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(D H 

E Champaign Public Library | 







Information Center I 

Champaign, Illinois ^ 

U Room 11 



II ra 

JUL 1983 


L^ ■/'^-t^v ^".-;, 


John F. Snyder. M D.— President Illinois State HistorlcallSoclety. 




M Hisioiii mm 

Fob the Year 1904. 


Bloomington, Jan. 27, 28, 29, 1904. 

Published by Authority of the Board of Trustees of the 
Illinois State Historical Library. 

Phillips Bros.. State Printers 


Champaign Public Library 
Champaign, Illinois 



Edmund' J. James, Ph. D., President Northwestern University, 

Evanston, 111. 
Hon. George N. Black, Springfield, 111. 


Geoege N. Black, ^Chairman. 

EvARTS B. Greene, Ph. D. 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber. 

Gen. Alfred Orendorff. 

J. F. Snyder, M. D,, President of the Society, ex-offlcio. 


Llstof officers of the Illinois State Historical Society. 1904 ii-—„,.. M 

List of members of the Illinois State Historical Society VII. VIII, IX 

Committees of the Illinois State Historical Society. 1904 VI 

Constitution of the Illinois State Historical Society ^. ...........X, XI. XII 

Transactions of the Fifth Annual Meeting of the Illinois State Historical Society. 

BJoomlngrton, January 27-29. 1904 

Meetings of Board of Directors 1.12 

Business meeting 3 

Secretary's Report o 

Committee Reports 6-12 

Program of Literary Sessions ....^ ... 13 

Memorial— John N. Jewett. Resolutions upon the death of Hon. John N. Jewett. 

Read by Dr. Richard Edwards. Bloomington 16 

Address of Welcome to the Society on behalf of the McLean County Historical 
Society and the Citizens of Bloomington. Mr. George P. Davis, President of the 

McLean County Historical Society 18-20 

Response to the Address of Welcome— Dr. J. F. Snyder. Virginia. 111.. President of 

the Illinois State Historical Society 21-24 

Annual Address— Personal Recollections of Some of the Eminent Statesmen and 
Lawyers of Illinois.- Hon. Charles P. Johnson, A. M.. St. Louis, 

Mo 27-58 

Memorial-Hiram W. Beckwith.— E. J. James. Ph. D.. Evanston. Illinois 25-26 

An Inquiry— Dr. J. F Snyder 59-61 

Illinois in the War of 1812-1814. Frank E. Stevens. Chicago 62-197 

A Trip from Pennsylvania to Illinois in 1851. W. W. Davis. A. M.. Sterlintr. Ill 198-204 

Newspapers and Newspaper Men of Illinois.- Hon. E. A. Snlvely. Springfield. 111... 205-213 
The Part of Illinolsans In the National Educational Movement of 1850-1862.— 

Paul Selby. A. M.. Chicago. Ill 214-229 

Illinois In the Councils of the Nation.- Mrs. John A. Logan. Washington. D. C 230-239 

The Country Lawyer.— Hon. James A. Connolly. Springfield. Ill 240-244 

The Salines of Southern Illinois.- Prof. George W. Smith. Carbondale. Ill 215-258 

Morris Blrkbeck and his Friends.— Daniel Berry. M. D.. Carmi. 111. 259-273 

Maj.-Gen. James D. Morgan— In Memorlam — Hon. W. H. Collins. Quincy, 111 274-285 

The Life of Hon. Gustavus Koerner.— Hon. R. E. Rombauer. St. Louis. Mo 286-307 

The Scotch Irish In America.— Hon. Robert A. Gray. Blue Mound. Ill 308-313 

The Woman's Club Movement in Illinois.— Mrs. E. C. Lambert. Jacksonville. Ills.... 314-329 

McKendree College.— M. H. Chamberlln. LL.D.. Lebanon. Ills 32t)-364 

InMemoriam— Members of the Illinois State Historical Society, deceased. January. 

1903-January. 1904 365-391 

Dt. H. H. Hood. Litchfield. Ills., by Miss Olive Sattley 367-373 

Dr. Bernard Stuv6, Springfield. Ills., by Dr. J. F. Snyder 374-377 

Dr. Robert Boal. Lacon. Ills, by Dr. J. F. Snyder 378-383 

Hon. John MayoPalmer. Chicago. Ills., by Hon. Alfred Orendorfl.... 384-386 

Rufus Blanchard. Wheaton. Ills., by Frederick Latimer Wells 387-391 

Addendum 393-568 

Kaskaskia Church Records. Transcribed and Translated by Rev. C. J. 

Eschmann of Prairie du Rocher. Ills 394-413 

Illinois Legislation on Slavery and Free Negroes. 1818-1865. by Mason 

McCloud Flshhack 414-432 

Mr. Lincoln as a Wrestler, by Col. RlsdonM. Moore 433-434 

A Prophecy— Three Hundred Years Hence. Written In 1830— by Prof. John 

Russell 435-440 

Governor Kinney's Prophecy. Edited by J. F. Snyder 441-444 

Illinois under the French. 1673-1765. by Stephen L. Spear 445-469 

Chicago-Origin of the Name of the City. The Old Portages, by John F. 

Steward 460-466 

Township Government in Illinois, by Mason H. Newell 467-504 

Pioneer Mothers of Illinois, by Miss Savlllah T. Hlnrichsen 505-513 

Forgotten Statesmen of Illinois, by Dr. J. F. Snyder 614-623 

Hon. Jesse Burgess Thomas 

Hon. Jesse Burgess Thomas, -Tr 

Richard Symmes Thomas. Jr 

Prices In McLean County. Illinois, from 1832 to 1860. by EzraM. Prince, 

Secretary McLean County Historical Society 526-542 

Addresses Delivered in the Hall of the House of Representatives, by the 
Hon. William Brown, A. M., Vandalia, 1839 543-568 


Table of Contents — Concluded. 

List of Illustrations— 

J. P. Snyder. M. D.. President of the Illinois State Historical Society, Frontispiece 

Hiram W. Beckwith 25 

William H. Blssell 47 

Illinois inl812-18U. Map 62 

Prof. Jonatiian Baldwin Tamer 214 

Morris Birkbeck 269 

Gen. James D. Morgan 274 

Gustavus Koerner 286 

McKendree College, original building 328 

Bishop E. R. Ames 330 

Rev. Peter Akers '. 332 

Dr. John W. Merrill 334 

Annls Merrill, LL.D 336 

James W. Sunderland 338 

Dr. H. H. Hood 367 

Dr. Bernard Stuv6 374 

Dr. Robert Boal 378 

John Mayo Palmer 384 

Rufus Blanchard 387 

Ren6 Robert Cavalier, Sieur de La Salle 445 

The Chicago Portage, a Map 460 

Vote on Township Organization in Illinois Constitutional Convention of 1847. Map. 479 
Vote on Five Per Cent Limitation to Municipal Indebtedness in Illinois Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1870. Map 495 

Hon. Jesse Burgess Thomas 514 

Richard Symmes Thomas, Jr 524 

Hon. William Brown 545 

Index 569 


J. F. Snyder, M. D., Virginia. 

1st Vice President, 
Paul Selby, A. M., Chicago. 

2d Vice President, 
Hon. William Vooke, Chicago. 

3rd Vice President, 
Dr. a. W. French, Springfield. 

Honorary Vice Presidents. 

The presidents of the local Illinois historical societies; J. O. Cun- 
ningham, president Champaign county Historical society, Urbana; 
Hon. Franklin H. Head, president Chicago Historical society, Chi- 
cago; President DeKalb county Historical society; — Hon. Harvey B. 
Hurd, Evanston Historical society, Evanston; Hon. Wm. Vocke, 
German-American- Historical association, Chicago; James T. Hoblit, 
Logan county Historical society, Lincoln; Mr. George P. Davis, 
McLean county Historical society, Bloomington; J. F. Steward, 
Maremecli Historical society, Chicago; S. B. Kerr, Massac county 
Historical society. Metropolis; Frank Moore, Old Settlers' Historical 
associatiou of Randolph county, Chester; Hon. Lorenzo Bull, Quincy 
Historical society, Quincy; Lovejoy Johnson, Stillman Valley Battle 
Monument association, Stillman Valley; Hon. E. P. Wade, Madison 
county Historical society, Alton; — President of the Vermilion county 
Historical society, Danville; President of the Jersey county His- 
torical society, Jersey ville; President of the Peoria Historical society, 
Peoria; President of the Southern Illinois Historical society, Car- 
bondale; president of the Woodford county Historical society. 
Eureka; Hon. Moses Dillon, president of the Whiteside county 
Historical society. Sterling. 

Board of Directors, 

J. F. Snyder, Virginia; Edmund Janes James, Ph.D., President 
Northwestern University, Evanston; George N. Black, Spring- 
field; J. H. Burnham, Bloomington; M. H. Chamberlain, LL. D., 
President of McKendree college, Lebanon; Hon. David McCulloch, 
Peoria; Evarts B. Greene, Ph. D., University of Illinois, Urbana; 
Edwin Erie Sparks, Ph. D., University of Chicago, Chicago; Hon. 
Alfred Orendorff, Springfield; Hon. J. O. Cunningham, Urbana; 
Hon W. H. Collins, Quincy; Prof . George W. Smith, Southern Illi- 
nois Normal university, Carbondale; Rev. C. J. Eschmann, Prairie 
du Rocher; Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Springfield. 

Secretary and Treasurer to the Board of Directors. 
Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Springfield. 


Committees of the Illinois State Historical Society, 1904. 

Publication Committee — Greorge N. Black, chairman; Evarts B. 
Grreene, Ph. D.; Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Hon. Alfred OrendorfP. 

Program Committee — Evarts B. Greene, Ph. D., chairman; Jessie 
Palmer Weber, M. H. Chamberlin, LL. D., J. H. Burnham, E. E. 
Spark, Ph. D., Mrs. S, P. Wheeler. 

Finance Committee — George N. Black, chairman; E. J. James. 

Constitution and By-Laws — David MoCulloch, chairman; J. H. 
Burnham, J. O. Cunningham. 

Legislation — Georgfe N. Black, chairman; Alfred OrendorfP, E. J. 
James, J. McCan Davis, W. H. Collins, (with power to add to its 
membership ) 

Local Historical Societies — J. H. Burnham, chairman; J. O. Cun- 
ningham, Prof. O. B. Clark, George W. Smith, David McCulloch, W. 
W. Davis. 

Louisiana Purchase Exposition Committee (continued) — E. J. 
James, chairman; George N. Black, J. H. Burnham, Alfred Oren- 
dorfP, Dr. William Jayne. 

Committee on the Marking of Historic Sites in Illinois — Edwin 
Erie Sparks, chairman; Mrs. Thomas Worthington, Dr. William 
Jayne, Mrs. Helen M. J. Little, J. McCan Davis. 

Special Committee on Membership of the Illinois State Historical 
Society, appointed by the president of the society March 28, 1904 — 
Edwin E. Sparks, chairman; J. Nick Perrin, E. A. Snively, J McCan 
Davis, H. E. Barker, Dr. William Jayne, J. F. Snyder, ex-oflficio. 





♦Boal. Dr. Robert Lacon, 111, 

Bradwell. Judge James B Chicago, 111. 

Edwards, Mrs. Benjamin S..Sprlnfi'fleld.Ill. 

Johnson. Hon. Charles P St. Louts. Mo. 

*McClernand. Gen. John A. .Springfield. 111. 

McClernaDd. Mrs. John A Springfield, HI. 

Morrison, Mrs. 1. L Jacksonville, 111. 

•Palmer, Gen. JohnM Springfield. 111. 

Palmer, Mrs. John M Springfleld, 111. 

•Ruggles. Gen. James M Havana, III. 

•Stuart. Mrs. John T Springfield, 111. 

Thwaltes. Reuben Gold Madison, Wis. 

Yates. Mrs. Catherine, (Mrs. Richard 
Yates. Sr.) Jacksonville, 111. 


Barry,Hon. P. T 

77-79 Jefferson street, Chicago. 111. 


(This list Includes all members, Includine 
those who have Joined the society since its 
annual meeting, up to and including Nov. 

Adams, J. C Peotone, 111. 

Adams. J. R Piano. 111. 

Anderson. Horace G Peoria, HI. 

Atkins. Gen. Smith D Freeport. 111. 

Bacchus, Mrs. Annie 

(Mrs. Leroy Bacchus) Springfleld, 111. 

Baker. J. J Mt. Vernon. 111. 

Bangs, Prof, J. E Springfield. 111. 

Bangs, Mrs. Margaret M 

(Mrs. J. E. Bangs) Springfleld. Ill, 

Barker, H. E Springfield. 111. 

Barry. Hon. P T , (life member) 

77-79 Jefferson street, Chicago, III. 

Beach, Hon Myron ti 

401-106 The Rookery, Chicago. 111. 

Becker. J. W Jerseyville. 111. 

♦Beckwith, Hon. Hiram W Danvllle.IU. 

Beebe, Hon. Avery N Yorkville. III. 

Bentley, Geo. L. L Elmwood 111. 

Berry. Dr Daniel Carmi, 111, 

Black. Hon. George N Springfield. 111. 

Black. Mrs. George N Springfleld, 111, 

•Blanchard. Rufus; Wheaton, III. 

Bliss. C. W HiUsboro, 111, 

Bowman. E. M Alton, ill. 

Bradshaw, Chas Carrollton. III. 

Brevoort. J. H Rurland.Ill. 

Brown, Hon. C. C Springfleld, III. 

Brown, Mrs. C. C Springfleld, 111. 

Bucklin.Geo. M Morris. III. 

Brydges. W. R....277 Division St.. Elgin. 111. 

Bnrehard. Hon. Horatio C Freeport, 111, 

Burke. Rev. J . J Bloomington. 111. 

Burnap. Prof. W. L 

Lake Forest University, Lake Forest. 111. 

Burnham, Capt. J. H Bloomington. Ills. 

Burt. J. S Henry. Ill, 

Bush, Hon. J. M Pitt8fleld,Ill, 

Butcher, U. G Astoria, 111. 

Capen. Charles L Bloomington. 111. 

Carrlel. Mrs. Mary Turner.. Jacksonville, 111. 

Castle, J. B Sandwich, 111, 

Chamberlln. M. H., LL. D. President Mc- 

Kendree College Lebanon, 111. 

Clark. Prof. Oiynthus B Eureka.Ill. 

Clary. Prof. J. M., President Greer Col- 
lege Hoopeston. 111. 

Clendenin. Hon. H. W Springfleld. 111. 

Collins, Hon. W. H Qulncy,Ill. 

Congdon George E Waterman, 111, 

Conkling. Hon. Clinton L.... Springfleld, III 

Cook, J. S Leroy, 111. 

Cooper, Hon. John L Fairfield, 111. 

Crabbe, .Mrs. Harriet Palmer, (Mrs. Ed- 
win G.Crabbe) Springfleld. 111. 

Crandon. Frank P 

1414 Forest av., Evanston, 111. 

Crews, Rev. E. K. Flsher,Champalgn C0..III. 

Cunningham. Judge J. O Urbana.Ill. 

Currey, J. Seymour, secretary Evanston 

Historical society Evanston, 111. 

Curtis. Will Kewanee. 111. 

Cushing. Prof. J. P New Haven. Conn. 

Cyrus. Geo W Camp Point, 111. 

Davis. Mr. George P Bloominsrton, 111. 

Davis, J. McCan Springfleld, 111. 

Davis, Mrs. J. McCan Springfleld, 111, 

Davis. W. W Sterling.Ill. 

Dearborn. Hon. Luther M 

....Title and Trust bldg....Chlcago.lll. 

Degge. A. R Peters burg. 111. 

Dent, Thomas.... Portland blk.. Chicago, 111. 

Dieffenbacher, Philip L Havana. 111. 

Dilg. Charles A 

606 Diveray Boulevard. Chicago, HI. 

Dilg. Philip H 

1727 Oakdale Ave . Lake View 

Chicago, 111, 

Donaldson. Owen M Oak Park, 111. 

Dougherty, Mr N. C Peoria. Ill, 

Dubois. Miss Agnes E Springfleld, 111. 

Dunn, Mrs. Julia Mills Moline. 111. 

Dyche, Mrs. F, B., (Grace Locke Scrlppa, 


1896 Sheridan Road, Evanston, 111. 

Edwards. Dr. Richard Bloomington, 111. 

Engelmann. Mrs. Mary K ..Cleveland. Ohio 
Eschmann, Rev. C. J. Prairie du Rocher, 111. 

Fairbank. Rev. John B JacRsonville. 111. 

Fancher. Miss Grace Springfleld, 111. 

Faxon, E. W Piano, HI. 

Felmly. Prof. David Normal, III. 



List of Members — Concluded. 

Fisher, Albert Jiidson, (Historian 111. So- 
ciety Sons of the American Revolu- 
tion)... 604 Masonic Temple. Chicago, 111. 

FitzwlUiam. Mrs. Sarah E. Raymond 

4824 Vlncennes Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Forbes. Prof. S. A.. University of 111 

Urbana, 111. 

French. Dr. A. W Springfield. HI. 

Funk, Hon. D. M Bloomington, 111. 

Funk. Hon. Lafayette Bloomington, 111. 

Garrett. T. M 

301 Ontario, St.. Chicago. 111. 

Gillespie, Mrs. David Lincoln. 111. 

Greene, Prof. Evarts B., University of 
111 Urbana, 111, 

Gridley, J. N Virginia. 111. 

Griggs, Hon. Clarence Ottawa, 111. 

Gross, Prof. Lewis M Sycamore, 111. 

Gross, Hon. W. L Springfield, 111. 

Haines, James Pekln, 111. 

Hall, F H Joliet. 111. 

Hall. Henry H Jacksonville, 111. 

Hardacre, 0. V Lawrence v1 lie. III 

Hardy. H. L Chicago, 111 

Harvick. Arthur L Vienna, 111. 

Hatton, Frederick Hammond 

Rock Island, 111, 

Hay, Logan Springfield, 111. 

Helnl, Hon. Frank J Jacksonville, 111. 

Henderson, Judge John G 

...416-417 Roanoke Building, Chicago, 111. 

Henninger, Prof. J. W Macomb, 111. 

Hollenback, George M 

44 North View St.. Aurora. 111. 

•Hood. Dr. H. H Litchfield, 111. 

Hood. Mrs. H. H Litchfield, 111. 

Hostetter. A. B Springfield, 111. 

Houston, J. W Berwick, 111. 

Husklnson. George Alton. 111. 

Jackson. T. L Cave-in-Rock. 111. 

James, E. J.. Ph. D.. President North- 
western University Evanston. 111. 

James, Prof. J. A., Northwestern Uni- 
versity Evanston, 111. 

Jayne. Dr. William Springfield, 111. 

Jessup. Theodore 

259 South Clinton St., Chicago, 111. 

Jones. Miss Emma P Springfield, 111. 

Jones, Miss Lottie E 

112 W. North St., Danville, 111. 

Kane, Judge Charles P Springfield, 111. 

Kepley. Hon. Henry B Effingham. 111. 

Kerrick. Hon. L. H Bloomington. 111. 

Kimball. Rev. Clarence O LaJunta.Col. 

Kirby. Hon. E. P Jacksonville, 111. 

Lambert. Mrs. E. C Jacksonville, HI. 

Lear, Mrs. Mary S 

Brighton. Province. Ontario, Canada 

Lear, Walter Edwin, Ph. D.. LL. D 

. . . Brighton Province of Ontario. Canada 

Lemmers.A. C Woodstock, 111. 

Lewis. Hon. Ira W Dixon. 111. 

Lilly, Mrs. John P Sullivan, 111. 

Little, Mrs Helen M. J Bloomington, 111. 

Lodge. William F Monticello.lll. 

Lord. Mrs. P. W Plano.Ill. 

Lowe. Leo. H Kewanee. 111. 

Mc Adams, William, Sr 

Kansas. Edgar Co.,in. 

McCagg. Hon. E. B..67 Cass st.. Chicago.Ill. 

McConnel, G. M Chicago Chronicle, 


McCormack, Prof. Henry. Illinois State 
Normal University Normal. 111. 

McCullo-ih. Judge David Peoria. 111. 

McPike, H G AIton,Ill. 

Manny, Hon. Walter I Mt. Sterling, 111. 

Marmon, Mrs. W. W Bloomington, 111. 

Marnuy. John D Springfield, 111. 

Maxwell. A. L Lawrencevllle, III.. 

Mead. Caldwell P Geneva, HI. 

Mead Homer. M.D., Camd'n. Sch'yler Co., 111. 
Mead, Mary Ward. M. U „ 

Camden, Schuyler Co.. 111. 

Meese, Hon. Wm. A Mollne.lll. 

Merritf. Hon. E. L Springfield, 111. 

Mills. Richard W Virginia, 111. 

Miner, Dr. James Winchester, 111. 

Mous. John R Mount Vernon. 111. 

Norton, Hon. W. P Alton,Ill. 

Orendorff. Hon. Alfred Springfield. HI. 

Orendorff, Hon. John B.... Bloomington, 111. 
Osborne. Miss Georgia L... Jacksonville, 111. 
Page, Prof. E. C, Northern Illinois Nor- 
mal School DeKalb,Ill. 

♦Palmer, Hon. John Mayo Chicago.Ill. 

Palmer, Mrs. John Mayo Chlcago.IlL 

Parker. C M Taylorville.lll. 

Pearson. Hon. J. M Godfrey, 111. 

Perrin, Hon. J. Nick Lebanon, 111. 

Pettit. Guy V Reynolds. HI. 

Prlmm, Enoch W Belleville. 111. 

Prince. E. M., secretary McLean County 

Historical Society Bloomington, 111, 

Prince, Frederick C, vice-president and 

secretary Sherman Historical associ- 
ation P.O. box 244. Chicago.Ill. 

Pitner. Dr. T.J Jacksonville. 111. 

Putnam. Prof. J. W Madison, Wis. 

Qulncy Historical Society Quincy.UI. 

Kardln, James K Charleston, 111. 

Raymond, Hon. James H 

...1513-1515 Monadnock blk., Chicago.Ill. 

Reeves, Mrs. Kate K Springfield. 111. 

Roosa. Mrs.S. V Springfield. IlL 

Rounds. H. E.... Rogers Park. Chicago, 111. 

Sanders, Col. George A Springfield, III. 

Sattley, Miss Olive 

...411 East Capitol Ave., Springfield. IlL 
Saylor, H. L 

138 Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, lU. 

Schmidt. Dr. Otto L 

3328 Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Schoolcraft, Prof. H. L Urbana. 111. 

Scott. Edgar S Springfield, 111. 

Scott, Mrs. Julia Green, (Mrs. Matthew 

T.) Bloomington. IlL 

Sell, Will J Grayville, IIL 

Selby, Paul, A. M 

5468 Monroe Av., Chicago, 111. 

Sheets, J. M Oblong, IlL 

Sheppard. Prof. R. D., Northwestern 

University Evanston, IlL 

Sibley, H. F Fairfield. 111. 

Sibley, Dr. W. C Fairfield, lU. 

Silliman. E. C Chenoa, lU. 

Smith, Col. D. C Normal, 111. 

Smith. Prof. George W., Southern Ills. 

Normal University Carbondale. 111. 

Snlvely, Hon. E. A Springfield. IlL 

Snively. Mrs. E. A Springfield. 111. 

Snyder, Dr. J. P Virginia, 111. 

Sparks, Edwin Earle, Ph. D., University 

of Chicago Chicago, IH. 

Spear. S. L Springfield, IlL 

Spence. M. H Elm wood. 111. 

Stearns, Arthur K 

112 114 Genesee St., Waukegan. IlL 

Stennett, Dr. W. H 

303 Linden Ave., Oak Park, 111. 

Stevens. Frank E 

1206 Chamber of Commerce Building 


Steward. Miss Bertha, Steward. Lee Co.. 111. 
Steward, John F 

1889 Sheridan Road. Chicago. 111. 



List of Members — Concluded. 

Stubblefleld. Hon. George W 

Bloomlngton. 111. 

•Stnve, Dr. Bernard Sprinefleld. 111. 

Taylor, Mrs. Harriet Rumsey 

LaQrange, 111. 

Thayer, Ml3s Mauae Springfield, 111. 

Tietsort, W. B Medora, 111. 

Tomlin. Mrs. Eliza I. H.... Jacksonville, 111. 

Urech, Mendon. Ill 

IJtterback. J . C Salem, 111. 

Vocke. Hon. William, President German 

American Historical Society 

103 Randolph St.. Chicago, 111. 

Waite, Dr. H N Johnson, Vermont. 

Wallace. Joseph A. M Springfield. 111. 

Weber, Mrs. Jessie Palmer. .Springfield, 111. 

Wells, Frederick Latimer Wheaton, 111. 

Wertz. Miss Adda P Carbondale. 111. 

West. Hon. Simeon H LeRoy. 111. 

Wheeler. Mrs. Catherine Goss. (Mrs S. 
P. Wheeler) Springfield, 111. 

Wheeler, C. Gilbert 

14 State St.. Chicago, 111. 

Wheeler. Hon. S. P Springfield, 111. 

Wightman. G. F Lacon. 111. 

Wiles, Mrs. Alice Bradford 

6711 Woodlawn Ave,, Chicago. 111. 

Willcox, E. S Peoria, 111. 

Wcolard. F. M Fairfield. 111. 

Worthlngton. Hon. Thomas 

Jacksonville. 111. 

Worthlngton, Mrs. Thomas 

Jacksonville. 111. 

Wychoff. Dr. Charles T., Bradley Poly- 
technic Institute Peoria. 111. 


B H. 



(Adopted, January 27, 1904.) 

Article I. Name and Objects. 

See. 1. The name of this society shall be the Illinois State Historical 

Sec. 2. The objects for which it is formed are to excite and stimulate a 
general interest in the history of Illinois; to encourage historical research 
and investigation and secure its promulgation; to collect and preserve all 
forms of data in any way bearing upon the history of Illinois and its people. 

Article II. Officers of the Society— Their Election and Duties. 

Sec. I. The mangement of the affairs of this society shall be vested in a 
board of 15 directors of which board the president of the society shall be ex- 
offlcio a member. 

Sec. 2. There shall be a president and as many vice presidents, not less 
than three, as the society may determine at the annual meetings. The board 
of directors, five of whom shall constitute a quorum, shall elect its own pre- 
siding officer, a secretary and treasurer, and shall have power to appoint 
from time to time such officers, agents and committees as they may deem 
advisable, and to remove the same at pleasure. 

Sec. 3. The directors shall be elected at the annual meetings and the mode 
of election shall be by ballot, unless by a vote of a majority of members 
present and entitled to vote, some other method may be adopted. 

