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Full text of "Papers in Illinois history and transactions for the year ..."

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF ILLINOIS 

LIBRARY 

From the library of 

Walter Colyer 

Albion, Illinois 

Purchased 1926 

9773 
It65 

nunc l902,cop.5 



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PUBLlCATiOH No. 7 OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL LIBRARI 



TRANSACTIONS 



OK THK 



llinois State Historical Society 



For the Year 1902. 



Third Annual Meeting, Jac](son¥ille 



January 2H and 24, 1902. 



Published by Author ity of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois 

State Historical Library. 



CU'^DEAu^SSr ) couNC^:^ 16 7 



SPRINGFIELD. ILL.: 
Phillips Bros.. State Printers. 

1902. 






CONTENTS. 



1. Constitution of the society. 

2. List of the ofl&cers and members, 

3. Proceedings of the third annual meeting of the society, Jacksonville, 

Jan. 23 and 24, 1902. Business meeting. Report of secretary and 
treasurer. Literary sessions, 

4. Proceedings of the executive committee and trustees, 

5. Address of welcome— Dr, C, W, Barnes, president of Illinois college. 

6. Response— Hon, H, W. Beckwith, president of the Illinois State His- 

torical society, 

7. Annual address— "The Sources and Results of Law in Illinois," Hon. 

John N. Jewett, president of the Chicago Historical society. 

8. Illinois College— Hon. Edward P. Kirby. 

9. Rev. Peter Cartwright, D. D,— President M, H, Chamberlin of Mc- 

Kendree college, 

10. Early Religious Leaders and Methods in Illinois— Rev, W. F, Short, 

D. D. 

11. The First Irish in Illinois— Hon. P. T. Barry, vice-president Irish 

American Historical society, Boston. 

12. Illinois and Its People— George Murray McConnel, 

13. Some Facts in the Judicial History of Illinois— Hon. J. 0. Cunning- 

ham. 

14. The Bishop Hill Colony— Hon. Hiram Bigelow. 

15. Major John T. Stuart— Hon. C. C. Brown. 

16. The State Internal Improvement Venture of 1837-38— Dr. Bernard 

Stuve. 

17. Kaskaskia Roads and Trails— Frank Moore, Esq. 

18. The French in Illinois— Hon. J. Nick Perrin, 

19. Saukenuk — Mrs, Julia Mills Dunn, 

20. Illinois Ancestry Among the Daughters of the American Revolution — 

Catherine C. Sparks (Mrs. Edwin Erie Sparks,) historian Chicago 
Chapter D. A. R. 

21. Richard Yates' Services to Illinois as War Governor— Dr. William 

Jayne. 

22. Destruction of the Fox Indians in 1730 by the French and their 

Allies— John F. Steward, Esq. 

23. In Memoriam— Mary Nash Stuart (Mrs. John T. Stuart). Contributed 

by Dr. J. F. Snyder. 



6ir^o-i2 



ADDENDUM. 

24. Life and Character of Hon. Isaac Funk — Hon. L. H. Kerrick. 

25. Stillman's Defeat— Frank E. Stevens, Esq. 

26. The Site of Fort Crevecoeur — Ada Greenwood MacLaughlin, (Mrs 

W. H. MacLaughlin,) Peoria Chapter D. A. R. 

27. Copies of Manuscripts in the Ministry of the Colonies, Paris, France, 

March 11, 1901. Contributed by John F. Steward, Esq. 

28. Narrative of William Biggs, 1788. 
Annotations, by Dr. J. F. Snyder. 



OFFICERS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL 

SOCIETY. 



President, 
HON. H. W. BECKWITH, Dauville. 

First Vice-President, 
DR. J. F. SNYDER. Virginia. 

Second Vice-President, 
PROF. EVARTS B. GREENE, Urbana, University of Illinois. 

Secretary and Ireasurer, 
J. McCAN DAVIS, Springfield. 

Executive Committee, 
DR. E. J. JAMES, President Northwestern University, 

HON. GEORGE N. BLACK, Springfield, 

HON. DAVID Mcculloch, Peoria, 

CAPT. J. H. BURNHAM, Bloomington, 

DR. M. H. CHAMBERLIN, President McKendree College, 

HON. H. W. BECKWITH, Danville, 

J. McCAN DAVIS, Springfield. 



MEMBERS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL SO- 
CIETY. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 

Boal. Dr. Robert Lacon, 111. 

Bradwell, Judge James B Chicago, 111. 

Edwards, Mrs. Benjamin S.. Springfield, HI. 

Johnson, Hon. Charles P St. Louis, Mo. 

*McClernand, Gen. John A.. Springfield, 111. 

McClernand, Mrs. John A Springfield, 111. 

Morrison, Mrs. I. L Jacksonville, 111. 

♦Palmer, Gen. John M Springfield, 111. 

Palmer, Mrs. John M Springfield, 111. 

*Ruggles, Gen. James M Havana, 111. 

♦Stuart. Mrs. John T Springfield. 111. 

Thwaites, R. G Madison, Wis. 

Yates, Mrs. Catharine (Mrs. Richard 

Yates, Sr.) Jacksonville, 111. 

ACTIVE MEMBERS. 

Anderson, Horace G Peoria, 111. 

Barclay, James S., 103 Marion st 

OakPark.Ill. 

Barker] H"E. '.'.'.'.'.'.*.".'.'.".'.'.'.' .'.'Springfield! 111! 

Barry, Hon. P. T. ( Life member) 

77-79 Jefferson St., Chicago, 111. 

Beckwith. Judge H. W Danville.Ill. 

Black. Geo. N Springfield, 111. 

Brevoort, J. H Rutland, III. 

Brown, Mrs. C. C Springfield, 111. 

Brydges, W. R., 277 Division St.... Elgin, 111. 

Burnap, Prof. W. L., Lake Forest Uni- 
versity. Lake Forest, III. 

Burnham, Capt. J. H Bloomington.Ill. 

Bush. Hon. J. M Pittsfield.Ul. 

Capen, Mr. Charles L Bloomington, 111. 

Carriel, Mrs. Mary Turner.. Jacksonville, 111 

Chamberlin, M. H.,Pres.McKendreeCoI- 
lege. Lebanon, 111. 

Congdon, Geo. S Waterman. 111. 

Conkling. Clinton L Springfield, 111. 

Cook. J. S Leroy,Ill. 

Crabbe, Mrs. Harriet Palmer, Springfield. 111. 

Cunningham, Judge J. O Urban a. 111. 

Currey J. Seymour Evanston,Ill. 

Cushing. Prof. J P New Haven, Conn. 

Davis, Mr. George P Bloomington, III. 

Davis, J. McCan Springfield, 111. 

Davis, Mrs. J. McCan Springfield, 111. 

Dearborn, Hon Luther M., Tile & Trust 
Building Chicago 

Dieffenbacher, Philip L Havana. HI. 

Dilg. Charles A.. 606 Diversy Boulevard, 
Lake View, Chicago, 111. 

Dilg. Philip H., 1727 Oakdale av.. Lake 
View, Chicago, 111. 

Dougherty. Mr. N. C Peoria. 111. 

Dunn. Mrs. Julia Mills Moline.IU. 

Eschmann. Rev. C. J.. Prairie du Rocher. 111. 

Edwards. Dr. Richard Bloomington, 111. 

Fairbank. Rev. John B Jacksonville, 111. 

Fisher, Albert Judson (Historian 111. So- 
ciety Sons of the American Revolu- 
tion — 604 Masonic Temple, Chicago, 111. 

Forbes, Prof. S. A.. (University of Illi- 
nois) Urbana, 111. 



French. Dr. A. W Springfield, III. 

Funk, Hon. D. M Bloomington. 111. 

Funk, Hon. Lafayette Bloomington, 111. 

Garrett. T. M ...301 Ontario st.. Chicago. 111. 

Gillespie, Mrs. David Lincoln, III. 

Greene, Prof. Evarts B., (University of 

Illinois) Urbana, III. 

Gridley. J. N Virginia, 111. 

Gross, W. L Springfield, 111. 

Haines, James Pekin, 111. 

Hall. Henry H 

W. College av., Jacksonville, 111. 

Hamilton, Gen. E. B Qniiicy,lll. 

Hardy. H. L Chicago, 111. 

Hay, Logan Springfield, III. 

Heinl, Frank J Jacksonville. 111. 

Henderson, Judge John G 

416-417 Roanoke bldg, Chicago. 111. 

Henninger, Prof. J. W Macomb, 111. 

James. Dr. E. J.. (Pres. Northwestern 

University) E vanston. Ill . 

James Prof. J. A., (Northwestern Uni- 
versity) E vanston. 111. 

Jayne, Dr. William Springfield. 111. 

Jones, Miss EmmaF Springfield, III. 

Kane, Judge Charles P Springfield, ill. 

Kimball, Rev. Clarence O..Edwardsv'le,Ill. 

Little, Mrs. Helen M. J Bloomington, 111. 

Lodge. William F Monticello.IlI. 

Manny, Walter I.. (State's Attorney) — 

Mt Sterling. Ill . 

McConnel, G. M.. (Chicago Chronicle)... 

Chicago. 111. 

McCulloch. Judge David Peoria.IlI. 

Merritt. Hon. E. L Springfield. III. 

Mills. Richard W Virginia. HI. 

Moss, John R Mt. Vernon, 111. 

Norton. W. T., (Postmaster) Alton, 111. 

Orendorff, Hon. Alfred Springfield, 111. 

Orendorf, Hon. John B Bloomington, III. 

Osborne, Miss Georgia L.. .Jacksonville, 111. 
Page, Prof. E. C, Normal School 

DeKalb.Ill. 

Parker, C. M. (The School News) 

Taylorville.Ill. 

Pearson. J. M Godfrey, 111. 

Perrin, Hon. J. N Lebanon, 111. 

Pierce. Frederick C..(Vice President and 

Secretary Sherman Historical Asso- 
ciation) P. O. Box 244, Chicago. 111. 

Prince, Ezra M Bloomington. III. 

Pitner. Dr. T. J Jacksonville. 111. 

Putnam. J. W. (Illinois College) 

Jacksonville. III. 

Quincy Historical Society Quincy. 111. 

Sanders. Hon Geo. A Springfield, III. 

Schmict, Dr. Otto L., 3328 Michigan av., 

Chicago, 111. 

Scott, Edgar S Springfield, HI. 

Selby, Paul.... 3813 Rhodes av.. Chicago, 111. 
Sheppard, Prof. R. D. (Northwestern 

University), Evanston. 111. 

Smith. Col. D. C Normal. 111. 

Smith. Geo. W. (Southern Illinois Nor- 

mal University) . Carbondale, 111 . 



* Deceased. 



Active Members — Concluded. 



Snively. Hon. E. A Springfield. 111. 

Snyder. Dr. J . F Virginia, 111 . 

Sparks. Prof. E. E. (University of Chi- 
cago) Chicasro. Ill . 

Spear. S. L Springfield. 111. 

Stearns, Arthur K., 112-114 Genesee St.. 
Waukegan. Ill . 

Stevens. P. E.. 1205 Chamber of Com- 
merce Bldg .Chicago, 111. 

Steward. John P.. 1889 Sheridan road... 
Chicago. 111. 

Stuve, Dr. Bernard, 526 South Seventh st 
Springfield, III. 

Taylor, Mrs. H. R Springfield. 111. 

Thayer, Miss Maude Springfield, 111. 

Tomlin, Mrs. Eliza I. H.,904 S. Main st., 
Jacksonville, III. 



Vocke, Hon. William, (President Ger- 
man American Historical Society) ' 
103-109 Randolph St.. Chicago, 111, 

Waite, H. N., M D., King and Monroe 
sts Decatur, 111. 

Wallace. Joseph Springfield. 111. 

Weber. Mrs. Jessie Palmer .Springfield, 111. 

West, Hon. Simeon H Monmouth, 111. 

Wheeler, Mrs. Katherine Goss 

Springfield, 111. 

Wheeler, Judges. P Springfield, 111. 

Wheeler. C. Gilbert. 14 State st. Chicago, 111. 

Wightman.G. P Lacon, 111. 

Willcox. E. S Peoria. 111. 

Worthington. Hon. Thos . . .Jacksonville, 111. 

Wort hington. Mrs. Thos Jacksonville. 111. 

WyckofE. Dr. Charles T, (Bradley Poly- 
technic Institute) Peoria, 111 . 



8 



BUSINESS MEETING OF THE SOCIETY. 



The society held its annual business meeting in the Illinois College 
chapel at 11:00 a. m., Jan. 23, President Beckwith presiding. 

Captain Burnham offered an amendment to article IV, section 1, 
of the constitution, providing for an increase of the executive com- 
mittee from five to fifteen members aside from the president and the 
secretary. It was voted that this amendment should lie over till the 
next annual meeting and that the secretary should report it to the 
members of the society '60 days before said meeting. 

The secretary and treasurer's reports were read and were received 
by the society. 

On motion of Prof. J. A. James and by vote of the society, the 
president appointed a committee of three to nominate officers for 1902. 
The president appointed J. A. James, Dr. Bernard Stuve and Gr. N. 
Black. 

While awaiting a report of this committee, Dr. J. F. Snyder read 
a paper suggestive of improvements in the work of the society. 

Prof. J. A. James read the report of the nominating committee, 
whereupon the secretary was instructed to cast the ballot of the 
society for the candidates named. 

The secretary cast the ballot of the society for the offices named 

as follows: 

President. — Hon. H. W. Beckwith, Danville. 

First Vice-President. — Dr. J. F. Snyder, Virginia. 

Second Vice-President. — Prof, E. B. Greene, University of Illinois. 

Secretary and Treasurer. — J. McCan Davis, Springfield, III. 

Executive Committee. — The president, the secretary, Hon. G. N. Black, 
Hon. David McCulloch, Captain J. H. Burnham, President M. H. Chamber- 
lin and President E. J. James. They were declared elected. 

It was voted, on motion of Dr. J. F. Snyder, that a committee of 
six be appointed, to be called a Committee on Legislation, with power 
to act for the society. The president appointed on this committee 
Hon. George N. Black of Springfied, chairman; General Alfred Oren- 
dorfp of Springfield, Hon. David McCulloch of Peoria, Dr. E. J. James 
of Evanston, Hon. J. O. Cunningham of Urbana, and Hon. Thomas 
Rinaker of Carlinville. 

On motion of Captain Burnham, it was voted that the society 
authorize the board of Trustees to request of the Illinois commission- 



9 

ers to the St. Louis exposition some share of the State appropriation to 
that exposition, to be expended jointly by the commissioners and the 
board of trustees. 

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY. 

During the year 1901 the society has had a slow but perceptible 
growth. Its work has moved quietly forward, and its achievements 
have not been insignificant. 

The second annual meeting was held in Springfield Wednesday 
and Thursday, Jan. 30 and 31, 1901. At this meeting plans were 
formed which, if it be possible to put them into execution, will carry 
the society a long way forward in the accomplishment of its intended 
work. 

In accordance with one of the plans then made, the society has 
entered in a small way on the work of securing for publication, in 
its Annual Transactions, historical material other than merely the 
papers read at the annual meetings. This is a work that deserves to 
be extended. A vast amount of original source material has already 
been lost for want of some systematic effort to seek it out and put it 
into a permanent form. This is a legitimate work of the society, and 
along this line it can render future generations an inestimable service. 

The articles of incorporation state the objects of the society to be: 
" To excite and stimulate a general interest in the history of Illinois; 
to encourage historical research and investigation, and secure its pro- 
mulgation; to collect and preserve all forms of historical data in any 
way connected with Illinois and its people." For the accomplish- 
ment of these objects the society needs: 

First. — A larger and more active membership. It ought to be represented 
by at least one member in every community in the State, and every member 
ought to take an active interest in seeking out the historical material in his 
community which is worth preservation by the State. 

Secondly. — A closer affiliation with the local historical societies. The rela- 
tions existing between the society and the vari<ms local societies throughout 
the State are most cordial and friendly, but ther^ should be not only a bond 
of sympathy, but also a bond of union which will make the work of all one 
systematic whole. 

Thirdly. — Larger funds. The work of the society has been hampered from 
the beginning for a lack of funds with which to carry out its plans. An in- 
crease in membership would be of some financial assistance, but not adequate 
to the society's needs. 

Fourthly. — A more vital connection with the State Historical library. The 
Society must have a depository for the materials it collects and desires to pre- 
serve. The library must have collectors of material. Each is the complement 
of the other. Therefore, the work could be more systematically done. if it 
were all under the direction of one board or committee. 

Fifthly. — A more workable library. The present quarters are already over- 
crowded. With ample space for the proper disposition of whatever material 
it might be able to acquire, the library would become a greater factor in 
stimulating an interest in and an acquaintance with the history of the State. 

Sixthly. — A corresponding secretary, to direct and supervise the work of 
collecting and preserving such material as may possess any historical im- 
portance. 

Some of these needs can be supplied by the members of this so- 
ciety, and by them alone; others only by an action of the State Leg- 



10 

islature, But, while the society has no desire to ask unreasonable ; 

appropriations, it does ask reasonable recognition and reasonable sup- i 

port in its efforts to perform a public service. And, as a means of j 

improving that service, your acting secretary would call attention to \ 

the recommendations made to the society at its last meeting, and ; 
emphasize^^their importance: 

1. That the Legislature, in makins: its appropriation for the State Histori- 
cal library, should include an item for the expenses of the Historical society. : 

2. That of this a suflficient amount should be paid to a competent expert | 
who should act as the corresponding secretary of the society and perform the j 
other functions outlined above, subject to the direction of the executive com- 
mittee. I 

3. That this corresponding secretary should be appointed by the executive ; 
committee of the Historical society, subject to the approval of the board of 
trustees of the State Historical library, and should be ex-officio a member of | 
that body. j 

4. That such an appointment once made should be held subject to the con- | 
ditions only of good behavior and efl&cient service, i 

Respectfully submitted, > 

J. W. Putnam, i 

Acting Secretary. j 



11 



TREASURER'S REPORT. 



Year Ending Dec. 31, 1901. 



RECEIPTS. 



Cash on hand Jan. 1, 

Initiation fees 

Annual fees 



1901. 



Total receipts. 



EXPENDITURES. 



Postaere 

Printing and stationery 

Expenses, committee on auxiliary societies. 
R.G.Thwaites 



Total expenditures. 



$36 45 
18 00 
47 00 



6 75 
15 25 
23 75 
26 00 



$101 46 



$71 75 
$29 70 



12 



LITERARY SESSIONS. 

The program for Thursday and Friday, January 23 and 24, was 
carried out as follows: 

Ihursday, January 23 — 2:00 P. M., Literary Sessions. 

"Illinois College" Hon. E. P. Kirby, Jacksonville 

*"McKendree College" Dr. E. J. James, Pres. Northwestern University 

"Peter Cartwright" Pres. H. M. Chamberlin, McKendree College 

"Early Religious methods and Leaders in Illinois" 

Dr. W. F. Short, Jacksonville 

"The People of Illinois" Maj. Geo. M. MeConnel, Chicago 

8:00 P. M. 

"Address of Welcome" Pres. C. W. Barnes, Illinois College 

"Response" Hon. H. W. Beckwith, Pres. of the Society 

Annual Address — "The Sources and Results of Law in Illinois" 

Hon. John N. Jewett, Pres. Chicago Historical Society 

Friday, January 24- -9: 30 A. M. 

"The First Irish in Illinois. Reminiscent of OidKaskaskiaDays" 
Hon. P. T. Barry, Chicago, 111., Vice-President Irish- 

American Historical Society. (Read by Dr. J. F. Snyder.) 

"Some Facts in the Judicial History of Illinois" 

Hon. J. 0. Cunningham, Urbana 

"The Bishop Hill Colony" Hon. Hiram Bigelow, Galva 

"Major John T. Stuart" , Hon. C. C. Brown, Springfield 

"The State's Internal Improvement Venture of 1837-38" 

Dr. Bernard Stuve, Springfield 

"Kaskaskia Roads and Trails" Frank Moore, Esq., Chester 

2:00 P. 31. 

"The French in Illinois" Hon. J. N. Perrin, Lebanon 

"Saukenuk, Black Hawk's Village Mrs. Julia Mills Dunn, Moline 

"Illinois Ancestry in the Daughters of the American Revolution 

Mrs. Edwin Erie Sparks, Chicago 

"Richard Yates' Services to the Union as War Governor" 

Dr. William Jayne Springfield 

"The Destruction of the Fox Indians in 1730 by the French and 

their Allies" ' John F. Steward , Esq. , Chicago 

8.00 P. 31. 
Reception by President and Mrs. Barnes, Illinois College. 

At the conclusion of the literary program, the society voted its 
thanks to the acting secretary, to the Rev. James Caldwell, 
Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution for serving so 
acceptably as a local reception committee, and to the citizens of Jack- 
sonville for their hospitality. 

The society then adjourned. 

J. W, Putnam, 

Acting Secretary. 

♦The paper of Dr. E. J James on "McKendree Collegre" failed to reach the publication 
committee in time for insertion in this volume of "Transactions." 



13 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MEETINGS. 



Springfield, III., Oct. 1, 1901. 
A meeting of the Executive Committee was held in the State His- 
torical library, at Springfield, Oct. 1, 1901. All the members were 
present except Secretary Greene and Dr. Chamberlin. Dr. J. F. Sny- 
der and General Alfred Orendorff also met with the committee, as 
did also J. W. Putnam. 

On motion of Prof. James, it was voted to hold the next annual 
meeting of the society in Jacksonville, Thursday and Friday, Jan. 28 
and 24, 1902. 

On motion of Prof. James it was also voted that J. W. Putnam act 
as secretary and treasurer during the absence of Prof. Greene. 

On motion of Prof. James, a committee, consisting of Dr. J. F. 
Snyder, chairman, and Hon. H. W. Beckwith and J. W. Putnam, was 
appointed to revise the material for publication in the next volume 
of the " Transactions " of the society. 

On motion of Captain Burnham, it was voted that the society ask 
permission to assist in decorating and furnishing the Illinois build- 
ing at the St. Louis exposition. 

It was also voted, on motion of Captain Burnham that the Execu- 
tive committee act as temporary committee to present the subject to 
the Governor and to the commissioners to the St. Louis exposition. 
Adjourned. 

J. W. Putnam, 

Acting Secretary. 



Jacksonville, III., Jan 23-24, 1902. 

The Executive committee of the society met at 10:00 a. m., Janu- 
ary 28, in Illinois College chapel, Jacksonville, President Beckwith 
presiding. There were present, besides the president and acting sec- 
retary, Messrs. Black, Burnham, James, Chamberlin and McCulloch, 
and, by invitation. Dr. J. F. Snyder. 

The reports of the secretary and treasurer were read and adopted. 
It was voted, on motion of Captain Burnham, that the Executive 
committee, in their capacity as trustees, should meet at the Dunlap 
house immediately after the close of the evening session of the society. 



14 



TRUSTEE MEETING. 



Jacksonville, III., Jan. 28. 

The board of trustees of the society met at 10:30 p. m., January 23' 
in the parlor of the Dunlap house, President Beckwith presiding- 
Those present were the president, the acting secretary, and Messrs. 
Burnham, McCulloch, Black and Chamberlin. 

It was voted, on motion of Mr. Black, that a committee of three be 
appointed by the chair to form a set of by-laws for the society. The 
president appointed Messrs. McCulloch, Burnham aud Black. 

On motion of Captain Burnham, it was voted that a Committee on 
Finance and a Committee on Local Historical Societies be appointed 
as permanent committees. 

On motion of Captain Burnham, it was voted that the Committee on 
Legislation be made a standing committee. 

It was voted, on motion of Mr. Black, that a committee be appointed 
to see whether the records in the office of the Secretary of State have 
the name of the location inserted, and if not, to have it inserted. 

It was voted that the chairman of the Committee on By-Laws act 
as such committee. 

On motion of Captain Burnham it was voted that a committee of 
three be appointed to confer with the commissioners to the St. Louis 
exposition. Dr. James, Mr. Black and Captain Burnham were ap- 
pointed such committee with power to fill vacancies if any should 
occur, or to add to the number on the committee if desired. 

It was voted on motion of Captain Burnham, that the committee 
on local historical societies be empowered to appoint a representa- 
tive in each county to aid the State society in its work. 

Communications from the Logan county and the Quincy Histori- 
cal societies were read by the secretary as follows: 

7o the Illinois State Historical Society: 

This is to certify that Mrs. David Gillespie of Lincoln, III., has been ap- 
pointed to represent the Logan County Historical society at the meeting of 
the Illinois State Historical society in the city of Jacksonville, 111., on the 
23rd and 24th days of January, A. D. 1902. 

Dated at Lincoln, 111., this 20th day of January, A. D. 1902. 

J. T. HOBLIT, 

President Logan County Historical Society. 

Inasmuch as the Historical society of Quincy, ill., has received official 
notice of the third annual meeting of the Illinois State Historical society, to 
be held at Jacksonville on the 23rd and the 24th inst., also a copy of the pro- 
gram and information setting forth the objects of the society, and an invita- 
tion to affiliate with the organization, therefore be it. 

Resolved, That this society hereby designates Gen. E. B. Hamilton, our 
vice-president, and any of our other members who may be able to attend the 
meeting of the State society, to represent this society at the meeting, and to 
convey to that society our cordial endorsement of its objects and our sincere 
wish for the fullest success af all its work to that most worthy end. Be it 
further 



15 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions, duly attested, be furnished our 
delegates, and that a copy of the resolutions be filed in our archives. 

Dated at Quincy, 111., Jan. 14, 1902. 

C. F. Perry, 
Chairman Committee. 

It was moved by Mr. Black that the communications be received 
and recorded on the books of the society and these societies be re- 
garded as auxiliary to the State Historical society. The motion pre- 
vailed. 

On motion of Mr. Black, the treasurer was authorized to pay the 
bills outstanding against the society. 

The board adjourned subject to the call of the president. 



TRUSTEE MEETING. 

Jacksonville, III., Jan. 24. 

The trustees met at the call of the president at 10:00 a. m., Jan. 
24. All members of the board present 

The president nominated Mrs. Catherine Yates (Mrs. Richard 
Yates, sr.) and Mrs. Isaac L. Morrison as honorary members of the 
society. The nominations were confirmed by the trustees. 

It was voted on motion of Judge McCulloch that the secretary be 
instructed to procure a seal with a device approved by the president, 
if the society has no seal. 

On motion of Judge McCulloch, it was voted that the constitu- 
tion as printed in the transactions for 1901, be adopted as the rule 
of action for this board till superseded by a code of by-laws, except 
that wherever the words "executive committee" or "trustees" appear 
in the constitution, the word "directors" shall be substituted there- 
for; and except further that the last clause of section 1, article 4, 
and the first clause of article 5, and the whole of article 6 shall be 
omitted. 

It was voted on motion of Captain Burnham that the society hold 
its next annual meeting at Springfield, at such date in January, 1903, 
as the program committee may determine. 

Adjourned to meet at the call of the president. 



16 



HISTOKICAL DEPARTMENT OF ILLINOIS— STATISTICS 

AND SUGGESTIONS. 

[By Dr, J, F. Snyder, First Vice President Illinois State Historical Society.] 

No state in the Union, west of the Alleghany mountains, has a more inter- 
esting history than Illinois. 

Among its picturesque ranges of bluffs; along the shores of its beautifu^ 
streams and lakes, and on its fertile prairies and alluvial bottoms, abound 
the curious relics of its earliest human occupants in the distant past — evi- 
dences of the primitive beginnings of the mound building Indians, and of 
their highest culture. 

Here, in Illinois, the ethnologist finds a limitless field for tracing the origin, 
migrations, affinities and racial characteristics of the numerous tribes of 
nomadic and semi-sedentary Indians that replaced the mound builders, and 
chased the buffalo and elk over our boundless prairies and made this region 
the theatre of their interminable wars for supremacy. 

It was here, in Illinois, the first germs of civilization were planted in the 
Mississippi valley, that struck deep their roots in its generous soil, and grew 
and expanded until, displacing its aboriginal inhabitants, they converted the 
wilderness of forest and plain into a rich and mighty state. 

The first peopling of Illinois by hardy Canadian and French adventurers, 
presenting so many elements of romance, lends a peculiar charm to its early 
history. 

Then the efforts of France, with her priests and arms and forts, to colonize 
Illinois, is also a fascinating page of her story. 

The fierce contention of European monarchies, in the 18th century, for do- 
minion over the great west, culminating in the surrender of Fort Chartress 
and transfer of the Illinois to Great Britain, adds another page of absorbing 
interest. 

Then followed the heroic expedition of Col. George Rogers Clark, and the 
wrestling of Illinois from England, and attaching it to the new-born republic, 
to become in time one of its brightest gems. 

Upon the trail of Col. Clark and his men, pressed a horde of rugged 
pioneers, whose numbers, ever increasing, spread over the hills and prairies 
of Illinois, and, by the magic of their genius and industry, wrought from her 
hidden resources her wealth and splendor. 

The victories of Illinoisans, in peace, over the wild forces of nature, over 
dire machinations to fasten the blight of slavery upon her fair domain, and 
over all other obstacles in the path of her wondrous progress, were no less 
brilliant than the achievements of her sons on the gory fields of thB English 
war of 1812, the Indian wars, the conflict with Mexico, and the great civil 
war. 

In the field of politics, statesmanship and diplomacy, in arts, philosophy 
and education; in the realm of science, poetry and literature, and in the 
amazing advanements in mechanical inventions and discoveries, the sons and 
daughters of Illinois have been found in the front ranks, and are today, in 
those lines of brain work, the peers of any in the world. 



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With patriotic pride we contemplate the grandeur of Illinois and exult over 
her vast mine of historic wealth outlined in this rapid sketch. 

Let us pause here and inquire what the State of Illinois has done in collect- 
ing and preserving the voluminous and intensely interesting records of her 
foundation; and of the agencies that have reared upon that foundation its 
present splendid superstructure. 

Not until the j-ear 1889—71 years after its admission into the Union — did 
the State of Illinois awake to the importance— indeed, the necessity— of taking 
action for rescuing from oblivion, and preserving, the fading records of her 
history. In that year, the 36th General Assembly passed a bill for an "Act 
creating a state historical library," to be managed by three non- salaried 
trustees, appointed by the Governor for the term of four years. 

The act founding the historical library appropriated $2,500 annually for its 
maintenance, book purchasing fund and librarian's salary. That amount was 
increased to $3,200 annually from 1891 to 1895, inclusive. In 1897 it was 
further increased by the legislature to $4,000. In 1899 a publication fund of 
$600 was added, and in 1901 there was appropriated, for annual maintenance, 
$1,500; for librarian's salary, $1,000, and for publishing, $1,000. By a special 
act, the further sum of $2,500 was granted for collecting and publishing cer- 
tain specified historical documents and papers. The total amount tlius far 
appropriated by the State in 13 years, for its historical library and its publi- 
cations, aggregates $34,300, of which $10,040 was paid in salaries. 

As an equivalent for that expenditure, the historical library of Illinois at 
this date comprises, approximately, 6,000 books, 7,416 pamphlets, 55 maps 
and atlases, |70 manuscripts, 74 portraits and other pictures, and 17 historic 
relics. Among its books are about 100 bound volumes of newspapers, and it 
receives regularly four daily newspapers — one of those from Missouri — and 
has three of them bound every quarter. 

It must be admitted that the State of Illinois has inade a very creditable 
beginning in accumulating so valuable a collection of historical material in 13 
years, for the modest sum of $34,300. The library has outgrown the limited 
space alloted to it by the State, and imperatively demands more roomy quar- 
ters and fireproof shelving and eases. It also needs the intelligent contribu- 
tive aid and cooperation of the State Historical society to make it a source of 
diffusive knowledge and a benefit to the people at large. 

The value of a State Historical society, with unlimited membership, for col- 
lecting, systematising and investigating historical data, and for diffusion of 
facts thus gained, need not here be discussed. It is known to all. It was so 
strongly impressed upon the early public and literary men of our State, that 
they formed such an organization at Vandalia, the State capital, as far back 
as i827. Judge James Hall, the gifted writer, was elected its president, and 
on its roll of members were the now historic names of John Mason Peek, 
Professor John Russell, Sidney Breese, Governor Coles. Governor Edwards, 
John Reynolds, Samuel D. Lockwood, David J. Baker, Chief Justice Wilson. 
Samuel McRoberts, Peter Cartwright, Wm. L. D. Ewing, Wm. Thomas, 
Richard M. Young and Theophilus W. Smith. The society held several ses- 
sions of exceeding interest, when many original papers were read and ad- 
dresses delivered of the highest historic importance. The abandonment of 
that organization and loss of its archives were a positive calamity to the 
State, more grievous than its bank suspensions or collapse of its subsequent 
Quixotic internal improvement enterprises. But with an empty State treasury 
and very attenuated revenues. State aid for perpetuating the society was out 
of the question; and without State recognition and aid, or ample wealth of its 
members, no State historical society can long be maintained. 

In recent years local historical societies have been established in a few of 
the most populous and wealthy counties of Illinois and sustained by individual 
efforts of their enlightened and public spirited citizens. 

We are all familiar with the noble work of the Chicago Historical society. 

Organized in 1856, it suffered total loss of its building, library and collections 

in the great fire that destroyed Chicago in 1871, find again the nucleus of its 

re-establishment was swept awav by fire in 1874. Phoenix-like, it arose from 

— 2H. 



18 

its ashes and once more began the great work and persevered. It now occu- 
pies its own majestic building, erected by private subscription at the cost of 
$190,000, In its spacious rooms are 30,000 books, 60,000 pamphlets, 5,000 
manuscripts, over 100 oil paintings of distinguished men connected with our 
local history, and a large number of engravings and photographs, 1,000 bound 
volumes of Illinois newspapers, and a vast collection of historic and pre- 
historic relics. And all that has been accomplished without a dollar of state 
or city aid. But it is obvious that such magnificent results could not be pos- 
sible without extraneous aid, excepting in a large and wealthy city, and by 
the munificence of its opulent citizens of culture and refined literary tastes. 

Not until May, 1899, was a second attempt made to establish a State histori- 
cal society in Illinois. In that month an organization with that title was ef- 
fected by a few of us who met for that purpose at the State university. In 
June following we placed the society on an enduring basis, so far as was in 
our power, by fixing its seat at the State capital and incorporating it in ac- 
cordance with provisions of the State incorporation laws. Without state 
recognition or aid we have since held regular meetings and made some con- 
tributions of value to the history of our State, and intend to continue our un- 
thanked labors. 

There are in the United States two classes of historical societies; the one 
supported by endowments, gifts and membership fees — such as that of Chi- 
cago, of St. Louis, and of many of the eastern cities. The other class, of 
which Wisconsin is the highest type in the west, are maintained altogether by 
the state. Thus far the State of Illinois has given neither aid or encourage- 
ment to a society of either class, but it has collected a store of rare and val- 
uable data, which awaits the studious toil and discriminating sifting of a his- 
torical society to develop its sterling worth. 

Having seen what Illinois has done for the care of its history, it may be of 
interest to glance at what two or three of our neighboring states have done 
for preservation of their history. 

Kansas was admitted as a state in 1861, 43 years after the admission of Illi- 
nois. In 1876 a State Historical society was there organized, which, with its 
library and collections, was shortly afterward adopted by the state in its his- 
torical department. For the maintenance of that department the state of 
Kansas has appropriated to date a little over $125,000. The last Kansas Leg- 
islature granted for its support for the years 1901-1902 the sum of $13,280. In 
addition to that provision, it appropriated $15,000 for steel shelving and library 
furniture. As the result of all that expenditure by the state, the Kansas His- 
torical department now possesses 23,051 books, 67,418 pamphlets, 23,907 vol- 
umes of Kansas newspapers, 23,317 manuscripts, 5,030 pictures, 4,886 maps 
and atlases, and 6,397 historic relics. It also regularly receives and preserves 
a copy of each newspaper and periodical published in the state of Kansas. 

Iowa was admitted into the Union in 1844, 27 years later than Illinois. In 
1892 the Iowa Legislature established its State Historical department with an 
annual appropriation of $7,500 for two years. Each of its legislatures since 
has granted it $6,000 per annum, besides a liberal publication fund. Its li- 
brary and other collections are about equal to those of Kansas in extent. It 
has over 3,000 bound volumes of Iowa newspapers, and regularly receives 300 
Iowa publications. It publishes quarterly "The Annals of Iowa,]' an 80 page, 
finely illustrated magazine of Iowa and western history and biography. It 
also publishes a biennial report, and has issued 15 volumes of Iowa territorial 
laws and numerous historical monographs. The state of Iowa has now in 
process of construction for its historical department, upon ground donated for 
the purpose, a magnificent stone edifice that, when completed, will cost 
$400,000. 

The state of Wisconsin, admitted into the Union in 1847, 29 years after Illi- 
nois became a State, excels all the states of the Mississippi valley in the 
amount expended for its historical department, and in the results achieved by 
that department. Its library contains 108,860 books and 106,746 pamphlets. 
It receives regularly 340 Wisfconsin newspapers and periodicals, and 409 from 
other states. Its famous collection of Draper manuscripts is the most exten- 



19 

sive and valuable of any similar collection in the United States, New York 
perhaps excepted. Its maps and atlases number in the thousands. The pub- 
lications it issues from time to time are numerous and of the highest authen- 
ticity. Its portrait and picture gallery fills a large hall, and its museum of 
historic relics and pre-Columbian antiquities, collected in Wisconsin, is un- 
surpassed by any other state museum in the west. Its^one specialty of ancient 
copper implements of the aborigines cannot be duplicated anywhere. So 
complete are the historical collections of Wisconsin that Illinois students — we 
acknowledge with shame — are compelled to go there to study the history of 
their own State. Each Wisconsin Legislature since 1892 has appropriated 
$5,000 annually for current expenses of its historical department, besides lib- 
eral publication and book purchasing funds. The Legislature of 1900 in- 
creased the historical department's annual appropriation to $8,333, and gave 
it a special sum of $20,000 for 1901. During last summer the Wisconsin his- 
torical department moved and installed its library, picture gallery, museum 
and other collections into its new palatial building in Madison, erected for it 
by the state at the cost of $620,000. 

We are proud of Illinois, of her commanding position in the Union, of her 
resources and wealth, and of her eventful and glorious history; hence cannot 
repress a feeling of humiliation when reminded that Wisconsin — made up a 
little over half a century ago of what was left of the northwestern territory, 
after Illinois had taken from the southern end of that remnant enough to form 
our 14 northern counties including Chicago and the Galena lead mines — a 
state greatly surpassed by Illinois in population and products, has expended 
two-thirds of a million of dollars upon its historical department, and amassed 
at our very door a priceless historical collection, unexcelled in the Mississippi 
valley, while Illinois has expended but^ $34,300 for the same object and is yet 
without a historical department. 

In the states mentioned, as in several others, having established historical 
departments, it may be here explained the libraries of those departments are 
not strictly confined to historical publications alone, but comprehend the en- 
tire library of the states excepting their law libraries. There are now in the 
State house at Springfield three separate libraries belonging to the State, 
namely: The State library, the State Historical library and the State Law 
library. The Historical library is not restricted to works on Illinois history 
exclusively, but contains many devoted to general history, to poetry, science 
and promiscuous literature. Among the miscellaneous publications in the 
State library are many valuable historical volumes also. The two are on the 
same floor in adjoining rooms and each in charge of a special librarian and 
an assistant. What reason exists, if any, why the two should not be consoli- 
dated, as in Wisconsin, Iowa, Michigan and other states, in one State His- 
torical library, and be made a part of the State historical department? 

Appreciating as we do the exceptional opportunities for acquisitions of 
historical data that Illinois has lost, by neglect and indifference, in past 
years, we are impressed with a sense of duty due to our society to the public 
and to posterity, to do all in our power, even at this late date, to retrieve, as 
far as possible, that loss, and give to the historical interests of our State the 
prominence and value to which they are justly entitled. That can yet bo ac- 
complished by the willing gratuitous labors of the State Historical society, if 
aided and encouraged by the State. 

To enable us to so serve the State, our committee on legislation ' 
should be instructed to ask of the next general assembly the follow- 
ing legislation: 

An act, providing for the establishing of a State Department of History, 
comprising the present State library, the State Historical library and the 
State Historical society, to be controlled and managed by the Secretary of 
State, the Superintendent of Public Instruction and President of the State 
Historical society acting as a board of trustees. Said State Department of 
History to occupy the rooms in the State house now occupied by the two State 
libraries above mentioned. 



20 

The secretary, librarian and such assistant librarians as may be necessary, 
to be the only officials of said State Department of History to receive com- 
pensation. 

The secretary of the State Historical society to be, ex-officio, secretary of 
the State Department of History. The Librarian and assistants to be ap- 
pointed by the board of trustees. 

x\n annual appropriation to defray expenses of publishing reports, transac- 
tions and contributions to the history of Illinois. 

Also, authoi'izing the board of trustees of the State Department of History 
to gather together, in the south library room, all Illinois historical relies now 
in possession of the State, and establish there a State Historical museum — 
as has been done in many other states of the Union. 

A State Historical museum, in connection with the consolidated libraries, 
would here prove to be a novel, attractive and valuable educational agency, 
teaching by instructive and interesting object lessons the history of the State's 
industrial, economic and social progress, from the stone implements of its 
prehistoric aborigines, the trappings, accoutrements and weapons of its 
more recent Indian tribes, the simple mechanical devices, domestic appliances 
and utensils of our early pioneers, on up and through the successive phases 
of improvement and refining processes marking the marvelous onward and 
upward advance of our great State. 

The changes wrought by the legislation herein outlined would be 
of inestimable benefit to the people of our State. They would cre- 
ate no new offices and incur no additional expenses but a trifling 
amount annually for valuable publications, but would in effect simply 
cause a rearranging, reorganizing and proper combination of the 
present disconnected historical and literary material belonging to 
the State, and render it more available and effective for the student, 
the scholar and the historian. 

Address op Welcome. 

[By Dr. C. W. Barnes. President of Illinois Colleee.j 

Ladies and Gentlemen, Members of the Illinois State Historical Society: 

It gives me great pleasure this evening to extend to you a word of welcome 
in behalf of the city of Jacksonville and of Illinois college. We feel you 
have done us no small honor, and certainly have afforded us a very great 
pleasure in choosing our city and our old college as your meeting place for 
this year. Jacksonville can not offer such wonderlul evidences of commer- 
cial prosperity as the great city of Chicago, such evidences of wealth as 
Peoria or even Bloomington, such evidences of political activity as our neigh- 
boring city of Springfield, but it can offer to the student that which is of 
especial interest to you — records that reach far back into the past, marks of 
antiquity which are full of interest, and a history made fragrant and beauti- 
ful by noble lives willingly given in behalf af their State and country. We 
feel that this makes our little town and old college dear to you, and that the 
pleasure of this gathering is, therefore, mutual. 

As one looks back over the work accomplished by various members of your 
society, he can well understand the pride which you all feel in your organi- 
zation, and the bright outlook which you see for it in the future. Some of 
you have gathered together bits of ancient history, brought from far and 
near, pertaining to the early days of Illinois, which, without your energetic 
labors must certainly have been forever lost; some of you have skillfully 
woven together facts heretofore unrelated, and so have brought to life an 
almost new history of certain portions of our community, and others of you 
have taken these bits of facts and these scattered data of historical events, 
and have so breathed into them the breath of life that the times gone by 
seem to once more throb and pulse with the joys and sorrows, the aspirations 



21 

and the failures of a livin.er people, so trulj' living that we love as they love 
and sorrow as they sorrow, and find ourselves moving in the very atmos- 
phere of those by-gone days in which they had their being. All this means 
a great gain to the student of history who is seeking to acquaint himself in- 
timately with the early days of our commonwealth, but it also means, or 
should mean a great gain in higher citizenship for every man in Illinois to- 
day. Out of the past we should learn lessons for the present and the future. 
By the wisdom of our forefathers our judgment should be better, because of 
their mistakes, our failures should be less; where passion and prejudice 
wrought harm to them, we should be doubly safe-guarded against like errors. 

But all this is in a large measure dependent on how carefully you members 
of the Illiuois State Historical society fulfill your mission. Let history be 
used as the ground-work of fiction, so long as it gives us a true atmosphere 
of those early years, and helps us to see and to feel as men did in those 
times; let hitherto unrelated data be so brought together as to give us new 
views of old scenes; but against this be on your guard: Distorting facts for 
the sake of more pleasing results, misrepresenting truths for the sake of a 
more uoble record, glossing over errors that the times gone by may seem as 
full of virtue and as free from vice as the proverbial "good old days." 
Strong with hope and courage, and full of confidence in our God-given op- 
portunities, let us not shut our eyes to whatever history has recorded whether 
it be good or evil; but, helped by such societies as yours to clearly read the 
pages that have been written, let us learn such lessons from the past as will 
help up to do better in the future, and more ably serve our country and our 
God. 

We bid you welcome, therefore, to this old town, and especially to this old 
college with all its noble history of success and of failure, and we hope that 
by reason of your stay here, though only for a few short days, there maybe 
gathered intothe annals of history some new and inspiring story taken from 
the lives of those who helped to plant these elms and build these buildings. 
Let your poets sing to us the sweet melodies that have for so many years 
been sounding through these leafy trees on College hill as they looked down 
on young and old passing to their tasks; let your novelists find an inspiration 
for new tales in the worn steps which lead to the old halls, and in the names that 
have so long been carved in the rough brick walls; and let him to whom facts 
alone appeal find in the records which fill our shelves or are carefully treas- 
ured in the college vaults, such hitherto undiscovered data as shall better tell 
the splendid story of the days of our honored fathers. 



Response. 

[By Hon. H. W. Beckwith, President of the Society.] 

President Barnes: — The Illinois State Historical society, by its chairman, 
thanks you and the people of Jacksonville for your hearty welcome. To me 
this presence is more than a passing event. 

As a witness tree in the timber, or the little mound with its deposit of char- 
coal out on the prairie, proves the original corner, so does your city and 
county mark the high grade of moral and mental worth that was planted here 
by its early settlers nearly hand in hand with its government land surveys. 
Let us expand this though a little. We will be brief, conscious as we are of 
other claims on the program. Draw a line down the west side of Sangamon 
county, thence west on the north ends of Macoupin and Greene to the Illinois 
river, thence up its waters to the Sangamon; follow this river easterly to 
where it enters Sangamon county, and you have traced the original outline 
of Morgan county as formed in 1823. Two years before then, in all this ex- 
tent, there lived only twenty families of white people. A number of Potta- 
wottomie and Kickapoo Indians still lingered here, to till and hunt over this 
heritage of their fathers. 



22 

In the emigrant " Guides " and " Illinois Gazetteers " a few years later, 
Beardstown and Winchester figure among the towns of promise in your 
county. They became county seats in time, the one of Cass and the other of 
Scott, as they in turn were carved out of Morgan county. 

A guide book referred to says of Jacksonville, that its population of about 
750 was rapidly increasing, and that it had a factory of 120 spindles for mak- 
ing cotton yarn. The pith of this reference is in the fact that the material 
named was a needed want of the pioneers whose women folks, for the most 
part, wove the cloths from which the garments of the family were made. The 
strong cotton thread was for the warp of the hand loom, while the woof of 
wool was sheared, washed, carded into rolls and spun into yarn at home. 

The same year your town, in 1825, was laid out, a bill of General Joseph 
Duncan's, then a member of the State Senate, was passed, to establish dis- 
trict schools under the direction of a board of trustees, who could levy a tax 
to support them, if they were first allowed to do so by a two-thirds vote of the 
electors. The law was not popular, and nairow minded politicians of that 
day took advantage of the fact to stir such an unsavory foment that the next 
legislature repealed the law. It is doubtful if the law could have been made 
effective, because of the scattered stage of our sparse population. The paro- 
chial schools of the Jesuit Fathers at Kaskaskia, and the academies of the 
Franciscan Priests at Cahokia, did a good work in their day and generation. 
They were typical French. Their people tilled in a common field, and their 
cottages, grouped about the parish church, gave their population a density 
from which school children could be readily drawn. And as soon as the 
people elsewhere over our State filled in more closely, the "three months" 
primitive schools were opened. 

A writer, the Rev. John M. Peck, who traveled over Missouri and Illinois 
purposely to see and inquire into this subject, well says of those schools that 
one-third of them were of some utility, another third did as much harm as 
good, while the remaining third were public nuisances, and decidedly injur- 
ious to the children, because of the incompetence and immorality cf their 
itinerant teachers. 

Against this dark and forboding background your chairman sees prefigured 
a glorious promise that has since been fully redeemed. Without going into 
details, it was the result of two elements moving for the same purpose, though 
at first in sepai'ate and widely distant orbits. The one were residents scat- 
tered over Illinois and conscious of the need of education in all the interest 
of society and good government. The other was a body of theological students 
at Yale college who had banded their lives in the cause of religion and edu- 
cation in some of the new settlements of the western country. These two 
elerannts grew into a common and narrower circle that revolved around 
"Wilson's Grove" a mile west of Jacksonville. Here on the eastern slope of 
the knoll and within seven years after Morgan county was organized, 
"Illinois College" was formally opened. 

Its first catalogues impress one with the fact that so many of its regular 
course students were from the New England states, a proof that its Alumni, 
like its earlier funds, came largely from abroad. The college had a farm of 
300 acres and anticipated, by half a century, the agricultural features, as well 
as the polytechnic ideas, now so common in the west. Its shop had tools 
suited for most kinds of work in wood. 

The home results soon followed. The Gazetteer man, Mr. Peek, in his 
volume of 1834 printed here in Jacksonville, though his material was collect- 
ing for three or four years before then, says that Morgan is in advance of 
other counties in all those enterprises that tend to form habits of virtue and 
to ennoble the mind. It has a vigorous bible society, a Sunday school union 
with about 70 Sabbath schools, a number of temperance societies of influence 
in as many neighborhoods, with a like number of common schools that are 
taught a portion of the year. 

Stand at night in the near front of a railroad engine. You see only a little 

lamp with a circular wick. Go half a mile down the track and its reflected 

ight glares like a great disk of fire; your speaker has often thought how far 



23 

the growing: light early set here on College hill has shed its effective rays not 
only at home but on the great affairs of the State and nation. This tribute is 
an old thought which your speaker's conscience has not allowed to become 
outlawed by the lapse of time. And he now avails himself of his first visit 
among you to give it expression. 

Nor in doing so does he forget those other beacons more to the south and 
west. "Rock Spring Seminary," the first of the kind, began by the R«v. 
John M. Peck, 1827, later removed to and known as "Alton Seminary." later 
still, and now, called "Shurtleff College." Nor that of "Lebanon Seminar\'" 
revived and efficient as McKeudreo college. These with yours, Mr. Presi- 
dent, have survived the scores of otners that fell under the scythe of our 
public school system. They with yours have kept due on at the front of the 
grand evolution of Illinois in the cause of a higher and better education. 



The Sources and Results of Law in Illinois. 

[By Hon. John N. Jewett] 

The law concerns the world, and, therefore, the people of Illinois, and of 
the northwest; and yet it is a subiect, which, both in its history and its con- 
sequences, receives but little consideration, except in appointed channels, 
and, beyond these, as it presents itself in the pathway, along which the in- 
dividual has chosen to pursue his course. In its all pervading influence, the law 
is like the air we breathe. It is above, below, and around us. It is as necessary 
to the continuous enjoyment of our social and civil life, as the atmcsphereic 
air is to our physical well being. It is a potential element in every social 
relation and in every transaction of the business world; it is, or should be, 
the impartial guardian of the rights and responsibilities, which necessarily 
grow out of any form of civil organization. It is the touch stone by which 
individual privileges must be tested, in order that civil liberty may be pre- 
served. The law of Illinois is in a large degree the measure of the rights of 
its individual citizens. 

But, notwithstanding this, by the average man, and from that average 
downward, the law as a controlling force is but little considered or under- 
stood. It is encountered or brought to his personal observation, only as an 
obstruction to his personal inclinations or ambitions, and as a sort of a bump- 
ing post, by which in the course laid out for himself, he has been confronted, 
about the location of which he may have had some indefinite surmises but he 
is, nevertheless, genuinely or affectedly surprised that he comes in contact 
with it, just when and where the cnntact occurs. It is the air in motion 
which develops its necessity as well as its power. It is the law in motion, 
which gives evidence of its strength as well as of its necessity. All men 
sleep the sleep of forgetfulness, in unconscious reliance upon the continued 
action of natural laws for the maintenance of life and a safe awakening. 
Honest men in civil society sleep in unconscious reliance upon the laws which 
civil society has ordained f9r their protection, and with a faith amounting to 
confidence that that protection will be effective. The great human public is 
like the great unchained ocean, in its tranquilities as well as in its disturb- 
ances. It is seldom that the disturbing influences reach far below the sur- 
face. But, however, this may be and disregarding what may have been in 
the past, the civil law, in this age and in this country, must be regarded when 
it is considered at all, as a necessary means of protection and safety. 
In its development it has been and is what humanity has made it. It is assumed 
that all men have aright to security and protection under the law, and the 
assumption is right within certain limitations; for it should also be assumed 
that there is no law, deserving of the name, which is not in its consequences 
a limitation upon the absolute independence of the individual. 

The source from which the people of this country acquired the great body 
of their general law presents no question which is open to dispute. It came 
to them originally by inheritance, and was made secure to them by express 
adoption. The British colonists in North America, whether they were classed 



24 

as Puritans, Quakers, or Cavaliers, who settled at intervals along the Atlan- 
tic coast from Massachusetts bay to Georgia, brought with thera as equip- 
ment for the founding of civil communities, the common law of England, in 
the state of completeness to which it had then attained. They claimed and 
exercised the rights of Englishmpn under the English law, as loyal subjects 
of the Crown, the emblem of British sovereignty. This was their claim 
when a century and a half later, the controversy arose between them and the 
homo government which resulted in the war of the Revolution and the inde- 
pendence of the colonies. The stamp tax, and the tax on tea, and the more 
embarrassing navigation laws, some of which had been either repealed or 
substantially modified and which were the inciting causes for revolt, as they 
stood in 1775, were not in themselves serious matters of complaint. 
The people of the United States have, within the last 40 years, 
yielded almost without a murmur, to governmental exactions much more 
serious. The truth was that the demands made upon the colonists 
were in their essence discriminations against them as British subjects, 
entitled to the protection of British laws equally with other subjects 
residing within homo territory and in the act repealing the stamp act 
the rigiit to make the discriminations was distinctly' asserted, and thereby the 
future of the colonists was imperilled. When the Declaration of Independ- 
ence was adopted, and afterwards, when the independence of the colonies, 
as states, was made secure by treaty, the common law of England, as inter- 
preted and understood by the colonists, remained to them as the substance of 
the thing, for which the war, finally resulting in independence, had been en- 
tered upon. The common law of England, in the fullness of its principles, in 
the universality of its application, was the inheritance which the colonies de- 
manded and fought for, and this, together with their independence, was se- 
cured to them by the results of the war, which we now call the war for inde- 
pendence. This brought to the colonies the benefit and advantage of the 
labor and experience of a progressive people for more than ten centuries. 

But the people of the states, and of the United States, were not content to 
leave the effective operation of the common law of England to mere conjec- 
ture or inference, or to be established through lines of inheritance or descent. 
The value of the principles of that system of laws was too highly appreciated 
and too well understood to leave them subject to the changes which might re- 
sult from acts of mere legislation. 

The Constitution of the United States, as it came from the convention of 
1787, and was adopted by the people of the states, was thought to be defect- 
ive, in that it did not contain what is commonly known as a bill of rights, 
that IS, a constitutional recognition of the limitations of the sovereign power 
and of the rights and liberties of the people, which were a part of the com- 
mon law of England; and at the first session of Congress after the constitu- 
tion became operative, twelve amendments were proposed, which were sub- 
mitted to and immediately ratified by the states and thus became a part of 
the constitution, and eight of these amendments were in substance and effect, 
constitutional re-enactments of the principles of the common law of England. 
Most, if not all of the states, inserted in their constitutions similar provisions, 
in some cases more extended and comprehensive, but always following along 
the lines of the common law. This was done in all of the three constitutions 
under which the government of the State of Illinois has been administered. 
The effect of this is forcibly expressed by Mr. Justice Miller of the Supreme 
Court of the United States, in the case cf Pumpelly v. Green Bay company 
(13 Wallace's Reports), when speaking of one of those provisions, contained 
in the Constitution of Wisconsin, but which, so far as I am advised, is found 
in the constitutions of all the states, he says: "It would be a very curious 
and unsatisfactory result, if, in construing a provision of constitutional law, 
always understood to have been adopted for protection and security to the 
rights of the individual against the government, and which has received the 
commendation of jurists, statesmen and commentators, as placing the just 
principles of the common law on that subject beyond the power of ordinary 
legislation to change or control, it should be held," etc. * * * "Such a 
construction would pervert the constitutional provision into a restriction upon 
the right of the citizen as those rights stood at the common law, instead of 



25 

the government, and make it an authority for an invasion of private rights 
tinder the pretext of the public good, which had no warrant in the laws or 
practices uf our ancestors." 

But this is not all the evidence we have of the estimation in which the 

Srineiples of the common law of England have been held by the people of the 
nited States, and of their purpose to adhere to and be governed by them. 
I refer now to statutory adoptions, and simply select Illinois and the other 
states into which the territory northwest of the Ohio river was divided, as 
examples. 

After the war of the revolution, this territory was claimed by Virginia 
under its sever^il colonial charters and, especially, the second charter granted 
by James the First, in 1609. The establishment of that ehxim was primarily 
one of the results of the war of the revolution, and, secondarily, the acqui- 
escence of the other states represented in Congress, prior to the adoption of 
our present national constitution, and whilst the articles of confederation 
were in f(»rce. Whether the claim was originally a valid one, is a matter of 
no importance today. 

The Virginia Charter of 1009 created a corporation with perpetual succes- 
sion by the name ot "The Treasuier and Company of Adventurers find Plant- 
ers of the City of London, for the first Celony of Virginia." As inrorpora- 
tors. it named a large number of British subjects (poss-ibly 500 or more) of 
all classes, sorts and conditions, from ecclesiastics and noblemen of the high- 
est rank down to common artisans, and more common fish-mongers, and to 
this list was added, "and to such and so many as they do or shall hereafter 
admit to be joined with them, in the form hereafter in these presents ex- 
pressed, whether they go in their persons to be planters there in the said 
plantation, or whether they go not, but adventure their moneys, goods or 
chattels." 

The grant to the corporation thus formed, was made in these words: "And 
we do also of our special grace, certain knowledge and mere motion, give, 
grant and confirm unto the said treasurer and company and their successors, 
under the reservations, limitations and declarations hereafter expressed, all 
those lands, countries and territories, situate, lying and being in that part of 
America called Virginia, from the point of land called Cape or Point Com- 
fort, all along the seacoast to the northward, 200 miles, and from the said 
Point of Cape Comfort, all along the seacoast to the southward, 200 miles, 
and all that space and circuit of land lying from the seacoast of the precinct 
aforesaid up into the land througiiout from sea to sea, west and northwest; 
and, also, all the islands lying within 100 miles along the coast of both seas 
of the precinct aforesaid." 

There are many "reservations, limitations and declarations," upon the 
grant thus made, in the quaint language and in accordance with the grasp- 
ing colonial theories then prevailing; but the one more especially appropri- 
ate here, is that, which, after granting large powers of government over the 
colony to the home corporation, "aud to such governors, officers and rjin- 
isters as shall be by "our said counsel constituted and appointed," and giv- 
ing what would seem to be plenary power "to correct, punish, pardon, 
govern "and rule all siich the subjects of us, our heirs and successors as shall 
from timt? to time * * * inhabit in the precincts and territories aforesaid, 
according to such orders, ordinances, constitutions, directions and instructions 
as by our said council, as aforesaid, shall be established," provided, that in 
default of such orders, ordinances, &c., and in case of necessity, the govern- 
ment of the colony should be "according to the good discretion of said gov- 
ernor and officers, respectively, as well in cases capital and criminal as civil, 
both marine and other; so always as the said statutes, ordinances and pro- 
ceedings as near as conveniently may be, be agreeable to laws, statutes, 
government and policy of this our realm of England.'''' This last clause 
rightly interpreted and acted upon, made the common law of England ef- 
fectively controlling in the administration of the affairs of the colony. 

The concluding limitation, in harmony with the spirit of the times, may be 
quoted as a curiosity as well as an illustration of the prominence of the ec- 



26 

clesiastical controversy which was still goinpf on even in England. It says: 
"And lastly, because the principal effect, which we can desire or expect of 
this action, is the conversion and- reduction of the people of those parts into 
the true worship of God and Christian religion, in which respect we should 
be loth that any reason should be permitted to pass, that we suspected to af- 
fect the superstitions of the church ot Rome, we do hereby declare that it is 
our \vill and pleasure, that none be permitted to pass in any voyage from 
time to time, to be made in said country, but such as first shall have taken 
the oath of supremacy:" For which purpose, etc. 

What trouble the colonists of Virginia had with the corporate body, from 
the very foundation of the colony, down to the time when the independence 
of the American colonies was established, and the power of the corporation 
was abrogated, is related in the history of that period; but it is to be ob- 
served as a fact that, except as authority was granted to the home corpora- 
tion, the laws of the kingdom of Great Britain, in Virginia as well as in all 
the other colonies, were installed as rules of civil conduct and standards of 
civil rights amongst the colonists. 

The territory ceded by Virginia to the United States in 1784, described as 
"the territory northwest of the river Ohio," at the time and as a part of Vir- 
ginia, and so far as in its then condition, it can be said to have been subject 
to any law, or reached by any government, was under the laws of Virginia 
origin and growth, and the laws of Virginia were the laws of the British king- 
dom, with such modifications only as had been made within the powers 
granted by the charters to the colonial council, and which were generally of 
a domestic character. But the fact is, that the territory was then a practical 
wilderness, over which the Indian tribes claimed such jurisdiction and pro- 
prietorship as accorded with their nomadic character, and the gratification of 
their untamed and uncivilized nature. A few French settlements, which 
marked the meandering progress of the intrepid and adventurous explorers, 
like Marquette and Joliet, kept their places mainly by methods of concilia- 
tion, which were but insecure protections against ithe wild and irritable dis- 
positions of the Indian tribes, peculiarly restive under the restraints of civil 
authority, and who were in fact at war with all forms of government, which 
advanced civilization could recognize or tolerate. The displacement of the 
habits and customs, the laws and usages of the Indian tribes, such as they 
were, was an absolute necessity to the expansion and progress of a new na- 
tion. If our civilization was better than the one which it encountered in the 
Indian tribes, and the Indian tribes would not or could not adopt its theories 
and laws, conflict was inevitable, and the weaker must necessarily be dis- 
placed by the stronger. 

We may not yield our assent to all the means, either public or private, 
which were employed in the accomplishment of this inevitable result, but the 
result itself was as reasonably sure, the day Columbus anchored his caravels 
in the waters of the western continent, 400 years ago, as it is absolutely cer- 
tain to-day. 

The proprietorship and jurisdiction of the state of Virginia in and over the 
territory to the north and west of the Ohio river, whatever that proprietor- 
ship and jurisdiction may have been, was ceded to the United States in the 
year 1784, and the first legislation that ever effectively reached that territory 
and the first effort ever made, in any practical way, to bring the territory 
under the influence of a general system of law and order was the act of Con- 
gress commonly known as "The Ordinance of 1787." This ordinance was 
the beginning of effective civil government, in the territory described in the 
title of the act only, as "The Territory of the United States Northwest of the 
Ohio River." The ordinance provided for the organization of a territorial 
government, commensurate in its jurisdiction with the boundaries described 
in the title, the underlying principles of which were derived from the com- 
mon law of England. 

In this brief summary of legal history it is not important to consider, spe- 
cifically, the provisions of that ordinance, and for the reason that the five 
states, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, as they severally be- 
came members of the Federal Union and elements in active combination with 



27 

all the forces which go to make up the nationality of the United States of 
America, through their respective legislative representatives, adopted the 
theories and principles of the common law of England in all its substantial 
features. The State of Illinois, admitted into the national unity in the year 
1818, signified its submission to and approval of that law by the adoption of 
it through its legislative represenatives, in qualified but unmistakable lan- 
guage, which has ever been substantially as it appears in the latest revision 
of its statutory law, which says: "That the common law of England, so far 
as the same is applicable and of a general nature and all statutes or acts of 
the British Parliament made in aid of and to supply the defects of the com- 
mon law, prior to the fourth year of James the First, excepting the second 
section of the sixth chapter of the 43d Elizabeth and ninth chapter of 37th 
Henry Eighth, and which are of a general nature, and not local to that king- 
dom, shall be the rule of decision and shall be considered in full force until 
repealed by legislative authority." 

We are thus confronted, in many ways, with the fact that the common law 
of England was and is a fundamental part of the system of laws under which 
our governments, state and national, were established. It cotistitutes that 
great mass ot underlying rules and regulations which are more important to 
the welfare of civil society than all the modifications which legislation, pushed 
into active life by the disorganizing forces of special conditions of limited ap- 
plication, have ever engrafted upon the body of our laws. 

Ancient mythology states it as a fact, that Athena sprang from the head of 
Jove of full physical stature and completely armed and endowed for either 
active service in war or council in peace. It is unnecessary to say that the 
common law of England had no such marvelous and instantaneous origin. It 
was the growth of many centtiries — centuries of actual conflicts and conten- 
tions, not only between government as such and the people, but also between 
the people themselves. It was the product of experience and of knowledge 
derived from experience, and its crowning excellence is, as has been well 
said of it, that under its provisions "there can be no wrong without a 
remedy." 

How it was reserved to England to establish such a system of laws is much 
a matter of theory, resting, of course, upon the construction and effect which 
may be given to events which are now classified as events of ancient history. 
Some of these may be briefly referred to. 

The battle of Marathon, in the year 490 B. C, defeated and partially par- 
alyzed the aggressive purposes of the Persian power, then in control of West- 
ern Asia, to extend its dominion westwardly. Whatever its struggles in that 
direction may have subsequently been, they were effectively ended by the 
decisive victory of the Grecian forces under Alexander, at Arbela, in the year 
B. C. 331. Between 490 and 413 B. C, Athens became the seat of the Grecian 
power. Its ambition led it to undertake the conquest of Syracuse, its western 
commercial rival, in the latter year, the result of which was the downfall of 
the Atheneau ascendancy. Rome was then in its infancy. It was a growing 
power, in the beginning of its development; struggling for the place which it 
subsequently acquired. Founded about 700 years before the Christian era, it 
was ambitiously climbing upward in the line of material progress and ex- 
pending all its forces in the direction of a universal Roman empire. So far 
as its resources would allow, it accomplished its ambitious purposes; but at 
the expense of a wanton neglect and sacrifice of the moral and social condi- 
tions of its people. The twelve ravens that circled around the walls of Rome 
whilst Romulus was building them, were interpreted as an omen indicating 
twelve centuries as the limit to the Roman power. The omen and its inter- 
pretation may be disregarded; but it can not fail of observation, that about 
the middle of those 12 centuries, when the Christian era was in its in- 
fancy, the Roman Nero represented the Roman power with all the abomina- 
tions which that name suggests, and that to this result, the habits and cus- 
toms of the Roman people, neglected and overshadowed by a corrupt and 
corrupting governmental authority, was at all times a contributing cause. 
Rome in the beginning of its greatest historical glory, had its Cato and Cicero, 
whose clients thronged their doors in the early morning. It also had its 



28 

Caesar, its Mark Anthony, its Brutus, its Cataline, and later its Augustus and 
its Virgfil, all of whom were floating on the top of a sea of moral and social 
corruption, and upon this sea, and without much disturbing it, was planted 
what was called the temporal and spiritual authority of the church. 

But notwithstanding this, Rome extended its power and influence east- 
wardly over Greece and its dependencies into Western Asia, and westerly to 
the Atlantic. It subjugated and reorganized what is now known as France 
and Spain, and made inroads upon the provinces further north, occupied by 
people of the Germanic race. In this last direction its power was effectively 
checked by the decisive battle of Armenius against Varus in the ninth year 
of the Christian era, from the effects of which Rome never recovered; and 
from that time the Germanic people were left comparatively free from Roman 
influence and especially in the more northern provinces. Two other events 
in histoi'y deserve a mention in this connection. 

During those centuries, distinctively recognized as the dark ages, the over- 
crowded Aryan people of central Asia, repulsed ia their effort for expansion 
eastwardly were pouring their surplus of barbarians westwardly. The Celtic 
tribe understood to be of Aryan origin had long before pushed its way into 
western Europe, and occupied its southwestern territory, and the Island of 
the Albanian seas. This race or tribe the Roman power witliin the lines then 
designated as Gaul, had substantially brought into alliance with itself. But 
the sources of barbarian invasion had not been exhausted. In their succes- 
sive waves no heed was given to the fact that one was attempting to supplant 
all that had gone before it. In the year of the Christiam era 451, Attilla, the 
leader of the Aryan Huns, then settled on the Danube, with headquarters at 
Buda (now Biida-Pesth), marshalled his forces for a conquest of western 
Europe. His army as originally constituted, with accessions from over pow- 
ered communities encountered in its march, it is said to have amounted to 
700,000 men. Every obstruction gave way to or was overcome by Attilla, 
until he reached the grounds upon which the historic battle of Challons was 
fought in the year 451. There the forces of the western nationalities, partly 
under the leadership of Aetius, a Roman, and of Theodoric, a Goth, en- 
countered the forces of Attilla, and Attilla defeated, returned to his former 
place on the Danube. History is replete with romantic incidents of this last 
Aryan campaign in western Europe. It is outside of the present purpose to 
consider them. 

One other event may also be referred to. The Mohammedan religion 
sprang suddenly into an active and aggressive power in the latter part of the 
seventh century. Like the Roman church, it was on the war path for both 
temporal and spiritual domination. It pushed its campaign of conquest suc- 
cessfully throughout western Asia and through Egypt and the Barbary states 
to the Pillars of Hercules, and passing over the narrow straits, conquered 
and occupied Spain in the year 711. Emboldened by its successes, it gathered 
together an araiy for the conquest of Earope, and eneoantered at Tours its 
first formidable resistance, in opposing forces, mainly of Germanic origin, 
under the general command of Charles Martel, a German prince, in the year 
732. The defeat of the Moslems in that battle confined their conquests in 
western Europe to the Spanish peninsula. 

This recital of historical events may, perhaps, seem to have but little, if 
any, relation to the laws of England. Such a conclusion, however, may not 
be well defended. The battle of Marathon was, in its results, a substantial 
defeat of the ambitious purposes of the Persian power in European territory. 
The battle of Arbela broke the Persian power forever and left its shattered 
remnants to the results of theories of civil and social life, in which its people 
had been educated. If the battle of Marathon had been determined otherwise 
than it was, the whole of western Europe would have been exposed to conquest 
by the Persian power and ambition, with no organized force capable of success- 
ful resistance. In the interval between these two battles, Athens had brought 
into alliance with it substantially all of Greece, and had extended its empire 
eastwardly and southerly beyond the surrounding seas, and became ambitious 
of western conquests. The city of Syracuse was its rival in commercial 
strength and influence. The battle of Syracuse saved southwestern Europe 



29 

from Grecian supremacy, whilst it reserved it for Roman conquest a few cen- 
turies later. The battle of Challons saved the same territory from a new barba- 
rian invasion, and was as well amougst the expirinfj efforts of the Roman 
power in defense of its outlayini? provinces; and the battle of Tours effec- 
tively thwarted the ambitions of the Saracens and their expulsion from Spain 
was accomplished near the close of the fifteenth century. 

If any one of those historic battles had resulted differently, the whole civil 
and social condition of western Europe, includinju: the Island of Great 
Britain, would have probably been compelled to pass through a series of 
changes in no wise conducive to their governmental or social well being, all 
of which were averted by the immediate and consequental results of the 
battles themselves, and, as already stated, the battle of Armenius against 
Varus effectively loosened the Roman power upon the Germanic provinces. 

The earlier in date of these several conflicts for national supremacy oc- 
curred before authentic history of the island of Great Britain commences. 
In the later ones it was not actively concerned, and in comparative peace it 
reaped the rewards of victories achieved beyond the seas that surrounded it. 
It may be fair to say that the common law of England never could and never 
would have started in a community imbued with the principles, theories, 
manners and customs of either the Persian, Grecian, Roman, Aryan or Mo- 
hommedan nationalities. There was lacking in each and all of them those 
elements of a strong and vigorous individuality, a responsible personal hu- 
manity, which are the inspiring elements of the common law of England as 
it has come down to us. 

It may possibly be said by way of objection to this statement, that the 
island of Great Britain was once counted amongst the Roman provinces, and 
so far as a limited occupation can justify the application of the term, 
"Roman Province," to the island which was then called Albania, the objec- 
tion is well founded. It must be observed, however, that Rome never con- 
quered the island of Great Britain, or established its dominion and sovereignty 
there in any manner commensurate with or the equivalent of its conquests in 
the provinces of Gaul and Spain. It is true that about the year 50 of the 
Christian era a Roman army invaded and occupied by force a considerable 
part of the island now distinctively known as England, and that they main- 
tained this occupation for about 400 years. The occupation was, however, in 
every sense of the word, hostile. The island never became, as did the pro 
vinces of Gaul and Spain, in any degree Romanized. It apparently had no 
attractions for the Roman people. Its remoteness and isolation may have 
been the cause of this neglect, but the fact remains that to the extent of the 
Roman occupation, the people who were found there were, in the main, 
simply driven back into the remoter parts of the island. The two peoples 
did not assimilate or grow together. There was no merging of one in the 
other, and no community of sentiment or of feeling; no fraternity or good- 
fellowship, and no unification of language; and when, about the year 450, 
the Roman legions were withdrawn, not expelled, for service in support of 
the Roman power, then tottering in the very citadel of its greatest strength. 
Rome left behind it nothing to mark its occupation except the ruins of its 
fortified camps and the evidences of devastation incident to an occupation 
military in its character. The Roman influence took its departure with the 
flight of the Roman legions, and the old order of things was left to the free 
exercise of its own powers for its re-establishment. No new customs, 
methods, usages, laws or language had been imposed upon the inhabitants of 
the inland as a consequence of the Roman occupation. 

It was radically different on the other side of what is now known as the 
Straits of Dover, and taking Spain, then one of Rome's outlying provinces, 
as an illustration of the effect left by perishing Rome on modern civilization 
and government, it will be found that in Spain, as well as in Gaul, Roman 
settlement followed Roman invasion, originally undertaken for purposes of 
conquest; that the manners, customs and laws of the inhabitants of the prov- 
ince came into amicable relations with those of the invaders, and a mixed 
society, composite of the two nationalities was the result. This unification is 
effectively demonstrated by the fact that throughout Gaul, and especially in 



30 

Spain, the languagre of the people became distinctively latinized and has so 
remained down to the present day and Italy, France and Spain are now the 
only nations distinctively recognized as belonging to the Latin race. Both 
France and Spain drank deeply of the fountain of Roman habits, customs, 
tendencies and laws, at the time of their greatest demoralization. Speaking 
of Spain as it was in the year 1694, Macauley says: "It is a government 
which has generally caused more annoyance to its allies than to its enemies " 
The subject may not be pursued further here than to say that it is a matter 
of congratulation that Spanish power has taken, or been compelled to take, 
a final leave of all its American possessions, and yet it may be further re- 
marked that never, in its experience of 400 years upon the American conti- 
nent, has it left a people capable of organizing or administering a civil 
government based upon popular representation; of adopting and adhering to 
any theory of equitable adjustment between governmental rights and powers 
and the rights and liberties of the governed, or of installing as rules of civil 
administration the theories and principles embodied in the common law of 
England. 

The period between the first and sixteenth centuries of the Christian era 
was, on the continent of Europe, a period of formulation and adjustment of 
governmental authority between the various representatives of physical forces, 
claiming rights of local sovereignty. The contentions of the period had in 
the main no better or higher purpose than the vindication of an assumed 
right to and peremptory demand for the recognition of a territorial domina- 
tion with the incidental aggrandizements, mainly individual, which would 
follow from such domination. There were times of comparative quiet, it is 
true, but they were availed of only for the purpose of preparation for a re- 
newal of the physical contentions for expanded jurisdiction. In these conten- 
tions the island of Great Britain, after its abandonment by Rome, had no 
principal place. Even the valiant northmen, who as free-booters upon the 
high seas, pushed their aggressive adventures into foreign lands, in search of 
plunder, which the spirit of the age in some sense legitimized, saw little to 
tempt their cupidity along the chalky coast of Albania, and sought and found 
more tempting prizes upon the waters and the shores of the Mediterranean. 

For 50 years the island was comparatively neglected by the outside world, 
and for that period but little is known of its internal history. It may be as- 
sumed that it was neither advanced in civilization nor in military strength, 
and its natural resources were undeveloped. It was awaiting its destiny. 
Judged of in the light of today, there seems to be no probability that the 
population of the island, Celtic in its origin, as it then stood, would ever have 
matured into the present English nationality. It was not left, however, to 
verify either the justice or the injustice of such a conclusion, for in the early 
part of the sixth century the Angles, the Jutes and the Saxons of Germany, 
and from parts of Germany, least aflEected by the influences of Rome, invaded 
and occupied the central portions of the island. Whether this invasion, in its 
original purposes, was for conquest or settlement, is of no present importance, 
for a settlement in perpetuity was the ultimate result. Nor are we now con- 
cerned with the struggles more or L^ss military in their character, which were 
encountered in the establishment of that settlement. The quality of the peo- 
ple thus introduced into the island as a dominating power, subsequently 
known as Anglo-Saxons, is, however, pertinent to our present subject. 

We may not claim for the founders of the Anglo-Saxon race any large de- 
gree of advantage over their Germanic neighbors, or any superior knowledge 
or appreciation of what are now called the refinements of social life. They 
belonged in the sixth century to a bold, rugged, and somewhat restless na- 
tionality, struggling with the difficulties and misfortunes of the age in which 
they lived; but, in large measure, exempt from the corrupting influences 
which had fastened themselves upon and given character to the people of 
southern Europe. 

It is said that the German race of that period were, however, especially 
characterized by their love of personal independence, their strict observance 
of and fidelity to individual obligations, and their high regard for the sanctity 
of the domestic relations and the purity of women; qualities which were con- 



31 

spicuous for their absence in the general character of the people who had 
drawn their inspirations, their manners and customs, as well as their laws, 
from the overflowing fountain of Roman corruption. But the common law of 
England, as a body of laws, could not, certainly it did not, take root on Ger- 
man soil; and if it may not be assumed that the Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 
island of Great Britain differed essentially from the great body of their coun- 
trymen, still their isolation was a practical severance from the disturbing in- 
fluence, which, for succeeding centuries, kept the Germanic states constantly 
employed in a struggle for the preservation of their nationality. The inter- 
vals of peace were of short duration and were utilized more for the purpose 
of repairing exhausted finances and broken-down military defenses than in 
the work of readjusting their civil and domestic customs and laws upon a bet- 
ter and more progressive basis. It is true that England, as an ally, assisted 
and took a conspicuous part in many of the continental disturbances, and 
was a most effective aid to the final success of the German cause; for it was 
not until the battle of Blenheim, during the reign of Queen Anne, 1703. that 
the combined armies of England and Germany, under the leadership of the 
Duke of Marlborough, achieved a victory so decisive that the invading power 
of France was so severely crippled that it was finally and within a few more 
years compelled to abandon its ambitious efforts for conquest, and signed a 
treaty of peace which, for many years, remained unbroken. 

It is not to be assumed, however, that the island of Great Britain was en- 
tirely free from the political and governmental disturbances which marked 
the period between the 6th and 18th centuries. There were two invasions by 
the Danes, in the 9th and 10th centuries, which, however, they may have tem- 
porarily disturbed the surface of governmental authority, made no serious 
impression upon the under-current of principles out of which the theories of 
the common law were evolved. Moreover, the Danes were a section of the 
Germanic race. 

The Norman conquest of the year 1066 resulted in no permanent disturb- 
ance of the general tendency towards better conditions of social and civil 
life which the Anglo-Saxons in England had inaugurated. It may be ad- 
mitted that the immediate result was, to some extent, a redistribution of the 
landed wealth of the territory, a strengthening of the theory of feudal ten- 
ures, and rjany cases of individual calamities. There was, however, in the 
outcome of this conquest one consequence of immediate advantage to Eng- 
land. It put an end to the protracted disputes between the rulers of the petty 
kingdoms into which England had been divided, and made of England one 
nation, under a common leadership. But we may not leave the subject here. 
The Normans were Northmen of Germanic origin. Many years before they 
had invaded and conquered the province of Normandy, and fraternizing and 
commingling with the people found there had established an almost indepen- 
dent governmental power, which in its theories and operation was largely 
drawn from Germanic sources. 

The Normans in England were, for a time, haughty, aggressive and inso- 
lent, as became the spirit and temper of the times. Crusades and the per- 
sonal ambitions of knight errantry were the characteristics of the age, from 
the influence of which the island of Great Britain was not exempt; but in the 
midst of these disturbing influences the first book on the law of England was 
prepared and published by Glanvil about the year 1160. 

A second treatise on the law of England was given to the public about a 
century later by Bracton. The publication of these books is so remote in 
date that even the names of the authors are in doubt amongst the critical in- 
quirers into the minute facts of legal history. Such inquiries are of no prac- 
tical advantage, however they may result, and may be left to the delving pro- 
clivities of the professional antiquary. In the matter of law books, however, 
it is easy to contrast those times with the present, when 50,000 volumes will 
hardly answer the requirements of a complete law library published in the 
Anglo-Saxon language and actively pressed as the necessary stock in trade of 
the practicing lawyer, and what is worse than that, recognized as influential 
in the administration of the law. Bookism is supplanting independent thouerht, 
and of personal judgment it may be said, "Thou hast fled to brutish beasts 
and men have lost their reason." 



32 

But whilst the Norman conquest of England seemed to be physically and 
goyerumentally complete in the year 1066, there was no settled or willing ac- 
quiescence on the part of the conquered. For many years the representatives 
of the two nationalities stood together only upon terms of mutual defiance. 
If the Normans were arrogant, aggressive and insolent, the Anglo-Saxons 
were sullen, resentful and tenacious of their individual rights and privileges. 
The struggle between the two peoples was not ended by the battle of Hast- 
ings, but subsequently entered upon that broader field of competition which 
more essentially concerned the civil and social well-being of a people, com- 
pelled by the results of military success to live together within limited boun- 
daries. Coalition, an absolute assimilation of the two nationalities, became 
a necessity of their enforced contact with each other; and under the condi- 
tions then existing the stronger and the better theories of government and of 
civil life had at least a chance of success. As the outcome of this contention 
and of an enforced intercourse came the English language. Anglo-Saxon in 
its derivation and a bond of union all-pervading in its influence; for a com- 
munity of language is a necessity of complete national unity. 

The Normans in England during the fii-st century of their domination, in- 
stigated, doubtless, by a common recognition of the universal authority 
claimed by the Roman Hierarchy, endeavered to force upon the people of 
England, in all governmental circles the Latin language, and failing in this, 
assumed to adopt their Norman French as the language of the law and of 
courtesy, which was equally a failure. The force of the Anglo-Saxon tenden- 
cies was too great to be resisted in each of these directions, and the Anglo- 
Saxon language, which with its enlargements and improvements is the 
English language of today, was the result. 

The Norman success of 1066 was thus turned into an Anglo-Saxon victory; 
for a common language is one, at least, of the most effective means of break- 
ing down distinctive nationalties within specified and limited boundaries; and 
I will break the continuity of this address for the purpose of saying, that the 
man who advocates the teaching of a foreign language in the public schools 
of this country, supported, as they are, at the public expense, is either for- 
getful of his obligations as an American citizen or is a traitor to the best 
interests of the community in which he resides. There is no necessity for 
nor is there safety in the use of any language except the national one in the 
intercourse between people, who, in fact, desire to become members of a dis- 
tinct nationality. No man who will not surrender his attachment to the 
common forms and usages of the place of his ancestry ought to be admitted 
to citizenship in the United States of America. Citizenship should be held 
to include an adoption of the national language, which, in this country is 
distinctively English, and the underlying principles of our national habits, 
customs, usages, manners and laws, are of Anglo-Saxon or English origin^ 
A complete and exclusive American nationality should be a sine qua non oj 
citizenship. All instruction at the public expense should run in this direction _ 

Outside nationalities had no part of the framing of the common law of 
England. It was a code of domestic growth. It developed gradually, some- 
times fitfully and in spite of the opposing influences surrounding it, both at 
home and abroad. In its earliest days the people were living and continued 
to live in communities. Personal contract with others was a recognized 
necessity. It was unavoidable, not only as the prompting of a natural in- 
stinct towards sociability, but also as the only means by which business 
between the members of the community could be transacted and exchanges 
of pi'operty interests could be effected. Slowly, and as the social and business 
relations were enlarged, usages and customs controlling in respect to them, 
were established, and became the settled rules and regulations by which the 
members of the community acknowledged themselves to be bound, in their 
social and business intercourse. It must not be overlooked that, in these early 
ages, the present conveniences for preserving and circulating information did 
not exist. Few people could write even, and the art of printing was unknown. 
The rules and regulations adopted and ob3erved in the intercourse of the 
people with each other were matters of memory or of tradition, and because 
of this, the common law of England has been called the unwritten law, a 



38 

name which it has retained down to the present day, notwithstanding the fact 
that many of its maxims and theories have been embodied in statutes, and all 
of them possibly are preserved and defended in the numerous printed opin- 
ions of courts and the text-books and digests, compiled with much diligence 
and, sometimes, with great intelligeuce, for ambitious publishers of the law. 
When courts were established and became the tribunals by which controver- 
sies between the members of a community should be adjusted and their rights 
impartially determined, the rules and regulations of the community were 
availed of by the judges as the rules and regulations controlling in the settle- 
ment of the matters of dispute, and it is but little more than 100 years ago, 
as is shown in the reports of decided cases, that the judges of England, in 
matters upon which they were not sufficiently advised, personally consulted, 
outside of court, with men of business, in whose judgment and knowledge 
they had confidence, as to the existence and character of the customs and 
usages, generally prevailing and acted upon, in transactions like the one 
which was before the court for investigation and decision. If careful in the 
selection of their advisers, possibly, judges of the present day could profit by 
a similar practice. 

In the way indicated in this brief recital, the common law of England 
gradually grew to be an all pervading force, as well as a standard of right, 
available for the adjustment of differences between the members of the civil 
community, embracing all classes and conditions from the highest to the 
lowest. Gradually it modified and changed t e relations existing between 
the different classes, into which the subjects of the crown were divided under 
the theories and operation of the fuedal laws; for the principle of the com- 
mon law was that the individual should have and be at liberty to exercise so 
much personal freedom as was consistent with the general welfare. This 
doctrine ultimately antagonized the arbitrary power and absolute sovereign- 
ty of the king, and in the year 1215 the barons and principal subjects of 
England, at Runnymede demanded and secured in the interest of themselves 
and of the people, from the despotic but weak, vacillating and cowardly King 
John, a formal relinquishment of many of the arbitrary powers theretofore 
claimed as the legitimate inheritance of the reigning sovereign, and which 
were embodied in the concessions from the crown as the representative of 
the sovereign power, in that famous document everywhere known as Magna 
Charta, and sometimes called the charter of British liberties. Afterwards, 
and as late as the reign of William and Mary, further concessions were de- 
manded and secured by the acts known as the"Petition of Rights, and the Bill 
of Rights," and thus the essential liberties of the subject were still further pro- 
tected and secured against the arbitrary action of the British crown. These 
various concessions have been counted as amongst the triumphs of the com- 
mon law, and they stand today as assurances to the British people, that the 
just principles of the common law will not be disregarded. It is a singular 
fact which may be mentioned to the credit of the British nation, that 
although the parliament of Great Britain, as a legislative body, has power to 
modify or repeal each and all of the several concessions referred to, as well 
as all other theories and principles of the common law, yet these concessions, 
theories and principles stand today unimpaired by legislation, and the com- 
mon law of England is still the rule of decision in its courts. It is this 
common law, which recognizes both governmental and personal rights, 
which aims to establish and maintain a just relation between the essential 
powers of government and the essential rights and liberties of the people, 
and which in its principles and theories, as a rule of decision and adminis- 
tration, underlies as a foundation, the expanded power of the government of 
Great Britain, and by affirmative recognition and adoption, through consti- 
tutions and legislative enactments, the government of the United States, that 
legislatures and courts are confronted with when they or either of them un- 
dertake to deal with matters of purely private concern, or which open up the 
broader question of possible antagonism between the essential rights and 
powers of government and the essential rights and liberties of individual cit- 
izens. 

H— 3 



34 

There are and should be some axiomatic propositions upon which all sensi- 
ble reasoning must proceed. Contested premises leave everything afloat. It 
may be said, without claiming the enumeration to be exhaustive, that the 
common law of England rests upon these propositions: 

1st. That a condition of intercourse and association is a natural and nec- 
essary condition of the human race. 

2d. A condition of intercourse and association is absolutely inconsistent 
with complete personal independence. 

3d. Rules and regulations which we call laws, controlling in all matters of 
personal intercourse and association, are necessary in associated living. 

4th. Government, as a disinterested instrumentality, is a necessity for the 
determination of all questions of disputed right between its citizens or sub- 
jects, and to this extent must be supreme, in order that public tranquillity may 
be preserved; and that for the accomplishment of this result, governments, 
as such, must be possessed of absolute powers of administration to be intelli- 
gently and effectively exercised for the general welfare- 

In this statement internal administration only is included, where the rights 
of government and the rights of citizens as individuals are alone involved. 

Under our complex system of government, the states, as such, are not 
directly charged with any responsibility for the outcome of national politics. 
Their only responsibility in that regard hinges upon the character of the men 
elected under their authority as representatives in the general council of the 
nation. In its subordinate position, the state is supreme. In that subordinate 
position, with reference to the United States, the State of Illinois has adopted 
the common law of England, in all its applicable provisions, as furnishing 
rules for decision in all matters of controverted right. 

In this country, and therefore in Illinois and all the other states created out 
of the territory "northwest of the River Ohio," the people are protected 
against the consequences of hasty and partisan legislation by the incorpora- 
tion into their several constitutions of some of the most important principles 
of the common law, which, in the language of Justice Miller, already quoted, 
places them "beyond the power of ordinary legislation to change or control," 
and by this fact the appropriate line of legislation must be in the direction of 
and not in opposition to the principles of domestic government which have 
received (again using Justice Miller's language) "the commendation of 
jurists, statesmen and commentators, and more than this, are the outgrowth 
of more than a thousand years of actual experience in the adjustment of con- 
flicting rights and interests." 

S?l;The common law concedes a governmental power. As adopted in this coun- 
try and in the State of Illinois, it does not concede a governmental despotism, 
for legislative authority is limited by constitutional provisions. But notwith- 
standing this, much is left to legislative discretion and to judicial interpreta- 
tion, the contention everywhere is what are the essential rights and powers 
of government, and what are the essential rights and liberties of the individ- 
ual citizen. I use the word "individual" intentionally, and because in the 
exercise of its appropriate functions the acts of government are personal in 
their application, and if the individual is protected in his rights and privileges 
the community is safe. 

On an occasion somewhat public in its character, and speaking from the 
bench, without the responsibilities of the judicial office as an obstruction to 
his private judgment, a learned, respected and somewhat independent judge, 
recently said, by way of excuse for a free expression of his views upon a 
pending question of legislative authority, that in his place as a judge he had 
few opportunities for an expression of his views upon such questions, and 
that he was disposed to take advantage of the opportunity then presented. I 
am disposed to shelter myself behind a similar apology, when I say that the 
Legislature of Illinois has not always followed along the lines of the common 
law, and its departures therefrom have been unfortunate to the citizens of 
the State. The tendency of any power is towards its own aggrandizement. 
The petty official, without sense enough to know better, attempts a lordly 



35 

bearing illy befitting his position. In the higher ranks of governmental life it 
seems to be assumed that unlimited powers of encouragement or obstruction 
are committed to a representative authority which may be exercised without 
much personal responsibility, in accordance with an assumed public senti- 
ment or a private estimate of personal popularity to be derived therefrom. 
The lines of good sense and good reasoning are abandoned by such an as- 
sumption, and the rights and interests of the citizen, as well as tlie public, 
are left in the background. Indeed, it oftentimes seems apparent that such 
rights and interests are the last matters to be understood or considered. 

A popular writer and student of history has said, that "In all ages, the 
■world's greatest want has been men." What will the futnip say of the ex- 
amples of manhood, who have for the past three-quarters of a century been 
making and are now making the legislative history of Illinois? It is said that 
Draco wrote his laws in small letters, and posted them in conspicuous places, 
but so high above the heads of the people that it was impossible to read them. 
Our legislators have a different way of accomplishing the same result, mainly, 
it is presumed, from lack of understanding, for they often so misuse or abuse 
the English language in the framing of our laws, that they are incapable of 
direct interpretation and the courts must give them a construction before the 
people feel themselves safe in acting upon them. 

Sixty-five years ago the legislators of Illinois conceived the idea that the 
State should construct, own and operate a comprehensive system of internal 
improvements in the form of railroads and canals, and in pursuance of the 
plan devised and undertaken, the State was within the next ten years reduced 
to absolute bankruptcy, its credit destroyed, and the industries of the people 
•were in a state of financial paralysis. Some miles of embankment and some 
partial excavations along proposed lines of canals were all the State had to 
show for some 15 millions of State indebtedness and ruined credit, and yet 
today, thoughtless men and venal politicians are clamoring for State owner- 
ship of what they call public utilities, or, what is probably worse, but in the 
same line, for municipal ownership and municipal operation of such utilities 
within municipal boundaries, wholly oblivious to the plain teachings of the 
past or of the impossibility, under existing conditions, of an honest, econom- 
ical or intelligent management of such utilities through the political agencies 
which would be put in control of them. 

Today numerous voluntary organizations, especially in the cities of the 
State, are actually enlisted in the herculean task of trying to purge the Augean 
stables of corrupt administrations. Such associations grow out of and are 
fostered by a deep-seated distrust of the ability and integrity of the repre- 
sentatives whom the people elect to guard and protect the rights and interests 
of the public and of the individual citizen. In their reports they give glow- 
ing accounts of the numbers of officials they have excluded from office, eithei 
by convicting them of official crimes and misdemeanors or by defeating them 
at public elections, or of the reformations they have brought about in the 
framework and substance of the law, all of which points in the direction of 
rottenness at the foundation of our domestic government and a condemnation 
of the methods and men combined to control the results of popular elections. 
Whether there will ever be an end of this demoralized condition of govern- 
mental administration, short of absolute revolution, is a matter which the 
future only can determine. In a recent address delivered before a college 
society at Middlebury, Vermont, I find this: "If the iron and steel business 
of North America can be conducted by one corporation under the leadership 
of a single man, * * * ■vphy can not the State be the one great corpora- 
tion, and do it all? If a few of the members of the State can successfully 
exploit all the industries of the State and furnish employment to most of its 
citizens, why should not the State itself exploit its own industries and furnish 
employment to all its citizens?" 

To the man who stands outside of all combinations both in business and in 
politics, and who has had and profited by a reasonable amount of experience 
and observation of the methods and measures adopted and prosecuted in pri- 
vate enterprises, and fairly compared them with the methods and measures 



36 

employed in the carrying out of enterprises undertaken by the public author- 
ities, the answer to the inquiries propounded by the college orator is readily 
suggested. 

The State can not successfully undertake the responsibilities referred to, 
because it does not have, and under the existing order of things it never will 
have, Morgans or Vanderbilts or Rockefellers, or the equivalent of them, to 
manage its business affairs. In addition to this we in Illinois have a consti- 
tution origiuaily conceived and adopted in distrust of the honesty and capacity 
of public authorities, and which by successive amendments has become a 
facsimile of the crazy quilts which our grandmothers delighted in. And 
there is not sense enough in the electors of the State, directed as they are 
and allow themselves to be, by the scheming politicians who tickle their fancy 
and deceive their simplicity of understanding, to break the spell which hangs 
over the rights and interests of the State. 

It may be supposed that there is a future answer to this in the demand for 
education of the masses of the people at the public expense, and there is a 
semblance of reason in this; but it is not true that mere intellectual educa- 
tion will remedy the difficulty. Such education simply develops and sharpens 
the individual tendencies, and moral training is excluded from our public 
schools. All the fighting pi'opensities of religious sectarianism are united to 
push out of public schools the basis of all moral instruction. The moral and 
intellectual elements of manhood must grow together, or a dwarfed and one 
sided growth is the inevitable result. It is the symmetrical man that is 
needed and is wanting, and this is the man referred to in the quotation already 
made, that "in all ages the world's greatest want has been nien." Mere ed- 
ucation, as such, is not a positive good to the state or the individual. The 
right education, which is supported at the public expense, is well defined by 
a distinguished educator, as that education which makes a good citizen. 
There is no easy or royal road to such an education. The modern faddist 
skips the necessity for the exercise of that faculty of the human species, viz. : 
a capacity for actual labor, through which only can real progress be made. 
It is work and not pleasure that opens up the capacities of the human under- 
standing, and a capacity for work is the test of individual possibilities. Too 
much importance is given to the glittering generality embraced in the 
colonial declaration of independence, that "all men are created equal.'' The 
very effort which has been made to explain and qualify it, is conclusive evi- 
dence of the fact that it was not true in any broad or general sense. Today 
it is converted into a political shibboleth and used by politicians as a flatter- 
ing stimulus to the vanity of a public assembly and to secure personal sym- 
pathy and support. 

I venture the assertion, although it may be classed as a heresy, that the 
effort to convert public schools into universities, or make of them university 
feedei's, is a perversion of the economic principles upon which public schools 
were originally founded, leading directly to extravagance and waste of public 
moneys, and tending towards a complete demoralization of the necessary 
forces of social order. The result apparently sought for is unattainable. 
The school laws of Illinois are doubtless greatly abused in the administra- 
tion; but they have been framed in such a way that the abuse is easy of 
accomplishment and a thorough revision of them is a matter of first impor- 
tance, in order that the abuses may be prevented and our public education 
turned in its appropriate direction, viz.: to the making of good citizens. 

But if the school laws of Illinois and their administration are open to criti- 
cism, much more and in an equally important sense, is its general revenue 
law and the manipulation of it. 

The taxing power, under our form of government, where no allotment of 
public domain and public rights is made for the appropriate support of gov- 
ernmental representatives is a necessary but exceedingly aggressive power. 
It is a power which may be most effectively abused under the officeholder's 
plea of the general welfare, whilst he distributes the results of his exactions 
in lazy indifference to the just requirements of the public service. The legis- 
lators of Illinois have exhibited no evidence of skill or knowledge in the 



37 

framing of the general revenue laws of the State; nor have the contributions 
thereto submitted and adopted throue'h the influence of Taxpayers' associa- 
tions simplified or corrected the complexity and confusion of those laws. 
The records of the courts show that the whole system, if there is any system, 
is vicious, and the complaints of the public would seem to indicate that the 
administration of it is justly chargeable with gross abuses. The machinery 
set in motion by it, is complicated and expensive. Revision and pruning in- 
telligently done might do it good, but a better remedy would be absolute re- 
construction. 

If the question of school and revenue laws and the administration of them 
were more pertinent to the present occasion than they now seem to be, time 
would not allow of a fuller explanation and there are other subjects to which 1 
wish briefly to refer. 

We live in an era full of adventure and enterprise, and overflowing with 
force and energy, which are controlling the theories, as well as the accomp- 
lishments of the past. The intelligent world is on the tiptoe of expectation 
and looking forward with an anxious gaze towards and with an apparent con- 
fidence in the developments of the future. It ought not to be overlooked 
that although nations and states and the public generally may and must share 
in the advantages of such development, assuming that they will be in the 
line of general progress, still it will be, as it has heretofore been, the force- 
ful, earnest and exceptional capacity of individual men through whom these 
expectations will be realized. Government and law may encourage, but 
they will not do the work. The great mass of the people must remain as 
silent observers and beneficiaries. It is the law of necessity which fixes these 
relations. The elevation of the masses of any people, left to themselves, 
must be of gradual accomplishment and as a result of a better understanding 
of their domestic, social and physical conditions, drawn from contact and as- 
sociation and the establishment of rules and regulations essential to the 
peaceful continuation of such personal contact and association; and it is in 
this way and for this purpose that the common law of England grew up and 
became a controlling power, essential parts of which have been grafted into 
our fundamental law. We can not afford to disregard this experience or the 
result of it. There is no advantage to be gained by repeating it. The man 
is a fool who insists upon goinsr through a fire a second time in order to be 
convinced of its decomposing tendencies. It is a wise man who will accept 
the experience of others and forego the first experiment in his own person. 
The common law embodies the best results of human experience, and if law, 
as it has sometimes been defined, is "the perfection of human reason," then 
the common law, as the result of more than 1,000 years of human experience 
under conditions of growth the most favorable which the world presented, 
should be accepted as the best attainable result of human reason, and legis- 
latures and courts should be cautious even to timidity in their encourage- 
ment of any tendency towards a change of its principles and its teachings. 

There are two elements of power classified as governmental powers, which 
are pushing their way into general recognition at the present time, and some- 
times effusively, mainly through the courts, but partially through legisla- 
tures. They bear the apparently innocent names of the police power and 
public policy. It may be admitted that they are both essential elements of 
good government, and so far as rightly and discriminatingly employed are 
available for the promotion of the well-being of society. 

The police power is distinctly a governmental power. It is called an in- 
herent power: that is, it belongs to government as such, without regard to 
the kind or quality of the government itself, and in this accepted view of it, 
it is in its exercise a constant factor, antagonizing individual rights and 
liberties, and the only limitation upon its exercise is that it shall not deprive 
the individual of the rights and liberties secured to him by constitutional 
provisions. It is not difficult to see how the marginal line may be moved 
backward or forward according to the prejudice or caprice of the govern- 
mental administrator of the power, and thus constitutional lines and the lines 
of the police power are in a condition of constant antagonism and individual 
rights hang upon the result of the contention in each particular case, and in 



88 

every case the location of that line is the exercise of a grovernmental func- 
tion. The Supreme Court of Illinois has said that "The exercise of this 
power may be referred to the maxim, "salus populi suprema est lex.'' How 
broadly this maxim covers the rights and liberties of individuals is absolutely 
an unsettled question. How it may be indefinitely expanded to the prejudice 
of individual rights by careless administration is apparent. There are numer- 
ous definitions of the police power contained in the books, purporting to be 
exponents of the law, and it is sometimes said that another maxim of the 
law 'sic utere tuo ut alienum non laedas,^ is its proper foundation and 
so the origin and the scope of the power is bandied about, without settled 
definition or application. It is today and in Illinois a floating menacing 
power, as is every power of government which has no defined limitations, 
and it is especially menacing in a governmental sense because of its appro- 
priate application to the rights and liberties of the individual citizen. Do not 
misunderstand me. The police power is a necessary governmental power. 
It is in the application of it that the danger lies, and the danger in this re- 
spect is due to the fact that the limitations of it have not yet been authorita- 
tively defined and some of the highest courts of our country have expressly 
declined to give to it any definite boundaries. The mere fact that it is an 
inherent governmental power, and aggressive in all its tendencies and is 
without defined limitations, is sufficient to mark it as a power capable of great 
and lasting injustice to the individual rights and liberties of the citizen. How 
and when and where the inquisitorial commands of such a power may be put 
in operation cannot be foreseen. In this respect the guardianship of indi- 
vidual rights is with the courts and upon them rests the ultimate responsi- 
bility. 

The words "Public Policy," so common in use today, are also words with- 
out definite meaning or application. They signify a doctrine or a theory, 
rather than an active power; but however they may be interpreted or the 
thing they represent be classified, they are frequently, interpreted in judicial 
decisions as a bar to individual rights and interests and in cases where the 
public is not concerned in any legitimate way. The trouble with the doctrine, 
or at least one of its troubles, and this is a sufficient cause for a limited use 
of it as an active governmental force, is, that it is a convenient shield behind 
which to cover up a prejudice or an imperfection of understanding. It was 
once said of it that the measure of the influence of the doctrine depended 
upon the length of the chancellor's foot, but a better definition is found in a 
reported case in which, although somewhat grotesquely presented, there is 
still shown the actual features of the doctrine of public policy, and its capaci- 
ties for manipulation. 

The immediate subject under consideration was contracts in restraint of 
trade and the court said: "All the authorities, from first to last, concur in 
one thing, viz.: that the doctrine on this subject is founded on 'Public 
Policy' and I cannot but regard the jarring opinions as exemplifying the 
doctrine of Mr, Justice Burrough in Richardson vs. Mellish, 2 Bing., 229. * 

* * 'That public policy is a very unruly horse and when once you get 
astride of it you never know where it will carry you.' Public policy does not 
admit of definition and is not easily explained." 

