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of the 

Illinois State Historical Library 

Transactions of the 

Illinois State Historical Society 

for the Year 1 920 



MAY 14, 1920. 

Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library 

(Printed by authority of the State of Illinois) 

L iiUUItil 

. „ PubV^c Library 



19 2 1 

60749— 3M. 


Officers o £ the Society 6 

Editorial Note 7 

Constitution of the IlUnois State Historical Society 8 

An Appeal to the Historical Society and General Public 11 


MEETING, 1920. 

Annual Meeting _ 13 

Business Meeting 17 


Oliver A. Harker, Annual Address. Fifty Years with Bench and 

Bar of Southern Illinois 43 

Mrs. Edna Armstrong Tucker, Benjamin D. Walsh, First State 

Entomologist of Illinois 56 

Charles Bradshaw, Greene County ; Born 100 Years Ago 64 

Miss Mary E. McDowell, A Quarter of a Century in the Stock 

Yards District 74 

Arthur Charles Cole, Illinois Women in the Middle Period 86 

Mrs. Grace Wilbur Trout, Side Lights on Illinois Suffrage History... 95 


Arthur MacDonald, Scots and Scottish Influence in Congress — An 

Histonic and Anthropological Study 121 

Index 136 

List of Publications of the Illinois State Historical Library and 


Dr. Otto L. Schmidt Chicago 


Vice Presidents. 

George A. Lawrence Galesburg 

L. Y. Sherman Springfield 

Richard Yates Springfield 

Ensley Moore Jacksonville 


Edmund J. James Urbana 

E. B. Greene, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Charles H. Rammelkamp, President Illinois College. . . .Jacksonville 
George W. Smith, Southern 111. State Normal School. . . .Carbondale 

Orrin N. Carter Evanston 

Richard \^ Carpenter Belvidere 

William R. Curran Pekin 

Andrew Russel Jacksonville 

Walter Colyer Albion 

James A. James, Northwestern University Evanston 

H. W. Clendenin Springfield 

Col. D. C. Smith Normal 

Clinton L. Conkling Springfield 

John H. Hauberg Rock Island 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Assistant Secretary. 
Miss Georgia L. Osborne Springfield 

Honorary Vice Presidents. 
The Presidents of Local Historical Societies. 


Following the practice of the Publication Committee in previous 
years, this volume includes, besides the official proceedings and the 
papers read at the last annual meeting, some essays and other matter 
contributed during the year. It is hoped that these "contributions to 
State History" may, in larger measure as the years go on, deserve 
their title, and form an increasingly valuable part of the society's 
transactions. The contributions are intended to include the following- 
kinds of material : 

1. Hitherto unpublished letters and other documentary material. 
This part of the volume should supplement the more formal and ex- 
tensive publication of official records in the Illinois historical collec- 
tions, which are published by the trustees of the State Historical 

2. Papers of a reminiscent character. These should be selected 
with great care, for memories and reminiscences are at their best an 
uncertain basis for historical knowledge. 

3. Historical essays or brief monographs, based upon the sources 
and containing genuine contributions to knowledge. Such papers 
should be accompanied by foot-notes indicating with precision the 
authorities upon which the papers are based. The use of new and 
original material and the care with which the authorities are cited, 
will be one of the main factors in determining the selection of papers 
for publication. 

4. Bibliographies. 

5. Occasional reprints of books, pamphlets, or parts of books 
now out of print and not easily accessible. 

Circular letters have been sent out from time to time urging the 
members of the society, to contribute such historical material, and 
appeals for it have been issued in the pages of the Journal. The com- 
mittee desires to repeat and emphasize these requests. 

It is the desire of the committee that this annual publication of 
the society shall supplement, rather than parallel or rival, the distinctly 
official publications of the State Historical Library. In historical re- 
search, as in so many other fields, the best results are likely to be 
achieved through the co-operation of private initiative with public 
authority. It was to promote such co-operation and mutual undertak- 
ing that this society was organized. Teachers of history, whether in 
schools or colleges, are especially urged to do their part in bringing 
to this publication the best results of local research and historical 

In conclusion it should be said that the views expressed in the 
various papers are those of their respective authors and not necessarily 
those of the committee. Nevertheless, the committee will be glad to 
receive such corrections of fact or such general criticism as may ap- 
Dear to be deserved. 





Section 1. The name of this Society shall be the Illinois State 
Historical Society. 

Section 2. The objects for which it is formed is to excite and 
stimulate a general interest in the history of Illinois ; to encourage 
historical research and investigation and secure its promulgation ; to 
collect and preserve all forms of data in any way bearing upon the 
history of Illinois and its peoples. 


Section 1. The management of the affairs of this Society shall be 
vested in a board of fifteen directors of which Board the president of 
the Society shall be ex-ofHcio a member. 

Section 2. There shall be a President and as many Vice-Presi- 
dents, not less than three, as the Society may determine at the annual 
meetings The Board of Directors, five of whom shall constitute a 
quorum, shall elect its own presiding officer, a secretary and treasurer, 
and shall have power to appoint from time to time such officers, agents 
and committees as they may deem advisable, and to remove the same 
at pleasure. 

Section 3. The Directors shall be elected at the annual meetings 
and the mode of election shall be by ballot, unless by a vote of a ma- 
jority of members present and entitled to vote, some other method 
may be adopted. 

Section 4. It shall be the duty of the Board of Directors dili- 
gently to promote the objects for which this Society has been formed 
and to this end they^shall have power : — 

(1) To search out and preserve in permanent form for the use 
of the people of the State of Illinois, facts and data in the history of 
the State and of each county thereof, including the pre-historic periods 
and the history of the aboriginal inhabitants together, with biographies 
of distinguished persons who have rendered services to the people of 
the State. 

(2) To accumulate and preserve for like use, books, pamphlets. 
newspapers and documents bearing upon the foregoing topics. 

(3) To publish from time to time for like uses its own transac- 
tions as well as such facts and documents bearing upon its objects as 
it mav secure. 

(4) To accumulate for like use such articles of historic interest 
as may bear upon the history of persons and places within the State. 

(5) To receive by gift, grant, devise, bequest or purchase books, 
prints, paintings, manuscripts, libraries, museums, moneys and other 
property, real or personal, in aid of the above objects. 

(6) They shall have general charge and control under the direc- 
tion of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library, 
of all property so received and hold the same for the uses aforesaid in 
accordance with an Act of the Legislature approved May 16, 1903, 
entitled "An Act to add a new section to an Act entitled an Act to 
establish the Illinois State Historical Library and to provide for its 
care and maintenance, and to make appropriations therefor," approved 
May 25. 1889, and in force July 1, 1889; they shall make and approve 
all contracts, audit all accounts and order their payment, and in general 
see to the carrying out of the orders of the Society. They may adopt 
bv-laws not inconsistent with this Constitution, for the management 
of the affairs of the Society ; they shall fix the times and places for 
their meetings ; keep a record of their proceedings, and make report 
to the Society at its annual meeting. 

Section 5. Vacancies in the Board of Directors may be filled by 
election by the remaining members, the persons so elected to continue 
in office until the next annual meeting. 

Section 6. The President shall preside at all meetings of the 
Society, and in case of his absence or inability to act, one of the Vice- 
Presidents shall preside in his stead, and in case neither President nor 
Vice-President shall be in attendance, the Society may choose a Presi- 
dent pro-tempore. 

Section 7. The officers shall perform the duties usually devolving 
upon such offices, and such others as may from time to time be pre- 
scribed by the Society or the Board of Directors. The treasurer shall 
keep a strict account of all receipts and expenditures and pay out 
money from the treasury only as directed by the Board of Directors ; 
he shall submit an annual report of the finances of the Society and 
such other matters as may be committed to his custody to the Poard ol 
Directors within such time prior to the annual meeting as they shall 
direct, and after auditing the same the- said Board shall submit said 
report to the Society at its annual meeting. 


Section 1. The membership of this Society shall consist of five 
classes, to-wit : Active. Life, Affiliated, Corresponding and Honorary. 

Section 2. Any person may become an active member of this 
Society upon payment of such initiation fee not less than one dollar, as 
shall from time to time be prescribed by the Board of Directors. 

Section 3. Any person entitled to be an active member may upon 
payment of twenty-five dollars be'admitted as a life member with all 
the privileges of an active member and shall thereafter be exempt 
from annual dues. 

Section 4. County and other historical societies, and other socie- 
ties engaged in historical or archeological research or in the preserva- 


tion of the knowledge of historic events, may upon the recommenda- 
tion of the Board of Directors be admitted as afifihated members of 
this Society upon the same terms as to the payment of initiation fees 
and annual dues as active and life members. Every society so admitted 
shall be entitled to one duly accredited representative at each meeting 
of the Society who shall during the period of his appointment be 
entitled as such representative to all the privileges of an active member 
except that of being elected to office ; but nothing herein shall prevent 
such representative becoming an active or life member upon like con- 
ditions as other persons. 

Section 5. Persons not active nor life members but who are 
willing to lend their assistance and encouragement to the promotion of 
the objects of this Society may, upon recommendation of the Board of 
Directors, be admitted as corresponding members. 

Section 6. Honorary memberships may be conferred at any meet- 
ing of the Society upon the recommendation of the Board of Directors 
upon persons w^ho have distinguished themselves by eminent services 
or contributions to the cause of history. 

Section 7. Honorary and corresponding members shall have the 
privilege of attending and participating in the meetings of the Society. 


Section 1. There shall be an annual meeting of this Society for 
the election of officers, the hearing of reports, addresses and historical 
papers and the transaction of business at such time and place in the 
month of May in each year as may be designated by the Board of 
Directors, for which meeting it shall be the duty of said Board to 
prepare and publish a suitable program and procure the services of 
persons well versed in history to deliver addresses or read essays upon 
subjects germane to the objects of this organization. 

Section 2. Special meetings of the Society may be called by the 
Board of Directors. Special meetings of the Board of Directors may 
be called by the President or any two members of the Poard. 

Section 3. At any meeting of the Society the attendance of ten 
members entitled to vote shall be necessary to a quorum. 


Section L The Constitution mav be amended by a two-thirds 
vote of the members present and entitled to vote, at any annual meet- 
ing: ProTnded, that the proposed amendment shall have first been 
submitted to the Board of Directors, and at least thirty days prior to 
such annual meeting notice of proposed action upon the same, sent by 
the Secretarv to all the members of the Societv. 




Objects of Collection Desired by the Illinois State Historical Library 

and Society. 

(Members please read this circular letter.) 

Books and pamphlets on American history, biography, and gene- 
alogy, particularly those relating to the West ; works on Indian tribes, 
and American archaeology and ethnology ; reports of societies, and in- 
stitutions of every kind, educational, economic, social, political, co- 
operative, fraternal, statistical, industrial, charitable ; scientific publica- 
tions of states or societies ; books or pamphlets relating to all wars in 
which Illinois has taken part, and the wars with the Indians ; privately 
printed works ; newspapers ; maps and charts ; engravings ; photo- 
graphs ; autographs ; coins ; antiquities ; encyclopedias, dictionaries, and 
bibliographical works. Especially do we desire — 


1. Every book or pamphlet on any subject relating to Illinois, or 
any part of it ; also every book or pamphlet written by an Illinois citi- 
zen, whether published in Illinois or elsewhere; material for Illinois 
history; old letters, journals. 

2. Manuscripts ; narratives of the pioneers of Illinois ; original 
papers on the early history and settlement of the territory ; adventures 
and conflicts during the early settlement, the Indian troubles, or the 
great rebellion, or other wars ; biographies of the pioneers ; prominent 
citizens and public men of every county, either living or deceased, 
together with their portraits and autographs ; a sketch of the settle- 
ments of every township, village and neighborhood in the State, with 
the names of the first settlers. We solicit articles on every subject 
connected with Illinois history. 

3. City ordinances, proceedings of mayor and council ; reports 
of committees of council ; pamphlets or papers of any kind printed by 
authority of the city ; reports of boards of trade and commercial asso- 
ciations ; maps of cities and plats of town sites or of additions thereto. 

4. Pamphlets of all kinds ; annual reports of societies ; sermons 
or addresses delivered in the State ; minutes of church conventions, 
synods, or other ecclesiastical bodies of Illinois ; political addresses ; 
railroad reports ; all such, whether published in pamphlet or newspaper. 

5. Catalogues and reports of colleges and other institutions of 
learning: annual or other reports of school boards, school superin- 
tendents and school committees ; educational pamphlets, programs and 
papers of every kind, no matters how small or apparently unimportant. 


6. Copies of the earlier laws, journals and reports of our terri- 
torial and State Legislatures ; earlier Governors' messages and reports 
of State Officers; reports of State charitable and other State institu- 

7. Files of Illinois newspapers and magazines, especially com- 
plete volumes of past years, or single numbers even. Publishers are 
earnestly requested to contribute their publications regularly, all of 
which will be carefully preserved and bound. 

8: Maps of the State, or of counties or townships, of any date ; 
views and engravings of buildings or historic places ; drawings or 
photographs of scenery, paintings, portraits., etc., connected with 
Illinois history. 

9. Curiosities of all kinds ; coins, medals, paintings ; portraits ; 
engravings ; statuary ; war relics ; autograph letters of disinguished 
persons, etc. 

10. Facts illustrative of our Indian tribes — their history, charac- 
teristics, religion, etc., sketches of our prominent chiefs, orators and 
warriors, together with contributions of Indian weapons, costumcb, 
ornaments, curiosities and implements ; also stone axes, spears, arrow 
heads, pottery, or other relics. 

In brief, everything that, by the most liberal construction, can 
illustrate the history of Illinois, its early settlement, its progress, or 
present condition. All will be of interest to succeeding generations. 
Contributions will be credited to the donors in the published reports 
of the Library and Society, and will be carefully preserved in the State- 
house as the property of the State, for the use and benefit of the people 
lor all time. 

Your attention is called to the important duty of collecting and 
preserving everything relating to the part taken by the State of Illinois 
in the late great World War. 

Communications or gifts may be addressed to the Librarian and 

(Mrs.) Jessie Palmer Weber. 



Business Meeting 10 a. m., Senate Chamber, Capitol Building, 

Springfield, Illinois. 

The annual business meeting of the Illinois State Histor- 
ical Society was called to order by the President of the Society, 
Doctor Otto L. Schmidt, who acted as Chairman, and called the atten- 
tion of the members to the fact that this was the twenty-first annual 
meeting. As there was a great deal of business to be transacted he, 
without further formality, asked that matters of interest be immedi- 
ately taken up. He stated that the first order of business would be 
the reading of the minutes and called on the Secretary to read the 
minutes of the last meeting. 

After Mrs. Weber had read the minutes Doctor Schmidt stated 
that if there were no objections the minutes as read would stand ap- 
proved. After this action was taken, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, the 
Secretary of the Society, submitted her Secretary's report. Action on 
same was called for by the Chairman and as there were no objections 
to it. it was approved and placed on file. 

The report of the Treasurer then was called for and submitted 
by Mrs. Weber. The same was approved and placed on file. 

Doctor Schmidt called for further reports. There being none he 
asked Doctor Greene to speak on the status of the Historical Library. 

Doctor Greene said that Mrs. Weber had touched upon a great 
many of the things relating to the Library and he would speak but 
briefly. He told that the Library had recently issued two volumes of 
the collections in order to give certain co-operation to the Constitu- 
tional Convention. One Illinois Constitutions, edited and prepared by 
Mr. Verlie of the Legislature Reference Bureau. The other, published 
from the files of the Illinois State Register, The Debates of the Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1847. These will be of interest in connection with 
the discussion of many of the same subjects at the present time. There 
are three volumes on the way and a series on Territorial Legislation 
edited by Mr. Thompson and Mr. Alvord. Also there is in contem.- 
plation an additional volume, the papers of George Rogers Clark, by 
J. A. James. This is to be published in a very short time and Professor 
Alvord will continue his records of the Illinois country during the 
period of its being under the sovereignty of the British. A brief state- 
ment will be made by Mr. Stevens describing the work done by the 
war records section. Doctor Greene spoke of the importance of this 
work and the necessity of arousing the interest of the people of 
the State in these matters. He stated that the Society would like to 
have gifts of material along that line as they had not a large appro- 


priation. He spoke briefly of the interest of President E. J. James 
and told of his service to the University of lUinois and the great in- 
terest he had always displayed in the Illinois State Historical Library 
and Society. It was largely through the encouragement and assistance 
of President James that the series called the Historical Collections 
were first started and have since been under the director of Professor 
Alvord. It has been said by many that this series is the best of its 
kind. Doctor Greene agreed with the Secretary of the Society that a 
message should be sent to President James, sending him most cordial 
greetings and best wishes for many happy years to come. He stated 
he would like to make this motion and to request that the Secretary 
be asked to prepare such a minute and send it to President James. 
His motion was seconded and carried. 

The Chairman, Doctor Schmidt, then called for further reports. 
Miss Osborne, chairman of the Genealogical Committee, gave the re- 
port for her committee. This report was received and ordered placed 
on file. 

Further reports were asked for. The Committee on Programs 
submitted the program of the day as their report. Miscellaneous 
business w^as then taken up. The first order was that suggested by 
the various reports. On account of the loss of many of the valued 
members, in fact they w^ere all valuable, the Chairman asked that the 
audience arise and stand for a few moments in their memory. 

Mr. John H. Hauberg of Rock Island then make a few remarks 
about Mr. William A. Meese, a director of the Society whose death 
occurred in February of this year. At the conclusion of the tribute 
Mr. Hauberg presented resolutions on the death of Mr. Meese. His 
motion was seconded and carried. 

Doctor Schmidt then spoke about Mr. Charles Gunther and his 
great interest in the collection of historical material. He stated that 
Mr. Gunther was an old-time collector ; that his collection embraced all 
lines. He collected the oddest things, sometimes of no value whatever 
historically or otherwise. In going through his safe you would not 
know what you would find — he had the transfer of Louisiana from 
Spain to France and also the French copy of this transfer of Louisiana 
to the L^nited States — imitation brass nuggests of gold from California, 
probably 400 of them of perhaps no value w^hatever. He collected for 
this State a tremendous amount of material. On account of collecting 
in a time w'hen things were cheap, he bought Lincoln letters for $5 
and $10. He has in his collection a message from President Lincoln 
to General Grant : "General Sherman tells me that if you push the 
matter you will catch Richmond. A. Lincoln." Mr. Gunther bought 
that message for $300. Now they are asking — a New York collector 
has oflFered $4000. He has many Mormon newspapers, newspapers 
not spoken of anywhere, and has the first Mormon Register and has 
what is still more interesting an account of the stock in the Mormon 
corporation. In return thev would give a cow and a few agricultural 
implements. As Mr. Joseph Smith put in $2000 or $3000 he got that 
much out of it. Others lost. Mr. Gunther had a tremendous collection 
of autographs. Large amounts of Lincoln material much of which he 


had disposed of. He had the famous table on which Grant wrote the 
terms of Lee's surrender at Appomattox. A great deal of Lincoln 
material, hat, table, rocking chair from Springfield, etc. At one time 
he had the watch chain of Lincoln. Inasmuch as there was no possi- 
bility of the Historical Society's getting this collection Doctor Schmidt 
put his efiforts into holding it for Chicago. He told of the agreement 
entered into by the Chicago Historical Society with the family of Mr. 
Gunther and spoke of the possibility of this Society later being able to 
acquire some of the duplicates. 

Judge Curran of Tazewell County was called on for a report from 
his county. Doctor Uran of Kankakee was then called on for the 
report from his county which he gave. Mr. Simmons of the Manlius- 
Rutland Historical Society was then called on and asked for his report 
which he gave. 

The next order of business was the election of officers. A nomin- 
ating Committee was appointed — Mrs. Jamison, Mrs. Miller, Mr. Brad- 
shaw. Doctor Earle and Mrs. Baxter. 

Mrs. Armstrong then presented her paper. Doctor Schmidt 
thanked Mrs. Armstrong for her paper and said it would be a great 
addition to the records of the Society and the history of the State and 
that it would be read with renewed pleasure in the Transactions of the 

Mrs. Weber stated that the Board of Directors desired that Mrs. 
Richard J. Oglesby be made an honorary member of the Society. Mr. 
Clendenin made the motion that Mrs. (Dglesby be elected an honorary 
member of the Society and his motion was seconded by Judge Curran 
and Mrs. Miller. Carried. 

The meeting then adjourned until 2 :45. 

Mr. Stevens then spoke for a short time about the work of the war 
records section of the Illinois State Historical Library of which he is 
the Secretary. 

Doctor Greene offered a motion that a telegram be sent to Mr. 
CHnton L. Conkling, who is ill in New York, and Mr. and Mrs. George 
A. Lawrence of Galesburg, who are ill in Chicago, expressing the hope 
of the Society for their speedy recovery. 

At 2 :45 the report of the Nominating Committee was received 
and the following names were submitted for officers for the coming 

Dr. Otto L. Schmidt Chicago 

Vice Presidents. 

George A. LawrExNtce Galesburg 

L. Y. Sherman Springfield 

Richard Yates Springfield 

Ensley Moore Jacksonville 



Edmund J. James Urbana 

E. B. Greene, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Charles H. Rammelkamp, President Illinois College. . . .Jacksonville 
George W. Smith, Southern 111. State Normal School. . . .Carbondale 

Orrin N. Carter Evanston 

Richard V. Carpenter Belvidere 

William R. Curran Pekin 

A.NDREW RussEi Jacksonville 

Walter Colyer Albion 

James A. James, Northwestern University Evanston 

H. W. Clendenin Springfield 

Col. D. C. Smith Normal 

Clinton L. Conkling Springfield 

John H. Hauberg Rock Island 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Assistant Secretary. 
Miss Georgia L. Osborne Springfield 

Honorary Vice Presidents. 

The Presidents of Local Historical Societies. 

A motion was made and seconded that the report of the Nominat- 
ing Committee be accepted and that the Secretary cast the ballot for 
the Society which she did and the officers as nominated were declared 



*Report of Secretary. 

I beg to submit to you my report of the work of the Illinois State 
Historical Society for the annual period May, 1919, to May, 1920. As 
in the reports of most other years I have nothing of unusual or excep- 
tional interest to relate to you. The year has been one of work and 
progress. We have been attempting to return to the usual routine of 
our work after the stress and excitement of the war and the unusual 
labors attendant upon the observance of the State's Centennial. We 
are still in our old quarters. We are more crowded by a year's 
accumulations than we were a year ago, but the steady growth of the 
Centennial Memorial Building inspires us to believe that before a 
great while your secretary will be able to report to you that the His- 
torical Society has moved into new and commodious quarters, and 
will give you the history of the removal, describe the beauty and con- 
venience of the new home, and we can hold the sessions of our annual 
meetings in the auditorium, which is to be a striking feature of the new 

The State Architect hopes that within the coming biennium the 
building will be ready for occupancy and it will be when completed a 
building of architectural truth and beauty. The members of the His- 
torical Society must now be collecting material for the historical mu- 
seum which we hope to establish in the new building. Those of you 
who have visited the historical museum in the magnificent Historical 
Society Building at Madison, Wisconsin, can testify as to the interest 
and educational value of such a collection. 

The completely equipped trapper's cabin with its primitive furni- 
ture and domestic utensils, its shooting irons and agricultural imple- 
ments, the little cradles and trundle beds used when the pioneer family 
became more prosperous ; the home spun and the home made clothing 
for men, women and children, the various kinds of churns, the grind- 
stone, the well-sweep and the development of home and farm machin- 
ery are all exhibited. There too, is a cross roads store, equipped as 
such stores were before the railroad, the telephone, the rural delivery 
and the parcel post. In it is the post office and the drug store. I could 
devote all my time to describing the Wisconsin Historical Museum 
which is not at all the object of this report, but the Illinois State His- 
torical Society should have an historical museum showing the growth 
of Illinois, in all its phases, in which the exhibit would be permanent 

* The report of the Secretary was read to the Board of Directors and approved 
by it, and by Its direction, read at the annual business meeting of the Society Mav 14 
1920. ' ^ 

— 2 H S 


and well arranged. You all know what interest the pioneer exhibit 
attracts at the State Fair and these relics are many of them lost between 
each }'ear's Fair. A member of the Historical Society has offered to 
donate to the Society an elegant victoria which she used but little, an 
automobile having taken its place. This lady says that a horse-driven 
pleasure vehicle will soon be an object of curiosity. Did you not notice 
that the City of Denver passed an ordinance recently that after a 
specified time no live stock shall be permitted on the streets of that city 
and mentioning the horse as one of the prohibited animals. So, 
members of the Society let us begin collecting good articles for our 
historical museum before they are lost, that the pioneers of the State 
and their manner and methods of living may not be forgotten, buried 
in oblivion. 


I would like to have a committee appointed in each county to col- 
lect local historical material or at least collect information in regard to 
every book and pamphlet relating to that county, all editions of county 
histories, all Illinoisans who have written books and the names of the 
books. Try to make this list as nearly complete as possible and send 
a copy of the list to the Historical Society. The local material, the 
fugitive pamphlet, book or essay can only be found by the aid of resi- 
dents of localities. It will be of interest to you and of great service to 
the Historical Society. 


The Secretary is anxious to obtain a complete list of the members 
of the Society who were in the service of the United States during the 
great war. Of course, we were all in war service and I would like a 
record of the war service of each member of the Society. Practically 
all were members of the Red Cross, and I would like a record of what 
part each member took in the auxiliary work such as serving on com- 
mittees of the State and National Councils of Defense, Liberty Loan 
Campaigns, or other organizations, and I want to know how many of 
our members actually were in the Army service and wore the uniform 
of soldier, sailor, marine or nurse. Although the majority of our 
members are past the age a surprising number of them were in acti-\-e 
service. Let us make this honor list complete. 


The last session of the General Assembly made an appropriation 
to the Illinois State Historical Library for the purpose of collecting 
and compiling the history of the part taken by Illinois in the great 
\\^orld War and through this appropriation a division of war history 
has been started bv the Library. Mr. Wavne E. Stevens is the Secre- 
tary of the War History Division and he has been devoting his entire 
time to the work and is collecting and indexing a great quantity of 
valuable material. The Librarv is also publishing an exhaustive history 
of the Thirty-Third Division of the United States Army in the World 


War. This division was largely made up of Illinois troops. The history 
is an exhaustive one, written by Lieutenant Colonel Frederick Louis 
Huidekoper, a distinguished military historian. It is the expectation 
that two editions will be printed. One an exhaustive one with many 
maps and illustrations. This edition will be placed in public libraries ; 
another edition, much condensed, that is, containing the narrative only, 
will be printed, and it is hoped that a copy of the last mentioned edition 
will be presented by the State to each soldier of the Thirty-Third Divis- 
ion who signifies a desire for a copy. It is an immense undertaking 
as there were more than 30,000 soldiers in the division. 


You will remember that the Directors of the Historical Society 
decided to republish as the Society's Centennial contribution the Life 
of Edward Coles by E. B. Washburne. This book was published in 
1882 by the Chicago Historical Society and is now rare. This volume, 
the preparation of which has been superintended by Professor C. W. 
Alvord, has been enlarged with additional information and documents 
relative to Governor Coles and the important part which he took in 
our history. It will soon be ready for distribution. Members of the 
Historical Society will receive copies. 


The Centennial History is not yet completed. This has been a 
monumental piece of work and though there have been many vexatious 
delays, the value of the history is so great, and the work so well done, 
that when it is completed the delays will be forgotten or at least over- 

The preliminary volume, Illinois in 1818; Volume 2, The Frontier 
State; Volume 3, The Era of Transition, the Civil War Period; and 
Volume 5, The Modern Commonwealth, have been issued. Volumes I 
and IV are still in the hands of the printer. 


The work of local historical societies was largely interrupted as 
was all other work by the absorption of their members in war work. 
I sent a letter to the different local societies throughout the State ask- 
ing about their progress and I have received replies from several. A 
few of these I will read. Where the local society has a representative 
present at this meeting, this representative will tell you about its work. 
I have received inquiries from several counties asking advice as to 
the organization of county historical societies. These inquiries I have 
answered to the best of my ability, and perhaps another year there 
Avill be new county societies organized. 

I have received letters from a number of societies, among them 
the Quincy Historical Society, the Morgan County Historical Society, 
the Woodford County Historical Society, the Evanston Historical So- 
ciety, the Central Illinois Historical Society. 


I try to impress upon members of local historical societies the 
need of patience and perseverance in such work. There are so many 
topics of present day interest ; this is such a busy world that it is diffi- 
cult to keep a sustained, continuous interest in historical work, but as 
history is the foundation of all literature and science, so the collection 
and preservation of the record of those who have made possible our 
great achievements of today, is a duty we owe to them and to those 
who come after us. 

From a practical standpoint one has only to spend a little time in an 
historical library to learn of the manifold uses the practical people of 
today have found for the records of the past, the tax notices, death 
notices, entries of land, sales, advertisements and many other sub- 
jects ; the correct costume for the fancy dress party of the different 
periods ; genealogies, military services and last but by no means least 
the looking up of the other man's political record. What did he say 
ten years ago, two years ago, how did he stand on this or that ques- 
tion? You can imagine the interest in the files of newspapers. It is 
not necessary, however, for me to try to prove to you the practical 
value of an historical society. I only want the worker for the local 
historical society to have patience, not to lose courage with seeming 
lack of appreciation for it is but seeming not real — the pleasure your 
own efforts give you go a long way toward repaying you. 

The Historical Society has purchased during the past few months 
a beautiful set of Stevens Fac-Similes of documents in European 
Archives relating to Arnerica, 1773-1783. These beautiful folio vol- 
umes, 25 in number, are handsomely bound in red and gold, and are 
a sfreat addition to our Librarv. 



The Historical Society, with the co-operation of other patriotic 
associations, has done a great work along the line of marking historic 
sites in the State. 

Strangers have visited Springfield and have been surprised to find 
that locations in the city which are memorable because some part of 
Mr. Lincoln's life was associated with them are unmarked and un- 
known to the average citizen. Largely through the eff'orts of Mi. 
Henry B. Rankin of this city a movement is set on foot to suitabl} 
mark these sites. Committees of representative citizens, both men and 
women, have been appointed under the special patronage of the Spring- 
field Chapter D. A. R., whose Regent, Mrs. James S. King, is chairman 
of the general committee. There are about fifteen important sites, some 
of which have already been marked, among these are : The three law 
offices ; the Sons of the American Revolution have marked the site of 
the first office, that of Stuart and Lincoln ; the Globe Tavern, where 
Mr. and ^Irs. Lincoln boarded immediately after their marriage ; the 
store of Joshua F. Speed : various offices in the old Capitol Building, 
now the County Court House : the Lincoln Home ; the site of the old 
Second Presbyterian Church and the Wabash Station from which Mr. 
Lincoln left for Washington and where he delivered his farewell ad- 
dress to his neighbors and friends in Springfield (this has been marked 


by the Springfield Chapter D. A. R.) and several others. All will be 
suitably marked. 

The last session of the General Assembly appropriated a small 
sum of money to place a tablet on the site of old Fort Creve Coeur, 
in Tazewell County, near the present site of Peoria. The site of this 
fort of the Broken Heart, built by brave but unfortunate La Salle has 
been a disputed question for many years. The Legislature stated that 
the site should be indicated by the State Historical Society. The Presi- 
dent of the Historical Society has appointed a committee from the most 
competent and studious of our members to decide on this location. The 
late William A. Meese was much interested in this vexed historical 
question and was a member of the Society's original committee on 
the site of old Fort Creve Coeur. The present members of the com- 
mittee are Jacob C. Thompson, Springfield ; C. W. Alvord, Urbana ; 
Professor J- A. James, Northwestern University, Evanston. These 
g^entlemen have studied the original reports in French and all later 
writings, history and tradition and will decide from the best and fullest 
evidence obtainable. 

The President and Secretary of the Society and Professor C. W. 
Alvord by invitation of the Illinois Society of the Colonial Dames, on 
the 10th of October last, went to Prairie du Rocher and old Fort 
Chartres, where the Colonial Dames placed a tablet on the restored 
powder magazine at old Fort Chartres. The presentation was by Mrs. 
Paul Blatchford of Chicago, State President of the Colonial Dames. 
It was accepted on behalf of the State by Doctor Otto L. Schmidt, 
President of the Illinois State Historical Society and member of the 
Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library. The his-, 
torical address was delivered by Professor C. W. Alvord. The party 
visited the historic city of St. Genevieve, Mo., and received many 
courtesies from Father Van Tourhenhout, the parish priest of St. 


Within the confines of the State of Illinois is one of the most 
important archaeological relics to be found in the world. I speak of 
the Great Cahokia or Monk's Mound near the city of East St. Louis. 
Efforts have been made from time to time to have the State of Illinois 
purchase the mound and preserve it as a public park. For many 
reasons the efforts have failed, though noted archaeologists from St. 
Louis appeared before the appropriation committees in behalf of the 
project, and testified to its historic importance. 

High state taxation, the cost of the foot and mouth disease among 
the live stock of the „ State and the demands of the great war were 
some of the reasons why the appropriation could not be secured. 
Efforts will be made in the next General Assembly to secure the 
necessary funds to purchase and preserve it. 


The publications of the Society are in date far behind. The difii- 
culty in obtaining print paper and the slowness of State printing is 
our excuse. In this delay we are not alone. Nearly every magazine 


is in a similar condition. Every day we receive communications ex- 
plaining that on account of trade conditions the dates of publication 
cannot be counted upon with any degree of certainty. The Transac- 
tions of last year's meeting are in the hands of the printer. The Jour- 
nals will be issued as rapidly as possible although the word rapidly 
seems hardly appropriate. I wish to call your attention to an article 
in the last number of the Transactions — The History of Sunday 
Schools in Illinois by Mr. A. Mills of Decatur. 

It is a satisfaction to report that the Society has published this 
contribution to State History. Mr. Mills was selected by a committee 
of the Sunday School Union of the State to do this work. Mr, J. H. 
Collins, a member of the Society, was a member of the committee. So 
little definite historical information as to the early Sunday schools was 
available that Mr. Mills' task was a difficult one but he devoted months 
of labor to it and the result is that the history has been written and 
published and is available for all future students for all time. Mr. 
Mills deserves the gratitude of all students of State history. 

Other notable articles in the publications during the past year are a 
History of the Oregon Trail by J. T. Dorris of Salem, and the Devel- 
opment of the Free Public High School in Illinois to 1860 by Paul E. 
Belting of the School of Education, State University. These articles 
were written in partial fulfillment of the requirements for degrees from 
universities and are full of information and are creditable to the Jour- 
nal. Mrs. Jamison has contributed to our magazine and her articles 
are always of great interest. Mr. Ensley Moore continues to help by 
articles on topics of State history. Mrs. A. W. Sale has contributed 
genealogical articles. Other members are urged to contribute ; to send 
articles and to make suggestions as to subjects or speakers. 


Miss Osborne has succeeded in securing as a gift to the Society 
rare books written by John L. McConnel. These are: Talbott & 
Vernon, publised 1850; The Glenns, published 1857. 


The Chicago Historical Society has acquired by purchase the 
notable collection of books, manuscripts, pictures and other historical 
articles of the late Charles F. Gunther. The purchase price is, I be- 
lieve, $150,000, of which $50,000 is to be paid at once. The raising 
of this large amount of money is a great and laborious task, but the 
character of the men and women in charge of the project assures its 


I am sincerely sorry to be obliged to report that President Edmund 
J. James of the State University has not been improved in health to a 
sufficient degree to justify his again taking up his labors at the head of 


the University. President James is one of the founders of this Society, 
and he has given it earnest and continuous interest. This I think he 
will continue. If his health improves, as I believe it will, he will have 
more time to devote to the congenial work of history and genealogy. 
He has been a director of the Society since its organization. I suggest 
that the Society send a greeting to him, with our best wishes for his 
speedy recovery. 


Gifts to the Library and Society are acknowledged in the Journal 
and so the time will not be taken to enumerate them. 

Air. Xorman L. Patterson of Peoria has, however, sent us lately 
some interesting historical relics of Old Yellow Banks, now Oquawka. 
Few of us knew that Edgar Allen Poe once contemplated coming to 
the little town of Oquawka, Illinois, to start a newspaper. The story 
is an interesting one. Mr. Patterson belongs to an interesting and his- 
toric family. He is the grandson of S. S. Phelps, one of the founders 
of the town of Oquawka and the son of J. B. Patterson, who wrote 
the celebrated Life of Black Hawk. Mr. Patterson has presented to 
the Society some interesting relics of his family and of Oquawka. The 
story is interesting but too long to tell in this report. 


The mailing list for our publications is 2.456. This includes mem- 
bers of all classes : 

18 honorary members. 
21 life members. 
1415 annual members and public officials. 
516 libraries and historical societies in the State of Illinois. 
174 libraries and historical societies outside of the State not in- 
cluding State Libraries. 
50 copies sent out in the general distribution of State documents 
sent out by the Secretary of State through the State Library. 
262 newspapers in the State of lUinois. 
This leaves very few copies of our books on hand but as we have 
such inadequate storage facilities we can not at present take care of 
more. We keep our own reserve stock for the Library. 


The Society has lost during the past year by death twenty mem- 
bers. There mav be others not reported to me. A heavy toll ! Among 
them a Director of the Society, Mr. William A. Meese. Mr. Hauberg 
will speak to you about him and of his lovalty and friendship for the 
Historical Society. Brief biographical notices are printed in the Jour- 
nal. The members who have passed away durmg the past year as far 
as known to me are : 

Edmond Beall, Alton, January 31, 1920: Miss Cora Agnes Ben- 
neson, Cambridge, Mass., June 8, 1919 ; James K. Blish, Kewanee. Feb- 


ruary 22, 1920; Dr. George W. Brock, Atlanta, February 17, 1920; 
Mrs. C. C. Brown, Springfield, October 12, 1919; Frank P. Crandon, 
Evanston, July 4, 1919; William Dingee, Chicago, May, 1919; La- 
Fayette l^unk, Shirley, September 6, 1919; Frank R. Grover, Chicago, 
December 10, 1919; Charles F. Gunther, Chicago, February 10. 1920; 
Orrin S. Holt, Rock Island, 1919 ; William A. Meese, Mofine. Febru- 
ary 9, 1920; F. M. Muhlig, Joliet, 1920; W. R. Munce, Mt. Pulaski. 
July 17, 1919; Colostin D. Myers, Bloomington, January 13, 1920; 
William T. Payne, Chicago, May 9, 1919; James A. Reardon, St. 
Louis, November, 1919; Philip j. Stoneberg, Bishop Hill, July 19, 
1919; John L. Scott, Springfield, May 9, 1920. 



May, 1920. 

Cash On Hand 275. 

Dues received 600. 

Total on hand $875.00 

Expense Annual Meeting, May, 1919. 

Bell Miller 27.50 

Maldaner 180.00 

Warren Murray 10.00 

French Piano Co 9.00 

St. Nicholas Hotel 6.75 


Returned checks 14.90 

Advertising 7.90 

Postage 30.74 

Library of Congress 1.31 

December meeting, 1919 ^ 

Piano 9.00 

Chairs 12.00 

Total expense 309.10 

Balance on hand $565.90 



To the Members of the Illi7^ois State Historical Society: 

Since our last report we have issued an additional genealogical 
list which was published as Number 25 of the Publications of the De- 
partment ; this was only a small edition but has been placed in the 
Libraries of the United States and the State of Illinois and exchanged 
with Historical Societies. 

We have added to our collection some county histories of Ohio, 
Indiana and MarAdand and are still searching for county histories of 
Kentuck}^, Virginia and the Carolinas. 

Our reference work by mail increases and we try to meet the re- 
quests to the best of our ability, and with such care and research work 
as our collection aflFords. 

Among our students this winter and spring have been quite a 
number from the English Department of the High School who were 
looking up their ancestry, and they have been surprised and pleased to 
find in the Library so much material on family history. 

The following family histories have been received as gifts to our 
collection : 

The Avery, Fairchild and Park Families of Massachusetts, Con- 
necticut and Rhode Island ; with short narratives of facts concerning 
Mr. Richard Warren, Mayflower Passenger. Gift of Mr. Samuel Put- 
nam Avery of Hartford, Conn. 

Copeland Genealogy. Gift of Mr. Charles Copeland of Holdrege, 

Cory Family. Gift of Harriet C. Dickinson of Helena, Montana. 

Elliott Family. The John Elliott Family of Boscamen, N. II. 
Gift of Henry Ames Kimball. Secretary Nebraska Historical Society. 

Lawrence Family. History of the Lawrences of Cornw^all. Gift 
of Lady Durning Lawrence, 13 Carleton House Terrace, London, S. 
W., England. 

A Familv Historv in Letters and Documents 1667-1837. Gift of 
Mrs. Charles 'p. Noyes, St. Paul, Minn. 

The Virginia Carys. Gift of Mr. Fairfax Harrison, Belvoir, Va. 

As heretofore we ask the co-operation of members of the Society 
in securing for the Department such works on genealogy as will be of 
most service to students and workers in this field. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Georgia L. Osborne, 
Chairman, Genealo^^ical Committee, Illinois 
State Historical Society. 



Evanston Historical Society J. Seymour Currey 

Henry County Historical Society Miss Ella Hume Taylor 

Central Illinois Historical Society Milo Custer 

Kankakee County Historical Society Dr. B. F. Uran 

La Salle County Historical Society ■. . .Terry Simmons 

Manlius-Rutland Township Historical Society Terry Simmons 

McLean County Historical Society T. C. Kerrick 

Madison County Historical Society E. P. Wade 

Morgan County Historical Society Dr. Chas. H. Rammelkamp 

Quincy Historical Society Miss Julia Sibley 


Evanston, May 10, 1920- 
Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, 

^Secretary, Illinois State Historical Society. 

Dear Madam : In response to your inquiry regarding this So- 
ciety I take pleasure in reporting its present condition, as follows : 

Our membership varies from 150 to 200 members, reckoning only 
those as members who pay the yearly dues of two dollars. Our income 
is increased by an annual appropriation by the City Council of $50, and 
by special contributions from time to time. 

The Society has for many years maintained a course of lectures,, 
sometimes more than one. No lectures, however, have been pro- 
vided during the last year owing to the illness and death of our presi- 
dent, Mr. Frank R. Grover. Our Mr. Currey who was active in pre- 
paring courses of lectures in former years has found himself unable 
to undertake the task since Mr. Grover's death, but we hope that the 
lectures will be resumed under the new administration of Mr. William 
C. Levere, our new president. Mr. Currey meantime has accepted 
the office of secretary, having performed the duties connected with 
that office continuously for the time since the organization of the 
Society, but in recognition of his long service has been named 
"President Emeritus." 

There have been no formal publications issued by the Society for 
some years, but jMr. Currey has constantly supplied articles for the 
local press on subjects connected with local history. During the last 
ten years he has written four or five hundred such articles, and it is 
quite probable that a volume will be published containing many of 
these articles convenient for readers. 

The Society has in its possession some hundreds of volumes per- 
taining to the history of Evanston and the North Shore towns in its 


vicinity and also a great number written by Evanston authors, as it is 
the home of large numbers of literary workers in almost every field. 
In addition, the collection contains many books on historv pertaining 
to Chicago and the West in general. A museum has gradually 
grown up in which is represented a large number of Indian remain?, 
flints, weapons, and objects of interest concerning the aborigines. 
Also, we have many souvenirs of the pioneers and of the Civil War. 
We are now forming a collection of objects illustrating the European 
War of 1914-1918. The ^Museum was of especial interest to Mr. 
Grover, to which he devoted much intelligent attention. 

Our greatest need now is a new building, as the quarters we oc- 
cupy are provided by the Evanston Public Library, and it is much in 
need of the space for its own use. 

With warm greetings to the Illinois State Historical Society, we 
remain, Sincerely yours. 

J. Seymour Currey, 
President Emeritus and Secretary. 


(By Ella Hume Taylor, Secretary. 1 

At the annual meeting of the Henry County Old Settlers' Asso- 
ciation in August, 1907. there was created the Henry County Histor- 
ical Association. General officers were elected with power to organ- 
ize for historical work. Later. Township Representatives were dele- 
gated to gather historical material in their respective townships and 
report annually to the secretary. The officers decided it would be best 
first to collect and preserve historical material and a suggestion list 
was printed and given out. Reports were given by the secretary at 
each annual meeting of the Old Settlers' Association, and valuable 
material was collected, but until within two years there was no suit- 
able place where this material could be safely kept and where it could 
be accessible to the general public. An appeal was made to the super- 
visors of the county for suitable quarters, and they have provided fine 
rooms for us in the county court house, all fireproof, and with cases 
tor articles given and a fine vault ; all well lighted and heated. So 
now we can appeal for more historical material, and as we have an 
efficient custodian in Mr. E. E. Fitch, we feel that valuable articles 
will be safely kept and records can be consulted. 

We hope to arrange scraps of history, newspaper clippings, etc., 
in neat scrap books, one for each township, and have them indexed. 
We mean to ask, through the newspapers of the county, all who have 
pioneer relics, or historical sketches of value, either to present or 
loan them to the Association, and they will be carefullv preserved and 
cared for. Although an appeal was made early in the late war for 
records of soldiers of the county, it was not until later that any real 
work was done as a county. The secretary asked assistance of the 
township representatives ; war record slips were printed, and these 
representatives, or a substitute, were asked to get complete war rec- 
ords of every soldier or sailor in their respective townships. 


Some have done splendid work. Others have not yet completed 
their lists, but we hope to have a thoroughly completed record of each 
one before long. Again the supervisors have assisted, financially and 
in many other ways, and they now plan to finish another room in 
the court house for war relics only, as well as to have suitable bronze 
plaques placed on the hall walls in the court house, recording the war 
service of all who served in the late war from Henry County. 

Ella Hume Taylor, Secretary. 


Office of the Secretary. 

1405 South Mason Street, 
Bloomington, May 6, 1920. 

Dear Mrs. Weber : Replying to your letter of 5th inst. I have 
to say that I am sending you under separate cover, a copy of our first 
published report, which contains, I think, all the data regarding this 
Society for which you ask, and perhaps more. T had intended send- 
ing you this copy some time ago, but the matter was delayed on ac- 
count of my moving. 

So far as I know, it will be impractical for this Society to have a 
personal representative at your next meeting, much as we would like 
to, so we will be very glad to have you read any part of — or indeed 
all — of our published report, if you care to do so. 

The names of our officers for the triennium. 1918-'19-'20 are: 
George A. Hodge, president ; D. C. Ridgley, vice president ; Milo 
Custer, secretary. Directors, George A. Hodge, Milo Custer, C. M. 
Laurence, Miles C. Grizzelle. G. Marks Piper. 

With thanks for your many courtesies, I am. 

Very respectfully, 

Milo Custer, 
Secretary, Central Illinois Historical Society. 


(By Dr. B. F. Uran.) 

As presiding officer representing the Kankakee County Historical 
Society, 1 extend to you a hearty greeting, and congratulate you upon 
the very excellent, and highly pleasing and entertaining program pre- 
sented at this session of your .Society for our entertainment. The 
papers presented have been of a very high order, and have been en- 
joyed by us all. While the attendance has not been as large as at 
some of the previous meetings, the general character and interesting 
features of the proceedings more than made up for the lack of numbers 
in attendance. 

You are especially to be congratulated, too, upon the wonderful 
amount of work done, and for what was accomplished during the Cen- 
tennial year. Much credit is due your officers and committees for the 


highly efBcient manner in which the program for the celebrating of 
the Centennial year of the great State of Illinois was carried out. 

It is my desire right here to extend a vote of sincere thanks from 
our Society, for the hearty co-operation and assistance rendered us in 
our Centennial celebrations. 

The Honorable Hugh S. Magill, Jr., assisted us greatly in carrying 
out a program at two of our meetings during the year. At one of the 
sessions he greatly interested a very large audience made up of the 
very best people of the County, in an eulogy upon the history and 
wonderful progress and achievements accomplished in every branch 
of art and husbandry, the equal of which was never before heard in 
our part of the State. 

Our local Society gave a very creditable account of itself in an 
endeavor of entertaining the citizens in celebrating the Centennial year. 
Our Society is in a very fairly flourishing condition and much interest 
is being manifest in the study of early local conditions. Much is being 
done in the way of procuring and preserving relics, and reminders of 
the early day history. The Iroquois and the Kankakee valleys are 
particularly rich in early pioneer and Indian history. The student of 
early history cannot help but be interested in what is in his reach here. 

An endeavor has been made in the last few years in the task of 
the permanent marking of interesting historic spots in the County, of 
which there are many, and much more is contemplated and will be 
accomplished in the very near future. 