See. 4. It shall be the duty of the board of directors diligently to promote 
the objects for which this society has been formed and to this end they shall 
have power — 

(1) To search out and preserve in permanent form for the use of the peo- 
ple of the State of Illinois, facts and data in the history of the State and of 
each county thereof, including the pre-historic periods and the history of the 
aboriginal inhabitants together, with biographies of distinguished persons 
who have rendered services to the people of the State. 

(2) To accumulate and preserve for like use, books, pamphlets, newspa^ 
pers and documents bearing upon the foregoing topics. 

(3) To publish from time to time for like uses its own transactions as well 
as such facts and documents bearing upon its objects as it may secure. 

(4) To accumulate for like use such articles of historic interest as may 
bear upon the history of persons and places within this State. 

(5) To receive by gift, grant, devise, bequest or purchase, books, prints, 
paintings, manuscripts, libraries, museums, moneys and other property, real 
or personal in aid of the above objects. 

(6) They shall have general charge and control under the direction of the 
board of trustees of the Illinois State Historical library, of all property so 


received and hold the same for the uses aforesaid in accordance with an act 
of the Legislature approved May 16, 1903, entitled "An act to add a new sec- 
tion to an act entitled an act to establish the Illinois State Historical library 
and to provide for its care and maintenance, and to make appropriations 
therefor," approved May 25, 1889, and in force July 1, 1889; they shall make 
and approve all contracts, audit all accounts and order their payment, and in 
general see to the carrying out of the orders of the society. They may adopt 
by laws not inconsistent with this constitution, for the mangtment of the 
affairs of the society; they shall fix the times and places for their meetings; 
keep a record of their proceedings, and make reports to the society at its 
annual meeting. 

Sec. 5. Vacancies in the board of directors may be filled by election by 
the remaining members, the persons so elected to continue in office until the 
next annual meeting. 

Sec. 6. The president shall preMde at all meetings of the society, and in 
case of his absence or inability to act, one of the vice presidents shall pre- 
side in his stead, and in case neither president nor vice president shall be in 
attendance, the society may choose a president pro-tempore. 

See. 7. The officers shall perform the duties usually devolving upon such 
offices, and such others as may from time to time be prescribed by the society 
or the board of directors. The treasurer shall keep a strict account of all re- 
ceipts and expenditures and pay out money from the treasury only as directed 
by the board of directors; he shall submit an annual report of the finances 
of the society and such other matters as may be committed to his custody to 
the board of directors within such time prior to the annual meeting as they 
shall direct, and after auditing the same the said board shall submit said 
report to the society at its annual meeting. 

Article III. IMbmbership. 

Sec. 1. The membership of this society shall consist of five classes, to-wit: 
Active, life, affiliated, corresponding and honorary. 

Sec. 2. Any person may become an active member of this society upon 
payment of such initiation fee not less than $1, as shall from time to time be 
prescribed by the board of directors. 

Sec. 3. Any person entitled to be an active member may upon payment of 
$25 be admitted as a life member with all the privileges of an active member 
and shall thereafter be exempt from annual dues. 

Sec. 4. County and other historical societies, and other societies engaged 
in historical or archeologic»l research or in the preservation of the knowledge 
of historic events, may upon the recommendation of the board of directors be 
admitted as affiliated members of tbis society upon the same terms as to the 
payment of initiation fees and annual dues as active and life members. Every 
society so admitted shall be entitled to one duly accredited repressntative at 
each meeting of the society who shall during the period of his appointment 
be entitled as representative to all the privileges of an active member except 
that of being elected to office; but nothing herein shall prevent such repre- 
sentative becoming an active or life member upon like conditions as other 

Sec. 5. Persons not active or life members but who are willing to lend their 
assistance and encouragement to the promotion of the objects of the society, 
may upon recommendation of the board of directors, be admitted as corres- 
ponding members. 

Sec. 6. Honorary membership may be conferred at any meeting of the 
society upon recommendation of the board of directors upon persons who 
have distinguished themselves by eminent services or contributions to the 
cause of history. 

Sec. 7. Honorary and corresponding members shall have the privilege of 
attending and participating in the meetings of the society. 


Article IV. Meetings and Quorum, 

Sec. 1. There shall be an annual meeting of this society for the election 
of officers, the hearing of reports, addresses and historical papers and the 
transaction of business at such time and place in the month of January in each 
year as may be designated by the board of directors, for which meeting it 
shall be the duty of said board to prepare and publish a suitable program and 
procure the services of persons well versed in history to deliver addresses or 
read essays upon subjects germane to the objects of this organization. 

Sec. 2. Special meetings of the society may be called by the board of direc- 
tors. Special meetings of the board of directors may be called by the presi- 
dent or any two members of the board. 

Sec. 3. At any meeting of the society the attendance of ten members en- 
titled to vote shall be necessary to a quorum. 

Article V. Amendments. 

Sec. 1. The constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote of the 
members present and entitled to vote, at any annual meeting: Provided, 
That the proposed amendment shall have first been submitted to the board of 
directors, and at least 30 days prior to such annual meeting notice of pro- 
posed action upon the same, sent by the secretary to all the members of the 

Adopted by the society at annual meeting Jan. 27, 1904. 




INGTON, ILL., JANUARY 27, 28, 29, 1904 

Meeting of the board of directors of the Illinois State Historical 
society, Bloomington, 111., Jan. 27, 2:00 o'clock, p. m. 

In the rooms of the McLean County Historical society, McLean 
county court house, 

Present — Dr. J. F. Snyder, president of the society; J. H. Burn- 
ham, Hon. David MoCallooh; Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, secretary 
of the society. 

It was expected that a committee appointed by the Illinois Press 
association, May 1904, would according to arrangement meet with 
the board of directors at this time, but none of the committee being 
present the conference meeting with it was postponed until the ar- 
rival of Gen. Smith D. Atkins of Freeport and Mr. E. A. Snively, 
who had notified the board of directors that they would be able to 
meet with it at a later time during the sessions of the annual meet- 
ing of the Illinois State Historical society. The reading of the min- 
utes of the last previous meeting of the board of directors was on 
motion of J. H. Burnham, omitted. The secretary's report was read 
and approved. The treasurer's report was read, The bills submit- 
ted by the treasurer were approved and on motion of Hon. David 
McCulloch were referred to the board of trustees of the Illinois State 
Historical library, with the request that they be paid from the fund 
appropriated for the support of the Illinois State Historical library 
of which the Illinois State Historical society is now a department. 
The committee on publication asked further time before making its 
report. This additional time was allowed. There was no report sub- 
mitted by the committee on legislation. Committee on constitution 
and by-laws asked further time, which was allowed. The committee 
on local historical societies by its chairman J. H. Burnham made a 
report, which report was on motion of Judge David McCulloch refer- 
red to the society . The board of directors adjourned to meet at the 
call of the president. 

Mbetin* op Conference Committee of Illinois State Historical 
Society and Illinois Press Association. 

Among the visitors at the meeting were several editors constituting a com- 
mittee appointed by the Illinois State Press association at its annual meeting at 
Cairo, last May, to confer with the State Historical society. At 11:30 a. m. 

on Thursday, Jan, 28. when Hon. E. A. Snively coneladed reading his paper 
on Newspapers and Newspaper Men of Illinois," that committee, with a 
committee of directors of the Historical society, retired to the hall of the 
McLean County Historical society and there held a protracted conference, 
having for its object the instituting of a plan to ally the State Press 
association and btate Historical society for mutual aid and promotion. Their 
consultation resulted in the following agreement; 1st, any editor or pub- 
hsherin Illinois who will send regularly a (weekly) copy of his publication, 
free of charge, to the Illinois State Historical library, at Springfield, shall be 
enrolled as a member of the State Historical society, and receive all its pub- 
lications, on a parity in every respect with other members, and be exempt 
from payment of annual dues. 2d, each organization shall be represented at 
the annual meetings of the other by a committee of two or more, who will be 
accorded the privileges of the floor for making reports, suggestions or other 
statements pertaining to the welfare of either society. 

This agreement of the joint committees upon submission to the Historical 
society was unanimously adopted; and in accordance therewith the president 
appointed Judge David McCuUoch, of Peoria, and Gen. Alfred Orendorff, of 
Sprinelield, a committee to represent this society at the next annual meeting 
ot the Illinois State Press association to be held in the city of Galesburg on 
the J8th of February, 1904. This business concluded. Gen. Smith D. Atkins, 
editor of the Freeport Journal, chairman of the State Press association com- 
mittee, was introduced and presented to the society, a small gavel bearing on 
Its ivory head the following inscriptions; on one end, "Illinois Press associa- 
tion," on the other end, "Organiied Feb. 22d, 1866," and covering the cen- 
tral portion the names of 27 presidents of the association commencing with 
that of "John W. Merritt, 1866," and ending with "Chas. Boeschenstein, 1898." 
In presenting the gavel to the Historical society. General Atkins said; "Mr. 
President, On May 14, 1903. at a meeting of the Illinois Press association, 
at Cairo, 111., Hon. Thomas Rees, of Springfield, stated that he had in his 
possession the first gavel of the association, and it was agreed that Mr. Rees 
should present it to the Illinois State Historical society at its next meeting, 
m Bloomington Senator Rees is not present at this meeting, but he has sent 
the gavel here by Hon. E. A. Snively, of Springfield, and Mr. Snively has re- 
quested me to present it to your society to be retained by you as an interest- 
^°c^rv?^^*°''\°^^ ^^^ " ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ivory, and on it are engraved the names 
c ^ ?o<?i X °^,?,no^S5 "*^® served as presidents of the Illinois Press association 
from 1866 to 1898, 32 years. The Illinois Press association purchased a new 
gavel, because there was no more room on this one to engrave the names of 
the presidents of the society. I was personally acquainted with 20 of the gen- 
tlemen whose names are engraved on this gavel. Not now will I speak in 
detail of them; they, or some of them, were distinguished citizens of this 
State, rendering most valuable service as editors and public officials. It is 
fitting that this gavel should now be deposited with your society for safe 
keeping; and it affords me great pleasure to turn it over to you." 

Receiving the gavel Dr. Snyder, president of the State Historical society, 
responded as follows; "General Atkins, I gladly accept, for the Illinois State 
Historical society, this venerable historic relic, and promise you and the as- 
sociation you represent, that it will be permanently preserved by our society 
among the other historic relics we now have at the State capitol as the foun- 
dation of a future Illinois Historical museum. We will always highly prize 
this symbol of order and authority, not only for its past associations, and the 
service it has rendered when wielded by the honored journalists of our State 
whose names are carved upon it, but also as a memento of this occasion that 
marks the affiliation of the Illinois State Press association, and Illinois State 
Historical society inaugurated here today, to bring the two in closer relation 
to each other for their mutual benefit and improvement. Personally, I am 
indeed much gratified that it has fallen to my lot to receive for the State His- 
torical society of Illinois this valued souvenir, and I can assure you with 
confidence that its future care and safe keeping will, by our society, be ever 
regarded as a pleasant and sacred duty." 



Bloomington, III., Jan. 27, 28, 29, 1904-. 

Business meeting in rooms of McLean County Historical society , 
McLean county court house, Wednesday, January 27, 3:00 p. m. 

The fifth annual meeting of the Illinois State Historical society 
business session was called to order, with President J. F. Snyder in 
the chair. 

Capt. J. H. Burnham read the report of the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition committee, and made some explanatory remarks favoring 
declining the appropriation of two thousand dollars ($2,000) offered 
to the society, by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition commission. 
Judge David McCuUoch moved that the report of the committee be 
received. Adopted. Prof. E. B. Greene moved that some plan be 
devised whereby the money ofiPered by the commission could be ac- 
cepted and used, and that the appropriation be accepted. Mr. George 
P. Davis opposed the acceptance of the appropriation on the ground 
of the insufficiency of the amount appropriated and the short time 
remaining before the opening of the exposition in which to prepare 
an exhibit, Mr. E. M. Prince also opposed the acceptance of the 
appropriation. Judge David McCulloch moved that the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition committee be continued. This motion was not 
seconded, as Capt. J. H. Burnham positively declined to act further 
on such committee, and the motion was withdrawn by Judge McCul- 
loch. Prof. E. B. Greene moved that the entire matter of the Lou- 
isiana Purchase appropriation and the exhibit be referred to the 
board of trustees of the Illinois State Historical library, with power 
to act in behalf of the society. This motion was seconded by Judge 
McCulloch and was carried. Capt. J. H. Burnham, of the committee 
on local historical societies, read a letter from Hon. J, O. Cunning- 
ham, relating to the work done by local historical societies in the 
State. Captain Burnham also read the report of the committee on 
local historical societies. Judge David McCulloch moved that the 
report be received, This motion was seconded by Mr. E. M. Prince 
and was adopted. Judge McCulloch made some remarks explaining 
the difference between receiving and adopting a report. After some 
discussion the report was, on motion of Prof. E. B. Greene, adopted. 
Capt, J. H. Burnham read resolutions of respect and esteem for the 
late Hon. H. W Beckwith. These resolutions were adopted by a 
rising vote. 

Whereas, Oar hearts have been saddened by the death of H. W. Beck- 
with, president of this society for the first four years of its existence, and its 
first vice president at the time of his death. 

Resolved, That we cheerfully testify to our appreciation of his many lovable 
qualities as an associate, and we desire to record our belief that the Illinois 
State Historical society owes bis memory a debt that will never be fully 

While a member of the Illinois State Historical library board for several 
^u^^^^ic^® °°* ^^^^ ^^^^ careful and conscientious oversight to the duties of 
the office, but he brought to it a critical and thorough knowledge of the his- 
tory of the northwest, and of historical publications, with the ability to sift 
the good from the faulty and the courage to make selections and reiections 
on the basis of historic accuracy. 

He was largely instrumental in bringing about the organization of the Illi- 
nois State Historical society, which is deeply indebted to its first president 
for much thoughtful advice, as illustrated in his first inaugural address, and 
for his constant and continuous interest in its welfare until the close of his 
useful life. 

The secretary's report, as approved by the board of directors, was 
read and adopted. Hon. David McCulloch, chairman of the com- 
mittee on constitution and by-laws, read the proposed constitution of 
the society, which had been approved by the board of directors of 
the society Sept. 10, 1903, and copies of which had been sent by the 
secretary to each member of the society 30 days prior to this (annual) 
meeting. After some discussion of the proposed constitution, and 
8om« explanatory remarks by Judge McCulloch, the constitution, as 
printed and sent out by the secretary to the members of the society, 
was adopted. The next business before the society was the election 
of officers for the year January, 1904-January, 1905. Prof. E. B. 
Grreene moved that the president appoint a nominating committee to 
report to the society at the opening session the next (Thursday) 
afternoon. This motion was seconded by Judge David McCulloch 
and was carried. The president appointed, as a committee to nomi- 
nate officers for the society for the ensuing year, E. B. Grreene, J. H. 
Burnham, Greorge N. Black, M. H. Chamberlin, A. W. French. 

Dr. J. F. Snyder read a brief paper entitled "An Enquiry," relat- 
ing to a prospectus of a book by Grov. John Reynolds. This pros- 
pectus was published in the Illinois State Journal, Springfield, in 

Dr. J. F, Snyder read an address on the "Life and Work of Dr. 
Bernard Stuve," a member of the society whose death had occurred 
since the last annual meeting. Capt. J. H. Burnham called attention 
to the number of deaths which the society had sustained among its 
membership during the year, and suggested that from this time for- 
ward the deaths of members of the society, with suitable memorial 
biographies, be published in the "Necrological Department of the 
Transactions of the Society," and that memorial addresses be not 
read at the annual meetings of the society except in cases of persons 
eminent in history or in historical research. Prof. George W. Smith 
made some remarks explanatory of the proposed Southern Illinois 
Historical society at Carbondale. Hon. David McCulloch reported 
the organization and flourishing condition of the Peoria Historical 

society, with some account of its methods and progress. Capt. J. H. 
Burnham made some remarks relative to local historical societies and 
their relation to the State Historical society. Prof. George W. Smith 
made some further remarks relating to the plan and scope of the 
proposed Southern Illinois Historical society. The question of local 
historical societies, their fields of work, limitations and relation to 
the State Historical society was discussed by Prof. E. B. Greene, 
Capt. J, H. Burnham and Prof. George W. Smith. 

There being no further business before the society, the meeting, 
on motion of Mr. E. M. Prince, was declared adjourned until 7:45 the 
same evening, Wednesday, January 27, in the circuit court room 
of the McLean county court house. 


The secretary of the society has to report a most gratifying growth of in- 
terest in the Illinois State Historical society. Every day letters are received 
asking for information about the society and the scope of its work. Societies 
have been formed in several of the counties, but this will be reported to you 
at length by the committee on local historical societies. 

As secretary of the society I had the pleasure of accompanying the board of 
trustees of Fort Massac park early in the month of November to Metropolis and 
the site of the fort. Nature has done so much at Massac that there is not 
much to be done in the way of beautifying the park. It is situated on a 
beautiful bluff of the Ohio river and shows undoubted remains of a fortifica- 
tion. The board was met by the leading citizens of Metropolis and taken in 
carriages to the grounds of the fort. The grounds were carefully examined 
in company with Hon. Reed Green, the owner, and a surveyor, and the num- 
ber of acres and the shape of the park decided upon. The gracious lady, the 
president of the board of trustees, going with the gentlemen of the board 
(the Secretary of State and Auditor of Illinois) up and down the bluffs and 
across the ravines, and personally seeing every foot of the ground and plan- 
ning for its best utilization. I was only a spectator, but was glad to take 
part in this historic event, in the name of the Illinois State Historical so- 

I do not attempt to tell of the workings of local historical societies, but I 
do wish to say to interested persons, that it is the wish of the board of trus- 
tees of the library to have, as soon as the quarters of the library are enlarged, 
an alcove, or at least a book case, devoted to the history of each county of 
the State. We wish to ask the local historical societies to help us collect the 
history of each county. If the local society is able to have its own library we 
would like to ask them to send to us such duplicates as they can secure. If 
a rare local book is found, a local society will no doubt wish to keep it for 
its own library, but suppose, when the book is found to be rare and of inter- 
est, another person says, "Why, we have that old book at home," then it is 
that the secretary of the local society can aid the State society by saving ' We 
have it, but the State society at Springfield will be glad t9 have it," and can 
urge the person to write to the secretary of the State society, or can himself 
inform the State society of the existence of such a book or other historic ar- 
ticle. While it will be interesting and valuable to the counties to have a 
library collected at their county seats or chief towns, to the student of State 
history and its phases, it will be of the greatest importance to have a com- 
plete history of the State and its counties and towns collected at the capital. 
The State society will publish valuable matter collected by local societies and 

can help them in many ways which will be suggested by the committee on 
local historical societies. The membership of the society has increased dur- 
ing the year to a very gratifying extent. 

The board of directors met in Soringfield on Sept. 10, 1903, and considered 
the new constitution which was offered by the committee on constitution and 
by-laws. This constitution as amended has been sent to each of you and it 
will be read to you for your action upon it. The transactions of the society 
for the last year— 1903— have been printed, and though still in the hands of 
the binder, will be distributed to the members of the society and its friends 
within the next ten days. The book in a number of respects is a decided 
improvement upon any of our previous books. 

The publication committee has held meetings in Springfield and has endeav- 
ored to make the book such as will satisfy the society and meet with its ap- 
proval. A full report of the meeting of the board of directors is with me. 
The board of directors will be glad to have the members of the society make 
suggestions in this meeting or to the board through its secretary. 

Very respectfully, 

Jessie Palmer Weber, 

Secretary Illinois State Historical Society. 



Received of J. McCan Davis. Febraary, 1903 

$31 78 
55 00 

Received for annaal dues 


$S6 78 


Paid for postasre stamps 

CO 00 
19 76 

Printing bills. Illinois State Journal Co.: Constitution of the 
society, circular letter accompanying constitution, circular 
letter accompanying programs to newspapers requesting 
insertion of program; programs 


$39 76 



To the Members and Officers of the Illinois State Historical Society: 

Your Committee on Local Historical Societies begs leave to report their ac- 
tion. In the month of December, 1904, we sent out circulars to persons 
supposed to be interested, a copy of which is hereby attached. 

Circular Issued by the Committee on Local Historical Societies op 
THE Illinois State Historical Society— Springfield, 111. 

President. Dr. J. F. Snyder, Virginia. First Vice President, Hon. H. W. 
Bsckwith, Danville. Second Vice President, Prof. Evarts B. Greene, Ur- 
bana. Third Vica President, Hon. William Vocke, Chicago. Honorary Viee 
Presidents, Tae Presidents of Local Historical Societies. Members of Board 

of Directors, Dr. E, J. James, President Northwestern University; Hon. 
George N. Black, Springfield; Hon. David McCulloch, Peoria; Capt. J. H. 
Burnham, Bioomington; Dr. M. H. Chamberlin, President McKendree Col- 
lege, Lebanon. Secretary, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Springfield. 

Bloomington, Illinois. 
To All Interested in Local Historical Societies: 

The Illinois State Historical society, now in the fifth year of its existence, 
is very desirous of assisting in the organization of county or other local his- 
torical societies all over the State. County societies have been organized in 
Jersey, McLaan, Champaign, DeKalb, Logan, Whiteside, Madison and Wood- 
ford. A very great work has been accomplished by the Chicago Historical 
society. Ttoe Evanston and Quincy societies also take high rank. This com- 
mittee fully believes that a large number of other counties are perfectly able 
and perhaps ready to organize county societies, and begin systematically the 
great work of gathering and publishing their own local history. 

At the last meeting of the board of directors of the Illinois State Historical 
society, a plan was discussed and laid over for consideration at the next an- 
nual meeting of the society, which will be held in Bloomington, Wednesday 
afternoon, January 27, 1904. The program for this annual meeting will 
soon be issued, showing what papers may be expected on the 27th, 28th and 
29th of January. The board of directors will be pleased to have the society's 
opinion of the plan, to the end that there may be a close and practicable 
union between the State and local societies. The plan is as follows: 

"The State Historical society shall aid in the organization of local histori- 
cal societies by giving all practicable assistance through correspondence, or 
the personal visitation of its officers or agents. 

"It shall also assist and stimulate societies already organized, as far as 
possible. All such societies are invited to co-operate with the State society 
by reporting annually in January to the State Historical society, giving a 
statement of their work during the year, with a list of all officers and a copy 
of all printed publications issued. Such local societies as are unable to pub- 
lish papers or reports are requested to furnish this society with copies of all 
papers, reports and documents relating to their local history, from which the 
State Historical society will make selections, for its own publications, of such 
documents or papers as may appear to be of special interest to the people of 
the State of Illinois, and the State society will keep all unpublished papers 
and documents safely in its own custody, unless their return is requested by 
the local societies." 

Reports from all existing societies are hereby urgently requested, the same 
to be directed to the chairman of this committee ; and persons in other coun- 
ties interested in the organization of local historical societies are earnestly 
urged to take action immediately, if possible, to secure county or other local 
historical organization, in season to report the same before or at the next 
annual meeting of the State society, Jan. 27, 1904. 

For the purpose of assisting in such work, a copy of the latest constitution 
adopted, that of Woodford county, is hereby furnished. 


Article I— The name of the association shall be the Woodford County His- 
torical society. 

Article II— The officers of this society shall be a president, vice president, 
secretary, treasurer, three trustees and an executive committee of five mem- 
bers, three of whom shall be the president, secretary and treasurer of the 

Article III— The officers shall be elected at the annual meeting and shall 
serve for one year, except the trustees, who shall be elected as follows: — 
One for three years, one for two years, and one for one year, after which each 
shall be elected for three years, one being elected annually. 

Article IV— The objects of this society shall be to discover, collect an^ pre- 
serve whatever relates to the natural, industrial, civil, military, political, 
social, educational or religious history of Woodford county in particular and 


Illinois in general; to maintain a museum and library; to cultivate the his- 
toric sense and diffuse knowledge upon these subjects by meetings and pub- 

Article V— Any person may become a member of this association by the 
vote of its members and the payment of $1,00. 

Artiole VI— Tuis society shall hold an annual meeting at the county seat on 
the first Thursday o! De«ember of each year; and the society shall hold a 
semi annual meeting on the first Thursday of June of each year. Further- 
more, the executive committee may provide for such other meetings as it mav 
think best. ^ 

Article VII— This constitution may be changed or amended at any regular 
meeting of the society, providing that notice, in writing, of the proposed 
changes or amendments be given at the last meeting preceding the meeting 
at which the change or amendment is proposed. 

Words and arguments from this committee are not needed. The importance 
of these historical organizations is admitted by all. Action is the need of the 

The chairman of this committee, or either of his associates will be very 
much pleased to correspond with any person interested in this work. 


Bloomington, Illinois. 

J. 0. Cunningham, 

Urbana, Illinois. 

0. B. Clark, 

Eureka, Illinois. 

From responses received, we are of the opinion that in one or two 
cases, action has been taken which will lead to the speedy organization of 
local historical societies. 

We have thought best not to attempt too much in this line, until the State 
society shall have taken more definite action pertaining to the relation which 
it is intended shall exist between State and the local societies, under our new 
constitution which will now go into effect. 

We would urge that a carefully prepared plan for the future relations be- 
tween the State and local societies, be prepared as soon as possible, and to 
this end would recommend that a special committee be appointed, consisting 
of the standing committee on local historical societies, with an equal repre- 
sentation made up from officers of the local societies now organized, to take 
this whole subject into careful consideration, and report as soon as practic- 

We would further recommend that in case their report is ready before the 
next annual meeting of the State society, that the State society hereby auth- 
orize the board of directors to take such action as may be deemed to the best 
interests of the State and local societies, without further action on the part of 
this society. 

There is much evidence that active and efficient work is now being per- 
formed by most of the local societies. The following new societies have been 
reported as organized since our last report: The Meramech Historical society 
of Kendall county, the Madison County Historical society, the Woodford 
County Historical society. 

The following is the list of the different historical societies in this State as 
far as reported: The Chicago Historical society at Chicago and the Illinois 
society at Springfield probably should not come under the head of local soci- 
eties, although the president of the Chicago society is one of the honorary 
vice presidents of the Illinois State Historical society, and it is our under- 
standing that for its work in certain lines of historical investigation, this so- 
ciety is willing to act in the utmost harmony with the Illinois Historical 

Of city societies we have reported: The Quincy society at Quincy; presi- 
dent, Lorenzo Bull, Quincy; correspondiner secretary, 8. H. Emery, Quincy; 
Evanston Historical society, Evanston; president, Harvey B. Hurd, Evan- 
ston; vice president, Frank H. Grover, Evanston; secretary, J. Seymour 
Curry, Evanston. 

The work of the Evanston Historical society deserves special notice. In 
1902 this society issued a beautiful calendar containing a dozen views of his- 
toric houses and natural objects, which is a good illustration of the possibili- 
ties of such publications, but we desire particularly to notice the report of its 
secretary concerning the five year's work of this society, which shows such 
comprehensive efficiency that we urgently recommend its publication in the 
society's transactions. 