The subject touches rights and liberties which are private and personal in 
their nfiture and therefore constitutionally fundamental in our governmental 
organizations, as well as the rights and powers of government itself. If there 
is any tangible foundation for the doctrine of public policy in this country, it 
must be found in legislation, which is the only constitutional method of ex- 
pressing the public sentiment. It is the duty of courts to expound and apply 
the law as it is, and not to speculate upon an inventory of what the law ought 
to be, or what it would be if the judge could make it. They have no au- 
thority or right to originate or manufacture a theory of public policy. Each 
of the three departments of government must be confined in its action to the 
subjects within its jurisdiction. The function of creating rules and regula- 
tions, or of making laws is not a judicial function, certainly not under our 
constitution, and to ride a wild horse, as the doctrine of public policy is, too 
freely, is not an exploit creditable to the judicial office. 



39 

There are many suggrestions I would like to make, and many illustrations 
within ray own observation which I could give, in connection with this state- 
ment, if time would permit. But there is one burniner, irritating and disturb- 
ing subject partizanly and viciously affecting both public and individual 
interests today, which no man, absolutely disinterested in the direct results, can 
overlook. The subject referred to is practically covered by two loose and 
unmeasured propositions which have acquired the reputation of "Ancient 
Sayings" and are without much deliniteness of origin or meaning. 
"The Law abhors Monopolies" and "Competition is the Life of Trade " 
These two sayings ai*e running a riotous course today through the legitimate 
industries of the nation, the legislation by representatives of the people and 
the decisions of the courts. They furnish a keynote for a-piring politicians, 
and a theme for the reckless but obtrusive scribbler for the public press, who 
gathers his inspiration from such fountains of information as best suit his 
convenience or his Bohemian tastes, and whose principal purpose it is to 
create a sensation. Is it too late to expect from all or any of these diversified 
soui'ces of what is called public education, a sensible amount of reactionary 
influence? It is by no means generally true that the law abhors monopolies 
or that they antagonize the public interest, nor is it universally true that 
competition is the life of trade. And another self-evident fact, but seldom 
considered, is. that the tendency of active competition is towards monopoly, 
since the ultitaate consequence of it is to compel the withdrawal of the weaker 
party from the contested field, leaving the stronger alone in possession and a 
monopolist in fact. In many things the laws favor monopolies by creating 
them, and combinations of interests are encouraged by the adoption of laws 
authorizing their formation, all of which are assumed to be, and many of 
them in fact are, for the public good as well as conducive to private advan- 
tage; and recently a venerable judge, with more courage than some of his 
associates, has stated from the bench that the laws of Illinois indicate a pub- 
lic policy favorable to combinations of capital, although their tendency may 
be in the direction of Monopoly. It would be bad policy to condemn or 
refuse a right for the reason that it is capable of being abused. But little of 
life or liberty or property would be left to the citizen if governments should 
act upon such a theory of suppression. 

Guizot, one of the most distinguished French historians and writers, in his 
history of representative government, gives this summary of the various 
steps involved in its establishments: 

"Liberties are nothing until they have become rights, positive rights, for- 
mally recognized and consecrated; rights, even when recognized are nothing, 
so long as they are not entrenched within guarantees, and lastly guarantees 
are nothing so long as they are not maintained by forces, independent of 
them, in the limit of their rights Convert liberties into rights, surround 
rights by guarantees, entrust the keeping of those guarantees to forces cap- 
able of maintaining them — such are the successive steps in the progress 
towards a free government." 

"This progress was actually realized in England. Liberties first converted 
themselves into rights; when rights were nearly I'ecognized, guarantees were 
sought for thera; and lastly these guarantees were placed in the hands of 
regular powers. In this way a representative system of government was 
formed." 

The people of the United States were not called upon in the establishment 
of their governments to pass through the successive stages of evolution so 
tersely and graphically described by Guizot. They built upon the experience 
and the knowledge resulting from experience, of their Anglo-Saxon ancestors. 
The superstructure they have raised is a magnificent one and its strength and 
durability may not be questioned so long as it rests upon the foundation 
originally adopted. There is danger in any attempt to undermine or change 
that foundation as well as in building overhanging additions on any side of 
it. The foundation is broad enough and strong enough to support a structure 
of indefinite extent so long as it conforms to original lines and is enlarged 
symmetrically. There are two elements at least which must be maintained 
in approximate equilibrium in order that the governmental structure may be 



40 

preserved, viz. : The essential rights and powers of government and the 
essential rights and liberties of the people. These two elements in a nation 
or state are and necessarily will be more or less antagonistic. Absolute 
affiliation between them may be impossible. If government fails liberty is 
converted into license; if liberties fail government becomes a despotism. 
Our governments are representative governments which in their nature are 
as far removed from democracies as they are from depotisms. Elections 
determine who shall be rulers and shall exercise the essential powers of gov- 
ernment. Men filling such places should exercise those powers discreetly, 
honestly, intelligently and independently, and the people should expect and 
demand this: An official place is no place for partizanship or the intrigues 
of politics. The great and positive want is today, as it always has been, 
men. The common politician in Illinois disgraces himself by calling himself 
a servant and the people respect him accordingly. The people should under- 
stand that they elect rulers and it is possible that if they could be made to 
appreciate this, selections, in some cases at least, might be made upon a 
higher and better basis. 



The Organization and History of Illinois College. 

TA Tribute to the Memory of Rev. John M. Ellis. By Edward P. Kirby.] 

When I weakly accepted the flattering invitation of your secretary to read 
a paper before this society at its present meeting, upon any subject relating 
to the early history of Illinois that I might select, I had in mind to prepare a 
paper on the early legislation of the State of Illinois, to ascertain, as far as 
might be, the names of those who had been especially instrumental in pro- 
posing and securing the adoption of the early statutes of the State, their per- 
sonal history, character, acquirements, etc. 

I doubted, however, whether I should be able to secure the data necessary 
for such a paper within the limited time before this meeting, and when your 
secretary called upon me for the title of my paper, that he might insert it in 
his printed program of exercises, the doubt had become a certainty; I knew 
that I should be unable to carry my purpose into effect, yet I had not thought 
of another suitable subject, and 1 could only say to him, I will certainly try 
to prepare something — put me down somewhere on your program for a paper, 
without indicating its subject. 

1 must say, however, that I was greatly surprised, upon receiving a copy of 
your program, to find that 1 was first on the list, and expected to provide for 
your entertainment anything that could be entitled to the title of an address. 
But I was also greatly pleased that I had not carried out my original inten- 
tion, when I saw that all I had hoped to learn and report to you would be 
iDetter said by your president in his annual address this evening and by Judge 
Cunningham to-morrow. 

Your printed program also gave me a hint for a new subject. McKendree 
college and Illinois college are always associated in my mind, because both 
were incorporated under the same act of the General Assembly of the State 
of Illinois, and as the program showed that the subject of your next speaker 
is McKendree college, I was reminded by his theme that I had, stored away 
somewhere, a copy of a long and interesting manuscript written by the Kev. 
Thomas Lippincott many years ago, detailing many events that properly per- 
tain to the early history of Illinois college, or rather a very interesting narra- 
tion of movements which led up to the organization of Illinois college, and an 
account of the men connected therewith, which, so far as I know, have never 
been published or generally made public, and I thought I might condense his 
account sufficiently to bring it within your 30-minute rule, and yet make you 
acquainted with its principal features. 

The account begins with the autumn, in the year 1825. At that time Illi- 
nois was nearly eight years old as a State, having been admitted to statehood 
Dec. 3, 1818. The enabling act of Congress required that the State should 



41 

have a population of 40,000, and when it began to be doubtful whether the 
requisite number would be found on the census rolls, the deputy marshals 
were stationed along the principal roads, and everybody that passed through 
each county was counted, whether citizen, immigrant, traveler, expl'^rer or 
mover on his way through the State to Missouri. The returns were made to 
foot up the requisite number of 40,000, but, as subsequently corrected, the 
population numbered only 34,620. 

I have heard of the colored gentleman who explained his success in pro- 
curing chickens, by saying that he "cotched 'em both a-comin' and a-gwine." 
The census enumerators of 1818 learned to improve upon his very successful 
method. 

At the taking of the next census, 12 years later, in 1830, the population of 
the State had increased to 157,445, so that I think that we may safely as- 
sume that in 1825 the entire population of the State did not exceed 100,000. 
Prior to the year 1825, but one county had been established north of the pres- 
ent line of the Wabash railroad, the county of Fulton, Feb. 14, 1821 and 
along the line of said railroad but three counties had been established, San- 
gamon, Pike ;;nd Morgan: the first two in 1821, the last in 1823. During the 
said year of 1825, nine other counties lying along, and north of said line, 
were established by acts of the Legislature, viz.: Adams, Hancock, Henry, 
Knox, Mercer, Peoria, Putnam, Schuyler and Warren. No separate enumer- 
ation of the population of any of the above named counties seems to have 
been made until 1830, when the total population of said 12 counties was only 
38,877, Mercer county having the smallest number, 26, and Sangamon county 
the largest, 12,960. In 1825, five years earlier, the population must have 
been very small. These same 12 counties now have a population of 475,719. 
The State capital was located at Vandalia, a small village of a few hundred 
people. Jacksonville had just been laid out and made the county seat of 
Morgan county, which then comprised all the territory included in the pres- 
ent three counties of Morgan, Cass and Scott, and yet had only a few thou- 
sand inhabitants. These well-known data and figures are given as a concise 
method of showing the new unorganized, undeveloped pioneer condition of 
the country wlien the movements for educational improvement, hereinafter 
mentioned, were begun. 

Rev. John M. Ellis, a graduate of Andover Theological Seminary, was 
commissioned by the American Home Missionary society to labor among the 
feeble Presbyterian churches of the west- He began his work in Illinois in 
the fall of 1825. He found but three Presbyterian ministers in the State, 
viz.: Rev. John Brich, in Jacksonville, a member of the Presbytery of 
Missouri; Rev. Stephen Bliss, in Wabash county, a member of the Presby- 
tery in Indiana, and Rev. John Spellman, of Gallatin county, a member of 
the Presbytery of Kentucky. After having made a tour of most of the coun- 
ties, in what we now call "Southern Illinois," he became a resident of Kas- 
kaskia, the former territorial capital, and until 1821, the State capital, and 
then the principal city of the State. 

Among the feeble churches to which Mr. Ellis was called to minister, was 
one which had been organized at Shoal Creek, in Bond county, March 19, 
1819, by Rev. Salmon Giddings, pastor of a Presbyterian church in St. Louis. 
This, I believe, was the first Presbyterian church foi'med in Illinois. 

In the midst of all his earnest labors as a minister. Mr. Ellis seems to have 
been not less active and zealous in his efforts to awaken an interest in the 
cause of education, and to enlist active support in some plan for the erection 
of a seminary of learning. His zeal for education seems to have been stim- 
ulated by the fact that at one of the meetings at Shoal Creek, several young 
men, who were anxious to obtain an education, having the ministry in view, 
could find no institution within reach, and sought his advice and assistance 
in the matter: 

In the "Kaskaskia Reporter" of Jan. 3, 1827, there had been published the 
following: 



42 

PLAN OF A SEMINARY OP LEARNING IN ILLINOIS. 

Article 1 — The establishment shall be such as to admit the payment of board 
in produce. 

Article 2 — Connected with the institution shall be a plantation and kitchen 
garden in order to unite utility with exercise, for the preservation of health. 

Article 3 — In this plantation shall be cultivated, besides the common articles 
of consumption, cotton, tobacco, hemp, fruit trees, and as soon as possible, 
silk and the vine. 

Article 4 — In addition to this each scholar shall be entitled to a suitable 
patch of ground to be entirely under his own management and its avails to 
be at his own disposal. 

Article 5 — A savings bank shall be put in operation as soon as required so 
as to give the best encouragement to the spirit of industry. 

AN OUTLINE OF THE COURSE OP STUDIES. 

Article 1 — All of those English studies which are requisite to furnish quali- 
fications for all the duties and business of common life, whether as common 
citizens or magistrates (such as reading, writing, geography, grammar and 
common arithmetic). 

Article 2 — Natural philosophy, natural history, chemistry, higher branches 
of mathematics, geometry, rhetoric, composition, history, moral and intel- 
lectual philosophy, political economy. 

Article 3 — Attend leetures on some or all of these branches, and also on the 
application of the sciences to the arts, the object being to make the education 
not only theoretical but practical. 

Article 4 — Classical studies, rising from year to year, as the wants of the 
country require, to be advanced as rapidly as possible to an university. 

Article 5 — A department for the instruction of female students, with suit- 
able regulations, may also be provided for." 

This plan of a seminary was followed by an argument in its support, set- 
ting forth its supposed special advantages. The article in question seems to 
have been communicated to the newspaper by Joseph Duncan, then a resident 
of Kaskaskia, a personal friend of Ellis and an ardent friend of education, 
who, as Stale seuator, had in 1824, introduced and championed the first free 
school law of Illinois, and later, as fifth Governor of the State, earnestly rec- 
ommended in his inaugural message, a general system of free schools; yet it 
is thought that Duncan's interest in the cause was largely inspired by Ellis. 

The people of "Shoal Creek meeting house," as the neighborhood was 
called, took the outline of "a plan for a seminary of learning," furnished by 
Mr. Ellis, which seems to have been substantially the outline published in the 
Kaskaskia Reporter, as above stated, had it printed and circulated for sub- 
scriptions and an encouraging amount was secured — a board of trustees was 
formed and the enterprise named the "Fairfield Literary and Theological 
Seminary." The fall meeting (1827) of the presbytery of Missouri, which 
had under its care all the churches of that denomination in Illinois, except 
one or two in the Wabash country, was held at Edwardsville, Illinois and 
Mr. Ellis laid before it the plan of the proposed seminary. The presbytery 
appointed a committee of four to confer with the trustees of the Fairfield Lit- 
erary and Theological Seminary with the view of making an arrangement 
advantageous both to learning and religion. Rev. John M. Ellis, Rev. Salmon 
Giddings, Rev. Hiram Chamberlin, and Elder Thomas Lippincott were the 
members of the committee, and they were instructed to report at the next 
spring session of the presbytery. 

Hon. Samuel D. Lockwood and Dr. John Todd, having intimated to Mr. 
Ellis that perhaps such an institution as proposed might receive stronger sup- 
port if located elsewhere than at Shoal Creek, Mr. Ellis determined to ex- 
plore the counties of Greene, Morgan and Sangamon, and ascertain, by per- 



43 

sonal investigation, what support for the institution could be gained in those 
counties. He remodeled his plans in such manner as to call forth an expres- 
sion of the wishes of the supporters of the movement as to location. Elder 
Thomas Lippincott, afterward Rev. Thomas Lippincott, accompanied Mr. 
Ellis on this tour, which was b"gun in January, 1828, and their expenses were 
borne by John Tilsou, Jr., of Hillsboro, afterward of Quincy, 111. The com- 
mittee, Ellis and Lippincott, visited the counties of Greene, Morgan and San- 
gamon in turn. In Carrollton, Greene county, A. W. Cavarly, Esq. and Dr. 
Potts manifested much interest. In the neighborhood of Whitehall, Charles 
Gregory, Zachariah Allen, John Allen and Judge Marks encouraged tbem 
with good wishes. From Greene county the committee proceeded northward 
toward Jacksonville, and I cannot resist the temptation to transcribe here, 
literally, Mr. Lippincott's description of their approach to and reception at 
Jacksonville: 

"At the close of a cloudy Saturday we found ourselves still on the south 
side of Sandy creek, as before observed, and some four or five miles short of 
our destination; but were compelled to stop for the night, aud were hospit- 
ably entertained by Mr. Thomas B. Arnett. On Sabbath morning, Mr. Ellis 
having previously forwarded an appointment to preach at some convenient 
place, we started early, that there might be no failure. It was a bright — a 
splendid morning. The winter rain had covered every twig and blade of 
prairie grass with ice, and as the rising sun threw his clear rays athwart the 
plain, myriads of gems sparkled with living light, and Diamond grove might 
almost have been fancied a vast crystal chandelier. The house of Judge John 
Leeper, a mile south of the village, which was our point of destination, was 
also deemed the most commodious place for public worship for the people of 
Jacksonville. We were heartily welcomed, and at the appointed hour a con- 
gregation assembled and listened attentively to the gospel message. A few pious 
personsof several denominations were gathered in the village and settlement at 
that period, and an aged minister resided in the neighborhood, from which he 
made excursions to preach, besides having temporary charge of the little 
Presbyterian church at Jacksonville, which had been formed the year before 
of about 12 members. The next day or two after our arrival we devoted to 
the work of visiting the place and its few inhabitants, and holding a public 
meeting for the purpose of presenting the subject. Most of the men promi- 
nent in Jacksonville, if not all, entered warmly into the spirit of the enter- 
prise. The writer remembers the unfading interest of John Leeper, Esq., 
and Dr. Hector G. Taylor, who are deceased, and Dennis Rockwell, Esq., and 
Dr. Ero Chandler, William C. Posey and others, who still live to see the re- 
sult of their early efforts. Their warm reception and readiness to act pro- 
duced an impression on our feelings which induced us to linger; and the 
surpassing beauty of more than one fine site to which Mr. Rockwell and other 
gentlemen conveyed us, seemed to intimate that here, so far as location was 
concerned, our journey might terminate. 

"Besides the spot which now obtains the name of "College Hill", we were 
greatly delighted with the bold eminence that two or three miles west of 
Jacksonville, terminates the ridge on the eastern end of which that village 
stands; and while we stood on that swell of prairie beneath the few scattered 
trees which crowned it, and stretched our eyes over the waving plain, on 
every side receding and seeming to rise again in the distant perspective, to 
its wood fringed border, and saw the woodlands of Mauvaisterreou one hand 
and the Sandy on the other, here and there a cabin and a farm; in the east- 
ern view Diamond Grove, swelling gracefully up aud in the west the prairie 
stretching on. until it seemed narrowed into a mere vista in the distant 
horizon; 1 confess that my thought was, that there, on so beautiful and mag- 
nificent a spot, where the student would be almost compelled to hold commu- 
nion with the grand Author, and 'look through nature up to nature's God,' 
ought to be laid the foundation of an institution designed to train the youth 
of our country for great and noble enterprises. But there were other things 
besides magnificence of prospect to be considered, and it has perhaps never 
been doubted that the spot ultimately chosen, not less beautiful, was on 
every account decidedly and greatly preferable for its site. The view, if not 
so extensive, was still more varied, and combined as many and as rich beau- 



44 

ties of nature, while the thriving village lay below, at the distance of a mile, 
on the same gentle slope, and a charming grove crowned the summit imme- 
diately in the rear of the spot on which the buildings have since been erected. 

*'I wish I could remember how many habitations occupied the ridge at that 
time. We were entertained at my friend Rockwell's, whose was the largest, 
most commodious, and most finished house 'in the place, built of unhewn 
logs, externally rough and black as the soil itself; but internally neat and 
comfortable, being distinguished as containing several distinct apartments; 
the writer deems it to be an interesting incident of his life that, on the same 
spot, in the autumn of 1849, 21 years afterwards, he assisted, by invitation, 
in the exercises of laying the corner stone of a noble educational building, 
'The Illinois Conference Female College.' All was new on the broad swell- 
ing prairie in which we were; 'the deer had not yet ceased to feed, bound, 
or recline in security, and the yells of the prairie wolf often broke upon the 
ears of the inhabitants of the seat of justice, in Morgan county.' The people 
had not had time to construct their brick or frame houses, and yet thfcy 
seemed ready to undertake the erection and support of a seminary of learn- 
ing; feeling confident that the public spirit of the community of that and 
adjacent counties would sustain them, and especially that with the rapidly 
increasing population, an increase of means would fiow in." 

The committee then proceeded to Springfield, by way of Jersey prairie, 
then in Morgan county, but now in Cass county, a detour made for the pur- 
pose of calling upon Major Conover and Archibald Job, two gentlemen quite 
prominent in Morgan county affairs. 

At Springfield the committee were able to enlist the interest of several 
gentlemen, among whom are Dr. John Todd, Elijah lies, Pascal P. Enos, 
and Dr. Gershom Jayne. 

After canvassing Springfield, and Sangamon county, Mr, Ellis returned to 
Jacksonville, and finding the zeal of its citizens had increased, he decided to 
locate the institution at Jacksonville and to purchase the site now occupied 
by Illinois college. 

That the citizens of Jacksonville were indeed interested, may be learned 
from their "Outline for a Plan for the Institution of a Seminary in the State 
of Illinois," which is the first entry in the records of Illinois college, and is 
almost identical with the plan submitted by Mr Ellis, except that the institu- 
tion is definitely located "within five miles of Jacksonville." 

The plan so adopted is as follows: 

"The property of the institution procured by subscription, or otherwise, 
shall be divided into shares, of $10 each. Every subscriber, or contributor, 
to the amount of $10, shall be a stockholder; and the shares shall be trans- 
ferable under such regulations as shall be adopted by the trustees oi stock- 
holders. Each share in the stock shall entitle its possessor to vote for trustees. 
Voting by proxy shall be permitted under suitable regulations. 

"The institution shall be located within five miles of Jacksonville, Morgan 
county. The trustees shall have the selection of the professors or instructors, 
and the direction of the seminary, except in the case hereinafter specified; 
but in all cases they shall be sacredly pledged to appropriate the donations 
which they may choose to accept, agreeably to the expressed wish of the 
donors. 

"The foregoing outline may be filled up, the plan brought more into detail; 
but the principles may not be varied. 

"In this institution, young men shall receive an education preparatory to 
the various duties and business of active life. 

"Whenever the intended pursuit of the scholar is known, special regard 
will be had to that object. 

"The English language shall receive particular attention; reading, writing, 
composition and public speaking, with geography and history, particularly 
that of our own country. 



45 

"Science of government shall be taught, so far at least, as to exhibit its 
outlines, and to make the student familiar with the principles and blessings 
of free institutions, and of the American Constitution in particular. 

"The Latin aud Greek languages will be taught, and the higher branches 
of education, as means and opportunity may admit, and the trustees direct. 
The institution shall be formed after such juodel as to prepare students to be 
received into any of the colleges in the United States. This will, itself, be 
the best pledge that can be given at home and abroad, that the institution is 
conducted on the most liberal and improved system, and as the institution 
rises from year to year, the students shall be fitted for admission to advanced 
standing in any of those colleges, i. e. into the second, third or fourth class, 
or should they choose to remain the requisite time, they shall be conducted 
through the whole course of college studies, 

"Everything will be done to make the institution worthy the patronage of 
an enlightened and free people, and to secure the accomplishment of their 
best wishes, for the education of our youth — the hope and glory of the land. 

"Opportunitj' shall be offered to young men of piety and talents, who are 
seeking an education for the Gospel ministry. But while the benefits of the 
institution shall be open to all denominations, no preference shall be shown 
to students of one to the injury or prejudice of those of another. Should 
this department go into operation, it may be continued in connection with 
the institution, or detached from it, as circumstances may seem to demand. 
Its interests shall be directed, and its professors or instructors appointed by 
the Presbyterian clergy within the State, who are in connection with the 
General Assembly of the United States. 

"Agriculture and perhaps some branches of mechanics will form a part of 
the system of education, whereby the health of the students will be promoted 
and their expenses diminished. 

"Measures will be taken to facilitate the payment of boarding, in produce, 
so far as practicable. This outline of a plan was followed by a subscription 
list in the following form: 

"We, the undersigned, do severally promise to pay S. D. Lockwood, John 
Leeper, H. G. Taylor. Ero Chandler. Dennis Rockwell, Wm. G. Posey, Enoch 
C. March, Archibald Job, Nathan Comptou, Morgan county; John Allen, 
Greene county; James McClung, Bond county; John Tilson, Montgomery 
county; John Todd, Sangamon county; William (Collins, Madison county, 
the trustees of said seminary, or their agents, the sum set opposite our 
names respectively, in aid of the institution above described, payment to be 
made by installments at a month's notice, after the 1st day of September, 
next, as shall be directed by the trustees. The articles solicited in subscrip- 
tions, are, besides cash, materials for building, land, stock, wheat, etc., 
books, bedding, furniture, and whatever else may be rendered available to 
the objects of the institution. 

"April. 1828." 

Notwithstanding the earnest support given to the enterprise by the people 
of Jacksonville, aud the generous subscriptions made by them and other 
friends, the funds secured were wholly inadequate, and it was felt by Mr. 
Ellis and the friends of the institution generally, that the approval and active 
support of the Presbytery must be obtained, 

A full report of the action of the committee was prepared and submitted to 
Presbytery at its spring meeting in 1828, at St. Louis, and the Presbytery 
was asked to appoint commissioners to receive subscriptions and draft a con- 
stitution, and to accept the direction of the theological department of the 
seminary. The report was rejected. The Presbytery refused to approve or 
sanction the plan. The principal objection to it seemed to be that the Pres- 
bytery of Missouri was asked to aid in the establishment of an institution in 
Illinois. 

Although much disappointed at the action of presbytery, Mr. Ellis did not 
lose hope, or for a moment cease his efforts to raise money to carry on the 
■work. The trustees heartily supported him by their own personal efforts. 



46 

and showed the courage of the hopeful pioneer, for they proceeded to call for 
the payment of subscriptions, and at their meetine: in January, 1829, resolved 
to proceed with the erection of a brick building, 33 feet by 36 feet, and two 
stories high, for the use of the seminary. (This building still stands on the 
campus of Illinois college, a short distance west of the building where this 
meeting is being held.) 

An unexpected promise of assistance soon came to these brave men. At 
the first meeting of the trustees, Mr. Ellis had been requested to address a 
letter to the friends of science and religion, to be used by John Tilson in so- 
liciting aid for the seminary in the eastern states, which he was then about 
to visit on business. Mr. Ellis had also, of his own motion, published in the 
"Home Missionary," the organ of the American Home Missionary society, a 
sketch ot the plan'proposed for the school, to be established at Jacksonville, 
and invited the help of eastern friends. A copy of the sketch so published 
came to the notice of seven young men, then students in the theological de- 
partment of Yale college, who had entered into a mutual agreement for 
united effort, for the cause of education, as teachers and preachers in some 
state in the far west, Illinois being then most favored by them. As a result, 
correspondence began in March, 1829, between the Illinois association, as the 
students at Yale called themselves — "the Yale Band," as they were called in 
Illinois, and Mr. Ellis as representing the trustees of the seminary, looking 
to a union of the elements and forces represented by the correspondents. Mr. 
Ellis went to New Haven, and on the 19th of June, 1829, and attended a meet- 
ing of the Illinois association, as a result of the correspondence between the 
Illinois association, at Yale, and the trustees of the seminary at Jacksonville, 
and the conference with Mr. Ellis, a plan of union between them was agreed 
upon. It was in substance that the trustees of the institution, should be 15 
in number; that only ten should be chosen at present; that three of them 
should be chosen by the stockholders at Jacksonville, and the seven members 
of the Illinois assjciation, at Yale should be the other trustees. The Illinois 
association should raise the sum of $10,000; $2,000 to be paid in at once, the 
remainder within two years. 

On the 18th of November, 1829, Messrs. Baldwin and Sturtevant, represent- 
ing the Illinois association, at Yale, and briuging with them the much needed 
$2,000, met with the trustees of the seminary, and after due notice, the pro- 
posed union was finally consummated Dec. 18, 1829. Samuel D. Lockwood 
was then chosen as president of the board of trustees, and "Illinois College" 
adopted as the name of the institution, and from that time forward, the in- 
fluence of the "Yale Band" became predominant in the affairs and manage- 
ment of Illinois college. 

On the 30th of January, following, Illinois college, began its work as an 
educational institution, with nine students, five from Morgan county, two 
from a neighboring county about 35 miles distant, and two from Bond county, 
about 70 miles distant, in the building first planned by the trustees of the 
seminary, but still unplastered, unfurnished, and even without a stove for 
necessary warmth. 

At the next session of the Legislature of the State, which convened at 
Vandalia, Dec. 1, 1830, application was made for an act incorporating the 
college, but the bill was defeated. One of the principal arguments urged 
against the incorporation was that those seeking a charter had evidently a 
plan to unite church and state and thus destroy the liberties of the people. 

Another was that the would be incorporators had control of an unlimited 
amount of money, and would buy up the land of the State, lease it out to 
tenants, and thus control their vote and get the government of the State into 
their own hands. The attempt to secure a charter was defeated at every 
subsequent session of the legislature until Feb. 9, 1835, when the "community 
of interest" of four different educational institutions in different parts of the 
State, secured the passage of an act of incorporation to "the trustees of the Alton 
college of Illinois," "the trustees of Illinois college," "the trustees of Mc- 
Kendreean college," and "the trustees of the Jonesborough college." The 
cautious legislators, however, carefully protected the people from a union of 
church and state, by providing in the act that "nothing herein contained, 



47 

shall authorize the establishment of a theological department in either of said 
colleges,'' and also forstalled the land greed of the incorporators by inserting 
a provision that "the lands, tenements and hereditaments to be held in 
perpetuity, in virtue of this act, by either of said corporation;, shall not ex- 
ceed 640 acres." 

It would give me great pleasure to speak of Illinois college, its president, 
professors and graduates, their character and various spheres of influence, 
and the high hopes of increased and ever increasing influence for good under 
its new and energetic president, supported by new and younger members in 
the board of trust. But so to do would not be possible within the short 
period allotted for this paper, nor within the scope of the purposes of this 
society. 

I understand that the first object of the Historical Society of Illinois, is to 
ascertain the names and perpetuate the memory, and record the acts of 
those men who directed or greatly influenced the course of events, in the 
formative period in the history of Illinois. For this reason, I have sought, 
Mr. President, in a manner as brief as possible, consistent with clearness of 
statement, to show to this society, how a man, without wealth, or position, or 
great talents, his only resources a high purpose, an unselfish spirit, tireless 
courage and perhaps something of that mysterious power which is sometimes 
called personal magnetism, was able to set in motion influences for good, 
which I trust will continue to grow and expand with the wonderful growth 
and expansion of our great State. 



REV. PETER CARTWRIGHT, D. D. 

[By President M. H. Chamberlin. of McKendree collegre.l 

Peter Cartwright was born in Amherst county, Va., Sept, 1, 1785; died at 
his home in Pleasant Plains, Sangamon county, Sept. 25, 1872, aged 87 years 
and 24 days. 

His father was, for two years, a soldier in the Revolution, and his mother — 
orphaned when a child — was a devoutly pious woman. 

In 1791 the Cartwrights, with 200 other families, turned their faces toward 
the setting sun in search of new homes in the then western wildernesses of 
Kentucky. They were accompanied by 100 well mounted and armed young 
men, who acted as an escort and defense against the hostile Indians that in- 
fested the country, and, as compensation for their services, they were pro- 
visioned on the pilgrimage. 

The migration at that time was large, and, as there were no wagon roads, 
the pack animal was the only method of transportation. The trail over 
which they passed was literally red with the blood of the slain victims of the 
aborigines. In one place the company struck their camp fires in the presence 
of the dead, only recently murdered, while in another they halted to bury six 
men, emigrants returning to Virginia, and, again, seven families, from 
among their own number, who voted to camp where nightfall found them— 
rather than continue their journey an added seven miles to the first white 
settlement, where Fort Crab Orchard was located— were all, with the excep- 
tion of a single individual, cruelly slaughtered and plundered of their 
belongings. 



48 

Kentucky, at that time, was claimed by no one tribe of Indians, but was 
held by them all as a common hunting ground, abounding in every variety of 
game, for which reason its invasion by the white man was contested in a 
warfare of the utmost malignancy. In the struggle for the occupancy of Ken- 
tucky the number of the slain reached such proportions that it was known to 
both contesting parties as the "Land of Blood," and it is not improbable 
that that State is the reddest battlefield of our earlier western pioneer history. 

The Cartwrights settled on a little farm, in Lincoln county, where they re- 
mained for two years when they removed to the county of Logan, about nine 
miles south of the present city of Russellville. This locality was known as 
"Rogues' Harbor" for the reason that men of desperate character, fugitives 
from justice, from all parts of the Union, had taken refuge there— gamblers, 
horse thieves, I'obbers and murderers — until they actually outnumbered the 
population favoring good order. It was almost impracticable, on trial, to 
convict these offenders since their associates would swear them clear of their 
offenses, and, when inculpating verdicts were secured, the courts were pow- 
erless to execute their judgments. Indeed anarchy prevailed, and the 
Cartwrights, having escaped the perils incident to the raids of the murderous 
Indian, seemed to have fallen into a society where life and property were as 
insecure as when they were surrounded by the hostile aborigines, which, at 
that time, were happily driven from Kentucky territory. The reign of terror 
which prevailed led to an armed organization of the friends of good order, 
which was promptly met by a like organization of the malevolent forces, the 
first battle resulting in victory for the latter, with slain victims on both sides 
of the contest. Indeed many people were killed before the good order party 
secured control of the county. 

Under the best of circumstances, in that country, the Cartwrights would 
have had but little encouragement. If the horrors of an almost continuous war 
attended with blood and carnage, had been eliminated, you would still have 
found this family 40 miles distant from a grist mill, without a nearby school, 
and no newspaper in all Kentucky, south of Green river. The father and 
son grew the flax and cotton, which was stripped from the reed of the one, 
and picked and ginned from the bowl of the other, by the fingers of mother 
and sister. The same hands turned these products into thread on the spin- 
ning wheel, made it into cloth on the loom, cut it into pattern, and after 
sewing it together, the strange evolution of a pioneer garment was effected. 
The couch on which they rested from the toils of the day, made by sinking 
two forks in the ground, on which three poles were placed, the wall of the 
cabin making the fourth support, a dining table constructed in like manner, 
the grain, of which their bread was made, broken with pestle and mortar and 
sieved through a perforated deer skin stretched upon sticks, is an inventory 
of the chief articles of furniture in the Cartwright family. 

Now let me pause to ask what destiny have you to predict for a lad raised 
amid such scenes of blood and deprivation, particularly when, before he was 
15 years of age, his first presents, from his own father, were a race horse 
and cards for gaming? 

If he should turn out as bad as the worst element in "Rogues Harbor" 
surely our judgment should be tempered with merciful moderation; while, on 
the other hand, if he should grow up into a life of integrity and usefulness, 
our approbation should not fall a whit short of admiration and unstinted 
praise. 

Young Cartwright ran a short career of horse racing and gambling, for 
which he had a passionate fondness, and in which he was very successful as 
a winner of money. After attending a certain wedding, accompanied by his 
father, where the hilarity rose to a height little short of a carousal, he fell 
under the deepest conviction over the life he was leading. His agony of 




PETER CARTWRIGHT. 



49 

mind was so great that he was pronounced "crazy" by his neighbors. He 
turned his race horse over to his father, gave his cards to his mother, who 
burned them, and, after several weeks of mental distraction, attended a sacra- 
mental meeting, held under the auspices of aiPresbyterian clergyman, where 
he was converted and joined the church of his mother — the Methodist Episco- 
pal. In his determination to lead a new life he had the counsel and prayers 
of his mother, while his fathm- — be it said to his credit— offered no oppo- 
sition. 

In 1801 he was licensed as an exhorter. The same year he moved with his 
father to Lewiston county, locating near an academy taught by a Scotch 
seceder, whose hatred of the Methodists was only equalled by his excellence 
as a teacher. Cartwright made rapid progress in his studies, in the mean- 
time, occasionally, exercising his gifts as an exhorter. This incurred not 
only the displeasure of his teacher but the ridicule of his pupils, and it was 
determined by two of the latter, to decoy him to a ?teep bank on a nearby 
creek and throw him into a pool of deep water. The suddenly developed 
kindness of his heretofore persecutors aroused young Cartwright's godly 
alertness and tensioued his converted muscles so that, in due time — though 
never a believer in immersion as a saving ordinance — he administered to his 
persecutors the baptism which it was their purpose the young Methodist 
should experience. The utter lack of encouragement received from his 
teacher, and the latter's sympathy with Cartwright's fellow student persecu- 
tors, caused him to abandon the school, and, at the age of 18 he entered 
upon a ministerial career, than which there has been none other more re- 
markable in the history of this country, nor none more effective, or useful, 
in all that broad empire known as the Mississippi valley. 

To follow his lonely career as an itinerant— the faithful horse which he be- 
strode being his only companion — through storm and tempest, cold and hun- 
ger, scantily clad; on circuits measured by hundreds of miles, through a 
sparsely settled country, where only an occasional wagon road was kuown, 
and across unbridged streams, would be an intensely interesting study, did 
my time admit of the delineation. He was allowed, uuder the rules of his 
church, a salary of $80 per year, the paymeut depending upon the benevo- 
lence of his parishioners, and, in his "Autobiography," he states that for 
each year of the first three of his service he received but one half of that 
allowance; indeed during his long ministerial history, stretching over a 
period of 65 years — though in the meantime clerical salaries were advanced 
with the growth of his church — he tells us that in but three instances was his 
annual salary paid to fullness. 

His ministrations, from the outset, were attended with phenomenal success. 
Many of his public meetings, because of the opposition he met witu from 
rival denominations, as well as those who were enemies of good order, were 
dramatic, some of which gave promise of a tragic ending, and would have so 
resulted but for his rare mental alertness aad physical courage — the latter, in 
all cases, being simply a reflex of the moral force in the make-up of Cart- 
wright's character. 



»s» 



His ministerial career, after taking regular orders, covered a period of 
more than 65 years, 20 of which were, for the most part, given within the 
limits of the southern states, he, in the meantime, being domiciled in Ken- 
tucky; and 45 in the State of Illinois, during all of which latter period he 
made Pleasant Plains, in Sangamon county, his place of constant residence. 
Fifteen years of his entire minstry he did duty as a circuit rider in parishes 
which involved hundreds of miles of itineration, the rude cabins of the 
frontier being his places for preaching. The remaining 50 years of his cler- 
ical life were given to the duties of presiding elder, a post to which he was 



—4 H 



50 

first appointed in 1812, and, thereafter, with almost unbroken succession, was 
repeatedly re-appointed by the bishops, until, in that important office, second 
only to the bishopric, he rounded out a half century of inestimable service. 

His earlier districts, as presiding elder, were even larger than his circuits, 
the former, at times, covering portions of territory now embraced within 
several states of the Union. Much of the country was without roads — in some 
instances even devoid of trails — the lonely itinerant having to gauge his 
course by general direction, across trackless wastes, by certain fixed objects 
on constantly expanding horizons, until destination was reached in some iso- 
lated cabin. The heat of summer's sun, and the more inhospitable rigors 
of the winter's blasts, unbridged, swollen and turbulent streams seemed 
never to have impeded his progress, since it is said of him that he seldom 
missed an appointment. Coming, at long intervals into these lonely frontier 
homes, with such uniform punctuality, must indeed have made his visitations 
seem to their occupants like those of an evangel. And why not? He was 
their highway commissioner, their newspaper, their railroad, telegraph and 
telephone; he was indeed the voice of one crying in the wilderness, "Prepare 
ye the way and make the path straight," for a dispensation of which he was 
the prophet and which he lived to see in fulfilment. 

He was 13 times elected, by the respective annual conferences to which 
he belonged, a delegate to the quadrennial session of the general conference — 
the chief legislative council of his church — wherein representatives held sit- 
tings from all parts of the world where his denomination had an organiza- 
tion. In the meantime he served his church, in both the annual and general 
conferences, on committees covering the widest range of subjects, and, in 
the absence of the bishops, was twice elected presiding officer of his annual 
conference. He was treasurer of the Metropolitan church in 1853, custodian 
of the centenary funds, in 1840, 1841 and 1845; for two years he served, and 
without compensation, as superintendent of the Pottawattomie Indian mis- 
sion; he served for six years as visiting trustee to McKendree college, and 
the records show that in 1830, he acted as president of its board, and that 15 
years later that body, not unworthily, honored him with the degree nf Doctor 
of Divinity. He was also for three years visiting trustee of Illinois Wesleyan 
university, one year to the Garrett Biblical institute, and a like period presi- 
dent of the Pleasant Plains academy. 

A fact should not go unmentioned here, to which my attention has been 
called by Dr. J. F. Snyder, vice-president of this society, Cartwright, to- 
gether with Governors Cole, Reynolds, Edwards; Judges Breese and Hall; 
Prof. John Russell and others, were, in 1827, the organizers of the first State 
historical society. This was but three years after his advent to the State, 
and shows, even at that early date, how important a factor he was regarded 
among the pioneer public men, independent of the question of church affilia- 
tion. 

He was a chaplain in General Jackson's army, and was present at the battle 
of New Orleans. On the authority of Judge Zane, of Utah, for many years 
a neighbor of Doctor Cartwright, the following incident is worthy of note: 
Before entering into the battle, the general called his chaplains together and 
exhorted them, "to preach to the soldiers the justice of their cause and as- 
sure them, if they died in battle, they would go straight to Heaven." Cart- 
wright replied, "General, I can't go quite that far, but I can say I believe 
our cause is of God, and that if any of them should be killed, God in the last 
account would give them credit for their sacrifices." A very conservative 
statement. 

In 1823, because of the baleful influence of slavery, he determined to leave 
Kentucky, assigning the following reasons therefor: "I would get entirely 
clear of the evil of slavery; could raise my children where work was not 



51 

thought a degradation, and could better my temporal circumstances, and pro- 
cure land for my children as they grew up, and could carry the gospel to 
needy, destitute souls, in some new country, deprived of the means of grace." 

His wife — a native Kentucky lady, whose maiden name was Miss Frances 
Gaines, to whom he had then been married for 16 years, and to whom he sub- 
mitted all his plans before decisions for action— was in entire accord with his 
suggestions to change their habitation. So, in the spring of 1823, with his 
brother- in-law, Mr. Gaines, and Rev. Charles Holiday, he set out on horse- 
back to "explore Illinois," with the result of fixing on Sangamon county as 
his future home, to which locality he moved in the iall on824. Here he lived 
for more than a generation and a half, identified with the interests and his- 
tory of the State, and an important factor in its material growth and relig- 
ious civilization. At that time Sangamon was the northernmoat org.miztid 
county in the State. All north of it was an Indian country, and though not 
occupied by hostile tribes, in tha sense of those we have already alluded to 
as infesting Kentucky, they were degraded and shiftless, having adopted 
"civilization" only to the extent of accepting the "firewater" of their pale- 
faced brethern. He immediately took work in the conference, was assigned 
to a circuit, sparsely populated, and not unlike those he had known in his 
Kentucky experience. 

Reverting to the slavery question, the inducing cause of his removal from 
the south, and quoting from his "Autobiography," he says: "I will not at- 
tempt to enumerate the moral evils that have been produced by slavery; their 
name is legion. And now, notwithstanding these are my honest views of 
slavery, I have never seen a rabid abolitionist or free-soil society that I could 
join, because they resort to unjustifiable legislation, and the means they em- 
ploy are generally unchristian." 

His abhorrence of slavery was only equalled by his detestation of anti-slav- 
ery agitation and "underground railroads." It is not difficult to see how his 
views at that period should have proven unsatisfactory to both sides of this 
controversy. By some in the north he was considered in sympathy with the 
pro-slavery element, while by others in the south he was regarded as a con- 
federate of the abolitionists. His views, in 1824, in effect simply anticipated 
the position of the Republican party at the time of its organization in 1856— 
"non-interference v/ith slavery where it exists, ani its restriction from free 
territory" — he believing, as did the fathers, its peaceable extinction would 
ultimately be accomplished. 

The session of the General Confei-ence which met in New York in 1844, and 
of which body Cartwright was a conspicuous member, was one which created 
intense excitement throughout the entire country. The Baltimore Annual 
Conference, but a short time before, suspended one of its ministerial mem- 
bers for failing to manumit certain slaves received by him through a recent 
marriage. On appeal to the General Conference, after a debate of intense 
acrimony, the action of the lower conference was sustained, followed at the 
same session by legislation, of a provisional nature, which was equivalent to 
a recognition of the rights of that portion of the church adhering to slavery to 
detach itself from the parent church organization. Cartwright opposed this with 
all the intensity of his nature, but on a vote of 110 to 68 was defeated — his 
four associate delegates from the Illinois conference voting with the majority. 
He took the position that no portion of the church had the constitutional right 
to secede, and that, after having so done, no rights could attach by which the 
seceding element could justly claim possession of any of the property of the 
original organization. Indeed, his position here was, in an important sense, 
anabgoui^ to that of our general government in its contention with the south 
over the doctrine of secession which led to the Civil War. 



He was a life long democrat; first au adherent of Jackson, subsequently of 
Douglas, and later, on the breaking out of the civil war, an uneonipromisiner 
Union democrat, believing in the most vigorous prosecution of the war until 
complete conquest was made of secession. 

He was a devout believer and defender of the polity of his church. He 
was strongly opposed to lay representation in its legislative bodies, for 
which cherished opinion he was frequently called ''unprogiessive." When 
it is stated that it was his conviction that the ministerial function was one 
purely spiritual — the preaching of the word — and that the "book concern" 
and other like agencies, even the colleges of denomination, should be manned 
by a godly laity, instead of the clergy, he had much better warrant for his 
views on the question of lay representation than the very strong minority 
which so long and tenaciously opposed it. 

A feature in the career of our subject, which I am surprised has not 
elicited special comment — except its bare mention in his "autobiography" — 
is the fact that he represented Sangamon county in 1828, 1829, 1832 and 1833 
in the Lower House of the Illinois General Assembly At the time of his 
first election that county returned three members. There were nine cautli- 
dates voted for, the three highest receiving the followiuff votes: J. H. Pngh, 
649; Peter Cartwright. 560; William Elkin. 554. At the same election Jack- 
son recmved 682 and Adams 431 for president. In 1830, Cartwright stood for 
re-election, and out of eight candidates, his vote took the fourth place, and 
he was therefore defeated. In 1832, he was again a candidate, with eleven 
others, four of whom, under a new apportionment, were to be elected. The 
four highest votes were as follows: G D. Taylor, 1,127; John T. Stuart, 991; 
Achilles Morris, 945; Peter Cartwright, 815. At this time Mr. Lincoln was 
one among the candidates, and eighth on the list, receiving 657 votes. At 
the same election Jackson received for president 1,033. and Henry Clay 810. 
In 1846, Mr. Cartwright ran for Congress against Mr. Lincoln, receiving 
4,827 votes, against the latter's 6,340. 

The House journal, during his first year's service, shows him to have been 
an active member in matters of legislation. He was the author of a bill, 
"To prevent immorality and vice;" also one concerning "Distribution ot 
school funds;" another, "To amend the act relating to criminal jurispru- 
dence." as well as various resolution^ covering, "The protection of seminary 
lands. State banks, etc." On the organization of the House in 1833. he was 
made speaker joro fe/n. He was chairman of the committee to notify the 
Governor of the organization of the House, alsoof the committee on "rules," 
and the chairman of the standing "committee on education" and a member 
of the standing committee on "petitions and grievances." He was also a 
member of 19 select committees and chairman of a number of the same, and 
was the author of various important bills and resolutions. A bill to establi-^h 
a "State Seminary," presented by him went to a second reading, after which 
it disappeared from the records; was likely smothered in committee. It is a 
curious bit of history that the object of one of the select committees to which 
he was appointed contemplated an investigation, and report upon some 
method by which the prairie lands of the State might be used for agricul- 
tural purposes. 

He was the author of a preamble and resolutions against South Carolina 
nullification, in response to a message on that subject from President Jack- 
son, which for its excellence of composition, diplomatic verbiage, judicial 
temper and patriotic impulses, is especially notable. It went to the "Com- 
mittee of the Whole," was discussed, and up^i motion the subject was 
referred to a joint committee of the Senate and House, Mr. Cartwright hav- 
ing been appointed a member from the latter body. 

The Journal shows him to be one of the four most active members of the 
House, and particularly interested in schools, roads, educational legislation 



53 

and Ihe varied phases of internal improvements. His punctuality, as shown 
by the roll-fall, was phenomenal. Ihih same characterihtio was peciuiiar to 
his ministerial career, for it is said that in but a sinjijle instance, (and that on 
account of the serious sickness of his wife) durinfc the forty-five years of his 
connection with the Illinois conference, did he fail to meet at its annual 
sesnionH, and in only three instances did he miss the first roll-call, two of 
which sessions found him present on the second, while through all those 
years he was not ofif duty to exceed a six month's period. 

That Cartwrif^ht should have left an estate valued at $40,000 will prove a 
surprising statement when set over against the one already made, viz: that 
in but three instances of his \(»n^ ministerial history was his annual salary, 
parsimoniously estimated, paid to fullness. In explanation of this apparent 

Earadox we have furnished a side-li«ht on the character of the man showinpT 
ow effectually, from the befjinninff of his settled work, he provided aj^ainst 
contingencies which might thwart the all-absorbing purpose of his soul. 
With his qualifications as preacher, evangelist and administrator, his church 
recognized his added eflficiency as a financier. He constantly impressed 
upon his parishioners the importance and duty of their meeting with punct- 
uality the appointed apportionments for Ihe various .*>enevolences of the 
church, but never pressed his own claims in the matter of salary. He 
merely took what was given him by those appointed to see to the collection. 
In this connection call to mind the fact already recited, that, from the d»te 
of his marriage to his death, he n-i-ver had but two residences — both being 
farm homes-;-where by the toil of his own hands, he supplemented the defic- 
iencies of his earlier unpaid salaries. As a family grew up about him its 
members became factors in the matter of the common support of the house- 
hold, and the surplus earning.s of this aggregation of forces were invested in 
the cheap lands of early times, so that, at the time of his death, he left to his 
widow and the eight children who had grown to maturity, an inheritance — the 
product of more than a half century's accretive values — far from being suf- 
ficiently great to admit of having imputed to him the reputation of a "grasp- 
ing" character or to, in any sense, dim the lustre of the fame he won in 
having led a sacrificial life for the good of others. In these facts are found 
an important lesson. His church never, in a single instance, furnished him 
a parsonage. His circuits and districts were of such extent that the places 
he chose for permanent homes were practically central to his work, and the 
foresight in providing himself with a fixed habitation, as a base of operation, 
assured the resources for supp<irt which enabled him to carry on the wonder 
ful work which he accomplished during two generations — ihe first of which 
was essentially pioneer in character. It should not go unsaid that in the 
meantime he was a cheerful contributor to the benevolences to which he 
urged others to become patrons, especially priding himself in what he had 
given for education — a cause to which he had so often, and unjustly, been 
accused of antagonizing. 

Thus you have a running sketch, or skeleton, of this remarkable man's 
career, worthy of a filling by the pen of a painstaking biographer. Opin- 
ions are so diverse as to what manner of man he was, that, if tradition only 
were relied upon, it would be but a generation or two until he would fall 
within the category of apocryphal characters. If he were to come from the 
grave, into this presence, I know of no conspicuous character, ether than 
himself, who could more fittingly ask the fjuestion, "Who do men say that 
I am?" 

Cartwright was five feet nine inches in height, weighing, in his prime, 
about 180 pounds; muscular, erect, dark brown hair, dark grey eyes — with 
that flashing characteristic peculiar to men of intense natures — well poised 
head, and with the firm set lips of a man having great resolution. 

As a judge of men and the motives by which they were actuated, he was 
unsurpassed. He seemed to have an ex-ray gift by which he divined the 
secret Thoughts of the bully holding evil intent toward him, as also the self- 
asserting and patronizing essay-writing preacher from the theological sem- 
inary; for the one, as was ofttimes proven, he had, in his consecrated muscu- 
lar arsenal the weapons which never failed for his defense, and for the other 
a righteous ridicule equally effective. 



54 

He did not like to be patronized, and despised sham and pretense with a 
holy hatred. To be approached by one with the bearing of asserted superi- 
ority, because of his being a frontiersman, aroused his indignation, not alone 
that it was a personal reflection, but because of the fact that it was at the 
same time an aspersion on a constituency of which he held himself but a typ- 
ical member. I think his motto must have been: "Every man my equal, 
and no one my superior." Both morally and physically he was absolutely 
fearless. All of his physical encounters — in every one of which he was vic- 
torious, and with some of the worst characters of his time — he was never the 
aggressor. They were either in personal defense or in vindication of the 
rights of his religious gatherings — more frequently the latter. In defense of 
his congregations may be named the incident of his unhorsing with a club a 
desperate character, who sought, at the head of a squad of improvised cav- 
alry, to break up one of his campmeetings, only after his assailant had failed, 
by a misdirected stroke, to brain him with a weapon of like character; and, 
also, the putting to ignominious flight two stalwart Kentucky brothers, who 
came to administer a horsewhipping to the preacher, because he, while speak- 
ing at a campmeeting, had given the "jerks" to their two sisters, together 
with many others, by turning loose from a phial some volatile essence, which, 
as they believed, cast a kind of "hoodoo" spell upon all the people. His ac- 
cepting the challenge to duel of the chivalric Kentucky lawyer, by choosing 
cornstalks as the weapons, to the utter discomfiture of the latter, and his 
ducking in the middle of the river the bellicose ferryman who had published 
his purpose to flog Cartwright on their first meeting, are among the cases in- 
volving personal grievances. It is a fact, singular as true, that nearly all of 
his vanquished subsequently became his spiritual subjects. 

A typical illustration of the individuality of his moral courage is found in 
an incident given of General Jackson's presence at one of his meetings. 
Cartwright was about to enter upon his discourse, when an associate preacher 
seated on the rostrum — presumably as an admonition to temper his remarks 
so as not to give offense to the distinguished visitor — whispered a knowledge 
of his presence. To the amazement of the entire audience, Cartwright called 
out: "Who is General Jackson? If he does not repent of his sins and be- 
come converted, he will go hell like anyone else." It was generally believed 
that a challenge for duel would be sent the preacher by the general. On the 
contrary, the latter, after the close of the service, invited Cartwright To dine 
with him, and congratulated him on his sincerity and high moral courage. 
At the table was a young infidel lawyer, who embarrassed the preacher with 
questions which he, out of respect to the proprieties of the occasion, refused 
to answer. Failing to involve him in a controversy, he turned to the host 
and asked. "General, do you believe there is a hell?" to receive in quick re- 
sponse: "If there is not, there ought to be, to put such d — d rascals as you 
are in." 

As a preacher Cartwright was logical, forcible and convincing — his audi- 
ences, ofttimes, being moved into tumultuous excitement. He had a deep 
rich bass voice, which, even in his intensest moments, he, unlike most of the 
preachers of his day, never strained to fullest tension He was always self- 
possessed and, in his advice to young preachers gave them counsel, as to the 
use of the voice, worthy a place in an elocutionary treatise. As a debater he 
had few equals, and, on the floor of the general and annual conferences, his 
intellectual strength was conceded by both colleague and competitor, and, in 
shaping legislation, he was among the foremost in these representative 
bodies. Though defeated on the slavery issue in the general conference, of 
1844 — all four of his Illinois colleagues voting against him — on his return 
home he carried his annual conference against ratifying the action of the 
former body. He was wholly fair in controversy, conceded all strong points 
of an opponent, never equivocated, and, while in the legislature, the recorded 
votes show that he was not disposed to filibuster. He was resourceful, hav- 
ing an amassment of information on almost all questions which was truly sur- 
prising, and, in an extremity, could promptly summon to his aid the sources 
of relief to meet emergencies. 

His faculty for adapting himself to environment was remarkable. He 
could, in the apostolic sense, be all things to all men. To the rude, rude; to 



55 

the one disposed to bluff, he was a regular "Babcock Extinguisher" — in all 
such cases, maintaining his own self-respect perfectly. In social circles of the 
cultured, on the authority of Doctors McElfresh, McElroy, and Judge Zaue — 
all of whom were Cartwright's latter-day contemporaries — he was dignified, 
courteous and refined in both bearing and speech, and chivalric to the 
ladies. 

He was a great reader, a strong forcible and terse writer. His "Autobio- 
graphy" is not to be taken as an example. This is given out as a rambling 
account, or diary, of his current experiences, and it was not until years of per- 
sistent persuasion, by the leading men of his church including the bishops, 
that he consented to prepare it for publication. For his personal experiences, 
its side lights on the history of his time, it should be held invaluable, and its 
very ineoherency makes it all the more interesting, and, in an important 
sense, a model of its kind in literature. 

His "Letter to the Devil," in answer to one devised and published by three 
anti-Arminian preachers, who made Cartwright the subject of severe 
animadversion, is a document of strength, good, well-sentenced English, and 
as an argument — in a day, too, when denominational controversy was at its 
height — holds high rank among the papers which successfully combated Cal- 
vinism. 

He was frequently spoken of as an enemy to education — a statement far too 
commonly accepted. The record I have already furnished of his acts, in both 
church and State service, is a complete refutation of that accusation. Cart- 
wright was very sincerely opposed to theological schools, measuring their 
merit by the preacher product they sent to the west, in early times. He lost 
no opportunity to publicly emphasize his opposition, and, in so doing, pro- 
voked their adherents to a defense and the use of arguments, whether unwit- 
tingly or not, which gave color to the idea that he was an enemy to the cause 
of education in general. 

He was an ardent friend of both academies and colleges and, since full 
training in the latter is supposed to result in a mental discipline fitting the 
finished product for original investigation along scientific and other lines, it 
was undoubtedly his belief that a like process of training would qualify the 
college graduate for the interpretation of a science, which, because of its 
simplicity, bore the legend that the "wayfaring man, though a fool, need not 
err therein." In other words, it seemed his conviction that the college 
graduate ought to be sufficiently equipped to receive a revelation without 
specializing, as is required in cases where scientific subjects of investigation 
are confessed mysteries. Cartwright evidently thought that after a young 
man had fitted himself with a thorough collegiate education, specializing in 
a theological school would develop ecclesiastical conceit at the expense of the 
pure gospel. 

Cartwright was himself an educated man. Mark you, I am not saying he 
was scholarly. Scholarship and education, in common parlance, are illogi- 
cally used as convertible terms. Scholarship is a means to an end — educa- 
tion. It often occurs that scholars are not educated, and, occasionallj', that 
educated men are not scholars. Lincoln is an illustration of the latter class 
— likewise Cartwright, The truth is, education is only a necessity for the 
common mind; with the uncommon mind, a powerful auxiliary. 

Furthermore, as an evidence of his insistence in behalf of popular educa- 
tion, he was one of tiie chief advocates favoring the establishment of a 
literary and religious paper, for the use of the more western church constit- 
uency, and continued his labors in behalf of the enterprise, until he, with his 
CO- laborers, had successfully lodged the Central Christian Advocate on the 
banks of the Mississippi. He carried good literature in the proverbial sad- 
dle-bags of the early-day Methodist preacher, and tells us he was instrumen- 
tal in the sale of $10,000 worth of books in pioneer homes, adding that he 
verily believed their distribution had done more good than all his preaching. 
This last thought, together with the oft-repeated recognition in his "autobio- 
graphy" of the value and power of his associate preachers — as well as the 
like service of broadminded clergy of other denominations — effectually dis- 
poses of the frequent aspersion that he was egotistical. 



56 

It may be a surprise to you that I should speak of Cartwright as unsym- 
pathetic. If, added to his judical and logical mind, he had possessed the 
warm summer glow of sympathy, his fertile brain would have minted a coin- 
age of words which would have made him a commanding orator. In his 
family, where he always knew himself to be understood, especially by his 
wife, the portcullis of his heart was always wide open to an exhibition of the 
utmost tenderness. On all questions of doubt his wife was the supreme court 
of his earthly afifeetions and to its decisions he rendered cheerful obedience. 

He did everything from a sense of duty, inspired by principle. He had 
faults, made mistakes, but no one was more prompt than he to acknowledge 
the one and make reparation for the other, when convinced of error, and his 
mind was always open to conviction. Judge Zane, in writing to me, gives a 
notable, indeed pathetic instance of this in a case where Cartwright had gone 
to law, in the belief that he had been wronged, and on the advice of two at- 
torneys, who assured him that his cause was that of justice. After the testi- 
mony was all in, and the court had given the verdict against him, he arose, 
apologetically addressed the judge, confessed he was wrong, footed the bill 
and returned to his home. 

Some letters I have received speak of him as "peculiar" and "eccentric." 
So he was, and so is any man, who, in performance of duty goes forward to 
a goal of principle, or righteousness, in the meantime, having, necessarily, 
to trample under foot the impediments of popular environments. 

What now have you to say of this child born during the closing scenes of 
the Revolutionary war; this lad who listened about the campfire to the tragic 
tales of danger which beset the families with whom he traveled over a crim- 
son trail in search of homes in the wilderness, and the young man whose as- 
sociates were citizens of "Rogues Harbor?" 

If, with his great natural abilities, he had continued his career as a gam- 
bler, he would, doubtless, have come to the head of some formidable Monte 
Carlo; if, with his judicial mind, he had been schooled for law, he might 
have taken a seat in our highest tribunal; if he had adopted the business of an 
iron monger, he might have anticipated the career of Carnegie. He was a 
born leader, and, had he devoted himself to politics, he might have held 
any office in the gift of the people. He accepted rather, and from a sheer 
sense of duty, the humbler life of an itinerant preacher, ignoring the glamor 
of earthly honor, title, and emoluments — the things which inspire the great 
bulk of the race to highest endeavor — in the belief that, though the laurel 
wreath were denied him here, he would, in the hereafter, be crowned with 
one, the leaves of which would never wither. 



EARLY RELIGIOUS METHODS AND LEADERS IN 

ILLINOIS. 

[By W. F. Short. D.D.I 

The topic assigned to me on the program is so comprehensive that it would 
require many volumes to contain an account of all the matters, events and per- 
sons connected therewith. Indeed, many volumes have been written upon 
the subject from time to time, by persons of capability and integrity, some 
of whom were active participants in the events they relate. Even these 
with the limited means for collecting and preserving such data at the time, 
are necessarily fragmentary and incomplete. So a vast amount of matters of 
historical interest and value on many subjects have been irreparably lost. 
It will be impossible to compress a satisfactory account in 30 minutes. I 
have availed myself of the contributions of some of such authors who have 
written upon the subject of my topic. My paper is little more than a com- 
pilation of what such writers have preserved for us. Without giving credit in 
every case where such use has been made, I will here name some of the 



57 

sources of the facts herein related: Gazetteer of Illinois by J. M. Peck, 
published by R. Goudy in Jacksonville, 111., in 1834: "History of the Pres- 
byterian Church in Illinois." by A. L. Norton 1879; "Early History of the 
West and Northwest," by S. R. Begrgs, 1868; "History of Mfthodism in Illi- 
nois," by James Leaton, 1883. A Dumber of other historians and writers 
have greatly enriched us by their contributions upon these subjects. 

When I sat down to write it seemed more natural to consider first the re- 
ligious leaders in Illinois, and then their methods; and I have taken the lib- 
erty of such a transposition in my treatment of the topic. 

Any historical record of the settlement and early events of Illinois that 
should omit mention of the religious phases and persons of that time would 
be as defective as the presentation on the stage of Hamlet, with Hamlet left 
out. Indeed, no one phase seems to have been more prominent. The relig- 
ious element is inseparable from human nature. It cannot be eliminated 
from man's constitution. No abyss of intellectual and moral deba.sement has 
ever obliterated it. No means has been found that can destroy the poison of 
the rattlesnake. It defies the intensest heat and the most powerful acids. So 
is it with the elements of religion; reverence, humility, adoration, prayer, 
gratitude, fear, faith, hope, love; they cannot be extinguished. 

Owing to the poor facilities for transportation of their families and limited 
effects, and the hardships of a tedious and long journey, and the great priva- 
tions of a residence in a new country, it was rarely undertaken except by 
persons possessing a large amount of energy and moral stamina. Hence, 
among the pioneers of the state there was only a small per cent of thriftless 
and vicious immigrants. Many of the pioneers had been members of 
churches, and brought with them strong religious convictions and habits, and 
at once established such means as the circumstances would permit. But it 
must not be inferred that all who came were possessed of a sympathetic re- 
gard for religion. At that time, the beginning of the last century, and for 
some years, there had grown up in our country and in Europe, a widespread 
and influential infidel sentiment. It had impregnated the minds of a small 
per cent of those who came at that time to Illinois. In sonae communities it 
was dominant. In such places the men of prominence and influence in busi- 
ness and the professions were indifferent, if not unfriendly, to religion. In 
other places the opposite was the condition in regard to that matter. I am 
personally acquainted with a number of communities in the State where the 
present religious conditions are still typed by that circumstance at the begin- 
ning. In one ease the religious conditions are still relatively weak; in the 
other they are dominant. It has been an irreparable misfortune in one case; 
in the other a priceless boon. 

There are some little discrepancies in the dates given by different writers 
respecting the introduction and organization of the various churches in Illi- 
nois, but they are too slight to impair the historic value of the account. 

The earliest representatives of religion in Illinois were Roman Catholics. 
That fact is not peculiar to Illinois and other parts of our country. It has 
been characteristic of that church from their beginning. No body of Christ- 
ians has ever shown greater missionary enterprise, zeal, heroism and self- 
denial in the propagation of religion. None seem to have been actuated by 
purer and more unselfish motives than some of those missionaries that early 
entered new fields. Whatever may be said in disparagement of their meth- 
ods and works (which might be affirmed of others) it must be admitted that 
the world is better today by reason of their existence and work. More than 
100 years before we have any account of any Protestant minister or organiza- 
tion within the bounds of the territory of Illinois, Marquette. La Salle, 
Joliet and Hennepin traversed the long distance from the Atlantic communi- 
ties through unbroken wildernesses to minister to the scattered French set- 
tlements and Indians. As early as 1673 they established missions at 
Kaskaskia, Cahokia and Peoria, and other points on the Mississippi. 

In most of the western states the first settlement of the country and the intro- 
duction of Methodism were contemporaneous. Scarcely had the pioneer 
erected his cabin before the itinerant was there with his saddle-bags contain- 
ing his Bible, hymn book and Discipline, to proclaim to him and his house- 



58 

hold the glad tidings of a free salvation, and to gather them into the fold of 
Christ. But this was not the case in Illinois. The State had been settled 
more than a century before the first Methodist sermon was preached in it; 
and it was more than 30 years after that before a Methodist conference was 
organized in its territory. The exact year in which Methodism was intro- 
troduced is not positively known, but it seems probable that the first Metho- 
dist was Captain Joseph Ogle, who was converted through the instrumentality 
of James Smith, a Separate Baptist preacher of Kentucky, who visited and 
preached in Illinois in 1787, and who was undoubtedly the first Protestant 
preacher who visited the territory. So we accord to the Baptists the high 
distinction of the leadership of the Protestant hosts in our State. Also they 
have to this day been fully abreast in influence and effort and honorable suc- 
cess with all churches. 

Captain Ogle was a native of Virginia. He came to Illinois in the summer 
of 1785, settling first in the American bottom, in the present county of Mon- 
roe, and afterwards removed to St. Clair county, where he died in February, 
1821, aged 80. 

The first Methodist preacher who visited the country was Joseph Lillard, 
then a local preacher of Kentucky, who, during his visit, gathered the few 
scattered Methodists into a class, and appointed Captain Ogle as their leader. 
This was in 1793; and was the first Methodist class in the State. 

Four or five years after Mr. Lillard's visit, John Clark visited the settle- 
ments of Illinois. He was a Scotchman. At the age of 20 he entered the 
British navy. He was taken prisoner and sent to Havana, where he remained 
in prison 19 months. He subsequently visited England, and had several con- 
versations with Mr. Wesley, and often heard him preach. In 1798 he crossed 
into Missouri, being, it is believed, the first Protestant minister who preached 
the gospel west of the Mississippi. 

In the same year that Mr. Clark came. Hosea Rigg, the first resident local 
preacher in Illinois, settled in the American bottom, in St. Clair county. He 
extended the work, and organized other societies in Madison county. In ap- 
pearance Mr. Rigg was tall and quite thin. He had a voice of wonderful 
power. He was a man of deep and active piety, abundant in labors and very 
tenacious for Methodist doctrine and usage, and very useful in the church. 
He died at his residence near Belleville in 1841, at the age of 81. 

Another of the early settlers who aided in the establishment of Methodism 
in Illinois was William Scott. He moved from Kentucky, and settled at 
Turkey hill, St. Clair county, in 1797. He died in 1828. 

In 1803 the western conference of the Methodist Episcopal church embraced 
all the country west of the Alleghany mountains. The Illinois mission, the 
first pastoral charge, was formed, with Benjamin Young as pastor. In 180ft 
Jesse Walker was sent to the Illinois circuit. When a child of 9 years he 
was awakened under a sermon preached by a Baptist minister, and soon after 
was converted. Here again Methodism is indebted to the Baptist church. 
To Jesse Walker, Methodism in Illinois and Missouri is doubtless indebted 
more than to any other single individual; for throughout a large portion of 
both states he was literally its pioneer. 

In April, 1807, Mr. Walker held the first camp-meeting ever held in the 
State, about three miles south of the present town of Edwardsville. The 
meeting was a powerful one, and many present were affected with that 
strange movement, the "jerks." At one of Mr. Walker's camp-meetings 
Enoch Moore was converted. He was the first American male child born in 
Illinois. He was licensed as a local preacher, and held that office till his 
death in 1848. He was a member of the convention that formed the first con- 
stitution of Illinois. For a number of years he was circuit clerk of his county, 
and for 20 years was probate judge. Time does not permit even the men- 
tioning of the multitudes of names, of noted ministers and laymen who were 
conspicuous in establishing and extending the work of the Methodist Epi - 
copal church in Illinois in those early years. Among the galaxy would shine 
John Clingan, James Ward, William McKendree (afterwards Bishop), 



59 

Samuel Parker, James Axley, Johu Scrips, Samuel Thompson, Jesse Haile, 
John Dew, David Sharp, Nathan Searritt, Stephen R. Beggs, and many others 
equally distinguished for their abilities and usefulness. 

In 1817 Zadoe Casey, who had settled at Mt. Vernon, united with the 
Methodist church. He was elected to the State legislature in 1828; in 1830, 
Lieutenant Governor; in 1832, to congress, in which he served ten years; in 
1848, he was a member of the State Constitutional convention, and afterwards 
a member of the legislature. For over 40 years he was a faithful and useful 
local preacher. Thus he, like many others of his time, took a prominent 
part in laying the foundation both of the State and church. In 1812 Peter 
Cartwright was appointed presiding elder of the Wabash district, then in- 
cluded in the Tennessee conference. At the end of the year he returned to 
Kentucky, and continued his ministry there till 1824, when he was again ap- 
pointed to the Sangamon circuit. Then began a career that has had no 
parallel in the history of the Methodist church. A man of great physical 
power, great energy, superior mental force, and remarkable organizing and 
executive ability. There is no estimating the valuable service that he ren- 
dered the church. The delineation of his life and work will be amply brought 
out in the paper that will be read by President Chamberlin. 

Any account of the early religious leaders in Illinois would be incomplete 
if the name of Peter Akers was omitted. As an able preacher and Biblical 
scholar he stands alone among all:the Methodist preachers in the Mississippi 
valley. 

It would be strange if, considering the peculiar conditions of the times and 
the great number of preachers, there should not be some who became noted 
for various eccentricities. Indeed, such instances were frequent. Rev. Will- 
iam Stribling was an illustration of this. He was a very able and eloquent 
preacher. His command of language was most extraordinary. The follow- 
ing specimens may indicate his peculiarity in that respect. Beine violently 
opposed to the use of tobacco, he once administered a reproof to an old 
smoker in this manner: "Venerable sir, the deleterious effluvia emanating 
from your tobacconistic reservoir so overshadows ouroccular optics and so 
obfuscates our sensorium, that our respirable apparatus must shortly be ob- 
tunded, unless, through your abundant suavity and preeminent politeness, 
you will disembogue that illuministic tube from the stimulating and sternu- 
tatory ingredient, which replenishes the rotundity of the vastness ot its con- 
cavity." 

The proverb, "You can't make a money purse out of a sow's ear," he re- 
fined in this manner: "At the present era of the world it has been found 
impracticable to fabricate a sufficiently convenient pecuniary receptiole from 
the auricular organ of the genus suo." 

I did not have at my command any source of information as to the time 
when the Baptist church was first organized in Illinois, nor the names of those 
who are entitled to that distinguished honor. But it is quite certain that they 
were here as early as any Protestant branch of the church. By the year 1834 
that denomination included 19 associations, 195 associated and five unassoci- 
ated churches, 146 preachers and 5,635 communicants. Eight hundred sixty- 
five persons were baptized and united with these churches in 1833. From the 
beginning they have been behind no other church in zeal for evangelical 
Christianity, in enterprise and in all that makes for religion, [for morality 
individual and social integrity. 

Possibly the most conspicuous character in the early history of the State of 
the Baptist church was the Rev. Dr. John M. Peck. He was a man of large 
physique and commanding presence. He was born at Litchfield, Conn., in 
1789. Died at Rock Springs, St. Clair county. III., in 1858. He had received 
a good classical education, which, united with his rare natural gifts, gave 
him a place in the first rank among the great preachers of the State. Fifty 
years ago I heard him preach a most masterful sermon. The appeariince of 
the speaker and the theme come up with wonderful distinctness as I write 



60 

these words. In forcefulness and executive ability he was to the Baptist 
church in Illinois what Peter Cartwrigrht was to the Methodist church. He 
was the author of a number of valuable works. 

From the exhaustive and invaluable history of the Presbyterian church in 
the State of Illinois, by Rev. A. T. Norton, D. D., published in 1879, we learn 
that the first Presbyterian minister who visited the Illinois country was John 
Evans Finley. He landed in Kaskaskia in 1797. The next Presbyterian 
ministers who set foot on Illinois territory were John P. Schemerhorn and 
Samuel J. Mills, They were licentiates, that is, were unordained preachers. 
They say in their report, "in the Illinois territory, containing more than 
12,000 people, there is no Presbyterian, or Congregational minister." This 
was about 1812. 

The church of Sharon, in what is now White county, is the oldest Presby- 
terian church in Illinois. It was organized by Rev. James McCready, in 1816. 
From that time Presbyterian churches were organized in many places. In 1834 
they had one synod, five presbyteries, fifty churches and thirty- four ministers. 

Rev. B. F. Spilman appears to have been to the Presbyterian church in 
pioneer times what Cartwright and Peck were to the Methodist and Baptist 
churches. Dr. Norton says, "Presbyterianism in Illinois owes much to B. F. 
Spilman. He was the pioneer in the State. For a time he was the only 
Presbyterian minister, connected with the assembly, residing and statedly 
laboring in this vast domain, now containing three synods, 11 presbyteries, 
420 ministers, 487 churches and 43,987 members. All honor to the man who 
stands, instrumentally, at the head of these grand results." Rev. Samuel 
Giddings was in the territory as early as 1816, and was actively engaged in 
organizing churches in the vicinity of Kaskaskia. A score of illustrious 
names will occur that stand out conspicuousjfor ability, heroism and success 
in planting the church in our state in those trying times. Volumes might be 
written of Gideon Blackburn, Bergen, Ellis, Hale and many others whose 
praise is in all the churches. 

I have no account of the organization of Congregational churches in Illi- 
nois. In 1834 there were three or four. For some years ministers and 
members of that church settling in Illinois usually united with the Presby- 
terian church. 

In 1834 there were three Episcopalian churches in the State; one in Jack- 
sonville, one in Rushville and one in Galena. Philander Chase was the first 
Bishop. He was succeeded by Bishop Whitehouse. He was a preacher of 
great ability, learning and activity. 

In the Cumberland church. Rev. Mr. Berry deserves to be placed among 
the great leaders of the church in early times. He rightly takes place along 
with the most distinguished leaders of other churches of that time. 

Very little time is left me for the presentation of the distinctive methods of 
evangelical work in Illinois in the early years of its history. Some character- 
istic methods were so very marked and general among all religious organiza- 
tions, that we may profitably recall and consider them at this time. 

The itinerant method was necessary and universal. The churches were 
few in membership, poor in means, and widely scattered. It was many years 
before any were able to support a settled pastor. The circuit plan was uni- 
versal. The ministers of all churches belonged to the "traveling connection," 
as designated in Methodist parlance. In many instances their pulpit efforts 
partook of the same character. Announcing their text, "they went every- 
where, preaching the word " Their preaching was largely doctrinal, polem- 
ical, and hortatory. Those early preachers believed some things. They had 
deep and clear convictions concerning the great truths they proclaimed. 
They accepted them as eternal verities. They concealed nothing that they 
found revealed in the Holy Scriptures. They offered no apology for their 
earnest proclamation. They did not suggest and foster unbelief by inter- 
jecting the vagaries of higher criticism; nor trifle with the eternal interests 
of their hearers by the introduction of silly, sensational, and sacreligious 
themes to attract a crowd. They did not dim the light of the Gospel by in- 
troducing the magic lantern, and the stereopticon. 



61 

Throughout the country a fierce coutroversy was raging upon some of the 
doctrines of the Bible. The preaching of the time was therefore marked by 
polemical tournaments. The Arminian and the Calvinist. the paedobaptist 
and the immersiouist, often went to their oulpits with their war paint on, 
prepared to prove their doctrines orthodox by the Word of God, and under 
strong provocation, would not refrain from "blows and knocks." 

The gift of exhortation was a distinguishing feature of the pulpit power of 
that time. Earnest exhortation followed every sermon. Frequently some 
one especially gifted in exhortation was cho.^en to follow the sermon with an 
application and appeal. The result was frequently tremendous. Multitudes 
of all classes would be moved as by an avalanche. Many persons promitient 
in business and professional callings were swept as by a resistless power into 
the experience of a new life. In many instances business men, physicians, 
and lawyers gave up their pursuits and at once began to preach the Gospel. 
Many of the ablest ministers of that time were recruited in that manner. 

It should be remembered that for a long time there were no church build- 
ings. Services were therefore held in a great variety of places. The log 
cabin of the backwoodsman being the usual sanctuary. Then the rude 
school house would be used for public worship. Barns were built with a 
large floor for threshing grain. These were also often used on special occasions. 
The advent of the World's Redeemer in a stable may have given special im- 
pressiveness to a Christian service held in such a place. Certain it is that 
sublime messages were delivered, and glorious results accrued under such 
surroundings. The carapmeeting took its rise at that time. It was the 
natural outgrowth of existing conditions, A place would be selected afford- 
ing shade and water. The plot of ground was arranged in the form of a par- 
allelogram, with a large open space enclosed by tents. In this open space a 
rude platform for a pulpit was erected, in front and around which seats, 
made usually of rough lumber were placed. Sometimes a large pavilion was 
built covering considerable space. Various methods were used for lighting 
the camp at night. Sometimes a platform six or eight feet square, and sup- 
ported by posts five or six feet high, located at several points, were built. 
The platform was covered with earth, and upon that a fire was kept burning. 
Sometimes lard oil lamps were used. A tin horn or shell was used to call 
the people together for worship. At times some difficulty was experienced 
in finding a man of sufficient bellows capacity to blow the instrument. In 
such eases a preacher would be called upon, because of his capacity 
for blowing, I suppose. The tents were often made of rough lumber. 
Sometimes of cloth. In some instances covered wagons were used for sleep- 
ing places. Cooking was done in the rear of tents, by fires made against 
large logs. The meetings usually lasted a week; sometimes two weeks. 

Camp-meetings were often occasions of most wonderful moral and spiritual 
results. Frequently many hundreds were converted, and added to the 
church. Some very singular manifestations occurred in the form of a nervous 
excitement, called the "jerks." That convulsive or spasmodic action, under 
high spiritual excitement, was wholly uncontrollable, and affected alike igno- 
rant and educated persons. It was very common, and prevailed in Illinois, 
Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee. The concensus of intelligent 
opinion, gathered from competent witnesses, from different churches, is that 
it was a supernatural manifestation. Another method that Vie early relig- 
ious leaders employed was the circulation of good books. They believed 
that the reading of the people had much to do with their life and character. 
Hence they supplied the people with safe and stimulating books. Robust 
religious character and efficiency cannot be attained without the knowledge 
of the doctrines, and achievements of the church. Hence the church has 
wisely provided a supply of literature for her membership. It will be a sad 
misfortune when the reading of the church is confined to the current popular 
publications. 

The last characteristic method of the early religious leaders of Illinois that 
I shall mention, is their promotion of education. This phase of churchly 
activity has been conspicuous everywhere from the beginning. The church 
has been the promoter of education. It has recognized the inseparable con- 



62 

nection between intelligence and the best type of piety. It has witnessed the 
dread folly of divorcing the intellect and the heart. Secular education, 
unaccompanied by moral influences, is more likely to prove a curse than a 
blessing. History abounds with instances confirmatory of this statement, 
both in communities and individuals. 

Attention was early given to this work by all the churches, in Illinois in 
pioneer times. One of their first concerns was to plan for the establishment 
of schools. The interest that the State is taking in the matters of education 
is largely due to the influence of the churches. The State may wisely take a 
part in the education of the young, but it would be a lamentable mistake, 
and misfortune, for the church to relinquish all part in that fundamental 
interest. 

The origin of the institution where we are now assembled is illustrative of 
the common sentiment of the churches at that time. 

Mr. John M. Ellis graduated from Dartmouth college in 1822. He grad- 
uated from the theological seminary at Andover in 1825. From Dr. Norton's 
history we have the following account: "'The day following his graduation 
at Andover. he was ordained in the Old South Church in Boston. Furnished 
with a hundred dollars as an outfit the young minister made his way in six 
weeks to Illinois. From Elias Cornelius he had received the charge * "to build 
up an institution of learning which should bless the west for all time." In 
January 1828 he came to Jacksonville. Within a few days he purchased 80 
acres of land and set stakes for a building. In a letter dated Jacksonville, 
Sept. 15, 1828, he says: A seminary of learning is projected to go into oper- 
ation next fall. The subscription now stands at $2,000 or $3,000. The site is 
in this county. The half quarter section purchased for it is certainly the 
most delightful spot I have ever seen. This letter arrested the attention of 
young men in the divinity school at Yale college, and determined seven of 
them to a residence in Illinois, and to aid in the building up of the college. 
Two of them, Revs. Messrs. Sturtevant and Baldwin arrived in Jacksonville 
in November, and instruction in the college began the first of January. The 
designs which resulted in the Jacksonville Female Academy, and procured 
its beautiful grounds, were formed in his house. 

A similar acccount could be given of the origin of McKendree college 
through Bishop McKendree; and the founding of Shurtleff college through 
the efforts of Dr. John M. Peck. The same is true of the younger and 
greater institutions of the State. They are the outgrowth of the enterprise 
of the churches. 

From this brief and imperfect outline of the early religious leaders and 
methods in Illinois, we can realize in some measure at least, our great in- 
debtedness to the heroic and selfsacrificing efforts of those who laid the 
foiandations of our social, civil and religious institutions. 

I will close my subject with the tollowing extraet..from Washington's fare- 
well address: "Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political 
prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports. In vain would 
that man claim the tribute of patriotism, who should labor to subvert these 
great pillars of human happiness, these firmest props of men and citizens. 
The mere politician, equally with the pious man, ought to respect and to 
cherish them. A volume could not trace all their connections with private 
and public felicity. Let it simply be asked; where is the security for prop- 
erty, for reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the 
oaths which are the instruments of investigation in courts of justice? And 
let us with caution indulge the supposition that morality can be maintained 
without religion. Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined 
education on minds of peculiar structure, reason and experience both forbid 
us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious prin- 
ciple. It is substantially true that virtue or morality is a necessary spring of 
popular government. The rule, indeed, extends with more or less force to 
every species of free govenment. Who that is a friend to it can look with 
indifference upon attempts to shake the foundation of the fabric." 



63 
THE FIRST IRISH IN ILLINOIS. 

[Reminiscent of old Kaskaskia Days, by P. T. Barry.l 

Individual Irislimen appeared early ou the scene in Illinois. They came in 
a military capacity. Having no government of their own to serve, they 
served others. The Irishman who had the distinction of first figuring in our 
annals was a Chevalier Makarty, who succeeded LaBuissoniere in 1751, in the 
command of the first French fort erected in the Mi^?sissippi valley — that of 
Chartres. He came from New Orleans with a small military force, and re- 
mained in charge until 1761, when, having erected near the old stockade a 
grand new fortress of stone, he was relieved by Captain Noyen de Villiers, 
and returned to France. 

Canada at that time extended to the Ohio river on the south and to the 
Mississippi on the west. There was not yet any map bearing the name of 
the empire state of the west. There was only a tribe of Indians inhabiting a 
portion of the immense northwest named the "lUini," that had its name 
given to the territory at the dividing up. Beyond the Mississippi was Span- 
ish territory. 

Uuder the French and Spanish systems of colonization at that date, Indian 
missions, military posts and towns went together. Old Kaskaskia, in what is 
now Randolph county, was the first seat of civilization in the gi'eat Mississippi 
basin, and was for a time the capital of the territory. Here many stirring 
events took place for many eventful years. In addition to a mission and a 
fort near by, it was made of greater importance with a legislature. Pere 
Marquette, the apostle of several states, laid its foundation in the year 1675, 
100 years before the breaking out of the war for American independence. 
Here savages and whites commingled. Also, the soldiers of France, Great 
Britain and America. And wherever there are soldiers there is to be found 
the ubiquitous Irishman. There was to be found French contentment, savage 
resentment and pioneer endurance. Vincennes, Pittsburg and Detroit were 
its nearest neighbors on the great western expanse. But, like the sites of 
Tyre and Sidon, famous in ancient history, it exists no more, the encroaching 
waters of the Mississippi having washed it away and made it a memory. 

After the capitulation of Quebec in 1763 the British claimed ownership of 
the whole of the French territory known as Canada, and prepared to garrison 
all the forts the French had erected, including Detroit, Peoria, Vincennes, 
Chartres, Cahokia, Kaskaskia, etc. The last named three were situated on 
the Mississippi river, and somewhat contiguous. 

On the 27th day of February, 1764, a Major Loftus of the British army 
then on duty in Florida, was ocdered to proceed to Fort Chartres and take 
possession of it. His name indicates his Irish origin, but if there be any mis- 
take in this, there certainly was not in his soldiers. They were of the 
Twenty-second British regiment, and were mostly Irishmen. Here, then, 
was presented the peculiar spectacle of one Irish commander in the service 
of a country not his own being required to evacuate his command to another 
Irishman in the service of a different country not his own. It reminds the 
writer somewhat of the Siege of Quebec by Richard Montgomery, an Irish- 
man in the service of the United States, when he asked its British commander. 
Sir Guy Carleton, another Irishman, and an old schoolmate, to surrender to 
the continental congress. But Major Loftus was not fortunate any more than 
General Montgomery. On the way. he and his command were attacked by 
the Indians, killing many of the soldiers, the remainder escaping down the 
Mississippi. Thus was the first Irish blood spilled in the Mississippi valley. 

Then another Irish officer, also in the British service, named George Crog- 
han, was ordered by Governor Murray to go foi'ward and secure thf desired 
posses.sion. Croghan had been quite a conspicuous figure in the British in- 
terest in those days in America. He ranked as major, and had been for 
many years a trader among the western India: s. Hardly another white man 
was in the prairie country before him. In describing the country afterwards, 
he said it looked like an ocean. The ground was exceedingly rich and full of 
all kinds of game, and at any time, in half a hour, he could kill all he wanted 



64 

He was commanded to go from Fort Pitt to make the way clear for the 
British advance to Forts Cahokia and Chartres. It was not the French alone 
that were to be considered, but the Indian Chieftains, as well. He first sent 
forward a Lieutenant Fraser to see the way clear, but the latter received 
rough treatment at Kaskaskia and leturned unsuccessful. It was said that 
Chief Pontiac was egged on to kill him, but he escaped without serious injury. 
Then Col. Croghan, who was also a British Df^puty Superintendent of Indian 
affairs, went forward himself. He left Fort Pitt (now Pittsburg) on May 15, 
1765, accompanied by a party of friendly Indians. His progress was unin- 
terrupted until he arrived at a small promontory on the Wabash, where he 
disembarked. On June 8, six miles below the stream he was suddenly at- 
tacked by a band of Kiekapoos, 80 in number. In the fight which followed 
Croghan lost two white men and three Indians, while most of his party, in- 
cluding himself, were wounded. A surrender was unavoidable, and the vic- 
torious Kiekapoos plundered the entire party. Subsequently the Indians 
confessed they had made a great mistake, and expressed sorrow for 
what had happened. They supposed, they said, that the friendly Indians 
accompanying Croghan were their deadly enemies, the Cherokees. They 
brought their prisoners in safety to Vincennes on the Wabash, where the 
Indians, many of whom had friendlj' acquaintance with Croghan, strongly 
condemned the Kiekapoos, and the latter in turn expressed deep sorrow for 
what they persisted in calling .h blunder. Further on the way he received a 
message from St. Ange, the French commander, cordially inviting him to 
advance to Fort Chartres. He proceeded but a short distance on his way, 
however, when he was met by a delegation of chiefs, representing various 
tribes of Indians, among whom was the hitherto implacable Pontiac, the 
great warrior, at the head of a large band of Ottawa braves, offering their 
services as an escort. At this juncture, and under this condition of things, 
Croghan did not deem it necessary to proceed further in person, the British 
claim to the territory being acknowledged by both French and Indians. 
This happy state showed that the Irishman must have used his diplomatic 
powers to excellent advantage. He then betook himself to Detroit to attend 
to other important business in the interest of his royal master, leaving his 
command in charge of another officer. 

Accompanied by Pontiac, Croghan crossed to Ft. Miami and descending the 
Miami held conferences with the different tribes dwelling in the immense 
forests which sheltered the banks of the stream. Passing thence up the De- 
troit he arrived at the fort on the 17th of August, where he found a vast con- 
course of neighboring tribes. The fear of punishment and the long priva- 
tions they had suffered from the suspension of their trade had banished every 
thought of hostility, and all were anxious for peace and its attendant bless- 
ings, jvtter numerous interviews with the different tribes in the old town 
hall where Pontiac first essayed the execution of his treachery, Croghan 
called a final meeting on the 27th of Auguot. Imitating the forest eloquence 
with which he had long been familiar, he thus addressed the convention: 

"Children, we are very glad to see so manj' of you present at your ancient 
council fire, which has been neglected for some time past. Since then high 
winds have blown and raised heavy clouds over our country. I now, by this 
belt rekindle your ancient fires and throw dry wood upon them that the blaze 
may ascend to Heaven, so that all nations may see it and know that you live 
in peace vsith your fathers the English. By this belt I disperse all the black 
clouds from over your heads that the sun may shine clear on your women 
and children, and that those unborn may enjoy the blessings of this general 
peace, now so happily settled between your fathers the English and you and 
all your younger brethren toward the sunsetting." 

PONTIAC'S REPLY. 

"Father, we have all smoked together out of this peace pipe and as the 
great Spirit has brought us together for good, I declare to all the nations that 
I have made peace with the English. In the presence of all the tribes now 
assembled I take the king of England for my father and dedicate this to his 
use that henceforth we may visit him and smoke together in peace." 



65 

The object of Croghan's visit being thus accomplished he was prepared to 
depart, but before doing so he exacted a promise from Pontiac that the fol- 
lowing spring he would appear at Oswego and enter-into a treaty with Sir 
William Johnson in behalf of the western nations associated with him in the 
late war. 

In September, 1768, came John Wilkins, Lieutenant Colonel of "His Ma- 
jesty's Eighteenth or Royal regiment of Ireland," and commandant through- 
out the Illinois country. Several companies of this regiment came with him 
from Philadelphia and occupied quarters at Kaskaskia. The experience of 
those troops was not good, but it was common to that of all new comei-s in 
the aguish "American bottom." The sickness among them was not only very 
great, but very fatal. At one time, out of five companies, only a corpcral 
and six men were found fit for duty. 

Captain Hugh Lord became the next commander of the Royal Irish regi- 
ment, and continued so until the year 1775. The British governor at Kaskas- 
kia at this time was a Chevalier Rocheblave, strange to say a Frenchman. It 
was at this time that the colonists began to defy George III., and the Irish 
soldiers of the old French outposts were persistent in showing sympathy for 
them, and their leaning toward the American cause was such that poor old 
Rocheblave declared it worried him to see men of British birth giving him 
more trouble than the French. After a time most of the Irish soldiers of 
Britain were drawn off for service elsewhere, and the French residents were 
organized into militia. Their captain was one Richard McCarty, a resident 
of Cahokia. There was another McCarty who built a water mill on the 
Cahokia creek near lUinoistown at a later date, who was known as "English 
McCarty." 

In 1778, Irish Americans began to appear on the scene, with the invasion of 
General George Rogers Clark, the Virginian. What Clark's ancestry was re- 
mains in some doubt. His biographer, English, thinks his ancestors came 
*■ from Albion, but is able to give no particulars. The Scotch- Irish society 
claims that he is of Ulster blood. At any rate he conquered that portion of 
British territory that had formerly belonged to the French, and from which 
five sovereign states of the Union have been carved. His army was com- 
posed of Virginians and Pennsylvanians, many of whom were Irish either by 
birth or by blood. He was materially assisted by the French settlers, under 
the leadership of Father Gibault, the republican priest of Kaskaskia. To the 
latter and one Col. Francis Vigo, a native of Sardinia, who was married to an 
Irish lady (a Miss Shannon) was the success of the Virginian invasion mostly 
due, and the annexation of the prairie country to American territory. Clark 
affiliated very closely with the Irish. It is due to him to say that he was a 
brave and generous man, whose services to his young country can never be 
forgotten. His invasion of this wilderness and its conquest, it must be rem- 
embered, was under the direction of Governor Patrick Henry of Virginia, and 
to him alone he was responsible. The first of his Irish relatives to deserve 
notice was William Croghan, a nephew of Major George Croghan, the British 
officer already alluded to. He cherished no love in his heart for Great Britain 
or her monarch. He had resigned the British for the American service. He 
left Ireland for America when quite young, and was long in the employ of the 
British as an Indian agent, like his uncle. He joined the American forces at 
Pittsburg and witnessed the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown. He mar- 
ried Lucy Rogers Clark, sister of the famous general. When he joined the 
American forces, he was assigned to Col. Werder's Virginia regiment, shortly 
after the battle of Long Island, and continued in active service for years. 
He was promoted to the rank of major in 1778, and was assigned to Col. 
John Neville's Fourth Virginia regiment and participated in the battle of 
Monmouth. He marched with the Virginia troops to Charleston, South Caro- 
lina, where the whole American army at that place was compelled to sur- 
render to the enemy. In 1781 he was paroled and went to Virginia with his 
friend. Col. Jonathan Clark, brother of the general, and for a time was the 
guest of Cololonel Clark's father in Caroline couuty. It was there he met 
the woman who was destined to be his wife. He was afterwards a delegate 

— 5H 



66 

to the Kentucky coDvention of 1789 and 1790, and was one of the commis- 
sioners to divide the land allotted to the soldiers engaged in the conquest of 
the northwest. He left six sons and two daughters. One of his daughters 
became the wife of Thomas Jessup, adjutant-general U. S. A. His son 
George married a Miss Livingston of the noted New York family. This son 
George greatly distinguished himself at the battle of Tippecanoe in 1811, and 
subsequently in the Mexican war. He was a major at the time of his defense 
of Fort Stephenson at Lower Sandusky, and congress presented him with a 
medal for his gallantry. A splendid monument has been erected to his 
memory at Fremont, Ohio. The elder Croghan died in 1822, and his widow 
in 1838. 

Frances Eleanor Clark, yoangest sister of the old hero, married Dr. 
James O'Fallon, whom the memoir says was a finely educated Irishman who 
came to America shortly before the revolution. He was an officer during the 
war for independence, and was the founder of the well-known O'Fallon 
family of St. Louis, and which has been so conspicuous in the history of that 
great city. There is also a town named after one of the members of this 
family in St. Clair county, this State. To his two nephews, John and Ben- 
jamin O'Fallon, General Clark willed 3,000 acres of land. 

Another nephew and heir of the general, was George Rogers Clark Sulli- 
van, who was honorably identified with Indiana affairs during the territorial 
period, and who left a long line of prominent descendants, after one of which 
is named Sullivan county in that state. 

In Gen. George Kogers Clark's army for the conquest of Kaskaskia, 
Cahokia and Vincennes were many men with Irish names, and when we take 
into account the Irish, then so very numerous in Pennsylvania and Virginia, 
it would not be surprising if one-half of it was composed of Irishmen and 
Irish-Americans. In this army were 236 privates, besides officers. Some of 
the names of the latter are as follows: Maj. Thomas Quirk (who was origi- 
nally a sergeant in Captain McHarrod's company and rendered some military 
service on the frontier before and after the Illinois campaign.) Clark's bio- 
grapher says "Quirk was a brave and fine looking Irishman." He died in 
Louisville, Kentucky, in the fall of 1803. He was allotted 4,312 acres of land 
for his valuable army services. 

Capt. John Montgomery, who is stated in one place to be "an Irishman 
full of fight," was one of Clark's most valued officers, and had been one of 
the celebrated party of "Long Hunters." 

Col. John Campbell, who was one of the commissioners for the allotment 
of Clark's land grant of 149,000 acres, to the men engaged in his Illinois cam- 
paigns, was an Irishman by birth, and a man accredited with much force of 
character. He was a member of the Kentucky convention of 1792, and a 
member of the legislature. He died without issue. After Campbell came 
James F. Moore, Alexander Breckenridge, Richard Taylor and Robert 
Breckenridge, as land commissioners. James F. Moore had been a soldier 
under Clark, and also, subsequently, a member of the Kentucky house of 
representatives. Here are names that are suggestive of subsequent presi- 
dents of the United States. Richard Taylor was a native of Virginia, of Irish 
extraction. He removed in 1785 to Kentucky; was a soldier of the revolution 
holding the rank of lieutentant-colonel at its close. He was the father of the 
hero of the Rio Grande, Gen. Zachary Taylor, and twelfth president of the 
United States, Robert Breckenridge, also of Irish extraction, was a member 
of the Kentucky legislature, and speaker of the house of representatives 
several times. He was the ancestor of John C. Breckenridge, vice-president 
with James Buchanan, and subsequently a presidential candidate, himself. 

Colonel Archibald Lochrey was county lieutenant of Westmoreland county, 
Pennsylvania, and started with his command from Carnahan's blockhouse 
August, 1781, to join General Clark's Illinois forces, with a company of vol- 
unteer riflemen raised by Captain Robert Orr; two companies of rangers 
under Captain Thomas Stockley, and a company of horse under Captain 
William Campbell, for the reduction of Detroit, then in the possession of the 
British. Stockley was met and defeated by Indians in the British service 



67 

In fact, the whole of Colonel Lochrey's expedition was defeated, 41 men bein? 
killed, and the rest taken prisoners. When certain facts with regard to the 
Britisb forces became known at Kaskaskia, it was determined to raise a small 
American force and make a raid against Fort St. Joseph, a British post 
situated on the St. Joseph river. The company consisted of only 17 men and 
was commanded by Thomas Brady, a patriotic Irish-American citizen of 
Cahokia, who had emigrated hither from Pennsylvania, and who was de- 
scribed as being "both restless and daring." He marched across the country 
in October and succeeded in eluding the Indian guards and capturing the 
place, taking a few British prisoners, together with a large quantity of goods. 
Being overconfident, on his return he was attacked by a force of Pottawat- 
tomies and British traders, hastily organized for the purpose, and while lay- 
ing encamped on the Calumet river, near Chicago, was defeated. Two of 
his men were killed, two wounded and ten taken prisoners. Brady, with two 
others, succeeded in making their escape, and returned to Cahokia. But he 
did not rest until he organized another expedition to rescue his friends and 
avenge his defeat. He was joined by a party of Spaniards from the west 
side of the Mississippi, the Spanish territory, and retook the place without 
striking a blow, and the Spanish flag for a short time replaced the British. 
The event was a small one, but Spain had the cheek to demand the country 
on account of it. 

This Thomas Brady, and one William Arundel (an Irishman from Canada, 
and an Indian trader in Cahokia in 1783), and Captain Richard MeCarty, 
already mentioned, and a small party of hunters that joined General Clark's 
expedition in 1778, were the only white men in Illinois territory besides the 
French Canadians, and a few old soldiers, at the time of Clark's conquest. 
They resided at Cahokia. Brady was afterwards sheriff of St. Clair county. 

Among other names of officers that are likely to have been Irish or Irish- 
American in Clark's army, are those of Colonel Benjamin Logan, Captain 
John Bailey, Captain Robert Orr, Captain William Campbell, Colonel William 
Davis, Lieutenant Martin Carney, Thomas Dalton and Major Denny. 

General Clark wrote a letter to the Governor of Virginia (Patrick Henry) 
from Kentucky on Oct. 12, 1782, in which he said, "I had the pleasure of 
receiving your letter by Major Walls and Mr. Kearney, the 30th of July past, 
at which time the gentlemen arrived with stores all safe, after surmounting 
uncommon difficulties. They arrived in time to save troops from deserting." 
This shows that the Irish were pretty well in evidence both in Virginia and 
the northwest at that period. 

Subjoined is a list of the privates taken from one page only of the printed 
roster of Clark's soldiers of the Illinois expedition, that were entitled to re- 
ceive, each, 108 acres of land, as printed in English's life of General Clark: 
Moses Lunsford, Abraham Lusado, Richard Luttrell, John Lyons, Joseph 
Lyne, Francis McDerraott, David McDonald, John McGar, Alex. Mclnt^re, 
Geo. McMannus Sr., John McMannus Jr., Samuel McMuUen, James McNutt, 
Florence Mahoney, Jonas Manifee, Patrick Marr, Charles Martin, Nathaniel 
Mersham, Abraham Miller, John Montgomery, James Monroe, John Moore, 
Thos. Moore, John Murphy and Edward Murray. 

James Curry was the name of one of Clark's soldiers who proved himself a 
rather extraordinary fellow, and a fearless pioneer. A band of Indians had 
wounded a comrade of his named Levi Teel, in his own house, when Curry 
was presi-nt. Seeing the enemy coming he jumped up into the loft of the 
house, with the hope of driving them away before Teel could have time to 
open the door to admit them. He shot three times and killed an Indian every 
time. He then got down to see what had happened to Teel, and found him 
transfixed by one of his hands with a spear to the floor. Curry got up again 
into the loft and tumbled the whole roof down, weight poles and all, on the 
Indians, who were standing at the door with spears in their hands. Their 
chief was killed, and the others ran away. Curry hurried to Kaskaskia for 
help, and at last saved himself and companions from death. He was at the 
capture of Fort Gage and Sackville, the names given by the British to the 
old French forts. Curry was a great athlete, contending in all sorts of games, 



68 

and was not unlike Thomas Higfgins, another great Irish fighter of a later 
date. In all desperate and hazardous services, Clark chose him, first of all, 
to act in places of peril and danger. Curry and Joseph Anderson, who after- 
wards lived and died on Nine Mile creek, Randolph county, were out hunt- 
ing, and the Indians, it is supposed, killed Curry, as he went out from their 
camp and never returned. This was the sad end of one of our bravest and 
most patriotic Irish American heroes, "the noble hearted James Curry," as 
he is styled in history, and whose services were so conspicuous in the eon- 
quest of Illinois. His body was never recovered. 

Edward Bulger was a private in Captain Joseph Bowman's company in the 
Illinois campaign. He was al'terwards an ensign in Captain William Har- 
rod's expedition against Vincennes, and in General Clark's first expedition 
against the Indians in Ohio. He was mortally wounded in the Battle of Blue 
Licks, 1782, at which time he had been promoted to the rank of major. He 
was one of the early explorers of Kentucky, where he was with Wite, Bow- 
man and others in the spring of 1775. These were probably the first white 
visitors to what subsequentlj' became Warren county. Hugh Lynch was an- 
other of this party, and William Buchanan another. Daniel Murray was the 
name of an Irishman who supplied provisions for Clark's Illinois army. 

One of the forgotten names of men who did great service to the republic in 
the Revolutionary war was Oliver Pollock, an Irishman born. He performed 
the same kind of service in the west that Robert Morris performed in the 
east. He financed General Clark's military campaign in Illinois and Indiana 
and without his aid they must have been failures. He was born in Ireland in 
the year 1737 and came to America with his father. On account of his inti- 
macy with General O'Reilly, who was then governor of Cuba, he was able to 
borrow from the royal treasury of Spain the sum of $70,000, which he lent to 
the State of Virginia for Clark's use in the campaigns mentioned. He was 
not reimbursed, and consequently was not able to make good what he had 
borrowed, which caused his arrest and imprisonment in Havana. He died in 
Mississippi in 1823. 