Every community should become interested in this very important 
work, for the time is rapidly approaching when these matters will not 
be so readily procurable. When the present generation passes away it 
will be much more difficult to obtain material that is now avail- 
able. Four very important historic spots in the County have been 
permanently marked during the past year, by the placing of a large 
boulder upon them. A permanent base of first-class cement is planted 
in the ground about four feet, plenty large to support the boulder, and 
while quite green the boulder is set upon this base, settling two or three 
inches below its surface. We now have a solid structure from the top 
to the bottom of the cement base. 

I urge UDOn the citizens in the different communities to Sfct busv 
and accomplish that which is now procurable. 


(By Terry Simmons.) 

In earlier days to call another lad a liar was to invite retraction 
or s. fight. It was not safe to do the calling unless you believed your- 
self to be physically the superior and that you were not certain of, as 
there were surprises in store when some httle fellow in daring and 
alertness got in action before you, in your greater bulk, realized what 
was in store for you. Later .to quote a great man of old. "I said in my 
heart" — or was in heat — "all men are liars." As applied to the whole 
human race that included the women also, and mv mother was a 


woman! Was the charge true? There were no newspapers in those 
days and of course no editors and how could something that did not 
exist be accused of untruthfulness. I am speaking from practical ex- 
perience in claiming that were the man of old alive today he would 
qualify his statement, allow for one exception, that of editors. But 
hold on, I forgot that I was not to speak to a gathering of my brother 
editors. Ask a group of the older dwellers in your city about the 
details of some event that happened there but a few years before, 
then read from your newspaper the printed report of the day's doings 
and which is the more likely to be real truth or the nearest so. Abso- 
lute perfection in news supplying is not of the earth but its closest 
approach is and ever will be the newspaper as a recorder of events. 
Do I know what I am talking about? Well, I ought to, having been 
a resident of Marseilles, my home, and ever knowing to all of im- 
portance occurring, the worth while, for half a century. For forty- 
two years of that period I published the weekly home paper. 

Following twenty-five years of that publication, I printed in my 
paper, The Plaindealer, separated into common book-sized pages of 
4^x6 inches, to be cut out and pasted in order, a "Quarter Century 
History of Marseilles," a total of 534 pages, or, as books usually are 
printed in larger type than the regular reading matter and with wide 
margins, probably 800 pages. To issue a more complete, readable 
record of home affairs would be a most difficult undertaking. 

Seventeen years of the weekly and the eight years additional are 
all to be similarly treated, constituting a half century of history of the 
home life of Marseilles, I feel justly warranted in claiming has no 
equal in the history of any town or city in the United States. Am I 
right in this? It is not necessary to add that it is richly and vitally 
interesting to Marseilles citizens for you all know what the home 
news as it regularly appears in your favorite home paper means to 
you. It will be my tribute to my people, to be preserved in the public 
library against possible oblivion for years and years to come. 

Bowing to the trend of the times. I transferred my newspaper 
properties and interests to a son. They were consolidated in a daily 
of his publishing, whose life might be said to have started with the 
recent war and ended when it did, largely through inabihty to secure 
sufficient support in advertising to balance the so greatly enlarged cost 
of issue. This fate was not the exceptional one by any means, and 
the real meat of the situation was fairly official demand from the 
powers that be to cut the size of paper issued, then no larger than 
needed to satisfy subscribers, in order to conserve paper, this, in turn 
enforcing a second cut, advertising without which no paper can profit- 
ably exist, then a third cut, the list of subscribers, a decrease that takes 
the soul out of the newspaper business, in effect, shuts out any possible 
growth. It had in it the song of the old barnvard hen, "cut-cut-cadL- 

If there was any vitality left it had to go in the advance of the 
print paper price — I had bought it at $40 per ton, but it was then ^7ri 
— with almost a certainty that shortly it could not be had at all, to 
the latest existing one of $320 per ton. eight times a normal price. 


An order for a single ton of paper rarely got consideration from the 
supply house, for the big fish, the carload man, absorbed the supply; 
he was the profitable customer where one could be taken on at all. 
Even he is being driven to the wall, forced in cases to own the mill in 
which the paper he uses has to be manufactured ; aye, not only that, 
but the forests from which the wood for the pulp must come entering 
into the manufacture of the paper. 

Publishers of early days used print paper with much of the stock 
there in rags lasting in quality. It was necessary to dampen the paper 
before printing on it and with no good appliances for so doing getting 
good results was a big problem and most vexing in solution. This was 
followed by the wood pulp supply, by all conceded a happy advance 
step in the right direction. But was it? Every publisher of repute, 
whose heart and soul are in the business, and who kept a file of his 
paper to be highly prized, now knows it was not. Print paper of 
today turns yellow, even if kept out of the light, and, worse than all, 
shortly decays. Relied on to preserve history, it is as a broken reed, 
a most deplorable fact. 

It is amusing in a way, were it not so of a verity saddening and 
disheartening, to have some of our great men in the halls of congress 
introduce a measure to have a large appropriation of money made to 
encourage re-foresting of timber regions in order to again grow the 
wood from which pulp can be made. Must the newspaper world stand 
still? In reality such a thing is impossbile, but rest, if that suits you 
better, the quarter century those trees must have to grow in? No, 
and again NO ! The right help out of the difficulty must and will come 
in a substitute from which to make paper. Were we ever actually 
forsaken in any dire need, when that which we must have is for the 
time exhausted, unobtainable, and there is no immediate supply in the 
near future in view ? No, and never will be. 

But we at times are forced to have more of the optimism of a 
"Darius Green and His Flying Machine" in our make-up. To what a 
memorable result, the aeroplane, was Darius the advance runner, the 
poor fellow whom one of our most glorious poets held up to the gaze 
of thousands in greatest ridicule. Do you not long to have it permis- 
sible for Darius to be returned to this world of now, if but for the 
briefest time, to get the honors that so richly belong to him. 

Face the situation. The historians of the age, the country news- 
papers, are being forced out of existence by hundreds, yes, thousands 
they say, in the crisis of non-supply of print paper, and more for a 
time will inevitably follow. Does that mean that historical societies 
must go down as well, lacking sustenance that is their life? With a 
faith of a Darius Green, laugh, aye, sneer at me as was he treated, the 
future will restore me to a place I should hold in your memories when 
I make the statement, there never was a stronger demand for historians 
than exists today to gather up and preserve the record of your life 
and mine, people everywhere, of the past and this era. I would have 
a historian of repute in each sizable community reporting to a counts 
body — as such correspondence is now found in the papers of yet 
favored localities — at definite periods, the county record to be dupli- 


cated to the state association as the rivulet flows to the creek, the 
creek to river. Why ? An eminent author, in his last moments, turned 
to his son and said, I wonder what will the world most remember 
about me? Give us something to live for, earn a right to feel at the 
last we will not soon be forgotten when we are gone ; our world has 
been the better because we had been in and of it ; that there are heights 
above the dead level of the commonplace to which we should aspire 
because it is worth our while to do so, will be appreciated at its true 

There is a rivulet in my city known as the Manlius-Rutland 
Township Historical Society. In common with so many interests, 
activity was flagged by the over-topping affairs of war. I happen to 
be president of that body. It is now proposed to restore and increase 
its membership, be able to report progress to be proud of. Next there 
is the larger body, The La Salle County Society, to also revive. As 
chairman of the Executive Committee of it there is ample opportunity 
to enlarge my sphere also. Both moves should point to the one up- 
ward result, accessions to State membership. Here comes in the duty 
of the State association to extend advance encouragement and help. 

When the privilege was last extended me of appearing before 
this Association in this city of Springfield, my special plea was in 
behalf of the making of Starved Rock, in my home county, a state 
park. For any and every help in answering that plea permit me now 
to thank you with a most grateful heart. Are any of you regretting 
following a leadership that has made that historical spot one to be 
eminently proud of, with an annual visitation of thousands from not 
only our own great State but the nation and even world? Why not 
hold the next meeting of the Association there at a favorable time of 
the year? If attendance is too large for hotel accommodations at the 
park it is only about ten miles by interurban to either Ottawa on the 
east or La Salle on the west. La Salle County needs the awakening 
this would surely bring about. Will you do your plain duty, hold the 
1921 session at Starved Rock? 

And now, will you excuse me for introducing something personal? 
You have on your program at least a quarter century editorial brother 
of mine, Charles Bradshaw, of Carrollton, Greene County. Our in- 
terests, desires, successes, have been deeply fraternal. He will tell you 
of his home county as one to the manor "born. He both cherishes and 
reveres it. Give him close, earnest attention and you will be amply 
rewarded for it. 

The past is behind us, present here, future ahead, three distinct 
eras that really blend into one in the life we live. Each has its part 
to be played and neglect of opportunity in any one tells its own story 
to be deeply regretted when we shall have gone into that from which 
we came, the past. 

I am to give you facts, incidents in the main common throughout 
our land, asking for you that broader vision making for universal 

Continued successes and a greater field of usefulness in an ever 
enlarging sphere for the Illinois State Historical Society ! 
— 3 H S 


Bloomington, Illinois, May 12th, 1920. 
Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, 

Secretary Illinois State Historical Society. 

Your request of the 5th at hand. The McLean County Historical 
Society is getting along as well as can be expected in its present 
cramped rooms. We are in need of three times as much room. We 
have one thousand members. We meet four times a year. Our annual 
meeting is the first Saturday in March, and the quarterly meetings the 
first Saturday in June, September and December. 

The indications are that the supervisors of the county will build 
a large memorial hall, and give us all the room we need, also for all 
the soldiers of the dififerent wars. We have received money for our 
building fund through our donations, and some has been willed which 
will be due as soon as we get a building. 

We have a list of the soldiers in the world's war of this county. 
and are assisting in getting up a book with their names and pictures. 
as well as any write-ups they wish. Nearly all papers read at our 
meetings have been published in both the daily papers. 

As soon as our finances are in better shape, we expect to publish 
two more volumes of our most valuable and interesting papers which 
we have in our archives. 


President, Hon. T. C. Kerrick. T. C. Kerrick, 

1st Vice President, Judge Thomas Kennedy. W. B. Carlock, 

2nd Vice President, Scott Price. David Davis, 

3rd Vice President, E. H. Newcomb, Saybrook, 111. John G. Welch, 
Treasurer, W. B. Carlock. ' N. W. Brandican, 

Secretary, E. Rhoads. Mary L. P. Evans, 

Respectfully yours. 

Sue A. Sanders. 

E. Rhoads, 



May 13, 1920. 
Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, 

Secretary, Illinois State Historical Society, 
Springfield, Illinois. 
Dear Madam: 

Your communication of the Sixth inst. has been received. There 
seems to be an error as to the existence of a Madison County His- 
torical Society. A number of our citizens are members of the State 
Society r.nd Mr. W. T. Norton has been a Director but there is no 
organization of a Madison County Society in this place. Mr. Norton 
is the editor of the Centennial History of Madison County published 


in 1912 which is a work of much interest. This no doubt has been 
placed in your Library. The records of the war have been sent to 
Washington. It is regretted that there is nothing to furnish you for 
the annual meeting. 


E. P. Wade (but not President). 


Jacksonville, Illinois. 

May 10, 1920. 
Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, 

Secretary, The Illinois State Historical Society, 
Springfield, Illinois. 

My dear Mrs. Weber: 

The Morgan County Historical Society sends warm greetings and 
best wishes to the Illinois State Historical Society. We congratulate 
the State Society upon the great work which it has accomplished dur- 
ing the past few years, especially in its co-operation with the Illinois 
State Centennial Commission. We promise a hearty co-operation in 
your plans for developing among the people of Illinois a still greater 
interest in the history of our state. 

Sincerely yours, 

C. H. Rammelkamp, 



Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, 

Springfield, 111. 
My Dear Mrs. Weber: 

The president of the Quincy Historical Society handed over to me 
your letter of May 5th to be answered, as he has only just returned 
from a winter in the South and so is not quite so familiar with the 
proceeding of the association as he would wish to be. 

There is really very little to report. We have during the year, 
the annual meeting in April, at which time the officers are elected and 
members voted in. Following this business meeting is a lecture by 
« som.e able speaker, and then an informal reception. 

There are four quarterly meetings annually of the board, when 
routine business is transacted and donations accepted. 

We are constantly adding memorial tablets, with always applica- 
tions waiting for space. 

Our membership list shows something over two hundred, besides 
near fifty life members, with more promised. 

We are contemplating some entertainments during the summer. 

Very truly yours 

Julia Sibley, 

Quincy, III., May 10, 1920. 



of thi 

Dlinois State Historical 


Friday, May 1 4, 1 920 





Friday, May 14, 1920. 

Dr. O. L. Schmidt, President of the Society, Presiding-. 
9 A. M. Meeting of the Directors of the Society in the office of the 


10 A. M. Annual Business Meeting. 

Reports of Officers. 

Reports of Committees. 

Miscellaneous Business. 

Election of Officers. 

Address Mrs. Edna Armstrong Tucker, Rock Island 

Benjamin Walsh, First State Entomologist of Illinois. 

Address Mr. Charles Bradshaw, Carrollton, 111. 

"Born One Hundred Years Ago — Greene County." 
12:45 o'clock. Luncheon at the St. Nicholas Hotel. Price $1.25 per 

plate. Please make reservations as early as possible 

through the Secretary of the Society. 


Afternoon Session 2 :45 o'Clock. 

Address Miss Mary E. McDowell, Chicago 

Twenty-five Years in an Industrial Community 

Music Mrs. Gary H. Westenberger 

Address Professor Arthur C. Cole, University of Illinois 

Illinois Women of the Middle Period. 

Music Mrs. Gary H. Westenberger 

Address Mrs. Grace Wilbur Trout, Chicago 

Some Sidelights on Illinois Suffrage History. 

Evening Session, Senate Chamber, 8 o'Clock. 

Music Miss Rebecca S. Scheibel 

Annual Address Hon. O. A. Harker. University of Illinois 

Fifty Years with the Bench and Bar of .Southern Illinois. 
Music Miss Rebecca S. Scheibel 


Papers Read at the Annual Meeting 





(By Oliver A. Harker.) 

The subject of this paper readily suggests a line of reminiscence. 
It is not entirely one of my own selection, but was suggested by a 
member of this Society who has for years been an untiring student of 
American history and an especially ardent student of Illinois history. 
I know some men, rather sensitive on the age question, who, while 
feeling flattered by an invitation to address a society of the standing 
and dignity of this one, would not feel flattered by the suggestion of 
a subject that would lead into a line of reminiscence. 

The burden of the presentation will be to show (first) in matters 
of legal practice and court procedure, how the lawyers practiced and 
how the judges administered justice in the thirty counties composing 
that part of the State, familiarly designated as Egypt, fifty years ago ; 
(second), the changes which have gradually occurred by reason of 
nev/ legislation ancl the industrial development of that part of the 
State since; and (third), something of the leading lawyers and judges 
of that period who have since passed away. 

I crave your indulgence while I, by way of introduction, give a 
birds-eye view of conditions in Southern Illinois as they existed fifty 
years ago. To fill an engagement previously made at long range, 
I, a lad of twenty years fresh from college, made my first entry into 
lower Egypt fifty-two years ago. I went to Vienna in Johnson 
County to teach my first school. I went with some misgivings 
because the popular impression in Northern Illinois was that Egypt 
was a benighted region, where the men made and drank their own 
sour mash, the women chewed "Granger Twist" tobacco, and the 
young people found their chief enjoyment in cock-fights, dog-fights 
and fist-fights. I was assured, however, by the president of the 
school-board, the leading physician of the place and the official with 
whom I had corresponded, that I would find Vienna a very quiet 
and orderly place. These words appeared in his letter, — "Our little 
town has a population of about six hundred people, five stores, one 
tavern, one church house and nary grocery store in it." You must 
understand that the term "grocery" as then understood was a place 
where malt and spirituous liquors were sold, and answered the defini- 
tion of that institution later called the "saloon." As you may sur- 
mise, I was greatly relieved by the assurance that I was to teach school 
in a town where there was "nary grocery" in the church house. 

At that time there was no railroad south of the Baltimore and 
Ohio South Western, then known as the Ohio and Mississippi, except 
the one line of the Illinois Central to Cairo and a short road of twelve 


miles between East St. Louis and Belleville. The travel was chiefly 
b}- boat on the Ohio, Mississippi and Wabash Rivers, by stage coach 
and by horseback. Eighteen different lines of railroad now traverse 
that territory. 

The major part of the land of the entire region was in virgm 
forest. Cattle, hogs and horses ran at large, and the farmer was com- 
pelled to fence against stock to protect his crops. The slow going 
ox team did the heavy hauling and most of the plowing. Outside 
the towns there were but few farm houses. Farmers owning two 
and three hundred acres of land lived in log houses. The houses 
consisted usually of two large rooms one of which served for kitchen 
and dining room and the other for bed room and living room 
and above was a loft where the older boys and the hired man slept. 
Large families were raised in quarters not more commodious. Many 
of the cabins had but one room and the loft. The finest timber in the 
Mississippi Valley grew in that region. Black walnut, hickory, white 
oak, poplar and maple, now so rare and so highly prized, were con- 
sidered of but little value except for fire wood and fence rails. In 
fact, the farmer, desiring to clear a piece of land for the plow, looked 
upon the timber as an incumbrance. I have seen as fine logs of ash, 
oak and poplar as ever went into a mill dragged into huge piles and 
burned to get rid of them. Rich, productive land, now ranging in 
price from one hundred to two hundred and fifty dollars per acre, could 
be bought at from five to ten dollars per acre. Farming was confined 
almost entirely to the ridges and higher lands. \Miat are now, after 
clearing, ditching and draining, the richest and most productive lands 
in that part of the State, were mere swamps, overflowed by the winter 
and spring rains, and, with their pools of stagnant water through sum- 
mer, breeding places for malaria and mosquitoes. Why, in that da>-, 
the farmers and others living in the southern tier of counties, expected 
the annual siege of chills and fever fager, as it was commonly called) 
in the fall as surely as they looked for the coming of Christmas, later 
on. At no other place in the State were health conditions so bad. But 
the draining of swamps and the straightening and clearing out of 
streams, in addition to bringing to productive use the richest of the 
lands, have served to make that part of the State as healthy as any. 

The population of the territory embraced by the thirty counties 
I have in mind has increased more than four hundred per cent during 
the fifty years. Excepting East St. Louis, the increase has been 
chiefly in the coal mining districts. Outside of St. Clair County there 
were no coal mines of any moment anywhere. The rich fields of 
Perry, Jackson. Franklin, Williamson and Saline were untouched. 
The cities of Marion and Murphysboro each now boasting a popula- 
tion of more than 10.000. then fell short of 1000. Like increases have 
come to other cities in that locality. Herrin, Johnston City and W^est 
Frankfort, where there were no towns at all twenty-five years ago, are 
now thriving cities with police departments, courts of record and other 
metropolitan adjuncts. West Frankfort now boasts a population of 
20,000. It is the center of the richest coal mining district in the Miss- 
issippi A'alley. 


Ex-Senator W. S. Morris of Pope County, in active practice in 
Hardin, Pope and adjoining counties for more than fifty years, is 
better acquainted with conditions in that part of the State during the 
"sixties" than any Hving lawyer. In reply to a letter written to him 
when I began the preparation of this paper, he said among other 
things : 

"There was five undershot water mills on the Saline River, several 
on Big Creek and overshot mills on streams in Pope and Williamson 
Counties. Carbondale was a village of shanties, weatherboarded with 
clap boards, made with froe and axe in the woods. 

"Cairo was a frog pond and mosquito preserve in the summer 
time — an ocean in winter. Kaskaskia was tumbling into the Missis- 
sippi River. East St. Louis had no record except as a rendezvous for 
the lawless, and as the lociis in quo of the Wiggins Ferry Co. *=!==« 

"It was somewhat difficult for the young lawyer to get in and to 
stay in court, mistake in form of the action, a bad summons, a bad 
return, a non-joinder or mis-joinder often proving fatal to his client. 
Sometimes relief was found by amending the first paper or by refer- 
ence to the old statute of Amendment and Joefails. The Practice Act 
under the revision of 1874 and the chapter on Amendments happily 
did much to relieve the courts and the lawyers of unmerited censure. 

"I recall how in the years just after the war a Democrat tried for 
life or liberty, would not sufifer a Republican to sit on the jury if lie 
could help it ; so likewise the Republican was equally leery of the 
Democrat. This condition was fostered by the lawyers, many of whom 
were practical politicians, but very impractical lawyers. The after- 
math of the Civil War had its full efifect reflected in Egypt. The Wil- 
liamson County vendetta, represented b}' the Bulliners and Hender- 
sons, the night-riders of Green Cantrell, masked and hooded, who met 
their overthrow at the battle of Maddox Lane about two miles north 
of Old Frankfort, the Ku Klux Klan of Hardin County, the warring 
factions of the Belts and Oldhams, together with numerous killings, 
assault, etc., are returned in my memory. 

"Throughout this region of the State these outbursts of lawless- 
ness so frequent from 1860 to 1880 may be traced to anti-bellum times 
intensified by hatred engendered by Civil War." 

Under the constitution then in force the judicial power of the 
State was vested in a supreme court, circuit courts, county courts, and 
justices of the peace, and such inferior courts as might be established 
in cities. The State was divided into 28 circuits, and for each circuit 
a judge and state's attorney were elected. The circuit court had un- 
limited original jurisdiction in all but probate matters. The county 
court, presided over by one judge, was limited in its jurisdiction to 
probate matters. Justices of the peace had jurisdiction in certain civil 
matters where the amount involved did not exceed $100 and in mis- 
demeanors punishable by fines only in an amount not exceeding $100. 

The circuit court was the chief court — the people's great court. 
The judges were paid the munificent salary of $1,000 per year. And 
yet the position was sought and filled bv some of the ablest lawyers of 
the State— A. D. Dufif, W. J. Allen, David J. Baker, John H. Mulkey, 


Wesle)' Sloan, and William H. Green. The profession was without the 
commercialism that attends it today, and lawyers could be found will- 
ing to leave a practice yielding an income three or four times greater 
than the salary to take the office because of the honor and distinction 
attached to it. The proceedings of the court were conducted with 
the utmost decorum. At each convening, morning and afternoon, the 
bailifif under direction of the judge, in due form opened the session in 
the court room and in loud voice made proclamation at the window. 
Court week, in those days, was the great occasion in Southern Illinois. 
The rude court room was crowded not with litigants, witnesses and 
jurors alone, but chiefly with spectators ; men who had no business 
there, but were drawn to it for entertainment. They were eager to 
hear the conflicting testimony of witnesses and see the forensic tilts 
between opposing counsel. Sometimes the term would run over a 
period of two or three weeks, but such was the charm of the court 
room that men, with no earthly business calling them there, would 
ride in from the country every morning and as most attentive lis- 
teners remain until the afternoon adjournment. The court rooms were 
visually large, but barn-like affairs and rudely furnished. At one end 
about one-third of the space was fenced off for the judge, clerk, jurors, 
lawyers and such litigants as had cases on trial. The rest of the 
room was filled with rude benches, usually without backs, but in term 
time always occupied. The judge presided with great dignity. How- 
ever intimate the personal relations between judge and lawyer outside 
the court room, however free and familiar the intercourse between 
them elsewhere, there was no evidence of it while the judge was on 
the bench. The people respected that dignity and stood somewhat in 
awe of it. At the tavern where the judge stopped a table in the dining 
room was always reserved for him and the itinerant lawyers. At 
dinner time, which was at mid-day. the landlord would not think of 
opening the dining room until the judge was there to enter, and he 
entered first. If some court matter delayed the meal beyond the usual 
hour, the other patrons, however hungry, had to wait. The people 
seemed to like these formal courtesies. I think the recipient did. It 
is certain that he was jealous of the dignity attached to his office and 
readily rebuked any infringement of it. Pardon an incident in illus- 
tration. Late in the "sixties" Judge Duff, as kind, lovable and ap- 
proachable a man as I ever knew, was holding court at Harrisburg. 
It was the custom whenever a lawyer, party or witness not in the 
courtroom was needed, for the bailiff to go to a window at the entry way 
and call out three times in loud voice the name of the party wanted. 
One day when one o'clock, the hour for beginning the afternoon ses- 
sion, had arrived, the judge was not present, delayed by some matter 
at his hotel. Jurors, parties and attorneys engaged in the trial on hand 
were assembled. A mischievous lawyer suggested to the bailiff, a new 
man at the business, that he call the judge at the window. A moment 
later as the judge stepped into the court house yard he was horrified 
to hear in a loud voice from a window above "A. D. Duff, A. D. Duff, 
A. D. Duff : come into court." Immediately after taking his seat 
Judge Duff called the offending bailiff before him and proceeded in 


most scathing terms to lecture him for his egregious affront to judicial 
dignity. And the bailiff, fearing a heavy fine and imprisonment for 
contempt, tremblingly explained that he intended no affront and that 
he had called him from the window because one of the lawyers told 
him it was his duty to do so. The offending lawyer, after being 
named, was called before the bench and saved himself from fine by 
apologizmg and explaining that he made the suggestion in a jocular 
way and with no idea that it would be followed. 

The public had great confidence in the court. There were few 
appeals. While the losing party for a time felt that he had been 
wronged, there was a strong general belief that when final judgment 
was rendered justice had been done. And so the losing party, if in- 
clined to have his case reviewed by the supreme court, was discouraged 
by his friends and often by his counsel. Shortly after I was admitted 
to the bar I took a case decided before my admission, to the supreme 
court by writ of error. I was told by the clerk that it was the first 
case to that court from Johnson County in fourteen years. 

At that time the custom of "riding the circuit" as it was termed, 
prevailed. The territorial jurisdiction of the state's attorney was the 
same as that of the circuit judge and sometimes embraced as high as 
six or eight counties. Those two officials traveled together. They 
were usually accompanied by several other lawyers. Except in the 
Ohio River Counties where there was steamboat transportation, they 
usually went by horse-back. Oftentimes lawyers would attend a term 
without any previous retainer, taking chances for employment after 
reaching the seat of the court. The leading lawyers to follow that 
practice from 1865 to 1880 were Judges Allen, Green and Mulkey and 
Dave Linegar of Cairo ; Governor Dougherty and Colonel Townes of 
Jonesboro ; Captain McCartney and J. R. Thomas of Metropolis ; 
Judges Bowman and Youngblood of Shawneetown ; Captain Davis 
and General Raum of Harrisburg; Marion Youngblood of Benton, 
and Judges Tanner and Casey of Mount Vernon. 

The character of the litigation differed greatly from that which 
now occupies the attention of the courts in that locality. Much of it 
was over land titles, and trespass upon lands. Stock ran at large and 
the farmer was compelled to protect his crop by an adequate fence. 
Some hogs, cattle and mules, tempted by a fine growing crop, would 
break through the fence. A lawsuit would follow either by the 
farmer against the owner of the stock, or by the owner of the stock 
against the farmer who had undertaken to administer summary justice 
with a shot gun or a vicious dog. Replevin suits were frequent — many 
of them cases of mistaken identity over cattle and horses roaming at 
will and pasturing over the open timber land. 

In 1875. and for several years following, it was not unusual to 
find on the docket of a small county in the first or second judicial cir- 
cuit fifteen or twenty ejectment suits. The cause was to be found in 
the loose manner in which the early records were kept and the neglect 
of owners to have their title papers recorded. Now there are but 
few ejectment suits, although land is much more valuable than then. 
Through court action title<: have become settled. Rarely was a per- 


sonal injury suit brought. But with the coming of the railroads and 
the coal mines, suits of that character, especially in behalf of em- 
ployees, became quite numerous and occupied most of the time of the 
courts until the passage of the Workmen's Compensation Act nine 
y^ears ago. 

The Supreme Court held two terms a year at Mt. Vernon. The 
dockets were small, the most of the business coming from St. Clair, 
Madison and Alexander Counties. But at the beginning of each term 
a great number of lawyers would attend, many of them without busi- 
ness but for social reasons. That was before the organization of the 
State Bar Association. The three judges comprising the court, Breese, 
Lawrence, and Walker, were recognized everywhere as among the 
ablest jurists in the land. I think I voice the sentiment of the olde- 
members of the bar of the State when I say that Illinois never had so 
strong a Supreme Court as during the period when those three eminent 
lawyers composed it. 

Fifty years ago the county court, although a court of record, held 
nothing like the importance that it does today in judicial administra- 
tion. That was due to its limited jurisdiction, the type of men who 
were usually elected judges and the loose manner in which its business 
was conducted. It had no common law or criminal jurisdiction and 
was limited to the administration of estates, appointment of guardians 
and matters of that charcter. The ofifice of judge was rarely filled by 
a licensed attorney. A countr}^ justice of the peace was considered 
amply qualified, and the statute expressly provided that when not 
engaged in his duties as county judge he could exercise the powers of 
a justice of the peace. As a consequence little attention was paid to 
form ; business was conducted with little dignity, and court recoras 
were kept in very loose fashion. In some counties administrators and 
guardians, after receiving their letters and filing oath and bond, sought 
no further sanction or advice from the court. No heed was paid to 
the law which required them to report annually unless some insistent 
creditor or other party in interest made complaint. When, in 1873. a 
licensed attorney was elected county judge of Johnson County he 
found hundreds of instances where no report whatever had been filed 
after appointment. He turned the attention of the clerk to the matter, 
and citations followed so rapidly that during the years 1874 and 1875 
there were over three hundred cases against delinquent guardians and 

\\''hat a harvest it was for the lawyers of that county ! 

Oftentimes creditors' claims against estates and claims for the 
care and nurture of wards would be allowed and paid without any 
record whatever. If the claim was sworn to and not contested the 
iudge would simply endorse on the back of the paper, ''Allowed." I 
call to mind a case tried before me in Jackson County about thirty 
vears ago, in which the surety on a guardian's bond was the only sol- 
vent defendant. The suit was to recover for money received by the 
guardian in behalf of his ward from time to tinie for a period of twelve 
or fifteen years. There was no record showing any allowance to the 
guardian for the board, clothing and shelter of the ward. All that 


appeared of record was a recital of the appointment, the approval of 
the bond and that the ward was entitled to and was receiving a certain 
sum of money at stated periods. The surety was saved from a heavy 
iudgment through the industry of his attorney, who spent a month 
or two in searching through a mass of papers which had, upon the 
direction of the county judge, been thrown into goods boxes and 
stored in a vacant room. Papers were found in which allowances 
were made from time to time but the only evidence of it was the in- 
dorsement of it upon the back of reports and claims that had been filed. 

In 1872 the legislature gave the county court concurrent jurisdic- 
tion with the circuit court in a large class of civil suits and in all 
criminal cases where the punishment was not imprisonment in the 
penitentiary or death. The act provided that in cases coming within 
the extended jurisdiction, the pleadings and practice should be the 
same as in the circuit court. Unfortunately it went into effect when 
there was an unexpired term of office of nearly two years in the 
judges then presiding. With rare exception, the incumbent knew 
nothing about special pleading and little about the rules of evidence. 
His efforts to conduct the court and transact its business under the 
extended jurisdiction furnished many ludicrous instances. 

The loose manner in which records were preserved was due 
largely to the fact that there were not fire-proof vaults attached to 
the clerk's offices. There were only three counties in Southern Illi- 
nois in 1865 that had fire-proof vaults in their court houses. Deed 
and mortgage records were fairly preserved but court records and 
court files were stowed away on shelves and in huge goods boxes. 
When the store room became crowded the boxes were carted away 
to the basement. 

Admission to the bar was by an entirely different procedure from 
that of today. There was no state board of bar examiners, and the 
Supreme Court had not seen fit to prescribe any course of study pre- 
liminary to examination and admission. The only statute regulating 
the matter was one that forbid one from practicing law "without hav- 
ing previously obtained a license for that purpose from some two of 
the justices of the Supreme Court." The Supreme Court simply pro- 
vided by rule that an applicant for license should present to any mem- 
ber of the court "a certificate of qualification, signed by the circuit 
judge and state's attorney of the circuit in which the applicant resided, 
setting forth that the applicant had been examined and found qualified, 
which was a sufficient voucher on which to grant a license. It was 
provided, however, that if the application for license should be made 
in term time an examination should be had in open court or by a com- 
mittee appointed by the court. For reasons quite apparent from what 
I shall further sav, few if any applications were made in term time 
of the Supreme Court. The route by certificate from circuit judge 
and state's attorney was the popular one. The method for securing 
the certificate was usually as follows : At motion hour some member 
of the bar would present the name of the applicant and ask that he 
be examined. The judge would appoint a committee, composed of 
the state's attornev and two other members of the bar and order an 


examination and report. The state's attorney was so occupied with 
drafting indictments and looking after criminal cases that he seldom 
took part in the examination. At an appointed time, usually after 
supper and at a room in the hotel the applicant would present himself 
accompanied by a box of cigars and a fair-sized bottle. After the 
cigars were passed and the landlord had brought in a pitcher of hot 
water, a sugar bowl and some glasses, the applicant was interrogated 
as to what books he had read and whether he thought he knew enough 
to try a lawsuit. If the applicant was able to name the books and 
express confidence in his ability to conduct a suit the examination 
ended. The next morning the committee reported that on due exam- 
ination it had found the applicant qualified for admission to the bar. 
A certificate of qualification signed by judge and state's attorney was 
issued to the applicant, who in due course of procedure received his 
license. I shall say, however, that a practice so loose as that did not 
prevail in the counties where Judge Duff presided. In addition to his 
duties as a judicial officer Judge Duff for a number of years conducted 
through the winter months a law school at Benton. He was a pro- 
found lawyer and took great delight in lecturing to students on law 
subjects. He would not consent to sign a certificate unless the appli- 
cant had taken a substantial examination and the examination was 
usually conducted by himself. 

Notwithstanding the ease with which men at that day secured 
admission to the bar, I am quite sure that there are no abler practic- 
tioners in the State now than were the leading lawyers of Southern 
Illinois fifty years ago. I shall conclude by giving you my impression 
of a few of them. I should like to extend the list, but time forbids. 

When a student at McKendree College in 1866, I first met the 
Hon. William H. Underwood of Belleville. He was then a practi- 
tioner of thirty years' experience and was recognized as the leader of 
the St. Clair County Bar. He had been a prominent figure in the 
constitutional convention of 1848. He had served with distinction 
as a legislator and as circuit judge. He had a strong personality, 
and, as I was at the time contemplating the study of law as soon as 
my college course should be finished, he made quite an impression 
on my youthful mind. He was subsequently a member of the constitu- 
tional convention of 1870 and was a very potent factor in framing and 
securing the adoption of that instrument. Although deeply interested 
in politics and his collection of political documents was rich and well 
selected, he was not an office seeker. True, he was, at different periods, 
a representative, a state senator and a circuit judge, and w'as a member 
of two constitutional conventions, but in each instance it was a case 
of the office seeking the man instead of the man seeking the office. 
He brought to the discharge of his duties as a public official a great 
store of legal knowledge, and due to that was his great influence in 
the constitutional convention of 1870. His name and fame rest upon 
his legal talents and attainments. In knowledge of statute law and 
the reports of our Supreme Court he had no equal. This was amply 
proven by his annotations to the Illinois Revised Statutes. Upon that 
work he devoted the best years of his life. It required immense 


patience and application. By it he laid the profession, and especially 
its younger members, under lasting obligations. 

Judge Sidney Breese will always occupy in the judicial history of 
the State a conspicuous place. He came to Illinois in 1818. His 
judicial career extended over a period of forty years and for a quarter 
of a century he was a justice of the Supreme Court of the State. 
Shortly after locating at Kaskaskia he was appointed state's attorney, 
which office he held until 1827 when he was by President John Quincy 
Adams appointed U. S. Attorney for Illinois. While holding that 
office he commenced compiling the decisions of the Supreme Court of 
the State, and in 1831 published Breese's Report, the first of a set of 
•290 volumes now used by the profession. You may be interested to 
know that his volume embodied the decisions for a period of twelve 
years, whereas the decisions of that court for a period of one year 
now fill four or five volumes. In 1835 he was elected circuit judge, 
and in 1842 was elected to the United States Senate. In 1850 he was 
persuaded to stand for the legislature and being elected, was selected 
speaker of the house. Soon after he was elected circuit judge and 
from that office was elected to the supreme bench where he had con- 
tinuous service to the time of his death in 1878. We see from this 
•^hort narration that this man gave to the State continuous conspicuous 
service for a period of almost sixty years. Time will not permit even 
brief mention of particular instances of his remarkable judicial service. 
I will go no further than to call as witnesses to attest the vigor of his 
intellect, the ripeness of his scholarship and his profound knowledge 
of the law, the reports of the Supreme Court of the State. 

Judge David J. Baker of Cairo was appointed to fill the vacancy 
caused by the sudden death of Judge Breese in 1878. He was a cir- 
cuit judge and had filled that position for eight years to the entire 
satisfaction of the bar. I tried my first case before him when I went 
to the bar. Barring a few cases tried before Judge Treat at Spring- 
field and others in the county court, my practice w^as confined to the 
courts held by Judge Baker in Johnson, Alexander and Pulaski Coun- 
ties. On July 9, 1878, he was appointed Supreme Court judge to fill 
a year's vacancy occasioned by the death of Judge Breese. When 
elected circuit judge of the First Circuit in 1879 I was so fortunate 
as to be elected with him, and we served together in that circuit until 
he was elected to the Supreme Court in 1888. Our relations were of 
the most intimate character. After he was elected to the Supreme 
Court he spent much of his time at Ottawa preparing opinions, I was 
doing like work as a member of the Appellate Court and we were in 
almost daily association. My estimate of the man is taken from a 
double view point, that of a practitioner and that of a judicial associate. 

Judge Baker had not an imposing appearance. He was short in 
stature, much below the average ; but he was every inch a lawyer. He 
was a man of exalted personal character. He possessed a discriminat- 
ing and well trained mind. He was thoroughly impartial and was 
extremely anxious to reach the correct conclusion. He would patiently 
and exhaustively examine before deciding and was never willing to> 

— 4 H S 


decide until he felt that he thoroughly understood the case. In talking 
with him one day about the worry of deciding a close case he said : "I 
never decide until I reach a conclusion satisfactory to my mind. The 
decision may be wrong, but I am entirely content if by any process 
of reasoning I can reach a conclusion which satisfies me'" With such 
a mental attitude he was rarely wrong. He was fearless and inde- 
pendent, ever ready to take the responsibility of doing what he be- 
lieved to be right. I have seen judges who would feel terribly humili- 
ated in changing, during trial, a ruling previously made, and so would 
prefer to let an error stand and escape the humiliation by subse- 
quently setting aside a verdict on some other ground. Not so with 
Baker ; I have seen him in a hotly contested trial, with the court room 
full of people call a halt, reverse a previous ruling and give reasons 
for doing so. Is it any wonder then that he was with lawyers the 
most popular circuit judge of his day and was held in rare esteem 
by the people at large? 

Hon. John H. Mulkey of Cairo succeeded Judge Baker as Su- 
preme Court judge after the latter's service of one year by appoint- 
ment. He was essentially a self-made man. In his early years he 
followed the occupation of a tailor. He was thirty years old when 
he was admitted to the bar, but he rose to distinction with marvelous 
rapidity. I first saw him in the trial of an important chancery case 
when I was still a student before admission. He resided in Cairo but 
attended courts elsewhere. Excepting W. J. Allen, his practice ex- 
tended into more counties than any lawyer in Illinois. It was my 
good fortune to be associated with him in several cases and to have 
him frequently before me during my first year of service as circuit 
judge. Notwithstanding the fact that he began the study of law much 
later than was usual, he possessed at the time I first knew him a wide 
and varied knowledge of it in all its branches. His ability to analyze 
evidence, to distinguish analogous cases, to weigh the strength of com- 
peting principles attended his high order of mind. Although upon 
the supreme bench but nine years, he left a wonderful record. No 
judge who ever sat on the bench could touch the very heart and soul 
of a lawsuit with more unerring certainty 

Immediately associated with Judge Mulkey as a practitioner was 
William J. Allen of Cairo. They were for a time partners in the firm 
of Allen, Mulkey & Wheeler. It was recognized everywhere as the 
strongest firm of lawyers in Southern Illinois. Judge Allen had served 
in congress and on the circuit bench. He was the most polished and 
adroit lawyer I ever knew. While not so profound a lawyer as Judge 
Mulkey he had not a peer in all Southern Illinois as an advocate. He 
had a most charming manner in addressing a jury and beyond ques- 
tion was the greatest "verdict getter" in the State. He left a lucrative 
practice to accept the position of federal judge when tendered to him 
by President Cleveland. He held that office and resided in this city 
up to the time of his death twenty years ago. 

Another of the very able lawyers residing in Cairo at the time 
I was admitted to the bar was Samuel P. Wheeler, late of this city. I 


knew Mr. Wheeler quite intimately. One of the first railroads to be 
built in Southern Illinois after 1870 was the Cairo & Vincennes Rail- 
road. Mr. Wheeler early after its completion was made its general solic- 
itor and while holding that position it was his duty to look after such 
legal business as the company might have in the various counties tra- 
versed by the road. He never "rode the circuit" as did Judge Allen and 
Mulkey. He never aspired to office, although he possessed in high 
degree the qualities of mind essential to the proper discharge of offi- 
cial duty. The only kind of office that he would consent to take was' 
one connected with the administration of the school law. An educated 
and cultured man himself, he took great interest in all enterprises 
looking to the education of the youth of the State. That is attested 
by the great interest taken by him in the public schools of Cairo, where 
he lived for so many years, and in the schools of this city, where he 
spent the latter years of his life. He was for a good many years presi- 
dent of the Board of Trustees for the Southern Illinois Normal Uni- 
versity. He was a business lawyer, and while he resided in Southern 
Illinois he had more to do with the industrial and commercial develop- 
ment oi that part of the State than any man in the profession. So 
marked was his success that when Roswell Miller went to Chicago, 
where be became president of the C. M. & St. P. R. R., Mr. Wheeler 
was tendered the position of general manager of the railroad for which 
he had been general solicitor. 

One of the most prominent lawyers of that day was Captain C. K. 
Davis of Harrisburg. Like Allen and Mulkey he "rode the circuit" 
and had a large practice in Saline, Williamson, Johnson, Pope and 
Gallatin Counties. He was frequently pitted against Judge Allen. As 
a trial lawyer he had no superior. His success in jury trials was 
marvelous. He had not the elegance and charm of diction of Judge 
Allen, but for analyzation of evidence, magnifying that which was 
favorable to his side, minimizing that which was against, and keeping 
constantly before the jury the strong points of his case, he was not ex- 
celled by any man I ever knew. He was not popular with the bar, 
although all recognized his ability. He was much inclined to the 
advice which the old lawyer gave his young associate, about to ad- 
dress the jury in a case where' the evidence was against their client, 
"Abuse the plaintiff's lawyer." Although I never knew him to mis- 
quote testimony, he could indulge in hyperbole by way of illustration 
must effectively. 

No member of the Southern Illinois bar was so highly esteemed, 
so warmly loved by the young practitioners, as Judge A. D. Duff. He 
was on the circuit bench for twelve years, 1861-1873. The business 
of the circuit was such that he was able to conduct a law school at 
Benton for several months during the year. His students afterwards 
became practitioners in that part of the State. But his popularity 
was by no means due to that fact alone. He was a big-hearted, sym- 
pathetic man. He was incapable of entertaining a dishonest or vin- 
dictive thought. After leaving the bench he located at Carbondale, 
where he maintained an office for ten years. He enjoyed a lucrative 


practice in Jackson and Williamson Counties. He was a profound 
lawyer and was a great aid to the judges before whom he practiced. 

Judge William H. Snyder of Belleville was in some respects the 
most unique character ever elected to the office of circuit judge in the 
State. He was a soldier in the Mexican War, and had a varied ex- 
perience on the Western plains afterwards. He was exceedingly 
popular with the masses and was considered a better "vote getter" than 
lawyer. He was elected judge of the Circuit Court forty-seven years 
ago and for a great many years held the terms in St. Clair County and 
adjoining counties. He was not a profound lawyer but a man of 
considerable literary attainment. He spoke several languages fluently. 
He had but little patience with the technicalities of the law and would 
frequently brush them aside for the purpose of giving litigants what 
he termed a "square deal." He did not have a high regard for the 
decisions of our Supreme Court and never considered himself bound 
by them if they ran counter to his sense of justice. Consequently he 
was frequently reversed. A-Iany amusing incidents are told of him 
while he was filling the office. I will crave your indulgence while I, 
in concluding this article, relate one of them. 

He was holding court in one of the counties of Southern Illinois, 
when a divorce case between two old French people was called for 
trial. The wife had filed the bill, charging habitual drunkenness. The 
husband had answered, and then filed a cross-bill, charging extreme 
and repeated cruelty. The first witness upon the stand was the com- 
plainant. She knew but little English, although she and her husband 
had lived in Illinois for a number of years, and it was with great diffi- 
culty that she could understand the questions of the lawyers, and the 
lawyers could not understand her. After the attorneys had floundered 
along for some time without accomplishing anything. Judge Snyder 
said, "Let me interrogate the witness." He propounded questions to 
her in French. She answered quite readily and excitedly. He con- 
cluded the examination in fifteen or twenty minutes, but neither of 
the attorneys understood any of the questions asked by the judge nor 
'my of the answers given. When the defendant was placed upon the 
stand the same embarrassment arose and so Judge Snyder took him 
for examination and conducted it entirely in French. Very little other 
testimony was heard and when both sides rested the judge inquired if 
the attorneys wished to argue the case. Both announced that they 
would be pleased to present their views provided the judge would 
translate the evidence, to which the judge laughingly replied that he 
was elected to perform the duties of judge and not that of interpreter. 
Thereupon the attorneys agreed that the case might be decided with- 
out argument. The judge immediately decided the case. He com- 
menced by announcing that the parties were both old fools. After 
reviewing the history of their married life, as he had obtained it from 
theni; he stated that they had lived in harmony and happily up to within 
the last four or five years when the old lady had become rheumatic 
and grouchey, and the old gentleman had indulged in his wine too fre- 
quently ; that the old man was drunk most of the time and that the 
old lady on several occasions had, while he was drunk, beat him and 


poured scalding water on him. There were numerous family spat.^ 
which resulted in a separation and the commencement of the suit 
for divorce. He then turned to the lawyers and said that he didn't 
propose to separate these old people. He dismissed the bill and 
cross-bill at the costs of the husband. He then addressed them in 
French and talked to them for a period of fifteen or twenty min- 
utes. As they stood, listening to him, it was apparent that both 
were tremendously afifected. Toward the conclusion of his talk 
the old lady, who was standing on the opposite side of the table 
from the old man, drew her apron to her eyes and the old man 
commenced wiping the tears from his eyes with his coat sleeve. 
Just as the judge concluded the old lady went around the table, threw 
her arms around the old man's neck and after he had embraced her 
the two went out of the court house hand in hand just as happy ap- 
parently as they were when their marriage ceremony was performed. 
Judge Snyder may not have been so learned in the law as some of 
his contemporaries, not so learned as some who are now occupying the 
position then occupied by him. but I am wondering if, in this day of 
"easy divorce," some of our circuit judges might not profit from his 


BENJAMIN D. WALSH— First State Entomologist of lUinois. 

(By Mrs. Edna Armstrong Tucker.) 

The early days of every community develop many interesting 
characters, who stand clearly outlined against the background of 
pioneer days of courageous endeavor, sacrifice of material comforts for 
principles, tragedies, romances, heart-breaking failures and hard- 
earned successes that paved the way for our civilization of today. 

Arnong those pioneers were unique characters, men of extraordi- 
nary ability, whose fame extended far beyond their own city or state. 
Such a man was Benjamin D. Walsh, the first state entomologist and a 
resident at the time of Rock Island. He was born in Frome, Worces- 
tershire, England, in July, 1808, his parents being of the well to do 
upper class, one of his brothers becoming a physician; another, F. 
Walsh, was a clergyman, and a third, J. W. Walsh (Stonehenge), was 
the editor of London Field and the author of the best treatise on the 
horse in the English language. Benjamin D. Walsh was intended for 
the church and after the usual preliminary studies, entered Trinity 
College, Cambridge, to pursue an academic course, obtaining his Mas- 
ter'? Degree in his 25th year and was designated a Fellowship. He 
resigned his fellowship, however, not desiring to continue the study 
of divinity. It is said that inconsistent conduct on the part of som.e 
of his colleagues turned him from the ministry and gave him a hatred 
of cant, sham and hypocrisy. 

He became an ardent thinker along lines of social progress, some- 
thing not countenanced in England's landed gentry, and published a 
pamphlet on University reforms, almost all of which he lived to see 
carried out. He also wrote for Blackwood's and other publications, 
besides newspaper articles galore, and in 1837 published a large octavo 
volume in London, entitled "Walsh's Corfledies of Aristophanes." 
This volume is considered remarkable, embracing the Archarians, the 
Knights and the Clouds, translated into corresponding English metres. 

