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Full text of "Papers in Illinois history and transactions for the year ..."

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Publication Number Twenty-nine 



OF THE 



ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL LIBRARY 



Transactions 



OF THE 



Illinois State Historical Society 



FOR THE YEAR 1922 



Twenty-Third Annual Meeting of the Society, Springfield, Illinois 

May 4-5, 1922 



Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library 



CES^TEu.ii^l ROOM 

[Printed by authority of the State of Illinois.] 

f-U.. =.%., p^jblic Library 
»^ paign, Illinois 






SciiNEPP & Barnes, Printers 

Springfield, III. 

1923 

89182 — 3M 



CONTENTS. 



Officers of the Society 5 

Editorial Note 7 

Constitution of the Illinois State Historical Society 9 

An Appeal to the Historical Society and the General Public 12 

Part I— Record of Official Proceedings 1922 15-32 

Directors Meeting 17 

Business Meeting 19 

Secretary's Report 22 

Report Genealogical Committee 32 

Part II— Papers Read at Annual Meeting 1922 35-103 

James A. Woodburn, Indiana State University. 

Annual Address — Promotion of Historical Study in America 

following the Civil War 37 

James Shaw — 

A Neglected Episode in the Life of Abraham Lincoln 51 

Charles B. Johnson — 

On and about the Old National Road in the Early Fifties 59 

Theodore Calvin Pease — 

The Illinois Historical Collections 66 

Stella Davidson Ainsworth — 

James T. Gifford and the Founding of Elgin, Illinois 69 

Rev. Albert P. Haupert — 

The Moravian Settlement in Illinois 79 

Francis X. Busch — 

The French in Illinois 90 

Part III— Contributions to State History 103-126 

Early Marriages in Putnam County, compiled by Mrs. George 

Spangler, Historian of Peoria Chapter, D. A. R 105 

Rose Moss Scott, Preliminary Treaty of 1765 between Col. 

George Croghan and Pontiac 123 

Necrology — 

John Breckenridge Cable Shifflett. By Kizzie Huskinson 

Shifflett 129 

Gilbert Harsha Lane. By Kizzie Huskinson Shifflett 133 

Index — 

List of Publications of the Illinois State Historical Library and 
Society. 



5^ 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 



President. 

Dr. Otto L. Schmidt Chicago 

Vice Presidents. 

George A. Lawrence Galesbnrg 

L. Y. Sherman Springfield 

Richard Yates Springfield 

Ensley Moore Jacksonville 

Charles L. Capen, Bloomington 

Directors. 

Edmund J. James University of Illinois, Urbana 

E. B. Greene University of Illinois, Urbana 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Charles H. Rammelkamp,. .. President Illinois College, Jacksonville 
George W. Smith,. . . .Southern 111. State Normal School, Carbondale 

Richard V. Carpenter Belvidere 

Edward C. Page Northern 111. State Normal School, DeKalb 

Andrew Russel Jacksonville 

Walter Colyer Albion 

James A. James Northwestern University, Evanston 

H. W. Clendenin Springfield 

John H. Hauberg Rock Island 

Orrin N. Carter Evanston 

Stuart Brown Springfield 

Rev. Ira W. Allen LaGranee 



EDITORIAL NOTE. 



Following the practice of the Publication Committee in previous 
years, this volume includes, besides the official proceedings and the 
papers read at the last annual meeting, some essays and other matter 
contributed during the year. It is. hoped that these "contributions to 
State History" may in larger measure as the years go on, deserve 
their title, and form an increasingly valuable part of the Society's 
transactions. The contributions are intended to include the following 
kinds of material : 

1. Hitherto unpublished letters and other documentary material. 
This part of the volume should supplement the more formal and ex- 
tensive publication of official records in the Illinois. Historical collec- 
tions, which are published by the trustees of the State Historical Li- 
brary. 

2. Papers of a reminiscent character. These should be selected 
with great care, for memories and reminiscences are at their best an 
uncertain basis for' historical knowledge. 

3. Historical essays or brief monographs, based upon the sources 
^nd containing genuine contributions to knowledge. Such papers 
should be accompanied by foot-notes indicating with precision the au- 
thorities upon which the papers are based. The use of new and original 
material and the care with which the authorities are cited will be among 
the main factors in determining the selection of papers for publication. 

4. Bibliographies. 

5. Occasional reprints of books, pamphlets or parts of books now 
out of print and not easily accessible. 

Circular letters have been sent out from time to time urging the 
members of the Society to contribute such historical material, and ap- 
peals for it have been issued in the pages of the Journal. The commit- 
tee desires to repeat and emphasize these requests. 

It is the desire of the committee that this annual publication of 
the Society supplement, rather than parallel or rival, the distinctly 
official publications of the State Historical Library. In historical re- 
search, as in so many other fields, the best results are likely to be 
achieved through the cooperation of private initiative with public au- 
thority. It was to promote such cooperation and mutual undertaking 
that this Society was organized. Teachers of history, whether in 
schools or colleges, are especially urged to do their part in bringing to 
this publication the best res.ults of local research and historical scholar- 
ship. 

In conclusion it should be said that the views expressed in the 
various papers are those of their respective authors and not necessarily 
those of the committee. Nevertheless, the committee will be glad to 
receive such corrections of fact or such general criticism as may ap- 
pear to be deserved. 



CONSTITUTION OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL 

SOCIETY. 



ARTICLE I— NAME AND OBJECTS. 

Section 1. The name of this Society shall be the Illinois State 
Historical Society. 

Sec. 2. The objects for which it is formed are to excite and 
stimulate a general interest in the history of Illinois ; to encourage his- 
torical research and investigation and secure its promulgation ; to col- 
lect and preserve all forms of data in any way bearing upon the his- 
tory of Illinois and its peoples. 

ARTICLE II— OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY— THEIR ELEC- 
TION AND DUTIES. 

Section 1. The management of the affairs of this Society shall 
be vested in a board of fifteen directors of which Board the president 
of the Society shall be ex-officio a member. 

Sec. 2. There shall be a President and as many Vice-Presidents 
not less than three, as the Society may determine at the annual meet- 
ings. The Board of Directors, five of whom shall constitute a quorum, 
shall elect its own presiding officer, a secretary and treasurer, and shall 
have power to appoint from time to time such officers, agents and com- 
mittees as they may deem advisable, and to remove the same at pleasure. 

Sec. 3. The Directors shall be elected at the annual meetings and 
the mode of election shall be by ballot, unless by a vote of a majority 
of members present and entitled to vote, some other method mav be 
adopted. 

Sec. 4. It shall be the duty of the Board of Directors diligently 
to promote the objects for which this Society has been formed and 
to this end they shall have power: — 

(1) To search out and preserve in permanent form for the use 
of the people of the State of Illinois., facts and data in the history of 
the State and of each county thereof, including the pre-historic per- 
iods and the history of the aboriginal inhabitants, together with biogra- 
phies of distinguished persons who have rendered services to the peo- 
ple of the State. 

(2) To accumulate and preserve for like use, books, pamphlets, 
newspapers and documents bearing upon the foregoing topics. 

(3) To publish from time to time for like uses its own transac- 
tions as well as such facts and documents beari^ng upon its objects as 
it may secure. 



10 

(4) To accumulate for like use such articles of historic interest 
as may bear upon the history of persons and places within the State. 

(5) To receive by gift, grant, devise, bequest or purchase books, 
prints, paintings, manuscripts, libraries, museums, moneys and other 
property, real or personal in aid of the above objects. 

(6) They shall have general charge and control under the direc- 
tion of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library, 
of all property so received and hold the same for the uses aforesaid 
in accordance with an Act of the Legislature approved May 16, 1903, 
entitled "An Act to add a new section to an Act entitled an Act to 
establish the Illinois State Historical Library and to provide for its 
care and maintenance, and to make appropriations therefor," approved 
May 25, 1889, and in force July 1, 1889 ; they shall make and approve 
all contracts, audit all accounts and order their payment, and in gen- 
eral see to the carrying out of the orders of the Society. They may 
adopt by-laws not inconsistent wath this Constitution, for the manage- 
ment of the aiifairs of the Society ; they shall fix the times and places 
for their meetings ; keep a record of their proceedings, and make report 
to the Society at its annual meeting. 

Sec. 5. Vacancies in the Board of Directors may be filled by elec- 
tion by the remaining members, the persons so elected to continue in 
office until the next annual meeting. 

Sec. 6. The President shall preside at all meetings of the 
Society, and in case of his absence or inability to act, one of the Vice- 
Presidents shall preside in his stead, and in case neither president nor 
vice-president shall be in attendance, the Society may choose a presi- 
dent pro-tempore. 

Sec. 7. The ofificers shall perform the duties usually devolving 
upon such offices, and such others as may from time to time be pre- 
scribed by the Society or the Board of Directors. The treasurer shall 
keep a strict account of all receipts and expenditures and pay out money 
from the treasury only as directed by the Board of Directors, he shall 
submit an annual report of the finance of the Society and such, other 
matters as may be committed to his custody to the Board of Directors 
within such time prior to the annual meeting as they shall direct, and 
after auditing the same the said Board shall submit said report to the 
Society at its annual meeting. 

ARTICLE III— MEMBERSHIP. 

Section 1. The membership of this Society shall consist of five 
classes, to-wit: Active, Life, Affiliated, Corresponding and Honorary. 

Sec. 2. Any person may become an active member of this Society 
upon payment of such initiation fee not less than one dollar, as shall 
from time to time be prescribed by the Board of Directors. 

Sec. 3. Any person entitled to be an active member may upon 
payment of twenty-five dollars be admitted as a life member with all 
the privileges of an active member and shall thereafter be exempt 
from annual dues. 



11 

Sec. 4. County and other historical societies, and other societies 
engaged in historical or archaeological research or in the preservation 
of the, knowledge of historical events, may upon the recommendation 
of the Board of Dirertors be admitted as affihated members of this So- 
ciety upon the same terms as to the payment of initiation fees and 
annual dues as active and life members. Every society so admitted 
shall be entitled to one duly accredited representative at each meeting 
of the Society who shall during the period of his. appointment be en- 
titled as such representative to all the privileges of an active member ex- 
cept that of being elected to office ; but nothing herein shall prevent such 
representative becoming an active or life member upon like conditions 
as other persons. 

Sec. 5. Persons not active nor life members but w^ho are willing 
to lend their assistance and encouragement to the promotion of the 
objects of this Society, may, upon recommendation of the Board of Di- 
rectors, be admitted as corresponding members. 

Sec. 7. Honorary membership may be conferred at any meet- 
ing of the Society upon the recommendation of the Board of Directors 
upon persons who have distinguished themselves by eminent services 
or contributions to the cause of history. 

Sec. 7. Honorary and corresponding members shall have the 
privilege of attending and participating in the meetings of the Society. 

ARTICLE IV— MEETINGS AND QUORUM. 

Section 1. There shall be an annual meeting of this Society for 
the election of officers, the hearing of reports, addresses and historical 
papers and the transaction of business at such time and place in the 
month of May in each year as may be designated by the Board of Di- 
rectors, for which meeting it shall be the duty of said Board to pre- 
pare and publish a suitable program and procure the services of persons 
well versed in history to deliver addresses or read essays upon subjects 
germane to the objects of this organization. 

Sec. 2. Special meetings of the Society may be called by the 
Board of Directors. Special meetings of the Board of Directors may 
be called by the President or any two members of the Board. 

Sec. 3. At any meeting of the Society the attendance of ten 
members entitled to vote shall be necessary to a quorum. 

ARTICLE V— AMENDMENTS. 

Section 1. The Constitution may be amended by a two-thirds 
vote of the members present and entitled to vote, at any annual meet- 
ing; Provided that the proposed amendment shall have first been sub- 
mitted to the Board of Directors, and at least thirty days prior to such 
annual meeting notice of proposed action upon the same, sent by the 
Secretary to all the members of the Society. 



12 



AN APPEAL FOR HISTORICAL MATERIAL. 



(Members please read tJiis circular letter.) 

Books and pamphlets on American history, l)iography, and gene- 
alogy, particularly those relating to Illinois and the West ; works on 
Indian tribes, and American archaeology and ethnology ; reports of 
societies and institutions of every kind, educational, economic, social, 
political, cooperative, fraternal, statistical, industrial, charitable ; scien- 
tific publications of states or societies ; books or pamphlets relating to 
all wars in which Illinois has taken part, especially collections of 
material relating to the great world war ; privately printed works ; 
newspapers ; maps and charts ; engravings, photographs ; autographs ; 
coins ; antiquities, encyclopedias, dictionaries, and bibliographical 
works. Especially do we desire. 

EVERYTHING RELATING TO ILLINOIS. 

1. Every book or pamphlet on any subject relating to Illinois, 
or any part of it ; also every book or pamphlet written by an Illinois 
citizen, whether published in Illinois or elsewhere ; materials for Illi- 
nois history; old letters, journals. 

2. Manuscripts; narratives of the pioneers of Illinois; original 
papers on the early history and settlement of the territory ; adventures 
and conflicts during the early settlement, the Indian troubles, or the 
great rebellion or other wars, biographies of the pioneers ; prominent 
citizens and public men of every county, either living or deceased, to- 
gether with their portraits and autographs ; a sketch of the settlements 
of every township, village, and neighborhood in the State, with the 
names of the first settlers. We solicit articles on every subject con- 
nected with Illinois history. 

3. City ordinances, proceedings of mayor and council ; reports 
of committees of council; pamphlets or papers of any kind printed 
by authority of the city ; reports of boards of trade and commercial 
associations ; maps of cities and plats of town sites or of additions 
thereto. 

4. Pamphlets of all kinds ; annual reports of societies, sermons 
or addresses delivered in the State ; minutes of church conventions, 
synods, or other ecclesiastical bodies of Illinois; political addresses; 
railroad reports ; all such, whether published in pamphlet or newspaper. 

5. Catalogues and reports of colleges and other institutions of 
learning; annual or other reports of school boards, school superin- 



13 

tendents, and school committees ; educational pamphlets, programs 
and papers of every kind, no matter how small or apparently unim- 
portant. 

6. Copies of the earlier laws, journals and reports of our terri- 
torial and State Legislatures ; earlier Governors' messages and re- 
ports of State Officers ; reports of State charitable and other State 
institutions. 

7. Files of Illinois newspapers and magazines, especially com- 
plete volumes of past years, or single numbers even. Publishers are 
earnestly requested to contribute their publications regularly, all of 
which will be carefully preserved and bound. 

8. Maps of the State, or of counties or townships, of any date ; 
views and engravings of buildings or historic places ; drawings or 
photographs of scenery ; paintings ; portraits, etc., connected with Illi- 
nois history. 

9. Curiosities of all kinds ; coins, medals, paintings ; portraits ; 
engravings; statuary; war relics; autograph letters of distinguished 
persons, etc. 

10. Facts illustrative of our Indian tribes — their history, charac- 
teristics, religion, etc., sketches of prominent chiefs, orators and war- 
riors together with contributions of Indian weapons, costumes, orna- 
ments, curiosities, and implements ; also stone axes, spears, arrow 
heads, pottery, or other relics. 

It is important that the work of collecting historical material in 
regard to the part taken by Illinois in the great war be done immed- 
iately before valuable material is lost or destroyed. 

In brief, everything that, by the most liberal construction, can 
illustrate the history of Illinois, its early settlement, its progress, or 
present condition. All will be of interest to succeeding generations. 
Contributions will be credited to the donors in the published reports 
of the Library and Society, and will be carefully preserved as the 
property of the State, for the use and benefit of the people for all time. 

Your attention is called to the important duty of collecting and 
preserving everything relating to the part taken by the State of Illi- 
nois in the great world war. 

Communications or gifts may be addressed to the Librarian and 
Secretary. 

(Mrs.) Jessie Palmer Weber. 



PART I 

Record of Official Proceedings 

1922 



17 



MEETING OF THE DIRECTORS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE 

HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



The Board of Directors of the IlHnois State Historical Society 
met in the office of the Secretary on Friday morning, May 5, 1932, 
the President of the Society, Doctor Otto L. Schmidt presiding. 
There were present in addition to the Chairman : 

Messrs. Colyer, Rammelkamp, Brown, Greene, Allen, James, Hau- 
berg, Clendenin and Mrs. Weber. 

The minutes of the last meeting of the Directors were read and 
approved; the secretary's report was read and approved and referred 
to the business meeting of the Society. 

Professor J. A. James said that he would like to have the Histori- 
cal Society interested in the question of friendship and friendly rela- 
tions wuth other organizations. He would like to see the Journal of the 
Society give some space and interest to the matter. He stated that the 
Evanston's Woman's Club has a fine committee and that it can give 
necessary information. 

Professor James suggested that the secretary's report be made 
into a 'digest and sent to the principals of the schools of the more 
important towns of the State. He thought that the report would be 
of great interest to pupils of high schools and said that the Society 
ought to make an effort to make itself and its aims better known 
throughout the State. 

The Secretary reported that at the last session the Legislature 
made an appropriation for the purchase of the House and eighty 
feet of ground just north of the Lincoln Homestead but that the 
owner and the State had been unable to agree as to terms and the 
property had not been purchased. Mr. Allen said that he thought 
that an additional sum to cover the difference in price between the 
State estimate and the owner's estimate of its value should be raised 
by private subscription rather than to allow the fund to lapse and he 
moved that a committee be appointed to take this matter up, and that 
the Secretary of the Society be appointed a member of this com- 
mittee. 

Professor James moved that a committee be appointed to con- 
sider the question of membership in the Society. Mr. Allen moved 
and Mr. Clendenin seconded the motion, that such a committee be 
appointed. 

The committee on the Lincoln Home was requested to prepare 
resolutions in the strongest terms as to the feeling of the Historical 
Society in regard to the fire hazard of the Lincoln Home. The Chair- 
man was requested to appoint this committee and that he himself and 
the Secretary be members of it. 



18 

Professor James reported on the location of Fort Creve Coeur. 
He said that the committee had visited all available sites and that a 
report had been prepared. The Secretary read a brief statement from 
the Report which Professor James said expressed exactly the situa- 
tion and the opinion of the committee. 

Professor Rammelkamp brought up the question of the long 
delay in the publication of the Journal; that is, the date of the Journal 
being so far behind. He said that he had had a talk with the Secre- 
tary and the suggestion was made that two numbers be combined for 
one or two issues thereby catching up in its chronology. Mrs. Weber 
said she would like to give the matter a little further attention and 
consideration before being directed to do this. The Secretary was 
asked to consider the matter and act as she thought best. 

The Chairman then suggested that it was time for the business 
meeting and the meeting of the Board of Directors adjourned to go 
into the business session. 



19 



ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING ILLINOIS STATE 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Senate Chamber, Springfieli>, Illinois, May 5, 1922, 10:30 A. M. 



The annual business meeting of the Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety was called to order by the President, Doctor Otto L. Schmidt 
of Chicago. 

The first order of business was reports. 

The report of the Secretary-Treasurer of the Society was read 
by the Secretary, Mrs. Weber and it was ordered approved and placed 
on file. 

A letter was then read from Miss Margaret Robinson of Spring- 
field, a member of the Society making suggestions as to the protection 
from fire of the Lincoln Home property. 

A resolution of thanks to Mr. Edgar S. Martin, the State Archi- 
tect was introduced and it was moved and seconded that Mr. Martin 
be thanked for the great interest he has manifested towards the af- 
fairs and welfare of the Illinois State Historical Society. 

It was also moved and seconded that a resolution of thanks to 
Mr. Andrew Russel a director of the Society, and Mr. J. P. Garlick 
of Oakland, Cal., be extended for their efforts in finally securing the 
O. H. Browning diary and letters for the Society. The effort to se- 
cure this collection had extended over a period of years. Doctor 
Rammelkamp seconded the motion and it was carried. 

Professor J. A. James of Evanston stated that the recom- 
mendation of the Secretary of the Society was to the effect that 
a special committee be appointed to take up the various items — the 
acquisition of the property adjoining the Lincoln Home and such 
other items as indicated. The motion was that a special commit- 
tee be appointed for immediate action as far as possible. The 
motion was put to a vote and carried. 

The second motion by Professor James was that a special 
committee be appointed to take under advisement as far as pos- 
sible with the secretary of the Society and bring before the people 
of the State in rather a distinct way the work of the society, to 
cooperate with the public schools of the State in that direction and 
with the newspapers and such other propaganda as might be 
carried out by the special committee. This motion was put to a 
vote of the Society and carried. 

Doctor Schmidt asked if there were any further motions or 
resolutions. 



18 

Professor James reported on the location of Fort Creve Coeur. 
He said that the committee had visited all available sites and that a 
report had been prepared. The Secretary read a brief statement from 
the Report which Professor James said expressed exactly the situa- 
tion and the opinion of the committee. 

Professor Rammelkamp brought up the question of the long 
delay in the publication of the Journal ; that is, the date of the Journal 
being so far behind. He said that he had had a talk with the Secre- 
tary and the suggestion was made that two numbers be combined for 
one or two issues thereby catching up in its chronology, Mrs. Weber 
said she would like to give the matter a little further attention and 
consideration before being directed to do this. The Secretary was 
asked to consider the matter and act as she thought best. 

The Chairman then suggested that it was time for the business 
meeting and the meeting of the Board of Directors adjourned to go 
into the business session. 



19 



ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETING ILLINOIS STATE 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Senate Chamber, Springfield-, Illinois, Mat 5, 1922, 10:30 A. M. 



The annual business meeting of the Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety was called to order by the President, Doctor Otto L. Schmidt 
of Chicago. 

The first order of business was reports. 

The report of the Secretary-Treasurer of the Society was read 
by the Secretary, Mrs. Weber and it was ordered approved and placed 
on file. 

A letter was then read from Miss Margaret Robinson of Spring- 
field, a member of the Society making suggestions as to the protection 
from fire of the Lincoln Home property. 

A resolution of thanks to Mr. Edgar S. Martin, the State Archi- 
tect was introduced and it was moved and seconded that Mr. Martin 
be thanked for the great interest he has manifested towards the af- 
fairs and welfare of the Illinois State Historical Society. 

It was also moved and seconded that a resolution of thanks to 
Mr. Andrew Russel a director of the Society, and Mr. J. P. Garlick 
of Oakland, Cal., be extended for their efforts in finally securing the 
O. H. Browning diary and letters for the Society. The effort to se- 
cure this collection had extended over a period of years. Doctor 
Rammelkamp seconded the motion and it was carried. 

Professor J. A. James of Evanston stated that the recom- 
mendation of the Secretary of the Society was to the effect that 
a special committee be appointed to take up the various items — the 
acquisition of the property adjoining the Lincoln Home and such 
other items as indicated. The motion was that a special commit- 
tee be appointed for immediate action as far as possible. The 
motion was put to a vote and carried. 

The second motion by Professor James was that a special 
committee be appointed to take under advisement as far as pos- 
sible with the secretary of the Society and bring before the people 
of the State in rather a distinct way the work of the society, to 
cooperate with the public schools of the State in that direction and 
with the newspapers and such other propaganda as might be 
carried out by the special committee. This motion was put to a 
vote of the Society and carried. 

Doctor Schmidt asked if there were any further motions or 
resolutions. 



20 

Professor James said he did not know whether a motion would 
be necessary by the Society for a suggestion as to the care of the news- 
papers owned by the Society which are almost invaluable. But it 
occurred to him this important matter should be taken under advise- 
ment at once and that it should be placed before the Library Board for 
immediate action. 

The report of the chairman of the Genealogical committee, 
Miss Georgia L. Osborne, was then read, approved and placed on file. 

Motion was made to appoint a nominating committee. Ap- 
pointments made were Mrs. I. G. Miller, Mrs. F. R. Jamison, Doctor 
C. B. Johnson and Mrs. G. F. Stericker. 

While the nominating committee were deliberating Doctor 
Schmidt spoke of the genealogical department of the Library and 
said that it is one of the important parts of the Society's work. 

Mr. George S. Godard of the Connecticut State Library was 
then introduced. Doctor Schmidt spoke of the efiforts that had 
been made to establish a department of archives and how the sub- 
ject of the state archives was a source of much distress and worry 
both to the historical society and to the Secretary of State and 
other state of^cers who have paid close attention to it. How 
for many years the State Historical Society has attempted to secure 
some action. He spoke of the old Kaskaskia records being transcribed, 
mended, mounted and bound and finally returned to Chester. He 
then spoke about the plan of the archives department and called on 
Secretary of State Emmerson for a few remarks. 

Mr. Emmerson said that the Secretary of State was rather 
groping in the darkness as the Department of Archives is an en- 
tirely new department. He spoke of the plan of placing the 
libraries under the auspices of the Secretary of State and the 
formation of this new division of archives. He said that he took 
many months to look around to find a proper individual to handle 
the work. If it were possible to have secured her he would have 
liked to have Mrs. Weber at the head of this department. That 
he finally secured the services of IMiss Margaret Norton and that 
he hoped to make this department worth while. That he realized 
that it must necessarily work in close union with the Illinois State 
Historical Library and that for the next two years at least he knew 
that these two departments were going to get along. That he was 
very glad, indeed, that Mr. Godard is here and that he had come at 
a very opportune time. 

Mr. Godard of Connecticut then gave his address on the Con- 
necticut Archives and Records. 

At the conclusion of Mr. Godard's address the nominating 
committee presented the names of persons as its recommendation 
of officers for the coming year as follows : 



21 

Officers of the Society. 

President: Dr. Otto L. Schmidt, Chicago. 

Vice Presidents : George A. Lawrence, Galesburg, L. Y, 
Sherman, Springfield ; Richard Yates, Springfield ; Ensley Moore, 
Jacksonville; Charles L. Capen, Bloomington. 

Directors : Edmund J. James ; E. B. Greene, University of 
Illinois, Urbana; Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Springfield; Charles 
H. Rammelkamp, President Illinois College, Jacksonville; George 
W. Smith, Southern 111. State Normal School, Carbondale ; Richard 
V. Carpenter, Belvidere; Edward C. Page, Northern 111. State 
Normal School, DeKalb ; Andrew Russel, Jacksonville ; Walter 
Colyer, Albion ; James A. James, Northwestern University, Evans- 
ton ; H. W. Clendenin, Springfield; John H. Hauberg, Rock 
Island; Orrin N. Carter, Evanston ; Stuart Brown, Springfield; 
Rev. Ira W. Allen, La Grange. 

Secretary-Treasurer : Jessie Palmer Weber, Springfield. 

Assistant Secretary : Georgia L. Osborne, Springfield. 

Honorary Vice Presidents : The Presidents of Local His- 
torical Societies. 

The report was submitted by Mrs. I. G. Miller, chairman of 
the committee, who moved its adoption. The motion was second- 
ed and was carried and the secretary was instructed to cast the 
ballot which she did, and the officers recommended by the nominat- 
ing committee were declared elected. 

Dr. Schmidt told the Society that this year 1922 is the Cen- 
tenial of General U. S. Grant, one of the great soldiers of the 
world and who went into the great Civil War as the Colonel of 
of the 21st Regiment of Illinois Infantry. The actual date of this 
centenary is April 27, 1922, and celebrations of the event have 
occurred throughout the nation. The Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety has invited Hon. Charles S. Cutting of Chicago to address 
it on the life and services of General Grant. This address will be 
the special feature of the luncheon at the St. Nicholas Hotel. The 
hour set for the luncheon is at hand and after urging all members 
present to attend it, he suggested that if no other business is be- 
fore the Society a resolution to adjourn the morning session is 
now in order. 

On motion the business meeting was declared adjourned. 



22 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 



Tu the Board of Directors of the Illinois State Historical Society, 

Gentlemen : It is again my duty and my privilege to submit to 
you my annual report of the work of the Historical Society. The 
report is for the year from May, 1931, to May, 1923. 

I am afraid the reports which I make from year to year must 
seem an old or monotonous story and yet the work itself is always 
full of interest. I am constantly being surprised at questions 
which are brought to us and which require much searching out 
and study. 

The Historical Society has become I believe a well known and 
respected branch of the work of the State of Illinois. Persons 
engaged in other work, both State work and in private enterprises 
who travel from place to place tell me frequently of late that they 
hear of our work and that it is approved and appreciated. We re- 
ceive many gratifying letters of appreciation also. 

On the other hand it seems to me that quite a number of per- 
sons who have been members of the Historical Society, have 
seemed to feel or understand that membership in the Historical 
Society meant nothing more than subscription to our quarterly 
Journal. Some joined the Society at the suggestion of friends 
without, special purpose in view, or a clear understanding of the 
Society and its work. Several of these persons have for various 
reason's dropped their membership in the Society. 

The Historical Society has never made a membership cam- 
paign. We welcome members, on the recommendation of our 
members, but we do not solicit them. We hope the members will 
feel that the Journal is their magazine but we want them to feel 
that membership in the Society means much more than receiving 
the Journal, and that it is a part of their duty as members to help 
make the Journal and the Transactions better in order that they 
make the Society better, and more deserving of having better pub- 
lications to represent it. 

The editors of the Journal bespeak for it more active support 
from the Society in the way of contributions and information as 
to where important collections of historical material may be found ; 
old letters, diaries, and such material may be of great interest and 
value. 

The Centennial Memorial Building, 

The Centennial Memorial building in which the Society and 
Library are to be located is still far from complete. We believe 



23 

that we will be able to move into our new quarters before the 
close of this year. The moving will be a tremendous undertaking 
and must be carefully planned. Last year in my report I described 
in some detail the plans in the new building for the Historical 
Library and Society. We will have plenty of room for our books, 
a good newspaper room, a fine Lincoln room, office and cataloguing, 
rooms, and many Library conveniences which we now lack. We 
will be sorry to leave the Capitol building where our rooms have 
been so convenient of access to members of the General Assembly 
and others whose business brings them to the Capitol building, as 
well as our friends in the other departments of the States' work, 
but we hope with better facilities to do better work and make our 
service so important that these friends will seek us in our new 
quarters even though we are not quite so easy of access. 

Lincoln Collection. 

The Library's collection of material bearing upon the life 
and labors of Abraham Lincoln has made gratifying progress in 
the last year. We have acquired a number of rare Lincoln items, 
not many manuscripts it is true but a number of rare books. We 
earnestly desire manuscripts, letters, legal papers, State papers, 
War of the Rebellion papers, letters and diaries. Indeed the great 
weakness of the Historical Library and Society is in its small col- 
lection of original manuscripts though we have an unusual collec- 
tion of Lincoln documents, but we want more. We must not allow 
other institutions to acquire manuscripts that properly belong to 
this collection. 

The Library owns nearly three thousand books and pamphlets 
bearing on the life of Mr. Lincoln. This does not include historical 
material relating to the Civil War. Of course these might fairly 
be called Lincoln items, as no book on the Civil War can be 
written in which the work of Mr. Lincoln does not bear a vital 
part, but we have a Civil War collection entirely apart from our 
Lincoln collection. 

We have the principal biographies of Mr. Lincoln, we have 
hundreds of sermons and addresses. We have biographies and 
books on Lincoln, in the French, German, Italian, Dutch, Spanish, 
Portugese, Chinese, Japanese, Hawaiian, Russian, Greek and 
Hebrew languages. Most of them are translations into the 
language of some life of Lincoln, written originally in English. A 
few, especially in French and German are original works. We 
have a large collections of cartoons, medals, sheet music and vari- 
ous photographs and other pictures of Mr. Lincoln. We are 
striving to make this the greatest Lincoln collection in the world. 
Illinois should own the greatest collection. It must not be satis- 
fied with less. 

Members of the Society, if you know any one who owns a 
letter written bv Mr. Lincoln, please inform the Secretary of the 
Society of it. We may be able to induce the person who owns it 



34 

to present it to the State. We may be able to buy it. We can 
surely secure a photographic reproduction of it. Help all you can. 

Newspaper Files. 

Our newspaper files grow rapidly but not more rapidly than 
does their use by the general public. This is hard usage on the 
files. The paper on which the papers are printed is in most cases 
very poor. It requires great care in handling and binding. We 
need the services of an expert mender to repair and protect our 
precious volumes of newspaper files. We ought to employ such an 
expert for several months this summer preparatory to our moving 
into our new quarters. 

Members if you know of files of local Illinois papers that can 
be procured by the Society we will be glad of the information. 
Newspapers present the best available day by day history of the 
community, even the compliments paid politicians and parties by 
their opponents show the political methods and temper of the 
times. The contemporary newspapers were the most valuable 
source from which was drawn the Centennial history of Illinois. 

Genealogical Department. 

The genealogical department is one of the most important and 
popular divisions of our work. We have acquired large additions to 
our collection during the past year. We have dealers in Chicago, New 
York, Boston and San Francisco who keep our collections constantly 
in mind and call to our attention material which we need. 

Miss Osborne, Chairman of our Committee on genealogy will re- 
port to you in detail. 

Department of Archives. 

The Historical Society has in previous years given some consider- 
ation to the subject of the care,. and accessibility of State Archives, that 
is the papers and documents of historical interest and value which 
accumulate in the various working departments of the State of Illinois. 

The necessity that some plan should be devised that would provide 
for safe and systematic care of such material was conceded. Opinions 
difl^ered as to the methods and agency that should be employed in the 
work. The Secretary of State seemed the logical custodian of Archives 
so large a proportion of which by law pass through his hands. The 
last session of the General Assembly established as a part of the State 
Library of which the Secretary of State is Librarian, a division of 
xA.rchives, and provided for a Chief of this division to be known as 
State Archivist of the Archives division of the State Library. 

The Secretary of State has selected for this position Miss Margaret 
Norton who comes with the highest recommendations as to her qualifi- 
cations and who has already begun her work. 

The State of Connecticut is one of the leading states in its care 
of its public records and its State Librarian Mr. George S. Godard 



has had charge of the work in that State. Mr. Godard is with us and 
will tell us about his work in the care of public archives. 

The Archives division with the other departments of the State 
Library will have quarters in the Centennial Memorial building. 

War History. 

The work of compiling material collected by the War History Di- 
vision of the Historical Library continues. Miss Marguerite E. Jenison 
who has the work in charge devotes her entire time to the work, and she 
has several assistants. It is the plan of the Library Board to publish 
before the close of the present biennium, two volumes at least, telling 
of the part taken by Illinois in helping to carry on the great World 
War. One volume will be statistics of civilian or auxiliary service, Red 
Cross, food and fuel conservation, war gardens, amount of labor 
and goods furnished by Illinois manufacturing concerns, etc. The other 
volume will consist of documents drawn largely from soldiers letters 
and diaries and other illustrative matter. The Library has collected a 
large mass of material of deep interest, human documents which run 
the whole gamut of human experience, thrilling, pathetic, amusing, all 
of great and surprising interest. 

History of the 33d Division. 

The History of the 33d Division, American Expeditionary Forces 
in the great war, by Lieut. Col. F. L. Huidekoper, is not entirely com- 
pleted. But the volume which contains the narrative, tells the story, 
is completed and many thousand copies, have been distributed to the 
soldiers of the Division. We obtained a list of the names and addresses 
of 15,000 soldiers of the Division. A post card with a return card at- 
tached was sent to each of these men with the request that if he desired 
a copy of the history sent him free to send his name and correct present 
address to the Library on the attached addressed card. Sending this 
card saved much postage and many copies of the history. Hundreds 
of the men have not returned the cards asking for the history. Many 
cards have been returned, as the soldier had gone from that address 
without leaving a forwarding address. In every case where the card 
was returned asking for the history it has been sent. This large list 
has been augmented by lists furnished by officers of the Division. 
These have received prompt attention. 

The Lincoln Homestead. 

The Historical Society has on several occasions expressed con- 
cern as to the danger to the Lincoln Home, on account of the close 
proximity of frame dwelling houses, particularly the house directly 
north of the Home. 

The last session of the General Assembly made an appropriation 
for the purchase of this house, but the owner of the house and the 
State Department of Public Works and Buildings have been unable 



26 

to agree as to the price of the property and the house has not been 

purchased by the State. 

Sites Connected With Mr. Lincoln's Residence in Springfield. 

Many visitors to Springfield expressed surprise and often annoy- 
ance that of the many sites in Springfield connected with Mr. Lin- 
coln's life as a citizen of Springfield so few of them were marked with 
descriptive tablets. 

Mr. H. B. Rankin known .to all of you as a personal friend of 
Mr. Lincoln, a deep and exhaustive student of Lincoln literature and 
a writer of authority upon some phases of Mr. Lincoln's character, 
became much interested in a plan to have these sites properly marked 
and through Mr. Rankin's efforts, largely aided by Mrs. James S. King, 
a member of the Historical Society and at that time Regent of the 
Springfield Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution, 
the matter was placed before the people of Springfield. A Commit- 
tee of the D. A. R., the State Historical Society and of other citizens, 
took the matter in hand and tablets have been placed on buildings or on 
the sites of buildings which represent significant acts or periods of Mr. 
Lincoln's life. 

A tablet was placed in the Sangamon County Circuit Court room, 
because in that room which was the Chamber of the Illinois House 
of Representatives when the building, now the Sangamon County Court 
house was the State Capitol building, Mr. Lincoln made his famous 
"House divided against itself speech" in the evening of the day of the 
State Republican Convention on June 16, 1858, and in this same room 
his mortal remains laid in State when brought to Springfield for burial. 

The tablet in this room was dedicated on February 11, 1922, and 
in dedicating this tablet as a type, all the tablets were included, and 
dedicated as a part of the dedicatory exercises. The principal address 
was made by Miss Helen Nicolay, the daughter of the late John G. 
Nicolay, secretary and biographer of Mr. Lincoln. Mr. Stuart Brown, 
one of the Directors of the Historical Society was chairman of the 
meeting. An account of these exercises, with descriptions of the tablets 
will be published in the Journal. 

The Play — Abraham Lincoln. The Visit to Springfield of 

Frank McGlynn. 

On March 22 and 23, 1922, the play Abraham Lincoln was pre- 
sented in this city by a company headed by Frank McGlynn the actor 
who took the part of Lincoln. The Springfield Chamber of Commerce 
was instrumental in bringing the play to the city. Committees were 
appointed by the Chamber of Commerce to arrange for the reception 
of Mr. McGlynn and to bring the play to the attention of the people. 
The Secretary of the Historical Society was Chairman of the local 
Committee. A luncheon was given for Mr. McGlynn at which he made 
a very interesting and appropriate address. He is a modest man with 
a deep sense of the responsibility of attempting to portray the charac- 
ter of Mr. Lincoln. 



27 

The committee took him to visit the Lincoln Home, and the old 
Wabash passenger station from which Mr. Lincoln left Springfield for 
Washington February 11, 1861, This site has been marked by the 
Springfield Chapter Daughters of the American Revolution. The com- 
mittee also escorted Mr. McGlynn to the Lincoln tomb and to see the 
Andrew O'Connor statue. Mr. and Mrs. McGlynn were both much 
impressed by the statue. 

Mr. McGlynn was greatly pleased to meet the men and women who 
had actually known Mr. Lincoln. He was much interested in them, 
asked them many questions and listened eagerly to suggestions from 
them, and was very appreciative of courtesies shown him. He de- 
clined to impersonate Mr. Lincoln at any of the places visited or on 
the streets. 

Site of Fort Creve Coeur. 

As I reported to you a year ago the General Assembly made a 
small appropriation for the purchase of a marker to be placed on a site 
designated by the Illinois State Historical Society. The Society has 
for many years had a Committee to study this much disputed subject, 
and when the appropriation was made the President of the Society 
asked this committee to take up seriously the work of attempting to 
locate the site. The committee consisted of Jacob Thompson, Profes- 
sor C. W. Alvord and Professor J. A. James. No more competent 
committee could have been selected. 

These gentlemen visited the various proposed sites, listened to 
evidence submitted and studied all possible documentary sources. They 
decided that it would be impossible to designate the site with absolute 
certainty, but the weight of the evidence, the written testimony of La- 
Salle and his companions, the formation of the river, lake and hills 
all made it seem certain that the site designated some years ago by the 
Peoria Chapter Daughters of the American Revolution, and lying in 
Fond du Lac township in Tazewell county is beyond all reasonable 
doubt the site of the old Fort. 

A small park of fifteen acres which includes this site has been 
presented to the State by Mr. and Mrs. C. H. Wagner, owners of the 
land. A very beautiful marker has been designed by the State Archi- 
tect Mr. Edgar S. Martin. The stone has been transported to 
the site, but as yet it has not been finally placed and no dedicatory 
exercises have been held, as an act of the Legislature is required for 
the State of Illinois to accept donations of land, and it will be necessary 
to wait until the next session of the Legislature for the completion 
of the transfer of the land from Mr. Wagner to the State of Illinois. 

Meanwhile the Peoria Chapter, Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution are taking care of the marker and the little Park. This the 
Chapter offered to do and the generous offer was accepted by Colonel 
C. J. Miller, the Director of the State Department of Public Works 
and Buildings. 

The Lincoln Circuit Marking Association. 

J wish I had time to tell you of the important and successful 
work of this organization. You know that this Association was formed 



28 

and incorporated for the purpose of marking the roads traveled by Mr. 
Lincoln and his fellow lawyers of central and eastern Illinois in attend- 
ing the sessions of the Circuit Court in the various counties of the 
district. 

I am glad to report that this summer and fall will most certainly 
see the completion of this work. Markers are to be placed at County 
Seats and on County lines. 

Edgar County placed its County seat marker February 12, 1922. 
Champaign County will dedicate the marker at its County seat May 
6, (tomorrow). Sangamon County's marker will be dedicated May 8th, 
and others will be dedicated during the summer. 

The County line markers are to be impressive and unique and 
will also be placed during the coming summer. 

Just here I wish to call the attention of the Society to the generous 
aid given the Historical Society, the Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution and the Lincoln Circuit Marking Association, by Mr. Edgar 
S. Martin, the State Architect. With many important pieces of 
work demanding his time and his mental and physical energy, projects 
involving great expenditure of money and interesting problems, in 
architecture, Mr. ]\Iartin has given to the historical work his aid and 
advice, the value of his artistic taste and experience and his technical 
skill, has made drawings, and furnished blue prints and working plans, 
has never lost patience with our ignorance and inexperience, and has 
given all of this, expert aid and advice without compensation. 

I suggest that this Society pass a resolution expressing its appre- 
ciation of Mr. Martin's services and generosity and thanking him for 
them. 

The Prize Essay Contest. 

Largely through the interest of the Illinois Daughters of the 
American Revolution and the efforts of Mrs. H. E. Chubbuck, State 
Regent of the D. A. R., the last General Assembly gave to the His- 
torical Society a small additional appropriation with the understanding 
that there should be inaugurated in the public schools of the State 
a contest for the best essay in certain grades on some historical 
subject. 

The committee that arranged the plan for the contest consulted 
Governor Small and he was interested in the plan and approved it. 
The members of the State Committee are: Mrs. H. E. Chubbuck, 
State Regent, D. A. R., Professor Francis G. Blair, State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction, Dr. O. L. Schmidt, President and Mrs. 
Jessie Palmer Weber, Secretary of the Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety. 

After some discussion the Committee agreed that the subject of 
the essay should be Pioneer Women of Illinois. A gold medal of 
artistic design is to be given for the best essay, and a silver medal to 
the best essay from each county. Details of the contest were 
published in Mr. Blair's educational journal, and special directions 
were sent out by the Historical Society. About half of the counties 
of the state are taking part in the contest, but this first contest is in 



29 

a measure experimental, and we hope by another year to arouse 
general interest. The D. A. R. of the State is taking an interest in 
conducting the competition. 

Publications of the Society. 

Our Publications are far behind in the date of publication. We 
have distributed the Journal for January, 1921. This makes us about 
five numbers behind. The reasons for this delay are numerous, but, 
none I fear really justify the delay. In the first place, suitable 
material is not easy to secure. We want good original articles, we 
want original letters, diaries and reminiscences. The editors of the 
Journal solicit contributions. 

In the second place all State work is subject to delay, and being 
pushed aside for work requiring immediate attention. Then too, the 
printing contractor is often changed and this makes it difficult to secure 
uniform work. Two volumes of the transactions have been delivered 
by the printer and are ready for distribution. These will reach you 
within a few days. 

The O. H. Browning Diary. 

One of the great men of Illinois in the middle of the 19th Century 
was Orville H. Browning of Quincy. He was a United States Senator 
from this state, an early friend of Mr. Lincoln. Mr. Lincoln was very 
fond of Mrs. Browning too. 

Mr. Browning was for a time Secretary of the Interior under 
President Andrew Johnson. He was an able and a most methodical 
man. He kept a faithful diary which he began June 7th of 1851, and 
he continued this diary for thirty years. He was in Washington at 
the time of Mr. Lincoln's death and during the impeachment proceed- 
ings against President Johnson. The diary is kept in 24 blank books, 
well and clearly written. It is a most unusual historical collection. By 
means of an appropriation made by the General Assembly to the His- 
torical Society, Mr. Browning's diary was purchased from his niece 
Mrs. Eliza Price Miller, now living in Berkeley, California. The pur- 
chase was negotiated for the Society by Professor J. P. Garlick, a mem- 
ber of this Society and a former Illinoisan, now living in California. 
The Society is under obligation to Professor Garlick for his patience 
and tact in managing the afifair. 

Our Director, Mr. Andrew Russel also assisted largely in arrang- 
ing the purchase. I suggest that a letter of thanks be sent to Pro- 
fessor Garlick and to Mr. Russel. The diary or parts of it will be 
published by the Historical Library. Professor Randall and Pro- 
fessor Pease are to be the editors. 

Harper Brothers were anxious to bring out a book by Miss Ida 
M. Tarbell, compiled in part from the Browning diary, and offered 
to pay the Society a royalty from the sales of the book for the use 
of the diary. The offer was for the present declined. 



82 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON GENEALOGY. 



To the Members of the Illinois State Historical Society: 

Your committee on Genealogy and Genealogical publications begs 
leave to report that the interest in this department of the library in- 
creases from day to day. W'e have by mail each day inquiries from 
Maine to California. Some of this nature: my family were pioneers 
of Illinois, have you a list of pioneers? No information as to where 
or what part of the state they settled in. As there are one hundred 
and two counties in the state, unless the name suggests to us some 
family of which we have knowledge in these various covmties, you can 
see how much research work this would require, and it is impossible 
to give as much time to it as we would like, consistent with our other 
duties. 

We have secured for the collection since our last report some 
valuable early eastern records, as well as a few of the middle and south- 
ern states, namely : Connecticut : Greenwich, Conn., Abstract of 
Church Records to 1850; Records of the State, ITTG-ITSO, two vol- 
umes ; History of Litchfield and the Bi-Centennial of Litchfield, Con- 
necticut, these last two items the gift of Mrs. Morris W. Seymour 
of Litchfield. Connecticut: Records of Connecticut men in the mili- 
tary and naval service 1775-184:8. Gift of E. C. Silliman, Chenoa, 
Illinois. 

Indiana State : History of Elkhart Countv. 

Maine State: Wills, 1640-1760; York Deeds, 1642-1736, 18 vol- 
umes. Have also been able to complete our ]\Iaine Historical Collec- 
tions by securing the volumes in the earlier series. 

Massachusetts State: Boston Records, 1674-1800, 24 volumes. 

New Hampshire: History of the Town of Sullivan. 

New York State: Old Dutch Records of Kingston, N. Y. ; Rec- 
ords of Round Top Lutheran Church of Pine Plains, Dutchess Co., 
N.Y., 1760-1788; 

North Carolina : History of Edgefield County. 

Ohio State: Histor}^ of the following counties: Ashtabula, Car- 
roll, Clermont, Columbiana, Fulton. Geauga, Greene, Harrison, Meigs, 
Miami, Morrow, Ross and Williams. 

Pennsylvania: History of Delaware and Lancaster Counties. 

Rhode Island: Colonial Records, 1637-1783, 10 volumes; Rhode 
Island Court Records, 1648-1696 ; Rhode Island, Providence, R. I., 
Index of the Births, Marriages and Deaths in Providence, R. I., 1636- 
1910, 16 volumes; Rhode Island Vital Records, 1636-1850, 5 volumes; 
South Carolina, History, in 5 volumes. 

Vermont State : Hemenway's Gazetteer of Vermont. 



33 

West Virginia: History of Braxton County and Central West 
Virginia. 

We have secured by gift the following family histories: Atkinson, 
Wilnier. An Autobiography. Gift of W. Atkinson Co., Philadelphia. 

Banks Family of Maine and Bonithon Family of Maine. 

Gift of Col. Charles E. Banks, Chicago. 

Buckingham Colonial Ancestors and Buckingham Family. 

Descendants of Dan and Philena Buckingham, 2 volumes. Gift 
of Mr. George T. Buckingham, Chicago. 

Church Family. Gift of Frank J. Wilder, Somerville, Mas$. 

Felt Family, Ancestors of Dorr Eugene Felt and Agnes McNulty 
Felt. Gift of Dorr Eugene Felt. 

Lytle Family. Gift of Mr. Leonard Lytle, Detroit, Mich. 

Sanders Family : Ancestors and Descendants of John Sanders, 
of Fort Covington, N. Y. Compiled by George Rich. Gift of the 
Compiler, Cleveland, Ohio. 

There have also been located the burial places of two more Revo- 
lutionary soldiers in Illinois : William Kirk buried near Scottsville. Ma- 
coupin County, Illinois ; and Francis D. Baker buried in Rushville, 
Schuyler County, Illinois. These added to the list compiled by Mrs. E. 
S. Walker, locates the graves of 686 soldiers of the Revolution buried 
in Illinois. In a few instances there is some doubt as to the exact loca- 
tion, and it is so stated. Peter Porter soldier of the War of 1812 is 
buried in Grove City, Christian County. 

A community club at Indian Point, Menard County, is taking up 
the history of pioneer families in that County, and we hope to secure 
these papers for the library and to publish some of them in future 
issues of our Journal. 

Members of the English class from the Springfield High School 
have made their annual visit to the library within the past few days, 
looking up the derivation of their family names and other historical 
material. 

Mr. Ensley Moore continues to send to us his historical articles 
published in the Jacksonville Journal, and we trust his example will 
be followed by others of the Society who are interested sufficiently 
in the history of their county and locality to preserve for future gener- 
ations such material. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Georgia L. Osborne, 

Chairman of the Genealogical Com- 
mittee, Illinois State Historical 
Society. 



34 

PROGRAM OF THE TWENTY-THIRD ANNUAL MEETING ILLINOIS 
STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY, MAY 4^5, 1922. 

ORDER OF EXERCISES. 



Thursday Afternoon, May 4, 1922, 2:30 o'Clock. 



Address The American Indian 

Mr. James H. Hammill, River Forest, Illinois. 

Songs — A Burst of Melody Seller 

The Old Refrain ■ Kreisle^- 

Take Joy Home Bassett 

Miss Diamond Vadakin, Springfield, Illinois. 

Address A Neglected Episode in the Life of Abraham Lincoln 

Mr. James Shaw, Aurora, Illinois. 

Address On and About the Old National Road in the Early Fifties 

Dr. Charles B. Johnson, Champaign, Illinois. 



Thursday Evening, 8:00 o'Clock. 
Illinois. 

Invocation Rev. Wm. F. Rothenberger, Springfield, III. 

Songs Mrs. S. B. Harry, Taylorville, 111. 

Annual Address 

Promotion of Historical Study in America following the Civil War. 

Professor James A. Woodburn, Indiana State University, Bloomington, Ind. 

Reception. 

Friday Morning, May 5, 1922. 
9 o'clock. Directors' Meeting. 
10 o'clock. Business Meeting. 
Reports of Officers. 
Reports of Committees. 
Election of Officers. 

Address Progress in the Care, Custody, Repair and Accessibility 

of Connecticut Archives and Records. 
Mr. George S. Godard, State Librarian of Connecticut. Hartford, Conn. 

Address The Illinois Historical Collections 

Professor Theodore C. Pease, University of Illinois, Urbana. 



Friday Noon, 12:30 o'Clock. . 
Luncheon at St. Nicholas Hotel. 

Address General Ulysses S. Grant 

Hon. Charles S. Cutting, Chicago, Illinois. 

Patriotic Songs Mrs. Gary Westenberger, Springfield, II 



Friday Afternoon, 2:45 P. M. 

Address James T. Gifford and the Founding of Elgin, Illinois 

Stella Davidson Ainsworth, Moline, 111. 

Music— Violin — Schon Rosmarin Kreisler 

Lorna Doone Williamson and Virginia Dare Williamson, Springfield, 111. 

Address The Moravian Settlement in Illinois 

Rev. Albert P. Haupert, West Salem. Illinois. 



PART II 
Papers Read at the Annual Meeting 

1922 



37 



PROMOTION OF HISTORICAL STUDY IN AMERICA 
FOLLOWING THE CIVIL WAR. 



[By Professor James A. Woodburn, Indiana State University, Bloomington, Ind.] 

