedicated to St. Anne. Not a vestage of these two vill- 
ages now remain, save some asparagus yearly putting forth its slender stems 
upon the open prairie." — The Early History of Illinois. By Sidney Breese, Cliicago, 
1884, pp. 177-178. 



257 

cannon,* bearing on their surface, the monogram and arms of Louis 
XIV, were mounted in the bastions, and the buildings and arched maga- 
zine within the huge walls were all nearly finished. On the low swampy 
bank of the Mississippi river, in the far western wilderness, it stood, 
a marvel of engineering skill and labor, the grandest and strongest 
fortress in America. 

CHAPTER XV. 

Surrender of Fort Chartres to the English. 

Fort Chartres was the depot of arms and munitions, and the seat 
of military power for all the vast region from New Orleans to Montreal 
west of the Alleghanies, as France then, claimed the entire Mississippi 
valley. England's rapidly increasing colonies on the Atlantic seaboard 
however passed the mountain barrier, and were overrunning the territory 
claimed by France north of the Ohio river. Their aggressions brought 
on local conflicts which, in 1755, resulted in war between the two nations. 
Braddock that year marched on Fort Du Quesne and was defeated. In 
1756, the English General, Forbes, with 7,000 men, retrieved Braddock's 
disaster and compelled the French to evacuate Fort Du Quesne, where 
all the garrison of Fort Chartres, but one company, had been drawn. 
It was now plain that the empire of France in America was tottering 
to its fall. It was too extensive to be successfully defended at all points 
from onslaughts of such a foe. For three years more the unequal contest 
continued, when it was practically terminated by the English victory on 
the Plains of Abraham, and fall of Quebec, on the 13th of September, 
1759. The boldness and sagacity of Pontiac, the friend and ally of the 
French, however, prevented tlie victorious English from taking possession 
of the Illinois until six years later. 

The reverses of the French arms Avere severely felt at Fort Char- 
tres, and throughout the settlements on the Mississippi, though they 
were not in the theatre of the war. The Fort had been rebuilt at im- 
mense expense of treasure and labor, designed to be a permanent bulwark 
for the French possessions in the Mississippi Valley. Yet, it was not 
completely finished when the fall of Canada clearly presaged its doom. 

In 1761, Col. Makarty was, by his own request, ordered back to 
France, and Capt. Xeyon de Villiers, who, of seven brothers in the mili- 
tary service of the King in America, was the only survivor, the other 
six having been killed in defense of Canada, succeeded him in command 
at the Fort. The retiring veteran, upon taking his departure, bid fare- 
well, with touching sadness, to the officers and men, to the colonists who 

* The cannon, five in number, were taken from the ruins of Fort Cliartres, in 
1812, by Gov. Ninian Edwards and mounted on his Fort Russell, n mile and a 
half from the present city of Edwardsville. One of them was bursted when firing 
in celebration of Gen'l. Jackson's victory at New Orleans, in .January, 1815. Of 
the other four no trace can be found. Of the aspect of Fort Chartres, when he 
visited it in 1802, Gov. Reynolds says ; "It was an object of anti-quarian curiosity. 
The trees, undergrowth, and brush are mixed and interwoven with the old walls. 
It presented the most striking contrast between a savage wilderness; filled with 
wild beasts and reptiles, and the remains of one of the largest and strongest fortifi- 
cations on the continent." He visited it again in 1854, and found "Fort Chartres 
a pile of mouldering ruins, and the walls torn away almost even with the surface." 
At present nothing of the great structure remains but one angle of the wall a few 
feet in height, and the magazine." 

—17 H S 



258 

revered him, lo the splendid citadel he erected, and to the grave of his 
idolized daughter. \\'hcn he parted with Capt. Saucier, who accom- 
panied him from France, and had for a decade been intimately associ- 
ated with him in all the aifairs of the Fort, and had shown his daughter 
such, tender attentions, his iron firmness failed, and tears coursed do'WTi 
his bronzed cheeks as he flung himself into his boat and left the Illinois 
for ever. 

When the weak and corrupt King of France, having secretly trans- 
ferred Florida, New Orleans and all the territory west of the Mississippi, 
to Spain, purchased peace with England by ceding to her all the balance 
of his possessions in America, in 17G3, the settlers in the Illinois district 
were overwhelmed with surprise and mortification. Disgusted and heart- 
broken. Captain de Yilliers abandoned Fort Chartres and went to New 
Orleans. Captain Saucier, not wishing to return to France, and seeing 
his military career in America terminated, handed de Villiers his resig- 
nation from the army and took up his abode in Cahokia. The veteran 
Commandant, Louis St. Ange de Bellerive, who many years before com- 
manded the old stockade Fort Chartres, now came from Vincennes, with 
forty men, an& assumed command of the grand new Fort, only to for- 
mally surrender it, on the 10th of October, 1765, to Captain Sterling, 
of the 43d Highlanders, much to the chagrin and deep disgust of Pontiae 
and his braves, and to all the French colonists. To the lasting disgrace 
and humiliation of France her lillies were hauled down from the bastion 
staff and replaced by the detested flag of Great Britain. Fort Chartres 
was the last place on the continent of North America to float the French 
flag. St. Ange de Bellerive, unwilling to live under English rule, after 
the surrender embarked with his handful of men, at the Fort landing and 
proceeded up the river to St. Louis, which he thought was yet in French 
territory, and assumed command of that post. New Chartres was 
speedily deserted; several of its inhabitants following St. Ange to St. 
Louis, and the balance scattering out in the neighboring settlements. 

Captain Saucier and wife, enamored with the country and people, 
upon his resignation left New Chartres and purchased an elegant home 
in Cahokia, where they were accorded the highest respect and consider- 
ation by the entire community. The feeble exhibition of authority by 
the new rulers of the Illinois efllected no perceptible change in the old 
regime, and the peaceful habitants were soon reconciled to the new 
dynasty. Cahokia continued to flourish and grow in importance. Cap- 
tain Saucier engaged actively in business pursuits and prospered; and 
was a patriotic citizen of the United States for many years after George 
Eogers Clark, on the night of the 4th of July, 1778, tore down the odious 
banner of St. George at Kaskaskia, and planted in its stead — for all 
future time — the ensign of political freedom. 

Owing to the loss of the Cahokia parish records — in the confusion 
of removing the Church property to a place of safety during the dis- 
astrous overflow of the Mississippi, in 1&44 — it is now not known when 
Capt. Saucier and his wife died. But it is known that they were buried, 
side by side, in the little gi'aveyard adjoining the old Cahokia Church, 
and that their dust still reposes there with that of several generations 
of the early French pioneers of the Illinois. 



259 

GENEALOGICAL. 

The marriage of Capt. John B. Saucier and Adelaide Lepage was 
blessed by the advent of three children, in the following order :* Baptists 
Saucier, Matthieu Saucier, Francois Saucier. 

Baptiste Saucier and Marie Josephine Belcour were married, in 
Cahokia, in the year 1778. Of the three children born to them, Adelaide 
Saucier and Matthieu Saucier survived; a younger son, John Baptiste 
Saucier, died when a grown young man. 

The daughter, Adelaide, married, in 1799, a young Frenchman 
named Jean Francois Perry, from the vicinity of Lyons, in France ; and 
of their four daughters, three survived, named Louise Perry, Adelaide 
Perry, Harriet Perry. 

Adelaide Perry, married on the 18th of October, 1820, at Cahokia, 
a young man from Fayette County, Pennsylvania, named Adam Wilson 
Snyder ; and of several children born to them, three sons survived, named 
William Henry Snyder, Frederick Adam Snyder, John Francis Snyder. 

APPENDIX. 
Note A. 

During the early agitation for revision of the Dreyfus trial, in 
1897, frequent mention was made in public prints of "General Saussier, 
Military Governor of Paris". In the press despatches from Paris there 
appeared this paragraph: "Paris, January 16, 1898. One hundred 
and twenty-six patriotic and military Societies held a demonstration 
today in the Place Vendome in honor of General Gustavo Saussier, 
Commander-in-Chief of the French Army, and Military Governor of 
Paris, who now retires under the age limit.^^ 

The announcement of his death, in 1905, was cabled to this country 
as follows : 

Paris, Dec. 20. — General Felix Gustave Saussier, former comman- 
der-in-chief of the French army, died today. He was one of the best 
known and bravest- officers in France. In the battles around Metz a 
quarter of a century ago he distinguished himself most signally. The 
famous infantry charge at St. Privat, which practically barred the prog- 
ress of the Germans on that side, was led by him. Saussier was one of 
the officers who signed the protest against the surrender of Metz. Gen- 
eral Saussier also served in Italy, Mexico and the Crimea. He was a 
deputy for some time and in 1873 distinguished himself in the discus- 
sions on the reorganization of the army. 

Note B. 

In the confusion incident to removing the church property to a 
place of safety during the great overflow of the Mississippi in 1844:, the 
parish records of Cahokia were lost. Fortunately, at some time prior 

* Pioneer History of Illinois. By John Reynolds. Second (or Fergus) edition, 
Chicago, 1887, pp. 286 to 291. 

See also Adam W. Snyder and his Period in Illinois History, lS17-lSJi2. By Dr. 
J. F. Snyder, Virginia, Illinois, 1906. 



260 

to 1844, Mr. Oscar W. Collet, of St. Louis, copied the Cahokia register 
of marriages, which copy was discovered, nearly half a century later, iu 
the St. Louis University. It is, however, quite defective, having many 
errors and omissions. The parochial records of Kaskaskia and St. 
Anne, still preserved, are also very defective, with errors, omissions, 
and important parts entirely missing. Hence the difficulty, or impossi- 
hility, of tracing the family history, or personal identity, of many citi- 
zens of French descent who were prominent in the first settling of Illi- 
nois. Tho some of them were well educated, they left no written records 
of themselves or their times. For these reasons there is today much 
uncertainty regarding the earlier members of the Saucier family in 
America, several of whom were noted among the pioneers from Canada 
to Louisiana. 

The following brief references — comprising in great part the present 
knowledge of them — are copied, by permission, from the "Saucier 
Papers" of Judge Walter B. Douglas, of St. Louis : 

Louis Saucier, (son of Charles Saucier and Charlotte Clairet, of 
St. Eustache, Paris), married, at Quebec, Canada, Margueritte Gailliard 
dit Duplessis, on the 12th of January, 1671. They had two children, 
Charles and Jean. 

Charles, baptised Sept. 1st, 1672, married, 1st, Marie Anne Bisson, 
2d, Marie Madeline St. Dennis,, and, 3d, Marie Francois Lebel, and 
had four children. 

Jean, baptised Dec. 4th, 1674, — further history not given.* 

One Jean Saucier was an early inhabitant of Louisiana, as appears 
in the census of 1706, towit, "Jean Saucier, a wife and two children." f 
In Hamilton's Colonial Mobile, p. 80, his name is given as J. B. Saucier, 
his wi'fe was Gabrielle Savary, and his occupation a "Marchand." 

In the same book "Madame Socie" is mentioned, p. 151, as a land 
owner in Mobile in 1760. On page 192 it is stated, "of other officials, 
Ave know Fr. Saucier as sub engineer in 1751." 

When New Orleans was settled, in 1722, some of the family removed 
there, as in the list of first grantees of lots is the name "Sautiei*" as a 
grantee of lot 144. 

"Le 24 X bre (24th of October), 1739, Mr. Sauzier, ingenieur, est 
party avec un detachment d' iVrcanzas et quelques Canadiens a dessin de 
charcher le chemin par on Mr. d'Artaguet avoir este aux Chics." ^ 

The place from which he departed was Bienville's camp near the 
present site of Memphis. 

In the Kaskaskia parochial register, "Saucier" signs as a witness 
to a marriage, on the 20tli August, 1742. In same, under date of July, 
1761, is this entry, "Marie Jeanne Fontaile, widow of Francois Saucier, 
lieutenant refonne (half pay) and inginieur pour le Eoy at Fort Char- 
tres, married Alexander du Clos. In March, 1788, she was married, 
for the third time, to Jean du Martin, a native of Ax, in Gascony. She 
is described in the last entry as "Marie Jeanne Saucier, widow of the 
deceased Alexander du Clos." 



• Tanguay's Dictionaire Genealogique des Famille Canadienes. 
t Fortier s History of Louisiana, p. 52. 

JJoiirnfil de la Guerre du Mississippi en 1739 et flni en 1740 le ler dpvril. 
Par un officier de TArmer de M. de Nouallle. N. Y. Shea. 1859. 



261 

Jauvier 7, 1761, Monsieur Saucier fils signs as a marriage witness 

1759, Francois Saucier, cadet, is a godfather. 

From the St. Anne parish register it is learned that "le Sieur Jean 
B. Sausie, ingenieur," was godfather at Fort Chartres on the 19th of 
February, 1753. 

In the same register, 12 avriel, 1758, Sausier was witness at the 
marriage of Marie Amie Belcour. 

1758, 30 Juliet, Saucier again signs as marriage witness. 

1760, 10 Juin, Saucier again signs as marriage witness, and is 
designated in the entry as "Monsieur Saucier." 

1760, 8 Janvier, a negro slave of Saucier was buried. 
There was in early days, Billon says, in St. Louis, Marie Barbe 
Saucier, wife of Julien Le Koy. They were married at Mobile in 1755. 
One of their daughters married Jean Baptiste Frudeau, first school 
master in St. Louis. Joseph Francis Saucier was godfather of some of 
the Le Eoy children in 1767. 

Prof. Clarence W. Alvord, of the Illinois State Universit}-, found 
in the Canadian Archives, copied from Archives Coloniales a Paris, 
several legal documents emanating from "nouns, Francois Saucier, Ar- 
penteur, Soussigne, &c;" and states. "Saucier was still Arpenteur in 
1737, beginning in 1707 (Archives C. F. 224, p. 24 and G. p. 80), most 
of the documents of the period in the volume were written by Saucier." 
I am also indebted to Prof. Alvord for the following records copied 
from those of Kaskaskia and St. Anne, (translated) : 

Feb. 6, 1733. Village of M. Renault. Francois La Croix and his 
wife Barbe Meaumenier, sold to their son-in-law, Henry Saussier, a 
ierre of three arpents front extending from tlie Missfssippi to the bluffs, 
lying between land of M. Girardot and Francois La Croix, for three 
hundred minots of wheat, payable in yearly instalments of 10 minots. 
Furthermore, Saussier promises to maintain in repair the commune 
which crosses his land, and to pay the seignioral rights. Signed by 
cross for La Croix, and cross for his wife. Eobbilhand witness. Jerome, 
^STotary. 

Sept. 22, 1737, Jean Baptiste Saucier acknowledges to have sold 
to Joseph Deruisseau and company a family of slaves, consisting of a 
negro, a negress, a negroit and negrillome, for 2000 livres payable in 
wheat, &c. Made in the house of J. Bte. Bauvais. Signed J. B. Saucier, 
J. Deruisseau, (and company), J. B. Beaulieu, Joseph Leduc, Barrois. 
Notary. 

Sept. 17, 1758, at the request of Henry Saucier, and on the order 
of M. Buchet, judge in the jurisdiction, the Royal hussier (auctioneer), 
Louis Robinet, offers at auction before the door of the parish church of 
St. Anne, after mass, land of two and a half arpents front extending 
from the Mississippi to the bluffs, situated in the commons of the village 
of St. Philippe du Marais, belonging to the said Saucier. It is offered 
three times, and is finally sold for 305 livres to J. Belcour. Signed 
Robinet, Huissier, Belcour signed with a cross. Metius, Duchemin, 
witnesses. 

April 19, 1763. In the house of M. Deselle at Prairie du Rocher 
an elaborate marriage contract was entered into by Sieur Antoine Duclos, 



262 

Ecuyer, "natif de la paroise de St. Anne a la Nouvelle Chartres, aux 
Illinois, diocese de Quebec, fil de Sieur Alexandre Duclos, ancien officer 
des trouppes de sa majeste tres Christienne," on the one part, and 
"Demoiselle Marie Jeanne Saucier, fille d Sieur deffunct Francois Sau- 
cier, ingeuieur pour le Eoy," &c., of the second part, with consent of 
her mother, Sieur Pierre Girardot, her appointed guardian, of Dame 
Magdeliene Loiselle Girardot, her aunt, Demoiselle Felicite Saucier 
her sister, and Sieur Baptiste Saucier her brother. Parties and wit- 
nesses all signed in presence of Viault Lesperance, Xotary. 

In Collet's "Index" to the old Cahokia marriage register the fol- 
lowing are the only Sauciers recorded : 

Baptiste Saucier married Marie Josephine Belcour. Before 1784. 

Francois Saucier married Angelique Eoy dit Lapensee. Before 
1787. 

Matthieu Saucier married Catherine Godin, 1788. 

Matthieu Saucier married Josette ChatiUon, Sept. 8, 1812. 

fils du Baptiste Saucier fille du Francois Chatillon. 

et Marie Josephine Belcour et Margaret Lachaine. 

And all of them enumerated in the census of Cahokia in 1787 are:* 
Matthieu Saucier ; Matthieu son fils ; Francois Saucier pere ; Charle son 
fils ; Bte Saucier pere ; Jean Baptiste son fils ; Matthieu son fils. 

The three heads of families here named, brothers, Baptiste, Mat- 
thieu, and Francois Saucier, were quite prominent in the public affairs 
of Cahokia and vicinity during the latter part of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, all three serving for some time as Justices of the district court, f 
Matthieu and Francois Saucier "founded the village of Portage des 
Sioux in Upper Louisiana,''^ and for many years were successful traders 
there. 

The writer of this sketch was for many years intimately acquainted 
with Matthieu Saucier, (my mother's uncle), son of above named Bap- 
tiste Saucier. He was born at Cahokia in 1782, married Josette Cha- 
tillon dit Godin in 1812, and died at Prairie du Pont in 1863, at the 
age of 81. He was a very intelligent, quiet and unassuming gentle- 
man, with but limited education, and only traditional knowledge of his 
ancestral genealogy. All that he knew of his grandfather was that he 
came from the Loir district in France, and had been an army officer at 
Fort Chartres. He believed him to have been the Francois Saucier 
mentioned — as quoted in this Xote — in the Journal de la Guerre du 
Mississippi en 1739, etc., as the "ingeneur" who led a detachment of 
"Arcanzas" and a few Canadians on the route taken by d' Artaguiette 
against the Chickasaws in 1736; and, in Hamilton's Colonial Mobile, 
as a "sub engineer in 1751;" and the inference of his death prior to 
1760 from the registry of marriage of his widow, in July, 1761, to 
Alexandre du Clos, in which he is alluded to as a retired (reforme) 
lieutenant and engineer at Fort Chartres. That lieutenant Saucier 
evidently was in the King's military service on the Mississippi at quite 

* Collections of the Illinois State Historical Library. Vol. II. Cahokia Rec- 
ords. C. W. Alvord. 1907, p. 624 et seq. 
t Cahokia Records. Alvord, 1907. 
t Reynolds' Pioneer History of Illinois, p. 280. 



263 

an early day, and probably served as an engineer in the building of the 
first Fort Chartres, and perhaps of the second Fort also. 

In 1737 there was a Jean Baptiste Saucier at Prairie du Eocher, 
of whom nothing is now known, and who is supposed to have come to 
America with Eenault in 1731. 

It is learned from the St. Anne parish records that "le Sieur Jean 
B, Saucier, ingenieur", was at Fort Chartres in February, 1752. 

Eeynolds says, "in 1756, Jean Baptiste Saucier, a French officer 
at Fort Chartres, and married in that country. After the country was 
ceded to Great Britain in 1763, he located himself and family in Caho- 
kia where he died. He had three sons : Jean B., Matthieu, and Francois 
Saucier, who were popular and conspicuous characters in early times 
in Illinois.^'* 

Edward G. Mason states — in his KasJcaskia and its Parish Records. 
Chicago, 1881. p. IS. — "On May 22d, 1806, (occurred) the marriage 
of Pierre Menard, widower, and Angelique Saucier, granddaughter of 
Jean B. Saucier, once a French officer at Fort Chartres, who resigned 
and settled in the Illinois country." 

•Pioneer History of Illinois, 2d Ed., Chicago. 1887, p. 286. 



164 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Aberdeen. Scotland 52 

Aberdeenshire, Scotland (J9 

Adams Family 167 

Adams, (Dr.) J. A 56 

Adams, (Pres.) John Quincy, 120, 121, 

123, 125, 127, 128, 129, 133, 145, 182 
"Advance." Periodical of the Con- 
gregational Church 56 

Agricultural Development of Illinois 
Since the Civil War. By Dean 
Kugene Davenport of the Univer- 
sity of Illinois 27, 101-106 

Agriculture. Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. 
Interest in Agricultural Develop- 
ment. See Public Lands. 
Ainslie. Various spelling of the 

name 79 

Aix-la-Chapelle. Peace of, in 1748.. 227 

Alaska 34, 76 

Alaska. Gold Boundary Question. 

Reference 76 

Albany, N. Y 87, 126 

Albany, N. Y. Law School 87 

Alexander Co., Illinois 61 

Alexandria. Va 57, 79, 128 

Alexandria, Va. Muir, (Rev.) James, 
a Scot preached in Alexandria, Va., 

from 1789 to 1820 79 

Alexander, William 186 

Alexander, (Maj.-Gen.) William, of 
New Jersey. War of the Revolu- 
tion 32, 33 

Allegheny Mountains 

31, 38. 123, 245, 257 

Allen and Thomas. Business firm, 

Ky 112, 113 

Allen, J 170 

Allen, Tandy 113 

Allison. James 62 

Alphin, S 170 

Alston, John 84 

Alton, 111. American, Jan. 30, 1834. 

Foot-note 150 

Alton, 111. Riots, 1837. Death of 

Elijah P. Lovejoy 159. 160 

Alton, 111. Telegraph, April 23, 1842. 

Foot-note 153 

Alton, 111. Telegraph and Demo- 
cratic Review, Alton, Illinois, June 

11. 1842 170 

Alvord, Clarence Walworth 

207, 208. 211, 212, 261 

Foot-notes 209, 262 

Alvord, Clarence Walworth. Cahokia 
Records, 1778-1790. Illinois His- 
torical Collections, Vol. II. Vir- 
ginia Series, Vol. T 207. 208 

Foot-note 262 

Alvord. Clarence Walworth. Critical 
Period, 1763-1765. Vol. I. British 

Series 208 

Alvord. Clarence Walworth. Kas- 
kaskia Records, 1778-1790. Illi- 
nois Historical CoUecrtions. Vol. 

V. Virginia Series, Vol. II 

207. 208, 211. 212 

Alvord, Clarence Walworth. Miss- 
issip])) Vallev in British Politics 

208, 212 

Foot-note 209 



PAGE. 

Alvord, Clarence Walworth and Car- 
ter, Clarence E. New Regime, 
1765-1767. Illinois Historical Col- 
lections, Vol. XI. British Series, 

Vol. II 208, 209 

Ambler, Charles H 208 

America 31, 

66, 70, 81, 88, 206, 234, 238, 257, 263 

American Colonies 31, 35, 74 

American Colonies. Scots and Ul- 
sters. Scots in 31, 35 

American Continent 79 

American Farm Machinery, develop- 
ment in 102 

American Fur Companies 40 

American .Jewish Historical Society 

Publications 209, 211 

American Maize Propaganda 88 

American Society of Civil Engineers 83 
American State Papers. Public Lands, 
Vol. II. Account of the proceed- 
ings of the Illinois and Ouabache 

Land Companies 212 

Amherst, (Gen.) Jeffrey. (Baron 

Amherst) 38 

Andover, Mass. Theological College 42 
Andreas, A. T. History of Chicago. 

Quoted : . . . 78 

Andrew. John. Early settler of Win- 
nebago Co., Illinois 64 

Anna, 111. Illinois State Hospital, 

located in 75 

Ansley, (Miss) Jane 54 

Antrim, Ireland 46 

Appalachian Mountains 188, 189 

Appendix. Joseph Duncan's Diary.. 

180-187 

Arc, Joan. See Joan d'Arc 218 

Archives Colonials A Paris 261 

Argyle, Dukes of Argyle 64 

Argyle, (Winnebago Co.) 111. Scotch 

Settlement 64-66 

Argyle. Scotland 63 

Argyllshire, Scotland 

51, 54, 63, 64, 65, 66 

Arkansas River 134, 241 

Armagh, County Tyrone, in the Prov- 
ince of Ulster in the north of Ire- 
land 54 

Armour, George 64 

Armour. George. Native city Camp- 

belltown, Scotland 83 

Armour Institute, Chicago 51 

Armour, .Tames 51 

Armour. James of Ottawa, 111 64 

Armour, J. Ogden 51 

Armour, John 64 

Armour. Philip Danforth, of Scotch 

Ancestry 51 

Armour, Robert. Early Settler of 

Winnebago County, 111 64 

Armstrong Family 66 

Armstrong, George Buchanan. 
Founder of Railwav IMail Service. . 81 

Armstrong, (Rev.) J. C. D.D 66 

Arnold, Isaac N '. 59, 70 

Art Institute, Chicago. Ill 65 

Artaguette. Pierre. Expedition 
against the Chickasaws, 1736. 
Reference 262 



265 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Ashlev, (Mrs.) 125 

Asiatic Cholera. Foot-note 23 !» 

Aster House, Mackinac Island 60 

Astor, John Jacob 60 

"Astoria," By Washington Irving. 

Reference •• 60 

Atchison and Santa Fe R. R 90 

Atlantic Ocean "4, 79 

Aubert, Monsieur Louis. French 
High Commission to tlie United 

States 21 

Aubert, Monsieur Louis. Message 

from France 21 

Aurora. Ill 78, 80, 81 

Aurora. 111. Jennings Seminary lo- 
cated in 81 

Aurora, 111., Presbyterian Churc!« . . . 80 

Ax in Gascony 260 

Ayr. Scotland 78 

Ayrshire, Scotland .. 54, 62, 67, 69, 79, 82 



Badenoch, John J 53 

Baker, D. J. Letter to Kane, Dec. 

1, 1834. Foot-note 150 

Balaclava : 72 

Baldwin, Abraham '. 208 

Ballaiityne, James 55 

Ballantyne. Variou.s spelling of the 

name 79 

Ball, (Lieut-Col.) James Vincent, 
Squadron of Dragoons, War of 

1812 110 

Baltimore, Md 87, 135. 209, 211 

Baltimore, Md. Political Convention 

of 1832 held in 135 

Baltimore ;\Id. Republican National 

Convention at Baltimore in 1864.. 87 
Baltimoie, Md., Republican (News- 
paper) May 25, 1832. Quoted 135 

Bancroft, Edgar A. "Illinois, the 

Land of Men" 21 

Bank of the United States. Joseph 

Duncan's position on 146, 147 

Banner of St. George 258 

Baptist Church 41. 43, 58, 86 

Baptist Church, Chicago. Ill 43 

Baptist Church, Ottawa, 111 58 

Baptist Church of Christ, Friends of 
Humanity, Known as an anti- 
slavery organization 41 

Barclay. Andre\v 62 

Barclay, James 62 

Barclay, John 62 

Barclay. Robert 62 

Barker, Harry E 18, 19, 22 

Barleycorn. John, Pseudonym of 

James Chisholm 55 

Barnes, Mortimer G. Inland Water- 
ways and Transportation costs. 