After marrying the woman of his choice if not the choice of his 
people he came to America at the age of thirty landing at New York 
and expecting to settle in Chicago. It is not known why he came to 
choose a spot so far removed from his birthplace and settle down con- 
tentedly — as he did — so early in life. Possibly the best explanation 
one can glean from his tendencies was his love of unqualified freedom 
and his philosophical trend of mind. When he saw the few houses 
and the low, swampy ground of Chicago, he decided he did not want 
to live there, so journeyed on west by ox-team to the Red Oak neigh- 
borhood in Henry County, near Cambridge. This especial part of the 
country, rich in verdure, may have appealed to his aesthetic tastes and 
reminded him of the beautiful flower-strewn English lanes. Here he 

Mr. Benjamin Walsh 


built a mud-plastered log cabin, with a fireplace that took a log that 
had to be rolled in with oxen. A farm of 300 acres was purchased 
and tilled for about twelve years, until a Swedish colony settled in 
that territory and by damming the water at Bishop Hill, caused the 
region to become malarial. Finding that his health was being under- 
mined, Walsh, at the advice of M. B. Osborne of Rock Island, moved 
to the town of Rock Island about 1850 and in 1851 opened a lumber 
yard at Exchange and Orleans streets (now 9th street and 3rd avenue), 
which he operated with moderate success for seven or eight years, 
when he undertook the erection of the two rows of tenements, "Walsh's 
Row," later known as "Pettit's Row," one facing north on Orleans 
street, the other fronting the east on Exchange street, with his residence 
between them on the corner. This building (304 9th street) has been 
moved from the corner and the east entrance turned to the north, and 
has been taken from and added to, so that but little of the original 
building remains. These brick tenements were built with the idea of 
giving a comfortable dwelling at a moderate rental and were far ahead 
of the town's development in convenience of arrangement and for those 
days was an investment that could surely be called a philanthropic 

Previous to coming to America, he had developed a strong in- 
terest in the science of entomology as peculiarly akin to the pastoral 
bent of his inclinations and had made fine collections of English in- 
sects. When the Walsh tenements were completed he gave up all 
business for the sake of pursuing his pet study and continued at it for 
the remaining twelve years of his life with an enthusiasm unflagging 
and energy indomitable. Soon his wide range of knowledge, his 
healthy outlook on general matters were appearing in publications and 
he became a regular contributor to the "Prairie Farmer," "Valley 
Farmer" and "Illinois Farmer." He wrote dozens of scientific papers 
for the Boston Society of Natural History and for years edited an 
entomological journal published at Philadelphia. Later, in connection 
with General Charles V. Riley, State Entomologist of Missouri, he 
established the "American Entomologist" at St. Louis. 

The newspaper files of those days are filled with his trenchant 
thought on the welfare of the town. Something of his activities show- 
ing in his public spirit and unbridled hatred of all form of cheatery. 
Having cause to suspect that the council was mulcting the city he ran 
for alderman for the express purpose of getting at the facts and pub- 
lishing them. After exposing the fraud he resigned satisfied with 
having performed a duty and proving that he knew dangerous human 
bugs and knew where to stick the pin. He was waylaid and his life 
threatened because of the expose. This he considered a compliment 
to the truth of his findings. 

Mr. Walsh had probably the greatest faculty for popularizing his 
branch of science of any scientific writer in the country being peculiarlv 
fitted for this work. In the study of some specimens there were men 
in this country and in Europe to whom he deferred and from whom 
he copied in particulars, but in the universal knowledge of entomology 
it is doubtful whether his superior existed in this country or in Eu- 


rope. He read all the well-known authors on entomology and made 
personal observations of insect life, collected specimens, until at the 
time of his death he had 30,000 carefully prepared mounted and classi- 
fied specimens, the most extensive private collection in the country, 
and had won for him a national reputation as an entomologist. Among 
this wonderful collection there were naturally some duplicates, but 
they were insects found in this section and especially in Illinois. Fifty 
years after his death, entomologists have collected and described 
300,00 specimens and it is considered that 2,000,000 is a moderate esti- 
mate of the species existing. The greater part by far of the insects 
in the world is quite unknown to man ; many of the species are in the 
process of extinction, owing to the extensive changes that are* taking 
place in the natural conditions of the world by the extension of human 
population and by the destruction of the forests. 

Mr. Walsh received his appointment as state entomologist at the 
biennial session of the legislature in 1866-1867, when a bill was passed 
authorizing this state officer. At a special session held in June, 1867, 
Governor Oglesby on the 11th of the month sent in Walsh's name for 
confirmation, but the senate postponed action until the regular biennial 
session, the winter of 1868-1869. 

Walsh at the behest of leading agriculturists and horticulturist? 
started to work as acting state entomologist, awaiting confirmivtion, 
and issued his first annual report forl867. He received no salary dur- 
ing this time as his regular appointment came only shortly before his 
death in November, 1869. By that appointment was begun scientific 
research that has meant thousands of dollars in savings to the farmers 
of this State and Middle West. 

In politics, Walsh was a radical Republican and as late as Grant's 
campaig"! was a member of the Tanner Club of Rock Island and always 
turned out on parade as active as the youngest. He hated all forms 
of slavery and oppression. He believed in humanity and progress. 
Firm, bold, outspoken, he was always the determined and undisguised 
enemy of everything which he conceived to be wrong, yet he was 
genial and generous, kind to the poor and ready to aid in a good 
cause anywhere. He was distinctly a temperate man himself, totally 
abstaining from the use of ardent spirits and was decidely opposed to 
their unrestrained sale or use. 

It was probable his democratic ideals that made him so love his 
adopted country, for at no time did he ever express a desire to return 
to England, even for a visit. Well endowed with means and a private 
income, he was not suspected of the caste that education, money and 
family tree make in old England and labored as commonly as his 
neighbors, at times making the shoes that he wore or shaping by hand 
the'harness for his horses^ He seemed possessed of that physical bal- 
ance that performs equally well either mental or manual labor. 

He was a familiar figure about the streets and fields near Rock 
Island and was often a welcome visitor at the Holt greenhouse (located 
at 6th avenue and 31st street), where he gathered butterflies and in- 
sects that the flowers attracted. He wore a long cloak and a high 
peaked hat, cork lined, that gave him a quaint appearance. When he 

Mrs. Benjamin Walsh 


captured a bug or beetle that he wished to study, he would stick a pin 
through its body and attach it to the cork lining of his hat and in that 
manner bring it home. He was healthy and vigorous from a life 
passed in the green fields or along the brooks. The tap of his staff 
was well known upon our sidewalks, his rapid walk bearing testimony 
to the activity that tired not by age nor constant employment. He 
had the rude but genial simplicity of the scholar whose life is spent in 
the open air. He was slow and modest in conceiving ideas, but 
adamantine in the advocacy of his opinion when once thoroughly 
approved by his judgment and observations. A man of wonderful 
erudition, he was a scholar of the old sort who had a childlike faith 
in learning. Horace and Cicero were entities to him and their utter- 
ances important and useful in his everyday life. 

Mr. Wilsh married in England an attractive young woman of 
good connections. Miss Rebecca Finn. With them to this country 
came a younger sister, Mary Finn, and a brother, the -youngest of the 
family. Being childless their affections were lavished on this sister, 
who married into the Coldy family of Geneseo, 111., and on being left 
a widow, married into the Grammar family near Geneseo. Her daugh- 
ter, Emiiy Coldy, came to live with the Walshes and married William 
E. Pettit^ a well-known citizen of Rock Island. Mr. Walsh believed 
that young women should not have callers later than 9 :00 o'clock and 
if there was any delay would inquire of Mrs. Walsh, "Is that young 
man still here?" Mrs. Walsh would always give the 9:00 o'clock sig- 
nal by winding the clock and closing the shutters. Mr. Pettit often 
wanted to escort Miss Emily to some entertainment, but the early 
hours prevented, so one night he turned the clock back and gained a 
precious hour. Their marriage took place in the old Baptist Church 
(where Memorial Christian Church now stands. The Walsh Mem- 
orial window in the First Baptist Church is an object of interest), 
October 15, 1863. Mrs. Pettit passed away December 25, 1876, leav- 
ing several children; Benjamin Walsh Pettit of Seattle; Harry Mc- 
Ewan Pettit, New York City, Fanny, now Mrs. William Giles, Belle, 
now Mrs. Harry Cain ; Mary, now Mrs. John Graham, all of Rock 
Island. Two boys, John and William, died in infancy. In September, 
1878, Mr. Pettit m'arried Miss Sarah Ward of Rock Island. The 
children of his second marriage were Edward, of Seattle ; Mrs. Hattie 
Lee, Mrs. Emma Guenther of Rock Island ; Perry, of Davenport. 
A son Gait, died in infancv. William Pettit passed away in luly, 

Mr. Walsh's death was due to an accident.. On the morning of 
Friday, November 12. 1869, he had started about 7:30 for Moline 
and had stopped at the post office, in the Mitchell and Lynde Building, 
on Front Street and had received a letter from England, which he 
read as he continued his walk up the Chicago & Rock Island tracks. 
He was very companionable with boys and Frank Hawes approached 
to walk along with him for a time. Walsh told him to run along this 
time as he wished to examine his letter and the valuable insect it 
enclosed. Above the roundhouse he was run down by a Chicago 
bound train and his left foot crushed. He had heard the train coming 


but in the confusion of the tracks stepped directly into the path of 
the engine. He threw himself aside and escaped with a terribly man- 
gled foot. Doctors Gait, Powers and Truesdale, Rock Island's well 
known physicians of early days attended him and found that amputa- 
tion high above the ankle was necessary. In attempting to throw him- 
self from before the engine, he fell heavily on his right side and 
received internal injuries from which he died within a week's time. 

Unbounded wit and humor had storehouse in him and even in 
affliction he made jest, telling those about him "Why, don't you see 
what an advantage a cork leg will be to me? When I am hunting 
bugs I can make an excellent pincushion of it, and if I lose a cork 
from a bottle, I can carve one out of my foot." On the day of the 
amputation he wrote to a correspondent, "I have been fool enough 
to get my foot smashed" and after dwelling on matters pertaining 
to illustrating his next report, concluded with, "Adieux, yours ever, 
the 99th part of a man." He also wrote to the local newspapers, 
exonerating the Railway Co. and the engine crew from any blame for 
the accident. On being told about twenty-four hours before the end 
that there was no chance for recovery, he replied, calmly and mildly 
and with no sign of bravado that he had not lived 61 years for noth- 
ing. "I am as well prepared to die now as I ever will be. I fear 
neither death nor man." On the morning of his death, Mrs. Walsh 
tried to let him know that the end was near, addressing him formally 
as she alwavs did. "JMr. Walsh, vou and I have got to oart." She had 
never known much about his business affairs and thought there might 
be matters that should receive his attention. He had always fried to 
spare her all worry and anxiety and replied that he was "strong" and 
spread out his arms to show his strength. Soon he grew weaker and 
motioned with his fingers that he wished to write. Pencil and paper 
were given him, but the marks he made could never be deciphered. 
He passed on at 10:00 o'clock Thanksgiving morning while a bliz- 
zard Avas raging, a strange close to a life spent in the green fields. 
Notwithstanding the bitter cold a long train of friends, two days later 
followed from the services at the Baptist Church to Chippiannock 
Cemetery where friends of many years. David Hawes, H. Hakes, 
Thomas Lighton, D. Lingle, P. L. Mitchell and Serene Powers lowered 
the body to its last resting place. 

At the request of Mrs. Walsh, William Pettit and family returned 
from Livingston County. Missouri, where he had purchased a farm 
about a year previous, and took charge of her affairs. As soon as 
the death of Walsh was made known. General Riley carne post haste 
from St. Louis and tried to gain posession of the collection, claiming 
that Walsh would have left \t to him if he had had time to arrange 
his affairs and that it was absolutely necessary to have it for the con- 
tinuation of the "Entomologist," as he needed it for reference. It 
is alleged he succeeded in bo'xing all the books and papers and nearly 
got awav with the collection before being stopped. At least when the 
estate was probated charges for $2.50 for three large packing boxes 
were entered by L. Kiesew of whom Riley purchased them. Through the 


advice of a friend, M. A. Swiler, Riley's intentions were halted and the 
matter taken up with the State. 

Riley agreed that if he could secure the collection to give to the 
State all the duplicates and all the harmful and beneficial insects 
found in Illinois. To this the family made objection. A deplorable 
feature was that the newspapers would not allow- Walsh's executrix 
any statement of her side of the case, General Riley presumably bot- 
tling the source through plea of newspaper ethics and his being con- 
nected with journalism. He sought to keep the collection, believing 
it would be of more benefit. Had no controversy arisen as to its 
ownership, more than likely it would have gone as a gift to the 
Government. Through the direction of William Pettit it was sold 
to the State, the purchase price being $2,500.00 which also covered 
a considerable balance of salary due Walsh at the time of his death, 
according to William LeBaron, Walsh's successor as State Entomol- 
ogist, who visited Rock Island, purchased the collection and had it 
removed to Springfield, Illinois at the time when the new State 
Capitol was being built. Fearing that it might be destroyed by fire 
or some unforseen accident, because of inadequate preparation in 
caring for it, the collection was sent to Chicago for safe keeping until 
such time as arrangements for housing it at the new Capitol could 
be made. It remained in the Academy of Sciences until the great 
Chicago fire, when the great Walsh collection went up in smoke. 
Among the close friends of Walsh was Dr. J. W. Velie, the orni- 
thologist. Some birds of his mounting are in the Pettit home and as 
fresh as though lately prepared. Mrs. Walsh had been visiting the 
Velie's in Chicago and returned to Rock Island just the day before the 
fire. The orders of Hymenoptera, Lepidotera and Homeptra were the 
fullest in the collection and seem to have been the favorite study of 
Walsh although the other orders were well represented. 

Walsh had been making preparation to begin a popular and 
exhaustive treatise on Entomology, that would occupy all the remain- 
ing years of his life. Riley was going to illustrate it and the scheme 
of the treatise had been nearly agreed upon between them. Walsh had 
been busily engaged in studying the habits of the Curculio, that terrible 
pest of the plum cultivator and said in his peculiarly energetic way, 
'T'll circumvent that fellow yet. I've nearly fathomed his secret 
and am in a fair way to deal death and destruction to his pestiferous 
kind shortly." 

The present United States Entomologist, Dr. L. O. Howard, in an 
article on the rise and present conditions of economic entomology, in 
"Insect Life" makes reference to Walsh's work. "Although not a natur- 
alist by training, his work showed extraordinary powers of observation 
and his published writings, as well as the statements of his contempor- 
ies, indicate that he possessed a remarkable mind. In this connection, 
however, we have occasion to speak only of his official work as indi- 
cated in his one report. In this report which is now unfortunately 
very rare, he treated particularly of the insects afifecting the grape, 
the apple, and the plum and to this added, under the head of 'Insects 
affecting garden groups generally,' a chapter on the so-called 'hateful 


grasshopper," or migratory locust, Caloptenus Spretus. His treatment 
of the other insects is very thorough and his work in large part remains 
standard today." 

\\'alsh had the foundations laid for a large and commodious 
building where he could have a large library and room for his collec- 
tion that had been housed in the east flat of the "Walsh Row" facing 
Orleans Street. He had selected all the timber himself for it and the 
building (314 9th Street) was so well constructed that carpenters of 
today, sa>- that it is good for a hundred years yet. This dwelling 
when completed was occupied by William Pettit and family on the 
north side and the south half by Mrs. Walsh.. 

Mrs. Walsh had had a little of romance and tragedy. At the age 
of 18, the young man to whom she was promised to wed, sailed for 
America, to make his way and a home for her and she was to come 
to him as soon as the home was ready. He never saw America's shores, 
dying on the voyage and being buried at sea. x-Vt 20 years of age she 
married Benjamin Walsh and sailed for the land of her dreams. The 
voyage covered nine weeks. Her young brother who accompanied 
them died on shipboard and v,'as buried at sea. At one time the ship 
was on fire, but the fire was subdued by those on board and port was 
safely reached. Mrs. Walsh was terribly homesick in this new land 
and there were many things she did not like about the early log cabins 
"mud houses" as she called them. It was heartbreaking to have 
cherished silver brought from old England, lost through holes in the 
cabin floor, and it was no hohday to make out a grocery list for a year 
ahead, as Mr. W^alsh went, once a year either to Chicago or St. Louis 
and bought the year's supplies. She was quite unhappy over 
the worms that w^ould appear in the cornmeal before the year was over. 
She mourned so much that Walsh told her that if she could not endure 
it, he would take her to New York and put her on a ship for England. 
She never mentioned homesickness again. She was her husbands 
warmest appraiser, thoroughly in sympathy with his every idea, giving 
him leeway in his inclinations and worshipping his gods because they 
were his. He would become so deeply engrossed in some book that he 
wotild read at meals while the food grew cold. It was his custom to 
remain up till early hours, correcting proof sheets and writing, oft 
times not retiring, simply smoking a pipe for rest. IMrs. Walsh had 
been lame for years. During one of the absences of Mr. Walsh, her 
sympathy for their supposedly hungry cow took her up to the haymow 
for hay. Being rather stout, she fell from the ladder and broke her 
left ankle in such a way that a section of bone had to be removed. 
At one time she had been in a runaway and her right knee had been 
injiH'ed so that she always had to move with the aid of a crutch and was 
confined rather closely to her home. She was very strong in her likes 
and dislikes, loved children and was like a mother to the children of 
William Pettit after the death of his wife, and took ]\Iary Pettit, her 
niece, to live with her to be brought up as her own daughter. Mrs. 
Walsh lived fourteen years with the second Mrs. Pettit, who was a 
veritable 'mother in Israel.' beloved by all who knew her — a bravely 


patient noble christian woman. Mrs. Walsh lived to see her 80th year, 
passing away from paralysis, November 22, 1892. 

Just why one man may love to speculate upon human ills and 
another have urge to seek the nestling in its home, is not man's secret 
to disclose. It is this unquenchable thirst after the way of things, this 
obession to know, that has produced the large intellects that have 
cleared away so much of the miasmatic atmosphere that hides the 
beauty of the earth. A seeker to do good. Such was Benjamin D. 

The following strong testimony of his worth appears in the official 
notice of his death, received at the Executive Mansion at Springfield. 
"In the loss of Benjamin D. Walsh, State Entomologist of Illinois, there 
is gone one whose position may be filled, but his place never." 



(By Charles Bradshaw.) 

Illinois is a domain comprising 102 counties. 

Each of these counties has within its borders towns, villages and 
communities and these in turn are made up of homes — the homes of the 
people, the seven or eight million people who really constitute the 
State of Illinois. 

We think of a wheel as revolving around its center, and forget 
that the friction or the motive power that causes it to move forward 
is applied to its outer rim, its circumference. 

Historians sometimes forget that this principle of mechanics ap- 
plies also to history. 

The history of Illinois, as of all states and nations, has had its 
beginnings, not at Kaskaskia, Vandalia, and Springfield, but back 
in the homes — the pioneer homes and the modern homes — out on the 
rim of the wheel that moves the chariot of State ever forward. What- 
soever of stamina and rugged character has been stamped into our cus- 
toms and into our laws was first developed in and around the log cabins 
that once stood in loneliness at the edge of forest clearings or out on 
the broad expanse of unfenced prairie. 

The early history of Illinois is a composite photograph of life in 
these scattered communities and isolated cabins that made the pioneer 
counties of the State. There were fifteen of these counties in 181S, 
when Illinois became a State. Four more came into existence the 
following year, and at the session of the General Assembly during 
January and February, 1821, there was increased activity in this line, 
and seven new counties were formed. The centennial anniversary 
of these counties occurs next winter. The seven counties in the order 
in which they were formed, are Lawrence, Greene, Sangamon, Pike, 
Hamilton, Montgomery and Fayette. 

This paper is to deal with the early history of one of the seven — 
Greene County. 

During the spring of the year 1820, several house and barn rais- 
ings took place between Apple and Macoupin creeks, a region that, 
two years before, had been the uttermost frontier of civilization in the 
then newly born State of Illinois. During the summer of that same 
year there was an occasional "boss race" within that same territory. 
In the fall there were husking bees and hunting frolics. These house 
and barn raisings, these horse races, these husking bees and hunting 
parties provided the only means by which the pioneers of that region 
could exercise their natural bent as social beings. It was 35 or 40 
miles to Edwardsville, the nearest town and their county seat. Not 

statue of Governor Carlin 


a church nor a school house between the Apple and the Macoupin, nor 
for many miles in either direction beyond those streams. 

Hence the typical social gatherings of a pioneer settlement — 
the house raisings and husking bees — were well-attended functions. 
Always there was one topic for talk wherever a few of those hardy 
pioneers foregathered. It was of the growth and future development 
of their sparse settlement into a political unit of the sovereign State of 
Illinois, with a capital of their own — a county, with a county seat 
located somewhere between Apple and Macoupin creeks. 

The spring and summer of 1820 brought many accessions to the 
scattered settlements of that region, and the rapid growth gave weight 
to the agitation for forming a new county. The second General As- 
sembly of' the State of Illinois assembled at Vandalia, December 4, 
1820. The future county, of course, had no representation in that 
body, and whether it sent any lobbyists over the bridle paths to the 
new State capital or not, can only be conjectured. Probably that was 
unnecessary. At any rate, a bill to create the new county was intro- 
duced early in the session, passed January 18, and approved January 
20, 1821. 

The act creating the county bestowed upon it the name "Greene," 
in honor of Gen. Nathaniel Greene of Revolutionary fame. The 
boundaries, as then defined, included all of the present counties of 
Greene and Jersey, and to this territory was added that of the pres- 
ent counties of Macoupin, Morgan and Scott. Thus the county became 
"Mother Greene" to a bevy of buxom daughters. Miss Morgan 
was first to set up housekeeping for herself in 1823 ; Macoupin fol- 
lowed in 1829, and Miss Jersey became a matron in 1839. Little 
Miss Scott remained in the Morgan household until '39 and then fol- 
lowed the example of her sisters. 

The forming of Greene County brought on a contest for the loca- 
tion of the county capital. The contest was short, sharp and decisive. 
On February 20, 1821 — just a month after the county was created 
by enactment — the five commissioners who had been named in the act 
met at a lone cabin on the prairie and proceeded to consider the 
eligible sites. 

There were several of these. One was a beautiful mound about 
three miles southwest of the present town of Carrollton. Fifty years 
afterward a somewhat florid description was written by a man who 
remembered it as it then was untouched by the hand of man. and he 
declared that "the sun in all his wanderings had seldom shone upon 
a lovelier spot of earth since the day on which the flaming sword was 
placed at the gates of Eden." The owner of that spot. Thos. Hobson. 
confident that no other proposed site could compete with his, had laid 
out a town on that mound and had named it Mt. Pleasant. 

But Hobson was an Englishman who had come out from his native 
country only a short time before. The War of 1812 had ended, but 
it left more or less bitterness rankling in the breasts of these pioneers 
whose lives and homes had been menanced by the Indian allies of the 
British. This probably had something to do with the result of that con- 


test. But perhaps a greater factor in it was the personality and the 
popularity of the man who won. 

The official report of the commissioners, as it appears in the 
records of the county, states that — "after examining the most eligible 
situation in said county, giving due weight and attention to the con- 
siderations set forth as to present and future population, etc." they 
had concluded that the most suitable place for said seat of justice 
was a point 88 poles south of the northeast corner of section 22, town- 
ship 10 north, range 12 west of the third principal meridian. 

The land thus described and selected was owned by one of the 
commissioners, but it is said that he refused to vote on fixing the 
site. The other four were unanimous. The man who did not vote 
and whose land became the site of Greene county's capital, was Thomas 
Carlin, afterward sixth Governor of Illinois. 

Local historians have been content to add that, after the decision 
had been made, one of the commissioners paced fifty yards to the 
west and said — "Here let the court house be built ;" that the town 
was immediately laid out and named Carrollton. 

Many have since wondered wh}- the town was not named in 
honor of its founder, and why, a few years later, the county seat of 
Macoupin was apparently so named. Several years ago a descendant 
of Governor Carlin — a man who had never been in the west — came out 
to visit the scene of his grandfather's pioneering. Quite logically he 
steered his course to Carlinville, and was puzzled to find there no 
trace of ancestral records. I do not know why Carlinville was so 
named ; why Carrollton was not is partly at least a matter of tradition 

We can imagine those four other commissioners suggesting that 
the town be named for Mr. Carlin, and we can imagine him declining 
the honor with the modesty of real greatness. "Suggest a name then.'" 
they no doubt said to him. And it is fairly well estabhshed that he did 
suggest the name. Himself a pioneer, he greatly admired those 
earlier pioneers who laid the foundations of a nation in the Declara- 
tion of Independence, and he especially loved the name of that signer 
of the document who, in order that no British high executioner would 
be put to the trouble of enquiring, wrote down his name — "Charles 
Carroll of Carrollton." 

And so he gave to the town a name, beautiful in itself, honored 
in history, and significant of courage and fidelity to principle. 

Perhaps it would be well at this point to pause a bit in the story 
itself, and introduce the cast of characters in this little drama, "The 
Birth" — not of a Nation — but "of a County." 

Enter first a man on horse back, broad-shouldered, rough and 
rugged, a rifle slung across the pommel of his saddle, a hand shading 
his eves, which gaze across an expanse of prairie that ends at the 
horizon, w^hat Canada's famous mounted police have been to 
the lonely vastness of British Columbia and Hudson's Bay countrj, 
the Rangers w^ere to Illinois one hundred years and more ago. When 
the Federal Government was unable to send troops to protect the set- 
tlers in Illinois from Indian atrocities, encouraged by the British during 


the War of 1812, the settlers themselves organized as rangers. One of 
these camps was at Edwardsvile, and was in command of Captain "Judy. 

"For several years," says Clement L. Clapp in his history of 
Greene County, "these brave, determined men rode over the bare 
and silent prairies for hundreds of miles, now chasing a band of 
fleeing savages, now hurrying to the defense of a threatened settlement. 
They were almost constantly in saddle, rarely slept under a roof, were 
independent of civilization for food or comforts, and exercised almost 
superhuman vigilance in keeping the Red men at bay. They were 
familiar with every feature of Indian warfare and their deeds of daring 
and endurance have been made the theme of many a thrilling poem or 
romantic tale." 

In these expeditions against the Indians the Rangers became 
probably the first white men to pass over the territory that is now 
Greene County. They saw what splendid opportunities it offered for 
settlement — or would offer when the Indians were finally driven out. 
To a pioneer, the ideal spot for staking his claim was one that afforded 
first of all, good water; second, timber for building his cabin, and third, 
a situation at the edge of a prairie, to avoid unnecessary clearing for 
putting in crops. Proceeding northward from Wood River settlement, 
the hardy adventurers found no such combination until they reached 
Macoupin Creek. No less than a dozen or fifteen of these Rangers 
from Fort Russell came to. or crossed, the Macoupin to build their 
cabins on the very frontier of civilization. 

Three men stand out conspicuously in this band. They were 
Samuel Thomas. Thomas Carlin and Thomas Rattan. 

Samuel Thomas was the grandfather of Congressman H. T. 
Rainey, who now represents the Twentieth Congressional District, 
at Washington. Born in South Carolina in 1794, he began a race with 
civilization when he was eight years old by going to Kentucky. In 
1813, at the age of 19, he set out on horseback for Illinois. After 
he and his two companions crossed the Ohio River, they found that the 
settlers had deserted their cabins and fled from the Indians. They 
were not deterred from their purpose, however, and pushed on to Wood 
River. When they arrived there Mr. Thomas purchased a rifle on 
credit, in order to join- the Rangers. 

A few months later, while he was serving in Captain Judy's com- 
pany, the Wood River massacre occurred, and one of his sisters and her 
six children were slain by the Indians. In 1816 Mr. Thomas visited 
what is now Greene County, picked out the land on which he afterward 
settled, cut and stacked some hav and made other improvements. Then 
he returned to Wood River and the Indians burned his haystacks and 
destroyed his improvements. For two years more he remained at 
Wood River, and then in August, 1818, his desire to be on the extreme 
edge of things led him northward again. He was accompanied b}- 
Thomas Carlin and John W. Huitt, a brother-in-law of Carlin. When 
thev reached Macoupin Creek, Huitt was unwilling to put that bar- 
rier between himself and civilization, and he stopped on the south 
side, while the other two crossed the creek and went on. Three miles. 

— 5 H S 


north of the creek Thomas arrived at the spot he had selected two 
years before. A beautiful grove and a clear spring of water had figured 
in his choice. It is recorded that — "Here Mr. Thomas killed a deer, 
cut a bee tree and engraved his name on the bark of a monarch of the 
forest, to indicate that the land was claimed." Then he built a cabin, 
and returned for his wife and household goods. With these loaded 
on an ox cart, he arrived at his new home November 9, 1818, and thus 
became the first settler in Greene County north of the Macoupin. 

Thomas Carlin was born near Shelby ville, Kentucky, in 1786. 
From earliest boyhood, he had a natural love of adventure and was 
trained to endure the hardships of backwoods life. In the vanguard 
of pioneering, he went first to Missouri then to Illinois, coming here 
in time to serve through the War of 1812 in the Rangers. After the 
war he operated a ferry across the Mississippi some miles above St. 
Louis, and while there he married ]\Iiss Rebecca Huitt. As previously 
stated, he came to Greene County with Samuel Thomas in August, 
1818, and when the latter paused to shoot a deer and cut a bee tree 
at the spot. where he was to build his cabin, Carlin proceeded about 
three miles farther to the northeast. It may be remarked here that 
those big, outdoor men of early days liked to have neighbors, but they 
didn't want to be too crowded to breathe. Late that fall or early in the 
spring of 1819, Carlin brought his wife, mother and step-father to this 
spot and there built his cabin, the first dwelling place of white people 
within the present limits of Carrollton. The frame house he after- 
wards built on that spot was torn down several years ago, and there 
is nothing now to mark the place. 

Carlin is described as a man of medium height, not heavily built, 
but having a pair of powerful shoulders ; a man of iron nerve and much 
natural shrewxlness and skill in dealing with his fellowmen. His hon- 
esty and fair dealing was beyond question, and he knew no fear. While 
he was register of lands at Quincy, it is said he frequently drove over 
the lonely road between Quincy and Carrollton, conveying a wagon load 
of gold and silver — the proceeds of land sales — and that these trips 
were sometimes made at night and alone. 

A-fter Greene County was organized Carlin was elected its first 
sherifif. He was elected the first State senator from the districts coi^n- 
prising Pike and Greene counties, in 1824, and served as senator in 
the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh General Assemblies. In 1838 he 
was elected sixth Governor of Illinois, at one of the most trying and 
critical periods in the history of the State, and he acquitted himself 
with perhaps as much credit and as little criticism as any man could 
have done in that crisis. After retiring from public life he returned 
to his home in Carrollton, and died there February 14, 1852. More 
than 100 years ago he built his cabin under a great spreading tree : 
and imder another tree in our silent city of the dead, a few rods from 
the site of the cabin, beneath one of the plainest, least pretentious of 
marble shafts, now rests his mortal remains. Within our court house 
square, probably very near the spot where those five commissioners 
made their decision, now stands a monument surmounted by an im- 
posing, full-length bronze statue of Governor Carlin, erected by the 

Governor Carlin's Old House 

General Jacob Fry 


State of Illinois in recognition of his service, and dedicated by Gov- 
ernor Lowden on July 4, 1917. 

Thomas Rattan, third in this trio of Rangers, also took active part 
in the beginning of things in Greene County. It may be remarked in 
passing, that Samuel Thomas, adventurous youth, settled down to 
become a prosperous farmer and the patriarch of a large and prominent 
family ; that Carlin, also adventurous youth, became the successful 
politician. Rattan, possibly as much imbued with the spirit of ad- 
venture as the others, became the energetic builder and business man, 
and had time also to enter politics. The three were types of the men 
who made and developed, not only Greene, but every county of the 

Rattan built and kept the first log cabin hotel in Carrollton ; built 
the court house that stood on the square for sixty years ; built and op- 
erated mills ; bridged the Macoupin with one of those old-fashioned 
w^ooden, boxed-up structures, that remained even longer than the old 
court house. With all these activities and a bit of farming on the side, 
he w^as drawn into political life, and reached a seat in the General 
Assembly at Vandalia two years ahead of Carlin, being elected repre- 
sentative at the first general election in 1822. As the county and the 
people became more settled life became too monotonous here for 
Thomas Rattan, and he moved to the great southwest. In Texas he 
again became a pioneer, and died there in 1854. I find it stated in a 
Texas volume of biography that Rattan was a direct descendant of 
Gen. Nathaniel Greene, for whom Greene County was named. Rat- 
tan's daughter, Annie Rattan, born in Carrollton in 1828, married 
James W. Throckmorton, one of the early governors of Texas. 

General Jacob Fry, one of the early settlers, became a resident 
in 1821, accepted Thomas Carlin's offer of a free lot if he would 
build upon it, and began the first house in Carrollton — a frame house, 
mind you, for he cut the timber and split it into boards. But Rattan's 
log tavern has the credit of being the first building completed, for 
Fry stopped his own work to help Rattan. Fry was sheriff of the 
county for ten years, and near the close of that period officiated as ex- 
ecutioner at the first public hanging in the county. Immediately after 
his unpleasant duty was performed he mounted his horse and rode 
away to join the company he had raised for the Black Hawk War. 
In that war he became a colonel, and at its close was made major 
general of the State militia. In 1827 he was appointed one of the 
Illinois & Michigan Canal Commissioners, and in 1856, collector of 
customs at Chicago. In the Civil War he commanded a regiment that 
did valiant service at Shiloh. 

The very last one of those earliest settlers passed over into a New^ 
Country some twenty-odd vears ago. Rowell Hunnicutt was of a type 
different from the others I have described. A year or two before he 
died, Mary Hartwell Catherwood, author of "Old Kaskaskia," "The 
Romance of Dollard," etc., visited Greene County and met and talked 
with the old man. He came as a boy to help Samuel Thomas in cross- 
ing the Macoupin, and his father settled in the bluffs overlooking the 
Illinois River. To Mrs. Catherwood in 1895, he said: 


"Yes, I am a wild man myself yet. I wish I could go to a new 
country as this was in 1820. My father first moved his family into 
a cave in the bluff, near a spring. The time of the year was May. 
It was pretty living. We built our fire against the back of the cave, 
and the smoke rolled along the roof and went out at the cave door 
without any damage. This land was a paradise when I could stand on 
the bluflf and look down in the river bottom and count fifty deer in 
sight. White men hadn't spoiled the country and turned everything to 
dollars. Neighbors thought of what they could do for one another, 
not of how they might take advantage, and the Indians were always 
honest." "Uncle Rowell" Hunnicutt, at 83, longed to hunt up the 
Indian tribes he had lived with and near, back in the early '20s. Noth- 
ing would have pleased him better than to slip back 10,000 years 
and be a cave man again. 

About 1825 or '26 there arrived in Carrollton a family, cultured 
but poverty-stricken, Baker by name. There were several boys, and 
one of them, a lad of perhaps 12 or 14 years, was destined to have 
his name writ large in the nation's history. Volumes have been 
printed about Edward Dickinson Baker, and the Illinois State Histor- 
ical Society has listened to sketches of his life on more than one occa- 
sion, if I am not mistaken.* It would be impossible for me to add to 
his fame or to pronounce a fitting eulogy- at this time. 

But Carrollton has not been given credit for its share in his early 
life, and there have been conflicting statements about his boyhood. 
Several writers have sent him from Belleville to St. Louis in his 
young manhood and set him to driving a dray there. It has been 
established by the testimony of old residents of Carrollton that he 
was a mere boy when the family came there, and that he attended 
school at a log school house near the town. The family lived in a 
small log house near the public square. Moses O. Bledsoe, then 
county cle^k, afterward clerk of the Supreme Court, took an interest 
in the boy. loaned him books, assisted him with his studies and 
finally suggested that he study law. Young Baker entered the office of 
A. W. Cavarly, Carrollton's first attorney, and was admitted to prac- 
tice law when he was about 19 years old. In 1831. when Baker was 
less than 21, he married the widow of Samuel Lee, the first countv 
clerk and recorder. The home they occupied — built by Samuel Lee 
in 1829 — still stands as a part of the Hodges office building on the north 
side of the public square. 

The year following his marriage, Baker went to the Black Haw^k 
War, and when it was over, he chose a novel and adventurous way of 
returning home — floating down the Mississippi 300 miles in a canoe, 
with an Indian for his only companion. 

It is said that Baker's father was one of the thirty-three victims 
of the cholera epidemic in Carrollton in 1833. It has been repeatedly 
stated that his mother died before the family came to Illinois. A citi- 
zen of Carrollton, still living, has told me that he distinctly remembers 
Mrs. Baker, as well as the rest of the family. 

* See Article by .Tames H. Matheny. A Modern Knight Errant. Edward Dicliinson 
Baker. In Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society Vol. 9, No. 1. April, 1916. 

Col. E. D. Baker 

John Russell 


The ston^ often told of Baker's boyhood — of how he was once 

und in tears because he had discovered that, being of Enghsh birth, 

:ould never be president of the United States, has been handed 

down in Carrollton as having actually occurred there. Possibly it 

never occurred at all. 

You already know how he came to Springfield and outshone the 
brig'.test intellects at the State capital ; how he went to the Pacific 
coast and made history there ; how he went to the United States 
senate and met and put to shame the eloquence of the secessionists, 
and finally how he buckled on the sword to meet secession in the field 
of battle and fell at Ball's Blufif. 

While I am about the self-imposed and presumptuous task of cor- 
recting history, let me say that the credit for preventing bloodshed in 
the historic Lincoln-Shields duel belongs to a Carrollton pioneer, ac- 
cording to the recollection of old settlers. When James "Shields chal- 
lenged Abraham Lincoln in September, 1842, on account of the publi- 
cation of some verses — which Lincoln did not write, but assumed re- 
sponsibility for — it was agreed that the duel would be fought on an 
island near Alton, broadswords to be the weapons. The local story is 
that Lincoln and his second, Merryman, riding in a rickety old buggy, 
behind a rather dilapidated horse, reached the village, on the way to 
Alton, the evening before the fateful day, and stopped for the night at 
a hotel. A detail of the story is that during the evening Lincoln took 
a broadsword, walked out to the edge of town, where a luxuriant patch 
of tall "jimpsons" were growing, and practiced sword exercise for a 
half hour or so, to the almost utter destruction of the "jimpson" patch. 

Lincoln had attended Greene county circuit court on several occa- 
sions, and had a few quite intimate friends in the town. One of the^e 
was R. W. English, who afterwards moved to Springfield. English 
and one or two others, perhaps, followed Lincoln next morning to the 
■"field of honor." and pursuaded the combatants to call the affair off. 
None of Lincoln's biographers seem to have heard the Carrollton end 
of the story. 

Any account of the pioneers who helped in the making of Greene 
County would be incomplete without some reference to John Russell, 
the sage of Bluffdale, whose home, remote from the haunts of men, 
was sought by savants and scientists, even from the Old World. Rus- 
sell was born in Vermont in 1793, and came to Greene County in 1828. 
The old home he built under the Illinois bluffs still stands. He was a 
writer of note, an educator of wide experience, and became editor of 
the first Greene County newspaper, the Backwoodsman, which was 
started in 1838 at Grafton (then in Greene County), afterward pub- 
lished for a short time at Jerseyville. and moved to Carrollton in 1841, 
where Mr. Russell's son-in-law, A. S. Tilden, was its publisher. The 
publication came to an untimely end late in the latter year, when, after 
it had presumed to rejoice over President Tyler's veto of the Bank 
l)ill. somebody entered the ofiice at night and dumped the forms and 
type upon the floor. Russell died at Bluffdale in 1863. 

Brigadier General William P. Carlin was one of the distinguished 
native sons of Greene County. He was a nephew of Governor Carlin, 


and was born on a farm a few miles from Carrollton in 1829. In 1846 
he was admitted to West Point Military Academy on recommendation 
of Senator Stephen A. Douglas, graduated in 1850, gained much ex- 
perience in Indian warfare and had become a captain before the begin- 
ning of the Civil War. He was appointed colonel of the Thirty-eightii 
Volunteer Infantry in the summer of 1861 ; for gallantry at the battle 
of Stone River was promoted to brigadier general, and in 1863, for his 
distinguished services at Chickamauga, Chattanooga and Atlanta, was 
brevetted major general. After the war he was in command at several 
forts on the western frontier, and retired from the service in 1893. 
He then built a home in Carrollton, and died ten years later while 
returning from a western trip. His military funeral on October 1 1, 
1903, with the governor, other state officials and an escort of militia 
in attendance, was an event in the more recent history of Carrollton. 
The late General John M. Palmer, upon whose staff General Carlin 
served in the Civil War, frequently referred to him as one of the 
bravest men he ever knew. 

Others there were who came while Greene County was still young 
whose names should be mentioned in this paper. Charles Drury 
Plodges, a young lawyer from Annapolis, Maryland, stepped from the 
stage coach one bleak day in November, 1833, and his dapper appear- 
ance made quite a sensation in the quiet, homespun village. He hung 
out his "shingle" in Carrollton; a few years later became county judge; 
was elected to congress; served six years as circuit judge, and was 
treasurer of the Alton, Jacksonville & Chicago Railroad, the first steam 
road built through Greene County. 

David Meade Woodson came also in the fall of 1833, from Ken- 
tucky, became the law partner of Judge Hodges, went to the legisla- 
ture, was defeated for congress by Stephen A. Douglas, was a member 
of the Constitutional Convention of 1847, and served nearly twenty 
years on the circuit bench. 

The name of Samuel Willard is familiar to the Illinois Historical 
Society. He came out from Boston in 1831, as a boy ten years old, 
and his father taught school in Carrollton. He lived in the town only 
during his boyhood, but with a boy's investigating turn of mind, he 
became familiar with the modes of living and the primitive ways of 
doing things that were in vogue in a pioneer community, and seventy- 
five years afterward — in 1906 — he contributed to this Society one of 
its most interesting papers. 

All through the preparation of this paper there has constantly 
come into my mind a bit of quotation from ancient history — from the 
Old Testament I believe it is — 

"There Avere giants in those days." 

Those giants w^ho carved Egyptian temples out of solid rock 3000 
or 4,000 years ago were not more remarkable in achievement than the 
giants of intellect and character, and energy, who carved counties and 
states and a nation out of the virgin soil of a new continent. 

Think of the changes that have been wrought in a century ! Where 
Samuel Thomas drove his oxcart across the untracked prairie, farmers 
now drive their big touring cars along well-kept roads. Within a 

C. D. Hodges 


«^SII '"'^ix 

D. M. Woodson 


mile or two of Rowell Hunnicutt's cave dwelling are now elegant farm 
homes, equipped with all the modern improvements of lighting, heat- 
ing, sanitation and luxury. Where Edward D. Baker trudged to a log 
school house are now being established community high schools with 
the best equipment and most efficient faculty that can be secured. 

There were giants in those days. And miracles have been wrought 
in a century. But let us not forget the giants in contemplation and 
enjoyment of the miracles. 



(By Mary E. McDowell.) 
(Head of the University of Chicago Settlement.) 

I am taking for granted that twenty-seven years in an industrial 
community must be of value today because the struggle of the wage 
earners the world round is full of significance, and, if one could know 
the meaning of their struggle in the stockyards district, then one might 
get at the meaning of the universal unrest of the workers. To under- 
stand that struggle, to get at the point of view of the wage earners 
was my own reason for coming to this community, as it has been that 
of so many who have thrown in their lot with the struggling mass the 
existence of whose members depends upon whether they have a job 
or do not have a job. That very word "job" came into my vocabulary 
in '94 and has since become a sacred word, for I have learned that it- 
means to my neighbors, food, clothing, shelter, and a chance to be 
human. It is the word first learned by the immigrant, the children 
lisp it and the aged cling to it to the end. "A steady job," "no job," 
or "please get me a job" is ever at the front of their minds and on 
the tips of all tongues. 

It was in September of the eventful year of '94 just after Chi- 
cago's World's Fair, after the Pullman strike, when the stockyards 
workers went out on a strike in sympathy with the railroad men. The 
stockyards at that time was unorganized and therefore undis- 
ciplined, and the strike futile and disastrous. Disorder reigned back 
of the yards that autumn that I came to live on Gross Avenue, between 
"Whiskey Point" and Ashland Avenue. Cars had been burned a few 
blocks from this point, blood had been shed near the corner of Gross 
and Ashland Avenues where the regular army had been encamped. 
The people were left cowed and helpless. 

The old citizens — property owners whom I learned to know — were 
conservative and critical of a sympathetic strike, but were also bitter 
in their denunciation of the attitude of the public towards the 
railroad union men, who, these conservative citizens said, put out 
the fires that the hoodlums and the mob set going. This was my fir^t 
touch with the real struggle of labor for industrial democracy— an 
experience that made me question the practicality of the sympathetic 
strike, for the community was disheartened and the packing house 
workers possessed with fear and left unorganized. In my home life 
I had been used to men with courage — men who had gone into battle 
for a conviction, and now for the first time I was meeting men who 
"for fear of losing a job" went and came from work with a silent pro- 
test against conditions, and a sense of justice that they were afraid 
to express. When in my ignorance I would inquire about organization, 


there would be sudden, awful stillness and the man questioned would 
afterwards avoid me for fear I might again touch on this forbidden 

For the first two years I slept in a front room so close to the side- 
walk that all hours of the night I could hear the tramp of men going to 
or coming from work. The impressions are vivid of these first autumn 
morning when I would look out on the great army of men, women, and 
children, as they tramped to their work through the fog and smoke. 
That tramp, tramp, tramp of the "mighty army of the poor" and the 
significance of it will be with me always as a symbol of the tread of 
those who shall never cease marching onward and upward through 
suffering through mistakes and blunders, until some day the machine 
will become the servant and the brutish will become humanized. 

In those days, we read often for comfort and hope, Thomas Went- 
worth Higginson's poem, 

"I hear the tread of marching men, the patient armies of the poor. 
Not ermine clad or clothed in state, their Title deeds not yet made plain ; 
But waking early, toiling late, the peers of all the earth remain — 
The peasant brain shall yet be wise, the untrained pulse grow calm and 

The blind shall see, the lowly rise, and work in peace Times wondrous 


In these early days the Settlement home was upstairs over a Day 
Nursery ; every morning when it was barely light in the winter, I 
would be wakened by the cry of the little children who wanted the 
mother to stay at home and not go to work. Here again for the first 
time in my life I saw the meaning of the job and how wage-earning 
women had to carry two burdens — that of the home and that of the 
wage-earning world. In that day there was no child-labor law and 
the packing industry found useful the boys and girls of eleven years 
of age, and men and women and children had no limit to their day's 
work. When I would ask why the people came from work at all 
hours of the day and in the evening, I was told that the killing had to go 
on until there were no cattle left to be cared for over night ; and when in 
my greenness I would ask why a packing industry could not keep cattle 
over night when farmers did it very well, I was surprised to learn 
that because it cost something to feed and water them, men must 
butcher often sixteen hours at a stretch. It was then I learned for 
the first time how it happened that when in the morning these men, 
women, and children went out to work, large numbers could not tell 
whether they would return home for supper, or work from one to 
sixteen hours. 

My social education — so slow in the beginning — was quickened by 
personal contact and neighborly relationship with all kinds of workers. 
One of my best friends was a German cattle butcher who began work 
at eleven years of age on the "killing floor," where he worked for 
twenty-five years until his right arm began to shake from the constant 
wielding of a huge cleaver, more like a battle axe. 

This sober, intelligent and loyal worker was most unsocial — he 
much preferred to work by himself and to go home to his family, put 


on his slippers, light his pipe, and read his church and foreign papers. 
He was not by nature "a joiner" but was happy in studying history at 
the Settlement with a young university student, who is now a president 
of note in a Western university. 

Another pleasure the Settlement offered this intelligent cattle 
butcher was that of meeting the university student in a genial social 
atmosphere and giving the working man's point of view with regard 
to the organization of labor. The student on purely theoretical 
grounds argued for the organization of labor — while the conservative 
cattle butcher who had gone through the eight hour strike and the 
sympathetic railroad strike and had seen both fail, took the opposite 
view. The university student needed this opportunity to meet the 
working man face to face and with "feet under the same table," and 
to give and take ideas with perfect freedom. It was the unsocial 
cattle butcher who held to the opinion that if men were out of work it 
must be their own fault. He had seen the eight -hour movement fail 
in the yards and had gone through the disastrous railroad strike, but 
had kept a steady job all the way, which gave him a sense of security. 