Macaulay began his notable History of England with the expres- 
sion of his purpose, which has long since become a familiar classic, 
to write the history of his country from the accession of James II. to 
a time within the memory of men still living. This paper will have 
its beginning as well as its ending with a time easily within the mem- 
ory of living men. 

I look back today to the decade following the close of the Ameri- 
can Civil War. At the close of that decade, in 1876, America was 
celebrating the centennial of her independence. That celebration led 
to a revival of interest in American history. I was then a Senior in 
my home University of Indiana. Looking back now over these al- 
most fifty years I am moved to recall for this occasion some of the 
stages of progress our people have made in the appreciation of their 
own history and in the organization and promotion of historical knowl- 
edge. My purpose is to trace, at least partially, some of the influences, 
measures, and organizations making for the preservation of historical 
knowledge that have come about within my own observation. 

I would not venture to name the time when men began to take an 
interest in their own history. Herodotus has been called the "father 
of history", but the interest of men in the story of mankind certainly 
antedates Herodotus. This interest in history is a good deal like the 
priestly order of Melchizedek, "without father, without mother, with- 
out genealogy, having neither beginning of days nor end of life". But 
so far as our knowledge goes this interest of man in his past has not 
always been equally uniform and constant during all the changing 
periods of his life upon the earth. There are times when it has been 
marked by special zeal and special significance. Historical study and 
writing seems to receive special impetus at times following the periods 
of great crises, upheavals and revolutions. In the opening pages of 
his French Revolution Mr. J. H. McCarthy says that there have been 
just two events in human history, — the siege of Troy and the French 
Revolution. This expression may be regarded, perhaps, as a piece 
of literary pyrotechnics ; but if it signifies anything it means that all 
events of ancient history in some way relate to one of these events and 
all events of modern history are related to the other. It is a form of 
emphasis. No doubt it is true that of all events in modern times the 
French Revolution gave the greatest impetus to the study of the his- 
tory of European civilization. The literature on the Revolution be- 



38 



came enormous. The condition of France under the old regime, the 
rise of the French monarchy, the growth of nationahsm_ in Europe 
and of French absolutism, the intellectual life of France in the 18th 
century, a study of its philosophers, economists and statesmen,— these 
became, the subjects for many students of history within the genera- 
tion following the Revolution. It is well known from the work of 
Niebuhr and of his pupil Ranke, that modern scientific and critical 
study of history began in the midst of the Napoleonic era and in the 
decades immediately following. 

It is likewise true in America that the great struggle for national 
unity in four years of Civil War led to a great renaissance of interest 
in our national history. The American Civil War has been called by 
the Supreme Court of the United States "the greatest civil war in the 
history of the human race". There were far-reaching results of that 
war, apart from its effect on systems of politics and industry. One 
effect was the revival, or creation, of a new interest in American his- 
tory. The post-war literature about the causes of the war, its_ progress 
and its results grew into enormous proportions. This crisis in the 
nation's life became a subject of constantly expanding and deepening 
interest. The generation of youth rising to manhood in the years 
following the war was nurtured upon the stories of its causes and re- 
sults, of its sacrifices and of its heroes and men. The life of Lincoln, 
the character and services of this unique and most interesting figure 
in our history, became the subject of many biographies. As men 
came to the study of this great struggle, they could not confine them- 
selves to the brief period of years occupied by the conflict. They went 
back to the beginnings and sought to trace the causes of national dis- 
ruption or the processes of national growth through a century or 
more of development. When Horace Greeley began his journalistic 
account known as the History of the "American Conflict" he did not 
begin with Sumter or with the secession of South Carolina, nor even 
with the rising anti-slavery agitation of the thirties. He went back 
to the landing of the Pilgrims in Massachusetts and of the Cavaliers in 
Virginia and he sought to trace a conflict of ideas in the race across 
the continent and the struggle for mastery between two antagonistic 
factors in American life. 

After this manner writers on American history began to examine 
our national foundations ; to trace the origin and nature of the Union, 
the obstacles to its growth, the influences that promoted it, the eco- 
nomic, industrial, and political forces that finally cemented it into an 
indivisible union of indestructible States. Historical^ literature that 
was nationalizing in its tendency and influence came into dominance. 
This writing was partly in the nature of apologetics ; it was desigiied 
largely to call history to witness in defense of a cause. _On one side 
there was a desire to justify the war for the Union, to vivify and make 
dominant the national spirit. On the other side there was a desire 
on the part of Southern writers to show that though convinced by 
war against their will, there were sound historic reasons for being of 
their own opinion still. 



39 

I trust I may be pardoned for referring to some of the per- 
sonal experiences of my youth as I came into contact with some of 
this Hterature. In 1875 General William Tecumseh Sherman pub- 
lished his Memoirs. While a boy of eighteen I spent $5.00 of my 
precious money — about all I had — for these two volumes, which I 
read with avidity. I think of these volumes now, as I did then, 
as containing a very racy and valuable account of the great war 
by one of the ablest of the Union commanders. I need not take 
the trouble nor the time to name the numerous Memoirs and His- 
tories that followed from the distinguished commanders and lead- 
ers on both sides of the great conflict, — from Grant, Sheridan, 
Thomas, Logan, Longstreet, Johnston, Beauregard, and others. 
And there followed soon after, in the early eighties the monu- 
mental work under the direction of the Century Company on the 
battle history of the war. Then there followed in the later eighties 
through the pages of the Century Magazine the publication of what 
may be called the greatest biography which America has ever pro- 
duced, the monumental work on the Life and times of Abraham 
Lincoln by Nicolay and Hay. All these great contributions to our 
history were the immediate and direct outcome of the Civil War. 

If I may go back again to my early experience, — In the summer 
vacation of my Junior year, the summer in which I read the 
Memoirs of Sherman, I went through from cover to cover the three 
large volumes of Henry Wilson, entitled the "Rise and Fall of the 
Slave Power in America," which had just come from the press. 
Wilson wrote of a conflict of which he himself had been a part. 
He had been an active participant in the anti-slavery struggle and 
his volumes were charged (especially the two which he was able 
to finish before his death) with the fire of conflict. These volumes 
aroused my interest in American political history, especially in the 
history of the slavery controversy and the Civil War. I realized 
afterwards that they had given me a bias, and that having been 
written by an earnest though honest, partisan in the struggle, they 
were to be taken only as ex parte testimony on the issues involved. 
But these volumes, like those of Greeley, had their uses in arous- 
ing the interest of their readers in American history. They pre- 
sented certain important phases of a great struggle. Wilson's 
volumes were pretty largely autobiographic. They were the fore- 
runner of numerous Autobiographies, Memoirs, Recollections and 
Reminiscences written by public men who had been active and im- 
portant participants in a great period in our history, — Blaine's 
Twenty Years of Congress, Hoar's Recollections of Sixty Years, 
Boutwell's Reminiscences, and later the more valuable Reminis- 
cence§-of Carl Schurz ; Welles' Diary, Ben Butler's Book; Sunset 
Cox's "Union, Disunion, Reunion : Three Decades of Federal Leg- 
islation," Clark E. Carr, "My Day and Generation"; C. A. Dana's 
Recollections of the Civil War"; Jacob D. Cox, "Military Reminis- 
cences" ; Palmer's "Recollections," and many other personal con- 
tributions of great value to our history. 



40 

These told of contemporary events. But the Civil War also 
brong-ht men's minds back to the. formative period of the Union. 
In 1876 there ajjpeared as I recollect the notable biography of 
Alexander Hamilton by John T. Morse. During my Senior year I 
read these two volumes, with absorbing attention and great profit. 
They were such volumes as require study, analysis, examination, 
and restatement. They appealed to the sense of critical apprecia- 
tion, though they were likely to arouse a partisan estimate and at- 
tachment. Morse wrote with full sympathy for his subject, and at 
the time at which he presented his volumes to the public the 
nationalism of Hamilton was in popular favor when set in oppo- 
sition to the particularism of his opponents. To the young men 
who read Morse's volumes Hamilton appeared not only as a man 
of transcendent political genius, but as a statesman and patriot of 
far-seeing vision who had sought in vain to lay down a constitu- 
tional and national system for his country that would have saved 
it from the disunionism and from the civil and fratricidal strife 
which afterwards befell America. One of the reviewers of Morse's 
volumes, attempting also to review the signs of the times, said that 
these biographies and histories following the civil war indicated 
how greatly Jefifersonianism was waning and Hamiltonism was 
waxing. This was true only in the sense that national unity had 
been vindicated as against provincialism and disunion, not that 
Jeffersonian democracy was receding before a restoration of gov- 
ernment by the well trained or the well fixed few. 

In 1882 under the editorship of John T. Morse the volumes of 
the American Statesmen Series began to make their appearance. 
The volumes on John Adams, Franklin, Washington, Hamilton, 
Jay, Marshall and others served to call the attention of readers and 
students to the era of the Revolution and the beginnings of the 
Union, the making of the Constitution and the organization of the 
New Government. Fiske wrote of the "Critical Period" and new 
editions began to appear of the Federalist and Madison's Journal 
of the Debates in the Constitutional Convention. 

But this literature of history and the general public interest 
in historical and biographical writing, important as they are, are 
not of such permanent value as was the more careful and scientific 
study of history organized and promoted by our universities. Out 
of this university influence very largely came a great organization 
of which I wish now to speak. It has been of prime importance to 
the cause of history in America. I refer to the American Histori- 
cal Association. The first annual meeting of this Association, the 
meeting for organization, was held at Saratoga, New York, on Sep- 
tember 9. 1884. The meeting was held largely at the suggestion 
and under the directing influence of Dr. Herbert Baxter Adams, 
who was the Director of the School of History, Political Science, 
and Economics in the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. 
The object of this new organization was the promotion of histori- 
cal studies in America, not merely for American history but for 
history in America. There were already many other Historical 



41 

Societies in America, but their interests were chiefly sectional or 
local. The new organization was to be truly national in its scope 
and purpose. To a very great degree, as I have intimated, it was 
the outcome of the catholic spirit in our colleges and universities. 
It was prompted largely by university men who had by that time 
fairly well established at their respective seats of learning schools 
and chairs for the enlightened and scientific study of history. But 
the membership of this new society was by no means to be re- 
stricted to academic circles ; it was to be open to historical special- 
ists and academic workers everywhere, to those writing history, 
to those teaching history, to those studying history, and to all who 
cared to be known as those interested in history. To this first 
meeting for organization circulars of invitation had been sent to 
all the contributors of the American Statesmen Series, of the 
American Commonwealth Series and to all who were contribut- 
ing to that notable undertaking, the "Narrative and Critical 
History of America." 

At Saratoga forty-one names were placed on what we may call 
the charter roll. Andrew D. White, of Cornell University, became 
the first President. Justin Winsor, Librarian of Harvard University 
and Charles Kendall Adams, then of the University of Michigan, be- 
came the first and second Vice Presidents. Herbert B. Adams became 
the Secretary, a position which he held until just before his untimely 
death in 1901, and from this hardworking position the younger Adams 
became the devoted servant of the Association and his was the most 
potent hand of all in guiding its destinies during the years of its estab- 
lishment and rising success. 

Justin Winsor, the veteran historian, was then engaged in edit- 
ing the "Narrative and Critical History," which contained not only 
its masterful essays on salient aspects of American history, but the 
first extensive and scholarly bibliography on American subjects. 

Winsor was called to the chair as the temporary presiding officer 
at the Saratoga meeting. His impromptu remarks on that historic 
occasion are worthy of being recalled. 

"We have come together", he said, "to organize a new society 
and fill a new field. Existing historical societies are local, by States 
and divisions of States. The only one not plainly local by title, the 
American Antiquarian Society, is nevertheless very largely confined in 
its researches to New England subjects, though it some times stretches 
its ken to Central America and the Northwest". 

"We are to be simply American students devoting ourselves to 
historical subjects, without limitation in time or place. So no one 
can regard us as a rival or any other historical association in this coun- 
try. We are drawn together because we believe there is a new spirit 
of research abroad, a spirit which emulates the laboratory work of 

the naturalist, using that word in its broadest sense Scholars 

and students can no longer afford to live isolated from one another. 
They must come together to derive that zest which arises from per- 
sonal acquaintance. The future of this new work is largely in the 
rising instructors of our colleges". 



42 

To make manifest the truth which Dr. Winsor then pointed out 
and to illustrate how this new organization for the promotion of his- 
torical knowledge depended upon university life and university men, 
I shall cite the experiences of three distinguished university professors : 
At the time when Andrew D. White became the first President of the 
American Historical Association in 1884, he was President of Cornell 
University. But Dr. \Miite began his academic career as a professor 
of history and political science in a western university. White gradu- 
ated at Yale in 1853. He tells us in his Autobiography that during his 
student days in Yale his Greek history, that is, his Thucydides, was 
taught by Hadley, the Professor of Greek; his Roman history, that 
is, his Tacitus, was taught by Dr. Thatcher, the Professor of Latin; 
but these great teachers were thinking not of history nor even of liter- 
ary translation but chiefly of grammar and linguistic construction. 
The historical instruction at Yale consisted simply in hearing the 
student repeat from memory the dates from "Putz's Ancient His- 
tory". "How a man", says White, "so gifted as Hadley could have 
allowed any part of his work to be so worthless it is hard to under- 
stand. Once in a while during the term Hadley was drawn out to the 
delight of his students, but as a rule the teaching of history w-as the 
same mechanical sort of thing with, occasionally, a few remarks which 
really aroused interest". This w^as because at that time historical 
teaching in our universities was entirely neglected ; at best, it was 
purely incidental, merely something on the side, to which the college 
teachers were not really giving any attention. 

After his graduation at Yale White was in Europe for three years, 
a fellow student and travelling companion during this time of Daniel 
C. Gilman, later the President of Johns Hopkins University. White 
visited Oxford and Cambridge and noticed the tutorial system of in- 
struction there. He settled for a year in Paris attending lectures 
at the Sorbonne and College de France. He continued his studies in 
Modern history in connection with his lecture room work, listening 
to Guizot, Alignet, Thiers, Chateaubriand and other brilliant lecturers. 
His favorite field of study w^as that of the French Revolution upon 
which, as is known, he collected a notable library. For six months 
he became an attache to the American ambassador at St. Petersburg 
(Governor Seymour, of Connecticut). For a year White was ma- 
triculated in the University of Berlin where he heard the lectures of 
Lepsius on Eg}'ptology, Boeckh on the history of Greece, von Raumer 
on Italy, Hirsch on Modern History in general, and Carl Ritter on 
Physical Geography. He was preparing for his great work as a 
leader of historical study in America, and this preparation for that 
day was one of high order. 

After his return from Europe in 1856 White became a resident 
graduate at Yale. There he wrote for the "New Englander" an 
article on "German Instruction in General History", and he prepared 
sundry lectures on university instruction in history which were well 
received. But there seemed no chance at Yale for a professorship 
devoted to this line of study. More and more White felt that even if 
an historical professorship should open up for him at Yale, the old 



43 

fashioned orthodoxy which then prevailed would have fettered him. 
He could not utter the shibboleths then demanded and the future 
seemed dark indeed. Light dawned for him, not in the East, but in 
the West, in the great Northwest, that region which has been in many 
ways and at many times more progressive in movements of education 
and politics than the more staid and conservative East. 
The new hope and life came to White in this way: His belief in the 
value of better historical instruction in our universities grew more 
and more when a most happy impulse was given to his thinking by a 
book which he then read, Stanley's "Life of Arnold". It showed him 
two things : First, how effective history might be made in bringing 
young men into fruitful trains of thought regarding present politics; 
secondly, how real an influence an earnest teacher might thus exer- 
cise upon his country.^ In this state of mind he went with his college 
class to the Yale Commencement of 1856 to take his master's degree. 
Here was the turning point, and the way was pointed out from his 
uneasy and unhappy state of mind. While lounging among his class- 
mates in the college yard White heard some one say that President 
Wayland, of Brown University, was addressing the graduates in the 
Alumni Hall. 

"Going to the door", he says, "I looked in, and saw at the high 
table an old man, strong featured, heavy browed, with spectacles rest- 
ing on the top of his head, and just at that moment he spoke very im- 
pressively as follows : 'The best field for work for graduates is now 
in the West; our country is shortly to arrive at the switching off place 
for good or evil ; our Western States are to hold the balance of power 
in the Union, and to determine whether the country shall become a 
blessing or a curse in human history' ".^ 

White had never seen Wayland before, he never saw him after- 
wards. His speech lasted less than ten minutes, but, says White, 
"it settled a great question for me. I went home and wrote to sundry 
friends that I was a candidate for the professorship of history in any 
western college where there was a chance to get at students and as a 
result received two calls, — one to a Southern university, which I could 
not accept on account of my anti-slavery opinions ; the other to the 
University of Michigan, which I accepted". 

There at Ann Arbor in 1857, White's great work began for the 
organization and promotion of history and history teaching in Amer- 
ica. There was not at that time so far as White could remember when 
he penned his Autobiography fifty years later, a single professor of 
history pure and simple in any American university. Sparks had 
trained up no school of historical professors at Harvard, Professor 
Dew had taught at William and Mary but he had given attention to 
economics rather more than to history. Francis Lieber at the Uni- 
versity of South Carolina had taught political philosophy, but no 
systematic courses in history then existed as they have since been 
developed. 



» W^hite, Autobiography, Vol. I, p. 256. 
'Ibid., Vol. 1, p. 257. 



44 

White did pioneer work at Michigan. He aroused the interest 
of the under classmen while requiring of them regular text book- 
work, and he lectured to the upper classmen and the students of the 
law school on the "Development of Civilization during the Middle 
Ages", on the "Revival of Learning", the "Consolidation of the 
French Monarchy" and on the "French Revolution", — requiring the 
reading of Mignet which remained for many years the best short 
summary of that great period. 

One can never be sure in history that he has found a beginning, 
but here at any rate, was a great personal influence in the promotion 
of historical study in our universities. From these universities came 
not only the higher teachers of history, but the founders and pro- 
moters of the historical organizations that have meant so much for 
our historical collections. After 27 years of university life, serving 
for a number of these years as the administrative founder and head 
of Cornell University, Andrew D. White became as I have said, the 
first President of the American Historical Association. 

The second illustration of which I wish to make use is that of a 
man in some respects still more remarkable than White with a more 
marked originality, but with a preparation for his work entirely differ- 
ent. He, too, in the early years of its foundation became President 
of the American Historical Association and his distinguished name 
brought honor to the society. I refer to Henry Adams. 

When Henry Adams went to Harvard as a teacher of history in 
1871, he found Professor Gurney in charge of courses devoted to 
classical times and Professor Torrey had charge of those devoted to 
modern times. There was a gap of more than 1000 years between. 
Adams was expected to take care of this gap, and make the full and 
proper connection between ancient and modern days. "Down to the 
moment he took his chair and looked his scholars in the face", Adams 
tells us, "he had given as far as he could remember, an hour, more 
or less, to the Middle Ages". History had nowhere broken down so 
pitiably or avowed itself so hopelessly bankrupt as in the period of 
the Middle Ages. Since Gibbon the spectacle was almost a scandal. 
It was 100 years behind the experimental sciences. For all serious 
purposes it was less instructive than Walter Scott and Alexandre 
Dumas. But Adams says he knew enough to be ignorant and he 
tumbled from one ocean of ignorance into another groping and in- 
quiring his way. Historians undertake to arrange sequences, assum- 
ing a relation of cause and efifect. But this new professor at Harvard 
refused to profess. He could see no relation or sequence whatever 
between his students and the Middle Ages. He was expected to teach 
the boys a few elementary facts, dates, and relations. He told them 
frankly that they might get their facts where they pleased and use 
the teacher only for questions. The only privilege a student had that 
was worth his claiming was that of talking to his professor, and the 
professor was bound to encourage it. His only difficulty on that 
side was to get them to talk at all. 

Here we note a difference between White and Adams in their 
appreciation of certain values and methods. White's European ex- 



45 

perience, so different from what he had been used to as an undergrad- 
uate at Yale, had led him to think highly of the lecture method in 
teaching history. He thought it should be substituted for the recita- 
tion as a means of creating an interest in history by treating it as a 
living subject having relations to the present. Obviously White was 
greatly influenced by Arnold and he wished to use the past, its errors 
and its successes, chiefly as lessons for guidance in the present. He 
would use the themes of history, historical movements, periods and 
men, as subjects for his political philosophy and his teaching, by which 
he might influence young men for better citizenship and public 
service. This is a worthy purpose or ideal for a teacher, but it may 
not lead to accurate and impartial history. To Henry Adams, the 
lecture system to classes of hundreds was not to his liking at all, 
but was a good deal like a revival of the 12th century, when thousands 
of students followed their peripatetic leaders and lecturers from one 
university to another. Adams thought that no man could instruct 
more than a half dozen students at once. And if out of ten men nine 
were common place and one was especially brilliant Adams preferred 
to take the bright tenth man and upon him to concentrate his special 
attention. This may suggest an aristocracy of learning, but it also 
suggests the purpose and essence if not the beginning in America, of 
the laboratory method in teaching and studying history. 

This method was destined to be carried forward by many Ameri- 
can scholars, but first by one whose career as a director of historical 
studies I wish to use as my third illustration for pointing the way in 
which the cause of history has developed. I refer to Herbert B. 
Adams. Henry Adams taught history at Harvard for seven short 
years. Two years before he left his teaching, the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity was founded, — the first -university in America intended pri- 
marily for graduate study. Daniel Coit Gilman, the fellow student 
at Yale of Andrew D. White, became its first President. He gathered 
about him a body of scholars and research professors. At the open- 
ing of Johns Hopkins University in 1876 Herbert B. Adams became 
a Fellow in History. 

Adams was born in Massachusetts in 1851, not of the more 
famous Adams family, like Henry, Charles Francis, and John Quincy, 
but of a branch line. He graduated at Amhurst in 1872 ; he studied 
under Bluntschli at Heidelberg for three years, receiving his Ph. D. 
degree in 1876. He returned to America for further graduate work 
at the Hopkins, — becoming a Fellow in History in 1876, an Associate 
Professor in History in 1883 and a full Professor in 1891. For six- 
teen years from its founding in 1884 Adams was Secretary of the 
American Historical Association, and during these years he carried 
most of the detailed and heavy work of the Association. He retired 
as Secretary in 1900 and was elected first Vice President, thus being 
put in line for the Presidency ; but in the following year came his 
untimely death, in the very prime of his life, when he was barely 
past the age of fifty. 

In my judgment no man in America in his day and generation 
was more instrumental in promoting historical study and the effective 



46 

organization of historical knowledge than was Herbert B. Adams. 
President Oilman w^ell says that more than any other person Adams 
is "entitled to be called the founder of the American Historical Asso- 
ciation". Adams was my own guide and mentor in graduate work, 
and while he was not a great man, I can testify that he was a true 
man. and I verily believe that in force of suggestion and in his ability 
to see the possible opportunities and achievements ahead, his powers 
came near to those of the genius. His best work was not in writing 
history but in training others to write it, and I doubt if any man's 
influence went beyond his in creating in America a new school of 
historical research. He was a great editor, a great director, a great 
organizer. More than forty volumes of the "Historical Studies" of 
the Johns Hopkins press came by his invitation and direction from 
his students and friends. Professors Turner and Haskins of Harvard, 
Jameson, of Washington, Ross and Commons of Wisconsin, AlcPher- 
son of Georgia, Steiner and Latane. of Baltimore, Blackmar of Kansas, 
Woodrow Wilson, Albert Shaw, Albion W. Small, John M. Vincent, 
these are only a few of the names of distinguished men who are ever 
ready to acknowledge the deceisive influence of Herbert B. Adams 
on their work and their lives. 

I have commented upon the work of these three men, — White 
and the two Adamses, — because their work in history has been typical. 
Many other are equally deserving of appreciation. Thought and 
action must be organic to be historic, and these men stand for organ- 
ized influences and forces that have had lasting weight in developing 
our historical spirit. 

We are of course all well aware that the American Historical 
Association led by White and Winsor, the Adamses and their col- 
leagues, was not the first Historical Society in America. It was not 
even the first with a national name. An American Historical Society 
was founded in 1836, with its seat of influence and operation in Wash- 
ington. Ex-President John Quincy Adams was its first president. Its 
occasional meetings were held in the House of Representatives. Peter 
Force was its directing and most active member, and to him America 
is indebted for the publication of rare tracts in the period of the Revo- 
lution, and for the collection of the iVmerican Archives. This was. a 
great national undertaking. But this Society while it served a national 
purpose had its membership almost entirely among those who were 
resident in Washington and within officials of the Government. It losi 
its life when it lost its Force, — its Peter Force, who had not attached 
to its membership the university factors that have been so effective in 
giving greater permanence to these later voluntary organizations. 

In 1890, in the sixth year of the American Historical Association, 
it was reported to that body by its Secretary that there were over 300 
historical societies in the United States. I suppose that every State 
has its State Society, and there are many more local ones. The Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society, the mother of them all, dates back to 1791. 
Its Collections and Proceedings are among the valuable materials of 
American history. 



47 

The most of these State and local societies had been organized 
before the American Historical Association. This national Associa- 
tion was not the outcome of these local bodies, but it became a very 
potent influence in stimulating and strengthening their work. New 
State Societies and other auxiliary societies arose, your own among 
them in 1899. In its short life of less than a quarter of a century 
the Illinois Historical Society has distinguished itself in its productive 
results. The Indiana Historical Society was organized in 1830, and 
it claims a continuous life from that time to this. But for a half cen- 
tury its meetings were few and far between, but since its reorganiza- 
tion in 1886 it has had an annual meeting and it has had a useful and 
productive life. In 1916 and 1918 Indiana and Illinois celebrated the 
centennial of their Statehood and these celebrations tended greatly to 
increase popular interest in the history of these commonwealths. With 
a view to its centennial Indiana created an Historical Commission, 
and both centennials became the occasion not only of temporary cele- 
brating pageants but of historical publications of permanent value to 
the two States. Illinois is especially to be congratulated upon the high 
character of her Centennial publications. They are a monument to 
her honor and to her worthy past. 

I cannot take time here even to summarize the services or estimate 
the value of these State and local historical societies. Their collections 
and proceedings taken together throughout the country are the most 
valuable sources we have for students and writers in American history. 
These societies have served to stimulate historical interest. They have 
been the agencies for establishing magazines of history which have 
called forth and preserved historical productions of great value. If it 
had not been for the existence of these societies thousands of docu- 
ments would have been lost forever that have now been saved. 

Fifteen years ago Professor Greene of your State University made 
a notable report to the American Historical Association on the work 
of these State and local historical societies.* He called attention to 
recent legislation affecting them ; to the public appropriations of money 
in aid of their collections, and of their research and their publications; 
to their notable buildings and equipments ; and to the historical publica- 
tions that were appearing from year to year prompted by their influ- 
ence and agencies. 

I shall not attempt to recite how the record then made known 
has been still further advanced and enlarged. But of one western 
Society and its influence I feel that I must speak. I refer to the 
Mississippi Valley Historical Society. This Society has been in ex- 
istence since 1907. Those who know its work will feel, I am sure, 
that the claims of one of its recent circulars are fully justified and well 
within the truth: "It has united the western historians in common 
interests; it has developed a group of younger historians; it has 
inspired the older local societies to greater energy and higher ideals; 
it has furnished through its Review and Proceedings a medium for the 

* Association Report 1907, Vol. I. 



48 

publication of many excellent essays; and it has laid the foundation 
of western American history on a scientific basis". 

This sets forth very well what an effective organization does for 
the cause of history. By the devoted and efficient work of Professor 
Alvord in the establishment of the Mississippi Valley Historical Re- 
view, Illinois has had not only an important but a leading part in the 
life of this Mississippi Valley Society. 

Before I close I beg to speak a few words on the spirit of History, 
in tribute to the Muse for whose life and work these organizations 
of ours exist. History cannot depend upon the memory of men; it can- 
not depend upon folklore nor upon the traditions that come to us from 
word of mouth. History rests upon the document. "No document no 
history", has now come to be one of the accepted maxims of historical 
science. The document refers not merely to the printed or written page, 
but to any tangible form of evidence, — a monument, a coin, a weapon, 
a relic, any leavings of the past that may help to tell about the life 
of the world and its people. The historian who studies, the documents, 
relics and leavings that time has not effaced must seek to relate these 
to one another and put down in some sequence just what he finds. He 
must not set down aught in malice, nor must he unduly embellish his 
tale. He must seek the truth and be fearless in revealing it. The 
historian must come to his task with the impartial mind, with a mind 
never fixed, but always open and inquiring. Clio is the Muse of His- 
tory. She is best represented by the artist who pictures her in a listen- 
ing attitude, with the stylus in her hand, the open page yet unmarked 
before her. She is not yet writing, but is just about to write, with 
her ear ever bending to hear the last word in evidence. We may be 
sure that Clio is not an opinionated goddess, — like the old Scotchman 
who prayed that he might be set right because, the Lord knows, 
if he ever got wrong heaven and earth could not change him. 

We can appreciate this spirit of history only as we see it in action, 
as we see it represented or incarnated in some great master of the 
subject. Many worthy names might be adduced, but I shall bring for- 
ward twD whose life work has shown not only great achievement but 
unusual devotion to the spirit of impartial history and to the canons 
of historical science. 

The first great master of the modern school of critical historians is 
Leopold von Ranke. It was he who taught the historical student and 
writer to be critical and impartial. He was the master of Lord Acton, 
one of the greatest of modern English historians. Lord Acton tells of 
the last time he saw Ranke. It was in 1877 when Ranke was old, feeble, 
sunken, and almost blind, scarcely able to read or write. He uttered 
his farewell to his pupil with kindly emotion, and Acton expected that 
the next he should hear from Ranke would be the news of his death. 
Two years later, at the age of 83, Ranke began a Universal History, 
"which, carried forward in seventeen volumes far into the middle ages, 
brought to a close", says Acton, "the most astonishing career in liter- 
ature".^ Is there another case on record that can parallel or approach 
this devotion to historical science? 



^^ Acton's study of History, p. 49. 



49 

Ranke had read Scott's Qiicntin Durtvard. He was shocked to 
discover that Scott's Louis XI was inconsistent with the original 
in Commynes. This led him to the high resolve that henceforth 
his prime object should be to follow without swerving, and in stern 
subordination and surrender, the evidence of his authorities. "He de- 
cided effectually to repress the poet, the patriot, the religious or political 
partisan; to sustain no cause; to banish himself from his books, and to 
write nothing that would gratify his own feelings or disclose his private 
convictions. When a strenuous divine who, like him, had written on 
the Reformation, hailed him as a comrade, Ranke repelled his advances. 
"You", he said, "are in the first place a Christian ; I am in the first 
place an historian. There is a gulf between us". 

"It was Ranke's purpose to refrain from judging, to show what 
might be said on both sides. He was willing to leave the rest to 
Providence. He scrutinized and dissected the writers that had gone 
before. Niebuhr had dismissed the traditional stories of ancient Rome 
and had set up constructive work of his own. But it was Ranke's 
mission to raise up a school of critical disciples, from whose work has 
been learned the technical, scientific process by which the study of mod- 
ern history has been carried on within living memory". Such, in sub- 
stance, is the tribute of Acton to Ranke, — -the tribute of a great disciple 
to a great master. 

I mention these men and their work to indicate how important 
it is that we should have effective historical organizations whose pur- 
pose it will be to promote and conserve the interests of such capable 
and devoted historical scholars and writers. "History", say Lanlois 
and Seignobos, "is the utilization of documents. It is, a matter of 
chance whether documents are preserved or lost. Hence the predomi- 
nant part played by chance in the formation of history". 

It is the purpose of your organization and of similar organizations 
in every State in the American Union, to reduce this chance to a 
minimum. Such work cannot be left to private individuals or even 
to organizations sustained only by private enterprise. It is the func- 
tion of the State to make thes.e organizations possible, to subsidize 
them, to strengthen them and to enable them to expand their work 
and make it permanent. There is no higher function for the State than 
that of preserving its own history. 

Those who know the process of historical product' on know well 
the many operations between the preservation and inspection of the 
documents to the knowledge and presentation of the facts. There must 
be analysis, comparison, analogy, criticism, selection, elimination. The 
facts are isolated and scattered. They must be organized into a struc- 
ture. They must be grouped according to some selection and com- 
bination. All this makes necessary a division and organization of labor 
in history. There must be specialists who give themselves to search 
for documents, to their restoration and classification. These should 
coordinate their efforts for the sake of accuracy and economy of labor. 

There must be writers of monographs, those who bring together 
special materials for more general and comprehensive works. These 
writers of monographs must work by some common method under 



50 

rules and expert direction, in order that the result of each man's work 
may be used by the others without imposing upon each the task of in- 
vestigating the whole field to be covered. 

Then workers of experience should be found to renounce research 
and devote their time to the study of monographs, and to produce 
scientifically comprehensive works of historical construction. In this 
field of work the historical writer endeavors to present safe and fair 
conclusions as to the nature and causes of social changes. This task, 
when well performed, has been called the crown of historical science. 

Such is the vast task of history as set forth by those who have 
written upon the science of its exposition. How can such a task be 
performed without organization, without cooperation, or without the 
sustaining aid of that great organ and agency of human society which 
we call the State. It cannot be done. For this cause there must be 
leadership, devoted public spirited leadership. There must be a mem- 
bership and a following, moved by the spirit of service. But above 
these factors for the promotion of history, the organized State should 
come to realize more and more that progress and change for the bet- 
terment of society has always come and is still to come chiefly by our 
increasing knowledge of history and nature. May we not be allowed 
wfth Professor Jowett, to imagine the minds of men everywhere work- 
ing together during many ages for the completion of our knowledge, 
and may we not hope that this increase of knowledge will transfigure 
the world ?^ 



iJowett's Plato, I, 414. 



A NEGLECTED EPISODE IN THE LIFE OF ABRAHAM 

LINCOLN. 



[By James Shaw, Librarian of the Aurora Public Library.] 

Mr. President and Ladies and Gentlemen: 

1 esteem it a great privilege to come before the Illinois State 
Historical Society, and to present to its members an incident in the 
life of Abraham Lincoln that has been strangely neglected by his biog- 
raphers. The volume of literature that has grown up about that name 
is already immense, and it is still growing. Nearly every one who 
ever knew Lincoln — every one at least who had the gift of writing or 
speaking — has contributed something to our knowledge of the man. 
Indeed, so closely has this field been gleaned that it seems singular 
that any fact in that life that could be considered at all important can 
have escaped the biographer. New interpretations of Lincoln's char- 
acter will, of course, come from new studies of his life and times. 
But it has seemed unlikely that new facts will be brought to light, and 
added to the sum of our knowledge of his wonderful career. 

Yet there was an episode in Lincoln's life that has thus far escaped 
the attention of his biographers. It is not unknown to close students 
of the early history of Illinois. It has been narrated at some length 
by Mr. J. Seymour Currey, of Evanston, in his "History of Chicago". 
It has been related by Dr. B. J. Cigrand, of Batavia, in articles con- 
tributed to the press. It was also mentioned by Rev. Dr. William E. 
Barton, of Oak Park, in the annual address before this body last year 
on "Lincoln and Illinois," and again in Dr. Barton's Lincoln anniver- 
sary address this year before the Chicago Historical Society on "The 
Influence of Chicago on the Career of Lincoln".* 

These are the only public utterances on the subject that have 
come to my knowledge, except a cold official narrative made up at the 
time of the event. We look in vain for even a mention of this episode 
in the elaborate work of Nicolay and Hay, the secretaries of President 
Lincoln. Herndon and Lamon, Lincoln's intimate friends and part- 
ners, make no mention of it in their books. Dr. J. G. Holland came 
to Illinois after the death of Lincoln, and made diligent search for 
material for the life he wrote. Holland's work is one of the best of 
the early biographies, but he does not seem to have obtained the slight- 
est knowledge of the incident referred to. Miss Ida M. Tarbell was a 
tireless, painstaking and skillful assembler of the material she collected 
for her biography, but this fact escaped her entirely. 

* Fergus Historical Series No. 18. published Chicago, 1882, gives an excellent 
account of the Convention, compiled by Robeit Fergus. 

A memorial to Congress, containing the proceedings of the Convention was 
published at Albany, 184 8, by C. Van Benthuysen. 



52 

Dr. Barton, in his valuable monograph, "Abraham Lincoln and 
His Books," enumerates fifty formal biographies of Lincoln, ranging 
all the way from Nicolay and Hay's ten-volume work to some quite 
slender sketches. Not one of these books contains any mention of this 
episode. I think, therefore, we are quite justified in calling it "neg- 
lected".- 

L 

This event in the life of Abraham Lincoln had its genesis in a 
message of President Polk, vetoing a bill that passed Congress in the 
summer of 1846. This bill made an appropriation of something like 
one and a third millions of dollars for the improvement of certain 
rivers and the construction of harbors on the great lakes. President 
Polk considered the bill unconstitutional. Hence the veto. 

James Knox Polk was the eleventh President of the United States. 
He was the first "dark horse" to win a Presidential nomination. He 
was also the first beneficiary of the two-thirds rule. This was a de- 
vice of the slave power, adopted by the Democratic national conven- 
tion of 1832 to prevent the nomination of any candidate not acceptable 
to that interest. Martin Van Buren received an actual majority in 
the Democratic national convention of 1S44, but his position in regard 
to the annexation of Texas was not satisfactory to the Southern wing 
of the party, and he could not compass the two-thirds necessary to 
nominate. Seven ballots were taken before Polk's name was men- 
tioned. On the ninth ballot he received the vote of every delegate in 
the convention. He was elected by a narrow margin, defeating Henry 
Clay, the Whig candidate. 

President Polk was a man of pure character and respectable abil- 
ity. He had served as Governor of Tennessee. For fourteen years 
he was a member of Congress, and for tvv'o terms he was Speaker of 
the House of Representatives. Polk was the only Speaker who ever 
attained the Presidency. In politics he was a disciple of Jefferson, 
and a devout follower of President Jackson. 

From the time of the adoption of the Constitution, there had 
been sharp conflict in regard to the powers of the general government 
under that instrument. Two schools of political thought had sprung 
up. One school, called strict constructionists, held that Congress 
could exercise no powers except such as were specifically granted by 
the Constitution. The loose or liberal constructionists contended that 
Congress had the right and the power to enact any measure, author- 
ity for which might reasonably be inferred from the language of the 
basic law. The strict constructionists were usually members of the 
Democratic party. The liberal constructionists were usually Federals 
or Whigs. 

Yet party lines were not always rigidly drawn on this issue. The 
first wide departure from the theory of strict construction was when 
President Jefiferson bought the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon. 
Jefferson was a high priest of strict construction. He held that the 
government which governs least is the best government. Logically, 
therefore, he was opposed to injecting into the Constitution any mean- 



53 

ing or purpose that was not clearly expressed in the instrument. His 
ideas on the subject were, on occasion, however, quite elastic. One 
of his biographers says: "Jefferson had a fair measure of respect for 
the Constitution, but he thought it might too often have the effect of 
fetters on the nation." And again the same biographer says: "If 
the will of the people was with him in an unconstitutional policy, 
which he believed to be sound, he would speak respectfully of the 
Constitution, but he would not hesitate to disregard it." 

The truth of this estimate of the views of Jefferson in regard to 
the Constitution is seen in the course he pursued when it was proposed 
to purchase the Louisiana Territory. He was clearly of the opinion 
that the purchase was unconstitutional. At first he thought it would 
be necessary to amend the Constitution so as to authorize the purchase. 
But quick action was necessary, and that idea was abandoned. The 
purchase was made, "by and with the advice and consent of the Sen- 
ate," and the Congress appropriated the money that constituted the 
purchase price. 

This act, unconstitutional though it was, both in theory and in 
fact, has come to be regarded as an act of the highest statesmanship. 
But for that purchase, the vast domain comprised in what was then 
known as the Louisiana Territory, would have been wrested from 
France by the overwhelming naval power of Great Britain, and we 
should have had in the Mississippi valley a powerful, unfriendly, and 
possibly hostile neighbor. 

Since the day of the Louisiana purchase, the strict construction 
theor}^ of the Constitution has received many a severe jolt. President 
Polk, who was such a stickler for strict construction that he could not 
approve the river and harbor bill of 1846, was made President on the 
issue of the annexation of Texas. That step was followed by war 
with Mexico, and that resulted in the annexation of other vast areas 
that once belonged to Mexico — now comprised in the States of New 
Mexico, Arizona and California. Alaska was purchased from Russia 
in 1867. Porto Rico and the Phillipines were obtained as the spoils 
of war, and for nearly a quarter of a century they have been governed 
as conquered provinces. The Isthmus of Panama has been severed, 
and a canal connecting the two greatest oceans of the world has been 
built by the government of the United States at a cost equal to thirty 
times the cost of the Louisiana Territory. 

The preamble of the Congtitution sets forth that that instrument 
was ordained and established, among other things, to "promote the 
general welfare." Perhaps we have reached that stage in our national 
development where any measure that is designed to effect that pur- 
pose will be regarded as constitutional. 

But that point had not been reached in the days of President Polk. 
He was a strict constructionist of the straightest sect. His views are 
clearly expressed in the following extract from his veto message of 

1846 : 

"The Constitution has not, in my judgment, conferred upon the Federal 
Government the power to construct works of internal improvement within 
the States, or to appropriate money from the treasury for that purpose. 
. . . The general proposition that the Federal Government does not possess 



54 

this power is so well settled, and has for a considerable period been so gener- 
ally acquiesced in, that it is not deemed necessary to reiterate all the argu- 
ments by which it is sustained. ... It is not questioned that the Federal 
Government is one of limited powers. Its powers are such, and such only, 
as are expressly granted in the Constitution, or are properly incident to 
the expressly granted powers, and necessary to their execution." 

II. 

The veto of President Polk, and the consequent defeat of the 
river and harbor appropriation, caused a storm of protest to sweep 
over the country. The indignation was particularly intense in the 
region tributary to the great lakes. That section was just beginning 
to receive the tide of westward flowing migration that soon became a 
flood. A very large proportion of this migration came by way of the 
lakes. These great inland waters were without natural harbors. Ves- 
sels were compelled to take on and discharge cargo in open roadsteads, 
at great expense, and at no little peril of life. The demand for na- 
tional aid in the construction of proper harbors on the lakes was 
therefore loud and insistent. 

A number of devoted and interested citizens undertook to pro- 
vide means whereby this public feeling might be given voice. The 
prime mover in this work was one William Moseley Hall, then a resi- 
dent of Bufifalo. He traveled about the country, calling and address- 
ing meetings and civic bodies of various kinds, writing for the news- 
papers, and arousing public opinion by the usual propaganda methods. 
Mr. Hall's efforts resulted in the calling of a mass convention to be 
held at Chicago on July 5, 6 and 7, 1847. 

The convention proved to be a success far beyond the hopes of 
its most enthusiastic projectors. Authentic accounts placed the num- 
ber of people in attendance at 25,000. The number of accredited 
delegates was 5,000. Chicago was then an ambitious, self-conscious 
Httle town of about 16,000 inhabitants. Of course a town of that size 
could not begin to properly care for that number of visitors. Not a 
single railroad then entered the city, now the greatest railroad centre 
in the world. Thousands came to the convention by way of the lakes, 
by steamboat or sailing vessel. Other thousands came afoot, or on 
horseback, or by some kind of wheeled conveyance. A bare moiety 
of the people in attendance found shelter at night under some roof. 
Great numbers found quarters on the vessels that had brought them 
to the city. Thousands slept in the streets, or camped on the open 
prairie. 

■ If the convention was great in quantity, it was also high in qual- 
ity. No assemblage had ever gathered in the West that surpassed it 
in the high character and solid ability of its membership. From New 
York came a group of eminent men : David Dudley Field, acclaimed 
by his friends, and perhaps justly, "the most commanding figure at 
the American bar;" Horace Greeley, just rising into fame as the editor 
of the most influential newspaper the country has ever known ; Thur- 
low Weed, one of the early political bosses, and certainly the most 
famous of the tribe. From Ohio came the eloquent Tom Corwin, just 
elected to the United States Senate. Ohio also sent her Governor, 



55 

William Bebb, and two or three former Governors. Missouri sent a 
numerous delegation, headed by Edward Bates, of St. Louis. From 
Indiana came Schuyler Colfax, a future Vice President. From Mich- 
igan, Iowa and Wisconsin came a host of actual and potential Gover- 
nors, Congressmen and Judges. 

Illinois had an immense delegation in the convention. My own 
county of Kane sent 77 delegates. DeKalb, DuPage, Kendall, Lake, 
Will and other counties in northeastern Illinois had large delegations. 
Cook county sent a large delegation, headed by "Long" John Went- 
worth. From Sangamon county came Abraham Lincoln. By convic- 
tion, and by party affiliation, Mr. Lincoln was a warm advocate of 
internal improvements. His interest in this convention must be meas- 
ured by the time, trouble and expense it cost him to attend. He prob- 
ably came from Springfield to Chicago on horseback, and the journey, 
with the return trip, and his stay in Chicago, must have occupied about 

ten days. 

III. 

In 1847 Lincoln was thirty-eight years old. He had served four 
terms in the lower house of the Illinois General Assembly. He had 
practiced law for about ten years, and was acquiring a reputation 
as a lawyer who knew well three things — the law, the Judge, and 
human nature. These qualifications had made him a very successful 
trial lawyer. In 1846 he had been elected to Congress, but had not 
yet taken his seat. At the River and Harbor Convention he made 
his first appearance on what was really a national stage. He there 
had an opportunity, as we shall see, to measure himself with men of 
national reputation. We cannot doubt that the event had an important 
influence on his mental development. 

Lincoln was the only Whig Congressman elected in Illinois in 
1846. That fact, of itself, gave him prominence. The Chicago Eve- 
ning Journal, the leading Whig paper in the West, recognized in 
the only Whig representative in Congress from Illinois a personage 
of importance. It welcomed him with enthusiasm to Chicago. "We 
expect much from him as a representative in Congress", it said. 
"Never was reliance placed in a nobler heart and a sounder judg- 
ment. We know the banner he bears will never be soiled." 

E. B. Washburne, for many years representative in Congress 
from the Galena district in Illinois, and the American minister to 
France during the Franco-Prussian war, has given us a picture of 
Lincoln as he appeared when attending the River and Harbor Con- 
vention. Washburne was a delegate to the convention, and in a 
*magazine article published in 1885 he set down his recollections, as 

follows : 

"I met Mr. Lincoln at the celebrated River and Harbor Convention at 
Chicago, held July 5, 6 and 7, 1847. His dress and personal appearance on 
that occasion could not well be forgotten. It was then for the first time I 
heard him called 'Old Abe.' Old Abe, as applied to him, seemed strange 
enough, as he was then a young man, only thirty-eight years of age. One 
afternoon several of us sat on the sidewalk under the balcony in front of 
the Sherman House. Among the number was the accomplished scholar and 

* North American Review. 1885. Vol. 141 Abraham Lincoln in Illinois. By 
E. B. Washburne. 



56 

unrivaled orator, Lisle Smith. He suddenly interrupted the conversation 
by exclaiming, 'There is Lincoln on the other side of the street; just look 
at Old Abe.' From that time on, we all called him 'Old Abe.' No one who 
saw him can forget his appearance at that time. Tall, angular and awkward, 
he had on a short-waisted, thin, swallow-tailed coat, a short vest of the same 
material, thin pantaloons, scarcely coming down to his ankles, a straw hat, 
and a pair of brogans, with woolen socks." 

IV. 

The River and Harbor Convention promptly organized on Mon- 
day, July 5. The sessions were held in an immense tent. Edward 
Bates, of Missouri, was elected president. The usual committees were 
appointed. On Tuesday, in the morning, letters from many distin- 
guished men were read. Former President Martin Van Buren, Henry 
Clay, Thomas Hart Benton, Silas Wright and many others sent let- 
ters commending the objects for which the convention had been called. 
The longest letter received was from Daniel Webster. The great ex- 
pounder of the Constitution argued at length, in his customary sonor- 
ous and stately style, the constitutionality of Congressional appropria- 
tions for internal improvements. 

On that morning there was also considerable speech-making. 
Hon. Alexander T. Stewart, of Pennsylvania, made a vigorous plea 
for internal improvements. This brought out David Dudley Field, 
who made an adroit speech in favor of strict construction, and of 
such improvements only as might be consistent therewith. He denied 
the right of the Federal Government to improve the navigation of 
the Illinois river, since it ran through a single State only, or of the 
Hudson above a port of entry. Mr. Field was an ardent Democrat, 
and a firm supporter of the Polk administration. It may fairly be 
inferred that he attended the convention with a view, if possible, of 
preventing any radical expression in favor of internal improvements. 
A President was to be elected in 1848, and the two great parties then 
dividing the country were already preparing for that contest. It 
would not do to permit a supposedly non-partisan convention to 
directly or impliedly censure the Democratic administration. 

Mr. Lincoln was called upon to answer Mr. Field. In his Tribune 
letter Mr. Greeley mentions this incident in this quaint way : "Hon. 
Abraham Lincoln, a tall specimen of an Illinoian, just elected to Con- 
gress from the only Whig district in the State, was called out, and 
spoke briefly and happily in reply to Mr. Field." No report was made 
of any of these speeches, but there is a tradition that in the course 
of his remarks Mr. Lincoln made one of his peculiar "hits." Mr. 
Field had said that Congress had no right to appropriate money to 
improve the Illinois river, since it ran through one State only — it was 
not an inter-State river, — but he seemed to think that appropriations 
for the improvement of the Hudson would be perfectly constitutional. 
And Mr. Lincoln asked how many States the lordly Hudson ran 
through. Mr. Field again explained that in his opinion Congress had 
no right to make appropriations for the improvement of a river or 
harbor above a port of entry. The convention, however, was clearly 
against him. 



In the afternoon of that second day of the convention the com- 
mittee on resolutionss presented what might be called the platform of 
the convention. Thereupon the struggle between the strict construc- 
tionists and the liberal constructionists was on again. The first four 
planks of the platform declared in positive and unmistakable language 
that the Constitution was framed by practical men for practical pur- 
poses; that under the grant to Congress of power "to regulate com- 
merce with foreign nations and among the States," that body "be- 
came obligated by every consideration of good faith and common 
justice to cherish and increase" both foreign and domestic commerce ; 
that this obligation has been recognized from the foundation of the 
government; and that "the principle has been most emphatically 
acknowledged to embrace the Western lakes and rivers by appropria- 
tions for numerous light-houses upon them, which appropriations 
have never been questioned in Congress as wanting constitutional 
authority." The fifth plank in the platform was in this language: 

"That thus, by a series of acts which have received the sanct on of the 
people of the United States, and of every department of the government 
under all administrations, the common understanding of the intent and 
objects of the framers of the Constitution in granting to Congress the power 
to regulate commerce, has been manifested, and has been confirmed by the 
people; and this understanding has become as much a part of that instru- 
ment as any part of its most explicit provisions." 

Mr. Field now renewed his attack on the theory of the liberal 
construction of the constitutional powers of Congress. He moved 
to strike out all in this plank after the word "people." The clause 
he objected to was strong enough to satisfy the most rabid loose con- 
structionist. It was like what Tom Benton called "making a stump 
speech in the belly" of the platform. Even Horace Greeley thought 
Mr. Field's motion ought to have prevailed. But the convention was 
in no mood for moderation, or for mild statement of its views, and 
Mr. Field's motion was rejected. 

The fifteen planks of the platform, with one slight amendment, 
were then adopted as reported by the committee. 

This practically closed the work of the convention. The last 
day was devoted to gathering up the odds and ends of business. The 
convention adjourned after listening to a powerful speech by the 
president, Mr. Bates, in which he returned thanks for the honor done 
him, a speech which, as Mr. Greeley said, "took the convention by 
surprise, so able, so forcible, and so replete with the soul of elo- 
quence." 

VI. 

The River and Harbor Convention of 1847 is now an almost for- 
gotten event even in the State where it met and considered an im- 
portant question of public policy. An official narrative of its pro- 
ceedings is contained in a monograph that is buried in obscurity in a 
few public and institutional libraries. That narrative seems to have 
escaped the attention of historian and biographer alike, except as 
before noted. 



58 

Abraham Lincoln, whose fame and work overshadowed the land 
within less than a score of years after the convention, has left no 
record of his part in it in any writing that has come to light. In a 
letter to his friend Orville H. Browning, dated June 24, 1847, after 
recounting some business and personal news, he says : "I am preparing 
to attend the Chicago River and Harbor Convention." That is all. 

Yet we may fairly infer that some important after events had 
their roots in that convention. It was there that Horace Greeley 
met Edward Bates for the first time. Mr. Greeley conceived a high 
respect for him as a man of sterling character and great ability. 
Bates was Greeley's candidate for the Republican nomination for 
President in 1860. It was also at the River and Harbor Convention 
that INIr. Lincoln met Bates for the first time, and when he became 
President he called Edward Bates into his cabinet as Attorney General, 
while the question of internal improvements was not a special issue in 
the Presidential election of 1848, it is a historic fact that the liberal 
constrvictionists swept the country in that year, and placed "rough and 
ready" Zachary Taylor in the Presidential chair. 