Foot-note . 154 

Barnet, Alexander 76 

Barnet. James. Early printer and 

publisher in Cliicago 72, 76 

Barnet, James. Martyrs and Heroes 
of Illinois. Pub. Chicago, 1865. 

Reference 72, 76 

Barnsley, (Capt.) 210 

Barrois, Notary, 1737 261 

Bartel, Chevalier de 227 

Bass, J. H 84 

Batavia, 111. Foot-note 178 

Bateaux. (Boats) on the Ohio River 192 

Bateman, Newton 48, 49, 91 

Foot-note 152 

Bateman, Newton, of English and 
Scotch de.«cent 48 



PAGE 

Bateman, Newton, Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, State of Illi- 
nois, President of Knox College, 

Galesburg, 111 48 

Bateman, Newton and Selby, Paul. 
Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois. 

Foot-note 152 

"Battle Hvmn of the Republic" 89 

Battle of Metz 259 

Battle of Tippecanoe, War of 1812.. 120 

Bauvais, J. Bte 261 

Bay of St. Pierre, Island of Mar- 
tinique 239. 240, 254 

Baynton, Wharton and Morgan. 
Eastern Merchants, Traders in the 

Illinois Country 

..190, 191, 193, 197. 199, 207, 210, 211 

Foot-note 209 

Baynton, Wharton and Morgan. 
(Competition with William Murray, 
Ag-ent of B. and M. Gratz in the 

Illinois Country 193, 194 

Baynton, Wharton and Morgan. 
Contract for provisions at Fort 

Chartres 198 

Baynton, Wharton and Morgan, es- 
tablish Post on the Sctoto River. 

Opposition to, by other firms 190 

Baynton, Wharton and Morgan. 
Manuscripts in the Pennsylvania 

State Library 207 

Baynton, Wharton and Morgan. 
Opposition to their monopoly of 
the Fur Trade, Illinois Country .. .190 
Baynton, Wharton and Morgan. 
Received large contracts for sup- 
plying Indian Department with 

goods for presents to Indians 211 

Baynton, Wharton and Morgan with- 
draw from the Illinois Country. . . .197 

Beardstown, 111 131, 132 

Beaubien, (Col.) M 48 

Beaulieu, J. B 261 

Beckwith, (Hon.) Hiram W 20 

Foot-note 228 

Beebe, Avery N 24 

Beeclier, (Rev.) Edward. President 
of Illinois C o 1 1 e g- e, Jackson- 
ville 118, 165 

Belcour, J 261 

Belcour, Marie Anne 261 

Belcour, Marie Josephine 259, 262 

Belcour, Marie Josephine. Marriage 

to Baptiste Saucier, 1778 259 

Belcour, Marie Josephine, wife of 

Baptiste Saucier, Children of 259 

"Belgium the Kingdom of Grief". 

Moving Picture. Reference 95 

Bell, J 185 

Bellerive, Louis St. Ange de....210, 258 
Bellerive, Louis St. Ange de. Sur- 
renders Fort Chartres to Captain 

Sterling-, Oct. 10, 1765 258 

Bentley, Thomas 206, 212 

Benton, (Prof.) Elbert J 21 

Benton, Thomas H 123 

Berniem, (Lieut.) De 199 

Berry, E. C 187 

Beveridge, (Brev. Brig-Gen.) John 

L 73 

Beveridge, (Gov.) John L., of Scot- 
tish descent 77 

Bienville, Jean Baptiste Le Moyne. 
First settlement in New Orleans 

made by Bienville 247 

Bienville, Jean Baptiste Le Moyne 
Sieur de Governor of Louisiana. . . 
225. 260 



366 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Big Woods Cemetery 80 

Billon, Frederic L. Comp. Annals of 
St. Louis under the French and 

Spanish Dominations 261 

Biloxi, Miss 225 

Binnie, Andrew 62 

Birkbeck, Morris 54, 116 

Birkbeck, Morris, Anti-slavery Man.. 116 
Birkbeck, Morris, Secretary of State 

of Illinois 116 

Bissell, William H. Nominated for 
Governor of Illinois at Republican 
Convention held in Bloomington, 

May 29, 1856. Foot-note 80 

Bissoh, Marie Anne, wife of Charles 

Saucier 260 

Blackburn, (Rev.) Gideon.. 49, 50, 159 
Blackburn, (Rev.) Gideon. Letter of 
Governor Duncan to, in reference 

to Alton Riots, 1837 159, 160 

Blackburn, (Rev.) Gideon, of Ulster- 
Scot Ancestry 49 

Blackburn University, Carlinville, 111. 

49, 50, 98 

Black, George N 20 

Black Hawk 131, 132 

Black Hawk. War, 1832 

74, 80, 131, 132, 133 

Foot-note 132 

Black Hawk War. Wakefield, John 
A. Historv of the Black Hawk 

War. Foot-note 132 

Black, James 187 

Blackman, (Dr.) ■ 157 

Black, (Mrs.) 131 

Black Watch (42d Highlanders) 35 

Blackwell, Robert 54 

Blaine, James G 87 

Blair. Francis G. Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, State of Illi- 
nois, quoted on the Public School 

Bill 117, 118 

Blair, Francis G. Governor Cole's 
Contribution to Freedom and Edu- 
cation in Illinois, quoted. Foot- 
note 117 

Blanchard, Jonathan 91 

Blatchford, E. W. Sketch of Gover- 
nor Josenh Duncan. Reference. . .107 

Blodgett. Israel P 80 

Bloit, Piero 201 

Bloom. (Cook Co.) Ill |5 

Bloominqton. Ill 69 

Foot-note 80 

Bloomington, 111. First Republican 
or Anti-Nebraska State Convention 
held in. May 29. 1856. Foot-note 80 
Boisbriant, Pierre Duque', Command- 
ant of the Illinois. Builds Fort 

Chartres 225, 226 

Bonaparte, Napoleon 133 

Bond, Charles A 24 

Bond Co., Ill 44 

Bond, Shadrach 122 

Bonheur, Rosa. Painter of note of 
animals. Reference to work of... 104 

Boone Co., Ill 63 

Bonnie Prince Charles. Styled "The • 

Pretender" • • • 7| 

Boone, Daniel 34, 36 

Booth, Edwin 91 

Bordeaux, France 237 

Bossu, (Capt.) M. Foot-notes 

226, 228, 231, 232 

Bossu, (Capt.) M. Travels en Lou- 

isiana. Quoted. Foot-note 228 

Bossu, (Capt.) M. Visits Fort 

Chartres. Reference 228 

Foot-notes 226, 228 

Boston Corners, Erie Co., N. Y 86 



PAGE. 

Bouquet, (Col.) Henry 191, 208 

Foot-note 209 

Bouquet, (Brig.-Gen.) Henry. Briga- 
dier-General Henry Bouquet. By 

George H. Fisher 208 

Bourbon Co., Ky 108 

Bowen, Henry C. Editor of the 

"New York Independent" 88 

Bowen, (Mrs.) Joseph T 19, 27, 93 

Bowen, (Mrs.) Joseph T. The War 
Work of the Women of Illinois. . . . 

27, 93-100 

Braddock, ( Gen. ) Edward 257 

Bragg, (Gen.) Braxton, Confederate 

General, War of the Rebellion.... 72 
Branch, John P. Historical Papers 
of Randolph-Macon College. Edited 

by Charles H. Ambler 208, 211 

Brantford, Canada 72 

Breese, Sidney 131 

Foot-note 256 

Breese, Sidney. History of Illinois, 

quoted. Foot-note 256 

Brent, H 186 

Brest, France 234, 238 

Brienne, France 225, 232 

Bridgeport, Conn. Congregational 

Church 43 

Brighton Park Presbyterian Church 65 

"British Anna," Vessel 165 

British Army '. 109, 110 

British Coloniel Governors, many of 

Scotch descent; 33 

British Museum, London, England. 
General Haldimand Manuscripts in 

207, 212 

British JNIuseum, Manuscripts, Lon- 
don, England 207, 211, 212 

Brooklyn, N. Y 82 

Brooks. B. W 170 

Brougham. Lord 38 

Brown Family 167 

Brown, (Capt.) James N., of Island 
Grove, 111., importer of high-class 

cattle 103 

Brown, Stuart 169 

Brown, Thomas C 187 

Brown University, Providence, R. I. 76 

Brown, William 176 

Brown, William H 122, 187 

Foot-note 122 

Brown, William J 172, 173 

Browning, Orville H 91, 160 

Brownsville, 111. (called Fountain 

Bluffs) Jackson Co., Illinois 114 

Bruiser, Monsieur Isadore 

238, 240, 243, 247, 254, 255 

Buchanan, (Pres.) James 166 

Buchet, M 261 

Buffalo, N. Y 84, 126, 154 

Bunker Hill 31 

Bunn, John W 91 

Burgoyne, (Gen.) John 75 

Burke, of Philadelphia 197 

Burlington, R. R 84 

Burnham, (Capt.) J. H 20 

Burns, Robert, Baird of Scotland. . . . 

32, 35, 54, 72, 78, 84 

Burns, Robert. Centennial Celebra- 
tion of the birth of 72 

Burrell, (Prof.) Thomas J., of 

Ulster-Scot Ancestry ol, 52 

Bushnell Township, McDonough Co., 

Illinois 62 

Bushy Run, Battle of. Reference. .191 

Bushy Run 209 

Butricke, (Ensign) George 210 

Byars, B 209, 210, 211 212 



267 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Cahokia 195, 229, 231, 232, 236, 

245, 246, 250, 258, 259. 260, 262, 263 

Foot-notes .' 231, 232, 245 

Cahokia. Census of 1787 262 

Cahokia, Collet's Index to the old 

Cahokia Marriage Register 262 

Cahokia Indians. Foot-note 231 

Cahokia. Jarnot place in. Refer- 
ence. Foot-note 245 

Cahokia Parish Records lost... 258, 259 
Cahokia. Register of Marriages of 
Cahokia, copied by Oscar W. Collet 

of St. Louis 260 

Caliokia. Rivaled Kaskaskia as a 

trading point 229 

Cahokia. St. Anne Parish Records.. 263 
Cahokia. Saucier, (Capt.) Jean Bap- 
tiste. Sent to take command of the 

fort at Cahokia 245, 246 

Cahokia. Saucier, (Capt.) Jean Bap- 
tiste. Takes up his residence in 

Cahokia, after his marriage 258 

Cairo, 111 78, 93, 125 

Caldwell, Anna 163 

Caldwell, Anna Maria 131, 157 

Caldwell, Hannah Ogden, wife of 

James R. Smith of New York City. 124 
Caldwell, (Rev.) James, of New Jer- 
sey. Chaplain in the Revolutionary 

Army 124 

Caldwell, Peter. Early settler of 

Winnebago County, 111 64 

Caledonia, (Boone Co.,) 111., settled 

in 1838 . 63 

Caledonian Society of Chicago. 
Peter Grant, popular Bard of the 

Society 76 

Calhoun Family 68 

Calhoun, (Hon.) J. Short Sketch .. . 68 

Calhoun, John 164 

Calhoun, John C 123 

Calhoun, Robert 68 

Calhoun, Sarah Knox 68 

Calhoun, (Hon.) William J 66, 68 

Callander, Scotland 60 

Callender, Robert, of Cumberland 

Co., Pa 197, 200, 201 

Cambridge, (Henry Co.,) Ill 86 

Camden. Lord 197, 200, 204 

Cameron, A. C 56 

Cameron, (Brig-Gen.) Daniel 73, 75 

Cameron, (Gen.) Daniel R., Journal- 
ist 53, 56 

Cameron, Donald, Lochiel. A High- 
land chief of Scotland 74 

Campbell, aids in the rescue 

of Jim Gray (nigger Jim) 59 

Campbell family of Argyllshire, 

Scotland 63, 64 

Campbell, (Capt.) James 197, 211 

Campbell, James M 62 

Campbell, (Capt.) John, of Cumber- 
land Co., Pa 

200, 201, 204, 205, 207, 212 

Campbell, John. Killed by outlaws in 

Winnebago Co., Ill 63 

Campbell, Lachlan 46 

Campbell, (Major) of Ten- 
nessee 183 

Campbell, Martha. Early School 

teacher in McDonough Co., III.... 62 
Campbell, William J. (Senator from 

Chicago) 45, 77 

Campbell, William J., of Scottish 

descent 77 

Campbelltown, Scotland 51, 83 

Camp Seneca. War of 1812 110 



PAGE. 

Canada GO, 260 

Canadian Archives 261 

Canalport, on the Chicago River.... 154 

Cannon, James 210 

Cantire, (Kintyre) Scotland 66 

Carbondale, 111. Southern Illinois 

State Normal located in 75 

Carlin, (Gov.) Thomas 161 

Carlinville, 111 49. 50, 85, 98 

Carlinville, 111. Blackburn College 

located in 49, 50, 98 

Carolinas, (The) 34 

Carondelet, Baron d e, Spanish 

Governor 212 

Carpenter, Philo. Gives aid to Jim 

Gray (nigger Jim) 59 

Carpenter, Richard V 5 

Carr, (Gen.) Byron 87 

Carr, Caleb. Colonial Governor of 

Rliode Island 86 

Carr, (Hon.) Clark Ezra 

19, 20, 23, 27, 86-92 

Carr, (Hon.) Clark Ezra. Address 
on the Life and Character of 

John A. Logan. Reference 88 

Carr, (Hon.) Clark Ezra. Commis- 
sioner of the State of Illinois for 
the Soldiers' National Cemetery, 

Gettysburg, Pa 88 

Carr, (Hon.) Clark Ezra. "The 

mini" 86, 90 

Carr, (Hon.) Clark Ezra. Lincoln 

at Gettysburg 88, 90 

Carr, (Hon.) Clark Ezra. Memorial 
on the Life and Services of Clark 
E. Carr, by George A. Lawrence . . 

27 86-92 

Carr, (Hon.) Clark Ezra. ' Minister 

Plenipotentiary to Denmark. .. .87, 88 
Carr, (Hon.) Clark Ezra. "My Day 

and Generation" 90, 92 

Carr, (Hon.) Clark Ezra. Political 

Activities 89, 90 

Carr, (Hon.) Clark Ezra. President 
of the Illinois State Historical 
Society, 1909-1913. President Emer- 

^itus 86, 88 

Carr, (Hon.) Clark Ezra. Writings 

^ of 86, 90 

Carr, Clark Merwin 86, 87 

Carr, Clark Mills. Son of Clark E. 

Carr 89 

Carr, Delia Ann Torrey 86 

Carr, (Gen.) Eugene A 87 

Carr, (Capt. ) George P 87 

Carr, (Rev.) H. M. D.D 87 

Carr, (Gen.) John 150 

Carroll, William, of Carrollton 125 

Carroll, William T 131, 167 

Carrollton, 111. Hand bill announcing 
Governor Duncan's Speech, Oct. 26, 

1840, in Carrollton 167 

Carson, Pirie Scott & Co. Dry Goods 

firm, Chicago 83 

Carter, Clarence E. Great Britain 
and the Illinois Country, 208, 210, 211 

Foot-note 209 

Carter, Clarence E. and Alvord, Clar- 
ence W. Eds., The New Regime, 
1765-1767. Illinois Historical Col- 
lections, Vol. XI 208 

Foot-note 209 

Carter, (Justice) Orrin N 65 

Cartwright, (Hon.) James H. Ad- 
dress, on The Supreme Court of 

Illinois. Reference 21 

Casson. Herbert N. Life and Work 
of Cyrus Hall McCormick 33 



268 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Caton, (Judge) John Dean 58, 51* 

Cerr^, Gabriel 211 

Chalmers, Thomas 83. 84 

Chalmers Townshiii, :M<jDonough Co., 

Ill 62 

Chalmers, William J 84 

Chamberlin, Charle.s H. Author of 

Song, "'Illinois" 73 

Charles I. of Kngland 31 

Charles II. of England 31 

Chartres Village. Foot-note 256 

Chatillon, Francois 262 

Chatillon. Josette. Marriage to ]\Iat- 

thieu Saucier, Sept. 8, 1812 262 

Chattanooga, Tenn 72 

Cheney, (Bishop) Chas. E 43 

Chicago, 111 35, 

36, 41, 43, 44, 45, 48, 49, 51, 53, 55, 
56. 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 
75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 
98, 99. 103, 104, 107, 108, 154, 158, 170 

Foot-notes 85, 118, 122, 123, 154 

Chicago, 111. American, July 18, 1842. 

Quoted 132 

Chicago, III. Andreas' History of 

Chicago. Quoted 78 

Chicago. 111. and Eastern Illinois 

Railroad 68 

Chicago. 111. Armour Institute 51 

Chicago. 111. Art Institute 65 

Chicago, 111. Barnet, James, early 
printer and publisher in Chicago. . 76 

Chicago, 111. Board of Trade 45 

Chicago, 111.. Called the "Garden 

City" 55. 70. 77, 78 

Chicago, 111. Congregational City 

Missionary Society of Chicago.... 66 
Chicago, 111. Congregational Theo- 
logical Seminary 53 

Chicago, 111. Congregational Theo- 
logical Seminary at Union Park. . 65 
Chicago, 111. Covenanters in, lead- 
ers in religious, benevolent and 

educational fields 44 

Chicago, 111. Crerar Library 71 

Chicago. 111. Drainage (S an i t a r y 

District) Canal 77 

Chicago, 111. Earlv School Teachers 

in 48 

Chicago, 111. Ellsworth Zouaves.... 72 
Chicago, 111. Fat Stock Show. Ref- 
erence 103, 104 

Chicago, 111. Federal Building 
wrecked bv bomb of an anarchist, 

in 1918. Reference 81 

Chicago. III. Fergus Historical Se- 
ries, history of pioneer days in 

Chicago and Illinois 56 

Chicago, 111. Fergus, Robert, pub- 
lished the first directory in Chi- 
cago 56 

Chicago, 111. Fire of 1871. Refer- 
ence 55, 56. 83, 107, 170 

Chicago, 111. Grammar Schools in 
Chicago, named after distinguished 
Scots and descendants of Scots- 
men 53 

Chicago, 111. Grand Pacific Hotel. . . 78 
Chicago, 111. Highland Guards, or- 
ganized May 3, 1855 72 

Chicago, 111. Historical Society, 107, 108 

Foot-notes 118, 122, 123 

Chicago, 111. Historical Society Col- 
lections. Foot-note 123 

Chicago, 111. Inter-Ocean (Newspa- 
per) 55 



PAGE. 

Chicago, 111. In 1835 67 

Chicago, 111. Jefferson Park Presby- 
terian Church 84 

Chicago. 111. Kinzie, John, called 

the father of Chicago 41, 79, 83 

Chicago, 111. Kirkland and Moses, 

History of Chicago. Quoted 

35, 36, 67, 70, 71 

Chicago, 111. "Lake Front Suits," 

Reference 69 

Chicago, 111. Lewis Institute 53 

Chicago, 111. McKee, David, first 

blacksmith in Chicago 80 

Chicago. 111. Martineau, Harriet, de- 
scription of the boom in Chicago, 

1836 158 

Chicago, 111. Moses and Kirkland, 

History of Chicago. Quoted 

35, 36, 67, 70, 71 

Chicago, 111. Municipal Pier 98 

Chicago, 111. National City Bank of 

Chicago 71 

Chicago, 111. Newberry Library. ... 71 
Chicago, 111. Ogden. William B. 

First Mayor of Chicago 70 

Chicago. 111. People's Gas Co. of 

Chicago 82 

Chicago. 111. Presbyterian Church, 

2d, of Chicago 44, 55, 71 

Chicago, 111. Public Librarj'. Foot- 
note 85 

Chicago. 111. Scotch Presbyterian 

Church 76. 84 

Chicago. 111. Scots in, connected 

with the press of the city 55, 56 

Chicago, 111. Tribune, (Newspaper) 55 
Chicago, 111. Times. (Newspaper) . . 56 
Chicago, 111. Union Stock Yards, or- 
ganized and opened for business in 

Chicago in 1865 104 

Chicago, 111. University of Chicago, 
in its beginning called the Douglas 

University ; . . . . 49 

Chicago, III. University 43, 49 

Chicago, 111. Woman's City Club... 99 
Chicago. 111. World's Columbian Ex- 
position 77 

Chicago River 154 

Chickasaw Indians 226. 245, 262 

Chillicothe, Ohio HI 

China 34, 68, 76 

China. Calhoun, (Hon.) William J. 

Minister to China 68 

Chisholm, James 55 

Chisholm. James. Pseudonym. John 

Barleycorn 55 

Christian Co., Ill 55 

Churches, Baptist Church. . 41. 43, 58, 86 
Churches. Congregational Church . . 

43. 52, 58, 66 

Churches. Methodist Church 58 

Churches. Presbyterian Church. 2d, 

Chicago 44. 51, 71 

Churches. Presbyterian Church, 

Jacksonville. Ill 178 

Cincinnati, Ohio 103, 209 

Circuit Riders 54 

Civil War. See War of the Rebel- 
lion.. 45, 49. 50, 55, 57. 68, 70, 71. 
73, 75, 76, 80. 81. 83. 101, 102, 154 
Civil War. Illinois and Michigan 
Canal in. great factor in trans- 
portation 154 

Clairet. Charlotte, wife of Charles 

Saucier 260 

Clark and Raffen, Business firm, 
Chicago. Ill 83 



269 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

Clark, (Gen.) George Rogers 

34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 47, 121, 205, 208, 

209, 212, 226, 258 

Clark, (Geo.) George Rogers. Cap- 
tures Kaskaskia, July 4, 1778. Ref- 
erence 205, 226, 258 

Clark, (Gen.) George Rogers. 
"Clark's Grant" of land in In- 
diana. Reference 37 

Clark, (Gen.) George Rogers. Con- 
quest of the Illinois 34 

Clark, (Gen.) George Rogers. James, 
James A. George Rogers Clark 
Papers, 1771-1781. Illinois His- 
torical Collections, Vol. VIII, Vir- 
ginia Series, Vol. Ill 208, 209, 212 

Clark, (Gen.) George Rogers, Toast 
to. Fourth of July celebration, 

Vandalia, 111., 1825 121 

Clark, James 62 

Clark, (Rev.) John. Early Mission- 
ary in Illinois. Dr. Peter Ross, 

quoted on 41 

Clark, (Rev.) John. Pioneer teacher 

and preacher in Illinois 41, 47 

Clark, (Rev.) John. Massachusetts 

Colony 86 

Clark, John. Great-grandfather of 

Gen. George Rogers Clark 36 

Clark, John. Manufacturer 83 

Clark, Jonathan 36 

Clark, (Miss) 86 

Clark. Robert, of the firm of Clark 

and RafEen 83 

Clark, (Capt.) William, of the Lewis 

and Clark Expedition 36, 37 

Clarke. Matthew St. Clair. .124, 125, 128 

Foot-note 128 

Clarke, Matthew St. Clair, Clerk of 
the U. S. House of Representa- 
tives. Foot-note 128 

Clarke, (Mrs.) Matthew St. Clair 

124, 125 

Clarkson, Matthew, Diary Aug. 6. 

1766-April 16, 1767. Quoted 209 

Clay. Clement C, of Alabama 140 

Clay Familv 167 

Clay, Henrv 121, 123, 186 

Foot-note 122 

Clny. Henry, Toast to, at Fourth of 
July celebration, Vandalia, Illinois, 

1825 121 

Clendenin, H. ^V 5 

Cleveland, Ohio 42. 110, 111, 126 

Clos, Alexandre du 260, 262 

Cloud, Xewton 150 

Clow, Robert 61 

Cobden Township, Union Co., Ill 78 

Codding, (Rev.) Ichabod. Anti-slav- 
ery lecturer 58 

Coddington, Joseph 147 

Coffin. (Mr.) of Batavia. 111. 

Letter to Mrs. Julia Duncan Kirby, 
dated December. 1885. Reference. 

Foot-note 178 

Colebrook. (Sir) Robert ... 193, 198. 211 
Cole, Edward, Commissary, Illinois 

Country 194 

Coles, Arthur 16 

Coles, Edward. President of the 
Board of Canal Commissioners. .. 153 

Coles, (Gov. ) Edward 44, 

115, 116. 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 131 
Foot-notes 116, 178 



PAGE. 

Coles, (Gov.) Edward. Blair, Francis 
G. Governor Coles' contribution to 
Freedom and Education in Illinois. 

Quoted 118 

Foot-note 117 

Coles, (Gov.) Edward. Sketch of 
Governor Coles by B. B. Wash- 
burn, quoted. Foot-note 116 

Coles, (Gov.) Edward. Work in be- 
half of education, State of Illinois 

117, 118 

Collett, Oscar W. Cahokia Register 

of Marriages, copied by 260 

Collet, Oscar W. Index to old Ca- 
hokia Marriage Register 262 

Collins, J. H 19 

Collins, Lewis. History of Kentucky 

208, 212 

Collins, Richard 208 

CoUyer, (Dr.) Robert 43 

Colonial Office Papers 210, 211, 212 

Colonial Patriots 32 

Colorado River 52 

Colquhon Family 68 

Columbia River 37 

Colyer, Walter 5 

Common School Advocate 55 

Community Councils of Illinois 100 

Company of the Indies 225 

Company of the West, created by 

John Law 33, 34 

Company of the West, failed in 1731 226 
Conestoga Massacre. Foot-note. ... 209 
Congregational Church, Bridgeport, 

Conn 43 

Congregational Church. First Na- 
tional Council of Congregational 

Churches, 1871 66 

Tongregational Church. Ottawa, 111. 58 
ConTregational City Missionary So- 
ciety of Chicago 66 

Congregational Conference, Illinois 

State 52 

Congiegational Theological Seminary, 

Chicago 53 

Conkling, Clinton L 5, 19 

Conn, Eunice 162 

Connellsville, Fayette Co., Pa 244 

Conway. Henry 19 

Copk, Burton C 59 

Cook Co., 111. Forbes, Stephen, 

Earlv educator in 48 

Cook Co.. 111. Forbes, (Mrs.) Ste- 
phen. Early educator in 48 

Cook Co., 111. Lyons Township. 

Foot-note 85 

Cook Co. ,111. Reformed Presbyter- 
ian congregations in, in an early 

day 44 

Cook. Daniel P 54, 121. 122 

Cook. Daniel P. Congressional ca- 
reer 121. 122 

Corinth, Battle of. War of the Re- 
bellion 61 

Corn, Illinois Corn production, 1860. 