Elgin Scientific club. No report. 

New England society, Rockford. No report. 

Champaign County Historical society, Urbana; president, J. 0. Cunning- 
ham, Urbana. 

DeKalb County Historical society. No report. 

Jersey County Historical society, Jerseyville. No report. 

Meramech Historical society of Kendall county. Piano; president, John F. 
Steward, 1889 Sheridan road, Chicago; secretary, Avery N. Beebee, York- 

Madison County Historical society, Alton; president, E. P. Wade, Alton; 
secretary, Miss Julia Buckmaster, Alton. 

Whiteside County Historical society, Sterling; president, Moses Dillon, 
Sterling; secretary, W. W. Davis, Sterling. 

Woodford County Historical society; president. Col. B. D. Meek, Eureka; 
secretary, Prof. O. B. Clark, Eureka. 

McLean County Historical society, Bloomington; president, Geo. P. Davis; 
secretary, E. M. Prince, Bloomington. 

Logan County Historical society, Lincoln; president, J. T. Hoblitt, Lin- 
coln; secretary, Mrs. Leila B. Collins, Lincoln. 

Pike County Historical society, Pittsfield; president, Hon. J. M. Bush. 

Considering the little effort that has been made to organize these societies, 
your committee feels greatly encouraged in being able to report so many ac- 
tive organizations. It is our belief that in case the State society should see 
fit to properly encourage these societies, and provide a popular plan for their 
affiliation with the parent society, a very large number of efficient and active 
organizations would soon be formed, each one a local center of great influ- 
ence, and each one constituting a center around which the parent society can 
more efficiently perform its own work, aud where it could always find sympa- 
thetic assistance in carrying forward its future plans. 


J. O. Cunningham, 
0. B Clark. 


EvANSTON, Jan. 16, 1904. 

Capt. J. H. Burnham,Bloomington,Ill.: 

Dear Sir — Being unable to attend the meeting of the State Historical so- 
ciety at Bloomington on the 27th, 28th and 29th of January, I will briefly 
give some account of the Evanston Historical society, which will possibly be 
of interest to you and the other members. 

Since our orgainzation some five years ago we have laid the foundation for 
a collection of historical material, which I will briefly describe. As you 
know a collection of this kind embraces a great variety of written and printed 
papers, portraits, views, diplomas, charts, maps, engravings, objects, etc., 
as well as books on local. State and western history. Oar attention was first 
given to making up written accounts, or sketches of the earlier residents, 
some of whom are still living. We obtained photograph portraits of many 
of these, also letters and other writings whenever possible. Those who were 
no longer living or had moved away were described by their descendants or 
former neighbors. It was necessary to hasten in this work for every year 
the survivors were becoming fewer. As the settlement of our region on the 
shore of the lake north of Chicago, which is our field of work, began in the 
early 30's; we searched the town and country adjoining far and wide for 
those who were here at that early time, or in the subsequent decade. We 
had pictures of them taken, pictures of the pioneer houses, such as remained 
of them, narratives written at their dictation, describing their journeys and 
arrival in the new country; their experiences, their mode of life, and many 
other things of interest. We even made a directory of the names of those 
who lived here 50 years ago. Oar amateur photographers found a fresh field 
for their efforts and worked with great enthusiasm; our literary people coop- 
erated in writing memoirs; and the old residents and their descendants 
awakened to the fact that they were objects of interest and found themselves 

We next turned our attention to gathering information on the physical 
aspect of the country in the early day and the changes which had taken place 
since that time. We traced the old roads, boundary lines of Indian treaties, 
old shore line of the lake (which we found had worn away as much as a 
quarter of a mile inland at some points) ; located school houses, roadside 
taverns, log cabins, (some of which had long since disappeared); took in- 
scriptions from old tombstones; and made written descriptions of them all. 
We also found a large number of interesting trees — some bent by Indians 
when they were saplings and made to take strange shapes which they re* 
tained after becoming full sized, and so called "Indian trees;" some of im- 
mense size and height; and views takenof them and preserved. We also found 
remains of Indian camping grounds and villages, located an ancient burying 
ground, and collected flint implements found in the neighborhood. The 
topography of the region became a most interesting department of study. 
In two respects our situation is remarkable. First, this region is the south- 
ern limit of glacier action in North America, at least in this longitude; and 
while north of us are the evidences of such action, south of us none exist. Sec- 
ond, our region is on the divide between the waters that flow to the Alantio 
ocean through the river St. Lawrence on one hand, and those that flow down 
the Mississippi and the Gulf of Mexico on the other. Maps are in our pos- 
session marking the height of land above the sea level at numerous points, so 
that the height of bluffs, ridges and undulations of land is accurately known. 

Among the narratives of thrilling interest is that of the steamer "Lady 
Elgin" lost off our shores in 1860, wrecks of many other ships and steamers, 
thrilling rescues; and the long tale of life saving through many years by the 
crew located in the United States life saving station at this point. 


We have extended our collection of books and pamphlets beyond those on 
historical subjects, and included the works of all authors who have resided 
here — now or at any other time. Some have a world wide reputation, and 
many are well known in the world of letters. So that we not only have 
sketches and portraits of a great number but their books as well. This por 
tion of the collection is now quite incomplete but progress is making, but 
when one considers that we found the names of 160 authors it will be under- 
stood how formidable the task was to collect their works. 

A part of our work is the dissemination of historical information. To this 
end we have had some two or three meetings a year to which the public has 
been invited. At these meetings lectures have been given on some subject 
appropriate to the work of the society. On one notable occasion a lecture 
was given and illustrated with lantern slide exhibition, showing portraits of 
many of the pioneers, the houses thev lived in, diagrams of growth, and 
views of remarkable natural objects. Publication of the results of our work 
has not yet been undertaken beyond an annual report on two occasions and 
a pamphlet on the Indians' occupation. The expense has prevented us from 
doing more than this, but as the newspapers report our meetings in full, and 
eagerly print our sketches of persons and places with views and portraits 
reproduced, we have been able to have a great deal of our own manuscript 
put in print. 

This outline of our activities might be filled out with much interesting 
detail, such as methods of preservation and care, system in arrangement of 
matter, classification and indexing. 

We desire to tender our best wishes to the Illinois State Historical society, 
and we hold ourselves always ready to cooperate cordially in their work. 

Very truly yours, 

J Seymour Curry, 
Secretary of the Evanston Historical Society. 



2o the Officers and Members of the Illinois State Historical Society: 

The society, at its last meeting held in Springfield in January 1903, re- 
quested me to continue to act as chairman of the committee to wait upon the 
members of the Illinois Commission appointed by the Governor to act for the 
State in expending its appropriation for the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 

The directors of this society, at a meeting held in Springfield, June 17th, 
also requested me to attend a meeting of the commission at St. Louis on the 
following day. I was present at the St. Louis meeting and also attended 
another there on the 9th of July. 

Other members of the committee sent letters to the board urging appropria- 
tions for the Illinois building, to be expended for the purposes and objects 
which had been proposed by the officers of the Illinois State Historical 

Our plans were approved by the members of the Illinois Commission, who 
appeared anxious to see portions of the Illinois building decorated or orna- 
mented by busts of the great men and women of this State, historic land- 
scapes, photographs of some of our most important monuments or other 
objects of historic interest and so forth. 


But it seemed that the people of the great State of Illinois, represented by 
various educational, commercial, cattle growing, horticultural and a multi- 
tude of other organizations, presented such urgent requests for liberal appro- 
priations, that the commissioners were only able to appropriate $2,000 to be 
expended by the State Historical society under the direction and control of 
the commission. This amount is so far below the sum which had been, by 
our committees, deemed necessary for a fitting exhibit under the auspices of 
the State Historical society, that, personally, I fear that the public's disap- 
pointment at the slenderness of our display would have a worse effect upon 
our society's good name, than will be felt if we decline to make any attempt 
to use the appropriation. I have not been able to contrive any plans and 
specifications to fit the case, and will make no recommendations either for or 
against the acceptance of this appropriation. 

In case it is declined, however, I wish to urge that this declension be 
couched in language that will fittingly explain our kindly appreciation of the 
efforts made by the commission to treat fairly all of the different interests 
applying for portions of the State's appropriation towards an exhibit at the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 


Meeting of the Board op Directors of the Illinois State His- 
torical Society, Jan. 28, 1904, 7:45 p. m. at the Illinois 
Hotel, Bloomington, Illinois. 

All members of the board of directors present except, Mrs. Jessie 
Palmer Weber, Rev. O. J. Eschmann, J. O. Cunningham, Prof. E. 
E. Sparks, Hon. Wm. H. Collins and Dr. E, J. James. Dr, J, F. 
Snyder was elected president of the board of directors. Hon. Alfred 
Orendorff was elected temporary secretary. On motion of Alfred 
OrendorfiP, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber was elected permanent secre- 
tary and treasurer. 

The standing committees as heretofore constituted were continued, 
subject to the approval of the president. The following committees 
were appointed: 

Publication committee — Georere N. Black, chairman; Jessie Palmer Weber; 
E. B. Greene; Alfred Orendorff. 

Program Committee — E. B. Greene; chairman; Jessie Palmer Weber; 
M. H. Chamberlain; J. H. Burnham; E. E. Sparks; Mrs. S. P. Wheeler. 

World's Fair committee — Continued. 

Finance committee — George N. Black; E. J. James. 

Constitution and by-laws committee — David McCulloeh, chairman; J. H. 
Burnham; J. 0. Cunningham. 

Committee on legislation— George N. Black, chairman; Alfred Orendorff; 
E. J. James; J. McCan Davis; Wm. H. Collins. 

This committee was given authority to add to its membership. 

Committee on local historical societies— J. H. Barnham. chairman; J. 0. 
Cunningham; Prof. 0. Clark; George W Smith; David MeCulloch; W. W. 

Judge David MoCulloch and Gren Alfred Orendorff were appointed 
a committee to visit Galesburg and appear before the meeting of the 
Illinois Press association at its meeting in that city in February, to 
perfect arrangements agreed upon by the committee of the Press 
association which had met with the Historical society this day (Jan. 


28, 1904,) that editors of papers are to send their papers to the Illi- 
nois State Historical library and in return are to be furnished with 
the publications of the Illinois State Historical library and the State 
Historical society. An invitation from the Quincy Historical society 
was read inviting the Illinois State Historical society to hold its 
next annual meeting, January 1905, in the city of Quincy. The sec- 
retary was directed to extend to the Quincy Historical society the 
thanks of the society for the invitation, but to decline it, explaining 
that it is the rule of the Illinois State Historical society to meet 
alternate years in Springfield. On motion of George N. Black, the 
city of Springfield was designated as the place of holding the next 
annual meeting of the Illinois State Historical society, the time of 
the meeting to be the last Wednesday and if necessary the succeed- 
ing days of January, 1905. There being no other business presented, 
the meeting of the board of directors was, on motion, adjourned. 


Wednesday, January 27, 1904. 
In the rooms of the McLean County Historical society, in the court house. 

2:00 p. m. 

Meeting of the board of directors, in conference with Committee of the Illi- 
nois State Press association. 

3:00 p. m. 

Business meeting of the society, secretary's report for the board of direc- 
tors, treasurer's report, reports of committees, election of officers for 1904, 
miscellaneous basiness. 

Memorial Address Dr. Bernard Stuve, Springfield, 

Dr. J. F. Snyder, Virginia. 

Wednesday Evening, January 27, 7:45 P. M. 

Circuit court room, McLean county court house. 

Address of Welcome to the Society Mr. George P. Davis 

President of the McLean County Historical Society. 

Response Dr. J. F. Snyder, Virginia 

President of the Illinois State Historical Society. 

Memorial— Hiram W. Beckwith E.J. James, Ph. D. 

President Northwestern University, Evanston. 
(Read by Prof. David Felmley.) 

Annual Address— Personal Recollections of Some of the Eminent States- 
men and Lawyers of Illinois 

Hon. Charles P. Johnson, A. M., St. Louis 



Thursday, January 28, 9:30 A, M. 

Resolutions of respect for the late Hon. John N. Jewett, President Chi- 
cago Historical Society 

Read by Dr. Richard Edwards 

In Memoriam — John Mayo Palmer, Chicago 

Hon. Alfred Orendorff, Springfield 

Illinois in the War of 1812-1814 Prank E. Stevens, Chicago 

A Trip from Pennsylvania to Illinois in 1851 . ..W. W. Davis, A. M., Sterling 


Newspapers and Newspaper Men of Illinois ..Hon. E. A. Snively, Springfield 

In Memoriam— Dr. Robert Boal, Lacon, 111 Dr. J. F. Snyder 

2:00 p. m. 

The Part of Illinoisans in the National Educational Movement, 1850 1862 

Paul Selby, A M., Chicago 


Illinois in the Councils of the Nation 

..Mrs. John A. Logan, Washington, D. C; read by Mrs. John M. Palmer 

The Country Lawyer Hon. James. A. Connolly, Springfield; 

Rufus Blanchard; In Memoriam, F. L. Wells, Chicago. 

The Salines of Southern Illinois Prof. George W. Smith 

Southern Illinois Normal School, Carbondale, Illinois. 

8:00 p. m. 

Reception to Illinois State Historical society in the parlors of the Illinois 
hotel, by the McLean County Historical society, the Letitia Green Stevenson 
chapter Daughters of the American Revolution; the Woman's club of Bloom- 
ington; the Bloomington Amateur Musical club, and the George Rogers 
Clark Chapter Sons of the American Revolution. 

Friday, January 29, 9:30 A. M. 

*The Destruction of Kaskaskia by the Mississippi River 

J. T. Douglas of Chester and Frank Moore of Sparta 

Music . 

Morris Birkbeck and His Friends Daniel Berry, M. D. , Carmi 

In Memoriam — Major General James D. Morgan 

Hon. W. H. Collins, Quincy ; read by Dr. M. H. Chamberlin 

The Life of Hon. Gustavus Koerner 

Hon. R. E. Rombauer, St. Louis; read oy Prof. J. A. James 

2:00 p. m. 

The Scotch-Irish in Illinois 

Hon. Robert A. Gray, Blue Mound ; read by J. H. Burnham 


In Memoriam— Dr. H. H. Hood, Litchfield Miss Olive Sattley, Springfield 

The Woman's Club Movement in Illinois Mrs. E.C. Lambert, Jacksonville 

McKendree College M. H. Chamberlin, LL. D. 

President of McKendree College, Lebanon, 111. 

Local Committee on Arrangements, with Power to Appoint Associates — 
Capt. J. H. Burnham, Mr. E. M. Prince, Secretary McLean County Bistori- 
cal Society; Hon. A. E. Stevenson, Mrs. M. T. Scott, Mr. Charles L. Capen, 
Hon. G. W. Stubblefield, Col. D. C. Smith of Normal, Mrs. W. W. Marmon. 



Literary Sessions— Held in the Circuit Court Room of the 
McLean County Court House, Jan. 27-29, 1904. 

The program as printed was carried out with the following changes: 
The paper on the life and services of the late Hon. H. W. Beck- 
with, written by Dr. E. J. James, was, in the absence of Doctor James, 
read by Prof. David Felmley; the paper of Mrs. John A. Logan, "Illi- 
nois in the Councils of the Nation," was read by Mrs. John M. 
Palmer; the paper of Hon. W. H, Collins on Maj. Gen. James D. 
Morgan, was read by Dr. M. H. Chamberlin; the paper on the "Life 
and Services of Gustavus Koerner," written by Hon. R. E. Rombauer, 
of St. Louis, was read by Prof. J. A. James; the paper of the Hon. 
Robert A. Gray, "The Scotch-Irish in America," was read by Capt. 
J. H. Burnham. 

At the opening of the morning session Thursday, Jan, 28th, Dr. 
Richard Edwards read a brief memorial on the life of Hon. John N. 
Jewett, late president of the Chicago Historical society, and the so- 
ciety passed resolutions of respect for the memory of Judge Jewett. 
The secretary was directed to spread these resolutions upon the rec- 
ords of the society and send a copy to the widow of Judge Jewett. 

Resolutions on Death of Hon. John N. Jewett. 

We, the members of the Illinois State Historical society, have learned with 
profound sorrow of the death of Hon. John N. Jewett, president of the Chi- 
cago Historical society, which occurred at his home in Chicago on the evening 
of January 14, 1904. 

He was born in Palmyra, Somerset county, Maine, on the 8th of October, 
1827. Raised on a farm and assisting his father in its cultivation until arriv- 
ing at the age of 18, he then entered Bowdoin college, and, taking a full clas- 
sical course, graduated in 1850. 

During the two years following he taught in Yarmouth academy, at the 
same time employing his spare hours in reading law. In 1853 he migrated to 
Madison, Wis., and was there admitted to the bar. There also he was united 
in marriage, in 1855, to Miss Ellen M. Rountree, and at once removed to Ga- 
lena, 111. In 1857 he removed to Chicago and became a member of the law 
firm of Scates, McAllister, Jewett & Peabody. In 1870 he was elected to the 
State Senate, and during his term his legal abilities were of valued service to 
the public, and to Governor Palmer, in the enactment of new statutes to con- 
form with the limitations of the present State constitution then just adopted 
by the people. As a lawyer, particularly in that branch of practice relating 
to corporations, he deservedly ranked with the first in the State. 

At the annual meeting of the Illinois Historical society at Jacksonville in 
January, 1902, in response to the invitation extended to him, Mr. Jewett de- 
livered the annual address, taking for his subject "The Sources and Results 
of Law in Illinois." 

Besolved, That in view of these facts, we desire to express our sorrow at the 
passing away of our departed brother, and also our high appreciation of the 
value of the able services which he so unselfishly rendered to historical sci- 


ence by his able presentation of facts and by his philosophical explanation of 
law as applying thereto. Such labor as he performed will be of great service 
to the thoughtful student of Illinois history in years to come. 

Besolved, That the sympathy of the members of this association is hereby 
lovingly tendered to his honored widow and her family. 

Besolved, That a copy of these resolutions, properly attested, be sent to 
Mrs. Jewett. 

On Thursday afternoon a paper on the "Life and Labors of Rufus 
Blanchard," the late historian of the Northwest, was read by Mr. 
Frederick Latimer Wells, of Wheaton. The paper on the "Destruc- 
tion of Kaskaskia by the Mississippi River," prepared by J. T. 
Douglas and Frank Moore, was not ready for presentation to the so- 
ciety and was omitted. 

At the opening of the afternoon session on Thursday, Jan. 28th, 
the nominating committee reported the following named persons for 
officers of the society January, 1904-January, 1905: 

President — J. F. Snyder, M. D., Virginia. 

First Vice President — Paul Selby, A. M., Chicago. 

Second Vice President — Hon. Wm. Vocke, Chicago. 

Third Vice President— Dr. A. W. French, Springfield. 

Board of Directors— J. F. Snyder, Virginia; E. J. James, Ph. D., Evan- 
ston; Hon. George N. Black, Springfield; J. H. Burnham, Bloomington; M. 
H. Chamberlin, LL.D., Lebanon; David McCalloeh, Peoria; E.B.Greene, 
Ph. D., Urbana; Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Springfield; E. E. Sparks, Ph. 
D., Chicago; Wm. H. Collins. Quincy; J. 0. Cunningham, Urbana; Alfred 
OrendorfE,Sprinjf field; Prof . George W. Smith, Carbondale; Rev. C. J. Esch- 
mann, Prairie du Rocher. 

The report of the nominating committee was received and accepted 
by the society and the secretary was directed to cast the ballot of the 
society for the above named persons as officers of the society for the 
ensuing year. The ballot was cast by the secretary and the officers 
as named by the nominating committee were declared duly elected 
for the year January, 1904-January, 1905, the presidents of local his- 
torical societies being honorary vice presidents as heretofore. 

On Friday afternoon, at the closing session of the society, resolu- 
tions were offered by Judge David McCulloch, and adopted by a 
rising vote, thanking the McLean County Historical society and the 
citizens of Bloomington for their hospitality, thanking the ladies and 
gentlemen who added to the pleasure of the meetings by furnishing 
the society with choice musical selections, and to the press of Bloom- 
ington for the full, complete and satisfactory reports of the meetings 
of the society. 

The secretary was directed to make these resolutions a part of the 
records of the society and to furnish copies of them to the news- 
papers of Bloomington and Springfield. 



The members of the Illinois State Historical society, now in session at 
Bloomington cannot let the occasion pass without giving appropriate expres- 
sion to the sentiments called forth by the highly satisfactory treatment ex- 
tended them during their short sojourn in this city; and would extend their 
heartfelt thanks to the board of supervisors of McLean county for the use of 
their spacious and elegant court room, to the McLean County Historical 
society, for the use of their rooms and for other courtesies extended to us; to 
the Letitia Green Stevenson chapter of the Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution; the Woman's club of Bloomington; the Bloomington Amateur Musical 
club and to the George Roger Clark chapter of the Sons of the American 
Revolution for the elegant reception tendered us in the parlors of the Illinois 
hotel; to the ladies who so highly entertained us with classical music during 
our sessions; to the citizens of Bloomington for their abundant hospitality 
extended to many of us and for their generous attendance upon our meetings; 
and to the newpapers of Bloomington for the full and satisfactory reports of 
our proceedings. 

We also desire to return our thanks to each and every one of the ladies and 
gentlemen who have at this meeting furnished and read papers of the most 
valuable character as contributions to the historical literature of the State. 

— 2H 



[Mr. George P. Dayls, President McLean County Historical Society.] 

Mb. President and Members of the Illinois State Historical 
Society — In the early settlement of a community the people are so 
engrossed with their struggles for a livelihood, that they seldom 
keep a full record of their own daily life; and have very little regard 
for natural curiosities or the remains of a former race, they only pass 
by those that cannot be utilized for their buildings or business. 
After the community grows older and more wealthy, it begins to in- 
quire about the natural and artificial objects that were so ruthlessly 
mutilated or destroyed, and wishes to know more fully, the early 
history of its own settlers and realizes how careless it was, in keeping 
such meager records. 

Then some public spirited men organize a historical society, its 
object being: First — to record before it is too late, the recollections 
of the living. Second — to search out the history of their forefathers. 
Third — to collect, preserve and study, any of the traces of an ancient 
race, that may still be in existence. 

The object of all this collection is to furnish full material for the 
specialist to make his work complete and correct. This, the Mc- 
Lean county Historical society has endeavored to do, in the three 
volumes it has published: First — the War Records of McLean 
county and other papers. Second — the School Record of McLean 
county and other papers. Third — the Republican Convention of 
May 29th, 1856, at which time the Republican party was formed, 
and Mr. Lincoln made his great speech, called "The Lost Speech"; 
which his friends consider still lost. 

The society has been enabled to publish these volumes, by the aid 
of the board of supervisors, who have placed a copy in each school 

But a county society can only occupy a limited territory, a combi- 
nation of county societies or a State society must be formed to 
occupy the whole State, and that society must be assisted by the State, 
to procure books and manuscripts and to make copies of papers that 
cannot be bought, and also to edit and publish the matter collected. 

Most of the states have libraries, that have been supported with 
fairly liberal appropriations. Some like Massachusetts, New York, 


Pennsylvania and Wisconsin, have or are now publishing all their 
early colonial and state records; and not only printing the books, but 
in large editions which can be procured at a reasonable cost. 

Some of the states have spent hundreds of thousands of dollars in 
such work, New York sent a man to England, France and Holland 
and had all the accessible papers relating to its early Colonial his- 
tory copied and published, and these books have numerous references 
to the French settlement of this state, Illinois. 

The Jesuit relations published by private enterprise, give the 
ecclesiastical history of Illinois down to the expulsion of the Jesuits 
by the French. 

The report of the French military and civil authorities which may 
still be in existence in Paris, should be copied, translated and pub- 
lished by the State. There may be valuable papers relating to the 
French, Spanish, British and early American settlements still in ex- 
istence; these also should be put in print. 

It has been generally known, but a comparatively few years that 
the Spanish marched across this State and captured St. Joseph, 
Michigan in January 1781, and took possession of all territory drained 
by the Illinois and its tributaries. 

The history of Illinois, since it was known to white men, has been 
a romance; traversed and explored by Marquette, Hennepin, Joliet 
and LaSalle; given to LaSalle, who appointed Tonty the first gover- 
nor of Illinois; then given to John Law of "Mississippi Bubble" no- 
toriety; his ''Company of the Indies" had its provincial council at 
Fort Chartres. 

The numerous French and Indian wars are full of interest, but 
exasperating to the investigator, because of the lack of the French 
military papers to enable one to fix definitely, locations. 

Many are still ignorant that Illinois took a creditable part in the 
Revolutionary war; Tom Brady of Cahokia, in 1777 with 16 men 
captured St. Joseph, garrisoned by 21 regulars; and Paulette Meillet 
of Peoria, in 1778 with a company of French and Indians captured 
and destroyed St. Joseph. 

Afterwards, appears George Rogers Clark with his Virginians of 
whose doings, the historical library has published a volume written 
by Judge Beckwith. Then the British and Indians troubled us 
greatly in the war of 1812, and then our own Indian wars. Is it not 
full of romance? 

The State has also many objects that fill the traveller or student 
with wonder and amazement; the Rock river valley is covered with 
curious animal efiPigy mounds, which interested me greatly when I 
was at school on the Rock river. 

Near Cahokia are immense mounds, the largest in the United States. 
The stone graves in the southern part of the State indicate a diflFerent 
race from the builders of the mounds. These are all remains of for- 
gotten races. 


To quote Dr. Snyder; "the question what has Illinois to invite 
archaeological research"? may be definitely answered by the single 
statement, that not one of the vast group of Cahokia mounds has 
been systematically explored. 

Besides these, we have the relics of our own Indians; as in this 
county: The old trails, and the palisaded Kickapoo town in Old 
Town township, and the battle ground at the head of the Sangamon, 
with its riflepits and entrenchments, The State of Ohio, with not 
as many ancient earth works, has made a complete map of them. 
This State has done nothing. But we must here give the State credit 
for purchasing the site of old Fort Massac, and setting it apart for a 
State Park. How much we must regret that an early legislature did 
not preserve Fort Chartres, the only stone fortress ever erected in the 
western country. 

In 1889, the State organized the State Historical library, and 
has supported it since with very meager appropriations. The State 
Historical library has published several valuable books, the material 
for which has been furnished mainly by the State Historical society. 

There are many historical societies in the State which have done 
good work; city societies at Chicago, Evanston, Quincy, and the New 
England society at Rockford; and county societies in Champaign, 
DeKalb, Jersey, Kendall, Logan, Madison, McLean, Whiteside and 
Woodford and, I think, in Jackson and Peoria. If I am not mis- 
taken, Chicago and McLean are the only ones which have published 

In 1899, some lovers of history and our State, realizing that the 
existing county and city historical societies did not cover all the field, 
organized the Illinois State Historical society, which, by the valuable 
papers it has published, has stimulated the study of our State and 
has encouraged the formation of several county societies. 