In 1778, when Clark was approaching Kaskaskia to surprise the British, 
then in possession of the fort, he took two men from that party of American 
hunters led by one John Duff, that he met on the way, to act as his spies. 
They had left Kaskaskia but a few days before. These men were Jas. 
Moore and Thomas Dunn, as to whose nationality, from their names, there 
can be no mistake. 

General St. Clair, a Scotsman, was afterwards military commander of the 
northwest. He was succeeded by General Anthony (Mad Anthony) Wayne, 
an Irishman born, who conducted the war with the Indians in 1791. Under 
St. Clair the battle of Ft. Henry was fought and resulted in a great American 
disaster. But General Wayne gained a great victory at the Maumee Rapids 
on August 20, 1794, which led to the suspension of hostilities. 

One of the authorities that we have recourse to in writing these annals is 
the "Pioneer History of Illinois," by ex-Governor John Reynolds, a man of 
Irish parentage, born in Pennsylvania, and who filled nearly every office, 
legislative, judicial, and administrative in the State of Illinois. His place of 
residence was Cahokia, a short distance south of St. Louis, on the Illinois 
side. 

John Reynolds, in his "Pioneer Days," described his father as "an Irish- 
man who hated England with a ten-horse power," and there is no surmise in 
saying tnat he himself hated her just as much, as he was an ardent admirer 
of "Old Hickory." Neither did he want to be set down as an Anglo-Saxon, 
He repulsed the insinuations in the following emphatic language: 

"Our old enemies, the English, and their American friends, give us the name 
of New Anglo-Saxons. It is true the most of the Americans are the descend- 
ants of Europeans, but the preponderance of blood is not of the Anglo Saxon 
race. There are more of the descendants of the Irish and Germans in the 
United States than the English." If that were true 70 years ago, certainly it 
is more true now. 



69 

We have already alluded, in connection with Curry's achievements as an 
Indian fighter, to the name of Tom Higrs:ins. One of his noted encounters 
with Indians, is described in Governor Reynolds' book, with thrilling^ effect. 
This noted Irish-American pioneer resided in Fayette county for many years, 
where lie raised a large family, and died in 1829. He received a pension, 
pursued farming, and at one time was doorkeeper of the general assembly 
at Vandalia. 

John Edgar was a merchant at Kaskaskia, and at that time the richest man 
in the territory. His wife was a lady of rare talents, and presided over the 
finest and most hospitable mansion in Kaskaskia. At this house was enter- 
tained General LaFayette, when he visited this country in 1825. Mr. Edgar's 
memory is honored by having an Illinois county named for him. 

In Mrs. Robert Morrison, Kaskaskia possessed another lady of Irish an- 
cestry, who was an ornament to Illinois society at that early day. Mrs. Mor- 
rison was reared and educated in the city of Baltimore, and in 1805 she 
accompanied her brother Colonel Donaldson, to St. Louis; then in the far-off 
wilds of the west, whither he was sent as a commissioner to investigate the 
title lands. Sbe was married the following year to Robert Morrison of Kas- 
kaskia, which place became her residence thereafter. Well educated, 
sprightly and energetic, she possessed a mind gifted with originality, imagi- 
nation and x'omance. Her delight was in the rosy field of poetry. Her pen 
was seldom idle. She composed with a ready facility and her writings pos- 
sessed a high degree of merit. Her contributions to the scientific publications 
of Mr. Welch of Philadelphia, and other periodicals of the period, iu both 
verse and prose, were much admired. Nor did the pnlitical discussions of 
her day escape her ready pen. She was a member of the Roman Catholic 
communion, and shed lustre on her co-religionists. The Morrison family is 
one of the best known politically and socially in the State. While Mrs. 
Edgar entertained General LaFayette at a grand reception, Mrs. Morrison 
entertained him with a grand ball on the occasion referred to in the fore- 
going. 

The territory of Illinois was organized on the 16th day of June, 1809- 
Michael Jones and E. Backus were appointed respectively registrar and re- 
ceiver of the land office in Kaskaskia. At this time one McCawley, an 
Irishman, had penetrated further into the interior of the territory than any- 
one else — to the crossing of the Little Wabash by the Vincennes road. 

The writer cannot resist the temptation to relate an anecdote of General 
James Shields, a hero of the Mexican war, who cut so conspicuous a figure in 
old Kaskaskia days. The anecdote he related himself, in a lecture delivered 
in Chicago shortly before his death. He arrived in Illinois on foot soon after 
he left Ireland for America, looking for employment. On the way, he fell in 
with a young man engaged in a similar pursuit, and who was companionable, 
so they traveled together. Reaching Kaskacikia, Mr. Shields secured em- 
ployment there, as a school teacher, and remained. His companion was not 
so successful, and went on, traveling in the direction of St. Louis. Shields 
rapidly rose from one position of distinction to another, and when the Mexi- 
can war was declared he was filling the position of a land commissioner at 
Washington. He hastened to Kaskaskia with President Polk's commission 
in his pocket, to raise an Illinois regiment, of which he was to be colonel. 
He was successful in this, went to Mexico, and distinguished himself in several 
battles, iu one of which he was supposed to be mortally wounded, but re- 
covered. He became a general and a hero. When the war was over and he 
returned to the United States he was lionized and invited to a, number of 
state fairs and cities as an attraction. St. Louis honored him in this way, 
and made unusual preparations for his reception. The mayor and corpora- 
tion went out to receive him. His reception was most cordial. The mayor, 
Hon. John M. Krum, grasped him warmly by the hand and looked him sig- 
nificantly in the face. "Do you not know me, general?" he asked. "I do 
not, Mr. Mayor, who are you?" "I am the man who tramped with you to 
Kaskaskia, many years ago, and walked on to St. Louis." 

'"Good God! I am delighted to see you," was the exclamation of his dis- 
tinguished guest. 



70 

The Irish not only made history in those early days, but have also written 
it. To the pen of John B. Dillon of Indiana, we are indebted for the best 
history of the northwest; to John Gillmary Shea of New York we are under 
obligaMon for a complete knowledge of the early Catholic missions among the 
Indians, and ex-Governor Reynolds has narrated for us our own pioneer story, 
with its grotesque conditions, its many deprivations and numerous deeds of 
dariug. For many of the incidents in this essay, especially those relating to 
General George Rogers Clark and his men, and the conquest of the north- 
west, I am indebted to the "Life of General Clark," by a Mr. English of 
Indiana. 

Were it not for the fear of making this essay too long, I might show how 
15 to 20 names of Illinois counties have Irish associations; what prominent 
parts Irishmen and the sons of Irishmen of Illinois took in the war of 1812, 
the Black- Hawk war, the Mexican war and the war of the rebellion; how they 
filled gubernatorial chairs, prominent positions in State and nation, as the 
representatives of the people; how they have been foremost in the professions 
of law. medicine and divinity. On the muster roll of famous men they have 
three Logans, the two Reynolds, Carlin, Kinney, Ford, Kane, Shields, Ewing, 
McLaughlin, Mulligan, Medill, Ryan, and many others too numerous to men- 
tion. Not as public and professional men alone has the Irish contingent been 
valuable to the State of Illinois, but also as tillers of the soil, as miners and 
manufacturers; for in the infantile condition of our commonwealth the men 
of hardest muscle and most exacting toil were our Irish immigrants. They 
did the excavating on our canals, and the grading on our first railroads, and 
wherever hard work was to be performed, there you were sure to find Paddy 
with his spade and pipe. May I not claim that that herculean form repre- 
senting "'the Digger," in the statue of Mulligan, standing at the entrance of 
the drainage canal, near Chicago, answers for the Irish canaler of former as 
well as later days? 

Nearly 50 years ago Thomas D'Arcy McGee, an American Irish poet, and 
at the time of his death a leading statesman of Canada, of wide fame and re- 
nowned memory, wrote of the Irish prairie farmer in Illinois as follows: 

" 'Tis ten long years since Eileen bawn 

Adventured with her Irish boy 
Across the seas and settled on 

A prairie farm in Illinois. 

"Sweet waves the sea of Summer flowers 

Around our wayside cot so coy. 
Where Eileen sings away the hours 

That light my task in Illinois. 

Chorus — 

"The Irish homes of Illinois, 
The happy homes of Illinois, 

No landlord there 

Can cause despair. 
Nor blight our fields in Illinois!" 



ILLINOIS AND ITS PEOPLE. 

By Qeorsre Murray McConnel. (Read also, by invitation, before the Chicago Historical So- 
ciety. April 18, 1902). 

Before I try to say anything on the subject of "The People of Illinois, 
their Home, their Origins and Some of their Traits," the theme on which I 
propose to offer you a few random reflections, permit me to publicly express 
my deep eense of the compliment implied in being permitted to appear be- 
fore you at all. An engrossing vocation, trying to fill one or another edi- 
torial place in the daily journalism of a large city, and that largely on the 
artistic or ornamental side of life, binds the active thinking of the average 
man too closely to the current process of making history, for him to give 
much study to history that has long been made. When I had the honor of 



71 

being permitted to talk to you two years ago in Peoria I approached the 
privile'ife with no little trepidation, and it was, therefore, with the deepest 
gratification that I received permission to stand before you on this occasion, 
and learned thereby that I had not been wholly forgotten, or rather that the 
theme upon which I then spoke to you had left some impressiou in your 
minds. You will, I am sure, understand the gratification it must be to any 
one to be thus practically assured that anything he has said has been con- 
sidered worthy of being remembered. 1 beg to assure you that I am far from 
insensible of the compliment. 

I mean now to address to you some reflections that have drifted across my 
thought from time to time touching our State, its people, the sources whence 
they sprung, some of the conspicuous results to their character, with prob- 
ably more or less reference to some of the occasions when those traits were 
manifested in action. Let me say at once, however, that 1 shall deal very 
little, if at ail, with dates or statistics, or only in the most cursory and gen- 
eral way. It is impossible for me, even if I were intellectually equipped for 
the task, to devote the necessary time to the study demanded of one who 
would follow out any closely argued statistical theme. I look upon myself 
rather in the light of an entertainer than an instructor, and shall try not to 
be tedious enough to fall without the limits of my own definition. 

There ;ire few things, in this world in which we live, more impressiye than 
a groat river, and the valley, at once dominant and tributary, through which 
it flows. We stand upon its banks and as its flood pours steadily by, uu- 
hasting and unresting, he must be little thoughtful to whom there does not 
come the reflection that even as he sees it today it has flowed for uncounted 
ages in the past and must flow through the uncountable aeons of the future. 
The ocean is grander, a faint image of eternity. But the ocean is impersonal. 
It rolls around the globe its "grey and melancholy waste," while the thunder 
of its surges is for all the families of men. The river is personal, in a large 
sense, to its valley, and to no other part of the world. Through this valley 
it flows on age after age, watering and enlivening and making habitable, 
bringing its people into close relations, greeting them a constant and unfail- 
ing friend from youth to hoary age. 

In any great valley it is always the most conspicuous object, partly be- 
cause it is practically central, and partly because it is one which, 
at least in one dimension, men's eyes may see and their minds 
grasp. And so we always speak of the valley as the valley of the 
river, and in the common mind perhaps there is the more or less vague 
impression that the valley exists because of the river— that the river made 
the valley. This is not the fact. The river may, often does, make a gorge 
or a canon. It never makes the valley. It is the valley that makes the 
river. Other great natural causes first determine what the valley shall be, 
and then the valley determines what the river shall be. 

The Mississippi is one of the great rivers of the world. In some of its at- 
tributes it is the greatest of the world's rivers. Take your map of North 
America and look at it. I do not deal in exact figures, but from Lake Glazier 
to the gulf it rolls through more than 2,000 miles of the richest country on the 
globe. Eastward it reaches with its long arm, the Ohio, something lik« 1,000 
miles into the Pennsylvania hills, and from the west it draws through the 
turbulent Missouri into its gulfward flow the water that fell in glitteriug crys- 
tals on the peaks of the Rockies 3,000 miles away from where they impinge 
on the Illinois shore and are turned finally to the tropical gulf. Besides these 
the map will show you a score or more of other arms, reaching hundreds of 
miles away into all parts of the great basin, significant in the deepest sense 
of the homogenity of the basin itself. And among all these branching arms 
there are found all varieties of character. The placid Illinois glides peace- 
fully through smiling savannahs and blends smoothly as the passage of a 
dream with the southward flow, while in the next breath the mighty Missouri, 
after rioting across thousands of miles of mountain and plain, plunges fiercely 
into the same flow as if it would cut its way, like a colossal sabre, across Illi- 
nois, and push violently through to the sea somewhere along the Carolina or 
Georgia coast. But the conformation of the valley forbids — silently opposes 
itself to the riot of the current, bends it to its unshrinking will, and sends it, 



72 

chafing but obedient, along; the foreordained pathway to the gulf. All these 
streams alike, limpid or turbid, swift or sluggish, placid or fierce, are bent to 
the same silent but imperious will, each exercising its apt and proportioned 
influence ou the character of the final result, but all inexorably blended into 
the imposing river which rolls through the Louisiana cane and cotton fields a 
current mighty enough to engulf the dome of the national capitol, a tremen- 
dous force and volume which would not be all they are and exactly what they 
are, without all these contributions, with all their varying peculiarities, and 
none of which, neither contributions nor the colossal unit they make, could 
be at all except for the huge basin they drain with all its immensity of area 
all its endless wealth of resources. 

In many respects it is the most wonderful basin in the globe. The valley 
of the Nile once dominated the historic movement of the world, yet beside 
that where we dwell it was always a mere ribbon of verdure, less than a Ver- 
mont pumpkin patch beside the vast wheat fields of the Dakotas. The valley 
of the Amazon surpasses it in some respects, but it is a wild, tropical tangle, 
which man yet sees no way to subdue to his uses. No part of our basin is 
shutout from man's uses. It is the natural seat of an empire vaster and 
more powerful than the world has known — vaster even than that which dimly 
dawned on Berkeley's poetic — and prophetic — vision. 

Turn again to the map, and see where Illinois sits enthroned in this more 
than imperial domain. Leaning her shoulder against one of the great inland 
seas which lie like a huge chain half across the continent, she stretches some- 
thing like 400 miles along the east side of the central river, holding within 
her single grasp the only method of linking that river with that chain of 
"unsalted seas,^' resting her foot on the great river's greatest eastern tribu- 
tary, and calmly facing the impetuous rush of that mightiest of tributary 
rivers that pours down from the far off golden mountains of the west. Re- 
mote from the ocean which is the highway of nations for mutual injury as 
well as benefit, she is yet in touch with it by either of two ways, one of which 
she has it in her power to command absolutely as an approach, and may 
readily be scarcely less potent over the other. She sits at the very heart of 
this mighty seat for empire, herself the richest portion of it in varied re- 
sources of wealth, and touching the chief channels of much the larger part 
of it for communication with the rest of the world. She is herself its heart, 
made so by the cosmic causes that made it a seat of empire, dowered forever 
by those causes, with a commanding voice in the shapmg of our imperial 
future. 

Position on the surface of the globe has always been 'a potent factor in 
determining the weight that any people may exert in the world's affairs. 
The Alps have gone far to make the Switzer what he is, rugged and freedom 
loving, but the very barriers that bred his virile independence and helped 
him to maintain it against Charles of Burgundy and all the rapacious of his- 
tory since his day, precluded the mountaineers from taking any great affirtn- 
ative part in world movements. Position likewise defended England, but in 
her case the means of defence she made her means of reaching all other 
shores, till her maritime power stands guard forever at every other nation's 
door. It can not but be true that the nature, character and resources of the 
seat of any people exercise an enormous influence on the development of the 
character of that people. In the old days, when war and conquest was the 
business of every people gifted with any strength for any purpose, wealth 
was not sought for its power but only for the indulgences it would buy. It 
was a means to luxury only, and luxury, when made an end, means deterior- 
ation. In those days wealth was weakness, and the plunderer followed in 
due and inevitable course. The touch of the modern commercial spirit, 
breeding increasing wants among men, changed all this as if by magic. 
Wealth became a century or two ago first the servant and then the ally of 
power. In our day it is power. 

"Ill fares that land to gathering ills a prey 
Where wealth accumulates and men decay" 
sang the poet of the eighteenth century. Yes— where men decay. Biit it is 
the use that men make of wealth that determines whether it shall minister to 



73 

their decay. The men who accumulate wealth in modern conditions do not 
use it for luxury in the sense of the old days. They are not milk sops nor 
dandies. As a rule they are men of daring: and they use their wealth for 
ends which, while they may, indeed, still further enrich the men themselves, 
are none the less world's ends, that everywhere broaden man's horizon and 
open the way to still higher ends. 

Here on the exhaustless prairies of Illinois, skirted by the great natural 
highways of the continent, lying at the very heart of the most unbroken im- 
perial domain in the temperate zone, where, only, men really mature, is sui-e 
to be the ultimate center of American wealth and power, already forshadowed 
by the wonderful development of the State's chief city, Chicago, and if of 
America, then of the world, because America already leads the world in 
wealth, and if in wealth, then in power, which in modern civilization is the 
ally and the creation of wealth. This is the home we have inherited. 

But in order that advantage shall be taken of this or any other part of the 
world we inhabit, it is necessary that those who occupy it must possess the 
elements of strong character and of growth. 

Before the white man came into this region at all, these broad prairies were 
probably occupied by many thousands of red men. But they warred among 
themselves. Between the strong confederation of the Iroquois in the far 
northeast and the uneonfederated but fierce tribes of the northwest, the 
tribe:- of the Illinois or Illini, had been crushed and wasted. The possession 
of the wealth which even they were able to draw from this teeming region 
had exerted on them the deteriorating influence it has always exerted on 
primative man, white as well as rel, befoi'e he has learned the great lesson 
of using it not as an end in itself but as a means to other ends. Its possession 
became a temptation to Sioux and Iroquois, and they both preyed on it and 
exterminated its possessors. When that heroic churchman. Father Marquette, 
first of all white men penetrated these wilds in 1673, he found red men, 
indeed, but they were few in number, scattered, weak, terrorized, marked 
unmistakably for early extinction. They knew not how to use the heritage 
they possessed, and in the course of nature — for that is her course, blink it 
how we may — it was inevitable that they must give way to those who better 
knew its use. 

Marquette, and LaSalle a decade later, found it a sort of debatable land, 
its long time people wasted and decaying, and both the Iroquois and the 
northw(^stern tribes using it only for predatory incursions, though the Iro- 
quois long afterwards claimed conquest by virtue of these plundering raids. 

Canada had long been in French possession, and long before they were 
there the Spanish had seated themselves in Mexico and sent expeditions, 
marauding expeditions largely, though not wholly such, as far northeast as 
into what is now Kansas. The discoveries of LaSalle soon set his people in 
motion toward the gulf coast, resulting in the settlements in New Orleans 
which gradually spread to the northward. The discoveries of Marquette set 
in motion another movement from Canada toward the Illinois country. 

These two movements sprang from the same source in Europe, but they 
seem to have been actuated by widel3' differing aims, and were conducted in 
widely differing methods. The southern immigrants from France were largely 
colonists in a true sense. They established communities and a tnmilylife, and 
while they traded largely with the red men, they worked more toward gradu- 
ally pushing forward into the wilderness communities of their own blood. 
They were all good churchmen indeed, but they seem never to have fallen 
under the same intimate Parisian si.nd church management that so closelj' fol- 
lowed up and hampered the French occupation of Canada. They never de- 
veloped any such class as the hardy coureurs de bois who went out from 
Canada into the wilds and drew the red man's trade to Montreal and Quebec. 

Parkman has made it clear how the French monarch?, influenced actively 
by the church, dreamed, indeed, of a great French kingdom in New France, 
but it was to be almost wholly a kingdom gallicized — and more or less chris- 
tianized — red men, and not a new kingdom of Frenchmen, except enough to 
establish and hold military posts and churchly mission stations. Hence they 



74 

did not encourage, but rather discouraered, emigration from France, in a true 
sense, and except for the few earlier French settlements in far northeastern 
Canada, little of French community life sprung up along the lakes. One re- 
sult of this wofully mistaken policy was the development of such men as the 
coureurs de hois, hardy, daring, enterprising in a way that seems queer to an 
Englishman, but not family nor community men, taking on with qualities of 
hardihood and self-reliance, independence of all the restraint and order of 
civilized society, almost savagely impatient of control. 

Here were two differing kinds of Frenchmen slowly pushing toward the 
Illinois country, one of them remaining where they came, and the other com- 
ing and going, but more or less drawu by the attractions of companionship, 
gradually drifting into the Illinois region and mingling their blood in mar- 
riage among their countrymen who had reached the same region by way of 
the southern gulf. 

Meantime Spanish ownership of the west side of the great river above what 
is now Louisiana, for a time, brought into the same or nearby region, an- 
other branch of European lineage. It looked as if providence, or destiny, 
had opened the way, by the practical removal of the red man, for the erec- 
tion of a great Latin power which should girdle and choke the feeble 
English communities along the A.tlautic, a kind of re-incarnation of the once 
conquering Latin race. And so it might, had the French king addressed 
himself to poaring into the region through both gateways the surplus popula- 
tion of France, eager enough to go, and not weakly frittered away his op- 
portunities in idle dreams of a great empire of red Frenchmen, or, more 
properly, of red Christians under French tutelage. 

But it was not to be. The rugged, iron nature of Puritan N'iw England 
held French power in Canada by the throat, till Wolfe broke it forever on the 
plains of Abraham, and meanwhile, over the mountain gaps of Carolina and 
Virginia, there began to slowly trickle the advance guard of that strange, stren- 
uous mingling of the Kelt and the Saxon — the fiery enthusiasm of the one 
backed by the unshrinking tenacity of the other — commonly known to us as the 
Scotch-Irish — the advance guard of that people who never relaxed their grip 
on Tennessee and Kentucky, who turned back only once in the long struggle, 
when they struck a crushing blow to British power at King's mountain, and 
have never failed to make a deep and lasting impression on every people with 
whom they have mingled. By and by the united power of the sturdy Penn- 
sylvania German, the curiously mingled Dutch- Saxon-Swede from New Jer- 
sey and New York, and the alert and restless Yankees into whom the Puri- 
tans had blossomed, burst through the narrow gateway between Lake Erie 
and the Ohio, long and stubbornly contested by the red races, and then 
Scotch-Irish, and Kelt and Saxon and German, and Dutchman and English- 
man, all modified and intensified by the vivid sky and vivid air of America, 
began to pour over the Illinois prairies, mingle with the little French com- 
munities and scattered Spanish alone: the State's western border, and all to 
absorb and reabsorb and be absorbed by each other, never losing out of the 
resultant the potency of any single one of the constituent ingredients. They 
began, in other words, that most marvelous of all natural processes, the evo- 
lution of a new racial type through the disintegration, the combination and 
reintegration of distinct types of race. The evolution of a new racial tj'pe in 
which there sleeps, ready to flash out on occasions, the potency of every trait 
of each one of the original constituents, all modified by their new internal re- 
lations, and all slowly settling into some definite form of activity m combina- 
tion, which is the new race. 

In this new race nothing is lost from any of the old. Some cf the traits of 
the smaller in number will seem to be lost, as a little white powder seems 
lost when dissolved in a goblet of water. But it is not lost. The water is not 
the same as before, though it may look the same. It has some new property 
that it did not have before, and when fitting occasion comes that property 
will assert itself. So all these races furnished traits and tendencies imd ca- 
pacities and adaptabilities, every one of which has gone into the strain of 
blood, there to exert more or less influence for good or ill. 



75 

From the end of the Revolution until toward the middle of the 19th century 
the populatioii of Illinois grew but slowly, comparatively, that is to say. 
There are five times as many people today in Chicago alone as there were in 
the whole State in 1840. This afforded time for the more thorough amalga- 
mation of the various strains that came early within its borders. It funiished 
the broad foundations with which subsequent accretions were forced to min- 
gle. It furnished the assimilating power to impart tone and cha,racter color 
to all that came after. In no other State in the Union, I believe, is the popu- 
lation of so variously composite a character. It is composite in all, but in 
none more than in Illinois. In our blood there is, more or less, a strain of 
that of the chivalric, pleasure and art loving French; the picturesquely ag- 
gressive Scotch-Irish — itself, by the way, a composite racial type; the sturdy, 
undying tenacity of the Anglo-Saxon; the brave, prudent, thoughtful, fore 
handed German; the stubborn, freedom loving, astute Dutchman; the alert, 
active, resourceful, tireless Yankee; the canny Scot; the free handed, hot 
blooded, gamecock of all the races, the Irishman — all now saturated, ani- 
mated, inspired by that wonderful state building genius which characterizes 
and moves in varying degrees all the Teutonic races. No people on earth are 
inheritors of more varieties of all the multiforrn gifts and capacities of the 
human family, the outcome of which is civilization under ordered law. 

It is worth at least passing notice that there seems to have been another 
example of what we call providential ordering in the way the early American 
population came into the State. The southern half of it held a very respect- 
able and thrifty population when the northern half was yet an unpeopled 
wilderness. As late as 1836, or thereabouts, when the State mapped out that 
then colossal system of railways and canals then called the Internal Improve- 
ment system, the line of railway projected where much of the main line of 
the Wabash railways now lies, passing through this then little village and 
through what is now the State capital, was called "The Northern Cross Rail- 
road." The bulk of the population lay south of it. Now, it is to the ma- 
jority of Illinoisans, rather a Southern Cross Railroad. This early popula- 
tion, largely made up from that same Scotch-Irish element and its immediate 
associates, filtered into the State from Virginia and the Carolinas, through 
Tennessee and Kentucky. Had the northeastern people earlier broken down 
the stubborn Indian resistance to the westward movement in Ohio and In- 
diana, it is highly probable, to say the least, that most of this Tennessee and 
Kentucky contribution to the peopling of Illinois would have been deflected 
and thrown further to the south and west. In such a contingency we would 
have lost, wholly or in large part, one of the most valuable, one of the most 
sturdy, aggressive and essentially American elements of our people. The 
mingling of this element with those who came later influenced decisively the 
development of the State into a great healthfully and practically conservative 
power in the nation. It furnished to us, for example, in his early boyhood, 
the great statesman who guided the nation through the greatest of all civil 
wars. It is a glory nearly equally divided that he had his birth in that south- 
ern immigration, and that it was here in an Illinois environment that he was 
developed into transcendent greatness, and in his career is a type of that Illi- 
nois power of development. It is so placed and endowed by nature and so 
prodigally peopled from all aggressive races, that, given the occasion and 
the opportunity, it develops and makes manifest the best in any man in 
whom dwells the seeds of any evolution. 

This, then, is the State, dowered by nature with commanding position and 
all the elements that make for the growth of power, and peopled by a race 
which is the resultant from the peaceable and unforced mingling, in varying 
proportions, of nearly all the affirmative and progressive peoples of civiliza- 
tion. 

Shall we not take a little more time, and by glancing at certain of their 
acts, telling perhaps an incident or two, see whether what they have done in 
some more or less crucial circumstances bears out the indicated theory of 
what they are and the commanding force they yet may be? 

We would naturally expect such a people, compounded of the most active 
and enterprising strains of blood from so many active races, to be bold, self- 



76 

reliant, agprressive and combative. Passing so much of their time in the inde- 
pendence of isolation, they were long impatient of the restraints necessary in 
towns and other clustered communities, and hence every day that found 
many of them drawn together, as Saturdays usually did, and do still in slow- 
ly lessening degree, was more or less prolific of rough fighting between indi- 
viduals. In my boyhood in this now peaceful city, the Saturday that passed 
without such rencontres was rare indeed. Amusements were scanty. No- 
body, practically, engaged in furnishing them as a business. There was usually 
one, sometimes there were two circus days in a year, and these amusement 
caterers came from far away places. Men and women were obliged to furn- 
ish their own amusements, and in truth they were scanty enough. Children's 
books were practically unknown. Toys were even less known. Even in my 
day — and I was not born till Illinois had been many years a State — if I wanted 
a kite or a top, or a sled, or a wagon, or a bow and arrows, I had to manu- 
facture them for myself. In Jacksonville the old "corporation post" stood 
at the corner of the Rockwell place, and from there to the "big tree" then 
in front of the Duncan place, was called half a mile, and every Saturday aft- 
ernoon West State street for that distance, then simply "the Naples road," 
was a race track were there where tumultuous racing of horses and brawls 
without end. 

Since the world began the progressive peoples have been the fighting peo- 
ples. The composite race that grew out of the many elements drawn to Illi- 
nois has been conspicuous, as a thinker might have expected, for fighting 
courage. 

Nearly 30 years after Illinois became a State she was called on to furnish 
soldiers for our little war with Mexico. In the wonderful battle of Buena 
Vista she was represented by two regiments of foot. Col. John J. Hardin's, 
and Col. William H. Bissell's. By some misunderstanding of orders an Indi- 
ana regiment was posted out of supporting distance, and when assailed by a 
force five or more times larger, it was literally forced out of its position, 
though its men never left the field nor ceased fighting in the ranks of other 
organizations. 

This left the force of the exulting column of the enemy to fall on Colonel 
Bissell, posted some half a mile to the rear, but even there nearly out of 
supporting distance. The story of the strenuous racing of other troops, the First 
Illinois among them, to their support, thrilling as the blast of the trumpet, I do 
not tell. I only tell what happened to Bissell and his men. General Taylor 
saw that before those racing friends could reach them they must be struck 
and probably crushed, and an aide rode at speed to where Bissell calmly sat 
on his horse in rear of his regiment, directing its fire. He checked his foam- 
ing horse beside Bissell and with eager face and sinking heart, said: 

"General Taylor's compliments and asks if you can take the ground to the 
rear without danger of another panic?" 

Bissell straightened himself in his saddle, saluted and replied: 

"As surely, sir, as upon regimental drill." 

"Then do so," said the aide, "but do it at your peril!" 

Without a word Bissell rode close to his line, passed along it the order to 
"cease firing," then as the fire ceased, lifted his sword, commanded, "about 
face," scanned the lice as the men swung on their heeis, shouted "forward 
— steady men, steady — march!" and as they moved he slowly turned his 
harse and rode at a walk in their, then reversed, front, the aide riding be- 
side him hat in hand, and measuring the distance with his eye between ad- 
vancing friends from one way and advancing foes from the other. When he 
thought enough space covered to meet support in time, he said tremulously — 
it was the crucial moment — "That will do. Colonel!" 

Bissell rode a few steps further, glanced back at the advancing foe, then 
turned, and in a voice that rang along the whole line, shouted; "Battalion 
— Halt! About face! On the colors — dress!" 

The company officers repeated the orders — the line swung round and then 
stood fast, and again the rolling "fire by file" ran from right to left. 



77 

"The battle's won, by God!" shouted the astonished aide, and plunging 
his spurs in his horse, swept away to Taylor to report. 

This was the type of soldier that Illinois sent out in those days. Buena 
Vista was one of the most wonderful conflicts in the annals of civilized war- 
fare, and this was one of the most wonderful feats done in it, little, if at all, 
noted in current histories, but none the less wonderful for all that. 

Fifteen years later, in that dreadful first day of the sanguinary battle of 
Shiloh, fought against men at least equal in valor and superior in the long 
expectation and preparation for war, Illinois was represented by many regi- 
ments. None of them flinched though many of them were crushed or swept 
off their feet by the tremendous momentum of the southern rush. But on 
the extreme left of Grant's line there was another deed done of which history 
has said but little, but which, if it had not been done, would have left his- 
tory to flow in another channel. Everywhere from the extreme right toward 
this left wing the line had been more or less crushed and pushed backward. 
This position was held by a small brigade, composed in part of Ohio and in 
part of Illinois troops under command of an Illinois officer. Col. David 
Stuart, of Chicago. It was not involved in the first rush, and perhaps the 
foe counted on it being weakened to aid the other imperilled parts of the line, 
but the day was yet j'oung when the attack fell upon it also. It was beaten 
off, but again and again it was renewed with all the brilliant dash of the 
southern soldiery. All day long, with scarcely breathing space between, 
the soldiers of the south were hurled against this thin, stubborn line from 
the northwest. Once, when its right was endangered by the crushing of its 
neighbors, that right was swung backwards a little, but only when there was 
a lull in which it could be done safely. It was somewhat aided by the fire 
from a gun boat or two in the river, but there were times when that fire was 
well nigh as dangerous to friend as to foe. All day long their ears were 
filled with thunderous throbbing of the guns of a colossal struggle. They 
knew that their friends were giving way, nor knew at what moment the foe 
might overlap them and engulf them from the rear. But they were there to 
hold that position, and all day long against assault after assault, they held it. 
All day long they breasted the storm of battle in a death grapple against the 
bravest fighting soldiery the world has ever known — all day, hungry, thirsty, 
torn with shot and shell, powder blackened and bloody, they clung, practi- 
cally unaided, to their post, the one unbroken place in the whole original 
line, and nig-ht and Buell found Dave Stuart's exhausted but undaunted brig- 
ade standing practically where it stood when the first gun was fired. 

I recall these two little known incidents, because I regard them as typical 
of one of the conspicuous qualities of the race which, compounded from the 
most vigorous and adventurous blood of half a dozen distinct races, has here, 
on the rich prairies of Illinois, developed one of the highest types of that high 
quality, courage. Courage that does not vaunt itself in advance, does not 
fight from the mere love of fighting, that fights only from conviction of right 
and duty; courage that illuminates the animal with the intellectual; courage 
that once roused to action clings to its aim with an unblenching tenacity, 
ready to dare all and sacrifice all, never surpassed since the dawn of history. 

It is impossible to overestimate the value of this quality. It is, indeed, dis- 
played in its most spectacular form in the courage of battle, but if it is pos- 
sessed by any race it inevitably furnishes the determining factor in all they 
do, in war or peace. 

Twenty or more years before the civil war, the State, having plunged into 
schemes of expenditure well meaning but rash, the fruit of the "fluph times" 
of the thirties, found itself, after the great financial tempest of 1837, fright- 
fully loaded with debt; you will hear some of the particulars from others bet- 
ter able to recall them. It is not too much to say that they were appalled. 
Ever to pay the huge debt seemed impossible. The prospect appeared abso- 
lutely hopeless. The example of repudiation had been set in some other 
quarters, and no penalty for it was yet visible. It is not suprising that there 
were faint hearts which prompted the heads they controlled to propose that 
way of fancied escape. More or less covertly and by indirection it was urged. 



78 

and the battle was fought out before the people of the State. How it was 
done others may tell you. I deal altogether with broad generalities. The 
people of the State, hopelessly mired as they seemed, set their faces as flint 
against the policy. 

They had the courage to be honest. 

Earlier in their history, soon after they had been invested with the sover- 
eignty of statehood, the proposition to adopt a policy of slavery was pressed 
before them. Tne great body of the population of the State lay south of the 
State's central transverse line. The large majority of the State's people had 
come into it from, or by way of, the south, which was growing rich from 
slave labor. Many of them honestly believed it a condition sanctioned by the 
religion they professed. More were convinced that it opened the easiest and 
surest way to material wealth, political power and high social and intellectual 
culture in the dominant race. Looking at it in the light of that day, we 
should not feel surprise that many advocated it, many who were good citizens 
and good men in their day and generation. 

I do not pause to detail the long and anxious debate among the people, to 
weary you with dates or point out individuals who took this side or that. It 
is enough to say that the entire population was stirred and all men took sides, 
and while good faith to Virginia, which state had given the territory to the 
nation with the condition of freedom attached, was urged as a reason for 
negativing the proposition, it was devotion to freedom as a principle that was 
the controlling factor in the final decision. 

Nor was it overlooked that those who asserted the principle when they made 
the proposition, denied in that proposition the very principle under which 
they had assumed to act against the Virginia inhibition. On that broad ground 
the struggle was fought out, and slavery failed of recognition among a people 
most of whom knew it from having lived where it prevailed. 

They had the courage to be just. 

When this battle over slavery was fought out, the people who fought and 
decided it made an infant community, scattered as among themselves, in close 
touch with no neighbor, the nearest neighbors they had, slave holding com- 
munities, and forced to trust to an evidently remote future to vindicate the 
political and economic wisdom of their decision. That it was not, in fact, as 
remote as they thought it, does not detract a shade from the strength and 
virtue of the act. 

Turning aside for a space from the main current of what I am trying to say 
of our people, I feel that their attitude toward slavery has been of such 
transcendent moment in their development — into so much of what has been 
said of it so much of passion and prejudice and hasty generalization has en- 
tered — that it deserves some further elucidation as it seems to me now when 
I look back upon such of it as came under my observation with the passion 
all cooled, and the perspective corrected in its inter-relations by lapse of 
time. I feel, too, that I can best do this by telling the story of an actual 
happening here in this verdurous city when it was little more than a frontier 
village, at a time when the question was settled as to the State, but the feel- 
ing that later flamed out in civil war was still hot and was beginning to be 
fanned toward flame by the breezes from partisan struggle. It illustrates 
both the surface current and the mighty underflow that asserted its power 
when war came. 

The "underground railroad," as people called the more or less organized 
efforts of the opponents of negro slavery to aid fugitive slaves to escape from 
bondage into "the promised land" of Canada, was glorified by the success of 
its friends, and so found its way into literature and to the common knowledge 
of our people. Mrs. Stowe used it in her great revolutionary novel, and 
many localities in the border free states carrying more or less of its traditions 
to which honor is now paid. Anti-slavery writers have written of these es- 
capes as if nearly all the people of those states approved slavery, except of 
course, the few who managed the "railroad" aforesaid, and to such writers 
these latter were all heroes and potential martyrs. There was a reverse to 



79 

the "underground railroad" in more or less organized "gangs" of man- 
stealers who sought to "run-oft" negroes from the free states and sell them 
south. These free-booters were called kidnappers, a name then as well under- 
stood and distinctive as the antipodal abolitionist. The kidnapper never stop- 
ped to inquire whether his quarry was legally free or slave. He did not care 
a button. His purpose was personal gain. 

Connection with the "underground railroad" has come to be looked upon 
as a badge of honor. Connection with kidnapping was always disgraceful, 
and the fall of slavery disposed all involved in it to deny it or ignore it. The 
present generation, therefore, has acquired an erroneous theory of the atti- 
tude toward slavery of the people of the central west 50 years ago, and has 
only a vague notion of what the kidnappers were, or even that they existed at 
all, and, it would seem, might find some entertainment in a closser view. 

During "the forties" I was a boy here in this then small village, lying 
scarcely 50 miles from slave territory in Missouri. Of one family here all the 
members were avowed abolitionists. They were regarded with reasonable 
respect, but abolitionism was unquestionably a kind of "blot on their es- 
cutcheon." To steal a negro with a view to freeing him, was indeed, less 
infamous morally than to steal him to sell him into slavery. But either was 
stealing by law. 

1 well remember how the boys kept a furtive watch on their house, es- 
pecially after nightfall, with a vague dread of seeing some kinky-haired 
fugitive issue forth, provisioned for flight toward Canada, under convoy of 
some member of the family armed to the teeth. We looked upon that home 
as concealing as many mysteries as one of Mrs. Radcliffe's castles--all in- 
volving African blood. 

There was another family in town, the head of which was a grim, silent, 
saturnine old man, whose close shut lips we boys fancied must hide a tumul- 
tuous swarm of "runaway nigger" secrets, and he feared to open them lest 
the secrets escape. These two families were friendly, and if any of their 
members were seen talking together it was suspected — among the boys 
aforesaid— that the fact pointed to the transit of a fresh batch of runaways, 
at the least. These boyish fancies were reflections of "talk" among the 
elders, and quaintly illustrate the situation. 

The abolitionists — at least those who translated sentiment into action — were 
few, and in communities of Central and Southern Illinois, largely recruited 
as they were from Virginia, Tennessee and Kentucky, there were, probably, 
more individuals who believed slavery justified by the Bible, necessary to the 
south, and better for the enslaved than any freedom possible for them. But 
is is a mistake to measure the feeling of that day by the standard of the Civil 
war period or later. The majority were merely indifferent about slavery, so 
far as others were concerned. Accident, sentiment, or a preponderating ad- 
verse interest, had led them to reject it for themselves, but there was a feel- 
ing that if any community desired it, no other community had any right to 
say it nay. In other words they felt that there was a political, as well as a 
sentimental side, to slavery. They had no wish to hold slaves and would 
have resisted to the point of fighting, any attempt to force slaverj' on their 
communities, but they believed that others had the right to think otherwise 
and to resist to the same extremity any attempt to take their slaves from 
them. It is grossly unjust to that generation to imply, as many have done, 
that except the "abolitionist heroes," everybody was ready, if not to own 
slaves, yet to aid others actively in holding them in bondage. Very few 
would have lifted a finger to impede the escape of a slave unless in obedience 
to officers of the law. They did not actively engage in aiding escapes, but 
unless legally coerced they would do nothing to frustrate them. They looked 
upon the "underground railroad" as a defiance and violation of law, in which 
they themselves would not engage, but regarded those who would so engage 
with cool tolerance. If they should hear that their neighbor had a fugitive in 
his house and was helping him away, they might wonder at his taste and 
theoretically condemn his violation of the laws, but they would shut their 
eyes rather than see him and the fugitive flitting through the mirk of mid- 
night. The law might force them to interfere, but they would not do so ^ 
spontaneously. 



80 

It was far otherwise when any of the kidnapper class came to their notice 
through attempted action. In the considerable cities of the border slave 
states — St. Louis, Louisville, Baltimore — the slave markets were practically 
always open, and there were always middlemen, ready to buy in them and 
look for their profit in making up "gangs" to be sold in the far southern 
states, where slaves were in constant demand and "ruled high." In most 
cases there was no question of the legal ownership of the persons offered, 
and generally there was little disposition to question the title of the man 
offering. 

Investigation was perfunctory, unless there was active dispute by some- 
body, and the negro himself could rarely hope to be accounted that some- 
body. It was easy for a white man of intelligence and boldness to push a 
negro, who had no champion, to sale, and once gone into the rice or cotton 
fields such a negro's case was practically hopeless. 

Throughout the central states negroes were scattered in most of the larger 
towns and villages, and more sparsely in the farming regions. Some of them 
were born free, some of them had been manumitted, and some of them were 
fugitives stranded on their way to Canada, or cunning and bold enough to 
expect safety without going so far north. So long as one of these could call 
in the aid of white friends he or she was safe, but if one could be suddenly 
snatched away and hurried across the border, the case was desperate indeed. 

Along both sides of that border there were men who made a practice — 
though it could hardly be called a business, since it was not openly allowed — 
of enticing, or entrapping, or abducting negroes judged least capable of suc- 
cessful resistance, and "selling them south." Two or three — rarely more than 
four — operated together. One would place himself in St. Louis, for example, 
and by legitimate business transactions and various acts of good fellowship 
"establish a character" as a buyer and seller of slaves. The others would 
drift about among the not distant northern towns, and "study the situation," 
learning the antecedents and the circumstances of every negro likely to sell 
well, and selecting for prey such as seemed least fitted to defend themselves 
— even bribing other negroes to assist — and sometimes being decided to sud- 
den action by unforeseen opportunities. There were no telegraphs nor rail- 
ways, and the kidnapper could travel more rapidly than "the stage," since 
he generally had two or three or more good horses distributed along the line 
between the scene of his operations and the market city. Usually, too, he 
had many hours "the start" of all possible pursuit, and if he was bold and 
prompt he, as a rule, escaped with his victim, though he was sometimes over- 
hauled even after reaching the market. For this latter reason some preferred 
fewer transactions and larger profits by shunning the border state cities and 
themselves taking their quarries to the remoter southern markets. 

But when an alarm was given, no legal summons was needed to enlist 
nearly the whole community in the effort to defeat and to punish, legally or 
extra legally, any attempt to kidnap. Volunteers would spring up in the 
most unexpected quarters, and men who, in argument, would excuse and de- 
fend slavery with zeal, and even with heat, would join with no less energy in 
the pursuit and punishment of kidnappers. And this expresses the attitude 
of that generation. They were willing that others should have slavery, but 
would have none of it themselves. They would reluctantly obey the law to 
restore fugitives, but spontaneously volunteer punishment for every kid- 
napper. 

An incident of "the forties," in and near this village, will further illus" 
trate some of the ways of the kidnappers and how they were regarded by the 
people. There was living in my home, as a domestic, a young mulatto woman 
named Lucinda. She may have had some other name, after a fashion, but if 
so, I never knew it. She had been a slave in Kentucky, but had legally se- 
cured her freedom. 

There was in the same town a barber, a decidedly dandyish fellow, who 
maintained — as did many of mixed blood when color and hair permitted — that 
he was "part Indian," though everybody else believed him "part negro," 
He was a beau of Lucinda's, though the warier brothers of her race had 



81 

warned her against him, saying, not unwisely, that if he were really of Indian 
extraction, he was treacherous by birthright, and if only a pretended Indian, 
he was treacherous by choice. 

Early one summer there came a gentleman to town who claimed to be a 
southerner of wealth looking for a summer home. He claimed a good old 
Maryland name, and to those of us who were boys he "looked exactly like a 
southerner." But the real southerners by birth who lived in the village 
smiled, and said he was rather too tropical in style. I didn't know then what 
they meant, but I found out between 1861 and 1865, 

He soon knew Lucinda, leading her to suppose that he was a friend of her 
"old master" in Kentucky, as, indeed, he may have been. She was cautioned 
about him too, but it had little or no effect. One warm Sunday afternoon 
the barber came to take Lucinda driving, but said his horse and buggy were 
being driven around the block by a friend, because "the horse wouldn't 
stand." She went with him to the corner, a block away. I saw him help her 
into a buggy, only the back of which was presented to my vision, but the 
horse attached to which was standing quietly enough. She was to return by 
sunset, but little note was taken when she did not, for the barber was be- 
lieved to be intending marriage. But after we were all in bed, there was a 
thundering summons on the old fashioned brass knocker on the front door. 
On opening it, my father found a gentleman whom we will call Smith, be- 
cause that was not his name, accompanied by a young negro, who averred 
that he had seen the barber drive out with Lucinda, and that the "rig" be- 
longed to C , the Marylander. That he had seen the barber riding into 

town alone, after dark, on horseback, and not upon the horse he had driven. 

Smith was fiery and quick to suspect. He had gone to C 's hotel and been 

informed that he had left town by stage on the preceding evening, without 
surrendering his room. Smith at once suspected kidnapping, came to our 
house to learn if the girl had returned, and when he learned that she was 
still absent, he grew more fiercely excited, and my father was scarcely less 
so. One was a hot "Jackson Democrat" and the other a vehement "Henry 
Clay Whig," but they were one in heart and soul in this matter. Before 
midnight the story had been told and discussed, and both men, armed to the 
teeth, were gone. This much I saw and heard. The rest I only heard of, 
but very directly. 

They roused up the barber. He insisted, at first, that he had brought 
Lucinda back— that she had left him near the African Baptist church and he 
knew nothing more about her, but confronted with the negro who saw his 
return, and also with the lash of a carriage whip, backed by the blue barrel 
of a dueling pistol, he "weakened" and changed his type of lie. He denied 

knowing the rig to be C 's, saying he had hired it from the hotel stable, 

which was true, because the owner had authorized it. He said that six or 
seven miles from town he went into the woods for sassafras root, leaving 
Lucinda "holding the horse." That when he returned all had disappeared, 
and he grew angry because he thought it was a trick of hers to leave hirn in 
the woods and drive home by herself, so, after waiting for some time he hired 
a horse of the first farmer he could find, and rode home, saying nothing about 
it for fear of being laughed at. 

When Lucinda told her story it proved that the fellow told the truth as far 
as she knew. She said that within two minutes after he went into the 
"brush," Mr. C appeared on the other side of the road, expressed sur- 
prise at seeing her, came, closer, looked at the horse, proposed to drive to a 
tavern down the road and get her a watermelon while her escort was hunting 
sassafras, sprang into the buggy, took the lines, and not until they were 

several miles nearer St. Louis did she begin to suspect kidnapping. C 

eaid to her that her "beau" knew nothing of his, C 's purpose. The 

barber himself stoutly maintained that he was innocent, and Lucinda always 
believed him. but the dandy barber's "pull" with the community was gone, 
•^nd in a short time he too was gone, and never came back. 

— 6H. 



82 

Smith and my father did not believe his tale, but to rescue the girl, whom 

they now firmly believed to be in C 's hands was the first end to be sought, 

and they set out, driving my father's horse, about one o'clock Monday morn- 
ing. Two hours, or rather less, later, they roused a landlord in Manchester, 
16 miles away, hurriedly told their story, heard of the passage through the 
village of such a pair late in the afternoon before, secured a fresh horse, a 
lunch to be eaten while they drove, and were away. 

They heard of the pursued at various points, secured another fresh horse 
in Carrollton, where both were well known, volunteer assistants eagerly 
offering but always declined, and on Monday afternoon caught sight of their 
object somewhere near Jerseyville. Their too obvious eagerness to overtake 

alarrqed C , while they were still a quarter of a mile away, and he lashed 

his tired horse into a run. They did the same, and for two or three miles 
along the lonely prairie roads they drove a headlong chase, terminated by 

the bad stumbling of C 's horse and their drawing alongside before he 

could recover, with the muzzles of two dueling pistols accentuating their de- 
mand for surrender. 

Whether any shots were fired by anybody neither of the men would ever 
say, though both laughed at the suggestion as nonsense, and the girl always 

said she was too badly scared to know. C was never seen again, in 

Jacksonville at least, and the little luggage he left at the hotel was found to 
be utterly worthless. It seemed from what he said to the girl that he had 
expected at least 16 or 18 hours "start," and had neglected the usual precau- 
tion of fresh horses enroute, probably preferring the greater secrecy of but 
one horse to Alton, and there expecting to take boat for St. Louis. 

During Monday the story had gone abroad in many grotesque forms in 
Jacksonville, and volunteer aids in the pursuit had set out in buggies and on 
horseback who fell in behind Smith and my father when they were met re- 
turning, with the girl sitting on an upturned candle- box between their feet, 
so that when they arrived at home late on Tuesday afternoon they headed a 
little triumphal procession. Neither of them had rested, nor sat down at a 
table to eat, from the time they began the pursuit at midnight of Sunday till 
their return. Yet both these men, a few years afterward, when the anti- 
slavery fever ran high, were counted as partially pro-slavery men, though 
both were unflinchingly on the national side when the civil war broke out 
nearly 20 years later. 

This reminiscence of an almost forgotten time in central Illinois will illus- 
trate both the injustice often done to the attitude of that generation toward 
slavery, and some of the methods of a nefarious "industry" little treated by 
any writer, as well as the hatred with which that industry was regarded by 
the people. It is a peculiarly mild illustration of the latter. There was loud 
and deep grumbling at the mistaken mildness of letting the miscreant off un- 
hurt, on his pledge to keep away from Jacksonville. But the two principals 

stuck to their story and kept their own counsel, and C did keep away 

from Jacksonville. 

Turning back to the main line of my thought, if indeed I may dignify it by 
calling it thought, I remark that when, later, the people of Illinois refused to 
be crushed by appalling debt, they were still a scattered people, weak in 
numbers, and still out of touch with the great currents of the world's business 
and of its profits. They still had confidence in their future, and if the worst 
should come they felt that it was better to starve in honor than to fatten on 
broken faith. 

Both these crucial struggles roused the whole people to vigorous thinking 
and action. Both penetrated into every home — affected for good or ill the 
life of every man, woman and child — were the subjects of conversation and 
discussion when neighbors met, or strangers accosted each other along the 
lonely roads. Among almost any of the peoples of older countries questions 
of no graver import had served over and over again in human history to light 
the fires of rioting and civil war. Among these people they flashed now and 
then into a rough and tumble fight between individuals, perhaps, but they 
never bred any considerable disorders. 



83 

Among other peoples they would have been followed by years of smolder- 
ino; feuds and ever recurring revolutionary cabals and conspiracies. Among 
these people they left no taint of bitterness behind them. They were the 
concerns of the people, and the people had decided them peaceably, by the 
great democratic principle of the majority, and when the majority spoke, all 
men alike, openly, frankly, in manly good faith, acquiesced in the majority's 
mandate and with right good will set their shoulders to the wheel to work out 
the future, like Dumas' heroes, "each for all and all for each." 

They had faith in the democratic principle and they grounded their action 
on i i.Lir faith. 

Brave, honest, just, patient, resourceful, genuinely democratic, these are 
the characteristics which I hold that these crucial crises in our history prove 
to be conspicuous, determining qualities in the race which has com>' out of 
the welding of so many races, and, unhampered by artificial conditions, has 
expanded and strengthened its lungs, cleared and vitalized its blood and brain, 
intused its elastic spring into all who have mingled with it, and braced up its 
unshrinking soul to occupy and possess this heart of North America. 

I am aware that this is not the kind of paper to which historical societies 
are usually called to listen. I have shed no new light on the life or public 
services of any of the State's citizens, great or little; I have made no study 
of before-undigested statistics; I have dug up no forgotten passages of his- 
tory, nor even made a study of any particular period. I doubt if 1 have ad- 
verted to any fact which my hearers or some of them did not already know. 
If you ask why. then, have I occupied your time, I can only reply that it was 
because I thought that not to all of you has it occurred to think of all the re- 
lations of the well known facts I have mentioned to each other, and to our 
future, as I have dimly outlined. I am, unluckily for myself, no specialist, 
yet if the work? of specialists be not generalized by somebody, they lie in 
archives comparatively barren, and if into that generalization there be not 
breathed something of that wonderful gift of man — imagination, they do not 
bear that fruit they should, when the unseen contingencies of the future be- 
come the pressing problems of the present. As somebody pertinently said 
lone ago: "It was imagination that reared the wondrous dreamladder upon 
which Le Verrier mounted to a star." He took the isolated work of the 
specialists who had gone before him, generalized them into conclusions called 
hypotheses, and on these his imagination scaled the sky and added a new 
planet to our system. 

I have merely pointed out, with some emphasis possibly, facts you all knew 
before. And even if you have thought everything that 1 have said about 
them, placing them in the same relations and deducing from them similar 
conclusions, it may, at least, serve to encourage you to further thought, to 
find that another has been slowly plodding along the same lines. 

I ha 'e pointed to the fact that our State lies at the heart of North Ameri- 
can empire — using that woi'd in no narrow sense — and that the people who 
occupy it, if they are worthy of their heritage, may exert a commanding in- 
fluence on the evolution of the future. By way of contribution toward know- 
ing whether they are worthy, I have pointed to the fact that they are a 
composite race, made up of the aggressive elements of nearly all the pro- 
gressive races of modern civilization. I have pointed to the circumstances in 
which all those racial elements have been welded into one. And, by way of 
further contribution, have pointed to some of the things they have done — not 
the things their great men have done but the things done by the plain peo- 
ple, with the traits of character those acts imply, as earnest out of the past 
of what they may do in the future. I believe that if they all had seen this 
racial character — all these facts — as it seems to me — if they had fully re- 
flected that, in all circumstances, men do as they do because they are what 
they are, they would have met the problems of the past with a more hopeful, 
if not with more unflinching courage, and so would have been spared much 
painful doubt and misgiving, and been inspired with that buoyant elan which 
is in itself an element of victory. 



84 

The state, or national, manhood that would not merely struggle at the tail 
of the great march of human events, should have some such knowledge of 
itself, of what it has been and is, and so be clairvoyant of what it maybe. I 
have further sought, in this general and cursory way, to emphasize the 
thought that there is every reason for the people of Illinois to feel in an 
especial degree, the spur of that most inspiring of all incentives to "high 
emprise" in the evolution of history, that is embodied in the significant old 
French Noblesse Oblige. 



SOME FACTS IN THE JUDICIAL HISTORY OF ILLINOIS. 

[By J. O. Cuuningham.] 

It will only be claimed for this paper that it is a collation of facts from 
histories, reports, statutes, and other authorities already in print. They have 
been collected with a view to placing in a compact and concise form many in- 
teresting facts touching one of our most important departments of govern- 
ment. 

In all human governments there must and does exist, in some form or 
other, the legislative, the executive, and judicial departments. This division 
of the powers of government may have developed from the family or patriar- 
chal form, through the several stages of clans or tribes, into that more ex- 
tended form, the monarchy, where at first, all power was vested in the king; 
yet from necessity, history shows us, that early in the development of gov- 
ernments these several forms or departments have made their appearance, 
either as independent departments, as in oar system of republics, or as grants 
of power from the king, the source of all power. 

The exception to this exists where the government is that of a religious 
heirarchy, where the church through its priests, governs the people; at one 
and the same time making tne laws or rules of society, enforcing their exe- 
cution and sitting judicially for the settlement of controversies. 

The several forms of government under which the territory now called the 
State of Illinois, has existed since its settlement by civilized man, now 200 
years ago, has formed no exception to the general rules here stated. 

The first political connection of the "Illinois country" at that time being 
quite indefinable, except that it lay on both sides of the Mississippi and north 
of the Ohio, was under the jurisdiction of New France or Canada; but later 
under French authority, it was annexed to Louisiana, an equally indefinable 
territory. 

Early in 1718 Boisbrant, after the five years of failure of Crozat, as the 
king's lieutenant, with a detachment of troops came up the river from New 
Orleans to Kaskaskia and assumed control of the country, which was the 
first military occupation of the village. He selected the site for and erected 
Fort Chartres in 1720, at the expense of the company of the west. * 

As a part of the Province of Louisiana, the Illinois and Wabash country 
were, in 1723, established for civil and military purposes into a district called 
"Illinois and Wabash," by Bienville, the French governor of the western 
company, at New Orleans, t 

Later, under English authority, it was annexed to Canada by an act of the 
English parliament, under whose jurisdiction it was when George Rogers 
Clark again made the Fourth of July famous, by conquering the Illinois 
country for the new republic, on July 4, 1778, when, with all the country 
northwest of the Ohio, it passed forever from English control, and was soon 
thereafter established as the County of Illinois, under the State of Virginia, t 



* Illinois under French rale,l270. 

t lb. 225. 

i Henningr's statutes of Virginia. 



85 

The deed of cession of March 1, 1784, executed by authority of the state of 
Virginia, conveyed the territory to the United States government, where it 
has since remained, 34 years under territorial government, and 83 years as a 
sovereign State. 

Under each of these jurisdictions Illinois has had some kind of courts for 
the adjustment of controversies which inevitably arise among men. 

Under French jurisdiction, where the territory remained for about 100 
years, it can not be said that any legally organized courts, as we understand 
the term, with well defined jurisdiction and powers, ever existed. The 
French commandant of posts, or governor who was vested with both civil and 
military power, together with the resident priest, as an advisor or perhaps 
more often a priest alone, regulated the police of the country and gave 
friendly counsel which either settled all controversies or prevented them 
from arising. The customs of Paris, or more properly the laws of France, 
were recognized and governed in descents and all other things. The people 
paid no taxes to the State. * 

If there were any courts other than those here named, neither their names 
nor their records have come down to us. 

The commandant of the colony who was appointed by the governor of 
Louisiana, exercised all such executive functions as the exigencies of the 
country might require, with the semblance of responsibility to his superior. 

This official up to 1750, exercised supreme judicial power also, except in 
capital cases, they being cognizable by the superior counsel of Louisiana, 
which consisted of the intendant, who was the first judge and especially 
charged with the king's rights, and with all that related to the revenue, the 
king's attornej^, six of the principal inhabitants, and the register of the pro- 
vince, all appointed by the crown, subordinate to the "major commandant," 
as he was styled, each village having its local commandant, usually the cap- 
tain of the militia. He was as great a personage, at least as our city mayors, 
superintending the police of his village and acting as a kind of justice of the 
peace from whose decisions an appeal lay to the major commandant. In the 
choice of this subordinate that important functionary, "the adult inhabitant," 
had a voice, and it is the only instance wherein he exercised an elective 
franchise, t 

About 1752 there was established by French power at Kaskaskia what was 
called the "Court of the Audience of the Royal Jurisdiction of Illinois." 
This seems to have been a court of record, for Judge Breese says that the 
record of the court "is still extant among the lumber of a county court house 
office," and he copies from some of said record what throws much light upon 
our subject, t 

Judge Breese says that "such small questions as will arise even in the best 
regulated communities, were;usually settled by the mild interposition of the 
commandant or the priest. § 

The fall of Quebec, in 1759, followed by the treaty between England and 
France of 1763, concluded French authority in North America, which passed 
to the British crown. General Gage, the commandant of all of the British 
forces in North America, issued a proclamation to the Illinois people, extend- 
ing English laws over the Illinois country, and assured its inhabitants of "the 
same security for persons and effects and the liberty of trade, as other sub- 
jects of the British king." || 

Captain Stirling came to Fort Chartres, in 1705, bringing this proclamation 
of General Gage and with it authority to establish a purely military govern- 
ment. He received a surrender of the Fort and country from St. Ange, the 
French commandant who, during his administration, besides being a success- 
ful administrator, had made many wise and salutary regulations about titles 
to lands. 



* Reynold's Pioneer History, 73. 

t Breese's "Early Illinois," 216. 

X Breese's "Early Illinois," 218. 

? lb. 

II Western Annals, 694. 



86 

St. Ange, with a large portion of the French inhabitants, displeased with 
the changing of owners of the country, removed to the west side of the 
Mississippi, to Spanish territory. Those who remained, about 2,000 in 
number, at once became diflScult subjects to govern. They regarded their 
new rulers as their hereditary enemies and admired neither their laws, man- 
ners and customs, nor their regulations concerning trade' 

A few British families and soldiers from the Fort, occupied some of the 
abandoned farms, purchased at a nominal sum, and thus became permanent 
settlers. 

Captain Stirling did not long remain in command, but was succeeded in 
December, 1765, by Maj. Robert Farmer, he by Col. Edward Cole, in 1766, 
and he by Col. John Reed. The latter was relieved by Lieut. Col. John 
Wilkins, Sept. 1, 1768. 

During the period elapsing between the surrender of the country by the 
French to the coming of Colonel Wilkins, when nothing but a purely military 
government existed, a large batch of dissensions among the people had 
grown up. A company of Philadelphians, under the name of Boynton, 
Wharton and Morgan, with their stores at Fort Chartres and Kaskaskia, 
where they dealt in everything, controlled the business of the country. Their 
business methods did not suit the free and easy methods of the French and 
Indians, and social friction was the result. * 

About this time Captain Pittman, under English authority, visited the 
country and reported of its needs and condition. He said that the English 
commanding officer was in fact the arbitrary governor of the country. That 
the officer commanding at Fort Gage governed the inhabitants at Kaskaskia, 
under the jurisdiction of the commandant at Fort Chartres, and that a militia 
captain at Prairie du Rocher regulated the police there, t 

Lieutenant Colonel Wilkins, sent out by General Gage to take command in 
Illinois, arrived at Kaskaskia Sept. 5, 1768. Since the English occupation 
under Captain Stirling, which began in 1765, the administration of justice 
had been in the hands of the military commandant and was very odious to 
the public. Complaints of grievous oppression was made, but with little suc- 
cess. On Nov, 21, 1768, Colonel Wilkins issued a proclamation in which he 
stated that he had received orders from General Gage, the commandant in 
chief, to establish a court of justice in Illinois, for the settlement of all dis- 
putes and controversies between man and man, and all claims in relation to 
property, both real and personal. Seven judges were therefore appointed by 
the military commandant, who met and held their first term at Fort Chartres 
on the 6th day of December, 1768. Courts were held thereafter once in every 
month. This system, however preferable to the tribunal which it supf-rseded, 
was far from being satisfactory. The people insisted on trial by jury, and 
this being denied them the court became unpopular This condition ot things 
continued until the American occupation, ten years afterwards, t 

The rule of Roeheblava, who on July 4, 1778, surrendered to the American 
force under Col. George Rogers Clark, seems to have permitted a lapse of 
this court, for, added to the fact that, although governing under a commis- 
sion from the British king, he was a Frenchman and a loyal servant of the 
church, wo hear no more of the odious court organized by Colonel Wilkins. It 
is possible that this French-English commandant had no time, after writing 
the numerous letters attributed to him, to give attention to civil matters. It 
is most likely that the settling of controversies arising among the people was 
again remitted to the gentle rule of the priests. 



♦John Moses, in Early Illinois, 
t Western Annals pp. 668-691. 
t Brown's History of Illinois, 213. 



87 

ILLINOIS UNDER VIRGINIA. 

Clark, did for the territory conquered by him the best that he could do 
without civil authority and written statutes. It is said that he established 
courts, (held by French judges elected by the people,) with a right of appeal to 
himself, and that these courts became popular and added essentially to confirm 
his power with the people. * In all that he did he was much aided by the 
counsels and advice of the priest, Father Gibault, whom the people obeyed 
and to whose memory civilization in Illinois owes much. 

On Dec. 12, 1778, five months after the conquest of the Illinois country by 
Colonel Clark, Patrick Henry, governor of Virginia, the state entitled to the 
credit of making the conquest, appointed John Todd, a lawyer of Virginia, 
county lieutenant for the county of Illinois, for as such the new conquest had 
been organized with limitless bounds, embracing the territory of Ohio, Indi- 
ana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, by the legislature of that state. 

It was not until the following May, that the new civil governor, armed with 
his commission, signed by the hand of Patrick Henry, that great advocate of 
liberty, arrived at Kaskaskia and set up, among a really foreign population, 
what was intended to be a popular civil government, in the place of the mili- 
tary rule, either under the French and British kings or under Colonel Clark, 
which had dominated the country since its settlement, then over 70 years. 

In pursuance of this Virginia authority, Jean B. Barbeau, Nicholas Janis 
and Charles Charleville, were chosen "by vote of the people," as it is 
said, judges of the court at Prairie du Rocher, Kaskaskia and Cahokia. 
What the jurisdiction of this primitive court was we are left to conjecture. 
Whether appeals lay from their decisions and to what power, we ware 
equally in the dark. As they had their origin in a law passed by English- 
Americans and the necessity existed, it may well be inferred that, like the 
courts of the king's bench in England, and its colonies, they had and exer- 
cised general common law and criminal jurisdiction, to which was probably 
added that of the English chancellor. 

Certain records, kept by Col. Todd, yet in existence, would indicate that 
these courts did convict men of capital offenses, among which was the crime 
of witch-craft, for which crime those convicted are shown to have suffered 
death at the stake, t 

In addition to the establishment of courts in the Illinois country. Colonel 
Todd proceeded to carry out another important instruction of Governor 
Henry by ordering an election of civil officers, including the members of the 
courts at Kaskaskia and Cahokia, which should have both civil and criminal 
jurisdiction. The election held under this order was the first exercise of the 
elective franchise in Illinois, under American rule. The officers chosen, 
with one exception, were either by bii'th or descent, French. 

In 1782, Colonel Todd was temporarilly absent from the post of his duty 
upon a visit to Kentucky, at the time of the Indian raid into that territory, 
which resulted in the disastrous battle of Blue Licks. Taking part therein, 
at the head of the detachment of frontiersmen, he was slain there, Aug. 29, 
1782. 

Among the members of the court at Cahokia was Jean Baptiste Saucier a 
name recently prominently brought before the Illinois public by the interest- 
ing and valuable historical brochure of our honored vice president. Dr. 
Snyder, who has the honor of claiming descent from this early military and 
civil officer, who, as a French officer and in civil life conspicuously figured in 
the early history of Illinois. 

Thus were started the wheels of government by whose revolutions a practi- 
cal knowledge of the forms necessary to the establishment of a free republic 
were substituted for those of anarchy, t 



* Brown's History of Illinois, p. 242. 

t John Todd's note book. 53. 

t Moses' History of Illinois, 160. 



88 

The name of Timothe de Montbrun, a Frenchman, is given as the successor 
of Colonel Todd. How long he served as commandant of the Illinois country 
does not appear, nor does it appear that he figured in the judicial history of 
the country. The name of de Montbrun appears to land grants and other 
public documents among the public archives at Kaskaskia. * 



ILLINOIS UNDER FEDERAL AUTHORITY. 

As the northwest territory was deeded by Virginia to the United States on 
March 1, 1784, and that state from that time lost jurisdiction of the Illinois 
territory, we must from that date look to the dealings of the Federal govern- 
ment with our territory, for its history. 

During the period which elapsed between the adoption of the ordinance of 
1787 to the coming of Governor St. Clair, in 1790, there was a very imperfect 
administration of the laws, which consisted of a mixture of the civil or 
French, the English, as resulting from the promulgation of the arbitrary acts 
of the British commandants at Fort Chartres, and such as had been instituted 
by the Virginia authorities. There were no regular courts in existence in the 
country, and no civil government worth mentioning. The people were a law 
unto themselves, besides, this was a period of Indian warfare against the Illi- 
nois settlers, as well as of the white inhabitants of the northwest 
territory, t 

During this time there was very little use for the administration of either 
civil or criminal law. The ambuscade and the scalping knife figured most 
largely then, and many valuable lives were lost, t 

General Harmar, as commander-in-chief of the United States forces in the 
northwest, was the supreme authority, in both civil and military matters, and 
he had little occasion to interfere in Illinois matters, chiefly in checking the 
reckless issue of land grants. 

On July 13, 1787, the congress of the Confederate states passed the first law 
of American origin, touching the government of Illinois known as the "Ordi- 
nance of 1787," providing for the territorial organization of all the territory 
northwest of the river Ohio under federal authority. It provided for the 
appointment of a governor and three judges, whose duty it should be to 
"adopt and publish such laws of the original states, criminal and civil, as 
may be necessary and best suited to the circumstances of the district, saving, 
however, to the French and Canadian inhabitants and other settlers of the 
Kaskaskias, St. Vincents, and the neighboring villages, who have heretofore 
professed themselves citizens of Virginia, their laws and customs now in 
force among them relative to the descent and conveyance of property." It 
is also provided that the Governor should appoint magistrates and that the 
inhabitants should always be entitled to judicial proceedings according to the 
courts of common law. 

General Arthur St. Clair, appointed governor of the territory northwest of 
the Ohio, appeared at Marietta, in July, 1788, with Samuel Holden Parsons, 
James Mitchell Varnum and John Cleves Symmes, the judges appointed by 
congress, and at once began the organization of the territorial government, 
according to the provisions of the ordinance of 1787. The governor and the 
judges were empowered by this law to enact laws for the territory. An act 
was soon passed providing for the holding of one term of court in each year 
in every county to be established, for the transaction of civil and criminal 
business. Also an act established county courts of common pleas. § 

The governor and judges also adopted the common law of England and the 
British statutes in aid thereof to the fourth year of James 1. 



* Davidson & Stuve'a History of Illinois. 204. 
+ Davidson & Stuve's History of Illinois, 206. 
I Western Annals, 706. 
? Dillon's History of Indiana, pp. 214-223. 



89 

Early in 1790, Grovernor St. Clair came to Kaskaskia and by proclamation, 
established St. Clair county, embracing all the territory within aline running 
from the mouth of the Ohio river along the Mississippi and Illinois, to the 
mouth of the Little Mackinac creek, below Peoria, thence by a direct line to 
Fort Massiac, thence by the Ohio to its mouth. * This boundary enclosed all 
of the settlements within the Illinois country. 

The country was parcelled off into three iudicial districts and the Governor 
appointed as judges of the courts of common pleas Jean Baptiste Barbeau, 
John Edgar and John de Moulin. Grand juries were impaneled and indict- 
ments returned. No appeal lay from these courts. 

It is said that the Governor found no little difficulty in finding men with 
qualifications, as not one man in 50, could read or write. None of them were 
lawyers. These judges held the courts in each district at Kaskaskia, Prairie 
du Rocher and Cahokia, and held office during the pleasure of the Governor. 

The Governor also appointed justices of the peace for the county, with 
jurisdiction in civil matters and with power to hold preliminary examinations 
in criminal matters. No jury was allowed in these courts. 

The United States judges of the territory held their sessions at the seat of 
government, at Cincinnati or Chillicothe, so far from Illinois that an appeal 
would have been impracticable, t 

Judge Turner, one of the territorial judges, held a term in St. Clair county in 
1795, which is said to have been productive of more harm than good, and out of 
it came a controversy between this judge and Governor St. Clair, which re- 
sulted in the recall of the former, the division of St. Clair county, and the 
establishment of Randolph county. Judge Symmes, another of the territorial 
judges, came in 1796, and held court in both counties. 

All this time it is said that courts were rarely convened and their sessions 
were marked by an absence of order or decorum, t 

In 1795 Randolph county was set off from St. Clair and a court of common 
pleas established for it, which held four sessions each year. Governor 
Reynolds says of the judges appointed by the government that "they were 
sound headed and respectable men who had no pretension to legal learning, 
but were about similar to the best of our justices of the peace." Among 
these early judges we may name Shadrach Bond, who was afterwards Gov- 
ernor of the State, James Leman, William Whiteside, James Piggott, Jean 
F. Perry, Nicholas Jarrot, George Achison, James Edsrar, William Morrison 
and Robert Reynolds, father of John Reynolds, who was afterwards judge of 
the Supreme Court and Governor of the State. 

This court had a common law jurisdiction similar to our circuit courts. 
Justices of the peace were also appointed for the new county. ^ 

John Hay was appointed by Governor St. Clair, in 1799, clerk of the court 
at Cahokia. This office, with other responsible positions, he continued to 
hold, first at Cahokia and afterwards at Belleville, by different appointments 
and by election, until his death in 1843. || 

ILLINOIS AS A PART OP THE TERRITORY OF INDIANA. 

Illinois formed a part of the territory of Indiana for the period of eight 
years. During that time, probably about 1801, an act was passed by the ter- 
ritorial legislature creating, or perhaps more correctly stated, perpetuating, 
the judicial system of the old northwest territory, which provided for the ap- 
pointment of justices of the peace for each county, by the Governor, with a 
limited jurisdiction in civil matters and also made them conservators of the 
peace. 



* I. St. Clair Papers. 166. 
+ Reynold's Pioneer History, 181. 
t E. Q. Mason's Early Illinois, 198. 
? Reynold's "My Own Times" 66. 
II Reynold's Pioneer History. 228. 



90 

Courts of common pleas were organized in each county, the three judges to 
be appointed and commissioned by the Governor for and during good be- 
havior, whose compensation was $2.50 per day. Its jurisdiction was both 
civil and criminal, having also jurisdiction in probate matters. The same 
law created a supreme court to be held at the capital of the territory, Vin- 
ceunes, twice a year. Its jurisdiction was chiefly appellate. 

This condition of the territorial jurisdiction continued until 1809, when the 
territory of Illinois had a separate existence.* 

ILLINOIS AS A TERRITORY. 

Nathaniel Pope, Secretary and acting Governor of the Illinois territory ,^ 
appeared in the territory, having taken the oath of ofB.ce in April, 1809. Soon 
thereafter he commissioned a sufficient number of justices of the peace. The 
Governor, Ninian Edwards, also came in June following, and, with the ter- 
ritorial judges, re-enacted the laws of the Indiana territory, so far as ap- 
plicable. t 

John Rice Jones, a native of Wales, came to Kaskaskia with Governor St. 
Clair, and was the first practicing lawyer resident in Illinois. He, after many 
years' residence and practice, settled in Missouri, and died there a member 
of the supreme court of that state. He was the father of George W. Jones, 
once a United States Senator from Iowa. Up to as late a date as 1803 none 
of the profession joined Mr. Jones other than Messrs. Haggiu and Darnell. t 

John J. Crittenden, afterwards so noted as a representative of the State of 
Kentucky in the United States Senate, was appointed by President Madison 
Attorney General of the territory of Illinois, along with the appointment of 
Governor Ninian Edwards and Judges Jesse B. Thomas, William Sprigg and 
Alexander Stuart.§ 

Whether Mr. Crittenden accepted the appointment or not, our histories do 
not inform us, but as his successor was soon thereafter appointed, it is prob- 
able that he did not. 

Governor Edwards was chosen to his place from a position which he held 
upon the supreme court of Kentucky, and was eminent in all those qualities 
demanded for his position as the head of the embryo State. ' He was learned 
as a lawyer, and courtly in his manner. His task was no easy one. In 1809 
the white population of the State was about 12,000, made up largely uf the 
original French inhabitants, who constituted one- fourth of this number, and 
of the immigrants from the states, a mixed population of every variety of no- 
tions as to law and right. Besides this population there were a large number 
of Indians in every part of the State. As late as 1814 it is said there were 
30,000 to 40,000 in this class. || 

With Governor Edwards also came Jesse B. Thomas, Alexander Stuart and 
Obadiah Jones, appointed by the President as judges of the territory of Illi- 
nois. Jones and Stuart soon thereafter resigned, and their places were filled 
by Stanley Griswold and William Sprigg, and thus constituted the territorial 
federal court continued until the admission of the State in 1818. 

The supreme or general court, as it was sometimes called, held by these 
federal judges, had concurrent original jurisdiction in all cases and matters 
pertaining to real and personal property, and exclusive jurisdiction of the 
higher criminal offenses and in equity. It had appellate jurisdiction in all 
cases from inferior eourts.f 

The courts of common pleas were also continued in service until 1818, when 
six circuit judges were appointed and continued in service until superseded 
by the State courts under the Constitution of 1818. 



* Western Annals, 219. 

t Ih., 718. 

X Reynold's " My Own Times." 67. 

g J&..104. 

II Rev. R. W. Patterson's Lecture,ill2. 

H I. Moses' History of Illinois. 263. 



91 

Of these federal judges, Judge Jesse B. Thomas seems to have been the 
most conspicuous. After serving the territory from 1809 to 1818, he was 
chosen president of the Convention which formed the first Constitution, and 
was subsequently elected to the United States Senate, and at the expiration 
of his term elected as his own successor. In this position he was quite a dis- 
tinguished member of the United States Senate, and the author of the "Mis- 
souri Compromise." 

Governor Ford, in his history, speaks highly of the qualities of Judge 
Thomas, and says that his motto was: "No man can be talked down with 
loud, bold words; but any man might be whispered to death." 

Jesse B. Thomas, Jr., the nephew of Judge Thomas, became a member of the 
Supreme court in 1843, which position he held until the adoption of the Con- 
stitution of 1848. 

With no change in its Executive, and few changes in other territorial offi- 
cers, the territory increased in population and wealth marvellously from 1809 
to 1818, when the State, with what we know as the Constitution of 1818, was 
admitted into the union of states, with a government modelled after the 
American fashion of commonwealths, in which provisions were made for the 
three departments of government — the legislative, the executive and the ju- 
dicial. 

The population of the State at this time was 34,620. 

ILLINOIS AS A STATE. 

The first constitution of Illinois provided for a Supreme Court to consist of 
f. chief justice and three associates, to be chosen by a joint vote of the Gen- 
eral Assembly and commissioned by the Governor; and also for such inferior 
courts as the General Assembly should from time to time ordain and estab- 
lish. It also provided that those judges first chosen to the Supreme Court, 
should only hold their offices until the first legislative session after 
January 1, 1824. 

The court, as first chosen and organized, consisted of Chief Justice Joseph 
Phillips, and Thomas C. Browne; John Reynolds and William P. Foster, 
associates. 

Judge Phillips had been a captain in the regular army and after his resig- 
nation of that office, became the Secretary of State for the Territory of Illi- 
nois; being a lawyer and a man of high order of talent, he was chosen to be 
Chief Justice. He held this office until July 4, 1822, when he resigned to be- 
come a candidate for the office of Governor, against Edward Coles. He was 
unsuccessful in this contest and Ford says in his History of Illinois, (*), was 
so disappointed that he at once left the State in disgust and ever afterward 
resided in the State of Tennessee. Only eleveu cases decided during the 
term of office of Judge Phillips are reported, so he can hardly be said to have 
established a reputation as a jurist. His ab ence from the first term is 
noted. None of the opinions in the cases disposed of during his term are 
shown to have been prepared by him. 

Judge Browne, who was also a candidate for governor at the election of 
1822, held his position upon the supreme bench until the reorganization of 
the court under the constitution of 1848, thirty years. 

Judge John Reynolds, one of the first associates, is spoken of by John 
Moses in his History of Illinois, (t) as a man of great learning, familiar with 

the Greek, French and German languages, though he affected and made use 
of the language of the common people. He remained a member of the court 
until the close of his term in 1825, and was chosen governor of Illinois 
in 1830. 

Governor Reynolds was eccentric, but performed services for the State of 
the greatest value, especially as a historian. 

♦Ford's History of Illinois, 28. 
tMoses' History of Illinois. 383. 



92 

Judge Foster, one of those chosen in 1818, to the supreme bench, seems not 
to have created a very desirable reputation. Governor Ford says of him, (*) 

"That he was almost a total stranger in the country; he was a great rascal, 
but none knew it then, he having been a citizen for about three weeks before 
his election. He was no lawyer, never having studied or practiced law, but 
was a man of winning and polished manners and was withal a very gentle- 
manly swindler from the north part of Virginia. He was assigned to hold 
courts on the Wabash, and fearful of exposing his utter incompetency never 
went near any of them. In the course of one year he resigned his high office, 
but took care first to pocket his salary, and removed from the State. He 
afterwards became a noted swindler." 

In 1822 Thomas Ueynolds, by birth a New Yorker, but no relation what- 
ever of John Reynolds, was appointed by the Governor to fill the vacancy 
created by the resignation of Chief Justice Phillips, and served until 1825. 

Judge Foster having resigned in 1819, Judge William Wilson was appointed 
to the vacancy, which position he filled with honor until 1848, a period of 29 
years. 

The work of this early court is preserved to us in the First Illinois, or 
Breese Reports, and besides serving its judicial purpose, is an important 
part of the history of the State. 

The court as above constituted, was held for the first two years at the old 
French capital Kaskaskia, though the government, in all its departments had 
entirely passed from the control of the ancient inhabitants, the names indica- 
ting their participation, rarely appearing, except as litigants. 

The court in 1820 followed the capital of the State to Vandalia, where it 
was held until 1839, when it again followed the capital, in its migrations, 
this time to the permanent capital city, Springfield. 

One of the curiosities of the early court as seen in Breese's Reports, (t) is 
that while the court from 1822 to 1824 was constituted of four members, yet 
Chief Justice Thomas Reynolds and Associate Justice John Reynolds, did all 
the business; at least all the opinions rendered during that time, except an 
opinion of three lines by Justice Wilson, to which there was a dissenting 
opinion by Justice John Reynolds, of 13 lines, were written and delivered by 
the two Reynolds judges, t 

Judge Thos. Reynolds served on the court until 1825. In 1828 he emigrated 
to Missouri, and was, in 1840, elected governor of that state. 

The constitution of 1818 provided that the supreme judges should hold 
circuit courts, and ttiese judges did until the reorganization of the court in 
1825, when the court was reorganized by the Governor and legislature, with 
William Wilson as chief justice, and Thomas C. Browne, Samuel D, Lock- 
wood, and Theophilus W. Smith, as associate justices. 

This session of the General Assembly also created five circuits and elected 
as circuit judges, John Y. Sawyer, Samuel McRoberts, Richard M. Young, 
James Hall, and J. 0. Wattles, with salaries of $600 each, the supreme 
judges getting $800 each. $6,400 a year in all. 

The public sense of a wise economy was so shocked at this piece of what 
seemed reckless extravagance, that the next General Assembly repealed all 
of the circuit judges, except Judge Young who held court in the northwest- 
ern part of the State, out of office, and assigned to the four supreme judges 
and to Judge Young, the work of holding the circuit court. 

There may be more merit in the complaint of the people which caused this 
piece of legislation than would appear upon a simple statement of the case, 
when we say that only 45 cases came before the supreme court during the 
time intervening between 1825 and 1827. 



* Ford's History of Illinois. 31. 

t Breese' Reports, 15 to 54. 

t Note.— These gentlemen are spoken of as brothers by some historians, but I am in- 
formed by those who know that they were of no kin whatever. 



98 

r 
The business of the circuit court was transacted by the four supreme judges 
and one circuit judge, Young, for eight years and until 1835, when another 
act was passed providing for eight circuit judges to be chosen by the people. 

By an act passed Feb. 10, 1841, (*) all of these circuit judges, or those 
chosen in their places, were repealed out of ofBce. The same act provided for 
and added five more judges to the supreme court and assigned the nine 
judges to the circuit work in addition to holding two terms each year of the 
supreme court. 

Sidney Breese, Thomas Ford, Walter B. Seates, Samuel H. Treat, and 
Stephen A. Douglas were chosen to fill up the court as reorganized, t 

The new judges at once took their places upon the bench, and, with the 
court as thus constituted, the judicial business of the State, both nisi prius 
and appellate, was transacted until the adoption of the constitution of 1848. 

Changes in the personnel of the court took place. Judge Thomas Ford 
was elected Governor in August, 1842, when Judge John D. Caton, formerly 
a circuit judge, was appointed in his place. Judge Sidney Breese was 
chosen United States senator in 1843, and James Semple was chosen to suc- 
ceed him. So Judge Stephen A. Douglas was likewise chosen United States Sen- 
ator in 1847. and Jesse B. Thomas, Jr., was chosen as his successor. Judge 
Theopilus W. Smith, chosen to the supreme bench in 1825, resigned Dec. 
26, 1842, and was succeeded by Richard M. Young, formerly a circuit judge, 
who was chosen in his place. James Shields also a circuit judge, was chosen 
in the place of Judge Semple, who resigned. The term of appoint- 
ment of Judge Caton having expired, John M. Robinson was chosen in his 
place and, on the death of Judge Robinson, in 1843, Judge Caton was ap- 
pointed lo fill the vacancy. 

Of the names here given the reader will recognize many who for many 
years afterwards, figured very prominently in our State history. Judge 
Thomas Ford served the State as Governor with the greatest fidelity, and at 
his death left an unpublished history of the State which has since been pub- 
lished and is held in the highest esteem. 

Judge Sidney Breese, after having served his country in the United States 
Senate one term, during which service he was most prominent in the move- 
ment which resulted in the building of the Illinois Central railroad, and in the 
completion of the railroad to the Pacific ocean, again took up the judicial 
service, as one of the circuit judges of the State, from which position he was 
again, in 1857, chosen to the Supreme Court, where he served with the ap- 
proval of the whole State until his death, June 27, 1878. He was one of the 
longest, in years, ot service, upon the bench, of any man in our history. He 
served the State in a judicial capacity under its three constitutions — 1818, 
1848, 1870. 

Judge Breese was a cousin of Samuel Breese Morse, the inventor of the 
magnetic telegraph, and both were descendants from an officer of the British 
army and navy, who came to this country and died in New York, in colonial 
times, t 

James Shields was chosen Senator in place of Judge Breese, perhaps more 
on account of military service and a wound he received in the Mexican war, 
than on account of his merits. It was said by Justin Butterfleld, a witty law- 
yer, in speaking of the event of this senatorial election, "The ball that went 
clear through Shields, without hurting him, or even leaving a scar, killed 
Breese, a thousand miles away." 

Judge Samuel H. Treat, chosen in 1841 to the supreme bench, was then a 
young man just commencing to practice in the central part of the State. At 
the reorganization of the Supreme Court under the constitution of 1848, Judge 
Treat was again elected to that position where he served until 1855 when he 
was appointed by the President of the United States to be district judge in 



* 2 Scammon's report v. 
t 3 Scammon's report III. 
i 53 Harper's Magazine, 868. 



94 

the Federal court for the southern district of Illinois. In this position he 
served with distinguished ability until March 27, 1887, when he died after a 
service as a iudge in the Illinois courts of 48 years. 

Judge Stephen A. Douglas, whose fame as a statesman makes it unneces- 
sary to comment upon his career, served in the United States Senate from 
1849 until the year 1861, when he died, greatly to the regret, not only of his 
constituency, but of the entire nation. It may be interesting to say here that 
his first case in our Supreme Court, of which in 1841, he became a member, 
was at the December term, 1835, when as State's attorney, he represented 
the people of the State in a case which went up from Morgan county. He 
also, at the same term, appeared as attorney in an unofficial capacity. 

Judge Richard M. Young was first elected Circuit Judge in 1825, for the 
Fifth circuit, which embraced all of the State to the north of the Illinois 
river. By re-elections he held this position until 1836, when he was chosen 
United States Senator for a term of six years. After the expiration of this 
term he was chosen, as above stated, a Judge of the Supreme Court. 

Judge Young performed the duties of Circuit Judge when he was compelled, 
in the discharge of his duty, to travel from his residence in Quincy, to Otta- 
wa, Galena and Chicago, on horseback, when the country afforded neither 
roads nor bridges. 

Judge James Shields, to whom reference has been made, was in 1849, 
elected to the United States Senate in the place of Judge Breese as has been 
stated above. He was subsequently a major general in the Federal army 
during the war of the rebellion, after which he was chosen as United States 
Senator from both the states of Missouri and Minnesota. 

Judge Samuel D. Lockwood was elected to the Supreme Court by the Leg- 
islature in 1824, and faithfully performed the duties of the position until the 
adoption of the constitution in 1848. Before this preferment he was Secre- 
tary of State and Attorney General, and was a member of the Constitutional 
Convention of 1847. His duties as a judge much of the time required him to 
hold the courts of the Springfield circuit, where were employed the most emi- 
nent lawyers of the State, as well as to travel through many of the newer 
counties. After his retirement he was chosen trastee of the lauds of the Illi- 
nois Central railroad, and his name appears upon more deeds for Illinois 
lands than that of any other man. Moses, in his history, says of him, "No 
man stood higher in respect to purity of character, sound judgment and emi- 
nent ability." (*) He lived long at Jacksonville and afterwards at Batavia, 
where he died April 23, 1874. 

Governor Ford says in his history, (t) "The judges in early times in Illi* 
nois were gentlemen of considerable learning and much good sense and held 
their courts mostly in log houses or in the bar rooms of taverns, fitted up 
with a temporary bench for the judge and chairs or benches for the lawyers 
and jurors. Much has been said bysfune of our local historians in derogation 
of the learning and ability of the men filling those positions in early times, 
and funny stories told of their evasion of judicial duties to avoid making 
enemies; but the untarnished record for learning and rectitude left by them 
in their report of cases must forever secure their memories against these im- 
peachments. Judge Thomas Reynolds would have ranked respectably at any 
bar in the United States." t 

The reason underlying the reorganization of the supreme court in 1841 , as 
above set forth, is given by Governor Ford in his history (§) as due to a 
suspicion on the part of the dominant party that a case then pending before 
the supreme court, involving the right of an unnaturalized citizen to vote at 
the approaching election would be decided adversely to the dominant party. 
"This affair," says Governor Ford, "made it desirable that the supreme 
court should be supplied with a majority favoring a decision in favor of un- 
naturalized foreigners as voters at the elections in Illinois." So the act 



* II Moses' History of Illinois. 654. 

t Ford's history of Illinois, 86. 

i Ford's history of Illinois, 86. 

g Ford's history of Illinois, 220. 



95 

passed the legislature repealing out of office all of the circuit judges, then in 
service, aod adding to the number of the supreme judges, five gentlemen of 
approved political inclinations who with Judge Smith upon the bench, made 
a clear majority of three in favor of the foreigner. 

Among the most difficult matters the early courts were called upon to de- 
cide were the many questions involving grants of land made to individuals, 
by the different governments which had held jurisdiction over Illinois since 
the first settlement of the French. This work was by no means fully com- 
pleted by these early courts, for, since the establishment of the supreme 
court of Illinois, as its reports of adjudicated cases show, this has been a not 
inconsiderable source of litigation, and may continue so to be unless quieted 
by our limitation laws. * 

The want of sufficient jails, or in most counties, of any jails whatever, was 
a great evil in those early times. "For the first ten years of the State," 
says Brown in his history of Illinois, "I do not recollect of but one jail that 
would hold a criminal against the law, and that was at Belleville." The 
offender could not be detained to await trial and the uncertainty of the legal 
punishment of criminals led to the formation of bands of regulators, who ad- 
ministered certain and speedy justice. 

As has been said above, the volume of reports prepared by Sidney Breese, 
the first reporter of the Supreme Court, was published in 1831; printed by 
Robert K. Fleming, Charter street, Kaskaskia, and contained 336 pages. The 
reporter said in his preface that it was "submitted with great diffidence." 

The constitution of 1848. provided for the division of the State into three 
grand divisions, in each of which one supreme judge should be elected, the 
first terms of office to be determined by lot, and after that the term to be nine 
years. It also provided for the holding of one term of this court in each of 
these grand divisions each year. The law subsequently fixed the bounds of 
these divisions and the places of holding the courts, as at Mt. Vernon, 
Springfield and Ottawa. The December term. 1848, the first term held under 
the constitution of that year, was held at Mt. Vernon. 

The courts of Illinois, like all other human courts, are now and always have 
been, as free from the baneful influences of human passions as those of other 
peoples, and probably no more so. Party politics has its innings, and the 
pull of party favorites has not at all times been absent from our highest 
courts. Conspicuously true was this condition of things in our Supreme 
Court about the year 1840, when the good Governor Carlin desired to replace 
an old office holder in the position of Secretary of State with one of his own 
way of thinking, as to the relative value of Whig and Democratic counsels. 
He claimed the right of removal as his, in the case of the Secretary of State. 
His nominee being refused possession of the office, brought suit for the office 
and its emoluments, and was refused tJie position by a strictly party vote of 
the members of the court, where a majority of the members were Whigs, and 
unfriendly to Democratic aspirants to office. This fact, when discovered by 
the Democratic majority of the State, made a reconstruction of the court 
necessary in view of a question then pending in the court, or likely to be 
brought before it, as to the right of unnaturalized foreigners to vote at elec- 
tions in this State. With three Whigs and but one Democrat in the court, it 
became certain that 10,000 Democratic votes would be ruled out at the next 
election, which might change the vote of the State. 

A bill was introduced into the Legislature abolishing the offices of the nine 
circuit judges and providing for the addition of five judges to the Supreme 
Court, who, with those already upon that bench, should hold the circuit courts, 
in addition to the work of the Supreme Court. Of course the measure was 
somewhat revolutionary; but the necessity for its passage was upon the ma- 
jority, and it passed and was approved by the Governor. Thus the court, 
with its five additional members, was of a composition to do to the foreign 
born voter no harm, and the new Secretary of State was secure in his 
office, t 



Moaes History of Illinois. 199. 
Ford's History of Illinois, 219. 



96 

It is not the purpose here to criticise any one's motive or action, but rather 
to detail a portion o£ the history of our courts. 

Two of the members of our Supreme Court have been treated to some ex- 
perience under the clause of the constitution, which provides for the removal 
of judges of the court by impeachment. 

Judere Theophilus W. Smith, who became a member of the court in the 
year 1825, brought down upon his head enough of opposition in eight years of 
service to provoke char<3res of malpractice and corruption in office at the hands 
of the lower house of the General Assembly, which were duly brought before 
the Senate, as the high court of impeachment, at the session of 1832. Benja- 
min Mills, John T. Stuart, James Semple, Murray McConnel and John 
Dougherty, prosecuted upon the part of the house, and Judge Smith was de- 
fended by Sidney Breese, Thomas Ford and Richard M, Young. The trial 
lasted for more than a month and resulted in an acquittal, less than a major- 
ity of two-thirds voting for a conviction. 

The other prosecution was instituted by the House of Representatives 
against Judge Thomas C. Browne, who was one of the first judges chosen in 
1818, and in spite of much opposition remained upon the bench until legislated 
out of office by the constitution of 1848. An authority says of him, that ''He 
was kind and gentlemanly in his deportment, and friendly to all, but pos- 
sessed no legal attainments, and was utterly unfit for the high and responsi- 
ble position which he occupied." In short, that he was simply incompetent. 
At the session of 1842 three charges of incompetency were presented to the 
Senate against this judge of 24 years service upon the highest court 
of the State, who had twice been chosen by the Governor and General As- 
sembly, by the House of Representatives represented by Thomas Drummond, 
S. C Hempstead, Thompson Campbell and A. L. Holmes. The Senate, how- 
ever, declined to examine the charges. * 

Under the constitution of 1818, judges were suspected of political bias, so, 
to place them above any such influences, the constitution of 1848 fixed a day 
for the election of supreme and circuit judges apart from the election of other 
officers. This precaution was also followed by the framers of the constitu- 
tion of 1870. The measure seemed to be effective for 25 years or more, but 
for more than a quarter of a century since then and up to this lime politics 
has held control in all judicial elections in the State, no judge, of whatever 
grade, having been chosen during that time, except as the nominee of a party 
convention. It cannot be said, however, that the quality of our judiciary 
has suffered. 

Under the constitution of 1848, which provided for a Supreme Court of 
three judges, one to be chosen from each of the three grand divisions, and for 
circuit judges, one for each circuit, Judge Lyman Trumbull was chosen from 
the first, or southern grand division, Judge Samuel H. Treat from the sec- 
ond or central grand division, and Judge John D. Caton from the third or 
northern grand division, at the election of September 4, 1848. Judge Trum- 
bull resigned in 1853. He was succeeded by Judge Walter B. Scates, the 
same year, and he in turn was, in 1857, succeeded by Judge Sidney Breese, 
who remained in this position until his death in 1878. 

Judge Treat, upon his resignation in 1855, was, the same year succeeded 
by Judge 0. C. Skinner, and he in 1858 by Judge P. H. Walker, who served 
until his death in 1876. Judge Caton, after a long service upon both benches, 
resigned in 1864, when for a few months, his place was ably filled by Judge 
Corydon Beckwith; but at the election of that year Judge C. B. Lawrence 
was chosen successor. He filled the position one term of nine years. 

Of the judges above named as chosen under the constitution of 1848, 
Judges Walker and Lawrence were in office at the adoption of the constitu- 
tion of 1870 and were not displaced by it; but to their number were added 
that year; v^ith Judge Breese, whose term expired by limitation, with the 
constitution under which he was chosen, Judges John M. Scott, William K. 

* Bench and Bar, by J. C. Conkling, 45. 



97 

McAllister, Anthonv Thornton and Benjamin R. Sheldon, who constituted 
the Supreme Court," made larger in numbers by the addition of the four last 
named, by the new constitution. 

These gentlemen, with their successors in oflfice, have fully sustained the 
high position in public esteem won by the court before they came to the 
bench, besides winning new laurels for the individuals, chosen from time to 
time. 

The work of this court since 1818 is shown by 193 volumes of its reports, 
which, on account of the high character of their legal literature, give to the 
court a position among similar bodies, second to none. 

The student of these reports will be struck by the great diversity in the 
character of the questions decided by the court, comparing the earlier with 
the later periods of its history. In the earlier history ot the State, say up to 
1850, few questions, save such only as might be expected to arise in a purely 
rural community, came before the court for consideration. Since then grsat 
railroad corporations have built 10,000 miles of railroads, and manufacturing 
and mining enterprises have spread to every county. Litigation in the court 
well shows the changed character of the populations and industries, if noth- 
ing else indicated it. The great questions involved under our drainage, 
transporation, manufacturing, banking and commercial statutes, almost un- 
known to the earlier court, have been met and satisfactorily settled by this 
court. 

Since July 1, 1877, the appellate work of our system of courts ha«, within 
prescribed bounds, been shared with the Supreme Court, by four Appellate 
Courts, made up by the assignment, by the Supreme Court, of three circuit 
judges to each Appellate Court. These courts have met public expectation 
in the relief they have given to the work of the Supreme Court, and their 
work is shown in the 96 volumes of their reports, already given to the public. 

Under the constitution of 1818, and until that of 1848, the probate work of 
the people was entrusted by statute to one court of probate, a court of re- 
cord, held by what the law at first styled a "judge of probate," chosen by the 
General Assembly, and later by a "probate justice," which officer was both 
judge and clerk. 

Under the constitution of 1848 and continued under that of 1870, there was 
established as a part of the judicial system, a county court in each county, 
having a judge and clerk to which original probate jurisdiction was given. 
Under all of the constitutions, justices of the peace have been provided for, 
either specifically or inferentially. 

No history, or what purports to be a history of our judiciary, is complete 
which fails to mention, with approving commendation, the names of many 
eminent men who have served upon the circuit bench of our State with an 
ability and fidelity which would have done honor to an English bench or to 
any bench drawing its precedents and traditions from the English judiciary, 
yet who failed to reach stations upon the supreme or appellate bench, where 
their work would have attracted general attention, so as to have given them 
a place in State history. 

The limits of this essay are too restricted to permit general notice of these 
men, yet for its credit a few names must be mentioned. 

David Davis, tbe first to be chosen judge of the eighth circuit, extendin?: 
from the Illinois river to the east line of the State, under the constitution of 
1848, served thereon under what was always practically the unanimous choice 
of the people, until his elevation to the Supreme Federal Bench, in 1862, 
which position he resigned in 1877 for a seat in the Federal Senate. He was 
the closest friend to Abraham Lincoln, and it was while traveling this circuit 
that a mutual and lasting friendship was formed. 

Justin Harlan was chosen by the General Assembly as early as 1835 to hold 
the court in the fourth circuit, including Vermilion county on the north, and 
White county on the south. He was one of the judges repealed out of office 

7— H 



98 

in 1841, but again came into office as judge of the same circuit, by election in 
1848. In this capacity he served until 1873. He was eccentric and always a 
public favorite. 

Charles Emmerson became judge of the seventeenth circuit in 1853, which 
position he held until 1867, when he voluntarily withdrew and passed the re- 
mainder of his life in retirement. He was such as would have done honor to 
any court of the civilized world. 

Stephen T. Logan was one of those chosen to be circuit judges in 1835, and 
performed his work in the first circuit, including Pike county on the west and 
Sangamon on the east. He held office two years, at a salary of $600 per 
year; an act of forbearance which entitled him to high credit when we con- 
sider his eminence as a lawyer. 

Joseph E. Gary, elected as a judge of the superior court of Chicago in 1863, 
still holds the place after a term of service of over 38 years, ten of which 
were devoted to the work of the Appellate Court of the first district. He is 
looked up to as a leader in legal learning the State over. 

John Pearson, chosen judge of the seyenth circuit in 1837, held office until 
November, 1840, when he resigned in time not to fall under the repealing act 
of 1841. His circuit included the county of Cook with other counties from the 
Wisconsin line south, half way to the Ohio river. Chicago was coming into 
existence then enough to make two terms of court of a week each, necessary 
in each year. The Chicago lawyers and Judge Pearson did not work har- 
moniously, making the celebrated leading case of "The People of the State of 
Illinois, upon the relation of William Teale vs. John Pearson," necessary. (*) 
Judge Pearson was a picturesque character. He died some years since in 
Danville, at a great age. 

Judge L. Oliver Davis of the Danville circuit was elected to the bench in 
1861, and served five years; afterwards in 1873, when he was again elected 
and served until 1885, much of the time upon the Appellate Bench. He left a 
record which does honor to the bench of Illinois, both for high character and 
for great learning. 

Judge William H. Snyder of the Belleville circuit first came to the bench 
in 1857, and continued to perform the duties of his difficult position most of 
the time until 1891. Judge Snyder was a son of Adam W. Snyder, a promi- 
nent character in the politics of our State, and himself a prominent figure in 
State history. 

Judge George Manierre of Chicago, will long be remembered on account of 
his connection with the circuit court of Cook county, when the city of Chi- 
cago was first assuming metropolitan airs. He served from 1855 to 1863, the 
sole judge for the work in Cook county circuit court. 

Judge Silas Bryan of the Salem circuit, besides being the father of a 
prominent presidential candidate, gained great prominence for himself as a 
wise and conscientious jurist from 1861 to 1873. 

Judge David M. Woodson of the Jacksonville circuit deserves a high place 
among the nisi prius judges of the State. For most of the time from 1848 to 
1867 he held the courts of that circuit and well deserved the confidence of the 
people. 

Likewise, Judge Cyrus Epler, of the same circuit, from 1873 to 1897, a per- 
iod in length of time exceeded by some of those above named, but not in the 
high character of his high services. He has well sustained the reputation of 
the college town for learned judges and lawyers. 

This paper must of necessity omit the particular mention of the names of 
the eminent attorneys who from time to time filled the office of Attorney 
General, and as such wei-e an important part of the Supreme Court. Many 
of them finally occupied places upon the judiciary or other high positions in 
the State. We may mention briefly the names of Daniel P. Cook, afterwards 
a member of Congress, William Mears, Samuel D. Lockwood, James Tur- 
ney, George Forquer, James Semple, afterwards a Supreme Judge and a 

* I Scammon, 458. 



99 

United States Senator, Ninian W. Edwards, U. F. Linder, Jesse B. Thomas, 
Walter B. Scates, George W. Olney, Wickliffe Kitchel, Josiah Lamborn, Ed- 
ward D. Baker, James A. McDougal, and David B. Campbell. Both Baker 
and McDougal were afterwards members of the Federal senate. 

In this paper so far no notice has been taken of those judges of the federal 
courts held for the State since its admission, but whose names are among the 
highest upon our roll of judges. 