1910 comparisons 102 

Corn Kitchen at the Paris Exposition 88 

"Coronation" Hymn. Reference 91 

Cossit, F. D. Founder of La Grange, 

Illinois 65 

Covennnteis. Anti-slavery people, 

covenanters lend aid to 44 

Covenanters, Church of, in Chicago. . 44 
"Covenanters" Communion season. 46. 47 
Covenanters. Incident illustrative of 
the manner in which they expressed 
their convictions 45 



270 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Covenanters, Migration overseas. ... 44 
Covenanters. Were Scotch and Ul- 
ster Scotch 44 

Cowan, William 62 

Crabbe, (Mrs.) Edwin G 26 

Crawford, Andrew 69 

Crawford Family 69 

Creighton, (Judge) Jacob B 69 

Creighton, (Judge) James A. Short 

sketch 69 

Creighton, John 69 

Creighton, Mary 69 

Crerar, Adams & Co 71 

Crerar, John. Short sketch 71 

Crerar Library, Chicago 71 

Crescent City, (New Orleans) 34 

Crichton, Admiral 69 

Crichton, (Crighton) Family 69 

Crief, Perthshire, Scotland 71 

Crighton, James 45 

Crighton, John 84 

Croghan, George. Deputy agent of 

Indian affairs 191 

Croghan, George. Gold medal, pre- 
sented to, by Congress, for defense 

of Fort Stephenson Ill 

Croghan, George. Indian Trader... 

.7 .190, 191, 200, 201 

Foot-note 209 

Croghan, (Col.) George. War of 1812 

Cromwell, Oliver 31 

Crooke, Ramsey • • 60 

Crozat, Antoine, obtains a monopoly 
of the commerce and trade, with 
the control, of the "Illinois coun- 
try" ^"^ 

Cruicksiiank, Amos. Scottish breeder 

of short-horn cattle 103 

Cuba " 

Culloden! 'Battle of. 1746 • • 74 

Cullom, (Gov.) Shelby M 23, 63, 91 

Cumberland Co., Pa 200, 201 

Cumberland Valley 108 

Cunningham, (Judge) J. 20 

Currer, John • 44 

Curtlev, , Kidnapper, case of 

Jim Gray, (nigger Jim) 58 



Dane, Michael 201 

Danish West India Islands 88 

Danville, 111 68 

Danville, Ky 186 

D'Artaguette, Pierre. Expedition 
against the C h i c k a s a w s, 1736. 

j^gf^j^gjKjQ 2ihZ 

Dartmouth, Lord 202, 203, 212 

Davenport, (Dean) Eugene. The 
Agricultural Development of Illinois 

since the Civil War 27, 101-106 

Davenport, Iowa, Academy of Sci- 
ences. Foot-notes 107, 114. 177 

Davidson, Alexander and Stuve, 
Bernard. History of Illinois. 

Foot-notes 122, 132 

Davidson, (Mr.) 126 

Davidson, William H 156 

Daviess, (Col.) Joseph Hamilton. 
Jo Daviess County, Illinois named 

for 120 

Davis, David 91 

Davis, J. McCan 20 

Davis, (Mrs.) J, McCan 24 

Davis, W. R 184 

Dawson. Biographer of General 
Harrison Ill 



P.\GE. 

Day, (Rev.) Dr. Warren 43 

Day, (Rev.) Wm. Horace, D.D 43 

De Bartel. Chevalier de. See Bar- 

tel 227 

De Berniem, Lieut 199 

Declaration of Independence 33 

Delaware State. Early Scots, in.... 35 
Delorme, Antoine. Early Merchant 

of New Orleans 248, 254, 255, 256 

Delorme, Augustine 254, 255 

Delorme, (Madam) Antoine. .. .248, 256 
Delorme Family of New Orleans. . . . 

248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 255, 256 

Delorme, (Mam'selle) Rosealie 

249, 250, 251, 255, 256 

Denmark. Carr, (Hon.) Clark E. 
Minister Plenipotentiary to Den- 
mark 87, 88 

Depew, Chauncey M 90 

Deruisseau, J 261 

Deselle, M 261 

Detroit, Mich 60, 75, 76 

DeVaudreuil, Marquis 247, 248. 249 

Diary of (Gov.) Joseph Duncan . 1 80-187 
Diary of Mrs. Joseph Dune a n. 

Quoted 125, 

126, 127, 164, 165, 166, 167, 177, 178 

Foot-note 125 

Douglas, Adam 63 

Douglas Co., Ill 61 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold 

49, 66, 67, 68, 87, 90, 91, 129, 168 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold. Carr, 
(Hon.) Clarke E. Life of Stephen 

A. Douglas 90 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold. Debate 
with Gov. Joseph Duncan. Refer- 
ence 168 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold. Donates 
land in Chicago for an institution 

of learning -49 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold. Lincoln- 
Douglas Debates, 1858 87, 90, 168 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold, of Scotch 

descent 49 

Douglas University, Chicago Univer- 
sity in its beginning was so called. 49 

Douglas, (Judge) Walter B 17, 260 

Dow, Daniel. Early settler in Win- 
nebago County, 111 63 

Drake, John B 78 

Draper, (Dr.) Andrew Sloan, Presi- 
dent of the University of Illinois. . 52 
Draper, Lyman C. Manuscripts in 
Library of the State Historical 

Society of Wisconsin 207, 211 

Dresden, 111 154 

Dreyfus Trial, 1897 259 

Driscoll, . Held for the murder 

of John Campbell in Winnebago 

Co., Ill 63 

Drummond, Arnold 192 

Drummond, James 67 

Drummond, (Judge) Thomas 67 

Drumtossie, or Culloden, Scotland. . 74 
Drysdale, Parish of, in King and 

Queen County, Va 36 

Duchemin, . Witness, 1758.... 261 

Duclos, Alexandre 262 

Duclos, (Sieur) Antoine 261 

Duff, John, one of the spies sent by 

Clark to Kaskaskia 37 

Duff, (Miss) Nellie Brown 18 

Duke of Argyll 51, 64 

Duke of Cumberland 74 

Duluth, Minn 84 

Dumbartonshire, Scotland 68 



271 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Dumfernline, Scotland 44 

Dumfrieshire, Scotland 69, 82 

Duncan, Act of 1824, State of Illinois 48 

Duncan, Ann 113 

Duncan, Ann Elizabeth 164 

Duncan Family 47, 48, 114 

Duncan Family. Removal of, from 

Paris, Ky. to Brownsville, 111 114 

Duncan, Henry St. Clair. Foot-note. 153 

Duncan Home, Jacksonville, 111 14b 

Foot-notes 163, 164 

Duncan Home, Jacksonville, 111., pur- 
chased by the Rev. James Cald- 
well Chapter, D. A. R. Foot-note. 163 
Duncan Home, Paris, Kentucky, still 

standing 108 

Duncan, James, son of Major Joseph 

Duncan 108, 112 

Duncan, James, son of Gov, Joseph 

Duncan 162 

Duncan, (Gen.) James M. Foot- 
note 122 

Duncan, James M 170, 185, 187 

Duncan, John, son of Major Joseph 

Duncan 112 

Duncan, (Maj.) Joseph. Father of 
Gov. Joseph Duncan, of Illinois.. 

47, 108. 112 

Duncan, (Major) Joseph, of Scotch 

Ancestry 47 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. The Life 
and services of Joseph Duncan, 
Governor of Illinois, 1834-1838. By 
Miss Elizabeth Duncan Putnam.. 

27, 1(17-187 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Anonymous 
life. Addressed to Governor Dun- 
can, dated, 1840 107, 116 

Foot-notes 107, 116, 120, 145 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Banks. State 
Bank. Governor Duncan opposed 

chartering of 158 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Banks. 
United States. Duncan's Amend- 
ment 141, 142, 143, 144 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Banks. 
United States Bank, his position 

on 141, 142, 143, 144, 146, 147 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Biographical 
sketch by his daughter, Mrs. Julia 

Duncan Kirby. Quoted 54, 107 

Foot-notes 

118, 160, 163. 164, 169, 171 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Black Hawk 
War. Joseph Duncan Brigadier 

General in 132 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Blatchford, 
E .W. Sketch of Governor Joseph 

Duncan. Reference 107 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Break with 

the Democratic Party 146 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph Calls special 
session of the Legislature, July, 

1837 158 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Career in 

the Illinois Senate 115-121 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Civil Serv- 
ice, Advocate 129 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Congres- 
sional career, 1827-1834 121-144 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Death of, 
in Jacksonville, III., January 15, 

1844 177-180 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Debate with 

Stephen A. Douglas. Reference. . .168 
Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Description 
of V 116 



PAGE. 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Diary 

107, 127, 145, 180-187 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Diary of, 

quoted on Jackson's Presidency. . .127 
Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Dissatisfac- 
tion as to Jackson's policies 144 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Early life. 
War of 1812. Removed to Illi- 
nois 108-115 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Education, 

work in behalf of 

47, 48, 117-119, 151 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Free School 
law of Illinois. Evidence that 

Duncan wrote the law 119 

Duncan. (Gov.) Joseph. Governor of 

Illinois, 1834-1838 144-161 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Home of, 
in Jacksonville, "Elm Grove" built 

in 1833 131, 146 

Foot-notes 163, 164 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Home of, 
in Jacksonville, Illinois, purchased 
by the Rev. James Caldwell Chap- 
ter, D. A. R. Foot-notes 163, 164 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Illinois and 

Michigan Canal. Joseph Duncan 

active in the interest of. .129, 130, 161 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Illinois State 

Senate. Governor Duncan, member 

of 115-121 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Interest in 
the survey of the northern bound- 
ary of the State and the lead mines. 127 
Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Internal Im- 
provements. Governor Duncan's 

arguments in favor of 151, 152 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Internal Im- 
provements work in behair oi . . . . 

151, 152, 158, 161 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Jackson- 
ville, 111., becomes permanent home 

of 131, 146 

Duncan, ((i^ov.) Joseph. Jackson- 
ville, Illinois. Citizens pass reso- 
lutions on the death of 180 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Kirby, 
(Mrs.) Julia Duncan. Biographical 
sketch of Joseph Duncan. Quoted 

48, 54, 107 

Foot-notes 

118, 160, 163, 164, 169, 171 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Lead mines 
at Galena, Illinois. Duncan quoted 

on 139 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Last pol- 
itical campaign. Business affairs 

167-177 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Letter from 
his brother Thomas to his mother, 
defending Joseph from an unjust 

attack 114 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Letter to 
Rev. Gideon Blackburn in regard 

to Alton Riots, 1837 159, 160 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Letter of 
Dr. Finley to, dated Jacksonville, 

May 27, 1834. Foot-note 144 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Letter of, 
to Gen. C F. Mercer, dated Wash- 
ington City, March 25, 1834 .. .109-111 
Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Letter of, 
to Charles B. Penrose, dated Dec. 

1st, 1841 173-174 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Letter to 
Charles B. Penrose, Esq., Solicitor 
of the Treasury, on the Linn 
affair 170-171 






INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Duncaji. ( ( Jov. ) Joseph. Letter to 
Charles B. Penrose, Solicitor of the 
Treasury, dated Dec. 21. 1841. .174-175 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Letter to 
the President of the United States, 
dated Nov. 26, 1841 168 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Letter to 
T W. Smith, dated. U. S. House of 
Representatives, April 18, 1832.... 135 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Letters of, 
(Dr.) James C. Finley to 14()-150 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Military 
career, War of 1812. Reference. . .120 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Note Boolt. 

Reference 114, 118 

Foot-notes 114, 115 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Of Scotch 
Ancestry 47, 48, 77, 108 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Papers of, 
destroyed in the Chicago Fire. 107, 131 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Park in 
fiont of home of, given to Jaclv- 
sonville by Mrs. Duncan. Foot- 
note 163 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Plea in Con- 
gres.s for mounted troops to defend 
the settlers on the frontier 133 

Duncan. (Gov.) Joseph. Political 
speeciies while campaigning 122 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Public 
Lands, Congressional record of 

Joseph Duncan on 

134, 135, 136, 137, 138. 139, 140 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Putnam, 
Elizabeth Duncan. The Life and 
services of Joseph Duncan, Gov- 
ernor of Illinois, 1834-1838. . .107-187 

Duncan. (Gov.) Joseph. Quoted on 
the northern boundary of Illinois.. 127 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Quoted on 
the Spoil system 155, 156 

Duncan. (Gov.) Joseph. Removes 
from Kentucky to Illinois in 1818.. 113 

Duncan, (Gov.) Josepli. Resolution 
in Congress for mounted volunteers 
for the better protection of west- 
ern settlers, 1828 124 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Resolutions 
on the death of, adopted by citi- 
zens of Jacksonville, 111 180 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Retirement 
to private life 181-167 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Slavery. 
Duncan disapproved of. as "a great 
moral and political evil" 160 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Speech in 
Springfield, 111., Sept. 25, 1840. 
Reference 168 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Takes an 
active part in the campaign of Van 
Buren 167 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Trustee of 
the Deaf and Dumb Institution, 
Jacksonville, 111 178 

Duncan, (Gov.) Jo.seph. Trustee of 
Illinois College in Jacksonville, 111.178 

Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. Washington 
and Bolivar. Toa.«t to. by Duncan. 
Fourth of July celebration at Van- 
dalia. 111., 1825 121 

Duncan, Joseph (2nd), of Chicago. 
Son of Gov. Joseph Duncan. Foot- 
note ■. 177 

Duncan, (Mrs.) Josepli. (Elizabeth 

" Caldwell Smith) 

..107, 108, 124, 125, 126, 156, 177, 17S 

Duncan, (Mrs.). Joseph. Death of, 
in Jacksonville, 111., May 23, 1876.177 



PAGE. 

Duncan, (.Mrs. Joseph) Diary. 

Quoted 107, 125, 126, 

127, 164, 165, 166, 167, 176, 177, 178 

Foot-note 12S 

Duncan, ( Mrs. ) Joseph. Journey 
from Washington, D. C, to Foun- 
tain Bluffs, Illinois 125-126 

Duncan, (Mrs.) Joseph. Park in 
front of the Duncan Home, Jack- 
sonville, given to the city by Mrs. 

Duncan. Foot-note 163 

Duncan, (Mrs.) Joseph. Reminiscen- 
ces. Quoted. . .125, 126, 161, 162, 163 
Duncan, Julia Smith. (Mrs. lOdward 

P. Kirby). Foot-note 177 

Duncan, M 170 

Duncan. Mary Louisa. 162, 164, 177, 178 

Foot-note 177 

Duncan, Mary Louisa. Wife of 

Charles E. Putnam. Foot-note. . . .177 
Duncan, Matthew. Editor and pub- 
lisher of "The Illinois Herald," in 

Kaskaskia 54, 113 

Duncan, Matthew. Editor of "The 
Mirror." Newspaper in Russel- 

ville, Ky 54, 113 

Duncan, Matthew. Printer of the 

Illinois Territorial Laws in 1813.. 113 
Duncan, Matthew. Son of Major 
Joseph Duncan.. 54, 108, 109. 113. 125' 

Duncan, ( Mrs. ) Matthew 125 

Duncan, Polly Ann. (Mrs. William 

Linn) 113, 125, 157. 169 

Duncan, Thomas A 

112, 113, 114, 130, 186 

Duncan, Thomas. Killed in Louis- 
iana 130' 

Duncan, Thomas. Letter to his 
mother dated Russelville, Ky., Nov. 

28, 1820 114 

Dundee, 111., origin of the name 61 

Dundee, Scotland 52 

Dunham, Mark, of Wayne Co., 111. 

Breeder and importer of fine horses. 104 
Dunlap, Millard F., of Jacksonville, 

111 8l 

Dunmore, Earl of, Petition of the Illi- 
nois Land Company to, April 19. 

1774 202 

Dunmore, (Lord). (James Murray) 

34, 202, 203, 204 

Dunmore. War 203 

Dunn, (Hon.) Charles 174 

Du Page Co., Illinois 80 

Du Quesne, M. Foot-note 227 

Durand, (Madame) of New Orleans. 255 
Dunaverty, Ruin of. Scotland. Ref- 
erence 64 

Dwight. 111. Congregation Church... 6."> 

Dy.son, G 131 

Dyson, R 15a 



East India Company 34 

East Indies 34 

Eaton, (Major) 127, 183, 184, 185 

EchoLs. John 170 

Eckcnrode, H. J 21 

Eden, 111. G. T. Ewing, early teacher 

in 53 

Edinburgh, Scotland 42. 75. 79 

Edinburgh, Scotland, called "The 

Athens of the North" 42 

Edinburgh, Scotland. University of 

Edinburgh 79 

Edmund & O'Callaghan, (Eds.) Docu- 
ments relative to the State of New 
York . • 20S 



273 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

E. D. p. Initials of Elizabeth Dun- 
can Putnam. Foot-note 122 

Education. Coles, (Gov.) Edward. 
Work in behalf of education, State 

of Illinois 117, 118 

Foot-note 117 

EducatioTi. Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. 
Work in behalf of education. State 

of Illinois 47, 48, 117-119, 151 

Education, Illinois College, Jackson- 
ville, 111 42, 44, 48, 50, 55, 118, 178 

Education, University of Illinois. . . . 

52, 63, 101, 105 

Foot-note 188 

Edwards Co., III., English Colonv. ... 54 

Edwards, James G 146, 147, 149 

Edwards, James G., Editor of the 
Illinois Patriot, Jacksonville, 111.. 146 

Edwards, (Mrs.) James G 146 

Edwards, Ninian. History of Illinois, 
and Life and Times of Ninian Ed- 
wards. By Ninian Wirt Kdwaids. 

Quoted. Foot-notes 122. 123 

Edwards, (Gov.) Ninian. Letter of 
John McLean to, dated April 25, 

1825. Foot-note 123 

Edwards, (Gov.) Ninian. L,etter of 
Joseph M. Street to Governor Ed- 
wards, dated Shawneetown, July 

28, 1827. Foot-note 123 

Edwards, (Gov.) Ninian. United 

State Senator from Illinois. . 121, 122 
Edwards, (Dr.) Richard, Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction, State 

of Illinois 78 

Edwardsville. 111. Foot-note 257 

Elburn, (Kane Co.), Ill 77 

"Elegy in a County Churchyard," 

Gray. Quoted 91 

Elgin, 111. First Baptist Church.... 83 

Elgin, 111., origin of the name 61 

Elizabeth McCormlck. Memorial 

Fund. Reference 96, 98 

Ellis, (Rev.) John Millot. Early 

educator in Illinois 118 

Ellsworth, (Col.) Ephraim Elmer. 

Killed May 24, 1861 57 

"Ellsworth Zouaves." Reference. .57, 72 
Elm Grove, Home of Governor Dun- 
can. Built in Jacksonville,. 111., 

1833 131. 146 

Foot-notes 122, 163, 1G4 

Elssler, Fanny 165 

Emancipation Proclamation of Abra- 
ham Lincoln 87 

Emerson. Ralph Waldo 167 

England 69, 121, 244, 257 

England. Bank of England founded 

by William Paterson 69 

England. Colonies on the Atlantic 

Seaboard. Reference 2.") 7 

English Colony in Edwards Co., 111. . 54 
English emissaries succeed in winning 
the allegiance and friendship of the 

Indians from the French 245 

English Flag 245, 258 

English Flag. Banner of St. George. 258 
English, (Hon.) W. H. Conquest of 

the Northwest. Quoted 35 

Ensign, (Dr.) W. 24 

Erie Canal 15g 

Erie Co., N. Y 86, 87 

Erith, England ' 34 

Erskine, (Rev.) E., Editor of the 

North Western Presbyterian 56 

Erskine Parish in Renfrewshire, 
Scotland 73 

—18 H S 



PAGE. 

Eschikgon, (Chicago). A river and 
fort at head of Lake "Michigan. ... 35 

Etoile du Nord, — Vessel 

234, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 253 

Etting, Manu.scripts in the Pennsyl- 
vania Historical Society, Phila- 
delphia 207, 209, 210, 211 

Evan.s, (Judge) 147 

Evanston, 111., Garrett Biblical Insti- 
tute located in 43, 53 

Ewing, G. T 53 

Ewing, Wm. L. D 170 

Exeter, Cal. Foot-note 177 



Farmar, (Major) Robert, British 

Commandant at Ft. Chartres 191 

Farris, (Rev.) John M 43 

Farris, (Rev.) Wm. W 43 

Fat, Stock Show, Chicago. Refer- 
ence 103, 104 

Fayette, Co., Pa 244, 259 

Fergus family 57 

Fergu.s, George Harris 56, 57 

Fergus Historical Series. Quoted. 54, 50 

Foot-note 158 

Fergus, John 57 

Fergus, Margaret Patter.son (Aitken) 57 
Fergus Printing Co., Chicago. Foot- 
note 107 

Fergus, Robert, Publisher of the first 

directory of Chicago 56, 57 

Fergus, Robert Col Iyer. Foot-note... 85 
Ferguson, Duncan. Early settler in 

Winnebago County, 111 63 

Ferguson, D. H 63, 70 

Ferguson, William. Early settler of 

Winnebago Co., Ill 64 

Field, Alexander P 170 

Field, Marshall & Co., Chicago 45 

Finley, James 129. 163 

Finley, (Dr.) James C, Letters to 
Joseph Duncan, Dated Nov. 9, 
1833 ; Nov. 30, 1833 ; Dec. 27, 1833 ; 
Jan. 24. 1834 ; Feb. 15, 1834 ; May 
23, 1834; May 27, 1834.. 146, 147, 150 

Foot-note 144 

Finley, (Pres.) John H 21, 22 

Finley, (Pres.) John H., Address at 
Centennial observance, State of 

Illinois. Reference 22 

Fisher, George H. Brigadier General 
Henry Boquet. In Penn.sjlvania 
Magazine of Biography and His- 
tory 208 

Fisk, Franklin W 65 

Fleming, John 170 

Fontaile, Marie Jeanne, Widow of 

Francois Saucier 260 

Forbes, (Capt. ), Commandant at Fort 

de Chartres 189, 192 

Forbes, (Gen.) Joseph 257 

Forbes, (Mrs.) Stephen. Early edu- 
cator in Cook Co., Illinois 48 

Forbes, Stephen. Early educator in 

Cook Co., Illinois 48 

Ford, (Gov.) Thomas. Elected Gov- 
ernor of Illinois 16S 

Ford, fGov. ) Thomas. History of 

Illinois. Quoted 107, 116, 119 

Foot-notes 

116. 120, 132, 146, 153, 158 

Fcrgan, David R. Banker, Chicago. 

70. 71 

Forgan, James B. Banker, Chicago. 

70, 71 

Forsyth, William 39 



274 
INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Fort Aimstrong 132 

Fort Chartres, (Fort de Chartres) . . . 

34, 35, 78, 

189, 193, 197. 198, 199, 210, 211, 
225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 
232, 240, 243, 244. 255. 256, 257. 258 

Foot-notes 

209, 226, 227, 228, 232, 257 

Fort Chartres, Abandoned by the 
British. Foot-note 226 

Fort Chartres. Bossu, (Capt. ) M., 
visits Fort Chartres. Reference. . .228 
Foot-notes 226, 228 

Fort Cliartres, British in possession 
of 35 

Fort Chai'tres, Building of the new 
fort 228, 229 

Fort Chartres, Cannon from, taken 
from the ruins of Fort Chartres. . .257 
Foot-note 257 

Fort Chartres, Completed in 1720, 
named as a compliment to the 
Regent, whose son was Le Due de 
Chartres 226 

Fort Chartres, Construction of — Seat 
of Civil as well as military govern- 
ment of the Illinois 226 

Fort Chartres, Demolishment of 211 

Fort Chartres, Described by Ensign 
George Butricke 210 

Fort Chartres, Forbes, (Capt.). Com- 
mandant of 189 

Fort Chartres, Founding of. Refer- 
ence 34 

Fort Chartres, French garrison at, at- 
tempts to relieve 189 

Fort Chartres, Hamilton, (Maj.), 
Isaac, abandons and destroys Fort 
Chartres 199 

Fort Chartres, In possession of the 
English in 1765. Foot-note 226 

Fort Chartres, Mason, Edward G., 
Old Fort Chartres, a paper read 
by Hon. E. G. Mason before the 

Chicago Historical Society 22 7 

Foot-note 227 

Fort Chartres, Plan of 230 

Fort Chartres. Provisioning of never 
satisfactory to the military 
officials 199 

Fort Chartres. Rebuilt and gar- 
risoned by a body of regular 
troops 227 

Fort Chartres. Rebuilding of, for 
permanent security of French pos- 
sessions on the Mississippi 244 

Fort Chartres. Reynolds, ( Gow ) 
John, visits Ft. Chartres in 1802 
and in 1854. Foot-note 257 

Fort Chartres. Saucier, Jean Bap- 
tiste I, civil engineer employed in 
the construction of Fort Chartres. 225 

Fort Chartres. Snyder, (Dr.) John 
F., The Armament of Fort Char- 
tres. Foot-note 226 

Fort Chartres, Social life at the Fort, 
under Commandant Chevalier de 
Makarty 230, 232 

Fort Chartres, Strongest fortress in 
America 257 

Fort Chartres, Surrender of, to the 
British 257, 258 

Fort Chartres. Wilkins, (Lieut. Col.) 
John, takes command at Ft. Char- 
tres 193 

Fort Dearborn 

39, 40, 41, 48, 75, 80 



PAGE. 

Fort Dearborn, Final evacuation, 

1836 41 

Fort Dearborn, Massacre 41 

Fort Dearborn. Old Fort Dearborn 

location 75 

Fort Donelson, War of the Rebelion. 73 

Fort Du Quesne 257 

Fort Gage, Stockaded Jesuit building 

in Kaskaskia. Foot-note 226 

Fortier, Alcee. History of Louisiana. 

Quoted. Foot-note 260 

Fort Necessity, Defeat of Washington- 

at 244 

Fort Pitt 35. 190, 191, 192, 199. 211 

Foot-note 209 

Fort Pitt. Murray, (Capt.) William 
of the Forty-second Regiment of 
Royal Highlanders, commands five 

companies at Ft. Pitt 190, 191 

I'ort Pitt. Reed. Commissary at 

Fort Pitt 199 

Fort Pitt. Rendezvous of groups of 
eastern merchants interested in fur 

trading 190 

Fort Pitt. Ross, (Mr.) . 

Manager of the Contractors at 

Fort Pitt 199 

Fort Royale, Island of Martinique . . . 

237, 240, 254 

Fort Russell, Cannoii from P^. Char- 
tres, mounted in. Foot-note 257 

Fort Stanwix 189, 192, 210 

Fort Stanwix, Treaty of Ft. Stanwix, 

1768 189 

Fort Stephenson. Col. George Crog- 
han presented with a gold medal 
by Congress for defence of Fort 

Stephenson Ill 

Fort Stephenson. War of 1812 

109, 110, 111 

Fort Sumter 73 

Fort Thrasher 112 

Fort Wayne, Ind 80, 84 

Foster, H 170 

Fountain Bluff. Brownsville, Jack- 
Co., early so called 114, 125, 126 

Fowler, (Bishop) Charles H 43 

Fox Indians 79 

Foot-notes 231, 232 

Fox River, 111 61 

France '. 33, 100, 

105, 241, 244, 249, 250, 251, 253, 254 

Franklin Co., Ky 212 

Franklin, Walter S 208 

Franks Brothers of London, Eng. . . . 