We know, also that the River and Harbor Convetnion voiced 
convictions that became dominant in the growing West. That the 
opportunities afforded by the Convention were an important element 
in the mental and spiritual development of Abraham Lincoln cannot 
be doubted. They had their part in bringing to full flower the charac- 
ter so vividly portrayed by Lowell — 

"The kindly, earnest, brave, foreseeing man, 
Sagacious, patient, dreading praise, not blame. 
New birth of our new soil, the first American." 



5!) 



ON AND ABOUT THE NATIONAL ROAD IN THE EARLY 

FIFTIES. 



[By Dr. Charles B. Johnson.1 

The whip how it cracks, and the wlieels how thev spin. 

— Thos. Hood. 

A little more than two generations ago one of the most important 
thoroughfares in this Country was the National Road which was built 
and maintained by the general Government at Washington. Its con- 
struction was begun early in the Nineteenth Century at Cumberland, 
Maryland and from thence continued in a westerly direction through 
the southern limits of that State, the southern limits of Pennsylvania 
and through the breadths of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois till it reached 
its termination at a point on the Mississippi River where today is. the 
City of East St. Louis. 

But in the midst of this work there appeared on the horizon of 
progress what promised to become a much more efficient and speedier 
means of transportation than that upon the National Road, backed 
though this Highway was by all the financial end engineering resources 
of the Washington Government. This was the Steam-Railway, the 
practicability of which was demonstrated to the satisfaction of all 
observers in the decade of the thirties of the last Century. 

■ One effect of the steam-railway was to first suspend and later 
permanently stop all Government work on the National Road. How- 
ever, before this had occurred the National Road had been completed 
through Ohio, where it proved to be a most important factor in the 
settlement of that noble Commonwealth, and well through Indiana and 
was reaching out into Illinois, then a very 'new State, when the 
suspension of work left the western end of this thoroughfare only a 
little more than an every-day, common "dirt-road", though, then as 
now, retaining the name National Road. But today through Illinois, 
the National Road is so far from being a "dirt road", that it has re- 
cently been made one of solid concrete from end to end and sixteen feet 
in width. I was born and raised on that part of the National Road that 
passed through Bond County, Illinois and about this interesting old 
highway are centered some of my earliest and most cherished recollec- 
tions and I would that I had the pen of a Dickens or Washington Irv- 
ing that I might depict some of the things I looked upon with a wide- 
eyed wonder when a small boy. 

One such thing was the old-time stage-coach which twice every 
twenty-four hours passed once in each direction over the National Road. 
The builders of these stage-coaches had succeeded in effecting a happy 
compromise between durability on the one hand and something good to 



60 

look at on the other. The wheels and axles, the "running-gears" were 
especially strongly built, and the coach instead of having steel springs, 
was suspended on very strong, heavy leathern straps attached to a 
strong frame that reached up from the axles of the running-gears. 
This arrangement gave the body of the coach free play and a kind of 
swinging motion. At the rear of the body of the coach was a strong 
projecting frame covered with heavy rubber cloth for carrying trunks 
and called the "boot". At the front of the coach-body was the driver's 
seat and forward and beneath this a protected space for mail-sacks, 
"carpet-bags" and other small pieces of baggage. Around the outer 
edge of the top of the coach-body was an iron railing to prevent carpet- 
bags, packages of one kind and another, and likewise passengers from 
falling overboard. Inside the coach were three nicely upholstered seats, 
each of which could accommodate three passengers.. Thus within, the 
coach could accommodate nine passengers, another could be comfort- 
ably seated by the driver and in an emergency one or two more could 
ride on top. 

Four horses were always attached to the stage-coach, and at each 
stage-stand, one of which was located about every ten miles, these were 
exchanged for fresh ones. When nearing the village the stage-driver 
would blow his horn, "toqch-up" his horses into a lively trot and upon 
turning in to the village tavern the body of the coach hanging lightly 
on its strong leather straps. Ayould be given a swaying motion that was 
almost swan-like in gracefulness. Then when the coach would stop 
in front of the tavern, its door, opened by the always accommodating 
landlord, its well-dressed and seemingly, especially well-favored pas.- 
sengers would step out from its beautifully upholstered interior. I. a 
small boy, could but hope that "some sweet day" I, too, might be so 
fortunate as to travel in such attractive and luxurious style. Well, to 
anticipate a little, that "sweet day" never came. Here it may be of in- 
terest to say that when a newly enlisted soldier and yet in my nineteenth 
year, I, at Carlyle, Illinois, in August 1862, boarded a passenger coach 
on a steam-railway for the first time. 

As soon as the stage-coach reached the village tavern, two stable 
boys stood ready to remove the four jaded horses and to put in their 
places fresh, fat and well groomed ones. Then with passengers all in 
their seats, trunks and other baggage securely in place the stage driver 
would mount to his seat in front and with whip and four lines in hand 
would speak a lively "ge-ap" to his team accompanied with a whip- 
crack, when ofif, almost at a bound, would go horses, coach and all and 
I can truly say that no up-to-date passenger train has since impressed 
me as did that old time stage-coach of seventy years ago, and when 
with all this before my eyes what more natural than that I a small 
boy, should firmly resolve to become a stage-driver when I got "big". 

But the stage-coach attractive as it was lacked much of "being the 
whole show" to my childish eyes for among others, who made use of 
the National Road were the "movers" who were represented in two 
distinct types. First there was the poverty-stricken class who plainly 
had reason to be looking for a better country. These particular better- 
country seekers would have a pair of old "sway-backed", half-starved 



61 

horses in front of a rickety old wagon with one or two ragged and 
patched quilts, spread over the bows to keep out sun and rain and 
peeking from under the turned-up edges of this extemporised cover 
would be one or two sallow-faced, slatternly women and perhaps half 
a dozen dirty-faced, frowsy-headed children. 

All the "movers" were westward-bound and now as to the second 
and vastly more attractive type. Not unfrequently there would be a 
wagon drawn by a pair o^ fat, sleek horses, upon which were heavy, 
strong harness, and behind which was a staunch, newly-painted wagon 
sometimes of Conestoga make, that is to say with its bed framed to 
gether and its ends on a higher plane than its center. Most of the 
wagons of this make were from Pennsylvania or Ohio. But whether 
of this build or the ordinary, the wagons of this better class of movers 
were always covered with strong, clean ducking and everything about 
them spelled thrift. The men were comfortably clothed, the women 
and children clean and neat in their apparel and modest and well-man- 
nered and not disposed to stare at everyone in sight. Even the dog 
under the wagon was well behaved and had a look of contentment. 
Some of the movers had with them live-stock, such as one or two milch- 
cows, several led-horses and I have even seen a small drove of sheep 
in the caravan. All of the movers were prepared for camping out of 
nights and in consequence their outfit comprised quilts, blankets and 
other needed bedclothes and food and cooking utensils besides. How- 
ever "camping-out" was by no means confined to movers but was 
extensively practiced by all who made trips of any length- 
One class of men who patronized the National Road were known 
as "drovers" and at certain seasons of the year droves of fat cattle, 
would frequently be s.een on the way to the St. Louis market always 
in charge of two or three men on horse back. Another hour would 
perhaps witness a flock of fat sheep on the way to the St. Louis sham- 
bles ; and at another time a drove of fat hogs would be seen slowly 
moving westward. Both the sheep and hogs would be in immediate 
charge of men on foot, though one or more saddlehorses would be in 
convenient reach in the event any animal broke away. The hogs were 
of the razor-hack breed with long legs and, not unfrequently, long noses, 
exactly the opposite of the heavy-bodied and short-legged breed of 
today. Occasionally a considerable number of nice, sleek looking 
horses, all duly haltered and led, would be moving relatively lightly 
and speedily over the National Road destined ior the St. Louis horse 
market. But whatever the make-up of the "drove" it would always 
be accompanied by a covered wagon in which were sundry things likely 
to be needed during the trip. 

Another way of conveying fat hogs and fat sheep to St. Louis was 
in strong coops fitted on the running-gears of the wagon in place of 
the usual wagon-body. This coop was made of white oak or hickory 
and while strong was relatively light. A half dozen hogs or as many 
sheep could be put in it and carried alive and in comparative comfort. 
Sometimes coops made in this manner would be filled with dozens 
and dozens of chickens. Over these coops on the wagons a cover of 
ducking would be stretched on bows adjusted in the usual manner thus 



02 

protecting all from the weather. The men who drove these wagons 
were known as "marketers". There was one other frequenter of the 
National Road, namely, the "foot-pad". This was a man in very plain 
working clothes with nearly always a stick over his shoulder on the 
outer end of which were all his belongings tied up in a red handker- 
chief. The term "tramp" had not yet been coined. 

Although very many of those who made long trips over the Na- 
tional Road "camped-out", yet there were ftnough otherwise inclined 
to support a tavern at practically every Stagestand along the National 
Road. Almost without exception each one of these would have near 
its front door a "sign-post" upon which would be a strong frame and 
pivoted in the center of this and swinging freely on its attachment 
would be a strong board upon which in large letters one could read 
from afar, "Entertainment for Man and Beast". 

In its passage through Bond County the National Road comes in 
close touch with historic ground. Not far north of where this high- 
way passes through Pocahontas, Bond County, is the Cox Monument 
that commemorates the site of an Indian massacre that occurred early 
in the nineteenth century. As all know in the War of 1812 most of 
the Indians sided with England- Two or three brothers by the name 
of Cox built their pioneer cabins in Bond County some years before 
the outbreak of this struggle. One of these cabins was near a small 
stream which has since been known as Cox'es Branch. Early in June, 
1811 the older Cox, his wife and smaller children went some miles 
away to visit relatives and left the cabin and belongings in charge of 
a grown son and daughter. Returning next day they were horrified 
to find the son lying dead on the cabin floor and the daughter and 
likewise all the horses missing. As quick as it could be gotten together 
a posse of eight young men with trusty rifles mounted their horses 
and followed the trail of the savages who were finally overtaken some 
fifty miles north of where is Springfield today. As soon as the In- 
dians came in sight a running fight occurred during which the white 
prisoner. Miss Cox, broke away from her captors and ran toward her 
friends. Seeing her about to escape a savage threw his tomahawk 
which wounded her but not severely enough to prevent her rescue by 
her friends and return with them to Bond County. 

Meanwhile friendly hands buried the murdered young man and 
one of these with his adz chipped away the blood-stains on the puncheon 
floor. The marks of tlie adz made for the purpose named, remained 
on the puncheon floor till the cabin rotted down many years later. 

Some years since the citizens of Pocahontas and vicinity erected a 
small, but suitable monument at the site of the Cox- massacre. Henry 
Cox and son, uncle and cousin of the murdered man respectively, were 
part of the posse that overtook his murderers and rescued his sister. 
Sad to say both of these brave men were three years later surprised 
and killed while working in their field some miles south of the present 
village of Pocahontas, Bond County, and not far distant from Hill's 
Fort of which more later. 

Henry Cox was a much-respected member of Colonel Russell's 
Rangers and here it may be of interest to say that in 1811 Congress 



63 

passed an Act which authorized the raising of a Regiment of Rangers 
under the command of Colonel ^Villiam Russell of Kentucky, a brave 
Indian fighter and a veteran of the War of the Revolution. Each man 
was required to furnish his own horse, gun, clothes and other needed 
equipment and was to receive one dollar per day for his services. Four 
of the ten companies composing this regiment were raised in the Ter- 
ritory of Illinois and were commanded respectively by Captains Jacob 
Short, James B. Moore and the brothers Samuel and Wm. B. White- 
side. Some if not all of these officers had rendered honorable service 
in the Revolutionary War. 

About one mile east of Pocahontas, Bond County, Illinois, is 
Shoal Creek, a considerable stream that empties in the Kaskaskia, or 
Okaw, and that in mid-nineteenth century days furnished motive power 
to saw lumber and grind the corn and wheat that the pioneer might 
rear a "frame" house and have a due amount of bread. Some three 
miles south of where the National Road crosses Shoal Creek a mile 
east of Pocahontas, is the site of Hill's Fort that was one of a number 
of its kind built in the settled parts, of Illinois to protect the pioneers 
from the savages during the war of 1812. These forts were built of 
heavy logs and were hence called Block-Houses. They were two stories 
in height with the upper story projecting several feet over the lower 
and with the projecting corners cut otf close to prevent the Indians 
from reaching the roof and setting fire to the structure. The logs were 
fitted close together and at the space of about every seven feet a port 
hole was left for a rifleman to introduce his gun and fire at the enemy. 

In some instances a Block-House of the above description was 
built at the four corners of a square and all connected by tall heavy 
timbers set deep in the ground and close together. This, structure was 
known as a stockade and was often large enough to contain several 
families together with their stock, at least some of it. Such a struc- 
ture was Hill's Fort before referred to as having its location some 
three miles south of where the National Road crossed Shoal Creek and 
a little east of that stream. 

If we may give credence to a narrative recorded in Governor John 
^Reynold's Pioneer History of Illinois, a most remarkable struggle 
occurred at Hill's Fort during the War of 1812. In the late summer 
of 1814 this Fort was garrisoned by about a dozen Rangers under the 
command of Lieutenant John Journey. There was also in the fort 
one woman, a Mrs. Pursely, wife of one of the garrison. 

On the night of August 30, 1814, certain occurrences made those 
in the Fort beUeve that a considerable body of Indians were lurking 
near. To settle the matter next morning before daylight Lieutenant 
Journey and his men with loaded guns in their hands mounted their 
horses and rode some little distance from the Fort when they were 
fired upon from an ambuscade and as a result Lieutenant Journey 
and three men were killed and two others, wounded, though one of 
these but slightly. The other wounded man, William Burgess, sus- 
tained a broken ankle and consequently hid in the tall grass while all 
but one of his comrades hastened to the inside of the Fort. Tom Hig- 



64 

gins was the man who remained behind and this he did "to get a 
pull at them", (the Indians), as he expressed it. 

According to Governor Reynold's narrative the Indians to the 
number of seventy or eighty were several hundred yards distant from 
the Fort and four of these seeing Higgins alone and outside the Fort 
advanced towards him and as they approached, he raised his rifle, took 
aim, fired and one of the Indians fell. Dodging behind a tree Higgins 
had the good fortune to again load his. gun. The three remaining 
Indians believing that Higgins gun was not loaded advanced boldly 
to attack him, but watching his opportunity he fired and the biggest 
one of the savages dropped dead. The two remaining Indians next 
rushed forward and attacked their white enemy with knives and spears. 
With a terrible blow from the butt of his gun Higgins crushed in the 
skull of one of his adversaries and then there occurred a fierce hand 
to hand encounter with the one remaining Indian in which Higgins 
from loss of blood and general exhaustion was likely to fare badly. 
x\ll this was witnessed by the large body of savages a few hundred 
yards away and likewise by the six or eight whites in the Fort. Among 
those in the Fort was JMrs. Pursely, already referred to as being the 
wife of one of the garrison and the sight of Higgin's desperate struggle 
so worked on her sympathies that she snatched the loaded rifle from 
her husband's hands and declared she was going to the assistance of 
Higgins who should not be allowed to lose his life after displaying 
so much daring. Mrs. Pursely's determined resolve shamed the men 
and they went with her to the rescue of Higgins. When all were se- 
cure within the Fort it was found that Higgins was nearer dead than 
alive as the result of loss of blood and the shock of four bullets received 
in his body. Fortunately none of these were in vital parts and two 
were so superficial that they were soon cut down upon and removed. 
With careful nursing the patient finally made a fair recovery. How- 
ever, one of the two remaining bullets was making so much trouble 
that he resolved to have it out. Hearing of a doctor who was reputed 
to have some skill in surgery, he one morning mounted his horse 
and rode some distance to consult him. The surgeon wanted more 
for the operation than the patient felt able to pay and returning home 
he a little later took his. razor, cut down on the bullet and to use his 
own language "flirted it out with his finger". 

Tom Higgin's fight with the four Indians gave William Burgess, 
who it will be recalled was wounded in one of his ankles, opportunity to 
crawl through the tall grass and get inside the Fort. He later made 
a good recovery, settled on a farm not far distant from Hill's Fort, 
raised a family and lived to old age. Burgess Township, Bond County, 
(the place of my nativity) is named for him. One of my uncles mar- 
ried a daughter of William Burgess, the Indian Fighter and Ranger, 
and his blood trickles in the veins of a number of my cousins. 

Hill's Fort was the site of the first settlement in Bond County 
and this fact together with its other historic features caused the 
Daughters of the American Revolution to erect a suitable memorial 
on the spot some years since. 



65 

Realizing that William Burgess has his name perpetuated in the 
Township named for him and that the site of Hill's Fort has received 
a permanent memorial I naturally became interested in Tom Higgin's 
history subsequent to his remarkable fight with Indians. Governor 
Reynold's narrative states that he finally settled in Fayette County, 
was at one time Door Keeper of the House of Representatives, Van- 
dalia, then being the State Capital, and that at his death was buried 
there. To if possible discover the location of Higgin's grave I wrote 
to my cousin, (a des.cendent of Wm. Burgess) Edward L. Johnson 
of Vandalia, and asked him to if possible ascertain the location of 
Higgin's grave. After a careful investigation it was found that he 
was filling an unmarked grave on the Fayette County Farm (otherwise 
Poor) Farm. In plain English Higgins is today filling a pauper's grave. 

In getting together data for this paper I ran across a copy of 
Governor John Reynold's Pioneer History of lUinois published in 1S87 
and in this is a foot-note from the pen of the late Judge Joseph Gilles- 
pie of Edwardsville, a well known jurist and man of the strictest 
integrity. This foot-note is to the effect that Tom Higgins while a 
brave man was prone to exaggeration and hence much that he related 
had to be received with the classical "grain of salt". 

However, Governor Reynolds who like Higgins was a Ranger 
in the War of 1812, and met and knew him personally, gives credence 
to the whole story of the Hill's Fort encounter. Most likely if all the 
facts were known the truth would be found somewhere between Gover- 
nor Reynold's narrative and Judge Gillespie's strictures on the same. 
But in any event all who knew Higgins recognized his. bravery and 
faithful service as a Ranger and Indian Fighter, consequently the 
fact that his body lies in what is really a pauper's grave can be regarded 
in no light other than that of a burning shame. 



66 



THE ILLINOIS HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



[Theodore Calvin Pease.] 

Any discussion of the Illinois Historical Collections in a paper so 
short as this must be a more or less perfunctory one. The stand- 
ing of that series among students of American history both within and 
without the state is such that in this circle it needs no commendation. 
Begun by the Illinois State Historical Library with H. W. Beckwith 
as editor until his death in 1903, the series has been carried by my 
predecessor as editor, Professor C. W. Alvord, to fifteen volumes, 
recognized everywhere as models of historical editing. The main 
principle established by now for the series is as follows : that each 
volume shall consist of source material relating to one subject or 
period, with adequate footnotes and index, and with a brief histori- 
cal introduction explaining and summarizing the sources edited. On 
this principle it is to be supposed the series will continue. 

The volumes of the Collections so far issued, with the exception 
of the first, have been grouped in certain series. Of these seven are 
now represented by published volumes : the British Series, the Vir- 
ginia Series, the Executive Series, the Lincoln Series, the Bibliograph- 
ical Series, the Constitutional Series, and the Biographical Series. In 
most of these series our plans are laid for development by additional 
volumes in the course of the next few years. A brief summary of these 
future projects may be interesting. 

The British Series, edited by Professors Alvord and Carter, so 
far includes two volumes of materials relating to the British regime 
covering the subjects of politics, trade, local conditions, imperial or- 
ganization in the Illinois, from 1763 to 1768. A third volume of the 
series, entitled Trade and Politics 1768-1770, is now in press. The 
projected publication of two or three more volumes of the same ma- 
terial will round out the series, forming for the period 1763 to 1778 
an admirable collection of sources which will illustrate better than 
anything now in print the whole trend of British imperialism in the 
west. 

The Virginia Series, dealing with the period 1778-1790, now con- 
tains two volumes of the records of Kaskaskia and Cahokia, edited 
by Professor Alvord, and a volume of George Rogers Clark Papers, 
edited by Dean James A. James of Northwestern University. Definite 
plans have been formed to enlarge it by the publication of one or more 
additional volumes of the papers of George Rogers Clark and of Oliver 
Pollock, the financial agent of Virginia and of George Rogers Clark 
at New Orleans. One such volume of George Rogers Clark Papers 
edited by Dean James is almost ready for the press. There is little 



07 

doubt, however, that a great deal of additional material of interest on 
the Virginia regime in the Illinois Country is available. The Spanish 
plans and ambitions with respect to the country east of the Mississippi 
before 1789 have never been adequately worked out. We believe that 
with the transcripts from Spanish colonial archives now being accumu- 
lated in the collections of the Illinois Historical Survey, — transcripts 
which now number almost 40,000 pages, — we have material which may 
serve to furnish additional volumes illustrative of this side of Spanish 
colonial ambitions. The possible exploitation of similar material in 
the Canadian Archives or the British Public Record Office for British 
ambitions in the same period is a dimmer future prospect. 

The Executive Series contains two volumes of the letter books 
of the governors of Illinois from 1818 to 1852. Several volumes con- 
taining a reprint of all messages of the governors of the state will be 
added to this series as soon as the editorial office can find time for their 
publication. The material has been selected and all that is necessary 
is to edit the volumes and see them through the press. 

The Lincoln Series now contains one volume of Lincoln-Douglas 
Debates edited by President E. E. Sparks, probably one of the most 
popular volumes of the Collections. Within the next biennium this 
series will be extended by the publication of the diary of Orville H, 
Browning for the period of the civil war and reconstruction, the manu- 
script of which has just come into the possession of the Illinois State 
Llistorical Library. The diary, covering the period 1850-1880 reveals 
Browning in many aspects, — the lawyer, the whig politician, the sen- 
ator, the cabinet member, the friend of Lincoln. It is a mine of in- 
formation not only on political, but also on social and economic history. 

The Bibliographical Series, which now contains three volumes, 
bibliographies respectively of Illinois newspapers by Professor Frank 
Scott of the University of Illinois, of books of travel and description 
relating to Illinois, by Professor Buck now of the University of 
Minnesota, and of the material in the County Archives of the state 
by the present editor is capable of enlargement; indeed the volume 
of Travel and Description is but a part of a larger bibliography of the 
state projected by Professor Buck; but no immediate additions to it 
are contemplated. 

No further additions at present are contemplated in the Consti- 
tutional Series, brought out to assist the Constitutional Convention of 
1920-22 in its work. This series now contains two volumes, an anno- 
tated reprint of the Illinois constitutions edited by Mr. Verlie, and the 
Debates of the Constitutional Convention of 1847 by Professor Cole, 
now at the Ohio State University. 

Similarly, no addition is contemplated to the Biographical Series, 
which now contains only one volume, the reprint of Washburne's 
Memoir of Edward Coles. At first sight this volume might seem a 
departure from the policy of the Library to print only sources of the 
Collections, but in view of the fact that Washburne knew many of 
the participants in the Convention struggle of 1824, and that his work, 
though faulty and inaccurate, accordingly derives its main importance 
from being a source, and in view of the further fact that a large num- 



68 

ber of documents hitherto unpubHshed relating to Coles have been 
drawn into the volume, it will be seen that it is no departure from the 
established rule. 

The creation of two additional series by the publication of new 
volumes is contemplated at present. One of these, the Les^islative 
Series, in the preparation of which the Library is being assisted by 
the State Bar Association, will contain a reprint of all laws in force 
in the Illinois Country from the coming of the white man to 1818. 
There is now in press a reprint of the Laws of the Northwest Terri- 
tory from 1788 to 1800, during which period Illinois formed a part 
of the Territory. It will have introductions written by Mr. Zane of 
Chicago, and by the editor of the Collections. It will be followed by 
volumes reprinting the territorial laws of Indiana to 1809, ^-hen Illi- 
nois Territory was set off from it and the laws of Illinois Territory 
from 1809 to 1818. The series will be finally supplemented by a re- 
print of the French Law code in force in the Illinois. 

Another new series -in the Collections will be called the Statisti- 
cal Series. At present it is represented by a volume of state election 
returns for the period 1818-1848 edited by the editor of the Collections 
and now in press. Another volume projected in it is a publication of 
the election returns from 1848 to 1870 after which they are generally 
available in print. Still another is a reprint of the names of heads of 
families from the first state census. The interest of this to the stu- 
dent of genealogy, especially of the larger genealogy which from in- 
dividual instances summarizes migration routes, needs no comment. 
The launching of other new series have been discussed from time to 
time; series on state politics in the period 1818-1848; series on eco- 
nomic history. These projects, however, have not reached a stage of 
maturity at which they can be definitely announced. 

In the last seven years there has been a comparatively meagre 
output of volumes of the Collections. This has been due to the fact 
that the publication office has been engrossed first with the publication 
of the six-volume Centennial History and then with the publicat'on 
of six volumes on Illinois' share in the World war. With these pro- 
jects disposed of, or nearly disposed of, the editorial office is free to 
press on toward the realization of its ideal, — the covering of every 
period of the state's history with adequate source publications in the 
form of series and volumes of the Illinois Historical Collections. 




JAMES TALCOTT GIFFORD, 
FOUNDER OF ELGIN. ILLINOIS. 



69 



JAMES T. GIFFORD AND THE FOUNDING OF ELGIN, 

ILLINOIS. 

(From Original Manuscripts.) 
[Edited and annotated by his granddaughter, Stella Davidson Ainsworth.] 



In my possession are two manuscripts — time-stained to a deep 
brown color. One of them bears the date 1835 and the other 1850. 
Both are penned in the same fine hand. One is a letter to the writer's 
wife, left behind him in New York. The other contains notes for an 
address delivered in honor of the completion of the first forty-two 
miles of railroad built out of Chicago and opened as far as Elgin in 
1850. Both tell the same story. 

To one who has been reared among them, there is no more beau- 
tiful picture than that presented by the rolling prairies of northern 
Illinois. In the summer, patches of golden grain alternate with fields 
of corn and oak groves cast their shadows between. A dun pasture 
rises with the swelling slope of the next hill. Comfortable farm 
dwellings give a human element to the scene, while here and there 
a glimpse of bright water adds motion and a glad sense of abundance. 
In the midst of one such dimpled landscape, on the low bluffs that 
border Fox River lies Elgin, whose founder and whose founding are 
the subject of this sketch. 

James Talcott Gifford, son of Asa and Dinah Talcott Gifford, 
was born in Herkimer, New York, on January first, 1800 — an approp- 
riate birthday for a pioneer. His parents were of English stock, the 
first Americans on both sides having come to Massachusetts in the 
seventeenth century, moved to Connecticut in the early eighteenth and 
later to New York. They seem, most of them, to have been farmers, 
owning land and doing their small part in the formation and uphold- 
ing of local government. There were few professional men among 
them. 

Asa Gifford and Dinah Talcott were married in 1794 in Herkimer 
and lived in that town until 1811, when they moved to Sherburne, 
New York. Here their children were educated and reared. Just 
what the schools of that time were like in a small town, I cannot say. 
somewhere my grandfather achieved a direct and interesting style 
in English composition, a clerkly hand and fewer vagaries of spelling 
than are sometimes found in the letters of past generations. He 
learned surveying also. There is a family tradition that, as a sur- 
veyor, he visited some of the southern states before his marriage and 
formed a taste for southern house-planning, which the pillared and 
porticoed houses built by him later in Elgin seem to attest. 



James was one of a family of eleven children, of whom, at least 
eight lived to maturity, and made homes in Illinois. One sister, 
Louise, was the wife of Dr. Charles Volney Dyer, one time post 
surgeon at Fort Dearborn and remembered by old residents of Chi- 
cago for his wit and wisdom. 

In Sherburne, James Gifit'ord grew to manhood and left his name 
on the records of the place, as uniting with the Congregational Church, 
as a school-teacher and as a school-inspector. In 1823 he was mar- 
ried to Laura Raymond, daughter of Newcomb Raymond, a revolu- 
tionary soldier who gave an account of himself at the battle of York- 
town. This little lady brought to her Illinois home a daintiness and 
charm not usually associated with pioneer women. Two memories 
stand forth in my mind whenever her name is recalled. One is my 
amazement at the diminutive trunk into which she would pack the 
clothing of herself and her children when she returned to New York 
for a visit of a month or more. The other was her admission, in 
reply to my childish queries, that she was married in a "peach-blow 
crepe" gown, it was so delightfully unserviceable. Most of the wed- 
ding gowns of which I had heard were made of dark silk or merino, 
or of the conventional white book muslin easily refashioned into 
clothing for the next generation. But to have a grandmother mar- 
ried in "peach-blow crepe", and a grandfather who liked porticoes 
and drafty French windows, indicated a poetic inheritance which 
touched me as with an accolade. Indeed, I am convinced that the 
thought of this little pink bride of nearly a hundred years ago, gave 
to her husband a standard of beauty and of values which was never 
lowered. They lived first on a farm near Sherburne. But their horo- 
scope evidently included the Star of Empire, for, little by little, they 
moved westward, pausing for a few years at each place, the last one 
in New York being Dundee, whose name Mr. Gifford suggested. Then 
came the great adventure. 

With this unnecessarily long introduction, I will read you his own 
description of the journey and the founding and naming of Elgin. 
Illinois. In doing this, I have used the most interesting parts of both 
manuscripts, uniting them as well as I could. This may, however, 
cause some repetitions, which you will, I am sure, pardon. 

Notes of an Address Given by James T. Gifford In Elgin. Illinois 

January, 1850. 

Ladies and Gentlemen: 

Can I believe my eyes, can it be reality or is it by enchantment 
that the scene upon which I look is presented before me? It seems 
as if the wand of some mighty magician had been at work and con- 
jured up this array of intelligence and beauty and good feeling and 
refinement and this beautiful edifice too, and on this spot, where a 
few short years since, I wandered through a wilderness in search of a 
home. Short indeed seems the interval, and it is but little more than 
half a score of years since the native forest was standing over the 
ground around us, the stream ghded smoothly and uninterruptedly on 



to embrace the father of waters, the campfire of the Indian was smok- 
ing upon its bank, the poles of his wigwam with its covering of flag 
mats, his canoe with its accompanying tackle, the only human objects 
of construction which met the eye, where now the hum of the mill 
stone, the rattle of the power loom, the whistle of the steam car, the 
signal for the school boy, and the call of the worshiper with his songs, 
greet the ear while the eye of the passing traveller rests with delight 
on cultivated fields, comfortable abodes, houses of worship, halls for 
instruction, the artisan's workshop, the track of the railway and the 
guide posts of lightning. Heaven has strewed around us, my friends, 
a multiplicity of blessings which call loudly for a return from grate- 
ful hearts. 

Permit, Ladies and Gentlemen, as my theme is to be Elgin, to 
give you a relation of some of the reminiscences connected with the 
exploring for, the selection, and naming of the spot and I trust you 
will excuse and pardon what may appear to you as egotism in relating 
incidents in which myself was in a measure connected. In the fall 
of 1834 one of my brothers [Hezekiah Giftord] and myself made 
arrangements for a trip to the west for the purpose of selecting a 
spot for our future homes, — he with a view of getting a farm, and 
myself a hydraulic power. We left Central N. Y. about the 1st of 
February, 1835. with a span of horses and wagon, with some pro- 
visions, tools, etc., the usual outfit of the emigrant for commencing 
improvements in the West. The western El Dorado was at that time 
beginning to attract much attention; and many families were on the 
road even in mid-winter, when we started, but mostly destined for 
Michigan and Indiana. One family, a man, his wife and son, from 
Ontario County. X. Y., a Mr. Ingraham, joined company with us and 
we came through to Chicago together. No incident occurred on the 
journey worthy of note except in relation to traveling on the Sabbath. 
Most of those in company with us at the commencement of the 
journey plead that tliey could not afford to lay by. they must go on 
from necessity. We put up our teams until Monday. Before Thurs- 
day of each successive week, we passed all who left us on Sunday 
morning, and during the following Sabbath while we lay by, the 
Sunday driving teams passed us. but later in the day each succeeding 
Sunday, until the fourth when they didn't come up. The teams 
equally as good, and no heavier loaded, were more jaded and worn 
down than ours which rested every seventh day. This fact was ob- 
served and admitted by the Sunday drivers themselves. We arrived 
in Chicago early in March, after being weather bound two days on 
the beach under the high bluffs at the head of the lake, during one 
of those most severe northerlv blows when the surf and tumbling 
seas present a scene at once awful and grand. The same day of our 
arrival in Chicago we left the wagon and family, the three men start- 
ing on horseback along the Indian trail for the mouth of the Milwau- 
kie, taking with us some provisions, tools and blankets. We were 
informed at Chicago that there were white settlers along the route. 
and at Milwaukie. In this we were misinformed. !Many men had 
been down along the Lake during the previous fall from Indiana and 



72 

Michigan, had marked claims or laid up a small pen as a claim holder 
and gone back until Spring. One young man was holding a claim at 
Root River, now Racine, for Capt. Knapp, and a young man was also 
holding one in a small cabin at Milwaukie river for George Walker — 
no white family at either place. It was during this trip that we were 
first brought to the experience of pioneering. The whole country 
burned over by the Indians the previous fall ; no feed of any kind 
to be obtained for our horses except by cutting trees when we reached 
timber for browsing ; our provisions exhausted, and horses rapidly 
growing poor. The weather cold for encamping on the ground, we 
were earnestly urged by Mr. Ingraham to turn back to Chicago and 
go South to Yankee Settlement, where he had some acquaintances. 
We however persevered and reached Milwaukie river. 

My first object here was to get feed for our starving horses, 
for we had divided our last bread and pork with them. Procuring 
an Indian's small bark canoe I proceeded to cross the river now 
swollen and full of floating ice to the trading post on the north 
side, where I procured corn at $2.00 per bushel ; but endeavoring 
to get back with my corn, my canoe being light got wedged in 
among floating ice, so that I was very apprehensive of being car- 
ried down into the surf of the lake for a considerable time ; but 
after a good deal of efifort succeeded in reaching the south shore 
safely wdth the corn. 

Water power here being claimed and it not being an inviting 
place for farming, we concluded to strike west on to the waters of 
the Fox and traverse it down to the white settlements which we 
supposed extended as far north as the State line at least. The 
Indians by signs informed us w^e could reach Somokia Mow wig- 
wam in one day. Ingraham being desirous to return direct to 
Chicago, we agreed with him to take our horses with blankets and 
tools (so as to be as much as possible disencumbered) to Chicago, 
and leave them with our landlord there, while we prosecuted our 
explorations on foot to find the spot for the commencement of 
Elgin. For the name Elgin, Ladies and Gentlemen, I had selected 
before leaving N. Y., for whatever point I might pitch upon, pro- 
vided it had no name. I can hardly account to you for the par- 
tiality I had for the name, except it be from admiration of the 
tune bearing it, a tune which a celebrated critic pronounces "one 
of the sweetest of Scotia's Holy Lays." I had been a great admirer 
of that tune from boyhood and the name Elgin had ever fallen 
upon my ear with musical efifect. This name I had selected for 
a post office and village in N. Y. but finding a post office was 
established in that State of that name, I had substituted Dundee 
and kept Elgin in reserve for this. [Note: On ears accustomed 
to the sprightly airs of the present day, this "sweetest of Scotia's 
Holy Lays" falls as little less than a lugubious noise. And it is 
difficult to understand a nature to which it appears to have become 
an obsession. It is written in a minor key and has long disap- 
peared from modern hymn books, but to those familiar with the 
tune called Windham, it is enough to say that it is far worse. As 



73 

to the pronunciation of the name, it is evident that the "G" was 
given a soft sound at that time >vhen the name of the hymn was 
spoken. My grandfather was too far away from his British 
ancestry to preserve any tradition of the hard "G" and so the 
Scotch name Elgin became the Illinois town-name, Eljin.] 

After procuring some bread and pork of the Indian trader and 
getting the best directions we could from the Indians in relation 
to the trails to lead us to Fox river, we started taking with us a 
small pocket pistol with which to strike fire, and a light ax for 
cutting fuel. After much difficulty from the diverging or branch- 
ing off of trails, their running out, and the hunting up of new ones, 
we reached the Fox river in the vicinity of Rochester, we having 
for some distance followed down the Muskego. After following 
down the Fox a few miles on the east side, perceiving the ground 
to be better for traveling on the west side, we felt desirous of 
crossing, which we were aided in by two Indians, the first we had 
seen since leaving Milwaukie River. Each was in a canoe with a 
rifle and spear in each for taking fish and muskrats. They could 
understand no English and we no Potawatamee, but after making 
them understand by signs that we wished to cross the river, they 
each took one of us in his canoe and ferryed us across. The old 
man who landed me first refused the offer of a shilling I presented 
him, shook his head and repeated with vehemence "Somma, 
Somma." Supposing he thought the offer not enough, I presented 
his a quarter, which he also refused, and the young man running 
his canoe up alongside, they both joined in calling "Somma, 
Somma," which neither of us could understand, until at length the 
old man pulled a pipe out of his hair and motioning into the bo^l 
with his fingers made me understand it was tobacco they wanted. 
Three cents worth of tobacco, had we had it, would, I presume, 
have been more satisfactory to them than the three shillings we 
gave them. 

After relinquishing a selection on the Milwaukie, my mind 
settled upon making a selection on the Fox, as nearly as I could 
ascertain on the direct line between Chicago and Galena, under an 
impression that at same future day an important thoroughfare 
must exist between those two places. That point it was difficult 
to determine in the then unsurveyed state of the country. After 
bidding goodby to our Indian ferrymen, (for it seemed grateful 
to our feelings to see a human face even of another race, after 
wandering two days and scarcely seeing a living thing except 
birds), we waded through the outlet of Geneva Lake and encamped 
near the present site of Burlington. 

[Note: Here I will turn to the letter of 1835, which de- 
scribes in greater detail the following experiences.] : 

Proceeding a few miles down the west side we came to a very 
beautiful stream coming in from the west which we concluded to 
be Pitstaca from the map. This we forded and found about its 
movith one of the most attracting spots we had seen in Wisconsin. 
Here had been an Indian village, many mounds and places where 



74 

they had buryed corn. Near this spot by a pretty Httle brook we 
encamped for the night, if encamping it could be called to kindle 
up a fire and lie down by it in the open air without blankets. I 
never relished food better than our slice of broiled pork and piece 
of bread. We rested, however, well and were unconscious of the 
presence of any inhabitants of terra firma except a prairie wolf 
who came near and barked at our fire. We began to be suspicious 
that we were still a distance from white settlements and our 
supply of provisions being small, put ourselves upon allowance, 
the whole being not more than sufficient for a meal, parceling it 
so as to allow each a little, till the next night, by which time wc 
thought certainly -w^e might reach settlements. The next day after 
leaving the Indian mounds a few miles, we began to get among 
marshes and lakes, some of them extending miles into the country 
east and west of the river, which made our route very circuitous. 
Many marshes we crossed, wading through them for miles, where 
doubtless human feet never had trod. Some streams we had to 
ford in the marshes, there being no materials for building a raft, 
in one instance stripping off all our clothes and carrying them over 
our shoulders. The make of the country rendering it very im- 
probable that we should reach settlers that day, we still more shortened 
our allowance the latter part of the day, to have a little left for the 
next morning, taking each a bit of bread about the size of a 
cracker. The river the latter part of this day itself expanded into 
lakes, in several places of some miles in extent, interspersed with 
islands covered with timber. About sunset we saw evidence of 
barbarish among the Indians, which I did not expect to see east 
of the Mississippi. Noticing some little pens near the river laid 
up of split logs, about four feet by six, we supposed persons had 
been there and made claims, but turning up one of the puncheons 
by which they were covered, we found they contained each a full 
grown Indian corpse, placed in a sitting posture, wrapped in a 
blanket, and the flesh nearly rotted off the bones. This was to 
us an evidence that we were still at a distance from settlers and 
our prospects were this night rather gloomy. Near sunset we 
seemed to have passed the lakes and marshes principally, the river 
being confined within handsome dry banks. We rose upon an 
elevated, extensive prairie. Seeing a grove ahead apparently about 
two miles we laid our course for it, in order to encamp in it. We 
found, owing to the deception of distance on the prairie, we had 
underrated it, as we had to travel considerably in the evening and 
at least five miles to reach it. This evening a storm appeared to 
be gathering and as we Avere cutting wood for our fire, it com- 
menced raining, which continued a great portion of the night ac- 
companied at intervals with much thunder and lightning. This 
night Hezekiah, who had uniformly encountered hardships and 
privations with resolution, appeared rather disheartened, the un- 
certainty of reaching settlers soon, out of provisions, no arms but 
pocket pistols, and no apparatus for taking fish, he began to regret 
we did not return to Chicago from Somokia. "Ah !" said he, as 



75 

we laid down on the wet ground, for we were very much tired, "if 
our wives knew where we are tonig-ht, they would not sleep 
much!" I told him we were under the care of the same kind 
Providence with them, in whom we should trust and I felt con- 
fident we should be provided for. I was confident from the 
geography of the country and the distance we had passed, that we 
must have crossed the Wisconsin line, and if in Illinois, I knew 
we must reach settlements the next day. I did not for a moment 
regret taking that route. The following morning was clear and 
pleasant. We found our pistol in the hurry of gathering our stufT 
in the dark and making fire was burned up except the irons and 
was of no further use to us. As we took the last of our scanty 
allowance, sitting on the bank of a little brook, I observed a tear 
standing in brother H's eye. "Oh," said I, "Hezekiah, I can travel 
yet a fortnight and live on oak buds and frogs." We traveled fast, 
as we had done all the time since leaving our horses, at least I 
think, forty miles per day. About noon we discovered something 
white a distance before us, near the bank of the river, which ap- 
peared to be in motion. A sensation was felt by each of us, I 
presume similar to that of a shipwrecked mariner floating in the 
ocean on a plank, on discovering the first glimpse of a sail. It was 
some time before we could satisfy ourselves what it was. Our 
step, as it were, unconsciously quickening, and our eyes intently 
fixed upon the object, we tripped over the smooth prairie, until 
at length we discovered it to be a man, swinging a maul, splitting 
rails. If ever a wanderer on the deserts of Africa, on finding water, 
or a lost seaman on discovering a light house, felt joy, we felt it 
at this moment. It was truly cheering to us to again meet a white 
man and one who could speak English. Archy conducted us up a 
ravine to the house of his employer, a Mr. Gilleland, who removed 
to this place last fall from Virginia and is now the highest settler 
on the Fox. [Note: This was near the present site of Algonquin.] 
We stayed until the next day and were treated with true Virginia 
hospitality. At Mr. Gilleland's we saw the first white woman after 
leaving Chicago. It was truly grateful to us to again experience 
the sympathetic kindness of woman. What then would have been 
our feelings, could we have here met our own dear wives? We 
came down to this place fourteen miles south of Mr. Gilleland's 
Friday, April 3rd. Hezekiah has gone down to meet Mr. Ingra- 
ham and as we are very well pleased with this vicinity, I have been 
exploring and surveying since, making it my home where I now 
am, at Mr. Welches. I made examination on each side of the river 
between Little Woods and Tyler's Creek, being pleased wnth the 
many springs and brooks in the vicinity and the beautiful banks of 
the river. I have made selections on the river, about four miles 
north of here, thirty-two miles from Chicago, and nearly in a 
direct Jine from that place to Galena. A bill has passed the Legis- 
lature to survey a state road between those two places. 

[Note: Whether by State Authority or not, Mr. GifTord made, 
in 1835 or 1836, the first survev across northern Illinois and laid out 



76 

a road, which upon his personal petition in Washington, was adopted 
by the government as the post road between Chicago and Galena. It 
is needless to add that it passed through Elgin. 

Mr. William W. Welch, to whom reference is made in the letter, 
lived in what is now the township of St. Charles, three and one-half 
miles below Elgin township. He stated to an Elgin newspaper in 
1883 that, after James Gififord and his brother had surveyed and 
staked out their claims, he sent his sons with three 3'oke of oxen and 
a plow to the site of the new town, on Monday, April 6 ; and a furrow 
was made around what is now known as James T. Gifford's first plat 
of Elgin. They plowed a square rod or more of the land which be- 
came his homestead, split a few rails, built a pen and sowed a little 
grain in the enclosure to enable the Giffords to hold their claims. 
After these preliminaries, the land was purchased from the govern- 
ment for $1.25 an acre.] — The letter continues: 

Chicago, April nth, iS^j. 

We came to this place yesterday to get our horses and wagon, 
procure tools, provisions, etc. Every article in the provision list is 
now very expensive here, corn $1.00 per bushel, flour $7.00 per barrel, 
potatoes $1.50 but not now to be purchased, butter 25, eggs 16 doz. 
Grain flour will be much lower in a few days, as soon as vessels arrive. 
Merchandize, such as tea, sugar, cotton goods, etc., are sold about 
as reasonably as in N. Y. — Hezekiah and myself have located on the 
river, have a tolerable supply of timber, some good springs of water 
and plenty of good prairie. We have also some fine land of the kind 
called Burr Oak Openings, the soil of which I think much of. We 
have selected land lying in considerable swells, such as would be called 
in this country broken, as I like to see something like hills. I have 
on my claim the best place for water power which I have found on the 
river from its source to some distance below this. I have made a 
claim adjoining mine for brother Augustine, [Augustine Raymond] 
which I shall endeavor to keep, and he may get a good prairie adjoin- 
ing, a mile square if he chooses. There would here be a fine place 
to open a small store of goods and some mechanics are needed especial- 
ly a blacksmith. Settlers are rapidly coming in and all business is 
done in cash. The nearest store and blacksmith is fifteen miles. 
Whatever is done must be done soon, in order to concentrate business. 
I have heard nothing from you yet, since I left Dundee. Looked for 
a letter with anxiety when I came in town. You must continue to 
direct communications to Chicago for us. I am on the whole as well 
pleased with the country as I anticipated. There is generally a want 
of timber and for from 12 to 15 miles west of this place, the country 
is too level and too much of it wet. From that to the Fox, the land 
appears to be good, the surface rolling, and well watered. And for 
a prairie country supplied with timber to support considerable popu- 
lation. The Fox is the finest stream I ever saw, it has uniformly in 
this State a limestone bottom, its current uniform and gentle, its-waters 
pure, and is abundantly supplied with fine fish. We have selected for 
sites to build upon, an elevation of from thirty to forty feet above the 
river and from thirty to forty rods from it, a grove lying between. 







C, •,■--/ 






•".^ \ 



>'';5>» 



> 






V 







>^ *i - 



y.xM. r 



i I I 



ELGIN, ILLIXOIS IN 1S36. HtJME OF JAMES T. GIFFORD. 



77 

[Note: This ends that portion of the letter which has been pre- 
served. The address concludes with a loftier flight. As it is this 
conclusion, however, which connects these notes with the occasion 
for which they were prepared, it would be unfair to omit it. After a 
somewhat facetious peroration, the Muse flaps her wings in the fol- 
lowing stanzas :] 

The lovely fair lawns which are spread in the West, 

With their rich fertile soil drew me forth from the East, 

To culture and till them and here make a home, 

Midst the pure running fountains and prairies that bloom. 

But soon the abundance my fields brought to hand, 

So soft were the roads o'er the rich mucky land, 

I could not transport to the city for sale, 

But half was consumed at the end of the tale. 

As I pondered with grief on the prospect so drear. 

The sound of a whistle first fell on my ear. 

Then soon there came puffing and rumbling along, 

The car of the steam horse with sinews so strong. 

He could draw in his train as he runs on his track, 

A hundred team loads with some more on his back. 

Then welcome the steam horse with sinews so strong, 

The fruits of our soil he will now move along. 

Our horses now free from the mud dragging toil, 

We will keep on the fallow and till well the soil. 

And when we have leisure the city to greet. 

We will step on the cars with our ladies so sweet. 

And free from our dread of the mud and the slough. 

Believing the rail car will carry us through ; 

Then welcome the steam horse with sinews so strong, 

The fruits of our fields he will now move along. 

May the strong hand of Union, the car's iron rail, 

Which binds Garden City with lovely Fox vale, 

Soon stretch on through beautiful Belvidere's plain 

And o'er Rockford's clear stream. 

Till at Freeport the train. 

Shall be seen moving westward over ravine and rills, 

To Galena the mart of the Mineral hills. 

Then welcome the steam horse with sinews so strong. 

That all our produce it can now move along. 

Note in Conclusion. 

James Talcott Gifford died on August 10, 1850, about seven 
months after this address was delivered. The last fifteen years of his 
life were crowded ones. First came the building of his log cabin, 
that he might welcome his family to Elgin before the end of 1835. 
This cabin was a useful building. It was the first Church, the first 
Schoolhouse, the first postoffice and the first Court of Justice in the 
town — a Community Center indeed, and all the members of the family 
participated in its activities. 



78 

There were six children who Hved in the West, three daughters 
and three sons. The second daughter and an infant son died in 1848, 
during a brief sojourn of the family at Grafton, Wisconsin. 

Mr. Gifford seems to have brought an almost twentieth century 
zeal to his task of City planning. Not only were a School and a 
Church established almost simultaneously with the first two homes, 
but in the original plat lots were set aside for Churches of all denomi- 
nations, including the Roman Catholic, for schools, for a cemetery 
and for other public use. 

After surveying the post road between Chicago and Galena and 
securing a postoffice for Elgin, Mr. Gifford became the first Post- 
master of the place. He was one of the first ^Magistrates, a Justice 
of the Peace and a Deputy Marshal of the State. An interesting 
letter is preserved which was written in 1841 from Springfield, whither 
Mr. Gifford had gone to make his report to the Alarshal. In it his 
impressions of the Capital and of the State-house are given. A ref- 
erence also is made to the railroad then existing between Jacksonville 
and Meredosia. In addition to the duties of these various offices, my 
Grandfather broke and tilled his farm adjoining the town. But it was 
as a promoter that the great enthusiasm of his nature expended itself. 
First all his brothers and sisters, his brothers-in-law and his sisters- 
in-law, his friends and his acquaintances were urged and generally 
persuaded to come to Elgin and be blessed. Then the waterpower 
was developed, a flour mill, a saw mill, and a woolen mill were built. 
He, too, had a vision of the great opportunity which Illinois offered 
to improved agricultural implements. His inventive ingenuity co- 
quetted with the steel plow and the embryo reaper and harvester — 
little dreaming that while their glory was to belong to other Illinois 
towns, watches and butter should be the products that would make 
Elgin famous. As years passed he built two new homes for his 
family. In the last of these, built of cobble stones laid in mortar, 
Mr. Gifford died, the victim of a sporadic case of Asiatic cholera. 
He was but fifty years old, yet his had been that rare experience 
of participating not only in the vision, but also in the fruition of 
his promised land. 




MORAVIAN CHURCH, 

W^est Salem. 111. 



79 



THE MORAVIAN SETTLEMENT IN ILLINOIS. 

[By The Rev. Albert P. Haupert, Pastor of the Moravian Church, West Salem, 

Illinois.] 



(An address delivered by the Rev. Albert P. Haupert, of West 
Salem, Illinois, before the Illinois State Historical Society, in the Sen- 
ate Chamber of the State Capitol at Springfield, May 5, 1923. 

MORAVIANISM A WORLD StREAM OF INFLUENCE. 

Standing on the mountain-top of the present and looking back up- 
on the last five centuries of the world's history, I see a veritable maze 
of streams of influences flowing hither and thither, all of them help- 
ing to make the present what it is. One stream especially do I notice, 
with its fountain-head beyond the sea, in distant Bohemia and Mo- 
ravia, a river long, deep, clear and steady in its onward movement, at 
firs.t westward, and then, in the lapse of time, to all the continents of 
the earth and to many islands of the sea. A branch of this stream, 
in God's wise and loving Providence, found its way to the state of 
Illinois, and that at a time when its life-giving waters were most need- 
ed, namely in the early days of the pioneer and settler. Among the 
people that speak the English tongue this s.tream is known as The 
Moravian Church, a name indeed not chosen by the so-called "Mo- 
ravians" themselves, but a name that seems to have clung to this organi- 
zation ever since it began to unfold its activity in England, the British 
Parliament recognizing the same as an Ancient Protestant Episcopal 
Church by a special act in 1749. Not to cast upon them the stigma of 
provincialism did the English people call them Moravians, but in the 
most honorable recognition of the fact, that in the human race's great 
modern struggle for religious liberty, the valiant men of Moravia and 
Bohemia were among the first to suffer and die. The name chosen by 
the Moravians themselves from the very beginning, and the name by 
which they are still known in other languages than English, is "The 
Unity of the Brethern," or in Latin "Unitas Fratrum," or more briefly, 
"The Brethern's Church." 