First the name of John McLean, that eminent Ohioan, who as a judge of 
the supreme federal court, came here to hold the circuit courts under federal 
law in connection with the district judges, occupies the highest position. 
With him sat Nathaniel Pope, from 1818 to 1850, appointed in 1818 the first 
district judge of the district of Illinois. He served until his death in 1850, 
when he was succeeded by Judge Thomas Drummond, whose name is second 
to none. Judge Drummond served the whole State until the division into the 
northern and southern districts, when he was assigned to the northern dis- 
trict at Chicago, and Judge Treat was appointed to the southern district. 
Subsequently on the appointment of Judge Drummond to the higher office of 
judge of the federal circuit court, Judge H. W. Blodgett was appointed 
district judge at Chicago. The death of Judge Treat in 1887 made way for 
the appointment of Judge W. J. Allen, and at his death Judge J Otis Hum- 
phrey was recently chosen his successor. Judge Kohlsaat also filled the 
bench in the northern district to succeed Judge Peter Grosscup, who was 
appointed to succeed Blodgett, resigned. 

We have thus briefly traced the development of the third branch of civil 
government from the pious and gentle sway of the lone missionary priest in 
the wilderness of Illinois, at the center of the American continent, amid the 
anarchy and savagery of the untutored heathen, to the fully unfolded and 
developed court, the ideal of civilization in its present state of advancement, 
for the settlement of controversies among men. We have seen how simple 
forms of simple men have given way to the technicalities of the law of civil- 
ized men, and in so following this progressive march of the court machinery, 
we have seen an humble French mission develop into a state, third in popula- 
tion in the American Republic. A century since Illinois was but a colony, 
with the aboriginal title attached to all of its soil, while today it is an empire 
of 5,000,000 people, with untold wealth. What, we may well ask, will develop 
during another century in its laws, its courts and its wealth. 

[Note— The following table shows the names of all the counties of Illinois, together 
with the date of their establishment and the counties from which they were taken.] 



Counties. 



Established 



From What Counties. 



Adams 

Alexander .. 

Bond 

Boone 

Brown 

Bureau 

Calhoun 

Carroll 

Cass 

Champaign. 
Christian ... 

Clark 

Clay 

Clinton 

Coles 

Cook 

Crawford ... 
Cumberland 

DeKalb 

DeWitt 

Douglas 

DuPage 

Edgar 

Edwards 

Efl&ngham .. 
Fayette 



Jan. 

.Mar. 

Jan. 

Mar. 

Feb. 

Feb. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Feb. 

Feb. 

Feb. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

Jan. 

Dec. 

Mar. 

Mar. 

Mar. 

Feb. 

Feb. 

Jan. 

Nov. 

Feb. 

Feb. 



13, 1825 

4.1819 

4, 1817 

4, 1837 

1. 1839 

28. 1837 

10. 1835 

22. 1839 

3, 1837 

20. 1833 

15. 1839 

22.1819 

23. 1824 

27, 1824 

25. 1830 
15,1831 
31,1816 

2. 1843 

4, 1837 

1,1839 

16,1859 

19. 1839 

3, 1823 

28.1814 

15. 1831 
14, 1821 



Pike 

Union 

Madison 

Winnebago and McHenry 

Schuyler 

Putnam, Knox and Henry 

Pike 

Jo Daviess 

Morgan 

Vermilion 

Sangamon. Montgomery and Shelby 

Crawford 

Wayne, Lawrence, Crawford and Fayette. 

Washington and Bond 

Clark and Edgar 

Peoria 

Edwards 

Coles 

Kane 

Macon 

Coles 

Cook 

Clark 

Gallatin 

Fayette 

Bond 



100 



Counties. 



Established 



From What Counties. 



Ford , 

Franklin 

Fulton 

Gallatin 

Greene . 

Grundy 

Hamilton 

Hancock 

Hardin 

Henderson ... 

Henry 

Iroquois 

Jackson 

Jasper , 

Jefferson 

Jersey , 

JoDaviess 

Johnson , 

Kane 

Kankakee 

Kendall 

Knox 

Lake 

LaSalle 

Lawrence 

Lee 

Livingston .. 

Losran 

McDonough.. 

McHenry 

McLean 

Macon 

Macoupin 

Madison 

Marion 

Marshall 

Mason 

Massac 

Menard 

Mercer 

Monroe 

Montgomery 

Morgan 

Moultrie 

Ogle 

Peoria 

Perry 

Piatt 

Pike 

Pope 

Pulaski 

Putnam 

Randolph 

Richland 

Rock li-land. 

St. Clair 

Saline 

Sangamon... 

Schuyler 

Scott 

Shelby 

Stark 

Stephenson . 

Tazewell 

Union 

Vermilion ... 

Wabash 

Warren 

Washington. 

Wayne 

White 

Whiteside ... 

Will 

Williamson.. 
Winnebago.. 
Woodford — 



Feb. 17.1859 Vermilion 

Jan. 2, 1818 Gallatin, White and Jackson 

J an. 28. 1823 Pi ke 

Sept. 14. 1812 Randolph 

Jan. 20,1821 Madison 

Feb. 17,1841 LaSalle 

Feb. 8, 1821 White 

Jan, 13, 1825 Pike 

Mar. 2,1839 Pope and Gallatin 

Jan. 20, 1841 Warren 

Mar. 2.1837 Knox 

Feb. 26,1833 Vermilion . 

Jan. 10. 1816 Randolph 

Feb. 15, 1831 Crawford 

Mar. 13,1819 Edwards and White 

Feb. 28, 1839 Greene 

Feb 17.1827 Peoria 

Sept. 14,1812 Randolph 

Jan. 16.1836 LaSalle 

Feb. 11.1851 Will 

Feb. 19,1841 LaSalle 

Jan. 13, 1825 Pike and Fulton 

Mar. 1,1839 McHenry 

Jan. 15,1831 Peoria 

Jan. 16,1821 Edwards and Crawford 

Feb. 27.1839 Ogle 

Feb. 27,1837 LaSalle, McLean and Vermilion... 

Feb. 15,1839 Sangamon, Tazewell and McLean. 

Jan. 25,1826 Pike 

Jan. 16,1836 Cook 

Dec. 25, 1830 Tazewell and Vermilion 

Jan. 19,1829 Shelby 

Jan. 17.1829 Greene 

Sept. 14,1812 St. Clair 

Jan. 24, 1823 Jefferson and Fayette 

Jan. 29, 1«39 Putnam 

Jan. 20,1841 Sangamon and Tazewell 

Jan. 8,1843 Pope and Johnson 

Feb. 15.1839 Sangamon 

Jan. 13,1825 Pike and Fulton 

June 1,1816 Randolph and St. Clair 

Jan. 12,1821 Bond 

Jan. 31.1823 Sangamon 

Feb. 16,1843 Macon and Shelby 

Jan. 16, 1836 JoDaviess and LaSalle 

Jan. 13,1825 Pike, lastly Fulton 

J an. 29. 1827 Randolph and Jackson 

Jan. 27,1841 Macon 

Jan. 31,1821 Madison and Bond 

Apr. 1,1816 Gallatin and Johnson 

Mar. 3,1843 Alexander 

Jan. 13,1825 Pike 

Apr. 28, 1809 St. Clair 

Feb. 24, 1841 Clay and Lawrence 

Feb. 9,1831 Jo Daviess and Mercpr 

Apr. 28. 1809 First county organized 

Feb. 25, 1848 Gallatin 

Jan. 13.1821 Bond and Madison 

Jan. 13, 1825 Pike 

Feb. 16. 1839 Morgan 

Jan. 13, 1827 Fayette 

Mar. 2, 18-39 Knox and Putnam 

Mar. 4, 1837 Jo Daviess 

Jan. 13, 1827 Peoria 

Jan. 2,1818 Johnson 

Jan. 18, 1826 Edgar 

Dec. 27, 1824 Rd wards 

Jan. 13.1825 Pike 

Jan. 2, 1818 St. Clair 

Mar. 26,1819 Edwards 

Dec. 9,1815 Gallatin 

Jan. 16, 1836 JoDaviess 

Jan. 12, 1836 Cook 

Feb. 28. 1839 Franklin 

Jan. 16,1836 JoDaviess 

Feb. 27, 1841 Tazewell and Livingston 



101 
THE BISHOP HILL COLONY. 

By Hon. Hiram Bigelow. 

To write a complete history o£ the Bishop Hill colony would require many 
hundreds of pages, and it is not my purpose to enter upon such a task. 

What I shall attempt to do will be to give a brief outline of the origin, 
growth and decay, of what may not be improperly called a humane, social 
and religious, self-sustaining institution, that was planted, grew up and finally 
decayed, on the prairies of Northern Illinois. 

In the decade between 1840 and 1850, important changes took place not only 
with the governments but also among the people of the countries of Europe 
lying west of the gulf of Bothnia. 

In France a revolution was pending which, ere the close of the decade, 
drove Louis Phillippe from his throne, but it did not give to the country a 
stable government. Nevertheless, the condition of affairs there did not para- 
lyze thinking men of the school of Charles Fourier, and his coadjutors, but 
they kept on investigating the needs of the laboring classes; inventing the- 
ories and devising plans to better the condition of all such people. 

It is a singular fact that nearly all of these thinkers came to the conclu- 
sion that the main hope of the future toiler lay in a community of property, 
and that without it a large portion of the race must inevitably fall back into 
a state of servitude. 

The views of the French Socialists spread to the east, as well as to the 
wast. They found a lodgment in Sweden as well as in this country, but in 
that country they found an opposition that did not exist here. 

While Sweden was, and had been, a protestant country for nearly three 
hundred years, yet it must not be understood that the term "protestant" had 
the same meaning to the people of that country as it had to the people of this, 
for no Patrick Henrys were there to raise their voices and use their influence 
against the establishment of any system of religion Dy the government; on 
the contrarj', in Sweden, long before the adoption of a constitution by this 
country, a system of religion was established by the government, and the 
teachings of Martin Luther "of the pure evangelical doctrine or faith, as 
declared in the original and unaltered confessions of Augsburg, as adopted 
and interpreted by the convention of Upsala, in the year 1593," were accord- 
ingly adopted. In 1726 a decree was promulgated, prohibiting all forms of 
worship except those conducted in the regular established churches. This 
decree was modified by a Royal letter of Jan. 9, 1822, which granted per- 
mission to gather in private houses, or in any other place the people might 
choose, for the purpose of worship, but upon conditions that such gatherings 
should not take place during the time prescribed by the state church for hold- 
ing its services; but during such time all were required to be present, and 
take part in the services of that church. 

The government was fully up with the people, in regard to the matter of 
freedom of worship, and few were called to an account for a breach of the law 
in that regard, for many years after the promulgation ot the decree, and those 
who were prosecuted through the efforts of the State clergy, were set free by 
the king as soon as the matter was brought before him. It seems pretty 
clear that the people were satisfied with the religion in which they haa been 
confirmed, until leaders arose who began to teach them that the doctrines of 
the State church, were not sufficient for a truly religious people, and at best 
were only human and therefore not worthy of credence. 

Among the leaders, were two men, who became important factors in a new 
religious awakening, (for it was such). They were Jonas Olsen and Eric 
Jansen. Jonas Olsen was born in the Parish of Soderala of Helsingland, a 
Province of Sweden, Dec. 18, 1802, of poor and lowly parentage. He saw, in 
his early life, his father often while intoxicated, abuse his mother, and he de- 
termined to lead a temperate life, although all around him, the habits of the 
people, including the clergy, were of a bacchanalian character. He had a 
strong desire to become educated but his environments were such as to for- 



102 

bid its gratification. He learned to read the catechism and hymn books of 
the church and such other religious books as at that time were procurable 
by a young man situated as he was. 

After arriving at manhood, he became engrossed in religious subjects, and 
as he saw around him, a State clergy dead, as it seemed to him, to the spir- 
itual welfare, of those the clergy were supposed to watch over, his sensibili- 
ties became quickened and he determined to arouse the mere formalists of 
the church from the lethargy, into which he believed they had fallen. 

As he had been confirmed at the early age of 15, in the faith of the Estab- 
lished church, he did not seek to undermine or overthrow it, but his attitude 
towards it was like that of John Wesley towards the Church of England. He 
could not understand that the church was a place for repose only, where the 
attendants should lay aside their doubts, and not obtrude them upon those 
who do not doubt. 

Uncultured as he was he could not realize that to turn a church into a 
school of polemics, was certain to bring about a destruction of the church 
itself, and herein he was not unlike many other well meaning men, who have 
assumed that in the darkened ages of the past, lies the golden age of truth, 
morality and justice, and consequently seek for it in such obscure quarters. 

While Jonas Olson was a man of spotless character; a public juror of the 
state, employed by the year to try cases of law under the Swedish judicial 
system, and while he had the respect of all who knew him as a good man, 
still he attended gatherings of sincere religious persons like himself, where 
at private houses were discussed the questions whether the writings and doc- 
trines of Martin Luther were binding on the consciences of true Christians, 
and whether they were more than human writings, as well as kindred ques- 
tions, and particularly, whether it was not possible for men to become so 
fully sanctified in this life, that they could not possibly be shut out from a 
glorified life in the world to come. As might have been expected, the dis- 
cussion of such questions, by men who constantly read their Bibles, and be- 
lieved in a literal sense, all that they found stated therein, including the 
holding of property in common, with the further fact, that many of those in- 
terested in such discussions, found it impossible to obey the law in regard to 
the holding of meetings, and begun not only to doubt, but to openly express 
their doubts, as to the sanctity of the State clergy, led the clergy to cause 
the "heretics" to be arrested and prosecuted under the law, and accordingly, 
Jonas Olson and his brother, with other good men, were either arrested or 
kept in hiding, for, as the wives of the persecuted were in full sympathy with 
the views of their husbands, many were the devices resorted to by the good 
wives, to thwart the efforts of the officers and particularly of the State clergy 
in their attempt to root out the poison that had stealthily crept into the 
church. 

It mast be said, to the credit of the King of Sweden, that, although he was 
the head of the church, when he was appealed to for the remission of penal- 
ties against these people, his mercy was seldom denied. 

Jonas Olson may be said to have been the father of Devotionalism in Swe- 
den, but what his particular doctrines of belief were it is not easy to deter- 
mine, and it is doubtful if he ever knew himself; but he was an upright man, 
a good citizen, and preached nearly to the time he died, in 1898. 

Eric Jansen was a different type of man from Jonas Olson. He was born 
Dec. 19, 1808, in Bishopskulla parish, Uppland, Sweden. His father was the 
owner of a small farm, and was a moderately thrifty man. Eric was not 
favored with an education beyond the religious instruction required by the 
Established church. He believed himself born a religious leader, and nature 
had endowed him with a rare gift of eloquence and the power to sway large 
bodies of men. After experiencing what he believed to be a miracle, he 
turned his whole power and strength into religious channels. The Bible was 
the only book he cared for, and he became a constant reader and earnest ex- 
pounder of it. His services as a preacher and expounder of the Scriptures 
were in eonstnnt demand, and his sermons are said to have been almost in- 
terminable in length, and yet the people listened to him gladly. He attributed 



108 

the woes and sufferings of the people to a lack of religious faith, and as to 
the Established church he reckoned the faith of it dead. He seems to have 
wavered in his own religious views for some time, and if ever he came to 
any definite conclusion as to what they were, in so far as theological doc- 
trines were concerned, he carried the knowledge of them to his grave, with- 
out making it known even to his followers. Of one thing tie might be, and cer- 
tainly was, sure, and that was the punishments he received, at the instigation 
of the clergy of the Established church, were cruel and brutal in the ex- 
treme, and that he had done nothing to merit any punishment, for he con- 
sidered it no crime to meet with his followers, in the open roads and streets, 
and publicly burn the books and writings of the leading officials of the State 
church, which the poor people had paid for, and then owned, and which they 
believed were detrimental to their true religious welfare. 

In his pilgrimage through parts of Sweden he met with Jonas Olson, and 
the two became warm friends, since each was working to the same end. 
Their followers rapidly increased in numbers, and while the most of them 
were poor, there were no persons among them of bad habits or character; all 
were industrious and frugal. 

Having caught a glimpse of the teachings of the French socialists, and on 
comparing them with lives of the early Christians as they read of them in 
their Bibles, and fully realizing that they could not remain in Sweden and 
enjoy their simple religion unmolested by the State clergy, they concluded 
to leave their homes and the laud of their birth and seek new homes else- 
where; and having heard of a country across the seas to the west, where land 
was cheap, the soil fertile, and, better than all, where there was no Estab- 
lished church to oopress them, and which they had good reason to hate for 
having done so. In 1845 they dispatched a messenger, Olof Olson, a brother 
of Jonas Olson, to America, to find a place for a colony to locate. On arriving 
in the city of New York. Olof Olson met one Hedstrom, a Methodist preacher 
on a Bethel ship, and Hedstrom gave him a letter of recommendation to his 
brother, who resided at Victoria, in Knox county, in this State, to which 
place Olson came, and after viewing the country, wrote back to his friends 
in Sweden encouraging news; whereupon, those who had property there, put 
it in a common fund, to pay the expenses of those who had none, in getting 
to this country. Among those who had most, and yielded all, were three 
notable men, Lars Gabrielson, Eric Olson and Olof Stoneberg, all of whom 
have passed away, leaving memories such as only good men can leave be- 
hind. 

In 1846, Jonas Olson, with several hundred of his followers, left Sweden 
and came to Illinois, and located about 12 miles north of Victoria, in Weller 
township, Henry county, on the south branch of the Edwards river, calling 
the place where they settled Bishop Hill, after their home in their father- 
land. Here they purchased some small tracts of land and commenced a new 
life, so far away from their native homes and kindred that their friends and 
relatives left behind had scarcely a hope of ever seeing or hearing from them 
again. They commenced building homes for themselves and families as best 
they could, but the homes secured that year were exceeding primitive. 

A second ship load left Sweden in the same year, but neither ship nor pas- 
sengers were ever heard from again. The number of persons who arrived 
that year, from the best information now obtainable, was upwards of 500. 

At that time no person was allowed to leave Sweden without a passport, 
and Eric Jansen, who was under surveillance by the government clergy, and 
unable to obtain a passport, with two or three followers, crossed over the 
mountains on snowshoes into Norway, and taking ship at Christiana came to 
this country, arriving in the summer of that year. The people were com- 
pelled to live in tents and sod houses, but built an adobe kitchen, where the 
cooking was done for all of them. The country around them was unsettled. 
The nearest mill was at Milan, nearly 40 miles distant. They were more 
than 50 miles from Peoria and 150 miles southwest from Chicago. The suf- 
ferings they underwent during the winter of 1845-46 can not now be fully 
portrayed, but they did not murmur, for their leaders were with them to 
share their suffering. 



L04 

In 1847 and 1848, the tide of immigration kept up, so that at the close of the 
year 1848, accordiutrto the best information now obtainable, the total number 
that had arrived in the three years, could not have been less than 1,200 souls. 
In 1849 the tide was quite as high as in the years previous. Immigrants for 
the west, at that time, after arriving at New York, came up the Hudson river by 
steamer to Albany, and from thence west to Buffalo by canal, and from Buf- 
alo they came around the Lakes to Chicago, and from Chicago the most of 
the Swedish immigrants, female as well as male, walked to their destination 
at Bishop Hill. On the way from Buffalo to Chicago in 1849, a large number 
of these immigrants were stricken with cholera and many of them died before 
reaching their destination. That year was a sad one for these people, as the 
dread di=;ease followed them to Bishop Hill, and from thence to LaGrange, a 
small settlement about 12 miles northwest of Bishop Hill, whither they went 
hoping to escape the disease. More than 200 of them died from this plague, 
and the sunken graves now to be seen at Bishop Hill, are reminders of what 
sorrows these sincere, honest, industrious people met with that year. This 
calamity checked the tide of immigration tor a time. 

An incident occurred in connection with the raging of the cholera, that 
marked the difference between these confiding people, who had put their all 
into a common fund for the benefit of all, and who had been struggling, 
since their arrival in a strange country, where all of the people spoke a 
strange language, to alleviate the wants and woes of their fellow countrymen, 
and a certain type of so-called manhood, that some times obtrudes itself where 
it can do little good, but much harm, and this type of human vermin was not 
wanting in the calamitous days that fell upon the people at Bishop Hill. 
While these people were doing their best to save the lives of their country- 
men, there were no intelligent doctors in the surrounding country to aid 
them, but a man named Foster, who professed to be a doctor, (but was in 
fact a pretentious horse doctor) came to attend the sick and dying, and, 
measuring his services by cows, took all the people possessed, and left them, 
not one. 

Some land at the edge of Red Oak grove that had been subdued by grub- 
bing it by hand, in the summer and autumn of 1846, produced good crops of 
grain in 1847, and the wheat was threshed while in the straw, by striking it 
across the chimes of barrels, and the kernels falling on blankets were thus 
gathered and the chaff winnowed from the wheat and the wheat taken to 
Milan, on Rock river, near Rock Island, and ground, and this flour was a 
great relief to the first comers, who had opened the way to what was soon to 
become a land of plenty. 

Among the people who came were men skilled in handicrafts, such as brick- 
makers, bricklayers, carpenters, wagon makers, cabinet makers, blacksmiths, 
tanners, tailors, shoemakers, and others, while the women were skilled in 
spinning and weaving, and especially in making linen cloths. All were indus- 
trious and few, if any, dronos were among them. They purchased more 
land, some of it in Red Oak Grove, about a mile from the place where they 
had first located; this land was covered with timber, and as no coal had then 
been discovered in the country, it was of much greater value than the best 
prairie land. The titles to the lands were taken in the names of some 9f the 
leading members of what was then called "The Bishop Hill Society." 
Before they purchased the timber land, a saw mill had been erected upon it, 
and this timber and sawmill became of almost priceless value to the people, 
for they soon began to manufacture lumber for building purposes. In 1848 
they buik a large frame church, but having suffered for want of shelter, and 
having at this time only some log buildings and the sod houses erected in the 
two previous years, thej' made the church building perform a double service^ 

They first built a large basement, which was cut up into dwelling rooms for 
families, and the first story above it was utilized for the same purpose, and 
the upper story only was used for a church. Here, Eric Jansen and Jonas 
Olsou preached to the devout flock that always on the sabbath, and often 
during the week, assembled to hear the earnest words that fell from their 
ips, and while Jansen's course, within less than two years after the church 



105 

was erected, was eat short by an untimely death, Jonas Olson kept on ex- 
pounding the Scriptures in his devout and earnest manner, as he had learned 
to do, in the land of his nativitj', for half a century after Jansen's death. 
The church building still remains, and a quaint old structure it is, with its 
outside stairs on either side, leading to and from the large audience room 
above, fitted with smoothly worn black walnut seats, which seem to have been 
made to last a thousand years. 

As he who preached there so long was stern and rugged, and expounded a 
stern and rugged religion to sincere and rugged followers, of whom there 
are few now left, the building, with its rough beams and primitive form and 
finish, speaks of a people that seem long past. The same year the church 
was built, the colony people commenced to make brick, and the following year 
erected a brick building, 45x100 feet, three stories high above the basement. 
Not long after, the building was enlarged by the addition of another 100 feet, 
thus making it 45x200 feet. The upper stories of this building were cut up into 
family living rooms, and thus was first introduced into this country, so far as 
I am able to learn, the plan of living in "flats." The first story above the 
basement was fitted up and used for a kitchen and dining room, and at the 
long tables in this room, the people assembled for years thereafter, as a clock, 
made by a member of the colony and set in a tower near by, struck the hour 
for meals, and received their repasts as the early Christians are supposed to 
have done. The clock still remains, striking the time as perfectly as when 
first constructed, but some of those who were used to gather there ceased to 
da so not long after Fort Sumpter was fired upon, for many of the colonists 
rushed forward to uphold the flag of their adopted country, and I never heard 
of one disloval to it 

About the year 1848, a man named John Root said to have been an officer 
in the Swedish army, and who was a soldier in the American army, in the 
war with Mexico, came to the colony and married a cousin of Eric Jansen. 
Root soon became dissatisfied with life at the colony and went to Chicago, 
taking his wife with him. but was pursued by some of Jansen's followers, 
his wife taken from him, and bought back to the colony. She was again 
taken by Root, who started with her for St. Louis, where he had friends, and 
on the way was taken again and brought to the colony. For this Jansen 
was arrested and taken to Cambridge, the county seat of Henry county for 
trial, and on the 13th of May, 1850, at the noon hour, when the court had ad- 
journed for dinner. Root shot and killed Jansen in the court house. For this 
offense ho was indicted in Henry county, but on account of the feeling of the 
people of the then sparsely settled county, the venue of the case was changed 
to Knox county, where at the September term of 1852, of the circuit court of 
that county, he was tried found guilty of manslaughter, and sentenced to the 
penitentiary for two years, but not long after he was pardoned by the Gov- 
ernor, went to Chioago and soon died there. His wife, Mrs. Root, is still 
living at Bishop Hill. 

At this time, the excitement at the discovery of gold in California was run- 
ning high, and Jansen, not long before his death, against the desire of Jonas 
Olson, had sent Olsen and several of his followers to California in search of 
the precious metal, which, on account cf the constant addition of immigrants 
to the colony, was needed for the payment of debts, for the purchase of land, 
supplies, and for building purposes. Olson, immediately upon his arrival in 
California, heard of Jansen's death, and without delay started to return 
home, arriving there as soon as the methods of travel, then existing, would 
permit. On his arrival he concerned himself with the worldly and spiritual 
affairs of the colony and its members. 

The followers of Jansen were amazed at his death, and for some time there- 
after, such was their faith in him. many believed he would return to them 
again, but the laws of the physical world, not permitting such a thing, his 
wife, within a reasonable time after his death, married again. 

At that time about 2,000 acres of land had been secured in the immediate 
vicinity of Bishop Hill, either by entry at the government land office at Dix- 
on, or by purchase from the owners. 



106 

The people broke aud cultivated their lands, raising: rye, wheat, flax, and 
wool, so that with their knowledge of spinning and weaving they soon had 
an income from the sale of their woven fabrics, for as the country around 
them soon began to settle up; the Swedish cloths, because of their excellent 
quality, found ready purchasers. 

They soon built a grist mill which at first was run by water furnished in 
times of high water, by the south branch of the Edwards river; but as their 
wants, and those of the settlers coming into the country around increased, 
they added steam power to the mill. They also manufactured excellent 
wagons for which they found a ready sale. Whatever they did, they did 
well. They opened a school at an early date, employing an English teacher, 
so that their children could learn the language of the country, for they 
seemed to have an intuitive conception that they would wrong their children 
if they did not assist them to grow up Americans. In this they were wise 
beyond the people of any other nationality, who have settled here without a 
knowledge of the English language. 

In 1853 the legislature of this State granted the colonists a charter, which 
may be found in the private laws of Illinois of 1853, page 328. It is as follows: 

"Section 1. Be it enacted by the people of the State of Illinois, repre- 
sented in the General Assembly, That Olof Johnson, John Olson, James 
Erikson (Jonas Ericson), Jacob Jacobson, Jonas Cronberg, Swan Swanson, 
Peter Johnson and their associates and succe?sors, be and they are hereby 
constituted and appointed a body politic and corporate, by the name and 
style of 'The Bishop Hill Colony', and by that name they and their successors 
shall and may have perpetual succession, shall be capable of suing and being 
sued, defending and being defended, pleading and being impleaded, answer- 
ing and being answered, within all courts and places whatsoever; that they 
may have a common seal to alter or change the same at pleasure; may pur- 
chase and hold or convey, real and personal property necessary to promote 
and fully carry out the objects and interests of said corporation' The num- 
ber of trustees shall be seven, and the above named persons are hereby ap- 
pointed and constituted trustees of said corporation. 

"§ 2. The real and personal estate held and owned by said trustees in 
their corporate capacity shall be held and used for the benefit, support and 
profit of the members of the colony. 

"§ 3. The business of said corporation shall be manufacturing, milling, all 
kinds of mechanical business, agriculture and merchandising. 

"§ 4. The said trustees above appointed shall hold their ofl&ce during good 
behavior, but are liable to be removed, for good cause, by a vote of a major- 
ity of the male members of the colony. 

*'? 5. All vacancies in the office of trustees, either by removal, death, res- 
ignation or otherwise, shall be filled in such manner as shall be provided by 
the by-laws of such corporation. 

"§ 6. The said trustees and their successors in office, may make contracts, 
purchase real estate, and again convey the same, whenever they shall see 
proper so to do, for the benefit of the colony. 

"§ 7. All the real estate heretofore conveyed by any person or persons to 
the trustees of the Bishop Hill society, shall be and the titles to said land 
are hereby invested in the said trustees above appointed, for the use and 
purpose above specified. 

"§ 8. The said Bishop Hill colony may pass such by-laws concerning the 
government and management of the property and business of said colony, 
and the admission, withdrawal and expulsion of its members, and regulating 
its internal policy and for other purposes connected with the business and 
management of said colony, as they may deem proper, not inconsistent with 
the constitution and laws of this State. 

"? 9. This act shall be deemed and taken as a public act, and shall be 
construed liberally, for the benefit of said colony." 

Approved Jan. 17, 1853. 



107 

This charter is probably more comprehensive than any ever afranted in this 
State. It has never been repealed or annulled. 

While the older persons who first settled at Bishop Hill, were for some 
years satisfied with their lot, such was not the case with the young people, 
for they soon learned to speak English, and as the country was being rapidly 
settled, Swedish help, both male and female, was in demand (and until the 
present time the demand has not ceased). As a consequence the youog and 
apparently "green Swedes," as they were often called, mixing with the 
well informed native immigrants from the states east of the great lakes, 
rapidly learned the ways of the natives, and left the colony never to return. 

At one time, before Jansen's death, he had enjoined his followers to lives 
of celibacy. This, however, was an economic measure, while the people were 
without houses to shelter them, and the tide of immigration was highest; and 
its attempted enforcement ceased, on the receipt of bounteous crops, and the 
construction of comfortable homes. 

In 1854, the Central Military Tract railroad (now a part of the main line of 
the Chicago, Burlingi'-on & Quincy railroad) was built, running five miles 
southeast of Bishop Hill through the present village of (jalva. The building 
of the railroad caused a rapid settlement of the contiguous country. The 
colony then owned about 5,000 acres of land, the most of which ^as under 
cultivation, and was producing large crops of grain and broomcorn, which 
readily found a market in Chicago. The years 1853, 1854, 1855, 1856 and 1857 
were the halcyon years of the colony. The number of persons there in the 
latter years was about 800. The communistic system of living was quite 
thoroughly carried out, although the religious side of it had begun to wane. 
The trustees purchased more lands and the corporation must have owned, or 
had contracted for, at least 8,000 acres at the close of the year 1857. Up to that 
time it had built a number of brick buildings; for a hotel, mechanics' shops, 
and for dwellings, and had become indebted so that it was compelled to bor- 
row $50,000 to pay its debts. 

The leading financial man among the trustees, was Olof Johnson. He 
cared little for the religious part of the institution but as he was affable and en- 
dowed with pleasing manners and for those times handled much money, he 
was thought to be well qualified to manage the finances of the institution, and 
accordingly was given entire control of them, but either because of the lack of 
ability, or of the financial crash of 1857, which was severely felt in the west 
for several years, or of both, he proved to be a failure. The men and women 
able to do so, worked in the fields and the communistic system was 
kept up, until the war of the rebellion broke upon the country, when many 
of the younger colonists enlisted in the Union army, which had a decided in- 
fluence on those who remained at home, and about one-half of them, under 
the leadership of Olof Johnson, insisted upon a division of the colony prop- 
erty, which the other half, under the leadership of Jonas Olson, consented to, 
and accordingly a committee was appointed to allot the property to individu- 
als. The lands that the Johnson party took were surveyed by Eric Lind- 
strom, a member of the colony, and taking the heads of families, both father 
and mother, an amount of property both real and personal, was fixed upon 
for them, and to this was added further amounts for each child of the family, 
down to children two years of age, and in this way the property was divided 
up with little friction because of the manifest justice of the metbod adopted. 
The members of the Johnson party took immediate possession of the prop- 
erty of which deeds were made by the trustees, but all of them were not de- 
livered at the time the division was made, because some of the lands were 
encumbered with mortgages, which it was supposed would be paid from prop- 
erty reserved for that purpose. Two or three years after the division of the 
property of the Johnson party, a like division of the property of the Olson 
party was made. After the division of the property many colonists sold their 
holdings and moved west; some to Iowa, some to Nebraska and some to 
Kansas, and wherever they went they were good citizens and prospered. 

Notwithstanding that at times, both before and after the death of Eric 
tlansen, the town of Bishop Hill, was crowded with immigrants, some to re- 
main in this State; some destined for Iowa, Wisconsin and Minnesota, no 



108 

crimes of any importance were committed there. English schools have been 
kept up, and a stranger going to the little village now, will scarcely meet a 
person who could not address him in English, as fluently as the native born 
people from the east. 

While the communistic element of the colony thus terminated, its legal ex- 
istence still survived, as it should have done for a time, to settle and pay its 
indebtedness, but this was not to be, for there seemed to be no one person, 
at least no, one the people could agree upon, that would undertake the task, 
and while many knew that Olof Johnson, was deficient in the qualities re- 
quired to judiciously dispose of the property set aside to pay the debts of the 
colony, which then amounted to between $75,000 and $100,000, he was re- 
tained by the trustees for that purpose and was given full power in the 
premises, and although the people were assessed and paid liberally of their 
savings, not much if any, of the money reached the creditors, and what be- 
came of it the colonists never knew. 

By a vote of the members of the colony, Johnson had been appointed its 
attorney in fact, and the other trustees naturally felt, that whatever was 
done by him, they were not responsible for, and therefore took little interest 
in what he did. 

In 1868, some of the members of the colony, having become dissatisfied 
with what had been done concerning the payment of the colony debts, em- 
ployed a Chicago lawyer, to bring suit against the trustees, and Hiram Sibley 
and others, to compel the trustees to account for the moneys received by 
Johnson; to set aside a decree of the circuit court of the United States at 
Chicago, rendered on a mortgage, made by the colony years before, to Alex- 
ander Studwell, for borrowed money, on valuable lands of the colony, and to 
wind up the colony. This suit was pending in 1870, when Johnson died, 
leaving an insolvent estate. The suit was apparently vigorously prosecuted 
for years and about 1877, when, as Justice Mulkey sarcastically said, "nu- 
merous so-called decrees," were entered in the case, among them decrees 
ordering a large amount of lands to be sold to pay, not debts of the colony, 
for they were paid by the parties to whom the mortgaged lands were alloted, 
but to pay the attorneys in the case, and the charges of persons prosecuting 
and defending the suit, amounting to many thousands of dollars. In justice 
to the judge who signed the decrees, it must be said, that there is little doubt, 
that the decrees were agreed upon by the attorneys in the case. Many tracts 
of land were sold by the special master in chancery, the owners of which 
were not made parties to the suit. The most of the lands were not redeemed 
from the sale and deeds were made to the purchasers, who were notified at 
the sale, that possession of the lands would not be voluntarily yielded by the 
owners. Petitions were filed by the grantees in some of the deeds, for writs 
of assistance to put them in possession of the lands, among them the lands of 
John Root, a son of the man who killed Jansen, now a prominent attorney, 
and master in chancery of the county. His land had been sold for $2,800, 
and was purchased for the benefit of the attorney who prosecuted the suit. 
The judge who tried the case, granted a writ of assistance, directing the 
sheriff of Henry county, to put the petitioner, Lyman M. Payne, in possession 
of the land. Root appealed the case to the Appellate Court, of the Second 
district of Illinois, where the judgment of the circuit court was reversed and 
the suit ordered dismissed. Payne appealed his case to the Supreme C )urt, 
wbere the judgment of the Appellate Court was affirmed, in a caustic opinion 
by Judge Mulkey. See Vol. 121 Illinois Reports, p. 77. The law governing 
the remaining cases, being thus determined, the eases were dismissed and 
never resurrected. The original "Bishop Hill Case" then remained, deserted 
by those who brought it and their attorney. When the clerk of the circuit 
court of Henry county was making up the docket of the court for the 
February term, 1888, a member of the bar of the county suggested to him, 
that the case be omitted from the docket, which was done, and thus ended 
the "Bishop Hill Colony." 




MAJ. JOHN T. STUART. 



109 
MAJOR JOHN T. STUART. 

By C. C. Brown. 

The Earl of Corke over 100 years ago in his preface to the memoirs of the 
life of the Earl of Monmouth, who so loyally served Queen Elizabeth, King 
James and King Charles the 1st and 2nd, uses this language: 

"If we have cause, as we undoubtedly have, to lament the darkness through 
which we are obliged to pervade in the Greek and lioman story, how much 
more have we to regret the want of light in the annals of our nation? History 
wants every assistance, be it ever so small, that can be afforded it. Our pos- 
terity indeed will have an advantage which our ancestors wanted, by the 
constant and unwearied publication of papers, and these papers will have the 
honor to be the corner stones of those historical edifices which may be built 
hereafter." 

This society was formed for this purpose to exploit the history of a great 
State, and keep green in the hearts of its citizens the names and virtues of its 
most illustrious sons and daughters. 

Therefore all honor to the men, who without reward devote their time and 
talents to this work. Generations unborn will rejoice in their labors of love. 
At the request of the society I now proceed to give a sketch of the life of one 
of our State's most eminent citizens. 

John Todd Stuart was born on the 10th day of November, 1807, at Walnut 
Hills, Ky., a small settlement seven miles from Lexington. 

His father, Robert Stuart, was of Scotch Irish descent and a Presbyterian 
minister at Walnut Hills for many years; his mother, Hannah Todd, was 

the daughter of Todd. Young Stuart was prepared for college under 

the tuition of his father and the common schools in the vicinity of his father's 
home. 

He graduated at the Centre college of Kentucky on the 27th day of Septem- 
ber, 1826, there being but two graduates in that year. Immediately after his 
graduation he went to Richmond, Ky., to study law with Judge Daniel Breck, 
who had married one of his aunts. Judge Breck was a Vermonter, 6 feet 2 
or 3 inches in height, and weighed about 225 pounds; he was a sound lawyer, 
went to Kentucky from his native state at an early day and fought his way 
mentally and physically to the head of his profession. 

Judge Breck in those early days was a candidate for the Legislature against 
one of the Turners, a family of great wealth and influence. The night before 
the election he was informed that Turner had purchased every barrel of 
whiskey in Richmond, that they were to be rolled out on the streets the next 
day and the heads driven in and the Turner supporters invited to help them- 
selves. 

Breck, undismayed, sent out friends to purchase all the tin cups in Rich- 
mond and when the barrels were opened, the friends of Breck had the only 
means of drinking the whiskey. 

In this day we hear much of corners on corn, wheat, whiskey and tin plate, 
but never on tin cups. 

On the 19th day of December, 1827, George M. Bibb, William Owsley and 
B. Mills then Judges of the Kentucky Court of Appeals (and known in his- 
tory as the Old Court) issued to young Stuart a license to practice law in 
said state; he returned to Richmond, pursued his studies and in the latter 
part of October, 1828, started on horseback, accompanied by a Mr. Shackel- 
ford for Springfield, 111., on the 3d day of November, of that year, they 
reached the little town of Louisville, Clay county. 111. Andrew Jackson and 
John Quincy Adams were candidates for the presidency. 

The election was in progress at Louisville; a large, boisterous and intoxi- 
cated crowd was around the polls, and in the street through which Stuart and 
his companion were compelled to ride, the crowd, all Jackson men, sur- 
rounded the Kentuckians and insisted that they should vote, in vain they 
protested claiming that they were not citizens, and therefore not entitled to 



110 

vote, the crowd would not relent, and when it became apparent to the Ken- 
tuekians that they must vote or fight overwhelming numbers, they asked the 
mob to allow them to consult together privately, which was granted. In this 
consultation they both decided that if forced to vote they would vote their 
sentiments and take the consequences; they went to the polls, their names 
were called, and to the astonishment and disgust of the bystanders, they 
voted for John Quincy Adams, the only votes cast for him in that precinct, 
the whole county of Clay giving but 13 votes for the Adams electors. 

On his arrival at Springfield, on the 6th of November, then a small village 
of less than 500 inhabitants, he commenced the practice of his profession 
with marked success. His military experience was brief, and as he often re- 
marked, non-hazardous. 

On the 11th of May, 1829, there being some apprehension of trouble with 
the Indians he enlisted and was appointed sergeant major by Tom M. Neale, 
colonel commanding in the Twentieth regiment of the Illinois State militia. 
In 1831 he enlisted with Abraham Lincoln and others as a private in Captain 
Dawson's company Second regiment of Illinois, mounted volunteers for the 
Black Hawk war, and when the company was mustered into service, he was 
sent out one night on picket duty, was to be relieved at 12:00 o'clock, but the 
officer in charge forgot him and when he was relieved early in the morning 
found he had been elected major of the regiment. Mr. Lincoln at the same 
time being elected a captain. He was fond of relating his experience in this 
campaign and telling a good story on himself. 

When the time of enlistment of the regiment expired, and it was called 
together to be mustered out, the field officers were required to ride out 30 
paces from the regiment, fire their pistols, wheel and return to the line. 
One after another of his superior officers rode out, fired their pistols over 
the heads of their horses, their horses squatted and they wheeled and returned 
safely to the ranks. Major Stuart rode out on his charger and instead of 
firing over the head of his horse, shot out from the side, his horse jumped to 
one side suddenly and threw him into the prairie grass, much to the amuse- 
ment of his fellow officers and the regiment. Strange to relate, after this 
war he was universally called and known over the State as "Black Hawk." 
On the 27th of May, 1832, when his regiment was dischargad. he re-enlisted 
as a private in Capt. Elijah lies' company of Mounted Volunteers and was 
honorably discharged on the 16th of June following. 

Printed on this discharge and signed by Capt. lies are these words: "Illi- 
nis Volunteers, who remained after the main army was disbanded, to repel a 
savage enemy, and protect a bleeding frontier, until new levies could be 
raised." 

In 1832 he was elected to the State General Assembly and re-elected with 
Abraham Lincoln in 1834. In 1836 he ran for Congress, but was defeated by 
Wm. L. May, his Democratic opponent. In 1838 the great contest between 
Stuart and Douglas for Congress in the Third district took place, which not 
only created widespread interest in Illinois, but in the nation at large. There 
were 34 counties in the district, running from Cook to Calhoun — 36,461 votes 
were cast, and Stuart's majority was 14. Two counties in the district, Morgan 
and Sangamon, each polled more votes than Cook — Morgan, 1,111, and San- 
gamon, 765, more than Cook; more votes were cast in Morgan than in any 
other county in the district. 

The contest was carried on in good humor, the candidates often occupying 
the same bed at night, until about the close of the campaign. A short time 
before the election they had a joint discussion in front of the old market house 
in Springfield. In that debate Douglas used language that Stuart thought 
offensive, and Stuart, tall and slim, seized his short antagonist around the 
neck and before friends could separate them, carried him around the market 
house. Douglas during the scuffle got the right thumb of Stuart in his 
mouth, and made such an impression that a scar reminded him in his old age 
of this impulsive and undignified encounter. Stuart was re-elected to Con- 
gress over Ralston in 1840. When in Congress he was on the committee on 
territories and served with distinction during both terms. 



Ill 

Clay, Webster and Calhoun at this time, were in Washiuerton and the first 
two showed marked attention to the young and promising Whig from Illinois. 

Although not a member of the legislature, when the capital was removed 
from Vandalia to Springfield, yet he was present, and exerted his powerful 
influence in favor of Sangamon. One of the potent arguments used with the 
members, was that they gave in Vandalia nothing in the way of meat, but 
venison, prairie chicken and quails, an argument that would have little 
weight in this day and generation. 

In the campaign against Douglas, Stuart visited Chicago, then a small 
village, on an electioneering tour. He went to the office of Butterfield, an 
ardent supporter, a fine lawyer and well known all over the State. While en- 
gaged in conversation with Butterfield in a little frame office on the ground 
floor, two gentlemen passed arm in arm; Stuart anxious to know everybody, 
inquired who they were. "Oh," said Butterfield in reply, "Two fool Kon- 
tuckians — you never saw one in your life that was not born about seven miles 
from Lexington." Stuart said that as that was his exact distance, he kept 
silent. This Butterfield was a native of New Hampshire, was quaint but was 
a great lawyer. In the celebrated case of Joseph Smith, the Mormon prophet, 
he was chief counsel. Smith was brought before the Federal judge at Spring- 
field, excitement ran high. Judge Pope was on the bench, and the courtroom 
was crowded and many ladies in the gallery. Butterfield arose and said: 
"May it please the court, this is the first time that I have been called upon to 
defend a prophet of the Lord, before your holiness, the pope, and (turning 
to the gallery) in the presence of angels." On the 25th of October, 1837, 
Major Stuart married Mary V. Nash in the city of Jacksonville. Her father, 
Francis Nash, after the death of his wife, moved from Prince Edward coun- 
ty, Va., to the mouth of the Missouri river about 20 mile above St. Louis in 
1823, and died there in 1833. Mrs. Stuart lived for a short time after her 
father's death with Judge Gamble in St. Louis, and then came to Illinois, 
and lived until her marriage, with her uncle and aunt, Judge Samuel D. 
Lockwood and wife. She was beautiful, graceful and intelligent; nothing 
during her long life escaped her attention that would add to the comfort or 
happiness of her husband and children, and she endeared herself to all who 
associated with her. The attachment which Judge Lockwood had for her 
was beautiful. From the time of her marriage up to his death a correspon- 
ence was kept up between them, the judge never failing to express his un- 
bounded affection, and also giving her every detail of family affairs. In a 
letter written very soon after her marriage, is a curious statement. He 
writes: "My wife has been ill, but we are putting up a cooking stove, which 
is said to be a panacea for all evils, in my opinion, however, it will not work." 
I hope this distinguished jurist's opinion will not be used by the female por- 
tion of my audience as evidence that men know little of kitchen affairs. Mrs. 
Stuart survived her husband nearly 16 years and departed this life on the 31st 
of last May in Springfield, 111. 

Major Stuart, in compliance with an unwritten law of the district, was not 
a candidate for Congress in 1842. He served in the Senate of this State from 
1849 to 1853. After his election to Congress the law firm of Stuart & Lincoln 
was formed and continued for some time. His share of the fees, in each 
case, collected by Lincoln during his absence, was carefully wrapped in 
brown paper and marked "Stuart's half" and all personal letters were deliv- 
ered by Mr. Lincoln out of his hat to Mr. Stuart, daily. 

In 1843, he formed a partnership with Benjamin S. Edwards, under the 
name of Stuart & Edwards. In January, 1860, your speaker was admitted as 
a partner, under the firm name of Stuart, Edwards & Brown, which contin- 
ued without change until Major Stuart's death, and was then probably the 
oldest law partnership in the State. 

Fully equipped in his early manhood in the principles of law, possessed of 
a sound judgment and a discriminating mind, he had little difficulty from 
early manhood to old age in maintaining himself in the front ranks; not, 
perhaps, a great student, but a great thinker. Accustomed in his early life 
to very low fees, — when he devoted more time to politics than the law, — he 



112 

naturally placed a low estimate oa legal services. When a suit was ter- 
minated and the time reached for fixing fees, if there was any possible chance 
to escape, he would leave the office. When he did fix the amount, it was 
usually placed with the postage stamps and rarely divided. 

In the early sixties he was called by an old friend, who was ill, residing 
several miles from Springfield, to write his will. The roads were impassa- 
ble and he started one Monday morniog afoot. He spent the whole day, dis- 
posed of over $100,000 in the will, and reached home after dark. Tuesday 
morning he came to the office, took down the book, and charged for his ser- 
vices $5.00. One of his partners, who had a more exalted idea of what a 
lawyer should receive, made it $50. In a few days thereafter his old friend 
sent him a check for $100, and was pleased to state in his note that he hoped 
to be able to see him soon and arrange the balance. 

Major Stuart was unsurpassed as a chancery lawyer. He rarely demurred 
to a bill, but usually made an answer that fully set out his defense. I doubt 
whether the records will show in a long practice the loss of a single case 
brought by his advice. After considering a case, he did not depend so much 
on the books as on his own keen sense of justice. In other words, he knew 
what the law ought to be, and when he argued a case, he cited few author- 
ities. 

He devoted his whole time to the practice of law from 1843 until 1863, when 
he announced himself as an independent candidate for Congress. Although 
his brothers and sisters, and in fact all his relatives, except his immediate 
family, were in the South, he never wavered in his desire to preserve the 
Union. In the circular issued by him August 30th, 1862, when he announced 
himself as a candidate, he used this language: 

"The Constitution provides no mode of dissolving the Union, it has no 
sanction for secession; when therefore the people of the South make the effort 
by force to free themselves from the obligations which they owe under the 
Constitution to the Union, they become rebels and traitors seeking by revolu- 
tion to destroy the Union and it is the right and becomes the duty of the 
General Government to put down that rebellion and stay that revolution by 
the use for that purpose of all its constitutional powers." 

In closing that address he further says: 

"One thing further I would add, not necessary perhaps in this connection, 
but I wish to say it, and the occasion is at least not unfit. Mr. Lincoln and 
myself, as most of you know, have been closely connected for more than a 

Suarter century by many ties, the recollection of which is very dear to me. 
'ifference in political opinion since 1856 has in nowise diminished my respect 
for the man, or the unbounded confidence I have ever had in his personal 
integrity. I believe he entertains an ardent desire, and is struggling to pre- 
serve the Union and the Constitution as our fathers made them and as a 
matter of feeling, as well as duty, I would rather aid than embarrass him in 
all such efforts. If my voice could reach his ear I would be glad to say to 
him, follow the dictates of your own clear head and patriotic heart and pre- 
serve the Union by the ample powers conferred on you by the Constitution 
and repulse from you any faction, if such there be, which would goad you 
into a resort to revolutionary means, and for a Union and Constitution so 
preserved, history will erect monuments for you by the side of Washington." 

Although usually grave and dignified he had his humorous side. When he 
met his lifelong friend, David Davis, he would tell a story that both would 
heartily laugh over. It seems that Stuart, Lincoln, Judge Treat and Davis 
were going on horseback to some northeastern county on circuit business. 
They put up for the night at some country tavern; their horses were brought 
out the next morning. Stuart, Lincoln and Treat put their feet in the stirrups 
and mounted their horses without difficulty. Davis, being; a very large and 
fleshy man, led his horse to the stiles. The others twitted him on his inability 
to mount in the usual way. Davis, much annoyed and vexed, jumped to the 
ground, put his foot in the stirrup and gave such a vigorous jump as to land 
on the other side of his horse on the ground. I doubt whether the love of 
David and Jonathan exceeded the affection that existed between these two 
men. Davis, in his eloquent eulogy before the Illinois Bar Association over 



113 

his dead friend, could not suppress his deep sorrow or hide his tears. I shall 
never forget one morning after Stuart's death. His body was prepared for 
burial and lay in a casket in a room darkened by drawn curtains, and in a 
home where he had spent serenely and happily over 50 years of his active and 
useful life; a home that had entertained Lincoln, Logan, Douglas, Davis and 
a great army of distinguished men and women. Davis apppeared with Robert 
T. Lincoln, the son of another close friend of the dead soldier, statesman and 
lawyer. Davis could hardly wait for admittance. When ushered into the 
rooin ha said: "Open the blinds, let in the light; I want to look once more 
on the face of my earliest and best friend." The old man stood for many 
minutes gazing for the last time on the mortal remains of one he had loved 
in life and whom he had known for nearly two generations, and shed bitter 
tears. 

When Lincoln, Logan, Baker and Stuart in an early day, were politicians, 
there lived in Clary's Grove, Sangamon county, a very queer character, a 
man of great native ability and known as Tom Edwards. He was a Whig, 
and a leader of what was known in that day as "the Clary's Grove gang." 
He was shrewd, and the politicians courted him and had for him genuine re- 
spect. As years passed and civilization and education advanced, Edwards 
lost much of his power with the masses and ceased to be a leader of men. 
In his later years he was a bee hunter and basket maker. About every three 
months he would get one of his neighbors to bring a load of honey and 
baskets to Springfield, then he and his wife, a most estimable woman, would 
come to Springfield, put up with a brother and remain until he disposed of 
his baskets and honey. Lincoln, Logan and Stuart were his most liberal 
customers and he would make their respective offices headquarters. During 
the war, Lincoln being President, and Stuart in congress, Edwards continued 
his visits to the capital and sold his commodities to their friends. On one of 
these visits he was very much concerned about a grandson who had enlisted 
in the army. He was afraid he might be killed and he was anxious to get his 
discharge; he wrote to Mr. Lincoln; he wrote to the Secretai'y of War; he 
wrote to Mr. Stuart. It was impossible for any one to attend to business 
while he was present. Finally one of Stuart's partners wrote to him implor- 
ing him to give them some relief, and if possible secure the release of Ed- 
wards' grandson. 

In about one week thereafter the welcome discharge came and Edwards 
went home to his baskets and honey. 

Stuart returned to his home shortly afterwards and one day said to his 
partners: "Do you know how I secured the discharge of Edwards' grand- 
son? I went one evening to the White House, had a very pleasant visit with 
Mr. and Mrs. Lincoln; before leaving I pulled your letter out of my pocket 
and asked Lincoln to write a discharge. Lincoln hesitated, and finally said: 
'Stuart, 1 can't do this, Stanton will not let me do it,' very well, I replied, 
putting the letter in my pocket, I will write to old Tom to come to Wiiyhing- 
ton." I had hardly time to get the letter in my pocket when Lincoln quickly 
said, "Stuart, give me that letter," and at once wrote the order, evidently 
preferring the frowns of Stanton to the beseeching presence of old Tom. He 
also knew that Edwards would finally prevail. 

In his canvass against Swett, in 1862, he was very anxious not to stir up 
party strife and for that reason did not arrange for a joint discussion. Some 
of the Republican papers intimated that it was through fear of Swett, he be- 
ing a great orator. Stuart was somewhat nettled at this intimation so one 
day when Swett was to have a large meeting at Lincoln, 111., Stuart took the 
12:00 o'clock train and reached that city at 1:30. No notice had been given 
and when the hour for Swett's speech arrived he quickly walked into the 
court house, and asked Swett to divide time with him. Swott afterwards de- 
clared that he had heard many speeches but that this wa.-' the most effective 
and the most eloquent he had ever heard and although lie was defeated by 
Stuart in a Republican district, he maintained ever afterwards that Stuart 
was a giant in intellect and oratory. In 1864 Stuart was nominated by the 

— 8H 



114 

Democrats for re-election to congress against his protest, and was defeated 
by Stielby M. Cullom. Stuart was in height about six feet, weighing about 
200 pounds, with piercing dark eyes, high forehead, and hair tinged with 
gray. He was, at 50 years of age, a magnificent speciman of manhood. He 
never passed man, woman or child that he knew without some kind greeting. 
He was a loyal and devoted friend, a kind and considerate husband, and an 
affectionate and indulgent father. 

Major Stuart took an active part in establishing the Illinois University at 
Springfield, maintained by the Lutherans; was president of the board of 
trustees of the Bettie Stuart Institute; was president of the horse railway; 
president of the watch factory, all in the city of Springfield; and was one of the 
commissioners appointed by the Governor for the erection of the new State 
house. No enterprise during his long life, that had for its object, the build- 
ing up of the city in which he dwelt, or bettering the condition of its citizens, 
failed to secure his sympathy, or his financial aid, and lastly, I can say with 
truth, that no setiment of hatred, or ill will to his fellow men, ever rankled 
in his heart. 

On the 28th of November, 1885, surrounded by his family, and only a few 
days in his 79th year "God's finger touched him and he slept." 

In conclusion to show his religious character allow me to read an extract 
from a speech delivered by him to the old settlers of Sangamon, eight years 
before his death: 

•" These early settlers I owe them much, when almost a boy and a stranger 
they received me with open arms, and have in a thousand ways, showered 
upon me favors beyond my deserts. I owe them a large debt of gratitude 
and would do all I might to honor their memories. Most of them are dead and 
gone, and I hope have settled for all time in a better country around the 
throne of God and along the banks of 'the beautiful river.' Some few of 
us old settlers still linger on these coasts of time, one by one they are pass- 
ing away and those of us who remain are fast becoming strangers amid the 
new generation around us. We are taught in the Story of the Cross, and we 
believe, that a great scheme of redemption has been provided by the great 
Father, and that if we do our duty here to our country, our fellowmen and to 
our God that somewhere in His great Universe, a heaven has been provided 
as our happy and eternal home, and the thought is a consoling' one, that al- 
though fast becoming strangers here, yet when we cross the great River of 
time which divides that happy land from ours, we will meet more friends 
there than we leave behind us, that we will know them and they us, and that 
there the re-union of old settlers will be joyous, complete and without end." 



THE STATE'S INTERNAL IMPROVEMENT VENTURE OF 

1887-38. 

[Dr. Bernard Stuve.] 

In 1837, this State entered upon an extensive system of internal improve- 
ments which did not improve. The venture resulted in a total failure, and 
the people had to pay dearly for it. 

In some respects this subject may not look inviting; it does not minister to 
our pride or vanity as Illinoisans — is really about the only thing in the career 
of the State that we do not commonly brag about. Our orators do not ap- 
peal to it in portraying the glories of the State. Occasionally congratulations 
are quietly passed that it was no worse, or that the Ship of State weathered 
the storm without stranding on the rocks of repudiation and dishonor; but 
that is all. 

The history of this episode, little of which we hear now-a-days, is. how- 
ever, not without interest, and may possibly contain a lesson for future like 
experiments, state or national. 



115 

To aid our understanding of the situation at the time the "grand system," 
as it has been derisively called, was launched, a glance back over a few 
years may prove helpful. That during the first half of the nineteenth cen- 
tury there was unusual longing among the people of this country for in- 
creased facilities for intercommunication and transportation need hardly be 
said. Occasionally there were rumors in the air of coming wonderful im- 
provements to stir their hope. Meanwhile man's inventive brain and mechan- 
ical skill were not idle. Steam power had early been successfully applied to 
navigation and by 1820 had ceased to be a novelty even in the west. But 
steam navigation could only be utilized on navigable waters. To reach the 
great interior areas not intersected by navigable water courses and which 
were being rapidly settled up was the desideratum of the day. It could only 
be accomplished by the improvement of the rivers susceptible of it by the 
digging of canals where the land lay suitable to this construction, by the 
making of good roads or turnpikes, and by the building of railroads. Rail- 
roads during the first quarter of the century, though considerably talked of and 
written about abroad, were an unknown quantity in this country. Indeed, 
as late as 1823, Pennsylvania sent a legislative committee to Europe to learn 
something definite about them. 

But all such improvements meant large capital and big expenditures of 
of money which, in that day, were difficult to get and therefore it was gener- 
ally conceded that private enterprise was not equal to this accomplishment. 
The only alternative seemed to be national or state undertaking. As to the 
former, there was little hope, for the party then generally in control of thf 
government held to the view that Congress had no power to make either 
gifts to such enterprises or to aid through the credit of the nation. This left 
it for the states alone to undertake such works. 

The year of 1825 marks an era in public improvements, facilitating trans- 
portation and travel. In the fall of that year was completed the Erie canal 
in N. Y., the crowning ambition of Governor Clinton's life; and the building 
of the first railroad in England under the direction of George Stephenson, 
the great railroad inventor. The openings of these public works were attended 
by elaborate civic demonstrations which gave them wide notoriety and which 
imparted a wonderful impetus to the hopes of people everywhere for like im- 
provements. A moments digression descriptive of these demonstrations may 
be excused. 

At Buffalo a fleet of canal boats was made up, one loaded with a family of 
Indians, a live buffalo, coyote, racoon, litter of prairie dogs, etc., typical of 
former main western products, and others laden with wheat, oats, and corn, 
showing what the west was capable of; while still others were thronged with 
invited guests, a band of music, etc., the whole fleet gaily decorated with flags 
and drawn by a dozen flne gray horses. A cask of Lake Erie water was also put 
aboard. The fleet started down the canal amidst cannon firing, music and 
the cheers of the people gathered for the occasion. Cannon had been placed 
within hearing distance of one with another along the route clear to New 
York city, and, their reports through prearranged signals informed the peo- 
ple from time to time of the progress of the fleet. This it may be said was 
their mode of telephoning in those days. On reaching the Hudson the 
fleet was met by a large convoy of steamers and rapidly towed down the 
river whose banks at many points were crowded with cheering multitudes. 
At the metropolis apparently the whole city turned out. An industrial parade 
organized for the occasion made an elaborate display of many handicrafts 
countermarching at Castle Garden. The fleet passed on to Sandy Hook 
where with a speech from the Governor, music and cannon firing, the cask of 
Lake Erie water was emptied into the Atlantic, typifying the navigable 
union of the Great Lakes with the bread seas of all the world. On the fleet's 
return in the evening the city was found brilliantly illuminated, and ban- 
quets, toasts, congratulatory speeches, and gay balls were the order of the 
night. 

The opening of the flrst railroad in England took place September 27th, 
l82o. A train of a dozen or more cars was made up at Stockton, half of them 
loaded with coal and the rest with hundreds of invited guests, in charge of 
„ ephenson, as engineer. People in large numbers had gathered for the 



116 

occasion, and when the train started, many in doubt of its promised speed, 
tried to keep up with it on foot, gentry on horseback cut across fields to head 
it and a stage coach on the turnpike, loaded with passengers, waited for an 
even start. On the track, in front of the engine, a man was mounted on a 
fleet charger to keep ahead of it, carrying a flag and decorated with many 
derisive insignia. Such were some of the manifestations of the doubting 
Briton. The train started amidst cheers from the people. The locomotive 
soon showed its power under the guiding hand of Stephenson. He shouted 
to the man with the flag to clear the track, and opening the throttle valve, the 
train shot ahead at the rate of 15 miles an hour, leaving people, horses and 
stage coach far behind, and reaching Darlington in safety. 

The feasibility of railroad transportation was thus fully demonstrated, yet 
such was the obstinacy of the Briton to innovations that when shortly after, a 
charter was applied for to build a railroad from Liverpool to Manchester all 
manner of objections were raised — that the smoke from the locomotive would 
poison the air; kill the birds and destroy gentlemen's pheasant preserves; 
burn up farms and homesteads; render hay and oats valueless, because horses 
to consume them would become extinct; highways for traveling would be 
superseded, country inns ruined, and passengers and employes killed by the 
bursting of boilers. 

, When Stephenson was called before the parliamentary committee this inci- 
dent happened. A member -in a triumphant tone put the query to him: 
"Suppose now, in front of one of these locomotives pulling a train at the 
speed of 12 to 15 miles an hour, a cow should stray upon the track, would 
not that be a very awkward situation?" "Ay, ay," replied Stephenson in 
his broad Northumberland dialect, "raither awkward for the coo." 

I may add, however, that in this country experience has repeatedly shown 
that such "situation" is not only "awkward" for the cow but often disastrous 
to the train. With the railroad news from abroad and the opening of the 
Erie canal which by the way was yieldinor good returns from the start, equal 
to 10 per cent, net on its cost of $8,000,000, all of which the New York press, 
in connection with the civic demonstrations of the opening events, had not 
failed to present in the most vivid colors, tinctured with florid predictions of 
wonderful developments along these lines for the whole country in the near 
future and which was copied by other papers near and far with favorable 
comments and home applications, the hopes of the people were wrought to 
the highest pitch of expectation. Railroad charters were numerously granted 
in different states, rivers planned to be rendered navigable and the construc- 
tion of hundreds of miles of canals undertaken by states. All through the 
sea board states the spirit of internal improvement became especially active. 
Still as to the building of railroads, such were the hindrances from lack of 
mechanical devices if not skill, crude machinery and modes of construction, 
and in many places the difficulties of grading, that by 1830 only about 36 miles 
of railroad had actually been completed in the whole country and that was 
between Albany and Schenectady. 

Of course the fever of public improvement did not find a barrier in the Al- 
leghanies but soon spread to the west infecting communities as it went. In 
Ohio as early as 1826 ground was broken for a canal to join the waters of Lake 
Erie and the Ohio river. Indiana not to be out done in the march of pro- 
gress, launched a big improvement system which soon involved her deeply in 
debt. Kentucky more prudent and with a surface more uneven, confined 
herself largely to the improvement of her rivers to render them navigable, 
and the building of a fine system of turn pikes, many of which are doing ex- 
cellent service today. 

In Illinois the joining of the waters of Lake Michigan with those of the 
Illinois river had been from a very early day a fond dream with many. As 
the portage from the south branch of the Chicago river to the Des Plaines 
was only a few miles across, the cutting through this rim was long vaguely 
regarded as of easy accomplishment. Time and again was public attention 
directed to it. The massacre at Fort Dearborn accentuated the importance 
of reaching this point through waterways from the south, and in 1814 



117 

President Madison brought ttae subject to the attention of Congress, but 
nothing was done. In 1816 a large tract of land along the proposed route of 
the canal including the present site of Chicago was conceded by the Indians 
through the efforts of Governor Edwards, who had some peculiar views re- 
garding Indian titles. In 1822 Congress granted a strip of land for its con- 
struction, extending 90 feet out each way. In 1823 a survey and estimate of 
the cost of the canal was made at $716,110. When it was finally opened 25 
years later it had cost over ten times that sum. 

In 1825 with the accesion of a national administration of more latitudena- 
rian views than its predecessor as to the power of Congress to contribute to- 
ward public works, our efficient congressman, Daniel P. Cook, acting chair- 
man of the committee on ways and means, moved in the matter of national 
aid toward the building of the canal. His scheme proposed a grant of land 
consisting of the alternate sections along the route five miles out each way, 
which included the present business heart of Chicago. His efforts were ably 
seconded by our senators in Congress, Kane and Thomas, and by memorial, 
from our Legislature. The grant was finally secured by act of March, 1827, 
Congress viewing such canal as a work of national utility. 

The aid secured, nothing more was done toward constructing the proposed 
canal for nearly ten years, except to make occasional surveys and estimates 
of its probable cost and find that the proceeds from the grant were likely to 
fall far short of building it; and the making of large inroads through official 
pay rolls upon the proceeds derived from the sales of lands and lots out of 
the grant. This has ever been too much the art of government in Illinois. 

In the meantime Congress was memorialized by the Legislature for the 
privilege of applying the proceeds of the land grant toward the building of a 
railroad in place of the canal under the supposition that a railroad would 
cost much less. The option was readily secured but never availed of. These 
doings, or perhaps non-doings, with occasional grants of railroad charters, 
under which nothing was ever done, and the Black Hawk war of 1831-2, 
which greatly absorbed public attention, held the fever of internal improve- 
ments measurably in abeyance in Illinois. 

In the election of 1834 the choice for governor fell upon Joseph Duncan, 
who had been four times sent to Congress as a Jackson man. Recently, 
however, he had broken with the "Military Chieltain" and become the candi- 
date of the opposition for governor. The ''Hero of New Orleans" had 
crushed the U. S. bank and vetoed appropriations for improving the channel 
of the Wabash river and deepening the harbor at Chicago, measures which 
Duncan had diligently espoused. 

The Legislature returned at the same election was pro-Jackson, but not- 
withstanding this, the new governor's recommendafion of a State bank was 
readily sanctioned with a capital of $1,500,000 and the privilege of increasing 
the same $1,000,000 more, the State reserving the right to subscribe $100,000 
of the capital stock. Six branches were authorized. Banks in great num- 
bers had been started about this time all over the country; their issues were 
received in payment for public lands and, as the government was also dis- 
tributing the surplus of its revenues, amounting to many millions, among the 
states, money was plentiful and times were good, and western immigration 
was greatly stimulated. 

The State census of 1835 revealed an astounding increase in population 
during the last five years, it being 157,445 in 1830 and 269,974 in 1835, or 
nearly double. The increase was mainly in the central and northern parts 
of the State. This was also largely due to the Black Hawk war, which had 
advertised these fertile regions all over the country, and as the Indians were 
now finally expelled therefrom the settlers felt secure and the influx of immi- 
grants was redoubled. 

With this increase and spread of population a redistricting of the State was 
demanded. Accordingly the governor convened the Legislature in extraordi- 
nary session December 7th, 1835. He was also solicitous to have the Bank 
Act amended by the State subscribing $1,000,000 to the capital stock, instead 
of the $100,000 already reserved, and preposterously argued that the State 



118 

would make 30 per cent, premiums, or $300,000, ou it by the sale of its 
securities. He also wanted money to begin work on the canal, and finally 
elaborately advocated a system of internal improvements, concluding with 
the following inspiring words: 

" When we look abroad and see the extensive lines of intercommunication 
penetrating almost every section of our sister states — when we see the canal 
boat and the locomotive bearing, with seeming triumph, the rich productions 
of the interior to the rivers, lakes and ocean, almost annihilating burthen and 
space, what patriotic bosom does not beat high with a laudable ambition to 
give to Illinois her full share of those advantages which are adorning her 
sister states, and which a munificent Providence seems to invite by the won- 
derful adaptation of our country to such improvements." 

The message may be said to mark the opening of the campaign for public 
improvements in Illinois. 

The legislature redistricted the State adding many members to that body; 
authorized a $500,000 canal loan based on the canal lands and its tolls, with 
which to begin the work; did not fall in with the Governor's roseate views of 
the State subscribing $1,000,000 to the bank stock and make the $300,000 pre- 
mium which he predicted, but did direct the sale of bonds with which to pay 
for the $100,000 of stock reserved at the previous session. A number of rail- 
road charters were granted, under none of which any organization was ever 
effected let alone work done. But to his excellency's ardent pleading for a 
general system of internal improvements to keep abreast with our sister states 
in the march of progress the legislature failed utterly to respond. The people 
however, were tired by his glowing words and now took the matter into their 
own hands. In August, 1836, a legislature was to be elected under the new 
apportionment act. In the campaign there was no occasion for the Governor 
to urge the course of internal improvements in lurid phrase in order to stir 
the people. The fever for public improvements, stimulated by him in his 
late message, had reached Illinois, spread all over the State and was at its 
height. More than 1,000 miles of railroad were already in successful opera- 
tion throughout the country. In Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana, the dig- 
ging of canals, building railroads, and improving rivers were under full head- 
way. The people had heard and read the vivid accounts of these wonderful 
performances and were fired with an ambition not to be longer left behind in 
the race of advancement. They not only craved relief in their remote situ- 
ation but were animated by a sentiment of pride and emulation. What 
others could afford they might. As to the mode or manner of accomplishing 
the desired object they took little concern. The ways and means were en- 
trusted to their representatives to be chosen. The feasibility, safety, and the 
details of the scheme, and the plans and methods of procedure, were for 
them to devise. That their (the people's) interests might be imperiled did 
not occur to them. And had they not a right to look to their representatives 
for the exercise of wisdom, caution and prudence in so great an undertaking 1 

The public enthusiasm for improvements manifested during the campaign 
can hardly be called a "craze" as is often done. Rather was it an undue im- 
patience to realize what was quite possible at the time, although inoportune 
as it turned out in the then monetary condition of the country. The repre- 
hensible folly of the business, both as to the manner and form in which it 
was fastened upon the State, should be charged to those who represented the 
people but failed in their duty and trust through perhaps, let us say, inordi- 
nate zeal to serve them and to want of experience or knowledge. The re- 
sponsibility of the crude performances should not be charged upon the con- 
duct of the people at large however anxious and determined they may have 
been to have something done. 

The election returned the most notable body of legislators in many respects 
that ever assembled in the State. Some of them afterwards became the 
foremost men of the nation. One was elected president and guided the ship 
of state during its most trying period and has passed into history as among 
the greatest characters of this or any age. Another, while defeated for the 
same high office, afterwards did more in rallying the people to an active sup- 
port of the Union than any other. Six became United States Senators, eight 



119 

Congressmen, three State Supreme judges, and still others high State and 
national oflficials, distinguished generals, etc. It was a remarkable aggrega- 
tion of talented men, mostly young and inexperienced in public affairs, and 
in dealing with the subject of public improvement, the leading question of 
the session, they proved shortsighted in statesmanship, and for their amateur 
play at politics, keen and pyrotechnic as it was in many respects, the people 
had to pay dearly. 

The Governor in his message, when the Legislature met in December, 1836, 
showed some inclination to ''hedge" on the internal improvement question. 
Although he extolled the grand system to the skies as to what it would ac- 
complish for the good of the people, he now advocated that the State take 
only a third or half interest in the works instead of the whole. But the Leg- 
islature took no heed of his excellent advice. 

Simultaneously with the assembling of the legislature there met also a self- 
appointed convention at the capital fresh from the people as it was ostentati- 
ously claimed, to further the cause of public improvements. This body 
wholly irresponsible, contained many alert and determined characters, active 
in party counsels. Some members of the legislature also took part in its de- 
liberations. It proceeded with the work in hand and in a short time evolved 
and embodied in a bill to be laid before the legislature a complete system of 
improvements to be undertaken by the State including ways and means, 
modes of construction and many other details. A memorial setting forth in 
admirable diction the great benefits to the people to follow from such im- 
provements was also drafted to accompany the bill. The convention on ad- 
journing designated a lobby committee to see to it that members did not 
"flunk," to use the parlance of the time, in their support of the bill. Of this 
there was little need for the legislature was not only willing to support the 
convention bill but added largely to it. 

The bill provided for the following works: 



Improvement of the Wabash river..$ 100, 000 

Improvement of the Illinois river. . 100. 000 

Improvement of the Rock river 100,000 

Improvement of the Kaskaskia 

river 50, 000 

Improvement of the Little Wabash 

river 50,000 



Great Western Mail Route 100. 000 

Central railroad 3. 500. 000 

Southern Cross railroad 1,600,000 

Northern Cross railroad 1.850.000 

Total S7. 450, 000 



The memorial concluded as follows: "The maximum is well understood 
by political economists that the wealth of a country does not consist so 
tnuch in the abundance of its coffers as in the number and prosperity of its 
citizens. In the present situation of the State the products of the interior by 
reason of their remoteness from market are left upon the hands of the pro- 
ducer or sold barely at the price of the labor necessary to raise and prepare 
them for sale. But if the contemplated system should be carried into effect, 
these fertile districts which now languish for the want of ready markets for 
their productions would find a demand at home for them during the progress 
of the works and after their completion would have the advantage of cheap 
transit to a choice of markets on navigable streams. This would tend to 
build towns and cities on the routes and at the terminal points of the rail- 
roads." 

The bill and memorial when introduced were referred to the committee on 
internal improvements and when the bill emerged therefrom it was with the 
following additions: 



Railroad from Peoria to War.'^aw...S 700,000 

Railroad from Alton to Hillsboro.. 600,000 
Railroad from Hillsboro to Terre 

Haute 650,000 

Railroad from Bloomington to Pe- 

kin 350,000 



Railroad from Belleville to Leb- 
anon 150,000 

Increase on Q.W. Mail Route 150,000 

Distribution to counties in which | 

no improvements were projected. 200,060 ■■Ir- 

Total $2,800,000 



120 

Which added to the other made a grand total of $10,250,000, The bill, when 
reported back with these additions, was accompanied by an elaborate report, 
covering twelve pages, which is one of the most assuring and hopeful papers to 
be found among the archives of the State. It was urged that owing to the level 
surface of the State, and from other data, the cost of railroad building would 
not exceed $8,000 per mile; that as soon as sections were completed both 
ways from important crossings the earnings would yield interest on cost; 
that disbursements for the public works for labor would enable the people to 
buy homes; that increased immigration would come, which meant increased 
entries of public lands and increased revenue; that the internal trade of 
a country was the great lever of its prosperity; that public expectation would 
be disappointed if some system of State improvement was not adopted; and 
that it was the legislator's duty, by his example, to calm the apprehensions 
of the timorous and meet the attacks of calculating opposers of measures 
which would multiply the population and wealth of the State. 

It was an admirable argument, ably put, but soon shown to be wrong in its 
conclusions. Whether the legislature was misled by false data or not as to 
the cost of such works may not be said, but it soon developed that the gross- 
est underestimates in costs had been made, (in many instances 100 per cent.) 
and that the liability of the State might be doubled. 

From the standpoint of political economy, however, the gravest menace of 
the measure consisted in its being made a State undertaking, The State is a 
popular form of government, of which control is gained, as a rule, through 
party machinery, which is attended and often dominated by swarms of place 
hunters, henchmen and "grafters," so-called, all expecting big rewards for 
scant services. The State's constructing and operating so extensive a system 
of improvements meant thousands of employees, many easy jobs open to 
indefinite nursing, and the expenditure of millions of money, offering fat 
pickings all along the line. That such an enterprise, under such circum- 
stances, with such opportunities, could be conducted by the State with 
economy and safety to the interests of the people and its own credit, in the 
estimation of the legislature, seems like the most Utopian of dreams. 

The $200,000 item in the bill, for distribution among counties through which 
no improvements were projected, evidences that hard work in committee was 
done in order to satisfy clashing sections. Apparently but one course was 
open to the committee, namely, to concede to each section what it wanted, 
thus ever swelling the total until nearly $3,000,000 was added, and when 
finally they could go no further, for they could not well build a railroad past 
everyone's door, they submitted to this "hold up" for counties in considera- 
tion of further needed support for the bill. 

While pending now in the legislature, other measures loomed up in more 
or less of antagonism. There was the Bank bill, to increase the State's sub- 
scription to its capital stock; the bill to increase the issue of caual bonds, 
based on the faith and credit of the State; and not the least ineffective polit- 
ical work was the bill to relocate the State capital. To harmonize and serve 
all these different interests and advance their own, taxed the "statesmanship" 
of the champions of the improvement bill to the utmost. The friends of 
these different measures stood to them respectively as a unit, but no single 
one could muster a majority. Favor or oppositisn was not based on merit or 
demerit of any them, but how to use them as levers to advance others. The 
bills wei-e thus made to support each other under many promises and denials 
or threats and counter-threats from the friends of each. And thus, in divers 
ways, known only to the art of the politician, they traded and bartered and 
bartered and traded— log-rolled, as it was called,— until the "combine" was 
perfected and all the bills became laws. 

Sangamon, then the most populous county in the State, had two senators 
and seven representatives in the legislature, familiarly known as the "long 
nine," they averaging six feet in stature. Their one purpose was to secure 
the removal of the capital to Springfield, and to this end they bent all their 
energies, voting solidly upon the measures at every stage of their progress, 
for or against. Governor Ford, in his history, sums up the conduct of the 
"long nine" as follows: 



121 

"Among them were some dexterous jugg:Iers and managers in politics, 
whose sole object was to obtain the seat of government for Springfield. This 
delegation, from the beginning of the session, threw itself as a unit in sup- 
port of , or opposition to, every local measure of interest, but never without 
a bargain for votes in return on the seat of government question; and by 
such means the 'long nine' rolled along like a snowball, gathering acces- 
sions at every turn, until they swelled up a considerable party for Spring- 
field, which they managed to take almost as a unit in favor of the internal 
improvement system, in return for Springfield to be the seat of government; 
and thus, by log-rolling on the canal measure, by multiplying railroads, by 
terminating three railroads at Alton, that Alton might become a great city in 
opposition to St. Louis, by distributing money to some of the counties, to be 
wasted by the county commissioners, and by giving the seat of government 
to Springfield, was the whole State bought up and bribed to approve the 
most senseless and disastrous policy that ever crippled the energies of a 
growing country," 

The improvement bill did not meet with the approbation of the council of 
revision, who held that "such works can only be made safely and economi- 
cally in a free government by citizens or by independent corporations, aided 
by or authorized by government"; and that such vast public works, with 
their army of employes, would tend to exercise undue influence over legisla- 
tion. But notwithstanding these valid objections, the bill was again passed 
by the constitutional majority, and became a law Feb. 27, 1837. 

Upon the final passage of the measure, the House gave itself up to noisy 
demonstrations of hilarity — "horse play," as we call it. Books were hurled 
over the chamber, papers scattered, desks upset and chairs broken, while 
members shouted and shook hands, embraced or pushed and jogged each 
other, amid rejoicing and groans, the singing of ribald songs and the clapping 
of hands. A member of Irish birth, afterwards quite prominent, whose rich 
native brogue was never laid aside, and full of rollicking fun, withal an ad- 
mirable "mixer," in modern phrase, was gotten upon a table and sang Irish 
ditties and market songs with great gusto, amid the cheers and encores of his 
hearers. 

Little did that boisterous crowd appreciate, or perhaps care, what they had 
done toward loading the necks of the people with the thrall of debt. 

To fully comprehend the meaning of the stupendous liability which the 
State had been placed under; a comparison between then and now may aid 
us. The population in 1837 may be fairly estimated at 300,000. To-day it is 
about 4,800,000, or sixteen times greater. The assessed wealth of the State 
in 1837 was about $50,000,000. To-day it is $999,108,815, nearly a billion, 
or twenty times greater. This is only the fifth part. If we take the full 
assessed valuation it would be a hundred times greater. The liability of the 
State under these acts of 1837 was $10,250,000 for the projected improve- 
ments, $2,000,000 for subscription to the bank stock, $1,000,000 for endorsing 
the canal loans, and say $150,000 for the new State House— total. $13,400,000 
—not counting other debts of the State at the time— at least $200,000 more. 
If we multiply this $13,400,000 by 20 the result is $208,000,000, which, in 
ratio to that of 1837, would be the present liability of the State. But great 
as this sum looks it is not all. There are often other things in economics 
than mere figures. If we consider that money in 1837 was much dearer or 
had a greater purchasing capacity than now; that it required double the labor 
to earn a dollar it does now, that the products of the field and farm brought 
scarce half they average now, that interest was about double or 10 to 12 per 
cent., where it now commands 5 to 6. We see a condition that would make 
a further difference equal to a 100 per cent in the burden of debt then and 
now. In other words, a debt of half a billion now, resting on a population 
of nearly 5,000,000 with taxable wealth of a billion would be a less burden 
than one of $13,400,000. resting on a population of 300,000 with taxable wealth 
of $50,000,000 was in 1837, under the conditions named. 

What would you do to a Legislature which should to-day saddle upon the 
State a liability to that extent in a visionary venture? In 1837 the members 



"f 



122 

chaoipioaiag this chimerical measure, oq returning home were welcomed 
with the plaudits of their constituents as public benefactors, while those who 
had opposed it were coldly looked upon as the enemies of progress. 

Among the currious features of the improvement scheme was one in con- 
nection with the State entering government land along the proposed routes of 
railroads, which inhibited officers and employes from giving away the secrets 
of probable townsite locations, for fear that someone might get ahead of the 
State, purchase the land, and by laying off the town enrich himself out of 
what the State should have had. 

Another provision, which, by the way, proved the most disastrous in re- 
sults, and which was manifestly prompted by a jealous fear that some towns 
might reap benefits ahead of others, was the one requiring work on railroads 
to begin and be prosecuted both ways from important towns and crossings. 
This most unbusinesslike requirement did more toward accomplishing nothing 
lasting or permanent, and in causing the total loss of work done at many 
points in the State, than any other provision of the act, and has been gener- 
ally denounced as its crowning folly. Little did the zealous statesman who 
framed this act think that to make the woi*k done at so many different points 
available the tracks there would have to be equipped with engines and cars, 
involving great expense and little recompense. As it resulted, when the sys- 
tem was abandoned, what work had been done at the many points went to 
ruin, the State losing all. 

Now, with the law enacted, the next thing in order was to start the grand 
system into operation. The first requisite was, of course, money. A board 
of fund commissioners, of "practical and experienced financiers," was pro- 
vided for by the act, who were to negotiate all loans authorized, execute 
bonds and stocks, receive the proceeds of their sales, and pay them out on 
proper orders. Charles Oakley, M. M Rawlings and Thomas Mather were 
elected fund commissioners. Another board provided for was that of public 
works, to consist of seven members, one from each judicial district, who were 
to locate, superintend and construct all the public works, except the canal. 
The board chosen consisted of Wm. Kinney, Murray McConnel, Elijah Wil- 
lard, Milton K. Alexander, Joel Wright, John Dixon and Ebenezer Peck. 

The geographical distribution observed in the make-up of the latter board 
again evinced the jealous care that no one section should get advantage in 
the location and prosecution of the works — regardless of any effect that might 
flow from the starting of many and finishing none. Besides, it may be ques- 
tioned whether, in principle, it is good politics to relieve our Executive, with 
usually a dominant party back of him, of all responsibility in important un- 
dertakings by giving their entire control to independent boards. 

In the spring of 1837, a disastrous financial panic spread over the whole 
land. Much doubt as to the solvency of many of the banks had gathered 
force and found public expression, and the government had issued what is 
known as the "specie circular," by which land officers were ordered not to 
further receive payment for lands except in coin. This led up to the closing 
of many banks, or causing them to suspend specie payments. Such suspen- 
sion in this State would work a forfeiture of charters, unless legalized within 
60 days. The Governor therefore convened the Legislature, and took occa- 
sion also to advise a modification of the unwieldy internal improvement sys- 
tem. The Legislature sanctioned the former, but ignored the latter. 

In July, the fund commissioners went to New York to negotiate State se- 
curities, and strange as it may seem, notwithstanding the disturbed financial 
condition of the country, such was the credit of the State that they succeeded 
in disposing of 4,869 $1,000 bonds, mostly at a premium ranging from 2 to 5 
per cent — none below par. 

With plenty of funds thus provided work was begun at many different 
points in the State before the end of the year. Public expectation was 
wrought to the highest pitch. Money on account of work and local expendi- 
tures soon became abundant. Immigration also continued to flow into the 
State, bringing more money. Credit became easy, and with advancing prices 
a spirit of wild and reckless speculation seized the people. Lands were en- 



128 

tered, often with borrowed money, towns laid out, lots sold and houses built 
largfely on promises. Merchants, confident that the era of good times and 
prosperity had come to stay, bought excessively of goods on time and sold 
them without stint, to the people on credit. Extravagance was engendered, 
false hopes stimulated and debts contracted needlessly. 

Meantime, the fund commissioners kept selling State securities, reaching 
$5,668,000 in 1838, while the amount disbursed on bank stocks, payments for 
work, iron purchased and distribution to counties, etc., reached $4,648,399. 

Tn 1838, a Governor and Legislature were to be elected. Party lines were 
generally observed on national questions. As to State affairs, the Whigs de- 
manded a modification and curtailment of the internal improvement system, 
while the Democrats declared in favor of its vigorous prosecution. Carlin, 
Democrat, was elected over Edwards, Whig, as Governor, but both houses of 
the Legislature were returned Whig. The outgoing Governor, Duncan, in 
his message, restated his opposition to the system to the extent it was projected, 
charging that it was being prosecuted without skill or experience, with innum- 
erable mistakes and great waste of money. On the other hand, the incoming 
Governor, Carlin, declared that the plan of the State carrying on the system, 
instead of great joint stock companies, was based on correct principles; that 
"the signal success which had attended our sister states in the construction 
of their extensive systems of improvements could leave no doubt of the wise 
policy and utility of such plan." The Legislature, notwithstanding its Whig 
majority and the declaration of the Whig State convention against the huge 
system, not only did not curtail or modify it, but added to it many minor 
works, such as improving the Big Muddy, the Embarras and other streams, 
the building of a turnpike from Cahokia to Kaskaskia, a railroad from Rush- 
ville to Erie, etc., the whole at an estimated cost of $800,000. 

Thus did this Commonwealth seek to shower its benefits with no niggard 
hand into every corner of the State. Whatever nook one Legislature over- 
looked or passed by another would spy out and provide for. The State, how- 
ever, also had an eye to business, and would tolerate no competition, as the 
following incident illustrates. At this session, Albion, then an aspiring town 
in Edwards county, was impatient for an outlet to navigable waters, and had 
a bill introduced to incorporate the Albion and Grayville railroad, about ten 
miles long. But the chairman of the committee on internal improvt ments 
made an adverse report upon the bill, saying that, "in the opinion of the 
committee, it was inexpedient to authorize corporations or individuals to 
construct railroads or canals calculated to come in competition with similar 
works by the State." The State should be the whole thing, as we now say — 
a kind of trust, as it were. Nothing, perhaps, could more fully illustrate the 
deep infatuation of the day with regard to the State improvement question 
than this incident. 

The home market for the sale of State securities having tightened greatly, 
and the Governor also wanting, perhaps, to subserve some partisan ends, ap- 
pointed ex-Governor Reynolds and Senator Young as special fiscal agents to 
negotiate canal securities — thus, in a measure, superceding the fund commis- 
sioners, who had done remarkably well for the State. Neither of the gentle- 
men appointed were "practical and experienced financiers," as the law re- 
quired, nor possessed of the requisite knowledge and tact for so delicate a 
mission. 

Their bungling became manifest at once. In New York their first sale 
consisted of 300 bonds of $1,000 each, to be paid for in installments, the last 
of which did not become due for nine months, the interest meanwhile going 
to the purchaser. Next they sold 100 $1,000 bonds to some banks wholly on 
credit, the bonds to be used in the experiment of free banking, then just 
authorized by New York. The banks failed before payment was made, and 
the State lost very heavily. The State agents meanwhile tried Philadelphia, 
where they sold 1,000 bonds of $1,000 each, payment to be made in install- 
ments in United States bank issues, and the bonds and interest thereon made 
payable in London, in British coin. The United States bank notes gradually 
depreciated, reaching 10 per cent below par before the bonds were fully paid. 



124 



working another very great loss — the three transactions running well up to 
$150,000. The agents next went to London, where they found money strin- 
gent. After some time spent, they placed with Wright & Co. 1,000 bonds, to 
be sold in British coin, at not less than 91 per cerit of their face value. The 
brokers sold about half the bonds, when they failed, with the proceeds in 
their hands. The unsold bonds were returned by the receivers, but the money 
for the bonds sold was adjudged to be assets of the firm, and distributed pro 
rata among the creditors, of whom the State was one, and received a few 
shillings on the pound. In these several transactions, whereby $1,900,000 in 
State securities were disposed of, the Governor's fiscal ae'ents managed to 
cause the State a loss of about $500,000. 

It soon became patent that no more State securities could be sold except at 
heavy discount, and public opinion would not further tolerate the violation of 
the law in this respect on the part of the State fiscal agents. The money 
market generally was growing more stringent every day. The United States 
Bank, which had been refused an extension of its charter had finally closed 
its doors, the Government deposits had been removed from local banks all 
over the country and tied up in the sub-treasuries, many banks had failed or 
suspended specie payment, and the times were constantly hardening. Pro- 
duce and all other property declined greatly in value, credits were maturing 
and no money with which to discharge them. Funds were lacking with 
which to carry forward the public works and the people began to indulge 
some sober reflections. They began to see the folly of attempting to prose- 
cute the work simultaneously at many different points and finishing nothing; 
and to feel a conviction that the cost !of the unwieldly system had been 
greatly underestimated. They observed too that partizan preferments were 
gradually creeping into the management?and that some oflBcial emoloyees 
were dallying with the soft berths, and under the sting of the great disap- 
pointment this engendered, they began to express themselves in no unceri-ain 
tones through the press and at numerous indignation meetings in many 
counties. 

The Governor did not escape criticism and censure on account of the losses 
caused by his appointees in negotiating canal bonds. He, however, was a 
man of the people, ever willing to serve them, and while he had no control 
of the public works or was in any way responsible for their conduct, he now, 
under the growing public clamor, made a thorough examination of their 
status and found, to his astonishment, that, with nothing completed, the lia- 
bility of the State already exceeded $14,000,000, burdening a people of less 
than half million souls; and he calculated further from incontestable data 
that the cost of the works must soon reach nearly $22,000,000 or double the 
original estimates, the annual interest on which sum would be over $1,300,000, 
or six times the ordinary revenue of the State, which the people found hard 
to raise as it was. The Governor's ideas of only a year before about the 
State's undertaking such improvements underwent a total revolution, and 
with him action ever waited closely upon conviction. Convinced that nothing 
but dismal failure of the "grand system" was in prospect, with a vast debt 
and widespread ruin, and being without power himself to stop or change the 
work, he convened the Legislature in extraordinary session, December 9th, 
1839. This was the first session of the Legislature held at Springfield, the 
new Capital. 

The Governor now placed before that body the embarrassing situation in 
its naked proportion, and with touching words invoked them to the rescue, 
counselling wisdom, harmony and dispatch in their action, in order to save 
the credit and honor of the State and the people from impending ruin. 

It was plain that the only effective way to deal with the threatening situa- 
tion was to immediately stay the wasting hand of the cause of the trouble, 
but the Legislature was largely composed of the same members who had 
originally passed the public improvement measure, who had, hardly a year 
ago, supplemented it with a number of projected works, and who had stamped 
it as the exclusive policy of the State by denying all competition from pri- 



125 

vate enterprise, and now to deliberately abandon it, and let what work had 
been done, costing millions of dollars, go to decay and ruin, was a grievous 
step to contemplate, and they hesitated. 

A fierce strugs'le ensued, lasting several weeks. Finally a sufi&cient num- 
ber were won over to the performance of an imperative demand and duty, 
and by appropriate acts they abolished the boards of fund commissioners and 
of public works. One fiscal agent was appointed to audit and settle the ac- 
counts of the former board, demand and receive back all State bonds not ne- 
gotiated or paid for, pay duties and freight and take charge of all material 
purchased abroad, etc. No farther sales of State securities were, of course, 
to be made. Three commissioners of public works, instead of seven, were 
now authorized to settle for work done, and to cancel unperformed contracts. 
All employes not necessary to operate such parts of roads as were in process 
of completion, or to aid in adjusting the State's liability under contracts not 
performed, were discharged. 

Work on the canal was not arrested; and $100,000 of its fund was diverted 
to finish and equip the Northern Cross railroad, from Meredosia to Spring- 
field, which had been vigorously pushed from the start, and which was ap- 
proaching completion. It was finished in 1842, but the income from it proved 
insufficient to keep it in repair. In the course of a year or so its one locomo- 
tive was ditched, and thereafter the road was leased and operated by mule 
power for several years. In 1847, it was authorized to be sold, and the im- 
provement which had cost the State $1,000,000 brought only $100,000, which 
was paid in State securities which had previously been bought at 21 cents on 
the dollar. 

Nothing further was ever done toward completing any of the rest of the 
works, which were scattered in detached parcels over the State, where exca- 
vations and embankments were in evidence for many years as monuments of 
a costly legislative folly. 

Thus fell by the hands of its originator the grand system of public improve- 
ments of this State, leaving behind a colossal debt aggregating $14,237,348, . 
impairing the credit of the State and retarding its progress for a number of 
years. 

It may seem strange that the members of the Legislature prominently con- 
nected with the enactment of these disastrous measures which caused so much 
disappointment and distress among the people, were not pursued and crushed 
with their displeasure when seeking political preferment thereafter. But 
they wore not. We have seen that many obtained exalted positions and high 
honors. One reason of this was, perhaps, that the people felt that they had 
urged their representatives on in this course to an inordinate degree and that 
they, therefore, had only obeyed their behests; and perhaps they had no very 
clear conception of the;duty of their representatives that in devising ways and 
means they had no right to imperil the interests of the people. Another 
reason was, no doubt, that whatever questionable means were resorted to, to 
effect the passage of the measures, or however reprehensible the zeal and con- 
duct of the members, it was all solely to advantage their constituents or the 
committees they represented and in no instance for personal gain or benefit. 
"Boodliug" is a modern "graft," and Governor Ford, in scoring the "long 
nine," was hardly warranted in using the word "bribed" as he does. 



KASKASKIA ROAD AND TRAILS. 

By Frank Moore. 
AS TO KASKASKIA ROADS AND TRAILS, OR RATHER, TRAILS AND ROADS. 

There being a number of trails leading from Kaskaskia through the south- 
ern part of the State, some to the Ohio and Wabash rivers on the eastern 
boundary of the State, others leading from Kaskaskia to points north ending 
in St. Clair, Washington and other counties. There are several roads sur- 
veyed and on file in the County Clerk's office, at Chester, Randolph County, 



126 

that are of early surveys, namely: From Kaskaskia to Cahokia, from Kaskas- 
kia to Vandalia, from Kaskaskia to Covington, from Kaskaskia to Murphys- 
boro, from Kaskaskia to Shawneetown, from Kaskaskia to Belleville and 
French Village, from Kaskaskia to Belleville on the west side of the Kas- 
kaskia river, from Chester to Waterloo; these beina: the earliest trails and 
surveyed roads known from the records and best information at present ob- 
tainable. Taken up in their order, as they appear from history and their 
records, as follows: As to the Kaskaskia and Cahokia road and that part of 
the Kaskaskia ^.nd Belleville road west of the Kaskaskia river following the 
Kaskaskia and Cahokia road to rhe foot of the bluffs, the greater part of 
these roadsifrom Kaskaskia to the bluffs are now in the Mississippi river and 
also a cedar post mentioned in the description of the Kaskaskia and Cahokia 
road is also washed out and gone by the cutting of the Mississippi river. The 
Mississippi river in the year 1882 cutting through into the Kaskaskia river 
washed away those roads and the greater part of the town of Kaskaskia. 

The above mentioned roads leading from Kaskaskia to the seyeral points in 
the southern part of the State were prominent landmarks in the times of 
Kaskaskia's better days. In those days Kaskaskia was the metropolis of the 
west. 

In concluding this short prelude upon the trails and roads of the early 
days, in existence at the present time, as well as those which have gone out 
into the eternal past, we are very largely indebted to the good graces and 
exceeding gentlemanly public spiritedness of our very efficient present 
County Surveyor, Mr. James Thompson Douglas. 

OLD TRAILS FROM KASKASKIA TO LUSK'S FERRY— OR SHAWNEETOWN ROAD. 

This trail is shown on the plats and field notes of Randolph county and 
marked at the intersections of the township lines and running in an easterly 
direction across the state to Lusk's ferry. This ferry from the appearance 
and direction of this trial, must be at or near the town of Shawneetown. 
This evidently, from the location of it on the government plats, must be what 
is known in later days as the Kaskaskia and Shawneetown road, and was 
surveyed and platted and is on file in the County Clerks's office as the Kas- 
kaskia and Shawneetown road. 

In early days there was a mail route over this road from Kaskaskia to 
Shawneetown, the mail being carried on horse back. This mail was carried 
part of the time by Col. J. L. D. Morrison in his boyhood days. This road 
was surveyed and plated through Randolph county by one Darius Greenup in 
the year 1819. We have no record or knowledge of the survey beyond the 
limits of Randolph county. 

OLD TRAIL FROM FERGERSON'S FERRY TO TURKEY HILL SETTLEMENT. 

This trail, leaving Fergerson's ferry, running in a northwesterly direction, 
from the appearance of the locations on the plats and field notes and the 
directions must have followed the trail from Kaskaskia to Lusk^s ferry to a 
point near New Palestine, in Randolph county. From this point it bears 
more to the north, crossing the Kaskaskia river at or near New Athens, 
thence to Turkey Hill Settlement, being about ten miles south east of Belle- 
ville, in St. Clair county. This road is marked on the plats in Randolph 
county as a wagon road from Fergerson's ferry to Turkey Hill Settlement. 
This trail is not traveled and is scarcely known through Randolph and ad- 
joining counties only as it appears on the plats. There are some places in 
Randolph county where it can be seen but only where it passes over lands 
not in cultivation. 

In regard to the Fergerson and Lusk's ferries, they must be on the Ohio 
river at or near the present town of Shawneetown, or in other words the 
same Ferry. 



127 

OLD TRAIL FROM KASKASKIA TO VINCENNES. 

This trail leaves Kaskaskia and runs in a northeasterly direction following 
the Kaskaskia and Belleville roads to or near the village of Florence, thence 
continuing in a northeasterly direction, passing near Coulterville in Randolph 
county, thence continuing northeasterly to Vincennes. The trail can be 
seen where it passes over uncultivated lands. This road was never anything 
but an old trail. No part of it was ever traveled as a road and is not known, 
as to its location, only by the older citizens. 

KASKASKIA AND CAHOKIA ROAD. 

This road was surveyed and platted in the year 1811, and is on file in the 
county clerk's ofl&ce in Randolph county. After leaving Kaskaskia about 
thr«e-fourths of a mile it crosses the grand line of the common field of Kas- 
kaskia. At this point on the grand line was set a cedar post, known as the 
Cahokia gate post, and is given as a point in the government field notes of 
the surveys of the common field of Kaskaskia; thence in a northwesterly 
direction up and along under the bluffs, passing Prairie du Rocher; thence 
passing near Harrisonville, in Monroe county; thence to Cahokia. This road 
is still kept up, and is traveled at the present time. 

This road, prior to the survey made in 1811, had, no doubt, been one of the 
trails or roads leading from Kaskaskia in an early day, as the above men- 
tioned cedar gate post, known as the Cahokia gate post, was recognized and 
known for many years by the older citizens, before the survey above men- 
tioned was made; therefore, it must have been a trail or road traveled by the 
Indians and French passing through and to the above mentioned French 
villages. 

STATE ROAD PROM KASKASKIA TO VANDALIA. 

This road was surveyed and platted by James Thompson, in the year 1824, 
and that part of it through Randolph county is on file in the county clerk's 
office at Chester, Randolph county. Beginning at Kaskaskia, following the 
Kaskaskia and Belleville road at Florence; thence in a northeasterly direc- 
tion, crossing Little and Big Nine Mile creeks; thence to John Miller's; 
thence to Archibald Thompson, Sr.'s; thence to Judge James Thompson's: 
thence to William Mann's; thence crossing Little and Big Plum creeks; 
thence to John McBride, Jr.'s; thence to the Randolph county line; thence 
to Vandalia, Fayette county. This road leading from the first to the second 
capital in the State. 

KASKASKIA, BELLEVILLE AND FRENCH VILLAGE ROAD. 

This road is one among the early surveyed roads in the southern part of 
the State. A line of stage from Kaskaskia to Belleville was run over this 
road in early days and up to about the year 1843. This road is still traveled 
as about first located, and passing through the villages of Florence, Walsh, 
Preston and Baldwin, crossing the Kaskaskia river at New Athens, passing 
Freeburg to Belleville and extending to French Village, being a little north- 
east of East St. Louis, under the bluffs in the Mississippi bottom. There 
villages were built up along the road some time after the survey of the road. 
This road is still open, and traveled nearly as first located. 

KASKASKIA AND COVINGTON ROAD. 

This road is one of the next earliest surveyed roads shown by the records. 
This road follows the Kaskaskia and Belleville road to the village of Florence, 
thence in a northeasterly direction, passing through what is known as 
Lively's Prairie and Hill Prairie, passing near the town of Marissa in St, 
Clair county; thence to Covington, Washington County. This road has been 



128 

abandoned for years and only old traces can be found and seen where it 
passed through Randolph county and no such a road is regarded or known as 
the Kaskaskia and Covington road. This road was surveyed by Judge James 
Thompson in the year 1819. 

This road was also resurveyed and platted by Judge James Thompson iu 
the year 1831. 

CHESTER AND WATERLOO ROAD. 

This road was surveyed and platted in the year 1837 leaving Chester and 

running in a northwesterly direction, passing through the village of Florence, 

crossing the Kaskaskia river at Evansville, thence to Ruma, thence to Red 

Bud, thence to Barksville Station, thence to Waterloo, the county seat of 

Monroe county. This road is still open and traveled as first located. 

KASKASKIA AND MURPHYSBORO ROAD. 

This road, leading from Kaskaskia down and along under the bluff of the 
Mississippi river, passing through Chester and Rockwood, crossing Degognia 
creek under the Bluff, said creek being the line between Randolph and Jack- 
son counties; thence to a point near Kinkaid creek. At this point it leaves 
the Bottom and goes over the Hills to Murphysboro. 

This road was surveyed and platted in the year 1820 by one of the Green- 
ups, Darius or W. C. 

KASKASKIA AND BELLEVILLE ROAD WEST OF KASKASKIA RIVER. 

This road follows the Kaskaskia and Cahokia Road from Kaskaskia to the 
foot of the bluff then up and along and under the bluffs of the Kaskaskia 
river for a few miles, thence over the Hills to what was known in early days 
as Coles' Mills on Horse Creek, a few miles north west of the present town of 
Evansville; thence in a northerly direction through Horse Prairie to the 
north line of Randolph county, thence to Belleville in St. Clair county. This 
road is not traveled now and only a part of it can be found near Camp's 
Creek and in a few other places along the old trail. 

There is a road open and traveled and known at the present day as the 
Kaskaskia and Belleville Road. This road leaves the Kaskaskia and Cahokia 
road about three-fourths of a mile further up towards Prairie du Rocher, and 
on the Kaskaskia and Cahokia road at what was known in early days as 
Atkins' Stone Spring house; thence up and over the Bluff in a northerly di- 
rection, passing what was known in early days as Dogwood Post Office, 
thence to Ruma, thence Red Bud, thence to Hecker, thence Georgetown, 
thence to Belleville. 