194, 197, 198, 202, 211 

Franks, David 190 

191. 194, 195, 197, 198, 210, 211, 212 
Franks, David. Counting House, 

Philadelphia 190 

Franks, David & Co., Tradei s, Illinois 

Country 194, 196, 197 

Frank Family 191, 209 

Franks. Jacob 197, 201, 204, 209, 211 

Foot-note 209 

Franks, Moses 

192, 197, 198, 201, 204, 211 

Foot-note 209 

Fi-anks, Moses, Contract made by, 
and others for provisioning the 

troops in Kaskaskia, 1768 198 

Fi-anks, Napthali. Foot-note 209 

Franks, Nesbitt & Sir Robert Cole- 
brook, London Syndicate, contract 
to supply the British garrisons in 

America 193 

Franks, (Miss) Richi 191 

Foot-note 209 



275 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

Fraser & Chalmers Co., shops in Chi- 
cago and Eritli, near London 83 

Fraser, David R 83 

Fraser, Norman D 84 

Fraternal Organizations. Masonic 

Fraternity 23 

Fraternal Organizations. Odd Fel- 
lows , 23 

Frederick the Great 226 

Freese, L.. J 19 

Fremont Campaign of 1856. Refer- 
ence 87 

French and Indian War 35. 211 

French Flag. Lillies of France 258 

Fi-ench. Military and Civil districts 
created by the French in the Miss- 
issippi Valley 34 

Fridley, Stephen 61 

Frudeau, Jean Baptiste, First School 

master in St. Louis 261 

Fuller, (Adj. -Gen.) Allen C, State of 

Illinois 75 

Funk's Grove, McLean Co., Illinois. .103 
Funk, Isaac, Shipper of cattle and 

swine in an early day in Illinois. .103 
Fur Trade, Eastern merchants ren- 
dezvous at Fort Pitt interested in 

F^r Trading 190 

Fur Trade, Regulation of, by the 
British. licenses to prospective 
western traders 189 



Gadsbies, (Gadsby) Hotel, Wash- 
ington, D. C 128, 181 

Gage, Lyman G. Secretary of the 

United States Treasury 70, 71 

Gage, (Gen.) Thomas 

34, 199, 203, 210, 211 

Foot-note 209 

Gage, (Gen.) Thomas. Opposition to 
the development and settlement of 

the Northwest Territory 34 

Gailliard, Margueritte, dit Duplessis, 

wife of Louis Saucier 260 

Gaines, (Gen.) Edmund P. 131, 132, 133 

(3airloch, Scotland 79 

Galena, 111 67, 70. 79, 126, 139 

Galena, 111. Galena and Chicago 
Union Railroad, now the North- 
western 70 

Galena, III. In 1835 07 

Galena, 111. Lead Mines... 126, 127, 139 
Galena, 111. Lead Mines, authorized 
to be sold bv the President in a 

bill introduced June 5, 1834 139 

Galesburg, 111 53, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90 

Galesburg, 111. Knox College, lo- 
cated in 53, 87 

Galesburg, 111. Public Library Asso- 
ciation ^ 88 

Galissoniere, Marquis de Roland 
Michel Barrin. Governor General 

of Canada 227, 247 

Garden City, Chicago so called 

70, 7T, 78 

Gardiner, Alexander 61 

Garrard and Hickman. Business 

firm in Kentucky 130, 186 

Garrett Biblical Institute, Evanston, 

111 43, 53 

Footnote 85 

Gary, (Judge) Joseph E 69 

Gates, P. W. President of the Eagle 

Works, Chicago 83 

Gayarre, Charles. History of Louis- 
iana. Quoted 209 

Foot-note 247 



PAGE 

Gavarre, Charles. History of Louis- 
iana, The French Domination. 

Vol. Ill 209 

G-enealogical Works in the Illinois 

State Historical Library 26 

Georgia State 34, 35, 41 

Georgia State. Early Scots in 35 

Gerard, French Minister to colonies ; 
member of Illinois Wabash Land 

Company 206 

Gettysburg, Pa. Battle of Gettys- 
burg. Reference 43 

Gettysburg, Pa. Soldiers' National 

Cemetery 88 

Gibson, (Col.) George 205,212 

Gibson, John. Protest to Sir William 
Johnson, Indian Superintendent Illi- 
nois Country 190 

Giffen, Andrew, early settler of Win- 
nebago Co., Ill 64 

Giffen, John 66 

Gillespie, David • • 63 

Gillespie, Joseph 63, 77 

Foot-note 118 

Gillespie, Joseph. Recollections of 
early Illinois and her noted men. 

Foot-note 118 

Gillespie, Mathew 63 

Girardot, Dame Magdeline Loiselle. .262 

Girardot, Pierre 261, 262 

Girten, (Judge) Michael 19 

Glasgow, Scotland 53, 57, 63, 66, 81 

Glasgow, Scotland. University of 

Glasgow V • • • V,,"-' 

Glenn, John M. Secretary of the Illi- 
nois Manufacturer's Association, 

Chicago ■• ■• 50 

Godin, Catherine. Marriage to Mat- 

thieu Saucier, 1788 262 

Godin, Josette 262 

Gonson, (Col.) 184 

Goodwin, (Dr.) E. P 43 

Gore, E. E 8d 

Goudie, (Gowdie) Family 

54, 55, 67, 79 

Goudie, John, "The terror of the 

Whigs" 54 

Goudy, (Hon.) Calvin, M. D 55 

■ Goudy, Ensley T 55 

Goudy, Robert. Ancestry of 54 

Goudy, Robert. Early publisher in 

Illinois 54, 55 

Goudy, (Mrs.) Robert 54, 55, 67, 88 

Goudy, (Hon.) William C....55. 67. 6S 
Goudy, (Hon.) William C. Short 

sketch 67, 68 

Goudy's Farmer's Almanac 55 

Gow, D. Early fruit and vegetable 

grower in Illinois 78 

Gowin, Miner S 24 

Graham. James M 19 

Grand Pacific Hotel, Chicago 78 

Grant, (Maj.) Scottish Highland 
soldiers in the Ohio Country under 

command of 35 

Grant, Peter. Bard of the Cale- 
donian Society of Chicago 76 

Grant, (Gen.) Ulysses S 73, 91 

Gratiot, (Gen.) Charles. . .129, 183, 184 
Gratz, Barnard. Member of the firm 
of B. and M. Gratz of Philadelphia, 

Western traders 

190, 192, 193, 206, 209, 210, 211, 212 

Gratz, Barnard 

190, 192, 206, 210, 211, 212 

Foot-note 209 



-3:6 

INDEX — Continued. 

<^ai^ B. aad IL Vtr- Hamfltoa. lOoL) Alexander, oi FVOm- 

ii'lgfcii Wiffiam 3tar- delphia 1»3. ICC. 2*9 

IffiBMB O b— 111 Fbot-noce 13S 

Graffs BL»t *M. 3^ Hamiitna. <O dL) A lexander and Mrs. 
F^Sardri^phia. vtescers Ha^utUMi, start in tlior carria^ic 
IM. IS^ : frvB Xew Torfc to imnnE in 1$3C.133 

Grazs, lYanees HamOtiKi. iMrs.) Akacando- 1»3. ICC 



Gratat mrhntl IM, 191, : HaxuKco. (lbs.) Alexander, vidov 

2«S. 3*3. 2*4. 2««b 2t9l i oTGeB. Alcxando- Haniittoti (rf tbe 

fill iTi HifiiirT M^tfbor oc Hsvirtntiaa 1C< 

of B. and H. <^alx of I%i: HanuttoB. C. ^T C2 

■^fetgj n ti mV.ii HamOtoB. (llajor) Isaac; abandons 

IMi. 191, 193. 195. 1 . : Z*Z and destro5s Ftat Caiaxtres 199 

<&'£iz Pa^cis. INnnMlii '-' ~- Hamilton. J. M CS 

larieal Soaetr 211 HamiTton^ CI^ Got.) Joiin IL. of 

(^ratx. Ttarfcpl 19S nanHM* descent 4». 77 

(^atz. rrniiiMnni ISS tt«— iM»» h. J 1T« 

&ay. Jim. (X iset* J^). F ^ eiU ^ Oandttan's Cotaoial Ifobile. Qooted 

SaiE^, ease at 51. 59. «• 2C«. 2C2 

Grax. Bflfeert A.. 24. T8 tt»w»>« faini?y same, often writt^ 

Gray. Robert A-, of Clster-Soot An- "OumMj" 79 

eesCiT 7» Hansa. Mark, of Ofaio 79 

<^a7. CDr.) ITk. C 5C Hardin F^nuly 1C7 

Great Brttain Harffin. J<dm H 1»3 

Tti, 76. 2#7. 2M» 2«9. 21i. fll Hardin. (Ool.) Jolm J 

<^ax Britain. Cuter, fitiinri E. 149. 1»C. ICC. 177 

Great BEttain and the Tmjtnip Ftoot-note 1C7 

CioaCzr. 17»-17T4 2n. £lt. 211 HardiB Papas. Foot-note 167 

F>B ct note - -^ 2t9 Harris. X. Dwi^it. Sstarr of Xegro 

Great 'Bpt'-.—_ :Soe. amilnde in Tiii»«iaa 3g 

Oniwr' z-zzc:i . 2*7 Harrtson. (Pres.) Ben jamin S7 

<^«at liSkrs §4. 139 Harrisaas, (Gen.) WHliam Hairr 

iBsOsv 244 as. It*, lit 

IX AvpBcant for PaUic H ariison . fGen.) WHliam Henrx. 

r. rmted Scates 127. 128 War of irL2 It9. lit 

IX rnlilli: mater. I^ited Hartford. Omn.. Tltetrtogieal Semin- 

.Ud. 164 aiT 53 

», St Harrey. I>. G 64 

158 Harrey. James A C6 

Erarts Bo^dL Kdiior of Harr^r. WilBaiq. Eaiix aettler of 

" ~ " 164t- Winnebasa. CSol, m 64 

1S53. BfinoB Hismrieal Oollectinms HatfieML (Sr.) B. M 43 

ToL TXL Ftoot-aote 158 Hanx. (Dr.) (Frotetaiy Dr. Pran- 

H tnai S - S3 as L. Hanks) 166 

■Ice. Jo^B. FSone^ and fun wifc ■ ' H anb t ag. Jotaa H 5 

ae AzEVie wilfc — 'n l. Winne- Har Fondly 69 

en Oa, HI 63. 64 Hay. John, of Scotland /• 

a. "OtamatM MarshalL TB ie Hay. JoSm. Ij a v y e r. JonmaBst. 

- ^ Ohi pii III J' 2*9, 212 - Statesman 76 

^ilffiam C lit Hay. Jokn. ^TorlEB of TC 

-Tt^ 151 Hay. fHon.) IBiton 23, 68 

jam C £«tter to Kane. Hayes, r Gen.) P. C 63 

i+. 1834. Ftoot-note 151 Hayvazd. 172 

~-—fdk linmL,! ildii Be- Heald. <Cavt.) ^fiatban. at Fbrt 

:-note 164 De aibo tn 75 

lit Hedenbor^i. Peter 148 

aonei. Early setOer a£ 

Co, m 64 

moBT. fG«!B.y James D lit 

r. of Got. Patrick 

38 

y.'CGoT.) Patrick 37. 38 

EterfiDrd. CDr.) Brooke 43 

rrbe). Home of General 

near XaAriDe; Tenn 

125. 127. 18t 

Ekneit 24 

fIJeiit.) Harrison H. -Ill, 112 

Higfct—J Gnard^ Chicaeo 72. 73. «3 

■mm^itams GnardB of ChieagD. Or- 

- ~ May 3. 1853 72 

War of the Be- 

S3 

42d. The famous 

WatA." BeCeflcnce 35 

Hm. John C Miwii< j to Gnate- 

Hm. Xoah Karole. . ISt^ 



t77 



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, jTidg^) J Ocs. Stom 

23, 24 

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^-cn. Its. Artijr 13 

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IbervHIe. Fosc o^ re-najiLe«. Xe«r Or- 
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HTT-nT i^Tii«)._ By Clark E 

can. iG-- 
wcrfe tn 

■:, 1^ 

Ulizsois and J^ ^.^— -'* 

Civil VTjl- -j4 

UliEois ai ' - 

Jtr'^g "■ ^ 

FtJOC-JlOCii 

oc t<^Tia July -k, ISS-j 154 

Illinois ind Oiiiiiauziie (.W^xS}astO 

Lami Companies 

205. 2fl4. 20T. 2'}*. 211. 212 

niJdMis aiKd '«rate£& IjuhI Okb- 
ActwigtB t» sste «ScasI 
in it pMihii If 3i»S^ 3«« 

MS 



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cee of 

Elmjffis Caimrry 33, ?*. ^"^ 

niinais C uoaLr y. Ba: — 

ami ICargaTT :^^e'. 

i7m m irr^ 

occir^"" 1*-- 
ninioL; " 

^reii - 1 -^^ _- 

Cshe; .1-1 ZTi lUS, - - 

F: - 

T~'fTTnn£ Cwnnry. Craaar. 
iftiTni pory at T5ie Camnxei' 
oraife "wltx tie .lamtmL oi, i^ie 
•'UlraGis Catiniry~ 33 

HTfiwiBs Ohuiu - v . ':Sn=5. B. ana Ml 
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ITTjiot 



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r^. _aiiiiiial in rhu^ 



TTTfnn i - 

rZinoLr 

IZimiL- — . Mo-^ 
■Wil_ . : _ .rray. - 
spectnaijCK' is Qte TTim«t««. Cuiuicry . - 
t«S-*!2 

tn iwn i i C U Oil cry. 

lia 

TTTrna ist C utmLry 1*3 

Wlnwwyt T^n^iT^gggcgr- ^Bg. IS. 1*25. 
QoDced. Ftwc-aat3 123 

T-rrtf fa TTg .... ........... .245 

T^T». f Com^airy PeGtam. on 

of. ta li- ;" f DniMriQcg. 

1TT4 -■- 

Qlimits 5r»'^ . . 

FdOC-OSKeS — -' -Ti 

TttMM^s Stat» A.f^TTT-irrr G'MWmi'S 

r«eoni& 'Warid "Wxr. Sec- IS 

diwks Scits A.^'CTii'nral. - ; _ 

grQwrli Jjid w ^I'lS 

TKunc siaoa t. "War. ^" 
r*aa. Su^jaii _ rt IJl-lilS 



278 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Illinois State Board of Agriculture, 
founded and had its first show in 
1853 103 

Illinois State Agriculture, County 
farm bureaus 106 

Illinois State Agriculturist Associa- 
tion 106 

Illinois State. Bancroft, Edgar A. 
"Illinois the Land of Men" 21 

Illinois State, Bank failure, 1842. . . .154 

Illinois State Bank, robbery of 1841. 
Reference 165 

Illinois State. Barnet, James. "Mar- 
tyrs and Heroes of Illinois" 76 

Illinois State. Bateman and Selby's 
Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois. 
Foot-note 152 

Illinois State. Bateman, Newton, 
Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion, State of Illinois 48 

Illinois State. Bowen, (Mrs.) Joseph 
T. "The War Work of the Women 
of Illinois" 27, 93-100 

Illinois State. Breese, Sidney. His- 
tory of Illinois. Quoted. Foot- 
note 256 

Illinois State. British Series. The 
New R§gime, 1765-1767. See end 
of this volume. 
Illinois State. Cahokia Records, 1778- 
1790. Historical Collections. Vol. 
II, Virginia Series, Vol. I. See end 
of this volume. 

Illinois State. Cattle, horses, swine, 
domestic animals, 1860. Compari- 
sons later dates 102 

Illinois State. Centennial Memorial 
Building 15, 16 

Illinois State. Centennial observances 
by the Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety 20-22 

Illinois State. Child Labor Law. 
Reference 98 

Illinois State. Clark, George Rogers, 
Papers, 1771-1781. Illinois His- 
torical Collections, Vol. VIII. Vir- 
ginia Series. Vol. III. See end of 
this volume. 

Illinois State. Clark, (Rev.) John. 
Pioneer teacher and preacher in 
Illinois 47 

Illinois State. Coles, (Gov.) Edward. 
Life of, by E. B. Washburn. Re- 
print Illinois Historical Collections, 
Vol. XV., Biographical Series, Vol. 

I. See end of this volume. 
Illinois State. Coles, (Gov.) Edward. 

Work in behalf of, education State 

of Illinois 117, 118 

Foot-note 117 

Illinois State Community Councils of 
Illinois. Reference 100 

Illinois State. Congregational Asso- 
ciation, 1899-1900 43 

Illinois State. Congregational Con- 
ference 52 

Illinois State. Constitutional De- 
bates. Historical Collections, Vol. 
XIV., Constitutional Series, Vol. 

II. See end of this volume. 
Illinois State Constitutions. Illinois 

Historical Collections, Vol. XIII., 
Constitutional Series, Vol. I. See 
end of this volume. 
Illinois State. Corn production, 1860, 
and 1910 102 



P.\GE. 

Illinois State Council of Defense, 

World War 18 

See Mrs. Josepli T. Bowen's article 
on the War Work of the women 
of Illinois 93-100 

Illinois State. Counties of, bearing 
the names of men of either Scot- 
tish birth or blood 61 

Illinois State. County Archives of 
Illinois. Illinois Historical Collec- 
tions, Vol. XII., Bibliographical 
Series, Vol. III. See end of this 
volume. 

Illinois State. County Farm Bu- 
reaus 106 

Illinois State. Davenport, (Dean) 
Eugene. The Agricultural Develop- 
ment of Illinois since the Civil War 
27, 101-106 

Illinois State. Davidson, Alexander 
and Stuve, Bernard. History of 
Illinois. Quoted. , Foot-note 122 

Illinois State. Deaf and Dumb Insti- 
tution, located in 178 

Illinois State. Department of Public 
Works and Buildings. Foot-note. . 154 

Illinois State. Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. 
Interest in the Illinois and Michi- 
gan Canal 129, 130, 153, 154, 161 

Illinois State. Duncan, (Gov. ) Joseph. 
Interest in the survey of the north- 
ern Boundary of the State 127 

Illinois State. Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. 
Pleads the cause of the pioneers in 
Congress 115 

Illinois State. Duncan, (Gov. ) Joseph. 

Work in behalf of education 

47, 48, 117-119, 151 

Illinois State. Early schools in, re- 
cords of, fragmentary 47 

Illinois State. Early settlers of 
Scottish birth 34 

Illinois State. Education and religion 
made great advances in, the de- 
cade 1830, to 1840 50 

Illinois State. Education. Public 
School Bill 116, 117 

Illinois State. Edwards, (Gov.) 
Ninian. Foot-notes 122, 123 

Illinois State. Edwards, (Gov.) 
Ninian. United States Senator 
from Illinois 121, 122 

Illinois State. Edwards, Ninian Wirt. 
History of Illinois and Life and 
Times of Ninian Edwards. Foot- 
notes 122, 123 

Illinois State. Enabling Act, April 
18, 1818. Centennial observances 
of 21 

Illinois State. Federation of Clubs. . 99 

Illinois State Fair 10:! 

Illinois State Farm lands in 1860. 
In 1910 102 

Illinois State. Farm property value 
in 1860 101 

Illinoi.s State. Farm property value, 
1910 101 

Illinois State. Farm values 1860, 

compared with later dates 102 

Illinois State. Farmer's Institute. . .105 
Illinois State. Fergus Historical 
Series, history of pioneer days in 

Chicago and Illinois 56 

Illinois State. Fight on Slavery in. . 44 
Illinois State. Food Administration 
Department. World War 97 



379 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Illinois State. Ford, (Gov.) Thomas. 
Quoted on the Black Hawk War. 
Foot-note 132 

Illinois State. General Assembly. 
Scots in, more or less prominent 
factor 77 

Illinois State General Assembly. 
Senate Journal, 1824. Quoted. 
Foot-note 117 

Illinois State. General Assembly. 
Senate Journal, 1827. Quoted. 
Foot-note 120 

Illinois State. General Assembly. 
Senate Journal, Dec. 1, 1834. Foot- 
note 152 

Illinois State. General Assembly. 
Senate Journal, 1834-35. Foot- 
note 153 

Illinois State. General Assembly. 
Senate Journal, Dec. 5, 1836. 
House Journal, 1836-7. Foot-note. 156 

Illinois State. Gillespie, Joseph. Re- 
collections of early Illinois and her 
noted men. Foot-note US 

Illinois State. Governor's Letter 
Books. 1818-1834, 1840-1853. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vols, 
rv and VII. Executive Series, 
Vols. I and II. See end of this 
volume. 

Illinois State. Governor's Letter 
Books, 1840-1853. Illinois His- 
torical Collections, Vol. VII. Foot- 
note 158 

Illinois State. Hamilton, (Col.) 
Alexander and Mrs. Hamilton visit 
Illinois in 1836 153 

Illinois State. Harris, N. Dwig-ht. 
History of Negro servitude in Illi- 
nois 58 

Illinois State Historical Collections. 
See list, end of this volume. 

Illinois State Historical Collections. 
Biographical Series. See end of 
this volume. 

Illinois State Historical Collections. 
Bibliographical Series. See end of 
this volume. 

Illinois State Historical Collections, 

Vol. X. British Series, Vol. 1 208 

See also end of this volume. 

Illinois State Historical Collections, 
Vol. II. Cahokia Records, 1778- 
1790. Virginia Series, Vol. 1.207, 208 
See also end of this volume. 

Foot-note 262 

Illinois State Historical Collections. 
Constitutional Series. See end of 
this volume. 

Illinois State Historical Collections, 
Vol. VIII. George Rogers Clark 
Papers, 1771-1781. Virginia Series, 

III 208, 209, 212 

See also end of this volume. 

Illinois State Historical Collections. 
Executive Series. See end of this 
volume. 

Illinois State Historical Collections. 
Governor's Letter-Books, 1818-1834, 

1840-] 853. Foot-note -. . . 115 

See also end of this volume. 

Illinois State Historical Collections. 
Kaskaskia Records, 1778-1790, 
Vol. V. Virginia Series, Vol. II... 

211, 212 

See also end of this volume. 



PAGE. 

Illinois State Historical Collections, 
Vol. XI. The New Regime, 1765- 
1767, Vol. II. British Series. Foot- 
note 209 

See also end of this volume. 

Illinois State Historical Librai-y 

7. 11, 16, 26 

Illinois State Historical Library. List 
of works on Genealogy. Also 

Supplemental list 26 

See also end of this volume. 
Illinois State Historical Library Pub- 
lications. See list, end of this 
volume. 

Illinois State Historical Society 

...5, 8-10, 11, 12, 15, 18, 20, 21, 22 
23, 24. 25, 26, 27, 85, 86, 88, 107, 108 
Illinois State Historical Society. An 
appeal to the Historical Society 

and general public 11-12 

Illinois State Historical Society. 
Carr, (Hon.) Clark E. President, 
1909 to 1913. President Emeritus 

at the time of his death 86, 88 

Illinois State Historical Society. 
Centennial of the State observances 

by the Society 20-22 

Illinois State Historical Society. 

Constitution 8-10 

Illinois State Historical Society. 

Genealogical Committee's report.. 26 
Illinois State Historical Society 

Journal 23, 24, 58 

See also end of this volume. 
Illinois State Historical Society. 

List of presidents of the Society. . . 20 
Illinois State Historical Society 

Membership 22, 23 

Illinois State Historical Society 

(Dfficers 5 

Illinois State Historical Society. 
Papers read at the annual meeting, 

May 20, 1919 29-212 

Illinois State Historical Society 

Publications, see list, end of this 

volume. 

Illinois State Historical Society. 

Record of official Proceedings, 1919 

13-27 

Illinois State Historical Society. 
Weber, Jessie Palmer, Secretary 

Report 20-25 

Illinois State Historical Survey of the 

University of Illinois 207 

Illinois State Hospital at Anna', Illi- 
nois 75 

Illinois State. Illinois and Michigan 

Canal 120, 

1£1. 129, 130, 153, 154, 161, 183, 184 

Foot-notes 129, 154 

Illinois State. Illinois in the Eigh- 
teenth Century. See end of this 
volume. 
Illinois State. Importing Company, 

high class cattle, etc., 1857 103 

Illinois State. Internal Improvement 

Bill, became a law, Feb. 27, 1837. .157 
Illinois State. Jones, Lotte B. De- 
cisive dates in Illinois History. 

Quoted 38 

Illinois State. Lawrence, George A. 
Memorial on the Life and Services 

of Clark E. Carr 27, 86-92 

Illinois State Legislature. See Gen- 
eral Assembly. 



280 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Illinois State. Lincoln-Douglas De- 
bates. Illinois Historical Collec- 
tions, Vol. III. Lincoln Series, 
Vol. I. See end of this volume. 

Illinois State. MacMillan, Thomas C. 
The Scots and their Descendants in 
Illinois 27, 31-85 

Illinois State. Marks, Anna Edith. 
William Murray. Trader and Land 
Speculator in the Illinois Country. 
27, 188-212 

Illinois State. Mats^on, N. Pioneers 
of Illinois. Quoted 37 

Illinois State. Militia Law, 1827.... 120 

Illinois State. Military Tract.... 53, 62 

Illinois State. Normal School, Nor- 
mal. Ill 52 

Illinois State. Outline for the Study 
of State History. .S'cf, end of this 
volume. 

Illinois State. Panic of 1837... 158, 159 

Illinois State. Pease, Theodore Cal- 
vin, Editor, Centennial History of 
Illinois, Vol. 2. The Frontier State. 
1818-1848. Foot-note 121 

Illinois State. Pioneers of, from Vir- 
ginia, the Carolinas and Georgia, 
largely of Scottish birth and de- 
scent 34 

Illinois State. Pioneers of, Joseph 
Duncan pleads the cause of the 
settlers of small means, wliile in 
Congress 115 

Illinois State. Prairies of Illinois. . 
103, 113, 152, 15S 

Illinois State. Putnam, (Miss) Eliza- 
beth. The Life and Services of 
Joseph Duncan, Governor of Illi- 
nois, 1834-1838 27. 107-187 

Illinois State. Raab, Henry, Super- 
intendent of Public Instructions, 
State of Illinois 47 

Illinois State. Reynolds, (Gov.) John. 
Pioneer History of Illinois. Quoted. 263 
Foot-notes ...228, 229, 259, 262, 263 

Illinois State. Saint Atidrew Society, 
Scottish organization ..51, 71, 82, 83 

Illinois State. School Law 48 

Illinois State. Schools. Duncan Act 
of 1824 iS 

Illinois State. Scotch Settlements in. 
See Paper on the Scotch-Irish by 
MacMillan 31-92 

Illinois State. Scott, (Judge) John 
M. History of the Illinois Supreme 
Court. Reference 69 

Illinois State. Southern Illinois Nor- 
mal at Carbondale, 111 75 

Illinois State. Spanish-American 
War. Ninth Illinois Regiment. ... 89 

Illinois State. Supreme Court 

56, 58, 65, 69 

Illinois State. Supreme Court, his- 
tory of, by Judge John M. Scott. 
Reference ' 69 

Illinois State. Supreme Court, 
"Scammon's Reports" 56 

Illinois State. Teacher's Association, 
1917. Foot-note 117 

Illinois State. Temperance Society, 
early one. Reference. Foot-note. . 178 

Illinois State. Territorial Laws. 1809 
to 1811, 1809-1812. Territorial 
Records. See end of this volume. 