Organized by Followers of John Hus. 

To appreciate fully the real significance of the coming of the 
Moravians to Illinois, it is necessary to have at least some acquaintance 
with the history, character, spirit and aims of the Moravian Church 
in general. This body of evangelical Christians was organized in Bo- 
hemia in 1457, therefore 465 years ago. With the possible exception 



80 

of the Waldensian Church, the Moravian is the oldest Protestant 
Church in the world, antedating the Lutheran Reformation in Ger- 
many by just sixty years, and the Established Church of England 
by an entire century. The organization was effected by followers of 
John Hus, who was burned at the stake in 1415, at Constance. Dur- 
ing all these years Hus has remained the national hero of the Bohemian 
people, and to-day he is more alive than ever. The citizens of the 
recently establis.hd Czecho-Slovakian Republic have again lighted the 
torch of civil and religious freedom at the hearth of John Hus, the 
fearless preacher of the Bethlehem Chapel in Prague and the honored 
head of the University of Prague, at that time the world's largest and 
most famous institution of learning. The Moravian Church was born 
in a land that was at the time the educational and religious storm- 
center of the world, and at a time when printing had just been in- 
vented. It is interesting to note, that from 1505 to 1510. of the sixty 
printed works that appeared in Bohemia, no less than fifty came from 
the press of the Moravian Church. The movement soon spread to the 
neighboring province of Moravia and to adjoining parts of central 
Europe. It is a historical fact not popularly known, that at the time 
of the Reformation in Germany. 1517, there existed a Protestant 
Church in Bohemia and Moravia numbering no less than 200,000 mem- 
bers, in 400 parishes, using hymnbooks (first edition, 1501) and cate- 
chisms of its own. employing printing presses and scattering Bohemian 
Bibles broadcast through the land. 

Early Struggle for Religious Liberty. 

The spirit of religious intolerance which bound John Hus to the 
stake in 1415 was still in the saddle in Bohemia and Moravia. In the 
years between 14G1 and 1547. no less than four different seasons of the 
most crviel persecutions broke out against the Brethern. as the Mora- 
vians were then called. They were compelled to hold their services 
and synods at night, in dense solitudes and around fires under the starry 
canopy of heaven. They were tortured on the rack, burned at the 
stake, beheaded on the scaffold. In the museums of Bohemia the 
American traveler can still see the instruments of torture and death, 
the mute yet unimpeachable witnesses to what the Brethern once suf- 
fered to establish that very religious liberty that we are now enjoying 
here in Illinois. 

CoMENius A Bright Star in a Dark Night. 

In the early part of the Thirty Years' War. 1618-1648, the Aus- 
trian Emperor, Ferdinand II, inaugurated the so-called Bohemian Anti- 
Reformation, with the avowed purpose of crushing the Brethern's 
Church in Bohemia and Moravia. This was accomplished, so that for 
years only a "hidden seed" of the Brethern was left in these lands. 
In this dark night of "hope deferred," a bright star shone through the 
gloom, and that was. John Amos Comenius (Komenski), the last 
Bishop of the so-called Ancient Brethern's Church, who is better known 



81 

to the world as the great educational reformer. He was born in 1593, 
and it was he, perhaps more than any other man, who as a teacher 
and school-man, anticipated so many of our now firmly established prin- 
ciples of education. Every child in the world should know that it was 
this Bishop of the Moravian Church who published the "Orbis Pictus," 
the first school-book with illustrations. It remains to this day Amer- 
ica's deep regret, that Comenius declined the call to the presidency 
of its oldest school for higher education, Harvard College, tendered 
him by its trustees. In prophetic anticipation, that the mission of the 
Brethern's Church was not yet fulfilled and that it would be renewed 
in due time, Comenius republished its history, confession of faith and 
discipline, and commended its members to the Church of England. 

MORAVIANISM AND THE HeATHEN WoRLD. 

The hopes and prayers of Comenius and the other faithful breth- 
ren were not put to shame. In the year 1722, the Brethren began to 
leave Moravia and Bohemia to find a place of refuge in Saxony, just 
across the Bohemian border, on the estate of Count Zinzendorf. 
Herrnhut, as the new settlement was named, flourished and was des- 
tined to play an important role in the religious life of the world. Thus 
the Ancient Brethren's Church was renewed. Ten years, later, in 1732, 
this new settlement sent out its first messengers to the heathen, the first 
to the Negro slaves of the West Indian Islands ; less than a year later, 
three missionaries were also sent to Greenland. During the 190 years 
that have followed, the Renewed Moravian Church has felt it as its 
special call to minister to the less favored heathen peoples, dwelling in 
the extremes of climate, and to those standing lowest in the scale of hu- 
man advancement. Men and women, on whom the mantle of Hus, Co- 
menius and Zinzendorf, has fallen, have gone forth to the Eskimos of 
Greenland, Labrador, and Alaska, to the Indians of the United States, 
Canada, and Nicaragua, to the Negroes of the West Indies, Nicaragua, 
and British and Dutch Guiana, to the East India Kulis in Guiana, to the 
Hottentos and Kaffirs of South Africa, to the Negro tribes in East Cen- 
tral Africa, to the lepers of Jerusalem and Dutch Guiana, to the Lada- 
kans in the Himalayas, at the very door of Tibet, and to the Papuans 
of Australia. The membership in the home provinces, i. e.. Great 
Britain, Germany, and North America, is not quite 50,000 ; in the for- 
eign mission provinces, more than 100,000. For nearly two centuries 
the Lord has used the small, unpretentious Moravian Church to call 
the followers of Christ in all denominations to the task uppermost 
in the mind of our divine Lord and Master, the evangelization of the 
entire world, to which call they have given a most generous response. 

MORAVIANISM AND METHODISM. 

The influence of the Moravian Church along educational, mission- 
ary, and spiritual lines has been altogether out of proportion to its 
numerical and material strength. It was. the purpose of Zinzendorf 
to make of it a society among and in the other churches for the pro- 



82 

motion of Christian life and ideals rather than a separate and inde- 
pendent Church, bending all of its energy to the mere propagation of 
its own organization. This is abundantly evidenced by the fact that 
the overwhelming majority of students in Moravian schools for higher 
education, both young men and women, are not the children of Mora- 
vins. On the European continent no less than 70,000 people (Diaspora) 
are spiritual adherents of the Moravian Church and are ministered unto 
spiritually by Moravian pastors, who nevertheless remain nominally 
members of the established Churches. In England it was the deep, 
quiet, quickening power of the Moravian Brethren, more than anything 
else, that caused the Methodist Church to spring into life, which great 
spiritual revival again may have done more than anything else to stave 
ot¥ from the English people the horrors, of the French Revolution. 
The diary of John Wesley, in repeated references, makes it very plain 
that he and his brother Charles, attribute their conversion under God 
to the Moravian Brethren, especially to the Moravian Bishop Peter 
Boehler. 

Old Salem and New Salem. 

When Illinois was admitted into the Union as a state in 1818, very 
•,few, if any white people, had settled in the northern part of Edwards 
County, or in the present village of West Salem. The more southern 
part of the county around Albion, the present county seat, dates its 
settlement by people from England back to 1818. The earliest of the 
Moravian settlers, Adam Hedrick, made his land entry on August 25, 
1830. Peter Hinkle followed on May 30, 1831. After that, for per- 
haps twenty years, there was a steady stream of settlers, establishing 
homes in or near West Salem. Most of these, like Hedrick and Hinkle, 
were Moravians, reared in or near the old Moravian settlement of 
Salem, North Carolina. Consequently they were not for a moment 
in doubt as to what the name of the new settlements in Illinois should 
be. Did they not come from old Salem ? Did they not come to build 
a new Salem? That must therefore be the name. And this remained 
the name of the new settlement until 1851, when it was discovered 
that Illinois was blessed with at least two New Salems. In deference to 
the New Salem on. the Sangamon River, made famous as the home 
for a few years of Abraham Lincoln, our greatest citizen, the other 
New Salem consented to change its name slightly and henceforth be 
known as West Salem. The present West Salem is a village of one 
thousand inhabitants, situated on the Mattoon and Evansville Division 
of the Illinois Central Railroad, about halfway between these points 
and about 15 miles from the Indiana boundary. It is a neat, well-kept, 
community-spirited town. In nearly every respect it is above the 
average of towns of this size. 



'fc)^ 



Organization and Church Building. 

Not to escape the religious and community spirit of old Salem in 
the Southland, did these sturdy men and women take the pilgrim's, 
stafif in hand, but rather to carry that spirit farther out into the wilds 



S3 

of the western country beyond. It does not surprise us therefore, 
that as soon as they had settled in sufficient numbers, they began to 
gather in their rude homes or barns or schoolhouses to worship God. 
We do not think it strange, that they should desire to unite in formal 
organization for the promotion of the educational, social, moral, and 
spiritual welfare of the community that was springing into life around 
them, and to build in the primeval forest a house for public worship. 
This desire was realized on Saturday, May 25, 1844, when a company 
of people left their homes and their daily work to gather in Peter 
Hinkle's barn, less, than a mile northeast of the present village. Here 
on the day named, the Moravian Church of West Salem was formally 
organized as the first church of the community by the Rev. Martin 
Houser, who had come on a visit from Hope, Indiana, to minister to 
the spiritual needs of the people. A "Brotherly Agreement" was 
adopted, which document is still preserved in the archives of the 
congregation, written in the beautiful and clear hand of Houser. Af- 
fixed to the same are the signatures of the heads of families, twenty- 
one in number, the charter members. During the Summer of the same 
year steps were taken to erect a "meeting house," the first church 
edifice of the local Moravian Church, and of the entire community. A 
subscription amounting to $137 was raised by the members and other 
friends. A job to frame, cover, weatherboard and put in windows 
and doors was given to Jacob Kramer, Esqr." (Houser in Church 
Diary.) The building was. dedicated May 31, 1846, on the occasion 
of Houser's third visit to West Salem. During the time that the 
newly organized church was served as a filial of the church at Hope, 
services were held under the supervision of a "Committee," until Aug- 
ust 5, 1847, when Houser moved to West Salem with his family, becom- 
ing the settled pastor there. Immediate steps, were taken to build 
a parsonage. Regular services were maintained, and a Sunday school, 
the first of the community was organized, which for some years held 
sessions only during the Summer months. The congregation grew 
in numbers and influence. At the close of 1849, in less than five 
years, the communicant members numbered 103. Besides ministering 
to the people of West Salem and immediate vicinity, Houser soon 
unfolded a wonderful preaching activity within a radius of perhaps 
15 miles around West Salem, extending his efforts as far as Albion, 
Mt. Carmel and Olney. In view of the fact that Houser was the 
founder not only of West Salem, but also of Hope, Indiana, doing 
valuable work along various lines in the early days of both com- 
munities, he richly deserves more extended mention. 

Martin Houser. 

The Rev. Martin Houser was born in Forsyth County, North 
Carolina, on September 23, 1799. He was an infant of only three 
months when George Washington passed away at beautiful Mt. Ver- 
non. He instinctively possessed gifts of leadership, and yet he had 
a heart and mind finely tempered with the one master-desire to serve 
humbly his divine Lord and Master. He came from the common 
people, was democrratic in his tastes and lived close to the hearts of 



84 

the people — a man sharing the plenty and the scarcity, the joys and 
the sorrows of the plain, rugged pioneer; rejoicing and weeping with 
the hard-working settler — a man whom we in spirit still see standing in 
grove, home, barn and sanctuafy, holding up a crucified and risen 
Lord and Saviour to a sin-sick and struggling world. In 1830 he led 
a company of Moravian settlers from Salem, North Carolina, to Hope, 
Indiana, where he established the Moravian Church in that year, and 
where he labored more than sixteen years in laying the foundations 
of that new community. His first pastorate in West Salem lasted from 
1844 to 1851. During these years he acted as "attorney in fact" for 
the Rev. Charles F. Kluge, head of the Provincial Elders' Conference 
of the Southern Moravian Church, who held the titles to the land 
on which West Salem was to be built. For this body Houser entered 
the first 80 acres of this land at Palestine, Illinois, in the month of 
May, 1845, and platted the town in 1846. For this special work he 
secured the services of the county surveyor, Thomas R. Bircket, "for 
which he charged $10 ; the neighbors assisting as chain-carriers and 
axmen gratuitously." Houser also rendered valuable and commend- 
able services in keeping the records of the congregation most carefully 
and in a clear, fine hand. Especially is the diary of the congregation 
a valuable storehouse of historical information concerning the com- 
munity in which he lived and labored. This record work has been 
continued by Houser's successors for 78 years in all, so that few 
local churches are so abundantly blessed with so large a body of 
records, that will become still more valuable as time passes. A second 
pastorate followed in the English Moravian Church of West Salem 
from 1857 to 1861, after which he permanently retired from active 
service, taking up his residence again at Hope, Indiana, where he 
passed away on October 25, 1875. His body was brought to West 
Salem and laid to rest at the main entrance of the Moravian Ceme- 
tery, where his first wife, Susanna, maiden name Chitty, was already 
resting from her earthly labors — a place carefully reserved for this 
purpose by the Trustees of the congregation. Here at this spot the 
Houser Memorial Arch, as the main entrance to the Moravian Ceme- 
tery, was erected, being dedicated with appropriate services on Sunday, 
May 25, 1919, to the day just 75 years after Houser had founded the 
congregation. This tribute to the memory of the founder of West 
Salem and of the local Moravian Church was erected by his forty sur- 
viving grandchildren and presented to the Moravian Cemetery. 

Two Streams With a Language Island Between. 

In the early years the English language prevailed in the Moravian 
Church of West Salem. Late in the forties, however, a strong tide of 
immigration to West Salem began to set in from Germany. On July 
20, 1849, a company of no less than 40 souls arrived at West Salem 
from Gersdorf, Saxony. Houses were indeed at a premium in those 
stirring days. Houser's entry in the diary for September 13, 1849, 
throws interesting light on the housing problem namely : "Bro. I. G. 
Voigt moved to New Salem, in Fred Voigt's smokehouse." There was 



85 

gathering in Edwards County a very unique people ; the EngHshman 
in the southern part, the North CaroHnian and the Saxon in the north- 
ern part, with a thin sprinkhng of other people among these. After all 
race amalgamations have taken place, we may yet find a new, highly 
improved Anglo-Saxon race right here in Edwards County, Illinois. 
But with the honest, thrifty, hard-working Saxon also came a delicate 
language question, for the Saxon spoke German, and he loved to speak 
German, and wanted the Gospel preached in German. To fulfill all 
righteousness for both tongues, that now clamored for due recognition 
in West Salem, for nearly ten years the congregation was organized in- 
to two divisions, the English and the German, each with its minister 
and officers, but both using the same church edifice, cemetery, etc. 
Houser ministered to the English and the Rev. Herman Tietze to the 
German division. This after all proved to be only a temporary compro- 
mise. As this arrangement in the end failed to be satisfactory to 
either party, at times provoking friction, it was mutually agreed upon 
in 1858 to re-organize by establishing two independent Moravian con- 
gregations, one the English Moravian Church and the other the Ger- 
man Moravian Church, this plan also necessitating a division of the 
property. The German Church was to retain the old church and par- 
sonage ; the English Church was to erect a new house of worship on 
the public square. Church Street was to be the dividing line in the 
allotment of the land, the German Church retaining what was to the 
north of this street. Even a new cemetery was laid out for the use 
of the German Church. It was indeed a unique situation, that in a 
village, at the time of the separation of only 200 people, two full- 
fledged, self-supporting churches of the same denomination should 
exist for 57 years. However, it was clearly foreseen that the language 
question would in due time pass away and that some day these two 
streams would again unite to flow onward in the same channel, as 
during the first fourteen years. This gratifying consummation came 
on June 13, 1915, when previous action of both congregations in favor 
of organic union, went into practical effect. Thus the former Eng- 
lish or First Moravian Church and the former German or Second 
Moravian Church have again become simply the Moravian Church 
of West Salem. 

Early Efforts in Higher Education. 

For centuries it has been the established policy of the Moravians 
to be thoroughly evangelistic, recognizing the Gospel of Christ as a 
regenerative force in the life of the individual. At the same time, 
the value of all true cultural agencies have also been truly emphasized, 
both among so-called Christian and heathen peoples. A well rounded- 
out development of heart, mind and soul, is the Moravian ideal for 
the individual Christian. The entire neighborhood thoroughly per- 
meated by a Christian life of this mold, is the ideal for the community. 
This is often not a popular kind of religion. As early as 13 years 
after the organization of the Moravian Church at West Salem, an 
undertaking in the direction of higher education was launched. It 



86 

is true, that three "district" schools already existed, two of these in 
the village and the third a mile southeast of the village. These three 
schools at this time scarcely attempted anything beyond elementarv 
work. The need for more advanced school facilities began to be felt, 
even in this early stage of the community's development. The Diary 
contains the following interesting entry for Monday, December 8, 1856 : 
"To-day the West Salem High School commenced. Bro. Tietze be- 
gan with the boys at 8 A. M., and I (Bro. Eberman) with the girls 
at 2 P. M. There were 7 boys and 7 girls. The branches which we 
teach the pupils are : Arithmetic, History, Geography, Reading, Writ- 
ing, Grammar, Orthography, Composition, Bible Instruction, and Sing- 
ing. The boys have three hours school every morning and the girls 
two hours every afternoon. The school is kept five days in the week. 
Bro. Tietze and I intend keeping it for three months and aid it for the 
purpose of starting the school." This school w^as begun in two rooms 
in a large brick building on the south side of the public square, and 
was later used as the parsonage of the English Church. The two 
Moravian pastors, the Rev. John H. Eberman and the Rev. Herman 
Tietze, volunteered to act as the first teachers in West Salem's first 
high school undertaking. The sons of members were to pay $2.50 
tuition, the daughters, $2.00 ; the sons of "strangers," $5.00, the daugh- 
ters, $4.00. Although humble in its pretentions, and though not suc- 
cessful at the time, this school nevertheless is the distinguished pre- 
cursor of the present Community High School of West Salem, sup- 
ported by public taxation. In 1856 the time was not yet ripe for such 
an undertaking. Most of the early settlers of the forest were still 
poverty stricken. Another thing that militated against the success 
of the venture was the fact that the separation of the congregation 
into two church organizations followed two years later, which w^as 
not an opportune time for the school to flourish. The project failed 
after a few years ; but there is more glory in some failures than 
in some successes. 

Early Temperance Reform. 

West Salem, be it said to her credit, has never in all her days 
tolerated the licensed saloon. And to her good example it must 
largely be attributed, that Edwards County has for nearly a gen- 
eration not tolerated a saloon, no doubt one of the earliest, if not 
the earliest county in the state to go "dry." Here again the 
Moravian settlers were prophets of better things to come in our 
land. More than three-quarters of a century ago their position on 
this question was far in advance of the sentiment generally pre- 
vailing at that time, when liquor was sold in Illinois over the 
counter of the dry-goods store, as one of the necessaries of life, a 
circumstance which for a short time in his career made Abraham 
Lincoln a bar-tender — one of the leanest bar-tenders the world has 
ever seen. On page 12 of the Diary No. 1, we still read, as a part 
of the original "Brotherly Asreement," adopted when the church 
was organized in 1844, the following interesting paragraph: "We 
will also make it a rule that no member of our congregation shall 



87 

be permitted to erect and carry on a distillery, neither be engaged 
in buying and selling ardent spirits in any way to the injury of 
his neighbors and fellow-beings. At all times and upon every 
occasion shall the use of ardent spirits be in a temperate manner 
and as a medicine, and it is expected that each member will abstain 
from a common and regular use of it. Any person, who, contrary 
to these rules, will addict himself to intemperance or drunkenness, 
cannot remain in our fellowship." In 1849 the following sentence 
was added to this paragraph. "No member of our congregation 
shall at public days, such as house-raisings, log-rollings, corn- 
huskings, or whatever it may be, give his hands ardent spirits to 
drink." Taking all this into consideration, it may be quite safe to 
presume, that Isaac Jordan, a citizen of Edwards county who once 
felt constrained to offer a resolution, imposing a fine of a pint of 
whiskey for grand jurors for neglecting to attend court promptly, 
of which resolution due record is made in the early annals of said 
county, did not hail from West Salem. 

Community Consciousness and Service. 

West Salem is no longer a distinct Moravian community. It 
is now less so than fifty years ago. In due time other churches 
were organized in or near the town, which are now working side 
by side with the Moravions, as a rule, in fine harmony, to that end 
that the religious and educational life of the community might have 
its fullest and freest expression, according to the various differences 
of temperament and bringing-up. Nevertheless, it must be admit- 
ted, that the Moravian contribution to the character and welfare of 
the West Salem community has been by far the most distinct, 
well-rounded, largest and most sustained throughout the long 
years. This has been the case more than ever since the union of 
the two congregations, all Moravians being thus called anew and 
unitedly to the work of realizing their high ideals. Not only has 
a deep spiritual life found its expression in a diversified manner 
through the more regular channels of church activity, but a com- 
munity consciousness has also been awakened and a willingness 
to serve the higher interests of the neighborhood has been called 
forth, that stands above what is found in the average town of this 
size. The Moravian settlements of Germany, England and the 
United States, in the latter country, such as .Bethlehem, Nazareth 
and Lititz, Pa., Salem (Winston-Salem), N. C, Gnadenhutten, 
Ohio, and Hope, Ind., are usually the best demonstrations of what 
Moravian ideals are and how these ideals are realized in the life 
of the community. Moravian settlements have usually become 
spiritual, educational and social service centers. Among the enter- 
prises inaugurated by Bethlehem, was the founding in 1749 of a 
school for the higher education of women, now known as "The 
Moravian Seminary and College for Women," if not the first, one 
of the first schools of this kind in America. Although not an or- 
ganization of the Bethlehem congregation as such, the Bach Choir, 
one of the recognized musical organizations of our land, with its 



88 

director, Dr. J. Fred Wolle, its annual musical festivals at Bethle- 
hem and its annual concerts in New York and Philadelphia, is 
nevertheless a product of that old Moravian community, Long- 
fellow, in the "Hymn of the Moravian Nuns of Bethlehem," re- 
citing the story of Pulaski's Banner, pays a noble tribute to the 
young women of the Bethlehem "Sisters' House," in the days of 
the American Revolution, although they were not "nuns." His 
"Evangeline" wanders from place to place in steadfast quest of 
Gabriel, even 

"Now in the Tents of Grace (Gnadenhuetten) of the meek 

Moravian Missions, 
Now in the noisy camps and the battle-fields of the army." 

In West Salem the first dwelling-house erected was the 
"Brethren's House," where the young men of the place might 
dwell in congenial fellowship with each other. Moravian settle- 
ments, and West Salem among them, are places where both 
evangelistic and cultural agencies are given a recognized place; 
where both the emotional and the intellectual seek a well-balanced 
poise ; where the ideal and sentimental find their necessary cor- 
rective in the things that are real and practical in life. It has 
already been intimated that music is regularly cultivated, and it 
is often and to many a revelation to hear a Moravian congregation 
sing some of the more stately and difficult hymns harmoniously 
and expressively in four parts, the result of years of congregational 
training. A fitting and well-kept place for the burial of the dead 
is another outward characteristic of a Moravian settlement. Per- 
haps the most impressive service throughout the year is held in 
this God's Acre on Easter morning at sunrise. Large and rev- 
erent congregations gather here to give expression to their faith 
in immortality, at a time when revelation and nature join hands to 
say "Amen." During the last six years, since the union of the two 
local churches, iuA^olving the consolidation of the cemeteries also, 
the Moravian Church of West Salem has made special eftorts to 
furnish the community with an attractive and well-kept cemetery, 
the grounds laid out on a large scale. Although owmed and man- 
aged by the Board of Trustees of this church, the fifteen acres set 
aside for cemetery purposes are administered as a trust for the 
entire neighborhood. This cemetery has become one of the finest 
in Southern Illinois. And what is especially gratifying in this 
achievement is the fact that it was accomplished not only with the 
dollars, but also Avith the brawn of West Salem's citizens. In the 
year 1921 more than $700 worth of volunteer work was donated. 
On a single day last September 25 men with 11 teams responded to 
the call, building hard drives on the cemetery grounds. Thus 
through a proper co-ordination of head, heart and hand, in willing 
service for our Lord and Saviour, at least some of the ideals of 
this Moravian settlement in Illinois have been realized. Nor were 
the claims of the foreign field overlooked in building up the com- 



89 

munity. Not only have the contributions to aid the work of foreign 
missions been liberal, but four of West Salem's sons and daughters 
are laboring in this field today, namely, the Rev. George Harry 
Lopp and his wife, Anna (Oehler) Lopp, of Mizpah, Jamaica, W. 
I.; Mrs. Eva (Walser) Allen, wife of the Rev. Samuel Allen, of 
Bethany, Jamaica, W. I., and the Rev. Eugene L. Michel, of Blue- 
fields, Nicaragua. 

Conclusion. 

As a great building contains many and various pieces of ma- 
terials, so our great commonwealth, the state of Illinois, is the 
product of the many and varied forces that have been at work, 
some of these from the earliest times. What the Moravians have 
contributed may be but a small gift in the grand total of all con- 
tributions. Nevertheless it is to them a cause for profound grati- 
tude, that a kind Providence has permitted them to make this con- 
tribution. Grateful recognition on the part of posterity is the 
richest compensation for all the privations and hard labor of the 
early settler. 



90 



THE FRENCH IN ILLINOIS.* 

FBy Francis X. Busch.I 



This subject naturally divides itself for orderly consideration 
into four distinct periods — 

1. The Exploratory Period, 

2. The Pre-Revolutionary Period, 

3. The Revolutionary Period, and 

4. The Post-Revolutionary Period. 

I. 

The Exploratory Period. 

Plutarch has written an authentic histoxy of Greek and Roman 
life by recording for us the lives of men who participated in the 
development or influenced the character of those ancient civilizations. 
John Lord, by the adoption of much the same plan has given us an 
absorbingly interesting and fairly comprehensive general history of 
the world. In trying to present the record of French exploration in 
Illinois one finds it difficult to adopt any other method. Indeed, the 
names of Marquette, Joliet and La Salle are so inseparably connectei^ 
with the exploration and settlement of the Mississippi Valley that it 
is impossible to write the history of Illinois without rendering an 
account of the zealous enthusiasm, the dauntless courage and dogged 
perseverance of these intrepid pioneers. 

In their explorations Father Jacques Marquette and Robert Cava- 
lier de La Salle were actuated by entirely different motives. In 1671 
while connected with the Mission at Mackinac^ Father Marquette met 
some wandering braves of the Illinois tribe of Indians from whom he 
learned their language and heard confused tales of the Great River, — 
the "Father of Waters" — and of the multitudes of the unconverted 
Illinois who dwelt along the river and its branches. In the early 
winter of 1673 Louis Joliet-, armed with the warrant of Frontenac^. 
the then Governor of Quebec, "to explore the Mississippi," arrived at 
Mackinac, and Father Marquette sought and obtained permission to 
join the expedition. May 13th, 1673, Louis Joliet and Father Mar- 
quette, with five Frenchmen — Allouez, Gravier, Pinet, Sainte-Cosme 



♦ Read at the Illinois Day Meeting-, December 3, 1021, of the Illinois State 
Historical Society. 

^ Established by the .Jesuits two years earlier. 

2 Also spelled "JoUiet". 

2 Joliet had been selected by Jean Talon, the predecessor of Frontenac, to make 
the voyag-e. 



91 

and Marest — in two canoes left St. Ignace* and proceeded westerly 
along the north shore of Lake Michigan to Green Bay (Wisconsin)^, 
up the Bay to the mouth of the Fox River, up the river to and across 
Lake Winnebago, thence overland to an established mission on the 
Wisconsin River, and down the Wisconsin to the Mississippi, which 
they reached June 17th, 1673". They journeyed southward down the 
Mississippi, landing and resting sometimes on the Eastern Shore 
(Illinois), sometimes on the Western, past the Missouri, Illinois, Kas- 
kaskia and Ohio Rivers until they reached the mouth of the Arkan- 
sas, where they halted and were dissuaded by the tales of exaggerated 
peril told by the Indians there from continuing the journey further 
south. Joliet had satisfied himself that the Mississippi flowed into the 
Gulf of Mexico and Father Marquette's health had been so under- 
mined by the rigors of the journey that he was ready to return. 
Accordingly, on July 17th, 1673, the return journey began. When 
the Illinois River was reached, the party travelled up the river a 
short distance and stopped at an Indian village called "Kaskaskia'". 
They were later guided by the friendly Illinois by way of the Illinois 
River to the Desplaines and Chicago Rivers to Lake Michigan, and 
reached Green Bay in September, 1673. Joliet returned to Quebec, 
Father Marquette to Mackinac. A year later Father Marquette re- 
turned to Illinois by way of the Chicago, Desplaines'^ and Illinois 
Rivers as far as Ottawa. There he found some French Traders^. 
He remained for several months, doing Missionary work among the 
Illinois and other tribes. Ill health prompted Father Marquette's re- 
turn to Mackinac and he died on the return journey. 

Robert Cavelier de La Salle, while educated in a French Jesuit 
school, began his romantic career of exploration, not as did the simple 
priest, Marquette, for the purpose of bringing Christianity to the 
savages, but in the hope of finding favor with his King, Louis XIV, 
and consequent fame and fortune. He was fearless, determined, 
resourceful and ambitious. Leaving France in 1666, he obtained a 
grant of land at LaChine^°, where he maintained for some years a 
prosperous trading post. From visiting Senecas, LaSalle, too, heard 
vague tales of a great river — the "Ohio" — which no white man had 
yet traversed and which was said to flow across the entire continent 
to the Gulf of California. Obtaining Frontenac's permission to make 
the trip (provided he did so at his own expense), with fourteen men 
(French and Indian) and four canoes LaSalle started (1669) up 
the St. Lawrence and along the south shore of Lake Ontario to the 
Niagara River. Here LaSalle was deserted by his crew, and with 
an Indian guide as his sole companion, made his way to the head- 

■» On the straits of Mackinac. 

= R< ached by Jran Nicolet in his explorations in 1634. 

* Altho some confusion exists in the records of upper Mississippi exploration, 
it seems reasonably certain that Medard Chouart and Pierre d'Esprit made a 
journey west along- i^ake Superior and reached the Mississippi sometime be- 
tween 1fi!i4 and 166.S. 

' Not. howpver, the exact location of the village of the same name founded 
later by the French. 

* some confusion exists in the early records, the DesPlaines River being 
often lei'e red to as the f'hicaero River. 

"These doubtless had left Green Bay after Marquette's return in Sept., 1673. 
'0 Just above Montreal on the St. Lawrence River. 



92 

waters of the Ohio, and floated down the river as far as the present 
site of Louisville. From the Indians here La Salle received confused 
accounts of the explorations of Joliet and Marquette, but concluded 
that the Ohio was in fact tributary to the Mississippi, and that the 
Mississippi discharged itself into the Gulf of Mexico. La Salle re- 
turned to Quebec and later to France. From Louis XIV he received 
in recognition of his services a title of nobility and was made com- 
mander of Fort Frontenac.^^. La Salle returned to Quebec, and, 
taking up his assignment at Fort Frontenac, remained there until 1677, 
when he again returned to France to solicit support for a project to 
explore and fortify the Mississippi from the mouth of the Ohio to 
the Gulf of Mexico. He raised considerable money and induced 
Henri de Tonti (an Italian) to join his enterprise. In his 
later struggles Tonti proved a most devoted follower. Returning to 
Quebec, he was joined by Louis Hennepin, a Franciscan Missionary, 
who became the none too reliable historian of the Expedition. With 
sixteen men all told, LaSalle set sail for the Niagara River, arriving 
there December 5th, 1677. At Niagara most of LaSalle's followers 
again mutinied, and La Salle, Tonti, Hennepin, and a few who re- 
mained loyal, felled trees and built a vessel which they succeeded in 
launching on Lake Erie in August of 1679. They then sailed west- 
ward on Lake Erie thru the Detroit and St. Clair Rivers and Lake 
Huron to Mackinac, thence to Green Bay along the western shore of 
Lake Michigan, past where Chicago now stands, to the mouth of the 
St. Joseph River (Michigan). By canoe they proceeded up the St. 
Joseph River as far as the present site of South Bend, Indiana, where 
they disembarked, and after being lost for days and enduring fright- 
ful hardships, succeeded in making their way to the Kankakee River, 
and from the Kankakee to the Illinois, and in January, 1680, reached 
the Mississippi. His followers refusing to proceed further, LaSalle 
temporarily abandoned his project to continue to the Gulf of Mexico 
and built Fort Crevecoeur^- (Broken Heart), probably the first per- 
manent structure erected by white men in Illinois. Leaving Tonti 
at Fort Crevecoeur, LaSalle returned to Quebec for men and supplies 
with which to continue his journey. A renewal of the constantly re- 
curring warfare between the Illinois and Iroquois Indians, with its 
threat to his own safety, together with a distrust of the loyalty of his 
own men, caused Tonti to abandon Fort Crevecoeur and return to 
Mackinac, and when LeSalle, re-outfitted and re-supplied, returned he 
found Fort Crevecoeur abandoned and a mass of ruins. LaSalle 
returned to Mackinac, met Tonti. and together they again went to 
Quebec to organize a final expedition for the exploration of the Miss- 
issippi to the Gulf. This endeavor was successful and LaSalle and 
Tonti reached the mouth of the Mississippi April 9th, 1682, and with 
much ceremony took possession of an uncharted and unlimited terri- 
tory in the name of Louis XIV, in whose honor it was called "Louis- 
iana". On his return, carrying out his original intention, LaSalle 
built a palisaded fort at Starved Rock (near Ottawa, 111.), which he 

^ Near the present site of Kingston, Ontario. 
" Near the present site of Peoria. 



93 

called "Fort St. Louis". LaSalle again returned to France and organ- 
ized the ill-fated expedition for establishing a colony and fortifying 
the mouth of the Mississippi. LaSalle's ship was wrecked somewhere 
on the coast of Texas, and while making his way back to the Miss- 
issippi he was murdered by some of his own men (1687). The trail 
having been blazed by Marquette and LaSalle at the beginning of the 
Eighteenth Century we find Jesuit and Missionary priests and French 
and Canadian traders in considerable numbers coming south from 
Quebec, Montreal, Mackinac, Green Bay, and trading posts on the 
Great Lakes and north from Louisiana, and establishing trading posts 
and settlements of a more permanent character in Illinois ; but these 
may more properly be considered in what has been previously denomi- 
nated in this paper — "The Pre-Revolutionary Period." 

II. 

The Pre-Revolutionary Period. 

It is rather difficult to present the early French settlements in 
the Illinois country in chronological order. Of many of these there 
is little record except the statements of later explorers and settlers 
who found the unmistakable evidences of this previous occupation. 
Sometimes, groups of these traders married Indian women and estab- 
lished more or less permanent trading centers. It is impossible within 
the appropriate scope of this paper to attempt a complete statement 
and account of all of the French settlements during this period. The 
more important will be briefly noticed. 

The French settlement at Kaskaskia, because of its continuous 
importance until after Illinois' statehood, merits initial consideration. 
In 1674 Father Marquette founded the Mission of the Immaculate 
Conception among the Kaskaskia Indians at the Indian Village of that 
name, near the site of modern Utica, 111. The mission was removed to 
Peoria when Tonti removed Fort St. Louis there. In 1700 Father 
Gabriel Marest, the Jesuit priest in charge, again removed the mis- 
sion southward to the lower end of the Mississippi bottom, near the 
present site of Kaskaskia. French traders with a considerable number 
of Illinois Indians had apparently settled near this last location of the 
Mission about 1696. Kaskaskia grew in importance until in the 
middle of the Eighteenth Century it was the most important settle- 
ment west of the Allghenys. In 1723 it had a permanent white popu- 
lation, almost entirely French, of 196, and in 1773 a population of 
between 500 and 600 whites, and approximately as many black slaves. 
In addition to its stable population the town was a center to which 
came French and Spanish traders and adventurers from the South, 
and from Canada and the Great Lakes posts on the North. After 
the French and Indian War, and preceding the Revolution, colonists 
from the eastern states, particularly Virginia, the Carolinas, Maryland 
and Pennsylvania, began arriving, but inability to secure land grants 
and lack of ordered government combined to discourage this latter 
immigration until well into the Nineteenth Century. Illinois' first 



94 

territorial legislature convened at Kaskaskia. It was one of the 
county seats of the original St. Clair County and the State Capital 
until 1820. 

After LaSalle's death Tonti and Francis Daupin de la Forest 
(another of LaSalle's devoted followers) obtained a concession from 
the King of France "to trade in and defend the Illinois country." In 
1691-1692 they built a fort at Pimitoui, about one and a half miles 
from the lower outlet of what is referred to in the early records as 
"Lake Peoria". Fort Pimitoui and Peoria gained an importance dur- 
ing the Eighteenth Century as a trading post and fort guarding tlie 
entrance to the Illinois country on the South, and because of its loca- 
tion on the established route of travel from the Great Lakes to 
Louisiana. 

About 1693, one Nicholas Perrot, a French Trader from 
Quebec, constructed a fort at *"Malamet," very probably at or 
near the site of Marameg- on the Fox River. 

In 1698 Bishop de St. Vallier of Quebec granted to the Priests 
of the Seminary of Foreign Missions permission to establish them- 
selves on the banks of the Mississippi River, and in 1699 priests of 
that order established a mission at Tamaroa or Cahokia. The 
Jestiits, who had maintained a practically continuous mission at or 
near this place since Marquette's time, opposed the settlement of 
the Seminary Priests and carried their protests to France. They 
obtained a ruling excluding for the future an}^ save Jesuit Priests 
from the Illinois country, but the existing Mission of the Seminary 
Priests at Cahokia was expected, and its establishment confirmed." 
A considerable settlement grew up around the Mission. In 1772 
Cahokia had a population of 200 whites (chiefly French) and 80 
negro slaves. Cahokia was also a covmty seat of the original St. 
Clair Countv for a short time. The 1890 census gives Cahokia's 
population as 100, and an encyclopedia of Illinois History pub- 
lished about the same time observes that "the descendants of the 
early French settlers make up a considerable portion of the popu- 
lation." 

In 1696 Father Pierre Pinet, a Jesuit, founded the Mission of 
the Guardian Angel at or near the mouth of the Chicago River, 
but after a very brief existence the Mission w^as abandoned on the 
abrupt and unexplained order of Frontenac. 

In 1700 Le Seur explored the northw^estern portion of the 
State, what is now Jo Daviess County, but the first permanent 
settlement here was not until 1820, when another Frenchman, 
Bouthillier, established his home here. 

In 1712 Antoine Crozat obtained from Louis XIV an ex- 
clusive trading monopoly in the country described as "from the 
edge of the sea^* as far as the Illinois," but seems never to have 
availed himself of the grant. In 1717 the grant was renewed to 
"The Company of the West" of which John Law of "Mississippi 
Bubble" fame was president, and on September 27th, 1717, the 

* J. F. steward. Lost Maramech and earliest Chicago, p. 178. 
i^The Seminary of Foreigrn Missions is represented today at Quebec by 
Laval University. 

"Gulf of Mexico. 



95 

Illinois country which had theretofore been a dependency of 
Quebec was incorporated with Louisiana and became a part of 
that province. In 1718 French from Louisiana founded Fort de 
Chartres,^^ or Fort Chartres, sixteen miles northwest of Kaskaskia. 
While there were many royal grants of land here, as well as at 
Cahokia, between 1T19 and 1753 the settlement around the fort 
consisted of a few families until the rebuilding of the fort by royal 
order in the last named year brought additional inhabitants from 
Kaskaskia and other nearby settlements. After the British occu- 
pation. Fort Chartres was the Seat of Government in the Illinois 
country until 1772. The first common law court in the Mississippi 
Valley was organized here in 1768. 

About the time of the Establishment of Fort Chartres, a few 
French families settled at Prairie du Rocher (Rock Prairie) in 
what is now Randolph County, four miles east of Fort Chartres. 
In 1772 this had become a considerable village, being credited with 
a population of 100 whites and 80 blacks. 

The Illinois country did not develop with anywhere near the 
rapidity of other early American settlements. The reasons for 
this are not germane to the limited subject of this paper, but as 
explaining particularly why French occupation was not more 
rapid, a brief reference to the attitude of Louis XIV of France 
toward the newly explored Illinois country is pertinent and inter- 
esting. During his long reign, Louis XIV was subject to many 
conflicting and doubtful influences, but almost invariably yielded 
ultimately to the representations and importunities of the Jesuits 
in matters touching the spiritual (and often temporal) affairs of 
the New World colonies. The curse of the early French occupa- 
tion of Illinois was the coureurs de bois — dissolute, dishonest and 
irresponsible fur traders who demoralized the Indians with alcohol, 
thus provoking bloodshed and retarding the missionary efforts of 
the Priests. In order to destroy the activities of these coureurs 
de bois, the King, at the instance of the Jesuits, on May 26, 1696, 
issued an order recalling all traders from the Countrv and forbid- 
ding traders (Tonti and Forest excepted) from going into the 
country under penalty of a life sentence to the galleys. The order 
was reluctantly promulgated by Frontenac in 1698, and had a most 
demoralizing effect upon the established settlements in and immi- 
gration into the new country. 

In 1772 the total w^hite population of Illinois, of whom a great 
majority were French, is variously estimated by different writers 
at from two to three thousand (the lesser figure being undoubtedly 
more nearly accurate). The period preceding the Revolution was 
filled with bloody inter-tribal wars among the Indians, the French 
generally participating; and these conflicts, with the demoralizing 
conditions just adverted to, resulted in the practical annihilation of 
many Indian tribes, which at the beginning of the eighteenth century 
were forces of great importance. 

'•'* Named in honor of the due de Chartres son of the regent of France. 



96 

During the French and Indian War against the British, sev- 
eral military expeditions started from Illinois against the English 
forts. While the French attained some success at first, by 1761 
Duquesne, Frontenac, Quebec, Niagara and Montreal had fallen 
and the French flag had ceased to fly North of the Ohio River ex- 
cept in Illinois. When "New France" was surrendered, Illinois 
was not included, but by the Treaty of Peace, concluded in 1763, 
France ceded to England all of its possessions on the American 
continent east of the Mississippi River, except a strip at the mouth 
of the River upon which New Orleans now stands. Fort Chartres 
was formally occupied by the British under Captain Stirling 
October 9th, 1765, and rechristened Fort Cavendish. The name, 
however, did not survive. Fort Chartres was later abandoned and 
the British built Fort Gage opposite Kaskaskia. 

After several inefifectual attempts by English Governors of 
small capacity to establish stable civil government, the country 
was returned to military control. The fur trade continued in con- 
trol of the French, and while the country was nominally under the 
English Crown, the French continued the conduct, or lack of con- 
duct, of their affairs much as they had before the English occupa- 
tion. 

As the Revolution approached, George III annexed the entire 
country "northwest of the Ohio River" to the province of Quebec, 
hoping thus to secure the aid of the enlarged colony against the 
revolting Colonies on the Atlantic Coast. 

The French government of Illinois, preceding the Revolution, 
is correctly epitomized by its historians as being of the most liberal 
kind, promoting the ease, comfort, and, it must be admitted, the 
license of its people, and was ill calculated to encourage either 
permanency of settlement or improvement in self-government. 

III. 

Revolutionary Period. 

During the Revolution the British maintained garrisons at 
Detroit, Vincennes and Kaskaskia (Fort Gage). George Rogers 
Clark, pioneer, frontiersman and Indian fighter, obtained from 
Governor Patrick Henry, of Virginia, a grant of $6,000 in Colonial 
paper currency and authority to raise 350 men for an expedition 
against the English garrisons west of Pittsburg. He succeeded in 
raising but 200 men, and leaving Pittsburg secretly floated down 
the Ohio to Louisville. On July 5th, 1778, he captured the British 
Garrison at Kaskaskia, and the Village of Kaskaskia "which was 
almost entirely French." Colonel Clark's "Long Knives," as his 
men were known, while admittedly redoubtable fighters, had ac- 
quired an unmerited reputation for barbarity, and were at first 
much feared by the French. They were, however, treated by 
Colonel Clark with such consideration that they were won over 
completely, and, under the direction of the Mission Priest, Father 



97 

Gibeault (Gibault) gave him great assistance in his subsequent cam- 
paign, which resulted in the capture of Fort Vincennes. 

December 9th, 1778, the Legislature of Virginia established 
("for a period of two years, unless continued by the General As- 
sembly of Virginia") the "County of Illinois" which included "all 
of the inhabitants of Virginia north of the Ohio River," but was 
not otherwise defined. On December 12th, 1778 Governor Henry, 
of Virginia, appointed Col. John Todd, Jr., as "County Lieutenant" 
of the new County of Illinois, with specific instructions to "culti- 
vate and conciliate" the affection of the French and Indians and 
co-operate with Col. George Rogers Clark in his expedition against 
the English. With Col. Clark's assistance. Col. Todd organized 
the new "County." Judges and clerks were elected for the more 
important settlements — nine Judges at the "Court of Kaskaskia," 
and seven at the "Court of Cahokia." All of the judges and clerks 
elected were French. 

The position of Illinois County in the Revolution was 
anomalous. By an act of the Virginia Legislature all of the Coun- 
ties of Virginia, except Illinois, w^ere asked to furnish one-twenty- 
fifth of the number of militia raised by Virginia. An Act of the 
Virginia Legislature (1779) regarding the adjustment of Land 
Titles contained a proviso "that nothing herein contained shall be 
construed in any manner to injure or affect any French, Canadian 
or other families settled in the Illinois territory." At the same 
session, an Act was passed raising one troop of cavalry, consisting 
of one Captain, one Lieutenant, one Cornet and thirty-two privates 
"to defend the inhabitants of the Illinois Country." Following this 
Legislative action Col. Todd issued a proclamation warning all 
persons against settlement in Illinois "unless in manner and form 
as heretofore made by the French Inhabitants." 

It is not difficult to perceive the reason for these unusual leg- 
islative exceptions and attempts to conciliate the French inhabit- 
ants in Illinois. The English counted upon the assistance of many 
of the Indian tribes in their fight against the Colonies. The French 
traders and settlers in Illinois were friendly with most of the 
Indian tribes, and had nothing in common with the Americans. 
Governor Henry's policy, if it did not obtain their active coopera- 
tion, was well calculated to placate the French in Illinois, and 
prevent them or their Indian allies from giving aid to the English. 

There were two military expeditions occurring in Illinois dur- 
ing the Revolutionary period, in which French settlements were 
involved, or in which Frenchmen participated, which require 
passing notice. 

In 1780 the British general plan of campaign contemplated 
an attack on Fort St. Louis and all of the Illinois forts and settle- 
ments, which included Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and other minor trad- 
ing posts. Some minor points were taken, but the plan in general 
was unsuccessful. Cahokia was attacked, but was so successfully 
defended by Col. Clark that the British withdrew at the end of 
three days' fighting. 



98 

In 1780 there came to the Illinois Country from Pittsburg one 
Col. Augustin Motlin de la Balme, previously a quartermaster of 
Gendarmerie at Versailles.* When Balme came to the United States 
from France he bore a letter of recommendation from Benjamin 
Franklin to John Hancock, and he was well received in Illinois. He ap- 
pears, however, to have been a man of small calibre, and disappointed, 
possibly, at not receiving the military preferment to which he thought 
himself entitled, stirred up a small body of French and Indians at St. 
Louis against the American soldiers, and seems to have contemplated 
attacks both at Cahokia and Fort Detroit. He abandoned both pro- 
jects, however, and at a point about eleven miles southwest of Fort 
Wayne, Indiana, was attacked by hostile Indians and killed with thirty 
of his followers. 

Col. Todd's administration of the County of Illinois was unsatis- 
factory. No one realized this better than Todd himself. The French 
traders and settlers, unused to restraining authority of any kind, ex- 
cept the influence of the Mission Priests, could not get along 
with the American soldiers and could not protect themselves against 
the English and the Indians without them. That the French were 
not without proper grounds of complaint is apparent from a letter 
written by Col. Todd to Governor Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia, in 
1781, — ^® "I still receive complaints from the Illinois. That department 
suffers. I fear, from the avarice and prodigality of our officers ; they 
all vent their complaints against each other. I believe our French 
friends have the justest grounds of dissatisfaction". On the other 
hand, petitions addressed to Governors Henry and Jefferson instance 
many cases of oppression and extortion on the part of the French 
judges at Kaskaskia and Cahokia. 

The Act establishing the "County of Illinois" expired by limita- 
tion in two years unless continued by the General Assembly of Vir- 
ginia. There had been so much of apparently unsolvable difficulty 
in the administration of the County's affairs that a bill introduced in 
the Virginia legislature November 22nd, 1781, to continue the County 
Administration was defeated, and on* January 5th, 1782, when the 
General Assembly adjourned the "County of IlHnois" ceased to exist. 
Boggess in his "Settlement of IlHnois", page 31, says : "So far as in- 
stituting a civil government was concerned, the County was a failure. 
Its military history shows a mixture of American, British, French and 
Spanish efforts at mastery." 

Thus within two months of the practical close of the Revolution 
(Cornwallis' Surrender at Yorktown, October 19, 1781) v.-e find Vir- 
ginia abandoning Illinois as a territory in which the difffculties of gov- 
ernment outweighed whatever considerations of advantage or profit 
were to be obtained by exercising control over the territory. 

Illinois remained without an established government, and in a 
practical state of anarchy, from 1781 to 1790, when the United States, 
acting under the "Ordinance of 1787", assumed control. 

ifi Boggess. The Settlement of Illinois, page 29. 

* A sketch of de la Balm by C. M. Burton in Transactions 111. State His- 
torical Society, 1909, page 104. 



99 

IV. 

The Post-Revolutionary Period. 

On March 1st, 1784, Virginia ceded her Western lands, including 
IJlinois, to the United States. 

As explaining certain later actions of Congress relating to the 
French settlers in Illinois, a letter from Col. George Rogers Clark to 
Congress, dated June 8th, 1786, is particularly illuminating: "The 
inhabitants of the different towns in Illinois are worthy of the atten- 
tion of Congress. They have it in their power to be of infinite service 
to us and might act as a great barrier to the frontier if under proper 
regulation, but having no law or government among them they are in 
great confusion and without the authority of Congress is extended 
to them they must in all probability fall a sacrifice to the savages who 
may take advantage of the disorder and want of proper authority in 
the country." 

From 1760 to 1790 the white population of Illinois (as stated 
before, largely French) had steadily decreased. Undoubtedly, the 
restraints imposed by the English," and succeeding American Govern- 
ments, liberal and ineffective as they were, had caused many French 
traders, and some settlers to leave the Illinois Country. In this they 
were encouraged by the Jesuit Priests who felt their power and in- 
fluence diminishing with the coming of Protestant immigration and 
non-sectarian administration. 

After 1790 a still greater exodus took place. There were two 
principal causes. In the first place, the French settlers, basing their 
claims either upon original occupation or royal grant, claimed vast 
areas of land, often extending many miles from the sites of their 
actual settlements. The boundaries of these claims were vague, and 
in most cases incapable of definition by the claimants themselves. 
These claims were constantly being urged against new settlers coming 
into the territory. Friction, and, in some instances actual conflict, 
between the old and new settlers, naturally resulted. The several 
attempts of Congress to define and limit these claims caused intense 
dissatisfaction to the French resident within the territory. 

The second factor contributing to the migration of the French 
from the territory was the passage of the Ordinance of 1787. The 
Ordinance forever prohibited slavery in the Northwest Territory. 
The French traders and settlers were very generally slave owners. 
The Ordinance also provided for the descent and distribution of 
intestate property according to the rules of the common law. While, 
it is true, the Ordinance contained a specific reservation guaranteeing 
the "French and Canadian inhabitants of the Kaskaskias, St. Vincents 
and other neighboring villages a continuance of their laws and cust- 
oms relati/e to the conveyance and descent of property", and Cong- 
ress, by the Act of June 20th, 1788, and before administration under 
the Ordinance began, confirmed the possession of land by the French 
inhabitants of Illinois, and gave four hundred acres of bounty land 
to each French family which had lived in the district prior to 1783, 



100 

the French settlers in Illinois were nevertheless almost unanimously 
opposed to the Ordinance and violent in their criticism of the Govern- 
ment's attitude toward the land claims of the French settlers. Bar- 
tholomew Tardiveau (later a representative of the territory in Cong- 
ress), as Agent of the French settlers in Illinois, had vainly petitioned 
Congress to omit the anti-slavery clause from the Ordinance, and 
for an adjustment of the French land Claims. Even after the pass- 
age of the Ordinance there appears to have been much misrepre- 
sentation in the territory as to whether the ordinance did or did not 
contain the anti-slavery clause. When it became certain the Ordi- 
nance did contain the anti-slavery clause, and particularly when the 
new Governor and Judges appointed under the Ordinance assumed 
administration of the territory in 1790, most of the slave-owning 
French settlers left the territory and established themselves in Mis- 
souri and in what is now the State of Louisiana. The proclamations 
of the Spanish Governor of Louisiana in 1789, which were widely 
circulated in Illinois, offering to all persons who would swear alle- 
giance to the Spanish Crown free land, freedom from taxation, pro- 
tection to slave ownership and support and maintenance of the Cath- 
olic religion undoubtedly influenced this migration. In 1792 the 
French population in Illinois was not more than nine hundred, less 
than half of what it had been twenty years earlier. 