In the early 40's there was a mail carried on horseback over this road, leav- 
ing Kaskaskia and going over the last described road to Belleville, then from 
Belleville back to Kaskaskia over a road known as another Kaskaskia and 
Belleville road, leaving Belleville and passing Freeburg, thence crossing the 
Kaskaskia river at New Athens, thence to Baldwin, thence to Preston, thence 
to Florence, thence to Kaskaskia, making the round trip once a week. The 
first described road seems to have been an old trail from Kaskaskia to New 
Designs, and in the year 1820 was surveyed and platted as a state road 
and traveled in early days, but has been discontinued and can be found in 
only a few places and only a part of it is now traveled at all. 

Frank Moore, Esq. 
Chester, 111., Jan. 24, 1902. 



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129 
THE FRENCH IN ILLINOIS. 

(By Hon. J. Nick Perrin). 

A thousand years attest the truth of the assertion that France has welded a 
great link into the universal chain of events. A thousand j'ears have passed 
since those oaths were exchanged at Strasbourg, from which a new language 
sprang into being; 500 years have passed since the Maid of Orleans delivered 
her country from foreign invaders; 300 years have passed since the issuing of 
the edict of Nantes, which guaranteed religious freedom, and although later 
revoked, still left an impress which finds an utterance in the constitutional 
provisions of every enlightened government; a little more than 100 years 
since the demolition of the Bastile and the presentation to the constituent 
assembly by LaFayette of the Declaration of the Rights of Man; a little more 
than 30 years since the establishment of the present French republic; thus 
covering ten centuries of progression, finding a culmination in a political 
structure which has for its basis the fundamental principles of liberty, 
equality and fraternity. 

Ten hundred eventful years, in which the eagles of France have soared in 
every clime and beneath every sky; in which French diplomacy has played a 
conspicuous part in the polities of nations; in which French art, science and 
literature brightened the dark corners of the earth; in which France and her 
warriors won; France and her statesmen led; France and her literarti and 
savants shone; France and her discoverers helped to reveal a continent 
whereon the highest hopes and aspirations of men find their fullest fruition. 

This leads to the statement that during this time, namely, in the beginning 
of the 16th centurj^ when the spirit of discovery was rife, the French explo- 
rers were in the vanguard. Closely following the announcement by Colum- 
bus of his discovery of a new world, the French king commissioned John 
Verrazani, a Florentine navigator, to explore the coast of North America, 
and in 1523 this explorer sailed from the Carolinas to New Foundland 
and gave the name of New France to his indefinite discoveries. In 1535 
Jacques Cartier, the mariner of St. Malo, sailed up the St. Lawrence, 
passed the site of Quebec and farther on ascended the eminence of 
Montreal. These early time visitors, Verrazani and Cartier, opened the 
way for the subsequent career of discovery, settlement and colonization by 
France on the western continent. Roberval, in the north, planted forts in 
Canada, and Ribaut, in the south, followed with what proved to be a tem- 
porary Huguenot settlement in Florida. The opening of the 17th century 
brought De Monts and Champlain. This century in American history is 
characterized by the movement toward permanent European settlements on 
this side of the Atlantic. The Spanish planted theirs in the southland, the 
English along the eastern coast, the French in the northeast. Gradually the 
stream of French settlement was extended from the lower basin of the St. 
Lawrence toward the "great chain of lakes" thence along their shores until 
it reached the farthest extremity of Lake Superior, where Father Allouez 
established a mission station on the Bay of Chegoimegon, in 1665. Before 
the first three-quarters of the century had elapsed the French power in 
America was quite considerable. The towns of Montreal, Quebec and St. 
Joseph's had become centers of primitive trade; forts and mission stations 
alternated with each other for a distance of 2.000 miles — from Labrador to 
the land of the Dakotas. At one of these mission stations (at the straits of 
Mackinac), Father James Marquette was stationed, in 1673, when Joliet was 
sent from Canada by the Intendent on a voyage of discovery to find the great 
river whose course and outlet should present a short passage to India. The 
popular notion of the day was that some such passage might be found. Mar- 
quette had sent reports to his superior at Quebec, containing references to a 
great river in the west, of which he had heard while he was at the mission on 
the Bay of Chegoimegon from the Indian tribes who visited the mission sta- 
tion, and who had crossed it in their travels. This indefinite information 

— 9H. 



180 

furnished the basis for that voyage, which, while it failed to disclose a short 
passage to India, led to the discovery of the upper Mississippi river, and in- 
cidentally to the discovery of Illinois. Marquette. Joliet and five French- 
men, on their voyage, went through Green Bay, up the Fox river, crossed 
the Portage to the Wisconsin river, down which they rowed to the Mississippi, 
thence down its current to the region of Arkansas, when, satisfied that the 
great river entered into the gulf instead of the Pacific ocean, they started on 
their return. At the mouth of the Illinois river they were told by the Indians 
of that locality that the Illinois river furnished a shorter route to the lakes, 
and hence they ascended it, and the discovery of Illinois, or the country of 
the Illinois Indians, took place. Near the present town of Utica, in La Salle 
eoiinty, a stop was made at the principal village of the Kaskaskias (a tribe 
of the Illinois confederacy), a mission station was established, and without 
farther tracing the voyageurs in their journeyings, it is sufficient for present 
purposes to say, that from this establishment dates the authentic period of 
Illinois history. Illinois was discovered by the French. The first station on 
its soil was founded by Frenchmen, To Marquette, Joliet and their five com- 
panions belongs the honor of having disclosed that scope of countrj' which, 
after its discovery became the coveted goal of every European power that 
was attempting to establish a foothold on American soil; which became rec- 
ognized as the key to dominion in America; which was foreseen by Patrick 
Henry as a necessary factor in achieving American independence; the con- 
quest of which by George Rogers Clark and his companions broke the back- 
bone of British power during the Revolutionary war as completely as the 
capture of Vicksburg broke the backbone of the Confederacy in the Civil war; 
the importance of which is now admitted in our great union of states, wherein 
it holds the key to every situation — financial, political, intellectual, material 
and spiritual. At the time of the discovery of Illinois, Marquette was 36. At 
the time of his death he was 38. He was born in northern France. After 
his death, other mitsion priests — all Frenchmen — came to this station among 
the Kaskaskias, until the station was moved, through the migration of the 
Kaskaskia tribe to southern Illinois, and was located at the junction of the 
Kaskaskia and Mississippi rivers, about the year 1700, where it remained as 
a continuing successor of the earliest white settlement in Illinois, until the 
encroachment of the Mississippi river in recent years formed an island, on 
which only a few vestiges of this pioneer village of Kaskaskia remain. 
Fathers AUouez, Rasle and Gravier officiated at the place on the northern 
Illinois before its removal. Father Gravier moved to southern Illinois with 
the Kaskaskia Indians. In the meantime. La Salle, born at Rouen, in Nor- 
mandy, came to the Illinois country in 1680. He descended the Illinois river 
on his way down to the mouth of the Mississippi. He built Fort Crevecceur, 
near the site of Peoria. This was the second step in the opening of what is 
now our State. The foundation stones, then, that were laid in Illinois in the 
17th century were a chapel and a fort. About the year that Kaskaskia was 
moved to the south the French settlement of Cahokia began. Father Pinet 
seems to have been the first to minister among the Cahokias, another tribe 
of the Illinois confederacy. 

After LaSalle had gone to the mouth of the Mississippi and had taken 
possession of all the country bordering on the great river and all its tribu- 
taries and named the country Louisiana, the Illinois country became a part 
of this Louisiana country, for Louisiana extended from the gulf to Canada. 
Under this regime in the early part of the eighteenth century a large number 
of settlements — all French — sprang up in southern Illinois, mainly along the 
western portion. Kaskaskia and Cahokia were in existence in 1700. After 
New Orleans was founded and other French settlements were made in what 
are the present states of Louisiana. Mississippi and Alabama by Iberville and 
Bienville and Sauvolle and their companions, the French Marine Depart- 
ment which had assumed control and by whom appointments were made, 
appointed officers to administer the affairs of the Illinois country. By this 
time considerable development had taken place. The grant made to Crozat 
in 1712 to carry on commerce and mining, afterward continued under the 
company organized by law, although resulting in failure, yet so far as Illinois 
was concerned was productive of a stimulus that began the upbuilding of 



131 

thfi southerd portion of our State. A fortification was built at Fort Chartres 
in 1718 in tlie present county of Randolph, where a military commandant was 
stationed and which became the seat ot military and civil power of France in 
tbe Mississippi Valley. This was rebuilt later and became an immense stone 
fort with barracks and powder maprazines and the estimated cost to the 
French government is placed at a million dollars. The engineer in charge of 
this gigantic enterprise was Captain Jean Baptiste Saucier, the great grand- 
father of Dr. J. F. Snyder, the vice president of this Historical Society. In 
the immediate vicinity of this fort there grew up the villages of St. Phillipes 
in 1719 and Prairie Du Roche)- in 1720. Fort Sackville on the site of Vin- 
cenut-s was built in 1722 and although now m lauiiica was reckoned then as 
a part of the country of the Illinois. Fort Chartres and Kaskaskia were the 
dominating centers and at these places, besides a military commandant, a 
notary functioned as a civil oflBcer as I discovered from an old recuiJ which I 
unearthed a few years ago in St. Clair county, bound in hog hide and con- 
taining his entries, which I described in a paper read before this society last 
year. 

In 1760 Prairie du Pont started and across the Mississippi (though virtually 
a part of the same growth), in 1764 St. Louis and St. Genevieve commenced. 
During this time trade was carried on between these settlements and New 
Orleans in the south, while in the north it extended to Prairie du Chien and 
Detroit. Just how many French inhabitants there were in Illinois at any time 
is somewhat problematical. The year that New Orleans was founded the en- 
tire population of Louisiana was estimated at not over 1,500. Gayarre speaks 
of a documentor estimate sent to the French government in 1744, from which 
it appears that Illinois is credited with 300 male whites and 600 blacks of both 
sexes. If it is fair to presume that there were as many white females as 
malf^s we could reckon 600 whites and an equal number of blacks making a 
total of 1,200 not counting the Indians. None of the settlements were ever 
very populous. Not even in later years. And although some writers place 
an estimate on Kaskaskia running into the thousands along about the time 
of the admission of the State and although some of the oldest inhabitants 
still living might be willing to make affidavit to that effect, my own guess 
would be that the population never ran over several hundred unless the 
census happened to be taken at the first Governor's inaugural when every- 
body came from far and wide and brought their wives' relations. But no 
matter; for a period of about 90 years the French in Illinois builded 
wiser than they knew and their efforts need no inordinate magnifying pro- 
cess to make their deeds shine out with luster and certainly cannot be be- 
littled by any attempts to correct the mistakes of overzealous historians. 
From 1673 to 1765— from the day when Marquette planted his cross at 
Kaskaskia to the day when St. Ange de Belle Rive lowered the French 
standard on the ramparts of Fort Chartres and delivered the keys to 
Captain Stirling and his company of Scotch Highlanders— the French in 
Illinois laid the foundation of our present commonwealth on the broad prin- 
ciples of honesty, sobriety, industry, sociability and brotherly love. Then 
the country passed to the English. AH the sweet contentment of the early 
settlers vanished. Many moved across the river to St. Louis and St. Gene- 
vieve; many even went to Baton Rouee and New Orleans. Those who 
staid plodded on under the galling yoke for 13 unlucky years until George 
Rogers Clark, in 1778, came with his men from Virginia and Kentucky and 
brought relief. To the credit of this remaining French population in 
Illinois be it said that they hailed with joy the cause of American liberty 
and independence, and as the representative of his class, pious and patriotic 
Father Gibault, who aided Clark so materially in securing the conquest of 
the northwest, shines out as an example of devotion to the cause of the in- 
fant Republic. Through the War of Independence, Illinois became a part 
of Virginia. Then it was ceded to the National Government as a part of 
the Northwest Territory. Later it became a territory, then a state. New 
immigrants flocked to its domain, settlers came from the east and the south 
and from across the sea. The French remnant became intermingled with the 
great tide that swept onward until now their integral part is hardly discern- 
ble in the great mass of moving humanity in a great commonwealth where 



132 

five millions of people are pushing and striving to make Illinois the greatest 
State in the universe by the end of the next decade. When we shall have 
attained that proud distinction amid our exultations let us cast a retrospec- 
tive thought across the by-gone years until our minds revert unto the early 
settlers and in honor to their deeds let us chant an anthem to "The French 
in Illinois." 



SAUKENUK. 

[By Mrs. Julia Mills Dunn.l 

To the student there is no state in the Union that can offer so interesting 
and so romantic a history as the State of Illinois. 

The story of those old days when France controlled ,the whole northwest 
and her Jesuit missionaries explored the Mississippi from its source to the 
Gulf in their frail canoes, reads like a romance. 

The true courage and unselfish heroism of these Jesuits is without a 
paralel in the history of the world. American soldiers have not lacked cour- 
age. Read the records of Bunker Hill, Valley Forge, Trenton, Gettysburg, 
Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain, and see what they dared, what they en- 
dured, what gallant men may do. But it is easy to tight in defence of home, 
it was no hardship to cross the Delaware amid blocks of floating ice, inspired 
by the leadership of a Washington, to charge the heights of Lookout Moun- 
tain with the flag above them and the cheers of admiring comrades to sustain 
them in the struggle for glory. 

But to penetrate at night the swamps, bayous and trackless forests, with 
all the chances in favor of ignominious and cruel death, with no hope of 
fame, or wealth, or what the world calls success, with only the silent stars to 
watch and the thought of God for companionship — this is true courage. 
History has seldom done justice to their memory. 

And I have sometimes thought that the greatest wrong a conquering nation 
can commit, is to write its own history. Wars of conquest call for justifica- 
tion, and it is easy to defend our own wrong doing by representing our 
enemies as worse tlian ourselves. 

Reading the history of our dealings with the native races of this continent, 
the student is forced to conclude that not all the broken compacts, treachery 
and bad faith were on the part of the red men. 

Among the strong characters that have become historic in the annals of the 
early settlement of Illinois, that of Blackhawk, the famous chief of the Sauk, 
or Sac Indians, stands pre- eminent. All historians, as well as his contem- 
poraries, agree that he was a man of great mind, wonderful energy and un- 
surpassed cour-age. Men who knew him say that he was truthful — for a 
politician — temperate, patriotic toward his tribe, and faithful to his wife to 
whom he was devoted for- more than 40 years, a man of great personal 
dignity and fine appearance. 

Within a few weeks I have heard testimony from two descendants of 
pioneers who were intimately acquainted with Blackhawk, one a grand- 
daughter of John Dixon of Dixon, the other a daughter of Judge Spencer of 
Rock Island, and both agree as to the ordinary estimate of the character of 
Blackhawk. 

One of these ladies added that he was, undoubtedly, a "fine man for an 
Indian." 

From this remark only two deductions can be logically drawn. One, that 
according to the lofty standard of Indian morals, the virtues of temp-trance, 
truthfulness, honesty, courage, patriotism, were mere trifles; the oth. 
however fine a character a man possesses, it is not fine unless he is desc. 
from a given race, and these virtues are the results of generations of 
training. ^ 



138 

The united possessions of the Sauk, or Sac and Fox, Indians included the 
whole of the state of Iowa, and on this side of the Mississippi river the lands 
lying: along the Illinois river, from its mouth as far as Peoria, then north to 
the Wisconsin river, about 70 or 80 miles from its mouth, down the Wiscon- 
sin to the Mississippi, and thence to the Illinois. 

They had several villages in Rock Island county, but the largest was known 
as Saukenuk, on the Sinnissippi or Rock river, about three miles and a half 
from where it empties into the Mississippi, near where the village of Milan 
now stands. 

The date of the settlement at Saukenuk has never been definitely ascer- 
tained. Blaekhawk himself said that his people had occupied these lands 
more than 100 years when they were dispossessed by the whites, in 1831. 

The location of Saukenuk was an ideal one. The Sinnissippi, rich in story 
and tradition, here flows through a valley whose fertility is unequalled. As 
one looks over the farms that now stretch away in the distance, a more beau- 
tiful pastoral scene can not be found in the State. 

The prairie uplands, clothed with fields of waving grain in blended shades 
of green, give a diversified color to the landscape. Clumps of stately elms 
are dotted along the banks of the willow fringed river that glitters here and 
there through the trees in mirror like brightness. Close to the site of ancient 
Saukenuk the shore rises into a bold promontory, more than 200 feet high, 
called Blackhawk's Watch Tower. 

Those who give the Indians credit for being savages but little above the 
beasts of prey, say that from this lofty eminence that overlooked the village, 
Blaekhawk used to sit and watch for his foes. 

But those who knew him best, say that he was a lover of natural scenery, 
and that it is more probable that he came here for peaceful purposes. He 
himself, in his autobiography, says: "The tower was a favorite resort, and 
I often went there alone, where I could sit and smoke my pipe and look with 
wonder and pleasure at the grand scenes before me." 

Saukenuk has been called a village, but perhaps a better idea could be con- 
veyed by the word city, for it once numbered, by actual count, 11,000 active, 
industrious, energetic, intelligent people. Like the towns built by the white 
men, it was regularly laid out into lots, blocks, streets and alleys. It had 
two public squares, and like the old villages and cities we see everywhere in 
Europe today, it was walled for protection, not like them, with stone, but 
fortified with brush palisades, with gates for entrances. 

Saukenuk, according to local historians, was not a mere aggregation of huts 
and wigwams, but a town of permanent dwellings. The houses were large, 
bark covered, long buildings, from 30 to 100 feet in length, and from 16 to 
40 feet in width. They were built for and occupied by several families, or 
rather several generations of one family, grandparents with their sons and 
daughters and grandchildren with all the husbands and wives. 

These houses were built to face the street or public square, at a uniform 
distance from the street, and equal distances apart. They were of poles 
wrought into frames, and covered with long strips of bark, generally taken 
from elm trees. They had arbor-shaped roofs, and numbered about 700. 
From this it will be seen that the Sauks and Foxes belonged to the class 
known as "village Indians." They called their buildings hodensate, mean- 
ing that they were permanent, while the word wigwam, or tepee, is equally 
descriptive of a hunting, or nomadic people, and is understood to mean tem- 
porary abode. For their winter residences they used wigwams because they 
were small and could be warmed by building a fire in the centre, the smoke 
escaping through a hole in the roof. Where the two public squares inter- 
sected stood their council house which was of immense size without any 
partition. 

It was used by the chiefs and men in authority for the secret consideration 
and discussion of all matters pertaining to the tribe. When not in use for 



184 

this It was used by the young people for a gymnasium and dancing hall. But 
it was on the pubiic square that all the people met on all great occasions, 
where their mass meetings were held. 

Judge Spencer of Rock Island published before his death a little book en- 
titled "Reminiscences of Pioneer Life in the Mississippi Valley." He had 
settled near Saukenuk and lived about a quarter of a mile from Blackhawk. 

His book gives some interesting accounts of life at Saukenuk. He tells us tha 
the Indians were governed by two sets of men, peace chiefs and war chiefs, 
corresponding to our civil and military departments. The duties of tha 
peace chiefs were to settle all disputes and differences between their own and 
other tribes, and between the whites and themselves. The war chiefs never 
interfered in the affairs of the village, and it is to be presumed never criticised 
the verdict of an investigating committee. 

In times of trouble the two consulted, and there was always harmony. 
Neither the political nor military rulers belonged to the laboring class, it was 
the duty of the one to make the laws, and of the other to kill people, and 
each attended strictly to bis own business. 

Manual toil could add nothing to the glory of either, and the task of culti- 
vating the squashes, corn, beans and melons was left to the old men, boys 
and women. 

Like the fashionable folk of today, the people of Saukenuk considered it a 
necessity to go away from home for a part of the year, and about the middle 
of September a general exodus took place for their western hunting grounds, 
from which they did not return until the middle of April, 

They all left on the same day, almost the same hour. In order to do this, 
a man with a strong voice was appointed to go through the village a few days 
before, proclaiming the day and hour of departure. 

In starting, they went down the Mississippi, taking all their canoes, about 
200, and from 500 to 700 horses. It was always arranged that the two tribes 
should take separate hunting territory, so as not to interfere with each other. 
The Sauks took middle and southern Iowa, while the Foxes went to the north 
part. After the fall hunt, they went into winter quarters at some appointed 
rendezvous, which they frequently fortified as a protection against the Sioux, 
and here they staid until after the spring sugar making, when they returned 
to Saukenuk. 

The appointed leader of the return trip would permit no straggling. They 
were told in the morning where they would camp at night. They kept their 
horses and canoes as close together as possible, and would arrive in camp at 
nearly the same hour, after a day's march. 

With all the impedimenta, progress was necessarily slow, and they often 
did not march more than ten miles a day. They brought home with them 
dried meat and maple sugar, having disposed of the hides and fars they had 
taken by selling them to some Indian trader before starting home. 

Before leaving Saukenuk in the fall, they buried their vegetables, squashes, 
beans and dried corn, and their first task, on returning, was to inspect the 
places where their stores had been hidden, to get the vegetable food, of which 
they had been deprived for so many months. 

The dried corn had been prepared by boiling it while green, cutting it 
from the cob, and then drying it in the sun. It made a palatable dish, of 
which they were very fond. To hide these stores where they could not be 
found, they selected a dry spot where there was bluegrass sod. They then 
cut away a circular piece of sod the size of a man's body. This was care- 
fully laid aside, and a hole dug, enlarging it as they went down to a depth of 
5 or 6 feet. It was made large enough to hold the beans, squashes, dried 
corn, and sometimes crab apples, sufficient for one family. The hole was 
lined on the inside with strips of bark, and in sacks made from woven flags 
and grasses, or skins they had tanned, they put .the vegetable provisions for 



135 

their next summer's use. The sacks were then covered with layers of bark, 
the surplus dirt removed, so as to destroy all traces of digging, and the sod 
carefully replaced. 

Well they knew that as soon as they were gone the Winnebagoes or some 
other tribe would be there searching for these hidden delicacies. They would 
sometimes dig these holes in the center of the wigwam, where they made their 
fire, and after the hole was filled they would build a fresh fire over the spot, 
to hide all traces. But the Winnebagoes and other thieving tribes would 
thrust their sharp muskrat spears into the ground, and sometimes discover 
them, however cunningly concealed. 

When a family had been robbed in this way during their absence, some of 
the youug men of Saukenuk would go around the village and collect a small 
portion from each family to make up the loss. 

This thieving never seemed to make trouble between the tribes. It seems 
to have been regarded as a sort of game, where the prizes were captured, 
not awarded. The annual buffalo hunt took place in summer, the hunters 
leaving home in July. This took them into the far western country where it 
was probable they would meet the fierce and warlike Sioux who were their 
bitter enemies. 

Elaborate preparations were necessary for an event of so much importance, 
and each man carried a gun, a bow and a large bundle of arrows. They 
often waged fierce battles with the cruel Sioux, and besides the dried meat 
and tallow they brought home, they also brought the scalps they had taken 
from their enemies. 

If any of their number had fallen in battle, there was no rejoicing out of 
deference to the feelings of the bereaved relatives, but they blacked their 
faces, instead of wearing black clothes, and mourned in silence for a speci- 
fied time. 

If they had been victorious and suffered no loss of life, there was a peason 
of great rejoicing and dancing that lasted for days. There was no intoxi- 
cating liquor used in Saukenuk. Blackhawk would not allow it and forbade 
the Indian aeents to sell it to his people. When this request was disregarded, 
and some of his young men had been induced to drink, he anticipated 
the methods pursued by a modern temperance enthusiast, went to the 
agency, rolled the whisky barrels out of doors and broke in the barrel heads 
with a tomahawk. 

The people of Saukenuk were quite ceremonious and did not like to have 
their code of etiquette infringed upon. The grandmother of an acquaintance 
of mine was once surprised by a visit from Blackhawk and three other chiefs 
who had several hundred warriors with them. 

As her husband was a friend of Blackhawk's she felt no fear, but thought 
it wise to offer them some refreshment. 

Blackhawk with great dignity declined the invitation for his band, but in- 
timated that he and the other chiefs would like to eat at a table as the white 
braves did. 

She cooked them a fine dinner and sat with them at the table. Black- 
hawk, in thanking her for hospitality, took occasion to compliment her on 
her fine courtesy in sitting at the table with her guests instead of waiting on 
them. When a white man was a guOvSt of the Indians no offence was taken 
if he declined to partake of any dish he did not like, but once helped it was a 
breach of etiquette to leave anything. He could, however, hire some Indian 
to eat it for him. This was considered good form, and furnished an easy 
way out of many a difficulty. 

The people of Saukenuk were honest. After trading posts were estab- 
lished, they were often induced to buy much more than they could afford, 
but the agents said that, though the debts were many, they never lost a dol- 
lar from Blackhawk nor any of his tribe. 



136 

Like some of our highly educated and cultured United States Senators from 
beyond the Rocky mountains, some of the people of Saukenuk believed in 
and practiced polygamy, but Blackhawk never had but one wife. 

They had many poetic legends that they used to tell around their wigwam 
fires when the severity of the weather precluded outdoor sports. 

One of these was that a young Sioux, lost on the prairie in a snow storm, 
found himself at Saukenuk, and asked hospitality. Although he was their 
enemy, he was safe as a guest, and was warmed and fed in the wigwam of a 
chief who had a daughter called Dark Eyes. 

The young couple fell deeply in love, and it was arranged that when he re- 
turned the following summer she would go as his bride to the far western 
Country and live in his lodge among his kindred. When the corn was just 
ready to show its tassels the next June, the young Indian maiden, at work 
with her mother in the cornfield, heard the whistle of an oriole that had been 
agreed upon as a signal, and returning to her home, took her blanket and 
joined her waiting lover. 

But, alas! Her two brothers had also heard the signal, witnessed the 
meeting of the two, and pursued the fleetfooted Dark Eyes and her Sioux 
lover. The fleeing couple, hard pressed, took refuge in a cave under Black- 
hawk's tower. A furious rainstorm was coming up, a bolt of lightning rent 
the cliff, and the faithful lovers were buried beneath the ruins. 

Since then, on summer nights, the whistle of an oriole can sometimes be 
heard, and Dark Eyes and her lover come forth and wander about the famil- 
iar places. 

Another legend is that a wandering French violinist once came to Sauke- 
nuk. and was entertaining the people who had gathered at the top of Black- 
hawk's tower with the music of his violin — a recital, we call it m modern 
phrase. His back was turned toward the brow of the cliff, and becoming en- 
thusiastic with his own music, he stepped backward over the edge, and was 
dashed to death below. 

With the annual recurrence of the time of the tragedy, the Indians said 
that the soft strains of a violin could be heard floating on the summer air. 

Two or three miles from Saukenuk, just above the point where the Sinnis- 
sippi joins the Father of Waters, is an island iu the Mississippi, nearly three 
miks long and three-qua;rters of a mile wide, comprising about 1,000 acres. 
This was a favorite pleasure resort for the young people of Saukenuk, where 
they went to gather strawberries, blackberries and nuts that grew plentifully 
here in the season. It was a favorite fishing resort also, and here they loved 
to gather and indulge in their simple amusements, dashing through the rap- 
ids in their light canoes, and enjoying other pastimes. 

One spot on this island was sacred ground, and they never approached it 
save with hushed tread and subdued voices. This was at the lower end of 
the island, where the rock which forms the bed of the island, and from which 
it receives its name, rises in an almost perpendicular wall many feet in height. 

Directly under it is a cave, where they believed a good spirit lived, the 
guardian of their tribe. 

Like the seers of modern times, many of them had seen spirits, and this one 
was in the form of a swan, only ten times larger, and pure white, as orthodox 
spirits are supposed to be. 

Ou this spot Fort Armstrong was built, in 1816, and abandoned in 1836. In 
1831. the soldiers of General Gaines burned to the ground the homes of Black- 
hawk and his people, under circumstances with which we are all familiar, 
and which limited time will not permit me to rehearse. 

Saukenuk is no more. Over her fields, where once a thousand acres of 
corn waved its tassels in the summer wind, the trolley cars of the Tri-City 
railway now speed along on tracks of shining steel. 

Blackhawk Inn, a summer hotel, crowns the summit of the hill that over- 
looked the ancient village of Saukenuk, on the very spot where the chief of a 



187 

great nation used to sit and feast his eyes on the beauty of the scene. For 
20 miles he could see the fertile fields of his fathers and trace for miles the 
course of the Sinnissippi as it wound in and out, a silvery thread of light. 

On the island where his young people used to wander, the whirr of wheels 
and the clang of machinery are heard, and in the long rows of stone build- 
ings are made and stored the equipments of war in one of the largest arse- 
nals iu the world. 

Over the cave where the good spirit lived the Daughters of the American 
Revolution of Rock Island placed, only a few weeks ago, a monument to mark 
the site of old Fort Armstrong. 

It stands where two great transcontinental lines of traffic and travel cross 
each other— the majestic Mississippi on its way to the southern gulf and the 
great line of railway that, connecting with the lines of the Atlantic seaboard, 
cleaves its way through the Rocky mountains to seek the waters of the Pa- 
cific. 

The spot is made memorable, also, from its historic association with many 
names famous in the history of our country — Zebulon Montgomery Pike, 
whose monument rises above the clouds in the lonely peak that bears his 
name, Robert E. Lee, Winfield Scott, Zachary Taylor and Abraham Lincoln, 
backwoodsman, pioneer, country lawyer, politician, statesman. President, 
martyr, greatest of all the great men that Illinois has given to her country. 
The view from this point is one of surpassing beauty. I spent part of last 
year in Europe. We saw the scenery of the Rhine, the blue lakes and snowy 
peaks of Switzerland, the lagoons of Venice, the green lanes and beautiful 
lake district of England, and admired the grandeur of the Highland Tros- 
sachs; but when, after my return, I saw it again, with the memory of what 
I had seen in the old world fresh in my mind, it was beautiful still. Not 
even the destroying hand of improvement had eradicated the charm that 
once made it so dear to Blackhawk and the people of ancient Saukenuk. 



ILLINOIS ANCESTRY AMONG THE DAUGHTERS OF THE 

AMERICAN REVOLUTION. 

[By Mrs. Katharine C. Sparks.] 

When the war for American independence was fought, the population of 
the rebelling colonies was confined almost entirely to the east of the Alle- 
gheny mountains. The stirring events of that contest took place for the most 
part in the territory embracedlby the 13 original states. We have been so long 
accustomed to associate the heroic deeds of our Revolutionary fathers with that 
region, to erect there our shrines for the homage due to American patriotism, 
that one comes with some surprise upon the thought of connecting the west- 
ern country of Illinois with the Revolutionary war. It is true that the expe- 
ditions of George Rogers Clark and others were made wes< of the Alleghenies; 
it is true that these adventures are becoming better known and their import- 
ance more appreciated; and it is also true that the present Illinois is associ- 
ated with the Revolution in an entirely different way— through membership 
in a body organized to perpetuate the memory of the men who participated 
in that immortal conquest. 

Edmund Burke well says, that 'People will not look forward to posterity 
who never look backward to their ancestors." This statement was made by 
an Englishman who had in mind the pride of an aristocracy; of old families; 
of pritnogeniture by which vast estates were kept intact from generation to 
generation. In America we apply the statement to a lineage of deeds and 
not of blood; of courage and not of class; of ancestors perhaps of humble 
birth who yet made for themselves niches high in the wall of fame. 

The feeling which prompted the organization of the National Society of the 
Daughters of the American Revolution was far from a pride of ancestry of 



138 

birth. On the contrary, it was a pride of an ancestry of worth. This pride^ 
of course, wf s simply attendant upon the g;reat motive back of the organiza- 
tion — the preservation of the memory of the soldiers of the Revolutionary 
war. This end the descendants of these men endeavor to accomplish by in- 
augurating local chapters wherever a sufficient number can be found, the 
whole constituting the national organization. The members are united in the 
same lofty purpose; to recall the deeds of their Revolutionary ancestors, and 
to instruct the youth of this generation in true patriotism. They seek to in- 
still a patriotism that stands for something higher and nobler than deafening 
noise, firecrackers, skyrockets and red fire, which cause life to become a bur- 
den and make one almost wish himself beyond recall, even if in danger of 
being confronted by more red fire. It seeks to protect the flag from desecra- 
tion, to preserve the last resting places of Revolutionary soldiers, and to mark 
properly and care for historic buildings and sites. Many of these places of pre- 
cious memory would become forever lost or destroyed but for the efl^ortsof the 
patriotic women who devote their strength and funds to preserving these price- 
less inheritances for posterity. The organization has also done much in the 
past ten years to arouse interest in a more intensive and widespread study of 
the history of our country. This has been done by arranging courses of 
lectures on the subject; by offering prizes in the grammar and high schools 
for essays on topics pertaining to our national history; and by organizing the 
children into a junior society, with the same end in view. 

Although founded less than 12 years ago, the organization of the Daughters 
of the American Revolution has extended until it is represented by chapters 
in every state and territory in the Union. It is one of the largest organiza- 
tions of women in the world, numbering over 38,000 members. Illinois is 
represented by 27 chapters, ranking among the highest of the states in re- 
spect to the number of its members. The Chicago chapter, to which I have 
the honor to belong, is composed of nearly 800 members, having the largest 
membership of any chapter in the organization. It also lays claim to being 
the first regularly organized chapter, and therefore the State of Illinois, in 
addition to its many other claims of preeminence, contains both the largest 
and oldest chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution. 

This preeminence of Illinois Revolutionary ancestry is due almost entirely 
to the western movement of the people across the continent. When the Rev- 
olutionary war was fought, Illinois was scarcely known on the map. It was 
never really a part of the old 13 states although nominally held by Virginia 
for a few years. If it had not been for the migration from the old states to 
the west, the interest in Revolutionary history would have been confined to 
the 13 original states. But their sons and daughters have been drawn off to 
erect new commonwealths toward the west until they have now crossed the 
continent. This migration is manifest frequently in tracing the genealogy of 
American families. Successive generations dwell in successive states toward 
the west. Thus a child may be born in Kansas whose parents migrated to that 
state from Illinois. The father was a native of Illinois but the grandfather 
came to that State from western New York. The great-grandfather in turn was 
not a native of New York but had migrated from Massachusetts, while the 
great-great-grandfather had been born in England and settled in Massachu- 
setts. 

This westward movement has been a powerful factor in fostering American 
pride and therefore in nationalizing the American people. It has prevented 
an east and west sectionalism by creating a wide spread interest in the past 
history common to both. The deeds of the old have become the pride of the 
new. Faneuil hall, the old state house in Philadelphia, and the Apollo tavern 
at Williamsburgh, belong to California, to Texas, and to Illinois, as well as 
to Massachusetts, to Pennsylvania, and to Virginia, in which they were loca- 
ted. Washington, the Adamses, and Patrick Henry are national, not state 
heroes. The heroism, the privations, and the fruits of the Revolutionary war 
are national heritages. They are not confined to the 341,000 square miles 
composing the thirteen states in which the war was largely fought; but 
they are a part of 3,500,000 square miles which comprise the present conti- 
nental United States. They are not monopolized by the 3,000,000 people who 



139 

made up the population contemporary with the war; but through the migration 
of their descendants they are the joint property of the 70,000,000 people who 
now enjoy American independence. 

Although the descendants of Revolutionary ancestry have thus carried the 
priceless heritage of the past in their migration, yet they are now situated far 
from the scenes of those heroic deeds. No one who has stood on Bunker 
Hill, at Valley Forge or at Yorktown can ever forget the sensations expe- 
rienced at the time; but this privilege is given to few people of the west. If 
Illinois were to be associated only through the migration of her citizens, patri- 
otic feeling might also ebb through verj'^ distance. But Illinois is connected 
much more vitally through the deeds of her few inhabitants who lived at the 
time of the Revolution. When Washington was driving the British trom 
Boston, when Gates was surrounding Burgoyne at Saratoga, when Greene 
was outwitting Cornwallis in the south, Illinois was represented by a few 
scattered villages of French families, among whom were to be found not two 
score men who could speak the English language. 

Yet even in this country of the Illinois, as far west as the Mississippi river, 
there were men ready to take up arms in aid of the rebelling colonists. 
These were the French settlers at Kaskaskia and elsewhere, who had oeen 
so ill-treated under British administration that when George Rogers Clark 
and his men arrived they were glad to surrender to him without any resist- 
ance. Afterward no less than 85 of these Illinois French enlisted in Clark's 
company, and actually participated in the struggle for their newly adopted 
country. Because they were accustomed to the region, they well sustained 
the hardships which nature imposed upon Clark in his campaigns. Nature 
became a stronger and more cruel foe in these adventures than the British or 
the Indians. 

Suffering great hardships in their marches through the wilderness, pene- 
trating the tangled undergrowth, wading through icy water in the over- 
flowed valleys, Clark and his men always exhibited the persistent nature of 
the Virginians and the enthusiastic buoyancy of the French. These two 
races wore thus uniting in the heart of the continent for a common purpose, 
just as they were cooperating at the court of France. We eulogize the old 
world French for aiding us in our struggle for independence with money and 
with armies. Rarely do we recall the aid given in the rigors of the winter 
season by the French of Illinois. Only two years after the Declaration of In- 
dependence was signed, and indeed in the same year in which the first treaty 
was made between the French and the new republic, Clark and his French 
volunteers succeeded in establishing our claims to this western country. 
When we celebrate upon the Fourth day of July the public Declaration of 
American ludependence as proclaimed in the old state house at Philadelphia, 
let us not forget that according to tradition on that selfsame day, two years 
later, Clark captured Kaskaskia and thus gained the independence and es- 
tablished the birthday of the Illinois country. Because these heroic acts were 
performed in the wilderness with no opportunity for keeping i-ecords, little 
remains to recall the actors of the drama save their names alone. 

It is true that the genealogy of the French participants in the Clark expe- 
dition has not been traced so as to connect Illinois with the Revolution as 
closely as it deserves; it is also true that there was another enterprise eon- 
ducted against the enemy from the Illinois country which has been almost 
entirely lost sight of in history. One preceded even the undertaking of Clark. 
An Irishman, Tom Brady, the unwritten hero of that early day, raised a 
force of 16 men at Cahokia one year before Clark reached that country. 
These he led against the English garrison at Fort St. Joseph, situated near 
the present city of Niles, Mich. He captured and paroled the garrison of 21 
British regulars whom he found stationed there. He burned what provisions 
he could not carry away and also set fire to the buildings and palisades. 
Notwithstanding the success thus far, Brady and his men did not succeed in 
returning to Cahokia. They were overtaken on their return march near 
where now stands the city ofjChicago, by the regulars whom they had paroled 
at the fort, supplemented by a force of Indian allies. They were all taken 
prisoners and carried to Canada. 



140 

Another expedition was made the summer after Clark reached Illinois by a 
Frenchman named Meillet, who resided near Peoria. With 300 Indians and 
French he marched to St. Joseph where the few English troops surrendered 
once more. This time the force of the invading French was so superior that 
the British dared not follow them, and Meillet returned victorious to Peoria 
bearing the supplies captured at the fort as spoils of war. 

These undertakings in the Illinois country, although unnoted at the time, 
serred to connect our State directly with the Revolution. These little skir- 
mishes were trifling in comparison with the great battles of the war in the 
colonies along the coast. Clark and Brady, the English speaking leaders, 
like their men were scouts and frontiersmen whose descendants would not be 
prepared even if they were interested in tracing their genealogy. The 
French volunteers on these two expeditions were in a kind of a transitory al- 
legiance and no doubt many of their descendants followed the leaders who 
had already gone across the Mississippi into the Spanish Louisiana. In the 
cases of all the men thus engaged in securing the title to this western country 
the same condition holds true so far as preserving their memory is concerned. 
They belonged to the shifting frontier with its frequent removals, due largely 
to the restless nature of the men themselves. Few records were kept be- 
cause government was organized only after a sufficient number of inhabitants 
warranted it. It is also a sad fact that the incoming and conquering Ameri- 
can had too little regard for the preservation of the old French records. 
Only too frequently have they been gotten rid of by being made into bonfires 
when the new records had accumulated sufficiently to cause a demand for 
more space. 

Owing to these conditions, it is doubtful whether any decendants of these 
brave and hardy men, either Virginiaas or French, now have membership in 
an organization in which they are entitled to a high station. Their places 
would be as eminent in the roll as those whose ancestors formed part of the 
well organized army of the east, supplied by the general government and 
under command of the best officers. 

Perhaps it may yet become a part of the work of the historical societies of 
these states of the Mississippi valley to collect and inscribe for perpetual re- 
membrance the names of those who actually represented this section in the 
Revolutionarj' war. It will be a brief list but it will be an honorable one. 
No doubt in this way for the first time many of the decendants of these 
men would become aware of the distinguished ancestry which constitute their 
unknown patrimony; an ancestry which brings to them not coats of arms 
and heraldic devices but glorious deeds and patriotic sacrifices. 

In the brief time afforded since the assignment to me of this subject I 
have endeavored to make some search of the records with this purpose in 
view. The name of George Rogers Clark appears several times in the rec- 
ords of the ancestry of the Daughters of the American Revolution but always 
in connection with the decendants of a brother. In the early period of the 
organization, it was permitted to count collaterals in this way. Clark had 
three brothers who distinguished themselves in the Revolution but so far as I 
am able to ascertain he was the only one of the family who ever saw service 
west of the Alleghanies. This scout and frontiersman never married. A 
family tradition is preserved which gives a romantic tinge to this fact. Clark 
was faeinated, it is said, by the beauty of a daughter of the Spanish governor 
at St. Louis whom he met when at one time he was heading a force to re- 
lieve that post from an attack made by hostile Indians. But observing what 
he considered a lack of courage in the governor, he ceased his attentions to 
the daughter, saying to his friends: "I will not be the father to a race of 
cowards." His free and wild life as a scout and soldier was not a good train- 
ing for even the light bonds of matrimony. Yet a companion might have 
been a blessing to him when in his last years he lived alone on the island in 
the river opposite Louisville, Kentucky, where he had raised the corn for his 
expedition and had drilled his men preparatory to starting westward. He 
was eventually dependent on his sister for a home. Into this humble dwell- 
ing near Louisville came a delegation of members of the state legislature of 
Virginia to present to the neglected hero a magnificent sword in token of his 



/ 



Ul 

Revolutionary services. He received them in his poverty and heard their 
eulogies in silence. Then he exclaimed: "When Virginia needed a sword, 
I gave one. She sends me now a toy. I want bi-ead." So saying he thrust 
the sword into the earth and broke it off with his crutch. 

It is said that not half a dozen people in the United States know where 
Clark is buried. He lies in Cave Hill cemetery, in the city of Louisville. It 
is to be hoped that some or all of the patriotic societies may find it a task of 
pleasure as well as a duty to remedy this neglect. 

But what of Clark's officers and men? Have their memories been pre- 
served by their descendeuts and their names entered on the rolls of honor of 
the patriotic societies? On Clark's muster rolls there are the names of 35 
officers. Of these, two ranked as majors, 20 as captains, eight as lieuten- 
ants, two as ensigns and one as cornet. Six of these officers were in the or- 
iginal command of 153 men which Clark first led against Kaskaskia. The re- 
mainder joined the command at later times. They embraced 85 recruits, who 
were, from their names, undoubtedly French; but among them there was not 
one appointed to an office. The reasons for choosing English-speaking rather 
than French-speaking officers is obvious. 

The names of these 35 officers under Clark should stand next to that of 
their intrepid leader. Their descendants may easily share honors with the 
descendents of those who commanded under Arnold on his unfortunate expe- 
• dition against Quebec. Their posterity may claim equal honors with the de- 
scendeuts of the soldiers who fought at Bunker Hill, who suffered the hard- 
ships of Valley Forge, or who kept despairing step with the great commander 
on his retreats in the darkest days of the war. Gladly would the Daughters 
ot the American Revolution welcome to its ranks the" children of tiiese offi- 
cers under Clark, giving them the prestige due to their inheritance. But, as 
has been said, the frontier surroundings of these men were too transitory for 
the preservation of complete records. In attempting to ascertain whether 
any members now enrolled in the D. A. R. trace their ancestry to these offi- 
cers, I have searched over 11,000 names of ancestors in the official lineage 
books. In this vast collection of names, I could find but two members who, 
with any degree of probability, could be said to have traced their lines back 
to the officers of the Clark expedition. 

One of the two cases was that of Ensign Lawrence Slaughter, through 
whom Mrs. Florence Barker Wilkes, born in the state of Alabama, derives 
her membership. She bases her rights on the records of the land office, 
which show that one Lawrence Slaughter, an officer in the Virginia line, re- 
ceived a warrant for public land due to his military service. Since the name, 
as a whole is not a common one, the chances are that the two Slaughters are 
identical, and that here is one clear case of an Illinois ancestor in the Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution. 

The other possible case is that of Mrs. Annie Prewitt Emmal, born in Ken- 
tucky. Her great-great-grandfather was James Montgomery, a lieutenant, 
who received a grant of public land for services in a state regiment of Vir- 
ginia. The probabilities are that this is the Lieut. James Montgomery who 
joined the Clark forces after the occupation of Kaskaskia but in time for the 
expedition against Vincennes. 

Verification of these two cases might have been made if time had not been 
lacking to ascertain the present address of these two members and to com- 
municate with them. It might be added that this search for descendants of 
the Illinois soldiers could not be carried to any decree of completeness be- 
cause the lineage books of the Daughters of the American Revolution are far 
from being up to date. The membership has increased so rapidly that it is 
impossible to print the volumes, each containing the records of 1,000 mem- 
bers, as promptly as could be desired. It has been customary to issue but 
one volume each year and thus the arrears have grown. 

On Clark's muster rolls, as has been said, were 85 French names of privates, 
undoubtedly recruited from the Illinois French They embrace such well 
known French names as Andree, Antier, Pierre Blancher, Clairmount, Louis 
Donrichelle, Laviolette, Baptiste Parisienne, Viliers and Villard. It would 



142 

be a task of no little magnitude to search through the lineage books of the 
Daughters of the American Revolution for the purpose of ascertaining 
whether anj' members traced their ancestry to these names. But such a cur- 
sorj^ examination as I have been able to make shows no instance of this kind. 
It is no doubt true that the Anglicizing of the French names by the incom- 
ing of the English speech has tended to conceal the identity of the original 
bearers of the name as well as to make more difficult the tracing of their 
families. 

It remains to be suggested what opportunities are presented for the further 
prosecution of this search. Volume I of the public lands in the American state 
papers contains the names of many French settlers possessing valid land 
elaiais in the Illinois country. After the laud conquered by Clark had been 
organized into public domain of the United States by creating over it the gov- 
ernment of the Northwestern Territory, the question of the private ownership 
of portions of the land naturally arose. The United States government under- 
took to satisfy all the grants made by the French government and to give each 
head of a French family residing in the region at the close of the Revolution- 
ary war a tract of 400 acres of land. In 1790 the secretary of the Northwest 
Territory presented to the president of the United States a list of 120 names 
representing heads of families at Vincennes, Ind. They are all undoubtedly 
French names including such as Andrez, Boyer, Charpentier, (Carpenter), 
Dubois, Gilbert, Lacroix, Perron, or Perrin, and Langlois, or Langley. Yet 
one searches in vain for a name which was borne by a soldier under George 
Rogers Clark. To this list the secretary adds the names of 24 widows at Vin- 
cennes, but not one bears a name to be found in Clark's muster roll. If it 
could be proved in this way that some of Clark's French recruits were 
granted land at or near Vincennes, one important link would be found in the 
chain of Illinois Revolutionary ancestry. Their decendants could undoubt- 
edly be traced by the subsequent transfers of the land as entered in the 
official records of the different counties. 

Vincennes was such a small and transitory trading post, and was really the 
last place reached by Clark, that one need not be surprised if few of his re- 
cruits came from that point. On the other hand, Kaskaskia and Cahokia 
were reached much earlier, and were much larger settlements. They must, 
therefore, have furnished the larger share of recruits. Suppose the same test 
be made of comparing the heads of families in these settlements with the 
French recruits of Clark. Unfortunately, it has not been possible to find 
such lists for any place except Vincennes. By the time the government was 
ready to grant the lands about the Mississippi towns to legitimate claimants, 
the business of the land office had so increased, and was so much better sys- 
tematized, that no lists of names were submitted to the headquarters of the 
government. Only the simple facts pertaining to the adjustment of the 
French land claims are to be found in the government records. 

Evidently the only means left would be the examination of such of the early 
grants and transfers of land as are preserved in the records of the counties 
in southern Illinois. Here might be traced the descendants of those French 
who cast aside their new allegiance to the English sovereign to fight against 
him on the side of his rebellious colonists. Yet it would be a task too great 
for an individual, and likely to be accomplished only through some concerted 
action by an organized body. 

The great State of Illinois is proud of the ties which doubly bind her to the 
Revolutionary past. The one is due, as it has been the endeavor of this paper 
to show, to her resources and possibilities which have attracted an emigration 
from the eastern states. The other is the result of her being the stage on 
which was enacted one of the minor, yet important, dramas of the Revolu- 
tion. Bat proud as she is at heart, she has not made as strong an outward 
manifestation as is demanded of her. The task remains of rendering more 
than a name the men who represented Illinois in the Revolution; of tracing 
their posterity, and of proving their deseendents eligible to the patriotic so- 
cieties having this object in view. Thus the work of the historical and patri- 
otic societies becomes co-operative. The one naturally supplements and does 



143 

honor to the other. With every jsrenealogy traced, local history is recorded. 
With every name mentioned in connection with a local historical event, the 
record of the patriotic society is made more complete. 

One further task I cannot refrain from mentioning although the subject 
does not properly lie within the scope of this paper. A year or two ago, 
thanks to the investigation of Mr. Lewis M. Gross, superintendent of the 
DeKalb county schools, there was discovered near Lily lake, Kane county, 
111., the grave of Abner Powers, a soldier of the American revolution. He 
had enlisted in Col. John Stark's regiment in 1776 and had served honorably 
throughout the war. The stone which once marked his grave still showed on 
the part yet remaining the stars and shield and the date 1776. Is it consist- 
ent with the rank and wealth of the great State of Illinois, with the patriotic 
feeling that has characterized her in a thousand instances, to allow this last 
resting place of a revolutionary soldier to remain neglected and without proper 
mark? The case is no doubt repeated many times within the State. What 
line of activity could more fitly engage the attention of the Illinois State 
Historical Society as well as the patriotic societies of the State than the in- 
auguration of a joint commission for the purpose of properly marking: the 
last resting places of these soldiers of the Revolution. Above their graves 
should be erected enduring monuments upon which later generations might 
read in imperishable inscriptions the valiant deeds of the heroes who lie 
sleeping in death beneath. 



RICHARD YATES' SERVICES TO ILLINOIS AS WAR 

GOVERNOR. 

(By Dr.'Wm. Jayne.) 

Henry Yates was the son of Abner Yates, and the grandson of Dr. Micheal 
Yates, a native of England, who emigrated to America prior to the revolution 
and settled in Caroline county, Va. He there married Martha Marshall, a 
sister of John Marshall, who in after years, became the eminent chief justice 
of the United States. 

Henry Yates was the father of 12 children, of whom Richard, the subject 
of this paper, was the second; his name for more than a generation has been 
a household word; he is popularly spoken of as the " War Governor " and 
the soldier's friend. 

He came when a boy with the family, when his father moved from Kentucky 
to Illinois, and settled at Springfield in Sangamon county, in the spring of 
1831. 

Here he made the acquaintance and had in his boyhood for companions the 
Enos, Matheny, Herndon, Saunders and Slater brothers. A remarkable group 
of boys. From that group that attended school in the log school house, situ- 
ated at the corner of Second and Adams streets, and bathed in the ponds of 
that sparcely populated village, there were chosen in after years three gov- 
ernors ani three senators of the United States. In the years to come, 
Richard Yates had no more firm and steadfast friends, than the associates of 
his early days, which fact is in evidence of his charming personality, from 
boyhood onward, through his eventful and brilliant life. 

His father was a gentleman of large common sense and excellent business 
capacity, appreciating the value and advantage of a complete education, sent 
his son Richard to Jacksonville to become a student in Illinois College. 

Jacksonville became his permanent home. After graduating from college, 
he commenced the study of law and there entered upon the practice of his 
chosen profession. 

Fortune favored him, here he spent most of the years of his life and all the 
days of his manhood. 

Here he lived, loved and was married to one of the lovliest of women, Miss 
Catherine Geers. 



144 

Here he raised to adult life two sons and a daughter; here he lies buried, 
remembered by all the citizens of this beautiful city as one who had received 
many honors from and in return had conferred honor upon this educational 
center. 

In the newly settled states, there seems to be an affinity between law and 
polities. Young Yates believed in the measures and principles of Clay and 
Webster. Soon he was recognized as an ardent Whig. He became a candi- 
date and was elected a member of the Legislature. He was three times chosen 
a member, and though young in years, he soon became a prominent and in- 
fluential representative. Naturally ambitious, he soon thought of higher 
honors — a seat in Congress of the United States. 

The capital district was the only Whig district in the State, and in the ten 
years prior to 1850 had been represented by a group of exceptionally able 
men, certainly the equal of any district in the whole country. In 1840, Major 
John T. Stuart was elected for a second term. Colonel Joifin J. Hardin was 
elected in 1842, Colonel Edward D. Baker in 1844, Abraham Lincoln in 1846, 
and Major Thomas H. Harris in 1848. All of whom served as officers in 
war — Stuart and Lincoln in the Blackhawk war, Hardin, Baker and Harris in 
the Mexican war. Such was the character of men whom young Yates had to 
meet in competition in the courts of law and in the public forum of politics. 
Of Colonel Baker, Mr. Blaine says in his book entitled "Twenty Years in Con- 
gress": "Probably no man in the history of the Senate ever left so brilliant 
a reputation from so short a service." Before this intelligent audience of 
this society, it is needless to state who Stuart, Lincoln, Hardin and Harris 
were. 

Yet such was the charming popularity of Richard Yates that, commencing 
at the age of 32, he was three rimes placed in nomination for a seat in Con- 
gress from the capital district, twice elected and once defeated, in 1854, by 
Major Harris, whom he had defeated in 1850. In 1852, Yates was elected 
over John Calhoun, when in the capital district Pierce's majority for Presi- 
dent was 1,100. Lincoln often said that Calhoun was the ablest Democrat in 
the State. 

His success in political life was largely due to his personality; he was en- 
dowed with a manly carriage, fine presence, cordial manner and happy 
speech. 

The cardinal and salient trait of character of Yates was his love of justice 
and right; this was inherent in his nature. He was by inheritance and edu- 
cation full of kindness, generosity and courage. He loved peace and enjoyed 
the sweetness and amenities of social and domestic life, and yet there was in 
his temperament and ambition that which generates a fondness for the ex- 
citement which is ever to be found in the discussion of political affairs; the 
more the issues relate to the moral than to the material well being of man and 
society, the more intense the excitement becomes. From the repeal of the 
Missouri compromise, the great question at issue related to slavery in all its 
phases. 

Richard Yates was anti-slavery, not radical, as Garrison and Phillips, but 
holding the views of Jefferson, Clay and Lincoln. Willing to abide by the 
compromises of the Constitution and by the laws of the country, he was op- 
posed to the extension of slavery over any more territory, confining it to the 
states where it existed, hoping for its ultimate extinction. 

He believed in the final triumph of right over wrong. He never feared in 
his seat in the Legislature, in Congress or in the public forum to proclaim his 
principles. He believed that the spirit of liberty and the rights of man were 
eternal, though at times cast down but not destroyed, overwhelmed but not 
conquered. He was no laggard on any public question; he was a leader and 
not a follower. In his great speech at Elgin, July 4, 1865, he discussed the 
question of universal suffrage with the courage of his convictions, which gave 
proof that he was a far-sighted and sure-footed statesman. 

From the day of the repeal of the Missouri compromise, the people of this 
country were aroused as never before; political feeling became intense. 
From 1854 to 1860 each biennial election seemed to add fuel to the fire. 




RICHARD YATES. 
War Governor of Illinois. 



145 

With the election of Pierce, in 1852, came tlie dissolution of the Whig party. 
The Republican party sprang into existence as an anti-slavery party, to con- 
test with the Democratic party for control of the government. 

The Republican party was formed largely from the members of the old 
Whig party, with the addition of a portion of the Democratic party of what 
was termed free-soilers. 

In the election of 1860, there were four national tickets in the field, Lincoln 
heading the Republican, Douglas the Northern Democrat, Breckenridge the 
Pro-slavery Democrat, and Bell the Constitational Union. 

The election of Mr. Lincoln aroused the people of the southern states, 
more especially the cotton states, into a state of excitement, unrest, of posi- 
tive frenzy. Jefferson Davis the recognized Democratic leader of the 
Thirty-sixth Congress, in December prior to the inauguration of Lincoln, 
boldly proclaimed from his seat in the Senate, the right of secession and 
denying that of coercion, and urged the withdrawal of the garrison from Fort 
Sumter. 

Mississippi seceeded on the 9th day of January, and on the 24th of January, 
having been officially informed of the fact, Mr. Davis withdrew from the 
Senate and went home. 

On the 9th of February he was elected President of the Confederate States. 
The winter of 1860-^1 was a period of intense excitement and alarm, in social, 
business and finaocial circles, throughout the whole country, as well as in the 
legislatures of all the states and in the national Congress. The peace con- 
gress was held in Washington, composed of the most able and distinguished 
men of most of the states, appointed by the governors of their respective states, 
to try to find some way of compromise, that would allay the storm and har- 
monize conflicting interests. All efforts proved futile, answering no pacific 
end. The winter passed on, Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated on March 4th 
and assumed control of the government. We know that his message was full 
of kindness and affection, peace and conciliation, yet of firmness and resolu- 
tion to protect and preserve the Union and constitution. 

The attack of April 12th on Fort Sumter precipitated the war. The entire 
north was at once ablaze with a fire of patriotism and loyalty. The President 
issued his proclamation calling for volunteers. Governor Yates convened the 
Legislature in extra session. War was upon us, the military system of the 
country had fallen into disuse and we were illy prepared for the coming 
conflict. 

Governor Yates was by mental temperment, active, earnest, alert; he had 
by association while in Congress come in close contact and communication, 
with the southern political leaders, he fully recognized the force and violence 
of the impending war; as much as any one man in the free states, he felt that 
the war for supremacy was to be fiercely and persistently fought out with all 
opposing forces which could be rallied by the people of the north and south; 
yet he was full of faith that the right would win, and that the Union and the 
Constitution would finally triumph. 

The bankers of Springfield placed at the disposal of the Governor $100,000, 
to defray the temporary expenses of the military forces until the extra session 
of the legislature should make ample provision for the care and support of 
the soldiers. 

The Governor felt the military importance of taking possession of Cairo, 
located at the extreme southern end of the State and commanding the trade 
and commerce of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. After a consultation with 
his associate State officers, he dispatched John W. Bunn, as his confidential 
agent, to make arrangements with the authorities of the Central railroad to 
at once transport the military forces of Chicago and the field batteries to 
Cairo, there to hold and fortify that place. His directions were promptly 
carried out by General Swift, largely aided by the able and active cooperation 
of Jos. D. Webster, who had served in the Mexican war, and afterwards became 
chief of staff to General Grant. 

— lOH 



146 

On the 23cl of April, he delivered his message to the Senate and House of 
Representatives. It was a concise message, speaking of the hotly contested 
presidential election, of the propositions of a highlj' conciliatory character 
adopted by a majority of the states represented in the peace conference held 
in February in Washington City, of the forbearing and pacific policy of the 
Federal government, of the contempt shown by the seeeeded states at all 
efforts for a peaceful settlement. 

He recognized civil war as one of the greatest calamities that could befall a 
free people, in his own words he declared: " A government which is the hope 
of the world — promising more happiness to us and our children, and the 
millions that are to come after us, and to the struggling free in every land, 
than any government ever invented by man, must not and shall not be 
destroyed. 

"In the firm belief that we are in the hands of a Supreme ruling power, 
whose will is wisdom, let us manfully maintain our rights and our Union and 
constitution to the last extremity." 

As clearly as any patriot and statesman in the whole country, he believed 
and acted on the conviction, that the most direct road to peace was the most 
stupendous preparation for war. 

On the 15th of April the President called on Illinois for six regiments of 
infantry. By the 30th, Yates had these regiments organized and mustered 
into the service of the United States. The Legislature at the special session 
authorized the raising of ten additional regiments. Before the close of the 
year, our Governor organized 50 regiments of infantry, ten regiments of 
cavalry, and one regiment of artillery. 

Richard Yates, like Andrew Jackson, possessed high administrative ability, 
a wonderful intuitive judgment or knowledge of men, in selection of agents 
to perform special duties. In proof of which statement. I would name the ap- 
pointment of U. S. Grant to command the turbulent Twenty-first regiment, 
the appointment of Allen C. Fuller as Adjutant General of the State, of 
Ex- Governor Wood as quarter-master general, and John Williams as com- 
missary general, all of whom rendered invaluable aid to the State, by the 
efficient discharge or their duties. 

Richard Yates was ceaseless during all the four years of the war in the dis- 
charge of the manifold functions of his high office. Whenever a great battle 
was fought in the west, he would charter boats and go with nurses, surgeons 
and supplies for the comfort and support of the sick and wounded on the 
field and in the military hospitals; his presence was sunlight to the stricken 
soldiers. 

He created the sanitary commission and placed in charge as directors Col. 
John Williams, Wm. Butler, John Reynolds, Robert Irwin and E. B. Hawley. 
The liberality of the people furnished the board with ample means to care 
for and relieve the sick and wounded soldiers. 

We must remember, that all the citizens of Illinois were not in accord with 
the State and national administration in the prosecution of the war. This 
cannot be expected in a civil war. The population of our State was drawn 
from various localities — each holding onto its prejudices of its early education 
and environment. With such a population the executive must have in addi- 
tion to courage, large common sense. To fully realize the sublime faith and 
confidence of our executive in the ultimate supremacy of our army and the 
complete overthrow of the rebellion, one should carefully study his message 
of Jan. 5, 1863, which was prior to the capture of Vieksburgand the battle of 
Gettysburg; in the darkest days of the war, when gloom overshadowed many 
loyal people, our Governor never quailed. In this message of 1863 he said: 
"I have never had my faith in the perpetual union of the states to falter. I 
believe this infernal rebellion can be, ought to be and will be subdued. If our 
brave boys shall fall in the field, we must bury the dead, take care of and 
bring home the sick and wounded, and send fresh battalions to fill up the 
broken ranks." 

This was the faith and resolution of our heroic chief from the day Sumter 
was fired on, until Richmond fell with the surrender of Lee. 



147 

He moved on undismayed during the dark days of 1862; perils and emer- 
gencies seemed only to stimulate to renewed efforts and to season and 
strengthen him for the final outcome. He had in all his public life, adhered 
to his principles in sunshine or storm, he never trimmed his sails to catch a 
passing breeze, or quailed before a doubtful contest. 

With the coming of 1863, military affairs became more favorable, tending 
to the suppression of the rebellion. Vicksburg surrendered in July and late 
in the fall came the battle of Chattanooga, the gloriesof Lookout mountain and 
Missionary ridge. Sickness and loss on the battle field depleted our armies. 
The war department continued to call upon the State tor more soldiers. 
Governor Yates promptly complied with all requisitions. 

In 1864 General Grant was called to Washington, to command all the mili- 
tary forces. Sherman's campaign in Georgia, the siege and capture of 
Atlanta followed and then the great march through the heart of the Confed- 
eracy. These victories were not without cost. Yates' labors were not 
lightened; to the close of the war, they were incessant in supplying fresh re- 
cruits to fill the decimated ranks, and through aid of his sanitary board to do 
all that could be done to render more comfortable our sick and wounded 
soldiers. In person he visited the battlefields and hospitals, by his sympathy 
and presence he cheered the spirits of many a weary volunteer. Through all 
these years, it is not surprising that he has been called the soldiers' friend. 

At the close of his term of office, he was elected a senator of the United 
States and doubtless one of the happiest incidents of his life, was a reception 
tendered him irrespective of party, by the citizens of his home town. The 
address of welcome was pronounced by President Sturtevant of Illinois 
College, the early tutor of Yates and his lifelong friend. 

Governor Yates had the instincts of a soldier, his only regret that he was 
Governor, was that he lost the opportunity of Oglesby and Palmer of leading 
a regiment into the field. What his fortune might have been, had his ability 
been tested in active military lines, it is now idle to discuss; but it has often 
occurred to me, that had opportunity come to him as it came to John A. 
Logan at the battle of Peach tree, that he would have taken rank with that 
great volunteer soldier. 

Governor Yates won distinction as a lawyer, orator, patriot and statesman. 
It would be going too far, to assert that of all the public men of Illinois, he 
was the most eloquent speaker, forthat place, I believe, belongs to the gifted, 
impulsive, brilliant Col. E. D. Baker, who fell at Ball's bluff. But I venture 
to think and say, that he belongs to that group of orators, in which are 
classed Emery Storrs, Owen Lovejoy and Robert Ingersoll. 

In conclusion, I will say that young Yates entered upon the active duties 
of life, with the advantage of robust health, attractive bearing and charming 
address; he was gifted with brilliant intellectual endowments; he soon be- 
came the favorite son of a proud and imperial state, ere he reached the noon- 
day of life, he had, "trod the ways of glory, and sounded all the depths and 
shoals of honor." 

From the bar he stepped to the legislature, thence to Congress, thence to 
the executive chair of the commonwealth and then elected a member of the 
Senate ot the United States, the peer of the ablest of that body. He was one 
of the few public men, who from the first, comprehended the extent and 
magnitude of the crimson tempest which came. 

1 remember that before General Grant had electrified the country with his 
brilliant victories, and given assurance of the suppression of the rebellion, 
that by the rnagie of his burning eloquence and fiery zeal and stirring ap- 
peals, he rekindled the patriotism and revived the courage of the loyal people 
discouraged by our repulse at Vicksburg, and our defeat at Chancellorville; 
and he refilled the decimated ranks of the Union armies with tens of thous- 
ands, who sprang to arms at the sound of his clarion voice. He was a part, 
and a great part of the rise, progress and consummation of the great anti- 
slavery movement of the country. 

In after years, when the historian shall come to record the story of the 
most stupendous revolution which ever convulsed a continent, he will recount 
;he life, character and public services of Richard Yates. 



148 
DESTRUCTION OF THE FOX INDIANS IN 1730 

BY THE FRENCH AND THEIR ALLIES. 

(By John F. Steward.) 

As a descent of family names suggests family traditions, so fragments of 
history may be gleaned from the nomenclature of a region. 

In Kendall county, 111., are two small streams that unite and, within a frac- 
tion of a mile, enter the Fox river. The Little Rock creek and Big Rock 
creek. Why so called, and when so named? Tradition is silent. They are 
characterized by no rock larger than the boulders in their channels. The 
early French explorers tell us that in no other equal area was game found so 
abundant in both variety and quantity. Far greater than elsewhere in num- 
bers, were the buffalo. So abundant were the herds that this beautiful river, 
heading in and near Pistakee lake, bore the Algonquin name Pestekouy. 
The lake speaks, as the river once did, the name of the erstwhile pride of our 
"western prairies. We read of the river in Tonti's memoirs. LaSalle and 
members of his party explored it, and Charlevoix speaks of the richness of 
the country bordering on it, and the abundance of game. So well did LaSalle 
become acquainted with this region, that in 1683, upon his return to Canada, 
he gave to Franquelin the information which enabled him to make his maps 
of 1684 and 1687. On those maps, along the course of the Pestekouy, are 
many villages, among which is the " great village of Maramek" (Maramech). 
Several years of research have convinced me that O'Callaghan, Tailhan and all 
others have been mistaken in placing the "great village of Maramek" on the 
Kalamazoo river of Michigan; no town or evidences of great population are 
there shown on any of the 20 early maps before me. The " Maramech" and 
" Maramec" of Franquehn's maps of 1684 and 1687 respectively, was the 
center of the Miami population, and the metropolis; there were the Pean- 
guichias, the Kilaticas, Pepikokias, Weas and others, (all Miamis) while he 
shows no town or tribe on his Marame and Marameg, now the Kalamazoo. 

In 1672 Allouez met the " Machkoutench, Marameg, Kikaboua Illinoue 
PepikouMa, Kilitika" and others, all later mapped in the so-called " Colonie 
du Sr. de LaSalle." He says (Relations of 1672), " they were deeper in the 
woods [from the Mission of St. Francis .Xavier] , but he errs by saying they 
were to the "westward" for they were, in fact, on the " Pestekouy River," 
which heads within a few leagues of the site of his Mission at Grreen Bay. 
They were not the Maramegs north of Lake Superior, nor were they people 
of the river " Maramac " of Michigan, for they were in the very midst of the 
tribes he mentions, where LaSalle found them. They were of the " great 
village of Maramek," referred to in the reports of 1695, (N. Y. Col. Docts. 
vol. 9, p. 621-624) where we read, "Sieur Perrot presented a robe on the part 
of the Pepicoquis, who also are Miamis of Maramek." 

When Perrot was sent by the Governor of New France to ally the western 
tribes against the Iroquois, he visited the Miamis of Maramech. Among the 
deputies from these tribes, who met in council with the French, were Mici- 
tonga and Nanangousista, chiefs of the " great village of Maramek." That 
it was probably a metropolis is evidenced by the fact that for more than two 
miles along the river, from beautiful Sylvan spring to the great mounds of 
Galena limestone, an acre in extent, that rise 35 feet above the water's level, 
where frowns the " old mill," are evidences of occupation. The plow has 
turned the soil so many times that the potsherds, never too well burned, have 
almost disappeared. The overflows have obliterated the mounds where 27 
years ago, when began my discoveries, my spade laid bare the bones of an- 
cient dwellers of Maramech. Along the river burnt stones have shown where 
were the domestic and council fires. 

'Neath the sod of the hill that slopes to the sun, lie the later occupants of 
the great village. In the graves, trinkets of Eupropean origin have been 
found, and in the valley the plow has aided the archaeologists for many years, 
and bushels of implements tell of long occupation. With time and change 
the name of the village became modified and on the map of Coronelli (1688) 



149 




150 

it is gfiven as Maramea, and on that of Sautteri (1710) Maraux. When the 
buffalo last grazed upon the five prairies that neighbor there is not definitely 
known, nor when the river lost the name first given, and why. On French 
maps a score of years later we find the stream well laid down, and the name 
*' Riviere du Eocher" (River pf the Rock). It is in facta river characterized 
by a rock which is bathed by it. and which has material sufficient to build a 
village. On maps published late in the Eighteenth century, we find no more 
the French name but instead Fox river. 

About 1640 among the Algonquin tribes, near Lake St. John, in Canada, 
was one that is known in recent history, as the Foxes. As the shield of 
Christian Great Britain bears the lion, Christian Russia has its bear, and the 
seal of the United States of Christian civilization, the eagle, so, upon the 
shields of this savage tribe, was found its totem, a fox. Hence they were 
called Watagamies by the other tribes (that word being the Algonquin word 
for Fox), Renards by the French, and, later, Foxes by the English. A turbu- 
lent people they were, from start to finish of their history. So marked was 
their belligerence, that they were made to flee to the west, with a nation 
kindred by marriages, by language and by habits, the Sacs. In their west- 
ward wanderings the Sacs (Sauks) left the name to the great bay of Lake 
Huron, Saukenong. 

We hear of the Foxes but little until the time of the arrival of Father Allouez, 
probably for the reason that Chouart and Radisson, Nicolet and other clan- 
destine traders, dared not make records regarding the people theyimet. When 
the legitimate traders came, the Jesuits followed, and the leisure and vain- 
glory of the latter, permitted and prompted them to write volumes regarding 
their great discoveries and accomplishments in the missionary field. They 
told of the visits to the Renards, on Green Bay and along the Wisconsin 
river, where were Hurons, Sacs and other tribes that had been driven west- 
ward by the Iroquois. Belligerent though some were, they lived in compara- 
tive harmony, the "one touch of nature" being that of defence against the 
Iroquois. As early as 1664 a portion of the Foxes were known as the Mus- 
quakees. that is, people of the red earth. Why this, we are not told; but 
along the borders of Green Bay are bluffs known as the "Red Banks." 
Earth works there are still visible. One of the traditions of the bay tells us 
that these Foxes fortified themselves there and were there besieged: canoes 
filled with warriors approached the shore, and upon the highlands the enemy 
infested the fort. Days of hunger passed; at last a spirit appeared in the 
distracted imagination of a young warrior, and bade him take courage. 
During the profound sleep of the overconfident besiegers the Foxes escaped. 
The Watagamies (the Foxes proper) and they became so closely associated 
that no distinction has been made by other writers than LaPotherie. Perrot 
was one of the first explorers to win the esteem of the western tribes, and the 
Foxes, in time of trouble, pleaded with him for aid, as with a father. With 
him to the council at Montreal in 1670 this nation sent deputies, where the 
western tribes were urged to join the French against the Iroquois. 

The Foxes, more than any other tribe, vacillated between the French and the 
English, in disposing of their peltries, which gave the French much trouble. 
By the year 1700, French traders of Canada began to descend the Mississippi 
and those of Louisiana to pass up the Illinois and Kankakee rivers, thus 
reaching Lake Michigan by the way of a portage into the St, Joseph river 
and from the Des Plaines to the lake, at Chicago, or took the Wisconsin 
route. These portages were absolutely under the control of the Foxes, and, 
like civilized nations of today, they required toll for the right to pass through 
their territory. This angered the French to such an extent that their des- 
truction was decided upon, for it was thought that in no other way could 
comrnunication between Louisiana and Canada be kept open. To this 
end, it seems, when in 1712 various western tribes were asked by the com- 
mandant at Detroit to settle near the fort, the first bloody step was taken. 
The Foxes came, they claimed, by invitation. DuBuisson, the commandant, 
sent runners to bring in various friendly tribes, and, without sufficient justi- 
fication, the latter were permitted to make war on the little band of Foxes. 
A siege of many days followed. The Foxes threw up earth works, but soon 



151 

found that all efforts must necessarily end in defeat; they asked to hold a 
council, but all overtures were refused. On a stormy uii^ht they escaped and 
reached a peninsula that thrust itself into Lake St. Clair; there they were 
soon discovered and forced to surrender at discretion. Their captors in 
revenge, and often in mere sport, shot them down. 

In 1716 Des Lie^nerie, commandant at Mackinaw, moved against the Foxes 
located on the Wisconsin river and, at the Buttes des Mortes, wrought whole- 
sale slaughter. In 1728, he again moved against them, but they had received 
warning and had fled. Their fields of corn were destroyed and their villages 
burned. So far as this, my story has been told in part by the early writers, 
who also inform us that in 1730, somewhere not far from ''The Rock," the 
last attempt to destroy this tribe was made. Where the final defeat took 
place, heretofore has been unknown. Parkman, in his "Half Century of 
Conflict," says, "The accounts of the affair are obsare and not trustworthy,' ' 
and Ferland in his "Histoire du Canada" says that it was near the Rock on 
the Illinois river. The only reason that they have for saying that it was on 
or near the Illinois river is that the official reports speak of "The Rock," and 
refer to the tribe of "Illinois of the Rock." Where they met defeat is, in 
fact, 30 miles from LaSalle's "Rock," a distance as naught in a country so 
vast. 

From my boyhood days I wandered over the beautiful island like hill, 
whereon hangs my tale. Often I sat in the shade of the great trees upon the 
south end of this hill, and looked over the valley of the river and the two 
creeks between which the hill so snugly lies. I often wondered why the so- 
called "Mound Builders" who left heaps of earth along the high bluffs of the 
river, had not chosen this place for burials. Again casting my eyes over the 
surface, as I had done many times before, I noticed a semicircular ditch 
which, with the southern brow of the hill, completed the circle, containing 
something over two acres of land. Evidently this had been a palisaded 
defence. Where one part of the ditch reached the brow of the hill, it passed 
downward and I plainly saw that there had been a covered way to the little 
creek which, at that time, bathed the foot of the hill, but which, by the hand 
of man, has been given another course to turn the wheels of industry. The 
river is a warm stream; the waters of the creek are spring-born, and hence 
cool in summer. Along the river, that within my memory was so rich in fish 
and game, ran a trail, and where it crossed the cool stream, I reasoned there 
must have been a village. 

At the margin of a newly plowed field, where a little gully had been cut by 
recent rains, I found evidences that some dusky Rebecca of Marameeh had 
broken her water-jug. From this beginning, sprang a desire to investigate, 
and ever since that time my thirst for archaeological knowledge has led me 
into a long course of investigations. Here, within a stouethrow of the 
site of "the great village of Marameeh," discovered at the same time, on this 
beautiful hill the Fox nation met what may practicallj' be considered extinc- 
tion. 

Between the years 1720 and 1730 the political relations of the Sacs and Foxes 
had become somewhat strained. Not that the Sacs loved the Foxes less, but 
more the privileges of trade with the French. The move against the Foxes in 1728 
made such an impression upon the minds of the other savage nations that they 
persisted in their alliance with the French, and in the war lagainst the 
Foxes. Some time just previous to 1730 a party of 200 surprised 20 lodges 
of Foxes, and massacred 80 men and 300 womon and children. Later, 
the principal chief passed to the river St. Joseph and begged the com- 
mandant for mercy. The commandant at Mackinaw advised the Governor 
that the allies begged him to put himself at their head in order to fall upon 
the Foxes, which he did with 600 savages and 20 Frenchmen. The Gov>^rnor 
wrote to all of the commandants to accept no proposition from the Foxes 
without further orders from him, for he had resolved to keep the allies with 
him until the Foxes were destroyed, or had fully submitted. 

Such was the pressure brought upon this fragment of the once numerous 
Fox nation, by the French and their allies, that they were driven to seek pro- 
tection with their erstwhile enemies, the Iroquois, who for so many years hap 



152 

been the terror of all the western tribes. The half friendly Wea branch of 
the Miamis at this time was on the Wabash. There the Foxes hoped to reach 
an asylum and rest for a time. The most direct route was by the way of the 
Kishwaukee trail, which took them southeastwardly, one of the many that 
led to Marameeh, Deeply worn, it was apparent long years after the white 
settler had turned the sod. Between 200 and 300 warriors, with an unusual 
proportion of women and children, plodded, snail-like, over this highway. 

Two years before, Father Guignas, taken prisoner by the Kickapoos and 
Mascoutins, made such a favorable impression upon his captors as not only 
to win his freedom and that of his companions, but an alliance between these 
tribes and the French. To keep the good will of the French, it was neces- 
sary for these tribes to turn against the Foxes, on whom, during the weary 
retreat, they made a running fight, until nearing the fording place of the 
river that now bears their name, the latter were forced to make a stand. One 
hundred and eleven shelters were formed by them, by leveling little places 
and upon them erecting protections for temporary use. 

The Kickapoos and Mascoutins gave warning to Saint Ange, commandant 
at Fort Chartres. to the commandant at Green Bay and to De Villiers, com- 
mandant at the River St. Joseph. Early in the summer of 1730, two Mascou- 
tins, arriving at the River St. Joseph, informed De Villiers that there was 
fighting between the "Rock" and the Weas, and that other tribes had joined 
the Illinois and fallen upon the Foxes, who found themselves hemmed in, but 
that the Illinois, at the moment of victory, had fled. Some of the attacking 

fiarty and many Foxes were killed. The French at Kaskaskia taunted the 
Uinois warriors, by saying they were women, and did not know how to fight; 
that as for themselves, they would take their negroes (slaves) and with them 
defeat the Foxes. Saint Ange had heard that the Foxes were upon a wooded 
island in temporary shelters, and believed that if they remained there they 
would be defeated, for De Villiers was expected from the River St. Joseph. 
The Foxes gave out that they were expecting a large party of Iroquois to 
offer them refuge. They had fled from their homes in Wisconsin, down the 
Kishwaukee trail, beyond the ancient site of Marameeh, but had been driven 
back thither, and there built their fort. Saint Ange left Fort Chartres in 
July, 1730, and when joined by the Illinois, who had first shown weakness, 
found his command to number 500 men, Kickapoos, Mascoutins and ''Illinois 
of the Rock" (a remnant of the Illinois tribe that had previously been driven 
from the Illinois river by the Foxes;). These nations had taken positions to 
prevent further progress of the Foxes. Thus threatened, the latter fortified 
themselves a league from the "Rock." On the 12th of August, Saint Ange's 
scouts discovered the whereabouts of the Foxes. "On the 17th, 40 hunters 
were encountered and driven into their fort, which was a little bunch of wood, 
enclosed with palisades, situated upon a slope, which rose gently in the direc- 
tion of the west and northwest from a little river." 

Standing within this enclosure, and looking south over the brow of the hill 
and its rifle pits, "the river of the Rock," as known in 1730, is but a quarter 
of a mile away. To the east, bordering the amphitheatre that rises gradually 
to the west and northwest, is the Big Creek of the Rock, the "little river" 
mentioned in the early accounts. 

Come with me when, as then, the nuts are ripe on Marameeh hill. The 
haze of Indian summer blends the prairies in all directions into the horizon. 
About two miles, nearly an old French land league (2 4-10 miles), imrnedi- 
ately under the noonday's sun, is the "rock" upon the river. Upon either 
bank is seen great prairies that extend to the southeast and to the southwest. 
To the north of us is the prairie that leads far into Wisconsin. To the east 
of the Big Creek of the Rock is only a prairie, and between Blackberry creek 
and the river, further to the east, is another. 

Warned of the approaching armies by smoke during the day and signal 
fires at night, the Foxes, foreseeing the necessity for vigorous defense, had 
constructed upon the southern extremity of the hill a palisaded work. The 
warriors busied themselves at the chase in their efforts to supply provisions, 
while the women and the old men were busy with the hatchet and improvised 
digging tools in raising the fort, which they hoped would prove their safety, 



153 

but which became, in fact, a trap. Within the stockade were a thousand 
women and children, half starved. The high point at the north end served 
the Foxes as a watch tower. Looking over and beyond the site of ancient 
Maramech, northward, upon the prairies, are the watchmen panning the 
horizon for signals of De Noyelle's approach. Along the ridge that forms the 
summit are warriors commanding the slopes to the southeast, and at the same 
time to the northwest. Saint Ange was approaching from the southwest, under 
cover of the woods, along the river, and De Villiers was coming from the 
east. De Noyelles was marching over the well worn and later known "Great 
Sauk trail" from Detroit. Saint Ange, encountering some of the hunters, 
drove them before him. Scouts hastened after. They cautiously approached 
the river, and looking to the west and northwest, up the gentle slope, they 
discovered the temporary shelters late deserted by the Foxes. The hunters 
that fled before Saint Ange told of his nearness, and warned all to the stock- 
ade. For two days the advancing army marched under cover of the woods, 
upon the eastern bank of the river. Saint Ange crossed the river at the 
"Rock," and took his position upon the east side of the large Creek of the 
Rock. At Saint Ange's approach, the Kickapoos and Mascoutins, who had 
long been awaiting his coming, joined their forces with his, and the siege 
began. Upon the first day two unsuccessful attempts to escape were made 
by the Foxes. "A trench was opened on the following night, and each 
worked to fortify himself at the post assigned him. The enemy asked to 
parley. They offered to give up prisoners, and returned several, in fact, but 
as it seemed to Saint Ange that they were only attempting to gain time, he 
renewed the attack." 

A few days later, 50 Frenchmen and 500 savages, commanded by DeVilliers, 
arrived. He crossed the river of the Rock, passed around to the north of the 
hill, crossed the Big creek of the Rock, planted his "cavalier" (a little fort 
protecting other forts) across the valley to the west, a rifle shot from the 
stockade, to protect his rifle pits, the scars of which still remain. To protect 
the southern semi-circle of the fort, formed by the brow of the hill, the 
Foxes made rifle pits by leveling away the ground and, it seems, there plac- 
ing logs. The warriors, thus protected, stood ready to cast upon whomsoever 
might approach, a shower of arrows and missels of war. The muzle-loading 
flint-lock rifle was too slow for such work; it was possible for a warrior to 
keep two arrows in the air at once. 

It was but the task of a moment, in the darkness, for the braves of Saint- 
Ange to cross the Big creek of the Rock, and, protected by its bank, of a 
man's height, command the slope of the hill, no part of which was beyond 
rifle shot. Where the second growth timber stands, that now covers the 
slope, was then an open wood. A rush on the part of De Villiers up the bluff 
at the north, in the darkness, enabled him to drive the warriors from the 
crest into the stockade, and to begin his trenches. 

The Foxes begged for mercy, which tempted DeVilliers, but the Illinois 
would consent to no terms. The Sacs, however, were only half-hearted and 
attempted to aid the Foxes by furnishing ammunition and helping them to 
escape. This discovered, the other savages threatened vengeance upon the 
Sacs, but Saint Ange advanced with 100 Frenchmen and restored order. 
DeNoyelle soon arrived with ten Frenchmen and 200 Indians from the 
Miamis. He brought positive orders that there should be no compromise 
and all joined for the total destruction of the Foxes. Hunger reigned on both 
sides. The allies were reduced to eating ttieir raw-hide shields. Two hun- 
dred Illinois deserted, September?. The Foxes were pressed harder every day. 
Saint- Ange completed a small fort two pistol shot away, which was intended 
to cut off communication with the water, but it proved of no value, for the 
Foxes had found subterranean means for getting a supply. Certain starvation 
became apparent, and it seemed that time must, in the end win the victory. 
A parley was asked, but the French and allies feared treachery, and would 
accept no terms. 

On the 8th of September a violent storm arose, and a dark cold night fol- 
lowed. The watchfulness on the part of the allies was relaxed, and the 
Foxes escaped. The cry of a child coupled with the information received 



154 

from a Sac woman, gave notice of the escape. Upon the approach of day 
the savages most fresh followed. The women, children and old men had 
been placed in the van of the retreating column, and the warriors took posi- 
tions in the rear, to cover the retreat. Suddenly their ranks were broken, 
and they were defeated. The number of dead and prisoners was about 300 
wariors and 1,000 women and children. 

The accounts of this affair have been buried in the archives of France. 
Ferland (Cours de Histoire du Canada) unearthed a document from which I 
received my first information of the affair. Since that time 1 have acquired 
six documents through the kindness of Prof. Chas. M. Andrist, who under- 
took the search for me. From these I compile my story. 

My purpose now is but to record my discoveries of the true ancient site of 
the " great village of Maramech," and the locality of the old fort. This stood 
upon the hill which rises gently to the west and northwest from the larger 
creek of the Rock, and which, at the south, is washed by the lesser creek of 
the Rock. The covered way, up which water was brought, a mere ditch at 
the time of my discovery, has since washed into a wide gully. Upon the 
western side of the hill a gravel-spit has within a few years, been carried 
across the swamp and the long lost battlefield can now be reached dry-shod. 
At the time of the tragedy, the unbroken swamp, which bounded it on the 
north and west, found an outlet into the two creeks, which fact warranted 
the statement in one of the military reports that it was practically an island. 
At the middle of the old enclosure a boulder now rises seven feet, and upon 
it is this inscription: 

" Three hundred warriors, with women and children, were besieged here 
by thirteen hundred French and allies, August 17th, 1730; escaped Sept. 9th. 
Captured — Tortured — Killed. French trenches on north end of hill. "The 
Rock" spoken of by Ferland (Histoire du Canada), two miles south, is 
partly quarried away. The Maramech of Franquelin's map of 1684, was 
near. Site identified and stone placed by John F. Steward, 18741900." 

The old fort is now the property of School district No. 9, town of Little 
Rock, Kendall county. My purpose in purchasing and donating the bit of 
land to the school, because of its historical interest, was to provide that after 
Time palsies my hand and bids my tongue be still, it may never be desecrated 
by the plow or sold for taxes. 

To the south a short league is "The Rock." To the north lie the remains 
of some who doubtless were of the besieging party. Where lie the besieged, 
we shall not know. The spring floods of the river and creeks, have covered 
and in turn laid bare their bones, and the elements have wasted all. Peace- 
ful site of Maramech! Charming in thy vernal verdure, rich in the ripeness of 
the year, erstwhile home of the children of the wilderness and place of one 
of the greatest tragedies of the west, now the romantic region sought by pleas- 
ure seekers, by the weary, and by lovers, when my heart ceases to perform 
its physical functions, then shall my love for thy beauties cease, and not till 
then. 

IN MEMORIAM. 

MARY NASH STUART. 

But one death has occurred in the membership of the Illinois State Histor- 
ical society since the date of its last annual meeting. In the fullness of years, 
Mrs. John T. Stuart, an honorary member of this society, after a long, honored, 
and useful life, passed away to everlasting rest. 

Mary Virginia Nash, the only child of Francis Nash and Judith Bland, 
was born in Prince Edward county, Va., on the 25th day of August, 1816. 
Her parents were both natives of Virginia and resided on a plantation a short 
distance from Prince Edward courthouse, at that time one of the centers of 
culture and refinement of the old Dominion; and their home was marked by 
the social enjoyments and generous hospitality characteristic of Virginia 
planters early in the last century. 




MRS. JOHN T. STUART. 



155 

When the subject of this sketch was but a year old her parents migrated to 
Missouri territory, then in the Ear west, and settled above St. Louis near the 
mouth of the Missouri river, where she passed her childhood amid the happy 
surroundings of a typical southern home. But the death of her mother, 
when she was 10 years of age, and that of her father six years later, left her 
an orphan. For a short time she resided in the household of Hon. Hamilton 
Gamble of St. Louis, and then became one of the family of her aunt, the 
wife of Judge Samuel D. Lockwood, the well-known eminent jurist, at Jack- 
sonville, 111. She was a beautiful and sprightly girl, of quick perception, 
and intelligent; and though the education of young ladies was then not con- 
sidered as important as it now is, she acquired a fair common school educa- 
tion, that was in after life reenforced by extensive reading, observation and 
study. She then became a member of the Presbyterian church; and, at the 
residence of .Judge Lockwood, on the 25th of October, 1837, by the ministra- 
tion of Rev. Julian Sturtevant, she was united in mariage to John T. Stuart, 
then an ambitious young lawyer of worth and promise. 

They located in Springfield, and there passed the rest of their days; and to 
the First Presbyterian church in that place Mrs. Stuart transferred her mem- 
bership, ever after conforming with earnest sincerity to that faith. For 
more than 63 years she resided here — during the most eventful period of our 
State and national existence — and saw the town expand from a collection of 
cabins to a large and opulent city, and the State develop from a prairie waste 
to its present proud position in the American republic. 

She was the contemporary and personal acquaintance of Lincoln, Baker, 
Hardin, Douglas and all that host, now passed into history, whose names are 
inseparably interwoven with the glory of Illinois. She was one of the most 
prominent and highly esteemed women in central Illinois. Her gentle nature 
and purity of character, her amiable, charitable disposition, and affectionate 
consideration of her family and friends, commanded the deference and admi- 
ration of all who knew her. Back of that attractive personalty was a chris- 
tian devotion and conscientious sense of duty that radiated a charm upon 
her wide social circle. 

She passed the threshold of the new century with faculties bright and un- 
impaired, and in the enjoyment of the fruits and blessings of a well- spent life 
until the 30th day of May, 1901, when her spirit took its flight to the unseen. 
Her mortal remains, aged 84 years, 9 monthsandSdays, were laid to rest beside 
those of her honored husband, who had, preceded her, in beautiful Oak Ridge 
cemetery, near the capital city. Of her children, Elizabeth, Virginia, Frank, 
Edward, John T., Robert and Hannah, only the last named three survive her. 



ADDENDUM. 



159 



FROM ADVANCE SHEETS OF THE TRANSACTIONS OF 

THE McLEAN COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

OF BLOOMINGTON, ILLINOIS. 



Life and Character of Honorable Isaac Funk. 

[By Hon. L. H. Kerrick.l 

Celebration of the seventy-fifth anniversary of the settlement of 
Funk's Grove, under auspices of the McLean County Historical so- 
ciety. 

Tacitus, the Roman author and historian, wrote of the life of his father-in- 
law, Agrricola, deeming it a pious duty. With such an illustrious example be- 
fore me, I malce no appology for attempting to write of the life of my father- 
in-law, Hon. Isaac Funk, I only lament my want of skill to write of his char- 
acter and achievements as they deserve. 

Isaac Funk was born Nov. 17, 1797, on a farm in Clark county, Ky. ; he 
died, after a brief illness, in the home of his son, Duncan, in Bloomington, 
111., Jan. 29, 1865 — the span of his earthly career being 67 years, 2 months 
and 12 days — he lies buried here in Funk's Grove cemetery, remote from 
travelled ways and thronged towns, beside the same still running stream and 
in the heart of the same magnificent forest which captivated his eye, when, 
as a young, strong man, full of ambition, and hope, and energy, he came 
this way in search of home and fortune. Bj' his side lie the remains of his 
beloved and faithful wife, Casandra, whose death occurred only about four 
hours later than his. 

One could hardly conceive a resting place more fitting for a grave, strong, 
noble child of nature, such as he was, than this secluded spot. He lived and 
wrought with nature; the fields, the trees, the streams, the sun, and moon, 
and stars, the rains, the winds and the snows were his companions and co- 
workers in life, and they have not forgotten nor forsaken him. 

These majestic trees keep their stately vigil about his grave; the winds 
sigh over it; summer spreads it with her soft carpet of green; winter with 
noiseless hands lays her deep white pall above it; the moon and stars look 
tenderly down through the silence of night upon it; his labors done, he 
sleeps in nature's own home, enfolded in nature's own dear bosom. 

Of Mr. Funk's remoter ancestry, unfortunately we have but little accurate 
knowledge; the associates of his youth have passed with him, and we can not 
go to them for information. He never talked much about his ancestors, and 
he left nothing in writing about them. We do not set this down to any want 
of respect on Mr. Funk's part for their memory. It will be borne in mind 
that he died when not far past the meridian of life, at a time when his busi- 
ness interests had reached their greatest proportions. 

He was State senator, adding the duties of this important office to the bur- 
den of his private affairs; he was always completely engrossed with the bus- 
iness of the present, having little time to reflect upon, or talk about the past. 



160 

If Mr. Fank had lived to that age when men usually are obliged to relax 
their more active business life, no doubt he would have been inclined, as 
others have been, to review his early life, and we would have been now in 
possession of many interesting facts, which, as it is, are out of our reach and 
will probably so remain. 

The name is German; his grandfather,- Adam Funk, was German born, but 
in what place or province we do not know. He came to this country about 
the middle of the eighteenth century, and probably settled first in Pennsyl- 
vania. Lists of German emigrants who settled in and near Philadelphia and 
in Lancaster county about that time, show that the Funks- were heading to- 
ward America in considerable numbers. The name occurs very frequently in 
these lists. Isaac Funk's father, whose name also was Adam, was reared in 
Virginia; in his lifetime be acquired and lost a considerable fortune; his 
chief losses came by standing surety for his friends. His wife's name was 
Sarah Moore, and she was of German descent. They had nine children — six 
boys and three girls — Absalom, John, Jacob, Sarah, Isaac, Jesse, Dolly, 
Dorothea and Robert. 

We cannot fix the exact date at which the family moved to Kentucky, but 
it was not far from 1790. Of the Kentucky home, where Isaac was born, 
nothing remains but a heap of stones and debris where the chimney once 
stood. The first ten years of life were spent here; all knowledge of the man- 
ner in which those years were spent perished with Mr. Funk. We can guess 
that he picked up chips or carried wood for his mother, or drove the chickens 
ofif the garden, or brought the cow, or had his face washed and kept still and 
ate at the second table when there was company, as did other well-regulated 
boys, receiving from time to time, with what grace he possessed, such cor- 
poral and other punishments as his shortcomings indicated to be needful for 
his present and future well being. Three or four of those years and he was 
of suitable age to be going to school, but it is altogether improbable that 
there was any school in Clark county at that time within the boy's reach. 

In 1807 the family removed to Fayette county, Ohio, and settled on Paint 
Creek, about six miles northeast of Washington Court House, and four miles 
south of what is now the village of Bloomingburg — a beautiful and fertile 
region then, as it is now. Mr. Funk spent 13 consecutive years at this place; 
being then 23 years old he went over into Virginia and worked a year in the 
Kanawa salt works; returned then to the'Ohio home, remaining there two 
years more. During his residence in Ohio Mr. Funk worked on a farm most 
of the time, sometimes at home, sometimes working out by the month. 
Together with his father and older brother Absalom, he did some trading in 
cattle, hogs and other stock. 

An unlucky venture of some kind brought Mr. Funk in debt about $2,000 — 
a very great sum in those days, especially when on the wrong side of the ac- 
count. This debt still hung over him when he came to Illinois, but we can 
say that it was not many years until he was able to return to Ohio and pay 
his debt with its interest, which he faithfully did. 

All the schooling Mr. Funk ever got, he received while living in Ohio. We 
learn that he attended school, all told, parts of three winters; this when he 
was 10 to 13 years old. We know nothing of the character of his school; of 
his teacher all we know is that he was renowned as a very severe disciplina- 
rian even for that day. Mr. Funk often alluded to the frequent and fearful 
thrashings that he gave his pupils; much of the time of school was occupied 
with that work; all remembrance of the other qualifications of the teacher, if 
he had any, seem to have faded from Mr. Funk's mind. 

We who know all about schooling, smile at the old time methods, and yet 
there must have been some kind of virtue and a good deal of it, in those back- 
woods schools, otherwise how will we explain the fact that so many boys of 
those days with so little schooling accomplished so much, while now so many 
with so much schooling, accomplish so little. Then, with two or three years 
schooling, men built fortunes and states; now a good many of us with 
22 or 23 years of schooling are just about as able to live off the State or to 
squander a fortune. 



161 

In 1823, presumably late in the year, accompanied by his brother, Absalom, 
Mr. Funk set out for'Illinois. He arrived in Sangamon county in the month 
of April, 1824. la a sketch of his, left published in 1874, it is asserted that 
he was detained for a long time on the western journey by high water in the 
Waba^^h river; 1 can not accept this for authentic history. Anyone who 
knew Isaac Funk or who will study his character, can hardly believe that a 
few feet of water, more or less, in the Wabash, would have made much effect 
upon his movements. In May he came on to this part, and pitched his eanip 
on the east side, just in the edge of this grove, near the center of the south side 
of what is now section 16, about a mile and a half east and a half mile south 
of this church and cemetery. From Sangamon county Mr. William Brock 
and wife came with the Funks, and all lived together for a part of a year in 
the first cabin. 

The next winter, Robert Stubblefield with his wife, who was a sister of the 
Funk's, came out from Ohio and joined the brothers in their new homo. 

Still holding his position here, in the year 1825 or 1826, or maybe in each of 
these 3'ears, Mr. Funk went to Fort Clark, now Peoria, and raised a crop of 
corn on river bottom land near that place. We can safely surmise that this 
move was necessary in order to get a little ready money; there was a market 
there and some ground open for tillae-e. While at Peoria he made the ac- 
quaintance of Miss Casaudra Sharp; in June, 1826, they were married; the 
pair returned immediately to Funk's Grove, and there lived their lives, very 
near the place where the first camp was made. From Mr. Funk's marriage 
dates the beginning of his remarkable career. 

His purpose in coming to Illinois was to get a place and room where he 
could raise, feed and deal in cattle, hogs and pther farm stock. He had ac- 
quired some knowledge of the business in Ohio, and no doubt a taste for it 
also. When he married and brought his bride back to Funk's Grove, we 
may know the purpose was fixed to follow that kind of business and that 
Funk's Grove would be the place where he would follow it. 

There were then less than 20 families in the whole territory included now 
in the bounds of McLean county; of course there was not much farm stock of 
any kind. 

The Funks began to farm a little with such implements as they could get 
or make; and to buy what stock there was for sale within their reach. They 
bought cattle, hogs, sheep, horses and mules, and drove to market wherever 
a market could be found. The brothers, Isaac and Absalom, were equal 
partners in all these transactions. 

They went to Sangamon county and other older settlements, as they gained 
a little headway in the business, and bought cattle and brought them to the 
home place; these they would graze for a season or perhaps feed awhile, ac- 
cording to their condition, and then find a market for them. Their first 
markets were Peoria and Galena— later Chicago. Sometimes they took droves 
of cattle into Ohio, finding markets for them there. 

Their first transactions were small of necessity, but as settlement increased 
and the stock of the country increased, they kent equal pace, widening the 
field of their operations. They were alert, knew their business, dealt fairly with 
everybody, worked very hard, and as nearly as I can find out, they gained a 
pretty complete monopoly of the stock buying business in all this region; 
and they made money, as they deserved to do. 

As early as 1835, Chicago became their principal market. They were send- 
ing so much stock there, that it was thought best for one of the brothers to 
locate in Chicago, in order to take better care of the business at that end of 
the line. Isaac had now five small children; Absalom was still a bachelor 
and ten years the older. These circumstances suited Absalom better for 
locating and taking the work in Chicago, which he did, and Isaac remained 
on the farm. 

— IIH 



162 

The differing: characteristics of the men also suited them to this division of 
the work. If Isaac was the stronger man of the two, being possessed of 
somewhat more energy and courage, Absalom was cast in a little smoother 
mold, more diplomatic, more suave. For about five years longer, the 
brothers remained in partnership, prosecuting their business with great tact 
and energy. 

If the necessary limits of this paper would permit, I would be glad to speak 
at length of the character of Absalom Funk. He was a man of integrity and 
marked ability; from first to last of the partnership, the brothers worked in 
perfect harmony, and there was always mutual good will. The memory of 
"Uncle Absalom" is dear to the Funk family, and his name is always men- 
tioned with profound respect. 

The partnership was dissolved in the year 1841. Isaac bought Absalom's 
share in the lands they had together acquired, and continued buying and 
feeding and marketing cattle and hogs and other stock as before. Instead of 
curtailing the business, he still increased it. His land holdings were now 
larger, more labor was available, and he was farming and feeding more ex- 
tensively. He bought cattle far and near, sometimes going to other states 
for them. He fed all his own crops to stock, as well as the grain share which 
he received from his tenants, frequently buying the share of his tenants also. 
He put cattle out with other farmers to have them fed, paying so much a 
pound for the gain, and he bought the crops of still others and had them fed 
out on the farms where they were raised. 

It was a common practice for him to sell his cattle or contract them a year 
forward, to parties in Chicago, at a stipulated price per hundred weight, 
dressed; then he would buy and graze and feed the cattle to fill these con- 
tracts. He went to Chicago sometimes with as many as 1,500 cattle in his 
drove; sometimes as many as 1,000 hoe:s. One winter, together with his 
brother, Jesse, he drove more than 6,000 hogs to Chicago. To move these 
large droves of stock safely and get them in market in good condition, was 
no boy's play. It required a high degree of skill and a most accurate and 
practical knowledge of the business, besides great physical strength and 
courage and endurance. When one of the larger herds of cattle was to be 
moved to market, a section of it, say 200 or 300, would be started with its 
proper complement of men attending. Next day another section would be 
mobilized and started on the road, and so on until all the herd was moving. 
These sections or smaller droves were kept about a day's march apart. It 
will be readily seen that in this manner the herd could be moved with greater 
safety and expedition than in a single great drove. About 14 days were re- 
quired for a bunch of steers to travel to Chicago, and about three weeks from 
the time the first were started out, the last drove or section would get in. 

Heavy rains, thunder storms, high waters, sleet storms and snows were 
frequent incidents of these trips. Thunder storms by night terrified the cat- 
tle in their new surroundings. It was often necessary for the herdsmen to 
remain in their saddles all night during the prevalence of a severe storm, in 
order to prevent a stampede of the cattle, or to round them up and get them 
in hand again in case a stampede occurred. This kind of work called for the 
greatest courage and the most daring equestrianship, as well as great physi- 
cal endurance. 

For the most part, corrals were found for the cattle, and shelter for the 
men of nights, but frequently all were obliged to camp in the open prairie. 
At such times the men had nothing but the ground for a bed, a saddle or a 
bag of straw for a pillow, a great-coat or blanket for cover and the starry 
sky or lowering clouds for a roof. Mr. Funk nearly always went with his 
cattle, and took his share or more than his share of the hardest, the most 
disagreeable and the most dangerous parts of the work. 

Slaughtering facilities at Chicago were limited in those days, and these 
separate droves or sections of the herd were sized as nearly as practicable to a 
day's capacity of the slaughter house to which the cattle were going. In this 
way each drove could be immediately slaughtered on its arrival, thereby pre- 
venting expensive delay and congestion of stock at Chicago. When 



163 

slaughtered, each beef was weighed separately in quarters on platform scales. 
To George, the oldest son, was allotted the business for several years, of 
taking these weights. The work would begin about 4:00 o'clock in the morn- 
ing and continue day after day until lato at night. The whole time required 
to move and slaughter one of these larger herds of cattle, straighten up all 
the business and get home, was from four to five weeks. 