Illinois State. University of Illinois. 

52, 63, 101, 105 

Foot-note 188 



PAGE. 

Illinois State. University of Illinois. 
Agricultural Department, Soil Sur- 
vey, etc 105 

Illinois State. War of the Rebellion 
OfRcers and men in, of Scottish 
descent. Reference 75, 76 

Illinois State. War of the Rebellion. 
Twelfth 111. Vol. Inf., (First 
Scotch) 73, 75 

Illinois State. War of the Rebellion. 
Seventeenth 111. Vol. Inf 69 

Illinois State. War of the Rebellion. 
Nineteenth 111. Vol. Reg 72 

Illinois State. War of the Rebellion. 
Fiftv-flfth III. Vol. Inf 61 

Illinois State. War of the Rebellion. 
Sixty-fifth 111. Vol. Inf., (Second 
Scotch) 75 

Illinois State. War of the Rebellion. 
One Hundred and Ninth 111. Vol. 
Inf 75 

Illinois State. War of the Rebellion. 
One Hundred and Twelfth 111. Vol. 
Inf 69 

Illinois State. Wheat production, 
1860. Comparisons with later 
dates 102 

Illinois State. Willard, (Dr.) Samuel. 
Brief history of early education in 
Illinois. Reference 47 

Illinois State. Winter of the deep 
Snow, 1830. Reference 162 

Illinois State. Woman's Committee 
of the Council of National De- 
fense. Illinois Division 93 

Illinois State. Woman's Trade Union 
League. Reference 98 

Illinois State. World War, collect- 
ing material on, important 

. . 17, 18, 24, 25 

Illinois State. World War. See Paper 
on, by Mrs. Joseph T. Bowen, "The 
War Worlc of the Women of Illi- 
nois" • 93-100 

Illinois Territory 113, 12b 

Illinois Territory. Duncan. Matthew 
Printer of the Illinois Territorial 
Laws, 1813 113 

Illinois Territory. Pope. Nathaniel.. 
Laws of the Territory of Illinois. 
Pope's Digest 113 

Illinois Territory. Territorial Laws 
1809 to 1811, 1809 to 1812. Terri- 
torial Records. See end of this 
volume. „„„ 

Indian Titles in the Illinois Country. 200 

Indian Trade. British control Illinois 
(Country 189 

Iridi.-\n Trade. Illinois Country, 
1768 189 

Indian Trader. Life of, described by 
Mrs. Kinzie in "Wau-Bun" 40 

Indian Village near Labultes (Du- 
buque) 1^6 

Indiana State 62, 67, 79, 129, 150 

Indiana "Steamboat" 126 

Indians 

37, 38, 40, 41, 60, 79, 124, 126, 

131, 132, 133, 188, 189, 190, 194, 
195, 200, 201, 203, 210, 211, 226, 
228, 229, 231, 232, 234. 238, 240, 
241, 242, 245, 246. 254, 257, 258, 262 
Foot-notes 209, 231. 232 

Indians. Baynton, Wharton and Mor- 
gan. Received large contracts for 
supplying Indian Department with 
goods for presents to Indians 211 



281 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Indians. Cahokia Indians. Foot- 
note 231 

Indians. Chickasaw Indians 

226, 245, 262 

Indians. Conestoga Massacre. Foot- 
note 209 

Indians. Dunmore War, made west- 
ern Indians restless 203 

Indians. English emissaries succeed 
in winning- the allegiance and 
friendship of the Indians from the 

French 245 

Indians. Fort Dearborn Massacre. . . 41 

Indians. Fox Indians 79 

Foot-notes 231, 232 

Indians. Huron Indians 41 

Indians. Iroquois Confederacy 190 

Indians. Iroquois Indians 

189, 190, 245 

Indians. Kaskaskia Indians 228 

Indians. Kickapoo Indians. Foot- 
note 231 

Indians. Menominee Indians in Wis- 
consin 40 

Indians. Michigamie Indians. Foot- 
note 231 

Indians. Murray, William, dealings 
with the Indians at Kaskaskia. . . . 

200, 201 

Indians. Nether Indians 210 

Indians. Outagami or Fox tribe. 

Foot-notes 231, 232 

Indians. Piankashaw Indians 204 

Indians. Pontiac, Ottawa Chief 

257, 258 

Foot-note . 209 

Indians. Pottawatomie Indians 80 

Indians. Sac Indians 79 

Indians. Seneca Indians 210 

Indians. Sioux Indians. Foot-note. 231 

Indians. Winnebago Indians 41 

Indians. Wyandot Indians 41 

Industry Township, McDonough Co., 

Ill 62 

Ingham. (Mr.) 131 

Ingles and Burr. Business firm in 

Kentucky 186 

Inglis, John 201 

Inglis, Milligan 201 

Inland Waterways and Transporta- 
tion costs by Mortimer G. Barnes. 

Foot-note 154 

Insull, Samuel 18 

"Interior," Newspaper 56 

Inverness, Scotland 74 

Ireland 32, 51, 54 

Ireland. Armagh County, Tyrone. . . 54 
Ireland, Ulster, peopled by Scotsmen. 32 

Iroquois Indians 189, 190 

Iroquois Indians. Iroquois Confeder- 
acy 190 

Irving Henry 91 

Irving', Washington 60 

Isthmus of Darien. Panama early 
called 33 



Jackson, (Pres. ) Andrew 121, 

122, 123, 125, 127, 128, 129, 145, 
150, 154, 155, 165, 167, 180, 181, 186 
Foot-note 257 

Jackson, (Pres.) Andrew, Account of 
his inauguration by Joseph Dun- 
can 128, 129 

Jackson, (Pres.) Andrew. Duncan, 
(Gov.) Joseph, ardent supporter of 
1828 127 



P.VGE. 

Jackson, (Gen.) Andrew. Hermi- 
tage home of, near Nashville, 

Tenn 125, 127 

Jackson, (Gen.) Andrew, Toast to. 
Fourth of July celebration, Van- 

dalia, 111., 1825 121 

Jackson, (Gen.) Andrew, Victory at 
New Orleans, Jan., 1815. Foot- 
note 257 

Jackson Co.. Ill 113, 114, 116, 122 

Jackson, (Col.) Huntington W 71 

Jackson, Margaret 89 

Jackson, (Brig.-Gen.) William P.... 89 

Jackson, (Mrs.) William P 89 

Jacksonville, 111 42, 

44, 50, 51, 54, 55. 81, 107, 124, 
126, 144, 146, 152, 161, 162, 165, 180 

Foot-notes 85, 144, 163, 164 

Jacksonville, 111., Cholera in 1833 162 

Jacksonville, 111., Citizens of, resolu- 
tions on the death of Gov. Joseph 

Duncan 180 

Jacksonville, 111., Duncan Home, Jack- 
sonville, known as "Elm Cjrove," 

built in 1833 146 

Jacksonville, 111., Duncan Home, Jack- 
sonville, purchased by the Rev. 
James Caldwell Chapter, D. A. R. 

Foot-notes 163, 164 

Jacksonville. 111., Duncan, (Mrs.) 
Joseph, reminiscences quoted on her 

early life in Jacksonville 161-163 

Jacksonville, 111.. Historical Society. 107 
Jacksonville, 111., Illinois College, lo- 
cated in 42, 44, 48, 50, 51, 55 

Jacksonville, 111., Ladies Educational 

Society 165 

James, (Dr.) Edmund J... 5, 19, 20, 52 

James, James A 5, 208, 212 

Foot-note 209 

James, James Alton, George Rogers 
Clark Papers, 1771-1781, Illinois 
State Historical Collections, Vol. 

VIII, Virginia Series, III 208, 212 

See also end of this volume. 

Foot-note 209 

James, II of England 31 

Jamieson, Various spelling of the 

name 79 

Jamison, (Mrs.) Isabel 19 

Janvier, negro slave of Saucier 261 

Jarvais, Father 222, 223 

Jarvais, Mam-selle Marie 222 

Jefferson Barracks, St. Douis, Mo... 131 

Jefferson Co., Va 206 

Jefferson Park, Presbyterian Church, 

Chicago 84 

Jefferson, (Pres.) Thomas 34,36 

Jenkins, A. M 170 

Jennings, John, in command of ba- 
teau of goods of Baynton, Wharton 

& Morgan 190 

Jennings Seminary, Aurora, Illinois. . 81 

Jerome, , notary, Feb. 6, 1733.261 

Jesuits, in New Orleans since 1727.. 247 

Joan D'Arc 218 

Job, William 62 

Jo Daviess, Co., Ill 61, 120 

Jo Daviess Co., 111., named for Col. 

Joseph Hamilton Daviess 120 

John Barleycorn, Pseudonym of 

James Chlsholm 55 

Johnson, (Prof.) Allen 21 

Johnson, (Dr.) Herrick 43 

Johnson, (Gov.) Thomas, of Mary- 
land 206 

Johnson, (Sir) William 

190, 201, 202, 207, 211 



282 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Johnson, (Sir) William, Manuscripts 
in the New York State Library, 

Albany 207, 211 

Johnson, (Sir) William, Superintend- 
ent of Indian Affairs 190 

Joliet, 111 81. 158 

Joliet, 111., State Penitentiary located 

in 81 

Joliet, Louis 41 

Jones, , Kidnapper, case of Jim 

Gray (niggrer Jim) 58 

Jones, (Dr.) Hiram K., of Jackson- 
ville, 111 167, 178 

Foot-note 167 

Jones, (Dr.) Hiram K., Platonic 

philosopher 167 

Foot-note 167 

Jones, Lotte E., Decisive dates in 

Illinois history. Quoted 38 

Jones, Walter 149 

Jonesboro, (Union Co.), Ill 75 

Journal de la Guerre du Mississippi 

in 1739 ■. . . ..262 

Foot-note 260 

Judd, Norman B 91 

Jumonville, Coulon de 244 

K 

Kalamazoo, Mich. Kalamazoo Col- 
lege 53 

Kane County, 111 61, 77 

Kane, Ellas Kent 

122, 129, 135, 182, 187 

Foot-notes 151, 152 

Kane, Elias Kent. Greenup, William 
C. Letter to, Dec. 20, 1834. Foot- 
note 151 

Kane, Elias Kent. Letter of D. J. 
Baker to, dated Dec. 1, 1834. Foot- 
note 150 

Kaskaskia 38, 54, 

56, 78, 109, 113, 125, 195, 196, 197, 
198, 199, 205, 207, 211, 212, 225, 
226, 229, 231, 232, 236, 258, 260, 263 
Foot-note 229 

Kaskaskia. Clark, George Rogers. 
Captures Kaskaskia, July 4, 1778. 
Reference 205, 258 

Kaskaskia. Contract made by Moses 
Franks and others for provisioning 
troops, 1768 198 

Kaskaskia Court Record 211 

Kaskaskia. David Franks and Com- 
pany, purchased store house and a 
mill in 1771 197 

Kaskaskia. Fort Gage, the Stockaded 
Jesuit building in Kaskaskia 226 

Kaskaskia. Fort Gage near 199 

Kaskaskia. Illinois Herald, (News- 
paper) published in 54, 113 

Kaskaskia. Manuscripts, preserved 
in the Circuit Clerk's office, Ches- 
ter, 111 207 

Kaskaskia. Mason, Edward G. Kas- 
kaskia and its Parish Records. .. .263 

Kaskaskia. Metropolis of the Illi- 
nois 229 

Foot-note 229 

Kaskaskia. Murray, William, confer- 
ences with the Indians, on lands 
possessed by in the Illinois Country 

200, 201 

Kaskaskia. Parish Records 263 

Kaskaskia. Parochial records still 

preserved 260 

Kaskaskia Records. See Illinois His- 
torical Collections, Vol. V, end 
of this volume. 



PAGE. 

Kaskaskia Indians 228 

Kaskaskia River 210 

Keeley, (Dr.) 65 

Keith, (Sir) William 78 

Kellies, (Kelly) Ben 185 

Kellogg, Louise P. and Thwaites, 
Reuben Gold, Eds. Revolution on 

the Upper Ohio, 1775-1777 208, 212 

Kelley, Thomas 186 

Kelley, Will 186 

Kelly and Brant, early business firm, 

Paris, Ky 109 

Kemeys, Edward 65 

Kenton, Simon 34, 36, 37 

Kentucky State.... 34, 37, 47, 54, 79, 

103, 114, 118, 130, 190, 208, 209, 212 
Kentucky State. Collins, History of 

Kentucky 212 

Kentucky State. Collins, Lewis. His- 
tory of Kentucky. Revised edition 

by Richard Collins 208 

Kentucky State. Paris, Ky 

1U8, 109, 130 

Kentucky State. Shaler, N. S. Ken- 
tucky. A Pioneer Commonwealth 

209, 213 

Kerleree, (Col.) M.de. Governor of 

Louisiana 236 

Kerr, (Mrs.) James 162 

Kickapoo Indians. Foot-note 231 

King and Queen Co., Virginia 36 

King of France, Louis XV 227 

King of France. Transfers Florida. 
New Orleans and all the territory 
west of the Mississippi to Spain. . .258 

King George of England 74 

King Rufus of New York 123 

Kinley, (Prof.) David. Born in 

Dundee, Scotland 52 

Kinney, William 144, 150, 182, 185 

Foot-note 149 

Kinney, William. Candidate for 

Governor of Illinois 144, 149, 150 

Foot-note 149 

Kinzie, John. "Father of Chicago" . . 

39, 41, 79, 83 

Kinzie, (Mrs.) John H. Author of 

"Wau-Bun" 40 

Kirby, (Judge) Edward P. Foot- 
note 164 

Kirby, (Mrs.) Edward P. (Julia 

Duncan) 47, 48, 54, 124, 177 

Kirby, (Mrs.) Julia Duncan 

47, 54, 107, 124, 177 

Foot-notes 

118, 125. 163, 164, 169, 171, 177, 178 
Kirby, (Mrs.) Julia Duncan. Bio- 
graphical Sketch of Joseph Dun- 
can 48, 54, 107 

Foot-notes 

118, 160, 163, 164, 169, 171 

Kirby, (Mrs.) Julia Duncan. Letter 
of Mr. Coffin of Batavia, 111., to, 
Dated Dec, 1885. Reference. Foot- 
note 178 

Kirby, William 167 

Kirk, James S. Founder of Company, 
Kirk, toilet soap manufacturers. . 83 

Kirkcudbright, Scotland 47, 48, 124 

Foot-note 164 

Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland 62 

Kirkland and Moses' History of Chi- 
cago. Quoted 35, 36, 67, 70, 71 

Kittera, John W 208 

Knox Academy. Knox College, 

Galesburg, 111 87 

Knox College, Galesburg, 111 

48, 53, 88, 90 



283 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Knox Colleg-e, Galesburg, 111. New- 
ton Bateman, President 48 

Knox County Historical Society 88 

Knox, (Maj. Gen.) Henry of Mass- 
achusetts. War of the Revolu- 
tion 32 

Knox, (Capt.) John. British officer. 68 

Knox's Diary 68- 

Kohler, Max J. "The Franks Family 

as British Army Contractors". ... 209 
Kohler, Max J. Some Jewish Factors 

in the settlement of the west 209 

Korea. Lillian Horton, Missionary to 
Korea 44 



Lachaine, Margaret 262 

LaChapelle, France 221, 253 

La Croix, Francois 261 

"La Cygne." Vessel 237, 240 

Lafayette, (Gen.) Jean Paul Roch 

Yves Gilbert Motier 182 

La Grange, 111 65 

Foot-note 85 

La Grange, 111. Congregational 

Church 65 

La Grange, III. F. D. Cossit, founder 

of La Grange, 111 65 

La Grange, 111. Peterson Institute 

located in 85 

Lake Borgne 252 

Lake Co., Ill 61 

Lake Erie 109, 110, 112, 152, 183 

Lake Huron 78 

Lake Michigan 35, 40, 78, 129, 130 

Foot-notes . 129, 231 

Lake Michigan. (Lake of Illinois).. 78 
Lake of Illinois. (Lake Michigan) . . 78 

Lamb, Charles 55 

Lamont, E. N 55 

Lancaster, Pa 190, 201, 212 

Foot-note 209 

Lancaster, Pa. Group of merchants 
from, pioneers and speculative 

traders in the west 190 

Land purchases by Murray and others 
caused the British Ministry in the 
Quebec Act of June, 1774, to in- 
clude Illinois in the Province of 

Quebec 203 

Land Speculation of William Murray 

in the Illinois Country 200-204 

Langwill, A. M. Foot-note 85 

Larned, E. C 59 

La Salle Co., Ill 66, 77 

La Salle, RenS Robert Sieur de 41 

Laurie, Inglis 42 

Laurie, James 42 

Laurie, John. Early settler of Mor- 
gan Co., Ill 42 

Laurie, Thomas 42 

Law, John 33, 34, 78 

Law, John. Author Mississippi Scheme 
and its Successor, the "South Sea 

Bubble." Reference 33 

Law, John. Company of the West 

created by Law 33, 34 

Law, John. "Mississippi Scheme" 
and the "South Sea Bubble." Ref- 
erence 33 

Lawrence, George A.... 5, 19, 23, 27, 86 
Lawrence, George A. Memorial on 

the Life and Services of Clark E. 

Carr 27, 86-92 

Lead Mines at Galena, 111.. 126, 127, 139 



PAGE. 

Lead Mines, Galena, 111. Authorized 
to be sold by the President in a bill 
introduced June 5, 1834 139 

Lead Mines, Galena, Illinois. Gover- 
nor Joseph Duncan's interest in . . 
127, 139 

Lieavenworth, Kansas. Federal 
Prison, located in 82 

Lebanon, 111. McKendree. (Mc- 
Kendrean College), located in... 5, 51 

Lebel, Marie Francois 3rd. Wife of 
Charles Saucier 260 

Leduc, Joseph 261 

Lee, A 170 

Lee, L 170 

Lee. (Gen.) Robert E. Confederate 
General. War of tne Kebellion... 45 

Lepage, Adelaide 

223, 224, 225, 232, 234, 235, 

236, 239, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258 

Lepage, Adelaide. Marriage of, to 
Capt. Jean Baptists Saucier. . .255-257 

Lepage, Adelaide. Meeting with Capt. 
Jean Baptiste Saucier in New (Or- 
leans 253 

Lepage, Adelaide. Wife of Capt. Jean 
Baptiste Saucier. Buried in the 
little graveyard adjoining the Old 
Cahokia Church 258 

Lepage, Marie 

223, 224, 225, 235, 236, 239 

Lepage, Marie. Died on Ship Board 
on way to America 239 

Lepage, Pierre 221, 

222, 223, 224, 225, 235, 236, 238, 239 

Lepage, Pierre. Died on Ship Board 
on way to America 239 

Lepage, Pierre. Sails with his family 
to America 234, 235 

Le Roy, Julien 261 

Lesperance, Viault. Notary 262 

Le Suer, Minn 44 

Letters. Baker, D. J. to Elias Kent 
Kane, dated Dec. 1, 1834. Foot- 
note 150 

Letters. Coffin, (Mr.) of Batavia, 
Illinois, to Mrs. Julia Duncan 
Kirby. Dated Dec, 1885. Refer- 
ence. Foot-note 178 

Letters. Duncan, Joseph to T. W. 
Smith. Dated U. S. House of Rep- 
resentatives, April 18, 1832 135 

Letters. Duncan, Joseph to Gen. C. 
F. Mercer, dated Washington City, 

March 25, 1834 109-111 

Letters. Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph to 
Rev. Gideon Blackburn in regard 

to Alton Riots, 1837 159, 160 

Letters. Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph to 

Charles B. Penrose, Solicitor of the 

Treasury, on the Linn affair. .170-171 

Letters. Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph to 

Charles B. Penrose, dated Dec. 1st. 

1841- 173-174 

Letters, Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph, to 
Charles B. Penrose, Solicitor of the 
Treasury, dated New York, Dec. 11, 

1841 173-174 

Letters. Duncan, (Gov.) Joseph. 
Letter to the President of the 
United States, dated Washington, 

Nov. 26, 1841 168 

Letters. Duncan, Thomas, to his 
mother, dated Russelville, Ky., Nov. 
28, 1820 114 



284 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

Letters. Finley, (Dr.) James C. to 
Joseph Duncan, dated Nov. 9, 1833, 
Nov. 30, 1833, Dec. 27. 1833, Jan. 
24, 1834. Feb. 15, 1834, May 27, 
1834 146-150 

Letters. Finley, (Dr.) James to 
Joseph Duncan, dated Jacksonville, 
111., May 27, 1834. Foot-note 144 

Letters. Greenup, William C. to 
Kane, Dec. 20, 1834. Foot-note. . .151 

Letters. McLean, John to Governor 
Edwards, dated April 25, 1825. 
Foot-note 123 

Letters. Street, Joseph M. Letter to 
Governor Edwards, dated Shawnee- 
town, July 28, 1827. Foot-note. . .123 

"L. Etoile du Nord." Ship 

234, 237, 238,-239, 240, 253 

Levi, Andrew 201 

Levy and Franks. Fur Traders in 
the west. .190, 192, 195, 198, 210 

Lewis and Clark Expedition 36 

Lewis Institute, Chicago 53 

Lexington, Ky 108, 111, 186 

Lexington, Ky. Transylvania Col- 
lege, located in 108 

Le Yaw, (Miss) Fannie, second wife 
of Clark Merwin Carr 86 

Libertyville, 111. Farm near, loaned 
during the World War, for train- 
ing women for Agricultural and 
dairy pursuits 97, 98 

Lillies of France. French Flag 258 

Lincoln, Abraham ....45, 57, 59, 60, 
71, 72, 76, 80, 87, 88, 90, 91, 159, 161 
Foot-notes 122, 153, 161 

Lincoln, Abraham. Carr, (Hon.) 
Clark E. Lincoln at (]f ettysburg . . 
88, 90 

Lincoln, Abraham. Emancipation 
Proclamation 87 

Lincoln, Abraham. Gettysburg Ad- 
dress. Reference 88 

Lincoln, Abraham. Lincoln-Douglas 
Debates, 1858 87, 90, 168 

Lincoln, Abraham. Nicolay and Hay. 

Life of Lincoln. Quoted 152, 153 

Foot-notes 153, 161 

Lincoln, Abraham. Proclamation. 
National humiliation, fasting and 
prayer. Dated Mch. 30, 1863 45 

Lincoln, Abraham. Rader, (Rev.) 
Paul. Extract from his discourse 
on "How Lincoln led the Nation to 
its Knees" 45 

Lincoln, (Mrs.) Abraham 36 

Lincoln Centennial Association 23 

Lincoln-Douglas Debates, 1858 

87, 90, 168 

See also end of this volume. 

Lincoln, Robert T 90 

Lind, Jenny. Famous Swedish Singer 
177 

Linder, J 170 

Linn, (Hon.) Lewis P 173, 174 

Linn, William. Letter of Woodbury 
to, dated Feb. 12, 1835 172 

Linn, William. Receiver of Public 
Moneys, appointments 169, 171 

Linn, William. Receiver of Public 
Moneys at the land office of the 
District of Vandalia. . . . 157, 169, 171 

Linn, "William. Suit brought in the 
Circuit Court of the United States 
against 169, 170 

Linn, William. Treasurer of the 
Board of Canal Commissioners, 
State of Illinois 153 



PAGE. 

Linn, (Mrs.) William. (Polly Ann 
Duncan). .Sister of Joseph Dun- 
can 125, 169 

List'tte, a native of Martinique. Maid 
to Eulalie Makarty . . 231, 233, 242, 256 

Little Rock Ferry 109 

Lochiel. A Highland Chief of Scot- 
land. See Cameron, Donald 74 

Locke, (Dr.) Clinton 43 

Lockwood, J. D 187 

Lockwood, (Judge) Samuel Drake... 157 
Logan and Brown. Law Firm, 

.Springfield, 111 169 

Logan, James. Illinois Country, Re- 
port of. Quoted 78 

Logan, (Gen.) John Alexander.... 

73, 78, 87, 88, 91 

Logan, (Gen.) John A. Address on, 

by Clark E. Carr. Reference 88 

Loire River, Fi-ance 232 

Loire, Valley of, in France 221, 262 

London, England 33, 192 

Long, J. 170 

Lord Camden 197 

Lord (Chancellor Yorke 197 

Lord Dunmore, (James Murray) .... 34 

Lord Hillsborough 189 

Lord, (Capt. ) Hugh. Commandant. 