Realizing the immensity of the field which you gentlemen of the 
Illinois State Historical society are so capable of covering, and feel- 
ing certain that this meeting will be conducive to a renewed interest 
in the history of this State, we, the citizens of Bloomington, welcome 
you to our city. 



( E»re8ident of the Illinois State Historical society, to the address of welcome by 

Mr. Qeoree P. Davis.) 

Mr. President of the MoLean County Historical Society: 
Ladies and Gentlemen — Responding for the members of the Illi- 
nois State Historical society who are present here this evening, as 
well as for myself, personally, I assure you that we are profoundly 
grateful for the cordial welcome you extend to us. and for the very 
complimentary terms in which our organization has been so elo- 
quently mentioned. We would, indeed, be dead to every sentiment 
of pride and self-respect did this flattering reception of our society 
by the citizens of Bloomington fail to stir within us emotions of the 
sincerest thankfulness. 

Coming to your beautiful and progressive city as guests of the Mc- 
Lean County Historical society, total strangers — with few exceptions, 
to all who compose this audience, we cannot attribute your heartfelt 
greeting to the obligations of formal personal courtesy, but rightly 
interpret it as an expression of your appreciation of the purpose of 
our visit, and your estimate of the value of the work in which we are 

We gladly accepted your invitation to hold in this city the regular 
annual meeting of the State Historical society for 1904, not because 
of anticipated pleasant social intercourse and entertainment, alone, 
but because of the certainty that in this community we would meet 
with learning and culture from which we must profit, and gain in- 
spiration for more diligent efforts to attain the objects our society 
has in view. Your county, bearing the honored name of that brilliant 
and talented early statesman of Illinois, John McLean, in the course 
of its material, industrial and social development well typifies the 
marvelous growth and progress of our great State. Less than three- 
quarters of a century ago but a broad expanse of open prairie un- 
marred save by trails of the buffalo and Indian, with here and there 
along the timbered streams and isolated groves a few cabins of the 
more adventurous pioneers, it now presents in its perfect agriculture, 
its numerous thriving towns and cities, its noble educational and 
charitable institutions, its busy factories, railroads, mines and other 
wealth-producing industries, the highest achievements of modern 


Your city made famous, not only throughout our land but beyond 
the ocean's limits, by the intellectual and moral force of many of its 
citizens who have gained high distinction and reflected luster upon 
Illinois, as statesmen in exalted posts of honor in the State and 
nation, as jurists ranking with the most eminent of the age, as soldiers 
of renown as scholars, artists, educators, financiers, has for the student 
of Illinois history an attractive interest unsurpassed by few, if any, 
other localities in the State. The high prominence attained in the 
various nobler walks of life by the many residents of this city and 
county serves to infuse in the young manhood and womanhood of the 
advancing generation a spirit of creditable emulation and enterprise, 
and commands the admiration and pride of all our people. With all 
these pleasant considerations, and the personal gratification afPorded 
us by coming here, endeavoring while enjoying your hospitality to 
demonstrate to you the character of work we are attempting to do to 
fulfill the mission of the State Historical society, we recognize in this 
incident one of the many encouraging evidences of a marked awak- 
ening of interest in general and local history everywhere among the 
educated classes. 

This increasing desire to acquire knowledge of the past, to which 
I refer, is displayed by the increased energy and labor expended by 
scholars pi both hemispheres in prosecuting investigations of oriental 
antiquities, and in the increasing numbers and strength of agencies 
employed by governments and scientific institutions to search for re- 
liable facts concerning primitive man in every quarter of the globe. 
For a long time we, of the United States, were passively content that 
the monopoly of research in the ruins and records of extinct civiliza- 
tions in the far east should be held by a limited number of European 
savants; but within the last several years the systematic exploration 
of those distant historic fields has been largely shared by American 
students maintained by American capital. The surprising discov- 
eries of Schlieman in Greece, of Cesnola in Cyprus, of Bliss in Pal- 
estine, of Dr. Peters, Haynes and others in Assyria, verifying history 
of ciyilized man so old that its meagre records descending to us seem 
but myths of the poet's fancy, have not been exceeded by those of the 
most noted archaeologists or historians of the old world. The uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, an American pioneer in that foreign search, 
is entitled to the credit of having brought to light, at Nipur, in As- 
syria, authentic proofs of man's civilization, in ruins of cities and 
temples, dating 70 centuries before the beginning of the Christian era. 

Until very recently the activity of Americans in Oriental antiqua- 
rian research was limited exclusively to the older institutions and 
societies of our Atlantic seaboard cities; but the impulse of their 
amazing discoveries reaching the great prairies of the inland west 
there stirred one of the wealthy universities of our own State to also 
enter the lists of relic hunting in ancient Babylonia. It secured, 
last summer, from the Sultan of Turkey the necessary firman of 
permission, and ere now its employes are delving in the mounds at 
Bismaya for remains of the traditional splendors of the first Sargon's 


reign. The great university referred to, some years ago ereoted on its 
spacious grounds a superb building designed specially for an Oriental 
rnuseum. The expedition it has now sent to the valley of the Eu- 
phrates — supplied with lavish means donated for that pupose by a 
generous patron — may possibly astonish the world with its recov- 
eries of historic records exceeding in importance or hoary age all 
yet unearthed at Nineveh, Nipur or Birs Nimrud. But whether it 
does, or not, it will very probably bring home from old Chaldea gen- 
uine antiquites enough to fill the empty shelves and oases of the 
beautiful building prepared at Chicago to receive them. 

Not alone on the classic shores of the Mediterranean, or in Egypt, 
or in the Bible lands of southeastern Asia, have the institutions of 
our eastern states pursued their archaeological labors with success- 
ful results, but they have conducted similar investigations in every 
quarter of our hemisphere. They have sent trained scientists to 
every province of Mexico, Central and South America to wring, if 
possible, from the strange mounds, sculptures and ruins of those 
regions the story of their authors and the secret of the puzzling indi- 
genous culture that thus found expression there. Curious discoveries 
have rewarded the perseverance and toil of those explorers; but none so 
startling and inexplicable as the written and carved records in an 
unknown language found in Yucatan and adjoining states. By the 
intelligent and assiduous efforts of Gell, Champolleon, Bernouf, 
Rawlinson, and others, in the first half of the last century, the cunei- 
form inscriptions of Assyria and the ideographs of Egypt were ren- 
dered as legible as the English alphabet; but the grotesque hiero- 
glyphics carved by a little-known race of Indians upon weird 
monoliths and ruins of vast stone edifices hidden in the dense 
tangled forests of semi-tropical America have so far defied all at- 
tempts at interpretation by the most skilled linguists of the world. 

By the munificence of its president, Morris K. Jessup, the Ameri- 
can museum, of New York City, has within the late few years sent 
repeated expeditions to the coasts and bordering territories of north- 
western America and eastern Siberia to closely observe the natives of 
the opposite continents and study their ethnic characteristics, habits, 
arts and languages, and the archaeological relics of their ancestors, 
with the hope of solving the sphynx-like mysteries of the American 
Indian's origin. Not the mainlands only but the intervening islands 
of the Pacific were rigidly scrutinized for vestiges of their first oc- 
cupants and earliest traces of human migrations, by sea and land, 
however, with but negative results, and the original peopling of 
America is yet an unsolved enigma. 

Increasing popular taste for the literature and knowledge of more 
recent history is keeping pace with the steadily enlarging eagerness 
of scientists to coerce from remote antiquity elucidation of the many 
occult problems obscuring the most ancient history of the human 
race. A proof of this fact is the present phenominal popularity of 
works of fiction based upon incidents or events of the past. The flood 


of historical novels poured upon the reading public within the last 
few years has had no parallel since the art of printing was in- 

This modern charm of history for the public mind is seen, too, in 
the rapidly multiplying numbers of statues and monuments, of va- 
rious kinds to perpetuate the memory of historic events, or of soldiers, 
statesmen, and others, conspicuous in the past annals of the country. 
The world's fairs and local expositions commemorating occurrences 
in the life of nations or states, far surpassing in cost and magnifi- 
cence of architecture and exhibits those before instituted, are an 
outgrowth of this sentiment. In America, not our men alone have 
been infused with eagerness to better know and better perpetuate 
the story of the conflicts and struggles through which our country 
attained its present promd position among the nations of the earth, 
but love of country and ancestral pride, here inherent in the femi- 
nine mind, has within recent years been more emphatically asserted 
by the social organization styled the Daughters of the American 
Revolution, whose valued patriotic labors have enriched and enno- 
bled the study of American history. 

In Illinois there is plainly discernable of late, among all classes of 
our people, the disposition to learn more of early times in the State, 
and of the lives and deeds of the pioneers who won and developed 
this splendid heritage for their posterity. 

We see this in the frequent suggestions that the State Historical 
society should be authorized by the Legislature to prepare an ele- 
mentary history of Illinois for use as a text-book in our public 
schools; and by the numerous inquiries we receive from every quarter 
for information as to the best published histories of the State. The 
broadening interest in the history of our commonwealth is also mani- 
fested by the increasing numbers of local or county historical 
societies annually organized in it, as well as by the prosperous condi- 
tion of our State society. It was shown also — but very dimly it 
must be admitted — by the action of the last Legislature in granting 
to the State Historical society State recognition — but nothing else. 

A most gratifying proof of the public interest in this direction is 
this cheering welcome by cultured citizens of Bloomington to the 
members of an organization devoted exclusively to the collection, col- 
lation and preservation of Illinois history, and the difiFusion of the 
result of its labors among the people. 

The greeting we have received here will inspire us with stronger 
hope and higher aims, and the impressive assurance it conveys of 
the confidence and interest of this enlightened community in the 
important task we have assumed will greatly encourage us to persevere 
with renewed energy and determination in our efforts for its satisfac- 
tory accomplishment. 

Hiram W. Beckwith —Late President Board of Trustees. Illinois 
State Historical Library, 



[By Ednmnd J. James, President of Northwestern University]. 

Hiram Williams Beckwith, president of the board of trustees of 
the Illinois State Historical lilDrary, and past president of the Illinois 
State Historical society, died Tuesday, Deo. 22, 1903, at St. Luke's 
hospital, Chicago. 

Mr. Beckwith was born in Danville, 111,, March 6, 1832. He was 
the son of Dan Beckwith, for whom the city of Danville was named. 
His father was one of the pioneer residents of that section of the 
State, was a government surveyor and surveyed large portions of 
eastern Illinois. 

Hiram W. Beckwith, after completing the curriculum of the local 
schools, entered Wabash college, but was compelled to leave college 
on account of his health before completing the course. He began 
the study of law in the office of Ward H. Lamon, the Danville part- 
ner of Abraham Lincoln, and was admitted to the bar in 1853. On 
Sept. 19, 1857, he was married to Miss Emily Jane Reeder, of Oneida 
county, N. Y,, resident at that time in Danville. Four children were 
born to them. Two died in infancy, and two sons, Will and Clarence 
H,, both attorneys at law in the city of Danville, survive him. 

Mr. Beckwith's success as an attorney was immediate and marked- 
He was associated, on one side or the other, with nearly all the law 
suits originating in Danville during the years of his active practice 
at the bar. He was connected in law suits with Abraham Lincoln, 
Stephen A. Douglas, Leonard Swett and other noted circuit riders. 
He was actively interested in extending the railway facilities and 
other public enterprises in his native city. During the latter portion 
of his career as an attorney, Mr. Beckwith was in partnership with 
Judge R. W. Hanford. 

In 1876 he retired from the active practice of the law, and from 
that time on devoted great attention to historical research, finally 
becoming famous as an authority on the history of the middle west 
and the author of several valuable works on that subject. In 1877, 
when the Vermilion County Historical society was organized, he was 
elected one of its managers, and in 1878, assisted by his eldest son. 
Will, he prepared, for H. H. Hill & Co., a history of Vermilion 
county, prefaced by historical notes of the northwest. It was really 


from his work on this county history that his most active interest in 
local and State history began. He collected a very valuable library 
of works relating to Illinois and the northwest, collecting many rare 
volumes and preparing, from time to time, interesting articles based 
upon his studies of the early records in this country and Canada es- 
pecially. He prepared, for the George H. Fergus Publishing com- 
pany, a number of monographs in their series on the early history of 
the northwest, and contributed many interesting articles of an histori- 
cal character to the Chicago Tribune . 

Mr. Beokwith was the oldest living past master of the Masonic 
lodge of Danville, and was one of several to whom were presented 
solid gold past master's jewels by Olive Branch lodge No, 38 of that 

Mr. Beckwith's work in the history of Illinois was intimately con- 
nected with the foundation of the State Historical Library board, of 
which he was one of the first members, and of the Illinois State His- 
torical society, of which he was the first president. The Illinois State 
Historical library at Springfield, 111 , founded by the State and placed 
under the care of the Illinois State Historical Library board, has be- 
come one of the most valuable collections of its size in the United 
States, and that this result has been attained in such a few years is 
largely owing to Mr. Beckwith's loving and persistent attention given 
during the years of his membership in the board without stint. He 
carried its interests on his mind and heart continually, and even dur- 
ing the period when he was not a member he gave thought and at- 
tention as unreservedly as when he was oflBcially connected with it. 

The books of the Secretary of State show that Mr. Beokwith was 
appointed a member of the board of trustees of the Illinois State 
Historical library by Governor Fifer on Oct. 24, 1889, and was com- 
missioned the following day, Oct. 25, 1889. The library was organ- 
ized a month later, Nov. 25, 1889. Mr. Beckwith was appointed 
again, his term having expired, by Governor Fifer, on July 31, 1891. 
He served until Sept. 9, 1893. He was subsequently reappointed by 
Governor Tanner, May 11, 1897, and served until his decease, Deo . 
22, 1903. 

One of the last pieces of work which he accomplished was the 
preparation of a volume published by the Illinois State Historical 
Library board as "Volume I of Illinois Historical Collections " He 
took great pride in this work and devoted the last months of his life 
to its preparation. It was only the beginning of service which he 
hoped to render to this board and to the community in the line of 
historic research and investigation, His name will certainly be cher- 
ished by all lovers of local and State history, and, as the State His- 
torical society becomes more influential, his name and fame will 
spread as one of those to whom the origin and first work of this so- 
cieties owe more than to any other single man. 




[Hon. Charles P. Johnson. A. M., St. Louis.] 

Mr. President, Ladies and G-entlemen — Historically speaking, 
St. Clair county occupies the most prominent position of any of the 
territorial subdivisions of the State of Illinois, Within its original 
boundary lines were the two ancient settlements of Kaskaskia and 
Cahokia. There has been some contention among antiquarian in- 
vestigators as to which of these places had precedence in settlement. 
The difference, however, involves either way but one or two years. 
Their relative historical importance is about the same. The later 
subdivision of the county placed Kaskaskia in Randolph county It 
can be truthfully averred, however, without question, that the county, 
as originally constituted, was the birth place or cradle of civilization 
in the valley of the Mississippi. And, further, it can be authorita- 
tively claimed that after the division referred to, the county, as now 
constituted, became the centre of intellectual activity and was assoc- 
iated for years with more of historical interest than any other county 
in the State, In 1814 the county seat was removed from Cahokia to 
Belleville, and thenceforth the annals of that place became more 
intimately associated with the history of the State than either Kas- 
kaskia or Cahokia. It was my good fortune not only to be born in 
St. Clair county but to be born on the 18th of January, 1836. That 
year is very generally referred to as marking a new era in the career 
of Illinois, About that time old ideas, customs and methods were 
passing away and new ones were taking their places. The people 
were beginning to realize and appreciate the magnificent opportuni- 
ties of their possession and location. A foreshadowing of the glori- 
ous destiny of their State, the proud and advanced position she now 
occupies in the republic, stirred their imagination, inspired their 
patriotic zeal and aroused their energy. Their efforts were guided 
by able and ambitious leaders with broad views and prophetic 
visions, who added the stimulus of agitation to the new born spirit 
of progress. The real birth of the internal improvement system 
dates from this period. And notwithstanding the many foolish and 
reckless phases involved in the efforts to carry it into operation on 
the immense scale projected, it had its decided beneficial effects. 
From out those efforts was generated that energizing force which has 


brought to perfection the splendid system of railroads in the State, 
as well as the improvements in canal and river transportation. At 
the Internal Improvement convention of that year recommendations 
were made which were incorporated into a bill by the succeeding 
session of the general assembly, and became a law by which the 
sum of $10,200,000, was appropriated for the construction of rail- 
roads and improving the navigation of certain rivers. At the same 
session this body provided for another loan of $500,000, to be expend- 
ed on the Michigan and Illinois canal. Stephen A, Douglas was the 
foremost champion of the cause. They wrestled with the State bank 
question, increasing the stock of the State bank to $2,000,000, and 
that of the Shawneetown Branch bank to $1,400,000. They also pas- 
sed the bill providing for the removal of the Capital of the State 
from Vandalia, a name closely associated with the events of the 
State and Territory. Other important enactments were made by the 
assembly, but these are enough to tell of the active spirit abroad in 
the land. And, as might be expected, the questions involved in their 
work produced a wide spread and healthy agitation among the peo- 
ple throughout the State. I have not the time in this incidental 
reference to note further the importance of this year as an epoch in 
the State, but to the interested investigator who traces the lines of 
progress and development from their origin onward, it will be a 
source of surprise and instruction to learn of the rapid growth and 
expansion in every department of united human effort. And it is 
eminently proper on this occasion and a sonroe of pride to refer to the 
numerious illustrious men in the General Assembly elected 1836. 
As accurate and reliable an authority as your worthy president has 
said on this point: 

"The legislature, elected in August, 1836, including some of the 
holdover senators, was, for mental strength and ability of its mem- 
bers, the most remarkable of any yet chosen in Illinois. No pre- 
vious general assembly of our State, and very few since, has com- 
prised such an array of brainy, talented men, or as many who sub- 
sequently gained such conspicuous eminence in the annals of the 
State and Nation. 

In the Senate were Orville H. Browning, Cyrus Gratewood, John 
Gr. Hacker, Robert K. McLaughlin, Henry I. Mills, Wm. Thomas, 
John D. Whiteside and John D. Wood. In the House, Edward D. 
Baker, John Hogan, Milton Carpenter, Newton Cloud, Richard N. 
Cullom, John Dement, John Dougherty, Stephen A. Douglas, Jesse 
K. Dubois, Ninian W. Edwards, Wm. L. D. Ewing, Augustus C. 
French, John J. Hardin, Abraham Lincoln, Usher F. Linder, John 
A. Logan, John A. McClernand, James Semple, John Moore, William 
A. Richardson, James H. Ralston, Robert Smith. In the list is 
found one President of the United States; six who have occupied 
seats in the United States senate; eight congressmen; three gover- 
nors, three lieutenant governors, two attorney generals, five State 
treasurers; two State auditors; one superintendent of schools and 
several judges." 

In addition, Joseph Duncan was Governor and Adam W. Snyder 
represented the St. Clair county district in Congress. In view of the 
foregoing, it was in many respects fortunate to be born in 1836. 


In reviewing the lives of the prominent men, and the associated 
conduct of the people of the earlier days in Illinois, there is one 
prominent fact that arrests the attention, and that is the almost uni- 
versal passion for politics and public life. Whether it came from 
the wave of patriotic zeal that swept from out the revolutionary con- 
flict with its mighty questions of human liberty, or that the spheres 
of intellectual activity were more circumscribed, nevertheless it is, 
a fact that everybody seemed possessed with the idea that upon his 
individual political action depended the permanency of our new born 
institutions. No sooner did a man become a licensed lawyer or at- 
tain any kind of popularity among the people, then forthwith he 
aspired to run for some oflfice. People had plenty of spare time to 
talk politics, and they delighted to hear speeches and listen to 
the amusing stories told by rival candidates or attorneys traveling 
on the circuit. Newspapers were few in number, and reading a 
spiritless method of communication. Individuality counted for much 
more than at present. Take Lincoln and Douglas, for instance, as a 
fair illustration of the then social conditions in respect to the time 
whereof I speak. In Tarbell's life we read: "Although he was but 
22 years of age in February, 1832, had never been at school a year in 
his life, had never made a speech except in debating clubs and by 
the roadside, had read only the books he could pick up, and known 
only to the men who made up the poor, out of the way towns in 
which he had lived, encouraged by his great popularity among his 
immediate neighbors, as he says himself he decided to announce 
himself in March, 1882, as a candidate for the General Assembly of 
the State. His claims for support were found in his belief in "the 
public utility of internal improvements," a question on which there 
was more nerve vitality expended by Illinoisans than any other, un- 
less it be the preservation of the Union." 

As to Douglas: Politics and public life was the be all and end all 
of his existence. Refering to these characteristics, I remember set- 
ting up as a printer the following from the Providence Journal in 
1853. About that time a report was circulated in the press that 
Douglas had espoused the Catholic faith: "The pope will do well 
to keep and eye on our friend from Illinois. If he has really embrac- 
ed the faith of Rome, he will be for making St. Peter's chair elective 
once in four years and will present himself as a candidate for the 
next succession," And we all know how the illustrious Grovernor 
Reynolds was always "in the hands of his friends" and "willing to 
serve the people" in any office, and there were few of them to which 
he did not aspire. These prevalent characteristics and customs made 
the court house a centre of amusement and instruction. However 
humble and unprepossessing in its appearance, it was to interested 
citizens a forum as sacred and inspiring as that of Ancient Rome, 
clothed with all the splendors of architectural strength and beauty. 

Especially prominent among my earliest recollections of Belleville 
is the old court house. Is was a solidly built brick building square 
in form, and, for those dajs, of reasonably large dimensions, It 


stood on the north line of the main street, near the centre of the 
public square, and faced south. On entering a wide front door, there 
stood on either side to the east and west, stairs leading to the upper 
floor where the more important county officials had their offices. 
Passing over a narrow vestibule and through a partitioned door, one 
stood facing the raised seat of the Judge of the court. It was placed 
in the centre and against the north wall of the building, and immedi- 
ately above was painted, in rather an artistic style, the famous coat of 
arms of the State of Illinois. In front of the judge's seat were arranged 
chairs and tables for the use of attorneys; the space allotted being 
closed by a strong wooden railing. On either side of the room were 
benches for the use of the general public.and on both sides of the judge's 
stand were seats reserved for the use of jurors. Immediately within the 
railing, partialy to the north, was a box-like desk, wherein, on a raised 
pedestal, sat what appeared to my youthful imagination the most 
august person in the governmental organization — the sheriff of the 
county I regret to say that this building was torn down some years 
ago and has disappeared forever; a more stately and convenient one 
has been erected for the uses to which it was applied in another part 
of the public square. But I doubt whether the new edifice will ever 
attain the same relative importance in the history of Illinois. 

In addition to the old court house being among my earliest recol- 
lections, I must say that, by reason of my personal associations with 
its precincts — for I was christened therein by an itinerant minister 
of the Presbyterian faith at a time when the congregation was too 
poor to have a church, and the illustrious men who I heard in the 
forensic and political contests, to a period that marked the dawn of 
my manhood — it is to me one of the dearest and most revered spots 
on earth. In looking back over the period to which I refer, it strikes 
me as remarkable when I consider the large number of men more or 
less prominent in the history of the State and nation who have graced 
with their presence this old building. Of the local bar I recall as 
having heard speak on various occasions Lyman and George Trum- 
bull, Grustavus Koerner, James Shields, William H. Bissell, John 
Reynolds, Jehu Baker, William H. Snyder, Philip B. Fouke, J. L. 
D. Morrison, Nathaniel Niles and William H. and Joseph B. Under- 
wood and J. B Hay; of the circuit, Sidney BreesB, Joseph Gillespie. 
Wm. R. Morrison. Outside of that, Stephen A Douglas, Richard 
M. Johnson, Edward Bates, A. P. Field, Usher F. Linder, Richard 
Yates, Uriel Wright, T. G. 0. Davis and R. F. Wingate. 

Shortly antecedent to the date of my earliest recollections, three 
illustrious citizens of the town had passed away — ex-Governar Ninian 
Edwards, Congressman Adam W. Snyder and Lieutenant Governor 


Though a mere boy, the first time I saw Judge Sidney Breese the 
impression made was lasting. My mind was more than ordinarily 
receptive, because of my hearing his name so frequently mentioned 
in my home life. Judge Breese emigrated from New York and lo- 
cated in Kaskaskia in 1818 — the year of the State's birth. At that 


time my grandparents and mother were residents of that celebrated 
town, and the friendly family relations may be surmised from an ac- 
count of a Fourth of July celebration, as described in the Kaskaskia 
"Advocate" given in 1823, which was presided over by my grand- 
father, General Philip Fouke. On that occasion, the report says, 
Sidney Breese, Esquire, ofiPered as a toast, "Ourselves: we paddle our 
own canoe, chew our own tobacco and make our own cigars." Per- 
haps if the occasion had been less public, he would have added 
"make and drink our own whisky," for, according to certain data of 
those times there was some indulgence in that beverage There is 
in the record of this event a smack of youthful exuberance not alto- 
gether in keeping with the after modes of thought and expression of 
the illustrious statesman and jurist. From the relation of events 
connected with his early career, I already looked upon him in the light 
of a hero worshipper. I met him afterwards as a judge upon both 
the circuit and supreme court benches, as chairman of the commit- 
tee on resolutions in a noted convention, and heard him in public 
speeches; and, after entering the profession of the law in another 
state, took especial pleasure in reading his opinions as published in 
the Illinois Reports. The last interview I had with him was at the 
Planters house in St. Louis a year or so before his death. The life 
of Judge Breese from the time of his settlement in Kaskaskia covers 
the most important period in the history of Illinois, and, in many 
respects, the most important in the history of the United States. 
For 60 years he looked upon a panorama of most marvelous events, 
The title to the Louisiana purchase was but 15 years old, and he saw 
nearly all of that magnificent, undeveloped expanse subdivided into 
states and populated with teeming millions of people. He noted the 
declining power of Spain in the cession of Florida. He read the de- 
bates on the Missouri compromise in 1820, and doubtless was stirred, 
as others were, by the fierce passions they aroused. He saw the in- 
dependence of the South American republics acknowledged. Within 
that time came the birth of the Monroe doctrine, the visit of the 
illustrious LaFayette, whom he met at Kaskaskia, the death of Adams 
and Jefferson, the destruction of the national bank, the throttling of 
nullification and the appropriation by congress of $30,000 to erect 
wires from Washington to Baltimore to test the practicability of the 
Morse telegraph. By the way. Professor Morse was a relation of 
Judge Breese The Indians still warred with the pale faces, and he 
was one of the army who fought in the Black Hawk war and drove 
that terror of the early settlers across the Mississippi river. Within 
his time there came the Mexican war, with its reeord of brave and 
heroic deeds, and in which the sons of Illinois performed their share 
so nobly. Then came the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska bill, 
championed by Judge Douglas, Judge Breese's associate in the 
Senate of the United States; the election of Lincoln, the war for the 
Union, the glorious emancipation proclamation, Vicksburg, Gettys- 
burg, Chickamauga, the Wilderness, the march to the sea, Appomattox, 
the thirteenth amendment, the death of Lincoln, the nation's mourn- 
ing, the struggles of reconstruction, the development of the fraternal 
spirit, the unity of the nation. 