From 1790 to 1810 immigration into Illinois was comparatively 
small. Curiously enough, the still unsettled land claims of the early 
French settlers was the principal cause. The neighboring territories 
of Kentucky and Ohio, stimulated by the almost unrestricted sale of 
public lands, enjoyed large increases in population. The United States 
Census tables illustrate this comparison vividly. From 1790 to 1810 
the population of Kentucky increased nearly 300,000, that of Ohio over 
175,000, while the increase of population in Illinois during the same 
period was less than 10,000. It was not until after 1817, when these 
troublesome French land claims were settled and the general sale of 
public lands within the territory began, that Illinois benefited simi- 
larly with her neighboring states from the most unprecedented immi- 
gration in history. The immigration into Illinois prior to 1817 was 
not French, the new settlers coming mostly from Virginia, Maryland 
and the Carolinas. Nor has there been in any subsequent period in 
the history of Illinois any distinct immigration of French into the 
State. It is true, French immigrants from Canada. Louisiana 
and France have came into Illinois, particularly into Jo Daviess, 
Kankakee, Monroe and Union Counties, but in inconsiderable num- 
bers as compared with the influx from other European Countries. 
The last available United States Census Report (1910), which shows 
a larger number of French in Illinois than any preceding report, places 
the number of native born French in Illinois at that time as less than 
8,000 ; of French Canadians, less than 7500 ; of American born persons 
having French parents, 6,000, and of American born persons having 
one French parent, less than 7,000. 

The first Territorial Legislature of Illinois had a few French 
members ; the territory was for a time represented in Congress by 



101 

I 

Bartholomew Tardiveau, and the first Lieutenant Governor of the 
State, Pierre Menard, was a French Canadian. These instances, how- 
ever, are not sig-nificant. Writing of this period, Boggess in his 
"Settlement of Illinois" says: "As a matter of fact the French ele- 
ment was not a political factor of importance." 

Conclusion. 

The record of the French in Illinois is a unique chapter in Ameri- 
can history. The explorations of other parts of the United States 
were, almost without exception, followed by persistent attempts and 
ultimately successful colonization by the country under whose flag the 
explorations were made. Speaking generally, the French explorers 
and their immediate successors were not Colonists. They were not 
"settlers". They were rather voyagers exploring a vast new country, 
in constant search of the newer land which would offer a greater re- 
turn to the pioneer : content v/ithout government, and intolerant of 
restraining authority. Yielding before the "westward march of Em- 
pire" they abandoned the lands discovered and held by their forbears 
and sanctified by their blood and sacrifice. And while in a practical 
sense it may be true, as remarked by an eminent American historian, 
that no memorials of any value either to progress or education remain 
as a result of this exploration and occupation, the story, truthfully 
told, records the struggles, the hopes, the successes and failures of a 
people fighting and conquering a wilderness, is rich in romantic inci- 
dent and splendid adventure, and forms no inconspicuous chapter in 
the gift of the great Mississippi Valley to American civilization. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Parkman's "History of the Discovery of the Great West". 
Spark's "Life of LaSalle". 

Centennial History of Illinois — IlHnois Centennial Commission — 
C. W. Alvord, General Editor. 

Boggess' "The Settlement of Illinois". 

Appleton's Universal Encyclopedia & Atlas (1903). 

United States Census Reports. 

Pittman's "European Settlements on the Mississippi". 

Bateman & Selby's Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois. 

Illinois Historical and Statistical (Moses). 

Mason's "Chapters from Illinois" History. 

"Kaskaskia and its Parish Records" (Mason). 

"Col. John Todd's Record Book" (Mason). 

Brown's History of Illinois. 

Peck's Gazetteer of Illinois. 

Illinois Historical Collections — Illinois State Historical Library. 

"Great Britain and the Illinois Country" (Carter). 

Carpenter & Arthur's History of Illinois. 



PART III 

Contributions to State History 



lOf) 



EARLY MARRIAGES IN PUTNAM COUNTY. 

Compiled by 

Mrs. George Spangler, Historian of Peoria Chapter Daughters 
OF the American Revolution, October, 1922. 

1. John Shepherd and Tennessee McCormas, July 5th, 1831, by 
George Ish, Judge. 

2. Abram Stratton and Sarah Baggs, Oct. 1st, 1831, by John M. 
Gay, Judge. 

3. Hiram Neff and Drusilla Belong, Nov. 17th, 1831, by George 
Ish, Judge. 

4. Abner Boyle and Matilda Wilson, Nov. 24th, 1831, by John 
McDonald, M. G. 

5. Townsend Fife and Zelah Boyle, Dec. 22nd, 1831, by S. D. 
Laughlin, J. P. 

6. John Bird and Nancy Bland, Jan. 27th, 1832, by Robert 
Barnes, J. P. 

7. George Holenback and Rachel M. Reynolds, Feb. 16th, 1832, 
by Thomas Gallaher, Judge C. C. C. 

8. Daniel Warren and Lucy Skeel, Feb. 16th, 1832, by S. D. 
Laughlin, J. P. 

9. Elisha Swan and Zilpha Dent, Feb. 25th, 1832, by Jessie Haile. 

10. Stephen McCormas and Phoebe Hale, June 3rd 1832, by 
Daniel Dimmick, J. P. 

11. David McCormas and Lavina Archer, June 20th, 1832, by 
Hugh Warnock, J. P. 

12. John Cole and Jane Tompkin, Sept. 30th, 1832, by Hugh 
Warnock, J. P. 

13. Albert Moon and Elizabeth Boyle, Nov. 29th, 1832, by H. 
Warren, J. P. 

14. Greenberry W. Hall and Catherine Sturdivin, Nov. 29th, 
1832, by S. D. Laughlin, J. P. 

15. James Harper and Nancy Ash, Nov. 29th, 1832, by S. IK 
Laughlin, J. P. 

16. Abram Obrist and Rebecca Baggs, Apr. 8th, 1832, by John 
M. Gay, J. P. 

17. Richard Hunt and Ruth Horram, Jan. 1st, 1833, by S. D. 
Laughlin, J. P. 

18. Livingston Roberts and Margaret Dent, Jan. 24th, 1833, by 
Hooper Warren, J- P- 

19. Lemuel Russell and Sarah Ann Edwards, Feb. 23rd, 1833, by 
Edward Hall, M. G. 



106 

20. ]\Iichael Leonard and Martha Hooten, Jan. 30th, 1833, by 
Elijah Epperson, M. G. 

21. Christopher Winters and Margaret Roberts, Jan. 31st, 1833, 
by Hooper Warren, J. P. 

22. WilHam Munson and Rachel Hall. Mar. Tth, 1833, by John 
M. Gay, J. P. 

23. Thomas Gunn and Mildred Baker, Mar. 14th, 1833, by 
Hooper Warren, J. P. 

24. William S. Horn and Silvev Hall, May oth, 1833, by Red- 
dick Horn, M. G. 

25. Robert Dugan and Amanthy Hannum, May 11th, 1833, by 
Hooper Warren, J. P. 

26. William McCormas and Anny Plaster, Julv 1st, 1833, by 
John Short, T- P. 

27. William McNeil and Rachel Harris, July 2nd, 1833, by S .D. 
LaughHn, J. P. 

28. Christopher Corss and Polly Brigham, Aug. 1st, 1833, by 
Hooper Warren, J. P. 

29. Solomon Perkins and Patsey Ring, Aug. 16th, 1833, by 
Hooper Warren, J. P. 

30. Joseph Ogee and Lorinda Peters, Aug. 26th, 1833, b}- 
Hooper Warren, J. P. 

31. Josiah W. Martin and Courtney Forbes, Sept. 5th, 1833, by 
Hooper \Varren, J. P. 

32. Minott Silliman and Rhoda Smith, Sept. 19th, 1833, bv 
William Heath, M. G. 

33. James Darnel and Charlotte Owen, Dec. 1st, 1833, by Robert 
Barnes, J. P. 

34. George Nook and Polly Hart, Jan. 9th, 1834, by Hooper 
Warren, J. P. 

35. George Martin and Lucy Gaylord, Feb. 9th, 1834, by Hooper 
Warren, J. P. 

36. "Henry Mann and Jane Breeman, Feb. 20th, 1834, by Wm. 
Kirby. 

37. Samuel C. McClure and Maria Trux, Feb. 4th, 1834, by Joel 
Arrington, M. G. 

38. John Slater and Polly Warnock, Mar. 13th, 1834, by E. H. 
Hazard. 

39. William M. Clark and Martha Ann Knight, Alar. 19th, 1834, 
by Hooper Warren, T- P- 

40. George Hiltibrand and Elizabeth N. Haley, Apr. 3rd, 1834, 
by Hooper Warren, J. P. 

41. Sylvester Needham and Sabrae Brumsey, Apr. 6th, 1834, by 
Hooper Warren, J. P. 

42. George C. Hinsdale and Elizabeth Baggs, May 18th, 1834. by 
John M. Gay, T- P- 

43. Nathaniel Little and Mildred Glass, May 11th, 1834, by Rob- 
ert Barnes, }. P. 

44. Balis Garrison and Matilda Myers, Apr. 17th, 1834, by Enoch 
Dent, J. P. 



107 

45. Richard Blanchard and Druzilla Neff, May 16th, 1834, by 
Hooper Warren, J. P. 

46. WilHam Harrington and Rosamond Dough ton, June 30th, 
1834, by Ehas. Thompson, J. C. C. C. 

47. Isaac ]\IcCormas and Sally Plasters, July 17th, 1834, by Joel 
Doolittle, J. P. 

48. Thomas Coates and Elizabeth Knox, July 24th, 1834, by 
Enoch Dent, J. P. 

49. Abram R. Baker and Minerva M. Dent, July 31st, 1834, by 
Hooper Warren, J. P. 

50. Peter Webb and Elizabeth N. Dooley, Aug. 10th, 1834, by 
Hooper Warren, J. P. 

51. James G. Forristall and Sarah Studyvin, Aug. 21st, 1834, by 
Hooper Warren, J. P. 

52. Robert Antrim and Martha Harris, Aug. 26th, 1834, by Rob- 
ert Barnes, J. P. 

53. John P. Hayes and Betsey Carpenter, Oct. 1st, 1834, by 
Hooper ^^'arren. J. P. 

54. \\'illiam" Beck and Mary Martin, Oct. 9th, 1834, by Hooper 
Warren, J. P. 

55. Peter Harman and Rebecca Perkins, Sept. 28th, 1834, by 
John M. Gay, J. P. 

56. Nathan Brumsey and Nancy Chapting, Nov. 25th, 1834, by 
Hooper Warren, J. P. 

57. Ebenezer Phye and Charity Larsh, Nov. 29th, 1834, by 
Hooper Warren, J. P. 

58. Jason Putnam and Eve Harris, Aug. 16th, 1834, by Robert 
Garton, M. G. 

59. Williamson Durley and Elizabeth Winters, Dec. 2nd, 1834. 
by Hooper Warren, J. P. 

60. Emanuel Hitchcock and Rebecca Merrill, Nov. 16th, 1834, 
by Benjamin Smith, J. P. 

61. William Knox and Susan Bradley, Nov. 27th, 1834, bv Enoch 
Dent. J. P. 

62. George B. Willis and Mary Gallaher, Dec. 11th, 1834, bv 
Nahum Gould, M. G. 

63. James Russell and Elmina Thompson, Jan. 1st, 1835, by 
Elias Thompson, J. P. 

64. Edward H. Hall and Eliza Miller, Jan. 8th. 1835, by John 
M. Gay, J. P. 

65. Matison Studyvin and Frances Ellis, Jan. 29th, 1835, by Rev. 
Robt. Garton. 

6G. Isaac Putnam and Clarinda Hale, Mar. 1st, 1835, by Joel 
Hargrave, C. Com. 

67. Solomon H. Burr and Eunice Childs, ]\Iar. 25th, 1835, by 
Lucian Farnham. M. G. 

68. Henry F. Miller and Jane Waldron, Apr. 7th. 1835, by Joel 
Arrington, M. G. 

69. Hugh Cole and Elizabeth Sally, Apr. 15th, 1835, by Robert 
Garton, M. G. 



108 

70. Isaac Cissel and Olive Prickett, Apr. 16th, 1835. by Nahum 
Gould, M. G. 

71. Zachariah Bushong and Louisa Hall, May 3rd, 1835. by 
Stephen R. Beggs. 

72. Howson K. Zenor and Flora Patterson, May 7th, 1835, by 
Nahum Gould, M. G. 

73. Obadiah C. Motley and Elizabeth Robertson. Jun. 8th. 1835, 
by Nahum Gould, M. G. 

74. William R. Robertson and Amanda Shepherd. Jun. 2nd. 
1835, by Robt. B. Dobbin, U. D. M. 

75. William F. Lancaster and Nancy Lancaster, Jun. 14th, 1835, 
by Robt. Barnes, J. P. 

76. Dudley Humphreys and Lavina Sherman, July 2nd. 1835. 
by Nahum Gould, M. G. ^ 

77. Robert Bird, Jr., and Sarah Ann Burt, July 9th. 1835. by 
Robert Barnes, J. P. 

78. David Thompson and Cathrine Lyons, July 9th, 1835, bv 
Enoch Dent, J. P. 

79. Jordan Sawyer and Francis Forbes, July 24th. 1835. by 
Robert Barnes, J. P. 

80. George Eagle and Polly Current, July 16th, 1835, by Nahum 
Gould, M. G. 

81. James Durley and Emeline Skeel, Aug. 20th, 1835, by 
Nahum Gould, M. G. 

82. Tames Gallaher and Jane M. Reynolds, Aug. 6th, 1835, by 
Nahum Gould, M. G. 

83. John Willhite and Lavina Williams, Aug. 9th, 1835, by Na- 
thaniel Applegate, M. G, 

84. John Swanson and Hannah Sherman, Aug. 27th, 1835, by 
Nahum Gould, M. G. 

85. Samuel King and M Harris, Aug. 13th, 1835, by Joseph 

M. Fairfield, J. P. 

86. Isaac Parson and Harriet Park, Sept. 17, 1835, by Nahum 
Gould, M. G. 

87. Robertus H. Stephenson and Charlotte Shippen, Sept. 24th, 
1835, by Nahum Gould, M. G. 

88. Moses G. Short and Margaret Mitchell, Oct. 1st, 1835. bv 
Nahum Gould, M. G. 

89. Nathan Reynolds and Charlotte John, Oct. 1st, 1835, by 
Wm. M. Stewart, J. P. 

90. Timothy Perkins and Cynthia Perkins, Oct. 17th, 1835, by 
John H. Bryant, J. P. 

91. Lazarus Reeve and Louisa W. Scott, Oct. 20th, 1835, by 
Lucian Farnham, M. G. 

92. Asahel W. Mounts and Charlotte Pepperr. Nov. 1st. 1835, 
by Russell H. Mallary, J. P. 

93. Walter Plato and Mary Jane Benny, Nov. 3rd, 1835, by 
Russell H. Mallary, J. P. 

94. . Patrick George and EHzabeth Ridgeway, Nov. 10th, 1835, 
by George Snyder, J. P. 



109 

95. Nicholas Smith and Matilda Thompson, Nov. 26th, 1835, by 
John H. Bryant, J. P. 

96. Alexander Davis and June Leonard, Nov. 26th, 1835, by 
Joel Hargrave, C. Com. 

97. John Dyer and Laureen T. Mason, Nov. 28th, 1835, by 
Robert Garton, M. G. 

98. William White and Margaret M. Stewart, Dec. 3rd, 1835, 
by Rev. Wm. Gould. 

99. Cyrus Watson and Lydia Holbrook, Dec. 3rd, 1835, by Joel 
Hargrave, C. Com. 

100. Jacob Smalley and Mary Barr, Dec. 17th, 1835, by George 
Cryder, J. P. 

101. Elisha Wood and Mary Jane Drake, Dec. 31st, 1835, by 
Rev. L. Farnham. 

102. Herman Downing and Rachel D. Holbrook, Jan. 7th, 1836, 
by Rev. L. Farnham. 

103. Wm. T. Gould and Ruth Ann Blizzard, Jan. 13th, 1836, by 
Benj. R. Sheldon, J. P. 

104. Lewis Thompson and Sarah Kidney, Jan. 13th, 1836, by 
Benj. R. Sheldon, J. P. 

105. Amariah Watson and Rachel Drake, Jan. 1st, 1836, by Joel 
Hargrave, C. Com. 

106. William C. Stephens and Maria Burr, Feb. 5th, 1836, by 
Rev. L. Farnham. 

107. Asher Doolittle and Eunice Waldo, Feb. 19th, 1836, by Rev. 
L. Farnham. 

108. Ralph W. Smith and Hannah S. Moffitt, Feb. 24th, 1836, 
by Nahum Gould. 

109. Dexter Wall and Sarah Starks, Mar. 17th, 1836, by Benj. 
Smith, J. P. 

110. WilHam Fowler and Naomi Scarl, Mar. 24th, 1836, by John 
H. Bryant, J. P. 

111. Nathaniel M. Reeder and Melvinah Gunn, Apr. 1st, 1836, 
by Joseph M. Fairfield, J. P. 

112. Jefferson Studyvin and Elvira Johnson, Apr. 1st, 1836, by 
Benj. R. Sheldon, J. P. 

113. James Buchanan and Ellen Kidney, Apr. 14th, 1836, by 
J. M. Fairfield, J. P. 

114. William Cafferty and Elzira Scarl, Apr. 17th, 1836, by 
Benj. R. Sheldon, J. P. 

115. Nero W. Mounts and Nancy Martindale, Apr. 28th, 1836, 
by Benjamin Smith, J. P. 

116. George F. Thomas and Elizabeth Romble, May 19th, 1836, 
by Wm. M. Stewart, J. P. 

117. James B. Hunter and Jane Martin, May 19th, 1836, by 
Robert Barnes, J. P. 

118. Giles C. Dany and Ruth M. Thomas, Apr. 19th, 1836, by 
Jeremiah Porter. 

119. Wm. Root and Catherine Cook, June 27th, 1836. by John 
H. Bryant, J. P. 



no 

120. ScTiiuel Thompson and Sallv Drake, Jiilv 4th, 1836, by J. 
M. Fairfield, J. P. 

121. Lucian Livingston and jane Leech, June 30th, 1836, by 
Nahum Gould, M. G. 

122. Adam T. Gavlor and Matilda Allen. July 10th. 1836, by 
John H. Bryant, J. P. ' 

123. William Rodgers and Rosilla Fassett, July 21st, 1836, by 
John H. Bryant, J. P. 

124. Peter S. Savage and Charlotte Hosier, Aug. 4th, 1836, by 
Rev. Nahum Gould. 

125. William Rouse and Sally Murphy, Aug. 25th, 1836, by 
Rev. Herman L. Colton. 

126. Jacob Wasson and Jane Scott, Aug. 25th, 1836, by Rev. 
Nathaniel Applegate. 

127. Lyman Chase and Jamima Allen, Aug. 4th, 1836, by Rev. 
Robert Garton. 

128. Isaac Ridgeway and ^^largaret Sterm, Sept. 12th, 1836, by 
Benj. R. Sheldon. 

129. James Leech and Electa Hawks, Aug. 2oth, 1836, by Rev. 
H. S. Colton. 

130. Green Cullum and Ann Miers, Sept. 11th. 1836, by Enoch 
Dent, J. P. 

131. \\'illiam Miller and Rachel Hall. Sept. 22nd, 1836, by Rev. 
Nathl. Applegate. 

132. Thomas Hartsell and Semira Gould, Oct. 4th, 1836, by Rev. 
Nahum Gould. 

133. Martin Batterton and America Taylor, Oct. 10th, 1836, by 
Benj. Smith, T- P. 

134. William A. Bird and Harriet Bird, Oct. 9th, 1836, by 
Robert Barnes, J. P. 

135. Lott Bullman and Ann Babb, Oct. 13th, 1836, by Robert 
Barnes, J. P. 

136. BeHtha Griffith and ^largaret Harris, Sept. 18th, 1836, 
by George Snyder, J. P. 

137. James S. Chaney and Clarissa Marpool, Oct. 25th, 1836, 
by W. C. Cummings, J. P. 

]o8. McCayga Tripplett and Emily Wiswall, Oct. 11th. bv 
John H. Bryant,' J. P. 

139. Burton Ayers and Aurelia Lang^vorthy, Sep. 13th, 1836, 
by John H. Bryant. J. P. 

140. Calphuma Elam and Thomas Epperson, Oct. 21st, 1836, 
by Cyrus Bryant, Judj. CCC. 

141. Thomas Gallagher, Jr., and Susan Garton, Dec. 1st, 1836, 
by Thomas Powel, M. G. 

141. Thomas Morgan and Clarissa E. Cook, Dec. 1st, 1836, 
by Thomas Powell, M. G. 

142. George W. Ventioner and Jane Savage, Dec. 1st, 1836, 
by Rev. Nahum Gould. 

143. William P. Griffin and Eliza Triplett, Nov. 17th, 1836, 
by John H. Bryant, J. P. 



Ill 

144. James S. Everett and Harriet Hyde, Dec. 19th, 1836, by 
Cyrus Bryant, Judj. C. C. C. 

1-15. John Shipley and Thankful Graon, Dec. 15th, 1836, by 
Lyman Horram, J. P. 

146. John Griffin and Ann White, Jan. 5th, 1837, by Rev. 
Nahum Gould. 

147. Chaney D. Colton and Emily Smith, Jan. 12th, 1837, by 
Rev. L. Farnham. 

148. Eli T. Prickett and Jane Ventioner, Feb. 20th, 1837, by 
Benj. R. Sheldon, J. P. 

149. Silas Trimble and Margaret Stickel, Feb. 7th, 1837, by 
Rev. L. Farnham. 

150. Ephraim A. Hubbard and Jane Stickel, Feb. 16th, 1837, 
by Rev. L. Farnham. 

151. William King and Rebecca Catterlin, Feb. 22nd, 1837, 
by Rev. A. E. Phelps. 

152. Alfred Thompkins and Nancy Jane McCaslin, Feb. 9th, 
1837, by Rev. N. Applegate. 

153. Erastns Sherwin and Elvira Robinson, Mar. 16th, 1837, 
by Rev. H. Headley. 

154. Richard Pearce and Lydia Chander, Mar. 23rd, by Rev. 
H. Headley. 

155. Hezekiah Epperson and Nancy Heaton, Mar. 29th, 1837, 
by John H. Bryant, J. P. 

156. Zenas Macomber and Catherine A. Evans, Mar. 17th, 
1837, by Enoch Dent, T- P. 

157. William Knox and Mary Mercer, Apr. 12th, 1837, by 
Cyrus Bryant, J. C. C. C. 

158. Freeman Packingham and Jane L. Ash, Apr. 26th, 1837, by 
Rev. Nahum Gould. 

159. John Gray and Mary Dever, Mar. 12th, 1837, by Robert 
Barnes, J. P. 

160. Obed Graves and Joyce Hailey, Apr. 26th, 1837, by Ly- 
man Horram, J. P. 

161. Aaron Gunn and Nancy M. Winters, May 15th, 1837, by 
Rev. A. E. Phelps. 

163. Daniel P. Greeley and Ethalinda S. Durham, May 18th, 
1837, by Joseph Brigham, J. P. 

163. Henry James and IMargaret Wilkinson, Apr. 5th, 1S37, 
by Luther Driscoll. 

164. Augustus Langworthy and Adelia E. Perkins, May 18th, 
1837, by Rev. H. Hadley. 

165. Zerah Beckwith and Mary Ann Gaylord, May 28th, 1837, 
by Enoch Dent, J. P. 

167. Joseph Marlatt and Sarah Byers, June 27th, 1837, by 
J. H. Dickey, M. G. 

168. S. C. Emerson and Polly Garton, April 27th, 1837, by 
W. C. Gumming, M. G. 



112 

169. Demarun B. Ellis and Sally M. Garton, June 8th, 1837, 
by W. C. Gumming, M. G. 

170. Jeremiah R. Larkin and Sarah' Ann Davis, July 4th, 
1837, by J. B. Chenowith, M. G. 

173. Nelson Dugan and Mary Ann Stroud, July loth, 1837, 
by Wm. M. Stuart, J. P. 

173. Wilson Stewart and Hulda Reynolds, August 3rd, 1837, 
by Calvin W. Babbitt, M. G. 

175. William M. Young and Mary H. Glenn, August 17th, 
1837, by J. B. Chenowith, M. G. 

177. H. W. Dunbar and Sylvia Yaman, July 20th, 1837, by 
Felix Margrave, J. P. 

178. Samuel F. Colman and Julia Ann Thompson, August 
20th, 1837, by R. H. Mallory, J. P. 

179. Samuel A. Robins and Elizabeth Gilbert, August 10th, 
1837, by Morris Spaulding, J. P. 

180. John P. Judson and Maria Wattles, August 24th, 1837, 
by J. B. Chenowith, M. G. 

181. John W. Newcomb and Charlotte M. Smith, September 
18th, 1837, by A. E. Phelps, M. G. 

182. Orlando Child and Ruth S. Cure. September 14th, 1837, 
by Chauncy Cook, M. G. 

183. Isaac Baker and Eliza Ash, October 12th, 1837, by J. B. 
V Chenowith, M. G. 

184. Augustin Smith and Sarah B. Wan, October 31st, 1837, 
by Chauncy Cook, M. G. 

185. Marklin Beatty and Nancy Gaylord. October 5th, 1837, 
by Enoch Dent, J. P. 

186. Elisha G. Powers and Elizabeth Mannon, October 19th, 
1837, by Felix Margrave, J. P. 

187. James Bryant and Anny Williams, November 30th, 1837, 
by J. M. Fairfield, J. P. 

188. Joseph Cox and Catharine Edwards, November 12th, 
1837, by John W. Agan, J. P. 

189. Reuben P. Bell and Nancv D. Palmer, November 15th, 
1837, by David St. Clair, M. G. 

190. John Lonnon and Margaret Veitch, November 20th, 
1837, by Morris Spalding, J. P. 

191. Jessie Root, Jr., and Nancy Atwood, November 16th, 
1837, by Jessie Root, M. G. 

192. Langley Hall and Sarah Ligo, December 13th, 1837, by 
M. G. Brau, J.>. 

193. Thomas Taylor and Mary Ann Beck, December 25th, 
1837, by J. M. Fairfield, J. P. 

194. Jacob Lemmon and Anny Spicer, January 1st, 1838, by 
R. H. Mallory, J. P. 

195. Isaac Clendening and Loritha Johnson, December 14th, 
1837, by Warford Bonham, J. P. 

196. George W. Hailey and Sarah Baker, January 7th, 1838, 
by Enoch Dent, J. P. 



113 

197. William M. Darmont and Nancy Wahob, January 18th, 
1838, by Warford Bonham, J. P. 

198. Jacob G. Forney and Mary R. Smullen, January 11th, 
1838, by Rev. Wm. Candiff. 

199. Isaac Griffith and Eliza Lundy, February 1st, 1838, by 
Felix Margrave, J. P. 

200. James W. Margrave and Elizabeth Hopkins, February 
8th, 1838, by J. H. Dickey, M. G. 

201. John E. Stewart and Sophia Chapman, February 8th, 
1838, by Lyman Horram, J. P. 

202. Ephraim Smith and Harriet A. Trewman, February 18th, 
1838, by Lyman Horram, J. P. 

203. Wm. A. Hendrick and Mary Ann James, Feb. 22nd, 1838, 
by H. D. Palmer, M. G. 

204. William Kincaid and Rebecca Sugert, Mar. 13th, 1838, by 
Benj. R. Sheldon, J. P. 

205. Mark Sawyer and Susannah James, Mar. 22nd, 1838, by 
Robert Barnes, J. P. 

206. Conrad Dash and Elizabeth Bucknam, Apr. 11th, 1838, by 
Rev. C. Cook. 

20r. John Woolstoncroft and Elizabeth PhiUips, Apr. 24th, 1838. 
by Rev. C. Cook. 

208. Wm. W. Drummond and Jemina M. Clenahan, Apr. 10th, 
1838, by Rev. Jon. Miner. 

209. Samuel Love and Catherine Taylor. Apr. 15th, 1838, by 
John W. Agan, J. P. 

210. Luther P. Frost and Caroline White, Apr. 7th, 1838, by 
Rev. Wm. Candiff. 

211. John Shields and Nancy Dent. Apr. 25th, 1838, by Rev. 
Wm. Candiff. 

212. Jacob Zenor and Elvira Skeel, May 31st, 1838, by Rev. B. 
Harris. 

213. Guy W. Pool and Sophrona Bascom, June ITth, 1838, by 
James J. Holt, J. P. 

214. Morris Barter and Jane Hattan, July 25th, 1838, by Rob- 
ert Barnes, J. P. 

215. John Brown and Margaret Thompson, Aug. 26th, 1838, by 
Wm. Royal. 

216. Joseph Lane and Emily Chaffee, Sept. 25th, 1838, by John 
W. Agan, J. P. 

217. Thomas Brumsey and Sarah Freeman, Sept. 27th, 1838, by 
Asahel Hannum, J. P. 

218. Barnet Smith and Mary Brumsey, Sept. 24th, 1838, by Asa- 
hel Hannum, J- P- 

219. Wm. A. Drummond and Ruth Cox, Oct. 2nd, 1838, by 
John W. Agan, J. P. 

220. Samuel Sterm and Elizabeth Phenix, Oct. 4th, 1838, by 
M. G. Brau. T- P. 

221. Oliver Boyle and Elizabeth A. Wilson, Oct. 24th, 1838, by 
Rev. Zadok Hall, M. G. 



114 

222. Edwin Porter and Clarissa Powell, Oct. 25th, 1838, by 
Rev. J. Hill. 

223. John Hunter and Nancy Gay, Oct. 11th, 1838, by Rev. H. 
D. Palmer. 

224. Jesse Gay and Mary A. Hunter, Oct. 11th, 1838, bv Rev. 
H. D. Palmer. 

225. William M. Hart and Rebecca Hart, Nov. 13th, 1838, by 
Joseph Catterlin, J. P. 

226. John Shaffner and Susan Forqunan, Nov. 18th, 1838, bv 
Benj. R. Sheldon, J. P. 

227. Charles Turtin and Mary Chaplin, Nov. 28th, 1838, by 
Asahel Hannum, J. P. 

228. John Whitson and Margaret Wahob, Oct. 28th, 1838, bv 
F. W. Graves, J. P. 

229. William B. Green and Elizabeth Scudder, Dec. 12th, 1838, 
by Zadok Hall, M. G. 

230. Thomas Timmons and Mary Jane Davis, Dec. 16th, by 
John \Y. Agan, J. P. 

231. Robert W. Clenahan and Lucy Ann Richards, Jan. 3rd, 
1839, by Jona Miner, M. G. 

232. James Thompson and Mary Ann Strawn, Dec. 30th, 1838, 
by Rev. J. Z. Hall. 

233. Josiah E. Hayes and Louisa Fanning, Jan. 10th, 1839, by 
Warford Bonham, J. P. 

234. Stephen "M. C. James and Lieurana Davis, Dec. 12th, 1839, 
by Rev. H. D. Palmer. 

235. David Currier and Rebecca Jane Parks., Jan. 8th, 1838, by 
Rev. Wm. F. Vaile. 

236. Benj. M. V. Curterline and Sarah Crow, Aug. 23rd, 1838, 
by Rev. W^m. Candifif. 

237. Lewis Goodmo and Nancy Patten, July 4th, 1838, by Rev. 
Wm. Candiff. 

238. John Baker, Jr., and Nancy B. Harley, Jan. 29th, 1839, by 
Asahel Hannum, J. P. 

239. Enoch Sawyer and Elizabeth Broaddus, Jan. 29th, 1839, bv 
Rev. H. D. Palmer. 

240. Jonathan W^ilson and Elma C. Hoyle, Jan. 24th, 1839, by 
J. J. Holt. "J. P. 

241. Samuel Crow and Charlotte Hart, Jan. 23rd, 1839, bv J. J. 
Holt, J. P. 

242. James King and Mary Wahob, Feb. 14th, 1839, by F. W. 
Graves. J. P. 

243. George Simmerman and Phoebe Richmond, Feb. 28th, 1839. 
by Jona. Minor, M. G. 

244. James Sprague and Clarissa ICynion, Mar. 29th, 1839. by 
Asahel Hannum, J. P. 

245. Daniel'Woodward and Marv Ann Hadital. Mar. 13th, 1839, 
by M. G. Brau, J. P. 

246. Alamon Whitaker and Mariah Jane Taggart. Mar. 28th, 
1839, by Rev. Thomas Powel, M. G. 



115 

247. William C. Reagan and Eliza Walker, Apr. 17th, 1839, by 
J. J. Holt, J. P. 

248. Rufus Shed and Martha Welch, June 3d, 1839, by J. J. 
Holt, J. P. 

249. James B. Ashley and Mary Morrille, June 12th, 1839, by 
B. R. Sheldon, J. P. 

250. Thomas Gallaher and Aurora Morrille, June 12th, 1839, by 
B. R. Sheldon, J. P. 

251. Artamus Woodberry and Lydia Winters, July 14th, 1839, by 
Thomas Powell, M, G. 

252. Michael Haynes and Margaret Rume, July 25th, 1839, by 
Joseph Catterlin, J. P. 

253. Ebenezer S. Phelps and Hannah Morse, Aug. 12th, 1839, 
by Owen Lovejoy. 

254. John E. Dent and Mary Irvin, Sept. 7th, 1839, by Asahel 
Hannum, J. P. 

255. Caleb J. Hill and Mary Baker, Sept. 1st, 1839, by J. B. 
Chenowith, M. G. 

256. William Hancock and Elizabeth Orr, Mar. 25th, 1839, by 
A. Pomeroy, M. G. 

257. Philip McGuire and Jemina Orr, Nov. 4th, 1839, by A. 
Pomeroy, M. G. 

258. EH Strawn and Elinor Broaddus, Jan. 7th, 1838, by A. 
Pomeroy, M. G. 

259. George F. Case and W. M. Spicer, Mar. 23rd, 1838, by 
A. Pomeroy, M. G. 

260. A. S. Fishburn and Ann L Pomeroy, Mar. 27th, 1838, by 
A. Pomeroy, M. G. 

261. William Fisher and Catherine LoveHn, Aug. 2nd, 1838, by 
A. Pomeroy, M. G. 

262. Wm. E. Buckingham and Anna White, Sept. 15th, 1838, by 
A. Pomeroy, M. G. 

263. Ammon Moon and Adaline Dency, Nov. 26th, 1838, by 
A. Pomeroy, M. G. 

264. William C. Boal and Eliza Mag, Feb. 10th, 1839, by A. 
Pomeroy, M. G. 

265. Harrison Hayes and Martha Brown, Oct. 24th, 1839, by 
James G. Laughlin, J. P. 

266. Robert Young and Rebecca Sherman, Nov. 11th. 1839, by 
Rev. Nahum Gould. 

267. Eugene F. Skinner and Mary P. Cook, Nov. 28th, 1839, by 
Thomas Atwater, Judge. 

268. James Hayes and Eliza Dale, Dec. 5th, 1839, by James G. 
Laughlin. 

269. David Watkins and Betsy Johnson, Dec. 19th. 1839, by 
Joseph Catterlin. J. P. 

270. David L. Child and Margaret L. Dysart, Nov. 26th, 1839, 
bv H. G. Pendleton, M. G. 

271. Dexter Pease and Harriet E. Moore. Dec. 26th, 1839, by 
George Dent, J. P. 



116 

272. Brackston Murphy and Malinda Folsom, Jan. 20th, 1840, by 
A. Hannum, J. P. 

273. Garrison H. Wilson and Alice Ann Dugan, Jan. 30th, 1840, 
by P. G. Young, M. G. 

274. Elijah B. Wilson and Sarah R. Nower, Feb. 13th, 1840, 
by P. G. Young, M. G. 

275. Samuel A. Dixon and Ruth Whitaker, Apr. 18th, 1840, by 
Rev. Thomas Powell. 

276. George P. Meritt and Sabina M. Hoyle, Mar. 12th, 1840, 
by Thomas Aiwater, J. P. 

277. Samuel Stout and Marv Ann Winters, Mar. 12th, 1840, by 
J. G. Laughlin, J. P. ' 

278. Squire Zenor and Julia Ann Mitchell, May 22nd, 1840, by 
J. P. Hayes. T. P. 

279. Ezra Fell and Orinda M. Hannun, May 14th, 1840, by P. 
G. Young, M. G. 

280. Silas Lock and Hannah S. Hoyt, May 19th, 1840, by J. Cat- 
terlin, J. P. 

281. Albert Bowman and Permelia E. Bowman, May 28th, 1840, 
by P. G. Young, M. G. 

282. Timothy Horram and Jane Prunk. July 9th, 1840, by John 
P. Hayes, J. P. 

283. David S. Crider and Sarah Beane. July 23rd, 1840, by 
Thomas Atwater, J. P. 

284. Worden Folson and Betsy Murphy, July 9th, 1840, by 
Asahel Hannum, J. P. 

285. William Jones and Sarah W^itkins, Aug. 14th, 1840, bv John 
P. Hayes, J. P. 

286. Thomas T- Drain and Alargaret Kelly. Aug. 24th, 1840, by 
S. W. D. Chan, M.'G. 

287. Josephus Phelps and Lydia Clark, Sept. 13th. 1840, by A. 
Hannum, J. P. 

288. W^illiam R. Willard and Mary Wild. Nov. 7th, 1840, by 
John P. Hayes, J. P. 

289. Albert S. Myers and Emily J. Whitcomb, Dec. 24th, 1840, 
by Thomas Powell, M. G. 

290. William S. Archer and Sarah Williams. Dec. 10th. 1840, by 
A. P. Dysart, J. P. 

291. John Myers and Elizabeth J. G., Dec. 3rd. 1840. by Asahel 
Hannum, J. P. 

292. Joseph W. Kinney and T. Andrews. Dec. 24th, 1840. by 
[. B. Chenowith, M. G. 

293. James H. Gibbons and Eleanor W. Hill, Jan. 8th, 1841, by 
Joseph Catterlin, j. P. 

294. David W. Dixon and Margaret Whitson. Jan. 14th. 1841, 
bv Joseph Catterlin, T- P. 

' 295. William H. Sammis and Lucy B. Butler. Feb. 14th. 1841. 
bv Thomas Atwater, Judge. 

296. George C. Hanscel and Mary Taylor. Feb. 15th. 1841. by 
George Dent, J. P. 



117 

297. Christian L. Capel and Elizabeth C. Smith, Feb. 18th, 1841, 
by Augustus Capel, J. P. 

298. William Stockdale and Deliverana Hurst, Feb. 26th, 1841, 
by H. G. Pendleton, M. G. 

299. John Myers and Mary Livermon, Mar. 18th, 1841, by John 
P. Hayes, J. P. 

300. William H. P. Norris and Lucinda Jeffin, Mar. 18th, 1841, 
by J. G. Laughlin, J. P. 

301. Thomas Cowen and Paulina Boyle, Feb. 18th, 1841, by 
Thomas Powell, M. G. 

302. John A. Graffelman and Sarah A. Young, Apr. 22nd, 1841, 
by Augustus Capel, J. P. 

303. Monroe Larkin and Elizabeth D. Glenn. Apr. 15th, 1841, by 
George Dent, J. P. 

304. Albert G. McCaleb and Caroline McCarty, Apr. 29th, 1841, 
by P. G. Young, M. G. 

305. Joseph C. Corbett and Sophia E. Robertson, May 6th, 1841, 
by P. G. Young. M. G. 

306. Jabish Clark and Amanda McCarty, May 20th, 1841, by 
Asahel Hannum, J. P. 

307. Henry Daniels and Esther Lervin, May 25th, 1841, by 
J. G. Laughlin, J. P. 

308. Henry R. Pierce and Martha Ann Catterlin, June 29th, 
1841, by H. G. Pendleton, M. G. 

309. James J. Todd and Ruth E. Bascom, June 27th, 1841, by 
Thomas Atwater, P. Judge. 

310. William Galloway and Jane W. Robertson, June 4th, 1841, 
by P. G. Young, M. G. 

311. George Taylor and Amerilla Wykoff, August 10th, 1841, 
by Augustus Capel, J. P. 

312. Jonathan Hayes and Emily Hawkins, August 19th, 1841, 
by J. G. Laughlin, J. P. 

313. Elihu W. Rice and Catherine Dysart, Sep. 9th, 1841, by 
James Templeton, V. D. M, 

314. Lewis W. Weston and Theodosia N. Fames, Oct. 26, 1841, 
by Thomas Powell, M. G. 

315. Lewis J. Beck and Cynthia A. Winters, Nov. 19th, 1841, 
John P. Hayes, J. P. 

316. Nathaniel H. Averill and Nancy A. D. Rice, Oct. 14th, 
1841, by Thomas Powell, M. G. 

317. Joshua Gushing and Sarah Pennemen, Oct. 1st, 1841, by 
Thomas Powell, M. G. 

318. Levi A. Zenor and Martha Ann Patterson, Dec. 6th, 1841, 
by Thomas Atwater, J. P. 

319. Thomas Hill and Dorothy Ish, Dec. 2nd, 1841, by Mifflin 
Harker, M. G. 

320. Silas King and Nancy Candiff, Dec. 9th, 1841, byAsahel 
Hannum, J. P. 

321. John German and FUzabeth Morris, Dec. 22nd, 1841, by 
Mifflin Harker, M. G. 



1J8 

322. Allen Wilocock and Frances A. Whitcomb, Jan. 1st, 1842, 
by Mifflin Harkcr, M. G. 

323 Thomas Loyd and Louisa Strawn, Jan. 1st, 1842, by Mifflin 
Marker, M. G. 

324. Thomas Coleman and Harriet Wafer, Feb. 17th, 1842 by 
H. G. Pendleton, M. G. 

325. John C. Bowman and Elizabeth Porter, Mar. 5th, 1842, 
by Ezra Stout, M. G. 

326. Edward Chan and Elizabeth M, Lewis, Mar. 3rd, 1842, by 
John P. Hayes. 

327. James Gibson and Lucy Martin, Mar. 13th, 1842, by Ezra 
Stout, M. G. 

328. Walter Cowan and Matilda Slrawn, Mar. 3rd, 1842, by 
Mift'lin Harker. 

329. Samuel Cox and Sarah Cochran, Mar. 3rd, 1842, by Mifflin 
Harker. 

330. William E, Parrot and Emily Jane Dent, Mar. 24th, 1842. 
by George Dent, J. P. 

331. George Perry and Sarah Service, Mar. 31st, 1842, by H. G. 
Pendleton. 

332. Nile Borop and Elizabeth Hoover, Apr. 7th, 1842. by 
Thomas Atwater, P. Judge. 

333. John Smith and Eliza Allen, Apr. 5th, 1842, by Augustus 
Capel J. P. 

334. William H. Graves and Alfonza Larwood, Apr. 28th, 1842, 
by John P. Hayes, J. P. 

335. Peter Smith and Margaret Rochester, Apr. 7th, 1842, by 
Ezra Stout, M. G. 

336. Henry Ham and Rebecca Russell, Apr. 21st, 1842, by Miff- 
lin Harker, M. G. 

337. Archibald P. Dysart and Hannah J. Hawthorn, Apr. 21st. 

1842, by James Templeton. M. G. 

338. Christopher P. Tarket and Anna Ray, May 24th, 1842, by 
Joseph Catterlin, J. P. 

339. John P. Wallin and Nancy Watkin, June 16th, 1842, by 
Joseph Catterlin, J. P. 

340. John W. Gorbit and Justin Russell, Sep. 1st, 1842, by 
H. D. Gorbit, M. G. 

341. Willard B. Norris and Louisa Lyons, Oct. 2nd, 1842, by 
Thomas Atwater, P. J. 

342 A. Murphy and Christania Folsom. Nov. 27th, 1842, by 
Asahel Hannum, J. P. 

343. Isaac Cissel and Amanda Zenor, Nov. 20th, 1842, by 
Thomas Atwater. P. J. 

344. Robert Crow and Mahitabel Hayes, Dec. 15th, 1842, by 
John P. Hayes. J. P. 

345. Tisdale Bullock and Ann Frances Grossman, Jan. 3rd, 

1843, by Thomas Powell, M. G. 

346. Samuel Moore and Anna Norman Thomas, Jan. 3rd, 1843, 
by William Justin. M. G. 



119 

347. George Sparling and Adeline Morgan, Jan. 12th, 1843, by 
Samuel C. Bacon, J. P. 

348. Josiah M. Hannum and Elizabeth Shepherd, Jan. 29th, 
1843, by John P. Hayes, J. P. 

349. William Kincaid and Jemima Shepherd, Feb. 20th, 1843, 
by Thomas Atwater, J. P. 

350. James Packingham and Elizabeth Dysart, Jan. 2nd, 1843, 
James Templeton. 

351. Justus W. Stewart and Rachel Fell, Mar. 5th, 1843, by 
Asahel Hannum, J. P. 

352. George Griffith and Lydia Comby, Apr. 4th, 1843, by John 
P. Hayes, J. P. 

353. John Saly and Arabella Wauhop, Apr. 6th, 1843, by H. G. 
Pendleton, M. G. 

354. Joseph Robinson and Amanda M. Hailey, Apr. 27th. by 
Asahel Hannum, J. P. 

355. David Morrison and Sarah Morris, May 11th, 1843, by 
John P. Hayes, M. G. 

356. Orin Bacon and Eliza Black, May 25th, 1843, by George 
Dent, J. P. 

357. Harmon Dean and Sarah Folsom, Aug. 10th, 1843, by 
George Dent, J. P. 

358. Thomas Hailey and Margaret Ann Glenn, Aug. 13th, 1843, 
by Ezra Stout, M. G. 

359.' Thomas Gillit and Rosina Winter, Sep. 7th, 1843, by 
Augustus Capel, J. P. 

360. Lynd Elliott and Jane D , Sept. 27th, 1843, by Asahel 

Hannum, J. P. 

361. James S. Simpson and Lydia N. Barlow, Oct. 10th, 1843, 
by Thomas Atwater, J. P. 

362. William A. Pennell and Evaline A. Eames, Oct. 20th, 
1843, by H. G. Pendleton. 

363. John William and Melinda Morgan, Oct. 22nd, 1843, by 
Samuel C. Bacon, J, P. 

364. Orange Gaylord and Sarah Elizabeth Stout, Oct. 12th, by 
George W. Miner, M. G. 

365. George Dillman and Ann Burley, Nov. 2nd, 1843, by 
George W. Miner, M. G. 

366. Herman Price and Mary Ann Kimber, Dec. 21st, 1843, by 
A. B. Amy, M. C. P. C. 

367 Jonas L. Ball and Elizabeth Fetter, Nov. 23rd, 1843, by 
P. G. Young, M. G. 

368. Noah Thominson and Elizabeth Ogle. Dec. 14th, 1843, by 
J. G. Laughlin, J. P. 

369. Martin Brown and Sarah Jane Myers, Jan. 19th, 1843, by 
J. G. Laughlin, J. P. 

370. David Hewit and Ann Hartley, Feb. 22nd. 1843, by Asahel 
Hannum, J. P. 

371. Jane Smith and Eveline Lewis, Feb. 15th, 1843, by George 
Dent. J. P. 



120 

372. Samuel Chance and Mariah Bush, April 18th, 1843, by 
John P. Hayes, J. P. ~ 

373. Leonard Howe and Harriet Robinson, April 17th, 1843, 
by Thomas Powell, M. G. 

374. Arthur H. Thompson and Miriam A. Robinson, April 17th, 

1843, by Thomas Powell, M. G. 

375. Amasa Crosiar and Sarah Brown, April 8th, 1843, by 
Harvey Hoadley, M. G. 

376. Wilson Ong and Sarah Raley, Apr. 25th, 1844, by George 
Dent, J. P. 

377. William P. Hart and Agnes P. Boyle, Jun. 11th, 1844, by 
Thos. Powell M. G. 

378. Alfred Robert and Rebecca Robinson, Jun. 20th, 1844, by 
H. G. Pendleton, M. G. 

379. John Taylor and Mary Ann Mills, Jun. 27th, 1844, by A 
Blancy, M. G. 

380. Hiram W. White and Lucinda A. Enos, Jun. 25th, 1844, 
by John P. Hayes, M. G. 

381. Jonathan Tullis and Abigail S. Haws, Aug. 17th, 1844, by 
H. G. Pendleton, M. G. 

382. Alonzo Kinyon and Clarissa Jane Taylor, Aug. 13th, 1844, 
by John F. Devon, M. G. 

383. Calvin W. Ish and Cynthia Ann Payne, Aug. 25th, 1844, 
by John P. Hayes, M. G. 

384. Prior M. Short and Catharine Oren, Sept. 3rd, 1844, by 
John P. Hayes, M. G. 

385. James Allen and Susannah Plough, Aug. 28th, 1844, by 
Augustus Capel, J. P. 

386. Michael L. Capel and Martha Kuntz, Oct. 6th, 1844, by 
Augustus Capel, J. P. 

387. Abraham M. Howard and Permelia M. Whitcomb, Oct. 
21st, 1844, by P. G. Young, M. G. 

388. William Croisant and Margaret Wonder, Oct. 14th, 1844, 
by John Osborn, J. P. 

389. Luther Bartlett and Celia S. Bartlett, Nov. 8th, 1844, by 
John Libby, M. G. 

390. S. Nelson and Betsey D. Bartlett, Oct. 22nd, 1844. by John 
P. Hayes, M. G. 

391. William L. Osborn and Nancy Ann Delong, Sep. 25th, 1844, 
by J. G. Laughlin, J. P. 

392. John B. Smith and Elizabeth Heartley, Nov. 14th, 1844, 
by Asahael Hannum. 

393. Henry Reve and Ann C. Fisher, Nov. 28th, 1844, by Lewis 
Parod, P. P. 

394. William Hanscell and Lucy Wycoff, Nov. 11th, 1844, by 
Augustus Capel, J. P. 

395. Charles Coleman and Jane Lane, Nov. 21st, 1844, by Augus- 
tus Capel, J. P. 

396. Edward Phillips and Elizabeth Worthington, Nov. 14th, 

1844, by A. B. Corry, C. M. 



121 

397. Calvin Shields and Rachael German, Dec. 1st, 1844, by P. 
G. Young, M. G. 

398 Benjamin Coe and Jane J. Moore, Dec. 25th, 1844, by P. 
G. Young, M. G. 

399. Asa L. Hill and Charlotte C. Pratt, Jan. 1st, 1844, by Thos. 
Powell. 

400. Frederic Sheble and Mary C. Briggs, Jan. 5th, 1844, by 
John Libby, M. G. 



122 



FIRST DEED IN PUTNAM COUNTY, ILLINOIS. 
Bird, Robert and Wife 

TO 

John Strawn 

This Indenture made, and entered into this fifteenth day of 
August, in the year of our Lord 1831, between Robert Bird, and Rachel 
Bird his wife, of the one part and John Strawn of the other part, all 
of the county of Putnam and State of Illinois, witnesseth That the 
said Robert and Rachel Bird for, and in consideration of the sum of 
Thirty-Eight Dollars to him in hand paid by the said John Strawn, 
the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, hath this day bargained, 
sold, released and confirmed, and doth by these present bargain, sell, 
release and confirm, unto the said John Strawn, his heirs and assigns 
forever a certain piece, or lot of land known and designated as fol- 
lows, to wit : As being the North end of the Northeast fractional ^ 
of section No. 35, Township No. 30 North, Range No. 3 \\"est, con- 
taining all the land as far South as a straight line running of the East 
boundary, past the town of Columbia to the Illinois river, be the same 
more or less. To have and to hold the above described premises, to- 
gether with all and singular the appurtenances thereunto belonging or 
in any wise appertaining to him, the said John Strawn, his heirs and 
assigns forever, and the said Robert and Rachel Bird for themselves 
and their heirs doth by these presents covenant to and with the said 
John Strawn to warrent and forever defend the title to the premises 
above described against the claim or claims of all and every person 
or persons claiming by through and under them. 

In testimony whereof the said Robert Bird and Rachel Bird have 
here-unto set their hands and seal this day and year first above writ- 
ten. 