199, 200, 201, 203 

Lord Shelburne 188, 189, 209 

Foot-note 209 

Lorimer, (Rev.) George C, D,D 43 

Loring, P 109 

Louis XIV., King of France 33. 257 

Louis XV., King of France 227 

Louis, (Maj.) W. B 186 

Louisburg Campaign 38 

Louisiana 189, 209, 247, 260 

Foot-note 260 

Louisiana. Fortier, Alc6e. History 

of Louisiana. Quoted. Foot-note. 260 
Louisiana. Gayarre, Charles. His- 
tory of Louisiana. Quoted. Foot- 
note 247 

Louisiana State. Gayarre, Charles. 
History of Louisiana, The French 

Domination. Vol. III..r 209 

Louisiana. Governor of, notified to 
keep people of his province from 
ascending Illinois, Ohio and Wa- 
bash Rivers on account of fur 

trade 189 

Louisiana. New Orleans made the 

Capital of, in 1721 247 

"Louisiana Purchase" 34 

Lovejoy, Elijah Parrish. Death of, 

in Alton, 111., 1837 159 

Lowden, (Gov.) Frank Orren. .21, 22, 77 
Lowden, (Gov.) Frank Orren, of 

Scottish descent 77 

Lower Sandusky 109 

Jjowney, Alexander 190 

Lynd, Sylvester 84 

Lyons, France 259 

Lyons, (Rev.) S. R., D.D. President 
of Monmouth College, Monmouth, 

111 50 

Lyons Township, Cook Co., 111. Foot- 
note 85 

Lyonsville, Congregational Church, 
Cook Co., Ill 52 

M 

McAfee, Robert B., History of the 
late war in the western country. 
Reference HI 

McAlilly, Samuel 63 



285 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Mc Arthur, (Gen.) John 75, 83 

Mc Arthur, (Capt.) John, Highland 
Guards A,; • : • ' 

McArthur, (Gen.) John, Short Sketch 

To 

Macarty," (Makarty) Chevalier de. 
Commandant at Fort Chartres. . . . 
225, 227, 230, 232, 236, 244, 246, 257 
Foot-note 227 

McCandless, Andrew 63 

McCartney, (Hon.) James, Attorney 
General, State of Illinois, 1880 to 
1884 69 

McCartv, Charles 80 

McCarty, John, one of the founders 
of Aurora, 111 80 

McCarty, Mary Scudden 80 

McCartv. Samuel, one of the founders 
of Aurora, 111 80 

McClaughry, (Maj.) Robert W., noted 
penologist 50, 81, 82 

McClaughry, (Maj.) Robert W., Short 
Sketch 81. 82 

McClelland, (Pres.) Thomas, of Knox 
College, of Scotch Ancestry 53 

McClernand, (Gen.) John A 73 

McClurg. (Brev. Brig.-Gen.) Alex- 
ander C 73 

McClusky, John, Faithful servant of 
Governor Duncan 163 

McComb, John T 24 

McConnel, Murray, of Jacksonville, 
111 161 

McConnel, Murray, of Jacksonville, 
111. Foot-note 171 

McConnel, Wm 170 

McCormick, Cyrus Hall, Life and 
work of Cyrus Hall McCormick. 
By Herbert N. Casson. Reference. 33 

McCormick, Cyrus Hall, of Ulster- 
Scot Ancestry 49 

McCormick, Elizabeth, Elizabeth Mc- 
Cormick Memorial fund 96, 98 

McCormick, Theological Semmary . . 
43. 68 

McCosh, (Dr.) James, "Realistic 
Philosophy" 43 

McCracken. Nicholas. Foot-note. .. .245 

McCrea, (Colonel), Surveyor General 
United States 127 

McCredie, William 84 

McCulloch, David 20 

MacCutcheon, Various spelling and 
changes in the name 79 

McDonald, Alexander, Early settler 
of Winnebago Co., Ill 64 

McDonald. (Maj.) Angus 37 

McDonough Co., Ill 53, 62 

Foot-note 85 

McDonough Co., 111., Early education 
in, Scots did good services in build- 
ing up education 53 

McDonough Co., 111.. Scots in 53, 62 

MacDougall, (Maj. Gen.) Alexander, 
of New York, War of the Revolu- 
tion 33 

MacDougall. (Rev.) D., "Scots and 
Scots," Descendants in America. 
Reference 32, 33, 34, 35, 36 

McEachran, John, Early settler of 
Winnebago Co., Ill 64 

McFarland, T., Secretary of the 
Highland Guards 72 

Mcllvaine, (Miss) Caroline M., Li- 
brarian of the Chicago Historical 

Society 108 

Foot-note 85 

Mclntyre, (Bishop) Robert -)2, 43 



McKee, David, First blacksmilh in 

Chicago 80 

McKendree (McKendreean) College, 

Lebanon, 111 50, 51 

McKendree family, name shows they 

were of Scotch origin 51 

McKendree, (Bishop) William 51 

McKenzie. Various changes in the 

spelling of the name 79 

McKenzie, John, (Father of John 

Kinzie) 39, 79 

Mackenzie, (Prof.) Wm. Douglas... 53 

Mackinac Island, "Astor House" 60 

McKinley, (Pres.) William. ... 3, 68, 71 
McKinney, Kidnapper, case of Jim 

Gray (Nigger Jim) 58 

McLaren, John 53, 84 

McLaren, (Bishop) William E 42 

MacLaughlan, (Rev.) James 65 

McLaughlin, Dan 77 

McLaughlin, (Miss) Anna Maria, 

wife of Major Joseph Duncan 108 

McLaughlin, Robert K 120, 144, 187 

Foot-note 149 

McLaughlin, Robert K., candidate for 

Governor of Illinois 144, 149 

Foot-note 149 

McLaughlin, Robert T 115 

McLean, Alexander 63 

McLean, Catherine McMillan 63 

McLean Co., Ill 69, 77 

McLean, Duncan 63 

McLean, Hector 63 

McLean, John.... 63, 122, 123, 129, 181 

Foot-note 123 

McLean, John, Letter to Governor 
Edwards, dated April 25, 1825. 

Foot-note 123 

McMichael, (Rev.) J. B., D.D., Presi- 
dent of Monmouth College, Mon- 
mouth, 111 50, 85 

McMichael, (Rev.) R. H., D.D., Presi- 
dent of Monmouth College, Mon- 
mouth, 111 50 

McMicken, John 61 

McMicken, William 61 

McMillan 194 

McMillan, D. F., Editor of the Ran- 
dolph County Record 56 

McMillan, Francis Thompson, Early 
school teacher in Perry Co., III... 53 

McMillan, John 63 

McMillan, Martha, Early school 

teacher in Perry Co., Ill 53 

MacMillan, Thomas C, The Scots and 

their Descendants in Illmois 

27, 31-85 

McMillan, Various spelling of the 

name 79 

McMillan, William 62 

MacMonnies, Frederick, Sculptor... 82 

McNair, Alexander 64 

McNair, (Mr.) , Early settler 

of Winnebago Co., Ill 64 

McNaughton, (Miss) Margaret, Early 
school teacher Lyons Township, 

Cook Co., Ill 52 

McNaughton, (Miss) Margaret, wife 

of Samuel Vial 52 

McNeil & Higgins, Wholesale Busi- 
ness firm, (Chicago 83 

McNeil, John 83 

McNeil, Malcolm 83 

McNuIta, (Brev,-Brig.-Gen.) .Iohn.73, 77 

Macomb, (McDonough Co.), Ill 62 

Macon Co., Ill 24, 78 

Macon County, 111., Historical So- 
ciety 24 



386 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

MacPherson, George 84 

McPherson, (Gen.) James B 73 

MacPherson, Various spelling and 

changes in the name 79 

Madison Co., Ill 63, 77 

Madison, (Mrs.) James 166 

Madrid, Spain 76 

Maertz, (Miss) Louise 24 

Mahon, (Mr.) 200 

Maine, State 35, 67 

Makarty (Macarty), Chevalier de, 
Commandant at Fort Chartres .... 

225, 227, 230, 232, 244, 246. 257 

Foot-note 227 

Makarty, Chevalier de. Social life at 
Fort Chartres, under Commandant 

Chevalier de Makarty 230-232 

Makarty, Eulalie, Daughter of Chev- 
alier de Makarty, Commandant at 

Fort Chartres 230, 

231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 242-244 
Makarty, Eulalie, Death of, at Fort 

Chartres 242-244 

Makarty, Eulalie, Rescue of, by Lieut. 

Jean Baptiste Saucier 232-233 

Makarty, Maurice, Secretary to his 
father. Chevalier de Makarty at 

Fort Chartres 230 

Mallait. Michael 250, 253, 256 

Mann, Horace, Educator 49 

Marengo, 111., Academy 65 

Maria, Nurse with Mrs. Joseph Dun- 
can 162 

Marie Theresa 226 

Marietta, Ohio, Seat of government 

of the Northwest Territory 38 

Marks, Anna Edith, William Murray, 
Trader and Land speculator in the 

Illinois country 27, 188-212 

Marquette, (Father) James 41 

Marshall, Thomas, of York Co., Pa.. 200 
Martin, Edgar S., State Architect, 

Illinois 15 

Martin, Jean du 260 

Martineau, Harriet, Description of 

the boom in Chicago, 1836 158 

Martinique, Island of 

231, 237, 239, 248, 254 

Martinique, Island. St. Pierre in the 

Island of 248 

"Martyrs and Heroes of Illinois." 

By James Barnet. Reference 76 

Maryland, State 35, 36, 206 

Maryland, State, Early Scots in.... 35 
Maryland, State, Opposition to Vir- 
ginia's sovereignty in the west. . . .206 
Maryland, State, Signs articles of 

confederation 206 

Mason, Carlisle 83 

Mason, Edward G 263 

Foot-notes 227, 228 

Mason. Edward G., Kaskaskia and 

its Parish Records 263 

Mason, Edward G. Foot-note. Old 
Fort Chartres 227 

Mason, (Maj.) George 73, 83 

Mason, James 182 

"Massacre of Glencoe." Reference. . 33 

Massachusetts Colony 86 

Matheny, James H 24 

Mather, Thomas 160 

Mather, (Mrs.) Thomas 125, 126 

Matson, N., Pioneers of Illinois. 

Quoted 37 

Matteson (Mathieson), Various spell- 
ing of the name 79 

Maxwell, H. H 187 



PAGE. 

May, William L.. Elected to Congress, 

1834 and 1836 150 

iVIayvillo, Turnpike Bill 14o 

Meaumenier, Barbe, wife of Francois 

La Croix 261 

Medill, Joseph 91 

Meese, William A 5 

Menard, Pierre, Marriage to Angeh- 

que Saucier, May 22, 1806 263 

Menominee Indians in Wisconsin.... 40 

Menshall, Thomas 201 

Mercer, (Gen.) C. F., Letter of Joseph 
Duncan to, dated Washington City, 

March 25, 1834 109-111 

Meredosia, 111 152, lo7 

Foot-note 164 

Meredosia, 111., Northern Cross R. R., 
Jacksonville to Meredosia, 111. 

RsfcrGncG loii 

Methodist Episcopal Theological Sem- 
inary, Evanston, 111 43, 53 

Methodist Church, Father Clark an 

itinerant preacher in 41 

Methodist Church, Ottawa, 111 58 

Methodist Episcopal Church, Spring- 
field, 111 69 

Metius, Witness, 1758 261 

Mexico 259 

Miami Valley 103 

Michigamie Indians. Foot-note 231 

Michigan State, Pioneer and His- 
torical Collections, Vol. XIX. 

Quoted 208, 212 

Michigan Territorj' 126 

Michot, Jo 253 

••Military Tract," State of Illinois. 53, 62 

Miller, Brice A 84 

Miller, (Mrs.) I. G 17, 18, 19 

Miller, Thomas E 84 

Mills, Benjamin, Lawyer of Galena, 
III., Defeated for Congress by 

William May 150 

Mills, (Col.) Charles F 103 

Mills, (Miss) Grace, wife of Col. 

Clark E. Carr 89 

Mills, (Hon.) Henry A 89 

Mirror, (The) newspaper. Edited by 

Matthew Duncan 113 

"Miscellanies," By Col. De Peyster, 
Edited by Gen. J. Watts de Peys- 
ter. Reference 35 

Mississippi River ..38, 42, 109, 113, 
114, 130, 132, 135, 136, 139, 152, 
161, 183, 189, 192, 193, 201, 225, 
226, 227, 228, 229, 231, 232, 234, 
236, 244, 246, 257, 258, 259, 261, 262 

Foot-notes 

164, 226, 228, 229, 232, 260 

Mississippi River, Early navigation 

on 234-236 

Mississippi River, Flood of 1844. 

Reference 258. 259 

Mississippi River, Journal de le 

Guerre du Mississippi in 1739 262 

Foot-note 260 

Mississippi Valley 34 

49, 101, 102. 152, 154, 188. 209, 212 
Mississippi Valley, Alvord, Clarence 
Walworth, Mississippi Valley in 

British Politics 208, 212 

Foot-note 209 

Mississippi Valley, Claimed by 

France 257 

Mississippi Valley territory, detach- 
ing of. from its dependence upon 
the French Authorities in Canada. 34 
Mississippi Valley, Military and Civil 
districts created by the French in. 34 



287 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Missouri River ^.201 

Missouri State i^, 58 

Missouri State Historical Society.... 17 

Missouri Territory 109 

Mitchell, (Hon.) Alexander, Banker, 
railroad builder and national legis- 
lator TO 

Mitchell, S. Augustus 80 

Mobile, Hamilton's Colonial Mobile.. 262 

Mohawk Valley 158 

Monmouth College, Monmouth, 111 . . . 

50, 81, 82 

Monmouth, (Warren Co.), 111., Mon- 
mouth College located in. . . .50, 81, 82 
Monroe Co., 111., Early schools in. 

Reference 47 

Monroe, (Pres. ) James 121 

Montcalm and Wolfe, By Francis 
Parkman. Reference. Foot-notes 

244, 245 

Montgomery Co 64, 126 

Montgomery, James, Early settler of 

Winnebago Co., Ill 64, 65 

Montgomery, Jane Caldwell 65 

Montgomery, (Rev.) John A 65 

Moody Church, Chicago 45 

Mooney, William 77 

Moore, (Capt.) Benjamin 108 

Moore, (Mrs.) Benjamin 108 

Moore, Duncan 108 

Moore, Ensley 5, 16, 17, 26, 54, 67 

Foot-note 85 

Moore, (Hon.) Ensley, Goudy 
Family. See article on, in Trans- 
actions of the Illinois State His- 
torical Society, 1907 67 

Moore, James, One of the spies sent 

by Clark to Kaskaskia 37 

Moore, Joshua 80 

Moores, Charles W 21 

Morals, The Jews of Philadelphia. . .210 

Morehead, (Mrs.) 18^ 

Morgan Co., Ill 23, 42, 80, 81, 126 

Morgan Co., 111., Laurie, John, Early 

settler in 42 

"Morgan House," Jacksonville, 111... 176 

Morgan, George 

190, 193. 194, 196, 197, 207, 210, 211 
Morgan, (iteorge. Letter Book, pre- 
served in the Carnegie Library, 

Pittsburgh, Pa 207, 210,211 

Morgan, George, Member of the firm 
of Baynton, Wharton and Morgan, 
eastern traders in the Illinois 

country 190, 193, 194, 207 

Morris, 111., Congregational Church.. 65 
Morris, Robert, Financier of the Rev- 
olution 206 

Moses, John, Illinois : Historical and 

Statistical. Quoted 

37, 39, 41, 48, 49, 56 

Mount Carroll, 111 89 

M. S. C. Initials of Matthew St. Clair 

Clarke 128 

Muir, (Rev.) James, Minister in 
Alexandria, Va., from 1789 to 

1820 79 

Muir, (Dr.) Samuel, son of Rev. 

James Muir 79, 80 

Munn, S. B 185 

Munroe, Edwin S 24 

Murfreesboro, Battle of, otherwise 
called Stone River, War of the 

Rebellion 72 

Murphey, of Philadelphia. . .197 

Murray. Daniel, Aids George Rogers 
Clark 205 



PAGE. 

Murray, Daniel, Memorial to the Vir- 
ginia Delegates in Congress, Dec. 
29, 1781 205 

Murray Family 191 

Murray, Frank 191, 194, 210 

Murray, James, (Lord Dunmore) . . . 
34, 204 

Murray, (Miss) Jenny 191, 194 

Murray, John 204 

Murray, (Capt.) William, of the 
Forty-second Royal Highlanders, 
commands Ave companies at Fort 
Pitt 190, 191 

Murray, William, Activities as a 
western merchant 194 

Murray, William, Agent for B. & 

M. Gratz, of Philadelphia 

190, 191, 192 

Murray, William II, Apprenticed to 
Alexander Hamilton of Phila- 
delphia. Foot-note 209 

Murray, William, Competition with 
French Traders in the Illinois 
country. Foot-note 195 

Murray, William, Deeds land in 
Jefferson Co., Va., to Joseph Simon. 206 

Murray, William, Fort Chartres, 
trading and provisioning the 
garrison at 193 

Murray, William, Land purchases of, 
does not secure consent of the 
British Council 201 

Murray, William, Land speculator 
in Illinois 200-207 

Murray, William, Marks, Anna Edith, 
William Murray, Trader and Land 
speculator in the Illinois country. . 
27, 188-212 

Murray, William, Partnership formed 
with James Rumsey, May 19, 1770 
194 195 196 

Murray, William, Partnership with 
Louis Viviat, dissolved 212 

Murray, William, Trader in Illi- 
nois 191-200 

Murray, (Mrs.) William, with chil- 
dren, join William Murray in the 
Illinois country 194, 210 

Murray, (Mrs.) William. .191, 194, 210 

My Day and Generation. By Clark 
E. Carr 86, 90, 92 

Myers, (Mrs.) Anne McLaughlin. ... 162 

Murray, Daniel 204, 205, 206, 212 

N 

Naper, (Capt.) Joseph, Naperville, 
111., named for SO 

Naperville, (Du Page Co.), 111., 
Named for Capt. Joseph Naper... 80 

Nashville, Battle of, War of the Re- 
bellion 73 

Nashville, Tenn 125, 127, 230 

Nashville, Tenn., Hermitage The, 

Home of General Jackson in 

125, 127 

National Bureau of Education 48 

National Road, Joseph Duncan, 
quoted on 141 

National Road, Toll taxes of the 
National Road in Ohio 141 

Negroes. Harris, N. Dwight, His- 
tory of negro servitude in Illinois. 58 

Negroes. Kidnapping of Jim Gray, 
(Nigger Jim) 58-60 

Nesbitt, (Mr.) 198,211 

Nestor ians, "Dr. Grant and the 
mountain Nestorians." Reference. 42 



288 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Nether Indians 210 

Newberry Library, Chicago, 111 71 

New Brunswick 77 

New Chartres in the parish of St. 

Ann 229 

New Chartres, The town near the 

entrance to the Fort 256 

New England, Scots and Ulster Scots 

in New England 35 

New Hampshire State 35 

New Jersey, Early Scots in 35 

New Madrid, Mo., Old records of in 
the Missouri Historical Society.... 17 

New Orleans, La 

34, 112, 142, 189, 203, 

205, 209, 229, 234, 235, 241, 243, 
247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 258, 260 

Foot-notes 164, 257 

New Orleans, Battle of Jan. 8, 1815.112 

Foot-note 257 

New Orleans, La., The Crescent City. 34 
New Orleans, La., Delorme. An- 

toine, early merchant in 248 

New Orleans, First settlement in, 

made by Bienville 247 

New Orleans, Jesuits in New Orleans 

since 1727 247 

New Orleans, La., Made the Capital 

of Louisiana in 1721 247 

New Orleans, La., Receives most of 

the Illinois peltry 189 

New Orleans, La., Settled in 1722 260 

New Orleans, Ursuline Convent, Hos- 
pital and Chapel in 247, 252 

New Potosi, Renault Mines in 236 

New Salem Township, McDonough 

Co.. Ill 62 

Newspapers, Alton Spectator, .luly, 

1834 140 

Foot-note 140 

Newspapers, Alton, Illinois Tele- 
graph 132. 133 

Foot-notes i33. 153 

Newspapers, Alton, Illinois Tele- 
graph, April 23, 1842. Foot-note .. 133 
Newspapers, Baltimore Republican, 

May 25, 1832. Quoted 135 

Newspapers, Chicago American, July 

18, 1842. Quoted '.132 

Newspapers, Chicago Republican.... 55 

Newspapers, Chicago Times 56 

Newspapers, Chicago Tribune 55 

Newspapers, The Illinoian. Foot- 
note 107 

Newspapers, Illinois Herald, Edited 
and Published by Capt. Matthew 

Duncan at Kaska.skia 54, 113 

Newspapers, Illinois Herald, early 

issue of. Reference ui 

Newspapers, Illinois Intelligencer, 

Aug. 19, 1825. Foot-note 123 

Newspapers, Illinois Intelligencer, 

1829 lis 

Newspapers, Illinois State Journal. . 76 
Newspapers, Illinois Patriot, pub- 
lished at Jacksonville, 111 146 

Newspapers, "Interior" 56 

Newspapers, Inter Ocean, Chicago... 55 
Newspapers, "The Mirror," edited in 
Russellville, Ky., by Capt Matthew 

Duncan 54, 113 

Newspapers, New York Tribune 76 

Newspapers, Randolph County Rec- 
ord, Sparta, 111 ." 56 

Newspapers, Sangamon Journal 149 

New.spapers, Western Observer, June 
14, 1831 145 



PAGE. 

New York City 

51, 71, 83, 88, 126, 207 

New York City, Independent News- 
paper 88 

New York State 

35, 51, 57, 86, 87, 103, 207, 208 

New York State, Early Scots in 3^ 

New York State. Edmund & O'Cal- 
laghan, Eds., Documents relative to 

the State of New York 208 

New York State. Erie Co., N. Y . . . . 86 
New York State Library, Albany, 
Sir William Johnson's Manuscripts 

in 207 

New York State. War of the Re- 
bellion, 11th N. Y. Inf 57 

Nichols. (Capt.) Jack 131 

Nicolav & Hav, Life of Lincoln. 

Quoted 76, 152, 153, 161 

Foot-notes 153, 161 

Nicolay. John G., Collaborator with 
John Hay. in the History of the 
Life and Times of Abraham Lin- 
coln 76 

Foot-notes 153, 161 

Nimmo, ( Col. ) A. J 75 

Noble, (Dr.) F. A 43 

Non-Importation Resolutions adopted. 
Merchants of Philadelphia adopt 
the Non-Importation Resolutions .. 210 
Normal, 111, Illinois State Normal 

School located in 52 

Norris, (Mr.) 164 

North Carolina State, Early Scots in 35 

Northern Cross Railroad 152' 

Northwest. English, (Hon.) W. H., 
Conquest of the N o r t h aV e s t. 

Quoted 35 

Northwestern Christian Advocate... 53 

North-western Presbyterian 56 

North-western Presbyterian Theolog- 
ical Seminary 43, 49 

Northwest Territory 34, 35. 38, 39 

Northwest Territory. Gage, (Gen.) 
Thomas, Opposition of Gage to the 
settlement and development of the 

Northwest Territory 34 

Northwest Territory, Ordinance of 

1787. Reference 38 

Northwest Territory. St. Clair. 
(Gov.) Arthur, First governor of 

the Northwest Territory 38. 39 

Northwest Territory, States carved 
from 35 



Ogden, Hannah, Wife of Rev. James 
Caldwell, Chaplain in the Revo- 
lutionary Army 124 

Ogden, William B., First Mayor of 
Chicago 70 

Ogle, (Gen.) 181 

Oglesby, (Lieut.-Gov. ) John G., Ad- 
dress oh the office of Lieutenant- 
Governor of the State of Illinois. 
Reference 21 

Oglesby, (Gov.) Richard J 77, 91 

Oglesbv, (Gov.) Richard J., of 
Scottish descent 77 

Ohio River 137, 

189, 190, 192, 193, 195. 200, 201. 
203, 206, 208, 212, 226, 244, 246, 257 
Foot-note 164 

Ohio River. Thwaites. Reuben Gold, 
& Kellogg. Louise P., Eds., Revolu- 
tion on the upper Ohio, 1775-1777 
208, 212 



289 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

"Ohio." Steamboat .176 

Ohio State 67, 68, 79, 103, 126, 190 

Oliver, John, Lumberman 84 

Omaha. Neb 88, 103 

Omaha, Neb., E.xpositlon, 1898 88 

Ordinance of 1787 38, 118 

Orendorf, (Gen.) Alfred 20 

Orkney Islands 60 

Orleans, Fi-ance. .218. 219, 220, 221, 238 

Ormsby, John 191 

Osborne, Georgia L., As.'^istant Secre- 
tary Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety 5, 15, 26 

Osborne, Georgia L., Chairman Gen- 
ealogical committee, Illinois State 

Historical Society 15 

Osborne, Georgia L... Comp. Genea- 
logical works in the Illinois State 
Historical Library. Supplemental 

list 26 

See also end of this volume. 

Ottawa, 111 58, 64 

Ottawa, III., Anti-Slavery Society. . . 58 

Ottawa, 111., Baptist Church 58 

Ottawa, 111., Congregational Church. 58 

Ottawa, 111., Methodist Church 58 

Ouiatenon. William Murray, Nego- 
tiations with Indians at Ouiatenon. 204 
Outagami or Fox tribe of Indians. 

Foot-notes 231, 232 

Owen, (Brig-.-Gen.) Joshua, T 73 



Page, (Mr.) 



-Artist, portrait 



of Governor Duncan. Reference. 

165, 166 

Page. Edward C ^ 

Palestine, Country of 21, 22 

Palestine Relief Expedition 21 

Palmer, (Gov.) John M 90,91 

Palmer, William P., Calendar of 

Virginia State Papers, edited by. 208 

Panama Canal, Negotiations 76 

Panama, Early called the Isthmus 

of Darien 33 

Panama Railroad and Steamship 

Line 82 

Panama, William Paterson's Vision 

of Panama and its commercial 

possibilities 33 

Paris, France 76, 88, 259, 261 

Paris, France. Archives Coloniales 

a Paris 261 

Paris, France. Exposition Famous 

Corn Kitchen 88 

Paris, FYance. Saussier, (Gen.) 

Felix Gustave, Military Governor 

of Paris 259 

Paris, (Bourbon Co.). Ky 

108, 109, 112, 114, 130, 186 

Foot-note 163 

Paris, Ky., Duncan family remove 

from Paris, Ky., to Brownsville, 

Illinois 114 

Paris, Ky., Duncan Home, in Paris, 
Ky., reference to. i-ooi-note 163 

Parish of St. Ann 229 

Parkman, Francis, Conspiracy of 
Pontiac 209 

Parkman, Francis, Historian. . .68, 209 
Foot-notes 244, 245 

Parkman, Francis. Montcalm and 
Wolfe. Foot-notes 244, 245 

Paterson, Charles. President of 
Paterson Institute, La Grange, 
Illinois. Foot-note 85 

—19 H S 



PAGE. 