There never was a greater or grander drama presented to human 
vision than that witnessed by your illustrious countryman. But what 
is notable in the career of Judge Breese is the fact that he was in pub- 
lie life almost the whole of that time. He was an indefatigable worker, 
well educated and ambitious, though he seems to have been timid in 
the use of his powers as an advocate or speaker. He tells, himself, of 
his imagined failure in a trial in Jackson county before a jury in a 
case shortly after he commenced the practice of his profession. He 
was not aware at that time that such a feeling was the accompani- 
ment in almost every case of successful advocacy. But he possessed 
a will power to overcome such feeling, and his abilities were soon 
being utilized on public occasions to perform such duties as his en- 
dowments warranted. For instance, we find him on the occasion of 
LaFayette's visit to Kaekaskia, April 13, 1825, at the banquet given 
in his honor at the public hotel, again proposing a toast: "Our illus- 
trious guest; in the many and trying situations in which he has been 
placed, we see him the same consistent friend of liberty and man." 
A very apt sentiment and felicitously expressed, for, surely, LaFay- 
ette had been placed in many trying situations since he had last been 
in America. In 1820 he was acting as Assistant Secretary of State. 
Thereafter postmaster, and in 1822, succeeded by appointment John 
Reynolds as circuit attorney of the Third judicial circuit. He also 
was for a time under Adams, United States district attorney. Indica- 
tive of his early industry and inclination of mind at that time, in 
1881, he published the first volume issued of the reports of the su- 
preme court decisions It contained the judicial opinions rendered 
from the organization of the court to 1831. This was the first book 
published in Illinois. From a statement made to me some years ago, 
the author must have had some knowledge of the printer's business, 
for it contained the information that he helped at the case in the 
preparation for the publication of this volume. These were all im- 
portant and responsible positions, and he filled each with ability and 

During the interval between his leaving the position of United 
States district attorney and becoming judge of the circuit court in 
1835, he practiced his profession and served, as before stated, as a 
soldier in the Black Hawk war. After his election in 1835 he re- 
moved from Kaskaskia and made his home near Carlyle. In 1841 
he was elected to the supreme bench, one of his colleagues being the 
distinguished commoner, Stephen A. Douglas. His occupancy of 
this position was short-lived. His popularity had rapidly grown; 
his eminent capacity was widely recognized, and in 1842, he was 
elected United States senator. It would be impossible, in the brief 
time allotted to me, to relate in detail his career in the Senate of the 
United States. SuflSce it to say, it was a distinguished one, During 
his term of service that body contained as large a number of great 
debaters and able statesmen as did the parliament of England in the 
palmy days of Burke, Fox, Pitt, Sheridan and their associates. 
Great questions were presented for solution and adjustment. The 
Mexican war was prosecuted, the annexation of Texas was accom- 


plished, the boundary of the Oregon line settled, a railroad projected 
to the Pacific marked out, and its feasibility established, and the 
grant to the Illinois Central railroad virtually assured. During this 
time Clay was defeated by Polk, and the war swept Taylor into the 
presidential chair. 

In reading the records of those years it is a source of satisfaction 
to the Illinoisans to know that in many respects he proved to be the 
equal of the great men with whom he was associated. Five years 
after his election, in 1847, Stephen A. Douglas became his colleague, 
and, notwithstanding his marvelous powers as a debater, his accurate 
knowledge of the politics of the country, his matchless gifts as a 
leader, in some respects he was not the equal of Judge Breese. The 
latter was at least his superior in legal attainments, in scholarship, in 
strength and felicity of expression and a capacity for thorough and 
exhaustive study. It was a serious loss to the State when he retired 
from the senate; for, notwithstanding his unrivalled career on the 
supreme bench as giving him a lasting fame as a jurist, a continuous 
senatorial term during one of the most critical eras of our country's 
history would doubtless have placed him among the most illustrious 
and patriotic statesmen of the land. To the illustrious senator from 
Missouri Mr. Benton, is usually given, by those not conversant with 
the facts, the honor of projecting the idea of the Pacific railroad. It 
is an undoubted fact that Judge Breese, when senator, gave the first 
real impetus to that mighty enterprise and elaborated the feasibility 
of the undertaking. His report on the question from the committee 
on public lands, of which he was chairman, is a document of invalu- 
able historical importance and its strength illustrative of his intel- 
lectual characteristics. That report described the route ultimately 
taken in the construction of the road. To make this plan com- 
prehensible the report was accompanied by a map of accurate geo- 
graphical and route delineations. This was not published with the 
report and was omitted, strange to say, by the action of Senator Ben- 
ton. History will, with unerring precision, record honor to whom the 
honor is due for the projection of this great national work, and its as- 
signment will be to Judge Breese. He retired from the senate March, 
1849, Gren. James Shields being his successful competitor. After 
leaving the senate he returned to the practice of his profession. 
Pressed by his friends to be a candidate for the house of representa- 
tives, he was elected and presided as speaker of that body in 1851- 
1852. In 1858 he was urged to accept the nomination for judge of 
the supreme court, but declined. It was during this year that a 
movement was made to induce Gov. Joel A. Matteson to call an extra 
session of the general assembly, more especially to further certain 
railroad projects, notably the Belleville & Murphysboro railroad. 
Judge Breese took a prominent part in the furtherance of this plan. 
After an extensive discussion among the various counties of south- 
ern Illinois, the movement culminated in a convention which met at 
Salem on the 25th of November, 1853. Zadoc Casey was selected as 

— 3H. 


chairman and the usual number of men of prominence as vice presi- 
dents. Judge Breese was assigned to the chairmanship of a desig- 
nated committee to draft and report an address and resolutions ex- 
pressive of the objects of the meeting. He had already prepared the 
address and resolutions, and, as might be expected, they were both 
able, instructive and conclusive. 

"The object of this convention being to confirm the executive in 
the necessity and expediency of an extra session of the general as- 
sembly, it may be expected that some reasons for this measure should 
be set forth." 

Thus read the opening of the address. It then set forth, at length, 
the various reasons why a called session should be had, and sustained 
them with elaborate arguments. But the principal object in the 
movement is shown in the following: 

"The special acts and the general law, so called, for railroad incor- 
poration, demand action that would alone justify an extra session. 
Restriction upon the accomplishment of useful enterprise might be 
removed by an act of ten lines opening the way for the immediate 
construction of works that would bring in capital from abroad and 
enhance the value of real estate to the amount of many millions. 
Such as are now restrained by the want of these legislative facilities, 
if permitted to go on would afford an increased revenue to the State 
of more than $100,000. Yet, there is no reason to fear that at the 
proposed extra session a liberal and just policy on the subjects of 
railroads will not prevail and time and opportunity be afforded the 
legislative body to carry into effect the recommendations of the Gov- 
ernor as indicated in his just and admired inaugural message." 

In this inaugural the Governor had referred to the beneficent ef- 
fects of railroads in developing the State, and presented decided 
opinions in favor of giving every facility to works of internal im- 
provement, I was present in this convention as a delegate from 
Randolph county, where I was publishing a newspaper. The speech 
of Judge Breese in support of the report was very elaborate, in- 
structive and comprehensive. The subject to him was a favored one. 
I had heard him before, but noted more particularly on this occasion 
his style and manner. He was below the medium height, was stoutly 
built, with broad shoulders and full chest. An inclination to corpu- 
lency gave his head, which was large and well shaped, the appear- 
ance of being slightly thrown backward. His hair was black and 
worn short; his face clean shaven; his complexion dark; his features 
were large and apparently regular, but their effect marred by his be- 
ing near sighted and having to wear spectacles. His voice was by 
no means strong, nor did it vary much in intonation. His gesticula- 
tion was limited and moved along straight lines. His bearing was 
especially courtly and dignified. He spoke with fluency, was at times 
rhetorical and, though not impassioned, he was persuasive, argumen- 
tative, logical and forcible. 


John A. Logan, a delegate from Jackson county, followed Judge 
Breese in seconding the motion of the adoption of the report. He 
was at that time about 26 or 27 years of age, but had already made 
some reputation in the lower house of the legislature. He 
He was an ardent supporter of Stephen A. Douglas. He 
was full of fire and action, spoke in a continuously loud voice 
and was profuse and vehement in gesticulation. He pleased 
his hearers, for he was loudly applauded I heard him on several oc- 
casions in after years, when in the zenith of a well merited national 
reputation, and I was forcibly impressed by his improvement as a 
public speaker. Study and practice made him a very attractive 
speaker — impassioned and, at times, eloquent. One trait of the ora- 
tor, action, that was noticeable in the first speech I heard, was still 
with him in his maturity. Especially as a soldier, Illinois can well 
be proud of John A. Logan, for he was unquestionably the ablest 
civilian general who fought in the war for the Union. 

William H. Snyder also addressed the convention. I had heard 
him previously in the old court house. He was a son of one of the 
best and ablest men connected with the earlier history of the State — 
a man whose pathetic and untimely death prevented him from taking 
his seat in the gubernatorial chair when it was virtually within his 
reach. I refer to A. W. Snyder. 

Young Snyder, for some years, took an active part in politics. He 
was a member of the legislature, of the constitutional convention of 
1870, and was elected to the circuit bench and remained there for a 
number of years. He was a man of very decided talents, of scholarly 
attainments; a great reader of the best literature and deeply versed 
in history, both ancient and modern. He was possessed of a fine 
presence, was tall, strong and straight, and graceful in deportment. 
His face was full and expressive, his head large, and he wore his black 
hair long. He was an effective speaker, rather rapid in declamation 
and quick in gesticulation. Though genial and affable in disposition, 
he did not like the coarser associations of politics. He was a good 
lawyer, an able and conscientious judge. 

The Salem convention proved to be of some importance to the 
State. The address and resolutions were formally presented to Grov- 
ernor Matteson by a large committee selected from the delegates, and 
eventuated in the calling of an extra session, which met at the capi- 
tal on the 9th day of February, 1854. A large number of the sug- 
gestions for legislation, as urged by Judge Breese in his report, were 
considered and passed into laws. The declination of Judge Breese 
to become a candidate for the Supreme Court in 1853, and his subse- 
quent speech in Chicago in answer to Senator Douglas' effort in de- 
fense of his course in urging the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska 
bill, convinces me that he still entertained hopes of returning to the 
senate of the United States. Though naturally gifted with mental 
powers that would enable him to become a distinguished jurist, his 
ambition was to take part in the more active fields of politics. Added 
to this, he evidently entertained some feeling of resentment as well 


as a sense of humiliation that he had been defeated in his aspirations 
at so important a period in the history of the country by one so far 
his inferior in all the qualities of learning and statesmanship. His 
ambition for official position and the opportunity presented finally 
directed his future along that course he was so well endowed to fol- 
low; and, in the year 1857, he was elected to the Supreme Bench. He 
was re-elected in 1861 and in 1870. He occupied the position nearly 
20 years, sitting by rotation twice as a chief justice. From the time 
of his taking his seat in this exalted position to the time of his death, 
his public career is written and recorded in the volumes of the Illi- 
nois reports, and it is a career replete in the achievements of a great 
and illustrious jurist. Sixty-seven volumes contain the inscription 
of his judicial opinions, and their enumeration reaches 1900. Therein 
is contained the ablest disquisitions upon every department of the 
law. Therein is raised a monument of immortality as lasting as 
Time's records shall run. I said that I met him, not long before his 
death, at the Planters' House in St. Louis. Time had greatly changed 
him in appearance. He was still apparently healthy and vigorous. 
His hair was white and very long, as was also his beard. It gave him 
a reverend look. His mental powers were as strong as ever. He al- 
ways was a rare conversationalist. He delighted to talk on congenial 
subjects. On this occasion he referred to his early experiences in 
Kaskaskia; to the newspapers published there and the stirring events 
of the Indian wars; his removal of the records of the office of Secretary 
of State to Vandalia in 1820 in a small wagon, at a cost of $25, and its 
taking a week to perform the feat; of the divers characteristics of the 
people and the development from primitive to modern ideas, customs, 
habits and conditions . Kaskaskia, when he settled there, was com- 
paratively an alien settlement. The impression of the earliest settlers 
was still paramount; the antique and the modern commingled but 
were not united. Judge Breese died suddenly in 1878. 

Capt. James Shields. 

When James Shields came to Kaskaskia he was quite a young 
man and was seeking a location to make his fortune. He was lucky 
in the selection of a place. His first occupation was teaching school — 
a labor that, according to my experience and observation, was what 
every aspiring young man of education, and some without, under- 
took to perform. It was either the forerunner or accompaniment to 
the study of law. In his case it was both, and in 1882 we find him 
entering upon the practice of law. He had left Ireland in 1826 when 
but 16 years old. He was every inch an Irishman then and he re- 
mained so all his life. He was a young man of fine appearance; a 
little above the medium height, strong and well-proportioned, with 
black hair and dark, piercing eyes. He wore a mustache; possessed 
a military bearing; was gracious and affable in his manner, and by 
no means timid, and, though somewhat rash and hot-headed, he was 
brave and courageous. These latter qualities in those days were pass- 
ports to success. They neutralized in his case an overweening vanity 
and excessive egotism. His surroundings, experience and the associa- 


tion of great and ambition men, made him a good politician. As 
others of his profession, he soon sought public office. He ran for 
and was elected to the Legislature in 1836; became State Auditor in 
1839, and Judge of the Supreme Court in 1843. He did not remain 
here long, and it is a reasonable presumption that the position was 
not altogether congenial to his tastes and inclinations, It was while 
Auditor of the State that he became angered at Mr. Lincoln, the 
prominent Whig leader, for writing and publishing, in a Springfield 
journal, articles of ridicule referring to certain of his vulnerable char- 
acteristics and for which he was forthwith challenged to mortal con- 
flict. There is something amusing in Abraham Lincoln fighting a 
duel, but those were fighting days, and Mr. Lincoln had to recognize 
the right of challenge. His fine sense of humor, however, came to 
his rescue and gave to his friends an opportunity to extricate him 
from the impending danger. Mr. Lincoln being the challenged 
party had the right to name the weapon, and he drew up the prelimi- 
naries. The first clause read: 

"Cavalry broadswords of the largest size, precisely equal in all 
respects, and as now used by the cavalry company at Jacksonville." 

Then as to the position he wrote: 

"A plank 10 feet long and from 9 to 12 feet broad, to be firmly fixed 
on edge in the ground as a dividing line between us, which neither is to 
pass his foot over or forfeit his life. Next, a line drawn on the ground 
on either side of said plank, and parallel with it; each at the distance 
of the whole length of the sword, and three feet additional from the 
plank, and the passing over such line by either party during the 
fight shall be deemed a surrender of the contest." 

Mr. Lincoln's experience as a rail splitter gave him a decided ad- 
vantage in the proposed duel. To what extent the prescribed condi- 
tions worked in causing an adjustment will never be known. But, 
suffice to say, the friends of the parties brought about an amicable 
adjustment, and both of the interested ones lived to fight another 

In 1845 Mr. Shields was appointed Commissioner General of the 
Land Office. It was while occupying this office that the Mexican war 
broke out. That memorable conflict was precipitated by the annex- 
ation of Texas in March, 1845. The Republic of Mexico had for- 
merly owned that state and still claimed jurisdiction over it. The 
conduct of our government was looked upon as unfriendly, and a 
bitter feeling became manifest upon the part of the Mexican govern- 
ment, This was increased by President Polk's order for an army of 
4,000 troops to take a station on the Rio Grande. This was in March, 
1846, and the command was given to Gen. Zach. Taylor. On April 24, 
1846, 60 dragoons from this force on an observation tour were at- 
tacked by a large force of Mexican soldiers and forced to surrender 
after a loss of 16 killed. This precipitated hostilities. Three days 
after, Congress declared war and authorized the President to accept 
the services of 50,000 voluateers. The sum of $10,000,000 was ap- 
propriated to support the declaration. The war spirit spread with 


amazing rapidity throughout the entire west. The recruiting com- 
menoed immediately. In every town and city the national flag was 
unfurled and recruiting officers marched through the streets to the 
music of the fife and drum In the old town of Belleville, patriot- 
ism rose to fever heat. Even the boys organized miniature compa- 
nies and marched with paper hats and wooden guns and swords. I 
remember being so far affected as to join one of such companies as a 
private and the captain of this company was no other than Gen. 
Wesley Merritt, lately retired from the army after a most honorable 
and illustrious career in the service of his country. The quota of 
enlistment assigned to Illinois was three regiments of infantry for 
12 month's service. Within ten days 35 companies reported for ser- 
vice and as many more were making application for enrollment, 
President Polk appointed James Shields brigadier general of volun- 
teers, and the orders were for the troops to rendezvous at Alton. There 
they were mustered in for service. Col. Edward D. Baker, one of 
Illinois' most distinguished citizens (for I think she can claim him), 
was authorized to raise an additional regiment. The Illinois con- 
tingent arrived in Mexico early in August The first and second 
regiments were commanded by Cols. John J. Hardin and William 
H. Bissell, and were attached to the army of the centre under Gen. 
Zaoh. Taylor. To General Shields' brigade were assigned a third 
and fourth regiment, commanded by Colonels Foreman and Baker. 
The bravery and discipline of both these regiments in the battle of 
Cerro- Gordo was such as to call forth universal praise, and com- 
mendation. The major general in command in his report says: 

"The attention of the general in charge is particularly called to 
the gallantry of Brigadier Generals Pillow and Shields, who were 
both wounded at the head of their respective brigades." 

The battle of Cerro-Gordo was fought under the generalship of 
General Scott April 18, 1847. The wound of General Shields was a 
severe one. The first report came that it was mortal. He recovered, 
however, soon enough to be in the assault at Chapultepec, where he 
was again wounded. The accounts received at home of the gallantry 
and misfortune of General Shields raised him in the estimation of 
the people to a high pinnacle of glory. His praises were heralded 
on all sides and his popularity throughout the State increased im- 
mensely. So it has ever been with the people of this and all other 
countries. Military glory arouses an exalted admiration to heights 
which no achievements in the paths of peace can attain. It carried 
General Taylor into the presidential chair, made a presidential can- 
didate of General Scott and sent General Shields to the Senate of 
the United States After recovering from his wounds he returned 
to his home at Belleville. He had formed a partnership in that 
place with Adam W. Snyder and Gustavus Koerner in June, 1837, 
which had to be dissolved because of his official duties requiring 
his residence in Springfield. When he left that office he had 
again taken up his residence in Belleville. The occasion of his re- 
turn from Mexico was marked by many evidences of public respect 


and rejoicing. He was tendered a public reception and addressed a 
large concourse of people in the old court house. I was present and 
heard his speech. Carried away by the general enthusiasm, Hooked 
upon him as every inch a hero. The halo of human glory, stronger 
in the youthful than in the matured imagination, encircled his brow. 
His address was instructive and entertaining. He gave an account 
of the causes which led to the war and defended the action of the 
party to which he belonged. He animadverted upon the course of 
certain members of the Whig party who had opposed the war from 
the start. He gave a graphic description of the movements of the 
troops in his command and the battles in which they and he were 
engaged, He described very minutely the attack on the battery at 
Cerro-Gordo where he was wounded, and pointed out on his body 
where the wound was made. He also extolled very highly the endur- 
ance, bravery and daring of the officers and soldiers of his command. 
The occasion was notable; the speech a popular one, and the audi- 
ence vibrated with responsive sympathy. In truth, it was an occasion 
worthy of a great oration, but he did not make it. His bearing was 
gallant and soldierly; his voice well modulated; his gestures not un- 
graceful, but there was a lack of that magnetism which is the chief 
power of oratory. His individuality was continually projected 
throughout the whole of his discourse and his vanity impaired its 
effect. However, the subject was of such a character as to cover all 
blemishes, and he met with continuous applause. The ovation was 
highly complimentary, and his reception by the warm hearted people 
of St. Clair county of such a character as that he might well be 
proud. Not long after this, President Polk, as a recognition of his 
eminent services to the country, gave him the appointment of gov- 
ernor of Oregon. He retained the position, however, but a short 
time. He recognized his opportunities and aspired to far higher 
honors, and in 1847 he received at the hands of the Legislature of 
Illinois the election to the proud position of Senator of the United 

As before stated, he succeeded Judge Sidney Breese. He retained 
this position for one term of six years. His record as a senator was 
in no sense as distinguished as his predecessor, and, besides this, he 
was almost totally eclipsed by the splendid ability and increasing rep- 
utation of his colleague. Senator Douglas, He voted consistently with 
the pro-slavery party, and took an occasional part in the debates, and 
devoted most of his time to the work referred to the military com- 
mittee of which he was chairman. 

In 1853 I met him when on a visit to Sparta, in Randolph county. 
As a conversationalist he was interesting. I remember on that occa- 
sion he took especial pains to extol the Czar Nicholas of Russia as 
one of the greatest statesmen of Europe. The Czar was then engaged 
in the war against the allies and the siege of Sebastapol and its out- 
come had not yet been reached. 

After the expiration of his term of service he returned to Belle- 
ville, but soon thereafter left and located in Minnesota, Grood for- 


tune politically attended him here in one respect. The first legisla- 
ture of the state elected him as one of the United States senators, 
but, iu drawing lots with his colleague for the long or short term, he 
drew the short term, so his senatorial career was limited to two years. 
He was not re-elected and he then went to California. When the 
Civil war broke out, his old opponent, President Lincoln, appointed 
him brigadier general of volunteers This was in August, 1861. He 
served with some distinction in the valley of the Shenandoah, and 
was severely wounded in the battle of Kernstown, He resigned his 
position in March, 1863, and then became a citizen of Carrollton, 
Mo. He opened an office for the practice of the law. His passion 
for politics, however, never forsook him. During the candidacy of 
R. Graham Frost for a seat in the 46th and 47th Congress he was 
brought to St. Louis to tire the Irish heart in favor of the Dem- 
ocratic cause, The district contained a large Irish vote, and it would 
seem that he succeeded, for Mr. Frost was elected both times in a 
closely divided district. In 1874 he was elected to the legislature of 
Missouri, By virtue of my office as lieutenant governor I was pre- 
siding officer of the joint session on the occasion of the inaugural 
ceremonies of the newly elected Governor Hardin. General Shields 
was a member of the house. I had not seen him since my meeting 
with him in Sparta in 1853. After the adjournment he approached 
and spoke to me Time had greatly changed him in every respect 
except in his military baaring and the brilliancy of his eyes. Strange 
to say, the first sentence he spoke was in reference to Kaskaskia: 
"And is this the son of Eivira (meaning my mother) whom I knew as 
a girl in Kaskaskia?" His conversation continued reminiscent and 
was highly interesting to me. 

Lewis V. Bogy, United States senator from Missouri, died Sept- 
20, 1877. David R Armstrong was appointed to fill the vacancy un- 
til the meeting of the legislature. When that body convened, an 
election for the short term was to occur. R. Graham Frost and his 
friends, anxious to repay General Shields for his assistance in the 
congressional campaigns in St. Louis, visited JefiPerson City and 
urged the election of General Shields to fill the short term, and, 
surely, it was a short term. They were successful, and he was elected 
and bore the name of United States senator from Missouri just 34 
days from Jan. 21 , 1879, to March 4, 1879. He died at Ottumwa, Iowa, 
June 1, 1879. What a strange, romantic and eventful career had this 
wanderer from Ireland, for, surely, he was a wanderer! There was 
a vein of the nomadic in him— a senator from three states, gov- 
ernor from another, and dying in another. A few centuries earlier 
he would have been a voyager into new and unknown regions or a 
warrior fighting wherever his gallantry and adventurous spirit sug- 
gested, He was neither a great statesman, orator or jurist, but he 
possessed high military abilities, coupled with a knightly dash and 
bravery that specially endeared him to the hearts of the people of 


Col. a. p. Field. 

Considering the number of eminent lawj'ers living in Belleville 
and the judicial circuit in which it was located, it is not surprising 
that it should occasionally have been the arena for notable trials and 
great forensic contests. I have very distinct recollections of several, 
but one in particular lodged in my memory and made a lasting impres- 
sion. In fact, the incidents connected with it had a very material 
bearing upon my future life. It was a murder case brought by 
change of venue from Madison county. A man by name Duncan, 
of an unsavory reputation, had located on a farm in that county and 
his residence was supposed to be a rendezvous for gamblers, horse 
thieves, counterfeiters and desperadoes generally. The citizens of 
the county warned him to leave, but, standing upon the order of his 
going, he had delayed or refused to do so. Violent means to drive 
him from his stronghold were resorted to, and, in the riotous demon- 
stration, Duncan was killed, Several citizens were indicted for his 
murder, and it was in this trial I heard, for the first and only time, 
Col. A. P. Field. He was assisting the circuit attorney, Philip B. 
Fouke. in the prosecution. The defendants were represented by 
Lyman and George Trumbull, Joseph Gillespie, William H. Snyder 
and some others. The array of lawyers on both sides was imposing. 
A wide spread interest was manifested in the trial, and a great con- 
course of people came in from the country and the adjoining towns, 
and there were a number of representatives from St. Louis. The 
excitement intensified as the trial proceeded, and a desire to hear the 
arguments was apparent on all sides. On the day set apart for the 
forensic display, the seats to the left of the judge's bench were as- 
signed for occupancy to the ladies, and quite a number embellished 
the proceedings with their presence. Gustavus Koerner presided as 
judge at the trial. Lyman Trumbull made an able and exhaustive 
argument during the morning session, only a part of which I could 
hear. His style of oratory was such as not to be appreciated by one 
as young as I. The afternoon session was to be given to hearing the 
closing address for the prosecution by Col. A. P. Field. The court 
room was packed almost to suffocation. I had played truant that 
day, and during the noon recess, shortly before the meeting of court, 
I clambered onto the sill of the north window in the court house and 
the one looking down on the space between the judge's bench and 
the seats in which the jury sat. I thought that the place would be 
secure because I knew that the crowd surrounding the window would 
keep me from falling out, and I would have a fine position to hear 
every word that was spoken. The court commenced; the judge was 
on the bench; the jury in their seats The struggle from the out 
side to get in grew tumultuous, and, in some respects, overpowering. 
One consequence therefrom was important to he who addresses you: 
The pressure from the rear of the window pushed me^ from the sill 
and landed me immediately in the space between the judge and the 
jury. I was startled and frightened beyond measure. It looked to 
me as if I was the centre of a million eyes, and I imagined that I 


would ba subjeoted to imtnadiate ejeotment and perhaps condign 
punishment. But oh! shade of the immortal and illustrious Koer- 
ner. If it be that thy spirit wanders in any sphere of the universe, 
let me now bow to it in grateful reverence and thankfulness for thy 
kind consideration and merciful kindness. The judge saw my be- 
wilderment and dilemma and beckoned to me, and, in an undertone, 
told me to take a seat on the steps leading to the platform on which 
he was seated. Stationed here, within not over eight or ten feet of 
the speaker, I heard the whole of the speech of Col. A. P. Field, 
Time has carried me many years since that event; I have heard 
many of the greatest efforts of great advocates; yet there lingers in 
my memory an impression that it was the finest forensic address I 
ever heard. Colonel Field was over six feet tall, straight as an ar- 
row, well proportioned, with dark hair and large but attractive 
features. In bearing he was erect, courteous and dignified. On this 
occasion he was appropriately dressed in dark clothes. He occupjed 
over two hours in the delivery of his speech. He reviewed the tes- 
timony in the case at length, and applied it with a remarkable skill 
to the law involved. His descriptive powers were intensely dramatic. 
He described the home of the deceased; called it his castle, across 
whose threshold no one had a right to pass unless clothed with the 
majesty of the law. Then he vividly pictured the attack made upon 
the defenseless victim; the malice, rage and wanton spirit of those 
engaged, with hearts regardless of social duty and fatally bent on 
mischief. He poured forth a perfect torrent of invective against 
those whom he described as cowardly murderers; and again melted 
his hearers into sympathy by pathetically picturing the cries of the 
dying victim. Throughout, his gestures were in keeping with his 
address, exceedingly graceful and effective. His voice was well 
modulated and flexible; his accentuation clear and distinct, and, in 
his impassioned appeals, of marvelous compass and strength. I re- 
member distinctly when describing the features of the murder he 
repeated an apt quotation from Macbeth, and other parts of his 
speech abounded in apt and beautiful, poetical allusions. As a mat- 
ter of course, his address was listened to with the closest attention 
and produced a profound effect. At its conclusion he was highly 
congratulated by the members of the bar as well as others. 