But at thirty-five years of age this loyal worker had a new experi- 
ence which he could not understand. Why after going twenty-five years 
on a '"'killing bed," where he had been one of the few skilled workers, 
receiving forty-five cents an hour, he should be suddenly dismissed 
without any reason given by the boss, except that his right arm was 
shaking and that he was unable to keep up with the "pace maker," 
who was a giant. The day he was turned off, he stopped in to tell me 
that he had been "thrown out on the industrial scrap heap at thirty- 
five years of age," and with a face white with emotion he said that he 
could not understand that his long and loyal workmanship had not 
been considered by those whom he had served for twenty-five years. 
"I understand now," he said, "why men are not sure of a job always, 
and why they organize, for at thirty-five I have reached my old age 
limit. I shall never again receive forty-five cents an hour." And he 
never did, though for a quarter of a century he had been working and 
had given his best strength to this trade that demanded so little skill 
and such physical endurance. After many odd jobs he again, for a 
short time, got back into the packing house in another department, at 
less pay. 

In 1900 when I arrived at Cologne, Germany, on a summer's vaca- 
tion, I found a letter from my German neighbor welcoming me to hi'^ 
Fatherland and announcing the news which he said he wanted to be 
the first to tell me : "The cattle butchers of the yards are organized 
and I am a member, and so strong are we that we have won without 
a fight a limit to our day's work" No more would thev butcher until 
no cattle were left in the pens, for a cattle butcher's life was the first 
consideration of a Cattle Butchers' Union. 

The "pace maker" was still in their midst but the speed was stopped 
at the end of a ten hour day. From that time on. the organizing b> 
Michael Donnelly, a former sheep and cattle butcher, of all the de- 
partments of the packing industry, from the "squeegee man" to the 
floorsman on the killing floor, proceeded until in every packing district 


in the country there was an Amalgamated Meat Cutters' Union with a 
reported membership of fifty thousand. It was the first time that the 
yards had been org-anized by a butcher workman and the first time that 
the unskilled, 60% of all the workers, were recognized. All of the dif- 
ferent trades working in the yards were then federated into a Packing 
Trades Council presided over by a member of the Amalgamated Meat 
Cutters and Butcher workmen. Michael Donnelly began this work of 
organizing- by a house to house canvass, having the first little gathering 
on the prairie where no one could discover it and cause the members to 
"lose their jobs," for this was the constant fear before them. 

At first, the women workers were not recognized as ready for 
organization. It was difficult to learn just how many worked in that 
square mile, where it was said thirty to forty thousand people were 
employed. Then, too, they had come into new departments so quickly 
that the men were not aroused by their inroads until they were given a 
knife as a tool. Only then did these "petticoat butchers" become a 
factor to be dealt with. The women had in the early days of this 
comparatively new packing industry been working in the canning de- 
partment , painting and labeling the cans. When men went on a petty 
strike in the stuffing room, women — mostly girls — were given the 
men's places at much lower wages. In this way the girls entered the 
sausage room where they linked the sausages with their hands as 
tools ; but it was in the trimming room that they were given a "man's 
tool," a knife to cut the fat from the lean, though women had used 
this tool in their home longer than men. In one packing house the 
room is kept to the freezing point and considered scientific. I vis- 
ited a room colder than your ice box — a veritable cold storage box, 
where pork was prepared for shipping long distances. "Here nothing 
is wasted," the superintendent told the visitor. But the immigrant 
girls worked in mid-winter wrappings — while cold sweat ran down the 
walls of the enclosed room. As soon as they became Americanized 
they found a better job if they lived through the experience. 

Piece-w^ork as a method of modern industry was revealed to me 
for the first time by my friendship with Maggie, her sisters, and Han- 
nah, who worked in the labeling room of one of the principal packing- 
plants. Maggie and Hannah were born in Ireland, but came with 
their parents to the "Town of Lake" when they were infants. There 
was no child labor law when these girls were eleven years of age. The 
old country parents had the old country notions and were in need of 
money ; so these young Irish girls began their industrial life in this 
rather new industry of packing meat. In the early days of the industry 
the girls painted and labeled by hand the cans filled by men and boys. 
There was no ten hour law to limit the day, and no child labor law ; 
and there was no public opinion demanding light, fresh air. sunshine 
and fire escapes. The steam from the canning room permeated the label- 
ing room, making the turpentine all the more pungent. This room had 
one row of windows and high stacks of cans obscuring the light from 
the middle of the room where the girls worked much of the time by 
artificial light. The half hour for lunch was in this same atmosphere. 
If they chose they could go into a dressing room, partly partitioned off 
from the work room and filled with the same turpentine odor. Maggie 


told me that while she was at work she could not eat or even drink 
for it all tasted of turpentine. 

The fathers and brothers of these Irish girls were working in the 
packing houses as butchers of cattle, sheep or hogs, while the Germans 
and after a. time the Bohemians manned the sausage departments. It 
was when the men and boys struck and lost their places that the girls 
of the new incoming immigrants, Bohemians, Poles, and at the last, 
Lithuanians, took the places of the young men, and the boys, 
at one-third to one-half the wages, and did the work quite as well and 
with much less "fooling." For boys liked to play wdth knives at the 
risk of injury to themselves and others, while the girls took their work 
seriously and patiently, especially if it were piece work. Maggie repre- 
sented the serious idealistic Irish type while Hannah was the social 
solvent of the shop, loved by all the girls, friendly with the boss and 
the forelady, until her sense of injustice was aroused; then she was 
the one inspiring to action and became for the moment a leader. 
Maggie had fine ambitions; Hannah had few, except to aid Maggie 
wnth her loyal admiration. Maggie wanted some things in her home 
that only her wages could procure. The old country father and mother 
could not understand Maggie's untiring, unresting ambition for a par- 
lor with ?.. piano, where she and her beautiful young sisters could have 
company. She wanted privacy — a room for herself — and comforts for 
the father and mother w^ho had worked hard all their lives. Maggie 
had long, tapering fingers and a nervous temperament that could be 
keved to a speed that was marvelous \vhiie it lasted. She could paint 
cans by the many thousands a week and often made $22.00 a week. 
Just when ^Maggie, the unconscious "pace maker" of the shop would 
reach the goal of $22.00 a week and begin to feel that she could secure 
the nece>sities of her fine nature, a cut would come, and again she 
would urge herself and all her co-workers to renewed and more difificnh 
speed, and once more she would reach the $22.00 a w^eek mark, and 
ag£.in would come the cut in wages by adding a greater number of 
cans to be painted for a stipulated amount. It was after the third cut 
that the Irish girls began to see the method of the "boss," and Maggie 
and Hannah called a strike in the shop. All the girls laid down their 
tools, and when the boss was obdurate, Hannah tied a red handker- 
chief to her umbrella and the girls marched up and down the streets 
of Packing-Town, having no one to turn to in this time of distress, 
for thev were without organization. The men had no union at that 
time. They had heard of some Knights of Labor and they were 
determined to appeal to these knights. But they received no response 
from the men. 

At last they organized a Maud Gonne Club, in honor of the onlv 
patriot thev knew. " This organization took place about the sick bed 
of Maggie, who was found to have tuberculosis, and who pleaded 
Avith them to be as courageous and unselfish as the Irish heroine who 
suffered for Home Rule; "for. said Maggie, "You know we must work 
for those who come after us." The Maud Gonne Club had a short 
life but the memory of it held this small group together until Michael 
Donnellv organized the men and the appeal for help from the girls to 


the Settlement brought them and Mr. Donnelly together resulting in 
the local which was organized with ten girls from several packing 
houses as charter members. This was the first Packing House 
Woman's Union in the Meat Cutters' organization. Maggie lived just 
long enough to serve as their first vice president. 

I shall never forget that meeting very early in the organization 
when two of the young women who had worked for fifteen years in 
one packing house were discharged because they were discovered to 
be officers of the Union. But this experience, disheartening as it was 
to me, only inspired the Irish girls to renewed and eager efforts. The 
girls of the red flag demonstration had not been able to get back to 
work. They formed a group of so-called "black listed girls," who 
now began to work in earnest for the Union which they hoped would 
protect them from the injustice of "speeding up" followed by "cuts." 

The next significant experience of this Union of "petticoat 
butchers" was the night of a thunderstorm when we sat, a frightened 
group, in the Settlement Gymnasium and discussed whether it would 
be harmful or helpful to march with the men on Labor Day of 1903 ; 
for the timid ones felt that all who marched would lose their jobs, as 
the officers had a few weeks before. The lightning and the thunder 
filled all with present and future fear, but at last the Irish spirit rose 
above the storm and it was decided that they would not march but 
would ride in busses, sing labor songs, wear white dresses, and carry 
the flag of the red, white, and blue. 

It was a pretty sight on Labor Day when the two "busses," filled 
with packing house girls in white — young, attractive, full of courage, 
singing of Labor, rode out of Gross Avenue to meet a procession of 
men who were also running a great risk that day. Perhaps they too 
would never go back to the job so necessary to their existence. The 
efifect of that act on Labor Day — of the thousands marching together 
for collective bargaining — was magical. 

At the next meeting of the Woman's Union, a crowd of girls and 
women stood waiting at the door for membership, and the following 
meeting brought in immigrant girls who needed interpreters to aid in 
their initiation. It was a dramatic scene, the night when the first 
colored girl asked for admission. The president, an Irish girl whose 
father before union days had left his job because a colored man had 
been put to work with him, was naturally expected to be prejudiced 
against the reception of Negro women. Hannah as doorkeeper called 
out in her own social way, "A colored sister is at the door. What'll I 
do with her? " "Admit her," called back the president, "and let all 
of ye's give her a hearty welcome." The tall, dignified, good-looking, 
well-dressed colored girl, much frightened, walked down the center 
aisle of the hall while the room rang with cheers and the clapping of 
hands. Soon after at a meeting, when the question in the ritual, 
"Have you any grievances?" was put to the house full of girls, black 
and white, Polish, Bohemian, Lithuanian, German, Irish, Croatian, 
and Hungarian, a shy, sensitive, colored girl arose and said she had a 
grievance against a Polish girl in the shop who was always teasing 
her. The president called them both up before the Union and made 


each tell what the other had done. "She called me a Polock first, 
before I called her a nigger." Then the president arose and said, 
"Ain't you ashamed of yourselves ? You promised in the Union to be 
sisters and here you are fighting. Now shake hands and don't you 
bring any more of your personal grievances here. Tell it to vour 
shop steward, and remember this is where only shop grievances are 
to be brought." 

The Women's Union was represented by delegates at the Packing 
Trades Council and at the annual conventions on an equal footing 
with the men. The Women's Local had their own paid business agent, 
a clever German girl who learned in a few days to use a typewriter, 
though she had never practiced on one before, and found, as she said, 
"your spelling does jump and hit you straight in the eyes." 

This agent was the go-between the women and the bosses. Any 
shop grievance was reported to her and then it was her business to 
confer v.nth the employers, and thus prevent the petty, hysterical 
strikes of former days when the girls would protest against a grievance 
by stopping work without warning. 

Soon after an experience that Hannah and I had at the Cattle 
Butchers' Union was quite as suggestive of the broadening influence 
of organization. A colored man was the officer who brought in for 
initiation the men of so many dififerent nationalities that it took four 
interpreters to make clear the obligations of the organization. As we 
left the meeting, Hannah said : "Well, that's brotherhood of man all 
right, isn't it?" It was in such Union meetings that the Slavic immi- 
grant for the first time had the experience of belonging freely to a 
self-governing organization, holding office and working on committees 
if they could understand English at all. 

The real test of brotherhood came in the summer of 1904 when 
after weeks of conference between the Packers and the Union over 
the wage scale for both skilled and unskilled a strike was called, and 
twenty-two thousand workers came out. The struggle centered about 
the wages of the tmskilled. The employers agreed not to touch the 
skilled workers, cattle, sheep, and hog butchers, but they were deter- 
mined to reduce the unskilled back to the rate before the Union had 
raised them lYi cents an hour. The skilled workers, feeling that this 
would disrupt the Union if the unskilled were discriminated against, 
determined to stand with them. 

^lichael Donnelly and his executive committee for weeks were 
conferring with the packers, but without avail. After much discussion 
within the locals a referendum vote was taken on whether to strike or 
not. The vote was to strike, and then began the first organized strike 
in the "yards." It came as a great surprise to employers and em- 
ployees when the thousands of workers obeyed the order to leave work 
quietly and "everything in order," as if returning to their tasks the 
next day. "Do not stop until all your butchering is done," was the 
order, "then walk out." This was done so faithfully that the strike 
was on for several days before the community became conscious that 
twenty-two thousand people were on strike in the yards. After 
twelve days a settlement was made with the packers. 


Mr. Dionnelly did not approve of the method employed 
in taking the men back to work after the strike. He pleaded for a 
different method, but he was unable to gain his point, and what he 
feared happened. Some of the men who were officers of the Union 
were not taken back and very early in the day telegrams came from 
other places demanding that the strike continue on the ground of 
"discrimination and suspicion of trickiness." The demand was so 
persistent from certain quarters that he did what his own best judg- 
ment afterwards decided against. He issued the order for the strike 
to continue before consulting with the Packers. This action lost him 
and his Union the sympathy and backing of the strongest labor 
leaders in America; for they believed that Mr. Donnelly had made a 
very good agreement and had won a victory. The strike was on 
again and for over two months after this apparent victory for the 
Union, the neighborhood of the yards was the scene of an unusually 
orderly strike of twenty-two thousand people, equal to the population 
of many small cities. Thousands of cards were printed and dis- 
tributed, large posters in different languages posted, pleading for law 
and order to prevail. The speeches even of the socialists were never 
inflammable. Indeed, most of the violence committed was done by 
certain newspapers. On one occasion a fight between two Polish 
brothers was turned into a serious disturbance because of the bad 
judgment or because of an ambition to make a record on the part of 
police officers who called out the whole force to quiet a group of Poles 
watching the fight. To be sure there were often physical arguments 
used. Such an argument one girl used with another who took her 
place in the packing house. When I protested against such methods 
by saying, "Why don't you try to persuade her to join your Union 
instead of slapping her?" the girl replied. "Yes, that's all right for you. 
You know how to talk, but when a girl takes my job,, when I'm out 
to raise my wages, and then sasses me, I slap her ; that's my way." 
But not always was this method used. Another Irish girl found a 
drunken Irishman on his way to the yards with an axe in his hands 
to do some damage, and persuaded him to give her the axe and go 
home to his wife.. 

This strike was called by those who had known previous ones 
in the yards "A pink tea strike," because as the police captains put it. 
"the girls and boys were kept so busy at the Settlement afternoons 
that they were not disturbing as they always had been in former 
strikes," and because, by the police sergeant's records there were less 
arrests during this July and August than in previous summers. 

The Woman's Union had always met at the Settlement gymnas- 
ium because "there was no saloon there," for leaders of strikes 
erenerally agree that the saloon hall is the hot bed of trouble, and yet 
the Settlement Gymnasium was positively the only hall that was avail- 
able for a Union meeting in the whole district that did not open into 
or was above a saloon. 

If all the saloons in a strike zone could be closed as soon as 
trouble began, there would be less violence and a better and earlier 
understanding and if church and school halls were at the disposal of 


labor unions it would raise the morale of the organizations. And if 
more of our American labor leaders would stand with their English 
Union brothers for temperance, it would help toward a saner Unionism. 

The community's interest in the struggle for two and a half cents 
an hour is not easily understood by outsiders. Two and a half cents an 
hour meant a higher standard of living that the workers were unwilling 
to give up — we can't live "the decent American way" they said over 
and over. One wonders after hearing this so often if it is not this grow- 
ing standard of living that the workers call "the decent American way," 
one of the strongest factors in the great unrest today, this, with the 
uncertainty of a steady job, and the demoralization of the casual or 
seasonal work. 

The immigrant who is intelligent enough to send his children to 
the public school finds a constant tug upon his lean purse by demands 
that were not made upon his parents. The school nurse and the med- 
ical inspector report the children need glasses, that they may see 
clearly ; their ears must be cared for that they may hear distinctly ; 
the teeth must be cared for and the adenoids removed so that the 
children may be healthy and may keep up with their grades in school. 

Rents advance, yet the parents with this growing standard of 
living are not willing to deprive their children of the privacy needed, 
and will not take in lodgers as some with lower standards do to 
help out the lack in income. The rent must be paid and food is 

The children, therefore, must have less nourishing food. The em- 
ployer and the economist tell us that wages cannot come up to the 
worker's standard, as long as the many wait for jobs at the doors of 
the industry. Industry is so specialized that perhaps a surplus of labor 
is a necessity to the business, but surely it should not be a menace to the 
higher standard of living of the working people. 

After ten weeks of waiting and arguing, after priest and politi- 
cian had failed to bring together the leading representatives of both 
sides in the struggle and the situation was getting tense and seriou.s — • 
for the Union had no funds to feed the strikers, and hunger makes 
men desperate — a woman physician filled with the spirit of the 
"called of the Lord" secured audience with the packer who agreed 
to see the men's representative. While the twenty-two thousand 
waited and talked of the decent American wage ideal, a cattle butcher 
who waited with me for the momentous word from these two repre- 
sentatives, said a significant thing that I shall never forget. "You 
know." he said, "I think the w^orld has to learn that Michael Donnelly 
represents quite as important an interest as does the representative of 
the packers, Mr. J. Ogden Armour." 

After hours of waiting the word at last reached the twenty-two 
thousand outside that the skilled workers could return to w^ork with the 
wages unchanged but the unskilled workers must be reduced two and 
one-half cents. When a plea was made for some recognition of this long 
struggle for higher w^ages for the 60 per cent of the workers, the 
answer was, "As long as there are thousands waiting for a job every 
morning we cannot pay a higher rate of wages." Then the plea was 


made for a more stable week's work in order that the casual work 
might be lessened, and it was urged that the industry might be so 
organized as to carry the needed surplus and make work steadier. 
Of course some recognition has to be made of the fact that this is in 
some sense a seasonal industry in that the supply of cattle, hogs and 
sheep is not a fixed or certain supply, but the packers promised to con- 
sider the proposition of steadying the work but would not consider 
the raising of wages. Michael Donnelly urged a labor commissioner 
such as the mine operators of Illinois had to deal with on matters 
brought up by the Union, which commissioner would make it possible 
to do away with shop stewards. One superintendent who had to deal 
with over 300 in a large packing plant, said he found the strike a rest 
cure from shop stewards. 

The proposition to end the strike was brought at once before the 
members of the various Unions with the argument that the strike 
benefit fund was gone and that if the men did not go back to work 
they would not be cared for. This compelled an affirmative vote. 
But at one mass meeting of the unskilled I heard a Polish worker 
speak in four languages urging the men to hold out for the two and 
one half cents for the same reasons that I had heard over and ovcx'. 
He spoke quietly and with ease, and was listened to with dignified 
attention. When he said, "You know that you can't give your child- 
ren an American living; you can't send them to school and give them 
what they ought to have ; you can't have a decent American home on 
fifteen and one-half cents an hour and only forty hours a week the . 
year around." And the men who listened were ready to vote against 
returning to work until the officers of' the Union explained the lack 
of funds. Then they agreed to give up, though most reluctantly, and 
some showed a lack of faith in those who had settled the strike. 

It was Labor Day when these negotiations between packers and 
men were in progress. There was no procession and no picnic, but 
an ominous stillness lay back of the yards. Inside the one square mile 
of packing houses and stock yards, the imported workers, Negroes 
from the far south and immigrants from the east, were having a holi- 
day, playing games and trying to feel at home in their temporary 
abiding place. 

I walked through the yards hoping to find some one who would 
help to bring about some kind of a satisfactory solution of the tense 
situation. At one of the vacant spaces between the buildings I found 
two groups of Macedonians, having a holiday of a unique kind. One 
group were chanting their old country songs, while the other group 
were dancing the folk dance of their own Greek people to the music 
of a primitive goat skin pipe which their classic ancestors might have 
used. Near by and overseeing this Greek festival under the shadow 
of the slaughter house of one of the greatest of the packing houses 
was the padrone who brought from the seaport these newly landed 
immigrants. He was talkative and interesting. He said these men 
received in Macedonia twenty-five cents a day. While in the role of 
"the Commodity of Labor," going from one point to another whenever 

— 6 H S 


there was a strike, they received $2.50 a day with board and lodging. 
Knowing that the strike was about ended I asked: "What will you 
do with these men when this strike is over? " He answered laughingly, 
"We will go to the next place when we are needed." 

I had never before seen what was called "Labor as a commodity'" 
but here it was. In my ignorance I wondered what was the relation 
between this artificially supplied "commodity" and that so-called na- 
tural demand of thousands every morning at the time-keepers' offices. 
I put my question to the economist who walked with me but I received 
no satisfactory answer. Outside were the immigrants that were 
paying $9.50 per month for the cottages they hoped to call their own. 
They were filling up every inch of space with lodgers and putting 
to work every pair of hands that were strong enough to be paid, and 
yet they were uncertain of a steady job themselves, and as unconscious 
of the reasons for their unrest as were the Macedonians of being an 
expensive commodity for the time being, or a pathetic spectacle or 
a baffling fact to the sympathetic onlookers. 

The protest of the fifty thousand seemed futile for without an 
adequate strike benefit fund these workers were powerless to hold out. 
The power to wait is what the workers did not have. The strike 
ended. Most of the men and women, except the leaders, were taken 
back. Many never got back their old places, and many of those who 
did were dismissed after a time. Some went away to better places. 
Some took to a dififerent kind of work, while a few were demoralized ; 
in the struggle for industrial democracy the strike, like a war, carries a 
long train of evils. On the whole it was an education by chastening 
to both employers and employees, and some results were permanently 
good. Light was let in which opened the eyes of those who live far away 
before they had known the stock yards only as a marvel among indus- 
tries^ now the hands that prepared the meat had made themselves felt. 
When the roast of beef or sweetbreads became an uncertain quantity 
then the hands that prepared the meat for a world's market were 
recognized — perhaps with scorn or impatience — but recognized as a 
human reality with power, and a new point of view was reached by a 
a great public, the same public that had a chill of horror over sanita- 
tion a few years after, but forgot the worker in their fear that clean- 
liness would not save their stomachs. 

But this year of 1904, the human product of the packing industry 
had been considered something more than a brutal force for turning 
out meat food, more than an integral part of the great machinery. From 
this date changes began in the plants for the bettering of sanitary 
conditions. Where Maggie worked is now a concrete building cov- 
ered within by while tiles, a dust-proof building. The awakening 
after the Iroquois Theatre tragedy demanded fire escapes. The Child 
Labor Law was generally obeyed to such an extent that children under 
sixteen are rarely to be found in the large packing houses. The State 
law, limiting women's work to ten hours is obeyed. 

A new social consciousness has awakened, and has expressed itself 
in many ways. Welfare nurses are employed, sick benefit, insurance 
schemes, and in some plants lunch and improved locker rooms, shower 


baths and other conveniences have been established since 1904. Before 
the war, smoke from the chimneys was consumed and streets in the 
yards have been paved and the best of modern structures replace old 
buildings that have been destroyed by fire. One firm has a mini- 
mum weekly wage and not less than forty hours work per week, one 
result of the strike. 

At present the packers have offered the most advanced 
methods of industrial relationship that they have ever tried. This 
is the employees representative plan that has an assembly composed 
of representatives elected by secret ballot in each shop. In some plants 
the power of veto is left to the higher, officials, while in a few there is 
no veto after a two-thirds vote decides the issue before the assembly. 
If the assembly decides on arbitration or a fight it is the last word. 
From the point of view of the packers this is democracy in industry, 
to the community it is only an experiment, while the average worker 
looks upon it as a method to down the Unions, though some men 
elected are Union men. It is at least the most constructive policy ever 
offered by the employers to their employees, and is well worth trying 
out. It may fail as such schemes have in many places, but it will be 
an educational experiment to both workers and officials. 

The sanitary conditions and the humane slaughtering are perhaps 
as good if not better than that of any industry of its kind in the world ; 
but the cause of industrial democracy is weaker than it was in 1900 
and the problem of casual laboi- and its effect upon the family and 
community is still a social question that will be answered perhaps 
some day by the industry itself carrying the burden of that surplus 
of labor which is called a necessity of the business but demoralizing 
to the health and morals of the people. One wonders whether the 
unskilled workers, forgotten in this country by the skilled Unions who 
are strongly organized on an aristocratic basis ; and helpless before 
the powerful employers, and so often unable to organize — one wonders 
whether they will not have to be protected by a general State mini- 
mum wage, an out-of-work insurance, and by municipal housing 
as well as public clinics for their children. Shall the police power of 
the State be evoked to insure a strong and intelligent citizenship 
which is of course the business of a democracy to produce ; for after all 
is it not the human output that must be the important interest of the 
public who want to preserve this Democracy that is not yet established. 



(By Arthur Charles Cole.) 

The American west has traditionally been pictured in the figure 
of the sturdy pioneer whose trusty rifle warned off the hostile redskin, 
whose powerful axe challenged the wilderness and fashioned his rude 
cabin, and whose hoe and plow broke the soil for the rudimentary 
agriculture that meant life to the first generation of frontiersmen. It 
remains to be shown that the conquest of the western wilds was con- 
ditioned upon the domestic partnership in which the pioneer woman 
played no minor role. The heroine of the frontier was not merely 
as some one has said, that "gaunt and sad-faced woman sitting on 
the front seat of the wagon, following her lord where he might lead, 
her face hidden in the same ragged sunbonnet which had crossed the 
Appalachians." Hers was more than the role of house-wife of — feeding 
a lord and master and his progeny and administering to their physical 
comforts. She kept house, to be sure.; she did the quilting, the wash- 
ing, the preserving Qi beef and pork; she made the candles and the 
family clothes. But the frontier woman had other occupations, the 
nature and significance of which have found little understanding in 
later generations. 

The "women folks" of the frontier "could alius find something 
to du" around the barns and sheds, and, more, in the fields themselves.^ 
The realm of woman's work did not end at the threshold of her lord's 
domain. She was his partner and together they labored toward the 
goal of success. She must share his burdens but she did so as his 
equal. It was not, then, commands to an inferior that secured her 
co-operation ; it was a tribute to a sex equality which had its place 
in that pure democratic atmosphere of the frontier. 

The very hardships of the frontier tore down old customs and 
established new values. But, just as the frontier was a moving and 
jchanging force, so conditions altered themselves with the steady flow 
of the westward movement. The second generation was better able 
to respond to the appeals of eastern customs and traditions, even to 
transplant them to western soil. One very suggestive index of the 
passing of the frontier can be found in the new status of woman and 
their nev.^ reaction to life about them. The frontier departed before the 
forces that made for specialization and for a division of labor, and 
woman's sphere was redefined by the same forces. 

As the frontier lingeringly bade its adieu, leisure moments came 
to the wives- and mothers of the west ; and, simultaneously, a blind 
groping for pursuits to take the piace of frontier occupations. The 
result was a larger part by women in organizations for social and 

* See Tlllson, Christiana Holmes, A Woman's Story of Pioneer Illinois. 


educational purposes. They became active along^ religious lines ; they 
formed sewing societies, reading circles, women's clubs ; they came, 
particularly in Indiana, to take a leading part in library associations. 
The women began also to bear the burden of the responsibility of the 
work of organizing the anti-slavery crusade ; the men were often quite 
"content with the humbler task of co-operation by supplying the sinews 
of war." The west still showed less consciousness than the east "of 
any conflict between the peculiar duties of men and those of women 
m their relations to common objects."- 

In the late forties the frontier passed slowly from the prairies of 
Illinois to the trans-Mississippi west. Simultaneously the pioneer 
woman began to disappear. Her successor not only had less taste for 
heavy physical tasks but even aspired to the eastern role of "lady." 
This required domestic service from servants engaged to take the place 
of the mistress. The resident population furnished few young women 
who failed to share the western spirit of optimism and opportunity 
to the extent of accepting the lot of an inferior group. Attention was 
drawn therefore to the surplus female population of the eastern cities ; 
by co-operation with the Women's Protective Immigration Societies of 
New York and Philadelphia, the women of the prairie towns of Illi- 
nois were supplied with a quota of domestic helpers who relieved still 
further the labor pressure upon the western wife and mother." 

This relief left opportunity for other types of feminine enter- 
prise. The sewing society, with all its ramifications, was the obvious 
stop-gap : but it alone did not suffice. At times of stress it enlarged 
its scope still farther, as when the women of Chicago were aroused 
by bleeding Kansas to organize a "Kansas Women's Aid and Liberty 
Association," with active auxiliaries in the towns and villages of 
northern Illinois. Even the less courageous sewing societies took a 
part in the work for the relief of the distressed sisters in Kansas.^ 

A new crusading spirit drew the women into the ranks of the 
temperance movement. In 1850 "Ladies Temperance Unions" or 
societies appeared in the chief cities and towns to aid in the organized 
attack upon liquor. County organizations followed and in 1856 a call 
was sent out by women of Chicago and vicinity for a state convention 
to organize a Woman's State Temperance Society. All of these 
organizations demanded literary activity from their members in the 
preparation of addresses ; they also gave to the women of the state 
some of their first experience in speechmaking. In 1855 Mrs. Fonda, 
an agent of the New York Ladies' Temperance Society, made an 
extensive lecture tour through Illinois. One of her first addresses was 
in Springfield where she spoke before an audience of citizens and 
members of the legislature. She even penetrated into "darkest Egypt" 
where, according to one of its spokesmen, "the use of intoxicating 
drinks seems more natural than the use of water." At every point 
she was met with a cordial welcome, with good audiences, and witli 

" Macy, The Anti-slavery Crusade, 46. "There was complete equality between 
husband and wife because their aims were identical and each rendered the service most 
convenient and most needed. Women did what men could not do." Ihid., 47. 

3 See Cole, Era of the Civil War, 15. 

♦ Chicago Weeljly Democrat, June 21, 28, 1856. 


generous collections.^ Many of hei* audiences were strongly impressed 
by their first experience in listening to the eloquence of a woman 

But there was emotion as well as intelligence in the women's 
part in the temperance movement. The time called for a St. George 
to slay the "Demon Rum" and the women entered the field. Enraged 
feminine victims of the liquor traffic enlisted under the banners of 
local prototypes of Carrie Nation and were led in destructive assaults 
against the offending groggeries ; armed with hatchets, rolling pins, 
broomsticks, kitchen knives and fire shovels, they routed the enemy, 
leaving empty barrels and broken glasses and decanters to decorate 
the streets. One of the first of such raids occurred in Milford, Iro- 
quois County in 1854;Lincoln had a similar party in 1855; in the 
following year twenty or thirty women of Farmington, "backed up and 
protected by a crowd of 300 men and boys," cleaned out every grog 
shop in the community and secured so much applause from the news- 
papers of the neighboring town of Canton that the temperance women 
of the community came to the rescue of the city's prohibitory ordinance 
by raiding the shop of an offender and resolved that as often as the 
practice was resumed in the community, they would rid themselves 
of its curse, "peaceably if we can, forcibly if we must." Women in the 
town of Winnebago not only emptied the casks of a local liquor dealer 
but treated him to a ride out of town on a rail. (Rock River Demo- 
crat, August 31, 1858). All these served as precedents for later 
raids until it became a question as to whether city officers could wipe 
out the liquor traffic by law enforcement or whether it would be left 
to the women. As the Aurora Beacon, May 13, 1858, facetiously and 
ungramatically put it: "We wait to see who to throw up our hat 
for — the Women, or the City Officers." Many of the local news- 
papers accorded these militant tactics a silent approval ; the editor of 
the Ottawa Free Trader, however, called such measures "high-handed, 
lawless, and not to be approved" and the Joliet Signal held that the 
husbands of the women should be compelled to pay damages since 
"such outrages upon the property and rights of others are becoming 
too frequent."^ At one time it was rumored that one of the married 
women of Aurora had been arrested at the suit of a local whiskey 
seller, although no raiding party had been staged, with the result that 
the women held an indignation meeting and adopted a set of stirring 

These aggressive movements of the women doubtless attracted 
more attention than their active efforts in the regularly organized tem- 
perance movement. In the main they worked quietly and in good 
temper, — "in a spirit of kindness," read a flattering account in the 
Rockford Register, December 25, 1858. "We believe," wrote the 
editor, that " the movement which the ladies have initiated for the at- 
tempted suppression of the liquor traffic, to be justifiable, and a 
legitimate sphere for her labors for the suppression of a vice in which 

* Mrs. Fonda at the close of her tour congratulated herself on the "very large 
still and respectful audiences" and the "gvnerous c<)ntril)ul ions'' made bv them. See her 
letter of April 28, 1855 to the Cairo City Times, in the issue of May 2, 1855. 

" Ottawa Free Trader, April 10, 1854 ; Joliet Signal, June 8, 1858. 

^ Rockford Register, March 13, 1858. 


she is so largely the sufferer." Temperance reform was materially 
furthered by the women who confined their activities to writing and 
delivering addresses and sending them to the newspapers for pub- 

In time signs began to appear that woman would demand 
admission into the professional field. Pioneer women editors, preach- 
ers, and physicians in the east began to attract considerable attention. 
Mrs. Jane Swisshelm's venture as editor of the Pittsburg Visitor re- 
ceived wide notice ; her views on the rights of women were extensively 
clipped and her editorial efforts together with those of Mrs. Anne E. 
McDowell in her Philadelphia l^V omen's Advocate were variously 
applauded and condemned by the editorial fraternity of Illinois. In 
March, 1855, the Belleville Advocate announced that it expected shortly 
"to have the pleasure of introducing to the notice of our readers 
another new paper, published nearer home, and edited by. a lady friend 
of ours. We masculines had better lock to our time-honored 'Rights.' 
When women invade the sanctum and mount the tripod, it is time that 
a voice were raised in remonstrance ; else, we may find like Othello, 
when too late to apply a remedy, that our 'occupation's gone.' "^ 

For the time few complained against the traditional monopoly of 
the male sex in professional occupations. Marriage or hopes of 
marriage held the interest of most women, for as yet the male demand 
for domesticity was insatiable in a section where woman was in a 
marked minority. The first women in Illinois to demonstrate publicly 
their ability to compete with men in the professions were emissaries 
carrying the gospel of "woman's rights" from the east. Such in a 
sense was the case even with Mary A. Livermore, who for a time con- 
cealed her activities behind the name of her husband, an eastern 
Universalist minister who located first at Quincy and then in Chicago. 
Mrs, Livermore was a frequent contributor to denominational papers 
and was probably the "real editor" of The New Covenant, the Uni- 
versalist organ at Chicago which carried her husband's name on the 
editorial page. In this way she laid the foundations for her later role 
of leadership in the woman's movement. 

The earlv women preachers naturally aroused considerable ex- 
citement In 1853 the Reverend R. F. Ellis, Baptist minister at Alton, 
rejoiced that he was at length able to scotch the rumor that Miss 
Antoinette L. Brown had been ordained as Baptist pastor of South 
Butler, Wayne County, New York; he felt relieved that her denom- 
inational connection was with another sect, the Congregationalist : 
but regretted that the act of ordination had taken place in a Baptist 
house of worship. He could only hope that the Baptist had repented 
of having allowed the use of their building for this purpose, "so 
repugnant to Baptist usages."^" Within four years his Baptist flock 
experienced almost directly the invasion of a woman preacher. About 
1857 a Mrs. Hubbard came to Madison County and requested the 
privilege of speaking in the old Mount Olive meeting house outside 
Alton : a storm of protest arose from the male members of the Bapt'st 

8 See Rockford Register, December 25, 1858 ; Aurora Beacon, February 4, 1858. 

9 BeUeviUe Adrocn'tr. March 14, 1853; cf. lUinois S!tate Journal, July 23, 1850. 
'» Alton Courier, October 13, 1853. 


congregation but when the objections were broken down a crowded 
house greeted the innovator. Henceforth she was received with a 
hearty welcome in all her appearances before that congregation.^^ An- 
other early itinerant woman preacher of the late fifties was Mrs. Lily 
Henry, who later made her home at Bunker Hill, Illinois. The prece- 
dent established in the cases of Mrs. Hubbard and Mrs. Henry seems 
to have cleared the atmosphere of much of the opposition to women 
preacher<;, so that those who followed in their foot-steps encountered 
fewer obstacles. 

The women teachers of early Illinois were largely eastern emi- 
grants. In the period after 1847 the Illinois Education Society and 
the National Educational Society, through its agent, ex-Governor 
Slade of Vermont, co-operated to transfer systematically to the West 
classes of young women as missionaries in the cause of education. 
Illinois received a large share of these importations which were en- 
thusiastically welcomed. Western advocates of education only com- 
plained that they were not brought on fast enough to make up for 
constant desertions. The demand for wives was often greater than 
for teachers, so that two-thirds of them abandoned the professional 
field and settled down to domestic life before a period of five years 
had elapsed. "Instead of teaching other folks children," remarked a 
contemporary, "they soon find employment in teaching their own."^' 
Meantime provision was made for training a local supply of teachers 
at the new State Normal School and young women began to be at- 
tracted to this opportunity to secure economic independence. Thus 
constantly did the professional horizon for the female sex widen ; by 
1859 there graduated from Sloan's Central Commercial College of 
Chicago "the first class of ladies who have received a thorough com- 
mercial education in the West, if not in the United States. ^^ 

By this time the much talked of woman's rights movement had 
borne down upon Illinois from the East. There was a good deal of 
confusion as to just what this movement covered. Liberal-minded 
editors, like John Wentworth of the Chicago Democrat, admitted 
that the laws were "oppressive toward women in many respects." 
"Let woman plead earnestly, boldly," he urged, "with brothers, sons, 
and husbands, * * * for justice and her rights, and she uses a 
power that will prove effective. But," he warned, "let her not 
aspire to become equal with man."^* William H. Sterrett was known 
as a strong woman's rights advocate in the general assembly where 
he sponsored such legislation as giving the wife separate and inde- 
pendent fee in her own property. Other men who represented radical 
movements of the day found courage to present the new woman's 
propaganda before the public: the versatile H. Van Amringe of Chi- 
cago pleaded for woman's rights and listed the cause with land reform 
and abolition in his lecture repertoire. 

" Stahl, "Early women preachers in Illinois," in Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety Journal, IX, 484-485. 

" Illinois State Journal. November 28, December 1, 1848 ; Illinois State Register, 
December 2, 1851, August 4, 1853. 

'^ Chicago Press and Tribune, May 19, 1858. 

" Chicago Weekly Democrat, September 17, 1853. 


Neither such advocates nor the women champions who entered 
the Hsts advocated the widening of the suffrage franchise or the eHgi- 
biHty of women to office-holding. Admitting a distinct sphere for 
womankind, the woman's rights forces insisted upon the injustice of 
contemporary legal discriminations as to property-holding, and in 
addition claimed those rights, the denial of which would defraud 
woman's very nature. Confined to the narrow training of the con- 
temporary female seminary or college, shut out of the high schools 
and colleges, many women labored to secure for their sex equality in 
education. "Let women be educated," urged one champion. '"Tis her 
right ; not the fashionable education of the boarding school, an educa- 
tion too often of the head at the expense of the heart. There are five 
kinds of education which every woman has a right to : intellectual, 
moral, social, physical, and industrial. "^^ 

Soon women propagandists were busy on the platform, though 
at first limiting themselves to discourses to members of their sex on 
anatomy and physiology. In 1852 Mrs. J. Elizabeth Jones made an 
eminently successful lecture tour through the state, followed, in the 
spring of the following year, by Mrs. Ann S. Bane. At the same 
time Miss Olive Starr Wait, niece of William S. Wait, the Illinois 
reformer, actively entered the field. Mrs. Bane had added the topic 
woman's rights to the subject matter of her lectures, while Miss Wait 
came to give her entire attention to that subject. For several years 
Miss Wait addressed large audiences made up of members of both 
sexes in all the important towns of southwestern Illinois, in the region 
about her native Madison county. She was a woman of unusual 
charm. "Her character, life and attainments stamp her as an orna- 
ment to her country, to her sex, to her race," declared the Belleville 
Advocate, after she had delivered a series of three lectures before an 
audience which unanimously requested her to prolong her stay and her 
work of education. Men and women applauded her efforts and advo- 
cated letting her give "the full length of the reins to her abilities 
under the guide of her angelic benevolence."^** In 1855 her lecture 
tour included the state capital. Miss Wait had a happy faculty of 
presenting her subject in a manner that offended few and attracted 
many. "For chaste elocution, happy illustration, beauty of diction and 
depth of pathos, these lectures have been but seldom equaled," wrote 
a discriminating patron.^^ At the end of 1853 Lucy Stone visited 
Chicago and then started on a tour of the State on a feminist mission. 
Her womanly earnestness combined with a manly energy could not 
but command respect. "How differently appeared the cause of woman's 
rights as set forth by Miss Stone," commented a critic instinctively 
inclined to sympathize with the movement.^^ Another active propa- 
gandist of the same period was Mrs. Frances D. Gage of St. Louis 

" Alton Courier, January 27, 1854. 

'' BeUevUlc Advocate, April 27, 1853. An occasional critic cited the Bible posi- 
tion of woman : "Man was first formed, and placed at the head of all the works of 
the six days, and afterwards Woman was taken from his side." 

" N. M. McCurdy to Joseph Gillespie December 15, 1855, Gillespie manuscripts, 
Chicago Historical Society. Miss Wait later became the wife of the Honorable Jehu 

•8 Free West, January 5, 1854. 


who lectured extensively in the central portion of the State. ^" In 1858 
Horace Mann, the Massachusetts educator, visited the State and de- 
livered a lecture at Ottawa on the subject of "Woman." 

A good deal of discussion was aroused by these stimuli. The 
removal of legal restrictions on women found an increasing number 
of supporters even in the legislative halls at Springfield. A letter even 
went the rounds of the newspapers purporting to have been written 
by Stephen A. Douglas to Lucy Stone, giving an endorsement of her 
cause : it proved, however, to be a hoax which Miss Stone indignantly 
repudiated : "It is not to such men that the Woman's Rights cause 
appeals for help."^° Men were found, like the editor of the Aurora 
Beacon, who openly professed no objection to the extension of the right 
of suffrage to women. "It will not make them less lovely nor injure 
their dispositions. Their sense of right and justice is as clear, if not 
clearer, than ours ; and their innate humanity, in which they greatly 
exceed us, will prove no invaluable aid in many cases where those 
great principles are involved. If thev wish to vote, whv should thev 

Not all the devotees were able to appreciate the full scope of the 
woman question in its legal, political, and philosophical implications. 
Sex emancipation for many women came to mean the elimination of 
the inequality that grew out of the traditions of a garb which by 
ancient custom make "our women feeble when they might be strong," 
"stooping when they might be straight," and "helpless when they 
might be efficient." Feminine dress would not permit the vigorous 
physical exercise which develops superior intellects and man, thus 
deprived of the society of women in many of his avocations and diver- 
sions, regarded her as his inferior. This was the argument of the 
dress reformers, whose adherents demonstrated their seriousness *n 
1851 and again in 1858, when wearers of the bloomer costume, de- 
signed by Mrs. Bloomer of New York, made their appearance on the 
streets of various Illinois cities. In June, 1851, a correspondent sign- 
ing herself as "Elizabeth" appealed to the Illinois State Register-^ to 
come out in favor of short skirts ; women, she said, decline longer to 
be "street-sweepers" — they wished to drop the long dangling mops 
that constituted the female dress ; they wanted freedom of limbs and 
the opportunity of making the best of such charms as a pretty foot 
and ankle. The editor indulged in facetious equivocation but already 
by that time several young ladies had taken matters in hand in Bloom- 
ington by appearing in the new bloomer costume and had secured 
the endorsement of the local editor. "They attracted the universal 
attention and admiration of all who saw them. We trust now that the 
ice is broken, the dress will be adopted by all," concluded the note on 
this new development in the Bloomington Bnlletin.^^ Several promi- 

" Illinois S^tate Journal. January 14, 1854 ; Alton Daily Courier, January 16, 
1854 : Alton Weekly Courier. October 5, 1854. 

^ Rock ford Register. September 24, November 5, 1858. 

=" Aurora Beacon. March 14, 1857. There was a tendency for the Republicans to 
show greater favor to the woman's movement than the Democrats, so that some of the 
latter complained of mixing up sex emancipation with negro emancipation. See Belle- 
rille Adrnrntr. August 17. 1853: -Toliet l^ipnal, June 17, 1856. 

22 Illinois State Repister. June 26, 1851. 

2!* Bloomington Bulletin, in ihid. 


nent women of Joliet promptly adopted the costume and heroically 
adhered to it for street dress. The editor of the Signal noted a num- 
ber whose garb "did not extend below their 'courtesy benders.' Well, 
whose business is it?" he asked. The editor of the Aurora Beacon 
applauded when certain young matrons made their appearance, "decked 
out in short dresses and pants, to the great discomfiture of fastidious 
husbands and a certain class of maidens, and to the unrestrained de- 
light of young men and boys. So far as our notions of this reform 
are concerned, we are free to say that with some slight improvements 
m the style adopted by the ladies referred to, we are decidedly in for it. 
The dresses were too long, the trousers should have been gathered 
and tied just above the ankles, and the head gear should consist of a 
hat or turban, a la Turk. ... Go on, ladies, as you have begun. 
The enemies of this desirable reform may for a time turn up their 
noses at you, but rest assured that the more reasonable portion of the 
community are with you."-* When the New Harmony plank road 
opening was celebrated by a dance at New Harmony in November, 
1851, the bloomer costume was worn by "many fair dancers."^*^ 
Bloomer parties were held to keep up the courage of the innovators 
who braved the gaze of the curious and the sharp tongues of the town 
gossips. Many women, safe from the public eye, enjoyed the comfort 
and convenience which the new dress afforded for the performance 
of housework. The revival of 1857-8 was quite extensive. The dress 
reform forces organized themselves carefully in several communities. 
In Aurora the friends of dress reform of both sexes adopted a 
strong indictment of the prevailing style of dress, endorsed the "re- 
form dress," and resolved "that we will, by precept and example, by 
word and deed, to the best of our ability, encourage a change in 
woman's apparel, that shall be in keeping with physiological laws : 
allow free motion to every part of the body, protect and cover, in a 
proper m.anner, the wearer and materially aid her in attaining that 
position side by side with man, neither above him nor beneath him, 
but his co-worker in life and its duties, equally capable of enjoying 
its pleasures, for which nature designed her, and give a more correct 
idea of the natural proportions of the human form."^^ A committee 
of two men and three women was then appointed to frame a constitu- 
tion for the new "Dress Reform Association." Soon, however, the 
number of practicing converts declined and the unterrified became less 
zealous over their public appearances ; the traditions of centuries tri- 
umphed over the would-be reformers. Other less dramatic features of 
the woman's movement absorbed the interest of those who were capti- 
vated by a bona iide feminist philosophy. 

The Illinois woman's movement of the fifties — feeble and groping 
in all its eflforts— was the infancy of the powerful force that emerged 
triumphant in the twentieth century. The Civil War made new de- 
mands and presented new opportunities to womankind. The scope of 
every activity was enlarged and intensified. Women found a broader 
field of service outside of as well as within the home. Their visions 

** Aurora Beacon, June 26, 1851. 

25 Graysvillr Advertiser, in Illinois State Register, November 27, 1851. 

'^ Aurora Beacon, April 8, 1858. 


were enlarged as they listened to or participated in appeals for the 
negro freedman and his rights: they perceived the logic of the demand 
that members of their sex be accorded the same political privileges to 
which the former victims of chattel slavery were admitted. The 
woman's movement became articulate and redefined itself in terms 
broader than those of the previous decade. In the middle period of 
Illinois history, therefore, the woman's movement was important 
mainly because it was a beginning and because this beginning was one 
of a number of pieces of testimony to the fact that the frontier was 
about to pass from the Illinois prairies. 



(By Grace Wilbur Trout.) 

When we look back to the early fifties of the last century and 
contemplate the beginning of equal suffrage work in Illinois, we realize 
the marvelous change in public sentiment that has taken place since 
that time. A married woman in those days had no jurisdiction over 
her own children, she could not lay claim to her own wardrobe — 
about all that she could call her own in those days was her soul, and 
some man usually had a claim on that/although it had been solemnly 
declared during a previous century by a learned council of men that 
women really did possess souls. 

The first local sufifrage club in Illinois was organized over a half 
century ago in Earlville in the early sixties, and a few years later the 
Illinois Equal Sufifrage Association was founded in Chicago (in 1869). 
It was founded the same year that the National American Woman 
Suffrage Association was organized, and with which it has always 
been affiliated. 

The Illinois Equal Suffrage Association was organized by men as 
well as women. One of the early founders of the Association was 
Judge Charles B. Waite, who was appointed Associate Justice of Utah 
Territory by Abraham Lincoln. His wife, Mrs. Catherine Van Valken- 
berg Waite, was also one of that first group that started the state 
suffrage movement in Illinois, and associated with them were a num- 
ber of other eminent men and women. The work during those early 
years was slow, educational work, the Association patiently and per- 
sistently plodding forward toward its ultimate goal — full political free- 
dom for the women of Illinois. 