Paterson luFtitute, I^a Grange, 111. 
Foot-note 85 

Paterson, AVilliam I. Founder of the 
Bank of England 69 

Paterson, William II. Vision of 
Panama and its commercial pos- 
sibilities 33 

Paton, (Patton) (Patten) Various 
spelling of the name 79 

Patterson, Alexander 44 

Patterson, James, Early Scotch set- 
tler in Will Co., 111., inaugurated 
the annual plowing match 62 

Patterson, J. Ritchie. Foot-note... 85 

Patterson, Mungo 61 

Patterson, Raymond 55 

Patterson, (Rev.) Robert 44 

Patterson, (Rev.) Robert .W., D.D. 
,. . . . 43. 44, 55 

Patterson, Robert W., Editor Chi- 
cago Tribune 55 

Pease, (Prof.) Theodore Calvin. 
Foot-notes 122, 145 

Pease, Theodore Calvin. Editor Cen- 
tennial History of Illinois, Vol. 2. 
The Frontier State, 1818-1848. 
Foot-notes 122. 145 

Peck, (Rev.) John Mason 24, 55 

Peck, (Rev.) John Mason, Gazet- 
teer of Illinois 55 

Pell, G. T 182 

Pennsylvania State 

35, 67, 78, 79, 103, 114, 208, 210. 211 
Foot-note 209 

Pennsylvania State Archives. 4t'i 
Series, Edited by George Edward 
Reed 208 

Pennsylvania State, Division of Pub- 
lic Records 207, 210 

Pennsylvania State, Early Scots in.. 35 

Pennsylvania State Historical So- 
ciety 207. 211 

Pennsylvania State HLstorical So- 
ciety. Philadelphia, Etting manu- 
scripts in 207 

Foot-note 209 

Pennsylvania State Library. Bayn- 
ton, Wharton and Morgan. :Manus- 
cripts in 207 

Pennsylvania State Library, Penn- 
sylvania Division of Public Rec- 
ords in 207, 211 

Pennsylvania State Magazine of 

History and Biography 208, 211 

Foot-note .209 

Pennsylvania State Supreme Court 
Records 207 

Penrose, Charles B. Esq., Letter of 
Governor Duncan to Charles B. 
Penrose, solicitor of the Treasury, 
on the Linn affair 170. 171 

Penrose, Charles B., Letter of Gov- 
ernor Duncan to, Dated Dec. 1, 
1841 173-174 

Penrose, Charles B., Letter of Gov- 
ernor Duncan to Charles B. Pen- 
rose, solicitor of the Treasury, 
dated Dec. 21, 1841 174-175 

People's Gas Co. of Chicago 82 

Periodicals, "Advance" of the Con- 
gregational Church 56 

Periodicals, Common School Advo- 
cate 55 

Periodicals, Northwestern Christian 
Advocate 53 

Periodicals, Northwestern Presby- 
terian 56 



290 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

Perry, Adelaide, Daughter of Ade- 
laide Saucier and Jean Francois 

Perry 259 

Perry, Adelaide, Wife of Adam Wil- 
son Snyder 259 

Perry Co., 111., Early school teach- 
ers in 53 

Perry, Harriet, Daughter of Ade- 
laide Saucier and Jean Francois 

Perry 259 

Perry, Jean Francois 259 

Perry, Louise, Daughter of Adelaide 

Saucier and Jean Francoi.s Perr>'.259 
Perry, f Commodore) Oliver H., AVar 

of 1812 Ill 

Peters, Records of the United 

States Supreme Court. Foot-note. 170 
Petty, near Inverness, Scotland.... 41 
Peyster (Col.) Arent Schuyler de, 
Commanded the British forces at 

Mackinac 35 

Peyster, (Gen.) J. Watts de 35 

Philadelphia, Pa 153, 191, 201 

Philadelphia, Pa., (Gov.) Edward 

Coles makes his home in 153 

Phillips, (Rev.) 45 

Phillips, Richard, owner of the fugi- 
tive slave, Jim Gray 58 

Piankashaw Indians 204 

Plcken, Charles, Early settler of 

Winnebago Co., Ill 64 

Picken, George, Early settler of 

Winnebago Co., Ill 64 

Picken, James, Early settler oL 

Winnebago Co., Illinois 64 

Picken, John, Early settler of 

Winnebago Co., Illinois 64 

Pierson, (Dr.) Azel 178 

Pilgrim Fathers 32 

Pinkerton, Allan, Detective, born in 

Glasgow, Scotland 81 

Pirie, John T., Member of the Arm 
of Carson, Pirie Scott & Co., 

■ Chicago 83 

Pirogues, (Boats) 235, 243, 246 

Pittsburg, Pa 201, 207 

Pittsburg, Pa., Carnegie Library, 
George Morgan Letter Book, pre- 
served in 207 

Plains of Abraham, English victory 
on the Plains of Abraham and 

fall of Quebec, Sept. 13, 1859 257 

Plowing Match, Will County, Scotch 

Settlement 61-62 

Plum Creek Settlement, Randolph 

Co., Ill 53 

Poland 227 

Polk. James K 125 

Polk, (Mrs.) James K 125 

Pompadour, Madame de 227 

Pontiac, 111., State Reformatory lo- 
cated in 81, 82 

Pontiac, Ottawa Chief 

189, 190, 210, 257 

Foot-note 209 

Pontiac's War 189, 190 

Pope, Nathaniel 54, 113, 121 

Pope, Nathaniel, Laws of the Terri- 
tory of Illinois. Pope's Digest. .54, 113 
Porter, (Rev.) J. C, Pastor of Cedar 

Creek Presbyterian Church 50 

Port Royal 31 

Portuguese Hymn. Reference 91 

Post, (Rev.) Reuben 162 

Post St. Vincent, IMurray. William. 
Negotiations with Indians at Post 
St. Vincent 204 



PAGE. 

Post, (Rev.) Truman M...162, 163, 178 
Post, (Rev.) Truman M., Describes 
visit to Jacksonville in 1833, and 

home of the Duncans 163 

Postal Railway Service 90 

Potomac River 45 

Pottawatomie Indians 80 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y., Law School... 87 
Powell, (Major) J. W., Noted Geol- 
ogist and Anthropologist 52 

Powers, (Hon.) Millard R. Foot-note 85 

Prairie du Pont 262 

Prairie du Rocher. . . . 229, 232. 261, 263 
Prairie du Rocher, settled in 1722... 229 

Prairie Schooners 86 

Prairie Township, McDonough Co., 

Ill 62 

Prairies of Illinois. .. .103, 113, 152, 158 

Prentice, Charles 187 

Presbyterian Church 

55, 64, 65, 71, 80, 162, 178 

Presbyterian Church, Aurora, 111... SO 
Presbyterian Church, Brighton Park 

Presbyterian Church 65 

Presbyterian Church, Chicago, 2nd 

Presbyterian Church 71 

Presbyterian Church, Jacksonville, 

111 178 

Presbyterian Church, Willow Creek 

Presbyterian Church 64 

Presbyterian Theological Seminary, 

Chicago 49 

Presque, Isle Ill 

Proclamation of 1763 200, 201 

Proclamation of President Lincoln, 
setting apart a day of fasting and 

prayer, dated March 30, 1863 45 

Proctor, (Gen.) Henry A., British 

General. War of 1812 110 

Putnam, Benjamin Risley, of Exeter, 

Cal. Foot-note 177 

Putnam, Charles E., of Davenport, 

Iowa. Foot-note 177 

Putnam, Edward Kirby, of Daven- 
port, Iowa. Foot-note 177 

Putnam, (Miss) Elizabeth Duncan.. 

27, 107 

Foot-notes 125, 177 

Putnam, (Miss) Elizabeth Duncan, 
of Davenport, Iowa, grand-daugh- 
ter of Gov. Joseph Duncan. Foot- 
note 177 

Putnam, (Miss) Elizabeth Duncan. 
The Life and Services ot Joseph 

Duncan, Governor of Illinois 

zi, lOr-187 

Putnam, George Rockwell, of Wash- 
ington, D. C. Foot-note 177 

Putnam, (Prof.) J. W '>0 

Putnam, (Miss) Ruth ....108 

Putnam. Henry St. Clair, of New 

York City. Foot-note 177 



Quade. (Third Lt.,) Andrew. High- 
land Guards 72 

Quebec Act, 1774 189, 203 

Quebec Act of June, 1774. Includes 
Illinois Country in the Province of 
Quebec 203 

Quebec, Canada 

189, 203, 229, 234, 247, 257, 260 

Quebec, Canada. English victory on 
the Plains of Abraham and fall 
of Quebec, Sept. 13, 1759. Refer- 
ence 257 



391 



INDEX — Continued. 



R 

PAGE. 

Raab, Henry, Superintendent of Pub- 
lic Instruction, State of Illinois. . . 47 
Rader, (Rev.) Paul. Extract from 
his discourse, entitled "How Lin- 
coln Led the Nation to Its Knees" 45 
Rader, (Rev.) Paul, Pastor of the 

Moody Church, Chicago 45 

RafCen, (First Lieut.) Alexander W., 

Highland Guards 72 

Raffen, (Capt.) John T., Highland 

Guards 72 

Raffen, John T., of the firm of Clark 

& Raffen 83 

Railroads, Atchison & Santa F6 R. R. 90 

Railroads, Burlington R. R 84 

Railroads, Chicago and Eastern Illi- 
nois Railroad 68 

Rfiilroads. Chicago & Northwestern 

R. R. 70 

Railroads, Galena and Chicago Union 

R. R. Now the Northwestern.... 70 
Railroads, Northern Cross Railroad. . 152 

Railroads, Santa Fe R. R 80 

Ralston, A. D 64 

Ralston, Alexander, Early settler of 

Winnebago Co., Ill 64 

Ralston, David, Early settler of 

Winnebago Co., Ill 64 

Ralston, Gavin, Early settler of 

Winnebago Co., Ill 64 

Ralston, John 64 

Ralston, Peter, Early settler of Win- 
nebago Co., Ill 64 

Ralston, William 64 

Rammelkamp, (Pres.) Charles H. . . 5 

Randolph Co., Ill 47, 53 

Foot-note 85 

Randolph Co., III., Early schools in. . 47 
Randolph Co., 111., Plum Creek Settle- 
ment, Randolph Co., Ill 53 

Randolph Co., 111., Scotch Covenant- 
ers in. Reference 47 

Randolph-Macon College, Va.. His- 
torical Papers, Edited by Charles 

H. Ambler 208 

Rawlins, (Gen.) John Aaron 73 

Reaves (Reeves) John 183 

Red Stone Creek 191 

Reed, George Edward :i08 

Reed, (Lieut.-Col.) John, at Fort de 

Chartres 211 

Reed, (Col.) John, Commissary at 

Fort Pitt 199 

Regaud, Pierre, Marquis de Vau- 

dreuil 247 

Reid, Alexander, Early settler of 

Winnebago Co., Ill 64 

Reid, Hugh, Early settler of Winne- 
bago Co., Ill 64 

Reid, James, Early settler of Winne- 
bago Co., Ill 64 

Reid, Mayne 60 

Reid, William M 62 

Renault Mines, at New Potosi in the 
Spanish Territory across the Miss- 
issippi River 236 

Renault, Philippe 229, 261, 263 

Foot-note 256 

Renault, Philippe, St. Philip founded 

by, called Le Petite Village 

229, 256, 261 

Foot-note 256 

Renfreswshire, Scotland 73 

Rennie, John T. Born In the Auld 
Town of Ayr, Scotland 78, 79 



PAGE. 

Republican Party. First Republican 
or Anti-Nebraska, State Conven- 
tion held in Bloomington, May 29, 
1856. Foot-note 80 

Republican National Convention at 
Baltimore, in 1864 87 

Revolutionary Soldiers, Pension laws. 
Reference 133 

Revolutionary Soldiers. Pensions to. 
Extension of 1834. Reference 145 

Revolutionary War 31, 32, 133, 145 

Reynolds, (Gov.) John 131, 132 

Foot-notes „„ 

163, 228, 229, 257, 259, 262, 263 

Reynolds, (Gov.) John. Pioneer His- 
tory of Illinois. Quoted -ioo 

Foot-notes^.. ^^^^.......^.......2^3 

Reynolds, (Gov.) John. Visits Ft. 

Chartres in 1802 and m 1854. 

Foot-note •^- \- : " 'A ' ' ' 

Rhode Island State. Caleb ^Carr, 

Colonial Governor of Rhode Island 86 

Richardson, — • ■ • • • }Ia 

Richardson, (Capt.) S. D 184 

Richie Family - • • • • • • • • • • • *» 

Riverside, (Cook Co.) 111. Scottish 

Old People's Home, located near. . 8<i 
Rivers. (Senator) 7— Error 

Should be Rives, William C, ot 



Virginia ^ . ^^. 

Rives, (Senator) William C, of Vir- 

' ' ' - Witness, Feb. 6, 



.162 



162 



ginia 

Robbilhand, - ... 

^733 iiDi 

Robertson, " Alexander 80 

Robertson, Elizabeth °" 

Robertson, Hugh • • • • • • • ^^ 

Robertson, John, of Morgan Co., 111. 

Of Scotch descent 80 

Robertson, Principal. (James 

Craigie)? Scottish Historian 38 

Robertson, Mary • • ^^'^ 

Robertson, Thomas D. Early settler 

in Winnebago Co., Ill 'ofi-i 

Robinet, Louis • ■ • • ^^^ 

Robinson, David. Early school 

teacher in McDonough Co., Ill 62 

Robinson, John M 135 

Robinson, Knapp and Shutt. Law 

firm, Springfield, 111 • . 23 

Rocheblave, Phillippe BYancois de 

Rastel, Chevalier de 226 

Rockford, III 63, 70, 93 

Rock Island, 111 131 

Rock River Valley 131 

Roker, of Philadelphia 197 

Roosevelt, Theodore. Memorial meet- 
ing, Springfield, 111 20, 21 

Root, ■ Interested in the case 

of the fugitive slave, "Jim Gray". .58 

Root, Erastus, of N. Y 134 

Rosecrans, (Gen.) Wm. S. Union 

General War of the Rebellion 72 

Ross, Alexander 196 

Ross, David 77 

Ross, George 205 

Ross, Lewis W 62 

Ross, (Mr.) Manager of the 

Contractors at Fort Pitt 199 

Ro.'s.s. (Dr.) Peter. "The Scots in 

America." Quoted 41, 60, 80, 81 

Ross, (Rev.) Robert. Pastor of South 

Henderson 50 

Roy, Angelique dit Lapensee. Mar- 
riage to Francis Saucier, before 

1787 262 

Roy, Rob 60 



292 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

Rumsey, James 

194, 195, 196, 199, 201. 204. 210, 211 

Rumsey, James. Partnership formed 
with William Murray, May 19, 
1770 194, 195, 196 

Russel, (Dr.) Andrew. Born in Scot- 
land 81 

Russel, Andrew 5, 81 

Russel, Andrew. Auditor of the State 
of Illinois 81 

Russel, Andrew. Member of the 
Board of Directors of the Illinois 
State Historical Society 81 

Russel, Andrew, of Scotch Ancestry 81 

Russelville. Ky 54, 113, 114 

Ryan, (Rev.) John H. Article on 
the Underground Railroad. Ref- 
erence 58 

Ryder, (Dr.) W. H 43 



Sac Indians 79 

Saint Andrew Society of Illinois. 82, 83 

St. Anne in Chartres Village 

229, 260, 262,263 

Foot-notes 227, 256 

St. Anne. Parish at Fort Chartres 

229, 256, 260, 262. 263 

Foot-notes 227, 256 

St. Anne. Parish records 263 

St. Anne. Parochial records still 

preserved 260 

St. Charles, 111. State School for 

Boys, located in 82 

St. Clair (Gen.) Arthur 

30, 33, 38, 39, 70 

St. Clair (Gen.) Arthur. First Gov- 
ernor of the Northwest Territory 

33, 38, 39 

St. Clair, (Gen.) Arthur. Moses' 

History of Illinois. Quoted on. . . 39 
St. Clair, (Maj. Gen.) Arthur, of 
Pennsylvania. War of the Revo- 
lution 33 

St. Clair Co., Ill 47, 61, 69 

St. Clair Co., 111. Scotch Settle- 
ment 47 

St. Dennis, Marie Madeline, 2nd., 

Wife of Charles Saucier 260 

St. Eustache, Paris 260 

St. Genevieve, Mo 17, 195 

St. Genevieve, Mo. Old records of, 
in the Missouri Historical Society 17 

St. Lawrence River 137, 161 

St. Louis, Mo 

42, 58, 67, 125, 260, 261 

St. Louis, Mo. Frudeau, Jean Bap- 
tiste, first Schoolmaster in St. 

Louis 261 

St. Louis, Mo. University. Cahokia 
register of marriage, copy of, 

found in the University 260 

St. Philip, founded by Renault, 
called "Le Petite Village". . .229, 256 

Foot-note 256 

St. Phillipe du Marais, village of... 261 
St. Pierre, on the Island of Mar- 

tinque 248, 254, 255 

St. Pierre Bay of. Island of Mar- 

tinque 239, 240 

St. Privat, France 259 

Salzenstein, (Mrs.) Mose 27 

Samoa 76 

Sandusky, Ohio 109, 111 

Sandusky River 109 

Sangamon Co., Ill 103, 126 

Sangamon Journal 149 



PAGE 

Santa F6 R. R 89. 90 

Saratoga, Battle of. War of the 
Revolution 75 

Saucier, (SaussSer), (Sautier). 
(Socie). Various spelling of the 
name 218, 260-263 

Saucier, Adelaide. Daughter of 
Baptiste Saucier and Marie Jose- 
phine Belcour 259 

Saucier, Adelaide. Wife of Jean 
Francois Perry 259 

Saucier, Angeliciue. Marriage to 
Pierre Menard. May 22, 1806.... 263 

Saucier, Baptiste 259, 262 

Saucier, Baptiste. Children of 259 

Saucier, Baptiste. Marriage to 
Marie Josephine Belcour. ... 259, 262 

Saucier. Baptiste, son of Capt. Jean 
Baptiste Saucier and Adelaid? 
Lepage 259 

Saucier, (Saussier) Beaumont 218 

Saucier, Charles 262 

Saucier, Charles. Son of Louis 
Saucier and Margueritte Gailli- 
ard 260 

Saucier Family in America. Un- 
certainty regarding earlier mem- 
bers 260 

Saucier, (Saussier) Family. The 
Sauciers in France 218-221 

Saucier, Felicite 262 

Saucier, (Saussier), (Gen.) Felix 
Gustave. Military Governor of 
Paris 259 

Saucier, (Saussier) Felix Xavier... 
218, 224 

Saucier, Francois 

259, 260, 261. 262, 263 

Saucier, Francois. Lieut, refonne, 
and inginieur le Roy at Fort 
Chartres 260 

Saucier, Francois. Son of Capt. 
Jean Baptiste Saucier and Ade- 
laide Lepage 259 

Saucier, Francois. Marriage to 
Angelique Rov dit Lapensee. Be- 
fore 1787 262 

Saucier, Fr., sub-engineer in 1751.. 260 

Saucier, (Sau.ssier) Henry 261 

Saucier, Jean Bapti.ste 1 222. 224 

Saucier, .lean Baptiste, 1737 261 

Saucier, (Capt.) Jean Baptiste, at 
Fort Chartres in the Illinois, 1751- 
1763. Bv Dr. John F. Snyder. 
M. D. ..". 215-263 

Saucier, (Saussier). .lean Baptiste. 
Boyhood and education of .... 221-225 

Saucier, (Lieut.) Jean Baptiste. A 
brush with southern Indians. 240-242 

Saucier, ( Capt. ) Jean Baptiste. 
Buried in the little graveyard ad- 
joining the old Cahokia Church.. 258 

Saucier, ( Capt. ) Jean Baptiste. 
Chief engineer and designer 
second Fort Chartres 256, 257 

Saucier, (Capt.) Jean Baptiste. In 
command of keel boats from Ft. 
Chartres to New Orleans 236-240 

Saucier, (Capt.) Jean Baptiste.' 
Marriage to Adelaide Lepage. 255-257 

Saucier. (Capt.) Jean Baptiste. 
New Orleans. Capt. S a u c i e r ' s 
second trip to, for supplies for 
Fort Chartres 246-249 

Saucier, (Capt.) Jean Baptiste. 
Reports for duty to Major Ma- 
karty at Brienne 232 



S93 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Saucier, (Cap.) Jean Baptists, 
Rescues from drowning Eulalie 
Makarty 232, 233 

Saucier, ( Capt. ) Jean B a p t i s t e. 
Rewarded by the King of France, 
advanced to that of Captain 245 

Saucier, (Capt.) Jean B a p t i s t e. 
Sent by Major Makarty to New 
Orleans for supplies, etc., for 
Fort Chartres 246-249 

Saucier, (Capt.) Jean B a p t i s t e. 
Sent by Major Makarty to take 
command of the Fort at Ca- 
hokia 245, 246 

Saucier, (Capt.) Jean B a p t i s t e. 
Takes up his residence in Cahokia.258 

Saucier, Jean Baptiste, with Neyon 
de Villiers in his attack on Fort 
Necessity 244. 245 

Saucier, (Saussier) Madam Jean 
Beaumont 218 

Saucier, (Mrs.) Jean Baptiste. 
(Adelaide Lapage). Buried in the 
little graveyard adjoining the Old 
Cahokia Church 258 

Saucier, Jean Baptiste, of Prairie du 
Rocher 263 

Saucier, (Saussier) Monsieur Jean 

Beaumont „„ , 

218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224 

Saucier, J. B 260 

Saucier, Jean B 261 

Saucier, Jean B. II 263 

Saucier, Jean. Son of Charles 
Saucier 260 

Saucier, Jean. Son of Louis Saucier 
and Margueritte Gailliard 260 

Saucier, (Capt.) John Baptiste at 
Fort Chartres in the Illinois, 
1751-1763. By John F. Snyder, 
M. D 215-263 

Saucier, John Baptiste. Son of Bap- 
tiste Saucier and Marie Josephine 
Belcour 259 

Saucier, Joseph Francis 261 

Saucier, Louis. Son of Charles Sau- 
cier and Charlotte Clairet 260 

Saucier, (Saussier) Louis Beau- 
mont 218, 219 

Saucier, Marie Barbe. Wife of Julian 
Le Roy T 261 

Saucier, Marie Jeanne 260. 262 

Saucier, Marie Jeanne. Wife of An- 
toine Duclos 261, 262 

Saucier, Matthieu 259, 262, 263 

Saucier, Matthieu. Marriage to Cath- 
erine Godin, 1788 262 

Saucier, Matthieu. Marriage to Jo- 
sette Chatillon, Sept. 8, 1812 262 

Saucier, Matthieu. Son of Baptiste 
Saucier and Marie Josephine Bel- 
cour 259 

Saucier, Matthieu. Son of Capt. Jean 
Bapti.ste Saucier and Adelaide Le- 
page 259 

Saucier, Matthieu II 262 

Saucier, name appears as a witness 
to a marriage on Aug. 20, 1742, 
Kaska.skia parochial Register. . . .260 

Saucier Papers 260 

Saucier, (Saussier) Paul 218, 219 

Sautier, name given as a grantee of 
lots in New Orleans, 1722 260 

Savary, Gabrielle, wife of J. B. Sau- 
cier ■ 260 

Scaife, William 77 

Scammon, Jonathan Young. Reports 
Illinois Supreme Court 56 



PAGE. 

Schlesinger, (Prof.) A. M 108 

Schmidt, (Dr.) Otto L. President of 
the Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety 5, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 27 

Scioto River 190, 192 

Scioto River. Post established on, 
by Baynton, Wharton and Morgan, 

opposition to 190 

Scotch Bonnet worn by Gen. John 

McArthur. Reference 75 

"Scotch Grove" on Willow Creek. ... 64 
Scotch-Irish. May be called Ulster- 
Scots 32 

Scotch Presbyterian Church, Chicago 84 
Scotch Settlement, Will Co., 111. 
Ploughing match, annual occur- 
rence 61-62 

Scotland 31, 32, 124 

Foot-note , 209 

Scotland's Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, known as the "Solemn 

League and Covenant" 32 

Scotland. Kirkcudbright, Scotland 

47, 48, 124 

Foot-note 164 

Scotland. Kirkcudbrightshire 62 

Scotland Township. McDonough Co., 

Ill 62 

Scots. Among the signers of the 
"Declaration of Independence" and 

other patriots 33 

Scots and Scots' Descendants in 
America. By Rev. D. MacDougal. 

Quoted 32, 33, 34, 36 

Scots and their Descendants m Illi- 
nois. Address by Thomas C. Mac- 

Millan . 27, 31-85 

Scots and Ulster Scots in New Eng- 
land 35 

Scots. As State builders 31 

Scots. British Colonial Governors 

many of them of Scotch descent.. 33 
Scots. Charitable Society of Boston, 

established in 1657 3] 

Scots. Covenanters were Scotch and 

Ulster Scotch 44 

Scots. Emigrants from the home- 
land traversed the Atlantic in two 

main streams 32 

Scots. Generals under Washington, 

many were Scots 32, 33 

Scots in America. By Dr. Peter Ross. 

Quoted 41, 60, 80, 81 

Scots in Illinois. Patriotic natural- 
ized American Citizens 84 

Scots in Ireland 32 

Scott, (Miss) Agnes. Wife of Dr. 

Andrew Russel 81 

Scott, (Rev.) A. H 24 

Scott, (Prof.) Hugh McDonald 53 

Scott, James, of Glasgow, Scotland.. 57 
Scott, John, of Glasgow, Scotland.. 81 
Scott, (Judge) John M. "History of 
the Illinois Supreme Court." Ref- 
erence 69 

Scott, (Judge) John M. Ulster-Scots 
and their services in Nation build- 
ing. Papers on. Reference 69 

Scott, (Col.) Joseph R 72 

Scott. (Miss) Margaret Whitehead. 

Wife of Robert Fergus 57 

Scott, (Miss) Mary. Wife of Judge 

J Otis. Humphrey 24 

Scott, Stephen J 80 

Scott, (Sir) Walter 57,60 

Scott, (Sir) Walter. Works of. 
Quoted 57 



294 



~ INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Scott, Wealthy. Wife of David Mc- 

Kee 80 

Scott, (Gen.) Winfield 74 

Scottish and Presbyterian colonists. . 32 
Scottish Old People's Home, near 

Riverside, Cook Co., Ill 82 

Scottish settlements in the colonies 
at the beginning of the Revolu- 

. tionary War 34, 35 

Scottish Writers. Quoted. On the 

early emigrants to America 32 

Scouller, (Dr.) J. D 82 

Selby, Paul 48 

Foot-note 152 

Selby, Paul, and Bateman, Newton. 
Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois. 

Quoted. Foot-note 152 

Seneca Indians 210 

Shakespeare, William 84 

Shaler, N. S. Kentucky, a Pioneer 

Commonwealth 209, 212 

Shanahan, (Hon.) David E. Address 
on the office of Speaker of the 
House, State of Illinois. Refer- 
ence 21, 22 

Shawnee Indians 190 

Shea, John Gilmary 208 

Foot-note 260 

Shea, John Gilmary. Historical Maga- 
zine, edited by 208 

Shelburne, (Lord) William Petty 

188, 189 

Foot-note 209 

Sheriff, John. Lumberman 84 

Sherman, Lawrence T 5 

Sherman, (Gen.) William Tecumseh 61 
Shiloh, Battle of, War of the Rebel- 
lion ■ 61, 73 

Ship, Ensign. War of 1812 110 

Shurtleff College. Upper Alton, 111. 

23, 24, 51 

Simon and Milligan, with others, pro- 
test to Sir William Johnson, Indian 
Superintendent, Illinois County, 
against establishment of the Scioto 

Post 190 

Simon, Joseph. Indian Trader 

190, 195, 197, 198, 201, 204, 206, 209 
Simon, Joseph. William Murray deeds 

land in Jefferson Co., Va., to 206 

Simpson, (Bishop) Matthew 42 

Sinclair, (Capt.) or St. Clair 35 

Sinclair. Various spellings of the 

name 79 

Slade, C 183 

Slavery 41, 57, 58, 59, 60, 159, 160 

Slavery. Anti-slavery Society in Ot- 
tawa, 111 58 

Slavery. Baptized Church of Christ. 
Friends of Humanity. Klnown as 

Anti-slavery organization 41 

Slavery. Duncan-, (Gov.) Joseph, dis- 
approves of slavery as "a great 

- moral and political evil" 160 

Slavery. Gray, Jim, fugitive sl^ve 

58, 59, 60 

Slavery. Harris, N. Dwlght. His- 
tory of Negro servitude in Tlliiurs .58 
Slavery. Hossack. John, and the case 

of the slave. "Jim Gray"... 58, 59, 60 
Slavery. Illinois State fight on slav- 
ery in 44 

Slavery. Ryan, (Rev.) John H. Ar- 
ticle on the Underground Railroad. 

Reference 58, 59 

Slavery. Underground Railroad.... 58 

Smeillie, Agnes 71 

Smiley, (Rev.) W. J 46 



PAGE. 

Smith, David. Early settler of Win- 
nebago Co., Ill 64 

Smith, (Col.) D. C 5 

Smith, (Miss) Elizabeth Caldwell. 

Wife of Gov. Joseph Duncan, 124, 125 
Smith, George Financier in the 

northwest 69, 70 

Smith, George and Co., Bankers, Chi- 
cago 70 

smith, George W 5, 17, 18 

Smith-Hughes Act. Education 105 

Smith, James R., of New York City. .124 

Smith, Jeremiah 208 

Smith, T. W 135, 187 

Smith, T. W. Letter of Joseph Dun- 
can to, dated U. S. House of Repre- 
sentatives, April 18, 1831' 135 

Snow, (Mrs.) Jane Duncan. Foot- 
note 122 

Snyder, Adam W. Adam W. Snyder 
and his period in Illinois History, 
1817-1842. By Dr. J. F. Snyder. 