Signed sealed and delivered in the 
presence of us. 

James Dever Robert Bird 

her 
John Kemp Rachel X Bird 

mark 

This day personally appeared before the undersigned Notary 
Publick in and for sd. county, Robert Bird and Rachel Bird, his wife, 
who are personally known to sd. notary to be the real persons who 
executed the foregoin deed of conveyance and who then before sd. 
notar}' the sd. Rachel Bird being separately examined, acknowledged 
that they signed, sealed and delivered said deed freely and voluntar- 
ily of the uses and purposes therein mentioned, given under my hand 
this fifteenth day of August 1831. And not being furnished with a 
seal of office, I have hereunto affixed my private seal. 

Colby T. Stevenson, N. P. 



123 



PRELIMINARY TREATY SIGNED AT A POINT WHICH 
IS NOW PALERMO, EDGAR COUNTY, ILLINOIS, IN 
1765, GIVING THE EASTERN MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 
TO ANGLO SAXON CIVILIZATION. 

[By Rose Moss Scott.1 

The delay of the British in taking possession of the "IlUnois 
Country-", after the defeat of the French at Quebec and the surrender 
of their possessions in America by the treaty of 1763, was due to its 
isolated position and the difficulty of reaching it with sufficient force 
to establish the British authority. 

France claimed the vast country west of the AUeghenies, watered 
by the Ohio and the Mississippi rivers. The Indian tribes in this 
region were numerous and warlike. 

George Croghan, a native of Ireland, came to America in 1743 
or 1744. In 1748 he had a trading house at Logstown, on the Ohio, 
and later trading establishments at the principal Indian towns. 

He early saw the importance of detaching the Indians from the 
French, by means of presents and more favorable trade. 

His suggestions on the subject were wisely heeded by the Presi- 
dent and Council of the Province of Pennsylvania, and they appointed 
him in 1747 their agent to deliver presents of goods to the Ohio In- 
dians. 

The Chiefs returned thanks for the presents and presented to 
Croghan a French scalp saying — "We send this French scalp as a token 
that we don't go to visit them for nothing". 

In August, 1749, Croghan was sent west by Gov. Hamilton in con- 
sequence of rumors of the French approaching the Ohio and to secure 
the Indians to the English interest. In November, 1750, he with 
Andrew Montour was dispatched to the Miamis to renew the friend- 
ship and deliver them presents. On the Ohio the chiefs told them 
"their brothers, the English, ought to have a fort on this river to se- 
cure the trade as they expected war with the French in the Spring." 

In the latter part of April, 1752, Gov. Hamilton at Philadelphia 
received a letter from Col. Croghan, written at Shawneetown, Feb. 
8, enclosing a message from the Shawnees to the effect that they in- 
tended to war against the French in revenge for the thirty Miamis 
killed by them and wanting to be assured of the friendship of the 
English, but in 1763 when the change was made from French to Eng- 
lish possession, dissatisfaction showed immediately among the western 
tribes. 

The Indians determined to "Shut up the way" to keep the white 
man from taking their possessions. To do this, they attacked all 
English posts on the same day. They did win eleven posts by taking 
the English by surprise. Their plans seemed nearing success when 



124 

word came to Detroit, that peace was established between the French 
and the English, and the red men would be given no more ammunition. 

During the Pontiac war Col. Croghan was active. He was with 
Capt. Emper, during the investment of Fort Pitt by the Indians. 

Gradually Pontiac's eighteen tribes deserted although to them he 
was King. The relentless spirit of the morose Pontiac was however 
still unsubdued, although the Delawares and Shawnees sued for truce, 
and terms of peace were agreed upon Dec. 5, 1764, after Col. Bouquet 
had defeated the Indians at Bushy Run. 

Pontiac like Achilles at the sie<7e of Troy "remained sulking in 
his tent." Loving the French as sincerely as he hated the British, 
he had risked all in what he believed to be their interest. Despondent 
yet revengeful he turned to the Illinois country. A few French trad- 
ers encouraged him and he determined to throw off the British yoke. 
He found his old friend Villiers, to whom he went, and to that officer 
he unfolded his plans for a continuance of war. and sought cooper- 
ation. The Frenchman coldly told him. he had already sent him word 
that France and Great Britain were at jieace and that his cherished 
scheme was impracticable. Notwithstanding this rebuff he continued 
his efforts to form a new league, visiting the Kickapoos, Miami s and 
others, and succeeded to some extent in renewing the war spirit among 
them. Feeling once more hopeful, and learning that his old friend St. 
Ange was at Fort Chartres, he repaired to that point and demanded 
guns, ammunition and troops, stating he loved the French. St. Ange 
with equal kindness and firmness, protested his inability to furnish 
the aid requested. 

Disappointed here he next turned to New Orleans. He dis- 
patched an embassy of trusted braves, whose return only added to his 
chagrin, when they told their tale of ill-success. 

Failing to secure French cooperation and support, and deserted 
in great measure by his confederates, the great chief at length per- 
ceived the folly of attempting to carry on unaided a struggle which 
could have but one result. Learning therefore of the approach of 
Col. Croghan, he resolved to go and meet him and to appraise him of 
his intentions to establish friendly relations with those whom he saw 
no way to defeat. 

The first attempt by the British to assert their ownership was 
made by a force of four hundred regulars, under command of Major 
Arthur Loftus, who was ordered to proceed to the Illinois country 
by way of New Orleans, Feb. 27, 1764 ; fired on by Indians from 
ambuscades on either bank of the river, several of his men killed, he 
abandoned the enterprise. After another unsuccessful attempt under 
, Capt. Morris in Aug., 1764, it was determined to reach Fort Chartres 
from Fort Pitt, and Col. George Croghan, deputy superintendent of 
Indian affairs, was sent on in advance as an envoy. Some apprehen- 
sion being felt lest the savages might commit some fresh outrage, 
Lieut. Alexander Frazier, who was to accompany Col. George Crog- 
han,, volunteered to proceed alone. Meanwhile Col. Croghan and men 
left Fort Pitt on May 15, 1765, accompanied by friendly Indians. 



125 

His progress was uneventful until he arrived at a small promon- 
tory of the Wabash, where he disembarked. On June 8th, six miles 
below the mouth of that stream, he was suddenly attacked by a band 
of Kickapoos, eighty in number. 

In the fight which followed Col. Croghan lost two white men and 
three Indians, while most of his party including himself were wounded. 
A surrender was unavoidable, and the victorious Kickapoos plundered 
the entire party. Subsequently, they assured the British officer it was 
"all a mistake", as they supposed the Indians accompanying him were 
their deadly foes the Cherokees. 

They brought their prisoners in safety to Vincennes, where the 
Indians, many of whom had friendly acquaintance with Col. Croghan, 
strongly condemned the Kickapoos. 

Leaving Vincennes he had proceeded but a short distance on his 
way to the Illinois Country, taking the route travelled by Morris for 
Detroit, before he was met by a delegation of chiefs representing 
various tribes, and on July IS, 1765, was met by the hitherto implac- 
able Pontiac himself at the head of a large band of Ottawa braves. 
The conference which ensued was entirely satisfactory and the pre- 
liminary Treaty signed. 

Today in Young America Township, Edgar County, at the cross 
roads, in the small village of Palermo, is a large concrete marker al- 
most six feet high and four feet wide. On this marker is a bronze 
tablet bearing the following inscription : 

"Near here on July 18th, 1765, Col. George Croghan, Deputy 
Superintendent of Indian affairs of the British Government, made a 
preliminary Treaty of Peace with Pontiac, Chief of the Ottawas and 
leader of the great Indian Confederacy. 

By the terms of this agreement, the allegiance of the Indians was 
transferred from the French to the British. 

Thus securing the Eastern Mississippi Valley for Anglo Saxon 
civilization". 

The intersection of the Fort Harrison (Terre Haute), Fort Clark 
(Peoria) and Kaskaskia-Detroit trails were in this vicinity. 

This marker was erected in 1910 by the teacher, Mr. Epperson, 
and pupils of the Palermo school, under the supervision of the County 
Superintendent of Schools, Mr. George Brown. 

Hickory Grove, just west of Palermo, contained at one time about 
four hundred acres and in this grove was a never failing spring. In- 
dians would camp here for weeks when following these trails. 

Col. George Croghan was the most conspicuous name in the west- 
ern annals in connection with Indian affairs, for twenty-five years 
preceding the War of the Revolution. 

Pontiac, the great forest chieftain, was a singularly fine looking 
man. He was a Catawba by birth. He was taken prisoner and adopted 
by the Ottawas. His bearing was stern and resolute, brave, cruel at 
times and vindictive, he was shrewd and cunning and by his great 
ability exercised almost regal authority over the Northwestern Indians. 



126 

Northrop says the plan of operations which Pontiac adopted was 
the most remarkable exhibition of genuine leatlership ever given by 
an Indian. 

After the signing of the preliminary treaty by Pontiac, there was 
no necessity for Col. Croghan going farther into Illinois. He took 
the trail for Detroit and jvas followed soon after by Pontiac. At a 
meeting held in August, 1763, all the western tribes were represented 
and after much speech making the terms of peace were agreed upon, 
which were to be incorporated in a treaty on the part of the conquer- 
ors by Sir Wm. Johnson. 

This terminated the great War of Pontiac, and with it all his 
hopes of the restoration of the empire of France in America. 

The laws of the human races follow closely those of nature in its 
other kingdoms, and we see the survival of the fittest every day. Na- 
tion follows nation, the strongest overcoming the weaker ; peoples arise 
and vanish and others take their places in the onward march. It is 
the law of progress. The Indians gave way before our race as some 
other race gave way to them. 

Information : Life of Col. Croghan from Christopher Gist's 
Journals by William M. Darlington. Pontiac ; from The Red Men, 
by Ella Hines Stratton. ^Meeting of Col. Croghan and Pontiac from 
Illinois Historical and Statistical, Part 1, by Moses. The Marker at 
Palermo and Hickory Grove from Mr. J. Epperson. 



NECROLOGY 




JOHX BRECKINRIDGE SHIFFLETT. 



139 



JOHN BRECKENRIDGE CABLE SHIFFLETT. 

An Active Business Man of Illinois and Michigan. 

[By KizziE HusKiNSON Shifflett.] 



John Breckenridge-Cable-Shifflett was. born near Dayton, 
Ohio, March 11, 1861. He was the son of Hilliary and Jemina Cox 
Shifflett, of Kentucky and Virginia families. His father "Capt. 
HilHary Shifflett" fell in the battle of Chickamauga while leading 
an artillery force for the Union Army. 

When John Shifflett was fifteen years old his mother died, 
leaving the son to battle thru life alone. His education was 
fragramentary and self-sought. But he pluckily mastered con- 
siderable knowledge, even to a smattering of law. In the mean- 
time, he worked as night telegraph operator thruout many small 
towns of Ohio and Indiana. At one time he boarded at the home 
of "James Whitcomb Riley," where he acquired much ethical 
knowdedge, but no poetry, save Keat's lines "A thing of beauty is 
a joy forever." His nature was most discerning and very op- 
tomistic. Early in life he sought the Middle-West and at the age 
of nineteen became freight and ticket agent for the Big Four Rail- 
road, later changing to the Chicago and Alton Railroad at Alton, 
111. Here he met and married ]\Iiss Kizzie Huskinson after a four 
years courtship. 

Miss Kizzie Huskinson was the daughter of William Huskin- 
son, prominent railroad builder of the Middle-West. Mr. Shifflett 
took his family to Petersburg, 111., living there four years ; then to 
Kansas City, Mo., where he was auditor for the Santa Fe Railroad 
and fell into close companionship with General Funston while thev 
were on a mission to New Mexico. 

When the influx of prospectors rushed to Pittsburg, Kansas, 
Joplin, Mo. and Trinidad, Colo., Mr. Shifflett went along taking 
with him his wife and daughter. He finally returned to St. Louis, 
Mo., where he began traveling for "Cahill-Collins" and "L. M. 
Rumsey Manufacturing Companies." From here he enlarged his 
territory thru "The Lukenheimer Brass Company" of Cincinnati. 
Ohio. 

Henry McShane Manufacturing Company of New York and 
Brooklyn offered Mr. Shifflett a position as manager of their vast 
business. Here he remained several years until fire destroyed their 
plant and the heirs sold out. 

The R. M. Wilson Manufacturing Company of Rome, N. Y., 
offered him a position as Secretary-Treasurer of its immense plant. 



130 

Here Mr. Shifflett and family stayed a number of years at the 
Arlington Hotel, near "Fort Stanwix." The Bath-Tub Trust 
bought out the R. M. Wilson Company, and tho tempted to re- 
main with Francis J. Torrance, President of the Standard Sanitary 
Company of Pittsburg-, Pa., Mr. Shifflett concluded to return to 
New York City and enter a bonding house, where he was most 
successful. His only son, Kenneth, died suddenly at this time, and 
Mr. Shififlett decided to return to St. Louis, Mo. He lingered one 
year in Columbus, Ohio, enroute West being engaged in under- 
writing companies. 

The Worlds Fair year, 1904, found Mr. Shifflett and family 
back in St. Louis where he purchased a Maryland Avenue home. 
There they lived for a number of years. Mr. Shifflett's offices were 
in the Frisco Building on Olive Street. He sold the majority stock 
of the "International Life Insurance Company" of St. Louis, Mo., 
and also of the "Copper Queen of Arizona." He reorganized the 
Fort Worth Fire Insurance Company" of Fort Worth, Tex., and 
the Mineral Springs Railroad of Joplin, Mo., and other projects 
thruout Missouri and Oklahoma. 

Captain Wishart of Keokuk, la., became deeply interested in 
this enterprising man and sought him out as the man who could 
put over the "deep waterway scheme" then engaging public atten- 
tion and make the great Mississippi River useful for the commerce 
so greatly needed. 

The Mississippi River is full of shifting sands and deep and 
swiftly flowing currents such as menace productive soil all along 
its course and which retarded the growth of cities. It was an 
arduous task to promote such a gigantic scheme but it held no 
terror for the promoter. As he was then busy finishing up the 
"Fort Worth Fire Insurance Company," he instructed his wife 
and daughter to gather up every newspaper clipping available 
from all over the United States for his use. These Mrs. Shifflett 
arranged as a "Reference-Key," to be used in the system required 
for the promotion scheme of "The Mississippi Transportation 
Company," of St. Louis, Missouri. When all details were ready, 
handsome offices were opened in the Pierce Building opposite the 
Planter's Hotel. In this enterprise, Mr. Shifflett was greatly as- 
sisted by Hon. Jacob L. Babbler, \"ice President of the Interna- 
tional Life Insurance Company and Republican National Commit- 
teeman for the State of Missouri. 

J. W. Kavanaugh was made President of the "Mississippi 
Transportation Company," — and this slogan was daily heralded in 
every St. Louis newspaper — thus: — "Fourteen feet thru the Mis- 
sissippi Valley." Thus it was that St. Louis rejoiced for its river 
front was a veranda of much cherished commerce, long since a 
dream. "Mr. Mathews" of the "Everybody's" Magazine was en- 
gaged at enormous expense to write up this project thru ad- 
vertisement, and much propaganda was arranged to float the issue. 
A fleet of boats engaged to sail from St. Louis to New Orleans 



131 

carried as complimentary passengers many distinguished men, 
among whom was William H. Taft, then elected President of the 
United States. It was a famous trip for doubting "Thomases," for 
the Easteners felt the querulous channel, rather than saw it. The 
pivotal point was found at the end of the trip, in low-lying New Or- 
leans the city of lethargy. Had the project passed muster, its site 
would have been obliterated. There would be no more "The 
ancient French City of the South." 

The Eastern seaboard was groaning under very heavy ex- 
penses at this time. Its defensive front was considered far more 
important than the channel of the Mississippi River. 

Coronado's and DeSoto's prophesy that St. Louis should be the 
summit of the expansive West, was not to be fulfilled. Taft vetoed 
the project — The Mississippi Valley citizens felt that their just claims 
had been overlooked in favor of the eastern seaboard. 

St. Louis was bitterly disappointed, but nevertheless it placed 
in its archives the names of the daring promoters of "The Original 
Deep-Water-Ways," John B. Shifflett and Jacob L. Babbler. Mr. 
Shifflett, tho also disappointed, cheerfully took up other projects 
and later went to Detroit, where he recuperated his fortune. 

There he promoted — 

"The Detroit Fire Insurance Company" ; 

"The Columbian National Fire Insurance Company" ; 

"The Detroit Mortgage Corporation Company" ; 

"The Lincoln Finance Company" ; 

"The Federal Discount Company" ; 

"The Saginaw Investment Company" ; 

"The Shifflett-Cumber Company," of which he was Pres- 
ident, when he died. 

"The Lincoln Housing Trust Company" of St. Louis was 
also organized by Mr. Shifflett. 

Mr. Shifflett had offices thruout Michigan and New York. He 
believed heartily in cooperation ; share and share alike. He gave 
to each worker his individual interest, thereby calling forth their 
best efiforts. "In this way only, can results be obtained," de- 
clared he. 

In April 1920 Mr. Shifflett fell into a long and fatal illness which 
lasted one and one-half years. He at last sold out his interests to his 
partner "Bert L. Cumber", intending to pass the rest of his life with 
his family in California. He died ten days after the sale of his. busi- 
ness, in the Charlevoix Hotel, Detroit, Michigan, November 8, 1921. 

In "Do It" (Shifflett-Cumber Monthly magazine), Mr. Shifflett 
penned his "Farewell" to his coworkers, calling it "Be Loyal". The 
date of writing is October 29, 1921. 

Six weeks after his death, his daughter, Gladys (Mrs. Charles 
E. Blablack) was accidentally killed in Los Angeles, California. The 
wife and mother survives her family. 



132 

Mr. Shifflett was a man of magnetic presence ; he was of con- 
genial nature and a lavish entertainer ; his convincing powders were 
remarkable. He was an indefatigable and tireless worker. 

Mr. Shifflett belonged to the following orders : 

The Piasa Lodge. No. 27 of U. F. & A. M. of Alton, 111. 

The Moslem Temple of Detroit, Mich. 

The Michigan Sovereign Consistory Valley of Detroit, Mich. 

The 1.000 Limit Club of Michigan. 

The U. S. Food Administration. 

Detroit Patriotic Fund. 

The Old Colony Club (life member and on the board of directors) . 

The Detroit Board of Commerce. 

Detroit Masonic Country Club. 

The Caravan Club. 

President and Organizer of "Shifflett-Cumber Company." 

Bankers Investment Company of Detroit, with head offices in the 
Penobscot Building. 

He was buried in the family lot at Alton, Illinois. 




GILBERT HARSHA LANE. 



13 



o 



GILBERT HARSHA LANE. 
A Prominent Citizen of Alton, and Madison County, III. 

[By KizziE HusKiNSON Shifflett.] 



Gilbert Harsha Lane, was the son of Hezekiah Woodruff Lane 
and Catherine Ann Apgar", (daughter of Wm. C. and Catherine Mc- 
Kinney Apgar), and hneal descendant of Mathias. Lane and Mary 
Honeyman Lane of Plainficld, N. J. 

Gilbert Lane was born near Morrison, Illinois, March 25, 1853, 
and educated in the public schools of Mt. Vernon. Deciding on Phar- 
macy as a profession, Mr. Lane went to Alton. 111., and associated 
himself with the W. S. Evert Drug Company, progressing to the whole- 
sale firm of "Ouigley and Company," thence to the "Richardson Whole- 
sale Drug Company" of St. Louis, Mo. When- fire destroyed that 
immense drug business, the "Moffet-West and Merril Wholesalers" 
acquired the services of Mr. Lane as their Middle-Illinois representa- 
tive. He remained with the latter firm thirty-five years, honored for 
proficiency and respected as an interested associate. When failing 
health compelled Mr. Lane to quit the road, he helped organize the 
"Mutual Health and Accident Association of America", with head 
offices at Jacksonville. Illinois. This company later merged into the 
"Clover Leaf Casualty Company", through the efforts of "Fred H. 
Rowe, Col. C. R. Miller, Hon. C. J. Doyle, Fred H. Rugg and Gov. 
Len Small". Mr. Lane was made a director and Vice President of 
this Company. 

Mr. Lane made Alton, 111. his home, having married "Miss Annie 
Huskinson". (daughter of Wm. Huskinson, pioneer railroad builder 
of the Middle-West). 

While traveling, Mr. Lane became interested in politics, having 
an opportunity of studying its many sides and noting carefully the 
angles presented therein, his judgment grew most profound and he 
was widely sought as a leader of political value. He several times re- 
fused to run for Congress, declaring his home life was the best on earth 
and the hearthstone his greatest joy. He, however, was a zealous 
worker on the Republican ticket and 1896 found Mr. Lane working 
hard for William McKinley's nomination. When the Republican con- 
vention convened in St. Loui.s, Mo., he gave his vintiring efforts dur- 
ing the campaign season to help elect McKinley as President of the 
United States. Mr. Lane was one of the Assistant Sergeants at Arms 
at this convention which nominated William McKinley. His cove- 
nant being fulfilled, the many friends of Mr. Lane declared him the 



134 

best of political leaders — for he never lost a point, gaining rather in 
the vantage ground of standing firmly on the safe side of politics. 

During the administrations of Governor Lowden and Governor 
Small, Mr. Lane was elected "Chairman of the Madison County Repub- 
lican Committee", which he resigned to enter a most important govern- 
ment position, viz : "Postmaster of Alton, 111." 

]\Ir. Lane was at the age limit when Mr. Harding took the Presi- 
dential Chair, but his many friends declared they would have no other 
postmaster than "Gil Lane", for his political career had been clean and 
strong; he was. an exemplary citizen; a staunch friend, above all else, 
he was recognized as a man of honor — of the type that young America 
might well regard as an example. 

His loyal friend, William A. Rodenburg. determined that his 
friend "Gil" should become postmaster, despite "age-limit", for many 
essentials clamored for this appointment. 

Great rejoicing and many compliments expressed the joy of the 
citizens when President Harding voiced their choice as most worthy. 

Always a too zealous worker, Mr. Lane overtaxed his strength in 
the beginning of his new work. To the great grief of the city he fell 
seriously ill, expiring just three weeks after his appointment as Post- 
master, January 8, 1922. 

The Chronicle of time stands ever true in recording the deeds of 
good and just men, for in passing, they leave their work in order that 
it may continue as of yore. Myriads of friends sought Mr. Lane's 
political advice; his office was the mecca of those going and coming; 
he rejoiced in unraveling the sleeve of care, and giving the worker 
new life. 

Mr. Lane was a member of the Elk's Club of Alton, a charter 
member of the Knights of Pythias : Grand Chancellor of the United 
Commercial Travelers ; a charter member of the famous "Illinois Rod 
and Rifle Club", in which he was spoken of an as expert crack-shot; 
many fine trophies attesting this truth. 

His recreation was hunting and fishing. His family life was 
ideal. It was his excellent wife's joy to keep a hospitable home which 
many people enjoyed. Three children were born of this union. Webb 
Huiskinson Lane, deceased. Ward William Lane. St. Louis. Mo., 
married to Lenore Bischofif, (daughter of J- Bischofif of Belleville, 
111.). Their daughter is: Ruth Lane, JournaHst. 

Nellie Lucia Lane, wife of Edmund Harris Beall (son of Senator 
Edmond Beall). Their children are: "Edmund Harris Beall" and 
"Helen ^L Beall". 

Gilbert Lane's activities were the cornerstone of a most excellent 
career such as ever distinguishes a life well spent, and his advice to 
young men was ever thus : 

Honor and fame, from no conditions rise. 
Act well thy part, there all the glory lies. 

Mr. Lane is buried in the family lot in Alton, Illinois. 



135 



List of Publications of the Illinois State Historical 

Library and Society. 

No. 1. *A Bibliograpliy of Newspapers published In Illinois prior to 
1860. Prepared by Edmund J. James, Ph. D., and Milo J. Loveless. 94 pp. 
8 vo. Springfield, 1899. 

No. 2. *Information relating to the Territorial Laws of Illinois passed 
from 1809 to 1812. Prepared by Edmund J. James, Ph. D., 15 pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1899. 

No. 3. *The Territorial Records of Illinois. Edited by Edmund J. 
James, Ph. D., 170 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1901. 

No. 4. •Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the 
year 1900. Edited by E. B. Greene, Ph. D., 55 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1900. 

No. 5. ♦Alphabetical Catalog of the Books, Manuscripts, Pictures and 
Curios of the Illinois State Historical Library Authors, Titles and Subjects. 
Compiled by Jessie Palmer Weber. 363 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1900. 

Nos. 6 to 27. *Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for 
the years 1901-1922. (Nos. 6 to 18 out of Print.) 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. I. Edited by H. W. Beckwith, Presi- 
dent of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library. 642 
pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1903. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, of Vol. II. Virginia Series, Vol. I. Edited 
by Clarence Walworth Alvord. CLVI and 663 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1907. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. III. Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 
1858. Lincoln Series. Vol. I. Edited by Edwin Erie Sparks, Ph. D. 627 pp. 
8 vo. Springfield, 1908. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IV. Executive Series, Vol. I. The 
Governor's Letter Books, 1818-1834. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and 
Clarence Walworth Alvord. XXXII and 317 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1909. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. V. Virginia Series. Vol. II, Kas- 
kaskia Records, 1778-1790. Edited by Clarence Walworth Alvord. L. and 
681 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1909. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VI. Bibliographical Series, Vol. L 
Newspapers and Periodicals of Illinois, 1814-1879. Revised and enlarged edi- 
tion. Edited by Franklin William Scott. CIV and 610 pp. 8 vo. Spring- 
field. 1910. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VII, Executive Series, Vol. II. Gover- 
nor's Letter Books, 1840-1853. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and Charles 
Manfred Thompson. CXVIII and 469 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1911. 

♦Illinois Historical Collection, Vol. VIII. Virginia Series, Vol. III. George 
Rogers Clark Papers, 1771-1781. Edited with introduction and notes by James 
Alton James. CLXVII and 715 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1912. 

♦Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IX. Bibliographical Series, Vol. II. 
Travel and Description, 1765-1865. By Solon Justus Buck. 514 pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1914. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. X. British Series, Vol. I The Critical 
Period, 1763-1765. Edited with introduction and notes by Clarence Walworth 
Alvord and Clarence Edwin Carter. LVII and 597 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1915. 

* Illinois Historical Collections. Vol. XI. British Series, Vol. II. The 
New Resjime, 1765-1767. Edited with introduction and notes by Clarence Wal- 
worth Alvord and Clarence Edwin Carter. XXVIII and 700 pp. 8 vo. Spring- 
field, 1916. 



136 

♦ 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XII. Bibliographical Series, Vol. III. 
The County Archives of the State of Illinois. By Theodore Calvin Pease. 
CXLI and 730 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1915. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XIII. Constitutional Series, Vol. I, 
Illinois Constitutions. Edited by Emil Joseph Verlie. 231 pp. 8 vo. Spring- 
field, 1919. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XIV. Constitutional Series, Vol. II. 
The Constitutional Debates of 1847. Edited with introduction and notes by 
Arthur Charles Cole. XV and 1018 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1919. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XV. Biographical Series, Vol. I. 
Governor Edward Coles. By Elihu B. Washburne. Reprinted with intro- 
duction and notes. By Clarence Walworth Alvord. 435 pp. 8 vo. Spring- 
field, 1920. 

♦ Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I, No. 1, Sep- 
tember, 1905. Illinois in the Eighteenth Century. By Clarence Walworth 
Alvord, 38 pp. 8 vo. Springfield. 

♦ Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I, No. 2. June 1, 
1906. Laws of the Territory of Illinois, 1809-1811. Edited by Clarence 
Walworth Alvord. 34 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1906. 

♦ Circular Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I, No. 1. November, 
1905. An Outline for the Study of Illinois State History. Compiled by 
Jessie Palmer Weber and Georgia L. Osborne. 94 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1905. 

♦ Publication No. 18. List of Genealogical Works In the Illinois State 
Historical Library. Compiled by Georgia L. Osborne. 8 vo. Springfield, 
1914. 

♦ Publication No. 25. List of Genealogical Works in the Illinois State 
Historical Library. Supplement to Publication No. 18. Compiled by Georgia 
L. Osborne. 8 vo. Springfield, 1918. 

Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society. Vol. I, No. 1. April, 
1908, to Vol. XV, Nos. 3-4, 1923. 

Journals out of print. Vols. I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, No. 1 of Vol. 
IX, No. 2 of Vol. X. 



• Out of print. 



137 



INDEX. 



PAGE. 

Abraham Lincoln and His Books. 

By Dr. William E. Barton 52 

Achilles at the Siege of Troy 124 

Acton, (Lord) John Emerlch Ed- 
ward Dalberg. Modern English 

Historian 48 

Foot -note 48 

Acton, (Lord) John Bmerich Ed- 
ward Dalberg. Tribute to Ranlte. 49 

Adams, Charles Francis 45 

Adams, Family 45 

Adams, Henry 44, 45 

Adams, Henry. Instructor in His- 
tory, Harvard University 44 

Adams, Henry. Method of teaching 

history 45 

Adams, (Dr.) Herbert Baxter. His- 
torian 40, 41, 46 

Adams, (Dr.) Herbert Baxter, Sec- 
retary of the American Histori- 
cal Association 45 

Adams. John 40 

Adams, John Quincy 45, 46 

Adams, John Quincy. First president 
of an American Historical Society 

founded in 1836 46 

Africa 75 

Agan, John W. Justice of the Peace 

112, 113, 114 

Ainsworth, Stella Davidson. James 
T. Gifford and the founding of 

Elgin, Illinois 34, 69-78 

Alaska 53, 81 

Alaska. Purchased from Russia in 

1867 53 

Albion, Illinois 5, 21, 82, 83 

Albion, Illinois. Settled by people 

from England. 1818 82 

Algonquin, Illinois 75 

Allegheny Mts 93, 123 

Allen, Eliza 118 

Allen, (Mrs.) Eva Walser 89 

Allen, (Rev.) Ira W 5, 17, 21 

Allen, James 120 

Allen, Jamima 110 

Allen, Matilda 110 

Allen, (Rev.) Samuel 89 

Allouez, (Father) Claude Jean 90 

Alton, Illinois 129, 132, 133, 134 

Alton, Illinois. Chicago and Alton 

R. R 129 

Alton, Illinois. Elks' Club of Alton, 

Illinois 134 

Alvord, Clarence Walworth 

27. 48, 66, 101. 135, 136 

Alvord, Clarence Walworth. Editor 

Centennial History of Illinois. ... 101 
Alvord, Clarence TV^alworth. Editor 
Illinois Historical Collections Vols. 

II, IV, V, X, XI, XV 66. 135, 136 

Alvord, Clarence Walworth. His 
work in the establishment of the 
Mississippi Valley Historical Re- 
view 4S 

America 41, 87, 123 

America. French, surrender their 
possessions in America 123 



PAGE. 

America. Winsor Justin. Narrative 
and Critical History of America... 41 

American Antiquarian Society 41 

American Commonwealth Series.... 41 
American Historical Association. 
Andrew D. White, first president 

41. 42. 44 

American Historical Association. 
First Annual meting for organiza- 
tion held at Saratoga. N. T., Sept. 

9. 1884 40 

American Historical Association, ob- 
ject of, the promotion of histori- 
cal studies in America 40. 41 

American Historical Society founded 
in 1836, seat of influence and oper- 
ation in Washington, D. C 46 

American History, writers on, meth- 
ods, etc 38 

American Indian. Address by James 

H. Hammill 34 

American Statesmen Series. Edited 

by John T. Morse 40, 41 

Amherst College. Amherst, Mass. . . 45 

Amy, A. B 119 

Andrews, T 116 

Antrim, Robert 107 

Apgar, Catherine Ann. Wife of 

Hezekiah Woodruff Lane 133 

Apgar, Catherine McKinney 133 

Apgar, William C 133 

Applegate, (Rev.) Nathaniel 

108. 110. Ill 

Appleton's Universal Encvclopedia 

and Atlas, 1903 101 

Archer, Lavina 105 

Archer, William S 116 

Arizona 53 

Arkansas River 91 

Arlington Hotel, Rome. N. Y 130 

Arnold, Samuel Greene. Historian. 45 

Arrington, (Rev.) Joel 106, 107 

Arthur, T. S. Ed. History of Illi- 
nois 101 

Ash, Eliza 112 

Ash, Jane L Ill 

Ash, Nancy 105 

Ahsley, James B 115 

Ashtabula Co., Ohio 32 

Asiatic Cholera in Illinois in 1850. . . 78 

Atkinson. W. Co., Philadelphia 33 

Atwater, Thomas. Justice of the 

Peace 115, 116, 117, 118 

Atwood, Nancy 112 

Aurora, Illinois 34, 51 

Aurora. Illinois. Public Library. ... 51 
Australia. Papurans of Australia. . . 81 
Autobiography of Andrew D. White 

42, 43 

Foot-note 43 

Averill. Nathaniel H 117 

Ayers, Burton 110 



Babb, Ann 110 

Babbitt, (Rev.) Calvin W 112 

Babbler, (Hon.) Jacob L 130, 131 



138 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

Bach Choir. Dr. J. Fred WoUe, 

Director 87, 88 

Bacon, Orin 119 

Bacon, Samuel C. Justice of the 

Peace 119 

Baggs, Elizabeth '. ............... .106 

Baggs, Rebecca 105 

Baggs, Sarah 10.5 

Baker, Abram R 107 

Baker, Francis D. Revolutionary 

Soldier buried in Rushville. 111... 33 

Baker, Isaac 112 

Baker, John, Jr 114 

Baker, Marv 115 

Baker, Mildred 106 

Baker, Sarah 112 

Baldwin, Jesse A 30 

Ball. Jonas L 119 

Balme, (Col.) Augustln Motin de 

la 98 

Foot-note 98 

Bankers Investment Company of 

Detroit, Mich 132 

Banks, (Col.) Charles E 33 

Banks Family of Maine 33 

Barlow, Lydia N 119 

Barnes, Robert. Justice of the 

106, 107," 'ios,' ' ibV, ' 'iio,' 'iii,' 'lis 

Barr, Mary 109 

Barter, Morris 113 

Bartlett. Betsey D 120 

Bartlett, Celia S' 120 

Bartlett, Luther 120 

Barton, (Rev.) William E. Abra- 
ham Lincoln and His Books 52 

Barton, (Rev.) William E. The In- 
fluence of Chicago, on the Career 

of Lincoln 51 

Barton, (Rev.) William E. "Lin- 
coln and Illinois" Address. Ref- 
erence 51 

Bascom, Ruth E 117 

Bascom, Sophrona 113 

Batavia. Illinois 51 

Bateman, Newton Ed. Historical 

Encyclopedia of Illinois 101 

Bates, Edward, of Missouri. At- 
tends the River and Harbor Con- 
vention at Chicago, July 5-7.1847 

55, 58 

Bates, Edward. President of the 
River and Harbor Convention at 

Chicago, July 5-7, 1857 56 

Bath-Tub Trust 130 

Batterton, Martin 110 

Beall, (Senator) Edmond 134 

Beall, Edmund Harris 134 

Beall. Helen M 134 

Beane, Sarah 116 

Beatty, Marklin 112 

Beauregard, (Gen.) Pierre Gustave 

Toutant 39 

Bebb, (Gov.) William of Ohio. At- 
tends the River and Harbor Con- 
vention at Chicago, July 5-7, 

1847 54, 55 

Beck, Lewis J 117 

Beck, Mary Ann 112 

Beck, William 107 

Beckwith, Hiram W. Editor Illi- 
nois Historical Collections, Vol. 

I -.66, 135 

Beckwith, Zerah Ill 

Beggs. Stephen R 108 

Bell, Reuben P 112 

Bellerive, St. Ange de 124 

Belleville, Illinois 134 

Belvidere, Illinois 5. 21, 77 



PAGE. 

Benny, Mary Jane 108 

Benthuysen, C. Van. Foot-note... 51 

Benton, Thomas Hart 56, 57 

Berkeley, California 29 

Bethany, Jamacia, \V. 1 89 

Bethlehem, Pa. Henry W. Long- 
fellow. Hymn of the Moravian 
Nuns of Bethlehem. Reference. 88 
Bethlehem, Pa. Moravian Settle- 
ment in 87 

Big Four Railroad 129 

Bircket, Thomas R 84 

Bird, Harriet 110 

Bird. John 105 

Bird, Rachel First deed in Put- 
nam County, Illinois, Robert Bird 

and wife to John Strawn 122 

Bird. Robert. First deed in Put- 
nam County, Illinois. Robert 
Bird and wife to John Strawn.. 122 

Bird, Robert A., Jr 108 

Bird, AVilliam A 110 

Bischoff, J 134 

Bischoff, (Miss) Lenore, wife of 

Ward William Lane 134 

Blablack, (Mrs.) Charles E. (Gladys 

Shifflett) 131 

Black, Eliza 119 

Blackmar, Frank Wilson. Univer- 
sity of Kansas, Lawrence. Kan.. 46 
Blaine, James G. Twenty Years of 

Congress 39 

Blair, Francis G. Supt. of Public 
Instruction, S'tate of Illinois.... 28 

Blanchard, Richard 107 

Blancy, (Rev.) A 120 

Bland, Nancy 105 

Blizzard, Ruth Ann 109 

Block Houses, Early ones in the 

Illinois Territory 63 

Bloomington, Illinois 5, 21 

Bloomington, Indiana 34, 37 

Bloomington, Indiana. University 

of Indiana located in 34, 37 

Bluntschli, Johann Kaspar. Politi- 
cal economist and Statesman, 
professor at Zurich and Heidel- 
berg 45 

Bluefields, Nicaragua 89 

Boal, William C 115 

Boeckh, August. A German classi- 
cal scholar 42 

Boehler, (Bishop) Peter 82 

Boggess, Arthur Clinton. The Set- 
tlement of Illinois 1778-1830.98, 101 

Foot-note 98 

Bohemia. Moravian Church organ- 
ized in Bohemia, 1457 79 

Bonaparte, Napoleon. Louisiana 
Purchase from Napoleon ef- 
fected under President Jeffer- 
son's administration 52, 53 

Bond Co, Illinois 59, 62, 63, 64 

Bond Co., Illinois. Hill's Fort in.. 

62, 63, 64, 65 

Bond Co. Indian Massacre, Cox 

Monument Commemorates 62 

Bond Co., Illinois. Pocahontas, 

Bond Co., Illinois 62, 63 

Bonham, Warford. Justice of the 

Peace 112, 113, 114 

Bonithon Family of Maine 33 

Borop, Nile 118 

Boston, Mass 24, 32 

Boston, Mass. Boston Records 
1674-1800 24, 32 

Bothwell, L. R 30 

Bouquet, (Col.) Henry 124 



139 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

Bouthillier, Francis. Early set- 
tler of Jo Daviess Co 94 

Boutwell, George Sewall Reminis- 
cences 39 

Bowman, Albert 116 

Bowman, John C 118 

Bowman, Permelia E 116 

Boyle, Abner 105 

Boyle, Agrnes P 120 

Boyle, Elizabeth 105 

Boyle, Oliver 113 

Boyle, Paulina 117 

Boyle, Zelah 105 

Bradford, Oscar 30 

Bradley, Susan 107 

Braw, M. G. Justice of the Peace. 

112, 113, 114 

Braxton Co., W. Va. History of 
Braxton County and Central 

West Virginia 33 

Breeman, Jane 106 

Brethren's Church 79-81 

Brethren's Church Comenlus (Ko- 
menski) John Amos, Last Bishop 
of the so-called Ancient Breth- 
ren's Church 80, 81 

Brethren's Church. Early struggle 

for religious liberty 80 

Brethren's House, West Salem, Illi- 
nois 88 

Briggs, Mary C 121 

Brigham, Joseph. Justice of the 

Peace Ill 

Brigham, Polly 106 

British Public Record Office 67 

Broaddus, Elinor 115 

Broaddus, Elizabeth 114 

Brooklyn, N. Y 129 

Brown, George. County Supt. of 

Schools. Edgar County, Illinois. 125 
Brown, Henry, History of Illinois. 101 

Brown, John 113 

Brown, Martha 115 

Brown, Martin 119 

Brown, Sarah 120 

Brown, Stuart 5, 17, 26 

Brown, Stuart. Presides at meet- 
ing Sangamon Co. Circuit Court 
room on placing tablet to com- 
memorate Lincoln's "House Di- 
vided against itself Speech".... 

5, 17, 26 

Brown University, Providence, R. I. 43 
Browning, Orville H..19, 29, 30. 58, 67 
Browning, Orville H. Diary of Or- 
ville H. Browning 

19, 29, 30, 58, 67 

Browning, Orville H. Secretary of 
the Interior under President An- 
drew Johnson 29 

Browning, (Mrs.) Orville H 29 

Brumsey, Mary 113 

Brumsey, Nathan 107 

Brumsey, Sabrae 106 

Brumsey, Thomas 113 

Bryant, (Rev.) Cyrus 110, 111 

Bryant, James 112 

Bryant, John H. Justice of the 

Peace 108, 109, 110, 111 

Buchanan, James 109 

Buck, Solon Justus. Editor Illinois 
Historical Collections, Vol. IX.. 

67, 135 

Buckingham — Colonial Ancestors 
and Buckingham Family 33 

Buckingham, Dan, Descendants of. 33 

Buckingham Family 33 

Buckingham, George T 33 



PAGE. 

Buckingham, Philena, Descendants 

of 33 

Buckingham, Wm. E 115 

Buckram, Elizabeth 113 

Buffalo, N. Y — 54 

Bullman, Lott 110 

Bullock, Tisdale 118 

Burgess Township, Bond Co., Illi- 
nois. Named for William Bur- 
gess 64 

Burgess, William. Indian fighter 

and Ranger at Hill's Fort 

63, 64, 65 

Burley, Ann 119 

Burlington, Wis 73 

Burr, Maria 109 

Burr, Solomon H 107 

Burt, Sarah Ann 108 

Burton, C. M. Col. Augustin Motin 
de la Balme. Sketch. Reference. 

Foot-note 98 

Busch, Francis X. The French in 
Illinois. Address. Reference... 30 

Bush, Mariah 120 

Bushong, Zachariah 108 

Bushy Run near Fort Pitt 124 

Butler, Benjamin 39 

Butler, Lucy B 116 

Byers, Sarah Ill 



Cafferty, William 109 

Cahill-Collins, Business firm St. 

Louis, Mo 129 

Cahokia 94, 95, 98 

Cahokia, Census of 1890 94 

Cahokia, County seat of the original 

St. Clair County 94 

Cahokia, Population of, in 1772.... 94 
Cahokia, Royal grants of land in. 

Reference 95 

Cahokia, Seminary priests establish 

mission at Cahokia 94 

California, State.... 19, 29, 32, 53, 131 
California, State. Berkeley, Cal. . . 29 
California, State. Los Angeles, Cal. 131 
California, State. Oakland, Ckl, . . . 19 
California, State. San Francisco, 

Cal 24 

Cambridge, Eng 42 

Canada 81, 93, 100 

Canada. French immigrants from, 

locate in Illinois 100 

Canadian Archives 67 

Candiff, Nancy 117 

Candiff, <Rev.) Wm 113, 114 

Capel, Augustus. Justice of the 

Peace 117, 118, 119, 120 

Capel, Christian L 117 

Capel, Michael L 120 

Capen, Charles L 5, 21 

Caravan Club. Detroit, Michigan. . 132 
Carbondale, Illinois. Southern Illi- 
nois State Normal School located 

in Carbondale 5, 21 

Carlyle, Illinois 60 

Carolinas, (The). Emigrants from, 

to the Illinois Country 93, 100 

Carpenter, Betsey 107 

Carpenter, Richard V 5, 21 

Carpenter, W. H. Ed. History of 

Illinois 101 

C^rr, Clark E. "My Day and Genera- 
tion" 39 

Carroll Co., Ohio 32 

C&,rter, Clarence Edwin. Editor Illi- 
nois Historical Collections. Vols. 
X- XI 66, 135 



140 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

Carter, Orrin X 5, 21 

Case, George F 115 

Catawba Indians 125 

Catholic Church 78 

Catterlin, Joseph. Justice of the 

Peace 114, 115, 116, 118 

Catterlin, Martha Ann 117 

Catterlin, Rebecca Ill 

Century Magazine 39 

Chaffee, Emily 113 

Champaign Co., 111. Lincoln Circuit 
marker placed in Champaign 

County 28 

Champaign, Illinois 34 

Chan, Edward 118 

Chan, (Rev.) S. W. D 116 

Chance, Samuel 120 

Chander, Lydia Ill 

Chaney, James S 110 

Chaplin. Mary 114 

Chapman, Sophia 113 

Chapting, Nancy 107 

Charlevoix Hotel. Detroit, Michi- 
gan 131 

Chartres. Due de. Son of the Re- 
gent of France. Fort Chartres 

named for. Foot-note 95 

Chase, Lyman 110 

Chateaubriand. Francois Auguste. 

Celebrated French Author 42 

Chenoa. Illinois 32 

Chenowith, (Rev.) J. B...112, 115, 116 

Cherolvee Indians 125 

Chester, Illinois. Kaskaskia Re- 
cords returned to Chester 20 

Chicago, Illinois 5, 30, 

31. 33, 51, 54, 55. 71-76. 78, 94. 129 
Chicago, Illinois. Chicago & Alton 

R. R 129 

Chicago, Illinois. Chicago Eve- 
ning Journal 55 

Chicago, Illinois. Currej- J. Sey- 
mour. History of Chicago 51 

Chicago, Illinois. Historical Soci- 
ety 51 

Chicago, Illinois. Population, 1847, 
at the time of the River and Har- 
bor Convention 54 

Chicago, Illinois. Post Road Sur- 
veyed between Chicago and 

Galena, Illinois 78 

Chicago. Illinois. Sherman House 

in Chicago 55 

Chicago, Illinois. Steward J. F. 
Lost Maramech and Earliest 

Chicago. Foot-note 94 

Chicago River 91, 94 

Chicago River. Mission of the 
Guardian Angel founded by Fa- 
ther Pierre Pinet 1696 at or 
near the mouth of the Chicago, 

River 94 

Child, David L 115 

Child, Orlando 112 

Childs. Eunice 107 

Chitty Susanna, Wife of Rev. Mar- 
tin Houser 84 

Chouart Medard. Mississippi Ex- 
plorations. Reference. Foot- 
note 91 

Christian Co., Illinois 33 

Chubbuck, (Mrs.) H. E. Regent 
Illinois. Daughters of the Ameri- 
can Revolution 28 

Church, Family 33 

Churches. Brethern's Church 79 

Churches. Catholic Church 78 



i^AGE. 

Churches. Congregational Church 

at Sherburne Xew York 70 

Churches. Dutchess Lutheran 
Church of Pine Plaines Co., N. 

Y. Records. 1760-1788 32 

Churches. Methodist Church.. 81, 82 
Churches. Moravian Settlement in 
Illinois. By Rev. Albert P. Hau- 

pert 79-89 

Cigrand, (Dt.) B. J 51 

Cincinnati, Ohio 129 

Cissel Isaac 108. 118 

Civil War. See War of the Rebel- 
lion 21, 23, 34, 37, 38, 39, 40 

Clark, (Col.) George Rogers 

96, 97, 99. 135 

Clark, (Cbl.) George Rogers. Cap- 
tures Kaskaskia 96, 97 

Clark. (Col.) George Rogers. Illi- 
nois Historical Collections Vol. 
VIII George Rogers Clark Papers 

1771-1781 66, 135 

Clark, (Col.) George Rogers. Letter 
to Congress dated June 8. 1786, 
in reference to French settlers in 

Illinois 99 

Clark Jabish 117 

Clark, Lydia 116 

Clark, William M 106 

Clay, Henry 52, 56 

Clay, Henry. Whig Candidate for 

the Presidency 52 

Clenahan, Jemina M 113 

Clenahan, Robert W 114 

Clendenin, H. W 5, 17, 21 

Clendening, Isaac 112 

Clermont Co., Ohio 32 

Cleveland. Ohio 33 

Clover Leaf, Casualty Co., of Jack- 
sonville, Illinois 133 

Coates, Thomas 107 

Cochran, Sarah 118 

Coe. Benjamin 121 

Cole, Arthur Charles. Editor Illi- 
nois Historical Collections Vol. 

XIV 67. 136 

Cole, Hugh 107 

Cole, John 105 

Coleman, Charles 120 

Coleman. T^omas 118 

Coles, (Gov.) Edward. Elihu B. 
Washburne Life of Edward Coles 
Reprinted in Illinois Historical 

Collections Vol. XV 67. 68. 136 

Colfax, Schuyler of Indiana. At- 
tends the River and Harbor Con- 
vention at Chicago July 5-7, 

1847 55 

Colman, Samuel F 112 

Colorado. Trinidad, Colo 129 

Colton. Chaney D Ill 

Colton. (Rev.) Herman L 110 

Columbiana Co.. Ohio 32 

Columbian. National Fire Insurance 

Company 131 

Columbus. Ohio 130 

Colver, Walter 5. 17. 21 

Comby. Lydia 119 

C'omenius. (Komenski) John Amos. 
Last Bishop of the so-called An- 
cient Brethern's Church 80-81 

Commons. (Prof.) John R 46 

Commynes 49 

Conestoga. Wagons 61 

Congregational. Church-Sherburne, 

N. Y 70 

Conkling Clinton L 30 

Conkling. (Mrs.) Clinton L 30 



141 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE 

Conkling, James C. Early lawyer 
of Springfield, Illinois friend of 

Lincoln's 30 

Connecticut. State... 20. 24. 25, 32, 69 
Connecticut, State. Archives, Con- 
necticut's care of its public re- 
cords 24 

Connecticut, State. Godard George 
S. Librarian State Library of 

Connecticut 20, 24, 25 

Connecticut. State. Greenwich, 
Conn. Abstract of Church Re- 
cords to 1850 32 

Connecticut. State. Records of Con- 
necticut Men in the Military and 

Naval Service 1775-1848 32 

Connecticut, State. Records of the 

State 1776-1780 32 

Constant, Baden. John Hus burned 

at the stake in 1415 in Constant. . 80 
Constitutional Convention, State of 

Illinois 1847 67 

Cook, Catherine 109 

Cook, (Rev.) Chauncy 112, 113 

Cook, Clarissa E 110 

Cook Co.. Illinois sends delegates 
to the River and Harbor Conven- 
tion at Chicago July 5-7 1847... 55 

Cook, Mary P 115 

"Copper Queen of Arizona" 130 

Corbett, Joseph C 117 

Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

41, 42. 44 

Cornell University, Ithaca. N. Y. 

Andrew D. White President 42 

Cornish Frederick W 31 

Cornwallis, (Lord) Charles, Surren- 
der at Yorktown Oct. 19. 1781... 98 
Coronado, Francisco Vasquez de...l31 

Corry, A. B 120 

Corss. Christopher 106 

Corwin, Thomas, Attends the Ri- 
ver and Harbor Convention Chi- 
cago, 1847 54 

Countv of Illinois, Ceases to exist 

1782 98 

County of Illinois, In the Revolu- 
tion 97 

County of Illinois, Legislature of 
Virginia 1778, e.-ita (jJIshes the 

County of Illinois 97 

County of Illinois. Todd (Col.) 
John Jr., Appointed County Lieu- 
tenant of 97 

Coureurs de bois. In the Illinois 

Countrv 9 5 

Cowan, Walter 118 

Cowen, Thomas 117 

(i;ox Family, Son of. Massacred, in 

Bond Co., Illinois 62 

Cox. Henry. Members of Col. Rus- 
sell's Rangers 62 

Cox. Jacob D. Military Reminis- 
cences 39 

Cox, Joseph 112 

Cox. Ruth 113 

Cox, Samuel 118 

Cox, (Sunset) Union, Disunion. Re- 
union 39 

Crider. David S 116 

Croghan. (Col.) George. Rose Moss 
Scott, Preliminary Treaty of 17fi.'i 
between Col. George Croghan and 
Pontiac signed near Palermo Ed- 
gar County Illinois 123-126 

Croghan, (Col.) George. Trading 

House at Logstown on the Ohio. 12.? 
Croisant, William 120 



PAOE. 

Crosiar, Amasa 120 

Grossman, Ann Prances 118 

Crow, Robert 118 

Crow, Samuel 114 

Crow. Sarah 114 

Crozat, Antoine. Obtains from 

Louis XIV exclusive trading 

monoply in the Illinois Country. 94 
Cryder, George Justice of the 

Peace 109 

Cullum, Green 110 

Cumber, Bert L 131 

Cumberland, Md. National Road 

began at Cumberland. Md 59 

Gumming. (Rev.) W. C...110, 111, 112 

Current, Polly 108 

Currey, J. Seymour. History of 

Chicago 51 

Currier, D'avid 114 

Curterline, Benj. M. V 114 

Gushing, Joshua 117 

Cutting. (Hon.) Charles S 21, 34 

Czecho-Slovaklan Republic 80 



Dale, Eliza 115 

Dana. C. A. Recollections of the 

Civil War 39 

Daniels, Henry 117 

Dany, Giles C 109 

Darlington, William M 126 

Darmont, William M 113 

Darnel, James 106 

Dash, Conrad 113 

Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion, mark site of Hill's Fort, Bond 

Co., Illinois 64 

Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion. Peoria Chapter D. A. R. . . 