My first active participation in suffrage work was as President of 
the Chicago Political Equalitv League, to which office I was elected 
in May, 1910. 

The first active work undertaken under my administration as 
League President was to secure permission to have a Suffrage Float 
in the Sane Fourth Parade to be held in Chicago. There was some 
hesitation on the part of the men's committee having this in charge 
as to whether an innovation of this kind would be proper. Finally, 
however, permission was granted, with the understanding that we 
were to pay the committee $250.00 for the construction of the float. 
We had no funds in the treasury for this purpose so money had to be 
raised mostly by soliciting contributions from our friends and 
neighbor? in Oak Park. It was difficult also to secure young ladie^' 
whose mothers would permit them to ride on a Suffrage Float. All 
obstacles were finally overcome and the Suffrage Float received more 
cheering in the procession than any other feature of the parade, with 


the single exception of the G. A. R. Veterans, with whom it shared 
equal honors. The Suffrage Float aroused interest in suffrage among 
people who had never before considered the question seriously. 

While planning for the Suffrage Float, preparations were also 
being made for the first organized Suffrage Automobile Tour ever 
undertaken in Illinois. As League President I was asked by the State 
Board of the Illinois Equal Suffrage Association, to take charge of 
this experimental tour, which required about six weeks of preparatory 
work to insure its success. 

I visited the newspaper offices and was fortunate in securing the 
co-operation of the press. The tour started on Monday, July 11th, 
and the Sunday edition of the Chicago Tribune the day before con- 
tained a full colored page of the women in the autos, and nearly a 
half page more of reading material about the tour. The Tribune sent 
two reporters along on the trip, who rode with us in our auto, one to 
report for the daily paper and one to report for the Sunday edition. 
Other Chicago newspapers, the Examiner, Record-Herald, Post, and 
Journal, sent reporters by railroad and trolley, who joined us at our 
various stopping places. 

Through the kindness of one of our Oak Park neighbors. Mr. 
Charles W. Stiger, the Winton Motor Company donated the use of one 
of their finest seven passenger autos to carry us as far as Woodstock, 
furnishing also an expert chauffeur. There we were met by an equally 
fine Stoddard Dayton car which carried us to Naperville, where Mr. 
Stiger's own car was waiting to take us back to Chicago. At the 
meetings during this week's tour, contributions were taken and enough 
money was raised to pay all expenses of the trip and a balance of 
over $100.00 was turned into the state treasury. 

We spoke usually from the automobile, driving up into some 
square or stopping on a prominent street corner which had previously 
been advertised in the local papers and arranged for by the local 
committees in the various towns visited. It had been difficult, how- 
ever, in many towns to secure women who were willing to serve on 
these local committees, the excuse usually given was that the people 
in their respective towns were not interested and did not care to hear 
about suffrage. 

I selected as speakers for the tour, Mrs. Catherine Waugh Mc- 
Culloch, who spoke on suffrage from the legal standpoint ; Miss S. 
Grace Nicholes, a prominent settlement worker, who spoke from the 
laboring woman's standpoint, and Ella S. Stewart, State President, who 
treated the subject from an international aspect. I made the opening 
address at each meeting covering the subject in a general way, and 
introduced the speakers. I, in turn, was presented to the various 
crowds by some prominent local woman or man, and on several occa- 
sions by the mayor of the town. 

The towns visited were : Evanston, Highland Park, Lake Forest, 
Waukegan, Grays Lake, McHenry, Woodstock, Marengo, Belvidere, 
Sycamore, DeKalb, Geneva, Elgin, Aurora, Naperville and Wheaton. 
In every one of these towns the local newspapers gave front page 
stories about the Suffrage Automobile Tour, which helped greatly in 


arousing interest. Tiie following comments of the Chicago Tribune 
show the success of the trip: "Suffragists' tour ends in triumph 
. . . With mud-bespattered 'Votes for Women' still flying, Mrs. 
Grace Wilbur Trout, leader of the Suffrage automobile crusade, and 
her party of orators, returned late yesterday afternoon. . . . Men 
and wom.en cheered the suffragists all the way in from their last stop 
at Wheaton to the Fine Arts Building headquarters." The success of 
this tour encouraged the Illinois Suffrage Association to go on with 
this new phase of suffrage work, and similar tours were conducted in 
other parts of the State. 

The Chicago Political Equality League had been organized by 
the Chicago Woman's Club in 1894, and in May, 1910, had only 143 
members. We realized that for sixteen years' work this was too 
slow a growth in membership to bring speedy success to the suffrage 
movement. As a consequence in the summer of 1910 a strenuous cam- 
paign for new members was instituted, and in the League Year Book 
published in the fall, we had added 245 new names, nearly trebling 
our membership. 

The League had previously held its meetings in the rooms of the 
Chicago Woman's Club, but in 1911 it had grown to such proportions 
that more spacious quarters were needed, and the Music Hall of the 
Fine Arts Building was secured as a meeting place. On account of 
the League's increased activities it was voted at the annual meeting 
on May 6, 1911, to organize the Legislative, Propaganda, and Study 
Sections for the purpose of carrying on different phases of the work, 
and it was decided also to hold meetings four times a month instead 
of once as heretofore. 

My term of office as League President expired in May, 1912, and 
through the splendid co-operation of the League members we had 
succeeded in raising our membership to over 1,000 members. 

On October 2, 1912, at the State Convention held at Galesburg, 
Illinois, I was elected State President of the Illinois Equal Suffrage 
Association. In addition to my League Work I had been serving as a 
member of the State Board of this Association since October, 1910. 
Thus having had several years of strenuous experience in suffrage 
work I desired above all things to retire to private life, and in spite 
of the urging of many suffragists, would not have accepted the state 
presidency h^d it not been for the arguments advanced by one of my 
sons. This son had been out in California during the 1911 suffrage 
campaign when the California women won their liberty. He had seen 
everv vicious interest lined up against the women and had become 
convinced of the righteousness of the cause. He said to me: 
"Mother, you ought to be willing to do this work — to make any sacri- 
fice if necessary. This is not a work simply for women, but for hu- 
manity," and he added, "you can do a work that no one else can do." 
He had that blind faith that sons always have in their mothers — and 
I listened to his advice. 

This son, who had just reached his majority, had met with a 
severe accident some years before, from which we thought he had 


completely recovered, but just three weeks after my election an un- 
expected summons came to him and he passed on into that far country 
where the principles of equality and justice are forever established. 
So our v^-ork sometimes comes toward us out of the sunshine of life, 
sometimes it comes toward us out of life's shadows, and all that we 
do is not only for those who are here, and those who are coming after 
us, but is in memory of those who have gone on before. 

Immediately after my election to the presidency we realized the 
necessity of strengthening the organization work, for in spite of all 
the previous organization work, there were many Senatorial districts 
in which there was no suffrage organization of any kind, and as the 
time was short, competent women were immediately appointed in 
such districts to see that their respective legislators were properly 
interviewed, and to be ready to have letters and telegrams sent to 
Springfield when called for. 

All of this work was difficult to accomplish without funds. Our 
Board found the Association about $100.00 in debt, and immediate 
solicitation of the friends of suffrage was begun for the purpose of 
raising funds. After legislative work began however, this work 
was of paramount importance and I had to call often upon Mr. Trout 
for funds with which to finance the Springfield campaign. 

During the previous session of the Springfield Legislature (in 
1911) I had accompanied Mrs. McCulloch, who had been in charge 
there of the suffrage legislative work for over twenty years. At that 
time I was indignant at the way the suffrage committee was treated. 
Some men who had always believed in suffrage, were exceedingly 
kind, but no one regarded the matter as a serious legislative question 
which had the slightest possibility of becoming a law, Mr. Homer 
Tice had charge of the suffrage bill in 1911 in the House, and he said 
that in consequence he became so "unpopular that every other bill he 
introduced in the Legislature during that session, was also killed. It 
certainly required moral courage for an Illinois Legislator to be an 
active suffragist at that time. 

Having had this experience, as soon as I was elected to the 
presidency of the Illinois Equal Suffrage Association I sent for Mrs. 
Elizabeth K. Booth of Glencoe, the newly elected Legislative Chair- 
man, and we agreed upon a legislative policy. This included a 
campaign without special trains, special hearings, or spectacular ac- 
tivities of any kind at Springfield, as too much publicity during a 
legislative year is liable to arouse also the activity of every opponent. 
It was decided to initiate a quiet, educational campaign, and not to 
attack or criticise those opposed to suffrage, because the only possible 
wav to succeed and secure sufficient votes to pass the measure was to 
convert some of these so-called "opponents" into friends. We agreed 
also that a card index, giving information about every member of the 
Legislature, should be compiled. This plan of procedure was sub- 
mitted to the State Board at its regular meeting on November 8, 
1912, and the plan of campaign as outlined was approved and adopted 
by the Board. The following women served on the State Board at 
this time: 


Officers : 

Prepident Grace Wilbur Trout 

First Vice-Presideut Miss Jane Addams 

Second Vice-President Mrs. Joseph T. Bowen 

Recording Secretary Miss Virginia Broolcs 

Corresponding- Secretary Mrs. Bertram W. Sippy 

Treasurer Miss Jennie F. W. Johnson 

Auditor Mrs. J. W. McGraw 

Heads of Departments : 

Organization Mrs. Mary R. Phnnmer 

Press Miss Margaret Dobyne 

Literature Dr. Anna E. Blount 

Pubhcity Mrs. George S. Welles 

Legislative . . . . ; Mrs. Sherman M. Booth ~ 

Church Mrs. H. M. Brown 

Lecture Miss S. Grace Nicholes 

Industrial Miss Mary McDowell 

Woman's Journal Mrs. Lillian N. Brown 

Directors : 

Officers, Heads of Departments 

Mrs. Elvira Downey Mrs. Charles A. Webster 

Mrs. Ella S. Stewart 

On December 19th a suffrage mass meeting was held in Orchestra 
liall in honor of the Board of Managers of the National American 
Woman Suffrage Association which at that time was holding a 
board meeting in Chicago. The mass meeting was given especially 
in honor of Miss Jane Addams and Mrs. Joseph T. Bowen, who had 
both been elected to the National Board at the National Convention 
held in November. Miss Addams and Mrs. Bowen were also respec- 
tively First and Second Vice-Presidents of the Illinois Equal Suffrage 
Association. As State President I presided over this meeting, and 
Dr. Anna Howard Shaw and other members of the National Board 
addressed the audience. 

As soon as the legislature convened in January. 1913, an immedi- 
ate struggle developed over the speakership in the House. There was 
a long and bitter deadlock before William McKinley, a young Demo- 
crat from Chicago, was finally elected Speaker. Then another strug- 
gle ensued over who should represent Illinois in the United States 
Senate. During these weeks of turmoil little could be accomplished 
in the way of securing votes for the suffrage bill. 

Before the legislature had convened the Progressive Party had 
made plans to introduce as a party measure a carefully drafted 
woman's suffrage bill. Hearing about this Mrs. Booth and I at once 
consulted with the Progressive leaders and suggested that it would 
be far better to let the Illinois Equal Suffrage Association introduce 
— 7 H S 


this measure than to have it presented by any poHtical party. The 
Progressives reahzed the force of this suggestion and finally very 
kindly agreed to let the Illinois Equal Suffrage Association take their 
carefully drafted bill and have it introduced as an absolutely non- 
partisan measure. 

In the meantime, on February 10th, Mrs. Booth as Legislative 
Chairman, was sent to Springfield to study the plats and learn to 
recognize and call by name each member of the legislature. Mrs. 
Catherine Waugh McCulloch — who had declined to serve as Legis- 
lative Chairman this year on account of family duties — volunteered 
on this occasion to accompany Mrs. Booth to Springfield. As this was 
Mrs. Booth's first trip no action had as yet been taken to introduce 
the Presidential and Municipal Suffrage Bill which had been drafted 
by the Progressives and which we were to introduce. Mrs. McCulloch, 
however, took with her a suffrage bill which she had drafted and 
which she insisted upon having introduced without one word being 
changed, which was done. It contained however, in its second section, 
no blanket clause, but specifically named the officers for whom women 
should be allowed to vote, instead of being worded like the Progress- 
ive draft which said: "Women shall be allowed to vote at such elec- 
tions for all officers and upon all questions and propositions submitted 
to a vote of the electors, except where the Constitution provides as 
a qualification that the elector shall be a male citizen of the United 
States." Mrs. Booth being inexperienced in legislative work, and as 
Mrs. McCulloch was a lawyer, she believed this bill to be regular in 
form and to cover the subject fully. When Mrs. Booth returned and 
reported what had been done we were all very much distressed that the 
plan agreed upon with the Progressives had not been carried out and 
their bill introduced. In the interests of harmony, and out of defer- 
ence to Mrs. McCulloch's long years of service as Legislative Chair- 
man, and we not being so well versed in constitutional law then as 
some of us became later, the matter was allowed to stand. 

We having failed to introduce the form of bill agreed upon with 
the Progressives, they proceeded to introduce their bill in both the 
House and Senate. This complicated matters and made confusion, 
but finally the Progressives in order to help the suffrage cause, very 
graciously withdrew their bill. Medill McCormick, one of the leading 
Progressives in the legislature, helped greatly in straightening out 
this tangle. He was our faithful ally and rendered invaluable ser- 
vice durtng the entire session. Other Progressives in the House who 
also rendered important service were: John M. Curran and Emil 
N. Zolla, both of Chicago, J. H. Jayne of Monmouth, Charles H. 
Carmon of Forrest and Fayette S. Munro of Highland Park : 

While the State Legislative work was being taken care of at 
Springfield we did everv thing possible to cooperate with the National 
American Woman Suffrage Association in its national work. On 
March 3rd, the day preceding President Wilson's first inauguration at 
Washington, suffragists of the various states were called to come to 
the National Capital and take part in a suffrage parade. I was very 
proud to conduct 83 Illinois women to Washington. We left Chicago 


by special train on March 1, 1913, and were extended every courtesy 
by the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. An elaborate banquet was served 
on the train includino- fresh strawberries, and everv other delicacv, 
at only $1.00 a plate, and special maids were provided to wait upon the 

This Washington parade and the brutal treatment accorded the 
women along the line of march aroused the indignation of the whole 
nation and converted many men to the suffrage cause. It was openly 
asserted that if law-abiding women, who had been given an official per- 
mit to have the parade, could be so ill treated on the streets of the 
National Capital, it was time that the legal status of women was 
changed and women accorded the respect to which every loyal American 
citizen is entitled. The police claimed they could not control the jeer- 
ing mob, who spat upon the women and roughly handled many of 
them, but the next day the Inauguration Parade down the same streets 
was a manifestation of perfect law and order and was in marked 
contrast to the disgraceful procedure of the day before. The Illinois 
women wore a uniform regalia of cap and baldric and were headed 
by a large band led by Mrs. George S. Welles as Drum Major. We 
had a woman outrider, a young Mrs. Stewart recently converted to 
the cause, who on a spirited horse helped keep back the mob from our 
group. I led carrying an American flag, and our Illinois banner too 
heavy for a woman, was carried by Mr. Royal N. Allen, an ardent 
suffragist and one of the railroad officials, who had our special suffrage 
train in charge. Our women had been drilled to march and keep time, 
and the discipline manifested seemed to affect the hoodlums and our 
women were treated with more respect than the majority of the march- 
ers. In fact, the newspapers particularly commended the order and 
system manifested by the Illinois Division. 

On March 10th I went to Springfield to consult with Governor 
Edward F. Dunne, and secure if possible, his support of the Presi- 
.dential and Municipal Suffrage Bill. He agreed to support this 
statutory suffrage bill if we would promise not to introduce a suffrage 
measure which provided for a constitutional amendment, as but one 
constitutional amendment (according to Illinois law) could be intro- 
duced during a legislative session, and this if introduced, would inter- 
fere with the Initiative and Referendum Constitutional Amendment 
upon which the administration was concentrating its efforts. We 
assured the Governor that we would not introduce a resolution for a 
constitutional suffrage amendment because we knew we had no chance 
to pass such a resolution and we also wished not to interfere with the 
administration's legislative plans. I remained in Springfield during the 
rest of the week to size up the legislative situation. 

The next week I went again to Springfield to attend the meeting 
of the Senate Committee to which our suffrage bill had been referred. 
Senator W. Duff Piercy was chairman and had offered to arrange 
a suffrage hearing if we wished it. As we ascertained that a majority 
on this committee were friendly it seemed wiser not to arouse antag- 
onism by having public discussion on the suffrage question at this 
time, so there was no hearing. 


During the next two weeks I spent my time in visiting the dis- 
tricts having legislators not as yet converted to the suffrage cause. 
Mass meetings were held in some towns and arranged for in many 

The first week of April the Mississippi Valley Conference of 
Suffragists was held at St. Louis and it seemed imperative for me to 
attend. This large gathering of suffragists would have been helpful 
to our legislative work in Springfield if a prominent Illinois suft'ragist 
in her speech at the conference, had not attacked the lawyers in the 
Illinois Legislature saying they were either crooks or failures in their 
profession or words to that effect. As there were many lawyers in both 
the House and Senate whose votes we had to secure in order to pass 
the suffrage measure, such attacks were most unfortunate and made 
the work exceedingly difficult. 

Another shock was in store for us, for on April 2nd, at the re- 
quest of this same suffragist, a resolution providing for a constitutional 
amendment W'as introduced. It had been thoroughly explained to her 
that this was against the wishes of the Governor and would be con- 
strued as a breach of faith on our part, especially as she had 
been identified for so many years with the suffrage legislative work. 
It was hard for the legislators and for the Governor to realize that 
any suff'ragist, not a member of the lobby, nor a member of the State 
Board, would proceed entirely on her own judgment. At our Stare 
Board meeting held on April 8th Mrs. Joseph T. Bowen, our First 
Vice-President, introduced a resolution which was afterwards sent to 
this suffragist asking her, in the interests of the equal suffrage 
movement in Illinois, to have this resolution withdrawn. It was not 
withdrawn, however, but was afterwards killed in committee. 

The W'Ork at Springfield became more and more difficult and at 
times it seemed hopeless. No politician believed that he had the 
slightest chance to pass the suffrage measure. On April 7th I began 
attending the sessions of the legislature regularly. 

During all of our work at Springfield we had splendid cooperation 
from the press. Nearly every week end when we returned to Chicago 
I made il a point to see one or more managers of the newspapers and 
explain to them the difficulties we were encountering, and asked them 
to publish an editorial that would be helpful to the situation. By not 
appealing too often to any one newspaper helpful articles were kept 
coming along in some newspaper nearly every week. We had these 
various newspapers containing suffrage propaganda folded so 
that the editorial (blue pencil) came on the outside. They were then 
placed on each legislator's desk by a boy engaged for that purpose. 
These editorials were a surprise to the representatives of these various 
Chicago newspapers who were at Springfield, for it seemed best to 
make it appear that these editorials were spontaneous expressions of 
sentiment. I remember one of the legislators, unfriendly to suffrage, 
who had tried a little parliamentary trick which was indirectly referred 
to in an editorial, growling about those Chicago newspapers that at- 
tend to evervbodv's business but their own. He even complained to 


the Springfield representative of the newspaper, who of course de- 
clared his innocence, because he knew nothing about it. 

The Springfield papers also became exceedingly friendly and pub- 
lished sufTrage articles and editorials when we asked for them. 

Among the Chicago newspaper men whom I remember with spe- 
cial gratitude at this time were : Mr. Keely and Mr. Beck of the 
Tribune, Mr. Chamberlain of the Record Herald, Mr. Eastman and 
Mr. Finnegan of the Journal, Mr. Andrew Lawrence and Mr. Victor 
Polacheck of the Examiner, Mr. Curley of the American, Mr. Shafer 
and ]\lr. ]\Iason of the Post and Mr. Frank Armstrong of the Daily 

We were deeply indebted at this time for the help given us by 
Mr. Andrew J. Redmond, a Chicago lawyer and Grand Commander 
of the Knights Templar. I remember one instance in particular when 
much pressure was being brought to bear on Governor Dunne to 
prejudice him against the suffrage bill — I wished Mr. Redmond, who 
was a personal friend of the Governor, to go down to Springfield 
and help counteract this harmful influence. Mr. Redmond was a 
next door neighbor of ours in Oak Park, and he had an important 
law suit on that week ; and in talking the matter over with Mr. Trout 
we both decided it would be imposing upon the kindness of a friend 
to ask him to leave his business and go at that time. Mrs. Red- 
mond, however, called me up by phone to ask how things were going. 
She and her husband were both deeply interested in having us win 
the fight. T told her the facts but told her I was not going to ask Mr. 
Redmond, much as we needed him. to go down the coming week on 
account of his business. When Mr. Trout took me to the Springfield 
train, w^here I met Mrs. Booth, there on the platform with his grip 
in his hand, stood Mr. Redmond. My husband said at once "why, I 
thought you were not going to ask him to go this week." I explained 
that I hadn't, but told about my conversation with Mrs. Redmond, 
and of course if his wife wished to interfere wath his business and send 
him to Springfield, I was not responsible. Mr. Redmond not only 
called upon the Governor, but saw several down State legislators whom 
he knew very well, and through his influence several important votes 
were secured. 

I discovered at Springfield that we had just four classes of 
legislators — "wets" and "drys" and "dry-wets" and "wet-drys." The 
"dry-wets" were men who voted for the wet measures but never drank, 
themselves. The "wet-drys" w'ere those who voted for dry measures 
but imbibed freely themselves. The 'drys" warned us not to trust a 
single "wet" and the "wets" on the other hand counseled us to take no 
stock in those hypocritical "drys." As the measure could not be passed 
without "wet" votes, our scheme of education necessarily had to in- 
clude "wets" as well as "drys." 

I well remember of asking a certain "wet" legislator from a for- 
eign section in Chicago if he would vote for the sufifrage bill. He 
looked surprised and said, "Don't you think the women would vote 
out all the saloons?" I answered that T hoped so. He seemed dum- 
founded by such frankness and sort of gasped, "yet you ask me, a 


'wet,' to vote for the bill?" I then explained as best I could, that I 
supposed all honest "wets" as well as "drys" felt the same way about 
the saloons, that while we might differ on how to settle the temper- 
ance question, still we all really hoped that those places where men 
wasted their money and where boys and girls were frequently lured to 
destruction, were done away with. He looked a little dazed and said 
nothing. I of course thought we had lost his vote, and was happily 
surprised the next morning when this same man came to me with 
a very sober face and said : "I thought and thought about what you 
said all night, and I guess you are right — you can count on my vote," 
and he kept his word. 

The Presidential and Municipal Suffrage Bill was introduced in 
the House by Representative Charles L. Scott (Dem.) and in the Sen- 
ate by Senator Hugh S. Magill, Jr., (Rep.). It was decided however, 
to let the suffrage bill lie quiescent in the House and secure its passage 
first through the Senate. 

After nearly three months of strenuous effort the bill finally 
passed the Senate on May 7th by a vote of 29 yeas (3 more than the 
required majority) to 15 nays. 

It is doubtful whether we could have secured this favorable 
action had it not been for the good judgment and diplomacy of Senator 
Hugh S. Magill, Jr., who had charge of the bill in the Senate. We also 
had the assistance on each and every occasion of the Democratic 
Lieutenant Governor. Barratt O'Hara, and among other Senators 
who helped and who deserve mention were : Martin B. Bailey, Albert 
C. Clark, Michael H. Cleary, William A. Compton, Edward C. Curtis, 
Samuel A. Ettleson, Logan Hay, George W. Harris, Walter Clyde 
Jones, Kent E. Keller, Walter I. Manny and W. Duflf Piercy. 

The day the bill passed the Senate I left Springfield immediately 
to address a suffrage meeting to be held in Galesburg that evening, 
and the next day went to Monmouth where another meeting was held. 
In both of these towns there was a member of the House who was 
marked on the card index as "doubtful." Both of these legislators 
however, afterwards through the influence of their respective con- 
stituents voted for the suffrage measure. We soon discovered that 
there was no class of people for whom a politician had so tender and 
respectful a regard as for his voting constituents. 

After I left Springfield that week Mrs. Booth remained to see that 
the suffrage measure got safely over to the House. In the meantime 
there was a mix-up and the suffrage bill was taken by mistake directly 
to the Committee on Elections without first being recommended to that 
committee by the Speaker of the House. There was an immediate 
outcry on the part of the opponents of the measure at such irregular 
procedure. It was very amusing to find that other Senate bills had 
been put through in this way and no objections had been raised, but 
it aroused fierce indignation with the suffrage bill, for the men at 
Springfield said there had never been such opposition to anv other 

When I returned to Springfield the following w^eek after this 
mistake had been made, I learned a lesson about the inadvisability 


of talking on elevators. I was on an elevator at the Capitol when 
some of our legislative opponents, who were in a facetious mood, got 
on, and one of them remarked, with sidelong glance at me, "How- 
surprised some folks will be later on," and laughed so jubilantly as 
I got off the elevator that it made me thoughtful. After some medita- 
tion I decided that there was an intention to put the suffrage bill into 
the wrong committee, and this surmise was afterwards proven cor- 
rect. We wished it to go into the Elections Committee, where we 
had already ascertained we had sufficient votes to get it out with a 
favorable recommendation, however, if it was ordered into the Judi- 
ciary Committee, it would fall into the hands of the enemy and be 
killed forever. We worked into the small hours of the night carefully 
making our plans for the next day. In the meantime James A. Wat- 
son, one of our faithful friends and Chairman of the Elections 
Committee, had returned the suffrage bill to Speaker McKinley, and 
arrangements were made so that the Speaker could properly turn it 
over to the Elections Committee. When the morning session opened 
the bill was ordered to the Elections Committee before our opponents 
realized their little plot had been frustrated. We were not surprised 
but they were. 

It is doubtful whether we could have secured this favorable ac- 
tion without the powerful assistance of David E. Shanahan. The 
latter on account of being from a foreign district in Chicago, felt he 
could not vote for the suffrage bill but he gave us the benefit of his 
wise counsel. In fact to overcome the pitfalls, which surround the 
passage of every bill upon which there is a violent difference of opin- 
ion, I appealed to the enemies of the measure to give the women of 
Illinois a square deal. On account of his great influence with other 
members I especially appealed to Mr. Lee O'Neil Browne, a powerful 
Democratic leader and one of the best parliamentarians in the House. 
Mr. Browne had always opposed suffrage legislation but he finally 
consented to let the bill, so far as he was concerned, come up to third 
reading, so that it could come out in the open and be voted up or 
down on its merits, stating frankly that he would try to defeat the 
bill on the floor of the House. It was this spirit of fair play among 
the opponents of the measure as well as the loyalty of its friends, that 
afterwards made possible the great victory of 1913. 

During this time Mrs. Booth and I worked alone at Springfield, 
but now we sent for Mrs. Antoinette Funk of Chicago, who had been 
an active worker in the Progressive Party, to come to Springfield and 
she arrived on May 13th. Mrs. Funk was a lawyer, and her legal 
experience made her services at this time very valuable. A week 
later, on May 20th, Mrs. Medill McCormick, with her new baby girl, 
moved from Chicago to Springfield and we immediately enlisted her 
services. Mrs. McCormick, as the daughter of the late Mark Hanna, 
had inherited much of her father's keen interest in politics and she 
was a welcome and most valuable addition to our forces. 

The suffrage bill was called up for second reading on June 3rd. 
There was a most desperate attempt at this time to amend, and if pos- 
sible kill the measure, but it finally passed on to third reading without 


any changes — just as it had come over from the Senate. During this 
period we found that we were being shadowed by detectives, and we 
were on our guard constantly, and we never talked over any plans when 
we were in any public place. 

The hope of the opposition now was to influence Speaker McKinley 
and prevent the bill from coming up, and let it die, as so many bills do 
die, on third reading. Sometimes bills come up that many legislators 
do not favor but to preserve their good records they feel obliged to 
vote for, then afterwards these legislators appeal to the Speaker of 
the House and ask him to save them by preventing it from ever coming 
to a final vote. If he is adroit, this can be done without the people 
as a whole knowing what has happened to some of their favorite 
measures. Mr. Edward D. Shurtlefif said this was done session after 
session when he was Speaker of the House by the men who had prom- 
ised to vote for the suffrage bill but never wanted it under any cir- 
cumstances to pass. The young Speaker of the House looked worn 
and haggard during these trying days — he told me he had not been 
allowed to sleep for many nights — that hundreds of men from Chicago 
and from other parts of Illinois had come down and begged him to 
never let the suffrage bill come up for the final vote, and threatened 
him with political oblivion if he did. He implored me to let him know 
if there was any suffrage sentiment in Illinois. 

I immediately telephoned to Chicago to Margaret Dobyne, our 
faithful Press Chairman, to send the call out for help all over the 
State, asking for telegrams and letters to be sent at once to Speaker 
McKinley asking him to bring up the suffrage measure and have it 
voted upon. She called in Jennie F. W. Johnson, the State Treasurer, 
Mrs. J. W. McGraw, and other members of the Board and secured 
the assistance of Mrs. Judith W. Loewenthal. Mrs. Charles L. Nagely, 
Mrs. L. Brackett Bishop and oher active suffragists to help in this 
work and wherever possible they reached nearby towns by telephone. 

In the meantime I also phoned Mrs. Harriette Taylor Treadwell, 
President of the Chicago Political Equality League, to have Speaker 
McKinley called up by phone and interviewed when he returned to 
Chicago that week, and to also have letters and telegrams waiting for 
him when he returned to Springfield. She organized the novel, and 
nov/ famous, telephone brigade, by means of which Speaker McKinley 
was called up every 15 minutes by leading men as well as women, 
both at his home' and his office from early Saturdav morning 
until Monday evening, the days he spent in Chicago. His mother, 
whom we entertained at a luncheon after the bill had passed, 
said that it was simply one continuous ring at their house 
and that someone had to sit right by the phone to answer 
the calls. Mrs. Treadwell was ably assisted in this work 
by Mrs. James W. Morrison, President of the Chicago Equal Suf- 
frage Association : Mrs. Jeane Wallace Butler, a well known manu- 
facturer and exporter, who appealed to business women : Mrs. Edward 
L. Stillman, an active suffragist in the Rogers Park Woman's Club; 
Miss Florence King, President of the Woman's Association of Com- 
merce ; Miss Mary Miller, President of the Chicago Human Rights 


Association; Mrs. Charlotte Rhodus, President of the Woman's Party 
of Cook County ; Miss Belle Squire, President of the No-Vote No-Tax 
League, and others. 

When the Speaker reach Springfield Tuesday morning there were 
thousands of letters and telegrams waiting for him from every section 
of Illinois. He needed no further proof that there was suffrage senti- 
ment in Illinois, and acted accordingly. He announced that the 
suffrage bill would be brought up for final vote on June 11th. W'e 
immediately got busy. We divided up our friends among the legisla- 
tors and each man was personally interviewed by either Mrs. Booth, 
Mrs. Funk, Mrs. McCormick, or myself. 

As soon as the bill had passed the Senate we had realized that 
with 153 members in the House, we would need help in rounding up 
the "votes," so we immediately selected sixteen House members whom 
we appointed as Captains ; each Captain was given so many men to 
look after and see that these men were in their seats whenever the 
suffrage bill came up for consideration. The following Representa- 
tives served as Captains, and rendered efficient service: William F. 
Burres, John P. Devine, Norman C. Flagg, Frank Gillespie, Wil- 
liam A. Hubbard, Roy D. Hunt, J. H. Jayne, W. C. Kane. Medill Mc- 
Cormick, Charles E. Scott, Edward D. Shurtleff, Seymour Stedman, 
Homer T. Tice, Francis E. Williamson, George H. Wilson and Emil 
N. Zolla. 

The latter part of the week before the bill was to be voted upon 
I sent telegrams to every man who had promised to vote for the bill 
in the House, asking him to be present if possible on Tuesday morn- 
ing as the suffrage bill was to be voted upon Wednesday, June 11th, 
and we would feel safer to have our friends on hand early. 

When the morning of June 11th came there was suppressed ex- 
citement at the Capitol. The Captains previously requested to be on 
hand were there rounding up their men and reporting if any were 
missing. We immediately called up those who were not there, and 
if necessary, sent a cab after them, which we had engaged for the day 
to be ready for any emergency. There was one young man who was 
especially efficient in the telephone booth so we engaged him to stay 
at his post all day, so that we could secure quick telephone service 
when needed. 

We all wanted to be in the gallery where we could see that last 
dramatic struggle, but it seeemed to me wiser to have the entrance 
of the House guarded to prevent any friendly legislators from leaving 
during roll call, and to prevent any of our opponents from violating 
the law and entering the House during the session. The husky door- 
keeper, who was opposed to suffrage, could not be counted upon to 
keep out anti-suffrage lobbyists if they desired to enter, consequently 
I took up my post near the House door, which was the only entrance 
left open that day, and was furnished a chair by the man who con- 
ducted a cigar stand near the entrance. Mrs. Booth and Mrs. Mc- 
Cormick sat in the gallery and checked off the votes ,and Mrs. Funk 
carried messages and instructions and kept me advised of the develop- 
ments in the House. Shortly after the session opened the before men- 


lioned doorkeeper came and very brusquely ordered me to go to the 
gallery. Around the rotunda rail lounged a number of our opponents, 
so I said I preferred to remain where I was. He scowled his disap- 
proval, and presently returned and said that one of the House mem- 
bers who was an active opponent of our measure, said if I did not go 
to the gallery at once he would introduce and pass a resolution forcing 
me to do so. I answered politely saying that of course the member 
was privileged to introduce any resolution he desired, but in the 
meantime I would remain where I was. The men around the rotunda 
rail were watching the whole procedure and when I still remained in 
spite of this warning they regarded me with unfriendly eyes. There 
was a lawyer among them who longed to get inside that day, but he 
did not like, even with the backing of a friendly doorkeeper, to violate 
the law — that forbade any lobbyist to enter the House after the session 
had convened — in my presence. The dookeeper in reporting the inci- 
dent afterwards said, 'T did not dare touch her and march her up into 
the gallery where she belonged." As a matter of fact any citizen of 
Illinois had a legal right to be where I was, if he so desired. In the 
meantime several friends becoming tired with the long discussions and 
frequent roll calls, started to leave, but I persuaded them in the in- 
terest of a great cause, to return. So while I could only hear the 
sound of voices and from Mrs. Funk's reports get some idea of the 
fight that was raging inside, I was glad that I had remained as guardian 
of the door, for the main, all-important object after all was to pass 
the bill. 

During this time a House member came rushing out and said 
"We have lost." I immediately sent the boy. whom we had engaged 
for this purpose, for Mrs. Funk and told her I knew there was a mis- 
take for we had the votes and no men had left the House. Shortly 
afterwards there was a deafening roar and several men rushed out 
and exclaimed "We have won. The bill has passed." I remember of 
turning my face to the wall and shedding a few quiet tears and when 
I looked around there were about ten men who were all surreptitiously 
wiping their eyes. The Presidential and Municipal Suffrage Bill 
passed the House by the following vote : Yeas 83 (6 more than the 
required majority) to nays 58. 

It was a great victory. It was claimed there was plenty of money 
at Springfield — a million dollars or more — ready to be used to defeat 
the law, but not one Illinois legislator could be influenced to break his 
word. The bill was passed through the co-operation and voting to- 
gether of men from all political parties, men of different religious faiths, 
and it was dramatic on the floor of the House to have the fight for our 
bill led by Edward D. Shurtleff, at the time leader of the "wets," and 
George H. Wilson, leader of the "drys." It was clearly demonstrated 
that we may as a people, differ on questions of creed, and honestly 
differ on questions of policy — these differences of opinion are after 
all, purely matters of birth and environment — but there are great 
fundamental principles of right which touch human happiness and 
human life upon which w-e all stand together. 


In fact the men who voted for the suffrage bill at Springfield had 
become convinced that the suffrage bill was basic in its nature and 
stood back of, and took precedence over all other measures for philan- 
thropy and reform. They realized also that no state would even be 
approaching permanent better conditions with a fundamental wrong at 
the core of its Government, and that "in a Government of the people, 
by the people, and for the people" — "people" could be interpreted only 
as meaning women as well as men. 

The Illinois legislators in voting for the suffrage measure made 
themselves forever great — they gave Illinois a place in history no 
other State can ever fill, for Illinois was the first State east of the 
Mississippi and the first State even bordering the great father of 
waters, to break down the conservatism of the great Middle West 
and give suffrage to its women. It was claimed that there had been 
no event since the Civil War of such far-reaching national significance 
as the passage of the suffrage bill in Illinois. This seemed like a 
prophecy, for since that time Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt, President of 
the National American Woman Suffrage Association, said that New 
York women never could have won their great suffrage victory In 
1917 if Illinois had not first opened the door in 1913, and the winning 
of suffrage in New York so added to the political strength of the 
suffrage movement in Congress that it made possible the passage of 
the Federal Suffrage Amendment in 1919, so the work in Illinois was 
fundamental and as vitally important to the women of the whole nation 
as it was to the women of Illinois. 

We were especially grateful when we had secured the vote of Mr, 
Edward D. Shurtleff, always before opposed to suffrage. He had been 
for years Speaker of the House, and was acknowledged to be one of 
the most astute and ablest men in Springfield. We went to him fre- 
quently for counsel, and his practical knowledge of legislative pro- 
cedure tided us over many difficulties. 

Charles L. Scott, who introduced the bill in the House, deserves 
especial mention. Mr. Scott was liked by all of the legislators and 
he refused to introduce any other bills during this session so that he 
could be free to devote all of his time and energy in working for the 
passage of the suffrage bill. Other men who helped, and some of 
whom stood out against strong pressure of our opponents, were : John 
A. Atwood, Joseph C. Blaha, Randolph Boyd, Lucas I. Butts, Thomas 
Campbell. Franklin S. Catlin, John M. Curran, Israel Dudgeon, 
Thomas IT. Hollister, John Houston, F. E. J. Lloyd, Thomas E. Lyon, 
William R. McCabe, Frank J. Ryan, James A. Watson, and others. 

Immediately after the passage of the suffrage bill terriffic pres- 
sure was brought to bear on Governor Dunne to get him if possible to 
veto the measure. Our opponents tried to get Attorney General Patrick 
J. Lucey to declare the law unconstitutional. We were given great as- 
sistance at this time by Hiram Gilbert, a constitutional lawyer— a 
prominent Democrat and powerful with the administration, who de- 
clared the suffrage law was constitutional. 


We gave a banquet in the name of the IlHnois Equal Suffrage 
Association, to the IlHnois legislators and their wives, at the Leland 
Hotel on June 13th, and I remember at that time some of the lobby 
objected to inviting those who had voted against the measure, but this 
v^'ould have been bad policy and it was finally decided that all must 
be invited, opponents as well as friends, and telegrams were sent tv) 
suffragists throughout the State, urging them to be present, and many 
came. T asked Mrs. McCormick to take charge of this banquet, which 
was a brilliant success. She had printed a roll of honor which we 
asked all of the men who had voted for the suffrage bill to sign. 
Governor Dunne was given an ovation when he entered the banquet 
hall and he also signed the roll of honor. 

Immediately after the banquet Airs. ]\IcCormick was sent to 
Chicago to secure favorable opinions from able lawyers on the con- 
stitutionality oithe suffrage bill. These opinions she forwarded to me 
and I delivered them personally to the Governor. Mr. William L. 
O'Connell, a personal friend of Governor Dunne, and a prominent 
Chicago Democrat, was in Springfield at this time and helped to coun- 
teract the work being done by the enemies of suffrage. Margaret 
Haley was also in Springfield and made many calls upon the Governor 
at this time, urging him to sign the suffrage bill. The Governor stood 
out against all opposition and signed the suffrage bill on June 26th, 
and by so doing earned the everlasting gratitude of every man and 
woman in Illinois who stands for human liberty. After the bill was 
signed the good news was telegraphed all over the State and by pre- 
vious arrangement flags were raised simultaneously all over Illinois. 

As there had been no time during this strenuous period to raise 
funds, when we returned to Chicago we found the State Treasury 
empty although the entire cost of the Springfield campaign, which 
lasted for over six months and included railroad fare for the lobbyists 
to and from Springfield, innumerable telegrams and long distance 
telephone calls, postage, stationery, printing, stenographic help, hotel 
bills and incidentals, was only $1,567.26. We therefore very grate- 
fully accepted the offer of the Chicago Examiner to publish a suffrage 
edition of that paper, and netted as a result, about $15,000 for the 
suffrage cause, which included over $4,000 which we paid out to local 
organizations that had secured advertisements for the paper on a 
commission basis, as well as several thousand dollars' worth of furni- 
ture with which we beautifully furnished the new suffrage headquar- 
ters which were rented that fall in the Tower Building, Chicago. 

I was again elected President of the Illinois Equal Suffrage Asso- 
ciation at the convention held in Peoria in October, 1913. 

The enemies of suffrage were beginning to attack the constitu- 
tionality of the bill simultaneously in different towns throughout the 
State, and finally suit was brought against the Election Commissioners 
of Chicago which involved the constitutionality of the suffrage law. 
^^'e secured as our counsel John J. Herrick. a recognized authority on 
constitutional law, and Judge Charles S. Cutting. These two men by 
agreement with the Election Commissioners took charge of the fight. 
They consulted, however, with Mr. Charles H. Mitchell, their regular 


counsel ys well as with Judge Willard jMcEwen, whom the Commis- 
sioners engaged as special counsel on the case. They also entered 
into counsel with Judge Isaiah T. Greenacre, regular counsel for the 
Teachers' Federation, and Joel F. Longnecker, a young, lawyer active 
in the Progressive Party, both of whom donated their services. There 
was a hot fight in the Supreme Court which lasted for many months, 
the case being- carried over from one term of the Supreme Court to 
the next without being decided. 

During this time it was vitally necessary to demonstrate public 
sentiment by getting as many women as possible to vote at the munici- 
pal elections in April, so Civic Leagues were organized in every city 
ward. Splendid work was done by Mrs. Ida Darling Engelke, Ward 
Chairman for the Chicago Political Equality League, and all of the 
city work was directed by Mrs. Edward L. Stewart, Chairman of 
organization work for the Illinois Equal Sufifrage Association. They 
called upon all other organizations to help, and as a result over 200,000 
women registered in Chicago alone, and thousands more down state. 

On May 2nd of this year (1914) we held the first large suffrage 
parade ever given in Chicago. Governor Edward F. Dunne with Car- 
ter H. Flarrison, Mayor of Chicago, reviewed the procession and over 
15,000 women marched down Michigan Boulevard with hundreds of 
thousands of people lining both sides of the way for over a mile and 
a half. 

The General Federation was also going to hold its biennial con- 
vention in Chicago in June and we realized, with our sufifrage bill 
hanging in the balance in the Supreme Court, that it was most im- 
portant to secure the passage of a sufifrage resolution by the Federa- 

I was appointed by the State .Board to look after this work, and 
through the help of local sufifragists as well as through the co-opera- 
tion of the General Federation Board we succeeded in securing the adop- 
tion of a sufifrage resolution on June 13th, and by an extraordinary 
coincidence on this same day the Supreme Court of Illinois pronounced 
the sufifrage law constitutional. A banquet had already been planned 
by the Illinois Equal Sufifrage Association for that evening to be held 
in the Gold Room of the Congress Hotel in honor of the General 
Federation. All of these events came at an opportune moment and 
this great banquet became historic in its significance and was trans- 
formed into a banquet of thanksgiving where over a thousand women 
gave expression to their joy over these two great victories. This ban- 
quet was ably managed by Mrs. George A. Soden, assisted by Mrs. 
Edward L. Stewart. Mrs. J. W. McGraw, Mrs. Charles A. Nagely, 
Mrs. Judith W. Loewenthal, Mrs. Albert H. Schweizer, as well as 
many others 

It was demonstrated that all of these events had changed public 
.'entiment in regard to the sufifrage question. Congress was in session 
this summer and Congressmen were unable to fill their Chautauqua 
dates and I was asked to make sufifrage speeches at fifty Chautauquas 
covering nine states, filling dates for a Democrat, the Honorable 


Champ Clark, and for a Republican, Senator Robert LaFollette, and 
afterwards filled dates for William Jennings Bryan. 

The State Equal Suffrage Convention was held in Chicago in 
1914 and I was again re-elected President. 

When the Legislature convened in January. Mrs. J. W. ]\IcGraw, 
the newly elected Legislative Chairman, and I went to Springfield 
and attended every session of the Legislature from January until it 
closed in June. A resolution was introduced to repeal the suffrage 
law and several measures were introduced to amend the law to give 
the women the right to vote for some minor offices. We were advised 
by our lawyers to never amend the law, because to do so would involve 
the whole question and bring on a fresh fight in the Supreme Court 
in regard to the constitutionality of the law. We employed all the 
tactics used in 1913 and finally succeeded in killing the repeal resolu- 
tion in committee and the other bills during various stages of their 
progress. The Illinois suffragists fully realized the importance of 
preserving intact the Presidential and Municipal Suffrage Bill passed 
by the Illinois Legislature in 1913, because it was the first bill of the 
kind ever passed in the United States, and established the precedent 
which enabled many other states afterwards to pass similar bills and 
the Presidential and Municipal Suffrage Bill is called in other states 
"The Illinois Law." We were assisted greatly during this session bv 
Mr. Randolph Boyd in the House and Senators Richard Barr and Ed- 
ward Curtis in the Senate, and by Harriet Stokes Thompson, President 
of the Chicago Political Equality League, who rendered invaluable 
assistance by helping to counteract the wrong kind of propaganda 
that was being carried on at this time and which was most detrimental 
to our work at Springfield. It was hard for some women, even suf- 
fragists, who did not understand the political situation and the dangers 
that threatened the suffrage law, to comprehend why the suffrage law 
could not be amended any time, if by so doing, they could secure the 
right to vote for even one more minor office. They did not realize 
that in grasping for more we would be imperiling all. 

In the fall of 1915 I positively declined the presidency and Mrs. 
Harrison Monroe Brown of Peoria was elected President of the Illinois 
Equal Suffrage Association, and I went to our home in Florida for a 
much needed rest. 

I returned the following spring in time to raise some money for 
the depleted treasury of the Illinois Equal Suffrage Association, and 
to help a little in what is now known as the famous "rainy day suffrage 
parade" which w^as held while the National Republican Convention 
w^as in session in Chicago in June, 1916. On this memorable occasion 
5,000 women marched through the pouring rain over a mile down 
Michigan Boulevard and from there to the Coliseum where the Na- 
tional Republican Convention was being held. I was one of a com- 
mittee of four representing every section of the country whom Mrs. 
Catt selected to address the Platform Committee of which Senator 
Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts was Chairman, and request that 
an equal suffrage plank be incorporated into the National Platform of 
the Republican Party. Just as w^e finished our plea the rain-drenched 


marchers made a dramatic climax by marching into the Coliseum where 
the hearing was being held, and in spite of the opposition of Senator 
Lodge, a full suffrage plank was put in the National Platform of the 
Republican Party. Among the women who assisted in organizing this 
parade were: Mrs. James Morrison, Mrs. Kellogg Fairbank, Mrs. 
Harriette Taylor Treadwell, Mrs. Dora Earle, Mrs. J. W. McGraw, 
Mrs. Edward L. Stewart, Mrs. Charles E. Nagely, Mrs. Judith Weil 
Loewenthal, Mrs. George A. Soden and other members of the State 

As there was much important legislative work to be done at the 
next session of the Legislature I was persuaded to again accept the 
presidency of the Illinois Equal Suffrage Association. There were 
delegates present at this convention from every section of Illinois, 
and after a thorough discussion the suffrage policy of the Illinois 
Equal Suffrage Association for the ensuing year was adopted. The 
concensus of opinion was that owing to the iron bound Constitution 
of Illinois, next to impossible to amend, the only practical way to se- 
cure full suffrage for Illinois women by state action was through the 
medium of a new Constitution. 

The Citizens' Association, composed of some of the leading men 
of Chicago and of the State, had been working to secure a new Con- 
stitution for over thirty years. They sent Mr. Shelby M. Singleton, 
Secretary of the Association, to consult with us about the work to be 
done at Springfield, and asked us to take charge of the legislative 
work, as they said our Association was the only Association in the 
State powerful enough and which all men trusted, to secure its adop- 

Mrs. McGraw and I went to Springfield at the beginning of the 
1916 session, and after a struggle that lasted over ten weeks the Con- 
stitutional Convention Resolution was finally passed. It would have 
been impossible to have passed the resolution without the powerful 
support of Governor Lowden, Lieutenant Governor Oglesby, Attorney 
General Brundage, and other State officers as well as Senator Edward 
Curtis in the Senate and Randolph Boyd in the House who rendered 
especially efficient service, and at the last moment Roger Sullivan of 
Chicago threw his powerful influence in favor of the resolution. 