Foot-note 259 

Snyder, Adam W. Candidate for 

Governor of Illinois 168 

Snyder, Frederick Adam. Son of 
Adelaide Perry and Adam Wilson 

Snyder 259 

Snyder, (Dr.) John Francis. 20, 215, 259 

Foot-note 259 

Snyder, (Dr.) John Francis. Adam 
W. Snyder and his period in Illi- 
nois History, 1817-1842. Foot- 
note 259 

Snyder, John F., M. D. Captain John 
Baptiste Saucier at Fort Chartres, 

1751-1763 215-263 

Snyder, John Francis. Son of Ade- 
laide Perry and Adam Wilson Sny- 
der 259 

Snyder, William Henry. Son of Ade- 
laide Perry and Adam W' ilson Sny- 
der 259 

Socle, Madame 260 

"Solemn League and Covenant." 
Scotland's Declaration of indepen- 
dence 32 

South America 68 

South Carolina State.... 35, 41, 53, 69 
South Carolina State. Early Scots in 35 
Southend. East of the Mull of Can- 
tine. Scotland t 64 

Spanish - American War. Illinois, 

Ninth Illinois Regiment 89 

Spanish Conspiracy. By Thomas M. 

Green 209 

Sparta, 111 45, 46, 53, 56 

Sparta, 111. Randolph County Rec- 
ord, published in 56 

Sparta, 111. Reformed Presbyterian 

Church 46 

Sparta, 111. Scotch Covenanters in 

45, 46, 47. . 

Sparta, 111. Wylie, Adam. Early 

teacher in 53 

Spey Valley of Scotland 76 

Spicer, (Gen.) 173 

Springfield Academy, Erie Co., N. T. 87 

Sproat, David 195, 201, 210 

Sproat, David. War of the Revolu- 
tion. David Sproat Commissary of 

Naval prisoners 210 

Stacey, (Mrs.) Matthew, of Jackson- 
ville, 111 161, 162 

Stamp Act Repealed 210, 211 

"Steamboat Indiana" 126 

Steamboat Ohio 176 

Steen, W. H 77 



295 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

Stephenson Co., Ill 51 

Sterling, (Stirling) (Lieut.) Thomas 

35, 209, 211, 258 

Sterling, (Stirling) (Capt.) Thomas. 
Takes command of Ft. Chartres 

Oct. 10, 1765 258 

Stevenson, Robert Louis 60, 74 

Stewart, Alexander 77 

Stewart and Aldrich, wholesale gro- 
cers 84 

Stewart, Graeme 53, 84 

Stewart, John, of Elburn, Kane Co., 

Ill 77, 78 

Stewart, Thomas, of Aurora, 111.... 78 
Stewart, William, of the firm of 

Stewart and Aldrich 84 

Stewart. Various spelling of the 

name 79 

Stirling, (Sterling) (Capt.) Thomas 

35, 209, 211, 258 

Stockbridge, (Madison Co.) N. Y.... 51 
Stocking, (Miss) Mary Electa. Wife 

of George Harris Fergus 57 

Storey, Wilbur E. Journalist 56 

Stout, James. Aids in the rescue of 
fugitive slave, Jim Gray, (Nigger 

Jim) 59 

Stout, (Dr.) Joseph. One of the res- 
cuers of Jim Gray. (Nigger Jim) 59 

Strachan and Scott, Bankers 70 

"Strait of Michilimakina" 78 

Street, Joseph M. Letter to Gover- 
nor Edwards, dated Shawneetown, 

111., July 28, 1827. Foot-note 123 

Stratford-on-Avon 84 

Strong, William B. President of the 

Santa Fe R. R S9 

Stuart, Alexander 60 

Stuart, (Pres.) Charles M. Garrett 
Biblical Institute, Evanst.on, 111... 53 

Foot-note 85 

Stuart, (Col.) David 61,73 

Stuart, John T 159 

Stuart, Robert. Born at Callander, 

Scotland 60 

Stuart, Robert. Short sketch 60, 61 

Stuarts. Royal house of the Stuarts 33 
Stuart. Various spelling of the 

name 79 

Sturtevant, (Dr.) Julian M ! ! ! ! ! 167 

Foot-note 177 

Stuve, Bernard, and Davidson, Alev- 
ander. History of Illinois. (Quoted 

Foot-notes 122, 132 

Sunday School Times Company. ..." 45 

Sutherland, George 56 

Sweet, Leonard 91 

Swing, ( Prof. ) David '.'.'.'." 43 



Taggart, (Judge), Superintendent of 

Insurance, Ohio 82 

Tait, (Tate). Various spelling of 

the name 79 

Taylor, (Miss) 167 

Taylor, (Capt.) Zachary, of the U. 

S. Army 127, 180 

Taylor, (Pres.) Zachary 67 

Tazewell, (Mr.) 127 

Tel-el-Kebir 72 

Temperance Society in Illinois, early 

one. Reference 178 

Templeton, Hugh 84 

Templeton, Thomas 45 

Tennessee State.. 34, 35, 36, 79, 125, 183 
Tennessee State. Early Scots in... 35 



PAGE. 

Tennessee Township. McDonough Co., 

Ill 62 

Thomas and I5ickerson, Proprietors 
of a hotel in Vandalia, Illinois, in 

1825 120 

Thomas, (Dr.) H. W 43 

Thomas, (Hon.) William 176 

Thompson, Charles Manfred. Editor 
Go\ ernor's Letter Books, 1840-1853. 
Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. 

VII. Foot-note 158 

Thompson, William, of Cumberland 

Co.. Pa 197, 200 

Thompson, William J. Foot-note. . . 85 
Thornton, (Gen.) William Fitzhugli.165 
Thwaites, Reuben Gold and Kellogg, 
Louise P., Eds. Revolution on the 

Upper Ohio, 1775-1777 208, 212 

Tiffany, ( Dr. ) O. H 43 

Tod, (Col.) Charles Scott, War of 

1812 Ill 

Todd, John 36 

Todd, (Dr.) John 178 

Tonnerre, Mille 254 

Tours, France 238 

Transylvania University, Lexington, 

Ky 108, 118 

Treaty of Fort Stanwix, Nov., 1768.. 189 
Treaty of Paris, February, 1763.... 188 

Trent, William 190 

Trutier, ( Mam'selle) Adelaide 

220, 221, 222 

Trotier, (Mam'selle Adelaide). Wife 

of Jean Beaumont Saucier. .. 221, 222 
Trotier, Farm near Orleans, France 

220 221 

Trotier, Jaques ' . 220 

Trumbull, Lyman 91 

Tulloch, G. Early settler in Winne- 
bago Co., Ill 63 

Turner, Frederick J. Rise of the 
New West. Quoted. Foot-note. .135 

Turner, Jonathan Baldwin 167 

Turney, James. Candidate for U. S. 
Congress 123 



U 

Ulster Province, Ireland 54 

Ulster-Scots and their services in 
Na.tion-building. Papers on, by 
Judge John M. Scott. Reference.. 69 

Union Co., HI 58, 78 

Union Co., 111. C'obden Township... 78 

Union Stock YardS, Chicago. Organ- 
ized and opened for business in 
1865 104 

Union Stock Yards, Chicago. Rec- 
ords of the receipts of the com- 
pany from 1866 to 1918 104 

United Illinois and Wabash Land 
Companies. See Illinois and Wa- 
bash Land Company ; . 

United States Army 75 

United States Bank. Duncan, Joseph. 
Amendment to 141, 142, 143, 144 

United States Bank. Duncan, Joseph. 
Position on 146, 147 

United States Congress. Congres- 
sional Debates, 20th, Cong., 1st 
Sess. Foot-note 124 

United States Congress. Congres- 
sional Debates, 20th Cong., 2nd 
Sess. Foot-note 12 7 

United States Congress. Congres- 
sional Debates, 21st Congress. 
Foot-notes 133, 136, 141 



296 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

United States Congress. Congres- 
sional Debates, 22nd Congress. 
Foot-notes 127, 133, 137, 139 

United Slates Congress. Congres- 
sional Debates, 23rd Congress. 
Foot-notes 139, 140, 141 

United States Congress. Scots and 
their descendants, members of. 
Reference 77 

United States. Inter-State Com- 
merce Commission 68 

United States Supreme Court. Linn, 
William, case in 170 

United States. War of 1812. Seven- 
teenth U. S. Infantry 109 

University of Illinois 51, 105, 207 

Foot-notes 150, 151 

University of Illinois. Agricultural 
Dpt. Investigations on all lines.. 105 

University of Illinois. Historical Sur- 
vey 207 

Upper Alton, 111. Shurtleff College, 
located in 51 

Upton, George P 55 

Ursuline Convent, Hospital and 
Chapel, New Orleans 247, 252 



Van Buren, (Pres.) Martin 

129, 145, 149, 150, 167, 172, 173 

Van Buren, (Pres.) Martin, Joseph 
Duncan takes an active part in 

campaign of 167 

Vance, James 62 

Vance, John 62 

Vandalia, 111.54, 115, 120, 126, 172, 173 
Vandalia, 111. Fourth of July cele- 
bration, 1S25 120, 121 

Vandruff's Island in Rock River.... 132 

Varnum, (Gen.) 184 

Vaudreuil, Marquis de. Governor of 

Louisiana 247, 248, 249 

Vermilion Co., HI 68 

Vermont State 35,138 

Versailles, France 218, 224 

Foot-note 164 

Vial Farm, near Western Springs, 

Cook Co., Ill 52 

Vial, George McNaughton. . . . 52, 65, 66 
Vial, George M. Moderator of the 
Illinois Congregational Confer- 
ence 65, 66 

Vial, (Mrs.) George M. Foot-note.. 85 

Vial, Joseph 52 

Vial, Robert 52 

Vial. Samuel 52 

Vial, (Mrs.) Samuel. (Margaret Mc- 
Naughton) 52 

Vicksburg, Miss. Siege of. War of 

the Rebellion 45, 73 

Vienna. Austria 76 

Villafield, Scotland 57 

Villiers. (Capt. ) Neyon de 

244, 245, 257, 258 

Villiers, (Capt.) Neyon de. Attack 

on Fort Necessity 244, 245 

Vilmorins of France. Seed producers. 105 

Vincent, William A 24 

Virginia, 111. Foot-note 259 

Virginia State. 32, 35. 36, 37, 38, 49, 

79, 80, 202, 203, 205, 206, 208, 212 
Virginia State. Calendar of Virginia 
State Papers. Edited by William 

P. Palmer 208 

Virginia State. Early Scots in 35 



PAGE. 

Virginia State. Land claimed by, in 

the Illinois Country 

202, 203, 204, 205, 206 

Virginia State. Memorial of the Illi- 
nois, Wabash Land Company to 
Legislature, Dec. 26, 1778 205 

Virginia State. Petition of the Illi- 
nois Land Company to the Earl of 
Dunmore, Governor of Virginia. .. 202 

Virginia State. Papers, Vols. I and 
II. Quoted 212 

Virginia State. Virginia Magazine of 
Biography and History 208 

Vivat, Louis. French Merchant and 
former Judge at Kaskaskia. . 204, 212 

Viviat, Louis. Partnership with Wil- 
liam ^Murray dissolveti 212 

Volsci, Clievalier de 245 

Foot-note 231 



W 

Wabash Lands 204 

Wabash River 189, 206, 226 

Wakefield, John A. History of the 

Black Hawk War. Foot-note 132 

Walker, (Mrs.) Edwin S 26 

Wallace, Andrew 84 

Wallace, Charles 82 

Wallace, (Rev.) David A., D.D., 
LL.D., President of Monmouth Col- 
lege, Monmouth, 111 50, 82 

Wallace, John Finley, engineer 82 

Wallace, (Rev.) Mack H 82 

Wallace, (Gen.) W. H. L 73 

Wallace, (Rev.) William 82 

War of the Revolution 33, 34, 

35, 38, 61, 74, 75, 76, 124, 206, 210 
War of the Revolution. Battle of 

Saratoga 75 

War of the Revolution. Sproat, David, 
Commissary of Naval prisoners. . .210 

War of 1812 

108, 109, 110, 112, 118, 120, 127, 167 

Foot-note 2 57 

War of 1812. Battle of New Or- 
leans, January, 1815 112 

P^oot-note 257 

War of 1812. Battle of Tippecanoe. 120 

War of 1812. Camp Seneca 110 

■War of 1812. Duncan, Joseph, mili- 

tarv career 12 

War of 1812. Fort Stephenson 

109, 110, 111 

War of 1812. McAfee, Robert B. His- 
tory of the late war in the western 

country. Reference Ill 

War of 1812. Treaty of Peace signed 

at Ghent Dec. 14, 1814 112 

War of 1812. United States. Sev- 
enteenth United States Infantry. . .109 

War of the Rebellion 

57, 61, 69, 72, 73, 75 

War of the Rebellion. Barnet, James. 
"Martyrs and Heroes of Illinois." 

Pub. Chicago, 1865 72 

War of the Rebellion. Battle of 

Corinth 61 

War of the Rebellion. Battle of Mur- 
freesboro, otherwise called Stone 

River 72 

War of the Rebellion. Battle of 

Nashville 73 

War of the Rebellion. Battle of 

Shiloh 61, 73 

War of the Rebellion. Ellsworth 
Zouaves of Chicago 72 



297 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

War of the Rebellion. Fort Donel- 

son 73 

War of the Rebellion. Highland 

Guards of Chicago 7 2 

War of the Rebellion. Illinois State. 
Twelfth Illinois Volunteer Infantry. 

(First Scotch) 73, 75 

War of the Rebellion. Illinois State. 

Seventeenth 111. Vol. Inf 69 

War of the Rebellion. Illinois State. 

Nineteenth 111. Vol. Inf 72 

War of the Rebellion. Illinois State. , 

Fifty-fifth 111. Vol. Inf 61 

War of the Rebellion. Illinois State. 
Sixty-fifth 111. Vol. Inf., (Second 

Scotch 75 

War of the Rebellion. One Hundred 

and Ninth 111. Vol. Inf 75 

War of the Rebellion. Illinois State. 
One Hundred and Twelfth 111. Vol. 

Inf 69 

War of the Rebellion. New York. 

Eleventh N. Y. Infantry 57 

War of the Rebellion. Vicksburg 

Siege 73 

War with Mexico 75 

War Work of the Women of Illinois. 

By Mrs. Joseph T. Bowen 93-100 

Warren. Hooper, Editor and pub- 
lisher early newspaper in Illinois. . 54 
Washburne, Elihu. Edwards Papers. 

Quoted. Foot-note 132 

Washburne, Elihu B. Sketch of Gov- 
ernor Coles. Quoted. Foot-note. .116 
Washington and Bolivar. Toast by 
Jo.seph Duncan. P'ourtli of Julv 
celebration, Vandalia, 111., 1825... 121 
Washington, D. C.57, 124, 126, 162, 170 
Washington, D. C. Cholera in, 1832. .162 
Washington, (Gen.) George. 33, 121, 244 
Washington, (Gen.) George. Defeat 
of Washington at Fort Necessity. .244 

Watson, Alexander 62 

Watson, John 62 

Wattennan, D. B 170 

Watwood, L. F 170 

"Wau-Bun." By Mrs. John H. Kin- 

zie 40 

Wausau, Wis 78 

Weatherford, William 150 

Weber, Jessie Palmer. Secretary Illi- 
nois State Historical Society 

..5, 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 25, 85, 108 
Weber, Jessie Palmer. Report Sec- 
retary Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety 20-25 

Webster, ' Daniel". '. '. '. '. ". 123', " i 6 4 ," 1 6 5 , 167 
Webster, Daniel, visits Jacksonville, 
111., in 1837. Guest of Governoi' 

Duncan 164 

Webster. ( INIrs.) Daniel 164 

Wells, William 36 

Wells, (Hon.) William H. Early Su- 
perintendent of Schools in Chicago 48 

Wentworth, (Hon.) John 60, 70, 91 

Wentworth, (Hon.) John. Mayor of 
CHiicago 60 

Wentworth, (Hon.) John. Quoted on 

John Hossack 60 

West, E. 1 185 

Westenberger, (Mrs.) Gary 27 

"Western British American" 56 

Western Observer, June 14, 1831.... 145 

West India Islands 239 

West Virginia 190 

Wharton, Samuel 197, 203 

Wharton, Thomas 211 



PAGE. 

Wheat. Illinois production, 1860. 

(Comparison witli later dates 102 

Wheatland Township, Will Co., 111... 61 

Wheaton, 111. Wheaton College 65 

M'heeling, 125, 176 

Wheeling, Va 162 

Whig Party. Joseph Duncan affiliates 

with 146 

Whistler, (Capt.) John 39, 40, 75 

Whistler, James McNeil 75 

White Creek Springs, Ky 185 

Whitehouse. (Bishop) Henry J 42 

Whitlock, J 170 

Whitlock, James 187 

Whitney, Reuben M 155 

Wicks, John F 24 

Wigtownshire, Scotland 54, 62, 79 

Wilkins. (Lieut.-Col.) John. Briti-sh 

Commandant Illinois Country 

192. 193, 194, 195, 197, 199, 210, 211 
Wilkins, (Lieut.-Col.) John. British 
Commandant at Fort Chartres .... 

193, 194, 195, 197 

Wilkinson, John P 147, 164 

Willard, (Dr.) Samuel. Brief his- 
tory of early education in Illinois. 

Reference 47 

Will, C 170 

Will Co., Ill 61, 62, 77 

Will Co., 111. Scotch Settlement An- 
nual Plowing match 61-62 

Will Co., 111. Wheatland Township . . 61 
William Murray, Trader and Land 
Speculator in the Illinois Country. 

By Anna Edith Marks 188-212 

William of Orange. Warrior and 

Statesman 33 

Williamsburg, Va 205 

Williams College, Williams, Mass. ... 42 

Williams, Norman 71 

Williams, Roger 86 

Williamson, John. President of the 

Illinois Saint Andrew Society 82 

Willow Creek Presbyterian Church 

64, 65 

Wilson, C. E 24 

Wilson, (Col.) Editor of a paper 

published in Nashville, Terin 185 

Wilson, (Col.) Quoted on President 

Jackson 130 

Wilson, James 206 

Wilson, (Fourth Lt.) Robert. High- 
land Guards 72 

Wilson, William 187 

Winchell, S. R 71 

Winnebago Co., Ill 63, 66 

Winnebago Co., 111. "Regulatoi-s" 
formed to put down lawlessness in 

the County 63 

W"innebago Indians 41 

Winston, Richard 201, 205, 211 

Winston, Richard. An inhabitant of 

Kaskaskia 211 

Wisconsin State 62, 67, 207 

Wisconsin State. Historical Society 
Library. Draper manuscripts in.. 207 

Wolcott, James G. Foot-note 85 

Wolfe, (Gen.) James 38 

Woman. Bowen, (Mrs.) Joseph T. 
A sketch of the History of Wom- 
en's work in the Illinois State 

Council of Defense 27, 93-100 

Woman's Committee of the Council of 
National Defense. Illinois Division. 

World War 93-100 

Woman's Committee of the Council of 
National Defense. Illinois Division. 
Allied Relief Department 99 



298 



INDEX— Concluded. 



PAGE. 

Woman's Committee of the Council of 

National Defense. Illinois Division. 

Americanization Department 99 

Woman's Committee of tlie Council of 

National Defense. Illinois Division. 

Child Welfare Department 96 

Woman's Committee of the Council of 

National Defense. Illinois Division. 

Community Sings and Liberty 

Choruses 98 

Woman's Committee of the Council of 

National Defense. Illinois Division. 

Employment Department 95 

Woman's Committee of the Council of 

National Defense. Illinois Division. 

Finance Department 94, 95 

Woman's Committee of the Council of 

National Defense. Illinois Division. 

Food Production Department 97 

Woman's Committee of the Council of 

National Defense. Illinois Division. 

Mending Shops 96 

Woman's Committee of the Council of 

National Defense. Illinois Division. 

Publicity Department 98, 99 

Woman's Committee of the Council of 

National Defense. Illinois Division. 

Recreation Department 97 

Woman's Committee of the Council of 

National Defense. Illinois Division. 

Registration 94 

Woman's Committee of the Council of 

National Defense. Illinois Division. 

Social Hygiene Department 97 

Woman's Committee of the Council of 

National Defense. Illinois Division. 

Social Welfare Department 99 

Woman's Committee of the Council of 

National Defense. Illinois Division. 

Speakers' Department 95 

Woman's Committee of the Council of 

National Defense. Illinois Division. 

Training Courses 96 

Woman's Committee of the Council of 
National Defense. Illinois Division. 
War Information Department 98 

Woman's Committee of the Council of 
National Defense. Illinois Division. 
Women and Children in Industry 
Department 98 



PAGE. 

Women. World War, Illinois. See 
Paper on, by Mrs. Joseph T. 
Bowen, "The War Work of the 
Women of Illinois" 93-100 

Woodbury, Levi 171, 172, 173, 174 

Woodbury, Levi. Letter to William 
Linn, dated Feb. 12, 1835 172 

Wood, John. Treasurer of the High- 
land Guards. Chicago 72 

Wood, (Maj.) John, of Cairo, 111 75 

Woodstock, Conn 88 

World's Columbian Exposition in 
Chicago, in 1893 77,82 

World War 72, 93-100 

World War. Council of National De- 
fense 93 

World War. Illinois State. See Pa- 
per on, by Mrs. Joseph T. Bowen, 
The War Work of the Women of 
Illinois 93-100 

World War. Illinois State Council of 
Defense 93-100 

World War. Illinois State. Farm 
near Libertyville loaned to train- 
ing women for agricultural and 
dairy pursuits 97, 98 

World War. Illinois State. War 
Gardens 97 

World War. Woman's Committee of 
Council of National Defense, Illi- 
nois Division 93-100 

Wyandot Indians 41 

Wvlie, Adams. Early teacher in 
Sparta, 111 53 

Wylie, (Rev. ) Samuel 46, 53 



"Yale Band." Theological Students 
who help to found Illinois College, 

Jacksonville, 111 167 

Yale University, New Haven, Conn.. 

52, 54, 108, 118 

Yates, (Gov.) Richard. War Gov- 
ernor of Illinois 55, 80, 87, 91 

Yates, Richard, (the Younger) 5 

York, (Yorke) Lord Chancellor. 197, LOO 

York Co., Penn 200, 201 

Youghiogenv River, Pa 244 

Young, J 186 

Young, (Second Lt.) J. T. High- 
land Guards 72 



299 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL LIBRARY 

AND SOCIETY. 

No. 1. * A Bibliography of Newspapers published in Illinois prior to 1860. Pre- 
pared by Edmund J. James, Ph. D., and Mile J. Loveless. 94 pp. 8 vo. Springfield 
1899. 

No. 2. * Information relating to the Territorial Laws of Illinois passed from 
1809 to 1812. Prepared by Edmund J. James, Ph. D., 15 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 
1899. 

No. 3. * The Territorial Records of Illinois. Edited by Edmund J. James, Ph. 
D., 170 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1901. 

No. 4. * Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the year 1900 
Edited by E. B. Greene, Ph. D., 55 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1900. 

No. 5. * Alphabetical Catalog of the Books, Manuscripts, Pictures and Curios 
of the Illinois State Historical Library. Authors, Titles and Subjects. Compiled 
by Jessie Palmer Weber. 363 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1900. 

Nos. 6 to 26. * Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the 
years 1901-1919. (Nos. 6 to 18 out of Print.) 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. I. Edited by H. W. Beckwith, President 
of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library. 642 pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1903. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. II. Virginia Series, Vol. I. Edited by 
Clarence Wahvorth Alvord. CLVI and 663 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1907. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. III. Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858, 
Lincoln Series, Vol. I. Edited by Edwin Erie Sparks, Ph. D. 627 pp. 8 vo. Spring- 
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* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IV. Executive Series, Vol. I. The Gov- 
ernor's Letter Books. 1818-1834. Edited bv Evarts Boutell Greene and Clarence 
Walworth Alvord. XXXII and 317 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1909. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. V. Virginia Series, Vol. II, Kaskaskia 
Records, 1778-1790. Edited by Clarence Walworth Alvord. L. and 681 pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1909. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. V. Bibliographical Series, Vol. VI. News- 
papers and Periodicals of Illinois, 1814-1879. Revised and enlarged edition. Edited 
by Franklin William Scott. CIV and 610 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1910. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VII, Executive Series, Vol. II. Governors' 
Letter Books, 1840-1853. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and Charles Manfred 
Thompson. CXVIII and 469 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1911. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VIII. Virginia Series, Vol. III. George 
Rogers Clark Papers, 1771-1781. Edited with introduction and notes by James 
Alton James. CLXVII and 715 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1912. 

* Illinois Historical Collections. Vol. IX. Bibliographical Series, Vol. II. Travel 
and Description, 1765-1865. By Solon Justus Buck. 514 pp. 8 vo. Springfield. 
-1914. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. X. British Series, Vol. I. The Critical 
Period, 1763-1765. Edited with introduction and notes by Clarence Walworth Al- 
vord and Clarence Edwin Carter. LVII and 597 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1915. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XI. British Series, Vol. II. The New 
Regime, 1765-1767. Edited with introduction and notes by Clarence Walworth 
Alvord and Clarence Edwin Carter. XXVIII and 700 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1916. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XII. Bibliographical Series, Vol. III. The 
County Archives of the State of Illinois. By Theodore Calvin Pease. CXLI and 
730 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1915. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XIII. Constitutional Series. Vol. I, Illinois 
Constitutions. Edited by Emil Joseph Verlie. 231 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1919. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XIV. Constitutional Series, Vol. II. The 
Constitutional Debates of 1847. Edited with introduction and notes by Arthur 
Charles Cole. XV and 1018 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1919. 

* Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I, No. 1, September, 
1905. Illinois in the Eighteenth Century. By Clarence Wahvorth Alvord, 38 pp. 
8 vo. Springfield. 

* Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I, No. 2. June 1, 1906. 
Laws of the Territorv of Illinois, 1809-1811. Edited by Clarence Walworth Alvord. 
34 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1906. 

* Circular Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I. No. 1. November. 1905. 
An Outline for the Study of Illinois State Histoo'- Compiled by Jessie Palmer 
Weber and Georgia L. Osborne. 94 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1905. 

•Publication No. 18. List of Genealogical Works in the Illinois State His- 
torical Library. Compiled by Georgia L. Osborne. 8 vo. Springfield, 1914. 

* Publication No. 25. List of Genealogical Works in the Illinois State His- 
torical Library. Supplement to Publication No. 18. Compiled by Georgia L. Os- 
borne. 8 vo. Springfield, 1918. 

Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society. Vol. I, No. 1. April, 1908, 
to Vol. XII, No. 3, October, 1919. 

Journals out of print, Vols. I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII. No. 1 of Vol. IX, 
No. 2 of Vol. X. 



* Out of print.