27, 105 

Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion. Springfield Chapter D. A. R. 
Assist in the marking of sites con- 
nected with the life of Lincoln, in 

Springfield, Illinois 26 

Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion. Springfield, Illinois. Chapter 
mark site of old western passenger 
depot where Lincoln left for Wash- 
ington 27 

Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion. Illinois Daughters Co-oper- 
ate in the Prize Essay contest of 

the State 28-29 

Davis, Alexander 109 

Davis, Lieurana 114 

Davis, Mary Jane 114 

Davis, Sarah Ann 112 

Dayton, Ohio 129 

Dean, Harmon 119' 

DeKalb Co.. Illinois. Sends delegates 
to the River and Harbor Conven- 
tion at Chicago, July 5-7, 1847... 55 

DeKalb, Illinois. Northern Illinois 
State Normal School located in 
DeKalb, Illinois 5, 21 

Delaware Co., Penn 32 

Delaware. Indians 124 

Delong, Drusilla 105 

Delong, Nancy Ann 120 

Democratic Party 52. 56 

Dency. Adaline 115 

Dent, Emily Jane 118 

Dent Enoch. Justice of the Peace. . 

106, 107, 108, 110, 111. 112 

Dent, George. Justice of the Peace 

115-120 



142 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

Dent, John E 115 

Dent, Margaret 105 

Dent, Minerva M 107 

Dent, Nancy 113 

Dent, Zilpha 105 

De Soto. Hernando or Fernando de.131 

Des Plaines River 91 

Foot-note 91 

Detioit. Mich 33, 124, 125. 126 

Detroit. Mich. Bankers Investment 

Company 132 

Detroit, Mich. Board of Commerce. 132 
Detroit, Fich. British maintain gar- 
risons at, during the Revolution. . . 96 

Detroit, Mich. Caravan Club 132 

Detroit, Mich. Fire Insurance Com- 
pany 131 

Detroit. Mich. Kaskaskia-Detroit 

Trail 125 

Detroit, Mich. Masonic Country 

Club 132 

Detroit, Mich. Mortgage Corporation 

Co 131 

Detroit, Mich. Patriotic Fund 132 

Detroit River 92 

Dever, James 122 

Dever, Mary Ill 

De Villie -s. (Capt.) Neyon 124 

Devon, (Rev.) John F 120 

Dew, (Prof.) Thomas R. Instructor 

in William and Mary College 43 

Diary of Gideon Wel'.es. Reference. 39 
Diary of John WesL^y. Reference.. 82 
Diary of (Rev.) Martin Houser. Ref- 
erence 83, 84, 86 

Dickens, Charles 59 

Dickey. (R°v.) J. H Ill, 113 

Dillman, George 119 

Dimmick, Daniel. Justice of the 

Peace 105 

Dixon, David W 111-116 

Dixon, Samuel A 116 

Dobb n, Robert B 108 

"Do It". Shifflett-Cumber Monthly 

Magazine 131 

Dooley, Elizabeth N 107 

Doo'itt'e, Asher 109 

Dcolittle, Joel. Justice of the Peace. 107 

Doughton, Rosamond 107 

Douglas. Stephen Arnold. Lincoln- 
Douglas Debates, 1858 67, 135 

Downing, Herman 109 

Doyle, (Hon.) Cornelius J 133 

Dra=n, Thomas J 116 

D'-ak'^, Ma'-v Jane 109 

Drake, Rachel 109 

Drake, Sally 110 

Driscoll. luther Ill 

D'-ummond. Wm. A 113 

Dugan, Alice Ann 116 

Dugan, Ne'son 112 

Duean, Robert 106 

Duiuth, Minn 31 

Dumas, Alexandre 44 

Dunbar, H. W 112 

Dundee, N. Y 70, 72, 76 

DuPaere Co., Il'inois. Sends delegates 
to the River and Harbor Conven- 
tion at Chicago, July 5-7, 1847... 55 

Durham, Ethalinda S Ill 

Durley, Jam-^s 108 

Durley "V^^i'Tamson 107 

Dutch Guiana 81 

D-'t-^hes^ Co., T^r. Y 32 

Dyer, (Dr.) Charles Volney. Post 
Surgeon at Fort Dearborn 70 

Dyer, John 109 



PAGE. 

Dysart, Archibald P. Justice of the 
Peace 116, 118 

Dysart, Catherine 117 

Dysart, Elizabeth 119 

Dysart, Margaret L 116 

E 

Eagle, George 108 

E'ames. Evaline A 119 

Eames, Theodosia N 117 

Early Marriages in Putnam County, 
I'1'noi.si. Compiled by Mrs. George 
Spangler 105-121 

East St. Louis, Illinois. Termination 
of the Old National Road is now 
at the City of East St. Louis, Illi- 
nois 59 

El) -man, (Rev.) John H. Early 
Moravian Minister, "West Salem, 
1 iiiois 86 

Edgar Co., Illinois. Hickory Grove. 125 

Edgar Co., Illinois. Lincoln Circuit 
marker placed in Edgar County. . 28 

Edgar Co., Illinois. Palermo, Edgar 
Co., 111. Young Ameiica Township. 
Bronze marker marks the Site of 
preliminary treaty between Col. 
George Croghan and Pontiac, 1765 
123-126 

Edgar Co., Illinois. Young America 
Township 125 

Edgefield Co., N. C 32 

Education. Amherst College, Am- 
herst, Mass 45 

Education. Brown University, Prov- 
idence, R. 1 43 

Education. Cornell University, Ith- 
aca, N. Y 41, 44 

Education. Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass 41, 43, 44, 45 

Education. Heidelberg University. 45 

Education. Illinois College, Jack- 
sonville, 111 5, 21 

Education. Illinois, Northern Illinois 
State Normal School 5, 21 

Edi'cat-on. Illinois State. Southern 
Illinois State Normal School.... 5, 21 

Education. Illinois State University 
of Illinois 5,21, 34 

Education. Indiana State Univer- 
S'ty, Bloomington. Ind 34, 37 

Education. Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity in Baltimore. Md. ..40, 42. 45, 46 

Education. Laval University, Que- 
bec. Canada. Foot-note 94 

Education. Michigan State, Univer- 
sity of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 43 

Education. Moravian Semin.ary and 
College for Women. Bethlehem, 
Pa 87 

Education. Mt. Vernon, Illinois. 
Public Schools 133 

Education. Northwestern Univer- 
sity, Evanston, Illinois 5, 21 

Education. Ohio State, University 
Columbus, Ohio 67 

Educat'on. Paris, France, College 
de France 42 

Education. Seminary of Foreign Mis- 
sions ■ 94 

Foot-note 94 

Education. Sorbonne (The) Paris, 
France 42 

Education. South Carolina. Uni- 
versity of South Carolina, Colum- 
bia. S. C 43 

Education. SouthTn Illinois State 
Normal School, Carbondale, Illi- 
nois S 



143 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

Education. Springfield, Illinois, High 

School 33 

Education. West Salem, Illinois, Mo- 
ravian interest in education in 

West Salem 86 

Education. William and Mary Col- 
lege, Williamsburg, Virginia 43 

Education. See Woodburn, James A. 
Promotion of Historical Study in 
America, following the Civil 

War 3 7-50 

Education. Yale University, New 

Haven, Conn 42, 43, 45 

Edwards, Catherine 112 

Edward.s Co., Illinois 82, 85 

Edwards Co., 111. Early immigration 

to, races represented 85 

Edwards, (Miss) Georgia H 31 

Edwards. Sarah Ann 105 

Edwardsville, Illinois 65 

Elam, Calphuma 110 

Elgin, Illinois. James T. Gifford and 
the Founding of Elgin. Illinois. 
By Stella Davidson, Alnsworth. . . 

34, 69-78 

Elgin, Illinois. Gifford, James T. 
Notes of address given by James 
T. Gifford in Elgin, Illinois, Jan., 

1850 70-78 

Elgin, Illinois. Naming of the town 

72, 73 

Elgin Township. Kane Co., Illinois.. 76 

Elizabeth, J. G 116 

Elkhart Co., Ind 32 

Elkhart. Indiana. History of 32 

Elks' Club of Alton, Illinois 134 

Elliott, Lynd 119 

Ellis, Demarium B 112 

Ellis, Frances 107 

Emerson, S. C Ill 

Emmerson, Louis. Secretary of the 

State of Illinois 20 

Emper, (Capt.) 124 

England, James II, King of Eng- 
land 37 

England. Macauley, Thomas B. 

History of England 37 

England. Moravian Settlements of 

England 87 

Bnos, Luclnda A .120 

Epier, William . . . . 31 

Epperson, (Rev.) Elijah .' .' *106 

Epperson, Hezekiah Ill 

Epperson, J 125, 126 

Epperson. Thomas 110 

Esprit, Pierre D. Mississippi Explo- 
rations. Foot-note 91 

Europe 42 

Evans, Catherine A. ...!.. . . . . . . . ' .in 

EVanston, Illinois .' 19 51 

Evanston, Illinois. Northwestern 
University, located in Evanston, 

I" 5, 21 

Evanston. Illinois. Woman's Club . 17 
Evansville, Indiana .... 8'' 

Everet, W. S. Drug Company. Alton, 
Uhnois ]^33 

Everett, James S HI 

Everybody's Magazine 130 

Expeditions. World's Fair, 1904", 
held in St. Louis, Missouri.' '130 



Falrchild, Joseph M. Justice of the 

^ Peace 108, 109, 110, 112 

Fannmg, Louisa 114 

Farmington, Illinois 31 



^ , PAGE. 

Farnham, (Rev.) Lucian 

107, 108, 109, 111 

Fassett, Rosilla no 

Fayette Co.. Illinois 65 

Federal Discount Company 131 

Federalist (The) 40 

Federals or Whig Party 52 

Fell, Ezra ne 

Fell, Rachel 119 

Felt, Agnes McNulty 33 

Felt, Dorr Eugene. Ancestors of. . 33 

Felt Family 33 

Fergus Historical Series No. 18, 

1882. Quoted. Foot-note 51 

Fergus, Robert. Foot-note 51 

Fetter, Elizabeth 119 

Field, David Dudley. Attends the 
River and Harbor Convention at 

Chicago, July 5-7, 1847 56, 57 

Fife, Townsend 105 

Fishburn, A. S' .115 

Fisher, Ann C ' . ! ! ! 1 20 

Fisher, William ! !ll5 

Fiske, John. Historian 40 

Folsom, Chrlstania 118 

Folsom, Malinda ng 

Folsom, Sarah ing 

Folsom, Worden ' . .ne 

Fond du Lac Township, Tazewell 

County, 111 27 

Forbes, Courtney ii06 

Forbes, Francis 1O8 

Force, Peter. America indebted to, 
for the publication of rare tracts 
in the period of the Revolution.. 46 
Force, Peter. Editor American Ar- 
chives 4g 

Forest, Francis Daupin de la. . .94, 95 

Forney, Jacob G 113 

Forqunan, Susan \ '114 

Forristall, James G 107 

Forsyth Co., N. C 83 

Fort Cavendish. British occupy 
Port Chartres and rechristened it 
Fort Cavendish, name did not 

survive 95 

Fort Chartres .' '95, 9 6, 124 

Foot-note 95 

Fort Chartres. First common law- 
court in the Mississippi Valley 

organized in 1768 95 

Fort Chartres. Founded in 1718... 95 

Fort Chartres, named in honor of 

the Due de Chartres. son of the 

Regent of France. Foot-note.... 95 

Fort Chartres. Occupied bv the 

British, 1765, and rechristened 

Fort Cavendish 96 

Fort Chartres. Royal grants of 

land in. Reference 95 

Fort Chartres. Seat of government 
in the Illinois Countrv until 1772 95 

Fort Clark (Peoria) 125 

Fort Covington, N. Y 33 

Fort Creve Coeur. Built by La 
Salle 92 

Fort Creve Coeur. Location of 

site, report on ig 

Fort Creve Coeur Marker to be 
placed on site of Fort Creve 

Coeur 27 

Fort Dearborn 70 

Fort Detroit 98 

Fort Duquesne 96 

Fort Frontenac .92 96 

Fort Gage. Built by the British..' 96 

Fort Harrison 1 2,^; 

Fort Pimitoui . . . . 94 



144 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAOX. 

Fort St. Louis (Starved Rock) 

built by La Salle !'2. 93 

Fort Stanwix 130 

Fort Sumter 38 

Fort Wavne, Indiana 98 

Fort Worth, Texas. Fort Worth 

Fire Insurance 130 

Fowler, William 109 

Fox River 69, 72, 73. 76, 77, 91, 94 

France 53. 91, 92. 94, 9.5, 96 

France. Ceded to England in 1763 
all of its possessions on the 
American Continent east of the 
Mississippi River, except land 
where New Orleans now stands. 96 
France. Louis XIV, King of 

France 91, 92, 94. 95 

Franco-Prussian W^ar 55 

Franklin, Benjamin 40, 98 

Fraternal Organizations. Elk's 

Club of Alton, Illinois 134 

Fraternal Organizations. Knights 

of Pythias 134 

Fraternal Organizations. Michigan 
Sovereign Consistory, Valley of 

Detroit, Mich 132 

Fraternal Organizations. Moslem 

Temple of Detroit, Michigan 132 

Fraternal Organizations. Piasa 

Lodge No. 27, of A. F. & A. M. 

of Alton, Illinois 132 

Frazier (Lieut.) Alexander 124 

Freeman, Sarah 113 

Freeport, Illinois 77 

French and Indian War 93, 96 

French Flag ceases to fly North of 
the Ohio River except in the Illi- 
nois Country by 1761 96 

French in Illinois. Address by 
Francis X. Busch. Reference.. 

30, 90 

French 'inhabitants of Illinois given 
four hundred acres of bounty 
land, by act of Congress June 

20, 17SS •• 99 

French Revolution 37. 38, 42, 82 

French Settlers in Illinois, letter of 
Col. George Rogers Clark, to Con- 
gress dated June 8, 1786, in ref- 
erence to the French Settlers... 99 
French Settlers in Illinois Country, 
opposed to the Ordinance of 1787, 
with regard to the Anti-Slavery 

clause 1*^" 

Frontenac, Louis de Buade. Gov- 
ernor of Quebec 90, 91, 95 

Foot-note 90 

Frost. Luther P 113 

Fulton Co., Ohio 3 ^ 

Funston, (Gen.) Frederick 1-29 



Galena, Illinois. . .55, 73. 75. 76. 77. 78 
Galena, Illinois. . Post Road sur- 
veyed between Chicago and 
Galena, Illinois 78 

Galesburg, Illinois 21 

Gallaher, James lOo 

Gallaher, Mary 107 

Gallaher, (Judge) Thomas 105 

Gallaher, Thomas Jr 115 

Galloway. William 117 

Garden City, Illinois 77 

Garlick, J. P 19. 29 

Garrison, Balis 106 

Garton, Polly HI 

Garton, (Rev.) Robert 107, 109, 110 

Garton. Sally M Hz 



FAOE. 

Garton, Susan 110 

Gay, Jesse 114 

Gay, (Judge) John M 105, 106, 107 

Gay, Nancy 114 

Gaylor, Adam T 110 

Gaylord, Lucy 106 

Gaylord, Mary Ann Ill 

Gavlord, Nancy 112 

Gaylord, Orange 119 

Geauga Co., Ohio 32 

(Genealogical A\orks in the Illinois 
State Historical Library. Lists 
compiled by Georgia L. Osborne. 136 

George, Patrick 108 

George III of England Annexes the 
entire Country Northwest of the 
Ohio to the province of Quebec. 98 

German, John 117 

German, Rachael 121 

Germany 81 

Germany. Moravian Settlements of 

(Germany 87 

Gersdorf Saxony. Germans from, 
in 1849, locate in West Salem 

Illinois 84, 85 

Gibault Father. Aids George Ro- 
gers Clark :97 

Gibbon, Edward. Historian 44 

Gibbons, James H 116 

Gibson, James 118 

Gifford, Asa 69 

Gifford, Dinah Talcott 69 

Gifford, Hezekiah 71, 74, 75. 76 

Gifford. James T. Ainsworth Stella 
Davidson. James T. Gifford and 
the founding of Elgin, Illinois 
34, 69-78 

Gifford, James T. Makes first Sur- 
vey across Northern Illinois in 

1835 or 1836 75, 75 

Gifford, James T. Notes of an Ad- 
dress given by James T. Gifford 
in Elgin, Illinois January 1850.70-78 
Gifford, Louise, wife of Dr. Charles 

Volney Dyer 70 

Gilbert, Elizabeth 112 

Gilleland. (Mr.) 75 

Gillespie, (Judge) Joseph 65 

Gillespie, (Mrs.) Matilda 31 

Gillit. Thomas 119 

Oilman, Daniel Coit. President of 
Johns Hopkins University .... 42, 45 

Gist, Christopher. Journals 126 

Glass, Mildred 106 

Glenn, Elizabeth D 117 

Glenn, Margaret Ann 119 

Glenn, Mary H 112 

Gnadenhutten, Ohio. Moravian 
settlement 87 

Godard, George S. Librarian Con- 
necticut State Library. .20. 24. 25. 34 

Godard, George S. Progress in the 
care, custody, repair and acces- 
sibility of Connecticut Archives 

and Records 34 

Goodmo, Lewis 114 

Gorbit. (Rev.) H. D 118 

Gorbit, John W 118 

Gould, (Rev.) Nahum 

107, 108. 109. 110. ill, 115 

Gould. Semira 110 

Gould. William J 109 

Graffelman, John A 117 

Grafton, Wis 78 

Grant, (Gen.) Ulysses S 34, 39 



145 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

Grant, (Gen.) Ulysses S. Centennial 
of the birth of Gen. Ulysses S. 

Grant 21 

Grant. (Gen.) Ulysses S. Colonel 
of the Twenty-first Reg. Illinois 

Vol. Inf 21 

Graon, Thankful Ill 

Graves, F. W. Justice of the 

Peace 114 

Graves, Obed Ill 

Graves, "William H 118 

Gravier, Father Jacques 90 

Gray, John Ill 

Great Britain 53, 81 

Great Britain and the Illinois Coun- 
try. By Clarence Edwin Carter. 101 

Great Lakes 93, 94 

Greece, Country of 42 

Greeley, Daniel P Ill 

Greeley, Horace. Attends the Ri- 
ver and Harbor Convention at 
Chicago. July 5-7. 1847.54, 56, 57, 58 
Greeley, Horace. Attends the Ri- 
ver and Harbor Convention in 
Chicago July 5-7, 1847. Com- 
ments on, in the New York Tri- 
bune 56 

Greeley, Horace. History of the 
"American Conflict" Reference.. 38 

Green Bay, Wisconsin 91, 92, 93 

Foot-note 91 

Green Co., Ohio 32 

Green, William B 114 

Greene. Evarts Boutell.5. 17. 21. 47. 135 
Greene, Evarts Boutell. Editor Illi- 
nois Historical Collections. Vol. 

IV. Vol. VII 135 

Greene, Evarts Boutell. Report on 
State and Local Historical Socie- 
ties 47 

Foot-note . , . . 47 

Greenland. Eskimos of Greenland. 81 
Greenwich, Conn. Abstract of 

Church Records to 1850 32 

Grlffln, John Ill 

Griffln, William P 110 

Griffith, Belitha 110 

Griffith, Geo ! ; 119 

Griffith, Isaac 113 

Grove City. (Christian Co.) Illi- 
nois 33 

Gulf of California 91 

Gulf of Mexico 91, 92 

Guizot, Francois. Pierre Guillaume. 
Frence Statesman and Historian. 42 

Gunn, Aaron Ill 

Gunn, Melvinah ]l09 

Gunn, Thomas 106 

Gure, Ruth S 112 

Gurney, (Prof.) Ephriam Whitman. 44 

H 

Hadital. jSIary Ann 114 

Hadley, (Rev.) H Ill 

Hadley, James. Professor of Greek, 

Yale University 42 

Haile, Jessie 105 

Hailey, Amanda M 119 

Hailey, George W 112 

Hailey, Joyce Ill 

Hailey, Thomas ill9 

Hale, Clarinda '. 107 

Hale, Phoebe 105 

Haley, Elizabeth N, il06 

Hall, rRev.) Edward 105 

Hall, Edward H 107 

Hall, Greenberry W 105 

Hall, (Rev.) J. Z H4 



PAGB. 

Hall, Langley 112 

Hall, Louisa 108 

Hall, Rachel 106, 110 

Hall, Silvey (Sylvia) 106 

Hall, William Moseley. Interest in 
the River and Harbor appropria- 
tions 54 

Hall, (Rev.) Zadok 113, 114 

Ham, Henry 118 

Hamilton, Alexander. Biography of 
Alexander Hamilton, by John T. 

Morse 40 

Hamilton, (Gov.) Henry 123 

Hammill, James H. The American 

Indian 34 

Hancock, John 98 

Hancock, William 115 

Hannum, Amanthy 106 

Hannum, Ashel. Justice of the 

Peace 113-119, 120 

Hannum, Josiah M 119 

Hannum, Orinda M 116 

Hanscel, George C 116 

Hanscell, William 120 

Harding, (Pres.) Warren G 134 

Hargrave, Joel 107, 109 

Harker, (Rev.) Mifflin 117, 118 

Harley, Nancy B 114 

Harman, Peter 107 

Harvard University, Cambridge, 

Mass 41, 43, 45 

Harper Bros., Pubs 29 

Harper, James -. . . . 105 

Harrington, William 107 

Harris, (Rev.) B 113 

Harris, Eve 107 

Harris, M 108 

Harris, Margaret 110 

Harris, Martha 107 

Harris, Rachel 106 

Harrison Co., Ohio 32 

Harry, (Mrs.) S. B 34 

Hart, Charlotte 114 

Hart, Polly 106 

Hart, ^ Rebecca 114 

Hart, William M 114 

Hart, William P 120 

Hartley, Ann [119 

Hartsell, Thomas 110 

Harvard, Illinois 31 

Harvard University, Cambridge, 

Mass 41, 43, 44, 45, 46 

Haskins, (Prof.) Charles Homer, of 

Harvard University 46 

Hattan, Jane 113 

Hauberg, John H 5, 17, 21 

Haupert, (Rev.) Albert P. The Mo- 
ravian Settlement in Illinois. 34, 79-89 

Hawkins, ETmily 117 

Hawks, Electa HO 

Haws, Abigail S 120 

Hawthorn, Hannah J 118 

Hay, John. Life of Lincoln by Nico- 

lay & Hay. Reference 39, 51, 52 

Hayes, Harrison 115 

Hayes, James 115 

Hayes, John P. Justice of the 

Peace 107, 116-120 

Hayes, Jonathan 117 

Hayes, Josiah E 114 

Hayes, Mahitabel 118 

Haynes, Michael 115 

Hazard, E. H 106 

Headley, (Rev.) H Ill 

Heartley, Elizabeth 120 

Heath, (Rev.) William 106 

Heaton, Nancy ill 



14G 



INDEX — Continued. 



PAGE. 

Hedrlck, Adam. Early Moravian 
Settler Edwards Co.. Illinois. ... S2 

Heidelberg University 45 

Henrick, Wm. A 113 

Hennepin, Loui.s. Franciscan Mis- 
sionary historian with La Salle.. 92 

Henry, (Gov.) Patrick 96, 97, 98 

Henry, (Gov.) Patrick. Aids Col. 

George Rogers Clark 96 

Henry, (Gov.) Patrick. Appoints 
Col. John Todd, Jr., as County 
Lieut, of the County of Illinois... 97 

Herkimer, N. Y 69 

Herndon, William H 51 

Herodotus. Called the "Father of 

History" 37 

Herrnhut, Saxony. Chief seat of the 
Moravian Brotherhood, founded 

in 1722 81 

Hewlt, David 119 

Hickory Grove. Edgar Co., Illinois. 125 
Higgins, Tom. At Hill's Fort, Bond 

Co., 111. Indian Fighter .... 63, 64, 65 
Higgins, Tom. Indian Fighter, burled 

in Favettp County, Illinois 65 

Hill, Asa L 121 

Hill, Caleb J 115 

Hill, Eleanor W 116 

Hill, (Rev.) J 114 

Hill, Thomas 117 

Hill's Fort. Bond Co., Illinois 

,. .62, 63, 64. 65 

HiU's Fort. Bond Co.. Illinois. Site 
of marked by the Daughters of 

the American Revolution 64 

Hiltibrand, George 106 

Himalayas, Mts 81 

Hinkle, Peter. Early Moravian set- 
tler, E'dwards Co., Illinois 82, 83 

Hinsdale. George C 106 

Hlrsch, Sicsrfried. Historian 42 

Hitchcock, Emanuel 107 

Hoadley, (Rev.) Harvey 120 

Hoar, George Frisbee. Recollec- 
tions of Sixty Years 39 

Holbrook, Lydia 109 

Holbrook, Rachel D 109 

Holenback, George 105 

Holland, (Dr.) J. G. Life of Abra- 
ham Lincoln. Reference 51 

Holt, James J. Justice of the Peace 

113, 114, 115 

Hood, Thoma.''. Quotation from.... 59 

Hooten, Martha 106 

Hoover. Elizabeth 118 

Hope, Indiana 83, 84, 87 

Hope, Indiana. Moravian Settle- 
ment 87 

Hopkins, Elizabeth 113 

Horn, (Rev.) Reddick 106 

Horn, William S 106 

Horram, Lyman. Justice of the 

Peace HI, 113 

Horram, Ruth 105 

Horram, Timothy 116 

Hosier, Charlotte 110 

Hostetter, E. H 31 

Hottentos of South Africa 81 

Houser, fRev. ) Martin. Biograph- 
ical Sketch 83, 84 

Houser. (Rev.) Martin. Diary of, 

Reference 83, 84, 86 

Houser, (Rev.) Martin. Platted out 
the town of Palestine. Illinois, in 
1846 84 

Houper Memorial Arch, in the Mor- 
avian Cemetery, West Salem, Illi- 
nois 84 



PAOB. 

Howard, Abraham M 120 

Howe, Leonard 120 

Hoyle, Emma C 114 

Hoyt, Hannah S 116 

Hoyle, Sabina M 116 

Hubbard, Ephraim A Ill 

Hudson River 56 

Huidekoper, (Lieut. -Col.) F. L. His- 
tory of the 33r(l Division Amoru'an 
Expeditionary Forces. World War. 25 

Humph rey.s, Dudley 108 

Hunt, Richard 105 

Hunter, James B 109 

Hunter, John 114 

Hunter, Mary A 114 

Hurst, Deliverana 117 

Hus. John. Burned at the Stake in 

1415, at Constance 80 

Hus. John. Head of the University 

of Prague 80 

Hus, John. Moravian Church, or- 
ganized by followers of John Hus 

79, 80 

Huskinson, (Miss) Annie. Wife of 

Gilbert H. Lane 133 

Huskinson, (Miss) K'zzie. Wife of 

John Breckenridge Shifflett 

129, 130, 131 

Huskinson, William. Pioneer rail- 
road builder of the Middle-Wc^t. . 

129, 133 

Hyde, Harriet Ill 

Hymn of the Moravian Nuns of Beth- 
lehem. By Henry W. Longfellow. 
Reference 88 



Illinois Central Railroad 82 

Illinois College, Jacksonville, Illi- 
nois 5, 21 

Illinois Country 

67, 68, 92-96. 99. 101, 123. 125 

Illinois Country. British delay in 
taking possession of the Illinois 
Country 123 

Illinois Country. Carter Clarence, 
Edwin. Great Britain and the 
Illinois Country 101 

Illinois Country. Coureurs de bois 
in the Illinois Country 95 

Illinois Country. Emigrants to, 
from Virginia, the Carollnas, 
Maryland and Pennsylvania 93 

Illinois Country. First attempt bv 
the British to assert their own- 
ership in the Illinois Country ... 124 

Illinois Country. French inhabit- 
ants given land in, by act of 
Congress, June 20, 1788 99. 100 

Illinois Country. French popula- 
tion in 1792 100 

Illinois Country. French Settle- 
ments in the Illinois Country.... 93 

Illinois Country. Immigration in, 
from 1790 to 1810 100 

Illinois Country. Jesuit Priests 
establish Missions in the Illinois 
Country 94 

Illinois Country. Military expedi- 
tions from the Illinois, against 
the English forts 96 

Illinois Country. Part of the 
Louisiana Province 95 

Illinois Country. Todd, (Col) 

John. Col. John Todd's Record 
Book. By Edward G. Mason.... 101 

Illinois Country. Under French 
rule 93-96 



147 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

Illinois Indians 92, 93 

Illinois River 56, 91, 92 

Illinois Rod and Rifle Club 134 

Illinois State. Admitted to the Un- 
ion in 1818 82 

Illinois State. Archives Depart- 
ment 24 

Illinois State. Arthur, T. S. Ed. 
History of Illinois 101 

Illinois State. Asiatic Cholera in 
Illinois in 1850 78 

Illinois State. Bar Association.... 68 

Illinois State. Barton, (Rev.) Wil- 
liam E. "Lincoln and Illinois" 
Address. Reference 51 

Illinois State. Bateman Newton. 
Historical Encyclopedia of Illi- 
nois 101 

Illinois State. Boggess, Arthur 
Clinton. The Settlement of Illi- 
nois 1778-1830 98, 101 

Foot-note 98 

Illinois State. Brown, Henry. 
History of Illinois 101 

Illinois State. Busch, Francis X. 
The French in Illinois. Address. 
30, 90-101 

Illinois State. Carpenter, W. H. 
Ed. History of Illinois 101 

Illinois State. Census first one, 
heads of families to be published 68 

Illinois State. Census report 1910, 
reference to French in Illinois.. 100 

Illinois State. Centennial Commis- 
sion, publishes History of Illi- 
nois 101 

Illinois State. Centennial History 
of Illinois in Six Volumes 68 

Illinois State. Centennial history 
of the State of Illinois. Clarence 
^V. Alvord. Editor 101 

Illinois State. Centennial Memo- 
rial Building 22-23, 25 

Illinois State. Centennial Publica- 
tions 47, 101 

Illinois State. Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1847 67 

Illinois State. Constitutions of the 
State of Illinois. Illinois Histori- 
cal Collections. Vol. XIII... 67, 136 

Illinois State. County of Illinois 
Ceases to exist 1782 98 

Illinois State. County of Illinois 
established by the Legislature of 
Virginia in 1778 97 

Illinois State. Delegates to the Riv- 
er and Harbor Convention at Chi- 
cago July 5-7, 1847 55 

Illinois State. Education. North- 
ern Illinois State Normal School.. 21 

Illinois State. Education. South- 
ern Illinois State Normal School 21 

Illinois State. French Canadians 
in, Census report 1910 100 

Illinois State. French explora- 
tions in 90, 91 

Illinois State. French Law Code In 
force in Illinois 68 

Illinois State. French settlers in 
Illinois, letter of Col. George 
Rogers Clark to Congress dated 
June 8, 1786, in reference to.... 99 

Illinois State. Gifford. Jamf^s T. 
makes first survey acro^^s north- 
ern Illinois in 1835 or 1836 75, 76 

Illinois State. Governor's Letter 
Books 1818-1834, 1840-53 67, 1S5 



PAGE. 

Illinois State. Historical Collec- 
tions. Address on, By Theodore 

Calvin Pease 66-68 

Illinois State. Historical Collec- 
tions. Bibliographical Series.. 

66, 67. 135, 1S6 

Illinois State. Historical Collec- 
tions. Biographical Series 

66, 67, 136 

Illinois State. Historical Collec- 
tions. British Series 66, 135 

Illinois State. Historical Collec- 
tions. British Series. Trade 

and Politics, 1768-1770 66 

Illinois State. Historical Collec- 
tions. Constitutional Series.... 

66, 67, 136 

Illinois State. Historical Collec- 
tions. Executive Series.. 66, 67, 135 
Illinois State. Historical Collec- 
tion. Legislative Series to be 

issued 6S 

Illinois State. Historical Collec- 
tions. Lincoln Series... 66, 67, 135 
Illinois State. Historical Collec- 
tions Statistical Series, New 

Series to be published..' 68 

Illinois State. Historical Collec- 
tions. Virginia Series 66, 135 

Illinois State. Historical Library. 

7, 12, 13, 23, 24, 25, 30, 101, 135, 136 
Illinois State. Historical Library. 
An Appeal for Historical Ma- 
terial 12-13 

Illinois State. Historical Library. 

Genealogical Department 24 

Illinois State. Historical Library. 
Genealogical works in, lists com- 
piled by Georgia L. Osborne. ... 136 
Illinois State. Historical Library. 

Lincoln Bench In Library 30 

Illinois State. Historical Library. 

Lincoln Collection 23 

Illinois State. Historical Library. 

Newspaper files ' 24 

Illinois State. Historical Library. 

Publications of. list 135, 136 

Illinois State. Historical Library. 

War History Division 25 

Illinois State. Historical Library. 
Publishes War History of the 
33d Division, American Expedi- 
tionary Forces World War. By 
Lleut.-Col. F. L. Huidekoper. . . .'. 25 
Illinois State. Historical Society. 
...5, 7, 9-13, 15, 21, 22, 28. 29, SiO, 
32. 33, 47. 79, 90, 103-126, 135, 136 

Foot-note 98 

Illinois State. Historical Society. 
An Appeal for Historical Mater- 
ial 12, 13 

Illinois State. Historical Society. 

Constitution 9-11 

Illinois State. Historical Society. 
Contributions to State History. . 

103-126 

Illinois State. Historical Society. 

Directors 5, 21 

Illinois State. Historical Society. 

Genealogical Report 32, 33 

Illinois State. Historical Society. 
Illinois Day observed by the so- 
ciety 30, 90 

Illinois State. Historical Society. 

Journals 22, 136 

Illinois State. Historical Society. 

Obser\es Illinois Day 30, 90 

Illinois State. Historical Society. 
Ofldcers 5, 21 



148 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

Illinois State. Historical Society. 
Organized In 1899 47 

Illinois State. Historical Society. 
Papers read at the Annual meet- 
ing 35-101 

Illinois State. Historical Society. 
Prize Essay Contest 28, 29 

Illinois State. Historical Society. 
Publications of, list 29, 135, 136 

Illinois State. Historical Society. 
Record of official Proceedings. 15— 33 

Illinois State. Historical Society 
Secretary's report 22-31 

Illinois State. Historical Society. 
Transactions 1909. Foot-note... 9S 

Illinois State. Historical Survey.. 67 

Illinois State. Increase in popula- 
tion 1790 to 1810 100 

Illinois State. Illinois Central Rail- 
road 82 

Illinois State. Illinois in the Eight- 
teenth Century 136 

Illinois State. Legislature 28, 75 

Illinois State. Mason Edward G. 
Chapters from IllTnols History ... 101 

Illinois State. Mason Edward G. 
Kaskaskia and its Parish Re- 
cords 101 

Illinois State. Menard Pierre. 
French Canadian first Lieutenant 
Governor State of Illinois 101 

Illinois State. Moravian Settle- 
ment in Illinois By Rev. Albert 
P. Haupert 34. 79-89 

Illinois State. Moses John, Illinois 
Historical and Statistical .. .101, 126 

Illinois State. National Road 
l)a.sses through 59 

Illinois State. Native born French 
in Illinois Census Report 1910.. 100 

Illinois State. Outline for the 
study of Illinois History 136 

Illinois State. Pease Theodore Cal- 
vin. The Illinois Historical Col- 
lections: 66-68 

Illinois State. Peck (Rev.) John 
Mason. Gazetteer of Illinois. .. .101 

Illinois State. Pioneer Wonien of 
Illinois. Topic of Prize Essay.. 28 

Illinois State. Prairies of Illinois 
69, 76, 77 

Illinois State. Prices of provision 
in, 1835 76 

Illinois State. Putnam County, 
first deed in, Robert Bird and 
wife to John Strawn 122 

Illinois State. Reynolds (Gov.) 
John. Pioneer History of Illi- 
noTs. Quoted 63. 64, 65 

Illinois State. Selby Paul. His- 
torical Encyclopedia of Illinois. . .101 

Illinois State. Territorial Laws 
l,sn9-1811, 1809-1812 135. 136 

Illinois State. Territorial Re- 
cords 135 

Illinois State. University of Illi- 
nois 5, 21. 34 

Illinois State. War of the Rebel- 
lion. Twentv-first Illinois Vol. 
Inf. U. S. Grant. Colonel 21 

Illinois State. World War. History 
to be published 68 

Illinois Territory 

63, 68, 94, 97, 100. 101, 135, 136 

Illinois Territory. Block-Houses 
built for protection against at- 
tacks by the Indians 63 



PAGE. 

Illinois Territory. Early immi- 
grants to, from Virginia, Mary- 
land and The Carolinas 100 

Illinois Territory. First Terri- 
torial Legislature convenes at 
Kaskaskia 94 

Illinois Territory. Laws of 1809 
to 1818 to be reprinted 68 

Illinois Territory. Legislature had 
a few French members 100. 101 

Illinois Territory. Sale of public 
lands in. Reference 100 

Illinois Territory. Territorial Laws 
1809-1811, 1809-1812 135, 136 

Illinois Territory. Territorial Re- 
cords 135 

Indian Massacre. Bond County 
Illinois 62 

Indian Mounds 74 

Indian Point. Menard County, Illi- 
nois, Community Club 33 

Indiana State 32, 

34, 37, 59, 71, 82, 83, 84, 92, 98, 129 

Indiana State. Bloomington, Ind..:M. 37 

Indiana State. Elkhart, Indiana.. 32 

Indiana State. Evansville, Indiana. 82 

Indiana State. Fort Wayne, Ind. . . 98 

Indiana State. Historical Society 
organized in 1830 47 

Indiana State. Hope, Indiana.. 83, 84 
Indiana State. South Bend, Ind. . 92 
Indiana State. Territorial Laws 
1809 to be reprinted 68 

Indiana State. University 34 

Indians 12, 30, 34, 72, 74, 

81, 91, 92, 93, 95, 96, 97, 98, 123-126 

Indians. Catawba Indians 125 

Indians. Cherokee Indians 125 

Indians. Cox Massacre 62 

Indians. Delaware Indians 124 

Indians. Hammill James H. The 
American Indian 34 

Indians. Illinois Indians.. 90, 92, 93 

Indians. Iroquois Indians 92 

Indians. Kaskaskia Indians 93 

Indians. Kickapoo Indians. . .124, 125 

Indians. Miami Indians 123 

Indians. Ohio Indians 123 

Indians. Ottawa Indians 125 

Indians. Preliminary treaty be- 
tween Col. George Croghan and 

Pontiac 1765 123-126 

Indians. Seneca Indians 91 

Indians. Shawnee Indians .... 123, 124 
Indians. Somokia Mow Wigwam.. 72 
Indians. Stratton Ella Hines. The 

Red Men 126 

Indians. Whelpley cDr.) H. M. 
Indians and Indian Mounds of 

the ;Mississippi Valley 30" 

Ingraham, (M>r. )-. Accompanies 
James G. Gifford and his brother 
on their trip to the West.... 71, 72 

International Life, Insurance Com- 
pany of St. Louis, Mo 130 

Icwa State 55 

Ireland 123 

Iroquois Indians 92 

Irvin, Mary 115 

living, Washington 59 

Ish, Calvin W 120 

Ish, Dorothy 117 

Ish, (Judge) George 105 

Isthmus of Panama 53 

Italy Country of 42 



149 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

Jackson, (Pres. ) Andrew 52 

Jacksonville, Illinois... 5, 21, 31, 78, 133 
Jacksonville, Illinois. "Clover Leaf 

Casualty Company," located in.. 133 
Jacksonville, Illinois. Illinois College 

located in 5, 21 

Jacksonville, Illinois. Mutual Health 
and Accident Association of Amer- 
ica, located in 133 

Jacksonville, Illinois. Northern Cross 
R. R. built from Jacksonville, to 

Meredosia. Reference 78 

Jamaica. Mizpah, Jamaica 89 

James, Edmund J 5, 21, 135 

James, Henry Ill 

James, James Alton 

5, 17, 19. 20, 27, 66, 135 

Jarn.^s, Jam'S Alton. Editor, Illinois 
Historical Collections Vol. VIII. 
George Rogers Clark Papers. 66, 135 

James, Mary Ann 113 

James II, King of England 37 

James, Stephen M. C 114 

James, Susannah 113 

Jameson, (Prof. ) J. Franklin 46 

.Jamison, (Mrs.) F. R 20 

Jane, D 119 

Jay, John 40 

Jefferson, (Pres.) Thomas... 52, 53, 98 
Jefferson, (Pres.) Thomas. T^ouisi- 
ana Purchase under his adminis- 
tration 52, 53 

Jeffln, Lucinda 117 

Jenison, (Miss) Marguerite E. Her.d 
of the War History division Illinois 

State Historical Library 25 

Jerusalem. Lepers of Jerusalem... 81 

Jo Daviess Co., Illinois 94, lOO 

Jo Daviess Co., Illinois. Bouthillier, 
early resident of Jo Daviess Co... 94 

John, Charlotte 108 

Johns Hopkins University. Balti- 
more, Md 40. 42, 45, 46 

Johnson, (Pres.) Andrew 29 

Johnson, Betsy 115 

Johnson, (Dr.) Charles B....20, 34, 59 
Johnson, (Dr.) Charles B. On and 
about the Old National Road in the 

Early Fifties 3 4, 59-65 

Johnson, Edward L 65 

.Johnson, Elvira 109 

Johnson, Loritha 112 

Johnson, (Sir) William 126 

Johnston, (Gen.) Albert Sidnev 39 

Joliet, Louis 90, 91, 92 

Jones, William 116 

Joplin, Mo. 129, 130 

Joplin, Mo. Mineral Springs Railroad 

of Joplin, Missouri 130 

Jordan. Isaac. Earlv Settler of Ed- 
wards County, Illinois 87 

Journey, (Lieut.) John. In com- 
mand at Hill's Fort, 1814 63 

Jowett. Benjamin. Plato. Foot-note 50 

Judson, John P 112 

Justin, (Rev.) William " 118 



Kaffirs of South Africa 81 

Kane Co., Illinois. Elgin Towniship! 76 
Kane Co., Illinois. St. Charles Town- 
ship 76 

Kane Co., Illinois. Sends delegates 
to the River and Harbor Conven- 
tion at Chicago. July 5-7, 1847. ... 55 

Kankakee Co.. Illinois ' 'loo 

Kankakee River [ 92 



PAGE. 

Kansas City, Mo 129 

Kansas State 46, 129 

Kansas State. Pittsburg, Kan 129 

Kaskaskia on the Illinois River.. 91, 93 
Kaskaskia on the Illinois River. 
Mission of the Irnmaculate Con- 
ception founded by Father Mar- 
quette 93 

Kaskaskia, Randolph Co., Illinois. . 

95, 96, 98 

Kaskaskia. British maintain garri- 
sons at, during the Revolution. ... 96 
Kaskaskia. Capital of the State of 

Illinois 94 

Kaskaskia. Clark, (Col.) G«orge 
Rogers, Captures Kaskaskia. . .96, 97 

Kaskaskia-Detroit Trails 125 

Kaskaskia. French and Canadian 
inhabitants, guaranteed continu- 
ance of their laws and customs rel- 
ative to the conveyance and de- 
scent of property 99 

Kaskaskia. Illinois Territorial Leg- 
islature held in Kaskaskia 94 

Kaskaskia. Indians 93 

Kaskaskia. Mason, Edward G. Kas- 
kaskia and its Parish Records. .. .101 
Kaskaskia. Mission of the Imma- 
culate Conception removal to 

Kaskaskia 93 

Kaskaskia. One of the county seats 

of the original St. Clair County. 94 
Kaskaskia. Population of in 1723 

and 1772 93 

Kaskaskia. Records returned to 

Chester, Illinois 20 

Kaskaskia River 63, 91 

Kaskaskia (or Okaw) River 63 

Kavanaugh, J. W 130 

Keats, John English Poet 129 

Kelly, Margaret 116 

Kemp, John 122 

Kendall Co., Illinois. Sends dele- 
gates to the River and Harbor 
Convention at Chicago, July 5-7, 

1847 55 

Kentucky State 100, 129 

Kentucky State. Early immigra- 
tion to Kentucky 100 

Kentucky State. Increase in popu- 
lation 1790 to 1810 100 

Kickapoo Indians 124 

Kidney, Ellen 109 

Kimber, Mary Ann 119 

Kincaid, William 113, 119 

King, James 114 

King, (Mrs.) .James S. Interested 
in having the places in Spring- 
field marked that were connected 
with the life of Mr. Lincoln, while 

a resident here 26 

King, Samuel 108 

King, Silas 117 

King, William Ill 

Kingston, N. T. Old Dutch Rec- 
ords of Kingston, New York.... 32 

Kingston, Ontario. Foot-note 92 

Kinney, Joseph W 116 

Kinyon, Alonzo 120 

Kirby, William 106 

Kirk, William. Revolutionary S'ol- 
dier buried near Scottsville, Illi- 
nois 33 

Kluge, (Rev.) Charles F. Head of 
the Provincial Elders' Conference 
of the Southern Moravian Church 84 

Knapp, (Capt.) 72 

Knight, Martha Ann 106 



150 



INDEX— Continued. 



„ PAGE. 

Knights of Pythias 134 

Knox, Elizabeth 107 

Knox. William 107, 111 

Kramer, Jacob 83 

Kunts, Martha 120 

Kynlon Clarissa 114 



Labrador 81 

La Chine, Canada. Just above 
Montreal on the St. Lawrence 

Ri ver 91 

Foot-note 91 

LaGrange. Illinois 5, 21 

Lake Charles Louisiana 31 

Lake Co., Illinois. Sends delegates 
to the River and Harbor Conven- 
tion at Chicago, July 5-7, 1847.. 55 

Lake Erie 92 

Lake Geneva 73 

Lake Huron 92 

Lake Michigan 91, 92 

Lake Ontario 91 

Lake Peoria 94 

Lake Superior. Foot-note 91 

Lake Winnebago 91 

Lamon Ward. Life of Lincoln. 

Reference 51 

Lancaster Co., Pa 32 

Lancaster, Nancy 108 

Lancaster, William F 108 

Lane. Gilbert Harsha. Biographi- 
cal sketch. By Kizzie Huskin- 

son Shifflett 133-134 

Lane, Hezekiah Woodruff 133 

Lane. Jane 120 

Lane, Joseph 113 

Lane, Mary Honeyman 133 

Lane, Mathias 133 

Lane, Nellie Lucia. Wife of Ed- 
mund Harris Beall 134 

Lane, Ruth 134 

Lane, Ward William 134 

Lane, Webb Huskinson 134 

Langlois. C. V. Quoted on History. 49 

LangTvorthy, Augustus Ill 

Langworthy, Aurelia 110 

Larkin, Jeremiah R 112 

Larkin, Monroe 117 

Larsh, Charity 107 

Larwood, Alfonza 118 

La Salle Rene, Robert Sieur de 

27, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 101 

LaSalle Rene, Robert Sieur de. Ex- 
plorations of La Salle 91-93 

La Salle R^ne, Robert Sieur de. 

Jared Spark. Life of La Salle... 101 
Latane. (Prof.) John Holladay.... 46 
Laughlln, James G. Justice of the 

Peace 115, 116, 117, 119, 120 

Laughlln, S. D. Justice of the 

Peace 105, 106 

Laval L^nlversity, Quebec, Canada. 

Foot-note 94 

Law, John, of "Mississippi Bubble 

Fame" 94 

Law, John. President of "The Com- 
pany of the "U'est" 94 

Lawrence, George A 5, 21 

Leech, James 110 

Leech, Jane 110 

Lemmon, Jacob 112 

Leonard, June 109 

Leonard, Michael 106 

Lepslua, Karl Richard. Lecturer on 
Egyptology 42 

Lervln, Esther 117 

L« Seur. Explorer 94 



PAOS. 

Letters. Clark, (Col.) George Rog- 
ers letter to Congress dated June 
8, 1786, In reference to French 

Settlers In Illinois 99 

Letters. Lincoln to O. H. Brown- 
ing Extract 1847 58 

Lewis. Elizabeth M 118 

Lewis. Eveline 119 

Libby, (Rev.) John 120, 121 

Lleber, Francis. Instructor at the 
University of South Carolina.... 43 

Ligo, Sarah 112 

Lincoln, Abraham 17, 19, 

23, 26, 27. 28, 30, 39, 51-58, 82, 86 
Lincoln, Abraham. Barton, (Dr.) 
William E. Abraham Lincoln and 

His Books 52 

Lincoln. Abraham. Barton, (Rev,) 
William E. The Influence of Chi- 
cago on the career of Lincoln.... 51 
Lincoln, Abraham. Barton, (Rev,) 
William E. "Lincoln and Illinois" 

Address. Reference 51 

Lincoln, Abraham. Delegate from 
Sangamon County to the River 
and Harbor Convention at Chi- 
cago, July 5-7, 1847 55 

Lincoln. Abraham. Hay John. Life 

of Lincoln. Reference 51, 52 

Lincoln, Abraham. Illinois State 
Historical Library, Lincoln Col- 
lection 23 

Lincoln, Abraham. Lamon, W'aM. 
Life of Abraham Lincoln. Ref- 
erence 51 

Lincoln, Abraham. Letter to Orvllle 
H. Browning. Dated June 24, 
1847, in which he states he ex- 
pects to attend the River and 
Harbor Convention July. 1847... 58 
Lincoln, Abraham. Life of Lincoln 

in the different languages 23 

Lincoln, Abraham. Lincoln bench 
gift of Clinton L. Conkling heirs 
to the Illinois State Historical 

Society 30 

Lincoln, Abraham. Lincoln Circuit 
Marking Association, markers at 
county seats and county lines.. 2 7, 28 
Lincoln, Abraham. Lincoln-Douglas 

Debates. 1858 67. 135 

Lincoln, Abraham. Lowell, James 
Russell. Extract from poem on 

Lincoln ' 58 

Lincoln, Abraham. Mc(3^1ynn. Frank. 
Visit to Springfield and the play, 
"Abraham Lincoln," in which he 
impersonates the Great Emanci- 
pator 26, 27 

Lincoln, Abraham. New Salem, Illi- 
nois, home of, for a few years. ... 82 
Lincoln. Abraham. Nlcolay and Hay. 

Life of Lincoln 39, 51, 52 

Lincoln, Abraham. Nicolay, John. 

Life of Lincoln. Reference. 39, 51, 52 
Lincoln, Abraham. O'Connor, An- 
drew. Statue of Abraham Lin- 
coln 27 

Lincoln, Abraham. Only Whig Con- 
gressman elected in Illinois In 
1846 5S 

Lincoln. Abraham. Shaw, James. 
A neglected Episode in the Life of 
Abraham Lincoln 34, 51-58 

Lincoln, Abraham. Sites connected 
with Mr. Lincoln's residence In 
Sprinirfleld marked 2t 



151 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

Lincoln, Abraham. Tarbell, Ida M. 
Life of Abraham Lincoln. Ref- 
erence 51 

Lincoln. Abraham. Washburne. Eli- 
hu B. Abraham Lincoln in Illi- 
nois. Foot-note 55 

Lincoln Bench. Gift of the heirs of 

Clinton L. Conkling^ 30 

Lincoln Circuit. Marking' Associa- 
tion. Markers at county seats and 

county lines 27, 2S 

Lincoln-Douglas Debates, 1858.. 67. 135 

Lincoln Finance Company 131 

Lincoln Home, Springfield, Illinois. . 

17. 19, 25, 26, 27 

Lincoln Home, Springfield, Illinois. 
Protection of, from fire urged. . . . 

17, 19, 25. 26 

Lincoln Housing Trust Company of 

St. Louis. Mo 131 

Lincoln, Illinois 31 

Litchfield, Conn. History of Litch- 
field and the Bi-Centennial 32 

Lltitz. Pa. Moravian Settlement... 87 

Litte, Nathaniel 108 

L'v-^rmon. Mar>- 117 

Livingston, Lucian 110 

Lock, Silas 116 

Loftus, (Major) Arthur 124 

Logston on the Ohio River. Trading 
house of Col. George Cioghan, 

R ference 123 

Logan, fGen.) John Alexander 39 

Long. G. Frank 31 

"Long Knives." George Rogers 
Clark Soldiers called "Long 

Knives" 96 

Longfellow. Henry TV. Hymn of the 
Moravian Xuns of Bethlehem. 