For years this trial with all its incidents was frequently recalled 
in memory, and I wondered at times whether my youthful judgment 
was correct. To satisfy myself on this point, I took occasion to ask 
Judge Gillespie, with whom I was intimately acquainted up to the 
time of his death, as to his opinion of Colonel Field's address on that 
occasion. He told me I was correct in my estimate; that it was, 
without doubt, one of the most powerful appeals he ever in his long 
experience heard fall from the lips of an advocate. 

The reason of my gratitude to Governor Koerner on the occasion 
referred to above is because it gave me an opportunity to hear an 
argument that confirmed my ambition to become a lawyer. 


Col. A. P. Field was at one time quite prominent in Illinois poli- 
tics. He was in the legislature as far back as 1822, and in the mo- 
mentous contest of 1828-1824, acted with those who tried to establish 
slavery in the State. Fortunately that attempt failed, and the incu- 
bus of that institution never incumbered the State in its march to 
greatness and renown. He served again in the legislature of 1826 
and 1828, and was then appointed Secretary of State, which office he 
retained until 1840. He received an appointment to a minor position 
in Wisconsin territory in 1841, and thereafter, in 1847, located in St. 
Louis where he resided at the time of the trial, the particulars of 
which I have just related. From there he went to New Orleans, 
and, notwithstanding his strong pro-slavery views, was a Union man. 
After the war, during the Warmouth regime he filled the position of 
Attorney General of Louisiana. He died in 1877. His splendid 
opportunities were circumscribed and limited because of his dissipa- 
ted habits and a consequent lack of moral rectitude and stability. 


Judge Gustavus Koerner, mentioned above as the presiding judge, 
was both a patriot and hero in the old world, and when he trans- 
planted those qualities to this country they simply grew and flourished 
with ever increasing strength. He was an elegant gentleman, 
courteous, dignified, scholarly and well versed in the law. He was 
devotedly attached to his profession but took sufficient interest in 
public affairs as to be assigned to several offices of importance and 
responsibility. Besides being judge of the Supreme Court, in 1845, 
he was elected Lieutenant Governor on the same ticket with Gov. Joel 
A. Matteson in 1852, and accepted the appointment of minister to Spain 
from Mr. Lincoln in 1862. After the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska 
bill, he became a Republican and was an active and zealous sup- 
porter of the Union cause. 

It was my intention to speak at greater length on the life and 
character of Gustavus Koerner, but I see upon the program an 
announcement that a paper will be read upon that subject by one 
who is in every way able to draw and present a just estimate of his 

Lyman Trumbull. 

From a practicing lawyer in Belleville, Lyman Trumbull 
advanced to fill some of the highest positions in the State and became 
one of her most distinguished citizens. He was born in Connecticut 
in 1818, and came from a family of historical renown in the annals 
of the country. He had an academic education, and, like so many 
other noted men, commenced life as a school teacher, and then en- 
tered upon the practice of the law as a profession. He was elected 
a representative to the 12th General Assembly, and also held the 
position of Secretary of State, He then aspired to the position of 
Governor, but failed to attain the nomination, and was defeated for 
the nomination for Congress in 1846. In 1848 he was elected to the 
Supreme Bench, but resigned in 1858. This was the year when the 


fierce and impassioned discussion of the Kansas-Nebraska bill was 
precipitated upon the country. No event in the political affairs of 
the nation caused such a widespread agitation as the introduction of 
this measure, and never was there one more far reaching and import- 
ant in its results. Its final passage, in May, 1854, was fraught with 
momentous consequences. It violently dissevered the Democratic 
party; swept from existence the old Whig party; gave birth to the 
Republican party and eventuated in the war for the Union and the 
destruction of slavery. Judge Trumbull early took a decided position 
in opposition to this measure, and became a candidate for Congress 
in the Belleville district, thoroughly canvassed that district on that 
issue and was elected. He went to Chicago and spoke in reply to 
Judge Douglas at the time that distinguished statesman made his 
speech in defense of his course in introducing and supporting that 
bill. In the 19th Greneral Assembly, which met Jan. 1, 1855, Judge 
Trumbull was elected to the United States Senate In the contest, 
Abraham Lincoln was his chief competitor, and on the first ballot in 
the joint session Lincoln received 45 votes and Trumbull but five. 
The five supporters of Trumbull had agreed to stand together under 
every circumstance, and their unwavering adherence to that pre- 
determined course finally resulted in his triumph. It is easy to un- 
derstand the stubborn adhesion of these five supporters of Trumbull 
when we consider that John M, Palmer, so often honored by the 
people of Illinois with the highest positions in their gift, headed the 
voting coterie His Democratic opponent, as selected by the caucus 
of that party, was Gen. James Shields. When we consider the pe- 
culiar condition of the country at that period of time, no more ap- 
propriate selection could have been made for this high position than 
Lyman Trumbull. He was peculiarly adapted to enter the arena of 
debate on the questions presented at that time in the United States 
Senate, and for the succeeding years of his service. The whole coun- 
try was already in a vast political ferment. The spirit of unreason- 
ing partisanship was rapidly rising throughout the length and breadth 
of the land. The fiery pro-slavery leaders of the South foresaw the 
ultimate triumph of the Republican party and were already pouring 
forth their impassioned eloquence in denunciation of the wrongs be- 
ing heaped upon the people of the South by those they called the 
fanatics of the North. It was a time to stem the tide that was rush- 
ing on to a most calamitous war. It was an hour for caution, for 
conservatism, for cool and dispassionate debate, backed by rectitude 
of purpose and great intellectual capacity, extensive legal acquire- 
ments and accurate political knowledge. Judge Trumbull possessed 
these qualities in a high degree. He never was a popular man among 
the people. He was rather distant and reserved in his intercourse 
with his fellow-citizens. His successes were obtained mostly through 
the adherence and support of strong men, who admired him for his 
great intellectual qualifications and his honesty of purpose. In per- 
sonal appearance he looked more like a preacher than a lawyer. He 
was tall, spare made, light of complexion, with clear and expressive 
features, clear in outline, always wore gold spectacles and was rather 
condescending in his manner. He was not graceful, rather angular 


in motion, and had a voice sharp and clear but not melodious. At 
times he wore a cynical and sarcastic expression, in keeping with the 
line of his remarks. He was not eloquent in the general acceptation 
of the term, but, as a logical and argumentative debator, he was the 
peer of any public man of his day. He had one decided advantage 
over most of his adversaries, and that was his splendid abilities as a 
constitutional lawyer. On questions involving constitutional con- 
struction he was clear, precise and forcible, and was always listened 
to with interest and a certain degree of deference by his senatorial 
associates. I heard him frequently in other trials than the one I 
have described, and also in the discussion of the Kansas-Nebraska 
bill before his election to the Senate, and in after years heard him at 
his greatest advantage in the debates in the Senate during the winter 
of 1860-61 His surroundings at that time were indeed critical, and 
the tenor and character of the discussions foretold the approach of 
the mighty conflict of civil war. Looking down from the gallery up- 
on the Senators, the sectional condition of the country was apparent, 
not alone in the debates as heard, but in the seating of the members 
of the respective parties. The main aisle leading from the door of 
entrance to the Senate chamber to the seat of the president, John 0. 
Breckenridge, was as a dividing line between two combating forces. 
The existing antagonism was continuously expressed, notwithstand- 
ing the strained effort to observe the rules of senatorial courtesy; 
and there were times when this barrier of senatorial courtesy was 
overleaped and vindictive attacks were frequently made on individuals 
and states. I never shall forget the description of senatorial condi- 
tions and attitudes made by Senator Iverson, of Georgia, on Dec. 5, 
lb60, when, virtually, the debate was upon the state of the Union. 
"Sir," he said, "disguise the fact as you will, there is an enmity be- 
tween the Northern and the Southern people that is deep and endur- 
ing, and you never can eradicate it — never. Look at the spectacle 
exhibited on this floor! How is it? There are the Republican 
Northern Senators upon that side; here are the Southern Senators 
on this side. How much social intercourse is there between them? 
You sit upon your side silent and gloomy; we sit upon ours with knit 
brows and portentous scowls. Yesterday I observed that there was 
not a solitary man on that side of the chamber who came over here 
even to extend the civilities and courtesies of life, nor did any of us 
go over there. Here are two hostile bodies on this floor, and it is 
but a type of the feelings that exist between the two sections. We 
are enemies as much as if we were hostile states. I believe that the 
Northern people hate the South worse than ever the English people 
hated France, and I can tell my brothers over there that there is no 
love lost on the part of the South." 

The seat of Stephen A. Douglas in the body was suggestive. It 
was situated on the main aisle I have mentioned, but on the Repub- 
lican side of the Senate. He was virtually between the hostile forces 
and was made the target for both sides, but, though he stood virtu- 
ally alone in the debates at that time, he was as undaunted as any 


chieftain who ever entered the lists, and never discomforted or over- 
thrown. I heard his speech on the 5th of January, 1861, and there 
was one circumstance that I took especial note of. It was that he 
was rarely interrupted in the progress of his arguments. As illustra- 
tive of his remarkable memory, one of the Senators from Virginia — 
Hunter, I think — who had succeeded him as chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Territories, interrupted him on one occasion by saying 
that the Senator was mistaken in a certain statement he made in 
regard to the action of the Committee on Territories on a given 
amendment pending before the committee. He immediately turned 
to that Senator and repeated what had occurred at the meeting, giv- 
ing every detail and incident, those who were present, called the roll 
on the consideration of the amendment and the names of those who 
voted for and against it, and ended by saying: "The Senator from 
Virginia is mistaken; the Senator from Illinois is correct." The 
Senator from Virginia listened attentively to the reply, hesitated a 
moment and then said: "I believe the Senator from Virginia is mis- 
taken and the Senator from Illinois correct." 

On Jan. 10 Senator Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi, made a lengthy 
argument on President Buchanan's message, in which was submitted 
the action of the commissioners of Soath Carolina, virtually upon 
the right of that state to secede. His speech was a lengthy one, and 
at its end resulted a running debate between himself, Senator Green 
of Missouri and Trumbull of Illinois. It was one of the most enter- 
taining contests that occurred at that momentous session. If I had 
the time, I should like to give you an idea of the ability displayed 
by each of these distinguished men. Senator Green's reputation 
in Missouri especially, rested upon his wonderful dexterity in 
debate, and the long political career of Senator Davis with his ac- 
knowledged gifts as a speaker,made him a f oeman worthy of any lawyer 
or statesman. But the debate involved legal and constitutional ques- 
tions, and Senator Trumbull in that field was the equal of either of 
his opponents, and on this as on other occasions became apparent 
the appropriateness, as I have before remarked, of his selection as 
Senator. The irritating conditions with which Republican Senators 
were surrounded in debate is shown in the opening speech of Sena- 
tor Trumbull, when he said: "Mr. President, it has been very hard 
for me, and I doubt not my republican associates around me, to hear 
the many misapprehensions, not to say misstatements, of our posi- 
tion, and to see a perverted state of facts day after day urged upon 
the Senate and country by gentlemen of the other side We have 
listened to the Senator from Mississippi, and one would suppose in 
listening to him here that he was a friend to the Union and that he 
desired the perpetuity of the government. He has a most singular 
way of proving it and a most singular way of maintaining the con- 
stitution. Why, sir, he proposes that the government should abdi- 
cate." This was a rather calm and deliberate way to commence an 
argument against a speech permeated with treason against the gov- 
ernment; but such was his style, and if such qualities as distin- 

William H, Bissell. -First Republican Governor of Illinois. 


guished his oourse had been predominant in the Senate at that 
session, it might have resulted in staying the approach of war and deso- 
lation. To the glory of his memory it can be said that he used his 
highest and best ability to its fullest to avert the disaster, Nor should 
it be forgotten that in another critical period in the history of the 
country his calm and dispassionate judgment, together with his 
conscientious rectitude of purpose enabled him to raise a barrier 
against the waves of party partisanship and passion when an attempt 
was made to impeach the President of the United States, Andrew 
Johnson, and revolutionize the government. His course in those 
proceedings added additional glory to his career as a patriot and 

The characteristics of Senator Trumbull that I have referred to, 
extended through his entire term as Senator. On Jan 12, 1865, he 
introduced the civil rights bill with the specification: "There shall 
be no discrimination in civil rights ***** on account of 
race, color or previous condition of servitude." It will be impossi- 
ble for me to dwell further on his splendid work in the 18 years of 
his service as United States Senator. After retiring from the Sen- 
ate he returned to the practice of law, and took up his residence in 
Chicago. There he enjoyed a large and lucrative practice. His 
alienation with the Republican party barred the way to further 
political preferment. He made one attempt to enter politics again, 
and became a candidate in 1880 for Governor, running on the Dem- 
ocratic ticket. In the Liberal Republican movement he supported 
Horace Greeley and Gratz Brown for President and Vice President. 
On the death of Jehu Baker, a lifelong friend and one of his strong 
supporters, he visited Belleville to attend the funeral At the grave 
of Mr. Baker, he delivered an appropriate address extolling the many 
admirable qualities and distinguished services of the deceased. He 
had intended further to visit St. Louis, where I expected to meet him, 
but was taken sick and returned to his home in Chicago, where he died 
on the 25th day of June, 1896. He belonged to the army of great 
men who have shed luster and glory upon the State of Illinois. 

William H. Bissell. 

Of all the great men whom I met in my youth, the one most prod- 
igally dowered with eminent qualities was William H. Bissell. At 
his birth nature lavished upon him nearly all of her choicest gifts of 
both brain and heart, but envious fate prescribed a cruel limitation 
to their matured use and enjoyment. Death claimed him when in 
the prime vigor of his remarkable endowments. 

I first remember him in the trial of a case in the Belleville court 
house, when he was defending a negro charged with some felonious 
offense. The case had within it certain elements which aroused a 
sympathy in behalf of the defendant, and he handled these with such 
constant skill and pathetic effect as to acquit his client. It was not 
a case of such importance nor did it involve such striking dramatic 
incidents as the case in which I heard Colonel Field. Nevertheless 


it left a vivid impression in my memory. I heard him frequently 
after that in the trial of oases, in his political campaigns, and on the 
notable occasion when a barbecue was given by the citizens of St. 
Clair county to the officers and soldiers of the Second regiment of 
Illinois volunteers in honor of their return, on the 29th of July, 1847. 

William H. Bissell was born in Yates county, in the western part 
of New York, in April, 1811. His earliest associations led him to 
choose the study of medicine as a profession. He already was pos- 
sessed of a comparatively good education as a basis, and, after read- 
ing medicine for a time, he attended the Jefferson Medical school in 
Philadelphia, where he graduated in 1834. With most young men of 
the east in those days, the great west was the field in which to seek 
and strive for fortune and fame. That region to the young and as- 
piring easterner was a fancied Eldorado, although of a somewhat 
more practical kind than that sought by the famed Spaniard. As a 
matter of course, he was poor. The truth is in those days most every 
young man was of limited means; to be otherwise, was an exception 
to the prevailing rule, and, when we read the biography of all the 
most illustrious men of the State, it leads one to believe that it was 
a blessing, rather than otherwise, to have been possessed of limited 
means. He decided to try his fortunes in Illinois, and left for his 
destination in 1837 or 1838. He first went to Jefferson county, and 
shortly after his arrival was attacked with a severe illness, which not 
only used up his small supply of money but so discouraged him that 
he decided to enlist in the United States army. He then went to 
Jefferson barracks to carry out his intention, but fortunately could 
not pass the required examination because of his physical debility. 
Failing in his purpose to become' a soldier, he returned to Illinois, 
but stopped in Monroe county. He became acquainted with Colonel 
Jones, of that county, who was so favorably impressed with his ap- 
pearance that he induced him to remain and teach school for a while. 
He soon abandoned this and embarked in his profession, and shortly 
thereafter was the recipient of a lucrative practice. The social con- 
ditions in Illinois, as I have before remarked, were such as to tempt 
any ambitious young man to take part in politics and aspire to offi- 
cial position. Mr. Bissell was not an exception to the rule, and we 
soon after find him associating with prominent politicians, speaking 
at public meetings and increasing his acquaintance and popularity 
among the people. His gifts as an orator soon gave him precedence 
over other aspiring men, and in 1840 he was made the Democratic 
nominee for the lower house of the General Assembly. He was duly 
elected, and this position gave the first opportunity to exhibit those 
remarkable qualities for political leadership, which, in after years, 
gave him a national reputation and raised him to some of the high- 
est positions of honor and trust. The county of Monroe was a Whig 
stronghold. His carrying it for the Democracy, notwithstanding the 
enthusiastic campaign conducted by the Whigs in the State and Na- 
tion, attracted the special attention of party adherents and was 
looked upon as a remarkable achievement. At the end of his term 
in the legislature he returned home fully determined to abandon the 
profession of medicine and study law. He had discovered the pos- 


session of powers better adapted to that profession than the other, 
and he saw the advantage the profession of the law gave in further- 
ing his ambition for active political life. During his course of study- 
he attended lectures at the law school in Lexington, Ky,, and after 
graduating he located in the town of Belleville. Here he was thrown 
in contact with a number of the ablest men in the State, and their 
association proved of lasting benefit to him in his illustrious career. 
The first office he held after he began his residence in Belleville was 
that of circuit attorney. No state office presents a better opportunity 
for an able and aspiring man to increase his popularity and political 
strength; at the same time, it being in the line of his profession, it 
enables him to increase his legal knowledge and experience and prac- 
tice the art of public speaking. This office was ably tilled by Mr. 
Bissell. To this day there are residents in St Ciair county who will 
tell of his success in his prosecutions. He would only prosecute 
when convinced that an accused was guilty, and his powers of ora- 
tory were such that the closing address overcame the efforts of the 
ablest attorneys. But he was soon to play another part in the drama 
of life — soon to display such capacities as a soldier as would exalt 
him to a place among the great patriots and heroes of the nation and 
reflect honor upon the State and his citizenship. 

In my sketch of General Shields, I referred to the causes of the 
Mexican war; how it broke upon the country, and the rapid rise and 
spread of the war spirit. I told of the prompt response made by Ill- 
inois to fill the quota assigned to their state, and the brilliant achieve- 
ments of the third and fourth regiments commanded by Colonels 
Foreman and Baker at Cerro Gordo, and their after participation 
in the campaign against Mexico. As soon as the call was made, Mr. 
Bissell promptly enlisted. He joined the ranks as a volunteer, and 
marched behind the fife and drum of the recruiting officers alongside 
of those who afterwards fought so nobly as privates in the regiment 
he commanded. The military spirit was strong in Mr. Bissell. He 
was a natural born soldier. In the days of his early etruggles, as we 
have seen, his inclination led him to Jefferson Barracks. At that 
time the horizon was clear of war clouds; peace reigned throughout 
the land, and it looked as if the temple of war was closed for an in- 
definite period. The paths of peace, of profession and politics, 
seemed to be the only ones for achievement and fame. Yet still he 
was tempted to the soldier's life, with all its sacrifices and hardships. 
When, in addition, we take into consideration his lofty spirit of pa- 
triotism, it is easy to account for his prompt enlistment and his fu- 
ture brilliant conduct. After enlisting as a private, he was soon 
elected to the captaincy of one of the St, Clair county companies and 
was subsequently chosen as Colonel of the Second Illinois regiment. 
His services in the war are known to every reader of the history of 
the country. His associate regiment was the first, commanded by 
Ool. John J, Hardin, — a name dear to the heart of every Illinoisan, 
and both of these regiments were under the command of Gen. Zach 
Taylor. The greatest glory has been accorded to these two regi- 



meDts and their respective colonels for their brave and desperate 
fight at the battle of Buena Vista. This battle stands in the annals 
of warefare conspicuous for its desperate and bloody character, and 
furnished a rare record of stubborn endurance, daring bravery, and 
patriotic sacrifice. The attacking army under Santa Anna numbered 
20,000. The opposing force numbered but 4,500. The battle lasted all 
day, and, in resisting the final charge of almost overwhelming num- 
bers in the afternoon, the gallant Colonels Hardin, McKee and Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Clay were killed. Though in the hottest of the fight 
Colonel Bissell escaped without injury, and blackened with powder and 
smoke and worn and exhausted by the fierce struggles of the day, 
when he threw himself upon his rough couch at night his brow was 
encircled with the halo of an immortal name. Transportation was 
slow at that time, and the full particulars of the battle were not re- 
ceived for several days. The first authentic accounts came through 
the St. Louis newspapers, and there is an amusing incident, personal 
to myself, connected with their arrival and distribution The connec- 
tion between St. Louis and Belleville was by means of a hack which, 
owing to the wretched state of the roads, usually took several hours 
to traverse the distance between the two places At the time of the 
Battle of Baena Vista I was a carrier of the old Missouri Republican 
and the St. Louis Reveille to Belleville subscribers, and always had 
a certain number to sell. I usually stood at the post office waiting 
for the arrival of the above mentioned vehicle to procure my bundle 
of papers. On that day I received my bundle, tore ofp the cover and 
handed the first copy to Mr. Murray Morrison, a lawyer who after- 
wards became a member of the Supreme court of California. The 
head lines of the Battle of Baena Vista arrested his attention. Every 
person in town was expecting the account. As I delivered the paper 
to him I was in the act of starting on the run, when he stopped me 
and said: "Here, Charlie! There's an account of the great Battle of 
Buena Vista in the paper, and General Taylor has badly defeated 
the Mexicans. Do not sell your papers for less than a long bit". I 
started down the street with the cry of: "Here is all about the 
battle of Bu — ", but I stopped, looked at the paper, then tried again: 
"Here is all about the battle of Bu— ", balked, and then changed my 
call to: "Here is all about General Taylor's whipping the Mexi- 
cans". And I followed Mr. Morrison's advice; there was a "corner" 
on newspapers that day. 

Battle Field at Buena Vista near 

Saltillo, Mexico, Feb., 24, 1847. 

Friend Koerner — A tremendous battle was fought here on yester- 
day and the day before between our forces on the one side and Santa 
Anna's, commanded by himself, on the other. We had less than 
5,000 men, our enemy over 20,000. The battle was long-continued 
and dreadfully sanguinary, but the result is most glorious, glorious 
for our own beloved country. We routed the enemy and drove him 
to seek safety by flight under cover of night, His loss in killed and 
wounded is immense — we cannot conjecture what. And our own, 


alas! is too severe. Cols. Hardin, Tell, MoKee and Clay were killed 
upon the field, in the most dreadful conflict, and fell almost within 
my reach. 

My own brave regiment, which has won for itself eternal honor, 
and which did more hard fighting than any other regiment or corps 
on the field, has suffered most severely — about fi5 killed, 80 wounded, 
9 or 10 missing. I sent a list of the killed in the two St. Clair com- 
panies to Mr. Kinney in another letter. Engelmann acted most 
gallantly upon the field, and was severely but not dangerously woun- 
ded in the shoulder. He is doing well and has every attention and is 
in good spirits. Oar whole loss in killed, wounded and missing will 
probably be between four and five hundred. 

We are all perfectly prostrated — worn out. You will get the par- 
ticulars from other sources. I have not a moment to spare. 


(Signed.) William H. Bissell. 

To Judge Koerner. 

The news of the outcome of this battle and the bravery displayed 
by the Illinois regiments produced the wildest enthusiasm through- 
out the State. In every city, town and village, public meetings were 
held, speeches made, gun-powder exploded and the nights brightened 
with bon- fires and illuminations. It was a time of general revelry 
and rejoicing. In after years, during the Civil War, I had occasion 
to contrast the universal transports of joy visible upon the reception 
of this news over a victory of a foreign foe and the divided exulta- 
tion when news came of a victory of American over American. If 
there is anything in the movements of men that will stir to its depths 
the feelings and emotions, it is to look upon the returning veterans 
of a successful war and one in which they have borne a brave and 
heroic part. And so the people of St. Clair county were stirred upon 
the return of the Second regiment and its noble Commander. The 
reception was one never to be forgotten. There be a few old men yet 
living whose eyes will moisten at the mention to them of the occur- 
ance. One form of expression of public admiration and affection 
took the shape of a barbecue given on July 28, 1847. An immense 
crowd assembled on the occasion. The address of welcome to the 
regiment was made by Judge Gustavus Koerner in his usual felici- 
tous, able and eloquent manner. The response was made by Colonel 
Bissell. It was a masterpiece of oratory. In opening he said: 

"The volunteers, oflBcers and men on whose account this splendid 
pageant has been gotten up are effected with feelings of deep sensi- 
bilty at the honors they are receiving at your hands. In the im- 
mense concourse of people here assembled, in the fervid and eloquent 
address by the orator of the day, and in the warmth and enthusiasm 
of feeling manifested all around us, we recognize an approbation of 
our conduct and joy at our return which entirely surpass our expec- 
tations and leave us without language to express our gratitude. 