Droves of hogs were moved in about the same manner, except that it was 
necessary to have a sort of traveling slaughter camp along with the hog 
drovo. A separate gang of men was needed to take charge of such heavier 
and fatter hogs as gave out on the way. Sometimes these would be loaded 
in wagons and sent forward to Chicago, the wagons returning and loading 
again, if necessarj-. Sometimes in colder weather, a good many would be 
slaughtered enroute and sent forward dressed. 

When his sons were old enough, they shared with their father the labors 
and hardships as well as much of the responsibility of his great business; but 
for many years it all rested on his shoulders alone. I have no doubt he often 
saw all he was worth and a good deal more on foot moving between "Punk's 
Grove" and Chicago. He nearly always had big money obligations maturing. 

When we consider the exigencies of such a situation, together with the un- 
certainties and risk of such a business as his, we may know that broad 
shoulders and a stout heart were needed to bear up under it all; but he had 
them, if ever a man had. 

I do not believe that Mr. Funk had any scheme in mind when he came to 
Illinois, even if he had any wish, to acquire a large amount of land. He did 
not come to Illinois for that purpose; the stock business was the thing upper- 
most in his mind. The fertility and value of these pr<iirie lands were not gen- 
erally known to the first comers; indeed, several years later than the first 
settlement in McLean county, we find United States surveyors making such 
notes on their plats as this: "Level or greatly undulating prairie; may be 
useful some time for grazing." Such notes appear on plats or surveys made 
of some of the richest lands in the world, lying within two or three miles of 
this grove. These surveyors evidently did not suspect the matchless fertility 
of the lands they were surveying. All the good farm land they tiad ever seen 
in use had been cleared of timber; therefore timber land is the only good 
farm land; such I presume was their process of reasoning. 

In the west side of the grove near the residence of Mr. Jacob Funk, may 
still be seen a clearing made by an early settler, who thought if one wanted 
a farm, one must of course, go to the woods and clear it up. Even if the 
prairie land was rich, the first settlers believed it would be next to impossible 
to live in the open bleak prairie away from the timber. But I suspect that 
the Funks very soon discovered the fertility and productiveness of the prairie 
land. They had farmed a little of it from the very first. They never cleared 
any timber land to farm it; and just as soon as the lands came into market, 
they began to buy, and to buy a good deal of it. 

1 think we may say that it is evident that they had been here but a very 
short time until they foresaw that all these lands, prairie as well as timber, 
would become valuable; and a new purpose was formed which, plainly stated, 
was to buy and hold all the land they possibly could, in and around this grove. 
This purpose once formed, became the controlling motive in every business 
transaction. For this purpose they worked and planned by day and by night; 
they pursued it with tremendous energy and splendid daring; they bought 
land right and left, but not without method, as we shall see. 

The stock business now, instead of being the end or ultimate object of their 
ambition, became the means or instrument for accomplishing another object 
— the purchase of land. The stock business was to become the machine with 
which the money might bo made to pay for land. 

In 1829, they bought 1,040 acres; in 1830. 400 acres; in 1832, 400 acres; in 
1834, 560 acres; in 1836, 700 acres; in 1837, 1,360 acres; in 1838, 720 acres; in 
1839, 480 acres; in 1841, 40 acres. 



164 

In this year it will be remembered that the partnership with Absalom was 
dissolved. For that year and the five succeeding: years, Mr. Funk's land 
purchases were small; this no doubt for two reasons — he was paying out on 
Absalom's half of the lands they had bought together, and rhese were the 
years covered by the period of great financial depression, commencing with 
the suspension of the bank of the United States in 1837 or 1838. 

In 1848, lie bought 320 acres; in 1849, 2,640; in 1850, 720 acres. 

In this year 2,600,000 acres of land belonging to the United States and lying 
adjacent to the proposed route of the Illinois Central railroad were ceded to 
the State of Illinois, and in turn granted by the State to the Illinois Central 
Railroad company, in aid to the construction of their road. The grant cov- 
ered the alternate sections not already patented, for about 15 miles each way 
from the right of way of the road. The Federal government closed its land 
offices until the railroad company could select its lands, or at least withdraw 
from sale all government lands lying within the belt of the railroad grant. 
Sometime in 1852, the railroad lands came into market and the government 
land offices were opened again. In the meantime, settlement had increased 
and times were growing better. The Chicago & Alton railroad was pro- 
jected and partly constructed by this time. 

The prospect of railroads greatly enhanced the land values on or near their 
lines. By this time, too, the fertility and productiveness of the prairie lands 
were known to all. Mr. Funk clearly saw that a period of extraordinary ac- 
tivity in land buying was at hand. If he would buy what he wanted and 
where he wanted it, he saw he must buy now; the opportunity would be pass- 
ing or passed. He had actual and practical knowledge of the value and fer- 
tility of the land; he had faith in it, and faith in a great future for his state 
and country, and he had faith in himself. 

Without wavering and without hesitation, but with magnificent courage, 
he made his last great plunge; and in the short space of three or four years, 
he bought more than 12,000 acres of land, and sent himself $80,000 in debt. 
I do not mean to convey the impression, nor is it to be inferred, that there 
was any element of recklessness in this great venture. There was none. He 
carefully measured the risks of the undertaking, and deliberately weighed its 
enormous obligations, but having reckoned well his resources, he believed he 
conld pay out, and he did. He met all his obligations at maturity and paid 
for every acre of land that he bought. 

Mr. Funk's land holdings were in round numbers, 25,000 acres, all in 
McLean county; 20,000 being in and around this grove, in one tract or body. 
Nearly all of this 20.000 acres is in Funk's Grove township, but it extends 
somewhat into Mt. Hope and Dale also. 

We do not know that any other man in the United States, has, by his own 
unaided efforts acquired as much land in one body, equallv valuable and 
fertile, as there is in this " Funk's Grove " tract; in this Mr. Funk's achieve- 
ment stands unique and unparalleled. 

He saw all his lands enclosed and conveniently sub-divided by good fences, 
and otherwise sufficiently improved to be at least usable. He had on his 
farm at the time of his death probably $70,000 worth of live stock and other 
farming equipment. 

Mr. Funk never engaged in any business enterprise outside of his farming 
and stock business, either by himself or with others, except that he was one 
of the organizers of the First National Bank of Bloomington, and owner of 
four-fifteenths of its stock. He left no debts. 

He did not make a will; he had indicated to his children the lands which 
he desired each to have, and a division was made, strictly following his 
known wishes. The process of partition was very simple. Quit claim deeds 
were executed to each one for his portion, all the others joining. These 
deeds wero written on blank paper bj' the Hon. 0. T. Reeves and M. Swann, 
Esq.; Mr. Swann taking the acknowledgments as a justice of the peace. 
Thus the estate was settled without the intervention of courts, or even the 
aid of attorneys, except to the extent just mentioned. 



165 

It is not to ervatify unseemly pride that I have thus outlined the extent and 
value of Mr. Funk's estate. What a man does— what he achieves — is the just 
measure of his character and abilities. If it is proper and laudable for me to 
write of his life and character, it is equally proper that I should set forth 
what he accoruplished. I could say much more of the mapfnificent estate he 
acquired; for instance this pfrove has been one of the best and most valuable 
bodies of timber in the whole laud. I have roughly estimated that there have 
been carried out of it, of building material, fencing, railroad ties, fuel, etc., 
more than $1,000,000 worth. An eastern lumber company set its plant here 
in the seventies, and sawed out 3,000,000 or 4,000,000 feet of the finest quality 
of black walnut lumber. The company paid more than $60,000 for this lumber 
in the tree. 

I claim for Mr. Funk that he had the sagacity to forsee and measure the 
great value of this grove of timber. It may be justly claimed also that he 
saw that in all this great central Illinois belt of fine rich land, there was 
none richer or better or more certain to become valuable than this around 
Funk's Grove. 

In the pursuit of his cattle business, he made frequent and extended jour- 
neys in all directions; he was familiar with other groves and other prairie 
lands, but he stayed with this grove and these prairies. He saw then what 
anyone can see now, that he could not anywhere have made a better choice. 

A notable fact in connection with Mr. Funk's land purchases is that they 
were all made within the short period of 24 years — from 1829 to 1853. He was 
some years longer paying for his last purchase. 

He was in no sense a speculator in lands. He bought no lands with the 
money made by the rise in the price of land, because he sold no land. He 
paid for all the lands he bought with the moderate and legitimate profits of 
his farming and live stock business. 

A very cursory examination of the history of his land purchases reveals 
some remarkable and original methods. His preference at first was for the 
timber land; he saw that for a long time the timber would be more valuable 
than the prairie land, and so it was. His next preference was for those lands 
lying nearest the water courses, or where water could be procui'ed most 
abundantly and at least expense. 

He bought a great deal of land in small tracts of 40 or 80 acres. He so dis- 
posed these purchases that, with a given amount of land, he would sur- 
round sometimes a much larger amount than his purchases; for instance, he 
would go into a section and buy a 40 in one or two of its corners, an 80 in one 
side, then say an 80 in the section joining, opposite the first 80 bought. He 
would therefore invade several adjoining sections at a time, and by buying 
sometimes not more than a quarter of each, he would manage to enclose or 
nearly enclose with his purchases all of the balance of those sections. If we 
should take any given date between the years 1832 or 1833 and 1850, and plat 
his holdings at that time, we would find them arranged as a complete net- 
work, fiiflosing oth^r large amounts of land. This was no doubt a strictly 
original method, and a most effective one; without which it would have been 
impossible for him to acquire the amount of land that he did. 

Was it fair? Was it legitimate? Certainly. Any other man had a right to 
do the same thing, and the opportunities in this wide, wide western domain 
were practically unlimited. 

I have been impressed for years with the thought that Isaac Funk was a 
most extraordinary character; I doubt if he was fully appreciated by his con- 
temporaries. As for the present generation, I feel quite sure it has never 
taken the just and full measure of his powers and characteristics. To accom- 
plish what he accomplished, in the time, in the manner, and under the con- 
ditions, required ability of the highest order. It was only 40 years— less than 
41 — from the time he came to Illinois to the time of his death. Lots of men 
have speut longer time getting ready to do something. Just picture him, if 
you will, in 1824 a young man standing before his rude cabin of poles and 



166 

clapboards, no other human habitation within miles of his. On this side of 
him the primeval forest, on that, the boundless, trackless prairie, over which 
swept the fierce winter blast and the fiercer autumn fires; without money, in 
debt. Without friends who had money; without schooling; the owner of two 
or three horses, a cow or two, an ax and a meapfre equipment of the rudest 
agricultural implements. Then picture the princely estate he had acquired 
and the honors he had brought to his name in 1865. No ordinary powers ever 
carried a man over such a breach as lies between those two pictures. 

Without models or leaders, he organized his great live stock business; in- 
deed, he created it in most of its factors. He made business where there was 
none before. While building his own business and fortune, his efforts were 
of incalculable benefit to the whole community. 

It would have been quite impracticable in the earlier times for the smaller 
farmers to get their stock and surplus grain to the then distant markets, but 
they found in Isaac Funk, always a ready and honorable buyer. Ho made a 
home market for much of the surplus live stock and other products of this 
region, and by his enterprise and his bold and extensive operations, he 
moved the stock of the country to the markets, at very much less expense 
tban the generality of farmers or smaller operators could have moved it. He 
got surplus cattle and hogs out, and brought the money back in their place. 

His enterprise stimulated stock raising and farming all about, and in a 
marked degree. There is no doubt that the enterprise and ability of this one 
man was a dominant factor in the rapid development not only in McLean 
county, but also of a much larger region round about it. His business, be- 
sides furnishing a market and outlet for the surplus stock of the country, 
furnished also paying employment to many people. There are numbers of 
men in McLean and other counties now owning farm homes, good ones too, 
who got their start and their money with which to buy land by working for 
Mr. Funk, feeding or driving cattle and hogs. 

Everything must have its sufficient cause; nothing happens. If Isaac Funk 
achieved such great success in his business, we will find in his character, if 
we examine closely, the reasons or causes, putting it so, from which came 
his success. The causes were there; they had to be. We will have to con- 
tent ourselves with noting a few of the more prominent characteristics of 
the man — those which in our judgment distinguished him from other men, 
and which aided him most in his career. 

First, he was a powerfal man physically; he was five feet ten and a half 
inches in height, normal weight 200 pounds, stout but never obese; finely 
proportioned, compactly built, black hair, inclined to curl. Uoman nose, 
long, strong upper lip, mouth wide, closing firmly and closely in handsome 
lines. Complexion ruddy to dark, eyes dark brown, clear penetrating and 
steady, but flashing with fire and power when excited or aroused; eyes once 
seen not to be forgotten. Head roundish, shapely and large, but propor- 
tioned to the strong, rather short, neck. 

His eyes and the whole contour of his face and every Hue of it. denoted 
native power, but these did not obliterate nor obscure the unmistakable ex- 
pression of a kindly and even tender nature, which was there also. He 
shaved clean always, and dressed plainly; never used tobacco in any way. 
He was not a total abstainer from strong drink, but he very rarely made use 
of it. He had a keen sense of justice. He demanded and gave fair play. 

He was endowed with a wonderfully clear, strong, quick-acting judgment 
in all matters of business; this by actual, responsible, varied, wide and con- 
tinuous experience and exercise became trained to a point of astonishing ac 
curacy. As I have just said, he created his live stock business. Having cre- 
ated it, he knew it. He knew his business, and that is saying much of any 
man; he knew he knew it, hence that magnificent confidence in himself 
which nerved him to undertake and carry through enterprises that would 
have appalled ordinary men. The people learned to know that Ike Funk, as 
they familiarly called him, knew his business. 



167 

Many years ago I was obliged to stop over night in Waynesville, DeWitt 
county. Mr. James Cook kindly entertained me for the night. During the 
evening we talked about Isaac Funk. Mr. Cook said: "Whenever 1 had 
any stock to sell, no matter who else wanted to buy it, I always waited for 
Mr. Funk to come around." "Why did you wait for Mr. Funk?" 1 asked. 
"Well, I'll tell you. We didn't always know what our stock was worth, we 
could not get the market reports as we do now. When Ike Funk came, we 
learned that he always offered us a full, fair market price for our stock, and 
he knew what our stock was worth just as soon as he saw it, and we always 
waited for him and sold to him." 

In 1884 or 1885, a reunion of the Funk family was held at the residence of 
Mr. Isaac Funk, Jr.; Senator David Davis was an honored guest. In the af- 
ternoon, the senator having tired a little, probably, of the pastimes, was sit- 
ting on the porch apart from the rest of the company. I took a chair by him ; 
falling into a reminiscent mood, he told me many thing about Mr. Funk. 
Among others this: "A good many dealers" Mr. Davis said, "when they 
had bought stock on short credit, that is until they could get it marketed and 
get home again, would propose to keep the money of their clients a short 
while, mentioning that they could make a good turn with it, or something 
like that, but Mr. Funk never did that. Just as soon as he got back from 
Chicago, or wherever he had been with stock, every man of whom he had 
bought, got his money, and they all liked that way of doing whether they 
said much about it or not." 

Now put these three or four facts together, which I have just related; that 
Isaac Funk knew his business and the people believed he knew it; that he 
knew the value of stock of any kind at sight, and the people believed that; 
that he always offered a fair market price for stock, and as soon as he got 
home from the market, if he had bought of anybody on credit, the seller im- 
mediately and without any kind of excuse, got his money in full. Is it 
strange that such a man came near monopolizing the stock business of his 
region and time? 

The truth was that Mr. Funk could buy about all the stock in the country, 
and he could buy it whether he had the money or not. In those davs of 
great scarcity of money and high rates of interest, h\s methods and known 
skill gave him a signal advantage over most men. No matter how many 
cattle he owned at any time, it is said that he always knew every one of them. 
If any of his cattle were missing, he could look over his lierds and give au ac- 
curate description of the missing ones. If cattle belonging to anyone else 
got among his herds, he would recognize them as strangers at sight. 

Mr. John Pitts, the other day, related to me that one fall when their cattle 
were brought in from the prairie, there wore three steers missing. Thinking 
possibly they had strayed into Mr. Funk's herds, the father sent John, who 
was then a small boy, over to Mr. Funk's to see if the cattle vvei-e there. 
Mr. Pitts said he never saw so many cattle before; Mr. Funk was riding 
among them, and the boy went up and told his errand. "Look around," 
said Mr. Funk, "if you find them, take them, but don't take any of mine." 
After a long search Pitts spotted one of his steers; he knew it as well as he 
knew the family horse or cow, but he felt a little afraid of Mr. Funk and hes- 
itated to point out the steer, however, he mustered his courage and wont and 
told Mr. Funk he had found one ot their steers. Mr. Funk came with him, 
and in the midst of the big herd, they came across the steer. The moment 
Mr. Funk sighted it, he said: "It's not mine, take it." Another long search 
found thp second steer. The boy was a little braver now, and be went again 
for Mr. Funk, and as soon as Mr. Funk saw the steer, although amongst 
hundreds of others, he said, "It's not mine, take it." But the third steer 
was never found. 

Mr. Funk was not a man to be seen quietly standing by, while others passed 
him in the race for fortune. One season he was about ready to move a drove 
of 1,000 or more hogs to Chicago. Knowing of a similar drove likely soon 
to be moved by a party north of Loxington, he wrote the Lexington party 
sayiag that he, Mr. Funk, would not move his hogs at the same time the 



188 

other was goinar to Chicago, if the other would send him word when he in- 
tended to go. This was done to avoid the inconvenience that might result 
from getting both herds to the slaughter house at the same time. Mr. Funk 
received a rather curt and unsatisfactory answer something like this, that 
Funk could move his hogs when he wanted to, and the other party would do the 
same. Without further parley Mr. Funk moved his hogs when he was ready. 
When he reached a point one evening about five miles this side of Joliet, he 
learned that the Lexington party was just a day's ride ahead of him. In an 
instant Mr. Funk decided upon his further movements. 

Both droves were on the west side of the DesPlaines river. He rested that 
night; in the morning threw his drove across to the east side of the river, 
took a picked gang of men with 300 or 400 of the lighter and longer legged hogs, 
drove all day, all the next night and part of the next day, arriving at Chicago 
and the slaughter house almost a day's drive ahead of the man who said Funk 
could move his hogs when he wanted to. With his 300 or 400 light hogs, he 
held the slaughter house until the balance of his drove came up. The other 
party waited as patiently as he could outside of Chicago, until Mr. Funk was 
through. Great battles have often been won and history made by just such 
strategy. 

Mr. Funk made a point of being very punctual in keeping his business en- 
gagements. He borrowed much money, and he was enabled to borrow it 
where other men could not, by his habits of paying punctually. Hon. David 
Davis frequently helped him in borrowing money at the east where Mr. Davis 
was acquainted, and he signed as surety for him. well knowing Mr. Funk's 
habitual punctuality in meeting and paying his debts. 

At one time $3,000 was due the Ridgely bank at Springfield on a certain 
day. Mr. Funk was in Chicago with a bunch of cattle which brought just 
about that amount. He started his son, Jacob, in the morning on a fleet 
horse from Chicago with the money all in gold. Jacob rode that day, most 
of the night, all the next day, arriving at home at midnight. He aroused 
George, who took another good horse, was on his way by 1:00 o'clock, break- 
fasted where the town of Lincoln now is, and just at noon of the day the 
money was due, he walked in to the bank and laid the $3,000 in gold on the 
counter. 

I was about to say that Mr. Funk was an exceptionally industrious and en- 
ergetic man. Those words applied to some of us would be very expres- 
sive, probably in many of our cases, too expressive; but they seem tame in- 
deed ^nd alnaost expressionless when applied to such a man as Isaac Funk. 
How will I illustrate or charneterize the industry and energy of this man? 
From all I can learn of him, I think ii: we would go over to the Alton railway 
and stand by while one of the biggest locomotives came along, dragging a 
heavy train under orders to get to Bloomington quickly, without stopping at 
Shirley, we would see in the action of that locomotive something to remind us 
of the way Mr. Funk went after things. He worked like a locomotive under 
full head of steam, and like the locomotive, if he did not get to the place he 
started for by night, he went ahead all the same till he got there. 

It was most fortunate for Mr. Funk that he met and married Cassandra 
Sharp. No narrative of his life or his successes could be true or just which 
did not give large credit to his capable and faithful wife. He was impetuous, 
quick-tempered; some times when aroused by especially provocative conduct 
of others, his anger would burst forth with volcanic force and suddenness. 
The unrestrained and untamed forces of such a nature as his, might have 
led him often to dangerous extremes. To his temperament, the temperament 
of his wife was a most happy counterpart. She was gentle, patient and even 
tempered always. She had great influence over Mr. Funk, to sooth, to en- 
courage and to please him. His heart safely trusted in her. She was in 
sympathj^ with his ambitions. More quietly, but just as steadily, faithfully 
and effectively she toiled to accomplish their aims. She carried her part well. 

I have said that Mr. Funk was quick tempered, we might say sometimes 
even violent tempered, but his anger always quickly spent itself. He was ex- 
ceedingly ready to forgive an injury. He really loved and courted peace. 
He was of an affectionate nature; he loved his wife and children tenderly. 



169 

1 must not forget to mention the interesting and curious fact that of all Mr. 
Funk's extensive business, be actually kept no accounts or books. It is al- 
most incredible, but it is perfectly true, that he carried all his business, all 
its details, in his head. By what process or plan he was able to store all the 
details of his erreat business in his mind and call them forth at will when 
needed, I do not claim to understand or know. Probably he did not know 
how or by what process he did it him^self; he was able to do it, and that is 
all that we know about it, and probably all that he knew. Many of you will 
be astonished when I state that in buying' droves of cattle or hogs, he never 
took a paper and pencil in hand and calculated the weight and cost, as we do 
— as everybody does. By some mental process, he reached the result, the 
weight, cost, etc., quickly and certaiuly. It is a fact that he has been known, 
when on his drives to Chicago, to go by night and buy hogs of farmers, to be 
turned into his di'ove the next morning; and the process was just this and 
nothing more. 

He would get down on his hands and knees while others drove the hogs 
from beneath a shed or from a strawstaek in front of him, so that he could 
bring their outlines between him and the light of the horizon. As the hogs 
passed in line, he would count, weigh and estimate their value, and buy them 
on the spot, so quick and certain was his judgment of their quality and his 
ability to calculate their value. 

Isaac Funk was a religious man. He believed in his accountability to God. 
He believed in keeping His commandments, and that in keeping of them 
there is great reward. He believed in Jesus Christ as his Savior. He was a 
rnember of the Methodist Episcopal church; he joined that chui'ch organiza- 
tion, with his wife, in the winter of 1848, under the ministrations of Rev. 
John S. Barger. He attended the services of the church quite regularly, and 
was always its liberal supporter. 

Although he had, we might say, no advantages of schooling for himself, he 
coveted these for his children. He spared no expense to give them the best 
schooling. He believed in Christian education. He gave substantial proof 
of this belief by subscribing $10,000 to the endowment fund of the Illinois 
Wesleyan university at Bloomington. 

In politics, Mr. Funk was a Whig, while that party was in business. In 
1840 that party elected him to the lower house of the State legislature. When 
the Republican party was organized, he became a member of it. In a re- 
markable speech delivered in Bloomington by the Hon. Owen Lovejoy, just 
preceding the war time, Mr. Funk was converted to abolitionism. From that 
time forward, he hated slavery. In 186i, he was elected to the State Senate 
to fill the unexpired term of General Oglesby. He was re-elected for 
the full term. It was during this term, in the very darkest days of the war 
of the rebelliou. when the fate of the Union was trembling in the balance, 
that he made his famous speech in favor of an appr'jprintion for what was 
known as the "Sanitary Commission." The opponents of the war had a ma- 
jority in the senate. They were opposing every measure calculated to furnish 
aid and comfort to the armies of the Union. 

To Mr. Funk, their conduct seemed nothin?: less than treason to the country 
and government, which he loved with all the intensity of his strongly emo- 
tional nature. He was unaccustomed to speaking in public, but there came 
a time, when, in his own words, ho could sit iu his seat no longer and see 
men trifling with the interests of his country. It was then he arose and 
hurled at the opposition that phillipic of phillipics, which will never be for- 
gotten by those who heard it, and which is probably remembereil today by 
more people than remember any other speech ever made iu Illinois. Walking 
down the street a few days ago, I met one of our older prominent lawyers, a 
politician and widely read gentleman. It occurred to me to ask him 
as we met, which two speeches were, in his judgment, remembered 
by more people in Illinois than any other two speeches. Ho instantly replied, 
*' Ike Funk's speech in the Legislature in 1863 and Lincoln's replies to 
Douglas in the Senatorial Campaign in '58." 



170 

Isaac Funk made a great deal of money and grathered a great deal of 
property. Shall we honor him and his memory because of this alone? Is it 
to be accounted a virtue, simply to make money and get property? No. 
Money may be gotten, and is often, by methods far from virtuous, but it is 
true that the ability to make money by fair and honest means is to be ac- 
counted honorable. 

I have lived in Bloomington nearly 3G years. In all that time it has been 
my pleasure to talk about Isaac Funk with those who knew him and his 
character, and his business operations; and in all that long time, 1 have not 
heard one of all the people with whom I have talked, say that Isaac Funk 
ever got a dollar of them or anyone else, except by strictly fair and honorable 
means. 

Nothing less than such a work as the creation of his great live stock busi- 
ness and gathering his great landed estate, would have occupied the splendid 
powers of this man. It was the work next to his hand; he did it heroically and 
on an heroic scale. His name will be remembered and honored for genera- 
tions to come. 



STILLMAN'S DEFEAT. 

[Sy Frank E, Stevens.] 

[In the Transactions of the Illinois State Historical society of 1901 was presented a paper 
by Rev. Robert W. Newlands of Stillinan Valley. Ogle connty, Illinois, descriptive of his 
discovery, near that place, of the grave in which were buried the bodies of eight or nine of 
Major Stillman's command, who were there slain by the Indians under Black Hawk in the 
memorable engagement at that spot on the 14th of May, l*j32 The land upon which the 
grave was found was purchased for the public by the Stillman Valley Monument associa- 
tion: and the Forty-second Illinois Legislature aporopriated the sum of $5,000 for the erec- 
tion thereon of a suitable monument to commemorate the memory of those volunteers who 
there fell in the service of their country. The monument, well represented by accompany- 
ing cut. having been completed and placed in position, was unveiled, with impressive and 
appropriate ceremonies, on the 11th of June, 1902. On that occasion, among other distin- 
guished speakers. Mr. Frank E. Stevens, author of a very able, exhaustive and finely illus- 
trated historical work, entitled "The Black Hawk War," soon to be published, being intro- 
duced, addressed the assembled multitude as f jliows:] 

Mr. President of the Association, Ladies and Gentlemen — Dixon's Ferry, 
now Dixon, 111., at the period of the Black Hawk war, consisted of a ferry, 
the simple flat bottomed skiff characteristic of those days, and a 90-foot log 
cabin, built in three sections, both owned by John Dixon. 

The patriarchal appearance of this old pioneer had brought to him the title, 
"Na-chu-sa," from the Indian.s, meaning in the Winuebaco dialect, "Long 
Hair White," and from the whites, "Father Dixon." By his kindness, gen- 
tleness, lionest3' and courage he had won the love of every person, white and 
red, who had ever met him. and to those in the land who had not met him, 
his reputation had extended, so that the mention of his name meant an 
overture for peace. 

In the spring of 1827, his brother-in-law, 0. W. Kell)-rg, broke a trail 
through the country from Peoria to Galena, to facilitate the rapidly increas- 
ing travel to the lead mines. "Kellogg's trail," as it was then called, crossed 
Rock river at that place, and, in 1823, when Father Dixon received the eon- 
tract for carrying the mails from Peoria to Galena and Gratiot's Grove, he 
took with him from Peoria to Rock river a half-breed named .Joseph Ogee, 
who established a permanent, tho.igh unlicensed, ferry. Prospective com- 
petition, or a friend, mu>t have suggested his laches in this re.spect, for, on 
Dec. 7, 1829, he received from Jo Daviess county, whose jurisdiction em- 
braced all that section of country, the statutory license to operate the same. 
But by 18:50, the restraint of a ferryman's life had become so exceedingly irk- 
some to one of his nomadic nature, that Father Dixon was constrained to take 
it off his hands, and remove his family thence, which he did, arriving there 
April 11, 1830. 








1 




««rtffi^* 










































:■-■>:;:.::-:■>;■ /:-;v:-;-.-:-:-;:::^ 









STILLMAN VALLEY MONUMENT. -Cost $5,000; dedicated 1902. 



171 

When Ogee established his ferry he built a hut of logrs unfit for habitation 
to any but a rover like himself. The needs of Father Dixon's family, and in- 
creasing travel, required something better, and that improvement he at once 
supplied by making additions, so that he soon had a comfortable house, 
storeroom and hotel, all in one. He, with his family of wife and five children, 
from that time forward entertained travelers, and traded with the Indians 
until the Indians were no more, and travel had, many years later, become 
diverted to bridges and other thoroughfares made by the new and ever mul- 
tiplying settlements. He was made postmaster and from thenceforth Dixon's 
Ferry was of commanding prominence in Illinois travel and Illinois geogra- 
phy. At that period, however. Father Dixon's was the only family on Rock 
river above the old Black Hawk village, Saukenuk. 

On his march up the river. Black Hawk camped one night near the Dixon 
cabin, and, with Ne-o-pope and the Prophet, ate with the family, Mrs. Dixon 
waiting upon them in a manner so courteous as to completely captivate Black 
Hawk, and command from him thereafter his highest admiration. During 
that stop the family, after a careful observation, estimated the number of 
able bodied warriors with the expedition to be 800, and that number was re- 
ported to the army which arrived there on May 12, 

Under the order, of April 16, from Governor Reynolds, Major Isaiah Still- 
man recruited to his battalion the companies of Captain David W. Barnes 
and Asel F. Ball from Fulton county, and Captain Abner Eads from Peoria 
county, and M^jor David Bailey took with him from Pekin the company of 
Captain John G. Adams of Tazewell county, the company of Captain M. L. 
Covell, and that of Captain Robert McClure of McLean county, and the 
company of Captain I. C. Pugh of Macon county. 

Leaving Pekin May 8, Bailey's battalion reached Boyd's Grove the first 
night out where Stillman with his three companies joined them, and all camped 
together for the night. The following day at Bureau creek, another detach- 
ment under Captain Bowmau, which had been ranging through the country 
towards Dixon's Ferry, joined these forces, reporting many thefts of their 
horses by the Indians. At Dad Joe's Grove the combined forces camped the 
sefond night, marching the following day (the 10th) across the present county 
of Lee, to Dixon's Ferry where Governor Reynolds aud the militia joined 
them on the morning of the 12th. 

The first act of the governor was one of circumspection. Selecting from his 
ablest and most discreet officers, Capt. John Dement, Col. James T. B. Stapp, 
Wyat Stapp, Major Joseph M. Chadwick and Benjamin Moore, and Louis 
Oiiilmette. a French trader, thoroughly familiar with those parts, and with 
Indian chara*ter, who, with others, was waiting at Dixon's Ferry, they 
were told tliat scouts had reported Indians to be scattered in search of pro- 
visions, and that it would be uselessn for the army to proceed at present. Dur- 
ing that period of inaction these men were to start for Paw Paw Grove, some 
40 miles to the southeast, in the present confines of Shabbona township, in 
DeKalb county, and there have a talk with the Pottowattamies, whoso village 
was at that place, and assure themselves of the positive neutrality of that na- 
tion. 

The prairies were covered with water, there were no roads, the day was 
dark and threatening, and to frustrate their mission completely, a large party 
of Black Hawk's band overtook them. The enemy undertook, by every art 
known to savage tactics, to allure the men into an ambush. To refute Black 
Hawk's constant protestations of peace that scouting party of his was discov- 
ered to be actually recruiting among the Pottowattamies and Winnebagoes. 
The attempts to decoy the messengers into the Indian camp were diplomatic- 
ally avoided, and so was a pitched battle, which could only have resulted in 
annihilation of the whites. 

After 48 hours of ceasless endeavor, without food, the party finally suc- 
ceeded in reaching headquarters. By that time the .forces of Stillman and 
Bailey were marching up the river on their ill-fated expedition. 



172 

There were at Dixon's Ferry when Governor Reynolds arrived, several 
prominent men from the raining country, including: Col. James M. Strode, 
commander of the Jo Daviess county militia, James W. Stevenson, William S. 
Hamilton, son of Alexander Hamilton, Col. Henry Gratiot and Louis Ouil- 
mette, the trader. 

Col. Henry Dodge, of Michigan Territory, had organized a company to pro- 
tect the frontier until he could communicate with Governor Reynolds and sys- 
tematically assist the latter. James H. Gentry was captain of that company; 
Henry L. Dodge, son of Col. Dodge, was 1st lieutenant; Paschal Bequette, a 
son-in-law, was elected 2d lieutenant, while Charles Bracken was aide to the 
colonel. The file comprised about 50 men. * 

That company of rangers, leaving Mineral Point May 9, covered the north- 
western frontier until Whiteside's brigade reached Dixon's Ferry, and were 
camped on the north side of Rock river, not far from Black Hawk's camp, 
when Whitesides and his troops reached that point. There Coi. Dodge was 
keeping a watchful eye on Black Hawk's every movement and warily await- 
ing the moment he could pounce down upon the old Indian if he saw fit to 
offer war, an emergency which the intrepid little band was fully equal to. 

Henry Dodge will forever rank in history along with Anthony Wayne, 
William Henry Harrison, and such men, as an Indian fighter. He bad met 
great odds before, and had never been outgeneraled or whipped. The In- 
dians feared him from Lake Superior to Texas. He instantly saw the fright- 
ful consequences of an ill-advised expedition up Rock river and advised 
against it. Failure meant active cooperation with Black Hawk by the neu- 
tral and undecided Winnebagoes and Pottowattamies, and that, in turn, meant 
that the entire northwest frontier would be overrun with marauding bands 
and murderers. But the impatient troops of Stillman and Bailey were eager 
to hght, and would listen to no restraint. They had enlisted to kill "Injuns," 
and nothing but a valorous conquest would satisfy their ambition; and Gen- 
eral Whitesides and Governor Reynolds were constrained to allow the fol- 
lowing order to be issued: 

"Headquarters, Camp No. 10, Dixon's Ferry, 

"12th May, 1832. 

"The troops under the command of Major Stillman, including the battalions 
of said Major Stillman, and Major Bailey, will forthwith proceed, with four 
days' rations, to the head of Old Man's Creek, where it is supposed the hos- 
tile Sac Indians are assembled, for the purpose of taking all cautious meas- 
ures to coerce said Indians into submission, and report themselves to this 
department as soon thereafter as practicable. 

"By order of Brigadier Samuel Whiteside, commanding brigade of mounted 
volunteers. 

"N. Buckmastek, 

"Brigade Major." 

Whiteside had been a famous old ranger from the year 1800. He had served 
through the war of 1812, and for a third of a century had rightfully been re- 

ffarded the one man in Illinois best equipped to handle an Indian campaign 
ike the present; and from the events which followed and his subsequent 
patriotic and heroic actions, we must conclude that he fully concurred with 
the views of Colonel Dodge. Then, as now, men had political power and as- 
pirations, which in the militia could not be ignored. Writers upon this sub- 
ject have so stated before, and others have told the writer that such was the 
case here. Furthermore, a rankling jealousy existed between Stillman and 
Bailey, each contending that he should be the other's superior, and allowed 
command of the combined troops. Governor Reynolds did his very best to 



* Col. Dortge's command proceeded. May 8, by way of Apple Creek to Buffalo Grove, 
at which an Indian trail led to Rock river, at a point nearly opposite the mouth of the Kish- 
wau-kee, and only a few miles from Stillman's battle ground, where the troops were en- 
camped at that time.— Smith's History of Wisconsin. Vol. 1. p. 266. 



178 

harmonize the meu by recognizing Stillman; but the rancorous hatred which 
existed among the troops for their rivals destroyed, in a great measure, their 
efficiency. 

On the morning of Sunday, the 13th of May, the two battalions marched 
from Dixon's Ferry for Old Man's creek. Several adventurous spirits from 
the main army were permitted to accompany the troops, as were a few others, 
like Colonel Strode, who wanted to see the "fun" that was promised. 

A baggage train of six wagons, drawn by oxen, and guarded by about 50 
men under Captain Hackelton, of Fulton county, with the four days' rations, 
followed iu the rear. The day was black and threatening, and before the 
battalions had proceeded ten miles a pelting rain compelled them to halt and 
camp for the night. All through the night the rain continued, holding 
the troops there iintil the morning of the 14th was well advanced, when the 
march was resumed. About dark of the same day "Old Man's Creek" was 
reached and crossed, and the troops dismounted to camp for the night. The 
creek was then much swollen by recent rains that formed on its south side a 
disagreeable swamp. The object of crossing to the north side was to avoid 
that morass, and also take advantage of the natural advantages which the 
north side afforded for protection, as well as the more solid ground for 
camping. 

The creek was lined on both sides with tall willows, while just a little to 
the east the ground was covered with a growth of small black oak trees de- 
nominated generally as " scrub oak. " These same scrub oak, grown to 
thrice the thickness of a man's body, stand to this day as they stood then; 
and, judging from a present day standpoint, one can easily see how a handful 
of resolute men could defend themselves against overwhelming odds. To 
those willows the horses were tied; fires were kindled; coffee pots put to 
Ijoiling, aud a general preparation for supper was going forward when three 
Indians appeared in camp bearing a white flag. They were taken in, but in the 
haste of supper preparations, and the absence of an interpreter, their mission 
if for peace, was not discovered at once. As a matter of tact, however. Black 
Hawk had, in his lifetime, disregarded so many treaties and flags of truce, 
that it is no small wonder some of the men were for desp.atching them on 
the spot. An abiding sense of his many misfeasances, no doubt, prompted 
him to station five other Indians on a neighboring hill some three quarters of 
a mile to the north, where they might watch and report the manner in which 
his flag was received. The presence of those five Indians on the hill unex- 
plained, may rightfully be styled a misprision, and sufficient to set the camp 
into a spasm of turmoil. About 20 of Eads' men mounted their horses to 
charge the Indians, who, in turn, wheeled to run away. That action was 
taken by the excited and undisciplined troops to mean a retreat, and Eads' 
men immediately began firing upon their retreating foe. Other small squads 
joined the haphazard pursuit, in course of which two of the five Indians were 
killed. The camp at once became a bedlam, and while Stillman, Bailey, 
Adams, Eads, and other officers, tried desperately to restrain the volunteers 
and restore order, as well might they have commanded the rains to cease, 
and the sun to return for half an hour, as to have expected obedience from 
those raw and independent spirits. They were having the "fun" for which 
they enlisted. Black Hawk the while was at the mouth of the creek with 
half a hundred warriors, where he had been giving a dog feast to Shabbona, 
Waubansee, and other influential Pottowatamies, in his frantic efforts to 
secure reinforcements against the whites. 

The interchange of shots ahead led those in the Stillman camp to believe 
that a general engagement was upon them, whereupon Thomas B. Reed of 
Eads' company, shot down, in cold blood, one of the three bearers of the 
white flag — an offence so dastardly as to permit of no excuse. It may be 
urged that the militia were frenzied by excitement, or dazed with the thought 
that the 800 Indian warriors were coming down upon them like an avalanche; 
but such was not the case. It was a part of the program of "fun" that im- 
pelled it. The confusion that followed enabled the two remaining Indians to 
escape and join in the massacre of the whites that soon after occurred. 



174 

Squads of two, three and more continued to leave camp to join in the 
ehase, presenting in the twilight a thin and irregular line, without order, and 
without a head, until nearlj' tour miles were covered by the stragglers. As 
had been adroitly arranged, no doubt, by the survivors of the party of five, 
the foremost of the pursuers were suddenly plunged into Black Hawk's pres- 
ence behind a growth of brushwood at the mouth of the creek where that 
wily old savage had aranged his braves, few in numbers, but many more 
than the first white arrivals; and the instant the whites appeared they sent 
up whoops, shrieks and howls to scare almost any brave man into spasms. 
Dashing headlong into the advance column, or rather, squad, of the whites 
with the spirit and suddenness of an electric shock, the reckless volunteers 
then realized their awful temeiity, and the futility of fighting what might be 800 
warriors, known to belong to Black Hawk's command, even under careful 
protection and with the full strength of the battalions. 

Stunned by the sudden and furious onslaught of Black Hawk, the troops 
wheeled to retreat, yelling as they fled, "Injuns! Injuns!" like the mad men 
they then truly became, that their approaching comrades might in turn re- 
treat to safety. In no time at all the cry had reached the camp, which be- 
came as panic stricken as the returning soldiers. 

At the foot of the hill on which the five Indians had first been seen, James 
Doty of Eads' company, was killed, and where many of the horses became 
mired in the mud of the creek, Gideon Munson, a government scout, was 
also killed. As the troops came headlong on, Captain Adams— than whom 
no braver man ever lived — attempted to make a stand with a handful of com- 
rades upon the brow of the hill that lies about half a mile to the south of the 
ereek, to cover the retreat of the fugitives. Darkness was upon them and 
they had no reason to believe that less than the full force of 800 Indians was 
upon them; yet they stood their ground to sell their lives as dearly as possi- 
ble, to save those who, by the delay, might reach points of safety. The 
moonlight was only sufficient to confuse the panic stricken troops still more; 
and in that heroic fight unto death which Captain Adams and his men made, 
he scarcely knew whether he was fighting friend or foe. In the gloaming the 
fight went on, and in the darkness of the night while the scattering forces 
were safely fleeing on to Dixon's Ferry, Captain Adams and his little band 
fell one by one until the last man bit the dust, and then a scene of malignant 
deviltry was perpetrated that is almost incredible. 

Mr. Oliver W. Hal!, of Carlinville; Ills., who was present on the field the 
following day, wrote a brief description of it, as follows: "We were camped 
at Dixon's Ferry at the time of Stillman's defeat. Now Stillman had about 
275 well mounted men, with baggage wagons, and he started out on his own 
accord, camping late in the evening on the north side of that little creek. 
The ford was just above where the willows stood thick on each side of the 
creek. While Stillman's men were cooking supper, three or four Indians on 
their ponies, rode up on that high hill, just north of Stillman's camp, about 
sundown, and five or six of Stillman's men caught their horses and ran them 
to where the Indians were in camp, in the timber about a mile and a half 
from Stillman's camp, north. The Indians killed one of our men and ran the 
balance of them into camp. The first that Stillman knew of any danger was 
when the Indians came yelling over that high hill just north of Stillman's 
camp, and it was a perfect stampede with Stillman's men. Some of them got 
their horses, but lots of them got away on foot; and after the Indians had 
killed 11 of our men they went back to Stillman's camp and cut the spokes 
out of the wagons, aud poured out a barrel of whiskey. Well, we lay on our 
arras the nest night on the south side of the creek, for we had left our tents 
at Dixon's Ferrv, as we had to go back to meet the boat to get our rations. 
There were 2,500 of us, with shot guns, and rifles, and muskets, all flint- 
locks, and we were mounted, all but two or three companies. We picked up 
nine dead men as we came up from Dixon's Ferry on a forced march the 
morning after Stillman's defeat. The last two that we found were Major Perkins 
and Captain Adams, with both their heads cut off, and their heads skinned 
all over and left by them. We found them on that descent as you go down 
to the creek from the high land, about half way down, and we buried nine 



175 

men in one grave about two hundred yards southwest of those willows just 
bplow the ford and on sideling ground, not as far south as the top of the hill. 
We buried one young man about three-quarters of a mile north of Stillman's 
camp — (if true, that was James Doty,) — where he was found, and another 
young man about one-half a mile east of where he was found. (That was 
Gideon Munson.) 

"Now, the road crossed the creek just east of those willows where there were 
a few scattering scrubby trees. The nine men were buried about 200 yards 
southwest of those willows, and on the west side of the road leading to Dix- 
on's Ferry. We never knew how many Indians there were." 

If this statement concerning Doty and Munson is trur, then but eight men 
could have been buried in the common grave, because but 12 were killed, and 
two were buried to the south. However, the fact is, Munson was buried in 
this grave also. In many details Mr. Hall's account is inaccurate; but what 
he says of the mutilation, topography, distances, arms and the march, is 
correct. 

The names of Captain Adams' companions are David Kreeps, Zadok Men- 
dinall and Isaac (nicknamed "Major") Perkins, of Captain Adams' com- 
pany; James Milton, of Captain Pugh's company; Tyrus M. Childs, Joseph 
B. Farris and Corporal Bird W. Ellis, of Captain David W. Barnes' com- 
pany, and Sergeant John Walters, of Captam Ball's company. Joseph Dra- 
per, of Captain Covell's company, was also shot, and his body found five 
miles due south of the battlefield, on what is now known as Mrs. George F. 
Smith's farm, where it was buried. Young Ellis, who was but a boy in years, 
was able to crawl two and a half miles south of the battlefield, where his 
body was found beside a strapping Indian, who had demanded his life, 
though it was ebbing away. In that exhausted condition he fought and 
killed his antagonist, breathing his last soon after. Ellis was buried on the 
spot, now the farm of Mr. A. C. Brown. 

The death of private Joseph Draper ^was particularly pathetic, and is nar- 
rated in the historical records of McLean county, as follows: "In the con- 
fusion resulting from Black Hawk's attack. Draper lost his horse. A com- 
rade, John Lundy, took Draper on his horse. While retreating they found a 
stray horse, which Draper insisted on mounting. It had neither saddle or 
bridle, but they supposed it would follow the other horses; but instead it 
turned and ran toward the Indians, who shot Draper. He fell from the 
horse, crawled off into the underbrush, where his body was found by the burial 
party. He had written on his canteen an account of his wounds. No copy of 
the writing on his canteen has been preserved." It would scarcely seem 
credible that a man in full possession of his faculties would remain on a horse 
running toward the enemy without dropping off to the shelter of the bushes 
and secrete his sound body, when he was able to securely secrete himself 
when mortally wounded. But so it must have been in that fearful panic, be- 
cause his comrade, Lundy, has vouched for the first part of the story, and the 
man's canteen told the rest; and the statement of a dying man can not be 
doubted, especially when alone in the night, miles away from friends and 
ministering care, with the rough, raw aud desolate prairie for his bed, howl- 
ing wolves and Indians prowling near, and the rough winds of spring blow- 
ing his spirit into eternity. 

After five miles' pursuit, the Indians abandoned it to returned to mutilate 
the bodies of the dead, as described by Mr. Hall; but the whites continued 
their flight, running, riding, yelling, crying— hopelessly crazed, until Dixon's 
Ferry was reached in the early hours of the morning of the I5th. Others 
becoming contused deflected to the south, and never stopped until the Illinois 
river was reached at a point near the present city of Ottawa. From there 
about 40 of them scattered for their homes. 

It was a clear case of panic. Men were crazed. They who in a sober mo- 
ment would have walked straight to death without a protest; they who would 
bend to no command of a superior officer; they who would not obey orfollow, 
were driven as easily as a flock of panic stricken sheep. It has been said 
and written that whiskey was the cause of that unfortunate rout; but that 



176 

assertion is hopelessly improbable in the face oE the fact that but two casks 
were taken with the baggage train to ba consumed by 275 men, who lived in 
a whiskey drinking age, when five or ten drinks, more or less, made little 
difference in a daily average. Mr. John E. Bristol, of Eads' company, who 
at 91 is alive and hearty today, vouches for the truth of this assertion, and 
the other one, that but two small casks were taken along. Mr. Hall spe- 
cifically states that one cask was emptied by the Indians, and Black Hawk 
makes the same statement. Therefore it is certain that whiskey cut no 
figure in the panic. 

In justice to Major Stillman his version of the affair, published iu the 
Missouri Republican of July 10. 1832, should be given. It is as follows: 

" 2o the Editor of the Missouri Rcpuhlican. 

"Gentlemen— I have this day discovered in your paper of the 22d ult., an 
account of the engagement between the men under my command and the 
hostile Sac, and other Indians on Rock river. Finding that statement alto- 
gether incorrect, I take the liberty to give an outline of the transaction, 
which I am compelled to do in the utmost haste. 

"Oh the 12th 1 received orders from his Excellency, John Reynolds, com- 
mander-in-chief, etc., to march immediately from Dixon's ferry to what is 
commonly known as " Old Man's Creek," about 30 miles distant, and coerce 
the said hostile Indians into subjection. We took up our march on the 13th, 
and on the 14th, at 2:00 o'clock, one of our spies discovered two Indians on 
our left. The Indians immediately fired on him, and undertook to make their 
escape by swimming Rock river; this, however, they did not succeed in; our 
spy brought his gun to bear on the forward one, who was tumbled into the 
river — the horse immediately turned his course and swam back, the surviving 
Indian being, from the unmanageable disposition of his horse, compelled to 
follow until he shared the fate of his companion. Both horses were brought 
in. We reached our camping ground on the north side of "Old Man's 
Creek" about 6:00 o'clock, after having used every precaution to guard 
against being deceived by the Indians — having kept out the most experienced 
spies and a very strong guard front, rear and flank, during the day. Soon 
after our arrival we discovered a small party of men in our advance, sup- 
posed at this time to be a part of our front guard. Lieutenant Gridley being 
then mounted, passed up a ravine for the purpose of ascertaining. It was 
soon after however, ascertained that our spies with the whole of our ad- 
vanced guard had come in Captain Covell with a party detached, followed. 
On the approach of Lieutenant Gridley, while rising the bluff, the Indians 
faced and leveled their guns. When prudence directed a return, the Indians 
pursued and were met by Captain Covell at nearly the same moment, when 
the fire was exchanged without effect. 

The Indians retreated and were pursued. Three were killed and three 
taken, with a loss of one of our men (as supposed ) Our men were all imme- 
diately formed and took their march in the direction of S3'camore creek, five 
miles above. After marching about three miles an Indian appeared and 
made signs of peace. I was informed of the fact and orders were given for a 
halt. Myself, together with most of the field and staff officers, advanced with 
Captain Eads as interpreter. We were soon intormed that the Indians would 
surrender in case they could be treated as prisoners of war. This was prom- 
ised them and they returned with the intelligence, after promising to meet us 
at a specified point. On arriving at that point, however, no Indians appeared 
to make the proposed treaty, which convinced us of treachery. 

Directions were immediately given for our men to advance, while Captain 
Eads proceeded a few yards alone to make further di^^coveries. On reaching 
Sycamore Bluff, the Indians were discovered in martial order; their line ex- 
tended a distance of nearly two miles, and under rapid march. Their signals 
were given for battle, — war- whoops were heard in almost every direction-ytheir 
flanks extended from one creek to the other. Orders were given for a line of 
battle to be formed on the south side of the marsh between the two creeks, 
while the Indians were advancing with the utmost rapidity; their fire was tre- 
mendous, but on account of the distance, of little effect. Night was closing 



177 

upon us in the heart of an Indian country, and the only thing to brighten our 
prospects, the light of our guns, lioth officers and men conducted themselves 
with prudence and deliberation, until compelled to give ground to the supe- 
rior foe, when the order for a retrograde movement was given, and our men 
formed in Old Man's creek. Here a desperate attempt was made by the In- 
dians to outflank us and cut olf our retreat, which proved ineffectual, some 
clubbing with their fire- locks, others using their tomahawks and spears. A 
party of our men crossed the creek, and with much difficulty silenced their 
fire, which made a waj; for the retreat of our whole party, which was com- 
menced and kept up with few exceptions, in good order. 

Many of our officers and men having been in the battles of Tippecanoe, 
Bridgewater, Chippewa and Fort Erie, have never faced a more desperate 
enemy. Having had the advantage of ground, the enemy being on an emi- 
nence, operated much in our favor. In passing Old Man's creek, many of 
them got their guns wet and were deprived of the use of them. Our force 
consisted of 206 men; that of the Indians not known, but consisting of a whole 
hostile band. Eleven of our men were killed, five wounded, with a loss of 34 
to the enemy. From report, their encampment consisted of IGO lodges. Our 
men mostly arrived at Dixon's Ferry about 3:00 a. m., and it is to be hoped 
that in a short time the number of troops stationed at that point and else- 
where will be able to bring them into subjection, and relieve our frontier 
from a much dreaded foe. 

I am, with much respect, your obedient servant, 

I. Stillman, 
Brigadier General Fifth Brigade, Illinois Militia and Acting Major Northern 
Illinois Volunteers. 

In Camp, 19th June, 1832. 

It can not be said of that explanation that it offered any extenuating cir- 
cumstances for that inglorious retreat, or the abandonment by Stillman's men 
of gallant Captain Adams and his men to fight it out alone and die. The 
straggling arrival of the panic-stricken troops into camp at Dixon's Ferry, 
from 3:00 o'clock to daylight of the morning of May 15, threw Whiteside's 
camp into confusion. The force of Dodge's warning had now a most depress- 
ing and disastrous effect on the army, and the conduct of the men was most 
humiliating to Governor Reynolds. With one accord the officers flocked to 
his tent to htar the exaggerated accounts of the runaways, and plan a pos- 
sible maneuver to counteract the fleeting fortunes of their volunteer arms. 

Instead of inspiring the troops with resolution to revenge their fallen com- 
rades, disaffection spread and demands arose from all sides to be discharged 
from a campaign which then promised nothing but trouble and a long absence 
from home. The Governor, foreseeing the plight likely to visit him, at once, 
by the light of a solitary candle, wrote out a call for 2,000 more volunteers, to 
rendezvous, respectivel}', at Beardstown, on the 3d of June, and Hennepin, 
on the 10th of the same month, as follows: 

Dixon's Ferry, on Rock River, 
May 15, 1832, 

It becomes my duty to again call on you for your services in defense of 
your country. The State is not only invaded by the hostile Indians, but 
many of our citizens have been slain in battle. A detachment of mounted 
volunteers, about 275 in number, commanded by Major Stillman, were over- 
powered by hostile Indians on Sycamore creek, distant from this place about 
30 miles, and a considerable number killed. This is an act of hostility which 
can not be misconstrued. I am of the opinion that the Pottawottomies and 
Winnebagoes have joined the Sacs, and all may be considered as waging war 
against the United States. To subdue these Indians and drive them out of 
the State, it will require aforceof at least 2.000 mounted volunteers, in addition 
to troops already in the field. I have made the necessary requisition of 
proper officers for the above number, and have no doubt that the citizen sol- 

— 12H. 



178 

diers of the State will obey the call of their country. They will meet at Hen- 
nepin, on the Illinois river, in companies of 50 men each, on the 10th of June 
next, to be organized into brigades. 

John Reynolds, 

Commander in Chief. 

John Ewing of Franklin county, and John A. Wakefield and Robert Black- 
well of Fayette county, were the trusted messengers selected to carry this 
call over the state, and faithfully and quickly they executed their mission. 

At the same time Colonel James M. Strode, colonel and commander of the 
Jo Daviess county militia, was empowered and requested to organize his 
county for immediate action. 

Governor Reynolds also sent word of the defeat to General Dodge at the 
latter's camp, on the north side of the river, some distance above, with the 
request that he forthwith take measures to protect the frontier of Michigan 
Territory (now Wiscousin), which he did effectually and with his character- 
istic alacrity. 

Major Horine was dispatched to St. Louis with a message to Col. March, who 
was at that place to forward supplies for the new levy to Hennepin. With his 
con=;picuous vigor the order was executed, but not by leaving tho provisions 
at Hennepin. Fort Wilbourn, so-called from Captain John S. Wilbourn of 
the militia from Morgan county, was a point on the south bank of the Illinois 
river, about midway between the present cities of Peru and La Salle. It was 
nearer the seat of action at Dixon's Ferry, and was accordingly chosen by 
Colonel March. Thither the troops marched and, as Albert Sidney Johnston 
wrote in his journal on June 12: "General and staff arrived at this place 
this evening. The Illinois volunteers having arrived here in great numbers, 
the general decided upon organizing them at this point, supplies for the 
troops having been placed in depot at this place, and the route to Dixon's 
quite as good, and as near, as the mouth of Fox river." 

That explains the erection of this base, and in the same connection it may 
be said that the old army trail subsequently known as the "Peru road," was 
the one traveled by Abraham Lincoln on his return home, via Peoria, and 
was the route traversed by Colonel John D.-ment, receiver of the Dixon land 
office subsequently, when he carried the public moneys from Dixon to Peru 
to be shipped by boat to St. Louis, the industrial and financial center of the 
times. 

Another message was sent to General Atkinson, not yet arrived from Fort 
Armstrong, and finally Major Adams was despatched to Quincy to procure 
corn for the horses. By daylight the various expresses were huri'ying on 
their respective ways over the State. With the abandonment of the baggage 
and supplies down the river, the improvidence of the troops with the provi- 
sions brought along, and the destruction and confiscation of Stillman's by 
Black Hawk, there was impainent danger of a famine; but Mr. Dixon came 
to the rescue by slaughtering his oxen, milch cows and young stock, which 
the troops devoured without bread or salt. After a hasty breakfast a general 
march for the battlefield to bury the dead was begun, and finished by evening. 

The sight of the mangled remains of their comrades did not inspire the ma- 
jority of the men with a wish to prolong their service. Dissatisfaction, much of it 
unexplained, prevailed, and nothing but a discharge from further service would 
be heard. Gathering the fragments of the mutilated bodies together they 
buried Captain Adams and his faithful band that evening, the 15th. The 
dismantled baggage wagons, destroyed saddlebags dead horses, destroyed 
provisions and the emptied whisky keg, said by Black Hawk to have been 
emptied by his direction, were found upon the field. The army camped that 
night upon the south bank of the creek, with little to disturb them save the 
casual firing of small arms in the distance which might have indicated the 
presence of the enemy; but Major Henry and his battalion of spies who 
were detached to scour the country and test the presence of the Indians, re- 
turned to the camp at an early hour of the morning without discovering a 
sign of them. 



179 

On the morning of the 16th the army began its return march for Dixon's 
Ferry for provisions, presuming, of course, that General Atkinson's forces 
would be there against their arrival in the evening. But the progress of the 
keel boats up the river had necessarily been very slow, and when the army 
reached Dixon's Ferry the regulars had not yet returned. That caused a 
storm of protests to reach the ears of the officers which demanded decisive 
action. The unplanted crops, the futility of the enterprise, and innumerable 
other remonstrances were urged for disbanding, some great and some small. 
The "fun" of an Indian campaign had proved too serious for the younger 
generation. 

In that dreadful state of insubordination the Governor held the troops until 
the morning of the 17th, when by a fervid appeal to the patriotism of the 
men to continue their service to protect the exposed frontier until the new 
levy arrived, the remaining troops of Stillman and Bailey's battalions, re- 
covering their lost senses, immediately consented, whereupon the Fifth Reg- 
iment was organized as follows: Col., James Johnson; Lieut. Col., Isaiah 
Stillman; Maj., David Bailey; Adjt.. James W. Grain; Quartermaster, Hugh 
Woodrow; Paymaster, David C. Alexander; Surgeon, Samuel Pillsbury; 
Sergt. Maj., Daniel McCall; Q. M. Sergt., Joshua C. Morgan. Delaying for 
a few hours the decision which must inevitably have come in favor of the 
meu, hopeful that General Atkinson would arrive. Governor Reynolds was 
happily relieved by the arrival of the general and his regulars, with Major 
Long's foot battalion, about noon, bringing ample stores, which momentarily 
quieted the clamor of the volunteers. 

With the reinforcements came Captain W. S. Harney and Lieutenant Jef- 
ferson Davis, each of whom had been absent on furlough, but who, on the 
crossing of Black Hawk into Illinois, had returned to his regiment at Fort 
Armstrong in time to accompany the same up the river. 

To still more complicate the embarrassing situation, rumors from the 
mining country were received to the effect that Colonel Strode was meeting 
serious opposition to his efforts for enlistment. A personal dislike, more than 
anything else, brought about opposition to his appeal for recruits, and, failing 
at every point, he had declared martial law over the district. To remove that 
feeling and quiet, if possible, the spirit of hostility to Strode, General Atkin- 
son despatched, among others of his ofiBcers, Captain Harney and Lieutenant 
Jefferson Davis to G^ilena, where, with the cooperation of Captain H. Heze- 
kiah Gear, a man of strong personality, great force of character and of com- 
manding influence with the sturdy miners, the bungling tactics of Strode 
were improved, and the ruffled tempers of the miners smoothed and softened 
into eager enlistment, and faithful service through the remainder of the 
campaign followed. 

Colonel Strode was a man of marked ability as a lawyer, but he had no 
faculty for removing opposition to his domineering spirit save by brute force, 
and that method in a mining camp was not calculated to effect conciliation." 



THE SITE OF FOKT CKlfiVECOEUR. 

[By Ada Greenwood MacLaughlin. of the Peoria Chapter, Daughters of the American Rev 

olution,] 

One of the most interesting periods of Illinois history is that of French dis- 
covery, exploration and settlement. While Father Marquette, in 1673, made 
a voyage down the Mississippi river, which he reached byway of the Fox and 
Wisconsin rivers, and then returned to Green Bay by way of ascending the 
Illinois, no attempt was made to possess or colonize the country thus visited. 
That was left for that wonderful man, the intrepid chevalier, Robert Cavelier, 
the Sieur de La Salle, whose imagination was fired by the scanty account of a 
vast fertile country, whose only inhabitants were Indians. 



180 

La Salle, who had previously explored the Ohio, heard the news, and went 
to Count Frontenac, then g;overnor of Canada, who was his friend. He un- 
folded to him his vast scheme of taking possession of this unknown country, 
with the great river, which he imagined emptied into the Gulf of California, 
and thus furnished a short route to the Pacific ocean and the commerce of the 
east. In this plan he was warmly seconded, because, if successful, Frontenac 
would gain more than La Salle, and Louis XIV more than Frontenac. Backed 
by Frontenac, he easily secured the necessary endorsements at court, was en- 
nobled, and enabled to begin operations. All went well for a year or two. 
Fort Frontenac was rebuilt. The seigniory was divided among tenants, and 
affairs were in profitable progress, but prosperity did not remain. La Salle 
proceded along the lakes building forts, conciliating Indians and buying furs, 
whilst his ageuts at Frontenac robbed him. But at last, after many disheart- 
ening delays and disappointments, in December, 1679, he reached the Illinois 
river with his party, consisting of 30 laborers, three priests, and Henry de 
Tonty. On their way down the river they found a deserted Indian village of 
480 cabins. The Indians were away on their winter hunt and the French, be- 
ing on the verge of starvation, helped themselves to what corn they needed, 
and continued their journey. This village is supposed to have been near 
Fort St. Louis, now known as Starved Roek, La Salle county, Illinois. 

January 4, 1680, LaSalle entered Peoria lake. On the morniag of the 5th 
he landed at the Indian village, which was where the river narrows, below 
the lake, and assured the Indians of his peaceable intentions. Ho paid for 
the corn with axes and other implements, for this camp held part of the tribe 
whose village was near Starved Rock. They wished the French to settle 
with them. LaSalle promised them protection if they would consent to his 
building a fort and also to furnish arms and ammunition, provided they did 
not use them against any allies of the French; that he could not stay himself 
but would send other Frenchmen who would protect them from the attacks 
of all their enemies. These cordial relations were soon disturbed by a noc- 
turnal visit to the Indians of a Miami chief, who was sent and instructed by 
other Frenchmen to say that LaSalle was a friend to the Iroquois (who were 
the ancient and fierce enemies of the Illinois Indians) ; that the French had a 
fort in their country, and would unite with the Iroquois to exterminate them 
entirely and to believe nothing told them. This tale so alarmed the Indians 
that they decided not to assist LaSalle in his project of reaching the Mississ- 
ippi, but contradicted their former favorable reports, and said infinite num- 
bers of barbarous nations inhabited the river banks, and would overwhelm 
the French, and the river was full of monsters, crocodiles and serpents, and 
the lower part of the stream was obstructed by rocks and precipices, and all 
ended in a gulf where the river was lost underground. Some of LaSalle's 
men deserted before such difficulties, and he decided to keep the rest away 
from the Indians for fear of losing more. He told them it was necessary to 
build a fort to protect them from the Indians. So all went to work with a 
good grace, building a fort which was called Creyecoeur. 

It is well known with what fortitude LaSalle met the news of allthe disas- 
ters which had befallen his enterprises during his absence in the Illinois coun- 
try. The Griffin was the first vessel built upon the Great Lakes. It was a 
bark of 40 tons burden, and received its curious name from the armorial 
bearings of Count Frontenac. LaSalle lost, not only the boat, but its valu- 
able cargo of furs, which he depended upon for his expenses. A second ves- 
sel, with merchandise from France, was wrecked while ascending the St. 
Lawrence. His creditors had seized all his effects, even his Fort Frontenac 
and his seigniory. He made the trip of 400 leagues to Fort Frontenac from 
Fort Crevecoeur, and such was his determination that within a week of his 
arrival he had secured credit and equipment for a second expedition, and 
started again to carry out his design of reaching the Mississippi. 

"On the 22d of July, two voyagers, Messier and Laurent, came to him with 
a letter from Tonti, who wrote that soon after LaSalle's departure, nearly all 
the men had deserted, after destroying Fort Crevecoeur, plundering the mag- 
azine and throwing into the river all the arms, goods and stores which they 
could not carrv off."— (Parkman.) Only 15 men h;.d been left with Tonti. 
On receipt of LaSalle's message to fortify Starved Rock, he had taken a few 



181 

men and gone up there. Daring his absence, all but three men and the priests 
deserted. They immediately carried the news toTonti, who returned and re- 
covered the forge and such tools as he could from the river. LaSalle has- 
tened on his way to relieve Tonty, who, as he expresses it, was thrown on the 
charity of Indians at their village at the Rock. 

When LaSalle reached there, he was astonished to find the Iroquois had 
left the large Illinois village a smoking ruin, its plain strewn with corpses, 
upon which wild animals were feasting. He searched these horrible remains 
to see if any Frenchmen were there, and was relieved to find no traces of 
Tonty or his companions. With all haste possible he pursued his way down 
the river, through Peoria lake, past Fort Creveca3ur, until he reached the 
Mississippi, searching for Tonty. He left three of his men near the ruined 
village with his provisions and baggage, while he took the four remaining 
men, each armed with two guns, a pistol and a sword. This was in the aut- 
umn of 1680. 

This last disaster again delayed the plans of LaSalle, and it was not until 
December. 1G81, that his final journey down the Illinois was begun. He 
passed several weeks in the Illinois valley, and at last reached his goal, the 
mouth of the Mississippi, in April, 1682. The return was made late in the 
same summer. 

The historians of these various expeditions are as follows: I. First — 
LaSalle's own letter in the "Margry Documents," and another account at- 
tributed to him, also in "Margry." Second — Hennepin, in his "Discovery of 
Louisiana," translated by John Gilmary Shea. Third — Tonty's letter in the 
Margry. Fourth— LeClerc's "Establishment of the Faith,"" in which he 
gives a narrative derived from Father Membre's diary, Shea's translation. 
II. LaSalle's letter in "Margry." III. First— LaSalle's letter. Second— 
Tonti's memoir. Third— A letter of Father Membre to his superior. Fourth — 
A letter by Metairie, the notary of the expedition. Fifth — The "Journalof 
Joutel," all of which are in "Margry." 

There are other translations of various accounts, which have been made by 
B. F. French in his "Historical Collections of Louisiana," but they are not 
nearly so full and complete as the "Margry Documents," so they have been 
omitted. 

In the search for the truth as to the site of Fort Crevecoeur, it is, perhaps, well 
to state just here, that it has been pursued for over five years, and an exami- 
nation has been made of all the Illinois histories in my own private library, 
and the public library of Peoria; all the translations of French writers touch- 
ing the subject in the same libraries; and the "Margry Documents," also ac- 
cessible in the Peoria library. Many other books have been examined on 
this point with the view of making this collection of opinions as complete as 
possible, and the search has not omitted Gravier, and Marest, early mis- 
sionaries stationed at Peoria, Father Charlevoix, who made a tour of the 
French missions in 1721, nor tho "Jesuit Relations," a collection cf letters 
and documents of that order. Every opinion that could bear on the point in 
question is hereby offered. 

The translations from Margry are my own, except where otherwise noted. 

There has been much said, both pro and con, about plagiarism in regard to 
Hennepin's "Description of Louisiana." The eminent historian, John Gil- 
mary Shea, who has given the fine and accurate translation of Hennepin and 
Le Clerc calls LaSalle the plagiarist on subjects common to both writers, 
while Pierre Margry returns the compliment by insisting that Hennepin is 
the culprit. With all due modesty, it appears the solution is this: LaSalle 
never made any voyage of discovery in which he did not include several priests 
in his company, ostensibly to carry the faith to the savages, but in reality to 
record the events of the journey. It was part of Hennepin's business to 
keep a diary which he could use himself in reporting to his superior, and La- 
Salle could also use if he wished. The Chevalier was a busy man, the spirit 
of activity and enterprise personified, and it may be, referred to the good 
father's notes to save time. Moreover, Hennepin wrote to LaSalle an account 
of his adventures on the Mississippi and among the Sioux, whither LaSalle 



182 

had sent him, and it is incorporated in LaSalle's letter in Margry. This fact 
bears out my supposition that LaSalle did no more than he had a perfect 
right to do. 

Some have expressed a doubt as to the authenticity of the Margry docu- 
ments. Monsieur Pierre Margry was for many years a clerk in the French 
colonial office, and his position gave him access to the colonial archives, 
which had been so jealously withheld from American writers, as well as the 
world in general. M. Margry made a correct and literal copy of these records 
with a list of their whereabouts, and such other information as he could ob- 
tain. Mr. Shea says in his comparison of Hennepin and LaSalle: "If one is 
not trustworthy, the other is not." See page 43, Shea's sketch of Hennepin. 

Hennepin's own map, published in his first book, 1683, accompanies Shea's 
translation, and in it Fort Crevecoeur is located on the east side of the river, 
about half way between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi river, via the 
Illinois route. No other fort in Illinois is given. 

Franquelin was a young engineer who held the post of hydrographer to the 
king at Quebec, in which Joliet succeeded him. A very elaborately executed 
map, six feet long and four and a half feet wide, was made by him to show 
the French possessions in America. It shows the fort as located according to 
the description given by LaSalle and Hennepin, and is supposed to have been 
made under the direction of LaSalle, as it particularly exhibits his colonies 
in Illinois. In Vol. LXIII of the "Jesuit Relations" is a beautiful copy of this 
map. 

The first visit of LaSalle to the Illinois country was begun in the autumn 
of 1679. By the 1st of January, 1680, he was descending the beautiful river 
which always commanded the most enthusiastic praise from all the chroniclers 
of those early days. Jan. 4 the party entered the lake and (see Margny, 
Vol. II, p. 37), "toward evening perceived smoke while traversing the little 
lake, and the next day, about nine in the morning, we found, on both sides 
of the river, a quantity of canoes, and saw the great smoke which arose from 
80 cabins full of Indians, whom we discovered first. They did not see us 
until we had doubled a point, behind which they were camped a half gunshot 
from the shore." (LaSalle's account.) 

Henri de Tonty, whose name and fame are second only to the Sieur de La- 
Salle, never wasted any words in his writing, and a few lines usually sufficed 
him. In Margry, Vol. I, p. 582, he says: "Having seen smoke, M. de La- 
Salle put the canoes in Dattle array. Upon doubling a point we saw a little 
hunting village. The Indians were greatly alarmed, thinking we were 
Iroquois. The women and children fled to the woods, but when they found 
we were French, they showed the calumet at a distance. * * * * The 
day we arrived, which was the 4th of January, 1680, the river began to freeze 

* * * * The 15th, he (LaSalle) found a place suitable to build a bark 
of 40 tons, to descend to the Mississippi, or river Colbert. He built a fort 
which was named Crevecoeur, and worked on a boat of 40 tons. Sometime 
afterward the Rev. Father Louis Hennepin, with Michel and Picard started to 
the country of the Sioux. M. de LaSalle decided to make the trip of 400 
leagues to Fort Frontenac by laad (on foot). He started March 10 with six 
men, leaving me as commandant in his place." 

Shea's translation of 1881, of Le Clerc's Establishment of the Faith, vol. 2, 
p. 118, has the following brief reference to the position of the Illinois camp 
and also Crevecoeur. Le Clerc was not with La Salle's party on this expedi- 
tion, and his description is compiled from a diary kept by his cousin. Father 
Membre. It says: — "They left it (the Illinois village near Starved Rock) on 
the 1st of January, 1680, and by the 4th were 30 leagues lower down amid the 
camp of the Illinois. They were encamped on both sides of the river, which 
is very narrow there, but very near there forms a lake about seven leagues 
long and one wide, called Pimiteoui. meaning in their language, that there 
are plenty of fat beasts in that spot." On page 123, he says: — "January 14, 
1680, all repaired to a little eminence, a pretty strong position, near the Illi- 
nois camp, where the Sieur de La Salle immediately set to work to build a 
fort which he called Crevecoeur." 



183 

The following extract is from Hennepin's "Description of Louisiana," 1683, 
ps. 176,7, 8. John Gilmary Shea, 1880: — "A great thaw having set in on the 
13th of January, and rendered the river free below the village, the Sieur de 
La Salle begged me to accompany him, and we proceeded with one of our 
canoes to the place which we were going to select to work at this little fort. 
It was a little mound, (?) distant about 200 paces from the bank of the river, 
which in the season of the rains, extends to the foot of it; two broad, deep 
ravines protected two other sides and a part of the fourth, which was com- 
pletely entrenched by a ditch which united the two ravines. The exterior 
slope, which served as a counterscarp, was fortified. We made chevaux-de- 
frise, and cut this eminence down steep at all sides, and the earth was sup- 
ported as much as was necessary with strong pieces of timber, with thick 
planks, and for fear of any surprise, we planted a stockade around, the tim- 
bers of which were 25 feet long and a foot thick. The summit of the mound 
was left in its natural figure, which formed an irregular square, and we con- 
tented ourselves with puttiug en the edge a good parapet of earth, capable of 
covering all our forces, whose barracks were placed in two angles of 
this fort, in order that they might be always ready in case of attack. Father 
Gabriel Zenoble and I lodged in a cabin covered with boards, which we ad- 
justed with the help of our workmen, and in which we retired after work, 
and where all our people came for morning and evening prayers, and when, 
being unable any longer to say mass, the wine which we had made from the 
large erapes of the country had ]ust failed us, we contented ourselves with 
singing vespers on holidays and Sundays, and preaching after morning 
prayers. The forge was set up along the curtain which faced the wood. The 
Sieur de La Salle posted himself in the middle with the Sieur de Tonty, and 
wood was cut down to make charcoal for the blacksmith." 

In Shea's book of 1880 in which he apologizes for his former criticisms of 
Hennepin, and asks for a rehearing of the case, is the following note on 

&, 175: " It is commonly supposed that LaSalle, dejected at the loss of the 
riffin, and his increasing difficulties, calh^d this fort "Creve Coeur," broken 
heart, on that account. The Tonty of 1697 so asserts; but at a moment when 
LaSalle sought to encourage his men he would not be likely to do this. As 
Louis XIV had recently demolished Fort Cieve Coeur, a stronghold in the 
Netherlands, near Bois-le-Duc, captured by him in 1672 [Zedler's Universal 
Lexicon, XI pp. 162-3] the name may have been a compliment to that 
monarch, and this would explain the omission of the name in Nouvelle 
Decouverte, published in Holland. "Parkman's Discovery," p. 168, says that 
the site of the fort is still recognizable a little below Peoria." 

An account in Margry is identical, or very nearly so, with Hennepin's, and 
is attributed to LaSalle, but because of the great similarity, it is not neces- 
sary to give it. 

In Margry, volume 2, pp. 48-9, a letter, signed LaSalle, says: "All re- 
solved with a good grace, and we repaired January 15 in the evening, to 
that spot which I had selected, unexpectedly and quite apropos. A great 
thaw had come and rendered the river free down from Pimiteoui. It is a 
little hillock, distant three arpents from the bank of the river. In the season 
of the rains the river approaches the foot of the hill. Two ravines, large and 
deep, shut in two other sides, and half the fourth, which I finished enclosing 
by a ditch which joined the two ravines. I made a border to the other side 
of the ravines with good chevaux-defrise, made steep the declivity of the 
hillock all around, etc. * * * I left the figure of a square top, which was 
irregular," etc., etc. 

The following extracts from Margy are given to show the extent of the 
lake, which is that part of the river designated Pimiteoui by all these writers^ 
and its relative position to the fort. The extracts already given show indi- 
rectly that LaSalle went down the river to reach his fort, but the following 
are stronger and direct. 

In the same letter of LaSalle just quoted, is found the foUowiug on p. 55, 
Margry, Vol. 2: "In the meantime, the winter was very much longer than or- 
dinary, and the ice prevented communication with the village where the Indians 
had corn in cache; provisions began to fail those who worked at the fort. I 



184 

determined to go away to find means to provide for them. I embarked with 
six Frenchmen and two canoes, the river being open in front of the fort. But 
we had not gone an hour until we found ice. I believed the lack of the cur- 
rent, and the place, was the cause of the ice remaining so long, and did not 
want to quit my canoes. I intended to send them back to the fort laden with 
corn, when I arrived at the Indian village. I had hoped to my people that 
although the end of the lake was frozen, the river would have rotten ice and 
we might have a free passage. We made two sleds, and dragged our equip- 
age and canoes upon them, and drew them to the end of the lake, which is 
seven or eight leagues long." (LaSalle.) 

In Margry, Vol. 1, p. 488, is the following reference of LaSalle to the same 
event, which was the beginning of the toilsome journey to Fort Fronteuac: 
"The current being quite rapid, rendered the river free from ice below the 
fort. But after a league of navigation, and at the entrance of an enlarge- 
ment, where there is a lake eight leagues long, which forms the river, they 
found ice. The Sieur de LaSalle, who did not wish to abandon his canoes, 
because he intended to send them back to the fort laden with Indian corn, 
told his men that at the end of the lake the current would melt or break up 
the ice, and open a passage for them. So they determined to make two 
sledges, upon which they might place their canoes, and all their baggage, and 
draw them on the snow to the end of the lake." 

Upon LaSalle's return in the fall he expected to finish his boat and pursue 
his journey down the Mississippi. After finding the terrible ruin and devas- 
tation of the great Illinois town, La Vantum, he made a rapid trip down the 
Illinois, searching for Tonty, and said, on p. 133, Vol. 2, Margry: "On 
arriving at Pimiteoui, or Creveeoeur, were found the remains of the destruc- 
tion by the deserters, etc." 

In a general description of the river, given by LaSalle, volume II, p. 247, 
is the following: "But at different places, as at Pimiteoui, a league east of 
Creve Coeur, and two or three other places below, and in many places where 
the two high grounds skirt it, at about half a league apart, etc." 

These quotations just given, from the letters of LaSalle and Tonti, have 
not. to my knowledge, been literally translated before, but connected narra- 
tives, derived from them, have been published by Parkman and Mason. The 
" Margry Documents" have been examined also for indirect references to 
Creve Coeur and Pimiteoui, and the following are pertinent. 

LaSalle in Margry, volume II, p. 169, said: " The 10th of January (1682) 
we lost track of some of our pe'ople, and M. de Tonty went in search. They 
found one, and had news the two others were going to join me at the river 

Miami. 

"The 11th all joined us, and as their comrades were expected to arrive at 
once, we marched a little journey, and left instructions for the others, and 
provisions, in order for them to come to join us. At length, everybody hav- 
ing assembled, and navigation being open at the end of the little lake 
Pimiteoui, we continued our journey in canoes to the river Colbert." 

In Margry, volume I, p. 593, is Tonti's account of the trip, of 1682: "M. 
de LaSalle joined me the 14th of January, and continued the sledging, in 
which way we arrived at the Illinois river. I found one party of our hunters 
had lost track of the French. Upon this, I made search, because there were 
eight men I had sent hunting, and when they were found, they came to join 
us. This increased our numbers, so that then we had 23 French and 18 
Indians, Mahingans, or Abenakis, and Sokokis, 10 of whom were women who 
had with them three little children." 

******* 

p. 595, "Upon arriving at Fort Creve Coeur we found navigation. And as 
several of our Indians were obliged to make several canoes of the bark of the 
elm, on that account we did not reach the Mississippi until February 6. It 
was given the name of Colbert by M. de LaSalle. While our Indians were 
busy making their canoes, provisions failed us. I was obliged to put a line 



185 

in the waters to fish with feathers. 1 eausht a fish of extraordinary size. It 
was sufficient to make soup for 22 men." Signed DeTonty, Quebec, le 14 
November, 168J. 

In Margry, volume II, p. 20G-7, is the followiuj? letter of Father Membr^ 
to his superior, dated i'De la riviere de Misrissippi, le 3 Juin, 1682": 

"Your reverence knows the motives whieli led lue to return to the Miamis 
to accompany M. de LnSallo iu his discovery to the sea, and why I am here 
at present. Since hearing of his (expected) arrival there, we set out with M. 
de Tonty, some days before M. deLaSalle, who joined us at Chicago, where an- 
other baud of his men also joined us. In such a manner all assembled, at the 
beginning of January, 1682, In the place where the Chicago runs into the 
river of the Illinois, it was frozen over, as well as the route by which we had 
come. So we drew our canoes and other equipage as far as the Illinois village 
(La Vautum, at Starved Rock). No one was there. They had gone to winter 
elsewhere, at a "place 30 leagues lower down, at the foot of Lake Pimedy ( Pimi- 
teoui). There we found navigation open, and we descended the river in 
canoes to the Mississippi river. There we remained some days, kept back by 
the ice which came from above. We set out aud visited a village abandoned 
by the Illinois. M. de LaSalle left for the one and the other the signs of his 
coming in peace and the signs of the route. This we followed more than 100 
leagues on the river without seeing a person." 

In Margry, volume II, p. 187, is a letter of Jacques de la Metairie, notary, 
dated 9th Avril, 1G82, from which the following is taken. It may also be 
found in French's Louisiana, volume I, p. 45. "The 27 December, 1681, M. 
de LaSalle started on foot to join M. de Tonty, who had, with the m^n and 
all the equipage, put on before. He joined them at 40 leagues at the Miami. 
There the ice made it necessary to stop at the bank of the river Chicago, near 
the Maskouten. The ice became stronger, so the porters were able to draw 
all the baggage, the canoes and a Frenchman who was hurt all along the Illi- 
nois, a distance of 66 leagues. At lenerth all the French had assembled the 
25th of January, 1682, at Pimiteoui, From there the river had no more ice, 
except floating, and we went our way to the Colbert." 

The full and unabridged text of Joutels' Journal is in Vol. Ill, Margry. 
The following extract begins page 473, and makes it plain where the chan- 
nel of Le Deux Mamelles is and its relative position to Lake Peoria: 

"The 9th, advancing continually, we arrived at a lake of about a half a league, 
where the man Coulture had told us at the Arkansas it would be necessary 
to hold to the left. This we did, but a little wrongf'ullv. In fact we got into 
a river which reached to the left, and we followed it. But when we had gone a 
little way within I saw we were not following the direction of the outlet 
we intended to take. I told M. Cavelier several times it was not <he river we 
should be in. Meanwhile we did not leave it to go forward, considering that 
M. Cavelier thought it above as Coulture had said. We ascended, therefore, 
that river about a league and a half. But as far as we could see the water di- 
minished so much we had trouble to float our canoes, so that we were compelled 
to return to that place below, that they called a lake. There one of our Indi- 
ans taking his bow and quiver followed along the bank looking for the outlet 
and the current of the known river. On his return he marked his way by 
which we followed the lake. The next day, the 10th of September, we started. 
We intended to take the other side of said lake, so we would not again be 
deceived, not expecting to be able, after we had advanced, to reach the 
known river, of the high background, and whose islands formed the entrance. 
Strength was given to retrace our course and search for the channel of the 
known river which we found at the left. That channel bears the name of 
deaux Mamelles, or two mountains. They are two little hills separate and 
round. The name was given by the voyagours, or men of the country. We 
found and saw several encampments about the said lake where the Indians 
had camped, I was informed, in succession when they came to fish at certain 
seasons of the year, when hunting animals, was not good. They smoked 
the fish to carry to their village; for these people have the season for every 
kind of huuting and fishing. 



186 

We continued our route, having discovered the channel of our river, and 
found the usual breadth almost everywhere, with much game of different 
kinds. There were swans, bustards, thrushes, geese, ducks, teal, and other 
kinds, iu the same abundance as the fish. We continued traveling and made 
the mistake. The Frenchman, whom we found with the Arkansas, had said 
when we reached a certain lake we would be 30 leagues from the Illinois 
(village). That was why we hoped to bo more advanced. Bat Mondaj', the 
11th of September, we arrived at another lake, which is about the breadth of 
the first, but is much longer, being about seven or eight leagues long, and is 
called Pimitehoui. The place in the vicinity of the latter is a little more 
covered around than the former lake. We found, also, many more encamp- 
ments, and there were old remains of cabins where the Indians had 
camped. Hunting had diminished greatly on account of the quantity of 
Indians who had come. Nevertheless, we took a step to kill two buffaloes, 
which we took to the tort of the Illinois, and dried a part." 

This narrative continues to give full particulars of the remainder of the 
trip up to Fort St. Louis (Starved Rock) where J(jutel arrived September 14 
at 2 p. m. Joutei's journal describes the journey of LaSwlle's expedition 
which landed in Texas, instead of entering the Mississippi, gives an account 
of the death of the heroic leader, and the subsequent efforts of his faithful 
adherents to reach France by way of the Mississippi and the Illinois, 

The translations given so far comprise all the published relations of writers 
who may be supposed to have seen Fort Crevecoeur and left a reliable record. 
Baron Le Hontan does, indeed, relate that in April, 1689, he arrived at Fort 
Crevecoeur and was "received with all imaginable civility by Monsieur de 
Tonty," and locates the fort in his map on the west side of the river. But 
for more than 50 years Le Hontan has been "placed with that amiable class 
of writers who tell the truth by accident and fiction by inclination." (See 
B. F. French, in Louisiana, volume IV, p. 99 ) Moreover, Tonty was at that 
time absent in the south, whither he had gone, hoping to find and succor La 
Salle's infant colony in Texas, after hearing of ihe great leader's death. (See 
also Kingsford's Canada, II, pp. 59-00, note, for La Hontan's unreliability.) 

Eighteen years after LaSalle's visit to this country, an Englishman, Dr. 
Coxa, physician to the queen of Charles II, got up an expedition to the Illi- 
nois. In his memoirs, published in 1722 by his son, is the following in 
French's Louisiana, volume II, p. 231, Coxe's Carolana: "Many rivers run 
into it (the Illinois), and it forms two or three lakes, but one mightily ex- 
tolled, called Pimiteou, which is 20 miles long and thi-ee broad; it affords 
great quantities of good fish, and the countrj' round about it abounds with 
game, both fowl and beasts. B-sides, the lUinonecks are the nation's Perou- 
aria, the great nation Cascasquia, and Caracantanon, and on the northern 
branch inhabit part of the nation of the Mascoutens. 

"On the southeast bank of this river, Monsieur de la Salle erected a fort in 
the year 1680, which he named Crevecoeur, from the grief which siezed him 
on the loss of one of his chief trading barks, richly laden, and the mutiny 
and villainous intrigues of some of his company, who first attempted to poison 
and afterwards deserted him. This fort stands half way between the bay of 
Mexico and Canada." 

B, F. French's "Louisiana," vol. 4, 1852, p. 36, says: "Disheartened by 
the desertion and disaffection of his men, and by the want of all tidings of 
his vessel, he began the erection of Fort Crevecoeur and of a vessel near the 
Illinois camp, below Lake Prtoria." 

Parkman in his "Discovery of the Great West," 1869, p. 157-158, gives a 
full description of Fort Crevecoeur, in which he follows the narratives already 
quoted of LaSalle and Hennepin, and adds, as cited by Shea in his note 
above, "the spot may still be seen a little below Peoria." 

Parkman is recognized as good authority, and states that after he had 
made his researches, he made a trip following the route taken by this party 
of LaSalle's, and from their account was enabled to identify the places they 



187 

describe. He mentions particularly Starved Rock as the site of Fort St. 
Louis, Utica of the great liliuois town, La Vantum, and that the site of 
Crevecoeur was still recognizable a little below Peoria. 

Edward 6. Mason, in chapters from "Illinois History," 1901, p. 65, says: 
"The spot which La Salle had chosen was on the left bank of the Illinois 
river, about two and a half miles below its exit from Primiteoui Lake." 

Mason speaks at length also of the name. Shea's suggestion that it was 
given as a compliment to the French monarch is extremely probable, as H. A. 
Rafferman has found proof that Tonty took part in the capture of the Nether- 
land Crevecoeur. The usual reason of attributing the name to LaSalle's 
despondency finds no mention in any writings of LaSalle or in the authentic 
accounts of Tonty of 1684 and 1693, or in Hennepin's "Louisiana" of 1683. 

"A Short History of the Mississippi Valley," by James K. Hosmer, 1901, 
p. 37, says: "From here the party passed to the Illinois, on which he built 
Fort Crevecoeur." 

Breese'searlyhistory of Illinois, pages 113 14-15-16, 1884, is as follows: "The 
spot now entitled to claim the honor of this erection has long been a subject 
of dispute, many ingenious conjectures having been elaborated to establish it, 
involved as it is in so much doubt and uncertainty. Time, ever busy in de- 
stroying, has long since crumbled to earth the frail fabric and erased every 
artificial mark of its certain existence. The spot is no longer known. Some 
who are curious in such matters, locate it at or near Peoria lake on the west 
side. You may see there, just above the town , heaps of ruins, remains of build- 
ings, and other rubbish of antiquity, but they are supposed to be the ruins 
of the mission of St. Louis, and not of Crevecoeur. Others place it on the 
east side of the river, and though in the same vicinity, still higher up the 
stream, whilst our historian, Bancroft, locates it 'four days' journey below 
Lake Peoria.' " After referring to differences in ancient maps, and quoting 
Hennepin's account of the selection of the site and its location, he concludes: 
"The facts we gather from this relation are that the fort was 'down the river' 
from Peoria; that it was upon an eminence on its bank with a natural ditch 
on each side, and accessible in one direction only. What place may answer 
to this description, my knowledge of the topography of the country will not 
enable me to say. Bancroft is in error when be says it was built 'four days' 
journey below Peoria lake,' and evidently confounds that lake with the Illi- 
nois lake first visited, which I have assumed to be but an expansion of the 
river near Ottawa. If this conjecture be correct, 'four days' journey below' 
it, as Hennepin's narrative states, would place Crevecoeur at a point below, 
but near the site of the present flourishing city of Peoria, a spot I should 
like to visit, so full of interest as it is, and where for the first time in this 
magnificent valley, the pennon of France was unfurled to its winds." 

Brown's Illinois history. 1844, page 123, says: "He commenced immedi- 
ately building a fort a little above where Peoria now stands." He gives no 
reasons and quotes no authority for the statement. 

Drown's Record and Historical View of Peoria and Almanac of 1850, says 
on patrf* 43, after quoting Hennepin's description: "Some have placed it 
near Wesley City, below and some near to Spring Bay, about ten miles above 
our city, but acc9rding to the description given by Father Hennepin, the site 
is about three miles above this (?); the remains are yet to be seen answering 
Father Hennepin's description." On page 44 he gives a diagram of some re- 
mains which he surveyed two or three miles east of Peoria in 1842. Either 
he is not clear, or typographical errors exist, as this little book was published 
in Peoria at that early day. In other places his conclusions as to other points 
of Hennepin's description of the trip down the Illinois are contrary to all ac- 
cepted authority. 

Peck's Gazetteer, 1834, p. 104, a small pocket band-book for the information 
of emigrants, according to its compiler, says: "The position of this fort can- 
not now btt ascertained, but from some appearances, it is thought to have 
been near Spring Bay, in the northeast part of Tazewell county." 



188 

Governor Reynolds' Pioneer History of Illinois, 1852, p. 19 20. says: "Fort 
Crevecoeur was located somewhere, I presume, on the southeast side of the 
river, eight miles above Peoria, on the lake." 

Commenting on this extract, Mr. Ballanee says in his History of Peoria 
County, 1870, p. 26, that "Governor Reynolds' means of correct information 
were superior, or at least equal to that of anyone else, yet he was ofteuer in 
error." 

In Illinois, Historical and Statistical, John Moses, 1889, p. 65, is the follow- 
ing: "On January 4. 1680, he passed through Peoria lake, and on the next 
morning arrived at the Indian village of the same name ***** and 
resolved to build a fort. Selecting a site about four miles south of the village, 
and 200 yards from the eastern bank of the river, he erected a rude fort, 
called Crevecoeur, the first structure erected by white men in Illinois. As all 
remains of this fort have long since disappeared, its precise location cannot 
now be determined." 

Western Annals, 1847, Perkins, p. 1-3: "A spot upon rising ground, near 
the river, was accordingly chosen, and the fort commenced." 

Mr. Charles Ballanee, in his History of Peoria County, 1870, p. 26, quotes 
Hennepin's description and comments thus: "This quotation settles, at once 
and forever, a question that has been disputed for the last 30 years, to-wit: 
The precise locality of this fort. The most of those who have written on the 
subject have placed it above Peoria some two or three miles, and others six 
or eight miles above. But the first difliculty that hypothesis meets with is, 
there is no high land on that side of the river, within the proposed bounds. 
All the land above the city on that side, for more than the greatest distance 
proposed, is liable to overflow to the extent of 10 or 15 feet. Besides, Henne- 
pin says to locate it they went from Peoria down the river, and that they 
found a place where there was an eminence, and the bank of the river made 
one line, and two sides were made by ditches the rain had made very deep. 
There is no place on the river that fits this description but the village of Wes- 
ley, and that fits it exactly." 

Davidson and Stuve's History of Illinois of 1874, p. 77, says: "The site 
chosen was on the east side of the river a short distance below the outlet of 
the lake. This was the extremity of a ridge approaching within 200 yards of 
the shore, and protected on each side by deep ravines. To fortify the blufiE 
thus formed a ditch was dug behind to connect the two ravines. Embank- 
ments were thrown up to increase the altitude of the different sides, and the 
whole was surrounded by a palisade 25 feet high. The work was completed 
by erecting within the enclosure buildings for the accommodation of the men. 
The place of this ancient fort may still be seen a short distance below the 
outlet of Peoria lake." 

The " Great West, " by Jacob Ferris, 1856, p. 68, says: " LaSalle pro- 
ceeded south to the Kankakee, a branch of the Illinois, and descending the 
river below Peoria, he passed the winter in building another fort which he 
called Creve Coeur." 

In the "Past and Present" of LaSalle county, 1877, p. 15: " The place 
where this ancient fort stood may still be seen just below the outlet of Peoria 
lake." 

In the History of Peoria county, 1880, p. 13, is the following: "They 
crossed the river and moved down about three miles where they erected a 
fort which LaSalle named Creve Coeur." 

Flint in his Condensed Geography and History of the Western States, 1828, 
p. 251, says: " They wintered on the banks of the Illinois, near Peoria lake, 
where they built a fort, at once for winter quarters, and security against 
savages. They called the fort Creve Coeur." 

"The Pioneers of Illinois," by N. Matson, 1870, p. 57, after quoting Hen- 
nepin's description: "The only place in this vicinity answering the above 
description is at the village of Wesley, which is located on the east side of the 
river, three miles below Peoria, and this is generallj' conceded to have been 
the site of the old fort." 



189 

An extract is given above from the text of Mason's chapters from "Illinois 
History," on p. 65, but on p. 200-201, in the notes of the same volume, is 
this note: "The exact location of Fort Creveeoeur has beeu a matter of con- 
troversy. The early authorities are "Relation Officielle," "Margry,'' I, pp. 
467, 476, 488; "Lettres de LaSalle," "Margry," II, p. 247; "Hennepin's La," 
pp. 175 n, 187; "'Hennepin N. D.", p. 142, and Pranquelin's map, 1684; 
(Parkman's "LaSalle," p. 294; "Cartier to Froutenae," pp. 308. 344). A 
local antiquarian has held the place to be a projection of the bluff directly 
back of the village uf Wesley City, throe miles below Peoria ("Fort Creve- 
eoeur," by J. Gale, Peoria Journal, Jan. 11. 1890). 

Parkmau at first adopted a similar view, saying in his "Discovery of the 
Great West," p. 168, ninth edition: "The spot may still be seen a little 
below Peoria," but he omits this sentence in his last edition of the same 
work. Others think it stood in Fond du Lac township in Tazewell county, 
above Peoria, and a mile and a half below the narrows of Peoria lake (Chi- 
cago Tribune, Nov, 16, 1889J; but a very competent authority fixes the site 
farther to the north, and identifies it with a mound a little below Spring bay 
in Woodford county (Hiram W. Beckwith, in the "Land of the Ulini," (Chi- 
cago Tribune, Feb. 24, 1895). This is probably the correct location." 

It is hard to reconcile this conclusion with the correct statement already 
quoted iu the text. In fact, they cannot both be correct, and the author cer- 
tainly never visited the locality, or he would not have published such a con- 
tradiction. 

All the supposed sites mentioned have been visited and inspected, and but 
one answers the description of the correct translations of Hennepin, LaSalle, 
Tonty, Membre, Metairie and Joutel. 

There is at Wesley City a hillock, distant about 200 paces, or three arpents, 
from the bank of the river, having the deep ravines at the sides, and almost 
enclosed on the fourth, with traces of washing where the ditch was dug. 
The top still has the outline of an irregular square, and can easily be imag- 
ined as it was before the earth was taken from the top to make the parapet 
against the chevaux-de-frise and wooden palisade of the outer edge. 

Below, and nearer the river, is plenty of room for the building of the boat 
which never grew old enough for a name. While it is true that all artificial 
remains of the rude fortifications have long since vanished under the destruc- 
tive agencies of man and time, yet the earth remains, and the hills and ra- 
vines can not better be described today than in the very language used by 
those hardy French explorers. 

This hill is about a league below the outlet of the lake. 

The conditions are fulfilled, and there, where once stood LaSalle and Tonty, 
and where they first unfurled the lilies of France, to float in proud possession 
of the whole Mississippi valley, a huge boulder of granite, with a suitable in- 
scription, has been erected, as a lasting and appropriate monument, by the 
Peoria chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution. 



COPIES OF PARIS DOCUMENTS. 

[Procured by J. P. Steward. 1901, No corrections of grammatical or other errors found in 

the originals have been made.] 

LOUSIANNE. 

MONSEIGNEUR— J'ay I'honneur d'inforraer votre Grandeur de la d^faite des 
Renards sur les terres de la Louisianna par les Illinois et les nations des fron- 
tieres du Canada. Nos sauvages se plaingnent que eeux du Canada, ont trop 
garde d'esclaves qu'ils deuoient tons les tuer oomme ils ont fait. Quelque 
bien quaillent les affaires les sauvages ne sont jamais content. Ce que j'ay 
pu scavoir de plus positif par les Francois qui estoient a cette expedition c'est 
qu'on a tuez onze a douze cent renards, tant hommes que femmes et enfans? 



190 

Cette destruction fait un bien iaflai a la colonie de la Louisianue dont le pro- 
gres estoit arreste pas les courses continuelles que faisoient ces sauvages 
tant sur les francois que sur les Illinois. A present ce pais va deveuir dau- 
tant plus fertile qu'il sera peuple et mieux cultive. Ce quartier doit estre 
regarde comme un des plus important de cette colonie, et il faut absolument 
que la Conipagnie y entretienne un grand estat-major. Non seulement pour 
eontenir les sauvages mais les francois coureurset libertins qui establissent 
dans cet endroit hors de desson les yeux des gouverneurs; de plus le fleuve 
estant devenir libre par la destruction des natchez, thioux yazous et corrois 
qui avaient resolu de detruire les establissements des francois; de ces quatre 
nations qui estoient sur le fleuve il n'en reste pas quarante hommes qui sont 
disperses pour esviter de tomber entre les mains des autres nations qui j'ai 
mis apres eux. 

L'expedition que je viens de faire, monseigneur, prouve a Votre Grandeur 
qu'on a en tort de lui insinuer que la guerre contre les Sauvages icy ne se 
pouvoit que par d'autres sauvages j'ay pense le eontraire depuis que je suis 
dans ce pays icy j'ay esprouv6 depuis seize mois sans rien espargner que les 
sauvages sont bons et a s'entre escarmoucher et a lever quelques cheveleures 
par cy par la mais incapable de pouvoir forcer ni detruire une nation fortifiee, 
javoue que nous sufifrirons dans les premieres marches que nous ferons, mais 
rien n'est impossible au francois bien conduit il se fait pen a pen aux marches 
les plus penibles quand il s'agit de la gloire du Roy? Les offieiers et les 
soldats qui ont marche avec mon frer et moy n'estoient asseurement pas foits 
aux fatigues de ce pais icy, qui ont este le plus rude qu'on ait veu depuis 30 
ans, leur zele et leur emulation ne leur a fait faire ancune difference entre 
le beau et le mauvais terns quand il s'est agi d'attaquer i'ennemy. Que nous 
avons trouve dans un pais jusqu'alors inconnu a tons francois et meme a nos 
sauvages alliez dont aneun na pu nons servir de guide. C'est dans cette 
seituation si capable d'abatre le courage le plus dur que les offieiers ont fait 
Toir par leur exemple que rien n'estoit impossible aux Francois qui ne 
travaillent que pour la gloire du Roy. 

On a voulu egalement faire voire a Votre Grandeur que je la trompais 
loTsque j'avais I'honneur de luy marquer qu'il y avoit 17 piedes d'eau sur la 
barre du fleuve? Je descend avec le vaisseau, la Sonme, pour faire un 
proces verbal de I'entree du fleuve et je prend la liberte de dire a Votre 
Grandeur qu'il serait tres necessaire au progres de cette colonie que le Roy 
envoya tons les ans un vaisseau dans le fleuve tant pour estre asseure de 
I'entree que pour rendre compte du succes des differentes cultures et de 
I'etat des fortress cette colonie merite I'attention de Votre Grandeur le fleuve 
est le plus beau port que la France puisse avoir dans le Golfe, il ni avoit que 
douze pieds d'eau sur la barre quand je suis venu dans ce pais icy j'y en ai 
mis 17 par le seul passage des vaisseaux et naiant jamais en ce qui m'estoit 
necessaire pour y travailler de suite; je fais rester deux navires de la com- 
pagnie pendant huit jours sur la barre. 

Correspondanee Generale year 1731. 

Vol. XIII 

Archives du Ministere des Colonies, Paris. 

Copies of Manusceipts in the Ministry of the Colonies, Paris, France, 
March 11, 1901, Copied and Translation Made by C. M. Andrist, 
POR J. F, Steward. 

[It is believed that these reports were never before translated into English and that they 
bave never been referred to by historians.] 

My Lord — I have the honor of informing Your Greatness of the defeat of 
the Foxes upon the territory of Louisiana by the Illinois and the nations of 
the frontiers of Canada. Our savages complain that those of Canada have 
kept too many slaves, that they ought to kill them all, as they have done. 
However well things go the savages are never contented. That "which I have 
been able to learn the most positive from the French, who were on that expe- 
dition, is that they killed eleven or twelve hundred Foxes, men as well as 



191 

women and children. This destruction will do au infinite amount of gfood to 
the colony of Louisiana whose proo:ress was arrested by the continual incur- 
sions which they made upon the French as well as upon the Illinois. At 
present this country is going to become all the more fertile as it will become 
populous and better cultivated. This region must be regarded as one of the 
most important of this colony, and it is absolutely necessary that the company 
should maintain a great staff, not only to keep the savages in check, but the 
roving and libertine French who establish themselves in this section away 
from the e.yes of the governors; furthermore, the river having become free 
by the destruction of the Natchez, Thioux, Yazous and Corrios, who had 
resolved to destroy the establishments of the Fit neh. Of these four nations 
who were upon the river there does not remain forty men who have dispersed 
in order to avoid falling into the hands of the other nations whom I have sent 
after them. 

The expedition which I have just made, my lord, proves to j'our grandeur 
that folks were wrong in insinuating that the war against the savages here 
could only be carried on by other savages. I have thought the contrary ever 
since I have been in this country. I have experienced for 16 months without 
sparing anything that the savages are good to skirmish against each other 
and to take off a few scalps here and there, but incapable of being able to 
force or destroy a fortified cation. I avow that we shall suffer in the first 
marches which we make, but nothing is impossible to the Frenchmen well 
led. He customs himself, little by little, to the most difficult marches when 
it is a question of the glory of the king. The officers and soldiers, who have 
marched with my brother and me, were certainly not accustomed to the 
fatigues of this country, which have been the most trying that have been 
seen for thirty years. Their zeal and their emulation caused them to make 
no difference between the good and the bad weather when it was a question 
of attacking the enemy whom are found in a country up to that time unknown 
to all French and even to our allied savages of which none could serve us as 
guides. It was in that situation, so capable of striking down the courage of 
the most hardy that the officers showed by their example that nothing was 
impossible to the French who only work for the glory of the king. 