Reference 88 

Longstreet. (Gen.) James 39 

Lonnon. John 112 

Lopp, (Mrs.) Anna Ochler. Mission- 

ar-y of the Moravian Church 89 

Lopp. (Rev.) George. Missionary of 

the Moravian (TTiurch 89 

Lord, John. Historian 90 

Los Angeles, Cal 131 

Lost Maramech and Earliest Chi- 
cago. By J. F. Stewart. Foot- 
note 94 

Louis XVI. King of France 

91, 92. 94. 95 

Louisiana Purchase under Presi- 
dent Thomas Jefferson's Admin- 
istration 52 

Louis-ana State... 31, 52. 93. 94, 95, 100 
Louisiana State. French from Lou- 
isiana founded Fort de Chartres.. 95 

Louis-ana State. Lake Charles La. . 31 
Louisiana Stat-. Proclamations of 
the Spanish (jovemor of Louisiana 
in 1TS9 100 

Louisiana Territoo'- Jefferson. 

(Pres.) Thomas and the purchase 

of the Louisiana Territor>-. 52, 53 

Love. Samuel 113 

Lovejoy, Owen 115 

Lovt^'ess. Milo J 135 

Lcve'in. Catherin-;^ 11.; 

Lowd n, (Gov/> Frank Orren 134 

Lowell. James Russell. Extract 
from poem on .\braham Lincoln. 58 

Loyd, Thomas 118 

Lukenheimer Brass Company of Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio 129 

Lundy, Eliza 118 



PAGE. 

Lutheran Cliurch. Round Top Luth- 
eran Church of Pine Plains, Dutch- 
ess Co., N. Y.. 1760-1788 32 

Lyons. Catherine 108 

Lyons, Louisa 118 

Lytle Family 33 

Lytle. Leonard 33 



Macaulay, Thomas B. Historj- of 

England 37 

McCaleb. Albert G 117 

McCarthy, J. H. Quotes two events 

in human history 37 

McCarty. Amanda. . . . . .117 

McCarty, Caroline.. ...117 

McCaslin, Xancy Jane Ill 

McClure. Samuel C 106 

McCormas, David 105 

McCormas, Isaac 107 

McCormas, Stephen 105 

McCormas, Tennessee. . . . .10.5 

McCormas, "William 108 

McDonald. (Rev.) John 105 

McGiynn, Frank. Visit to Spring^- 
field and the play "Abraham Lin- 
coln" in which he impersonates 

Lincoln 26. 27 

McGlynn, (Mrs.) Frank 27 

McGuire. Philip 115 

Mackinac 90, 91. 92, 93 

Mackinac. Mission at Mackinac. . . 90 

McKinley, rPres.) "William 133 

McNeil, "William 106 

Macomber, Zenas Ill 

Macoupin Co.. Illinois 33 

Macpherson, J. Frank 31 

McPherson. (Prof.) John Hanson 

Thomas of Georgia 46 

McShane. Henry, Manufacturing 

Company 129 

Madison Co., Illinois 133, 134 

Madison' Journal, of the Debates in 
the Constitutional Convention... 40 

Mag. Eliza 115 

Maine State 32, 33 

Maine State. Banks family of 

Maine 33 

Maine State. Bonithon Family of 

Maine 33 

Maine State. Historical Collec- 
tions 32 

Maine State. "Wills 1640-1760 32 

Maine State. York Deeds 1642-173tj 32 
Malamet. Fort Constructed at. by 

Nicholas Perrot 94 

Foot-note 94 

Mallary, 1 

Mallory, / Russell H.. Justice of the 

Peace' 108, 112 

Mann. Henry 106 

Mannon. Elizabeth 112 

Maramech. Steward J. F. Lost 
Maramech and Earliest Chicago. 

Foot-note 94 

Marameg on the Fox River 94 

Marest, (Father) Pierre Gabriel. 91. 93 
Marest, (Father) Pierre Gabriel. 
Removes the Mission of the Im- 
maculate Conception to Kaskas- 

kia in Randolph County 93 

Margrave, Felix. Justice of the 

Peace 112. 113 

Margrave. James "W 113 

Marlatt, Joseph Ill 

Marpool. Clarissa 110 

Marquette, (Father) Jacques James 

90. 91. 92, 93 

Foot-note 91 



162 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

Marriages. Putnam County, Illi- 
nois. Early Marriages in Put- 
nam County, Illinois. Compiled 
by Mrs. George Spangler .... 105-121 

Marshall. John 40 

Martin. Edgar H. State Architect 

of Illinois 19. 27, 28 

Martin, George 106 

Martin, Jane 109 

Martin, Josiah W 106 

Martin, Lucy 118 

Martin. Mary 107 

Martindale, Nancy 109 

Maryland State. Cumberland, Md. 59 
Maryland State. Emigrants from, 

to the Illinois Country 93. 100 

Mason, Edward G. Chapters from 

Illinois History 101 

Mason, Edward G. Col. John 

Todd's Record Book 101 

Mason, Edward G. Kaskaskia and 

its Parish Records 101 

Mason, Laureen T 109 

Masonic Country Club. Detroit, 

Mich 132 

Massachusetts State 

32, 33, 38, 45. 46, 69 

Massachusetts State. Boston Rec- 
ords 1674-1800 32 

Massachusetts State. Historical 
Society dates back to 1791. Col- 
lections and Proceedings. Refer- 
ence 46 

Massachusetts State. Landing of 

the Pilgrims. Reference 38 

Massachusetts State. Somerville, 

Mass 33 

Mathews. (Mr.) of Everybody's 

Magazine 130 

Mattoon. Illinois 82 

Meigs Co., Ohio 32 

Melchizedek. Priestly order of Mel- 

chizedek 37 

Menard Co., Illinois. Indian Point 

Community Club 33 

Menard, Pierre. French Canadian 
First Lieutenant Governor, State 

of Illinois 101 

Mercer, Mary Ill 

Meredosia, Illinois. Northern Cross 
Railroad built from Jacksonville 
to Meredosia, Illinois. Refer- 
ence 78 

Meritt, George P 116 

Merrill, Rebecca 107 

Methodist Church. Moravianism 

and Methodism 82 

Miami Co., Ohio 32 

Miami Indians 123 

Michel, (Rev.) Eugene L 89 

Michigan State 33, 55, 71, 131, 132 

Michigan State. Detroit, Mich.... 33 
Michigan State. The 1,000 Limit 

Club of Michigan 132 

Michigan State. Sovereign Consis- 
tory, Valley of Detroit, Michigan. 132 
Michigan State. University of 
Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 43 

Miers, Ann 110 

Mignet, Francois Auguste Marie. 

French Historian 42, 44 

Military Reminiscences. By Jacob 

D. Cox 39 

Miller, (Col.) C. J. Director of the 
State Department of Public 

Works, Illinois 27 

Miller, (Col.) C. R 133 

Miller, Eliza 107 

Miller, (Mrs.) Eliza Price 29 



PAOB. 

Miller, Henry F 107 

Miller, (Mrs.) I. G 20. 21 

Miller, William 110 

Mills, Mary Ann 120 

Milwaukee River 72, 73 

Milwaukee, Wis 71, '72 

Miner, (Rev.) George W 119 

Miner, (Rev.) Jona 113. 114 

Mineral Springs Railroad, of Jop- 

lin. Mo 130 

Minnesota State. Duluth. Minn... 31 
Minnesota State. University of 

Minnesota 67 

Minor, (Rev.) Jona 114 

Mission of the Guardian Angel 
founded by Father Pierre Pinet 

in 1696 94 

Mission of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion founded by Father Marquette 
at Kaskaskia on the Illinois 
River, afterwards removed to 

Kaskaskia in Randolph Co 93 

Mississippi River 

59, 74. 91. 92, 93, 94, 96, 123. 131 

Foot-note 91 

Mississippi River, called the "Fa- 
ther of Waters" 90 

Mississippi River. Deep Waterway 

Scheme 130. 131 

Mississippi River. Pittman (Capt.) 
Philip. European Settlements on 

the Mississippi 101 

Mississippi Transportation Com- 
pany of St. Louis, Mo 130, 131 

Mississippi Valley 

53. 90. 95. 101. 130. 131 

Mississippi Valley. First common 
law court in the Mississippi Val- 
ley organized at Ft. Chartres in 

1768 95 

Mississippi Valley. Historical Soci- 
ety. Review and Proceedings. 

Reference 47, 48 

Mississippi Valley. Indians and In- 

< dian Mounds of the Mississippi 

Valley. Address by Dr. H. M. 

Whelpley. Reference 30 

Missouri River 91 

Missouri State. Joplin. Missouri. 

129. 130 

Missouri State. Kansas City, Mis- 
souri 129 

Missouri State. St. Louis, Mis- 
souri 55, 129-131 

Mitchell, Julia Ann 116 

Mitchell, Margaret 108 

Mizpah, Jamaica 89 

Mofntt, Hannah S 109 

Moffett, West and Merril, Whole- 
salers, St. Louis, Mo 133 

Moline, Illinois 34 

Monroe Co., Illinois 100 

Montour, Andrew 123 

Montreal, Canada 93, 96 

Foot-note 91 

Moon, Albert 105 

Moon, Ammon 115 

Moore, Ensley 5, 21, 33 

Moore, Ensley. Contributions to 
the Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety and Library 33 

Moore, Harriet E 115 

Moore, Jane J 121 

Moore, (Capt.) James B 63 

Moore, Samuel 118 

Moravia 79 

Moravian Cemetery. West Salem. 
Ill 84, 88, 89 



163 



INDEX — Continued. 



I'AGE. 

Moravian Church. Early struggle 

for Religious Liberty 80 

Moravian Church. Organization in 

Bohemia in 1457 79 

Moravian Seminary and College for 

Women, Bethlehem, Pa 87 

Moravian Settlement in Illinois. By 

Rev. Albert P. Haupert 34. 79-89 

Moravian Settlement of Salem, 

North Carolina 82, 84 

Moravianlsm, a World stream of 

influence 79 

Moravianlsm and Methodism. ... 81, 82 
Moravianlsm, and the heathen 

world 81 

Moravians. Longfellow, Henry W. 
"Hymn of the Moravian Nuns of 

Bethlehem." Reference 88 

Morgan, Adeline 119 

Morgan, Melinda 119 

Morgan, Thomas 110 

Morrille, Aurora 115 

Morrille, Mary 113 

Morris. (Capt.) 124. 125 

Morris, Elizabeth 117 

Morris, Sarah 119 

Morris, Seymour 31 

Morrison, David 119 

Morrison, Illinois 133 

Morrow Co., Ohio 32 

Morse, Hannah 115 

Morse. John T. Biography of 

Alexander Hamilton 40 

Morse, John T. Editor of the Amer- 
ican Statesmen Series 40 

Moses, John. Illinois Historical 

and Statistical 101, 126 

Moslem Temple, of Detroit, Michi- 
gan 132 

Motley, Obadiah C 108 

Mt. Carmel, Illinois 83 

Mt. Vernon, Illinois 133 

Mt. Vernon, Virginia 83 

Mounts, Asahel 108 

Mounts, Nero W 109 

Munson, William 106 

Murphy, A 118 

Murphy, Betsy 116 

Murphy, Brackston 116 

Murphy, Sally 110 

Muskego River 73 

Mutual Health and Accident Asso- 
ciation of America 133 

'••My Day and Generation." By 

Clark B. Carr 39 

Myers, Albert S 116 

Myers, John 116, 117 

Myers, Matilda 106 

Myers, Sarah Jane 119 

xr 

Narrative and Critical History of 

America. By Justin Wlnsor. ... 41 
National Road. Johnson (Dr.) 
Charles B. On and About the 
National Road in the early 

fifties 34, 59-65 

National Road. Movers and vehic- 
les described 60, 61 

Nazareth, Pa. Moravian settle- 
ment 87 

Needham, Sylvester 106 

NefC, D'ruzilla 107 

Neff. Hiram 105 

Neglected Episode in the life of 
Abraham Lincoln. By James 

Shaw 51-58 

Nelson, S 120 



fAGE. 

Newcomb, John W 112 

New Englander, (The) 42 

New France, Surrender of, Re- 
ference 96 

New Hampshire State. Sullivan, 

N. H. History of 32 

New Jersey, State Plalnfleld N. 

J 133 

New Mexico 53, 129 

New Orleans, La 124, 130, 131 

New Salem. Illinois. Abraham Lin- 
coln and his life at New Salem. 

Reference 82 

New Salem. On the Sangamon 

River Illinois 82 

Newspapers. Chicago Evening 

Journal 55 

Newspapers. Illinois, Bibliogra- 
phy 135 

Newspapers. Illinois State His- 
torical Library Newspaper files.. 24 
Newspapers. New York Tribune.. 50 

New York City 24, 88, 129, 130 

New York State 67, 69. 70, 71, 131 

New York State. Dundee, N. Y... 

70, 72, 76 

New York' State. Dutchess Co., 

N. Y 32 

New York State. Fort Covington. 

N. Y 33 

New York State. Herkimer, N. Y.. 69 
New York State. Kingston N. Y. 
Old Dutch Records of Kingston. 

N. Y 32 

New York State. Ontario Co., N. Y. 71 
New York State. Records of 
Round Top Lutheran Church of 
Pine Plains, Dutchess Co., N. Y. 

1760-1788 32 

New York State. Rome, N. Y 129 

New York State. Sherburne, N. Y. 

69, 70 

New York Tribune. Horace Greeley 

Editor 56 

Niagara 96 

Niagara River 92 

Nicaragua 81, 89 

Nicaragua. Bluefields 89 

Nlcolay and Hay. Life of Abra- 
ham Lincoln. Reference 51, 52 

Nlcolay, (Miss) Helen. Gives ad- 
dress, dedicatory exercises San- 
gamon County Circuit Court 
Room on the placing of tablet to 
mark site of Lincoln's famous 
speech "House divided against 

itself." June 16. 1858 26 

Nlcolay, John. Life of Lincoln. 
By Nlcolay and Hay. Reference 

39, 51, 52 

Nlcolay, John G. Secretary and 

biographer of Abraham Lincoln.. 26 
Nicolet, Jean. Explorations in 1634. 

Reference. Foot-note 91 

Niebuhr, Barthold George. German 

historian and critic 38, 49 

Nook, George 106 

Norris, Willard B 118 

Norrls, William H. P 117 

North America 81 

North Carolina State. Edgefield, 

N. C 32 

North Carolina State. Forsyth Co., 

N. C 83 

North Carolina State. Moravian 

Settlement of Salem. N. C 82. 84 

Northern Illinois. State Normal 
School, DeKalb. Illinois 6 



154 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

Northwest Territory. Laws of the 
Northwest Territory 1788-1800 
Reprint of ^° 

Northwest Territory. Slavery pro- 
hibited in, by the Ordinance of 

1787 v;--^--; ^^ 

Norton. (Miss) Margaret. Head or 
the Department of State Archives 
State of Illinois 20, 24 

Nower. Sarah R 116 



Oak Park. Illinois 51 

Oakland, California 19 

Obrist, Abram 105 

O'Connor, Andrew. Statue of Abra- 
ham Lincoln 27 

Ogee, Joseph 106 

Ogle, Elizabeth 119 

Ohio Indians 123 

Ohio River 91, 92. 96, 123 

Ohio State 54, 59, 61 

Ohio State. Ashtabula County 32 

Ohio State. Carroll County 32 

Ohio State. Cincinnati, Ohio 129 

Ohio State. Clermont County 32 

Ohio State. Cleveland, Ohio 33 

Ohio State. Columbiana County.. 32 

Ohio State. Columbus, Ohio 130 

Ohio State. Dayton, Ohio 129 

Ohio State. Early immigration to 

Ohio 100 

Ohio State. Fulton County 32 

Ohio State. Geauga County 32 

Ohio State. Gnadenhutten. Ohio... 87 

Ohio State. Greene County 32 

Ohio State. Harrison County 32 

Ohio State. Increase in population 

1790-lSlO 100 

Ohio State. Meigs County 32 

Ohio State. Miami County 32 

Ohio State. Ross County 32 

Ohio State. University, Columbus 

Ohio 67 

Ohio State. Williams County 32 

Okaw (Kankakee) River 63 

"Orbis Pictus" First School Book 
with illustrations published by 
Bishop John Amos Comenius 

(Komenski ) 81 

Oklahoma State 130 

Old Coloney Club, Detroit, Mich... 132 

Olney. Illinois 83 

Ong, Wilson 120 

Ontario Co., N. Y 71 

Ordinance of 17S7 98. 99 

Ordinance of 1787. Prohibited sla- 
very in the Northwest Territory. 99 

Oren, Catharine 120 

Orion Illinois 30 

Orr. Elizabeth 115 

Orr, Jemina 115 

Osborne, Georgia L. Assistant Li- 
brarian Illinois State Historical 

Library 136 

Osborne. Georgia L. Assistant Sec- 
reta- y Illinois State Historical 

Society 21 

Osborne GeorRria L. Chairman of 
the GenealoETical Committee Illi- 
nois State Historical Society.. 20, 24 
Oeborne. Georgia L. Genealogical 
report Illinois State Historical 

Society 32. 33 

Oeborne. Georgia L. Genealogical 
works in the Illinois State His- 
torical Library, lists compiled 
by 136 



PAOB. 

Osborne, John. Justice of the 

Peace 120 

Osborne, William L 120 

Ottawa, Illinois 91, 92 

Ottawa Indians 126 

Owen Charlotte 106 

Oxford, England 42 



Packingham, Freeman Ill 

Packingham. James 119 

Page, Edward C 5, 21 

Palermo. Young America Town- 
ship. Edgar Co., Illinois. Marker 
in, locates site of Treaty 1765 be- 
tween Col. George Croghan and 

Pontiac 126 

Palestine, Illinois. Platted out In 

1846 by Rev. Martin Houser 84 

Palmer, (Rev.) H. D 113. 114 

Palmer, John M. Personal Recol- 
lections 39 

Palmer, Nancy D 112 

Panama, Isthmus of Panama 53 

Papuans of Australia 81 

Paris, France. College de France. 42 

Paris, France. The Sorbonne 42 

Park, Harriet 108 

Parkman, Francis. History of the 

Great West 101 

Park.s, Rebecca Jane 114 

Parod, Lewis 120 

Parrot, William E 118 

Parson, Isaac 108 

Patten, Nancy 114 

Patterson, Flora 108 

Patterson, Martha Ann 117 

Payne, Cynthia Ann 120 

Pearce. Richard HI 

Pease, Dexter 115 

Pease, Theodore Calvin.. 29, 66, 67. 136 
Pease, Theodore Calvin. Editor 
Illinois Historical, Collections. 

Vol. VI 67, 136 

Pease. Theodore Calvin. The Illi- 
nois Historical Collections .. 34, 66-68 
Peck, (Rev.) John Mason. Gazet- 
teer of Illinois 101 

Pendleton, (Rev.) H. G 

115, 117, 118. 119, 120 

Pennell. William A 119 

Pennemen, Sarah 117 

Pennsylvania. President and Coun- • 
cil of the Province of Pennsyl- 
vania 123 

Pennsylvania State 

32, 56, 61. 93, 123. 130 

Pennsylvania State. Delaware 

Coiintv 32 

Pennsylvania State. Emigrants 

from to the Illinois Country 93 

Pennsylvania State. Lancaster 

Countv 32 

Pennsvlvania State. Pittsburg, Pa. 130 

Peoria. Illinois 27, 105, 125 

Foot-note 92 

Peoria, Illinois. Daughters of the 

American Revolution 27. 105 

Peoria. Illinois. Peoria Chapter 
Dpuf'htfrs of the American Re- 
volution 27 

Pepperr. Charlotte 108 

Periodicals. Century Magazine... 39 
Periodicals. "Do It". Shifflett. 
Cumber Monthly Magazine 131 

Peric^irals. Everybody's Magazine.. 130 
Periodicals. New Englander 42 



155 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

Perkins, Adelia E Ill 

Perkins, Cynthia 108 

Perkins, Rebecca 107 

Perkins, Solomon 106 

Perkins, Timothy 108 

Perrot, Nicholas. French Trader 
constructs a fort at "Malamet". 94 

Foot-note 94 

Perry, George 118 

Peters, Lorinda 106 

Petersburg, Illinois 129 

Phelps, (Rev.) A. E Ill, 112 

Phelps, Bbenezer S 115 

Phelps, Josephus 116 

Phenix, Elizabeth 113 

Phillips, Edward 120 

Phillips, Elizabeth 113 

Philadelphia, Pa 88 

Phillipine Islands 53 

Phye, Ebenezer 107 

Pia.sa Lodge No. 27 of U. F. & A. 

M. of Alton, Illinois 132 

Pierce, Henry R 117 

Pine Plains. Dutchess Co., N. Y. 
Records of Round Top Lutheran 
Church of Pine Plains, N. Y. 

1760-1788 32 

Pinet, (Father) Pierre. Jesuit 
founded the Mission of the Guar- 
dian Angel at or near the mouth 
of the Chicago River in 1696.90. 94 
Pittman, (Capt.) Philip, European 
Settlements on the Mississippi .. 101 

Pittsburg, Kansas 129 

Pittsburg, Pa 130 

Plainfield, N. J 133 

Planter's Hotel, St. Louis, Mo 130 

Plaster, Anny 106 

Plasters, Sally 107 

Plato. Walter 108 

Plough, Susannah 120 

Plutarch. History of Greek and 

Roman life. Reference 90 

Pocahontas, Bond Co., Illinois. .62, 63 
Political Parties. Democratic Party 

52, 56 

Political Parties. Federals or 

Whig Party 52 

Political Parties. Republican Party 

133, 134 

Political. Parties. Whig Party. 52, 55 
Polk, (Pres.) James K..52, 53, 54, 56 
Polk, (Pres.) James K. Political 

career 52 

Pplk, (Pres.) James K. Strict con- 
structionist 53 

Polk, (Pres.) James K. Veto Mes- 
sage of 1846. Extracts from. 53. 54 
Pollock, Oliver. Financial agent of 
Virginia and of George Rogers 

Clark at New Orleans 66 

Pomeroy, (Rev.) A 115 

Pomeroy, Ann L 115 

Pontiac, Illinois 126 

Pontiac. Preliminary Treaty of 
1765 between Col. George Croghan 
and Pontiac. By Rose Moss Scott 

123-126 

Pool, Guy W 113 

Porter, Edwin 114 

Porter, Elizabeth 118 

Porter, Jeremiah 109 

Porter, Peter. Soldier of the W^ar 
of 1812. Buried in Grove City, 

Christian County, Illinois 33 

Porto Rico 53 

Post Road surveyed between Chi- 
cago and Galena, Illinois 78 



PAOl?, 

Powell, Clarissa 114 

Powell, (Rev.) Thomas 

110, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 120 

Powers, Elisha G 112 

Prague, Bohemia. Bethlehem Cha- 
pel in Prague 80 

Prague, Bohemia. University of 

Prague 80 

Prairie du Rocher, (Rock Prairie) 
Founded by a few French fami- 
lies 95 

Prairie du Rocher. Population of, 

in 1772 95 

Prairies of Illinois 69, 76, 77 

Prairie Wolf 74 

Pratt, Charlotte C 121 

Preliminary Treaty signed at a 
point which is now Palermo Ed- 
gar County Illinois in 1765 giv- 
ing the Eastern MississipDi \ al- 
ley to Anglo Saxon Civilization. 

By Rose Moss Scott 123-126 

Price, Herman 119 

Prickett, Eli T Ill 

Prickett, Olive 108 

Prize Essay Contest. Illinois State 

Historical Society 28, 29 

Promotion of Historical Study in 
America, following the Civil War. 
Bv Prof. James A. Woodburn 

34, 37-50 

Providence. R. I. Index of the 
Births, Marriages and Deaths in 

Providence, R. I. 1636-1910 32 

Prunk, Jane 116 

Pursely, (Mrs.) At Hill's Fort Bond 

County, Illinois 63, 64 

Putnam Co., Illinois. Bird John 
and wife to John Strawn deed 

dated 1831 122 

Putnam Co., 111. Early marriages 
in Putnam Co.. 111. compiled by 

Mrs. George Spangler 105-121 

Putnam Co., 111. First deed in 
Putnam Co., 111. Robert Bird 

and wife to John Strawn 1''2 

Putnam, Isaac 107 

Putnam, Jason 107 

Putz's Ancient History 42 

Q 

Quebec, Canada 

90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 96, 123 

Quebec, Canada. Defeat of the 
French at Quebec, and the sur- 
render of their possessions in 
America 123 

Quebec. Province of. George III 
annexes the entire country North- 
west of the Ohio River to the 
province of Quebec 96 

Quigley and Company 133 

Quincy, Illinois 29 



Racine, Wisconsin 72 

Railroads. Bia: Four Railroad 129 

Railroads. Chicago & Alton R. R...129 
Railroads. Illinois Central Railroad. 82 
Railroad.'!. Mi^pral Sp'-ings Railroad 

of Joplin, Mo 130 

Railroaris. Santa Fe Railroad 129 

Raley, Sarah 120 

Rammelkamp, (Dr.) Charles H.... 

5, 17. 18, 19, 21 

Randall, fPrnf •> James Garfield.... 29 
Ranke, Leopold von. German His- 
torian 38. 48, 49 



156 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

Ranke, Leopold von. Lord Acton's 

Tribute to Ranke .' 49 

Rankin, Henry B. Interested in 
having' the places marked con- 
nected with Mr. Lincoln's life in 

Springfield 26 

Raumer, Frederich Ludwig von. 

Historian 42 

Ray, Anna 118 

Raymond, Augustine 76 

Ravmond, I^aura. Wife of James 

T. Gifford 70 

Raymond, Newcomb. Revolution- 
ary Soldier 70 

Reagan, William C 115 

Recollections of Sixty years. By 

George F. Hoar 39 

Recollections of the Civil War. By 

C. A. Dana 39 

Red Men, (The). Bv Ella Hines 

Stratton 126 

Reeder, Nathaniel M 109 

Reeve, Lazarus 108 

Reminiscences. By Carl Schurz. ... 39 
Reminiscences. By George Sewall 

Boutwell 39 

Republican Party 133, 134 

Reve, Henry 120 

Revolutionary War 

63, 70, 88, 95, 96. 98, 125 

Reynolds, Hulda 112 

Reynolds, Jane M 108 

Reynolds, (Gov.) John. In the War 

of 1812 65 

Reynolds, (Gov.) John. Pioneer 

History of Illinois. Quoted 

63, 64, 65 

Reynolds, Nathan 108 

Reynolds, Rachel M 105 

Rhode Island State. Colonial Rec- 
ords, 1637-1783 32 

Rhode Island State. Court Records 

1648-1696 32 

Rhode Island State. Providence, R. 
I. Index of the Births, Marriages 
and Deaths in Providence, 1636- 

1910 32 

Rhode Island State. Vital Records 

1636-1850 32 

Rice, Elihu W 117. 

Rice, Nancv A. D 117 

Rich, George 33 

Richards, Lucy Ann 114 

Richardson Wholesale Drug Com- 
pany of St. Louis. Mo 133 

Richmond, Phoebe 114 

Ridgelv, (Mrs.) Charles 31 

Ridgeway, Elizabeth 108 

Ridgeway, Isaac 110 

Riley, James Whitcomb 129 

Ring, Patsey 106 

Rise and Fall of the Slave Povi'er in 

America. By Henry Wilson 39 

Ritter, Carl. Lecturer on Physical 
Geography 42 

River and Harbor Appropriation, 
President Polk vetoes 52. 54 

River and Harbor Convention held in 
Chicago July 5-7, 1847.... 54, 55, 57 
Foot-note 51 

River and Harbor Convention. July 
5-7, 1847. Attendance, Delegates, 
etc 54, 55 

River and Harbor Convention at Chi- 
cago .Tuly 5-7, 184 7. Planks in 
the platform 57 

River Forest, Illinois 34 



PAGE. 

Roads. Old National Road. See 
Article on, by Dr; Charles B. John- 
son 34, 59-65 

Robert, Alfred 120 

Roberts, Livingston 105 

Roberts, Margaret 106 

Robertson, Elizabeth 108 

Robertson, Jane W 117 

Robertson, Sophia E 117 

Robertson, William R 108 

Robins, Samuel A 112 

Rob-nson, Elvira Ill 

Robinson, Harriet 120 

Robinson, Joseph 119 

Robinson, Miriam A 120 

Robinson, Rebecca 120 

Rochester, IVTargaret 118 

Rochester, W^isconsin 73 

Rockford, Illinois 77 

Rock Island. Illinois 5, 21 

Rodenburg, William A 134 

Rodgers, William 110 

Romble, Elizabeth 109 

Rome, N. Y 129 

Root, (Rev.) Jessie 112 

Root, Jessie, Jr 112 

Root River. Now Racine, Wis 72 

Root, William 109 

Rose, (Mrs.) James A 30 

Ross Co., Ohio 32 

Ross, (Prof.) Edward A., of Wis- 
consin < 6 

Rothenburger, (Rev.) AVilliam F. . . 34 

Rouse, William 110 

Rowe, Fred H 133 

Roval, Wm 113 

Rugg, Fred H 133 

Rume, Margaret 115 

Rumsey, L. M. ^Manufacturing Co.'s 

St. Louis, Missouri 129 

Rushville, (Schuyler Co.) Illinois... 38 

Russel, Andrew 5, 19, 21, 29 

Russell, James 107 

Russell, Justin 118 

Russell, Lemuel 105 

Russell. Rebecca 118 

Russell, (Col.) William, of Kentucky 

62, 63 

Russia. Alaska purchased by the 
United States from Russia in 1867. 53 

S 

Saginaw Investment Company ... .131 

St. Ange de Bellerive 124 

St. Charles Township, Kane Co., 111. 76 

St. Clair Co., Illinois 94 

St. Clair, (Rev.) David 112 

St. Clair River 92 

St. Cosme, (Come) Jean Francois.. 90 
St. Ignace. On the straits of Mack- 
inac 91 

Foot-note 91 

St. Lawrence River 91 

Foot-note 91 

St. Joseph River 92 

St. Louis, Missouri 

55, 61, 98, 129, 130, 131, 133, 134 

St. Louis, Missouri. Lincoln Hous- 
ing Trust Company of St. Louis. 131 

St. Louis. Mississippi Transporta- 
tion Company of St. Louis, Mo.. 130 

St. Louis, Missouri. Planter's 
Hotel 130 

St. Louis, Missouri. W^orld's Fair 
held in 1904 130 

St. Petersburg, Russia 42 

St. Vallier, Jean Baptiste de 94 



157 



INDEX— Continued. 



I'AOE. 

St. Vincent. French and Canadian 
inhabitants guaranteed continu- 
ance of their laws and customs 
relative to the conveyance and 

descent of property 99 

8ainte-Cosme 90 

Salem, N. C. Moravian Settlement 

of Salem, N. C 82, 84, 87 

Salem, (Winston-Salem) N. C. Mo- 
ravian Settlement 87 

Sally, Elizabeth 107 

Saly, John 119 

Sammis, William H 116 

Sanders Family 33 

Sanders, John. Ancestors and de- 
scendants of John Sanders 33 

San Francisco, Cal 24 

Sanpamon Co. Circuit Court room, 
tablet in, marks site, where Lin- 
coln made his famous "House 
divided against itself Speech," 

June 16, 1858 26 

Sangamon Co., Illinois. Lincoln 
."* braham delegate from Sangamon 
County to the River and Harbor 
Convention at Chicago. July 5-7, 

1847 55 

Sanpramon Co., Illinois. Lincoln 
Circuit Marker placed In Sanga- 
mon Co 28 

Santa Fe Railroad 129 

Saratoga, N. Y 40, 41 

Savage, Jane 110 

Savage, Peter S 110 

Sawyer, Enoch 114 

Sawyer, Jordan 108 

Sav. yer. Mark 113 

Saxony. Gersdorf, Saxony 84 

Scarl, Elzira 109 

T'^irl. Naomi 109 

Schmidt, (Dr.) Otto L. President 
of the Illinois State Historical 

Society 5, 17, 19, 20, 21, 28 

Schurz. Carl. Reminiscences 39 

S'^huyler Co., Illinois 33 

"Scotia's Holy Lays." Reference. . 72 
Scott. Franklin William. Editor 
Illinois Historical Collections, 

Vol. VI 67, 135 

Scott, Jane 110 

Scott, Louisa W 108 

Scott, Rose Moss. Preliminary 

Treaty of 1765, between Col. 
George Croghan and Pontiac 
signed near Palermo, Edgar Co., 

Illinois 123-126 

Scott. Walter 44, 49 

Scott, Wal er. Quentin Du*-ward. 

Pub. 1823 49 

Scottsville, (Macoupin Co.) Illinois 33 

Scudder, Elizabeth 114 

See, (Madame) Klare Marie 30 

Seignobos, Charles. Quoted on His- 

to-y 49 

Selby. Paul. Historical Encyclo- 
pedia of Illinois 101 

Seminary of Foreign Missions, rep- 
resented today at Quebec by 

Laval University 94 

Foot-note 94 

Seminary Priests granted permis- 
sion to establish Missions on the 

banks of the Mississippi 94 

Seneca Indians 91 

Service, Sarah 118 

Seymour, (Mrs.) Morris W 32 

Seymour, (Gov.) Thomas Henry of 
Connecticut. American Ambass- 
ador at St. Petersburg, Russia.. . 42 



PAGE. 

Shaffner, John 114 

Shaw, Albert 46 

Sliaw, James. A Neglected Epi- 
sode in the Life of Abraham Lin- 
coln 34, 51-58 

Shawnee Indians 123, 124 

Sheble, Frederic 121 

Shed. Rufus 115 

Sheldon, Benjamin R. Justice of 
the Peace. .109, 110, 111, 113, 114. 115 

Shepherd, Amanda 108 

Shepherd. Elizabeth 119 

Shepherd, Jemima 119 

Shepherd, John 105 

Sherburne, N. Y 69, 70 

Sheridan, (Gen.) Phil 39 

Sherman, Hannah 108 

Sherman House, Chicago 55 

Sherman, Lavina 108 

Sherman, (Hon.) Lawrence Y....5. 21 

Sherman, Rebecca 115 

Sherman, (Gen.) William Tecum- 

seh. Memoirs. Reference 39 

Sherwin, Erastus Ill 

Shields, Calvin 121 

Shifflett, Cumber Co 131, 132 

Shifflet, Gladys (Mrs. Charles E. 

Blablack) 131 

Shifflett, Hilliary 129 

Shifflett, Jemina Cox 129 

Shifflett, John Breckenridge. Bio- 
graphical sketch. By Kizzie Hus- 

kinson Shifflet 129-132 

Shifflett, Kenneth 130 

Shifflett, Kizzie Huskinson. Gil- 
bert Harsha Lane, a prominent 
citizen of Alton and Madison Co.. 

Illinois 133-134 

Shifflett, Kizzie Huskinson. John 
Breckenridge Cable Shifflett, an 
active business man of Illinois 

and Michigan 129—132 

Shields, John 113 

Shiplev, John HI 

Shippen, Charlotte 108 

Shoal Creek 63 

Short, (Capt.) Jacob 63 

Short, John. Justice of the Peace. 106 

Short, Moses G 108 

Short, Prior M 120 

Siege of Troy. Reference 37, 124 

Silliman, E. C 32 

Silliman, Minott 106 

Simmerman, George 114 

Simpson, James S 119 

Skeel, Elvira 113 

Skeel, Emeline 108 

Skeel, Lucy 105 

Skinner, Eugene F 115 

Slater, John 106 

Slavery. Prohibited by the Ordi- 
nance of 1787, in the Northwest 

Territory 99 

Slavery. Wilson Henry. Rise and 
Fall of the Slave Power in Amer- 
ica 39 

Small, Albion W 46 

Small, (Gov.) Len. Governor of the 

State of Illinois 28, 133. 134 

Smalley, Jacob 109 

Smith, Augustin 112 

Smith, Barnet H3 

Smith, Benjamin. Justice of the 

Peace 107, 109, 110 

Smith, Charlotte M 112 

Smith, Elizabeth C 116 

Smith, Emily HI 

Smith, Ephraim 113 

Smith, George W 5, 21 



158 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

Smith, Jane 119 

Smith. John 118 

Smith, John B 120 

Smith, Lisle 56 

Smith. Nicholas 109 

Smith, Peter 118 

Smith, Ralph W 109 

Smith, Rhoda 106 

SmuUen, Mary R 113 

Snyder. George. Justice of the 

Peace 108, 110 

Somerville. Mass 33 

Somokia Mow Wigwam 72 

PolO; Hernando or Fernando de...l31 

South Bend. Indiana 92 

South Carolina State 32, 38 

South Carolina State. History of, 

Lewis Pub. Co 32 

Spalding, Morris. Justice of the 

Peace 112 

Spangler, (Mrs.) George. Early 

Marriages in Putnam Co. ... 105-121 
Spangler, (Mrs.) George. Historian 
of the Peoria Chapter, Daughters 

of the American Revolution 105 

Spanish Colonial Archives 67 

Sparks, Edwin Erie. Editor, Illi- 
nois Historical Collections. Vol. 
III. Lincoln-Douglas Debates 

1858 67, 135 

Sparks, Jared. Harvard Univer- 
sity 43 

Sparks, Jared. Life of La Salle.. 101 

Sparling. George 119 

Spicer, Anny 112 

Spicer, W. M 115 

Sprague, James 114 

Springfield, Illinois. Daughters of 

the American Revolution 26, 27 

Springfield, Illinois. High School. 33 
Springfield. Illinois. Lincoln, Abra- 
ham, sites connected with Mr. 
Lincoln's residence in Springfield 

marked 26 

Springfield, Illinois. McGlynn, 

Frank. Visit to Springfield, and 
the play "Abraham Lincoln" in 
which he impersonates the Great 

Emancipator 26, 27 

Stage Coaches, described 59. 60 

Standard Sanitary Company of 

Pittsburg, Pa 130 

Stanley, Arthur P. Life of Arnold. 43 

Stnrks. Sarah 109 

Starved Rock. (Fort St. Louis) 
Fort on the Illinois river built by 

La Salle 92 

Steenburg. (Mrs.) Alice W 31 

Steiner, Bernard C 46 

Stephens. William C 109 

Stephenson, Robertus H 108 

Stericker, (Mrs.) George F 20 

Sterm. Margaret 110 

Stern. Samuel 113 

Stevenson, Colby T 122 

Steward, J. F. Lost Maramech and 

Earliest Chicago. Foot-note.... 94 
Stewart, (Hon.) Alexander T., of 
Pennsylvania attends the River 
and Harbor Convention at Chi- 
cago, July 5-7, 1847 56 

Stewart, John E 113 

Stewart, Justus W 119 

Stewart, Margaret M 109 

Stewart. Williain M. Justice of 
the Peace 108. 109 

Stewart, Wilson 112 

Stickel, Jane Ill 



PAGE. 

Stickel, Margaret Ill 

Stirling, (Capt.) Thomas. In com- 
mand at Ft. Chartres 96. 97 

Stockdale, William 117 

Stout, (Rev.) Ezra 118, 119 

Stout, Samuel 116 

Stout, Sarah Elizabeth 119 

Straits of Mackinac. Foot-note. ... 91 

Stratton, Abram 105 

Stratton, Ella Hines. The Red 

men 126 

Strawn, Ann Mary 114 

Strawn, Ell 115 

Strawn, John. First deed in Put- 
nam Co., Illinois. Robert Bird 
and wife to John Strawn dated 

1831 122 

Strawn, Louisa 118 

Strawn, Matilda 118 

Stroud, Mary Ann 112 

Stuart, Wm. M. Justice of the 

Peace 112 

Sturdivin, Catherine 105 

Study vin, Jefferson 109 

Studyvin, Matison 107 

Studyvin. Sarah 107 

Sugert. Rebecca 113 

Sullivan, N. H. History of the Town 

of Sullivan, N. H 32 

Swan, Elisha 105 

Swanson, John 108 

T 

Tablet. Bronze Marker at Palermo, 
Edgar County, Illinois, maiks site 
of the Preliminary Treaty of Peace 
between Col. George Croghan and 

Pontiac, 1765 12& 

Tablet. Bronze tablet marks the 
site of Mr. Lincoln's residence in 

Springfield 26 

Taft, (Pres.) William H 131 

Taggart, Mariah Jane 114 

Talon, Jean. Foot-note 90 

Tamaroa or Cahokia. Mission es- 
tablished at, in 1699 94 

Tarbell, Ida M 29, 51 

Tarbell, Ida M. Life of Lincoln. 

Reference 51 

Tardiveau, Bartholomew. Agent of 
the French Settlers in Illinois. 100, 101 

Tarket, Christopher P 118 

Taylor, America 110 

Taylor, Catherine 118 

Taylor, Clarissa Jane 120 

Taylor, George 117 

Taylor, John 120 

Taylor, Mary 116 

Taylor, Thomas 112 

Taylor, (Pres.) Zachary 58 

Taylorville, Illinois 34 

Tazewell Co., Illinois, Fond du Lac 

Township 27 

Temperance. Edward County, Illi- 
nois. Early Temperance Reform 

in 86, 87 

Templeton, (Rev.) James.. 117, 118, 119 

Tennessee State 52 

Terre Haute, Indiana 125 

Texas State 52, 53, 93, 130 

Texas State. Annexation of Texas.. 68 
Texas State. Fort W^orth, Texas... 180 
Thatcher, (Dr.) Thomas Anthotiy. 
Professor of Latin, Tale Univer- 
sity 42 

Thiers, Louis Adolphe. French His- 
torian 42 

Thomas, Anna Norman 118 



159 



INDEX— Continued. 



PAGE. 

Thomas, George F 109 

Thomas, (Gen.) George H 39 

Thomas, Ruth M 109 

Thominson, Noah 119 

Thompkins, Alfred Ill 

Thompson, Arthur H 120 

Thompson, Charles Manfred. Editor 

Illinois Historical Collections, "Vol. 

VII 135 

Thompson, David 108 

Thompson, Elias. Justice of the 

Peace 107 

Thompson, E'lmina 107 

Thompson, Jacob 27 

Thompson, James 114 

Thompson, Julia Ann 112 

Tliompson, Margaret 113 

Thompson, Matilda 109 

Three Decades of Federal Legisla- 
tion 39 

Tibet 81 

Tietze, (Rev.) Herman. Moravian 

Mini.ster, West Salem, 111 85, 86 

Tlmmons, Thomas 114 

Todd, James J 117 

Todd, (Col.) John. Administration 

of the County of Illinois under 

Todd was unsatisfactory 98 

Todd, (Col.) John. Mason, Edward 

G,, Col. John Todd's Record Book. 101 

Tompkin, Jane 105 

Tonti, Henri de 92, 94, 95 

Torrance, Francis J 130 

Torrey. (Prof.) Henry Warren.... '4 

Treaty of 1763. Reference 96, 123 

Trewman, Harriet A 113 

Trimble, Silas Ill 

Trinidad, Col 129 

Triplett, Eliza 110 

Tripplett, McCayga 110 

Trux, Mavia 106 

Tullis, Jonathan 120 

Turner. (Prof.) Frederick Jackson, 

of Harvard University 46 

Turtin, Charles 114 

Twenty Years of Congress. By 

James G. Blaine 39 

Tj'ler's Creek 75 

U 

Union Co., Illinois 100 

"Union, Disunion, Reunion." By 

Sunset Cox 39 

United Commercial Travelers 134 

United States. Census Reports 101 

United States. Food Administration. 132 
United States. Moravian Settlements 

of the United States 87 

University of Illinois 5, 21, 34 

Urbana, Illinois 21, 34 

Utica, Illinois 93 

V 

Vadakin, (Miss) Diamond 34 

Vaile, (Rev.) Wm. F 114 

Van Buren, (Pres.) Martin 52, 56 

Vandalia, Illinois 65 

Vandalia, Illinois. Capital of Illi- 
nois 65 

Veitch, Margaret 112 

Ventioner, George W 110 

Ventioner, Jane Ill 

Verlie, Emll Joseph. Editor Illinois 
Historical Collections, Vol XIII 

67, 136 

Vermont State. Hemenway's Gazet- 
teer of Vermont 32 

Villiers, (Capt.) Neyon de 124 



PAOE. 

Vincennes, Ind. British maintain 
garrisons at, during the Revolu- 
tion 96, 125 

Vincent, John M 46 

Virginia State 

38, 75, 93, 96, 97. 98, 99, 100, 125 

Virginia State. Cavaliers of Virginia. 

Reference 38 

Virginia State. Ceded her Western 
Lands including Illinois, to the 

United States, 1784 9!) 

Virginia State County of Illinois es- 
tablished by, in 1778 97 

Virginia State. Emigiants from, to 

the II inois Country 93, 100 

Voigt, PYed 84 

Voigt, 1. G 84 

Von Ranke. See Ranke 49 

Vredenburgh, 1 nomas D 31 



Wabash River 125 

Wafer, Harriet 118 

Wagner, C. H. Presents land to 
the State of Illinois for Park for 

Fort Creve Coeur 27 

Wagner, (Mis.) C. H. Presents land 
to the State of Illinois for Park 

for r ort Cre\e Coeur 27 

Wahob, Margaret 114 

Wahob, Mary 114 

Waldensian Church 80 

Waldo, Eunice 109 

Waldron, Jane 107 

Walker, (Mrs.) Edwin S 33 

Walker, Eliza 115 

Walker, George 7 2 

Wall, Dexter 109 

Wallin, John P 118 

Wan, Sarah B 112 

War of 1812 62, 63, 64, 65 

War of 1812. Hill's Fort Indian 

encounter at 63, 64 

War with Mexico 53 

War of the Rebellion 

21, 23, 37, 38, 39, 40 

War of the Rebellion. Dana C. A. 

Recollections of the Civil War.. 39 
War of the Rebellion. Illinois 
State Twenty-first Reg. Illinois 

Vol. Inf 21 

War of the Revolution. .88, 95, 96, 125 
War of the Revolution. Battle of 

Yorktown 70 

War of the Revolution. Cornwallis 
(Lord) Surrender at Yoiktown 

Oct. 19, 1781. Reference 98 

Warnock, Hugh. Justice of the 

Peace 105 

Warnock, Polly 106 

Warren, Daniel 105 

Warren, Hooper. Justice of the 

Peace 105, 106, 107 

Washburne Elihu B. Abraham Lin- 
coln in Illinois Foot-note 55 

Washburne, Elihu B. American 
Minister to France during the 

Fi anco-Prussian War 55 

Washburne, Elihu B. Describes 
Abraham Lincoln as he appeared 
at the River and Harbor Conven- 
tion in Chicago July 5-7 1847.. 55, 56 

Foot-note 55 

Washburne, Elihu B. Life of 
Edward Coles. Reprinted, Illi- 
nois Historical Collections Vol. 
XV 67, 68, 136 



160 



INDEX— Continued. 



'•\rr 

Washington. D. C 46, 69 

Washington, (Pres.) George. ... 40, 83 

Wasson, Jacob 110 

Watkin, Nancy 118 

Watkins, David 115 

Watklns, Sarah 116 

Watson, Amarlah 109 

Watson, Cyrus 109 

Wattles, Maria 112 

Wauhop, Arabella 119 

Wayland, Francis. President of 

Brown University 43 

Webb, Peter 107 

Weber, Jessie Palmer. Librarian 
Illinois State Historical Library 

135, 136 

Weber, Jessie Palmer. Secretary 
Illinois State Historical Society 

5, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 28 

Weber, Jessie Palmer. Secretary 
Illinois State Historical Society 

Report 22-31 

Webster, Daniel. Great expounder 

of the Constitution 56 

Weed, Thurlow at the River and 

Harbor Convention 1847 54 

Welch, Martha 115 

Welch, William W 75, 76 

Welles, Gideon. Diary of Gideon 

Welles 39 

Wesley, Charles 82 

Wesley, John. Diary of. Re- 
ference 82 

West Indies 81, 89 

West Indies. Bethany Jamaica, W. 

1 89 

West Salem, Edwards Co., Illinois 

34, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88 

West Salem, Illinois. Brethern 

House 88 

West Salem, Illinois. Early educa- 
tion movement in 85, 86 

West Salem, Illinois. Early Tem- 
perance reform in West Salem. 86, 87 
West Salem, Illinois. Germans from 
Gersdorf Saxony located in West 

Salem, Illinois in 1849 84, 85 

West Salem, Illinois. Moravian 

Church 79-87 

West Salem, Illinois. Moravian 
Church in, ore-anized May 25. 

1844 83 

West Salem, Illinois. Moravian 
contribution to the character 

and welfare of West Sah^m 87 

West Virginia State. Braxton 
County and Central West Vir- 
ginia History 33 

Westenberger, (Mrs.) Gary 34 

Weston, Lewis W 117 

Whelpley, (Dr.) H. M. Indians 
and Indian Mounds of the Missis- 
sippi Valley 30 

Whig Party 52, 55 

Whitaker, Alamon 114 

Whitaker, Ruth US 

Whitcomb, Emily J 116 

Whitcomb, Frances A 118 

Whitcomb, Permelia M 120 

"White, Andrew D' 41, 42, 43, 46 

Foot-note 43 

White, Andrew D. Autobiography 

42, 43 

Foot-note 43 

White, Andrew D. First president 
of the American Historical Asso- 
ciation 41, 42, 44 



WTiite, Andrew D. President of 

Cornell University 42 

White, Ann Ill 

White, Anna 115 

White, Caroline 113 

White, Hiram W 120 

White, William 108 

Whiteside, Samuel 63 

Whiteside, William B 63 

Whitson, John 114 

Whitson, Margaret 116 

Wild. Mary 116 

Wilder, Frank J 33 

Wilkinson, Margaret Ill 

Will Co., Illinois. Sends delegates to 
the River and Harbor Convention 

at Chicago July 5-7, 1847 55 

Willard, William R 116 

Willhite, John 108 

William and Mary College. Wil- 
liamsburg, Va 43 

William, John 119 

Williams, Anny 112 

Williams Co., Ohio 32 

Williams, E. S 31 

Williams, Lavina J08 

Williams, Sarah 116 

Williamson, Lorna Doone 34 

Williamson, Virginia Dare 34 

Willis, George B 107 

Wilmer, Atkinson. An Autobiog- 
raphy 33 

Wilocock. Allen 118 

Wilson, Elijah B 116 

Wilson, Elizabeth A 113 

Wilson, Garrison H 116 

Wilson, Henry. "Rise and Fall of 
the Slave Power in America".... 39 

Wilson, Jonathan 114 

Wilson, Matilda 105 

Wilson. R. M. Manufacturing Com- 
pany of Rome, N. Y 129, 130 

Winsor, Justin 41, 46 

Winsor, Justin. Librarian of Har- 
vard University 41 

Winsor, Justin. Narrative and 

Critical History of America 41 

Winter, Rosina 119 

Winters, Christopher 106 

Winters, Cvnthia A 117 

Winters, Elizabeth 107 

Winters, Lydia 116 

Winters, Mary Ann 116 

Winters, Nancy M Ill 

Wisconsin River 91 

Wisconsin State 55, 73, 78 

Wisconsin State. Grafton, Wis.... 78 

Wiswall. Emily 110 

Wolle, (Dr.) J. FYed. Director of 

the Bach Choir 87, 88 

Wonder, Margaret 120 

Wood, Elisha 109 

Woodberry, Artamus 115 

Woodburn, (Prof.) James A. Pro- 
motion of Historical study in 
America following the Civil War 

37-50 

Woodbury, A. G 31 

Woodward, Daniel 114 

Woolstoncroft, John 113 

World War. History of the 33rd 
Division American ETxpeditionary 
Forces by Lieut. Col. F. L. Hulde- 
koper 25 

World War. Illinois State in the 
"World AVar history of, to be pub- 
lished 68 

Worthington. Elizabeth 120 



161 



INDEX— Concluded. 



PAGE. 

Worthington, Thomas 31 

Wrig-ht, Silas 56 

Wykoff, Amerilla 117 

Wycoff, Lucy 120 

Tale University, New Haven, Conn. 
42, 43 45 

Yaman, Sylvia . .' . . . ... . . . . . ". ..... .112 

Yankee Settlement 72 

Yates, Richard, (The Younger) ... 5, 21 
Yorktown. Battle of. War of the 

Revolution 70 

Young America. Township, Edgar 

Co., Illinois 125 



PAGE. 

Young, (Rev.) P. G 

116. 117. 119, 120. 121 

Young, Robert 115 

Young, Sarah A 117 

Young, Wm. M 112 

Z 

Zane, John M 68 

Zenor, Amanda 118 

Zenor, Howson K 108 

Zenor, Jacob 113 

Zenor, Levi A 117 

Zenor, Squire 116 

Zinzendorf und Pottendorf. Nikolaus 
Ludwig, Count von 81