Twelve months ago we went forth from among you to do service; to 
die, if need be, in our country's cause. Many an eye was dimmed 
at our parting and many a bosom pained. Heavy was the sacrifice 
which many of you were then called to make, but our country re- 
quired it, and, upon her altar, that sacrifice was cheerfully offered 
up. We went forth cheered and encouraged by you and followed by 
your blessings. In all out wanderings you never forgot us, nor did 
we for a moment forget our country or her honor. We never forgot 
that we had the credit of our own Illinois to sustain, nor did we 
cease to remember that we had cherished friends at home whose 
eyes were ever upon us, and whose hearts were always with us." 

He then referred to the characteristics of the volunteer soldiers 
from Illinois; spoke of their lack of experience and discipline, but 
explained how it was that by constant attention and practice they so 
soon overcame these drawbacks and fought as trained veterans. In 
this connection he paid them a splendid tribute for moral worth. It 
is worthy of quotation as showing, aside from his style of speech, 
the social condition of the times. He said: 

"Of the officers and men of the Second Illinois regiment — concern- 
ing whom I can speak from more intimate knowledge — of them I 
take occasion to say that the high tone of moral character which 
they always and under all circumstances maintained was alike cred- 
itable to themselves and honorable to the State which claimed them 
as her sons. They were not of the class found upon the wharves of 
our seaports, and gathered up there — men who have no character to 
sustain and no friends or country to love. They were chiefly the 
well taught youths of our farming communities and our quiet, moral 
country towns. The moral sentiments they had imbibed at home, 
and the high sense of personal honor and personal respect they had 
there learned to cherish, they carried with them, and these were a 
panoply and a shield against temptation. Honor! All honor to you, 
ye mothers! And you, ye fathers! for so forming the character of 
your sons as to enable them, by the force of that character alone, to 
draw down honors upon their State." 

He then entered into a detailed account of the battle of Buena 
Vista. It was intensely interesting, and remains a valuable acquisi- 
tion to the history of the war. His recital in its plain and simple 
force and beauty reads like a chapter from Caesar's Commentaries. 

In speaking of Colonel Hardin, he said that the meditated charge 
of the Mexicans in overwhelming numbers which might have resulted 
in defeat instead of victory, was prevented by the charge so gallantly 
led and so heroically sustained by that officer. And in the magna- 
nimity of his nature asked: "May we not say, then, that that brave 
officer and noble- heated man sacrificed himself on that occasion to 
secure our victory?" 

He described his death: "He fell battling manfully for his coun- 
try's causa, on foot, armed only with his sword, a dragoon sabre; he 


lefended himself with heroic firmness against the crowd of lancers 
which pressed upon him, and only fell when overpowered by their 
greatly superior numbers." 

He then explained the great advantage obtained in the victory of 
Buena Vista, and pointed out the terrible consequences that would 
have ensued in case of defeat. After expressing the joy at meeting 
friends once more, and the deep feeling of gratitude for the magnifi- 
cent ovation, he closed in the following beautiful words: 

"But alas! Our joy, like yours, is checked by the recollection of 
familiar faces which are not here! By the remembrance of familiar 
names, which we may call in vain; names, too, some of which there 
are no prouder ones even in our own proud Illinois. Not a few of the 
brave men who went with us have yielded up their breath in resist- 
ing the foes of their country, and have found amid the mountains of 
Mexico their last resting place. They will return no more, but 
moarn them noi! They fell in their country's cause! They fell, 
where they would have chosen to fall, in the arms of victory upon a 
glorious battlefield, with their county's banner streaming o'er them! 
Mourn them not! For though with their life-blood they have mois- 
tened the soil of Buena Vista, and left their honored remains to 
mingle with the dust of that famous battlefield, yet they are not 
dead! No they are not dead! They still live! They live in the spirit 
which animates our patriot bosom here! They live in the feeling which 
thrills with electrical influence the hearts of this vast assembly ! They 
live in the memory of a grateful country! They live! They will 
ever live in a fame as extended as this vast republic and as lasting 
as time!'' 

The splendid services of Oolonel Bissell in the Mexican war, to- 
gether with his well known ability, made him the most popular man 
in the Congressional district in which he lived, and, on his consent 
to accept the candidacy, he was elected without opposition, in 1848. 
He was again elected, without opposition, in 1850. The session of 
Congress of the winter of 1849-50 was one of the most exciting that 
had yet occurred in the history of the nation. The debate on the 
admission of California as a free state was bitter and acrimonious in 
the extreme. The domineering spirit of the pro-slavery party was 
such that threats of sacession and civil war came from the lips of 
several Southern senators and congressmen. In this body the de- 
bates were remarkable for both violence and ability. "At no time in 
its history" says Mr. Blaine, "has its members been so illustrious, 
its weight of character and ability so great." Webster made his 
great speech against his anti-slavery friends, and declared that the 
South had monopolized three- fourths of the places of honor and 
emolument under the Federal government ever since the Union was 
formed. He was charged by his former Southern friends with trea- 
son. Jefferson Davie and his associates tried in vain to have a jour- 
nal entry made of their protest against the wrong done to the 
slave-holding states in giving the entire Pacific coast to freedom, and 
Henry Clay succeeded in his great compromise measure which, for a 
time, stayed the waves of passion and treason. It is easy to premise 


the effects these debates had upon a man of the patriotism of Colonel 
Bisseli. He foresaw the consequences of the continued triumph of 
a party controlled by such leaders as then represented the South, 
and he foresaw the futility of any attempt on the part of the more 
reasonable and conservative members of that party from the North 
to control its policy or direct its destiny. When the time came for 
the Congressional election of 1852, he refused to submit his name to 
the Democratic nominating convention and ran as an independent 
against Philip B. Fouke, Jr. (Democrat) and Joseph Gillespie (Whig) 
and was triumphantly re elected The fierce warfare for slavery ex- 
tension continued. Douglas reported the Kansas-Nebraska bill in 
1853, and, after a giant struggle, it passed in 1854. It drove forever 
from the Democratic party many of its adherents, and among them 
Colonel Bisseli. He was prevented by severe illness, from taking 
part in the House debates on that notable measure. That illness 
attacked him in the winter of 1851, a partial paralytic stroke, and 
continuously affected him to such an extent that he was unable to 
take his seat in the summer of 1853, when the debate was progress- 
ing. His decided opposition was manifested, however, in the declar- 
ation that if his vote would defeat the measure he would insist on 
being carried to the House in order to cast it even if the effort caused 
his death. It was during his first session in Congress that be ran 
counter to the fire-eating spirit of the South, A vindictive attack 
had been made by a Congressman from Virginia against the North, 
and an indiscriminate arraignment made against her people for im- 
measurable wrongs against her rights under the slave code. It was 
customary, in such efforts, for Southerners to extol the people of the 
South as the possessors of higher qualities of manhood than those 
possessed by the people of the North. Unfortunately, the member 
from Virginia, illustrating his argument, made the historically inac- 
curate statement that a regiment from Mississippi had met and re- 
pulsed the enemy at a most critical time in the battle of Buena Vista, 
and after the Northern troops had given way. Colonel Bisseli was 
peculiarly sensitive to any adverse reflection on the conduct or char- 
acter of the brave Illinoisans under his command and he resented 
the mis-statement and imputation with characteristic indignation and 
scorn. His speech, in which he incorporated his reply to the state- 
ment of the gentleman from Virginia, gave an insight into the trend 
of his mind and opened the way to the future distinction of being 
the first Republican nominee for Governor of the State of Illinois. 
He entered the lists as an advocate of the people of the North against 
the unjust charges of aggression and spoliation; showed the weak- 
ness of the material on which they based their accusation and the 
distortion and misapplication of facts to sustain their arguments, In 
regard to the statement about the Northern troops giving way, he 
replied in the following eloquent strain: 

"I affirm distinctly, sir, that at the time the 2nd Indiana Regiment 
gave way, through an unfortunate order of their colonel, the Missis- 
sippi regiment, for whom the claim is gratuitously set up, was not 
within a mile and a half of the scene of action, nor yet had it fired a 


gun or pulled a trigger. I aflBrm further, sir, that the troops which 
at that time met and resisted the enemy and thus, to use the gentle- 
man's own language, 'snatched victory from the jaws of defeat,' were 
the 2ad Kentucky, the 2ad Illinois and a portion of the Ist Illinois 
regiments. It gives me no pleasure, sir, to be compelled to allude to 
this subject, nor can I see the necessity or propriety of its introduc- 
tion in this debate. It having been introduced, however, I cannot, 
sir, sit in silence and witness the infliction of such cruel injustice 
upon men, living and dead, whose well earned fame I were a monster 
not to protect. The true, brave hearts of too many of them, alas! 
have already mingled with the soil of a foreign country, but their 
claims upon the justice of their countrymen can never cease, nor can 
my obligations to them be ever forgotten or disregarded. No, sir ! 
The voice of Hardin —that voice which has so often been heard in 
this hall as mine now is, though far more eloquently — the voice of 
Hardin, yea, and of MoKee, and the accomplished Clay, each wrapped 
now in his bloody shroud, their voices would reproach me from the 
grave had I failed in this act of justice to them and to others who 
fought and fell by my side." 

His reference to the Mississippi regiment brought a challenge 
from JefPerson Davis. He was not to be cowed, nor did he propose 
to be uselessly sacrificed. He accepted the challenge and chose as 
weapons the army musket, to be loaded with a ball and three buck 
shots; the parties to be stationed only 40 paces apart, with liberty to 
advance to ten. The acceptance meant death to both parties. This 
his opponent had not been anticipating. There was no humor iu 
this proposed duel. Colonel Bissell's conduct in battle argued that 
he would be the first to advance from 40 paces to ten. It required 
the intervention of President Taylor to extricate his son-in-law, Mr. 
Davis, from the terrible dilemma. He succeeded in adjusting the 
diflBoulty and there was no loss of honor to Colonel Bissell. 

Before the close of the last session of his service in Congress, 
Colonel Bisyell had attained a national reputation as a skillful de- 
bator and accomplished orator, a trusted leader and an able states- 
man. Colonel Bissell returned home at the end of his last Congres- 
sional term with the intention of retiring from a further active 
participation in the political arena. The character and continuance 
of his illness caused him to doabt the propriety of his again accept- 
ing public office, but his intellect was unimpaired, and the part he 
had taken in the political afPairs of the country made it an impossi- 
bility for him to become a silent spectator of the great drama. The 
formative processes of the reorganization of parties were at work. 
The zealous advocates of a united and undivisible union and an ad- 
vanced freedom, regardless of divers views on minor questions, were, 
by the force of events and conditions, being gradually drawn into 
cohesion and union. In most of the border states the contest was 
assuming phases of dangerous antagonisms. Especially was this so 
in Missouri where Benton, Blair and Brown were waging a bitter 
war on behalf of free soil. Colonel Bissell took great interest in the 
Missouri conflict and was constantly in correspondence with the 


leaders named, and, at times, met them in consultation. No man in 
Illinois was held in higher estimation by the early workers for free 
soil in Missouri than Colonel Bissell. The final trend to a consolida- 
tion of all elements in opposition to the pro- slavery and disunion 
party culminated in the convention at Bloomington, 111., on the 29th 
of May, 1856. One of your ablest historians records the event in 
these words: 

"It was a famous gathering, and marked the commencement of a 
new era in the politics of the State. All those who subsequently be- 
came leaders of the Republican party were there; Whigs, Democrats, 
know-nothings and abolitionists. Those who had all their lives been 
opposing and fighting each other, found themselves for the first time 
harmoniously battling side by side, consulting and shouting their 
unanimous accord." 

John M. Palmer was made president of that convention, and 
among the delegates were such men as Lincoln, Browning, Went- 
worth, Yates, Lovejoy, Oglesby and Koerner. This convention re- 
corded the real birth of that party which so successfully carried on 
the war for the preservation of the Union and destroyed forever the 
institution of slavery. Without solicitation, without even an antici- 
pation on his part. Colonel Bissell was unanimously nominated for 
governor of the State. No higher compliment could have been ex- 
tended; no greater evidence of the exalted estimation of the man 
could be given. It was the recognition on the part of great men, 
sincerely earnest men, patriots and leaders of men, that he possessed 
those pre-eminent abilities required in the leadership of so great a 
cause. And he fulfilled the trust faithfully as long as life was given 
him, During his administration he had to contend against the un- 
reasonable attacks of partisanship, but so bore himself as to carry 
through measures important to the interests of the State and en- 
forced respect and support for his acknowledged statesmanship. 

In person Governor Bissell was of the soldier's standard height. 
In form, finely proportioned, he bore himself with boooniing dignity 
but without the least semblance of vanity or ostentation His coun- 
tenance was frank, open and prepossessing. A finely shaped head, 
in harmony with his body, was crowned with dark brown hair lining 
a high and broad forehead. His features were prominent, with a 
large Roman nose, a square but not protruberant chin; a mouth indi- 
cating firmness, with full lips and closely trimmed mustache; small 
tufts of hair grew just in front of his ears. Eyebrows almost 
et^raight, shaded his eyes; these were dark gray and very bright. The 
muscles of his face were remarkably flexible and expressive. His 
manners were exceedingly courteous and impressive, and his conver- 
sation animated and interesting. His canvassing methods were en- 
tirely different from most politicians. There was nothing of the 
demagogue about him and he never resorted to subterfuges or 
schemes for success. His habits were regular and temperate, and he 
never courted votes in the precincts of the saloon. One of his prom- 
inent traits, that of modesty, was in marked contrast to many of the 
public men with whom he associated. I have given some idea of 


his powers of oratory in the quotations read from his speeches, but 
they can convey only, in limited measure, the beauty, strength and 
power of the spoken words. A clear and well modulated voice, with 
gestures graceful and appropriate and the fire and fervor of convic- 
tion embellished his every effort, and, on occasions, when deeply 
moved and an inspiration seized him, he rose to the highest flights 
of eloquence. In daily life his course was in keeping with the noble 
impulses that marked his public career. He was a kind and afiPeo- 
tionate husband and father; a just and upright citizen; a staunch 
friend and a devoted believer in the faith of immortality, and, lastly, 
he was a type of the founders of the Republic. His ambition was 
pure and exalted. He cared not, neither did he strive, for the wealth 
of earth, but, dying, he left what was greater, "the imperishable heri- 
tage of a lofty reputation and a spotless name." It is greatly to be 
regretted that he did not live to accomplish the good he might have 
done. He did not live to finish his term of office, but died on Sun- 
day, the 18th of March, 1860 His death was pathetic in the extreme. 
He retained his faculties until the last. His last hours are described 
in one of the journals of the day: 

'•On Saturday morning Governor Bissell had himself a conscious- 
ness of the approach of death and about 5 a. m, called his family to 
his bedside. One or two other persons, attendants during his illness, 
were present. The scene at the last parting was only referred to that 
it may place in its brightest light the character of the deceased. 
Calling each member of the family to his bedside, he gave them a 
last embrace —the wife and weeping daughters all sharing alike in 
his affection. A brief address was made to each. Then followed 
farewells to other members of the household, Of the faithful ser- 
vants among these was a colored domestic who nursed Mrs Bissell 
while an infant. Following this, during the forenoon of Saturday, 
Messrs Lincoln, Hatch, Dubois and Herndon had a brief farewell 
interview with him. He passed a painful night and on Sunday 
morning the death struggle commenced at 7 o'clock. At intervals he 
would rally; his eye would kindle aa its wont and his failing powers 
by the force of his indomitable will would be roused and carry him 
through some sentences uttered clearly and distinctly, waon the eb- 
bing tide would sink back again. About the middle of the forenoon 
he made a brief prayer to the Deity, as a dying man to his Maker 
and Judge. It was clearly and distinctly uttered and full of feeling. 
For an hour or two preceding his death he did not speak, but sank 
gradually, and so passed from earth." 

The voice of mourning — deep, sincere and reverential —was heard 
in every part of the State on the announcement of the death of Gov- 
ernor Bissell. Nor was it confined to the limits of Illinois. The 
advocates of the perpetuity of our government, the friends of free- 
dom, the brave, the true and the patriotic throughout the length and 
breadth of the land mourned the death of the illustrious soldier and 
statesman. The funeral procession at the capital was by far the 
largest and most imposing that ever attended the obsequies of any 
citizen of the State, save one, in later years. It was composed of 


military officers of high degree, judges of the Supreme, Circuit and 
Federal courts, United States senators and members of Congress; 
governors and lieutenant governors of various states, members of the 
State Senate and House of Representatives, members of the bar, nu- 
merous civic societies, a great concourse of illustrious citizens, and, 
last though not least, the officers and soldiers who served under him 
in the Mexican war. x\mong the chief mourners was his dis- 
tinguished friend and political associate, Abraham Lincoln. Conjec- 
ture asks — What were his reflections on that solemn occasion? Aa 
he heard the measured footsteps of the citizen militia, the boom from 
out the distant battery and the noise of the platoon firing over the 
grave of his friend, did his prophetic mind hear from out the future 
the solid tramp of armed legions, the thunder from thousands of 
hoarse- mouthed cannons, the wild tornado of rattling musketry and 
the mighty rush of contending hosts in the yet unfought war for the 
Union? Did his eye far down the vista look upon the terrible pano- 
rama of war and desolation, of triumph and victory? Did he see the 
full fruition and outcome of the work so devotedly commenced by the 
illustrious dead and his associates? If so, then his sad face on that 
day wore a more sombre tinge, and the tears that he shed for his 
friend and co-worker in the cause of justice and human freedom 
were commingled with those he shed for the coming woes and calam- 
ities of his beloved country. 

In conclusion, let me say that it was my desire and intention to 
refer to other distinguished citizens of this State with whom I was 
acquainted, but I find it impossible to attempt to do so in the cir- 
cumscribed time allotted for this address. I regret it, for there are 
several others whose memory I fondly cherish with sentiments of 
esteem, admiration and affection. When I read the history of my 
native State, my heart swells with pride and satisfaction at the mar- 
velous work of her people and her long line of great and illustrious 
characters. Other states have produced great and distinguished 
men, but in the world's annals of human action is recorded that in 
the greatest achievements performed in behalf of humankind in the 
19th century. Illinois stands pre eminent. 



Dr. J. F. Snyder. 

Among several old newspapers I secured at Jacksonville a short 
time since, was a copy of the Illinois State Journal of Nov. 25,1857, 
published at Springfield, 111., by Bailache& Baker, in which appears 
the following communication written by Prof. John Russell, dated 
"BlufFdale, November, 1857." 

"For the Illinois State Journal — The School Advocate — An Essay 
on the Human Mind and its Education. 

"Such is the title of a work of 118 pages, fresh from the pen of our 
fellow- citizen, ex- Governor Reynolds. He and his writings are too 
well known to the people of this State for it to be needful to offer a 
single comment upon that little volume. Deposit a letter in any 
postoffice of Illinois, however remote or obscure, with no other super- 
scription than these three words — "The Old Ranger" — and it would 
go straight to him at Belleville. As an author, his great personal 
popularity has rather been a drawback to him, than otherwise, for 
few are disposed to give to his writings the severe but salutary 
criticism which other writers find so beneficial, though not always 
very agreeable. 

"There is hardly an office within the gift of our people which he 
has not filled, and with distingished honor. For several years past 
he has declined all public employment, and with an ample fortune 
retired to the shades of private life, but not of idleness. The mind 
of Governor Reynolds, both by nature and habit, is much too active 
to content itself with listless inanity. During the period of his re- 
tirement he has written and published several valuable works, of 
which the one whose title is placed at the head of this article, is the 
latest. Space in which to analyze the contents of that volume can 
be afforded only in the ample pages of a monthly or quarterly Review, 
It is useless to attempt it in the columns of a newspaper. The title itself, 
however, discloses the scope of the author. It is philosophical as 
well as practical, and rich in well matured and original thoughts. 
No one will read the work without feeling himself abundantly paid 
for its perusal. 

"It is said that Governor Reynolds is already engaged upon an- 
other work, which will appear in the course of a few months. With 
his "Z/i/e and Times,"" the reading public is already familiar. Not- 
withstanding the haste with which it went through the press, un- 


avoidably carrying along with it many typographical and other not 
very important errors, that volume of 600 pages has been pronounced 
by competent judges the best work that has yet been written upon 
the early history of Illinois. 

"It is a remarkable fact, that St. Clair county contains the only 
two living writers of the State, whose productions have the slightest 
chance to outlive the passing hour, and descend to other times. The 
Rev. Dr. Peck and ex- Governor Reynolds, each in his own appropri- 
ate field, has collected, and in part published, a series of important 
facts connected with the history of this State, which, but for their 
labors would have perished forever. For this, if for nothing else, 
the future sons and daughters of Illinois will hold them in grateful 

A native of St. Clair county. 111., myself and reared in Belleville, 
the home of Governor Reynolds, I was intimately acquainted with 
him from my boyhood until his death in 1865. Familiar as I am — 
or imagined myself to be — with his writings I never, before reading 
this communication of Professor Russell's, heard of the book he 
calls public attention to, and his account of it is the first I have yet 
seen in print. That book, or essay, is not mentioned by any of 
Governor Reynolds' numerous biographers. My inquiries of his 
few remaining contemporaries in St. Clair county have failed to dis- 
cover anyone there who ever saw, or before heard of it. It is not in 
the public library at Belleville, or in what is left of Professor Russell's 
library, though his son, Mr. S. G. Russell, of BlufFdale, thinks his 
father must have donated the book, after writing this notice of it, to 
the Chicago Historical society whose collections were later all 
destroyed in the great fire of 1871. 

My object in transcribing and calling attention to this communi- 
cation of Professor Russell's is to institute a general public inquiry 
for this forgotten work of Governor Reynolds, and, if it is not com- 
pletely out of print and lost, to secure, if possible, a copy of it for 
the Illinois State Historical library. 

Mr. Edward W. West, a resident of Belleville for 80 years, sug- 
gests that Professor Russell may have been mistaken in attributing 
the authorship of the book to Governor Reynolds, That, however, 
is not probable. This "School Advocate, or Essay upon the Human 
Mind and its Education," appearing in 1857, was doubtless written 
by the Old Ranger, and perhaps for an ulterior purpose, as less than a 
year later he was nominated, in 1858, by the anti-Douglas wing of 
the Democratic party — of which he was a conspicous champion — as 
its candidate for the position of State Superintendent of Public In- 
struction. Or, in justice to the Governor, it should be presumed 
that his treatise on Schools and Education of the Human Mind, dis- 
seminated in the fall of 1857, made so profound an impression on 
his party, without design on his part, as to influence his nomination 
the next spring, 

The Douglas faction of the Democracy at that time nominated for 
the same office ex- Gov. A, C. French. At the election following both 


ex-Governors were defeated by Newton Bateman, the Republican 
candidate, whose majority over Reynolds, however, was only 2,143 in 
the total of 252,100 votes cast. 

Anyone knowing of the existence of a copy of the book referred to 
in this inquiry will confer a valuable favor by communicating that 
fact to the librarian of the Illinois State Historical library at Spring- 
field, 111. 



By Frank E. Stevens, auilior of the "Black Hawk War." 

At this moment, with the United States and England united by 
ties of closest friendship, it may appear highly impertinent to dis- 
turb their tranquil contemplation by turning over pages of the past 
to a time when English subjects on this side of the Atlantic found 
their greatest gratification in inciting Indians to lift the scalps of 
our forefathers. But I shall not use unfortunate complications of 
former days malevolently. They are past and forgotten and the man 
of today cares very little about them anyway. In fact, I may say 
that the average man of today bothers his busy brain very little with 
affairs which concerned his forefathers, or even his father. They are 
"charged off" his mind, if he ever had them there, pretty much as 
he charges off his bad accounts at the end of the year and, apparently, 
he does not care to get them back. 

The events which I am called upon to relate have been set down 
by others at different periods, but in books, periodicals and pamph- 
lets now so rare as to be practically obsolete; therefore, I am con- 
strained to admit that this paper is little more than a collation of 
those recondite items. 

In general, where quotations are used with no note of reference, 
the item should be credited to the "American State Papers." 

At the conclusion of our war for independence, it was stipulated 
in the treaty that all frontier posts* of the northwest then occupied 
by British garrisons were to be surrendered, but they were not The 
Jay treaty followed, and even that did not secure their evacuation 
until 1796.1 

Had the British remained tranquil J, the occupation of those posts, 
though unlawful, had not materially injured the officers of the United 
States in arranging their Indian policy; but neither British officers 
nor traders remained tranquil. From the moment the war termi- 
nated, those individuals offensively meddled with the Indians and 
the schemes introduced to keep them peaceful and contented— a most 
delicate task when environments were most auspicious. § 

*Mlchillmacklnac, Detroit, Niagara. Osweeotch6. Point Au Fer. Dutchman's Point and 
Prairie du Chlen. 

tBurnet's "Notes on the early settlement of the Northwest Territory." 

JThe conduct of the British up to this date, and during all the long years which followed, 
may be said to have had a three-fold object— resentment, a desire to retain the trade already 
established with the Indians, and a desire to keep the American settlements confined to the 
Atlantic seaboard by making life west of It as uncomfortable as possible. 

? Armstrong very aptly mentions the treaty of Paris, 1783, as "virtually a truce, not a paci- 
fication; a temporary and reluctant sacrifice of national pride to national interest; not a 
frank and honest adjustment of differences." 


During the French and Indian wars, the Indians had been engaged 
with one side or the other; fed and pampered by both until new and 
exaggerated wants had been engendered to such an extent that noth- 
ing much short of genius could bring them back to peaceful habits 
and simple needs, Coming to us intractable, sometimes belligerent, 
against their will in a measure, the difficulties of the situation may 
be readily imagined. No one appreciated those difficulties more than 
the British, and, resentful at their recent failure to conquer, they 
lost no time in multiplying the perplexities of this nascent country 
with its new wards. 