While this work was going on Mrs. Catherine Waugh McCulloch, 
who disagreed with the policy of the Illinois Equal Suffrage Associa- 
tion, organized what she called the "Suffrage Amendment Alliance" 
and sent lobbyists to Springfield to work for a direct suffrage amend- 
ment to the Constitution. She had such an amendment introduced 
and it was defeated in the Senate where it received onlv 6 votes and 
in the House it was defeated by a vote of 100 nays to 18 yeas. This 
action showed moral courage on the part of the legislators because 
many of those who voted against the measure had been the loyal, 
valiant friends of suffrage for years. They believed as we all believed 
— that a stiffrage amendment, under the difficult-to-be-amended Con- 
stitution of Illinois, would be doomed to certain defeat if^submitted to 
the men voters of the State, and furthermore that a resolution calling 


for a Constitutional Convention had already passed and would ade- 
quately take care of the suffrage question. In urging Mrs. AlcCulloch 
to withdraw this amendment, Governor Lowden and other prominent 
suffragists pointed out to her that the defeat of the suffrage amendment 
at the polls would mean that a suffrage article would not be incor- 
porated in a new Constitution, for the members of the Constitutional 
Convention would feel dubious about incorporating an article in a new 
Constitution that had just been defeated at the polls. 

After the close of the Legislature the Illinois Equal Suffrage As- 
sociation realized that a state-\vide campaign of education would have 
to be instituted at once to insure a favorable vote at the polls, so the 
Woman's Emergency League was formed to raise a fund sufficient to 
establish educational centers in every one of the 102 counties in Illi- 
nois. Just as all plans were laid for this campaign the United States 
entered the great World War, and immediately all women were thrust 
into the rush of war work. I was appointed a member of the Execu- 
tive Committee of the Woman's Committee of the State Council of 
National Defense, and every member of our Board was immediately 
busy with Liberty Loan, Red Cross and other war work. 

While doing our war work we went on with the work of the 
Woman's Emergency League. Held over a thousand meetings that 
summer, arousing the people to a realization that they must manifest 
not only national patriotism but State patriotism by voting for a new 
Constitution in Illinois. On account of the numerous Liberty Loan 
and Red Cross drives w^e raised only about $15,000 but the educa- 
tional work carried on this summer was an important factor in later 
on winning success at the polls. The money raised helped us to pub- 
lish large quantities of literature and to send many speakers out into 
the State. 

Among the w'omen who rendered valuable service in the Woman's 
Emergency League were : Mrs. George A. Soden, Eirst Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Illinois Equal Suffrage Association, who rendered most 
efficient service as its Treasurer; Mrs. Stella S. Janotta. President of 
the Chicago Political Equality League; Mrs. Albert Schweizer, Mrs. 
George S. Haskell, Mrs. Julius Loeb, Mrs. Lyman A. Walton, Mrs. 
J. W. McGraw, Mrs. Charles E. Nagely, Mrs. Judith W. Loewenthal, 
Mrs. Mable Gilmore Reinecke, Mrs. Harriet Stokes Thompson, Mrs. 
Anna Wallace Hunt, Mrs. Jeane Wallace Butler. Miss Nellie Carlin, 
Mrs. Thomas McClelland, Mrs. Edward L. Stewart. Mrs. Samuel 
Slade of Highland Park, Mrs. Charles Wilmot and Mrs. Louis E. 
Yager, both of Oak Park. IMiss Catherine K. Porter of Freeport, Mrs. 
Blanche B. West of Bushnell, Mrs. Marv' E. Sykes of Monmouth, 
Mrs. E. B. Coolley of Danville, Mrs. O. P.^Bourland of Pontiac, Mrs. 
William Aleshire of Plymouth, Dr. Lucy Waite of Park Ridge, Mrs. 
Marv B. Busey of Urbana, Mrs. E. B. Grifffn of Grant Park. Dr. M. 
D. Brown of DeKalb, Mrs. George Thomas Palmer of Springfield 
and Mrs. Elizabeth Murray Shepherd of Elgin. 

During this period of strenuous activity another attack was made 
bv the liquor interests on the constitutionality of the suffrage law, 
and the case brought before the Supreme Court. We engaged Mr. 


James G. Skinner, an able lawyer who had acted as Assistant Cor- 
poration Counsel under a previous city administration. He prepared 
an elaborate brief covering all disputed points and won the case, and 
the woman's suffrage law was again pronounced constitutional in De- 
cember, 1917. 

At the State Convention in Danville I was again re-elected Presi- 
dent. The Illinois Equal Suffrage Association now had organizations 
m every Senatorial and Congressional district with an affiliated mem- 
bership of over 200,000 women. 

After this election I was soon called to Washington by Mrs. Catt 
to work for the passage of the Federal Suffrage Amendment, and 
spent many months in Washington during this year. I was very for- 
tunate while there to have a personal interview with President Wilson 
which lasted for fifty-five minutes and added my plea to all of the other 
pleas that had been made, urging him to personally address the Senate 
on the question of the Federal Suffrage Amendment. 

In the meantime Mrs. J. W. McGraw ably directed the educational 
and organization work of the Association. We were working to secure 
the adoption of the Constitutional Convention Resolution at the polls 
and Mrs McGraw secured the co-operation of Mrs. Reed, Legislative 
Chairman of the Illinois Federation of Women's Clubs, and they to- 
gether appointed two women in each Congressional district to organize 
the educational work in their respective districts. 

During this time Mrs. McGraw and I prepared and published a 
leaflet entitled "Why Illinois Needs a New Constitution" which was 
widely circulated among men's as well as women's organizations. 

In the spring of 1918 Governor Lowden appointed Judge Orrin 
N. Carter of the Supreme Court as Chairman of a state wide commit- 
tee that worked in co-operation with the state wide committee of 
women we had already appointed. 

In 1918 the State Equal Suffrage Convention was held in the 
latter part of October in Chicago and I was re-elected President. This 
Convention was planned as a climax to the ten-day whirlwind cam- 
paign for the Constitutional Convention Resolution that was being 
held throughout the State. A feature of this campaign was the Con- 
stitutional Convention Tag Day. This tag day did not include the 
payment of any money for the privilege of being tagged, and conse- 
quently was a pleasant surprise to the people. Each man was given a 
tag who promised to vote for the Constitutional Convention Resolu- 
tion. Mrs. Albert H. Schweizer was in charge of the Tag Day in 
Chicago, as well as the rest of the city campaign. 

As a result of all this labor the Constitutional Convention Resolu- 
tion was passed at the general election on November 4th. Total vote 
cast 975.545. In favor of Constitution 562.012. Majority of all votes 
cast at the election for a new Constitution 74,239. 

In 1919 the delegates to the Constitutional Convention were 
elected and it convened at Springfield in January, 1920. _ One of i<:s 
first acts was to adopt an article giving full suffrage to Illinois women 
to be incorporated in the new Constitution. 

— 8 H S 


I was again called to Washington in the early part of 1919 to 
help round up votes for the Federal Suffrage Amendment. When it 
finally passed the Senate in June, 1919, word was telegraphed to me 
while I was in Peoria where I had gone to address the State Conven- 
tion of the Illinois Federation of Women's Clubs. Wild enthusiasm 
prevailed among the women when they learned the news. I was 
literally showered with peonies from the banquet table and the women 
acted as though it was a suffrage jubilee convention. 

]\Irs. McGraw and I now immediately hurried to Springfield where 
we had already made arrangements for the ratification of the Federal 
Suffrage Amendment, and the Illinois Legislature ratified the Federal 
Suffrage Amendment on June 10th. The vote in the Senate was as 
follows : Ayes 46, and no votes against the measure. The vote in 
the House was ayes 135, nays 3. 

A minor mistake was made in the first certified resolution sent 
from the Secretarv of State's office at Washington to the Governor of 
Illinois. To prevent the possibility of any legal quibbling, Governor 
Lowden telegraphed the Secretary of State at Washington to send on 
at once a corrected certified copy of the resolution. This was done and 
the ratification was reaffirmed by the Illinois Legislature on June 17th, 
the vote in the Senate then being : Ayes 49, nays none, and the vote 
in the House was ayes 134, nays 4. 

Ov/ing to a misunderstanding of the facts in the case for a short 
time there was some controversy as to whether Illinois was entitled 
to first place as being the first State to ratify the Federal Amendment. 
An exhaustive study of the case was made by Attorney General Brun- 
dage and a brief prepared showing that the mistake in the first cer- 
tified papers did not affect the legality of the ratification on June 10th, 
as the mistake was made in copying the introductory resolution, and 
not in the law itself. The opinion of the Attorney General was after- 
wards accepted by the Secretary of State's office at Washington. So 
Illinois, the first State oast of the Mississippi to grant suffrage to its 
women, was also the first State to ratify the Federal Suffrage Amend- 

In celebration of this great Illinois victory a Jubilee Banquet was 
held on June 24th at the Hotel La Salle. I presided over the banquet 
and the guests of honor were Governor and ^Irs. Lowden. Among 
the speakers were the leading suftVagists of the State as well as the 
the Governor, Lieutenant Governor Oglesby, and prominent members 
of the State Legislature. 

In October, 1919, the State Equal Suffrage Convention was held 
in Chicago and I was re-elected President for the seventh time. 
Women were present from every section of Illinois. It was voted at 
this Convention to continue the work for the speedy ratification of the 
Federal Suffrage Amendment, and if this failed to succeed in 1920, to 
work for a full suffrage article in the new Illinois Constitution when 
it was submitted to the men voters of the State. 

At the National Convention held in St. Louis the early part of 
1919 I had invited, in the name of the Illinois Equal Suffrage As- 
sociation, the National American Woman Suffrasre Association to hold 


its next annual convention in Chicago. This invitation was accepted 
and the National Convention was to convene in February, 1920. Im- 
mediately after the State Convention, plans were formulated by our 
State Board to take care of this convention. We called together rep- 
resentatives of the Chicago Political Equality League, Chicago Equal 
Suffrage Association, Seventh Ward Auxiliary of the State Associa- 
tion, The Evanston Political Equality League, The Federation of 
Chicago Women's Clubs, The North End Woman's Club, Chicago 
Woman's Club, The Oak Park Suffrage Club and other local organ- 
izations. I was elected chairman and Mrs. McGraw vice-chairman of 
the committee having this convention in charge . Different organiza- 
tions were appointed to take charge of different days of the 
convention and different phases of the work. In addition to 
the work necessary for the preparation of the convention proper, 
there was also five conferences to be held of the different de- 
partments of the League of Woman Voters which had been tenta- 
tively organized at St. Louis the year before. We engaged the Gold 
Room of the Congress Hotel for the general convention hall and the 
Elizabethan Room was engaged also for the entire convention, as well 
as many other rooms to be used for committee meetings, press and 
conference rooms. Mrs. McGraw watched every detail and ren- 
dered especially valuable service. The chairman of the Finance Com- 
mittee, Mrs. Samuel Slade, also deserves especial mention, for she, 
with the help of her committee raised the funds with which to defray 
all expenses of the convention. 

The ratification by the states of the Federal Suffrage Amendment 
was progressing so rapidly that this convention was called the "Jubilee 
Convention" and the National American Woman Suffrage Association 
having practically completed its work- — the full enfranchisement of 
the women of the United States — disbanded, and its members united 
with the League of Woman Voters formerly organized at this con- 
vention. In the meantime it was voted that the Board of Directors 
of the National American Woman Suffrage Association remain intact 
until the thirty-sixth state should ratify. 

The convention was said to be the most brilliant convention ever 
held in the history of the national association. Prominent women 
from every section of the United States were present and I was grati- 
fied to have the hotel management of the Congress Hotel, which is 
made the headquarters for so many conventions, tell me it was the 
best managed and most orderly convention ever held in their hotel. 

The convention was held in February and Mrs. Catt hoped we 
would secure the thirty-sixth state within a month, but anti-suffrage 
forces were active and the ratification was delayed. In April she 
telegraphed me that a campaign was to be launched in Connecticut 
where every state was to be represented, and she wished me to represent 
Illinois ; the object of this campaign being to persuade if possible, the 
Connecticut Governor to call a special session for the purpose of 
ratifying the suffrage amendment, which in spite of this demonstra- 
tion of national sentiment, he refused to do. 


As it was being used as an anti- suffrage argument that the 
■women in many suffrage states failed to exercise their full franchise 
rights it seemed best on my return from Connecticut to call a Board 
meeting at once and make preparations for a state wide campaign 
among Illinois women and get as many of them as possible to go 
to the polls in November and participate in the Presidential election. 
An "Every woman at the polls Committee" was organized for the pur- 
pose and women were appointed in the down State towns and cities 
to take care of the work in their various localities and a large com- 
mittee was organized in Chicago. I was elected chairman of the State 
wide committee, Mrs. J. W. McGraw, State Vice-Chairman, and Mrs. 
Albert H. Schweizer, a member of the State Board was appointed 
Chicago Chairman. The Chicago Political Equality League and the 
Woman's City Club took an active part in this campaign and the club 
rooms of the latter were selected as the headquarters of the Chicago 
Committee and the State headquarters of the lUinois Equal Suffrage 
Association for the Executive Committee rooms. This work was all 
preparatory to a final drive which was to immediately precede the fall 

In the midst of the summer, on August 18th, the joyful news 
came that Tennessee was the thirty-sixth state to ratify the Federal 
Suffrage Amendment. The Illinois Equal Suffrage Association im- 
mediately sent out a call for its State Convention to be held in Sep- 
tember in Chicago. At this convention the Illinois Equal Suffrage 
Association, its work finished and Illinois women now free, disbanded, 
and its members formed the Illinois League of Women Voters, aflfili- 
ated with the National League of Women Voters and prepared to go 
on with the great patriotic work of arousing women to a realization 
that it is as vitally important to vote for one's country as it is to fight 
for one's country.* 

• The records of the Illinois Equal Suffrage League have been deposited in the 
State Historical Library of Springfield. 


Contributions to State History 



(By Arthur MacDonald, Washington, D. C.) 

For many years the author has studied unfortunate and unsuc- 
cessful individuals in the community, all of whom were in institutions. 
Such persons are usually classed with the abnormal, but as a matter 
of fact, probably three-fourths of them (excepting the insane and 
feeble-minded) are as normal as other people. While it is important 
to investigate these so-called abnormals and unsuccessful ones, it is 
much more important to study those who are successful in the com- 
munity, that is, persons of ability, talent or genius. The methods of 
study are the same for both normal and abnormal. 


A study of the Scots and Scottish influence in Congress comes 
under the general head of Anthropology, but anthropology of modern 
man and not of dead, savage and prehistoric man, to which anthro- 
pologists have given almost all their attention. 

That the stud}' of modern man is a new direction for anthro- 
pological research, is shown by the fact that the first scientific inves- 
tigation ever made of a human being, was that conducted upon Emil 
Zola by some twenty French specialists in anthropology, psychology 
and medicine ; this was published in 1897. 

It may seem strange that anthropology has been occupied so 
little with the study of modern man. Whatever the cause of this 
neglect, it is due time that man, as he is now, be studied, if for no 
other reason, than to remove the stigma of our ignorance of human 
beings, as contrasted with our much more accurate knowledge of 

From the anthropological point of view, history can be regarded 
as a subject for scientific investigation, with a view of understanding 
man better and assisting in his development and progress. Here man 
can be considered both as an individual, organization,^ nation or group 
of nations.^ It is true that other branches, like history and politics 

^ See Senate Document (by author) No. 532, 60th Congress, First Session, where 
a summary of this study is given . 

^ See a study of the United States Senate (by the author) published in Spanish, 
under the title of "Estudo del Sen ado de los Estados Unidos de America," in Kevista 
Argentina de Ciencias Politicas, 21 de Enero de 1918. Buenos Aires, 1918. 

' "Mentality of Nations" (by author). Open Court, Chicago, August 1912. Here 
nations are compared as to their educational and intellectual status. 


have pursued these fields, but unfortunately not always in the scien- 
tific spirit. To cite an ancient pun, it is his — story, rather than all the 


There is a tradition that the Scotch were originally a Greek tribe. 
Tacitus spealvs of campaigns against the early Scotchmen, called Cal- 
ledonians, as though often defeated in battle but never subdued. Scotch 
leaders may be conquered, but the people are very difficult to suppress. 

The inhabitants of Scotland, called Scots or Scotch (after a 
Celtic tribe originally from Ireland) are derived from widely different 
stocks. The most primitive races were long-headed {dolico-cephalic) ; 
following these, came a broad-headed (brachy-cephalic) people, tall, 
with large jaws and faces; the third ingredient is a teutonic long- 
headed-race of lofty stature. From the stone age to the 11th century, 
there is evidence of a continuous Scandinavian invasion, entering 
largely into the blood of the Scotch Highlanders, who are the tallest 
people in the world, with an average height of 1,746 meters. Their 
cephalic index is 76.2—77.9. The population of Scotland contains 
only a small number of non-Scots; in 1911. only 8 per cent were non- 
Scotch, and more than half of these were Irish. The foreign element 
is only about ^%. The mass of the people are Presbyterians. 


The characteristics of the Scotch are fovmd in almost all peoples, 
but some qualities seem to be more dominant in the Scotch than in 
other nations. 

The Scotch have been especially noted for three things : inde- 
pendence, persistence and zeal for education. Thus, the history of 
almost any of the members of Congress with Scotch blood will illustrate 
these characteristics. The' Scotchman sinks his nationality in the 
countr\ of his adoption ; he makes himself at home in all countries 
and is internationally popular. The Scotch are rational wanderers 
and good colonizers. It has been predicted, that when the North 
Pole is finally discovered, a Scotchman will be found astride of it. 

The Scotch have little fear, can endure great privation and peril, 
but they are not easy to live with, if one does not agree with them. 
They are not fussy agitators, not visionaries, but cool, calculating 
and practical, w-ith hard-headed horse sense. Charlatanism and 
qviackery have no place for the Scotsman. 

Their family feeling was intense, yet it had little effusive ex- 
pression ; the men were not given to emotional exhibitions of any 
kind, yet the Scotchman will make any sacrifice for his family, and 
if necessary would not hesitate for a moment to give up his life. The 
Scotch have always accorded woman a very high place. The Scots 
were so thorough and persistent, that when they went wrong, they 
preferred grand rather than petty larceny, and if it were murder, it 
was generally to hang. 


In war, if the enemy gave up entirely, he was treated with mag- 
naniity. The Scotch had their faults, but they were of force and 
violence, not of cowardice and treachery ; they may have been hard at 
a bargain, but once made, it was carried out to the letter ; their integ- 
rity was unquestioned. Their hatred for tyrants was inborn. 


In 1496 popular education was strongly advocated in Scotland, 
even compulsory education for eldest sons of freeholders and persons 
of substances, was the law. 

Scotland recognized the value of Newton's work thirty-five years 
before England did. Napier in the 16th Century of social and ecclesi- 
astical turmoil, was the inventor of logarithms. The supremacy of 
the Scotch in the British Isles, elementary and secondary education 
is generally acknowledged. In proportion to population, Scotland has 
a much larger number of university students than England. 

The Scotch-Irish schoolmaster was a familiar figure in the early 
formative period of American education. The American school sys- 
tem has a Scottish stamp ; the American University resembles the 
Scotch more than the English. The Scotch had such great respect 
for learning, that they would not listen even to a Calvanistic preacher 
unless he had a classical and theological education. 

Of the college men in the Constitutional Convention, more than 
one-half were of Scotch descent. 


The first notable Scotch arrivals in America were shipped as 
prisoners of war, sentenced to be transported to American plantations 
and sold into service. No men ever came under such discouraging con- 
ditions. Yet the Scotch have cut deeper into the history of the United 
States, probably, than any other nationality, though they have not been 
the most numerous or boastful. 

The Scotch in America have shown practically the characteristics 
of their mother country. They are persons of few words, dislike of 
display, quiet and undemonstrative in behavior, but more firm and de- 
termined in spirit ; cautious and reserved, but energetic and tenacious 
with a capacity for hard work which with patience, courage and 
endurance is liable to result in success. "Vigorous initiative" is a 
phrase especially fitting the Scotch. Roosevelt in his "Winning of the 
West" calls the Scotch a "stern and virile people," and speaks of the 
leaders of national expansion, who had Scotch-Irish as "dominant 
strains" in their blood. 


Bancroft, a typical New Englander, says that the first voice raised 
in America to dissolve all connection with Great Britain, did not come 
from Puritans in New England, nor Dutch in New York, but from 
Scotch-Irish Presbyterians.^ It was Patrick Henry, a Scot, who said, 

^ Bancroft, George, History of the United States, Vol. 5, page 11. 


"I know not what course others may take, but as for me. give me 
liberty or give me death." It was John Witherspoon, of New Jersey, 
James Wilson, of Pennsylvania, and Edward Rutledge. of South 
Carolina, who were of the eleven Scotchmen who signed the Declara- 
tion of Independence. Witherspoon said, "He that will not respond to 
its accents and strain every nerve to carry into effect its provisions,. 
is unworthy of the name of freeman." On this appeal the Declaration 
of Independence was signed. It is the handwriting of a Scotchman 
(who w^as Secretary of the Congress), publicly read to the people by a 
Scotchman and first printed by still another Scotchman. Of the fifty- 
four members of the Convention for the new nation, twelve were of 
Scotch descent, but on many occasions they had much more influence 
than their numbers show. One Scot stood easily at the head, and for 
intellectual eminence and statesmanship outranks them all : it was 
Alexander Hamilton, who was a member of Congress at twenty-five 
years of age. 

In an original study of the "Distribution of Ability in the United 
States,"- by Senator Lodge, the distinguished author finds that in 
statesmen Virginia leads, with Massachusetts, New York and Connec- 
ticut closely following; and that as to nationality, the Scotch-Irish 
and Scotch lead in statesmen. 

From 1860 to 1900. there have been in the United States some 
eighty Senators of Scotch descent ; among whom are Blair, Cameron, 
Cockrell, Logan, McPherson, Teller, McEnery, Vance. Blaine, Breck- 
enridge, Morton, McCumber and Beveridge. 


Baring-Gould, Sabine. Family Names and their History. London, 
1910. Chapter XVIII gives Scottish and Irish surnames. 

Dinsmore, John W. The Scotch-Irish in America, Chicago. 19C6. 257 
pages, 12°, describes a typical neighborhood. 

Ford. Henry J. The Scotch-Irish in America. Princeton, New Jersey,. 
1915, 607 pages, 8°, 432 pages. 

Hanna, Charles A. The Scotch-Irish, or the Scot in North Britain, 
North Ireland, and North America. New York and London, 1902. 
See chapter III, "Scotch-Irish in American Politics." A'olume 2 
contains an extensive Scotch-Irish Bibliography. 

McLean, John P. An Historical Account of the Settlements of Scotch 
Highlanders in America. Prior to the Peace of 1783. Cleveland, 
Ohio, 1900, 459 pages. 8°. Chapter II is entitled "The Scotch- 
Irish in America." 

Reid: Whitelazv. The Scot in America and the Ulster Scot, substance 
of addresses before societies, London, 1912, 67 pages, 8°. 

Ross. Peter. The Scots in America. New York, 1896, 446 pages, 8^. 
Chapter X is entitled "Statesmen and Politicians," and chapter 
XV. "Distinguished Highlanders in American Interests." 

=. Lodge, Henry Cabot- — "The Distribution of Ability in the United States. Century 
Magazine, September, 1891. 



Inasmuch as the Senators who have favored me with the details 
of their Scotch ancestry, have had very different lengths of service, 
it is impossible to estimate by statistical methods their legislative suc- 
cess or ability. As many of the Senators, however, both Scotch and 
non-Scotch, were members of the Senate of the 62nd Congress, I 
shall utilize a detailed study which I made of that Senate, pubHshed 
in Spanish^, but not as yet in English. 

The Senate of this particular Congress was selected because it 
might be called a normal Senate. The majority party had been in 
power for a long while and the Senate had settled down to what 
might be called the regular order. 

The present study of Scottish influence upon legislation in this 
Senate is new, and an additional chapter to the study in Spanish. 
Thus opportunity will be afforded for comparison between Scotch and 
non-Scotch ingredients. Therefore, before presenting the main legis- 
lative activities of individual Scotch Senators, it will be more instruc- 
tive and satisfactory to make an investigation in the Senate of the 62nd 
Congress. While the conclusions drawn apply only to this particular 
Senate, they are liable to be approximately true of other normal 



Table 1 gives percentages of attendance at Quorum and Yea and 
Nay calls of the Senate of the 62nd Congress as a whole, of its political 
divisions, and the Senators with Scotch blood similarly classified. It 
may be noted incidentially that Senators as a body, attend yea and nay 
calls 10 per cent more than they do quorum calls, contradicting a 
statement sometimes made, that Senators dodge voting. 

TABLE I — Quorum and Yea and Nay Calls (Percentages.) 

No. % Quorum 

The Senate 80 100 59 

Democrats 34 43 55 

Republicans 46 57 62 . 

Senators with Scottish blood 18 22 57 68 11 

Republicans with no Scottish blood .... 36 79 63 71 8 

Republicans with Scottish blood 10 21 60 68 8 

Democrats with no Scottish blood 26 77 55 65 10 

Conservative Republicans with Scotch 

blood 5 50 60 63 3 

Progressive Republicans with Scotch 

blood 5 50 60 73 13 

Conservative Republicans 34 74 63 70 7 

Progressive Republicans 12 26 - 61 75 16 













^ Estulio del Senado de los Estados Unidos re America, Revista Argentina de 
Ciencias Politieas, 12 de Enero de 1918. Buenos Aires, page 390-410. 


It will be seen from this table that the progressive Republicans 
constitute 26 per cent of all Republicans, but that the Scotch progres- 
sive Republicans constitute 50 per cent of all Scotch Republicans ; 
that is, Scotch blood flows relative almost double the amount of pro- 
gressiveness, illustrating the reputation of the Scotch for persistence 
in demanding independence. It appears also that Scotch progressive 
Republicans attend quorum calls the same (60 per cent) as Scotch 
Conservative Republicans, but in the yea and nay calls they excel the 
Conservatives by 10 per cent. As between Democratic and Republican 
Senators, the relative number of Scotch is about the same. As between 
Democrats with Scotch blood and those without, the Scotch answer 
yea and nay calls 3 per cent more. 

In table II will be found percentages as to educational status and 
geographical position of all Senators with Scotch blood and those 
without Scotch blood ; also, Scotch and non-Scotch Senators can be 
compared as to previous legislative experience in State Legislatures 
and House of Representatives. In the last part of the table are given 
averages for frequency of remarks on the floor and number of subjects 
discussed. Beginning at the top of the table, it will be seen that 37 
per cent of Senators with Scotch blood are university men and 52 per 
cent college men, and only 11 per cent with common-school education. 
These percentages are much greater than those for all Senators and 
noR-Scotch Senators, showing decided educational superiority of the 
Scotch. Also, it will be seen that relatively a very large proportion 
(61 per cent) of Scotch Senators went to the Western States, con- 
firming the pushing and aggressive nature of the Scotch. The Scotch 
have distinctly less (10 per cent) previous legislative experience be- 
fore coming to the Senate than the non-Scotch. 

TABLE II. — Scotch Suierioe in Education and Knowledge. 

Educational, Geological and Legislative All Scotch Non-Scotch 

Divisions Senators Senators Senators 

% % % 

University men 25 ^7 20 

College men 47 52 46 

Common school education 28 11 34 

Eastern States 2 10 33 

Western States 42 61 38 

Southern States 29 29 29 

Previous legislative experience 64 55 66 

Previously in House of Representatives 32 22 35 

Reared in rural districts 67 73 66 

Reared in City 33 27 33 

Professional men 79 89 76 

Business men 21 11 24 

Breadth of Knowledge Average Average Average 

Frequency of remarks 166 204 155 

Number of subjects discussed 50 60 48 

Age in years 59 56 59 


It will be noted that a much higher per cent of the Scotch (73) 
are reared in the country than other Senators. 

As in their educational status, the Scotch stand much the highest, 
as they show distinctly the largest per cent (89) of professional men 
and lowest per cent (11) of business men, as compared with other 

In regard to frequency of remarks on the floor, the Scotch average 
very much the highest (204) and likewise as to average number of 
subjects discussed they distinctly excel. The author has shown in 
his study of the 62nd Senate in Spanish, that in general the best 
educated Senators stand the highest in frequency of remarks and 
number of subjects discussed. Frequency of remarks has no relation 
to long speeches, but indicates broader intellectual interest in legisla- 
tion. Number of subjects discussed also shows greater breadth of 
knowledge. The Scotch are in general younger than other Senators, 
their average age being 56, as over against 59, the average of the 
Senate as a whole. 


The schedule and scale of units of vahie on which an estimate of 
legislative ability is based are presented in Table III. By a careful 
examination of this table, it will be seen that only two and one-half 
per cent (2%) of private bills introduced, ten per cent (10) of 
public bills, twenty- four per cent (24) of joint resolutions and 
forty-four per cent (44) of pension bills were enacted into law. 
The unit scale of value or of successful legislation is based 
upon private bills, the most difficult to have enacted into 
law. If we let 2i/2 per cent represent units of value, that 
is, if every private bill enacted into law counts 100 units, then since 
ten per cent of public bills became law, every public bill enacted into 
law will count 25 units, every joint resolution 10 units, every pension 
bill 6 units, and so on. In short, the scale is based lipon the degree 
of difficulty in passage of bills and resolutions. Thus if a Senator 
introduces a private bill and gets it enacted into law, it counts 100 
units ; if it passes the Senate only, 25 units. While it is true, in ex- 
ceptional cases, another Senator may get false credit, in the great 
majority of cases, it is not true ; also exceptional cases may balance 
each other following the general law of averages. 

TABLE III. — Scale of Units of Valcb^ and Schedules. 

Bills and Resolutions 

Private hills 12 

Public bills 35 

Joint Resolutions 

Pension bills 

Concurrent resolutions 

Senate resolutions 



Enacted into 

Scale of 





Scale of 

















. . 





, , 





, . 



. . 

'Fractions art omitted In unit scale. 
Massing both houses. 



Applying then our schedule of legislative units of value to the 
political divisions of the Senate of the 62nd Congress, and to the Sena- 
tors v^ith and without Scotch blood, the results will be seen in Table 

The table shows that Democratic Senators, as a whole, are almost 
three times less successful in securing legislative results than the Re- 
publicans. This, however, is easily understood from the fact that 
minority parties do not hold themselves politically responsible for 
legislation. If the Senate were studied when the Democrats were the 
majority party, comparisons might be made. 

It will be seen that the progressive Republicans are distinctly 
inferior in obtaining legislative results as compared with the conserva- 
tive Republican. This doubtless is due mainly to the fact that they 
do not always vote with their party and naturally could not expect 
to be assigned to important committees as frequently as those who 
are strict party men. Moreover, they are younger and have not been 
in the Senate, as long as the conservative Republicans. In addition, 
their legislative efiforts are liable to meet with stronger opposition 
than the legislative measures of the conservative Republicans.^ 

In regard to the influence of Scotch blood, it will be seen from 
Table IV that as between Senators with and Senators without Scotch 
blood, there is practically no difference in legislative success, their 
average units value being nearly the same for both public and private 
bills. But comparing Scotch progressive Republicans with progressive 
Republicans not Scotch, thus eliminating the legislative disadvantage 
of progressivism. it will be seen that the Scotch blood is greatly supe- 
rior to the non-Scotch, it being 409 units of value over against 293 
similar units of value for public and private bills combined. That this 
legislative superiority of Scotch blood is not accidental is shown fur- 
ther by the fact that conservative Republicans with Scotch blood are 
distinctly superior in legislative results to conservative Republicans 
without Scotch blood, the average units of value being 626 over against 

TABLE IV. — Application of Unit Val0e. 

Political and Scotch Divisions of Senators Average Units of Values 


Public Private Both 

Democratic Senators 76 121 197 

Republican Senators 156 343 499 

Conservative Republicans 161 373 534 

.Progressive Republicans 126 259 385 

The Senate as a whole 122 250 372 

Senators with Scotch blood 121 251 372 

Senators without Scotch blood 123 250 373 

Scotch Progressive Republicans 109 300 409 

Progressive Republicans, not Scotch 102 196 298 

Scotch Conservative Republicans 201 425 626 

Conservative Republicans, not Scotch 161 364 5z5 

1 For further data on these points, see articles on the study of the Senate in Span- 
ish already referred to. 


Practically considered, legislative success in obtaining results is 
synonymous with legislative ability, otherwise it might throw doubt 
upon the integrity of Senatorial rules and activities. 



In order to understand better the study of Scottish influence in 
the Senate of the 62nd Congress, it will be helpful to state some of 
the conclusions based upon the history of the legislative activities of 
80 members of that Senate in detail. 

As already intimated, these conclusions apply only to this Senate, 
yet they create a presumption of their general application to other 
similar Senates. 

As an illustration of the method of estimating the rank of a Sena- 
cor, we will take Senator number 1 of Table V, who stood the highest 
in results of public legislative activity. 

The units of value for the reporting, passing and enacting into 
law bills and resolutions will be found in Table III. 

1. The Republican progressives show a higher percentage of at- 
tendance at yea and nay calls than the conservative Republicans (70 
per cent). 

2. Senators who are business men have a higher percentage (61) 
of attendance at quorum calls than professional men (58), but a lower 
percentage (66) at yea and nay calls than professional men (69). 

3. Chairmen of important committees show the highest percent- 
age of attendance (66) at quorum calls. 

4. In general more than half of the bills introduced in the Senate 
receive little or no attention. 

5. The progressive Republicans held the highest average (240) 
in frequency of remarks on the floor, the conservative Republicans 
coming second (167), which is very much lower. The Democrats 
have a still lower average of 138. 

6. Frequency of remarks on the floor increases as the degree of 
education increases ; the average for university men is 233, college men 
147 and Senators with common-school education 137. 

7. Of the Democrats 35 per cent and of the Republicans 17 per 
cent are university men, but 54 per cent of the Republicans are col- 
lege men over against 38 per cent of the Democrats. 

8. Senators without previous legislative experience before com- 
ing to the Senate show the least legislative success or ability. 

These conclusions apply only to groups of Senators, and not to 
individual Senators. 

Units of Value 

Number of public bills reported only (Column 11) 23 x 7 = 161 

Number of public bills passed by Senate only (Column 12) 44 x 8 = 352 

Number of public bills enacted into law (Column 13) 14 x 25 = 350 

Joint resolutions passed by Senate only (Column 14) 2x6= 12 

Joint resolutions enacted into law (Column 15) 4 x 10 = 40 

Concurrent resolutions passing the Senate only f Column 16) 1x3= 3 

Senate resolutions adopted (Column 18) 25 x 3 = 75 

Total units of value for public legislative activity 993 



Some Senators may not be very successful in obtaining leg-islative 
results, due either to their relatively short time in the Senate, or their 
belonging to the minority party, or their opposition to their own party. 
But nevertheless, they may have shown much legislative effort or ac- 
tivity in the way of introducing bills, offering amendments, submitting 
motion and resolutions, petitions and memorials, or by frequency of 
remarks on the floor of the Senate. These activities come under the 
head of initial legislation, as indicated in Table VI. 

From a general survey of Table VI, it will be seen that with few 
exceptions (mostly unimportant) the averages of initial legislative 
activity for Senators with Scotch blood are distinctly higher than for 
non-Scotch Senators. Beginning at the top of Table VI, it will be 
noted that Republicans with Scotch blood show distinctively higher 
averages than the non-Scotch Republicans in introducing public bills, 
offering amendments and in frequency of remarks on the floor of the 
Senate and in number of subjects discussed; but they have distinctively 
less averages for submitting irbotions and resolutions and presenting 
petitions and memorials ; these last two forms of initial legislative 
activity are more of a formal nature. Also, the Scotch Democrats 
excel the non-Scotch in every form of initial activity except the intro- 
duction of private bills. 

Eliminating the factor of progressivism, we find that the Scotch 
progressive Republicans and the Scotch conservative Republicans 
(especially) are superior to the non-Scotch. Comparing the Northern 
Democrats-Scotch and the Southern Democrats-Scotch with the non- 

TABLE VI — Initial Legislation in Senate of 62d Congress. 

Initial Legislative 

Activities in Averages 


Legislative Activities in Averages. 

Political and Geographical Divisions 
and Scotcli Ancestrj-. 

Public bills and 
Joint resolutions 


01 r5 

S 01 

.2 = 




'C 01 

a t* 


a <" 

O 01 


o a^ 3 


■'-' S !- 

No. (if siibjocts 
discussed on floor 
of Senate 

Frequency of re- 
marks on floor 
of Senate 

All Republicans — Scotch blood .... 

All Republicans — non-Scotch ...... 

All Democrats — Scotch 






















All Democrais — non-Scotch 

Progressive Republicans — Scotch . . 
ProETessive — non-Scotch 

Conservative Republicans — Scotch . 
Conservative Republicans — non- 

Northern Democrats — Scotch 

Northern Democrats — non-Scotch . . 
Southern Democrats — Scotch . 
Southern Democrats — non-Scotch . . 

Northern Democrats (all) 

Southern Democrats (all) 



Scotch, respectively, the Scotch distinctly excel in the introduction of 
public bills, in amendments offered, in frequency of remarks and num- 
ber of subjects disclosed; that is, in the most important initial legis- 
lative activities. 


It is a frequent remark, that our modern statesman do not seem 
to measure up to those in our early history. This is true, but it is a 
necessary result of biological law. Though the effects of education 
and environment are not inherited, they can be handed down to later 
generations through custom, tradition and history. So while we do 
not inherit them through the germ cells, we do receive them from the 
social organism. In this sense, "We are the heirs of all the ages." 



This social inheritance causes the environment to grow more and 
more complex, while our inherited natures remain unchanged. This 
produces disharmony and disturbance, and sometimes the elimination 
of those not able to adapt themselves to new conditions. Our mental 
and moral environment has come to us with ever increasing incre- 
ments, but our inherited natures and abilities have remained fixed. 
Social heredity has outrun germinal heredity. The struggle between 
these two forms of heredity, due to the requirements of modern civili- 
zation, fortunately is now better understood than in the past. 

No modern race of men are equal to the ancient Greeks, who in 
two centuries produced a galaxy of illustrious men never found since. 
The average ability of the Athenian race at this period (530 to 430 
B. C.) was (according to Galton), on the lowest possible estimate, as 
much greater than that of the English race of the present day, as the 
English race is above the African Negro in average ability. 



It has been found that fathers 72 inches in height had sons with a 
mean stature of 70.8 inches, which is a regression towards the normal 
stature of the race. Again fathers 66 inches in height had sons with 
a mean stature of 68.3 inches, which is a progression towards the 
normal. This tendency of average height or mediocrity of stature 
produces the regression or progression to the average or normal type 
and applies generally because man is subject to heredity in every aspect 
of his physical and mental make-up. 

It has been found that extreme peculiarities of parents are less 
extreme in children, and that the most gifted parents cannot expect 
to have children as gifted. This is called the law of filial regression, 
which is a tendency to the average or mediocrity. For ages the moun- 
tains have been washing down into the valleys, and while the general 
— 9 H S 


level has increased in height, the peaks have been disappearing so that 
we seem to be slowly approaching a generation of exaltation of 


This study of Scottish in Congress is, as already noted, a line of 
investigation which belongs under the head of Anthropology of Civil- 
ized Man, and is a relatively new direction for anthropology. 

In order to indicate the varied nature and extent of all such in- 
quiries in a practical way, a list of the author's publications is given. 
They have proven to be more or less of a pioneer character, and deal 
with both the normal and abnormal, and in all stages from the lowest 
idiocy to the highest genius. 

The following works and articles are arranged in chronological order. 
Some have been published by the United States Senate, and U. S. Bureau of 
Education, and others by private agencies; the majority have appeared in 
specialistic journals of this and other countries. Many contain biblio- 
graphies, some of which are quite extensive. 

ABNORMAL MAN, being essays on education and crime, criminal socio- 
logy, criminal hypnotism, alcoholism, insanity, and genius with digests of 
literature and a bibliography. 1893. Published by United States Bureau 
of Education. Washington, D. C. 445 pages, 8 vo. 2d edition, 1895. 

CRIMINOLOGY, a psychological and scientific study of criminals, 
criminal contagion, criminal hypnotism, and residivation, with introduction 
by Lombroso. Bibliography. Second edition. New York, 1894. Funk & 
Wagnalls, publishers. 416 pages, 120. 

CRIMINALITE' Jesse Pomeroy, " boy torturer" Piper; "the brainer (Belfry 
case Boston); "Jack, the Ripper" (de Londres). Bibliographic de sexualite' 
pathologique. Troisieme edition. Une volume en 80, illus trait de portraits. 
Publie' par A. Storch, Lyon, et G. Masson, Paris, 1895. 300 pages. This 
work is not published in English. 

EDUCATION AND PATHO-SOCIAL STUDIES, including an investiga- 
tion of the murderer "H" (Holmes) ; reports on psychological, criminolo- 
gical, and demographical congresses in Europe; London slums and Gen. 
Booth's Salvation Army movement. Reprint (from Annual Report of United 
States Commissioner of Education for 1893-94), 57 pages, 8 vo. Washington, 
D. C, 1896. 

EMILE ZOLA, a psycho-physical study of Zola's personality, with illus- 
trations; his physical and mental peculiarities, nervous system, finger im- 
prints, morbid ideas, etc.; visual perceptions, hearing, smell, tacile sensa- 
tions, perception of time, association of ideas, and suggestibility; character, 
method of work, etc.; with bibliography. Reprints (from Open Court, August 
1898 with appendix, 34 pages and "Practical Psychology," August, 1901) 

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CHILDREN, including anthropometrical 
and psycho-physical measurements of Washington school children; measure- 
ments of school children in United States and Europe; description of instru- 
ments of precision in the laboratory of the Bureau of Education; child study 
in the United States; and a bibliography. Reprint (from Annual Report of 
United States Commissioner of Education for 1897-98), 325 pages, 8 vo. Wash- 
ington, D. C, 1899. 

CLASSES, treating especially of criminology with a bibliography of genius, 
insanity, idiocy, alcoholism, pauperism, and crime, had before the Committee 


on Judiciary of the United States House of Representatives, 309 pages, 8 vo. 
Washington, D. C, 1902. 

SENATE DOCUMENT NO. 400 (57th Cong. 1st. Sess.) : A PLAN FOR 
THE STUDY OP MAN, with reference to bills to establish a laboratory for 
the study of the criminal pauper, and defective classes, treating especially 
hypotism, with a bibliography of child study. 166 pages 8 vo. Washington, 
D. C, 1902. 

STATISTICS OF CRIME AND INSANITY and other forms of abnormali- 
ty in different countries of the world, in connection with bills to establish a 
laboratory, etc. Senate document No. 12, 58th Congress, special session, 
8 vo. Washington, D. C, 1903. 

MAN AND ABNORMAL MAN, including a study of children in connection 
with bills to establish laboratories under State and Federal Governments 
in the study of the criminal, pauper, and defective classes, with bibliogra- 
phies. Senate document No. 187, 58th Congress, 3d session. 780 pp. 8vo. 
Washington, D. C, 1903. 

EL CRIMINAL TIPO en algunas formas graves de la criminalidad. 
Madrid. La Espano Moderna, 170 pages, 8 vo., 1908. 

JUVENILE CRIME AND REFORMATION, including stigmata of degen- 
eration, being hearings on bills to establish a laboratory, etc., before Senate 
Committee on Education and Labor and House Committee on the Judiciary. 
Senate document No. 532, 60th Congress, 1st session, 339 pages, 8 vo., 1908. 

Statement before the U. S. Senate Committee on Education and Labor. 
Washington, D. C, 1908. 124 pages, 8 vo. 

Bulletin No. 32, 1912, Washington, D. C, 1913. 46 pages. 

WAR AND CRIMINAL ANTHROPOLOGY. Reprint from Congressional 
Record, February 27th and March 15th, 1917. U. S. House of Representatives 
40 pages, 8 vo. 

STUDIES OP MODERN MAN. A collection of 22 articles, in part re- 
printed from scientific periodicals, 1911-1918. 

FUNDAMENTAL PEACE IDEAS. Reprint from Congressional Record 
July 1, 1919. United States Senate. 16 pages, 8 vo. 

CRIMINOLOGICAL LITERATURE. Reprint from American Journal of 
Psychology. January, 1890. 12 pages. 

London, 1891. 8 pages, 8 vo., reprint. 

CRIMINAL ARISTOCRACY, or the maflfia, medico-legal journal. New 
York, 1891-92, reprint. 

VIEWS OF A BAER ON DRUNKENNESS. Andover Review, 1892, re- 
print. 8 pages, 8 vo. 

CRIME AND ITS PUNISHMENT. Ideas on the repression of crime by 
Garofolo, Columbia Law Times, October, 1892. 4 pages. 

GENIUS AND INSANITY. Reprint from journal of Mental Science, 
England, April, 1892. 

NEURO-SOCIAL DATA. Psychological Revue, New York, 1896. 4 pases, 
8 vo., reprint. 

A TEMPORAL ALGOMETER. Psychological Revue, New York, 1898. 

CHILDREN WITH ABNORMALITIES. Medical Times and Register. 
Philadelphia, 1899, reprint. 

Surgical Journal, 1899. Reprint. 3 pages. 

MEDICO-ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS. Journal of Electro- Therapeu- 
tics, 1899. Reprint. 7 pages. 

MEASUREMENT OF PAIN. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, 1899. 
Reprint. 4 pages. 


TYPES OP CHILDREN IN GERMANY. Pediatrics, New York, 1899. 4 

COLORED CHILDREN; a psycho-physical study. Reprint from the 
Journal of the American Medical Association, May 27, 1899. 14 pages. 

New York Medical Journal, June 24, 1899. 

RECENT INSTRUMENTS OF PRECISION, for the muscular and tactile 
sensations. Reprint from University Medical Magazine, Philadelphia, June 
1899. 7 pages. 

STUDY OF THE HYPNOTIZED STATE. Reprint from Medical Sum- 
mary, Philadelphia, June, 1899. 8 pages. 

escuelas de Washington. Boletin de la Institucion libre de ensenanza. 
Madrid, 1899. 

EL ESTUDIO DE LOS NINOS. Boletin del Instituto Cientifico y liter- 
ario Porfirio Diaz. Toluca, Mexico, 1899. 19 pages. 

GROWTH OF CHILDREN IN GERMANY. Pediatrics, vol. VII. No. 12, 
New York City, 1899. 

Journal of Dermatology, July, 1899. St. Louis, Mo. 8 pages. 

KINDERFORSCHUNG Zeitschrift fur padagogische psychologic und patha- 
logie. Berlin, 1899. 10 pages. 

PEDAGOGIE HYPNOTISM. Reprint from "Medical Progress," Louis- 
ville, Ky., September, 1899. 12 pages. 

THE POWER OF SUGGESTION. Reprint from Philadelphia Medical 
Journal, September 9, 1899. 

Medical Fortnightly, St. Louis, "Mo., September 1, 1899. 7 pages. 


STUDY OF CHILDREN. Reprint from Everybody's Magazine, June 
1901, New York City. 9 pages. 

VERSITY STUDENTS. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, 1901. 10 pages. 

College women. Philadelphia Medical Journal, 1901. 7 pages, reprint. 

STUDY OP MAN. American Journal of Sociology. Chicago, 1901. 7 
pages, 8 vo. 

REFORM OP JUVENILE CRIMINALS. Reprint from Pedagogical Sem- 
inary. Worcester, Mass., December, 1907. 12 pages. 

Medical Journal, August, 1907. 9 pages. 

MARCAS MORALES DE DEGERACION. Societe scientifique "Antonio 
Alzate" Memoires, Mexico, 1907. 11 pages. 

STUDIES OF JUVENILE CRIMINALS. Reprint from Medical Record, 
New York City, July 20, 1907. 8 pages. 

I'anthropologie criminelle. Lyon, 1907. 

ical Fortnightly, St. Louis, Mo., July 25, 1907. 20 pages. 

STATISTICS OF CHILD SUICIDE. Reprint from Journal of the Amer- 
ican Statistical Association. Vol X, 1907. Boston Mass. 4 pages. 

MORAL EDUCATION. American Monthly Magazine (of the D, A. R.) 
June, 1908. Address before many, Washington Chapter. 

L'EDUCTAION MORALE. Revue de 1' (Enseignement International.) 
Paris, 15 Aout, 1908. 5 pages. 


Chicago, January, 1908. 12 pages. 

REFORM OF WAYWARD YOUTH. Reprint from Sewanee Review, 
Sewanee. Tennessee, January, 1908. 24 pages. 

BEIKOHUNIOKERN FURYOOJINO KANKA (reform of children in the 
United States). Kyooiku Jiron, Tokyo, January 15, 1908. 5 pages. 

Autumn, 1909. Boston. 18 pages. 