Folks also wished to show your grandeur that I was deceiving him when I 
had the honor to inform him that there were 17 feet of water upon the bar of 
the river. I descended with the vessel, the Somme, to have a report made of 
the entrance of the river, and I take the liberty to say to your grandeur that 
it would be very necessary for the progress of this colony that the king 
should send every year a ship into the river, as much to be assured of the 
entrance as to take account of the success of the different crops and the state 
of the fortresses. This colony merits the attention of your grandeur. The 
river is the most beautiful part which France can have in the gulf. There 
were only twelve feet of water upon the bar when I came to this country. 
I have put in 17 in the only passage of the vessels and never having had what 
I needed to work successively at it I have had two ships of the company 
remain on the bar for eight days. 

Correspondence Generale, year 1731, 

Vol. XIII, 

Archives des Ministere des Colonies, Paris. 

18 December, 1731, Canada. 

Defaite des sauvages Renards, Le 6 Aoust, 1730 le Sr. de Villiers comman- 
dant {\ la Riviere St. Joseph apris par deux Maskoutins qui lui furent deputes 
par leur nation que les Renards qui s'estoient mis en marche pour se rendre 
chez les Iroquois avoient ete poursuivis par les Poutoutamis Maskoutins Ki- 
kapous et Illinois et qu' apres avoir essuy6 deux differentes attaques de la 
part de ces nations, ils avoient gagoe un bosquet de bois ou ils s'estoient 
fortifies avec leurs families. 

II donue aussitot avis de cette nouvelle au Sr. de noyelles commandant aux 
miamis, il detacha en meme temps deux sauvnges au commandant du Detroit 
pour lui en faire par et le 10 du meme mois il partit lui meme a la tete de 300 



192 

Francois ou sauvagres allies pour se rendre an lieu ou etoient les Renards. 
II y trouva le Sr. de St. Ang-e qui y etait deja arrive de la Louisianne avee 
100 Francois et 400 sauvages. Le Sr. de Nayelles s'y rendit aussi avee des 
nations de son poste, en sorte que la troupe se trouva composee d'environ 
1,400 hommes. 

Les Renards avoient construit leur fort dans un bouquet de bois situe sur 
le bord d'une Riviere dans une vaste prairie. Le Sr. St. Ange s'etait campe 
a la gauche de eette riviere et avait fait faire des redoutes pour couper I'eau 
aux assieges; mais ce redoutes devinrent inutiles, les Renards ayaut trouv6 
le moyen de pratiqaer des chemins souterrains qui communiquoient a la 
riviere. 

Le Sr. de Villiers se campa a la droite de leur fort pour le battre. II en fit 
constrnire lui meme deux avee ur cavalier* et pour en aproeher de plus pres 
et essayer d'y mettre le feu il fit ouvis la tranchee. Les assieges firent 
d'abord grand feu sur lui, mais ils chercherent bientot a parlementer, les 
nations sauvages qui ne vouloient que faire des esclaves, lui proposerent de 
les econter mois il refusa constament; en sorte qui ils tournerent leurs tenta- 
tives du cote du Sr. de St. Ange qui fit le meme refus. 

Les assieges se trouverent par la reduit a manger leur converturesdepeaux; 
malgre cet etat violent ils soutinrent pendant 23 jours; mais le 8, 7 bre il y 
eut un orage si furieux et la nuitsi obscure, qu il ne fut pas possible au Sr. 
de Villiers d'engager les sauvages a garder les passages; les assieges pro- 
fiterent de cet avantage pour sortir de leur fort; mais les cris de leurs enfants 
et une femme qui se rendit a la tranchee ayant decouverte leur fuite, on les 
poursuivit, on les joignit a la pointe du jour, on donna sur eux avee vigueur, 
on les mit enderonte; 200 guerriers furent tues ou brules; 600 femmes on 
enfans eurent le meme sort, et cette defaite jointe aux autres partes que cette 
nation avoit soufert dans les differentes attaques qui'elle avoit essuye prece- 
demment de la part des sauvages allies, la reduite a 30 cabannes avee 
quelques vieilles femmes sans enfans errante sans vivres munitions, les Illi- 
nois ont encore frape sur elle; t et ne trouvant d'azile nulle part, elle a pris 
le parti d'envoyer deux nouveaux chefs a Mr. le Marquis de Beauharnois 
pour lui demander la vie. 

Dans les paroles que ces 2 chefs lui ont portesde la port dureste de la nation 
ils se sont representes commedes vietimes dignes de la mort et ils lui ont de- 
mande grace que pour reparer, par leur soumission les crimes que leur ob- 
stination leur a fait commetre. lis lui ont proteste que si dans la suite il se 
trouve quelque coupable ils le livreront euxmemes pour estre puni, et pour as- 
surance de lieu protestation, ils lui ont demande quelqu'm pour les gouver- 
ner, M. le Marquis de Beauharnois, leur a repordu avee fermete, il leur a 
fait voir I'indignite de leur conduite, il leur a reproche leur trahisons, et les 
tentatives qui ils avoient faites chez les Sonontonaus dans le temps qui'ils lui 
demandoient la paix; il leur a dit qu'il voulait d'autres assurances de leur 
fidelite que leur protestations et leurs paroles; et il a exige que I'un d' eux 
restat aupres de lui, et que I'autre allat ehereher 4 des principaux guerriers 
de la nation pour lui venu demander pardon I'annee prochaine a Montreal; 
sans quoi tout ce reste miserable seroit extermine sans misericorde, cette 
condition a este accepte I'un des chefs est parti pour aller faire par a sa na- 
tion de la reponse de M. le Mil. de Beauharnois, I'autre est reste aupres de 
lui et on attend le printemps proehain le 4 guerriers. Les sauvages parois- 
sent cependant voulou en eteindre la race, et M. le Marquis de Beauharnois 
les eutiendra dans cette disposition si eette nation manque a ce qui'elle lui a 
promis. 

Cette defaite a repondu la joye ehes les nations et ':il est venu I'este dernier 
a Montreal des saiivages de toutes portes pour en marquer leur satisfaction a 
M. le Marquis de Beauharnois et lui renouveler les assurances de leur fideli- 



*A little fort erected for protection of advanced positions. -J. F. S. 

tSuivant une lettrs du Sr. de Boisherbert commandant au Detroit du 15 Juillet. 1731, les 
Illinois ont tu6 dans cette occasion 3 femmes et fait prisonniers 5 hommes et 9 femmes on 
enfans. 



193 

t^s, et il y a este d'autant plus sensible lui meme que par la resignation de 
tons les sauvages il s' est apercju de I'impression que cette guerrea fait sur 
leurs esprits et qui se trouve par ce moyen en ^tat de travailler a retablir 
dans les pays d'enhaut la paix qui'cy etait enterrompiie depuis longtemps et 
d'y continuer nos etablissements. C'est dans cette veu qu'il a renvoye 
cette annee ches les Sioux pour y retablir le poste qu'on avoit este oblig6 
d'abandonner, a cause de la proximite des Renardset il a renouvell6 pour cet 
eflfet le traite qu'il avoit fait lors du par etablissement de ce poste. * 

II ne lui a paru moins important de penser au poste de la Baye que la prox- 
imite des Renards avoit aussi fait abandonner, il y a envoye le Sr. de Villiers 
au retour de son expedition pour le retablir comme il etoit avant qu'il fut 
evocue en cas qu'il trouve les Sakis dans la disposition d'y etablir pareille- 
ment leur village. 

11 a cru devoir, d'abord pouvoir au retablissement de ces deux postes d'au- 
tant plus que I'empechmens que les Renards aportoient a celui des Scioux ne 
subsistant plus, on sera en etat d'en tirer tons les avantages qu'on s'etait 
propos6. D'un autre c6t6 I'enterprise de Sr. de la Veranderie le demandoit, 
parce qu'il est absolument necessaire que cette nation soit dans nos interets, 
a fin de nous mettre a portee d'estre en commerce avec les assiniboils et les 
Cristenaux eh^s lesquels il faut posser pour aller k la decouverte de la mer de 
I'Ouest. Les Cristenaux ont en affaire avec les Sautertirs, de la pointe de 
Cha-gonamigon et leur ont tue quelques hommes. Mais il compte I'affaire 
accomod6e, et il veillera a ce que ces sauvages vivent en paix a I'avenir, les 
differens entre ces nations prejudicieroient beaucoup a toutes nos entre- 
prises, pour la reussite desquelles, il est besoin de la tranquillity qu'il tacher 
d'afermir dans les pays d'en haut. 

Canada Correspondence G^nerale 1731, pag., vol. 56, page 336. 

M. De Maurepas, Ministre de la Marine. Fonctionnaires divers de la Col- 
onie. 

DEFEAT OF THE FOX SAVAGES. 

Canada, December 18, 1731. 

The 6th of August, 1730, Mr. De Villiers, commandant at the St. Joseph river, 
learned from two Maskoutins who had been sent to him by their nation that 
the Foxes, who had started on the march to go to the Iroquois, had been pur- 
sued by the Pottawattamies, Massoutines, Kickapoos, and Illinois, and, that 
after having endured two different attacks on the part of these nations, they 
had gained a thicket (of woods) where they had fortified themselves with 
their families. He immediately gives advice of this news to Mr. de Noyelles, 
commandant at the Miamis. He sends at the same time two savages to the 
commandant of Detroit to notify him of it and the 10th of the same month he 
himself departs at the head of 300 French or allied savages to go to the place 
where the Foxes were. He found there Mr. de St. Ange who had arrived 
from Louisiana with 100 French and 400 savages. Mr. de Noyelles also 
comes there with the nations of his post, so that the troop is composed of 
about 1,400 hundred men. The Foxes had constructed their fort in a bunch 
of woods situated on the side of a river in a vast prairie. Mr. St. Ange had 
camped at the left of that river and had had redoubts constructed in order to 
cut off the water from the besieged, but these redoubts became worthless, 
the Foxes having found the means of contriving subterranean ways which 
communicated with the river. Mr. de Villiers camped at the rightof their fort 
in order to assail it. He also had two of them constructed with a cavalier, (a 
kind of fort to protect advanced positions) and, in order to approach the 
closest possible to try to set fire to it, he had a trench opened. The besieged 
at first opened a great fire upon him, but they sought to parley; the savage 
nations who only wished to make slaves, proposed to him to harken to them. 



* Ce traite avait est^ fait en 1726, il y en a une copie cy-jointe. 

—IB H. 



194 

but he constantly refused; so that they directed their attempts in the direc- 
tion of Mr. St. Ange who made them the same refusal. The besieged found 
themselves thereby reduced to eat their skin coverings; in spite of this des- 
perate condition they held out for 23 days; but the 8th of September there 
was such a terrible storm and the night was so dark that it was not possible 
for Mr. de Villiers to induce the savages to guard the passages. 

The besieged profited of this advantage to leave their fort; but the cries of 
their children and a woman who was going to the French having made known 
their flight, they are pursued, they are overtaken at the break of day, they 
are attacked with vigor, they are put to flight; 200 warriors were killed or 
burned; 600 women or children met the same fate, and this defeat joined to 
their other losses which that nation had suffered in the different attacks 
which it had endured previously from the part of the allied savages reduced 
it to 30 cabins with a few old women without children, wandering about 
without provisions or supplies. The Illinois attacked them * once more and 
finding no refuge anywhere, they decided to send two new chiefs to M. le 
Marquis de Beauharnois in order to ask their lives of him. 

In the expressions which these two chiefs brought to him from the rest of 
the nations, they represented themselves as victims worthy of death, and they 
only asked grace in order to repair, by their submission, the crimes which 
their obstinacy had caused them to commit. They protested to him that if 
in the future any guilty person was found among them they would deliver 
him up themselves to be punished; and, for an assurance of their protesta- 
tions, they asked him for some one to govern them. M. le Marquis de Beau- 
harnois answered them with firmness. He showed them the infamy of their 
conduct. He reproached them for their treachery and the attempts which 
they had made among the Sonontouans at the time when they were asking 
him for peace. He told them that he wished other assurances of their fidel- 
ity than their protestations and their words; and he required that one of them 
should remain with him and the others should go fetch four of the principal 
warriors of the nation to come and beg his pardon the next year at Montreal; 
without which all the miserable remainder should be exterminated without 
mercy. This condition having been accepted, one of the chiefs departed to 
go and inform his nation of the answer of M. le Marquis de Beauharnois. 
The other remained with him, and the four warriors are expected the follow- 
ing spring. The savages, however, appear to desire to destroy the race, and 
M. le Marquis de Beauharnois will keep them in that disposition if that na- 
tion fails in what it has promised him. This defeat has spread joy among the 
nations, and last summer there came to Montreal savages from all parts to 
express their satisfaction to M. le Marquis de Beauharnois and to renew to 
him the assurance of their fidelity. He has been all the more aware of it 
himself, as by the resignation of all of the savages he perceives the impres- 
sion which that war has made upon their minds, and as by that means he 
finds himself in a position to work to re-establish in the upper country the 
peace which had been interrupted for so long a time, and to continue our es- 
tablishment there. It is with that in view that he has sent away this year 
among the Sioux to re-establish the post there which had to be abandoned on 
account of the proximity of the Foxes, and he renewed, to that end, the treaty 
which had been made at the time of the first establishment of that post.t 

It seems none the less important to think of the post at the bay, which the 
proximity of the Foxes had also caused to be abandoned. He sent there Mr. 
de Villiers, upon his return from his expedition, to re-establish it as it was 
before it was evacuated, in case he found the Sacs in the disposition to also 
establish their village there. 

He believed that he ought to first provide for the re-establishment of these 
two posts, the more so as the hinderance which the Foxes had occasioned to 
the one among the Sioux no longer existing, they would be enabled to derive 



* According to a letter from Mr.de Boishebert, commandant at Detroit, of July 15, 1731. 
the Illinois killed on that occasion three women and made prisoners of five men and nine 
women and children. 

t This treaty had been made in 1726. There is copy attached to th 



195 

all the advantages which they expected. On the other hand, the enterprise 
of Mr. de la Veranderie demanded it, because it is absolutely necessary that 
that nation should be on our side in order to enable us to be in communica- 
tion with the Assiniboils and the Cristenaux, through whose territories it will 
he necessary to pass to discover the ocean of the west. The Cristenaux had 
an affair with the Sauteurs* of the point of Chagoumigon, and killed a few 
men, but he counts the affair as settled, and he will see that the savages live 
in peace in the future. The differences among these nations hindered all our 
enterprises exceedingly, for the success of which there is need of tranquil- 
lity, which he will undertake to make more secure in the upper country. 

Generale Correspondence Canada, 1731. 
Vol. 56, page 336. 
M. D. Maurepas, Minister of the Marine, 

Divers functionaries of the Colony. 

Sauvagks Renards, 
Mr. le Marq. de Beauharnois, 
Du 6 May, 1730. 

A marqu6 qu'un party de 200 sauvages surpris 20 cabannes des Renards et 
qu'il avois este massacre ou brul6 80 hommes et 300 femmes ou enfans, ne 
s'etaient sauve que trois hommes. Que depuis cette aventure les grand chef des 
Renards avoit est6 trouve le commandant Francais a la Riviere St. Joseph 
pour demander misericorde et qu'il devoit descendre pour cela a Montreal 
aimaut mieux courir les risque d'estre tu6 en chemin que dans son village. 

Que I'enterprise faite contre eux en 1728 a fait tant d'impression dans Pes 
prit des autres nations, qu'elles se maintiendront dans le party des Francais 
et continueront la guerre contre les Renards. 

Du 25 Juin. 

Le Dubisson, commandant a Missilimakinic, luy avoit donne avis quetoutes 
les nations des pays d'enhaut estoient'si fort animes contre les Renards, qu'un 
corps de sauvageil assez considerable I'avoit prie de se mettre a leurtetepour 
tomber sur les Renards; qu I'avoit accept^ et qu'il estait party avec 600 
Sauvages et 20 Francais. 

Du 18, 8bre, 1730. 

Mssrs. de Beauharnois et Hocquart marquent que les raisons qui ont engag6 
le Dubuisson dans cette demarche leur font penser qu'il ne sera pas desa- 
prouve d'autant plus que le bien du service et la necessite qu'il y avant d'en 
imposer aux nations sur les discours desavantageux qu'elles tenoient du peu 
succes de la campagne de 1728 le demandait. 

11 est vray qu'il n'a pas reussy dans cette enterprise quoy Qu'il ait apporte 
toute I'application et le zele qu'on pouvait attendre mais les Renards estaient 
decampez de leur fort avant son arrivee. II les a meme pour suivy pendant 
quelques jours inutilement. 

La despense qu'il a faite en cette occasion pourra monter a ce qu'il leur a 
marque a 2 ou3 m. lis en envoyeront I'estat I'annee prochaine. Cependant 
a fin qu'aucun autre commandant ne tombe pas dans le meme cas. M. de 
Beauharnois a ecrit a tous les commandants des postes de ne point accepter 
de pareilles propositionss de la par de sauvages sans recevoir auparavant ses 
ordres. II a pareillement deffendu de traitter, ny armes, ny munitions, tant 
aux Renards qu' a leurs allies dans le nombre desquels sout particulierment 
les Sakis. lis ajoutent que cette derniere tentative do Sr. le Dubuisson ex- 
iste denouveau dans I'esprit des nations la defaite entiere des Renards; les 
Sioux qui ne s'estoient pas jusqu 'a present declares ont frappe dessus et en 
ont tue douze; ainsy il y apparence qu'ils safforbliront de mani6re qu'ils ne 
pourront plus se relever et qu'on assuera par ce moyen la tranquillity des 
pays d'enhaut sans qu'il soit besoin dorenavant d'autres secours que des 
sauvages meme que M. de Beauharnois continuera d'entretenir dans ces dis- 
positions jusqu 'a ce que les Renards soient entierement detruits on qu'ils 
soient soumis aux conditions prescrittes s' ils demandant la paix. 



♦ The Sauteurs inhabited the resrion around the Saut St. Marie; hence the name. 



196 

Du 10, 8 bre, 1730 

Le Marquis de Beauharnois envoye la copie d'une lettre que luy a ecrit le 
commandant du Detroit le 22, Aoust, 1730. 

II en resulte que deux sauvages Mascoutins arrives a la Riviere St. Joseph 
ou commande le Sr. de Villiers ont raport6 que les Renards, sebattoient avee 
les Illinois, entre le Roeher et les Ouyatanons que les puants, Mascoutins et 
quiquapoux s'estoient joints aux Illinois et avoient tombe sur les Renards 
qui se trouverent par ce moyen enfermez des deux costes mais dans le mo- 
ment que les puants les Mascoutins et Quiquipoux attaqaoient les Renards 
compants que les Illinois leur feroient face de I'autre coste, ceux cy pruent la 
fuite. II y a en dans cette gr attaque 6 puants blessez et un tue. II a este 
tue aussy deux Quiquapoux de la Riviere St. Joseph qui estoient etablis 
parmi les Sakis, ce qui fera un bon effet parce que ce la les a anime contre 
les Renards et il s'en fallait beaucoup qu'ils ne le fussent auparavant. II y 
a en aussi plusieurs Renards tues ou blessez. 

Les francois des Cahosquia ont reproch6 aux Illinois qu'ils estoient des 
femmes et qu'ils ne scavoient point se battre, qu'a leur egard ils alloient 
partir avec leurs negres pour le joindere aux sauvages et defaire les Renards; 
ils forment deja un party assez considerable. Car les Illinois qui avoit fuy 
ont rejoint, ils ont fait des troux en terre pour se mettre a I'abry et les 
Renards sont dans un Islet debois, si'ils y restent il y a toute aparence qui'ils 
pouront este defaits, parce que le Sr. de Villiers devoit partir de la Riviere 
St. Joseph avec tons ses gens et devoit en ecrire au commandant du detroit 
pour demander le secours des ses sauvages, mais ces lettres ne luy sont point 
encore arrivee et ses sauvages qui doutent ce cette nouvelle ne veulent point 
partir que les lettres du Sr. de Villiers ne soient arriv6es onne doit cependant 
point douter que ces nouvelles ne soient veritables. Le Pere messager mis- 
sionnaire a St. Joseph ayant ecrit a peu pres la meme chase au P. la Rich- 
hardy missionnaire du detroit. Les puants du detroit paroissent bien 
determiner a y aller, aussy bien qu'une partie des Outases, mais il y tres peu 
de Hurons parce qu'il en est reste 80 du party qui avoit mareh^ le printemps 
dernier. II en est cependant arrive il y a huit jours qui ont aporte une 
Chevelure des Chicachas, on espere que le reste des Hurons pourra rejoindre 
et ce sera un bon renfort. 

Les Renards ont dit qu'ils attendoient un gros party d'Iroquois qui devoit 
les joindre et leur accorder retraite. lis ont peut estre tenu ces discours 
pour epouvanter les autres nations. Cependant il est tres seur que les Iro- 
quois a la solliutation des Anglais sement tons les jours des colliers qui nous 
sont tres prejudiciables. 

Here begins a chapter on the Sioux. 

The preceding are analyses of letters written by M. L. Marquis de Beau- 
harnois to Mr. DeMaurepas, minister of the marine. The original letters do 
not exist, simply the analysis made by a clerk employed in the ministry. 

Canada. 

Correspondence Generale, 1731, Vol. 56, page 321. 

Reports. 

Fox Savages. 

M. le Marq. de Beauharnois, 

of the 6th of May, 1630 (1730). 

has noted that a party of two hundred savages surprised twenty cabins 
(tepees) of the Foxes and that there has been massacred or burned eighty 
men and three hundred women or children, only three men having gotten 
away. That since that adventure the grand chief of the I'oxes had been to 
see the French commandant at the river St. Joseph in order to beg for mercy 
and that he had to descend for that to Montreal, preferring rather to run the 



197 

risk of being killed on the road than in the village. That the enterprise un- 
dertaken against them in 1728 had made such an impression upon the minds 
of the other nations that they will now keep on the side of the French and 
continue the war against the Foxes. 

Of the 25th June. 

Le Dubuisson commandant Missilimakinac, had advised him that all the 
nations of the upper country were so embittered against the Foxes that quite 
a large body of savages had begged him to place himself at their head in 
order to fall upon the Foxes, that he had accepted and that he had departed 
with six hundred savages and twenty French. 

[Note. These two articles have already been reported.] 

From 18th Oct., 1730. 

Messrs. de Beauharnois and Hocquart note that the reasons which have in- 
duced le Dubuisson in this move makes them think that he will not be cen- 
sured the more so as the good of the service demanded it, and the necessity 
that there was of overawing the nations for the slighting remarks which they 
made about the lack of success of the company of 1728. 

It is true that he did not succeed in that enterprise although he devoted all 
the application and zeal which could be expected, but the Foxes had decamped 
from their fort before his arrival. He even pursued them uselessly for 
several days. 

The expenses which he had on this occasion will amount to what he noted 
to them, to two or three M. They will send the account of it the next year. 
However, in order that no other commandant may fall in the same error, 
M. de Beauharnois has written to all the commandants of the posts to not 
accept such propositions on the part of the savages, without first receiving 
orders from him. He has likewise forbidden, to furnish either arms or mu- 
nitions to the Foxes and their allies in the number of which are particularly 
the Saks. They add that this last attempt of Mr. le Dubuisson has revived 
anew in the minds of the nations the complete defeat of the Foxes. The 
Sioux who up to the present had not declared themselves, attacked them and 
killed twelve. Thus there is an appearance that they will become enfeebled 
so much so that they will not be able to recover, and by these means the tran- 
quillity of the upper country will be assured, without any further need of other 
assistance than the savages themselves, whom Mr. le Beauharnois will con- 
tinue to keep in that disposition until the Foxes are entirely destroyed, or 
have submitted to the conditions prescribed, if they ask for peace. 

From Oct. 10th, 1730. 

The Marquis de Beauharnois sends the copy of a letter which the com- 
mandant of Detroit, had written him, Aug. 22nd, 1730. 

It appears that two Mascoutin savages came to the river St. Joseph where 
Mr. de Villiers commanded, reported that the Foxes were fighting with the 
Illinois between the Kock and the Ouatonons that the Puants, Muscoutinesand 
Kickapoos had joined the Illinois and had fallen upon the Foxes, who found 
themselves by this move hemmed in on both sides, but at the moment when 
the Puants, the Museatines and Kickapoos attacked, expecting the Illinois to 
face them on the other side, the latter fled. There were in that great attack 
six Puants wounded and one killed; there were also killed two Kickapoos of 
the river St. Joseph, who were established among the Saks, which will pro- 
duce a good efEect, because that will excite them against the Foxes, and it 
lacked but little before. There were also several Foxes killed or wounded. 

The French of the Cahosquia reproached the Illinois, saying that they were 
women and did not know how to fight; that as for themselves, they were 
going to leave with their negroes to join the savages and defeat the Foxes; 
they already form quite a large party, for the Illinois who had fled, joined 
them. They made holes in the ground in order to get under cover, and the 
Foxes are in a little ilet of wood. If they remain there, there is every ap- 
pearance that they will be defeated, since Mr. de Villiers was to leave the 



198 

River St. Joseph with all his men, and was to write of it to the commandant 
at Detroit, to ask him for the assistance of his savaeres, but these letters have 
not yet reached him and his savages who doubt this news, do not wish to depart 
because the letters from Mr. de Villiers had not arrived. There should be no 
doubt, however, but that this news is true, LePere, missionary messenger at 
St. Joseph having: written about the same thing to P. la Richardy, missionary 
at Detroit. The Puants, of Detroit, appear very much determined to go, as 
well as a party of the Outases, but there were very few Hurons. because 
there remained 80 from the party which had marched last spring. There ar- 
rived, however, some eight days ago, [one] who brought a scalp from the 
Chicasaws. It is hoped tliat the remainder of the Hurons will be able to join 
and that will make a good reenforcement. The Foxes said that they were 
expecting a large party of Iroquois, which, was to join them and offer them 
refuge. They perhaps, have [said] these things in order to frighten the 
other nations. However, it is very sure the Iroquois at the instigation of 
the English, send every day, beads which will be very harmful to us. 

The preceeding are analyses of letter written by M. le Marquis de Beau- 
harnois to M. de Maurepas, minister of the marine. The original letters do 
not exist, simply the analysis, made by a clerk employed in the ministry. 

Canada. 

Correspondence Generale, 1731, Vol. 56, page 321. 

Canada, 16 May, 1731. 

MoNSEiGNEUR— Nous avon en I'honneur, M. le Marquis de Beauharnois, 
et moy de vous escrire I'hiver dernier par la Nouvelle Angleterre, a la occa- 
sion de la defaite des Renards. Je joins a celle cy le duplicata de ma lettre 
particuliere du 16 Janvier dernier qui vous sera rendu monsigneur par lavoye 
de I'isle Royalle. 

Votre tres humble et tres obeissant serviteur, 

HOCQUART. 

A Quebec le 16 May, 1731. 

Canada Correspondence Generale, 1731, Vol. 55. 



RELATION DE LA DEFAITE DES RENARDS PAR LES FRANCAIS 
DE LA LOUISIANNE ET DU CANADA 
Les Renards unis avec les Maskoutins et Quikapous nous fesoient depuis 
bien des annees une guerre ouverte et aux sauvages nos alliez? ils surpre- 
noient nos detaehements, ils enlevoient nos voiageurs, traversoient tous nos 
dessins et venoient nous enquitter meme juisque dans nos habituations, que 
nous ne pouvions cultiver que les armes a la main, on avait tente deja plu- 
sieurs fois de les detruire mais le peu de concert I'esprit et la mauvaise con- 
duite de ceux qui furent charges en divers tenis de cette enterprise I'avoient 
toujours fait eschouer. Un evenement causa enfin leur desunion et la parte 
des Renards. 

Au mois d'Oetobre de I'ann^e 1728 un parti de Quickapous et Maskoutins 
fit prisonnier sur le Missisipi dix-sept Francais que descendoient des Sioux 
aux Illinois. lis delibrerent d'abord sils les brusleroient ou sils les remittroi- 
ent entre les mains des Renards qui les leur demandoient. Mais le pere 
Guignas miss. Jesuite qui estoient du nombre des prisonniers gagna leur 
confiance et vient about ensuit des les detacher deux et des les engager a 
nous demander la paix. II vint luy meme avec eux aubout de cinq mois de 
captivite au fort de Chartres on elle se conclut selon leur souhaits. 

Les Renards et affaiblis et deconcertes par cette division penserent a se refugier 
par les Ouyatanons ches les Iroquois amis des Anglais. Les Quikapous et 
Maskoutins penetrerent leur dessin et ils en donnerent avis dans tous les 
poste aux Francais de la Louisianne et du Canada. On douta quelque tems 
de leur bonne foy et Mr. de St. Ange, of&cier commandandant au fort de 
Chartres, ne pouvait determiner les habitans Francais a se mettre en campagne. 



199 

Cependant les Illinois du village des Kakokias vinrent au mois de Juillet, 
1730, nous aprendre que les Renards avoient fait des prisonniers sur eux 
et briil6 le fils de leur grand chef aupres du rocher sur la riviere des Illinois 
le nouvelle jointes a des avis que nous receumes d'ailleurs engagerent a 
partir on assembla les sauvages. Mr. de St. Ange se mit a la teste des Fran- 
cais et le lOe jour d'aoust ceus ci aiant joint les trois a quatre cent sauvages 
qui les avoient devances de quelque jours notre arm^e se trouva forts de 500 
hommes. 

Les Quikapous, Maskoutins et Illinois du rocher s'estoient rendus maitre 
des parrages du cost6 du nord est et fut vraisepablement ce qui contraiguit les 
Renards de faire un fort, au rocher a une lieur audessons d'eux pour se 
mettre a convert de leurs insultes. Nous eumes des nouvelles de I'ennemi le 
12, par nu de nos decouvrenes qui nousapriton estoit leur fort et qu'ily avoit 
compte cent onze cabannes. Nous n'en estoins plus esloigner que de deux 
ou trois journ^es? Nous continuanes done notre marche par des pais con- 
verts, et le 17, a la pointe du jour nous arrivarres a la vue de I'ennemi. Nous 
tombarres sus un parti de 40 hommes qui estoient sortis pour la chasse que 
nous contraignimes de regagner leur fort. 

C'estoit un petit boquet de bois renferme de pieux et silu6, sur une pente 
douce qui s'elevoit du cote du oiiest et du nord oiiest le long d'une petite 
riviere, en sorte que du cote du sud et du sud 'est on les voioit a decouvert 
leurs cabannes estoient fort petites et pratiqu^es dans la terre comme les tan- 
nieres des renards dont ils portent le nom. 

An bruit des premiers coups de fusil les Quikapous, Maskoutins et Illinois 
qui estoient souvent aux mains avec leurs partis etqui depuis un mois attend- 
oient du secours vinrent nous joindre au nombre de 200 hommes on se parta- 
^ea selon les ordres de M. de St. Ange pour bloquer les renards qui firent ce 
jour la deux sorties inutiles. On ouvrit la tranchee la nuit suivante et cha- 
cun travailla a se fortifier dans le post qui luy este assigne. 

Le 19 les ennerois demanderent a parler. lis offurent de rendre les esclaves 
qu'ils avoient faits autrefois sur les Illinois, et ils en rendirent en effet quel- 
ques uns. Maison s'apercut qu'ils ne cherchorent qua nous amuser; on re- 
commencea a tuer sur eux des le lendemain. 

Nous fumes joint les jours suivants par 50 a 60 Francois et 500 sauvages 
Pouatamie, et Sakis que avoit amends M. de Villiers, commandant de la 
riviere St. Joseph, ouyatanons et Peauguichias; nouvelle conference. Les 
renards demandent la vie des presents a la main. Mr. de Villiers paroit tent6 
mais ses gens n'estoient pas les plus forts et il ne pouvait rien conclure sans 
le consentment des Francois et sauvages Illinois qui ne vouloient se prefer a 
ancun accommodement. 

Cependant on s'aperceut que les Sakis nous trahissoient, parens et alliez 
des renards. Ils traittoient sous main avec eux. lis leur fournissoient des 
munitions, et ils prenoient des mesures, pour favoriser leur evasion. Nos 
sauvages qui s'en aperceurent le 1 er 7 bre s'armentrent et ils estoient sur le 
point de donner sur les Sakis lorsque Mr. de St. Ange a la teste de 100 Fran- 
cois savanca pour fermer toutes les avenues du cote des Sakis et retablit le 
bon ordre. 

Nous dissimulames, cette perfidie jusqua I'arrivee de Mr. de Noille, com- 
mandant des Miamis, qui se rendit a notre camp le meme jour avec 10 Fran- 
cois et 200 sauvages, il aportoit des defenses de M. le Gouverneur de Can- 
ada de faire aucun traitte avec les renards, on tint un cons'l general les 
Sakis y furent humilies, et toutes les voix se reunnent pour la perte de 
I'ennemy. 

Mais nous souffrions deja depuis longtems de la faim aussi bien que les 
renards nos sauvages reduits a manger leurs pars fleches se rebutoient 200 
Illinois deserterent le 7, 7 bre. Ce mauvais example n'ent pas de suite, les 
rena'*ds estoient plus presse tous les jours les trouppes de Mr. de St. Ange, 
construissoient a deux portees de pistollet, un petit fort qui alloit leur couper 
la communication de la riviere. Tout paroissoit nous annoncer une victoire 
complete. 



200 

Mais le 8e 7bre ua orage violent des tonnerres affreux une pluie continuelle 
interrompirent nos ouvrages cette journee fut suivie d'une nuit aussi plu- 
vieuse que noire et tres froide les renards profiferentde 1' occasion et sortirent 
en silence de leurs fort, on s'en aperceut aussitot aux cris des enfants. Mais 
que faire et a quelle marque se reconnaitre dans cette obscurity? On eraig- 
noit egalement de tuer nos gens et de laisser eschaper I'ennemi, tout le 
monde estoit cependant sous les armes etles sauvages savancoient sur les deux 
ailes des Renards pour donner des que le jour paroitroit, il parut enfin et 
chacun se mit a les suivre, nos sauvages plus, frais et plus vigoureux les 
joignirent bientot. 

Les femmes, les enfans, et les viellards marchoient a la teste et les guerriere 
s'estoient mis derriere pour les convrir, ils furent d'abord rompus et defaits, 
le nombre des morts et des prisonnier tut environs de 300 hommes guerrier 
sons parler des femmes et des enfans, tons convienent qui'il n'en est eschap6 
au plus que 50 ou 60 homqaes qui se sont sauves sans fusil et sans des meubles 
necessaires a la vie les Illinois du rocher, les maskoutins et les quikapous 
sont actuellement apres ce petit reste de fuiards et les premiers nouvelles 
nous aprendront ladestruction de cette malheureuse nation. 

Nons ne scavons pas encore combien les nations du Canada ont tries de 
guerriers non plus que le nombre d'esclaves qu'ils ont faits. 

Canada— Correspondanee Generale, 1732, Vol. 57, page 316. 

Canada, May 16, 1731. 

My Lord: — We had the honor, M. le Marquis de Beauharnois, and my- 
self, to write you last winter via New England, on the occasion of the defeat 
of the Foxes. I join to this the duplicate of my especial letter of the 16th of 
January, last, which will be brought to you, Monsigneur, by the way of He 
Royal. 

Your most humble and most obedient servant, 

Hocquart. 

At Quebec, May 16, 1731. 

Canada — Correspondence Generale, 1731, Vol. 55. 

There are also in the archives, eight other letters relative to the wars with 
the Foxes, but all prior to 1730. 

Canada — Correspondence Generale, 1731, page 251, Vol. 56. 

Account of the defeat of the Foxes by the French of Louisiana and Canada: 

The Foxes united with the Mascoutins and Kickapoos, had carried on open 
warfare against us, and against the savages, our allies. They surprised our 
detachments; they carried away our travelers; thwarted all our schemes, and 
even came to disturb us in our settlements, which we could only cultivate, our 
arms in our hands. Their destruction had been undertaken already several 
times, but the lack of harmony, the temper and the bad leadership of those 
who were charged at different times with this enterprise, had always caused 
it to fail. An event finally caused their disunion and the loss of the Foxes. 

In the month of October, of the year 1728, a party of Kickapoos and Mas- 
coutins captured upon the Mississippi 17 French, who were descending from 
the Sioux to the Illinois. They deliberated at first whether they should burn 
them or whether they should give them into the hands of the Foxes, who 
were asking for them: but Father Guignas, a Jesuit missionary, who was one 
of the prisoners, gained their confidence and finally succeeded in detaching 
them from them * and induced them to ask us for peace. He, himself, came 
with them at the end of five month's captivity, to Fort de Chartres, where it 
was concluded according to their wishes. 

* Poxes. 



201 

The Foxes enfeebled and disconcerted by this division thought about taking 
refuge (by passing through the territory of the Outanous) among the Iro- 
quois the friends of the English. The Kickapoos and Mascoutins anticipated 
their designs and they gave notice of them in all the French posts in Louisiana 
aud Canada. Their good faith was doubted for some time and M. de Saint- 
Ange, oflBeer commanding at Fort Chartres could not persuade the French 
inhabitants to take up arms. 

However, the Illinois of the village of Lakokias came in the month of July, 
1730, to tell us that the Foxes had taken some prisoners among them and had 
burned the sou of their great chief near the Rock upon the Illinois river. 
These news joined to information we received from elsewhere leads us to 
move. The savages are brought together, M. de St. Ange plaees himself at 
the head of the French, and the 10th day of August after having overtaken 
the 300 or 400 savages which had preceeded them several days, our ax-my 
finds itself 500 men strong. 

The Kickapoos, Mascoutins and Illinois of the Rock had taken possession of 
the northeast quarter and it was probably that which constrained the Foxes 
to build a fort at the Rock a league below them in order to get under cover 
from their assaults. We had news of the enemy on the 12th from one of our 
scouts who informed us where their fort was and that he had counted there 
111 cabins. We were distant from it only two or three days march. We 
continued therefore our march through covered country and the 17th, at the 
break of day we arrived in sight of the enemy. We met a party of 40 men, 
who had gone out on the hunt whom we forced to return to their fort. It 
was a little thicket of woods enclosed with palisades and situated upon a 
gentle slope which rose in the direction of the west and northwest along a 
little river; so that in the direction of the south and southeast one saw plainly, 
their tepees were small and set in the earth like the dens [holes] of foxes 
whose names they bear. 

At the noise of the first gun the Kickapoos, Mascoutins and the Illinois 
were often in contact with their bands and who had been expecting aid for a 
month came to join us to the number of 200 men. They divided according to 
the orders of M. de St. Ange in order to blockade the Foxes who made two 
unfruitful attempts to get out that day. A trench is opened in the following 
night and each works to fortify himself at the post assigned him. 

The 19th the enemy asks a parley. They offered to give up the slaves 
which they had formerly taken from the Illinois and they returned several 
in fact, but it could be seen that they were only seeking to amuse them- 
selves [delay]. The firing upon them began again the next morning. We 
were joined the following day by 50 to 60 French and 500 savages, Potta- 
wattamies and Saks whom M. de Villiers, commandant of St. Joseph river, 
Outamons and Peanquichias, had led thither. New conference. The Foxes 
ask for their lives with presents in their hands. M. de Villiers appears 
tempted, but his followers were not the strongest and he could not conclude 
anything without the consent of the French and the Illinois savages, who 
would not lend themselves to any agreement. 

In the meanwhile we perceived that the Saks were betraying us, the rela- 
tives and allies of the Foxes. They were treating underhandedly with them. 
They were furnishing them with ammunition and they were taking measures 
to favor their escape. Our savages, who noticed it the 1st of September, 
mutinied, and they were upon the point of attacking the Saks when M. 
de St. Ange, at the head of 100 Frenchmen, advanced so as to close all ave- 
nues in the direction of the Saks and reestablished good order. 

We feigned not to take notice of this perfidity until the arrival of M. 
de Noille, commandant of the Miamis, who came to our camp the same 
day with ten French and 200 savages. He brought a prohibition from the 
governor of Canada to make any treaty with the Foxes. A general council 
was held. The Saks were humiliated and all voices joined for the destruction 
of the enemy. 

But we had already suffered a long time from hunger as well as the Foxes. 
Our savages reduced to eat their shields, were disheartened. Two hundred 



202 

Illinois deserted on the 7th of September. This bad example had no result. 
The Foxes were pressed harder every day. The troops of M. de St. Ange 
constructed a small fort at two lengths of a pistol shot, which was to cut 
them off from communication with the river. Everything appeared to an- 
nounce a complete victory for us. 

But the 8th of September a violent storm with frightful thunder, a contin- 
ual rain interrupted our works. This day was followed by a night quite as 
rainy, dark and very cold. The Foxes profited by the occasion and left their 
forts in silence. It was immediately noticed from the cries of the children. 
But what could we do and by what marks could we recognize one another in 
that darkness? We feared equally killing our own men and letting the 
enemy escape. Everyone, however, was under arms and the savages ad- 
vanced upon the two wings of the Foxes in order to attack them as soon as 
the day should appear. It finally appeared and each one began following 
them. Our savages fresher and more vigorous, soon overtook them. 

The women, the children and the old men were marching at the head and 
the warriors had taken their places behind them in order to cover them. 
They were at first broken and then defeated. The number of the dead and 
of the prisoners was about 300 warriors without speaking of the women and 
the children. All agree that at the most only 50 or 60 men escaped who ran 
away without guns or any of the weapons necessary to life. The Illinois of 
the Rock, the Mascoutins and the Kickapoos are at present after this small 
remaining number of runaways, and the first news will bring information of 
the destruction of that miserable nation. 

We do not know how many warriors the Nations of Canada killed nor the 
number of slaves which they have taken. 

Canad, Correspondence, Generale, 1732, vol. 57, page 316. 

This is the document which Ferland had before him when he wrote the 
description of the battle, indeed he made use of the account in toto. 



NAKRATIVE OF THE CAPTUKE OF WILLIAM BIGGS 
BY THE KICKAPOO INDIANS IN 1788. 

[Written by himself and publishedlin 1826.J 

[William Bigrers was born in Maryland in 1755. and there received a fair elementary- 
English education. In 1778, at the age of 23, he enlisted in the regiment raised by Col. 
George Rogers Clark for conquest of the Illinois, and was elected a lieutenant of his com- 
pany. After expiration of his military service he married and began farming in the western 
part of Virginia not far from Wheeling, But he was so fascinated with the beautiful, fertile 
country he had seen in Illinois, in the campaign with Col. Clark, that he left the rocky, 
sterile hills of Virginia in 1784, in company of his two brothers, and a few of his military 
comrades with their families, and returned to Illinois to here find a permanent home. They 
settled down with James Moore, Shadrach Bond, Sr., Larken Rutherford and others, in and 
about Bellefontaine, near the present town of Waterloo, Monroe county. In 1790. Mr. Biggs 
was appointed, by Gov. St. Clair, sheriff of St. Clair county— the first county organized in 
Illinois, comprising the territory west of a line drawn from the confluence of the Little 
Mackinaw with the Illinois river, to the mouth of a creek above Fort Massacre on the Ohio 
river, and bounded on the south and west by the Ohio. Mississippi and Illinois rivers. In 
December, 1802, he was defeated at an election held in Cahokia, by .Jean Francois Perry, for 
delegate to a convention called by Governor Harrison, to meet at Vincennes for the purpose 
of petitioning congress to abrogate or suspend the clause of the ordinance of 1787, prohibit- 
ing slavery In the Northwestern territory. In September, 1804, he was elected as one of the 
representatives of Illinois territory in the legislature of the Indiana territory that met at 
Vincennes, and was elected in 1806. He was elected to represent St. Clair county in the 
legislative council (Senate) of Illinois territory in 1812, and re-elected in 1814. In 1808 he 
was elected to an office in St. Clair county styled "Justice of the Peace and Judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas," which he held for a number of years, holding the first term of his 
court in a corn crib. In 1818, he was defeated for the office of sheriff of St. Clair county by 
Wm. Anderson Beaird. In recognition of his valuable military and civil services, congress, 
in 1826, granted him three sections of land. He was then engaged in the manufacture of 
salt from a salt spring near Silver creek, in Madison county, and died at the residence of 
Col. Thos. Judy, in that county the following year, 1827. He is described by his contempor- 
aries as a very handsome man, tall, erect, of fine military figure, with florid complexion, 
dark hair and eyes, and having keen intelligence, and pleasant affable disposition. J. F. S,J 



203 



NARRATIVE OF WILLIAM BIGGS. 



In the year 1788, March 28, I was groingr from Bellfontain to Cahokia, in 
company with a young man named John Vallis, from the state of Maryland; 
he was born and raised near Baltimore. About 7 o'clock in the morningr 1 
heard two guns fired; by the report I thought they were to the right; I 
thought they were white men hunting; both shot at the same time. I looked 
but could not see anybody; in a moment after I looked to the left and s-aw 16 
Indians, all upon their feet, with their guns presented, about 40 yards dis- 
tant from me, just ready to draw trigger. I was riding between Vallis and 
the Indians, in a slow trot, at the moment I saw them. 1 whipped my horse, 
and leaned my breast on the horse's withers, and told Vallis to whip his 
horse, that they were Indians. That moment they all fired their guns in one 
platoon; you could scarcely distinguish the report of their guns one from an- 
other. They shot four bullets into my horse, one high up in his withers, one 
in the bulge of the ribs near my thigh and two in his rump, and shot tour or 
five through my great coat. The moment they fired their guns they ran to- 
wards us, and yelled so frightfully that the wounds and the yelling of the 
Indians scared my horse so that my gun fell off my shoulder, and twisted out 
of my hand. I then bore all my weight on one stirrup, in order to catch my 
gun, but could not. I had a large bag of beaver fur, which prevented me 
from recovering my saddle, and having no girth nor crupper to my saddle, it 
turned and fell off "my horse, and I fell with it, but caught on my feet and 
held by the mane; I made several attempts to mount my horse again, but the 
Indians running up so close, and making such a frightful yelling, that my 
horse jumped and pranced so that it was impossible for me to mount him 
again; but I held fast to my horse's mane for 20 or 30 yards; then my hold 
broke and I fell on my hands and knees, and stumbled along about four or 
five steps before I could recover myself. By the time I got fairly on my feet, 
the Indians were about eight or ten yards from me. I saw then there was no 
other way for me to make my escape but by fast running, and I was deter- 
mined to try it, and had but little hopes at first of my being able to escape. 
I ran about 100 yards before I looked back. I thought almost every step I 
could feel the scalping knife cutting my scalp off. 1 found I was gaining 
ground on them; I felt encouraged, and ran about 300 yards farther, and 
looking saw that I had gained about 100 yards, and considered myself quite 
out of danger. A thought then occurred to me that I was as safe and out of 
danger as I would be if I were in the city of Philadelphia. The Indians had 
quit yelling and slacked their running, but I did not know it then. 

It being a tolerable cold morning, and I was heavily clad, I thought per- 
haps the Indians would give me a long chase, and probably they would hold 
out better than I could; although at that time I did not feel the least tired or 
out of breath. I concluded to throw off my two coats and shoes, as I would 
then be better prepared for a long race. I had my great coat tied around me 
with a silk handkerchief pretty much worn— I recollect tying it with a slip 
knot, but being in a hurry it was drawn into a double hard knot; I tried 
some little time to get it loose — the longer I tried the harder the knot seemed 
to get, that stopping my running considerably; at length I broke it by 
some means, I do not know how. In the morning I forgot to put on my shot 
pouch before I put on my great coat, and then put it on over it. I pulled off 
the sleeves of my great coat, not thinking of mj: shot-pouch being over the 
coat, it having very short straps, the coat got so tight in the strap that I 
could not get it loose for a considerable time. Still trying, it hung down and 
trailed on the ground, and every two or three steps it would wrap around my 
legs and throw me down, and I would catch on my hands and knees, it 
served me so several times, so that I could make no headway at running. 
After some considerable time, I broke the strap and my great coat dropped 
from me — I had no knife with me. 

The Indians discovered that something was the matter and saw me tumb- 
ling down several times. I suppose they thought I was wounded and could 
run no farther; they then set up the yell again and mended their gait run- 
ning. By the time 1 got my great coat loose from me, and was 'in the act of 
pulling off my under coat, I was pulling off one sleeve, I looked back over 



204 

my shoulder, but had not time to pull it off — the Indians being within ten 
yards of me. I then started again to run, but could not gain any ground on 
them, nor they on me; we ran about 100 yards farther and neither appeared 
to gain ground; there was a small pathway that was a little nearer than to 
keep the big road, — I kept the big road, the Indians took the path, and when 
we came where the path comes into the big road the Indians were within 
three or four yards from me — we ran 40 or 50 steps farther, and neither ap- 
peared to gain ground. I expected every moment they would strike me with 
their tomahawks — I thought it would not do to be killed running like a cow- 
ard and saw no other way to make my escape than to face about and to 
catch the tomahawk from the first that attempted to strike me, and jerk it 
from him, which I made no doubt but I was able to do; then I would have a 
weapon to fight with as well as them, and by that means I would be 
able to make my escape; they had thrown down their guns before they gave 
me chase; but I had not fairly faced about before an Indian caught 
me by the shoulder and held his tomahawk behind him and made an attempt 
to strike me. I then thought it best for me not to make any resistance till I 
would see whether he would attempt to strike me or not. He held me by the 
shoulder till another came up and took hold off me, which was only four or 
five minutes; then a third Indian came up; the first Indian that took hold of 
me took the handle of his tomahawk and rubbed it on my shoulder and down 
my arm, which was a token that he would not kill me, and that I was his 
prisoner. Then they all took their hands off me and stood around me. The 
fourth Indian came up and attempted to strike me, but the first Indian that 
caught me pushed him away. He was still determined to kill me, and tried 
to get around to my back, but I still faced round as he was trying to get to 
my back. When he got up by my side he drew his tomahawk the second 
time to strike me, but the same Indian pushed him off again and scolded 
him very much. He let his tomahawk hang by his side, but still intended 
to kill me if he could get an opportunity. The other Indians watched 
him very closely. There were but four Indians that gave me chase; 
they were all naked except their breachcloth, leggins and moccasins. 
They then began to talk to me in their own language, and said they 
were Kickapoos, that they were very good Indians. I need not be 
afraid, they would not hurt me, and I was now a Kickapoo and must go 
with them, they would take me to the Matocush, meaning a French trading 
town on the Wabash river. When the Indians caught me I saw Mr. Vallis 
about 100 yards before me on the road — he had made a halt. They shot him 
in the left thigh, about seven or eight inches above the knee, the ball came 
out just below the hip, his horse was not injured — he rode an elegajit horse 
which carried him out of all danger — his wound mortified, he lived sfx weeks 
after he was wounded, then died. I understood their language, and could 
speak a little. They then told me to march; an Indian took hold of each of 
my arms, and led me back to where they shot at me, and then went about 
half a mile further off the road, where they had encamped the night before 
and left their blankets and other things. They then took off my undercoat 
and tied my hands behind my back, and then tied a rope to that, tying about 
six or seven feet long, we then started in a great hurry, and an Indian held 
one end of the rope while we were marching 

There were but eight Indians marched in company with me that morning 
from the camp. The other eight took some other route, and never fell in with 
us again, until some time after we got out of their towns. We had marched 
about three or four miles from that camp when Vallis arrived at the fort, 
about six miles from where they caught me, where they fired a swivel to 
alarm the people who were out of the fort. When the Indians heard the 



*The "Fort" mentioned by Mr. Biggs, known then as Pigerott's Fort— to which his com- 
panion. Vallis, succeeded in escaping— was a block house built by James Piggott and others, 
at the foot of the bluffs, in Monroe county, where the road from Waterloo to Cakokia— un- 
changed since then— crosses the rivulet, named by the early French inhabitants of the 
American Bottom, Le Grand Ruisseau, where it emerges from the bluffs, a mile and a half 
directly west of Columbia, in that county Mr. Biggs, when captured, had reached a point 
on that road three miles due south of Columbia, and very nearly opposite the farm house 
built there several years ago by Mr. Waruick. The exact spot was shown by Mr. Biggs 
after his return, and is still well known. J. F. a. 



205 

swivel they were very much alarmed, and all looked that way and hallowed^ 
"yough, youffh." They then commenced running, and in a pretty smart trot 
of a run for five or six miles before they halted, and then walked very fast 
until about 2 o'clock in the afternoon, when they separated, I supposed to 
hunt, having nothing to eat. The old chief and one of the other Indians kept 
on a straight course with me; we traveled about three miles, when we got a 
little way into a small prairie and halted about 15 minutes; there 
one of the party fell in with us; he had killed a bear and 
brought as much of the meat with him as he could carry. 
We then crossed the prairie and came to a large run about one mile 
and a half from where we had halted to rest. By this time the three Indians 
had joined us. We halted there, made a fire and roasted the bear meat, the 
other two Indians stayed behind as spies. Whilst the meat was cooking, the 
Indians held a council what they would do with the Indian that wanted to 
kill me. He was a young fellow about 19 years of age and of a different na- 
tion, being a Pottowattema. They did not want him to go to war with them; 
they said he was a great coward and would not go into danger till there was 
no risk to run, then he would run forward and get the best of the plunder, 
and that he would not be commanded; he would do as he pleased; was very 
selfish and stubborn, and was determined to kill me if he could get a chance. 
They determined in their council to kill him. It is a law with the Indians 
when they go to war, if an Indian will not obey the counsels and commands 
of his captain or chief, to kill them. When their meat was cooked, they ate 
very hearty, and when they were done eating, three of the Indians got up, 
put on their budgets and started, this young Indian was one of them. I 
also got up to show a willingness to be ready. The old chief told me to me to sit 
down, and the three Indians started off. In about three or four minutes after we 
started, but varied a little in our course. We had not traveled more than one 
hundred yards when we heard the report of a gun. The old chief then told 
me that they had killed the Indian that wanted to kill me. The other two In- 
dians fell in company with us before night. We then traveled till about 10 
o'clock in the night, when we encamped at a large grove of timber in a prai- 
rie, about four miles from the edge of the woods; made no fire that night. 
We traveled about forty miles that day. After they rested awhile they sat 
down to eat their "jirk." They gave me some but I could not eat any. 
After they were done eating, one of the Indians was sitting with his back 
against a tree, with his knife lying between his legs. I was sitting facing 
him with my feet nearly touching his. He began to inquire of me of what 
nation I belonged to. I was determined to pretend that I was ignorant and 
could not understand him. I did not wish them to know that I could speak 
some Indian language, and understand them better than I could speak. He 
first asked me in Indian if I was a Mattocush (that is Frenchman in English.) 
I told him no. He asked me if I was a Sagenash, (an 
Englishman.) I told him no. He again asked if I was a She- 
molsea, (that is a long knife or Virginian,) I told him no. 
He then asked me if I was a Bostonely, (that is American.) 
I told him no. About one minute afterwards, he asked me the same ques- 
tion over again, I then answered him yes; he then spoke English and caught 
up his knife in his hand, and said: "You are one dam son of a bitch." I 
really thought he intended stabbing me with his knife. I knew it would not 
do to show cowardice, 1 being pretty well acquainted with their manner and 
ways. I then jumped upon my feet and spoke in Indian and said, "Mane- 
tway, kien, depaway" (in English it is "No, I am very good,") and clapped 
my hand on my breast when I spoke, and looked very bold. The other 
Indians all set up such ha! ha! and laugh that it made the other Indian look 
very foolish. He sat still and looked very sulky. After they had rested 
awhile they began to prepare to lay down; they spread down a deer 
skin and blanket for me to lay on. They had tied a rope around my 
arms above my elbows, and tied that rope across my back, and a rope 
around my neck; they then tied the end of another rope behind to the 
neck rope, then down my back to the pinion rope; they then drew my 
hands forward across my stomach and crossed my wrists; then tied my 
wrists very tight; then tied my legs together, just below my knees: 



206 

then tied my feet together with a rope around my ankles; then took a small 
cord and tied in between my wrists, and also between my ankles very tight, 
in order to prevent me from drawing out my hands or feet; they then took 
another cord and tied one end to the neck rope; then to the hand rope; then 
from the hand rope to the knee rope; then they took a rope about six feet 
long and tied one end to the wrist rope, and the other end to a stake about 
six feet from me stretched very tight, and an Indian laid on that rope all 
night; then they took another rope about the same length, and tied one end 
to the knee rope and the other end to a stake, and another Indian laid on 
that all night; then they tied a large half- dressed elk rope, one end to the 
back part of the neck rope which made a knot as big as my fist, the other 
end they tied to a stake about six feet from my head. When they finished 
their tying me, they covered me with a blanket. They tied me in the afore- 
going way nine nights in succession; they had me stretched and tied so tight, 
that I could not move one inch to turn or rest myself; that large knot was on 
the back of my neck, so that I was obliged to lay on it all night, and it hurt 
my neck very much. I never suffered as much in the same length of time in 
all my life; 1 could hardly walk when we got to their town. They never 
made me carry anything except a blanket they gave me to keep myself warm, 
when they took all my clothes from me. The Indians carried a deerskin and 
blanket all the way for me to lodge upon. When my hands and feet became 
sore with the tying, the Indians would always pull off my moccasins at night 
and put them on in the morning, and patch them when they would require it.* 

The second day we started very early in the morning and traveled about 
35 miles, which was the 29th day of March. They killed a deer that day — in 
the evening they took the intestines out of the deer and freed them of their 
contents, when they put them in the kettles witn some meat and made soup. 
I could not eat any of it. 

The fourth day we traveled about 25 miles. We stopped about 3:00 o'clock 
in the afternoon at a pond. They stayed there all night. They had some 
dried meat, tallow, and buffalo marrow rendered up together, lashed and 
hung upon a tree about 20 feet from the ground, which they had left there in 
order to be sure to have something to eat on their return. They killed two 
ducks that evening. The ducks were very fat. They picked one of the 
ducks, and took out all its entrals very nice and clean, then stuck it on a 
stick, and stuck the other end of the stick in the ground before the fire, and 
roasted it very nice. By the time the duck was cooked, one of the Indians 
went out and cut a large block out of a tree to lay the duck upon; they made 
a little hole in the ground to catch the fat of the duck while roasting. When 
the duck was cooked, they laid it on this clean block of wood, then took a 
spoon and tin cup and lifted the grease of the duck out of the hole and took 
it to the cooked duck on the table, and gave me some salt, then told me to go 
and eat. I sat by and eat the whole of the duck, and could have eaten more 
if I would have had anything more to eat, though I had no bread. I thought 
I had never eat anything before that tasted so good. That was the first meal 
I had eaten for four days. The other duck they pulled a few of the largest 
feathers out of, then threw the duck— guts, feathers and all— into their soup- 
kettle, and cooked it in that manner. 

The fifth day we traveled about 30 miles. That night I felt very tired and 
sore; my hands, arms, legs and feet had swelled and inflamed very much by 
this time; the tying that night hurt me very much, indeed. I thought I could 



*It is much to be regretted that Mr. Biggs delayed writing the history of his capture and 
captivity by the Indians until 38 years after its occurrence, when he was 71 years of age; as 
after that lapse of time many incidents of his harrowing experience, and his impressions 
of the topography of the country over which he journeyed, had no doubt measurably faded 
from his memory. In his narrative he fails to describe any stream he crossed, or to mention 
particularly any prominent landmark he saw, by which we can now trace with certainty the 
route he traveled. I'resuming his Indian captors, in hastening to their village on the 
Wabash, a few miles below, where Lafayette, in Indiana now stands, only deflected from a 
direct course to avoid crossing large streams, they must have passed through or near the 
site of Belleville, there crossing Richland creek, and camped the first night not far from 
Lebanon, perhaps on Silver creek. Thence, they probably crossed the east branch of Shoal 
creek, a short distance north of Greenville, then passed through, or near the sites of Tower 
Hill, Sullivan. Tuscola and Danville. J. F. S. 



207 

not live until morning; it felt just like a rough saw cutting my bones. I told 
the Indians I could not bear it, it would kill me before morning, and asked 
them to unslack or unloosen the wrist rope a little; that hurt me most. They 
did so, and rather more than I expected; so much that I could draw my hand 
out of the tying, which I intended to do as soon as I thought the Indians were 
asleep. When I thought the Indians were all asleep I drew my hand out of 
the tying, with an intention to put it back again before I would go to sleep, 
for fear I should make some stir in my sleep and they might discover me. 
But finding so much more ease, and resting so much better, I fell asleep be- 
fore I knew it, without putting my hand back in the tying. The first thing I 
knew about 3 o'clock in the morning, an Indian was sitting astraddle me, 
drawing his tomahawk and rubbing it across my forehead; every time he 
would draw a stroke with the pipe of his tomahawk, he threatened to kill me, 
and saying I wanted to run away; I told him to away. I would as leave 
die as live. I then told him 1 was not able to run away. He then got off me, 
and the rest of the Indians were all up immediately. They then held a short 
council and agreed to tie me as tight as ever, and they did so. I got no more 
sleep that night. I never asked them to loose my ropes any more. 

The sixth day we traveled about 30 miles, and had nothing to eat that day. 

The seventh day we traveled about 25 miles. They killed a doe that day; 
she had two fawns in her, not yet haired. They stopped about 4:00 o'clock 
in the evening and cooked the doe and her two fawns, and eat the whole up 
that night. They gave me part of a fawn to eat, but I could not eat it— it 
looked too tender. I eat part of the doe. 

The eighth day we traveled about 25 miles, and had nothing to eat that 
day. 

The ninth day we traveled about 15 miles. We then arrived at an Indian 
hunting camp, where they mad_e sugar that spring. About 11:00 o'clock in the 
forenoon we had not yet anythmg to eat that day. The Indians that lived there 
had plenty of meat, hominy, grease and sugar to eat. They gave us a plenty 
of everything they had to eat. We were very hungry, and eat like hungry 
dogs. When we were satisfied eating, the warriors went into a large cabin, 
and I went with them, and immediately several of their friends came in to 
see them, both men and squaws, to hear the news. It is a custom with that 
nation for the squaws to demand presents of the warriors, if they have been 
successful. After some little inquiry, the squaws began to demand presents 
of the warriors; some would ask for a blanket, some for a shirt, some for a 
tomahawk; one squaw asked for a gun. The warriors never refuse anything 
that was demanded. The manner in which they made their demand was, 
they would go up to an Indian and take hold of what they wanted. When 
the squaws were done with the warriors, there came a squaw and took hold 
of my blanket. I saw how the game was played; I just threw it off and gave 
it to her. Then there came up a young squaw, about 11 or 12 years old, and 
took hold of my shirt. I did not want to let that go, as it was a very cold 
day, and I let on I did not understand what she wanted. 

She appeared to be very much ashamed and went away. The older squaws 
encouraged her and persuaded her to try it again; she came up the second 
time and took hold of my shirt again; I still pretended to be ignorant, but she 
held fast. I knew it would have to go. One of the warriors then stepped up 
and told me to let her have it; I then pulled it off and gave it to her. The 
old squaw laughed very much at the young squaw. I was then quite naked 
and it was a very cold day; I had nothing on me but moccasins, leggins and 
breacheloth. We remained there about three or four hours. The warriors 
then went out to the war post to dance; they invited me to go with them to 
dance; I did so; they sang and danced around the war post for about half an 
hour. The old Indians would sing and dance sometimes out of the ring and 
appeared very lively. The warriors then marched right off from their dance 
on their journey. We had not got further than about 50 or 60 yards when I 
looked back and saw a squaw running with a blanket; she threw it on my 
shoulders; it fell down. I turned and picked it up; it was a very old dirty, 



208 

lousy blanket, though it was better than nothing, as the day was very cold. 
We traveled about five or six miles that evening, then encamped in the 
woods. I suffered very much that night from the cold. 

The tenth day we traveled five or six miles in the morning. We got within 
a quarter of a mile of a new town, on the west bank of the Wabash river, 
where those warriors resided, about nine o'clock, and made a halt at a run- 
ning branch of water, where the timber was very thick, so that they could 
conceal themselves from the view of the town. They then washed themselves 
all over and painted themselves with paint of different colors. They made 
me wash, then they painted me and said I was aKickapoo. They then cut a 
pole and peeled it, painted it different colors and stuck the big end in the 
ground, and cleared a ring around the pole for to dance in. The fifth night 
they cut a lock of hair out of the crown of my head about as thick as my finger, 
plaited it elegantly, and put it in their conjuring bag, and hung that bag on the 
pole they contemplated dancing around, and said that was their prisoner, and I 
was a Kickapoo, and must dance with them. When they all got ready to dance, 
the captain gave three loud halloes, then walked into the ring and the rest 
all followed him. They placed me third next to the captain; they then be- 
gan to sing and dance. When we had danced about half an hour, I saw sev- 
eral old men, boys and squaws come running to where we were dancing. 
When there was a considerable number of them collected, the captain stepped 
out of the ring and spoke to the squaws. He told them to carry his and the 
other warriors' budgets to the town; the captain then joined the other war- 
riors and me in the dancing ring; he marched in the front and we danced 
and sung all the way from there into town. Some of the old Indian warriors 
marched upon each side of us, and would sing and dance until we got into 
their town. We continued dancing until we got through the town to the war 
post, which stood on the west bank of the Wabash river; danced around that 
about 20 minutes; they then marched into the town, took all the cords off 
me, and showed me a cabin, told me to go in there, they 
were good Indians, they would give me something to eat, I need not fear, 
as they would not hurt me. I accordingly went in where I received a plenty 
to eat and was treated very kindly. The warriors went into other cabins and 
feasted very greedily. We had not eat anything that morning nor the night 
before. About one hour and a half before the sun set the same evening, the 
warriors went out to the war post again to dance. They took me with them; 
several other Indians were present. They had danced about half an hour, 
when I saw two Indian men and a squaw riding a horseback across the Wa- 
bash river from the east side; they came to where we were dancing. One of 
the Indians had a handkerchief tied around his head and was carrying a gun; 
the other had a cocked hat on his head, and had a large sword. The warriors 
never let on that they saw them, but continued dancing about 15 minutes. 
After the two Indians and squaw came up the warriors quit dancing and 
went to them and shook hands; they appeared very glad to see each other. 
The captain of the warriors then talked with them about half an hour, and 
appeared to be very serious in their conversation. The captain then told me 
I must go with them two Indians and squaw. The sun was just then 
setting; the two Indians looked very much pleased. I did not want to go 
with them, as I knew not where they were going and would have rather re- 
mained with the warriors that took me, as I had got acquainted with them; 
but the captain told me I must go with the two Indians and squaw, and that 
they were very good Indians. The Indian that had a sword rode up to a 
stump and told me to get up behind him on his horse; I did so with great 
reluctance, as I knew not where they were going; they looked very much 
like warriors. However, they started off very lively, and the Indian that I 
was riding behind began to plague and joke the squaw about me; she was 
his sister-in-law. He was an Indian that was full of life and very funny. 
When I got acquainted with him I was well pleased with him. We traveled 
about ten miles that evening before we reached the place where they resided. 
They were then living at a sugar camp where they had made sugar that 
spring, on the west bank of the Wabash, about ten miles below the old Kick- 
apoo trading town, opposite to the Weames town. We arrived at their sugar 
camp about two hours in the night. They then gave me to an old Kickapoo 



209 

chief, who was the father of the Indian that carried the gun, and the squaw, and 
the father-in-law of the funny Indian. The old chief soon began to inquire 
of me where I lived, and where the Indians caught me. I told him. He then 
asked me if they did not kill an Indian when they took me prisoner. I told 
him no, there was nobody with me but one man and he had no gun. He 
then asked me again if the Indians did not kill one of their own men when 
they took me. I told him 1 did not know; the captain told me they did, but 
I did not see them kill him. The old chief told me it was true, they did kill 
him, and said he was a bad Indian, he wanted to kill me. By this time the 
young squaw, the daughter of the old chief, with whom I traveled in company 
that evening, had prepared a good supper for me; it was hominy beat in a 
mortar as white and handsome as ever I saw, and well cooked; she fried some 
dried meat poanded ver.v fine in a mortar, in oil, then sprinkled sugar very 
plentifully over it. I ate very hearty, indeed, it was all very good and well 
cooked. When I was done eating the old chief told me to eat more, I told 
him I had eat enough. He said no, if I did not eat more I could 
not live. Then the young squaw handed me a tin cup full 
of water sweetened with sugar. It relished very well. Then the 
old chief began to make further inquiries. He asked me if I 
had a wife and family. I told him I had a wife and three children. The old 
chief then appeai*ed to be very sorry for my misfortune, and told me that I 
was among good Indians, I need not fear, they would not hurt me, and after 
awhile I should go home to my family; that t should go down the Wabash 
to Opost, from there down to the Ohio, then down the Ohio, and then up the 
Mississippi to Kaskaskia. We sat up until almost midnight; the old chief ap- 
peared very friendly indeed. The young squaw had prepared a very good 
bed for me, with bearskins and blankets. I laid down and slept very com- 
fortably that night. It appeared as though I had got into another world, 
after being confined and tied down with so many ropes and the loss of sleep 
pine nights. I remained in bed pretty late next morning. I felt quite easy 
in mind, but my wrists and legs pained me very much and felt very sore. 
The young squaw had her breakfast prepared and I eat very hearty. 
When breakfast was over this funny Indian came over and took me to his 
cabin, about forty yards from the old chief's. There were none living at 
that place then but the old chief, his wife and daughter. They lived 
by themselves in one cabin, and the old chief's son-in-law and their wives ip 
another cabin, and a widow squaw, the old chief's daughter, lived by herself 
in a cabin adjoining her brother and brother-in law. None of them had any 
children but the old chief. A few minutes after I went into this funny 
Indian's cabin he asked me if 1 wanted to shave. I told him yes, my beard 
was very long. He then got a razor and gave it to me. It was a very good 
one. 1 told him it wanted strapping. He went and brought his shot-pouch 
strap. He held one end and I the other end. I gave the razor a few passes 
on the strap, and found the razor to be a very good one. By this time the 
old chief's young squaw had come over; she immediately prepared some hot 
water for me to shave, and brought it in a tin cup and gave it to me, and a 
piece of very good shaving soap. By the time I was done shaving the young 
squaw had prepared some clean water in a pewter basin for me to wash, 
and a cloth to wipe my hands and face. She then told me to sit down on 
a bench; I did so. 8he got two very good combs, a coarse and fine 
one. It was then the fashion to wear long hair; my hair was very 
long and very thick and very much matted and tangled; I traveled without 
any hat or anything else on my head; that was the tenth day it had not been 
combed. She combed out my hair very tenderly, and then took the fine one 
and combed and looked my head over nearly one hour. She then went to a 
trunk and got a ribbon and queued my hair very nicely. The old chief's son 
then gave me a very good regimental blue cloth coat, faced with yellow buff- 
colored cloth. The son-in-law gave me a very good beaver macaroni hat. 
These they had taken from some officer they had killed. Then the widow 
squaw took me into her cabin and gave me a new ruffled shirt and a very good 
blanket. They told me to put them on; I did so. When I had got my fine 
dress on, the funny Indian told me to walk across the floor. I knew they 
wanted to have a little fun. I put my arms akimbo with my hands on my 

—14 H. 



210 

hips, and walked with a very proud air three or four times backwards and 
forwards across the floor. The funny Indian said in Indian that I was a very 
handsome man and a big captain. I then sat down, and they viewed me 
very much, and said I had a very handsome leg and thigh, and began to tell 
how fast I ran when the Indians caught me, and showed how I ran — like a 
bird flying. They appeared to be very well pleased with me, and I felt as 
comfortable as the nature of the case would admit of. 

The next morning after breakfast, they all left that camp; they put all their 
property into a large perouge and moved by water up the Wabash river to the 
old Kickapoo trading town, about ten miles from their sugar camp; they sent 
me by land and one Indian with me. When we had got about half way to the 
town, we met with a young Frenchman; his name was Ebart; I was very well 
acquainted with him in the Illinois country; he spoke tolerably good English. 
The Indian then left me, and I went on to the town with the young French- 
man; I got to the town before the Indians arrived with their perouge, and the 
young Frenchman showed me their cabin, and told me to stay there until they 
would come, that they would be there in a few minutes. I there met with an 
English trader, a very friendly man, whose name was John McCauslin; he 
was from the north of England; we made some little acquaintance. He was 
a Free-mason and appeared very sorry for my misfortune and told me he 
would do everything in his power to befriend me. and told me I was with 
good Indians; they would not hurt me. He inquired of me where I lived and 
asked if I had a family. He then told me of the circumstance of the Indians 
killing one of their own men that day they caught me. He said it was a fact, 
he was a bad Indian and would not obey the commands of his captain and 
that he was still determined to kill me. My Indian family soon arrived and 
cleared up their cabin and got their dinner ready. They were a smart, neat 
and cleanly family, kept their cabin very nice and clean, the same as white 
women, and cooked their victuals very nice. After dinner was over, there 
came four Indians in the old chief's cabin. Two of them were the old chief's 
brother's cbildren. They appeared to be in very fine humor. I did not know 
but they belonged to the same family and town. They had not been there 
more than one hour, until the old chief and the four Indians sat down on the 
floor in the cabin and had a long discourse about an hour and a half. Then 
all got up. The old chief then told me I must go with those Indians. I told 
him 1 did not want to go. He then told me I must go; that they were his 
children and that they were very good Indians; they would not hurt 
me. Then the old chief gave me to the oldest brother, in place of his 
father who was killed about one year before by the white people; he was 
one of their chiefs. Then the four Indians started off, and I with them. 
They went down to the lower end of the town and stopped at an Indian cabin 
and got some bread and meat to eat. They gave me some. I did not go into 
the Indian cabin. They had not been in the cabin more than ten or 12 min- 
utes before the old chief's young squaw came up and stood at the door. She 
would not go in. I discovered the Indians laughing and plagueingher. She 
looked in a very ill humor; she did not want them to take me away. They 
immediately started from the cabin and took a tolerably large path that led 
into the woods in a pretty smart trot. The squaw started immediately after 
them. They would look back once in a while, and when they would see the 
squaw coming they would whoop, hollow and laugh. When they got out of 
sight of the squaw, they stopped running, and traveled in a moderate walk. 
When we got about three miles from town, they stopped where a large tree 
had fallen by the side of the path and laid high off the ground. They got up 
high on the log and looked back to see if the squaw was coming. When the 
squaw came up she stopped, and they began to plague and laugh at her. 
They spoke in English. They talked very vulgar to the squaw. She soon 
began to cry. When they got tired plaguing her, they jumped off the log 
and started on their road in a trot, and I ran with them. The squaw stood 
still till we got most out of sight. They would look back and laugh and 
sometimes hallow and whoop, and appeared to be very much diverted. They 
did not run veiy far before they slackened their running. They then walked 
moderately until they got to their town, which was three miles further from 
the tree they stopped at. We got into their town about one hour and a half 



211 

before the sun set. That same evening: the squaw came in about half an hour 
after we arrived. I met with a young man that evening who had been taken 
prisoner about 18 months before I was taken. His name was Nicholas Coonse 
(a Dutchman) then about 19 j'ears of age. He heard I was coming and he 
came to meet me a little way out of town. He was very glad to see me 
and I to see him, and we soon made up acquaintance. Coonse and myself 
were to live in one cabin together. The two brothers that I was given up to, 
one of them claimed Coonse and the other claimed me. They both lived in 
the same cabin. When the squaw arrived, she came immediately to our 
cabin and stood outside at the door; she would not come in. I noticed the 
Indians plaguing and laughing at her; she looked very serious. About sunset, 
Coonse asked me if I wanted a wife. (He could not speak very good English, 
but he could speak pretty good Indian.) I told him no. He then told me if 
wanted one, I could have one. I asked him how he knew that. He said, 
"There is a squaw that wants to marry you," pointing at her. I told him I 
reckoned not. He says, "Yes, inteed, she tus; she came after you a purpose 
to marry you." I told Coonse I had a wife, and I did not want another one. 
He says, "0, well, if you want her you can haf her." She stood by the door 
for some time after dark. I did not know when she went away; she staid 
two days and three nights before she returned home. I never spoke a word 
to her while she was there. She was a very handsome girl, about 18 years of 
age, a beautiful, full figure and handsomely featured, and very white for a 
squaw. She was almost as white as dark complexioned white women gen- 
erally are. Her father and mother were very white skinned Indians. 

The next day was the 9th of April, and 13th day that I had been their pris- 
oner. The chief Indians and warriors that day held a general council to know, 
in what manner and way to dispose of me. They collected in the cabin where 
I lived. While they were in council their dinner was cooking. There were 
about ten in number, and they all sat down on the floor in a circle, and then 
commenced by their interpreter, Nicholas Coonse. 

The first question they asked me was, "Would I have my hair cut off like 
theirs?" I answered "no." The second question they asked me was, "If I 
would have holes bored in my ears and nose and have rings and lead hung in 
them like they had?" I answered "no." The third question they asked me 
was, "If I could make hats?" (I had a large bag of beaver fur with me 
when they took me prisoner; from that circumstance I suppose they thought 
I was a hatter.) I answered "no." The fourth question they asked me was, 
"If I was a carpenter?" and said they wanted a door made for their cabin. 
I answered "no." The fifth question they asked me was, "If I was a black- 
smith; could I mend their guns and make axes and hoes for them?" I an- 
swered "no." The sixth question they asked me was, "If I could hoe corn?" 
I answered "no." The seventh question they asked me was, "If I could 
hunt?" I answered "No, I could shoot at a mark very well, but I never 
hunted any." Then they told Coonse to ask me how I got my living if I 
could do no work. I thought I had outgeneraled them, but that question 
stumped me a little. The first thought that struck my mind, I thought that I 
would tell them I was a weaver by trade, a second thought occurred to my 
mind, I told Coonse to tell them I made my living by writing. The Indians 
answered and said it was very well. The eighth question they asked me 
was, "If I had a family?" I answered "yes," I had a wife and three chil- 
dren. The ninth question they asked me was. "If I wanted to go home to 
see my wife and children?" I answered "yes." They said, "Very well, you 
shall go home by and by." The tenth question they asked me was, "if I 
wanted a wife then?" I answered "no," and told them that it was not the 
fashion for white people to have two wives at the same time. They said, 
very well, I could get one if I wanted one,and they said if I stayed with ttiem 
until their corn got in roasting ears, then I must take a wife. I answered 
them yes, if I stayed that long with them. Then they told me that I mi^ht 
go anywhere about in the town, but not to get out of sight of the town, for if I 
did, there were bad Indians around about the town and they would catch me 
and kill me, and they said they could run like horses; and another thing 
they said, don't you recollect the Indians that took you prisoner and cut a 



212 

lock of hair out of the crown of your head? 1 told them yes. They then 
told me in consequence of that, if you attempted to run away, you could not 
live eight days, if you will stay with us and not run away, you shall not 
even bring water to drink. I told them I wanted to go home to my family, 
but I would not go without letting them know before I went. They said very 
well. Tbey appeared well pleased with me and told me again 1 might go 
any where about town, but not get out of sicht of the town. I was sitting on 
a bench, when the old chief got up and put both his hands on my head and 
said something, I did not know what. Then he gave me a name and called 
me "Mohcossea," after the old chief that was killed, who was the father of 
the Indian that I was given up to. Then I was considered one of that family, 
a Kickapoo in place of their father, the old chief. Then the principal chief 
took the peace pipe and smoked two or three draws. It had a long stem 
about three feet in length. He then passed it around to the other Indians 
before they raised from their council. He held the pipe by the end and each 
of them took two of three draws. Then he handed it to me and I smoked. 
The chief then said I was a Kickapoo and that they were good Indians and 
that I need not be afraid; they would not hurt me, but I must not run away. 

By this time their dinner was prepared and they were ready to eat. They 
all sat down and told me to sit by. I did, and we all eat a hearty dinner, and 
they all appeared to be well pleased with their new adopted Kickapoo brother. 

These Indians lived about six miles west of the old Kickapoo trading 
town on the west side of the Wabash river. They had no traders in 
their town. After dinner was over, they told the interpreter, Coons, 
that I must write to their trading town for some bread. I told Coons 
to tell them I had nothing to write with — no paper nor pen and ink. They 
said I must write. I told Coons to tell them again I had no paper nor nothing 
to write with. Coons told them. Then the Indian that claimed me went to 
his trunk and brought me a letter that had one-half sheet of it clean paper. 
I told Coons to tell them I wanted a pen. The same Indian went and pulled 
a quill out of a turkey wing and gave it to me. I told Coons I wanted a knife 
to make a pen. The same Indian got his scalping knife; he gave it two or 
three little whets and gave it to me. I then told Coons I wanted some ink. 
Coons says: "Ink, ink; what is tat? I ton't know what ink is." He had 
no name for ink in Indian or English. I told him to tell the Indian to get me 
some gunpowder and water and a spoon, and I would make the ink myself. 
The Indian did so. I knew very well what their drift was; they wanted a 
proof to know whether I told them any lies when they examined me in their 
council. When I had made the ink and was ready to write, I asked Coons 
how many loaves of bread I should write for. He says: "Ho! a couple of 
lofes; tay only want to know if you can write or if you told tern any lies or 
not." I wrote to the English trader, that I mentioned before that I had made 
some acquaintance with the day 1 passed the old trading town, for to get me 
two loaves of bread. He very well knew my situation and circumstances. 
There was a Frenchman, a baker, that lived in the trading town. When I 
had finished writing, the Indian took it up and looked at it. and said: "De- 
paway, vely good." Coons' master, a brother to the one that claimed me, 
told Coons to go catch his horse and take the letter for the bread, not stay, 
but return as soon as possible. Coons hurried off immediately and soon re- 
turned. As soon as he came back he brought the two loaves of bread and 
gave them to me. I then asked Coons what I should do with this bread, as 
he was somewhat better acquainted with the ways of the Indians than I was. 
He says: "Kife one loaf to tay old squaw and her two chiltren, and tefide 
the otter loaf petween you and your master, but keep a pigest half." I did 
so. This old sqaw was the mother of the two Indians that claimed Coons and 
myself. The old squaw and her two children soon eat their loaf. I then 
divided my half between the two little children again. That pleased the old 
squaw very much; she tried to make me sensible of her thanks for my kind- 
ness to her two little children. 

While Coons was gone for the bread the Indian that claimed me asked me 
to write his name. I asked him to speak his name distinctly. He did. I had 
heard it spoken several times before. His name was " Mahtomack." When 
I was done writing he took it up and looked at it and saiditwas"Depaway." 



213 

He then went to his trunk and brought his powder-horn, which had his name 
wrote on it by an officer at Post Vincennes in large print letters, and com- 
pared them together. They were both the same kind of letters and his name 
spelled exactly the same. He seemed mightily pleased and said it was " bon 
vely good." It was a big captain he said wrote his name on the powder-horn 
at Opost. The wife of the Indian that claimed me next morning combed and 
queued my hair and gave me a very large ostrich feather and tied it to my 
nat. The Sunday following after I was taken to that town, there was a num- 
ber of Indians went from that town to the old Kickapoo trading town. They 
took me with them to dance what is called the "Beggar's Dance." It is a 
practice for the Indians every spring, when they come in from their hunting 
ground, to go to the trading towns and dance for presents; they will go through 
the streets and dance before all the trader's doors. The traders then will give 
them presents, such as tobacco, bread, knives, spirits, blankets, tomahawks, 
etc. 

While we were in town that day I talked with my friend McCauslin to speak 
to the Indians and try to get them to sell me, but they would not agree to sell 
me then. They said they would come down the Sunday following and 
bring me with them, peihaps they would then agree to sell me. They com- 
plied with their promise and brought me down with them. My friend Mc- 
Causlin then inquired of them if they had agreed to sell me; they told him 
they would. McCauslin then sent for the interpreter, and the Indians asked 
one hundred buckskins for me in merchandise. The interpreter asked me if 
I would give it. I told him I would. The Indians then went to the trader's 
house to receive their pay. They took but 70 buck's worth of merchandise at 
that time. One of the articles they took was bread — three loaves— one for the 
Indian that claimed me, one for his wife, the other one for me. 
I saw directly they wanted me to go back home with them. After 
a little while they started and motioned and told me I must go with 
them. I refused to go. The Indian fellow took hold of my arm 
and tried to pull me forward. I still refused going with them. He 
still continued pulling and his wife pushing me at the back. We went 
scuffling along a few yards till we got before my friend McCauslin's cabin door. 
He discovered the bustle and asked me what the Indians wanted. I told him 
they wanted me to go home with them. He asked me if I wanted to go. I told 
him no. He then told me to walk into his cabin and sit down and he would go 
and bring the interpreter, I went in and the two Indi&ns followed me into 
the cabin and sat down. The interpreter came in immediately and asked the 
Indians what they wanted. They told him they wanted me to go home with 
them. The interpreter then asked me if I wanted to go with them, I told 
him no. He then told the Indians they had sold me and that they had noth- 
ing more to do with me, that I was a free man, that I might stay where I 
pleased. They then said they had not received all their pay. The interpre- 
ter tbeu asked them why they did not take it all? They said they expected I 
would go homo with them and remain with them until I got an opportunity 
to go home. The interpreter then toUl them they could get the balance of 
their pay. They said if I did not go home with them they must have 30 
bucks more. The interpreter asked me if I was willing to give it. I told 
him yes. I did not want to go back again. The Indians then went and took 
their $30 of balance and 30 more and went off home. I then owed the traders 
that advanced the goods for me 130 buckskins for my ransom, which they 
considered equal to $200 in silver. There were five traders that were con 
cerned in the payment of the goods to the Indians, One of them was a Mr. 
Brazedone, a Spaniard, who sometimes traded in the Illinois country, with 
whom I had some acquaintance. I told him if he would satisfy the other 
four traders, I would give him my note, payable in the Illinois country. He 
did so, and I gave him my note for $260, to be paid twelve months after date 
in the^ Illinois country, and $37 more for my boarding and necessaries I could 
not do without, such as a bear skin and a blanket to sleep on, a shirt, hat, 
tobacco and handkerchief. 

My friend McCauslin took me to a Frenchman's house — he was a baker by 
trade, the only baker in town— to board with him until I got an opportunity 



214 

to go home. Two days after I weut to stay at the baker's, the Indian that 
claimed me, his squaw and the young squaw that followed us to the new 
town, came to see me and stayed three or four hours with me. He asked me 
to give him some tobaccco. I told him I had no money. He thought 1 could 
get anything I wanted. I bought him a carrot of tobacco; it weighed about 
three pounds; he seemed very well pleased. He and his wife wanted me 
very much to go back home with them again. 1 told them I could not, 
that I was very anxious to go home to my wife and family. Three or four 
days after that they revisited me, and still insisted on me to go home with 
them. I told them that I expected every day to get an opportunity to go 
home. I had some doubts about going back with them; I thought perhaps 
they might play some trick with me, and take me to some other town; and 
their water was so bad I could not drink it — nothing but a small pond to 
make use of for their drinking and cooking, about forty or fifty yards long 
and about thirty yards wide. Their horses would not only drink, but wallow 
in it; the little Indian boys every day would swim in it, and the Indians soak 
their deer skins in it, I could not bear to drink it. When they would bring 
a kettle of water to drink, they would set it down on the floor. The dogs 
would generally take the first drink out of the kettle. I have often seen 
when the dogs would be drinking out of a kettle, an Indian would go up and 
kick him off, and take up the kettle and drink after the dog. They had 
nothing to eat the last week I was with them but Indian potatoes — some peo- 
ple call them hoppines — that grew in the woods, and they were very scarce. 
Sometimes the Indian boys would catch land terrapins. They would draw 
their heads out and tie a string around their neck and hang them up for a 
few minutes, and then put them in a kettle of water with some corn — when 
they had it — without taking the entrails out or shell ofif the terrapin, and eat 
the soup as well as the meat. We had all liked to have starved that week; 
we had no meat; I was glad to get away. 

I stayed three weeKs with the French baker before I got an opportunity to 
start home. I had plenty to eat while I remained with the baker — good light 
bread, bacon and sandy hill cranes, boiled in lyed corn, which made a very 
good soup. I paid him $3 a week for my board. 

There was a Mr. Pyatt, a Frenchman, and his wife, whose residence was at 
St. Vincennes, with whom I had some acquaintance. They had moved up to that 
Kickapoo town in the fall of the year in order to trade with the Indians that 
winter. They were then ready to return home to Vincennes. Mr. Pyatt 
had purchased a drove of horses from the Indians. He had to go by land 
with his horses. Mrs. Pyatt hired a large perogue and four Frenchmen to 
take her property home to Vincennes. I got a passage in her perogue. She 
was very friendly to me; she did not charge me any thing for my passage. 

We arrived in Vincennes in 48 hours after we left the Kickapoo trading 
town, which is said to be 210 miles. The river was very high, and the four 
bands rowed day and night. We never put to land but twice to get a little 
wood to cook something to eat. 

I stayed five days at Vincennes before I got an opportunity of company to go 
on my way home. It was too dangerous for one man to travel alone by land 
without a gun. There was a Mr. Duff, who lived in the Illinois country, came to 
Vincennes to move a Mrs. Moredock and family to the Illinois. I got a pass- 
age with him by water. The morning I started from Vincennes he was just 
ready to start before I knew I could get a passage with him, and I had not 
time to write. I got a Mr. John Rice Jones, a friend of mine, to write to Col- 
onel Edgar, living in Kaskaskia, in the Illinois, who was a particular friend 
of mine, and sent it by express, a Frenchman, that was going to start that 
day from Vincennes to Kaskaskia, which he could ride in four days, and 
requested Colonel Edgar to write to my wife, who lived at Bellfontain about 
40 miles from Kaskaskia, and inform her that I was at Post Vincennes on 



215 

my return home with a Mr. Duff, by water, and inform her that I would be 
at Kaskaskia on a certain day; I think it was two weeks from the time I left 
Vincennes, and for her to send me a horse on that day to Kaskaskia. Colo- 
nel Edgar wrote to her immediately, as soon as he received Mr. Jones' 
letter. That was the first time she heard from me after I was taken 
prisoner. It was thought by my friends that the Indians had killed me. I 
had written to her while I was at the Kiekapoo town. That letter never 
reached her. I had two brothers living at Bellfontain; they met me on the 
day I proposed being at Kaskaskia and brought me a horse. The next day 
I got home to Bellfontain. 



216 



INDEX. 



Page 

Abenakis Indian Tribe— mention 184 

Achison. George— judge court of common pleas of Randolph county 89 

Acting secretary of the Illinois Stale Historical Society, appointed 10 

Active members of the Illinois State Historical Society, list ot 6,7 

Adams county— organized, Jan. 13, 1825, from Pike 99 

Adams, Capt. John G. -burial of 178 

company of recruited 171 

courage of 177 

death of 174 

names of companions 175 

Adams, John Quincy— mention 109, 110 

Alabama— mention 141 

present state of, missionary stations within limits of 130 

Albion and Grayville railroad— charter refused to 123 

Alexander County— organized, March 4, 1819, from Union 99 

Alexander. David C— paymaster 5th Regt. 111. Vols 179 

Milton K.— member board of public works 122 

Algonquin Indian Tribes— mention 150 

Allen. John— mention 43,45 

Judge W. J.— appointed U. S. district judge for Southern district of Illinois 99 

Zachariah— mention 43 

Allied Indian nations who served with the French in wars against the Pox Indians. ...191, 192 

AUouez, Father Claude Jean— French missionary priest, established mission station 129 

mention 130 

quotations from historical writings of 150 

Alton. 111.— mention of in anecdote 82 

Alton and Hillsboro Railroad— funds appropriated to build 119 

Alton College of Illinois— incorporated 46, 47 

Seminary — mention 23 

to Hillsboro— Railroad, funds appropriated to build 119 

Amendments to constitution of Historical Society offered 8 

American Liberty— French enthusiasm for 131 

American Soldiers— bravery of, mention 132 

American State Papers— vol. l contains names of French settlers possessing valid land 

claims, mention 142 

Amherst County. Virginia— birthplace of Peter Cartwright 47 

Anderson, Horace G— Active member of Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Joseph— mention 68 

Andree— French private in Clark's army, mention 141 

And rez— mention 142 

Andrist. Prof. Chas. M.— compilation of French translations of 154 

copies and translations of French manuscripts by 190 

Antier— French private in Clark's army 141 

Appellate courts of Illinois 97. 98, 99 

Apple Creek— mention 172 

Appollo Tavern. Williamsburgh, Va.— object of national interest, mention 138 

Archaeological Research— mention 151 

Archives du Ministere des Colonies, Paris— copies of manuscripts from 189 

Askansas- region, mention 130 

Arnett, Mr. Thomas B.— mention 43 

Arnold— mention 141 

Arundel, William— early resident of Cahokia 67 

Atkins' Stone Spring House— mention 128 

Atkinson. General— sends officer to JoDaviess county to succeed Col. Strode 179 

mention 178,179 

Attorney General of the Territory of Illinois— Crittenden, John J 90 

Attorneys, General of Illinois 98,99 

Augsburg— confessions of, mention 101 



217 
Index — Continued . 

Page 

Backus, E.— receiver of land office at Ka?kaskia 69 

Bailey, Maj. David— battalion of, mention 171 

company of, recrnited 171 

maiorSth Rest., ills. Vols 179 

' mention of 172 

Bailey, Capt, John— served ir army of George Rogers Clark 67 

Baker, —mention of 155 

David J— member early Illinois State Historical Society 17 

Col. E. D. -mention of 147 

Edward D.— Attorney General of Illinois and U. S. Senator 99 

Edward D .—mention 113 

Col. Edward D.— mention of 144 

Ball, Asel P.— company of, recruited 171 

Capt.— mention of 175 

Baldwin— roads leading to 127, 128 

Baldwin, Theron— arrives at Illinois college 46 

Ballance, Charles— criticises statements in Gov. Reynolds' "Pioneer History of Illinois". 188 

History of Peoria County, quotation from 188 

Bancroft. George— opinion as to site of Fort Cr<5vecoeur 187 

Baptist Church in Illinois— early history of, in address of W. F. Short, D. D 59,60 

Barbeau, Jean B.— chosen judge of the court 87 

Jean Baptiste— appointed judge of the Court of Common Pleaa 89 

Barber, (Negro) anecdote of 81 

Barclay, James S.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Barger, Jfev. John S.— mention of 169 

Barker. H. E.— active member of Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Barnes, Dr. C. W.— delivers address of welcome to Illinois State Historical Society — 20.21 

Capt. David W.— company of, recruited 171 

mention of 175 

Barry, Hon. P. T.— (life member)— active member of Illinois State Historical Society.. 6 

Bastile (The)— mention 129 

Baton Kouge— mention 131 

Beardstown, Illinois— mention 22,177 

Beauharnois, M. le Marquis— French commandant in wars with Fox Indians 192-202 

Beck with. Judge Corydon— appointed to fill vacancy 96 

Judge H. W.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Hon. H. W.— attends executive committee meeting 13 

on committee to revise publication of transactions 13 

president Illinois State Historical Society 5 

executive committee 5 

elected to executive committee 8 

president of— presides at meeting 8 

elected president of society for 1902 8 

president of Illinois State Historical Society— presides at 

trustee meeting 14 

president State Historical Society— response to address of wel- 
come to Illinois .'^tate Historical Society 21,22,23 

Beckwith, Hiram W. -quotation from "The Land of the Illini" 189 

views as to locution of Kort Cr^vecoeur 1!^9 

Beggs, S. R.— Early History of the We.st and Northwest 57 

Belle Fontaine, Ills.— home of Wm. Biggs, mention of 202 

Belleville. Ills.— circuit court, judge of 98 

jail building, most substantial in State 95 

road s leadin g to 126. 127, 128 

Belleville to Lebanon Railroad— funds appropriated to huild 119 

Belh fontaine, Ills.— home of Wm. Biggs, mention 202 

Bequette Paschal— mention of 172 

Bet tie Stuart Institute- .Springfield, 111.— mention 114 

Bibb, George M.— judge of Kentucky Court of Appeals- mention 109 

Bienville— French governor of the western company at New Orleans— mention 84 

Bienville— mention 130 

Bigelow, Hon. Hiram— delivers address before Illinois State Hi.''torical Society— "The 

Bishop Hill Colony" 101-108 

Big .Muddy Kiver- funds appropriated for improvement of 123 

Big Nine .Mile Creek— mention 127 

Big Plum Creek— mention 127 

Big Rock Creek— why so called 148 

Biggs. Wm.— narrative of his capture by and imprisonment with Kickapoo Indi.ins.. .202-215 

sketch of life of 202 

Bishop Hill— named for the home of the immigrants in Sweden 103 

"Bishop Hill Case" — omitted from docket of circuit court of Henry county 108 

Bishop Hill Colony (The)— address before Illinois State Historical docioty by Hon. 

H iram Bigelow 101-108 

Bishop Hill Colony— charter of 106 

children of the colonists educntpd in English language 106 

church of— built— description of 1C5 

debts of 107,108 

divisirm of property of and difTiruUips attending 107, 108 

law suits against and final dismissal of snme 104 

pursuits and industries of tho people 108 

Bishop Hill Society— name in which property of colony was held 106 



218 

Index — Continued . 

Page 

Bishopskulla Parish, Uppland. Sweden— birthplace of Eric Jansen 102 

Bissell. Col. William— heroic conduct at battle of Buena Vista 76,77 

Black, Hon. George N.— appointed on committee to nominate olficers of Illinois State 

Historical Society 8 

attends meeting executive committee 13 

active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

attends trustee meetings 14,16 

chairman committee on legislation— appointed 8 

executive committee, Illinois State Historical Society 5 

elected membtr of executive committee for 1902 8 

Blackberry Creek— mention of 152 

Black Hawk— Sauk Chief of Illinois— sketch of life of 132-137 

entertained by Mrs. Dixon 171 

flag of truce incident 173, 174 

mention of 178 

nickname given to Maj. John T. Stuart 110 

scouting parties recruiting from 171 

Black Hawk Inn— mention 136 

Black Hawk War— mention 117 

service of Maj. John T. Stuart in— anecdotes 110 

Black Hawk's Watch Tower— description of 133 

mention 136, 137 

Blackwell, Robert— appointed messenger by Governor Reynolds 178 

Blancher, Pierre— French private soldier in Clark's army— mention 141 

Blodgett. Judee H. W.— U. S. district judge for Northern Dist- of Illinois at Chicago... 99 

Bloomingburg— mention of 160 

Bloomington to Pekin— railroad, funds appropriated to build 119 

Blue Licks, battle of— mention 68 

Boal, Dr. Robert— honorary member of Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Boats— need of, by French colonists in Indian wars 190,191 

Boisbrant— selects site for Fort Charles 84 

Boiaherbert. le sr. de— French commandant at Detroit, mention 192 

Bond County— organized Jan. 4. 1817, from Madison 99 

Bond, Shadrach- judge court of common pleas, Randolph county 89 

Boone County— organized March 4, 1837, from Winnebago and McHenry 100 

Boston— mention of 139 

Boulder— as monument to commemorate Indian massacre, inscription on 154 

Bowman, Capt.— troops of, in Black Hawk war 171 

Capt. Joseph— commands company in Clark's Illinois campaign 68 

Boyd's Grove- mention of 171 

Boy er— mention of 142 

Boynton, Wharton & Morgan— Phila. bankers, mention of 86 

Bracken. Charles— mention of ; 172 

Brad well. Judge James B.— honorary member of the Illinois State Historical Society ... 6 

Brady— mention of 140 

Brady, Thomas— commands attack upon Fort St. Joseph 67 

early resident of Cahokia a7id sheriff of St. Clair county 67 

serves in army of Geo. R. Clark 67 

unwritten hero 139 

Brack. Judge Daniel— anecdote of 109 

Breckenridge, Alexander— mention 66 

John C.— mention 66 

Robert— mention 66 

Breese, Judge— quotations from writings of 85,187 

Breese, Sidney— chosen judge supreme court 93 

defends Judge Smith in impeachment trial 96 

member early Illinois Stale Historical Society 17 

reports of 95 

Breese, Judge Sidney— chosen United ^tates Senator 93 

oni! of the organizers of first State Historical Society 50 

sketch of 93 

Breese Reports— preservation of 92 

Brevoort, J. H.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Brich, Rev. John— mention 41 

Bridgewater, Battle of— mention 177 

Bristol, John E.— assertions of in regard to Black Hawk war 176 

Brock, William— mention of 161 

Brown, A. C— mention of 175 

Brown, Hon, C. C— address before Illinois State Historical Society on life and character 

of Maj. John T. Stuart 109-114 

enters law partnershii* of Stuart, Edwards & Brown HI 

Brown, Mrs. C. C— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Brown County, 111.— organized Feb. 1, 1839, from Schuyler county 99 

Brown's Illinois History— quotation from 187 

Browne, Thomas C.— associate justice of Illinois supreme court 92 

judge supreme court. State of Illinois 91 

impeachment trial of .. 96 

Browne, Judge Thomas C— incompetency of 96 

legislated out of office 96 

Bryan. Judge Silas— of the Salem, 111., circuit court 98 



219 
Index — Continued. 

FAGE 

Brydgres, W. R.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Buchanan, William— early explorer of Kentucky, mention 68 

Buckmaster, N.— brigade major in Black Hawk war. mention of 172 

Buena Vista-battle of. incident of part taken by Illinois troops 76.77 

Buffalo— mention i04 

Buffalo Grove— mention of 17J 

Bulger. Edward— military services of ••■ yo 

Bunker Hill— mention of !•'''• J*l 

battle of, mention i^- 

Bunn. John W. -dispatched as confidential agent by Gov. Yates 145 

Bureau County— orjranized Feb. 28,1837, from Putnam, Knox and Henry 99 

Bureau Creek— mention of 171 

Burgoy ne— mention of l^ 

Burke, Edmund— quotation from writings of Ia7 

Burksville Station— roads leading to 128 

Burnap, Prof . VV. L. -active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Burnham. Capt. J. H.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

attends meeting of executive committee 13 

attends trustee meeting 14,15 

executive committee, Illinois State Historical Society 5 

offers amendment to constitution of Illinois State Historical So- 
ciety I 

elected member of executive committee for 1902 8 

offers motion that the Illinois State Historical Society ask for 

share in State's appropriation for St. Louis Exposition 8-9 

Burroush. Mr. Justice— opinion »t, menti'm ^ 

Bush, Hon. J. M.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society o 

Butler. William- director 111. sanitary commission in War Rebellion 146 

Butterfleld, .lustin- anecdotes of Tct 

Buttes des Mortes- defeat of Foxes at •• Ijl 

By-Laws of Illinois State Historical Society— committee appointed toiform l* 

Cahokia— mention 65,87, Ida 

Cahokia Creek— mention • o» 

Cahokia— early residents of and aid given the army of Geo. R. Clark by oo-TO 

French settlement at begun I55 

funds appropriated for turnpike to :aa*:a; ItS 

Cahokia Gate Post— mention l^^^^'Jfs 

Cahokia— recruits enlisted in Clark's army from ••• l^ 

roads lending to i^l 

Cairo— possession of, taken by Gov. Yates --• — , ■••• • .• l** 

Caldwell ( Kev. James) Chapter, D. A. R.. Jacksonville. 111.— vote of thanks to for hospi- 
tality 12 

Calhoun County— congressional vote in 1^" 

organized Jan. 10.1835, from Pike 99 

Calhoun, John— mention of 1** 

John C— in congress, mention ill 

California— discovery of gold in, mention 1^ 

mention 1*^ 

Cambridge. County Seat of Henry County— Eric Jansen killed at 105 

Campbell. David B.— Attorney General of Illinois and United States feenator 99 

Col. John— sketch of 66 

Thompson— mention of 96 

Capt. Win.— commands company for attack on Detroit w 

Capt. Wm.— served in army of George R. Clark 67 

Camp's Creek— mention ••. • •-• 128 

Canada, correspondence generate, copies of letters from archives of oi'iQo iko ibr 

Canada— mention °*< 1"'9. 150. 186 

Capen. Mr. Charles L.— Active member of the 111. State Hist. Society 6 

Caracanranon. mention 1°6 

Carlin. Governor Thos.— Appoints Secretary of State of Illinois 95 

favors internal improvement system •• 1^» 

f^ivors retrenchment of same ' ^n 

mention 70 

Carnahan's Block House— mention 6b 

Carney. Lieutenant Mnrtin— served in army of Geo. R. Clark M 

Caroline County. Virginia— mention Ij* 

Carpenter (charpentier) mention ,%■••.• i 

Carriel, Mrs. Mary Turner— activp member of the 111. State Hist. Society o 

Carroll County— organized Feb. 22 1839, from JoDaviess 99 

Carrollton- mention of, in kidnappins^ incident =2 

Cartier, .1 acques— French explorer— mention -1*9 

Caitwright family emigrates from Virginia to Kentucky ',„ 

Cartwright. Peter— member early 111. State Historical Society 17 

Rev. Peter. D. D.— address on. by Pres. M. H. Chamberlm 47-56 

appointments in M. E. church 60 

Chaplin in army •^'j 

opinion on slavery en ci 

removes from Kentucky to Illinois , 50,51 

attends general conference 51 

one of the organizers of the first State Hist. Society 50 

political opinions °^ 



220 

Index — Continued . 