DEATH PENALTY AND HOMICIDE. American Journal of Sociology, 
Chicago, July, 1910. 28 pages; also published in Japanese, Journal of Sta- 
tistical Society of Tokyo. 

Journal of American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology, Chicago, 

kunde, Berlin, 1910. 

MATTOIDS (CRANKS). Reprint from Medical Fortnightly. St. Louis, 
Mo., April 25, 1911. 12 pages. 

ECCENTRIC LITERATURE. The Monist, Chicago, July, 1911. 12 

Hearing before the Committee on Printing, House of Representatives, Au- 
gust 12, 1911. 

PHALIC INDEX, sociological condition, sex, age, and nationality. Journal 
of American Statistical Association. Boston. December, 1911, 9 pages, 8 vo. 

TRAUMATIC HYPNOTISM. American Medicine. New York, Sept., 
1911. 4 pp. 12 vo. 

ASSASSINS OF RULERS. Journal of .American Institute of Criminal 
Law and Criminology, Vol. II, No. 4. Chicago, November, 1911. 16 pages, 
8 vo. 

OGIE AUX ETAIS UNIS, Archives, d'Anthropologie Criminelle, Lyon et 
Paris, 15 Mars, 1911. 3 pages, 8 vo. 

EDUCATION Y CRIMINALIDAD. La Escuela Moderna. Madrid, April 
de 1912. 13 pages. 

alanthropologie und Kriminalistik. Band 46, Leipzig, 1912. 7 pages. 

STUDY OF CRIMINAL MAN, in connection with the author's letter, 
sent out by the State Department to foreign countries. Criminal Law Re- 
view, February, 1915, Madras, India. 10 pages. 

MENTALITY OP NATIONS, in connection with patho-social conditions. 
Bibliography. The Open Court, Chicago, August, 1912. 11 pages; also 
published in Scientific American, New York City, and in Nature, November 
14, 1912, London. 

MENTALIDAD DE NACION. Archivos de Pedagogia y Ciencias afines. 
Mayo de 1912. Buenos Aires. 

A STUDY OF CONGRESS (plan proposed). Lawyer and Banker, New 
Orleans, December, 1914. 7 pages. 

nal, special historical sketches, November, 1914, New York City. 5 pages; 
also in Pacific Medical Journal, San Francisco, California; Maryland Medi- 
cal Journal, Baltimore, December, 1914; Alienist and Neurologist, St. Louis, 
February, 1915: Educational Foundations, New York City, January, 1915, etc. 

Psychologie. Leipzig, 1915. 17 pages, 8 vo. 


New Orleans, February, 1915. 8 pages, 8 vo.; also in the New Age (Masonic) 
Washington, D. C, April, 1915. 4 pages; Pacific Medical Journal, San Fran- 
cisco, April, 1915. 11 pages. 

HUMANIZING CRIMINAL LAW. Case and Comment, vol. 18, No. 12, 
1912, Rochester, N. Y.; also published in Bulletin de I'Union International 
de Droit Penal, Vol. XIX. 

inals. Alienist and Neurologist, St. Louis, February, 1912. 

Times, New York, April, 1914. 15 pages. 

SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF BASE BALL. American Physical Education 
Review, Springfield, Mass., March, 1914. 22 pages. 

la Revista Argentina de Ciencias politicas. aiio VIII. t. 15. Buenos Aires, 
1918. 24 pages., 8 vo. 

Laboratory Nev/s. St. Louis, April, 1919. 8 pages, 4 vo. ; also published in 
Chinese, Eastern Miscellany, Shanghai, China. 

World, August, 1920, Philadelphia. 

A STATISTICIAN. Journal of Education, Boston, 1921. 

DEATH IN MAN. Medical Times, July and August, 1921, N. Y. City. 

PSYCHOLOGY OF DEATH. Indian Medical Record, Calcutta, June, 1921. 

nal of Psychol., October, 1921. 

und Kriminalistik, Leipsig, 1921. 

of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, published in Congressional Record 
for October 26, 1921. 


PEACE, WAR, AND HUMANITY. Printed by Judd & Detweiler, Wash- 
ington, D. C, 26 pages, 1915, 8 vo. 

COMPARATIVE MILITARISM. Reprint from publications of the Amer- 
ican Statistical Association, Boston, December, 1915, 3 pages, 8 vo. 

ATROCITIES AND OUTRAGES OF WAR. Reprint from the Pacific 
Medical Journal, San Francisco, April, 1916, 16 pages, 8 vo.* 

SOME MORAL EVILS OF WAR. Reprint from Pacific Medical Journal, 
San Francisco, August, 1915, 8 pages, 8 vo. Refers especially to Boer War. 

REASONS FOR PEACE. Machinists' Monthly Journal, Washington, 
D. C, July, 1916, pages 708-710, 8 vo. 

Medical Times, Denver, Colo.. 6 pages, 8 vo. 

STATEMENT OF EUROPEAN WAR. Reprint from Pacific Medical 
Journal, San Francisco, Calif., February, 1917, 8 pages, 8 vo. 

PREVENTION OF WAR. Reprint from Congressional Record, Wash- 
ington, D. C, February 27, 1917, 8 pages, 8 vo.; also reprint 7 pages. 8 vo. 

Birmingham, Ala., February and March, 1917. 

OUR NATIONAL DEFENSE. Testimony of American officers as to dif- 
ficulties of invasion, and our coast defenses. Congressional Record for 
March 15, 1917; also reprint, 10 pages, 8 vo. 

LA HUMANIDAD Y LA GUERRA. La Escuela Moderna. Junio, 1917. 
Madrid. 11 pages, 8 vo. 


MEASUREMENTS. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, June 13, 1918; 
also, reprint 8 pages, 8 vo. 

REVOLUTIONS. Journal of Education, Boston, Mass., December 26, 
1914, 4 vo. 

ANTHROPOMETRY OF SOLDIERS. Medical Record, New York City, 
December 14, 1918; also, reprint 17 pages, 12 vo.; also, in Our State Army 
and Navy, Philadelphia, April, 1919. 

PSYCHOLOGY OF SWISS SOLDIERS. Arms and the Man, Washing- 
ton, D. C, 1918; also, in Journal of Medicine and Surgery, Nashville, Tenn., 
March, 1919. 

May 1, 1919. 

THE PEACE CONFERENCE IN FRANCE. Journal of Education, Boston, 
Mass., March 27, 1919; also, in Open Court, April, 1919; also (in German) 
Milwaukee Herald, April, 1919; also (in Norwegian) in Amerika, May 16, 
Madison, Wis.; in "La Prenso" (Spanish), San Antonia, Tex., Lunes 19 de 
Mayo de 1919; "Nardoni List" (Croatian), June 8, 1919; also in "Rivista d' 
lalia," Milano, April, 1919. 

ANTROPOMETRIA MILITAR, Revista de Medicina y Cirugia. Habana, 
April, 10, 1919. Read before the Academy of Sciences of Habana. 

New York City, May 3, 1919; also, reprint, 12 pages, 12 vo. 


ber, 1890, 

ALCOHOLISM. Independent. New York City, July 11, 1891. 

DENTIAL PURPOSES. American Law Review, December, 1891; also in 
report of American Bar Association, 1904. 

THE SCIENCE OF CRIME. Lend a Hand, February, 1892. 

CRIMINOLOGY. New Englander and Yale Review, January, 1892. 

STUDY OF THE CRIMINAL. "Summary", published in Elmira Re- 
formatory, October 9, 1892. 

CRIMINAL CONTAGION. National Review, London, November, 1892. 

LA SEXUALITE' PATHO-CRIMINELLE. Archives de I'anthropologie 
criminelle. Lyon, November, 1892. 

INSANITY AND GENIUS. Arena. Boston, June, 1893. 

PUBLIC SCHOOL CHILDREN. Measurements to determine their phy- 
sical condition. Verhandl der Berliner Gesellschaft fur anthropologic, 1893, 
zeiten 355-357, 

SUR LES ENFANTS. Revue scientifique, Paris, juillet, 1899. 

July 15, 1899. 

MEASUREMENTS OF PAIN. Psychological Review, March, 1899. 

Italy, 1899. 

OM MAALING OF BERN. 1 Anledning af en Undersagelse af Skoleboon 
i Washington. Vor Ungdom Kopenhagen, 1899. 

ALCOHOLIC HYPNOTISM. Quarterly Journal of Inebriety, XXII, 30-38. 

HYPNOTISM. The Chautauqua, September, 1899. 

can Medicine Philadelphia, February 22, 1902. 

POST MORTEM OF SUICIDE. Medical Times, New York City, June, 



Adams, (Pres.) John Quincy 49 

Addanis (Miss) Jane. Active in Illinois 

Equal Suffrage Association 97 

Aleshire, (Mrs.) William. Active suffra- 
gist, State of Illinois 112 

Alexander County, Illinois 46, 49 

Allen, Mulkey & Wheeler, Law firm Cairo, 

Illinois .50, 51 

Allen, (Mr.) Royal N., Aids Suffragists 99 

Allen. (Judge) William J. Early lawyer 
and Judge, State of Illinois. .43, 45, 50, 51 

Alton, Illinois 69, 70, 87 

Foot-notes 87, 90 

Alton, Illinois. Alton Daily Courier, October 

13, 1853 87 

Foot-note 87 

Alton, Illinois. Alton Dally Courier, Janu- 
ary 16, 1854 90 

Foot-note 90 

Alton, Illinois. Alton Weeklv Courier, 

October 5, 1854. Foot-note." 90 

Alton, Illinois. Baptist Church 87 

Alton, Jacksonville and Chicago, R. R 70 

Alvord, Clarence Walworth 

13, 14, 19, 21, 136, 137 

Alvord, Clarence Walworth. Editor Illinois 
Historical Collections, Vols. II, IV, V, 

X, XI, XV 136, 137 

Amalgamated Meat Cutters' Union, Chicago. 75 

America 54, 55, 60, 121 

America. Scotch in America '. . . 121 

"American Entomologist" Established at 

St. Louis 55 

American Flag 99 

American T^abor Leaders 80 

Annapolis, Maryland 70 

Anthropology of Modern Man 119, 120 

Appalachian Mountains 84 

Appomattox, Virginia. Lee's Surrender to 

General Grant at. Reference 15 

Armour, J. Ogden. Head of Packing House, 

Chicago SO 

Armstrong, Frank. Reporter on the Chicago 

Daily News 101 

Atlanta, Illinois 24 

Atlanta, Georgia. Siege of. War of the 

Rebellion 70 

Atwood, John A. Member House of Repre- 
sentatives, State of Illinois. Aids Suffra- 
gists 107 

Aurora, Illinois. Aurora Beacon, June 26, 

1851. Foot-note 91 

Aurora, Illinois. Aurora Beacon, March 14, 

1857, Footnote 90 

Aurora, Illinois. Aurora Beacon, February , 

4, 1858. Foot-note 87 

Aurora, Illinois. Aurora Beacon, April 8, 

1858. Foot-note 91 

Aurora, Illinois. Aurora Beacon, May 13, 

1858 86 

Aurora, Illinois. Friends of dress reform.. 91 

Averj- Familj' 26 

Avery, Samuel Putnam 26 


Backwoodsman, (The). Newspaper started 
in Grafton, Illinois in 1838 69 

Bailey, Martin B. Member of lUinois Sen- 
ate, Aids Suffragists 102 

^ PAGK. 

Baker, Edward Dickinson. A Modem Knight 
Errant, by James H. Matheny. Footnote.. 68 
Baker, Edward Dickinson. Short sketch. 68, 69 

Foot-note 68 

Baker, (Judge) David J. Early lawyer 

and judge. State of Illinois 43 49, 50 

Baker, (Judge) David J. Short sketch. 

Judicial Career 49, 50 

Baker Family of Greene County, Illinois.. 68 

Baker, (Hon.) Jehu. Foot-note 89 

Baltimore & Ohio R. R 99 

Bancroft, George. History of the United 

States. Quoted 121 

Foot-note 121 

Bane, (Mrs.) Ann. S. Lecture tour in Illi- 
nois, 1853. Reference 89 

Baptist Church, Rock Island, Illinois. .. .57, 58 
Baring-Gould, Sabine. Family names and 

their History ' 122 

Barr, Richard. Member Illinois State 

Senate. Aids Suffragists 110 

Battle of Atlanta, War of the Rebellion .... 70 
Battle of Ball's Bluff, War of the Rebellion. 69 
Battle of Chattanooga, War of the Rebellion 70 
Battle of Chickamauga, War of the Rebel- 
lion 70 

Battle of Shiloh, War of the Rebellion 67 

Battle of Stone River, War of the Rebellion. 70 

Baxter, (Mrs.) E. A ^... 15 

Beall, Edward 23 

Beck, Edward S. Reporter on the Chicago 

Tribune 101 

Beckwith, Hiram W. Editor, Illinois His- 
torical Collections, Vol. 1 136 

Belleville, Illinois 48, 68 

Foot-notes 87, 89, 90 

Belleville, Illinois. Belleville Advocate, 

April 27, 1853 8S> 

Foot-note 89 

Belleville, Illinois. Belleville Advocate, 

August 17, 1853, Foot-note 90 

Belleville, Illinois. Belleville Advocate, 

March, 1855 87 

Belleville, Illinois. Belleville Advocate, 

March 14, 1855, Foot-note 87 

Belt family 43 

Belting, Paul E. Development of the Free 
Public High School in Illinois to 1860. 

Reference 22 

Belvoir, Virginia 26 

Benneson, (Miss) Cora Agnes 23 

Benton, Illinois 48, 51 

Beveridge, Albert J., United States Senator, 

of Scotch Ancestry 122 

Bishop Hill, Illinois." 24, 55 

Bishop Hill, Henry County, Illinois. Swedish 

Colon}' 55 

Bishop, "(Mrs.) L. Brackett, Active Suffra- 
gist, State of Illinois 104 

Black Hawk. Life of, by J. B. Patterson. 

Reference 23 

Black Hawk War 67, 68 

Blackwood Magazine 54 

Blaha, Joseph C. Member House of Repre- 
sentatives, State of Illinois. Aids Suffra- 
gists 107 

Blaine, James G. United States Senator of 

Scotch Ancestry 122 

Blair, Francis P. .jr. United States Senator 

of Scotch Ancestry 122 

Blatchford, (Mrs.) Paul 21 


INDEX— Continued. 


Bledsoe, Moses 68 

Blish, James K 23 

Bloomer Costume. Advocates of, in an 
early day in Illinois 90, 91 

Bloomer, (Mrs.) of New York. Designer 
of the Bloomer costume 90 

Bloominfjton, Illinois 24, 34, 90 

Foot-note 90 

Bloom ington, Illinois. Bloomington Bulle- 
tin 90 

Foot-note 90 

Blount, (Dr.) Anna E. Active in Illinois 
Equal Suftrage Association 97 

Bluffdale, (Greene County) Illinois. Home 
of John Russell 69 

Booth, (Mrs.) Sherman M. (Elizabeth K.) 
Active in Illinois Equal Suffrage Associa- 
tion ■ 96, 97, 98, 101, 102, 103, 105 

Boscamen, N. H 26 

Boston, Massachusetts 55, 70 

Boston, Massachusetts. Society of Natural 
History 55 

Bourland, (Mrs.) 0. P. Active Suffragist, 
State of Illinois 112 

Bowman, William G. Early lawyer and 
judge, State of Illinois 45 

Bowen, (Mrs.) Joseph T. Active in Illinois 
Equal Suffrage Association 97, 100 

Boyd, Randolph. Member of House of Rep- 
resentatives, State of Illinois. Aids Suf- 
fragists 107, 110, 111 

Bradshaw, Charles 15, 33, 38, 64 

Bradshaw, Charles. Greene County, Illinois. 
Born One Hundred years ago, Greene 
County, Illinois 38,64-71 

Brandican, N. W 34 

Breckenridge, John C. United States Sen- 
ator of Scotch Ancestry 122 

Breese, (Judge) Sidney 46, 49 

Breese, (Judged Sidney. Short sketch, judi- 
cial career 49 

British Columbia 64 

Brock, (Dr.) George W 24 

Brooks, (Miss) Virginia. Active in Illinois 
Equal Suffrage Association 97 

Brown, (Miss) Antoinette L., ordained as 
minister 87 

Brown, (Mrs.) Christopher -C 24 

Brown, (Dr.^ D. B. Active suffragist, State 
of Illinois 112 

Brown, (Mrs.) Harrison Monroe. Active in 
Illinois Equal Suftrage Association 97 

Brown, (Mrs.) Harrison Monroe, President 
Illinois Equal Suffrage Association 110 

Brown, (Mrs.^ Lillian N. Active in Illinois 
Equal Suffrage Association 97 

Browne, Lee O'Neil. Democratic leader. 
House of Representatives, Illinois State, 
attitude on woman's suffrage 103 

Brundage, (Atty.-Gen.) Edward J. State of 
Illinois. Aids Suffragists Ill, 114 

Brj-an, (Hon.) William Jennings 110 

Buck, Solon Justus. Editor, Illinois His- 
torical Collections, Vol. IX 136 

Bulliner Familj' 43 

Bulliners and Hendersons of the Williamson 
County Vendetta 43 

Bunker Hill, Illinois 88 

Burres, William F. Member House of Rep- 
resentatives, of Illinois. Aids Suffra- 
gists 105 

Busev, (Mrs.) Mary B. Active Suffragist, 
State of Illinois 112 

Bushnell, Illinois 112 

Butler, (Mrs.) Jeane Wallace. Active Suf- 
fragist Illinois State 104,112 

Butts, Lucas I. Member House of Repre- 
sentatives, State of Illinois. Aids Suf- 
fragists 107 


Cahokia Mound. Efforts to purchase the 
mound and preserve it as a public park 

for the state 21 

Cain, Harry 57 

Cain, (Mrs.) Harry 57 

Cairo, Illinois 41, 43, 45, 50, 51 

Foot-note 86 

Cairo & Vincennes Railroad 51 

Cairo, Illinois. Cairo City Times, May 2, 

1855. Foot-note • 86 

Cambridge, England 54 

Cambridge, (Henry County) Illinois 54 

Cambridge, Massachusetts 23 

Cameron, Simon. United States Senator of 

Scotch Ancestry 122 

Campbell, Thomas. Member House of Rep- 
resentatives, State of Illinois. Aids Suf- 
fragists 107 

Canton, Illinois. Temperance raid in. Ref- 
erence 86 

Carbondale, Illinois 6, 51 

Carlin, (Miss) Nellie, Active Suffragist, 

State of Illinois 112 

Carlin, (Gov.) Thomas 64,65,66 

Carlin, (Gov.) Thomas. Land of, in Greene 
County, Illinois, became the site of Greene 

County's capital 64 

Carlin, (Gov.) Thomas. Ranger, early day 

in Illinois 65, 66 

Carlin, (Gov.) Thomas. Short sketch 66 

Carlin, (Gov.) Thomas, Statue of in Car- 

rollton, Illinois, erected by the State. .66, 67 
Carlin, (Brig.-Gen.) William P. Short 

sketch 69,70 

Carlinville, Illinois 64 

Carlock, W. B 34 

Carmon, Charles H. Member of Illinois 
House of Representatives, Aids Suffragists. 98 

Carolinas, (The) 26 

Carpenter, Richard V 16 

Carroll, (IJharles, One of the signers of the 

Declaration of Independence 64 

Carrollton, Illinois 

33, 38, 63, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70 

Carrollton, Illinois. Cholera epidemic in 

1833 68 

Carrollton, Illinois. Named for Charles 

Carroll of Carrollton 64 

Carter, Clarence Edwin. Editor Illinois 

Historical Collections. Vols. X, XI 136 

Carter, (Judge) Orrin N 16, 113 

Carter, (Judge) Orrin N. Aids Suffragists, 

State of Illinois 113 

Cary Family. The Virginia Carys 26 

Casey, (Judge) T. S., Early lawyer and 

judge. State of Illinois 45 

Catherwood, Mary Hartwell. Author of 
"Old Kaskaskia" and "The Romance of 

Dollard," etc 67 

Catlin, Franklin S. Member House of Rep- 
resentatives, State of Illinois. Aids Suf- 
fragists 107 

Catt, (Mrs.) Carrie Chapman. President, 
National American 'WomniVs Suffrage 

Association 107, 113, 115 

Cattle Butchers' Union, Chicago, Illinois. 74, 75 

Cavarly, A. W 68 

Chamberlain, Henry Barrett, Reporter on 

the Chicago Record Herald 101 

Chattanooga, Battle of, War of the Rebellion 70 

Chicago, Illinois 6, 15, 22, 24, 

38, 51, 54, 57, 59, 60, 70, 72, 83, 87, 
94, 95, 97, 98, 100, 101, 103, 104, 105, 
108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115. 116 

Footnotes 87, 88, 89 

Chicago, Illinois. Academy of Sciences.... 59 
Chicago, Illinois. Alton, .lacksonville and 
Chicago R. R 70 


INDEX— Continued. 


Chicago, Illinois, Amalgamated meat cut- 
ters' Union 75 

Chicago, Illinois, American (Newspaper) . .101 

Chicago, Illinois, Cattle Butchers' Union, 
Organization of 74, 75 

Chicago, Illinois, Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
Paul R. R 51 

Chicago. Illinois, Chicago & Rock Island 
R. R 57 

Chicago, Illinois. Chicago Press and Tribune 
Ma}' 19, 1858, Footnote 88 

Chicago, Illinois, Chicago Weekly Democrat, 
September 17, 1853, Footnote 88 

Chicago, Illinois, Chicago Weekly Democrat, 
June 21, 28, 1856, quoted. Footnote.... 85 

Chicago, Illinois, Citizens' Association active 
in the interest of a new Constitution for 
the State of Illinois Ill 

Chicago, Illinois, Daily News (Newspaper) .101 

Chicago, Illinois, Equal Suffrage Associa- 
tion 104, 115 

Chicago, Illinois, E.xaminer (Newspaper) 
94, 101, 108 

Chicago, Illinois, Examiner (Newspaper) 
Suffrage Edition 108 

Chicago, Illinois, Fire 59 

Chicago, Illinois. Historical Society pur- 
chases the Gunther Collection 15, 22 

Chicago, Illinois, Human Rights Association 
104, 105 

Chicago, Illinois, Iroquois Theatre Tragedy. 82 

Chicago, Illinois, Journal (Newspaper) .94, 101 

Chicago, Illinois, Labor Day Parade 1903, 
Women's Union take part in 77 

Chicago, Illinois, McDowell, (Miss) Mary E. 
Twenty-five years in an Industrial Com- 
munity 38, 72-83 

Chicago, Illinois, National Republican Con- 
vention of 1916, hela in 110, 111 

Chicago, Illinois, Packing Trades Council . . 75 

Chicago, Illinois, Political Equality League 
93, 104, 109, 112, 115, IIG 

Chicago, Illinois, Political Equality League, 
Trout, (Mrs.) Grace Wilbur, president. . 93 

Chicago, Illinois, Post, Newspaper. .. .94, 101 

Chicago, Illinois, Record-Herald Newspaper 
94, 101 

Chicago, Illinois, Strike, Packing House, 
1904 78-82 

Chicago, Illinois, Suffrage Parade, May 2, 
1914 109 

Chicago, Illinois, Tribune (Newspaper) .... 
94, 95, 101 

Chicago. Illinois, University of Chicago 
Settlement 72 

Chicago, Illinois, Woman's Association of 
Commerce 104 

Chicago, Illinois, Woman's City Club 116 

Chicago, Illinois, Women's Clubs 115 

Chicago, Illinois, AVomen organize a Kansas 
Women's Aid and Liberty Association 
with auxiliaries in towns and villages of 
Northern Illinois 85 

Chickamauga, Battle of. War of the Re- 
bellion 70 

Child Labor Law, Illinois State, Reference. 82 

Chippiannock Cemetery, near Rock Island, 
Illinois 58 

Christian Church, Memorial Christian Church, 
Rock Island, Illinois 57 

Churches, Baptist Church, Rock Island, 111 . 57 

Churches, Christian Church, Memorial Chris- 
tian Church, Rock Island, Illinois 57 

Churches, Congregational Church 87 

Churches, Universalist Church, Chicago. ... 87 

Civil War, See War of the Rebellion 

28, 43, 67, 70, 91, 107 

Clapp, Clement L., History of Greene County 
Quoted 65 

Clark, Albert C, Member Illinois Senate, 
Aids Suffragists 102 


Clark (Hon.) Champ 110 

Clark, George Rogers, Illinois State His- 
torical Collections Vol. VIII Clark Papers, 

1771-1781 136 

Clark, George Rogers, Papers of, second vol- 
ume. Reference 13 

Cleary, Michael H., Member of Illinois Sen- 
ate, Aids Suffragists 102 

Clendenin, H. W 15, 16 

Cockrell, Francis M., United States Senator 

of Scotch Ancestry 122 

Coldv, (Miss) Emilv, Wife of William E. 

Pettit 57 

Coldy Family 57 

Cole, Arthur Charles, Editor of Vol. III., 
Centennial History, The Era of the Civil 

War, 1848-1870, Footnote 85 

Cole, Arthur Charles, Editor Illinois Histori- 
cal Collections, Vol. XIV 137 

Cole, Arthur C, Illinois Women of the Mid- 
dle Period 38, 84, 92 

Coles, (Gov.) Edward, Life of, by Elihu B. 
Wa.shburne, Reprinted bv the Illinois 

State Historical Society..'. 19, 137 

Collins, J. H 22 

Cologne, Germany 74 

Colyer, Walter 16 

Conipton, William A., Member of Illinois 

Senate, Aids Suffragists 102 

Congregational Church 87 

Conkling, Clinton L 15, 16 

Connecticut State 26, 122 

Constitutional Convention, State of Illinois, 
1919, Adopts article giving full suffrage 
to Illinois women to be incorporated in 

new Constitution 113 

Cook County, Illinois, Woman's Part.v. . . .105 
Coollev, (Mrs.) E. B., Active Suffragist, 

State of Illinois 112 

Copeland, Charles 26 

Copeland Gcnealogj' 26 

Cornwall, England 26 

Cory Family 26 

Crandon, Frank P 24 

Curley, William A., Reporter on the Chicago 

American 101 

Curran, John M. Member House of Represen- 
tatives, State of Illinois, Aids Suffragists 

98, 107 

Curran, (Judge) William R 15, 16 

Currey, J. Seymour, Report of the Evanston 

Historical 'Society 27, 28 

Curtis, Edward C, Member of Illinois Sen- 
ate, Aids Suffragists 102, 110, 111 

Custer, Milo. Report of the Historical So- 
ciety, Central Illinois 27, 29 

Cutting, (Judge) Charles S., Aids Suffra- 
gists 108 

Danville, Illinois 112 

Davenport, Iowa 57 

Davis, (Capt.) C. K., Early lawyer State of 

Illinois 51 

Davis, David of Bloomington, Illinois 34 

Declaration of Independence, Eleven Scotch- 
men signers of 122 

DeKalb, Illinois 112 

Devine, John P., Member House of Repre- 
sentatives, State of Illinois, Aids Suffra- 
gists 105 

Dickinson. Harriet C 26 

Dingee, William 24 

Dinsmore, John W., The Scotch-Irish in 

America 122 

Dobyne, (Miss) Margaret, Active in Illinois 
Equal Suffrage Association 97, 104 


INDEX — Continued. 


Donnelly, Michael, Head of organization of 
Unions, Chicago Cattle Butchers' Union, 

Amalgamated Meat Cutters', etc 

74, 75, 77, 78, 79, SO, 81 

Dorris, J. T., History of the Oregon Trail, 
Reference ." 22 

Doughtery, John, Early lawyer. State of 
Illinois 45 

Douglas, Stephen Arnold 70, 90 

Downey, (Mrs.) Elvira, Active in Illinois 
Equal Suti'rage Association 97 

Dress Reform Association, Illinois State. ... 91 

Dudgeon, Israel, Member House of Repre- 
sentatives, State of Illinois, Aids Suffra- 
gists 107 

Duel, Lincoln-Shields Duel 69 

Duff, A. D. Earlv lawver and judge. State 
of Illinois " 43, 44, 45, 48 

Duff, (Judge) A. D., Judicial career. ... 51, 52 

Dunne, (Gov.) Edward F 

99, 101, 107, 108, 109 

Dunne, (Gov.) Edward F., Aids Suffragists 
99, 107, 108, 109 

Dunne, (Gov.) Edward F., Reviews Suffrage 
Parade, Chicago, May 2, 1914 109 

Earle, (Dr.) C. A 15 

Earle, (Mrs.) Dora, Active Suffragist, State 

of Illinois Ill 

Eastman, John, Reporter on the Chicago 

Journal 101 

East St. Louis, Illinois 21, 42, 43 

Education, Chicago, University of Chicago 

Settlement 72 

Education, Illinois Education Society 88 

Education, Illinois, Southern Illinois Nor- 
mal University 51 

Education, Illinois State Normal School.. 88 
Education, McKendree College, Lebanon, 

Illinois 48 

Education, National Educational Society... 88 
Education, Scotch leaders in education. .. .121 
Education, Sloan's Central Commercial Col- 
lege of Chicago 88 

Education, We>t Point Military Academy.. 70 

Egvptian Temples 70 

Elliott Familv 26 

Elliott, John 26 

Ellis, (Rev.) R. F 87 

Engelke, (Mrs.) Ida Darling, Active Suffra- 
gists, State of Illinois 109 

England 54, 56, 57, 60 

English, R. W 69 

Entomological Journal, published at Phila- 
delphia, Edited by Benjamin D. Walsh . . . 55 
Entomologist, First State Entomologist of 

Illinois, Walsh, Benjamin D 54, 61 

Entomologist, Howard, (Dr.) 0. L. United 

States Entomologist 59 

Entomologist, LeBaron, William, State En- 
tomologist , 59 

Entomologist, Riley. (Gen.) Charles \., 

State Entomologist of Missouri 55, 58 

Entomology, American Entomologist estab- 
lished at St. Louis 55 

Entomology, Entomological Journal, pub- 
lished at Philadelphia, Edited by Benja- 
min D. Walsh 55 

Entomologj', Walsh, Benjamin, See paper 
on, bv Mrs. Edna Armstrong Tucker... 

" 38, 54-61 

Ettleson, Samuel E., Member of Illinois Sen- 
ate, Aids Suffragists 102 

Europe 55, 56 

Evans, Marv L. P 34 

Evanston, Illinois. 6, 16, 19, 21, 24, 27, 28, 115 

Evanston, Illinois Historical Societv. . . .27, 28 

Report 27, 28 


Evanston, Illinois, Northwestern University 

located in 16, 21 

Evanston, Illinois, Political Equality League 115 

Evanston, Illinois, Public Library 28 

Executive Mansion, Springfield, Illinois.... 61 

Fairbanks, (Mrs.) Kellogg, Active Suffragist 

State of Illinois Ill 

Fairchild Family 26 

Farmington, Illinois, Temperance Raid in 

1856 86 

Fayette County, Illinois 62 

Federal Suffrage Amendment, Passed in 

1919 107 

Federal Suffrage Amendment, Illinois State, 

first State in the Union to ratifv 

107, 114, 115 

Federal Suffrage Amendment, ratification by 

States 115 

Federal Suffrage Amendment, Tennessee 

State, Thirty-sixth State to ratify the 

Federal Suffrage Amendment 116 

Finn, (Miss) Mary 57 

Finn, (Miss) Rebecca, Wife of Benjamin D. 

Walsh 57, 59, 60, 61 

Finnegan, Richard, Reporter on the Chicago 

Journal 101 

Fitch, E. E 28 

Flagg, Norman C, Member House of Rep- 
resentatives of Illinois, Aids Suffragists . . 105 
Fonda, (Mrs.) Agent of the New York 

Ladies' Temperance Society 85, 86 

Ford, Henry J., The Scotch-Irish in 

America 122 

Forrest, Illinois 98 

Fort Chartres, Tablet placed by Illinois 

Society of Colonial Dames, on the restored 

powder magazine 21 

Fort Creve Coeur, Site of, to be marked, 

Site to be determined by the Illinois 

State Historical Society 21 

Fort Russell, Madison County, Illinois.... 65 

Franklin County, Illinois 42 

Fraternal Societies, Knights Templar 101 

Freeport, Illinois 112 

Free West, January 5, 1854, Footnote 89 

French Piano Company, Springfield, Illinois 25 

Frome, Worcestershire, England 54 

Fry, (Gen.) Jacob, In the Black Hawk War 67 

Fry, (Gen.) Jacob, Military Career 67 

Fry, (Gen.) Jacob, Sheriff of Greene County 

Illinois 67 

Funk, (Mrs.) Antoinette, Active worker in 

the Progressive Party, Aids the Suffragists 

103, 105, 106 

Funk, Lafavette 24 


Gage, (Mrs.) Frances D., Lecturer on 

Woman's Rights, etc 89, 90 

Galesburg, Illinois 6, 15 

Gallatin Countv, Illinois 51 

Gait, (Dr.) Thomas, of Rock Island 58 

Geneseo, Illinois 57 

Gilbert, Hiram, Constitutional lawyer, Aids 

Suffragists 107 

Giles, William 57 

Giles, (Mrs.) William 57 

Gillespie, Frank, Member House of Repre- 
sentatives, State of Illinois, .\ids Suffra- 
gists 105 

Gillespie, Joseph, Footnote 89 

Glencoe, Illinois 96 

Globe Tavern, Springfield, Illinois, where 
Mr. and Mrs. Lincoln boarded when they 
were first married, site to be marked. ... 20 
Gonne, Maud, Maud Gonne Club Organiza- 
tion Packing House, Chicago 76 

Grafton, Illinois, The Backwoodsman, News- 
■paper started in Grafton, Illinois in 1838. 69 


INDEX— Continued. 


Graham, (Mrs.) John 57 

Grammar Family o7 

Grand Armv of the Republic Veterans.... 94 

Grant Park", Illinois 112 

Grant, (Gen.) Ulysses S 14, li>, 5G 

Grant, (Gen.) Ulysses, Lincoln's telegram 

to. Reference 14 

Graysville, Hlinois, Graysville Advertiser, 

newspaper, Footnote 91 

Greenacre, (Judge) Isaiah T., Aids Suffra- 
gists 109 

Green Cantrell, Night-riders 43 

Green, William H., Early lawyer and judge. 

State of Illinois 44, 45 

Greene Countv, Illinois, Act creating ap- 
proved, January 20, 1821 63 

Greene County, Illinois, Bradshaw, Charles, 
Born One Hundred years ago, Greene 

County 38, 62-71 

Greene County, Illinois, Clapp, Clement L. 

History of Greene County, Quoted 65 

Greene County, Illinois, Location of County 

seat contest 63 

Greene County, Illinois, Named for General 

Nathaniel Greene 63, 67 

Greene, Evarts Boutell..6, 13, 14, 15, 16, 136 
Greene, Evarts Boutell, Editor Illinois His- 
torical Collections, Vols. IV, VII 136 

Greene, (Gen.) Nathaniel, Greene County, 

Illinois named for 63, 67 

Griffin, (Mrs.) E. B., Active Suffragist, 

State of Illinois 112 

Grizelle, Miles C 29 

Grover, Frank R 24, 27,28 

Guenther, (Mrs.) Emma 57 

Gunther, Charles F 14, 15, 22, 24 

Gunther, Charles F., Collection of Historical 
material, purchased by the Chicago His- 
torical Society 14, 15, 22 


Hakes, H 58 

Haley, (Miss) Margaret, Active Suffragist, 

State of Illinois 108 

Hamilton, Alexander of Scotch Ancestry. . . .122 
Hanna, Charles A., The Scotch-Irish, or the 
Scot in North Britian, North Ireland and 

North America 122 

Hannah, Organizer of Union Packing House, 

Chicago 75, 76, 78 

Hardin County, Illinois 43 

Hardin County, Illinois, Ku Klux Klan ... 43 
Harker, (Hon.) 0. A., Fiftv vears with the 

Bench and Bar of SoutheVn Illinois.38, 41-53 
Harris, George W., Member of Illinois Sen- 
ate. Aids Suffragists 102 

Harrisburg, Illinois 45 

Harrison, Carter H., Mayor of Chicago, 

reviews Suffrage parade 109 

Harrison, (Mr.) Fairfa.x 26 

Hartford, Connecticut 26 

Haskell, (Mrs.) George S., Active Suffragist, 

State of Illinois 112 

Hauberg, John H 14, 16, 23 

Hawes, David 58 

Hawes, Frank 57 

Hav, Logan, Member of Illinois Senate, Aids 

Suffragists ' 102 

Helena, Montana 26 

Henderson Family 43 

Henrv Countv Historical Societv 27 

Report " 28, 29 

Henry County, Illinois, Red Oak neighbor- 
hood near Cambridge 54 

Henr\', (Mrs.) Lillv, Earlv preacher in Illi- 
nois ." ■ 88 

Henry, Patrick, of Scotch descent .121 

Herrick, John J., Constitutional lawver. 
Aids Suffragists ". . . 108 


lleiriii, Illinois 42 

Higginson, Thomas Wentworth, extract from 

poem of 73 

Highland Park, Illinois 98, 112 

llobson, Thomas 63 

Hodge, George A 29 

Hodges, Charles Drury 70 

Holdrege, Nebraska 26 

Hollister, Thomas H., Member House of 
Representatives, State of Illinois, Aids 

Suffragists 107 

Holt Greenhouse, Rock Island, Illinois .... 56 

Holt, Orrin S 24 

Houston, John, Member House of Represen- 
tatives, State of Illinois, Aids Suffragists. 107 
Howard, (Dr.) L. O. United States Entom- 
ologist 59 

Hubbard, (Mrs.) Early preacher in Illinois 

87, 88 

Hubbard, William A., Member House of 
Representatives, State of Illinois, Aids 

Suffragists 105 

Hudson's Bay Country 64 

Huidekoper, (Lieut. -Col.) Frederick Louis, 
History of the Thirty-Third Division of 
the United States Armv, World War.. 18, 19 

Huitt, John W " 65 

Huitt, (Miss) Rebecca, Wife of Thomas 

Carlin 66 

Hunnicutt, Rowell, Earlv settler of Greene 

County, Illinois " 67, 68, 71 

Hunt, (Mrs.) .\nna Wallace, Active Suffra- 
gist, State of Illinois 112 

Hunt, Roy D., Member House of Representa- 
tives, State of Illinois, Aids Suffragists. .105 


Illinois and Michig:an Canal 67 

Illinois Central Railroad 41 

Illinois College, Jacksonville, Illinois. .. .6, 16 

"Illinois Farmer", Periodical 55 

Illinois River 67 

Illinois State, Admission to the bar in an 

early diiy in procedure 47, 48 

Illinois State, Bane, (Mrs.) Ann, Lecture 

tour in Illinois. 1853, Reference 89 

Illinois State Banner or flag 99 

Illinois State, Belting, Paul E., Develop- 
ment of the Free Public High School in 

Illinois, Reference 22 

Illinois State, Bradshaw, Charles, Greene 
County, bom one hundred years ago .... 

38, 62-71 

Illinois State, Centennial History 19 

Illinois State, Centennial Commission 35 

Illinois State, Centennial Memorial Building 17 
Illinois State, Central Illinois Historical 

Society 19, 27, 29 

Illinois State, Child Labor Law, Reference 82 
Illinois State, Cole, Arthur C, Illinois 

Women of the middle Period 38, 84-92 

Illinois State Constitution. Agitation for a 

new Constitution for the State ....111, 112 
Illinois State Constitutional Convention, 
1919, Adopts article giving full suffrage 
to Illinois women, to be incorporated in 

new Constitution 113 

Illinois State, Constitutional 'Convention 

1919-1921 Ill, 112 ,113 

Illinois State Constitutional Convention Res- 
olution 113 

Illinois State Constitutional Convention, Tag 

Day 113 

Illinois State, Courts and Lawyers, southern 

Illinois 44,45 

Illinois State Court Records, early ones 

poorl.v kept 47 

Illinois State, Dress Reform Association ... 91 


INDEX— Continued. 


Illinois State, Education Society 88 

Illinois State, Egvpt, Southern Illinois so 
called 41 

Illinois State Equal Suffrage Association 

93, 95, 96, 97, lOS, 109, 113 

Illinois State, Equal Suffrage Association, 
Banquet, Leland Hotel, June 13, 1913. ..108 

Illinois State, Equal Suffrage Association, 
Banquet to celebrate in Chicago, June 13, 
1913 109 

Illinois State, Equal Suffrage Association, 
Convention, Galesburg, October 2, 1912.. 95 

Illinois State, Equal Suffrage Association 
Convention, Peoria, October, 1913 108 

Illinois State, Equal Suffrage Convention, 
Held in Chicago, 191-1 110 

Illinois State, Equal Suft'rage Association, 
Convention held in Danville, Illinois, 
1917 113 

Illinois State, Equal Suffrage Association, 
Convention held in Chicago, 1918 113 

Illinois State, Equal Suffrage Association 
founded in Chicago in 1869 93 

Illinois State, Equal Suffrage Association, 
(Mrs.) Grace Wilbur Trout, President 
95, 96, 97, lOS, 110, 113 

Illinois State, Equal Suffrage League, rec- 
ords of, deposited in the Illinois State" 
Historical Library, Footnote 116 

Illinois State, Equal Suffrage Association, 
Officers of. Heads of Departments 97 

Illinois State, Federal Suffrage Amendment, 
Illinois first State in the Union, ratifies 
114, 115 

Illinois State, Federation of Women's Club, 
Convention, Peoria, 1919 114 

Illinois State, General Assembly 

21. 56, 62, 66, 67, 98, 99, 

. 100, 102, 105, 106, 107, 110, 111, 112, 114 

Illinois State, Barker, (Hon.) 0. A., Fifty 
years with the Bench and Bar of South- 
ern Illinois 38, 41-71 

Illinois State Historical Collections. 13, 136, 137 

Illinois State Historical Collections, Bibli- 
ographical Series 136 

Illinois State Historical Collections, Bio- 
graphical Series 137 

Illinois State Historical Collections, British 
Series 136 

Illinois State Historical Collections, Cahokia 
Record 136 

Illinois State Historical Collections, Consti- 
tutional Series 137 

Illinois State Historical Collections, Vol. 13, 
Constitutional Series, Vol. I., Illinois 
Constitutions 13 

Illinois State Historical Collections, Vol. 14, 
Constitutional Series, Vol. II, The Debates 
of the Constitutional Convention of 1847 . 13 

Illinois State Historical Collections, Execu- 
tive Series 136 

Illinois State Historical Librarj', Genealogi- 
cal works in, see lists 137 

Illinois State Historical Collections, Kas- 
kaskia Records 136 

Illinois State Historical Collections, Lincoln 
Series 136 

Illinois State Historical Collections, Vir- 
ginia Series 136 

Illinois State Historical Library, Appeal for 
Historical material 11, 12 

Illinois State Historical Library, Illinois 
Equal Suffrage League records deposited 
in. Footnote 116 

Illinois State Historical Library, List of 
publications 136, 137 

Illinois State Historical Library, Stevens 
Fac-similes of documents in European 
Archives relating to America, 1773-1778, 

purchased by the Library. 20 


Illinois State Historical Society 

6, 8-10, 11, 12, 13- 35 

Illinois State Historical Society, Appeal for 

Historical material 11, 12 

Illinois State Historical Society, Business 

meeting, 1920 13-35 

Illinois State Historical Society, Constitut- 
tion 8-10 

Illinois State Historical Society, Genealogi- 
cal Committee, Report 26 

Illinois State Historical Society Journals. .137 

Illinois State Historical Society Journal, 
Quoted, Footnote 88 

Illinois State Historical Society, List of 
Publications 136, 137 

Illinois State Historical Society, Marking 
Historic sites 20, 21 

Illinois State Historical Society, Officers of. 6 

Illinois State Historical Society, Papers read 
at the annual meeting, 1920 41-116 

Illinois State Historical Society, Site of 
Fort Creve Coeur, Committee of society 
to decide on location 21 

Illinois State, Illinois in the Eighteenth 
Century 137 

Illinois State, Illinois League of Women 
Voters 116 

Illinois State, Illinois State Journal, Novem- 
ber 28, and December 1, 1848, Footnote. . 88 

Illinois State, Illinois State Journal, July 
23, 1850, Footnote 87 

Illinois State, Illinois State Journal, Janu- 
ary 14, 1854, Footnote 90 

Illinois State, Illinois State Register, June 
26, 1851, Footnote 90 

Illinois State, Illinois State Register, Novem- 
ber 27, 1851, Footnote 91 

Illinois State, Initiative and referendum. 
Constitutional Amendment 99 

Illinois State, Jones, (Mrs.) J. Elizabeth, 
Lecture tour in Illinois in 1852. Refer- 
ence 89 

Illinois State, Judicial power of the State, 
earl}' day 43 

Illinois State, Kaskaskia Records, Illinois 
Historical Collections, Vol. V 136 

Illinois State Legislative Reference Bureau. 13 

Illinois State, Lawyers, "riding the circuit," 
early day 45 

Illinois State, McDowell, (Miss) Mary E. 
Twenty-five years in an Industrial Com- 
munity 38, 72-83 

Illinois State, Mills, A., The History of 
Sunday Schools in Illinois. Reference.. 22 

Illinois State, New Constitution, Why Illi- 
nois needs a new Constitution, Pamphlet, 
Reference 113 

Illinois State, Newspapers. Bibliography. .136 

Illinois State, Normal School 88 

Illinois State, Outline for the Study of 
Illinois History 137 

Illinois State, Pioneer Women, See Chris- 
tiana Holmes Tillson, A Woman's Story 
of Pioneer Illinois, Footnote 84 

Illinois State, Prairies of Illinois 

65, 70, 85, 92 

Illinois State, Progressive Party 97, 98 

Illinois State, Rangers in early day. .64, 65, 66 

Illinois State, Register, December 2, 1853, 
and August 4, 1853, Footnote 88 

Illinois State, Southern Illinois Normal 
University 51 

Illinois State, Southern Illinois State Normal 
School 6, 16 

Illinois State, Stahl, (Mrs.) Katherine, 
Early women preachers in Illinois, Foot- 
note 88 

Illinois State, Suffrage Bill, Passed June 
11, 1913 105, 110 

Illinois State, Suffrage Bill sigrned by 
Governor Dunne, June 26, 1913 108 


INDEX— Continued. 


Illinois State, Sunday Schools in Illinois, 

history of by A. Mills. Reference 22 

Illinois State Supreme Court 

4G, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 109, 112, 113 

Illinois State Supreme Court, Breese's Re- 
port 49 

Illinois State, Supreme Court pronounces 

Suffrage law Constitutional 109 

Illinois State, Teachers' Federation 109 

Illinois State, Temperance raids in Milford, 
Lincoln, Farmington and other places in 

Illinois 86 

Illinois State, Territorial Laws, 1809-1811. .137 
Illinois State, Territorial Laws, 1809-1812. .136 

Illinois State, Territorial Records 136 

Illinois State, Trout, (Mrs.) Grace Wilbur, 
Some sidelights on Illinois Suffrage 

History 38,93-116 

Illinois State, Tucker, (Mrs.) Edna Arm- 
strong, Benjamin Walsh, First State En- 
tomologist of Illinois 38,54-61 

Illinois State, University of Illinois 16 

Illinois State, Woman's Council of National 

Defense, World War 112 

Illinois State, Woman's Emergency League 

formed 112 

Illinois State, Woman's suffrage law pro- 
nounced constitutional December, 1917.. 113 
Illinois State, World War, Illinois collect- 
ing material on, to be published in a 

War History 18, 19 

Illinois Territory, Territorial Laws, 1809- 

1811 ". 137 

Illinois Territory, Territorial Laws, 1809 

to 1812 136 

Illinois Territory. Territorial Records. .. .136 
Immigration Societies, of New York and 

Philadelphia 85 

Indiana State 26 

Indians 11, 12, 30, 63, 64, 65 

Indians, Wood River Massacre 65 

Initiative and Referendum Constitutional 

Amendment. Reference 99 

Iroquois Theatre Tragedy, Chicago. Refer- 
ence 82 

Iroquois Valley, Rich in Indian History. . . 30 

Jackson County, Illinois 42, 46, 52 

Jacksonville, Illinois 6, 15 70 

Jacksonville, Illinois, Alton, Jacksonville 

and Chicago Railroad 70 

James, Edmund Jayne.^6, 14, 16, 22, 23, 136 
James, Edmund JajTie, Resignation as Presi- 
dent of the University of Illinois 22, 23 

James, James Alton G, 13, 16, 21, 136 

James, James Alton, Editor Illinois Historic- 
al Collections, Vol. VIII 136 

Jamison, (Mrs.) F. R 15, 22 

Jamison, (Mrs.) F. R., Contributions to 

State History. Reference 22 

Janotta, (Mrs.) Stella S., Active Suffragist, 

State of Illinois 112 

Janotta, (Mrs.) Stella S., President of the 

Chicago Political Equality League 112 

Jayne, J. H., Member House of Represen- 
tatives, State of Illinois, Aids Suffra- 
gists 98, 105 

Jersey County, Illinois, Act creating, 1839. 63 
Johnson County, Illinois. .. .41, 45, 46, 49, 51 
Johnson, Jennie F. W., Active Suffragists, 

State of Illinois 97, 104 

Johnston City, Illinois 42 

Joliet, Illinois 24, 86 

Footnotes 86, 90 

Joliet, Illinois, Joliet Signal, June 17, 

1856, Footnote 90 

Joliet, Illinois, Joliet Signal, June 8, 1858. 86 
Footnote 86 


Jones, (Mrs.) J. Elizabeth, Lecture tour in 

Illinois, 1852 89 

Jones, Walter Clvde, Member Illinois Sen- 
ate, Aids Suffragists 102 

Jiinesboro, Illinois 45 

Judv, (Capt.) Samuel, War of 1812 65 

Kane, W. C, Member of House of Repre- 
sentatives, State of Illinois, Aids Suf- 
fragists 105 

Kankakee County Historical Society 27 

Report ..." ." ... .29, 30 

Kankakee Valley, Rich in Indian History. . 30 
Kansas State, Women's Aid and Liberty 

Association 85 

Kaskaskia, Illinois 43, 49, 62 

Keelv, John J., Reporter on the Chicago 

Tribune 101 

Keller, Kent E., Member of Illinois Senate, 

Aids Suffragists 102 

Kennedy, (Judge) Thomas 34 

Kentucky State 26, 65, 66 

Kentucky State, Shelb\'ville, Kentucky .... 66 

Kerrick," T. C " 27, 34 

Kewanee, Illinois 23 

Kiesew, L 58 

Kimball, Henry Ames 26 

King, (Miss) Florence, Active Suffragist, 

State' of Illinois 104 

King, (Miss) Florence, President Woman's 

Association of Commerce, Chicago 104 

King, (Mrs.) James S., Chairman of Com- 
mittee on marking Lincoln sites in 

Springfield 20, 21 

Knights of Labor 76 

Knights Templar 101 

Ku Klux Klan of Hardin County, Illinois. 43 

Labor Day Parade, Chicago, 1903, AVomen's 

Union take part in 77 

LaFollette, (Hon.) Robert 110 

LaSalle County, Illinois 27, 30, 33 

LaSalle Count v Historical Society 27 

Report 30, 32 

La Salle, Illinois 33 

La Salle, Rene Robert Sieur de 21 

Laurence, Andrew, Reporter on "The Ex- 
aminer" 101 

Laurence, C. M 29 

Lawrence Count}', Illinois 62 

Lawrence, (Judge) Charles B 46 

Lawrence, Lady Durning 26 

Lawrence Family of Cornwall, England.... 26 

Lawrence, George A 6, 15 

Lawrence, (Mrs.) George A 15 

Lawyers, Harker, Oliver A., Fifty years with 

Bench and Bar of Southern Illinois. 38, 41-53 
League of Women Voters, Illinois joins the 

National League of Women Voters 116 

League of Women Voters, National American 
Woman's Suffrage Association, members 
of. unite with League of Women Voters. 115 
Le Baron, William, Successor of Benjamin 

D. Walsh as State Entomologist 59 

Lee, (Mrs.) Hattie 57 

Lee. (Gen.) Robert E., Confederate General, 

War of the Rebellion 15 

Lee, Samuel 68 

Levere .William C, President Evanston 

Historical Society 27 

Lighten, Thomas 58 

Lincoln, Abraham, Lincoln-Shields Duel... 69 
Lincoln, Abraham, Tablets marking sites in 
the life of Lincoln in Springfield, to be 

placed 20, 21 

Lincoln, Abraham, Telegram to General 

Uh'sses S. Grant. Reference 14 

Lincoln Home, Springfield, Illinois 20 


INDEX— Continued. 


Lincoln, Illinois, Temperance Raid in 1855. 86 

Lincoln-Shields Duel 69 

Linegar, Dave, Early lawyer, State of Illi- 
nois 45 

Lingle, D 58 

Liverniore, Marv A., Probably the real 

editor of "The New Covenant" '87 

Livingston County, Missouri 58 

Lloyd, F. E. J., Member of House of Repre- 
sentatives, State of Illinois, Aids Suf- 
fragists 107 

Lodge, (Hon.) Henry Cabot 110,122 

Footnote 122 

Lodge, (Hon.) Henry Cabot, The Distribu- 
tion of Ability in the United States. .. .122 

Footnote . " 122 

Loeb, (Mrs.) Julius, Active Suffragist, State 

of Illinois 112 

Logan, (Gen.) John A., United States Sena- 
tor of Scotch Ancestry 122 

London, England 26 

London Field, I. W. Walsh, Editor 54 

Longnecker, Joel F., Aids Suffragists. .. .109 
Louisiana, Transfer of Louisiana from 
Spain to France, Also French copy of 
the transfer to the United States. Refer- 
ence 14 

Loveless, Mile J 136 

Lowden, (Gov.) Frank Orren, Aids Suffra- 
gists 113, 114 

Lowenthal, (Mrs.) Judith W., Active Suffra- 
gist, State of Illinois 104, 109, 111, 112 

Lucey, (Atty.-Gen.) Patrick J., State of 

Illinois 107 

Lyon, Thomas E., Member House of Repre- 
sentatives, State of Illinois, Aids Suf- 
fragists 107 


McCabe, William R., Member House of Rep- 
resentatives, State of Illinois, Aids Suffra- 
gists 107 

McCartney, Robert Wilson, Early lawyer. 
State of Illinois 45 

McClelland, (Mrs.) Thomas, Active Suffra- 
gist, State of Illinois 112 

McConnel, John L., Author of "Talbott & 
Vernon," Published 1850 ; The Glenns, 
Published 1857 22 

McCorniick, Medill, Member House of Rep- 
resentatives, State of Illinois, Aids Suffra- 
gists 98, 105 

McCormick, (Mrs.) Medill, Active in work 

of the Suffragists, State of Illinois 

103, 105, 108 

McCulloch, (Mrs.) Catherine Waugh, Promi- 
nent law^■e^ and Suffrage worker. State 
of Illinois 94. 96, 98, 111, 112 

McCuinber, Porter J., United States Senator 
of Scotch Ancestry 122 

McCurdy, N. M.. Footnote 89 

MacDonald, Arthur, Bibliography of pub- 
lications of ". 130-135 

MacDonald, Arthur, Scots and Scottish In- 
fluence in Congress 119-130 

McDowell, (Mrs.) Anne E., Editor Phila- 
delphia Women's Advocate 87 

McDowell, (Miss) Mary, Active in' Illinois 
Equal Suffrage Association 97 

McDowell, (Miss) Mary, Twenty-five years in 
an Industrial Community. ......." .38, 72-83 

McEnery, Samuel D., United States Senator 
of Scotch Ancestry 122 

McEwen, (Judge) Willard, Aids Suffragists. 109 

McGraw, (Mrs.) J. W., Active Suffragist, 

State of Illinois 97, 104, 

109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116 

McKendree College, Lebanon, Illinois 48 

McKinley, William. Speaker, Illinois House 
of Representatives, Aids the Suffragists 
97, 103, 104 


McLean County Historical Society 27* 

Report 34 

McLean, John P., An historical account of 
the settlements of Scotch Highlanders in 
America, Prior to the Peace of 1783.... 122 

Macoupin Creek 62, 63, 65, 66, 67 

Macoupin County, Illinois, Act creating, 

1829 63 

McPherson, Edward, United States Senator 

of Scotch Ancestry 122 

Mac.v, The Anti-Slavery Crusade, quoted, 

Footnote 35 

Maddox Lane, north of Old Frankfort, 
where the night-riders of Greene Cantrell 

met defeat. Reference 43 

Madison County, Illinois. .. .27, 34, 46, 87, 89 
Madison County, Illinois, Centennial History 34 

Madison County Historical Society 27 

Report 34, 35 

Madison, Wisconsin, State Historical Society 

building located in 17, ig 

Maggie, Organizer of Union packing house! 

Chicago 73, 76, 77, 82 

Magill, Hugh S. Jr 30, 102 

Magill, Hugh S. Jr., Presidential and Muni- 
cipal Suffrage bill introduced into the 
Senate, Illinois General Assembly by.... 102 
Maldaner and Son, Business firm, Spring- 
field, Illinois 25 

Manlius-Rutland Historical Society. i5, 30, 33 
Manlius-Rutland Township Historical So- 
ciety 27 

Report . .'.'.'30, 32 

Mann, Horace, Massachusetts Educator.... 90 
Mann, Horace, visits Ottawa, Illinois in 

1858, lectures on the subject of "Woman"' 90 
Manny, Walter I., Member of Illinois Sen- 
ate, aids Suffragists 102 

Marion, Illinois 42 

Marseilles, Illinois 31 

Maryland State 26 

Mason, Julian, Reporter the Chicago Post.. 101 

Massachusetts State 26, 122 

Matheny, James H., A Modern Knight Er- 
rant, Edward Dickinson Baker, Footnote. 68 
Maud Gonne Club, Organization, Packing 

House, Chicago 76 

Meese, William A 14, 21, 23, 24 

Merriman, E. H., of Springfield, Illinois', 
Second to Lincoln in the Lincoln-Shields 

Duel 69 

Metropolis, Illinois 45 

Milford, (Iroquois County) Illinois, Tem- 
perance raid in 1854 . .'. 86 

Miller, (Miss) Bell 25 

Miller, (Mrs.) I. J 15 

Miller, (Miss) Mary, Active Suffragist, 

State of Illinois 104 

Miller, (Miss) Mary, President of the Chi- 
cago Human Rights Association 104 

Miller, Roswell 51 

Mills, A., Sunday Schools in Illinois, History 

of. Reference 22 

Minnesota, St. Paul, Minn 26 

Mississippi River 42, 43, 66, 68, 107 

Mississippi Valley 42, 100 

Mississippi Valley, Conference of Suffragists 

held at St. Louis 100 

Missouri State, Livingston Countv, Missouri 58 
Missouri State, Riley (Gen.) Charles V., 

State Entomologist of Missouri 55, 59 

Mitchell, Charles H., Aids Suffragists 108 

Mitchell, P. L 58 

Moline, Illinois 24 

Monmouth, Illinois 98, 112 

Montgomery County, Illinois 62 

Moore, Ensley 6, 15, 22 

Moore, Ensley, Contributions to State His- 
tory. Reference 22 

Morgan County, Illinois, Act creating 1823. 63 


INDEX— Continued. 


Morgan CJounty Historical Society 19, 27 

Report 35 

Mormon Register 14 

Mormons, Gunther Collection, Mormon ma- 
terial in 14 

Morris, W. S., of Pope County, Illinois, 

early lawyer of Southern Illinois 43 

Morrison, (Mrs.) James W., active Suffra- 
gist, State of Illinois 104, 111 

Morrison, (Mrs.) James W., President of the 

Chicago Equal Suffrage Association 104 

Morton, Oliver P., United States Senator of 

Scotch Ancestry 122 

Mount Olive meeting House near Alton, 

Illinois 87 

Mt. Pleasant, (Greene County) Illinois 63 

Mt. Pulaski, Illinois 24 

Mount Vernon, Illinois 45, 46 

Muhlig, F. M 24 

Mulkev, John H., Early lawyer and judge. 

State of Illinois 43, 45 

Mulkey, (Judge) John H., Short sketch. 

Judicial Career 50, 51 

Munce, W. R 24 

Munro, Fayette S., Member of Illinois House 

of Representatives, Aids Suffragists 98 

Murphysboro, Illinois 42 

Murray, Warren 25 

Myers, Colostin D 24 


Nagely, (Mrs.) Charles A., Active Suffra- 
gist, State of Illinois. .104, 109, 111, 112 

Naperville, Illinois 94 

Nation, Carrie, Leader in the Temperance 
movement ^ 86 

National American Woman Suffrage Associa- 
tion 93, 97, 98, 107, 114, 115 

National American Woman Suffrage Associa- 
tion, Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt, presi- 
dent 107 

Nebraska State Historical Society 26 

Newcomb, E. H 34 

New Harmony, Dance at in 1851, bloomer 
costume worn. Reference 91 

New Harmony Plank Road celebration. Ref- 
erence 91 

Newspapers, Alton Courier, October 13, 
1853, Footnote 87 

Newspapers, Alton Daily Courier, January 
16, 1854, Footnote 89 

Newspapers, Alton Dailv Courier, January 
27, 1854, Footnote 89 

Newspapers, Alton Weekly Courier, October 
5, 1854, Footnote 90 

Newspapers, Aurora Beacon, June 26, 1851, 
Footnote 91 

Newspapers, Aurora Beacon, March 14, 
1857, Footnote 90 

Newspapers, Aurora, Illinois Beacon, Febru- 
ary 4, 1858, Footnote 87 

Newspapers, Aurora Beacon, April 8, 1858, 
Footnote 91 

Newspapers, Aurora Beacon, May 13, 1858. 86 

Newspapers, Backwoodsman, (The) started 
in Grafton, Illinois, 1838 69 

Newspapers, Belleville Advocate, April 27, 

1853 89 

Footnote 89 

Newspapers, Belleville, Illinois Advocate, 
August 17, 1853, Footnote 90 

Newspapers, Belle^'ille Advocate, March 
1855 87 

Newspapers, Belleville Advocate, March 14, 
1855, Footnote 87 

Newspapers, Bloomington Bulletin 90 

Footnote 90 

Newspapers, Cairo City Times, May 2, 1855, 
Footnote '. 86 

Newspapers, Chicago American 101 


Newspapers, Chicago Daily News 101 

Newspapers, Chicago Weeklv Democrat, 

September 17, 1853, Footnote 88 

Newspapers, Chicago Weekly Democrat, 
June 21, 28, 1856, Quoted, Footnote.... 85 

Newspapers, Chicago E.taminer 94, 101 

Nevvspapers, Chicago Journal 94, 101 

Newspapers, Chicago Post 94, 101 

Newspapers, Chicago Press and Tribune, 

May 19, 1858, Footnote 88 

Newspapers, Chicago Record Herald.. 94, 101 

Newspapers, Chicago Tribune 94, 9.'>. 101 

Newspapers, Free West, January 5, 18.')4, 

Footnote " 89 

Newspapers, Graysville Advertiser, Footnote 91 
Newspapers, Illinois State, Bibliography .. .136 
Newspapers, Illinois State Journal, Novem- 
ber 28, and December 1, 1848, Footnote. . 88 
Newspapers, Illinois State Journal, Julv 23, 

1850, Footnote .' 87 

Newspapers, Illinois State Journal, Januarv 

14, 1854, Footnote 90 

Newspapers, Illinois State Register, Novem- 
ber 27, 1851, Footnote 91 

Newspapers, Illinois State Register, June 26, 

1851, Footnote 90 

Newspapers, Illinois State Register, Decem- 
ber 2, 1851 and 4, 1853, Foot- 
note 88 

Newspapers, Joliet Signal, June 17, 1856, 
Footnote 90 

Newspapers, "The New Covenant," the Uni- 
versalist organ at Chicago, Mary A. Liver- 
more probably the real editor 87 

Newspapers, Ottawa Free Trader, April 10, 

1854 86 

Footnote 86 

Newspapers, Philadelphia Women's Advo- 
cate 87 

Newspapers, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania Visitor 87 

Newspapers, Rockford, Illinois Register, 
September 24, and November 5, 1858, 
Footnote 90 

Newspapers, Rockford Register, March 13, 
1858, Footnote 86 

Newspapers, Rock River Democrat, August 
31, 1858 86 

Newspapers, Rockford Register, December 

25, 1858 86 

Footnote 87 

New York City 54, 57, 60, 85 

New York City, Women's Protective Immi- 
gration Society 85 

New York State 85, 107, 122 

New York Temperance Society 85 

New York State, Women's Suffrage, won in, 
1917 107 

Nieholes, (Miss) S. Grace, Active in Illinois 
Equal Suffrage Association 97 

Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. 21 

Noyes, (Mrs.) Charles P., A family Historv 
in letters and Documents, 1667-1837 26 


Oak Park, Illinois 93, 94, 101, 112, 115 

Oak Park, Illinois Suffrage Club 115 

O'Connell, William L., Aids Suffragists 108 

Oglesby, (Lieut.-Gov.) John G., Aids Suffra- 
gists, State of Illinois Ill, 114 

Oglesby, (Gov.) Richard J 56 

Oglesby, (Mrs.) Richard J., made an hono- 
rary member of the State Historical 

Society 15 

O'Hara, (Lieut.-Gov.) Barratt, Aids Illinois 

Suffragfets 102 

Ohio River 42, 65 

Ohio State 26, 41 

Ohio and Mississippi Railroad 41 

Oldham Family 43 

Old Yellow Banks, (now Oquawka) Illinois. 23 


INDEX— Continued. 


Oquawka, Illinois, Formerly called Old Yel- 
low Banks 23 

Oregon Trail, History of, by J. T. Dorris. 
Reference 22 

Osborne, Georgia L., Assistant Librarian, 
Illinois State Historical Library 137 

Osborne, Georgia L., Assistant Secretary, 
Illinois State Historical Society. .. .6, 16, 22 

Osborne, Georgia L., Chairman of the Gene- 
alogical Committee, Illinois State Histor- 
ical Society. Report 14, 20 

Osborne, Georgia L. Genealogies in the Illi- 
nois State Historical Library, lists com- 
piled by 137 

Osborne, M. B., of Rock Island, Illinois.... 55 

Ottawa, Illinois 33, 86, 90 

Footnote 86 

Ottawa, Illinois, Mann, Horace, delivers a 
lecture in 1858, on the subject of women 90 

Ottawa, Illinois, Ottawa Free Trader, April 

10, 1854 86 

Footnote 86 

Packing Houses, Chicago, Organizations of 

Unions in 74, 77 

Packing Houses, Chicago, Strikes in 1904. 

78, 82 

Packing Houses, Woman's Union in the 

Meat Cutters' organization, Chicago 77 

Packing Trades Council, Chicago 75 

Palmer, (Mrs.) George Thomas, Active Suf- 
fragist, State of Illinois 112 

Palmer, (Gen.) John M 70 

Park Family 26 

Park Ridge, Illinois 112 

Patterson, J. B., Life of Black Hawk. Refer- 
ence 23 

Patterson, Norman L., Historical relics of 
Old Yellow Banks presented to tJie 

Society 23 

Pajnie, William T 24 

Pease, Theodore Calvin, Editor, Illinois His- 
torical Collections, Vol. XII 136 

Pennsylvania State 85, 122 

Peoria, Illinois 110 

Periodicals, American Entomologist 55 

Periodicals, Blackwood's Magazine 54 

Periodicals, Entomological Journal, pub- 
lished at Philadelphia, Edited by Benja- 
min D. Walsh 55 

Periodicals, Illinois Farmer 55 

Periodicals, Prairie Farmer 55 

Periodicals, Valley Farmer 55 

Perry County, Illinois 42 

Pettit, Belle, wife of Harry Cain 57 

Pettit, Benjamin Walsh 57 

Pettit, Edward 57 

Pettit, Fannie, Wife of William Giles 57 

Pettit, Gait 57 

Pettit, Harry McEwan 57 

Pettit, John 57 

Pettit, Mary. Wife of John Graham 57 

Pettit, Perry 57 

Pettit, William Jr 57 

Pettit, AVilliam 57, 58, 59, 60 

Phelps, S. S., One of the founders of 

Oquawka, Illinois 23 

Philadephia, Pennsylvania, Women's Protec- 
tive Immigration Society 85 

Piercy, W. Duff, Member Senate, State of 

Illinois, Aids Suffragists 99,102 

Pike County, Illinois 62 

Pioneer Women, editors, preachers and phy- 
sicians 87, 88, 89, 90, 91 

Piper, G. Marks 29 

Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, Pittsburg Visitor, 
Edited by Mrs. Jane Swisshelm 87 


Plummer, (Mrs.) Mary R., Active in Illinois 

Equal Suffrage Association 97 

Plvmouth, Illinois 112 

Poe, Edgar Allen 23 

Polacheck, Victor, Reporter on the Examin- 
er 101 

Pontiac, Illinois 112 

Pope County, Illinois 43, 51 

Porter, (Miss) Catherine K., Active Suffra- 
gist, State of Illinois 112 

Powers, (Dr.) of Rock Island 58 

Powers, Serene 58 

"Prairie Farmer," Periodical 55 

Prairies of Illinois 05, 70, 85, 92 

Presidential and Municipal Suffrage Bill . . . 

98, 99, 102, 100, 107, 110 

Presidential and Municipal Suffrage Bill, 
Introduced into the Illinois General As- 
sembly 102 

Presidential and Municipal Suffrage Bill, 
Passed Illinois Legislature, June 11, 

1913 106, 107 

Price, Scott 34 

Progressive Party 103, 109 

Pulaski County, Illinois 49 

Pullman Strike. Reference 72 

Quincy, Illinois 19, 27, 35, 66, 87 

Quincy, Illinois Historical Society 19 

Report 35 

Railroads, Alton, Jacksonville and Chicago 

Railroad 70 

Railroads, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad... 99 
Railroads, Baltimore and Ohio Southwest- 
ern 41 

Railroads, Cairo and Vincennes Railroad . . 51 
Railroads, Chicago and Rock Island Rail- 
road 57 

Railroads, Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul 

Railroad 51 

Railroads, Illinois Central Railroad 41 

Railroads, Ohio and Mississippi Railroad . . 41 

Rainey, H. T 65 

Rammelkamp, (Dr.) Charles H..6, 10, 27, 35 

Rangers in Illinois, early day 64, 65, 66 

Rankin, Henry B., Interested in marking 
sites connected with the life of Abraham 

Lincoln in Springfield 20, 21 

Rattan, Annie, Wife of Governor James W. 

Throckmorton of Texas 67 

Rattan, Thomas, Ranger in Illinois, takes 
active part in the beginnings of Greene 

County 65, 67 

Raum, Green B., Early lawyer, State of Illi- 
nois 45 

Reardon, James A 24 

Redmond, Andrew J., Aids the Suffragists. .101 
Redmond, (Mrs.) Andrew J., Interested in 

the Suffragists 101 

Reed, (Mrs.) R. M., Legislative Chairman of 
the Illinois Federation of Women's 

Clubs 113 

Reid, Whitlaw, The Scot in America and the 

Ulster Scot, Address 122 

Reinecke, (Mrs.) Mable Gilmore, Active 

Suffragist, State of Illinois 112 

Republican Party, National Republican 
Convention held in Chicago, June, 1916.110 

Rhoads, E 34 

Rhode Island State 26 

Rhodus, (Mrs.) Charlotte, Active Suffragist, 

State of lUinois 105 

Rhodus, (Mrs.) Charlotte, President of the 

Women's Party of Cook County 105 

Richmond, Virginia 14 

Ridgley, D. C 29 


INDEX— Continued. 


Riley, (Gen.) Charles V., State Entomolo- 
gist of Missouri fio, .")S, 59 

Roads, New Harmony Plank Road Celebra- 
tion ." 91 

Rockford, Illinois, Rockford Register, March 

13, 18r.S, Footnote 86 

Rockford, Illinois, Rockford Register, Sep- 
tember 24, and November 5, 1858, Foot- 
note 90 

Rockford, Illinois, Rockford Register, De- 
cember 25, 1S58 SG 

Footnote 87 

Rock Island, Illinois 

6, 14, 24, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58 

Rock River Democrat, August 31, 18.58 8G 

Rogers Park, Illinois Woman's Club 104 

Roosevelt, Theodore, Winning of the West. .121 

Ross, Peter, The Scots in America 122 

Russel, Andrew 6, IG 

Russell, John, Sage of Bluflfdale, Greene 

Count}', Illinois 69 

Rutledge, Edward, of South Carolina, of 

Scotch descent 122 

Rj'an, Frank J., Member House of Repre- 
sentatives, State of Illinois, Aids Suffra- 
gists 107 

St. Clair County, Illinois 46, 48, 52 

St. Genevieve, Missouri 21 

St. Louis, Missouri 21, 24, 66, 100 

St. Louis, Missouri, Mississippi Valle.v, Con- 
ference of Suffragists held in 100 

.St. Nicholas Hotel, Springfield, Illinois.... 25 

St. Paul, Minnesota 26 

Sale, (Mrs.) A. W. Contributions to State 

History. Reference 22 

Saline County, Illinois 51, 42 

Saline River . ". 43 

Sanders, Sue A 34 

Sangamon County, Illinois 62 

Saybrook, Illinois 34 

Scheibel, (Miss) Rebecca 38 

Schmidt, (Dr.) Otto L., President Illinois 

State Historical Society .... 6, 13, 14, 15, 38 
Schneizer, (Mrs.) Albert H., Active Suffra- 
gist, State of Illinois. .. .109, 112, 113, 116 
Scot in America and the Ulster Scot 

by Whitelaw Reid 122 

Scotch as leaders in Education 121 

Scotch as Political Leaders 121, 122 

Scotch, General Characteristics of.... 120, 121 
Scotch Highlanders in America, Prior to the 
Peace of 1783, An historical account by 

John P. McLean 122 

Scotch in America 121 

Scotch in the Senate of the United States 

123, 129 

Scotch Irish in America, By John W. Dins- 
more .122 

Scotch Irish in America, By Henry J. Ford. 122 
Scotch Irish or the Scot in North Britain, 

North Ireland and North America 122 

Scots and Scottish influence in Congress, An 
Histonico-.\nthropological .Study, By 

.\rthur MacDonald "... .119-135 

Scots in .\merica, By Peter Ross 122 

Scott, Charles L., Member House of Rep- 
resentatives, State of Illinois, .\ids Suf- 
fragists 102, 105, 107 

Scott. Charles L., Presidential and Municipal 
Suffrage Bill introduced into the House 
of Representatives, Illinois General As- 
sembly 102, 107 

Scott County, Illinois, Act creating, 1839 . . 63 
Scott, Franklin William, Editor Illinois 

Historical Collections, Vol. VI 136 

Scott, John L 24 

Seattle, Washington 57 


Shafer, John, Reporter on the Chicago Post. 101 
Shanahan, David E., Member of the House 
of Representatives, Illinois, Gives aid to 

the Suffragists 103 

Shaw, (Dr.) .Vnna Howard, Suffrage leader. 97 

Shelbyville, Kentucky 66 

Shepherd, (Mrs.) Elizabeth Murray, Active 

Suffragist, State of Illinois 112 

Sherman, Lawrence Y 15 

Sliermaii, (Gen.) William Tecumseh 14 

Shields, (Gen.) James, Lincoln-Shields 

Duel 69 

Shiloh, Battle of, War of the Rebellion 67 

Shirlev, (McLean Countv) Illinois 24 

Shurtleff, Edward D., Member House of Rep- 
resentatives, State of Illinois, aids Suf- 
fragists 104, 105, 106, 107 

Sibley, (Miss) Julia 27, 35 

Simmons, Terry 27, 30 

Simmons, Terry 15 

Report of Manlius-Rutland Historical 

Societv 30-33 

Singleton, Shelby M Ill 

Sippy, (Mrs.) Bertram W., Active in Illi- 
nois Equal Suffrage Association 97 

Slade, (Mrs.) Samuel, Active Suffragist, 

State of Illinois 112, 115 

Slade, (Ex-Gov.) William of Vermont 88 

Slavery 56, 85 

Slavery, A\'omen organize Anti-Slavery 

Crusade 85 

Sloan's Central Commercial College of 

Chicago 88 

Sloan, AVesley, Early lawyer and judge. 

State of Illinois 44 

Smith, George W 16 

Smith, Joseph, Head of the Mormon church. 14 
Snyder, (Judge) William H., Short sketch. 

Judicial career 52, 53 

Soden, (Mrs.) George A., Active Suffragist, 

State of Illinois 109,111,112 

South Butler, \Vayne County, New York . . 87 

South Carolina State 65 

Springfield, Illinois 6, 13, 

15, 16, 20, 21, 24, 49, 61, 62, 85, 86, 96, 
9S, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 
106, 107, 108, 110, 111, 112, 114, 136, 137 
Springfield, Illinois, Fonda, (Mrs.) Agent of 
the New York Ladies' Temperance Society, 

gives address in Springfield 85, 86 

Springfield, Illinois, Tablets to be placed 
on sites connected with the life of Lincoln 

in Springfield 20, 21 

Squire, (Miss) Belle, Active Suffragist, 

State of Illinois 105 

Squire, (Miss) Belle, President of the no- 
vote, no-tax League 105 

Stahl, (Mrs.) Katherine, Early women 

preachers in Illinois, Footnote 88 

Starved Rock .- 33 

Stedman, Sejinour, Member House of Repre- 
sentatives, State of Illinois, Aids Suffra- 
gists 105 

Sterrett, William H., Woman's Rights Ad- 
vocate 88 

Stevens Facsimiles of documents in Euro- 
pean Archives relating to America. 1773- 

1783. Reference 20 

Stevens, Wa^•ne E., Secretary of the War 
Historv division, Illinois State Historical 

Library 18, 19 

Stewart. (Mrs.) Edward L., Active Suffragist 

Illinois State 109, 111, 112 

Stewart, (Mrs.) Ella S., Active in Illinois 

Equal Suffrage Association 97 

Stewart, (Mrs.) Suffragist in Washington, 

D. C. Parade 99 

Stiger, Charles W 94 

Stillman, (Mrs.) Edward L., Active Suffra- 
gist, State of Illinois 104 


INDEX— Continued. 


Stone, Lucy, Lecturer, VVoman's Rights, 
etc 89,90 

Stone River, Battle of. War of the Rebel- 
lion " 70 

Stoneberg, Philip J 24 

Strike in Packing House, Chicago, 1904.78, 82 

Stuart and Lincoln, Law office in Spring- 
field, site of to be marked 20 

Suffrage, Amendment Alliance, State of Illi- 
noif; Ill 

Suffrage .\utomobile Tour, State of Illi- 
nois 94, 95 

Suffrage, Chicago Examiner, Newspaper, 
Suffrage Edition 108 

Suffrage, Federal Suffrage Amendment .... 

107, 113, 114. 115 

Suffrage, Federal Suffrage Amendment, rati- 
fication by States 115 

Suffrage Float, in the Sane Fourth of 
July Parade, Chicago 93, 94 

Suffrage, Illinois Equal Suffrage Association 
celebrate victory by banquet in Chicago, 
June 13, 1913 109 

Suffrage. Illinois Equal Suffrage A.ssocia- 
tion, founded in Chicago in 18G9 93 

Suffrage, Illinois State Equal Suffrage 
League, Records of deposited in the Illi- 
nois State Historical Library, Footnote. .IIG 

Suffrage, Illinois State Legislature, members 
of aid the cause 99, 107 

Suffrage, Illinois State Ratifies the Federal 
. Suffrage Amendment 114 

Suffrage, Illinois State Supreme Court pro- 
nounces Suffrage law constitutional 109 

Suffrage. National American' Woman Suft'rage 
Association 93. 114, 115 

Suffrage, National American Woman Suffrage 
Association, founded in 1869 93 

Suffrage, National Republican Convention 
held in Chicago, June, 1910. Suffrage 
plank put in the platform of partv.llO, 111 

Suffrage, Parade Chicago, May 2, 1914.... 109 

Suffrage, Woman's Suffrage, "Trout, (Mrs.) 
Grace Wilbur, Some sidelights on Illinois 
Suffrage History 38, 93-116 

Suffragists, Aid in World War work 112 

Suffragists Illinois State Legislature, Mem- 
bers of aid Suffragists 99, 105, lOG, 107 

Suffragists, Mississippi Valley Conference 
of Suffragists held at St. Louis 100 

Suffragists Parade, Washington, D. C, Presi- 
dent AVilson's inauguration 9S, 99 

Sunday Schools in Illinois, History of by 
A. Mills. Reference 22 

Swedish Colony, Bishop Hill, Henry County, 
Illinois .' 55 

Swiler, M. A 59 

Swisshelm, (Mrs.) Jane, Editor of the Pitts- 
htirg Visitor 87 

Sykes, (Mrs.) Mary E., Active Suffragist, 
State of Illinois 112 


Teller, Henry M., United States Senator of 
Scotch Ancestry 122 

Temperance, Illinois Woman's State Temper- 
ance Society 85 

Temperance, Ladies Temperance Unions, 
1S50 85 

Temperance, Nation, Carrie, Leader in the 
Temperance movement 86 

Temperance, New York Ladies' Temperance 
Society §5 

Tenne-ssee State, Thirty-sixth State to ratify 
the Federal Suffrage Amendment 116 

Texas State, Throckmorton, (Gov.) James 
W., Early Governor of Texas 07 

Thomas, J. R., Early lawyer, State of Illi- 
nois 45 

Thomas, Samuel 65, 66, 67, 70 

Thomas, Samuel, Ranger, early daj' in Illi- 
nois ■ 65 

Thomas, Samuel, Short sketch 65, 66 

Thompson. Charles Manfred 13,136 

Thompson, Charles Manfred, Editor Illinois 
Historical Collections, Vol. VII 136 

Thompson, Harriet Stokes, Active Suffragist, 
State of Illinois no, 112 

Thompson, Harriet Stokes, President Chicago 
Political Equality League 110 

Thompson, .Jacob C 21 

Throckmorton, (Gov.) James W., Early 
Governor of Texas 67 

Tice, Homer J., Member House of Represen- 
tatives, State of Illinois, Aids Suffra- 
gists 9G, 105 

Tilden, A. S 69 

Tillson, Christiana Holmes, A Woman's- 
Story of Pioneer Illinois, Footnote ■. 84 

Townes, Robert W., Early lawyer, State of 
Illinois .* 45 

Treadwell, (Mrs.) Harriette Taylor, Active 
Suffragist, State of Illinois Ill 

Treadwell, (Mrs.) Harriette Taylor, Presi- 
dent of the Chicago Political Equality 
League 104 

Treat, (Judge) Samuel H 49 

Trinity College. Cambridge, England 54 

Trout, George W loi 

Trout, (Mrs.) Grace Wilbur, President, 
Chicago Political Equality League 93 

Trout, (Mrs.) Grace Wilbur, President Illi- 
nois Equal Suffrage Association 

93, 94, 95, 9G, 97, 108, 110, 111, 113, 114 

Trout, (Mrs.) Grace Wilbur, Some side- 
lights on Illinois Suffrage Historv, 38, 93-116 

Truesdale, (Dr.) C. of Rock IsLand 58 

Tucker, (Mrs.) Edna Armstrong. . .15, 38, 54 

Tucker. (Mrs.) Edna Armstrong, Benjamin 
Walsh, First State Entomologist of Illi- 
nois 38, 54-61 

Tyler, (Pres.) John G9 


Tablet placed by the Illinois Society of 
Colonial Dames on the restored Powder 
Magazine at Fort Chartres 21 

Tablets to be placed in Springfield, Illinois 
marking sites connected with the life of 
Lincoln in the citv '. .20, 21 

Taimer, (Gov.) John R., Tanner Club of 
Rock Island, Illinois 56 

Tanner, Tazewell B., Earlv lawyer and 
judge. State of Illinois..' ." 45 

Taylor, (Miss) Ella Hume 27 

Report Henry County Historical 
Society 28, 29 

Tazewell County, Illinois 15, 21 

Underwood, (Hon.) William IL, Annota- 
tions to tlie Illinois Revised Statutes. 
Reference 48 

Unions, Packing House Unions, Chicago 
Illinois 74-77 

United State Congress, Scotch inlhience in 
the Senate of the Sixtv-second Congress 
■ 123-125 

United States Congress, Scots and Scottish 
Influence in Congress 119-129 

Universalist Church, Chicago 87 

Uran, (Dr.) B. F 15, 27, 29 

Report of Kankakee Historical Society 
29, 30 

Urbana, Illinois 6, 21, 112 


INDEX — Continued. 



"Valley Farmer, Periodical 55 

A'an Amringe, H., Advocate of Woman's 

Rights 88 

Vance, Zebulon B., United States Senator of 

Scotch Ancestry 122 

Vandalia, Illinois 62 

Van Tourhenhout, Father, Parish priest of 

St. Genevieve, Missouri 21 

Verlie. Emil Joseph 13, 137 

Verlie. Emil Joseph, Editor Illinois Historic- 
al Collections, Vol. XIII 137 

Vermont State '69, 88 

Vermont State, Slade, (Ex-Gov.) William 

of A'erniont 88 

Vienna, Johnson countv, Illinois 41 

Virginia State " 26, 122 


AVabash River 42 

Wade, E. P 27, 35 

Wait, (Miss) Olive Starr, early lecturer on 

Woman's Riglits in Illinois 89 

Wait (Miss) Olive Starr, wife of Hon. Jehu 

Baker, Footnote 89 

AVait, William S., Illinois Reformer 89 

Waite, (Mrs.) Catherine Van Valkenberg. . 93 
Waite, (Judge) Charles B., Appointed As- 
sociate Justice of Utah Territory by 

Abraham Lincoln 93 

AVaite, (Judge) Charles B., One of the early 
founders of the Illinois Equal Suffrage 

Association 93 

Waite, (Dr.) Lucv, Active suffragist State 

of Illinois ■. 112 

Walker, (Judge) Pinkney H 46 

Walsh, Benjamin D., Collection, sold to the 

State of Illinois, lost in the Chicago Fire. 59 
Walsh, Benjamin, Contributor to periodicals 

and newspapers on scientific lines 55 

Walsh, Benjamin-Tucker, (Mrs.) Edna Arm- 
strong, Benjamin Walsh, first State Ento- 
mologist of Illinois 38,54-61 

Walsh, Benjamin, Wakh's Comedies of 

Aristophanes 54 

Walsh, (Mrs.) Benjamin 58, 59, 60, 61 

Walsh, F 54 

Walsh, J. W., (Stonehinge) Editor of Lon- 
don Field 54 

Walton, (Mrs.) Lyman, Active Suffragist, 

State of Illinois 112 

War of 1812 63, 65, 66 

War with Mexico 52 

War of the Rebellion . 28, 43, 67, 69, 70, 91, 107 

War of the Rebellion, Atlanta, siege of 70 

War of the Rebellion, Battle of Ball's 

Bluff 69 

War of the Rebellion. Battle of Chattanooga 70 
War of the Rebellion, Battle of Chicka- 

mauga 70 

War of the Rebellion, Battle of Shiloh 67 

War of the Rebellion, Battle of Stone River 70 

Ward. Sarah, wife of William Pettit 57 

Warren, Richard. Ma.vflower passenger 26 

Washlnn-ne. Elihu B., Life of Governor Ed- 
ward Coles, reprinted bv the Illinois State 

Historical Societv " 19, 137 

Washington, D. C 65, 98, 99, 119 

Washington, I). C, Suffrage parade. Presi- 
dent Wilson's inauguration 98, 99 

Watson, James A., Member of House of 
Representatives, State of Illinois, Aids 

Suffragists 103, 107 

Wa.TOC County, N. Y 87 

Weber, Jessie Palmer, Librarian. Illinois 
State Historical Library 136, 137 


Weber, Jessie Palmer, Secretary, Illinois 

State Historical Society 

6, 12, 13, 15, 10, 27, 29, 34, 35 

Report 17-25 

Webster. (Mrs.) Charles A., Active in Illi- 
nois Equal Suffrage Association 97 

Welch, John G 34 

Welles, (Mrs.) George S., Active in Illinois 
Equal Suffrage Association 97, 99 

Wentworth, John, Editor of the Chicago 
Democrat quoted on Woman's Rights. 88, 89 

West, (Mrs.) Blanche B., Active suffragist, 
State of Illinois 112 

Westenberger, (Mrs.) Gary H 38 

West Frankfort, Illinois, Center of the rich- 
est coal mining district in the Mississippi 
Valley 42 

West Point Military Academy 70 

AVheeler, Samuel P.", Early lawyer. State of 
Illinois ". 50, 51 

Wiggins Ferry Company 43 

Willard, Samuel 70 

Williamson Countj', Illinois. .. .42, 43, 51, 52 

Williamson County, Illinois, Vendetta, Ref- 
erence 43 

Williamson, Francis E., Member of House 
of Representatives, State of Illinois, Aids 
Suffragists 105 

Wilmot (Mrs.) Charles, Active Suffragist, 
State of Illinois 112 

Wilson, George IL, Member House of Rep- • 
resentatives. State of Illinois, Aids Suffra- 
gists 105, 106 

Wilson, James, of Pennsylvania of Scotch 
descent " 122 

Wilson, (President) Woodrow 98, 113 

Wilson, (President) Woodrow, Interviewed 
by Mrs. Trout on the Federal Suffragist 
Amendment 113 

Winnebago, Illinois, Temperance raid in. 
Reference 86 

Winton Motor Co 94 

Wisconsin State Historical Society building 
at Madison, Wisconsin 17, 18 

Witherspoon, John of New Jersey, of Scotch 
descent 122 

"Woman", lecture on by Horace Mann of 
Massachusetts, at Ottawa, Illinois, 1858.. 90 

AVoman's Committee of the State Council 
of National Defense 112 

AA'oman's Emergency League, State of Illi- 
nois " 112 

AA'oman's Rights, H. Van Amringe advocate 
of 88 

AVoman's Rights Movement, John Wentworth 
quoted on 88 

Woman's Rights Movement, AA'illiam H. 
Sterrett advocate of 88 

Woman's Rights Movement 88, 91 

AA'oman's Stor.v of Pioneer Illinois, see Till- 
son, Footnote 84 

AA'oman's Union Packing House, Chicago. 78, 79 

AA'omen, Anti-slavery crusade organized by 
the women 85 

AVonien. Cole. Arthur C, Illinois AA'onien of 
the Middle Period 38, 84-92 

AVomen, Cook Countv, Illinois, Women's 
Party " 105 

Women, Federal Suffrage Amendment 1919.107 

Women, Illinois State Equal Suffrage League 
records of deposited in the Illinois State 
Historical Librarv, Footnote 116 

AVomen, Illinois State League of AA'omen 
Voters 116 

AVomen, Illinois State AA'omen's Emergency 
League founded 112 

Women, Kansas AVomen's Aid and Libertj' 

Association 85 

AVomen, Ladies Temperance Unions, 1850.. 85 


INDEX— Concluded. 


Women, League of Women Voters 115 

Women, Maud Gonne Club, Packing House, 

Chicago 76 

Women, Mississippi Valley Conference of 

Suffragists held at St. Louis 100 

Women, National American Woman Suffrage 

Association 97, 98, 107, 114, 115 

Women, National League of Women Voters. 116 
Women, Packing House Women's Union in 

the Meat Cutters' Organization, Chicago. 77 
Women, Pioneer women, editors, preachers, 

physicians 87, 91 

Women, Pioneer, women, hardships of, etc. . 84 
Women Suffrage edition, Chicago Examiner. 108 
Women, Tillson, Christiana Holmes, A 

Woman's story of pioneer Illinois, Footnote 


Women, Trout (Mrs.) Grace Wilbur, Some 

Sidelights on Hlinois Suffrage History. . 

38, "93-116 

Women, AVomen's Rights Movement. . . .88, 91 
Women, Women's Protective Lnmigration 

Societies of New York and Philadelphia. 85 
Woodford County, Hlinois, Historical So- 
ciety 19 

Wood River 65 

Wood River Massacre 65 

Wood River settlement, Madison County, 

Illinois .' . 65 

Woodson, David Meade 76 


Woodstock, Illinois 94 

Workmen's Compensation Act, Reference. . 46 

World's Fair, Chicago, Illinois 72 

World War, Huidekoper (Lieut. Col.) Fred- 
eric Louis, History of the Thirtj'-third 
Division of the United States Army in the 

World War 18, 19 

World War, Illinois collecting material on 

World War to be published 12, 18, 19 

World War, Woman'.s Committee, State 
Council of National Defense 112 

Yager, (Mrs.) Louis E., Active Suffragists 
State of Illinois 112 

Yates, Richard (The Younger) 15 

Youngblood, E. D., Early lawyer and judge, 
State of Illinois 45 

Y"oungblood, Marion, Early lawyer, State of 
Illinois 45 

Zolla, Emil N., Member House of Repre.sen- 
tatives, State of Illinois, Aids Suffragists 
98, 105 



No. 1. * A Bibliography of Newspapers published in Illinois prior to 
1860. Prepared by Edmund J. James, Ph. D., and Milo J. Loveless. 94 pp. 
8 vo. Springfield, 1899. 

No. 2. * Information relating to the Territorial Laws of Illinois passed 
from 1809 to 1812. Prepared by Edmund J. James, Ph. D., 15 pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1899. 

No. 3. * The Territorial Records of Illinois. Edited by Edmund J. 
James, Ph. D., 170 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1901. 

No. 4. * Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the 
year 1900. Edited by E. B. Greene, Ph. D., 55 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1900. 

No. 5. * Alphabetical Catalog of the Books, Manuscripts, Pictures and 
Curios of the Illinois State Historical Library. Authors, Titles and Subjects. 
Compiled by Jessie Palmer Weber. 563 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1900. 

Nos. 6 to 27. * Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for 
the year 1901-1920. (Nos. 6 to 18 out of Print.) 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. I. Edited by H. W. Beckwith, Presi- 
dent of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library. 642 
pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1903. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. H. Virginia Series, Vol. I. Edited 
by Clarence Walworth Alvord. CLVI and 663 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1907. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. III. Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 
1858, Lincoln Series, Vol. I. Edited by Edwin Erie Sparks, Ph. D. 627 pp. 
8 vo. Springfield, 1908. 

* Illinois Historical Collectons, Vol. IV. Executive Series, Vol. I. The 
Governor's Letter Books, 1818-1834. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and 
Clarence Walworth Alvord. XXXII and 317 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1909. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. V. Virginia Series, Vol. II, Kaskaskia 
Records, 1778-1790. Edited by Clarence Walworth Alvord. L. and 681 pp. 
8 vo. Springfield, 1909. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol VI. Bibliographical Series, Vol I, 
Newspapers and Periodicals of Illinois, 1814-1879. Revised and enlarged edi- 
tion. Edited by Franklin William Scott. CIV and 610 pp. 8 vo. Spring- 
field, 1910. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VII, Executive Series, Vol II. Gov- 
ernors' Letter Books, 1840-1853. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and 
Charles Manfred Thompson. CXVIII and 469 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1911. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VIII. Virginia Series, Vol. III. 
George Rogers Clark Papers, 1771-1781. Edited with introduction and notes 
by James Alton James. CLXVII and 715 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1912. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IX. Bibliographical Series, Vol. 
II. Travel and Description, 1765-1865. By Solon Justus Buck. 514 pp. 8 
vo. Springfield, 1914. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. X British Series, Vol. I. The Critical 
Period, 1763-1765. Edited with introduction and notes by Clarence Wal- 
worth Alvord and Clarence Edwin Carter. LVII and 597 pp. 8 vo. Spring- 
field, 1915. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol XI. British Series, Vol. II. The 
New Regime, 1765-1767. Edited with introduction and notes by Clarence 
Walworth Alvord and Clarence Edwin Carter. XXVIII and 700 pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1916. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol XII. Bibliographical Series, Vol. III. 
The County Archives of the State of Illinois. By Theodore Calvin Pease. 
CXLI and 730 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1915. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XIII. Constitutional Series, Vol. 
I. Illinois Constitutions. Edited by Emil Joseph Verlie. 231 pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1919. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XIV. Constitutional Series, Vol. II. 
The Constitutional Debates of 1847. Edited with introduction and notes by 
Arthur Charles Cole, XXX and 1018 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1919. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XV. Biographical Series, Vol. I. 
Governor Edward Coles. By Elihu B. Washburne. Reprinted with intro- 
duction and notes. By Clarence Walworth Alvord, 435 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 

* Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I, No. 1, Sep- 
tember, 1905. Illinois in the Eighteenth Century. By Clarence Walworth 
Alvord, 38 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1905. 

* Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I, No. 2. June 
1, 1906. Laws of the Territory of Illinois, 1809-1811. Edited by Clarence 
Walworth Alvord. 34 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1906. 

* Circular Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I, No. 1. November, 
1905. An Outline for the Study of Illinois State History. Complied by 
Jessie Palmer Weber and Georgia L. Osborne. 94 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1905. 

* Publication No. 18. List of Genealogical Works in the Illinois State 
Historical Library. Complied by Georgia L. Osborne. 8 vo. Springfield, 

* Publication No. 25. List of Genealogical Works in the Illinois State 
Historical Library. Supplement to Publication No. 18, compiled by Georgia 
L. Osborne. 

Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society. Vol. 1, No. 1. April, 
1908, to Vol. XII, No. 4, January, 1920. 

Journals out of print. Vols. I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, No. 1 of Vol. 
IX, No. 2 of Vol. X.