Page 

Cartwright, Peter, Rev.— anecdote of school days 49 

elected member of General Assembly 52,53 

estate of 53 

personal appearance and characteristics 53, 56 

removed to Lewiston county, Ky 49 

salary as Methodist preacher 49 

length of ministerial career 49 

autobiography of, mention 49, 51, 55 

writings; opinion on education 55 

Cascasquia— mention 186 

Cass County— organized March 3, 1837. from Morgan 99 

Catholic Missions— history of, by John Qillmary Shea— mention 70 

Caton, Judge John D.— appointed judge 93 

chosen judge 3d 111. circuit 96 

resigns 96 

term expires ; appointed to fill the vacancy 93 

Cavarly, A. W., Esq.— mention 43 

Cave Hill Cemetery, Louisville, Ky.— burial place of George Rogers Clark 141 

Celibacy, enjoined by Eric Jansen on members of Bishop Hill Colony 107 

Central Christian Advocate— mention 55 

Central Military Tract Railroad— building of 107 

Central Railroad— funds appropriated for building 119 

Centre College of Kentucky— attended by Maj. John T. Stuart 109 

Chad wick, Major Joseph M.— mention of 171 

Cha-gonimigon— mention 193 

Chamberlin, Rev. Hiram— mention 42 

Chamberlin, M. H.— Pres. McKendree College— active member of the HI. State Hist. So. 6 

Chamberlin, Dr. M. H.— Executive Committee III. State Hist. Society 5 

elected on ex-committee for 1902 8 

Chamberlin, Pres. M. H.— absent from ex-committee meeting 13 

attends meeting of executive committee 13 

of McKendree College, delivers address on Rev. Peter Cart- 
wright 47-56 

Champaign County— organized February 10, 1833, from Vermilion 99 

Cham plain— mention 129 

Chancel lorville— mention of 147 

Chandler, Dr. Ero- mention 43, 45 

Charleston, South Carolina— surrender ot American troops at— mention 65 

Charleville, Charles— chosen judge of the court 87 

Charlevoix, Father— mention 181 

Charpentier (Car penler) —mention 142 

Charter of Bishop Hill Colony 106 

Chattanooga— battle of— reference to 147 

Chegoimego, bay of— mission station at— mention 129 

Chester, Randoloh county— roads leading to— mention 125,126,127,128 

Chicago— mention 104.139,150,161 

principal market for vicinity 161 

Chicago & Alton Railroad— projected and partly constructed— mention of 164 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad— mention 107 

Chicago Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution— mention 138 

Chicago Historical Society— sketch of 17,18 

Chicago lawyers— controversy with Judge Pearson 98 

Chicago— small village in 1838 Ill 

Chicago, superior court— judge of 98 

Chickamauga— battle of — mention 132 

Childs, Tyru« M.— mention of 175 

Chillicothe, Ohio— sessions of court held at 89 

Chi pnewa-batt le— mention 177 

Cholera— visitation of in 1849 104 

visits Bishop Hill Colony 104 

Christian county— organized Feb. 15,1839, from Sangamon, Montgomery and Shelby 99 

Cincinnati— sessions of court held at 89 

Circuit court of Illinois— business of 93 

Circuit courts of Illinois— constitutional provisions for 92 

Circuit judges of Illinois— appointed 90 

repealed out of offtce 93 

Clairmount, French private in Clark's army— mention 141 

Clark -mention of 140 

Clark county. III.- organized Feb. 22, 1819— from Crawford 99 

Clark county. Ky.— mention of 160 

Clark, Frances Eleanor— sister of Geo. Rogers Clark and wife of Dr. James O'Fallon 66 

Clark, George Rogers— arrives in Illinois 131 

captures Kaskaskia 139 

conquest of Illinois country — mention 84 

conquest of the Illinois— mention 130 

expeditions and services of in the Revolutionary War 137-143 

after life 140.141 

mention of 16,86.87,139.142 

muster roll of— mention 141 

preservation of memoirs of officers and men under 141 



221 

Index — Continued. 

Page 

Clark, George Rogers— records of ancestry of 140 

romance of 140 

sword presented to by State of Virginia 140 

Clark, Gen. George Rogers— ancestry of 65 

Irish and Irish Americans, in army of 65,66,67,68 

soldiers in army of. entitled to grants of land 67 

writes letter to Gov. Patrick Henry of Virginia 67 

Clark, Col. Jonathan— brother of George Rogers Clark, mention 65 

Lucy Rogers— sister of George Rogers Clark, mention 65 

wife of Wm. Croghan 65 

Clary's Grove, Sangamon County, 111.— mention 113 

Clay County— organized Dec. 23, 1823, from Wayne, Lawrence, Crawford and Fayette 99 

Clay, Henry— in congress, mention Ill 

mention of 114 

Clinton County— organized Dec. 27, 1824, from Washington and Bond 99 

Clinton, Gov.— of New York, mention 115 

Colbert River— name given to Mississippi river by LaSalle 184 

Cole. Col. Edward— succeeds Maj. Robert Farmer at Ft. Chartres 86 

Coles County— organized Dec. 25, 1830. from Clark and Edgar 99 

Coles, Gov. Edward— member early Illinois State Historical Society 17 

one of the organizers of the first Illinois State Historical Society.. 50 

mention of 91 

Coles' Mill— roads leading to 128 

Collins, William— mention 45 

College Hill— site of Illinois College 43.44 

Columbus, Christopher— mention 129 

Company of the West— bore expense of building Ft. Chartres 84 

Compton, Nathan— mention 45 

Condensed Geography and History of the Western States by T. Flint, quotation from..,. 188 

Confessions of Augsburg— mention 101 

Congdon. Geo. S— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Congregational Church in lllinnis— sketch of 60 

Congressional District— Third Illinois, mention 110 

Conkling, (jlinton L.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Conover, Maj.— mention 44 

Constitution of Illinois State Historical Society— adopted as rule of action 15 

chantfes in 15 

Constitution of State of Illinois of 1848— judges in office not displaced by It, mention of.. 96 

Constitution of 1848 of State of Illinois— provisions of 95,96 

Constitution of State of Illinois of 1870 — precautions of framers of 96 

Cook County— circuit court, judges of 98 

organized Jan. 15, 1831. from Peoria 99 

mention, congressional vote in 110 

Cook, Daniel P.— attorney general of Illinois and member of congress 98 

representative in congress, work in congress in aid of canal legislation 117 

Cook, J. S.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Cook, Jatues— relates Incident of Isaac Funk 167 

Coonse, Jar-ob- mention of 210 

Copies of Manuscripts from the Ministry of the Colonies— Paris 189-202 

Corke, Earl of— mention 109 

Cornwallis, Lord— surrender of forces at Yorktown— mention 65 

Coronelli— (1688)— mention of —map of, 1688 148 

Corrios Indians— destruction of— mention 190,191 

Coulterville, Randolph County— roaUs leading to 127 

Counties of Illinois— established 99,100 

names of. that have Irish associations 70 

organization of. dates, list of counties, etc 99,100 

County Courts of Common Pleas of Illinois— established 88 

Courts of Common Pleas of Illinois— continued in service 90 

judges appointed 89 

jurisd iction of 90 

organization of in each county 90 

jurisdiction of 90 

Court of Common Pleas of Illinois— Randolph county, establishment of 89 

Court of Illinois— curiosities of 92 

Courts of Illinois— free from baneful influences 95 

mention 97, 98, 99 

Court of Justice in Illinois— establishment of 86 

Court of the Audience of the Royal Jurisdiction of Illinois— established 85 

Covell, Captain— mention of 175 

Capt. fll L.— commands company from McLean county in Black Hawk war 171 

Covington, Washington County— roads leading to 127.128 

Coxe, Dr.— expedition to the Illinois- mention 186 

memoirs of —mention 186 

Crabbe, Mrs. Harriet Palmer— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society... 6 

Crain, Jas. W— Adjutant 5th Regiment Illinois Volunteers 179 

Crevecoeur, Fort— ^V« Fort Crevecoeur. 

in the Netherlands— mention 187 

Crawford County— organized Dec. 31. 1816. from Edwards 99 

Crittenden, John J.— Attorney General of the Territory of Illinois 90 



222 

Index — Continued. 

Page. 

Croghan. George— mention 65 

Major Geo.— mention 65 

George, the younger, son of William— sketch of 66 

George, the younger, son of William- marries Miss Livingston 66 

William— sketch of 65.66 

Cronberg, Jonas— one of the incorporators of Bishop Hill colony 106 

Crozat— grant to. its effect on Illinois settlements— mention 130,131 

mention 84 

Cuba— Governor of— mention of 68 

CuUom, Shelby M— mention 114 

Cumberland County— organized March 2,1843, from Coles 99 

Cumberland Presbyterian Church in Illinois— mention 60 

Cunningham, J. O.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

member of committee on legislation 8 

paper "Some Pacts in the Judicial History of Illinois," delivered 

before Illinois State Historical Society 84-100 

Currey, J. Seymour— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Curry, James— soldier in the army of George R. Clark— anecdote 67,68 

killed by Indians 68 

Gushing, Prof. J. P— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Dad Joe's Grove— mention of 171 

Dakotas, 1 and of —mention 129 

Dalton. Thomas— mention— served in army of Geo. Rogers Clark 67 

Danville, 111,— mention 98 

circuit court— judge of 98 

"Dark Eyes." an Indian maiden— story of 136 

Darrell— early lawyer of Illinois 90 

Daughters of the American Revolution— Illinois ancestry in, paper by Mrs. Katherine C. 

Sparks 137-143 

numbers of— objects and purposes of 138 

Peoria Chapter— erects monument 189 

Rock Island Chapter— erects monument 137 

Davidson & Stuv^'s "History of Illinois"— quotation from 188 

Davis, David— anecdote of 112, 113 

friendship with Maj. John T. Stuart— anecdotes 112 

judge of Illinois circuit court— U. S. federal court- U. S. Senate 97 

Davis, Senator David— explains Isaac Funk's business methods 167 

Davis, Mr. George P.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Davis. J. McCan— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

secretary and treasurer Illinois State Historical Society 5 

elected secretary and treasurer for 1902 8 

executive committee 5 

Davis, Mrs. J. McCan— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Davis, Jefferson— Democratic leader of the 36th Congress 145 

Davis, liieut. Jefferson— joins regiment and sent to Galena 179 

Davis, Judge L. Oliver— of the Danville. 111., circuit 98 

Davis. Col. Wm.— served in army of George Rogers Clark— mention 67 

Dawson. Capt. John— commands company in Illinois regiment in Black Hawk War 110 

Dearborn. Hon. Luther M.— active member of of the Illinois State Historical Society — 6 

Declaration of Independence- -mention of 139 

Degognia creek— mention 128 

DeKalb county— mention of 143, 171 

organized March 4, 1837— from Kane 99 

Delaware river— mention 132 

Dement, Capt. John— mention of 171 

Dement, Col. John— receiver of Dixon land oflBce 178 

route traversed by 178 

Democratic party- its influence on early legislation in Illinois 95 

reference to 145 

De Monts— mention 129 

Denny. Major- served in army of Geo. Rogers Clark— mention 67 

De Noille— French commandant at Detroit in Indian war 153,199,201 

De Noyelle— arrival of with troops at seat of battle— mention 153 

Des Lignerie— French commandant in Indian wars 151 

Des Plaines river— mention of 150,168 

Destruction of the Fox Indians in 1730 by the French and their allies— address before the 

Illinois State Historical Society by John F. Steward 148-154 

Detroit— expedition for reduction of 66-67 

mention of 191. 192 

western tribes of Indians asked by French to settle near 150 

De Villiers- French commandant in Indian wars 152 

approach of, with troops— mention 163 

Devotionalism in Sweden founded by Jonas Olsen 102 

De Witt county— organized March 1,1839— from Macon 99 

Diamond Grove— description of 43 

Dieffenbacher. Philip L.— active member of the Illinois State Historical society 6 

"Digger" (The)— statue at entrance of Drainage canal— mention 70 

Dilg.Charles A.— active member of the Illinois State Historical society 6 

Philip H.— active member of the Illinois State Historical society 6 

Dillon, Jolin B .—historical writer— mention 70 



223 

Index — Continued. 

Page 

Dixon's Ferry— headquarters of Illinois troops in Black Hawk war 170.178 

mention of 170 

mention of 171 

mention of 173. 179 

seat of action in Black Hawk war 178 

Dixon— government land office at— mention 105 

Dixon. John— member Illinois State Board of Public Works 122 

mention of 144.170.171 

of Dixon, Illinois— grand-dansjhter of— mention 132 

Dodge, General-asked to protect frontier of Michigan territory 178 

warns troops in regard to Indians 177 

Dodge, Col. Henry L.— organizes a company to protect the frontier 172 

eulogy of 172 

Dogwood PostofiSce— ro:id leading to 128 

Donaldson, Miss— wife of Robert Morrison— mention 69 

Donichelle. Louis— French private in army of (ieo. K. Clark 141 

Dougherty, John— mention 96 

Mr. N. C— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Douglas county— organized Feb. 16, 1859— f r.>m Coles 99 

Douglas. Mr. Jas. Thompson— county surveyor— mention 126 

Stephen A.— chosen United States Senator 94 

defeated for Congress by John T. Stuart 110 

anecdote of 110 

mention of 155. 169 

mention of 169 

Douglas, Judge Stephen A..- sketch of 94 

Doty, James— death of 174 

Draper. J oseph— mention of 175 

narration of death of 175 

Drown's Record and Historical View of Peoria— quotation from 187 

Drummond, Thomas— District Judge of the United States District Court of Illinois 99 

mention of 96 

Dubois— mention of 142 

Du Buisson— French commandant of 150 

Duff, John— early resident of Kaskaskia— aids Geo. R. Clark 68 

Duncan, Joseph— introduces flrst free school law in State Senate 42 

General Joseph— introduces bill in General Assembly of Illinois for establish- 
ment of district schools 22 

Duncan. Governor Joseph— elected Governor of Illinois 117 

favors internal improvement policy 117,122 

DunlapHouse— Jacksonville— executive committee meetings Histirical Society held at. 13, 14 

Dunn, Mrs. Julia Mills— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

delivers address before Illinois State Historical Society 

•■•Saukenuk" 132-137 

Dunn, Thomas— early resident of Kaskaskia— mention 68 

DuPage county— organized Feb. 19, 1!j39— from Cook 99 

Eads, Capt. Abner— company of, recruited 171 

Early History of Illinois, by Sidney Breese— quotation from 187 

Early History of West and Northwest, by 8. R. Beggs— mention of 57 

Early Religious Methods and Leaders in Illinois— address by W. F. Short, D. D., before 

Illinois State Historical Society 56-62 

East St. Louis— roads leading to 127 

E bart- mention 112 

Edgar county— organized Jan. 3.1823. from Clark 99 

Edgar. James— judge Court of Common Pleas, Randolph county 89 

John— appointed judge of the Court of Common Pleas 89 

John— hospitality of —mention 69 

Illinois county named for 69 

Edgar, Mrs. John— entertains Gen. LaFayette 69 

Education in Illinois— mention 23 

Edwards, Benj. S.— law partner of Maj. John T. Stuart lU 

mention 113 

Edwards. Mrs. Benj. S.— honorary member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Edwards county— organized Nov. 28, 1814— from Gallatin 99 

Edwards, Dr. Richard— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Gov. Ninian— arrives in the territory 90 

one of the organizers of the first historical society 50 

member early Illinois State Historical Society 17 

re-enactpd the laws of the Indiana territory 90 

Edwards, Ninian W.— Attorney General of Illinois 99 

Edwards ri ver— mention 103, 106 

Ed wards, Tom— anecdote of 113 

Ed wards ville. 111.— mention of 42 

Effingham county— organized Feb. 15. 1831— from Fayette 99 

Elective franchise in Illinois— flrst exercise of 87 

Elgin, 111.— speech of Richard Yates at- referred to 144 

Ellis. Bird W.— corporal— burial place of 175 

corporal— mention of 175 



224 

Index — Continued. 

Page 
Ellis. Rev. John M.— a tribute to the memory of— address on Illinois college, by Hon. E. 

P. Kirby 40-47 

Embarras river— funds appropriated for improvement of 123 

Emmal, Mrs. Annie Prev?itt--mention of 141 

Emmerson. Charles— judge 17th Illinois circuit 98 

England — treaty between, and France 85 

English common law — adopted in America 88 

references to, growth and application of 23-40 

English conquest of Illinois 131 

garrison— mention of 139 

language taught in schools of Bishop Hill colony 106 

law--extended over Illinois country 85 

settlements in America — mention 129 

English, Wm. H.— author of "Life of General Clark"— mention 70 

biography of Geo. R. Clark— list of names copied from book 67 

biography of Geo. Rogers Clark— mention 65 

Enos Brothers— early friends of Richard Yates, Sr 143 

Enos, Pascal P.— mention 44 

Epler, Judge Cyrus— judge of the Jacksonville. 111., circuit court 98 

Ericson, Jonas— f James Erickson) one of the incorporators of the Bishop Hill colony... 106 

Erie Canal— account of opening of 115 

Erie— railroad to, from Rushville. funds appropriated for 123 

Erickson. James— one of the incorporators of the Bishop Hill colony 106 

Eschmann. Rev. C. G.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

"Establishment of the Faith"— by Father Christian LeClerc, mention 181,182 

European scenery compared with that of Mississippi valley 137 

Evans ville— roads leading to 128 

Ewing— mention 70 

John, messenger of Gov. Reynolds 178 

Wm. L. D.— member early Illinois State Historical Society 17 

Executive Committee of Illinois State Historical Society— list of 5 

elected 8 

meetings of 13,14,15 

Fairbank, Rev. John B.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Fairfield Literary and Theological Jieminary— name of proposed seminary, mention 42 

Faneuil Hall— object of national interest 138 

Farmer, Maj. Robert— succeeds Capt. Stirling at Ft. Chartres 86 

Farris. Joseph B.— mention of 175 

Fayette County, 111.— men tion 178 

organized Feb. 14. 1821, from Bond 99 

Fayette County, Ohio — mention of 160 

Ferland (Cours de Histoire du Canada)— reference to 154 

Ferland's "Histoire du Canada"— quotation from 151 

Federal Judges— Thomas, Judge Jesse B., most conspicuous of 91 

Fergerson's Ferry— roads leading to 126 

Ferris. Jacob— "The Great West." quotation from 188 

Fifth Regiment of Illinois Volunteers— organization of 179 

First Illinois, or Breese' Reports — preservation of 92 

First Illinois Regiment in Mexican War— heroic deeds of 76.77 

First National Bank of Bloomington. 111.— mention of 164 

Fiscal Agent for Illinois Appointed— duties of 125 

Fiscal agent of State of Illinois 123.124,125 

Fisher. Albert Judson— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Flag of Truce— incident relating to 173-174 

Flint. Timothy— condensed geography and history of the western states, quotation from. 188 

Florence. Randolph County— roads leading to 127-128 

Fond du Lac Township— mention of 189 

Forbes. Prof. S. A.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Ford County— organized Feb. 17. 1859 from Vermilion 100 

Ford. Thomas— chosen judge supreme court 93 

defends Judge T. W. Smith in impeachment trial 96 

Ford, Gov. Thomas— opinion of Judge Thomas 91 

mention 70 

quotation from his history of Illinois 91,120-121 

Ford's History of Illinois— quotation from 94 

Forquer. George— attorney general of Illinoi'j. mention 98 

Fort Armstrong— mention 136-137, 178. 179 

Fort Chartres, built 84,131 

influential cost- mention 131 

surrendered to British 131 

surrendered to Capt. Stirling 85 

mention of 16 

Fort Clark— mention of 161 

Fort Cr^vecoeur- built by LaSalle-mention 130.180,187.189 

historical writings relating to 181-189 

site and plan of li'S 

site of 180-189 

Fort Dearborn— massacre of —mention 116, 117 

Fort Erie-battle of— mention 177 



225 
Index — Continued. 

Page 

Fort Frontenac— creditors of LaSalle seize 180 

rebuilt— mention of 180 

Fort Henry— bat tie of —mention 68 

Fort St, Joseph— attack on 67 

mention of 139 

Fort St. Louis— mention of 180, 186 

Fort Sackville— now Vincennes. built formerly in the country of the Illinois 131 

Fort Stephenson— defended by Geo. Croghan 66 

Fort Sumpter— mention 105 

Fort Wilbourn— established to provide supplies 17c^ 

Foster. Dr.— attends cholera patients at Bishop Hill colony 104 

Foster, William P.— associate judge State of Illinois 91.92 

resigns 92 

Fourier. Charles— reference to socialistic theories of 101 

Fourth of July— George Rogers Clark captures Kaskaskia 139 

Fourth Virginia Kegiment— mention • 65 

Foxes— Indian tribe of 118-155 

shield of— mention 150 

named by other tribes 150 

known as Musquakees 150 

Foxes— vacillation of 150 

portages under control of 150 

Fox Indians— French wars with 190, 202 

lands of— mention 133 

war of extermination against by the French and allies 148-155,190,202 

Fox River— mention 130,150.179 

France— discoveries of. in America 1 29 

her missionaries in the new world— mention 132 

influence of in the development of the new world 129 

military and civil power of. in Mississippi Valley 131 

treaty between, and England 85 

Franciscan priests— educational work of— mention 22 

Franklin county— mention 178 

organized Jan. 2,1818, from Gallatin White and Jackson 99 

Franquelin— map of "Lac des Illinois." mention 149 

mention of-maps of 1684 and 1687 148.182,189 

Freeburg— roads leading to 127, 128 

Free republic— beginnings of 87 

Free soilers— reference to 145 

French. Dr. A. W.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

B. F.— compiler of historical collections of Louisiana— mention 181,185,186 

French explorers— description of hills and ravines which marked the site of Fort 

Cr^vecoeur 189 

French government builds Fort Chartres 131 

in Illinois (The)— address before the Illinois State Historical Society, by Hon. J. 

NickPerrin 129-132 

marine department — mention 130 

population in Illinois— number 131 

records— mention of— preservation of 140 

recruits— land grants to 142 

republic— mention 129 

settlements in Illinois— mention of 57 

80013113*^3- mention 101-103 

soldiers in Indian wars against Foxes, their bravery and trials— mention 190,191 

soldiers in Indian wars, their devotion to the king 190 

traders— route of 150 

Village-roads leading to 126,127,128 

Violinist at Saukennk— story of 136 

Frontenac, Count— governor of Canada, friend of LaSalle, mention 180 

Fuller, Allen C. —adjutant general of Illinois, appointment of 146 

Fulton County, 111.- mention of 173 

organized Jan. 28. 1823. from Pike 100 

Fund Commissioners. Illinois State— mention 122 

Funk, Absalom— brother of Isaac Funk, mention of 160 

locates in Chicago 161 

character of 162 

partnership dissolved 162 

partner of Isaac Funk 161 

Funk, Adam— father of Isaac Funk 160 

children of 160 

grandfather ol Isaac Funk 160 

Funk,D. M.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Funk Family— reunion of 167 

Funk, George— son of Isaac Funk, mention of 163 

Funk's Grove Township— acreage of Punk estate in 164 

Funk's Grove— home decided upon 161 

Funk, Jacob— mention of . residence of 163 

Jesse— son of Isaac Funk, mention of 162 

Isaac— ancestry of 159-160 

—15 H. 



226 

Index — Continued. 

Paqe 

Funk, Isaac— arrival in lllinoia 161 

description of 166 

illustration of characteristics, industry of 168 

business methods 169 

disposition of estate 16* 

education of 160 

Funk, Isaac and Absalom— equal partners 161 

partnership dissolved 162 

Funk.isaac— history of land purchases 165 

land purchases of ■■ — 163 

life and character of, address before the McLean County Historical Society 

by Hon. L. H. Kerrick 159-170 

marriage of 161 

organizer. First National bank of Bloomington 164 

politics of ; member of legislature; State senator; speech of 169 

religious beliefs 169 

State senator : ii }°^ 

strategy of 167-168 

business methods 168 

stock business of 161,162,163,164,165,166 

Funk, Isaac, Jr.— reunion of Punk family held at residence of 167 

Funk, Hon. Lafayette— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Gage, Gen.— commander British forces in America, mention 85 

Gaines, Frances— wife of Peter Cartwright 51 

Gaines, Gen.-mention........... 136 

Gale, G.— opinion of, as to location of Fort Crevecoeur , 189 

Galena— limestone, mention of mounds of 148 

mention of 161 

mention of 1"0 

Gallatin County— organized Sept. 14, 1812, from Randolph 100 

Galva— village of, mention 107 

Gamble, Hon. Hamilton— mention of 155 

Gamble, Judge-mention... ......... .....^...... Ill 

Garrett, T. M.— active member of the Illinois btate Historical Society 6 

Garrison, Wm. L.— mention of 144 

Gary, Joseph E— judge of the superior court of Chicago 98 

Gates— mention of 139 

Gayarre— quotations from, writings of Idl 

Gazetteer of Illinois by J. M. Peck— mention of 57 

Gear, Capt. H. Hezekiah— served with Capt. Harney at Galena 179 

Geers, Catherine— wife of Richard Yates. Sr 143 

Genealogy of French participants in Clark's expedition 139 

General Assembly of Illinois-first session held 124 

created five circuits and elects circuit judges 92 

grants charter to Bishop Hill colony 106 

impeaches Judge Theophilus W. Smith 96 

repeals judges 92,93 

Gentry, James H.— mention of 172 

Georgetown— roads leading to 128 

Gilbert— mention 1*2 

Gettysburg— battle of, mention 132 

mention of 146 

Gibault. Father Pierre— French Priest at Kaskaskia, aids George Rogers Clark 65,131 

mention of 87 

Giddings, Rev. Salmon— mention 41, 42 

Gillespie, Mrs. David— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Qoudy, R.— publisher of Peck's Gazetteer of Illinois 57 

Government records available for adjustment of French land claims 142 

Grant, Gen. Ulysses— called to Washington 147 

mention of 145, 146 

Gratiot. Col. Henry— mention of 172 

Gratiot's Grove— mention of 170 

Gravier. Father Jacques— French missionary to the Indians of Illinois 130 

historical writings of, quotations from 181 

Gray ville— charter refused to Albion & Grayville railroad 123 

'Great Sauk Trail"— mention of 153 

"Great West" (The)— by Jacob Ferris, quotations from 188 

Great Western Mail Route— funds appropriated for 119 

Green Bay— mention • 130, 179 

mention of bluffs known as the Red Banks," traditions of 150 

Greene County Organized— Jan. 20. 1821, from Madison ;... 100 

Greene, Prof .E.B.— absent from executive committee meeting of Illinois State Historical 

Society; successor appointed during absence of 13 

Greene, Prof. Evarts B.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

elected 2d vice president Illinois State Historical Society 5,8 

Greenup. Darius— surveys roads 126 

mention 128 

Greenup, W. C— road surveyer, mention 128 

Gregory, Ch arles— mention 43 

■Gridley, J. N.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 



227 

Index — Continued. 

Page 

«riffin-La Salle's Tessel, mention 143,180 

Griswold, Stanley— appointed judge 90 

Gross, Lewis M. — mention 143 

VV. L.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Grosscup. Judge Peter— judge district court northern district of Illinois 99 

Grundy County Organized— Feb. 17, 1841, from LaSalle ICO 

Gulgans, Father Michel-Jesuit missionary to Indians, taken prisoner 152 

Guizot— quotations from 39 

Hackleton, Ciipt.— mention of 173 

Haggin— early lawyer of Illinois 90 

Haines. James— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Hall, Henry H.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Hall, Judge James— elected judge 92 

sal ary of 92 

one of the organizers of the first Illinois State Historical Society.... 50 

president of early Illinois State Historical Society 17 

Hall, Oliver W.— description of Stillman's defeat 174,175 

mention of 175 

Hamilton, Alexander— mention of 172 

Hamilton county organized— Feb. 8, 1821— from White 100 

Hamilton, Gen. E. B.— member Illinois State Historical Society 6 

delegate to meeting of Illinois State Historical Society 14 

Hamilton, William G.— mention of 172 

Hancock county organized— Jan. 13, 1825— from Pike 100 

Hardin, Col. John J.— mention of 144,155 

Hardin county organized— March 2, 1839— from Pope and Gallatin 100 

Hardy. H. L.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Harlan, Justin— judge 4th Illinois circuit 97,98 

Harmar, General— mention of 88 

Harris, Major Thomas H.— mention of 144 

Harrisonville, Monroe county— roads leading to 127 

Harrod, Capt. Wm,— expedition against Vincennes— mention 68 

Hawley. E. B.— Director Sanitary Commission 146 

Hay, .John— appointed by Governor St. Clair clerk of the court at Cahokia 89 

Hay. Logan— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Hecker— roads leading to 128 

Hedstrom— Methodist preacher— mention 103 

Heinl, Frank— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Helsingland. a province of Sweden— mention 101 

Hempstead, S. C— mention of 96 

Henderson county organized— Jan. 20, 1841, from Warren 100 

Henderson, Judge John H.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Henry county— mention 105,108 

organized— March 2, 1837, from Knox 100 

Henry, Patrick— m ention 87, 130 

Governor of Virginia— letter from, to G. R. Clark— mention 67 

letter to, written by Geo. Rogers Clark 67 

Governor of Virginia— mention ; .••■ 65 

Hennepin, Father Louis— French missionary and companion of LaSalle— "Description 

of Louisiana"— quotation from 183 

description of LaSalle's voyage down the Illinois river 187 

mention 177, 178, 187 

Hennepin's map— mention of 182 

Henninger, Prof. J. W.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Herndon Brothers— early friends of Richard Yates, Sr 143 

Higgins, Thomas— mention 68 

brief sketch 69 

Hill Prairie- roads leading to 127 

Hillsboro— railroad to, funds appropriated to build 119 

Hillsboro to Terre Haute Railroad— funds appropriated to build 119 

Historical Department of Illinois— address by Dr. J. F. Snyder 16 

Historical Library— act creating — mention 17 

funds expended for books, etc • — 17 

Historical Societies— committee on local historical societies to appoint representatives 

in each county in the State 1* 

mention 18 

work of —mention 140 

Hoblit, J. T.— president Logan County Historical society— signs credentials of delegate 

to Illinois State Historical Society 14 

Holiday, Rev. Chas.— removes to Illinois 51 

Holmes, A. L.— mention of 96 

Homes of Illinois— Irish poem by Thomas D'Arcy McGee 70 

Honorary Members Illinois State Historical Society— list of 6 

Horine, Major— sent to St. Louis by Governor Reynolds 178 

Horse Creek— mention 128 

Horse Prairie— mention 128 

roads leading to 128 

Hosmer, Jas. K.— quotations from historical writings of 187 

Hudson River— mention 104 



228 

Index — Continued. 

Page. 

Huguenot Settlement in Florida— mention 129 

Humphrey, Judge J Otis— United States district judge for southern district of Illinois. 99 

Iberville— mention 130 

lies, Capt. Elijah— commands company of Illinois regiment in Black Hawk war 110 

Major Elijah— captain in Black Hawk war 110 

Elijah— mention 44 

Illinois, a part of Virginia— mention 131 

Illinois Ancestry among the Daughters of the American Revolution— paper read before 

the Illinois State Historical Society by Mrs, Katherine C. Sparks 137-143 

Illinois and its People— paper read by George Murray McConnel before Illinois State 

Historical Society 70-84 

Illinois and Wabash Country— government of, established 84 

Illinois as a Part of the Territory of Indiana 89 

Illinois as a State 91 

admitted into the Union 91 

population of the State 91 

Illinois as a Territory 90 

population of 90 

Illinois— Attorneys General of 98, 99 

Illinois Building, St. Louis Exposition— Illinois State Historical Society votes to ask 

permission to assist in decoration of 13 

Illinois— call for troops in War Rebellion, response to 146 

Illinois Central Railroad— mention of land grants to 164 

Illinois College— annual meeting of Illinois State Historical Society held at 8 

incorporated 46-47 

mention of 143 

mention of 147 

opened— mention 22 

organization and history of— address by Hon. E. P. Kirby before 

Illinois State Historical Society 40-47 

Illinois— common law of England and British statutes adopted in U. S 88 

Illinois Confederacy of Indians— mention 130 

Illinois Conference— female college, mention 44 

Illinois Counties— when organized— list of, with dates 99-100 

Illinois Country— deed of cession of executed by Virginia to United States 85 

extent of 84 

Illinois Country— mention 130, 180 

Illinois— country of Virginia established 84 

Illinois— court of the audience of royal jurisdiction of— established at Kaskaskia 85 

early Irish and Irish- American residents in 65-70 

first constitution of 91 

first law touching government of 88 

Illinois French— enlistment of in army of G. R. Clark 139 

endurance of 139 

Illinois General Assembly— grants charter to Bishop Hill colony 106 

Illinois— growth of law and government in 99 

Illinois. Historical and Statistical— by John Moses, quotation from 188 

Illinois History— chapters from, by Edward G. Mason 187 

Illinois Indian village burned by Iroquois 180,181 

Illinois Indians— mention 129-130, 180, 191 

Illinois Internal Improvement System— mention 35 

Illinois Internal Improvement Venture of 1837-38— address before Illinois State Historical 

Society by Dr. B. Stuve 114-125 

Illinois— Irish homes of— poem by Thomas D' Arcy McGee 70 

mention 189 

"Illinois of the Rock"— mention of 151,152 

Illinois' part in the Revolutionary War 137-143 

Illinois— population of— mention 41 

resources and advantages of 16 

represented by 139 

Illinois River— exploration of by LaSalle 179-189 

funds for improvement of 119 

mention 130, 133, 150, 179, 189 

Illinois— separate existence of 90 

Illinois State Courts 96, 97, 98, 99 

Illinois State Department of History— outline of and act proposing 19,20 

Illinois State General Assembly— elections to 52 

Illinois State Historical Library— act creating 17 

funds expended by for, number of books, etc 17 

Illinois State Historical Society— early one— organization and members 17 

first organizers of 50 

present list of members 6-7 

list of officers 5 

present, organized 17 

recommendations to 143 

Stuart, Mary Nash, honorary member of 154 

Illinois Territory organized 69 

Illinois Troops at Battle of Shiloh— anecdote of 77 

Illinois under Federal authority 88 

Illinois Under French Regime— officers of— how appointed 85 

Illinois Under Virginia— boundaries of 87 



229 
Index — Continued. 

Illinois— United States District Court for Northern District of 99 

United States District Court for Southern District of— judgres of 99 

United States District Court— judges of 99 

Illinois University of Springfield— mention lU 

Illinois Valley— exploration of by LaSalle 179-189 

Illinois Wesleyan University— donation to 169 

Illinonecks— mention i ;; ,?5 

In Memorian— Mary Nash Stuart ^^*'J5? 

Inaugural of first Governor of Illinois— attendance at 131 

Indian attributes of character 132 

Indian nations allied with the French— mention 190 

Indian prisoners captured by French and allies— mention 192 

Ingersoll. Robert— mention of •„■•.••• w •.■■.•,;.••••. jv Vi tiV-'";* ^*' 

Internal improvement venture of 1837-38 of the State of Illinois— address before Illinois 

State Historical Society, by Dr. Bernard Stuve Hn~'^ll 

Iowa— immieration to, from Bishop Hill Colony 107-108 

Iowa State Historical Society— organization and collections 18 

Irish-American soldiers in army of Geo. Rogers Clark "S§ 

Irish historical writers— mention -...- '0 

Irish Humes of Illinois (The)— poem by by Thomas D'Arcy McQee 70 

Irish immigrants— value as laborers— mention 70 

Irishmen of Illinois— in wars ™ 

professions, politics, etc 70 

Irish of Illinois— prominent in all walks of life 70 

Iroquois county— organized Feb. 26.1833— from Vermilion ;a-:aa }9? 

Iroquois Indian tribes— mention of 118,180,181 

Iroquois— western tribes urged to join French against Foxes 150 

Irwin, Robert— director Illinois sanitary commission .146 

Jackson, General Andrew— anecdotes of AATn ';); 

mention 109, 110. 117 

Jacksonoounty— organized Jan. 10,1816— from Randolph „; i92 

roads of —mention ^^""^oo 

Jacksonville, 111.— circuit court, judges of ................................... 98 

citizens of, thanked for hospitality to Illinois State Historical Society. 12 

description of place and people *Mq 

mention of ■ • - -. 1*3 

third annual meeting of Illinois State Historical Society 8-15 

executive committee meetings 13, 14, 15 

vote to hold annual meeting of society 13 

Jacobson. Jacob— one of the incorporators of the Bishop Hill Colony , 106 

Jails— insufficiency of, in Illinois .-.. ........._ 95 

James. Dr. E. J.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

appointed committee on legislation of Illinois State Historical Society 5 

attends meeting of the executive committee 13 

executive Committee. Illinois State Historical Society 6 

elected member of executive committee for 1902 8 

paper failed to reach publication committee of Illinois State Historical 

Society ■ 12 

James. Prof. J. A.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

makes motion— appointed on committee 8 

reads report of committee 8 

Janis. Nicholas— chosen judge of the court at Cahokia 87 

Jansen. Eric— death of •-• 105 

sketch of life and career of I'^^'^on 

Jarrott. Nicholas— judge of court of common pleas of Randolph county 89 

Jasper county— organized Feb. 15,1831— from Crawford 100 

J ayne. Dr. Gershom— mention ........._. 44 

Dr. William— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Dr. \Vm.— Richard Yates' services to Illinois as War Governor, address before 

Illinois State Historical Society ^* ,JI 

Jefferson County Organized— March 13, 1819, from Edwards and White 100 

Jefferson, Thomas— mention of 144 

Jersey County Organized— Feb. 28. 1839, from Greene 100 

J erseyville— mention of, in kidnapping incident >-•••••,• °i 

Jessup. Thomas— adjutant general U. S. A., marries daughter of William Croghan 6b 

Jesuit Fathers— educational work of, mention 22 

Alissionaries- their labors in Mississippi valley, mention 13^ 

Priests— mention of— visits of to Illinois— writings of ••• IgO 

Relations— reference to - • ..• — .■•••,•:,••■:• i" • V •" o..' 

Jewett, Hon. John N.— annual address before Illinois State Historical Society. Jan. 23, 

1902, "The Sources and Results of Law in Illinois." 23-40 

Job, Archibald— mention 44,45 

JoDaviess County— mention of iio i ^q 

militia organization of ' nn 

JoDaviess County Organized-Feb. 17, 1827, from Peoria. 100 

Johnson. Hon. Charles P.— honorary member of the Illinois State Historical Society b 

Johnson County Organized— Sept. 14, 1812, from Randolph 100 

Johnson, Col. James-colonel of 5th Regt. 111. Vols 179 

Olof— financial man of the Bishop Hill colony ............;........ ..• 107 

manageraentof the financial affairs of the Bishop Hill colony ^^^'}}^ 

one of the incorporators of the Bishop Hill colony 106 



230 

Index — Continued. 

Page 

Johnson. Peter— one of the incorporators of the Bishop Hill colony 106 

Sir Wm,— superintendent Indian affairs; mention 65 

Johnston, Albert Sidney— quotations from journal of 178 

Joliet, Father Louis— French missionary, mention 57. 129. 168, 182 

voyage and discoveries of 129,130 

Jones, Miss Emma F.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

George W.— mention of 90 

John Rice— first practicing lawyer resident of Illinois 90 

Michael— registrar land office at Kaskaskia 69 

Obadiah— judge of the territory of Illinois 90 

resigns 90 

Jonesboro College— incorporated 46, 47 

Journal of Joutel— mention 181, 185, 186 

Joutel, Henri— French explorer, journal of, mention 181,185,186 

Judges appointed in Illinois 86 

of Early Illinois— quotation from Moses and Ford, regarding 94 

of Illinois State courts 96-99 

of the Territory of Illinois 90 

Judicial History of Illinois— some facts in; paper by J. O. Cunningham 84-100 

Justices of the Peace— appointed by the Governor 89 

of Illinois appointed for Hancock county 89 

Kalamazoo River— mention of 148 

Kanawa Salt Works— mention of 160 

Kane, Judge Charles P.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Kane County- mention of 143 

Organized— Jan. 16. 1S36. from LaSalle 100 

Kane. Elias K.— United States senator, mention 117 

Kankakee county— organized Feb. 11.1851. from Will 100 

Kankakee river— mention 188 

Kansas— state of— mention 138 

Kansas State Historical Society— organization and collections 18 

Kaskaskia— capture of 139 

center of influence in Mississippi Valley 131 

commandants and French settlements at 130,131 

commandants at 66 

court held at 92 

early residents of. and attack on by army of Geo. R. Clark 65-70 

first settlements and occupations of 130,131 

funds appropriated for turnpike to 123 

land office established and officers appointed 69 

mention of 84,142,152 

notary at, record book of found 131 

population of , 131 

recruits from 142 

surrender of 139 

"Kaskaskia Reporter"— mention 41 

newspaper mention 41, 42 

Kaskaskia river— funds for improvements of 119 

mention 126, 128 

mention 150 

Kaskaskia Roads ami Trails— address by Frank Moore 125-128 

Kaskaskia— tribe of Indians— missions among 130 

visited by General LaFay ette 69 

Kearney, Mr.— mention 67 

Kellogg, O. W.— mention of 170^ 

"Kellogg's Trail"— mention of 170 

Kendall county, 111.— mention of 148,154 

Kendall county- organized— Feb. 19. 1841— from LaSalle 100 

Kentucky— Clark county— birthplace of Isaac Funk 160 

mention 131.143 

Kerrick, Hon. L. H.— address,— Life and Character of Hon. Isaac Funk 157-170 

Kickapoo Indians— captivity of Wm. Biggs among 202-215 

mention of 152 

give warning 152 

Kickapoo trading town— mention 212-214 

Kidnapping of negroes in Illinois— sentiment of the people regarding 80 

Kidnapping— suspicions of 81 

Kikapous— Indian tri be— mention 191 

Kilaticas— Indian tribe— mention 148 

Kimball, Rev. Clarence O.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Kingsford's Canada — reference to 186 

Kinkaid Creek— mention l''J8 

Kinney— mention 70 

Kinney. William— member Board of Public Works 122 

Kirby, Edward P.— address before Illinois State Historical Society— "The Organization 

and History of Illinois College" 40-47 

Kish-WauKee— mention of 172 

Kish-Wau-Kee Trail— mention of 152 

Kitchel, WicklifEe— Attorney General of Illinois 99 

Knox county, 111.— murder trial held in 105 

organized Jan. 13, 1825, from Pike and Fulton counties 100 



231 

Index — Continued. 

Page 

Kohlsaat. Judge C. C— judge U. S. district court for Northern district of Illinois 99 

Kreeps. David— served in Adams' Co. in Black Hawk War 175 

Krum. Hon. John M.— mayor of St. Louis, anecdote of 69 

LaFayette. General— mention of 129 

visits Kaskaskia 69 

LaQrange— a settlement near Bishop Hill Colony 104 

LaHontan, B&ron—{See LeHontanJ. 

quotation from writings of loo 

unreliability of 186 

LaPotherle— mention of ;<m ;;« 

LaSalle county. 111.— mention of vi • • • •. ^"*"- i5x 

organization of, Jan. 15, 183K from Peoria 100 

"Past and Present"— quotation from 188 

LaSalle. 111.— mention of , • ■••••.•■:■• ::,:• ••:• "^'^ 

LaSalle, Ren6 Robert Cavalier. Sr. de— French explorer— account of travels of. in Illinois 

and Mississippi Valley 179-189 

builds Fort Crevecoeur 179-189 

enters Peoria lake. Jan 4, 1680-mention IbO 

first visit to the Illinois country 182 

letters of, quoted 184 

letters in French Archives of the Marine, men- 
tioned 181 

French explorer, mbntion of 189 

receives endorsement at court, mention 180 

second expedition of 180 

LaVantum— Indian town, mention of, ruin and devastation of 184 

Labrador— mention of 129 

Lac des Illinois— mention of 1*^ 

Lacroix— mention of i*-j 

Lake County, Ill.-March 1, 1839, from McHenry 100 

Lake Michigan— mention of l^"'r™ 

Lake Peoria— mention of 187 

Lake St. Clair— mention of 151 

Lake St. John, Canada— mention of 150 

Lake Superior— mention of 1^^ 

Lamborn. J osiah— attorney general of Illinois 99 

Land Qrants— mention of j5 

Lan gley— mention of 1*5 

Langlois— mention of ■ ■ 1*^ 

Laurent— voyager, with letter from Tonti. mention of 180 

Laviolette— French private in Clark's army .....................;....;... 141 

Law— The sources and results of law, annual address before the Illinois btate Historical 

Society, by Hon. John N. Jewett 23-40 

Lawrence. Judge C. B.— chosen judge Third circuit — 96 

Lawrence County. 111.— organized Jan. 16. 1821. from Edwards and Crawford 100 

Le Clerc. I Father Christian— French Recollect missionary priest, author of ' Establish- 

LeClercq. j ment of the Faith." mention 18J 

LeHontan. Baron— quotation from; unreliability of 186 

Leaton. James— author of Methodism in Illinois 57 

Lebanon— railroad to. from Belleville, funds appropriated to build 119 

Lebanon Seminary— mention of 23 

Lee County. 111.— mention of 171 

organized Feb. 27.1839. from Ogle 100 

Lee. Gen. Robert E.— mention of ■''^'-i^tf 

Leeper. Judge John. Esq.— mention of •. — ..........43,45 

Legislature of Illinois— bill introduced abolishing the offices of the nine circuit judges. 

etc °5 

special session authorizes the raising of ten additional regi- 
ments in war rebellion 1*6 

Leman. Judge James— judge court common pleas. Randolph county nn",\'\y', ill 

Lexington. Ky.— mention 109.111.167,168 

Libraries. State, of Illinois— mention 1^ 

Lily Lake— mention of •-■ J*^ 

Lincoln, Abraham— anecdote of l^'' 11, 

in Black Hawk War Ill 

elected to General Assembly of Illinois 110 

enlists as private soldier in Black Hawk War 110 

friendship with Major John T. Stuart 112 

inauguration of, as President of United States— mention 115 

mention of 97.113,137,144,155,169 

mention of old army trail traveled by 178 

Lincoln county, Ky.— home of Peter Cartwright 48 

Lincoln, 111.— mention YA 

Lincoln, Robert T— mention 11^ 

Linder Usher F.— Attorney General of Illinois 99 

Lindstorra, Eric— surveyed lands of Bishop Hill Colony for division 107 

Lineage books of National Society Daughters of American Revolution-mention 1*1^'*? 

Lippincott, Elder Thomas— mention 42,43 

Lippincott. Rev. Thoraas-manuscrint written by. and extracts from-mention 40.43 

Literary sessions of Illinois State Historical Society-progranirae 1| 

Little, Mrs. Helen M. J.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Little Nine Mile creek— mention 127 



232 

Index — Continued. 

Page 

Little Plum creek— mention 127 

Little Rock, Kendall county— old Indian fort, property of 154 

Little Rock creek— why so called 148 

Little Wabash river— fund for improvement of 119 

mention 69 

Lively's prairie- road leading to 127 

Livingston county— organized Feb. 27,1837, from LaSalle. McLean and Vermilion 100 

Livingston, Miss— wife of George Croghan 66 

Local historical societies— committee of Illinois State Historical Society to appoint rep- 
resentatives in 14 

Lochrey, Col. Archibald— served in army of Geo. Rogers Clark 66-67 

Lock wood, Samuel D.— Associate Justice of the Illinois Supreme Court 92 

Lock wood, Hon. Samuel — mention 42,45 

Lockwood, Judge Samuel D.— Attorney General of Illiuois 98 

elected to the Supreme Court 94 

member of constitutional convention 94 

member early Illinois State Historical Society 17 

mention of 155 

president board of trustees Illinois college 46 

trustee of the lands of the Illinois Central railroad 94 

uncle of Mrs. John T. Stuart— letter from, to Mrs. Stuart.. Ill 

Lodge, William P.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Logan. Col. Ben j.— served in Geo. Rogers Clark's army 67 

Logan County Historical Society sends delegate to annual meeting of the Illinois State 

Historical Society 14 

Logan county organized— Feb. 15, 1839— from Sangamon, Tazewell and McLean 100 

Logan. Gen. John A. — at battle of Peach Tree— mention 147 

Logan, Stephen T.— Illinois circuit judge 98 

mention 113 

Logans— mention 70 

London. England— Illinois State bonds sold at 123,124 

"Long Hair White"— nickname given by Indians to John Dixon 170 

"Long Hunters" — name given to George Rogers Clark and soldiers 66 

Long Island— battle of —mention 65 

"Long Nine"— name applied to members of General Assembly from SangamonlCo.120, 121, 125 

Long. Major Thomas— battalion of— mention 179 

Lookout Mountain— battle of— mention 132 

mention of 147 

Lord, Capt. Hugh— came to Kaskaskia 65 

Louisiana— collections of, compiled by B. F. French— mention 181 

colony of —growth and prospects of —mention 191 

discovery of— title book written by Hennepin 181 

governor of, appoints commandants 85 

Illiuois country a part of 84 

mention of 150,189 

name of territory given by LaSalle 130,131 

population of 1.31 

present state of— mention 130 

Louisiana Territory— defeat of Fox Indian Nation in 190 

Louisianne— French colony— in danger from Indians— mention 190-192 

Louisville, Clay county. 111.— election in— anecdote of 109-110 

Louisville, Ky.— mention of 140 

burial place of Geo. Rogers Clark 140 

Lovejoy, Hon. Owen- mention of 147,169 

Lower Sandusky— mention 66 

Lucinda, negro girl— anecdote of, abduction of 80,81 

Lunsford. Moses- -served in army of Geo. R. Clark— entitled to grant of land 67 

Lusado. Abraham— entitled to grant of land for service in army of G. R. Clark 67 

Lusk's Perry— roads leading to 126, 127, 12i 

Luther, Martin— teachings of, as regarded by people of Sweden 101 

Luttrell. Richard— entitled to grant of land for service in army of Geo. Rogers Clark 67 

Lyne, Joseph— entitled to grant of land for service in G. R. Clark's army 67 

Lynch, Hugh— early explorer of Kentucky— mention 68 

Lyons, John— entitled to grant of laud for service in army of Geo. R. Clark 67 

Mackinac, Straits of— mission station at 129 

Macknaw— mention of 151 

Macon county— company from, recruited 171 

organized— Jan. 19. 1829— from Shelby 100 

Macoupin county organized — Jau. 17, 1829— from Greene 100 

Madison county organized— Sept. 14, 1812— from St. Clair 100 

Mahingans— mention 184 

JM ahoney, Florence- entitled to grant of land for service in army of Geo. R. Clark 67 

Maid ot Orleans— mention 129 

Mail route— Great Western— funds appropriated to 119 

Manchester— mention of— in kidnapping Incident 82 

Manierre, Judge Georg<j. of the circuit court of Cook county. 111 98 

Manifee. Jonas— entitled to grant of land for service in army of Geo. R. Clark 67 

Mann, Walter 1.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Mann. William— residence of— mention 127 

Map "Lac des Illinois"— map of Franquelin 149 

Marame— river of 148 



233 

Index — Continued. 

Page 

Maramech— ancient remains unearthed 148 

archseologists find 148 

center of Miami population 148 

discoveries of the time— ancient site of 154 

inscription on boulder 154 

great Indian village 154 

peaceful site 154 

Maramech Hill— mention of 152 

Marameg— river of 148 

Indian tribe 148 

Maramek— Indian village 148 

location of 148 

March, Col. E. C— chooses site of Fort Wilbourn as base of supplies 178 

sends supplies to Illinois troops 178 

March, Enoch C— mention 45 

Marest, Pierre Gabriel— French Jesuit missionarv— historical writings of— mention 181 

Marion county— organized Jan. 24,1823— from Jefferson and Fayette 100 

Marissa. St. Clair Co.— roads leading to 127 

Marks, Judge— mention 43 

Marquette, Father James— mention of. 57,179 

missionary ) abors 129 

voyage and discoveries of 129,130,131 

Marr. Patrick— entitled to grant of land for service in army of Geo. R. Clark 67 

Marshall county— organized Jan. 29. 1839— from Putnam 100 

Martin, Charles— entitled to grant of land for service in army of Geo. Rogers Clark 67 

"iMarylander" (The)— anecdote of 81,82 

Mascoutens— mention 186 

Maskoutin Indians— mention 191 

Mascoutins— mention 152 

Mason county— organized Jan. 20, 1841— fi-om Sangamon and Tazewell 100 

Mason. Edward G.— quotation from historical writings of 187 

Mason's Chapters from Illinois History— quotations from 189 

Massac county— organized Jan. 8, 1843— from Pope and Johnson 100 

Massachusetts— mention 138 

Matheny Brothers— early friends of Richard Yates, Sr 143 

Mather, Thomas— fund commissioner of Illinois 122 

Matson, N.— "The Pioneers of Illinois"— quotation from 188 

Maumee rapids, battle of— mention 68 

May. William L.— in election for Congress of United States, defeats John T. Stuart 110 

McAllister, Judge Wm. K.— of Illinois State Supreme Court 96-97 

Mc Bride, John, Jr.— residence of— mention 127 

McCall, Daniel— Sergt. Major Fifth Regiment Illinois Volunteers 179 

McCarty, "English"— mention ••. 66 

McCarty , Richard— mention 65 

McCawley— early explorer of Illinois territory— mention 69 

McClernand, Gen. John A.— honorary member of the Illinois State Historical Society — 6 
McClernand, Mrs. John A.— honorary member of the Illinois State Historical Society — 6 

McClure, Capt. Robert— company of. recruited 171 

McConnel, G. M.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society.... 6 

McConnel, George Murray— reads paper before Illinois State Historical Society 70 

MeConnel, Murray— member of Illinois Board of Public Works ^' ••:-•• ^22 

member of prosecution in impeachment trial of Judge T. W, Smith. 96 

McCulloch, Hon, David— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

attends meeting of executive committee 13 

attends trustee meeting 14 

committee on legislation 8 

executive committee Illinois State Historical Society 5 

elected member executive committee, 1902 8 

McDermott, Francis— entitled to grant of land for service in army of George R. Clark... 67 

McDonald, David— entitled to grant of land for service in army of George R. Clark 67 

McDonough County— organized Jan. 25, 1826. from Pike 100 

McDougal, James A —attorney general of Illinois 99 

McElfresh, Rev. Dr.- mention of 55 

MfGar. John— entitled to grant of land for service in army of Geo. R. Clark 67 

McGee, Thomas D'Arcy— poem by 70 

McHarrod, Capt.— company of, served under George Rogers Clark, mention 66 

McHenry County- organized Jan. 16. 1S36. from Cook 100 

Mclntyre, Alex —entitled to grant of land for service in army of George R. Clark 67 

McKendre College— mention ^^'2 

McKendreean College— incorporated ^^~il 

Mc Laughlin— mention , ;•,•••.• ; • • "" 

MdcLaughlin, Ada Greenwood— "The Site of Fort Cr^vecoeur"— paper read before the 

Illinois State Historical Society 179-189 

McLean County— companies from, recruited 171 

hi'<torical records; narration of death of Joseph Draper 175 

Historical Society, celebration of the 75th anniversary of the settle- 
ment of Funk's Grove in 159 

notes of surveyors on 163 

number of families in 161 

organized Dec. 25, 1830. from Tazewell and Vermilion 100 



284 
Index — Continued. 

Page 

McLean, John— judge United States court 99 

McMannus, Geo., Sr.— entitled to grant of land for service in army of George R. Clark.. 67 
McMannus, John, Jr.— entitled to grant of land for service in army of George R. Clark.. 67 

McMuUen, Samuel— entitled to grant of land for service in army of George R. Clark 67 

McNutt, James— entitled to grant of land for service in army of George R. Clark 67 

McRoberts, Samuel— elected judge 92 

Salary of 92 

member early Illinois State Historical Society 17 

Mears, William— attorney general of Illinois 98 

Medill, Joseph— mention 70 

Meillet— expedition of 140 

Members of Illinois State Historical Society— list 6,7 

Membre— mention of 189 

Membre, Father Zenobius— Frencb recollect missionary priest; diary of; mention 181 

letter of. mention 185 

Menard county— organized, Feb. 15,1839, from Sangamon 100 

Mendinall. Zadok— mention of 175 

Mercer County— organized. Jan. 13,1825. from Pike and Fulton 100 

Meredosia— railroad to— mention 125 

Merritt, Hon. E. L —active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Mersham, Nathaniel— entitled to grant of land for services in army of Geo. R. Clark 67 

Messier— voyager, with letter from Tonti 180 

Metairie. Jacques de la— French notary in colonial service; letter of in archives of Can- 
ada; mention; letter of 181.185 

Metarie— mention of 189 

Methodism in Illinois— history by James Leaton. mention 57 

Methodist Episcopal Church in Illinois— early history of, in address of W. F. Short, 

D. D 58-60 

Mexican War— heroic conduct of Illinois troops in 76,77 

Mexico— mention of 186 

Miamis Fort— mention 191 

Michigan Territory— company organized from, to protect frontier 172 

Michigan Territory Frontier— protected 178 

Micitonga— deputy from tribe of 148 

chief of tribe of 148 

Milan, 111.- mill at, mention 103,101 

Miller, Abraham— entitled to grant of land for services in army of Geo. R. Clark 67 

John — residence of, mention 127 

Mr. Justice— mention 24. 34 

Mills, B.— judge of Kentucky court of appeals, mention 109 

Benjamin— prosecutor in impeachment trial of Judge T. W. Smith 96 

Richard W.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Milton. James— mention of 175 

Mineral Point— mention of 172 

Minnesota— immigrants to from Bishop Hill colony 107.108 

Missionary Ridge— mention of 147 

Mississippi— present state of; mission stations in limits of; mention 130 

secession of 145 

Mississippi River— description of 71 

given the name of river Colbert by LaSalle 184 

mention of 84, 126, 127, 128, 130, 132. 133, 134, 135. 136. 137. 139, 150 

settlement on. mention 131 

Mississippi River Towns— Land grants to 142 

Mississippi Valley— description of 71 

people of 71 

historical societies— work of 140 

power of France in. 131 

Missouri— Thos. Reynolds elected governor of 92 

"Missouri Compromise"— author of 91 

reference to 144 

Missouri— presbytery of— mention 45 

Republican, article in, by Major Stillman on defeat of Illinois troops 176-177 

Missouri territory— mention of 155 

Monmouth, Earl of— mention 109 

Monroe county organized— June 1, 1816— from Randolph and St. Clair 100 

Monroe, James— entitled to grant of land for service in army of Geo. R. Clark 67 

Montbrun, Timothe du— successor of Col. Todd 88 

Montgomery county organized— Jan. 12, 1821— from Bond 100 

Montgomery, James— lieutenant in army of Geo- R. Clark ' 141 

Montgomery, John— entitled to grant of land for service in army of Geo. R. Clark 67 

Montgomery. Capt. John— served in army of Geo. Rogers Clark 66 

Montreal— council at— mention 150 

mention 129.192 

Monument— erected by Peoria Chapter. Daughters of the American Revolution 189 

Moore, Ben j.— mention of 171 

Moore, F'rank— address— "Kaskaskia Roads and Trails" 125, 128 

signs address 128 

Moore, James— early resident of Kaskaskia— mention 68 

Moore, James F.— mention 66 

Moore, John- entitled to grant of land for service in army of Geo. R. Clark 67 



235 

Index — Continued. 

Page 

Moore, Sarah— wife of Adani Funk— mention 160 

Moore. Tlios.— entitled to grant of land for service in army of Geo. R. Clark 67 

Morgan county— Congressional vote in— mention 110 

mention of 86,178 

organized— Jan. 31, 1821— from Sangamon 100 

original outline of 21 

Morgan, Joshua— Quartermaster Sergeant 5th Regiment, Illinois Volunteers 179 

Morrison. Mrs. I. L.— elected honorary member of the Illinois State Historical Society... 15 

honorary member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Morrison, Col. J. L. D.— carries mail 126 

Morrison, Robert— mention 69 

Morrison, Mrs. Robert— sketch of her hospitality— entertains LaFayette 69 

Morrison, William— judge court of common pleas— Randolph county 89 

Morse, Samuel Breese- mention of 93 

Moses, John— "Illinois, Historical and Statistical"— quotation from 188 

quotation from "History of Illinois" 91 

Moses' History of Illinois— quotation from 94 

Moss. John R.— active member of the Illinois Stale Historical Society 6 

Moulin. John de— appointed judge of the courts of common pleas 89 

Moultrie county— organized Feb. 16. 1843— from Macon and Shelby 100 

Mounted Volunteers in Black Hawk War— mention 110 

Mt. Vernon— court held at 95 

Mulkey, Justice— Opinion of, in regard to the litigation against Bishop Hill Colony 108 

Mulligan, Colonel— mention 70 

—statue of— mention 70 

Munson, Gideon— death of 174 

Murphy, John— entitled to grant of land for service in army of Geo. R. Clark 67 

Murphy sboro— roads leading to 126,128 

Murray, Daniel— supplied provisions to Geo. R. Clark's Illinois Army 68 

Murray, Edward— entitled to grant of land, for service in G. R. Clark's army 67 

"NaChu-Sa"— title given to John Dixon by Indians 170 

Nanangonista— chief of tribe of 148 

deputy from tribe of 148 

Nantes— edict of —mention 129 

Nash, Francis— father of Mrs. John T. Stuart HI 

Nash, Mary V.— wife of John T. Stuart— sketch and anecdotes of Ill 

See Stuart, Mary Nash. 

Natches Indians— destruction of— mention 190-191 

National Society of the Daughters of the Revolution— Illinois ancestry in 137-143 

National electoral tickets in presidential contest of 1860— reference to 145 

Nayelle. Sr. de— See Noyelle. 

Neale, Tom M.— Colonel in Black Hawk War 110 

Negro— barber— anecdote of ' 81 

Ne-o-pope, Indian— entertained by Mrs. Dixon 171 

Neville. Col. John— regiment of— mention 65 

New At h ens- roads leadin g to 126-128 

New Designs— roads leading to 128 

New France, governor of— sends Perrot as ally to western Indian tribes 148 

—mention 84, 129 

New Hampshire— mention HI 

Newlands. Rev. Robert W.— note on paper on discovery of graves of soldiers of Black 

Hawk War 170 

New Orleans- battle of— anecdote of 60 

founding of— mention 130,131 

mention 84, 131 

New Palestine. Randolph county— roads leading to 126 

New York Colonial Documents— reports of 1695— quotation from 148 

New York- Illinois State bonds sold at 123.124 

mention 138-140 

Niles, Mich.— mention of 139 

Nine Mile creek, Randolph county, 111.— mention 68 

Normandy— mention 130 

Northern Cross Railroad— completed 125 

, funds appropriated to build 119 

Northern Democratic Party— national ticket of, mention 145 

Northwest Territory— ordinance of, 1787 88 

the Illinois country a part of 131 

Northwestern territory— mention of; secretary of present lists 142 

Norton, A. L.— author of "Presbyterian church in Illinois" 57 

W. T.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Noyelles. Sr. de— French commandant in Indian wars 191,192 

Oakley, Charles— Illinois State fund commissioner 122 

O'Callaghan— mistake of in placing the village of Mararaek 148 

O'Fallon, Ben j.— nephew of Geo. Rogers Clark— mention 66 

Family of St. Louis— mention 66 

Dr. James— marries Frances Eleanor Clark, sister of Geo. Rogers Clark; men- 
tion 66 

John— Nephew of Geo. Rogers Clark, mention 66 

St. Clair County. III.- town of, mention 66 

Oflficers Illinois State Historical Society, list of 5 

Ogee, Joseph— establishes ferry 170 

Ogle County— organized, Jan. 16, 1836, from JoDaviess and LaSalle 100 



236 
Index — Continued. 

Oglesby, Gen. Richard J.— commands Illinois regiment in War Rebellion 147 

Gen. Richard J.— mention of 169 

Ohio— mention of 161 

Ohio River-mention 84.125,126 

"Old Hickory," Gen. Jackson— mention 68 

Old Man's Creek— camping ground of Illinois troops near 177 

mention of; description of 173 

Old Settlers of Sangamon County— extracts from address to. by Major John T. Stuart... Hi 

Olney, George W.— attorney general of Illinois 99 

Olsen, Jonas— goes to California; returns 105 

Jonas— sketch of life and career of 101-107 

John— one of the incorporators of the Bishop Hill colony 106 

Olson, Olof— sent from America to Sweden to select lands 103 

Opost— Kickapoo Indian name for Vincennes 209 

Ordinance of 1787— passage of 88 

O'Reilly, General- Governor of Cuba, mention ,. 68 

Orendorff, Gen. Alfred— appointed on committee of legislation of Illinois State His- 
torical Society 8 

attends meeting of the executive committee 13 

active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Hon. John B.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Orr. Capt. Robert— raised company of volunteer riflemen for army of G. R. Clark; men- 
tion 66,67 

Osborne, Miss Georgia L.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Ottawa, Illinois— Court held at 95 

mention of 187 

Ouilmette, Louis— mention of 171.172 

Owsley, William— judge of the Kentucky Court of Apneals— mention 109 

Page. Prof. E. C— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Paint Creek, Ohio— mention of 160 

Palmer. Gen. John M.— commands Illinois regiment in war rebellion— mention 147 

honorary member of the lllirois State Historical Society 6 

Palmer, Mrs. John M.— honorary member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Paris documents— copies of procured by— J. F. Steward 189,202 

Parisienne. Baptiste — French private of Clark's army 141 

Parker, C. M.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Parkman— quotation from 180 

Parkman's "Discovery of the Great West"— quotation from 183, 186, 189 

Parkman's "Half Century of Conflict"— quotation from 151 

Parkman's "LaSalle" and "Cartier to Frontenac"— quoted 189 

"Past and Present of LaSalle County"- quotation from 188 

Patriotic societies— recommendation to 141 

work of 142 

Paw Paw Grove— mention of 171 

Payne. Lyman M.— concerned in litigation against Bishop Hill colony 108 

Peanguichias— Indian tribe— mention of 148 

Pearson. J. M.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Pearson, John— judge seventh circuit of Illinois 98 

Peck, Ebenezer— member Illinois State Board of Public Works 122 

Peck, J. M.— author of Gazetteer of Illinois 57 

Peck, John Mason— member early Illinois State Historical Society 17 

Peck, Rev. John M.— mention 22.23 

Peck's Gazetteer— gives supposed site of Fort Cr6vecoeur 187 

Pekin— battalion leaves for Black Hawk War 171 

railroad to, from Bloomington— funds appropriated to build 119 

People of Illinois— address by George Murray McConnel before Illinois State Historical 

Society 70-84 

racial characteristics of. 83 

Peoria— distance of Fort Cr^vecceur from— evidence of 187-189 

mention of 103,130,133.140.161,170,178.187.188,189 

railroad from, funds appropriated to build 119 

Peoria Chapter. Daughters of the American Re volution— monument erected by 189 

Peoria county— company from, recruited 171 

history of, by Charles Ballance— quotations from 188 

organized— Jan. 13, 1825— from Pike, lastly Fulton 100 

Peoria Journal, Jan. 11. 1890— quoted in regard to— J. Gale's article on Fort Crevecceur... 189 

Peoria Lake-mention 180,181,186,187,188 

Peoria Public Library— historical collections in, relating to Illinois history 181 

Pepikokias— Indian tribe- mention of 148 

Perkins, Isaac— mention of 1^5 

James H.— "Annals of the West"— quotation from 188 

Perrin, Hon. J. N.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society -. 6 

Hon. J. Nick— address before the Illinois State Historical Society. "The French 

in Illinois" 129-132 

Perron— mention of J*2 

Perrot-Sieur- visits the Miamis of Maramech 1*8 

wins esteem of western tribes • • 1»0 

Perry, C. F.— chairman committee. Quincy Historical Society, signs credentials of 

delegates 15 

Perry County— organized January 29. 1827. from Randolph and Jackson 100 

Perry. Jean F.— judge court of common pleas Randolph county 89 

Peru. City of— mention "° 



237 
Index — Continued. 

Page. 

Peru. 111.— mention -•••v ■, V.t 

Peste Kouy— Indian name of Pistakee Lake iw 

Peste Kouy River— mention of 1*8 

Philadelphia— III. State bonds sold at 12^ 

mention of i»» 

old State house at. object of national interest loo 

Phillips— mention of W* 

Joseph-Chief Justice Court of Illinois 91 

Judge Joseph— resigns judgeship 91 

Piatt County— organized January 27, 1841. from Macon...... .•-•:•• i"2 

Pierce, Frederick C.— active member of the Illinois State Historical bociety S 

Piggott, James -judge court of common pleas, Randolph county 89 

Pike County, Illinois— mention ;••••.- .-k-", ,«« 

Pike County— organized. Jan. 31, 1821. from Madison and Bond 100 

Pike, Zebulon M— mention 1^7 

Pillsbury, Samuel— surgeon 5th Regt. 111. Vols .•- na 

Pimiteoui Lake— description of; location of loJ, 187 

Pinet. Father Francois ( Pierre)- first priest stationed at Cahokia - - 130 

"Pioneer History of Illinois." by Governor John Reynolds— quotations from 68,69,188 

Pioneer Preachers of Illinois— account of. in address of W. F. Short. D. D 59-62 

Pioneers of Illinois— by N. Matson, quotations from 188 

Pistakee Lake— mention of 1« 

Pitner, Dr. T. J.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Pittman, Capt. Philip— visits the Illinois country 86 

Pitts. John-incident relating to .167 

Pleasant Plains, Sangamon County, Illinois-home of Peter Cartwright..... 47-49 

Pollock, Oliver— borrows money from Spain for use of army of Geo. a. Clark 66 

Polygamy— practiced by people of Saukenuk. mention 136 

Pontlac, Ottawa Indian Chief— mention 65 

Pope County— organized April 1. 1816, from Gallatin and Johnson 100 

Pope. Nathaniel— appears in the territory of Illinois 90 

commissioned justices of the peace 90 

district judge of the U. S. district of Illinois 99 

mention Ill 

Portages— under control of Fox Indians io 5? 

Posey. Wm, C— mention hi a 

Post. Vincennes— mention ^l* 

Pottawattamies— join Sac Indians ••••.••.• V :y, }ll 

village of; recruiting among; indecision of ivi.iv^ 

Potts, Doctor— mention *3 

Poutautamis, Indian Tribe— mention 191 

Powers, Abner— grave of discovered 1*« 

Prairie du Chien— mention Jgl 

Prairie du Point— village of, founded l^l 

Prairie du Rocher— mention of •■• 87 

roads leading to !•''• 1^8 

village of, founded 131 

Presbyterian Church— mention 1°° 

first in Illinois 41 

(First) Springfield, 111,— mention of 155 

in Illinois— history of by A. L. Norton; mention of 57 

Preston— roads leading to Jio'^II' \^ 

Primiteoui Lake— mention of 183. 184. 187 

Prince Edward County. Virginia— mention ....; HI 

Prince. Ezra M— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society .••o"-, ,« 

Program of literary sessions third annual meeting of Illinois State Historical Society... 12 

Publication Committee of the Illinois State Historical Society— appointedl 13 

"Public Policy"— use of the term, mention 38 

Public Works— Illinois board of, members 1^« 

Pugh, Capt. I. C— company of, recruited I'l 

mention of 1^ 

Pulaski County— organized March 3, 1843, from Alexander 100 

Pumpelly v. Green Bay Co.— case of. mention 24 

Putnam County— organized Jan. 13, 1825, from Pike - 100 

Putnam, J. W.— acting secretary and treasurer of the Illinois State Historical Society, 

report 8,9,10,11 

signs resolution of society 12 

attends meeting of executive committee 13 

attends trustee meeting 1* 

elected acting secretary and treasurer 13 

active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Pyatt, Mr. and Mrs.— French Indian traders with Kickapoo Indians 214 

Quebec— fall of, mention ioA-;;; iS5 

mention ^29, 141. 182 

Quincy. 111.— mention .■..- ;;,-:---.---,-o •••■•: 2 

Quincy Historical Society— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society ....--. 6 

sends delegate to annual meeting of the Illinois State His- 
torical Society 1| 

Quirk. Maj. Thomas-in army of George Rogers Clark, mention 66 

Railroads— funds appropriated for building in Illinois H= 'Jic 

opening of the first railroad in England 115, llo 



238 

Index— Continued. 

Page. 

Ralston, Judge V. G.— defeated for congress by Maj. John T. Stuart 110 

Randolph County— mention 131 

organized April 28. 1809, from St. Clair 100 

roads of 125,128 

set off from St. Clair 89 

Rasle, Father— French missionary to Illinois Indians 130 

Rawlings, >1. M.— Illinois State Fund Commissioner 122 

Record book of civil offtcer at Kaskaskia— mention 131 

Red Banks— mention of 150 

Red Bud— roads leading to 128 

Red Oak Grove— mention of 104 

Reed, Col. John— succeeds Col. Edward Cole at Ft. Chartres 86 

Reed , Thomas B.— mention of 173 

Reeves, Hon. O. T,— mention of 164 

Relations Of&cielle— quoted 189 

"Reminiscences of Pioneer Life in the Missippi Valley"— book by Judge Spencer, of 

Rock Island, 111.— mention 134 

Renards— French word for fox— mention ot 150 

Renards or Fox Indians besieged by French and allies 191-202 

wars against by French and allies 191-202 

Republican party- organization of 145 

reference to 145 

Revenue laws of Illinois— mention 37 

Revolutionary soldiers— memorials to 138-143 

Revolutionary war— Illinois' part in 137-143 

Reynolds, John— associate judge State of Illinois— mention 91 

director Illinois Sanitary Commission 146 

Reynolds, Gov. John— brief sketch of 68 

Reynolds, ex-Gov. John— Illinois State fiscal agent 123,124 

Reynolds, Gov. John— commands militia troops in Black Hawk war 171 

acts of 171 

issues call for Illinois volunteers 177,178 

issues call for troops 177,178 

member early Illinois State Historical Society , 17 

mention 70 

one of the organizers of the first Illinois State Historical Society. 50 

opinion of the judges appointed by the government— quoted 89 

order from 171 

order of 172 

mention of 179 

"Pioneer History of Illinois"— quotation from 188 

Reynolds, Robert— judge court of common pleas, Randolph county 89 

Reynolds, Thomas— appointed to fill vacancy 92 

Reynolds, Judge Thomas— elected governor of Missouri 92 

Ribault. Jean— French explorer— mention 129 

Richardson vs. Mellish— case of— mention 38 

Richland County— organized Feb. 24. 1841— from Clay and Lawrence 100 

Richmond. Kentucky- mention 109 

Richmond, Virginia— mention of 146 

Ridgely Bank 168 

incident pertaining to 168 

"Rights of Man"— declaration of— mention ...129 

Rinaker. Hon. Thomas— appointed on committee on legislation of the Illinois State His- 
torical Society 8 

River of the Kock 162 

Riviere du Rocher ( River of the Rock) 150 

Riviere St. J oseph— mention 191 

Roads and Trails 125-128 

{See Kaskaskia Roads and Trails.) 

Roberval— French explorer— mention 129 

Robinson, John M.— chosen judge 93 

Rocheblave, Ckevalier de— commandant at Kaskaskia 65 

rule of 86 

Rock (The) --village of 152 

Indian village of 181 

mention of 151 

Rock Island— mention 1*2 

Rock Island Chapter Daughters of the American Revolution— erect monument 137 

Rock Island county — Indian villages in 133 

Rock Island county— organized Feb 9,1831— from Jo Daviess and Mercer 100 

Rock river— fund for improvement of H" 

mention..... 104.170.172 

Rock River or Sinnissippi— description and mention ^^^"^™ 

Rock Spring Seminary— organized— mention 23 

Rockwell. Dennis-house of— mention ••• 44 

Rockwell, Dennis. B sq . —mention *3' **• I;? 

Rockwood— roads leading to 128 

"Rogues' Harbor," Ky.— home of Peter Cartwright 56 

name applied to home village of Peter Cartwright 48 

Roman Catholic Church in Illinois— history of 57 

Root, John— kills Eric Jansen 105 

marries cousin of Eric Jansen 105 



239 

Index — Continued. 

Page 

Root. John, the younger— mention 108 

Root, Mrs.— wife of John Root. living at Bishop Hill 105 

Rouen, France— birthplace of LaSalle— mention 130 

Ruggles.Gen. James M.— honorary member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Ruma— roads leading to 128 

Rushville— railroad to— funds appropriated for 123 

Russell. Prof. John— member early Illinois State Historical Society 17 

one of the organizers of the first Illinois State Historical Society.. 50 

Rnssellville. Ky.— mention 48 

Ryan— mention 70 

Sac Indians— account of 132-137 

Sacs (Sauks)— mention of 150 

gave name to great Bay of Laiie Huron 150 

Saint Ange— commandant at Fort Chartres 152 

joins in war against Fox Indians 153 

St. Ange de Belle Rive— French commandant— surrenders Fort Chartres to British 131 

St. Ange— French commandant— mention 85 

St. Ange le Sr. de— French commandant in Indian wars 192 

St. Clair, Gen. Arthur--appointed governor of the territory northwest of the Ohio 88 

governor of Northwest territory— organization of territorial gov- 
ernment , 88 

St. Clair. Gen. Arthur— mention 68 

St. Clair county— establishment of 89 

boundary of 89 

roads in 125,128 

organized Apr. 28. 1809— first county organized 100 

record book of civil officers, mention 121 

St. Genevieve— founded 131 

mention 131 

St. Joseph River— mention of 140,150 

St. Joseph Riviere— mention 191 

St. Joseph's— mention 129 

St. Lawrence River— mention J29 

wreck of La Salle's vessel in 180 

St. Louis— base of supplies and financial center 178 

mention of in kidnapping incident 82 

St Louis Exposition— committee of Illinois State Historical Society appointed to confer 

with commissioners to 14 

Illinois State Historical Society asks share of State's appropria- 
tion to 8.9 

St. Louis— founded ; mention 131 

mention 111,131,155,178 

St. Mai 0— home of Cartier; mention 129 

St. Phillips— village of ; founded 131 

Salem, 111 . Judge of— circait; mention 98 

Saline County— organized, Feb 25.1848, from Gallatin 100 

Sanders, Hon. George A.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Sangamon County, 111.— congressional vote in; mention 110 

mention 98. 143, 161 

old settlers of: extracts from address to by Maj. John T. Stuart. 114 

organized, Jan. 13. 1821, from Bond and Madison 100 

representatives to General Assembly 120,121 

Sanitary Commission of Illinois— created by Governor Yates, Sr 146 

mention of speech in favor of 169 

Saratoga— mention of 139 

Saucier, Capt. Jean Baptiste— engineer who built Fort Chartres 131 

Jean Baptiste— ancestor of Dr. J. P. Snyder; mention of 87 

Saukenong— name given by Sauk Indians to Great Bay of Lake Hut on 150 

Saukenuk— mention of 171 

address on, before Illinois State Historical Society by Mrs. Julia Mills 

Dunn 132-137 

name of Black Hawk's village 132-137 

Sauk Indians— account of 132-137 

Saunders Brothers— early friends of Richard Yates, Sr 143 

Sautteri— 1710; mention of; map of 150 

Sau voile— mention 130 

Sawyer, John York— elected judge; salary of 92 

Scates, Walter B.— Attorney General of Illinois 99 

Judge Walter B.— chosen judge firt-t circuit 96 

Walter B.— chosen judge .Kupreme court , 93 

Schmict, Dr. Otto L— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

School District No. 9, of Little Kock, Kendall Co— historic site— property of 154 

School Laws of Illinois— mention 36,37 

Schools of Illinois, early— mention 22 

Schuyler county— organized Jan. 13, 1825— from Pike 100 

Scioux (Sioux) Indians— mention 193 

Scotch Highlanders— military company of, arrives at Fort Chartres 131 

Scott county— organized Feb. 16. 1839— from Morean lOO 

Scott. Edgar S.- active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Scott. Judge John M.— judge III. Supreme Court 96 

Scott, Winfield— mention 137 

Seal of the Illinois State Historical Society— vote that one be secured 15 



240 
Index — Continued. 

Pagk 

Secretary and Treasurer of the Illinois State Historical Society— reports of 8,9.10,11 

Secretary of the Illinois State Historical Society— casts ballot for ofiicers 8 

annual report of 8,9.10 

instructed to cast ballot of the society 

for candidates 8 

State of Illinois— nominee refused possession of oflQce 95 

records in the office to be examined 14 

Selby. Paul— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Seminary of learning at Shoal Creek, Bond county. 111., to be estaolished at 41-43 

Semnle. Judge James— Attorney General of Illinois and judge of State Supreme Court. 98-99 

United States Senator 98-99 

chosen judge 93 

member of prosecution 96 

resigns -■ 93 

Senate of Illinois— as high court of impeachment in trial of Judge T. W. Smith 96 

declines to examine charges against Judge Thomas C. Browne 96 

Senatorial campaign in 1858— mention of 169 

Shabbon a— mention of J^j 

township — mention of '■]]■ 

Shackleford. Mr.— travels to Illinois with John T. Stuart 109 

Shannon. Miss— wife of Col. F. Visro o5 

Sharp, Cassandra— wife of Isaac Funk ibl 

influence of in career of Mr. Funk 168 

Shawneetown— roads leading to-mention 126, 127. 128 

Shea, John Gilmary— historical writer and translator— book of 1880— quotation from .... (0, 183 

translations of French historical writings— mention 181, 183, 184 

translation of 1881 of Le Clerc's "Establishment of the Faith," 

quoted ^82 

Shelby county— organized Jan. 13, 1827— from Fayette 100 

Sheldon, Judge Benj. R.— Judge of Illinois State Supreme Court 97 

Sheppard. Prof. R. D.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Shields, Gen. James— chosen Judge of Supreme Court 93 

chosen Senator 9;} 

elected to the United States Senate 94 

mention ... '2 

sketch and anecdote of 69 

Shiloh, Battle of— heroic conduct of Illinois troops ]] 

Shoal Creek, Bond County. Ill,- -first Presbyterian church in Illinois, mention 41 

seminary of learning to be established at 41,42.43 

"Short History of the Mississippi Valley." by Jas. K. Hosmer— quotation from .......... 187 

Short. W. F.. D. D.— address before Illinois State Historical Society— 'Early religious 

leaders and methods in Illinois" 56-62 

Shurtleff College— mention 23 

Sibley. Hiram— made party to suit against trustees of Bishop Hill colony 108 

Sinnissippi River or Rock River— description of ill 

Sioux Indian— anecdote of ;«; Joe 

Sioux Indians— enemies of the Sac Indians, mention ■'sS" ion 

Site (The) of Fort Cr^ coeur— paper, by Ada Greenwood MacLaughlm i'*"^"? 

Skinner, Judge 0. C— chosen judge Second circuit 96 

Slater Brothers— early friends of Richard Yates, Sr •• 14d 

Slaughter, Ensign Lawrence-member of George Rogers Clark's expedition— descend- 

ent of 1*1 

Slavery— attitude of people of Illinois on 78 

mention of ' i°^ 

Slavery Sentiment in Illinois — — - 8- 

Smith.Mr.- of Jacksonville, 111., anecdote of, in kidnapping incident 81-8J 

Col. D. C— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Mrs. George P.— farm of, mention - ■ 1*5 

George W.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society o 

Joseph— the Mormon prophet, trial of. anecdote of Ill 

Theophilus W.— acquitted in Impeachment trial 96 

Theophilus W —associate justice of Illinois State supreme court 9j 

Theophilus W'— charges of malpractice and corruption preferred against 96 

. impeached ^6 

Smith. Theophilus W.— member early Illinois State Historical Society " 

Theophilus W.— resigns .•••-.•A"*.": % 

Snively. Hon. E. A.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 7 

Snyder, Hon. Adam W.— mention 98 

Snyder, Dr, J. F.— active member of the Illinois fttate Historical Society. :•.. 7 

attends meeting of executive committee of Illinois State Historical 

Society 13 

address before historical society lo 

descendent of Capt- Jean Baptiste Saucier 131 

first vice-president Illinois State Historical Society .......... — 5 

makes motion that a committee on legislation for the Illinois State 

Historical Society be appointed 8 

notes accompanying narrative of Wm. Biggs ^0^ 

reads paper before Illinois State Historical Society 8 

elected first vice-president of society for 1902 8 



241 

Index — Continued. 

Page 

Snyder. Judgre William H.— of the Belleville, 111., circuit court 98 

Socialists in Europe — mention 101 

Soderala— parish of. iu Sweden, birthplace of Jonas Olsen 101 

Sokokis— mention of 184 

Some Pacts in the Judicial History of llliaois— paper before Illinois State Historical 

Society, by J. O. Cunningham 84-100 

Somme, (The)— vessel used by the French in war with Indians 191 

Sonme. ( La^— boat used by French in Indian wars, mention 190 

Sonontoaaus, Indian Tribe— mention 192 

Sources and Results of Law in Illinois— annual address before Illinois State Historical 

Society, Jan. 23, 1902, by Hon. John N. Jewett 23-40 

Southern Cross Kailroad— funds appropriated to build 119 

Southern Illinois counties— records of 142 

Spain, royal treasury of— lends money to Virginia through Oliver Pollock 68 

Spaniards took part in rescue of prisoners by Thos. Brady 67 

Spani.sh Louisiana— mention of 140 

Spanish settlements in America— mention 129 

Sparks, Prof. E. E.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 7 

Spear, S. L.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 7 

Spellman, Rev. John- mention 41 

Spencer, Judge- daughter of —mention 132 

published book— mention 134 

Sprigg, William— appointed judge of the Territory of Illinois 90 

Spring Bay— mention of 189 

one of the supposed sites of Fort Crevecoeur— mention 187 

Springfield. 111.— court held at 92, 95 

meeting of executive committee of Illinois State Historical Society at. 13 

mention 110.111.143,155 

railroad to. completed 125 

removal of State Capital to 120.121 

voted to hold fourth annual meeting of Illinois State Historical Society 

at 15 

Stanton. Edwin M.— Secretary of War— mention 113 

Stapp. Col. James T. B.— mention of 171 

Stapp, Wyatt— mention of 171 

Stark county organized— Mar. 2, 1839— from Knox and Putnam 100 

Stark, Col. John— mention 143 

Starved Rock— mention of 180 

site of —mention of 187 

State courts under the constitution of 1818 90 

State Historical Society of Illinois— earliest one— organization and members 17 

present— organized 17 

State's internal improvement venture of 1837-38— address before Illinois State Historical 

Society Jan. 24, 1902, by Dr. Bernard Stuve 114-125 

Stearns. Arthur K.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 7 

Stephenson county— organized— March 4, 1837— from JoDaviess 100 

Stephenson. George— anecdotes of 115-116 

Stevens. F E.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 7 

Stevens. Frank E.— address delivered on the unveiling of the Stillman Valley Monument 

June 11. 1902 170-179 

Stevenson, J ames W.— mention of 172 

Steward, John F.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 7 

copies of Paris documents, procured by 189-202 

destruction of the Fox Indians in 1730 by the Freuch and their allies,— 

Address before the Illinois State Historical Society 148-154 

gift to Little Rock, Kendall county— mention 154 

Stillman, Major I.— command of, defeated by Indians 176.177 

(Brig. Gen.)— writes report of battle 176-177 

Stillman. Lieut. Col. Isaiah— Lieut. Col. of 5th Regiment, Illinois Volunteers 179 

Stillman. Major Isaiah— mention of 172 

jealousy between, and Major Bailey 172 

recruits companies 171 

version of the defeat 176 

Stlllman's Defeat— address delivered on the unveiling of the Stillman Valley monu- 
ment June 11, 1902, by Frank E. Stevens 170-179 

Stirling. Capt. Thomas— arrives at Ft. Chartres 86 

takes command at Ft. Chartres 131 

Stockley. Capt. Thoma.s— commands companies of rangers 66.67 

Storrs. Emery— mention of 147 

Strasbourg— mention 129 

Strode. Col. James M— mention of 172 

mention of 173 

opposition to; declared martial law in JoDaviess county 179 

ordered to organize militia of JoDaviess county 178-179 

Stuart. Alexander— judge of the territory of Illinois 90 

resigns 90 

Stuart and Edwards— law partnership formed Ill 

Stuart and Lincoln— law partnership formed; anecdote of Ill 

Stuart. Col. David— heroic conduct at Battle of Shiloh 77 

—16 H. 



242 
Index — Continued. 



Page. 



Stuart, Edwards and Brown— law partnership formed Ill 

Stuart, Elizabeth— daughter of John T. Stuart; mention 155 

Frank— son of John T. Stuart; mention 155 

Hannah— daughter of John T. Stuart; mention 155 

John T.— member of prosecution 96 

John T., Jr.— son of John T. Stuart; mention 155 

Major John T.— address on the life and character of , by Hon. C. C. Brown ....109-114 

as chancery lawyer 112 

fixes legal fees 111-112 

mention of 144 

views as to war of the rebellion 112 

Stuart, Mary Nash— wife of John T. t^tuart; in memoriam; biographical sketch of — 154,155 

Mrs". John T,— honorary member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

mention HI 

Stuart, Robert— father of Maj. John T. Stuart 109 

Robert— son of John T. Stuart; mention 156 

Virginia— daughter of John T. Stuart; mention 155 

Stubblefield. Robert-mention of 161 

Studwell, Alexander— connected with litigation m regard to Bishop Hill colony 108 

Sturtevant, Prea. J. M.— arrives at Illinois college 46 

mention of 147 

Sturtevant, Rev. Julian— mention of 155 

Stuve, Dr. Bernard- active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 7 

address before Illinois State Historical Society Jan. 24,1902, "Inter- 
nal Improvement Venture of 1837-38" 114-126 

appointed on the committee to nominate officers of Illinois State 

Historical Society 8 

SullivanCounty,Ind.— mention... ......j. 68 

Sullivan, Geo. Rogers Clark— nephew of Geo. Rogers Clark ; mention 66 

Sumpter, Fort— mention of ^*5'1*^ 

Supreme and Circuit Judges of Illinois— day fixed for election 96 

Supreme Court of Illinois— addition of five judges to 95 

cases before 92 

judges added 93 

judges chosen 96 

places of holding same— mention 95 

provides for the removal of judges by impeachment 96 

reconstruction of ^ 95 

reports of Sidney Breese 95 

Scott, Judge John M 96 

transactions of 93 

changes in 93 

Swann, M.— mention of — ^..... 164 

Swanson, Swan— One of the incorporators of the Bishop Hill Colony lOb 

Sweden- Emigration from Ino "ino 

King of, tolerant in religion inf 

religion in, discussion of ; • • • JOJ 

religious opinions and religious conditions m in, 

Swedes as Domestic Servants— demand for 107 

Swett, Leonard— anecdote of \\^ 

Swift, Gen.— mention of i*» 

Sycamore Creek- mention J ' ' 

Sylvan Spring— mention of - • • l*g 

Tailhan— mistake as to location of village of Maramech 14H 

Taylor, H. G.— mention ■■• .• ■ • • ■■ ■•.••- *2 

Taylor, Mrs. H. R.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 7 

Taylor, Dr. Hector G.— mention *» 

Taylor, Richard— father of Zachary Taylor— mention -bo 

Taylor, Zachary, Gen.— anecdote of, at battle of Buena Vista cI Ti; 

mention '\n^ 

Tazewell County— company in Black Hawk War from, recruited 171 

organized Jan. 13. 1827, from Peoria 100 

mention i°7, 1» 

Teale, William, vs. John Pearson— case of 98 

Teel, Levi— soldier In army of George Rogers Clark— anecdote of...... o7 

Terre Haute— railroad to, from Hillsboro— funds appropriated.to build lis 

Territorial Federal Court of Illinois instituted • ^ 

Territory Northwest of the River Ohio— mention ;Ao ibr 

Texas— mention - • •••.•-•••;• To" ••• 7 li«s.i8D 

Thayer, Miss Maude— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 7 

Thwaites, R. G.— honorary member of the Illinois State Historical Society iA;. iqi 

Thioux Indians— destruction of —mention oJ 

Thomas, Jesse B.— Attorney General of Illinois ^ 

author of the "Missouri Compromise" ^i 

Judge of the Territory of Illinois 90 

U. S. Senator; mention 1J7 

Jr.— chosen judge 9d 

member of the supreme court ji 

Thomas. William— member early Illinois State Historical Society 17 



243 

Index — Continued. 

Page 

Thompson, Archibald, Sr.— residence of; mention 127 

James— survey or 127, 128 

Judge James— residence of; mention 127 

surveyed road 128 

Thornton, Anthony— judge of Illinois supreme court 97 

Tilson, John Jr.— mention 43 

"Tin Cups. Corner In"— anecdote of 109 

Tippecanoe, Battle of— mention f)6, 177 

Todd— grandfather of Major John T. Stuart 109 

Todd, Colonel John— orders an election of civil ofiBcers at Kaskaskia and Cahokia 87 

slain at battle of Blue Licks, Ky 87 

visits Kentucky 87 

Todd, John— appointed lieutenant for the county of Illinois: arrives at Kaskaskia 87 

mention 45 

Dr. John— mention 42, 44 

Todd. Hannah— wife of Robert Stuart and mother of Major John T. Stuart 109 

Tomlin, Mrs. Eliza H.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 7 

Tonti's Memoirs— quotations from 148, 181, 182 

Tonti, Henri de— French discoverer and lieutenant of LaSalle lSO-189 

Tonti— letters of, quoted 184 

Tonty, Henri de— French discoverer and lieutenant of LaSalle; extracts from writ- 
ings of 180-189 

letter of ; mentior 181, 182 

Transactions of Illinois State Historical Society— committee appointed to revise ma- 
terial for publishing 13 

Treasurer of the Illinois State Historical Society; annual report 11 

Treat, Judge Samuel H.— anecdote of 112 

appointed district judge; death of 93,94 

chosen judge second circuit 96 

Samuel H.— chosen judge supreme court 93 

Judge Samuel H.— first judge U. S. district court for southern district of Illinois. 99 

Treaty between England and France— mention 85 

Trenton, battle of— mention 132 

Trumbull, Judge Lyman— chosen judge first circuit; resigns 96 

Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Society— meeting 14,15 

Trusts-mention 35.36,37,38,39 

Turkey Hill Settlement— roads leading to 126 

Turner Family of Richmond, Ky.— mention 109 

Turner, Judge— held court in St. Clair county 89 

Turney. James— Attorney General of Illinois 98 

Underground railroad— sentiment of people of Illinois in regard to 79,80 

United States District Court for the District of Illinois— judges of 99 

Unnaturalized foreigners— rights of 95 

Union county, Illinois— organized Jan. 2,1818, from Johnson 100 

Upsala— convention of— mention 101 

Utica, Illinois- mission station established near 130 

site of Indian town of La Vantum— mention 187 

Vallis. John-mention 203,204 

Vandalia— court held at 9^ 

roads leading to 126,127 

State capital removed from— anecdote Ill 

Valley Forge— mention 132,139,141 

Veranderie. Sr. de la— French ofiScer in war against Fox Indians 193 

Vermilion county— organized Jan. 18.1826— from Edgar 100 

Vermilion county. 111.— mention 97 

Verrazani, John— Florentine navigator— mention 129 

Vicksburg— battle of— mention of 146 

mention of 147 

Victoria. Knox county. 111.— visited by Olaf Olsen 103 

Vieo, Col. Francis— assists George Rogers Clark 65 

Viliers— French private in George Rogers Clark's army 141 

"Village Indians"— mention 133 

Villard- French private in George Rogers Clark's army 141 

Villiers, le Sr. de— French commandant at River St. Joseph— takes part in Indian wars. 191-202 

Vincennes— formerly Fort Sackville— mention 131 

mention of 141 

mention of 142 

Vincennes road— mention 69,202 

Vincennes— roads leading to 127 

Virginia Charter— mention of 25 

Virginia Charter and Colonists— mention 25, 26, 27 

Virginia— Illinois country a part of 131 

mention 138 

mention 141 

Vocke, Hon. William— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 7 

Wabash county organized— Dec. 27, 1824— from Edwards 100 

Wabash river— funds for improvement of 119 

mention 125,202 

Indian trading town on— mention 204-208 

Waite, H. N.. M. D.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 7 



244 
Index — Continued. 



PAGE. 



Wakefield, John A.— messenger appointed by Gov. Reynolds 178 

Walters, John Sergeant— mention of 175 

Walker. Judge P. H.— chosen judge second Illinois circuit 96 

Wallace. Joseph— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 7 

Wallace's reports— mention 24 

Walls, Major— mention ., 67 

Walnut Hills. Ky.— birthplace of Major John T. Stuart 109 

Walsh— roads leading to 127 

"War Governor," Gov. Yates— so called;— popularity of 143 

War of Independence— the part taken by Illinois in 131 

War of the Rebellion— enlistment in. by members of the Bishop Hill colony 105 

Warren county. 111., organized— Jan. 13, 1825— from Pike 100 

Warren county. Ky.— mention 68 

Warsaw, railroad to,— funds appropriated for 119 

Washington county organized— Jan. 2, 1818— from St. Clair 100 

Washington county roads- mention 125, 126, 127 

Washington Court House, Ohio— mention of io^oa 

Washington, George— mention 138, 139 

Watagamies— Algonquin word for Fox— mention of 150 

Waterloo— roads leading to 128 

Wattles, J. O.— elected judge 92 

Waubansee, Indian chief— mention of l7o 

Wayne, Gen. Anthony- mention of 172 

military successes of 68 

Wayne county oreanized— March 26. 1819— from Edwards 100 

Waynesville, DeWitt county— mention of 167 

Weames' Town, Indian village— mention 208 

Weas, Indian tribe— mention of • • ;■-:■•-,•••.• 1*° 

Weber, Mrs. Jessie Palmer— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 7 

Webster, Daniel— in Congress— mention Ill 

mention of — Jff 

Webster, Joseph D.— services to Illinois in War Rebellion— mention 145 

Weller township. Henry county. 111.— first settlement of Bishop Hill Colony 103 

Werder. Colonel— regiment of —mention — ^^ 

Wesley City— probable site of Fort Crevecoeur— mention 187-lW 

West, Hon. Simeon H.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 7 

Western Annals— Perkins, compiler— q notation from 188 

Westward emigration — course of— mention 138 

Wharton, of Philadelphia banking Arm- mention of 86 

Wheeler. C. Gilbert— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society-....^ 7 

Wheeler. Mrs. Katherine Goss— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society... 7 

Wheeler. Judge S. P.— active member of the Illinois State Historical bociety 7 

Whig party— dissolution of 1*5 

in Illinois— mention • •: 95 

Whiskey-not the cause of Stillman's defeat ■''''• q. 

White county. 111. —mention %:■■,;■■: . nl 

organized— Dec. 9. 1815— from Gallatin 100 

Whiteside county organized— Jan. 6. 1836— from JoDaviess 100 

Whiteside. William— judge court common pleas, Randolph county 89 

Whitesides' (General Samuel) brigade— mention of 17^ 

camp— mention l <'S 

camp— history of 172 

Whitesides, General Samuel— order of 172 

Wightman. G. F.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 7 

Wilbourn, Capt. John S.— Fort Wilbourn named for •.■ K' •;••■:.■ H? 

Wilkes, Mrs. Florence Barker— mention of lineage through— Illinois ancestor, in D. A. K- 1*1 

Wiikins. Lieut. Col. John— arrives at Kaskaskia 65-86 

succeeds Col. .John Reed at Fort Chartres 86 

Will county organized— Jan. 12, 1836— from Cook - 100 

Willcox. E. S.— active member of the Illinois >tate Historical Society 7 

Willard, Elijah-member Illinois board of public works }^ 

Williamson county— organized Feb. 28.1839, from Franklin 100 

Williams. Col. John— appointed Commissary General of Illinois , 146 

director of sanitary commission ■• 1*6 

Wilson. Judge William— appointed to fill vacancy in Illinois State Supreme Court 9^ 

William— Chief Justice State Supreme Court 9^ 

member early Illinois State Historical Society " 

Wilson's Grove— mention ~ 

Winchester, 111.— mention „„ 

Winnebago county— organized Jan. 16,1836. from JoDaviess i"" 

Indians join Sacs J^^ 

mention J^^ 

recruiting among— indecision of ^'^ 

Wisconsin— mention I'A^ ino 

immigrants to, from Bishop Hill Colony i^q itq 

ri ver— mention : ia i q 

State Historical Society— organization and collections is.iy 

Witchcraft in Illinois— mention of vi"ii'-'"* • i?c 

Wood, ex-Governor John— appointed Quartermaster General of Illinois i^ 

Woodford county. 111.— mention of .- J°X 

organized Feb. 27,1841, from Tazewell and Livingston 100 



245 

Index — Continued . 

Paqb 

Woodrow. Hugh— Quartermaster of Fifth Rearlraent, Illinois Volunteers 179 

Woodson. Judffe David AI.— of Jacksonville. III., circuit court 98 

Worthington, Hon. Thos.— active member of the Illinois Slate Historical Society 7 

Mrs. Thos.— active member of the Illinois State Historical society 7 

Wright, Joel— member Illinois Board of Public Works 122 

Wright & Co., London (Eng.)— bankers, buy Illinois State bonds 124 

Wyckoff, Dr. Charles T.— active member of the Illinois State Historical Society 7 

Yale Band— account of 46 

Yale College Students (Yale Band)— mention 22 

Yates, Abner— father of Henry Yates, mention 143 

Yates, Mrs. Catherine— (Mrs. Richard Yates. Sr.)— elected honorary member of the Illi- 
nois State Historical Society 15 

honorary member of the Illinois State Historical Society 6 

Yates. Henry— father of Richard Yates, Sr., mention 143 

Yates, Dr. Michael— mention 143 

Yates, Gov. Richard. Cthe ElderJ— burial place of 144 

calls extra .session of the legislature 145 

character of 144 

elected member of the legislature of Illinois 144 

elected to congress 144 

elected to U. S. Senate 147 

funds tendered to by bankers of SpringSeld 145 

services to Illinois as war governor — address before 

Illinois State Historical Society, by Dr. Wm.Jayne. 143-147 
quotation from message of, in reference to War Re- 
bellion 147 

Yazous Indians— destruction of, mention 190-191 

Yorktown — mention of 139 

surrender of Cornwallis at, mention 65 

Young, Richard M.— chosen judge supreme court 93 

chosen U. S. Senator 94 

defends Judge T. W. Smith in impeachment trial 96 

elected judge 92 

member early Illinois State Historical Society 17 

salary of 92 

special Illinois State fiscal agent 123-124 

Zane, Judge Charles— mention of 56 

relates anecdote of Peter Cartwright 66 

Zenoble, Father Gabriel— mention of 183 



24fi 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL 

LIBRARY. 

No. 1. A Bibliography of Newspapers Published in Illinois prior to 1860. Prepared by 
Edmund .J. James, Ph. D., profess^^r in the University of Chicagro, assisted by Mllo J. Love- 
less, graduate student in the University of Chicago. 94 pages, 8°. Springfield, 1899. 

No. 2. Information Relating to the Territorial Laws of Illinois passed from 1809-1812. Pre* 
pared by Edmund J. James, Ph. D., professor in the University of Chicago. 15 pages, 8°- 
Springfield. 1899. 

No. 3. The Territorial Records of Illinois. Edited by Edmund J. James. Ph. D., profes- 
sor in the University of Chicago. 143 pages. 8°. Springfield. 1901. 

No. 4. Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the year 1900. Edited by 
E. B. Greene, Ph. D.. secretary of the society. 55 pages, 8°. Springfield, 1900. 

No. 5. Alphabetic catalog of the books, manuscripts, pictures and curios of the Illinois 
State Historical Library. Authors' titles and subjects. Compiled under the direction of 
the board of trustees of the library by the librarian. Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber. 363 pages. 
8°. Springfield. 1900. 

No. 6. Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the year 1901. 122 pages. 
8°. Springfield. 1901. 

No. 7. Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the year 1902,246 pages, 8°. 
Springfield. 1902. 



\ 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS-URBANA 

977.3IL65 C0fl3 

PAPERS IN ILLINOIS HISTORY AND TRANSACTI 

7 1902 



0112 025381 



92