Naturally, a receptive mood was needed to secure the adoption of 
American measures, but the Indians did not receive without objec- 
tion. On the contrary, they returned to their old friends for advice. 
Every real or fancied grievance was carried direct to British head- 
quarters, and, instead of referring the matter back to the Americans 
where it belonged, the grievance was magnified and the Indians 
urged to resent it. No opportunity was lost to impress upon the 
minds of the susceptible Indians that they had lost a good provider 
when they lost the English father, and that they probably would 
suffer to an uncomfortable degree with the new father. Presents of 
whiskey and food were added at the same time, to cause the dissatis- 
faction to spread and to make the Indians believe they were to be 
systematically defrauded every time the Americans offered an inno- 
vation. If a tranquil state were sought, the British exultingly pointed 
to the fact as the entering wedge for something sinister to follow, 
and so, from disquietude to alarm and from alarm to hostility, those 
red men were brought until the Indian war of 1790-95 followed, which 
was supported by the British; covertly at the start, but gradually in- 
creasing in boldness until, at the battle before Fort Recovery, British 
soldiery was conspicuously active in the attempt (unsuccessful) to re- 
duce it. From prisoners* taken in that engagement it was learned that 
Colonel McKee was the organizer and sponser for the 1794 campaign, 
and that Governor Simcoe, Brandt and others equally prominent had 
been exerting every influence to make the same as barbarous as pos- 
sible. Specific instances were cited by the Indians in such numbers 
that denial was never attempted It was only after General Wayne 
had whipped the Indians into submission, Aug. 20, 1794, that any- 
thing like submission was offered. The truth of British activity was 
corroborated immediately by the examination of prisoners by General 
Wayne, which may be found in Burnet's "Notes on the Early Settle- 
ment of the Northwest Territory," page 179 et seq , foot note; so 
careful and exhaustive that reference to it must prove his conclusions 
to be incontrovertible. On Deo. 23, 1794, the facts were reported to 
the secretary of war. The treaty of Greenville followed,! after nearly 
five years of savage warfare. In 1790, after the Jay treaty, the British 
finally surrendered the then important northwestern posts to the 
United States J 

*Barnet, 165 et seq. 


tAusr. 3. 1795. 


Feeling assured of safety by that treaty, the Americans commenced 
an unusual migration into the Northwest territory in such numbers 
as to attract the attention and likewise the envy and opposition of 
British officers and traders, who feared the influence of the movement 
would force the Indians further to the west, beyond their influence 
and to their great loss. 

In 1808, Little Turtle, who had formerly acted with the English, 
was one of the first to notify the Americans of the perfidy of the 
English agents and traders in the following talk: 

"Brother — At the time we were making bright the chain of friend- 
ship at Canandaigua, the commissioner on your part told us that the 
time might come when your enemies would endeavor to disturb our 
minds, and do away with the friendship we had then formed with 
you. That time, brother, has already arrived. Since you have had 
some disputes with the British government, their agents in Canada 
have not only endeavored to make the Indians at the westward your 
enemies, but they have sent a war belt among our warriers, to poison 
their minds and make them break their faith with you. This belt 
we exhibited to your agents in council and then sent it to the place 
from which it came, never more to be seen among us. At the same 
time we had information that the British had circulated war belts 
among the western Indians and within your territory. We rested 
not, but called a general council of the Six Nations and resolved to 
let our voice be heard among our western brethren and destroy the 
effects of the poison scattered among them. We have twice sent 
large deputations to the council fire, for the purpose of making their 
minds strong in their friendship with your nation, and in the event 
of war between the white people, to sit still on their seats and take 
no part on either side. So far as our voice has been heard, they have 
agreed to hearken to our council and remain at peace with your na- 

"Brothers, if war should take place, we hope you will inform us of 
it through your agents, and we will continue to raise our influence 
with all the Indians with whom we are acquainted, that they will sit 
still upon their seats and cultivate friendship with your people." 

By 1809, Illinois had acquired enough of that population to be 
erected into a territory; far to the west and feebly protected, and to it 
those agents and traders turned their attention, provoking friction, 
subsidizing influential Indians, stimulating hatred and furnishing 
munitions to be used against the inhabitants. The Prophet of the 
Wabash, brother to Tecumseh, became one of their personal repre- 
sentatives so early as lb08, by sending emissaries, and individually 
penetrating to the remotest tribes of Illinois, haranguing some, 
promising others, and all the while seeking cooperation to drive back 
the Americans to the seaboard. 


So far as the mouth of Rock River, emissaries were lodged to urge 
suoh maloontentg as Black Hawk, who lived there with hie hirelings, 
styled "the British band," to thefts and murders. If this statement 
be doubted, the following authority should convince- 

"St. Louis, April 30, 1809 * 

"I have the honor to enclose you a copy of a letter which confirms 
my suspicions of British interference with our Indian affairs in this 
country. Extract from the enclosed letter: 'I am at present in the 
fire, receiving Indian news every day. A chief of the Puantf nation 
appears to be employed by the British to get all the nations of Indians 
to Detroit, to see their fathers, the British, who tell them that they 
pity them in their situation with the Americans, because the Ameri- 
cans had taken their lands and their game; that they must join and 
send them from their lands. They told the savages that the Ameri- 
cans could not give them a blanket, nor anything good for their 

" 'They said they had but one father that had helped them in their 
misfortunes, and that they would assemble, defend their father, and 
keep their lands.' It appears that four English subjects have been 
at Riviere a la Roche J this winter, in disguise; they have been there 
to get the nations together, and send them on the American fron- 
tiers. || Other Indians are pushed on by our enemies to take the fort 
of Belle Vue."§ 

To the east as far as Sandusky, it was found, June 9, 1809, that, 
contrary to all regulations of the United States, British traders were 
introducing liquor among the Indians of that locality and seeking 
recruits among them. 

On June 28, 1809. Nicholas Jarrot, of Cahokia, made aflidavit that 
Messrs. Portier and Bleakly, of Prairie du Chien, were inciting In- 
dians to hostility and furnishing them arms and ammunition, with 
the result that the Indians along the Mississippi became audacious 
and warlike^ In fact it may be said that by reason of such conduct, 
in conjunction with the influence of the agents stationed at the 
mouth of Rock River, Ft. Madison was threatened during the winter 
of 1808-9, and on April 19, 1809, Lieut. Alpha Kingsley, command- 
ant, reported rumors of a contemplated attack upon him and wrote: 
"The sooner the British traders are shut out of the river, the better 
for our country," 

By July, the influence of those Rock River traders had fructified 
and a large band of Sacs had started for Amherstburg, reaching 
that point in conjunction with other bands from the Vincennes coun- 
try, July 27th, where they received quantities of arms, ammunition 

* From General Clark. 

+ Winnebago, meaning "The Stinker." 

1 Rock River. 

i Black Hawk and his followers enlisted. 

2 Ft. MHdison. 

H The affidavit made those two traders so uncomfortable that it became necessary for them 
to deny it with much vehemence. 

— 5H 


and provisions from the English agents. To add to our embarass- 
ment thus created they invariably took advantage of the disappoint- 
ments and dissatisfactions found among the Indians after the signing 
of a treaty wherein some Indian might have received more than his 
neighbor, or some other inequality, real or imaginary; at each of 
which there always were found British agents to magnify the in- 
juries, until the disgruntled became numerous and outspoken and 
finally added new enemies to the States. The climax appears to have 
been reached Sept. 30, 1809, when the treaty of Ft. Wayne had been 
concluded with the Dela wares, Pottawatomies, Miamies, Kickapoos, 
Wea and Eel River Indians, at which Tecumseh resented the aliena- 
tion of the Indian title with all his power, claiming that lands were 
given the Indian by the Great Spirit, never to be transferred for any 
consideration. His hatred was aroused and never thereafter quieted, 
and without delay his influence was secured by the British and his 
hatred fanned to a fury which raged until his death. Through that 
chief, the British secured the co-operation of the Wabash Indians, 
while they in turn were supposed to assist Tecumseh in his scheme 
for a great Indian confederation. 

At once, irregular thieving was inaugurated by Indians who before 
that time had been on good terms with the whites; then followed 
bolder acts and larcenies of greater magnitude, and, being appar- 
ently immune from punishment, by reason of the sparsely settled 
country, murders were added here and there. 

Thus we are brought down to the year 1810, when Illinois Terri- 
tory had a population of but 12,282, scattered over a great area — 
between the Mississippi and the Wabash and south of the present 
northern boundary line of St. Clair county, extending across the 
State, with a deflection allowed for the Peoria village and Ft. Dear- 
born. There were then but two counties, St. Clair and Randolph 
and while the Territory had no recorded militia laws, until June 22 and 
26, 1811, which we can find, yet so early as May 1, 1809, Nathaniel 
Pope, Secretary of the Territory, as acting Governor, began prepar- 
ations for the erection of a military department by appointing Abram 
Clark "captain of a militia company in the regiment of militia in St. 
Clair county during the pleasure of the Governor for the time be- 
ing." And BO on day by day threreafter, companies formed in the 
little settlements and for them the Governor appointed officers, con- 
spicuous among them being William Whiteside, William B. White- 
side, Shadrack Bond, James Moore, Baptiste Saucier, Enoch Moore 
and John Moredock. Elias Rector was appointed Adjutant General. 

Stout hearted men they were, indeed, but to cover such a breadth 
of country, under the circumstances, and in face of odds which we 
. shall see confronting them, was a superhuman task; yet they man- 
aged it as well, perhaps, as was possible, restraining the Indians from 
great engagments, the Ft. Dearborn massacre excepted, because it 
was beyond their jurisdiction. On July 19, 1810, a band of Pottawa- 
tomies, who had been to war against the Osages, without result, were 
returning home. Arriving at the Loutre settlement at the upper 
part of the Loutre island , opposite the mouth of the Gasconade 


river,* they stole a number of horses. Owners of the property and 
friends to the number of six, to wit: Stephen Cole, William Temple 
Cole, Larshal Brown, Cornelius Gooch, Abraham Patten and James 
Murdough, immediately pursued the thieves for a long distance, or 
as stated bj'^ Murdough in an affidavit dated Aug. 17, 1810, to be 
found on page 55 of '"Memorial of the State of Missouri and docu- 
ments," etc, published by order of the United States Senate in 1826, 
as follows: "made ready and pursued the trail, in order to get the 
horses, until next day about 1:00 o'clock, when the company came 
in sight of a party of Indians in a prairie, between the waters of 
Cuivre and Salt river. I did not see the Indians, but the men in 
front of the company saw them, as they allowed, about four or five 
miles distant in the prairie, and the company followed the trail until 
they came to where the Indians had left some of the plunder, to- 
gether with two sides of leather (Brown's) ; here I allowed the In- 
dians discovered the company after them, which was the cause of 
their leaving the plunder. The company followed on until them- 
selves and horses were so much exhausted that they could not over- 
take the Indians, and all concluded to return, and that night went 
back and lifted the Indian plunder which they had passed, and trav- 
eled about three miles back on the trail, and encamped on a small 
branch of Salt river. Here three of the company agreed to go home, 
and the others, Murdough, Gooch and Brown, were to take the Indian 
plunder on the next morning and go and leave it with one Lagoterie, 
so that he might try and get the horses, or find out what nation of 
Indians it was. After this resolution the horses were turned out, 
and the company lay down, and about 2:00 o'clock on the morning of 
the 21st,the company was fired on by the Indians, (supposed then to be 
Sacs)." The Indians suddenly opened fire, and before the men 
could rouse themselves, William T. Cole, Gooch, Brown and Patten 
were killed and Stephen Cole was wounded. 

Cat-Fish, a Pottowatomie, was subsequently identified as the 
leader of the band, having with him other Potto' , ^ Lomies and a Sac. 

On the 22d Stephen Cole returned to the settlements and gave the 
warning, when a party the following day went to the battlefield and 
buried the dead. 

Stephen Cole was said to have killed four Indians and wounded a 
fifth with his own hand. The survivors were unable to reach the 
settlements again to tell their story, until the 22d; then a party re- 
turned and recovered the bodies, but the horses, blankets, guns, am- 
munition, etc., belonging to them had been stolen and by that time 
probably had been lost irretrievably.! 

At Vincennes, on July 18, it was ascertained that the Rock river 
Sacs had prepared to strike, the moment they should receive the 
signal. The motive which prompted it being another pilgrimage to 

* Annals of the West, 728. Edwards' Hist. p. 37, places the robbery at Portage des Sioux; 
but affidavits made at the time all place them at a settlement called Lontre settlement, Fen- 
sure township, in the district of St. Charles. 

tA.nnal9. 625 9. Edwards' Hist, of 111., 37. 


see the British agent, at Maiden to receive presents, most of which 
could be used against the Americans in unprotected localities, the 
Indians passing Chicago July Ist. A friendly Miami who was pres- 
ent when those Sacs received their presents, afterwards informed the 
Americans that the agent told him as he had the Sacs these words: 
"My son, keep your eyes fixed on me; my tomahawk is now up; be 
you ready, but do not strike until I give the signal." For ladians of 
a peaceful frame of mind, the following inventory may be said to re- 
flect many hypothetical interlineations: 

"Fort Wayne, Aug. 7, 1810. 

"Since writing you on the 26th ultimo, about 100 men of the 
Saukies * ha^e returned from the British agent, who supplied them 
liberally with everything they stood in need of. The parties received 
47 rifles and a numer of fusils, with plenty of powder and lead. This 
is sending firebrands into the Mississippi country, inasmuch as it 
will draw numbers of our Indians to the British side, in the hope of 
being treated with the same liberality. 

"John Johnson, 

"Indian Agent. ^^ 

(Annals of the West, page 577.) 

On May 18, 1811, the government was notified from Chicago that 
an assemblage of Indians was to take place on a branch of the Illi- 
nois, inspired by the Prophet of the Wabash and from which, hostil- 
ities might be expected to spring in the event of trouble with the 
English. On June 2, 1811, a party of savages fell upon a family 
named Cox, near the forks of Shoal creek. There were present at 
the time but two members of it, a young man, who was instantly 
killed, his body was mutilated in a shocking manner, and a young 
woman, who was made a prisoner. With the prisoner and all the 
live stock stolen, the Indians followed a northward course for home. 
When the Coxes returned and found the desolation left by the mur- 
derers, a party commanded by one Preuitt, with Henry Cox, Benjamin 
Cox and others to the number of eight or ten, started in pursuit, 
northwesterly, and continuing to a point seven miles from their 
home and 50 miles north of the present site of the city of Spring- 
field, where the Indians were overtaken and an engagement followed. 
No lives were lost, but the property was recovered, and during the 
excitement of the engagement, the girl escaped, receiving a cruel 
tomahawk wound in the hip while she ran. On the 20th of the same 
month, a man named Price was killed near the spring in the lower 
end of what was later the city of Alton. f Price, a relative of the 
Whiteside family, and another man named Ellis were plowing corn 
when they saw the Indians approaching them at the spring, where a 
small cabin was located. As the Indians approached, the whites 
asked if they were for peace or war. One of their number, a large 

• The same referred to In the paragraph above. 
tDavlaon and Stuve, 249. Reynolds' Pioneer Hist.. 404. 


and powerful fellow, replied by laying his gun upon the ground and 
extending his hand to Price, who innocently grasped it. But the 
Indian held him as in a vice while the other Indians murdered him 
in cold blood. During the fight, the man Ellis escaped after receiv- 
ing a wound in the thigh, by flying to his horse and making for 

Murders became so numerous and the unfortunate victims were 
mutilated so frightfully, that a mass meeting of St. Clair county cit- 
izens was held to consider the state of the country, demand protec- 
tion by the government and in the mean time, protect themselves as 
well as their numbers and means would permit. At that meeting, 
"Col. William Whiteside was conducted to the chair and Samuel D. 
Davidson, Esq , appointed secretary: 

^^ Resolved unanimously , That the following memorial be presented 
to Ninian Edwards, governor of the territory aforesaid, as the joint 
sense of the meeting, to be signed by the chairman; which humbly 
sheweth, that we are highly gratified with the prompt, speedy and 
prudential manner in which your Excellency has issued your orders 
for the defense of the exposed frontiers of said country, to oppose 
the repetition of Indian hostilities and that we have the utmost and 
incontrovertible confidence in your abilities and patriotism for our 
safety in the present alarming times, as the constitutional channel 
between the general government and us: 

"Wherefore, we confidently request of your Excellency to forward 
the annexed memorial to the President of the United States, with 
such statements as may appear reasonable and just to gain the object 
prayed for, as we are confident your Excellency must feel and see 
with us, that one or more garrisons, established and defended by the 
regular veterans of the United States, would be of the utmost safety 
to the extensive and exposed frontiers of both the Louisiaaa and 
Illinois territories in a more particular manner as the great and num- 
erous tribes of Indians, who had the hardihood and insolence to make 
war against the United States, (and in some instances with effect) 
a few years since, that by the treaty of Greenville and other subse- 
quent treaties, have relinquished their title to their former hunting 
ground, which is now transformed into substantial plantations and 
are changing their habitations faat from the lakes and waters of the 
Ohio down the Illinois river to the Mississippi, where undoubtedly 
it would be necessary to establish a fort, in order to set reasonable 
bounds to their savage fury and unprovoked disturbance; we beg 
leave to refer your Excellency to a view of the great and manifest 
benefits lately obtained by the garrisons established far up on the 
two great rivers, several hundred miles above their junction, when, 
before the establishing of these strengths, there did not a season pass 
by but some innocent person fell a victim to savage barbarity on 
both sides of the river and we confidently believe it would have the 
same salutary effect, in establishing one fort or block house on the 
first eminence above either the mouths of the Missouri or the Illinois 
rivers and another in the seditious village of Peoria, the great nur- 
sery of hostile Indians and traitorous British Indian traders. We 


hope it will not be thought superfluouB to mention, that the above 
request is not to gratify our pride or avarice in obtaining military 
pomp to decorate our streets, or the expenditure of public money to 
buy our produce, but it is to keep the improving citizen in peace in 
a remote region from the United States, who is now working to con- 
vert the fertile and extensive plains of the Mississippi into the fair- 
est portion of the Union. 

"From different circumstancee the inhabitants of this country are 
not in possession of a sufficiency of arms to repel any attack that 
may be offered; owing to the present alarm, it is not in our power to 
buy any, and a considerable portion of the militi i are not circum- 
stanced to buy. If your Excellency will be pleased to make use of 
your good offices to obtain from the general government the use of 
what rifles and muskets may be thought in your wisdom needful, it 
certainly would be of great service to this frontier country. 

William Whiteside, 
Samuel D. Davidson," 

"At a numerous meeting of the militia officers, and other inhabi- 
tants of St. Clair county, Illinois territory, at the court house, the 
.... day of ... . 1811, to take into consideration the alarming situation 
of the frontiers of this county, from the numerous and horrid de- 
predations lately committed by the Indians; Col, William Whiteside 
was conducted to the chair, and Samuel D. Davidson appointed sec- 

"Resolved, That there be a memorial immediately signed by the 
chairman of this meeting and countersigned by the secretary, stat- 
ing to the President of the United States the necessity of his order- 
ing what number of regular troops he, in his wisdom, may think 
requisite, to be stationed for the defence of said county. 

'^Resolved, That the said memorial be sent to the Governor of said 
territory, requesting him to forward the same to the President of the 
United States and make such statement (to accompany said mem- 
orial) as the urgency of the subject does require. 

" To James Madison, President of the United States, Greeting — 

"The memorial of the inhabitants of the aforesaid county, humbly 
sheweth: That the inhabitants residing on the frontiers aforesaid, 
have sustained frequent and repeated damages from the different 
and numerous tribes of Indians on and in the neighborhood of the 
Illinois river, these five or six years past, by stealing their horses 
and other property, as well as the cruel murder of some few of the 
citizens. In lieu of retaliating, the said citizens curbed their pas- 
sions and restrained their resentment, lest they should be so unfor- 
tunate as to draw a stigma on the government by punishing the in- 
nocent for the transgressions of the guilty; and in one instance, 
restrained the vindictive spirit, by taking two Indians prisoners, 
who were in possession of stolen property, after a chase of 100 miles, 
and gave them up to the law. 


"We are become the victims of savage cruelty in a more hasty and 
general manner than what has lately been experienced in the United 
States. Last spring, there were numbers of horses stolen. On the 
second of June, a house of Mr. Cox was robbed of valuable effects, 
five horses stolen, a young man massacred and his sister taken pris- 
oner; sad and conclusive presages of war. There was likewise a 
man severely wounded, when following the aforesaid Indians. 

"On the 20th of the same month (June) a man was killed and 
scalped and another mortally wounded, which can be more fully 
stated by the executive of said territory. Those who have suffered 
are not intruders, but are living on their own farms, on the north- 
western frontier of said county. From our knowledge of the danger 
we are in, and our long suffering, we think we ask nothing but what 
is reasonable and what will be advantageous to the United States 
when we implore you to station what number of soldiers you may 
think sufficient to establish a garrison at the village of Peoria, com- 
monly called Opea, on the Illinois river; and one other on the eastern 
bank of the Mississippi, at or near the place once viewed and adopted 
by Captains Stoddart and Bissel, six or eight miles below the mouth 
of said Illinois river, both sites being covered by treaty. We beg to 
refer you to the governor of said territory concerning the urgency 
and necessity of the case, not doubting but that you will grant our 
request if you think it will be for the welfare of the Union. 

Wm. Whiteside, 
Sam'l D. Davidson."* 

Which resolutions, with letters, were forwarded by Governor Ed- 
wards to the President, Feb. 15, 1812. 

At once (July, 1811f ) a company of mounted rangers was raised in 
the Goshen settlement for the protection of the locality. Another 
was raised in Missouri J An act of Congress followed, authorizing 
the enlistment of ten companies of mounted rangers, to be styled the 
17th regiment, of which Col. William Russell, of Kentucky, was given 
command, and over each of which companies a captain was elected 
by the men. Four of those companies, recruited from Illinois, were 
assigned to the defense of Illinois, towit: The 3ompanies of Capt. 
William B. Whiteside, Capt. Samuel Whiteside, Capt James B. 
Moore and Capt. Jacob Short. Four of them were assigned to Indi- 
ana and two to Missouri. 

Over toward the Wabash five companies of mounted rangers were 
organized, to-wit: The companies of Capt. Willis Hargrave,§ Capt. 
William McHenry,§ Capt. Nathaniel Journey, Capt. Thomas E. 
Craig (of Shawneetown) and Capt. William Boone of the Big Muddy. || 

Forts, block houses and stockades were erected over the State 
wherever settlements were to be found, and, so far as known, are in- 
cluded in the following list: Journey's fort, a short distance above 
the site of the town of Aviston; one on the site of the present town 

•Indian Affnlr8, American State Papers. 

tAnnala. 731. 

lAnuals. 729. and Davidson and Stuv6, 249. 

?Both of White county. 

liloses Illinois. Vol. I. p. 247. 


of Carlyle; two (in the present county of Bond) on the east side of 
Shoal creek, one known as Hill's fort and the other as Jones' fort; 
one a few miles southeast of the present site of Lebanon, in St. Clair 
county, on the west side of the Looking Glass prairie, known as 
Chambers' fort; one on theKaskaskia river, called Middleton's fort, and 
another on the same stream called Going's fort; one on (Goshen) Doza 
creek, a few miles above its mouth, known as Nat Hill's; two in the 
Jourdan or Jordan settlement, built in 1811 by Thomas and Francis 
Jordan, with the assistance of the militia from the U. S. Saline, on 
the road to the salt works in the eastern part of Franklin county, 
eight or nine miles from old Frankfort; one at the mouth of the Illi- 
nois river; one, a small block house, on the west bank of the Illinois 
river (Prairie Marcot), 19 miles above its mouth, erected by Lieut. 
John Campbell, U. S. A ; Fort Clark at Peoria; one on the Missis- 
sippi, opposite the mouth of the Missouri; one on Silver creek, 
northeast of Troy; one called Ft. Johnson, on the site of the pres- 
ent town of Warsaw; Ft. Edwards; one, and by far the most im- 
portant, called Camp Russell, in honor of Colonel Russell, was 
established about a mile and a half northwest of Edwards 
vilie; Ft. Massac was also used as a base of supplies. Also 
the following over in White county: One on the Tangu- 
ary land, the northeast quarter of section 16, in township No. 
5 south, of range 10 east, built by Capt. William McHenry in the 
summer of 1812, and from which Captain McHenry 's company ranged ; 
one on the Stark ey place, built by Hardy Council in 1818; one on the 
east side of Big Prairie, built by Aaron Williams in 1813; one on the 
ground a little south of George Hanna's house, built by John Hanna, 
upon which spot there now stands a Methodist church; one about 
200 yards east of where Mathew Land now owns, built by Robert 
Land, who lived in it during the war, about half a mile south of the 
Hanna fort last above named; one east of Thomas Logan's farm, 
built by John Slocumb; and one in the northern part of the county, 
built by Daniel Boultinghouee near the prairie since named for him. 
He was killed by the Indians out on that prairie, near the house, in 

On March 20, 1818, a gentleman, writing to the Missouri Gazette, 
referred, among other things, to the forts of Illinois in the follow- 
ing manner: "We have now nearly finished 22 family forts 
(stations) , extending from the Mississippi, nearly opposite Bellefon- 
taine (the mouth of the Missouri), to the Kaskaskia river, a distance 
of about 60 miles. Between each fort spies are to pass and repass 
daily and communicate throughout the whole line, which will be ex- 
tended to the U. S. Saline and from thence to the mouth of the Ohio. 
Rangers and mounted militia, to the amount of 500 men, constantly 
scour the country from 20 to 50 miles in advance of our settlements, 
so that we feel perfectly easy as to an attack from our red brethren (?), 
as Mr. JefiFerson very lovingly calls them." 

In general, those forts were block houses, built of logs, a story and 
a half or two stories in height, with corners closely trimmed; the 
walls of the first being provided with port holes and doors, the last 
named being made of thick puncheons, strongly fastened together 


and as strongly barred on the inside. The upper story projected 
over the lower some three feet, through the floor of which were port 
holes commanding a range on the territory below. They were gen- 
erally built in two diagonally opposite corners of the stockade; some- 
times one was built in each of the four corners, and yet again one 
was built in the middle of the enclosure. These stockades were built 
by setting endwise into trenches, logs, trimmed on two sides, 12 or 
15 feet high, through which port holes were cut high enough to be 
above the head, and under which platforms were built to bring the 
soldier near enough to use his gun. They were expected to enclose 
sufiicient ground to contain the person and much of the property of 
him who sought shelter within. Cabins to contain all were generally 
erected, and in many cases a high degree of comfort for those times 
was to be enjoyed in those cabins. Usually two heavy gates were 
built to admit the teams and other stock, Wells were generally dug 
to provide water and, in fine, nothing needed to resist a long siege 
was omitted Those posts usually afforded ample protection and 
few accidents were reported to those who "forted" themselves. 

Fort Russell, in 1812, was provided with the single piece of artil- 
lery of Louis XIV, brought from Ft. Chartres. It was made the de- 
pot for military stores and virtually became the seat of government 
of Illinois territory when Governor Edwards and his suite removed 
thence. No regulars were quartered there save the small detachment 
under Captain Ramsey early in the spring of 1812. 

All the evidence at hand tended to prove conclusively to Governor 
Edwards that thus far all the mischief to the settlements had been 
conceived in the villages along the Illinois river , to which the Prophet 
had directed his genius for a considerable time. The following dis- 
patches bear upon the point: 

"ViNOENNES, July 2, 1811. 

"We were informed four weeks ago, that it was the intention of 
the Prophet to commence hostilities in the Illinois Territory in order 
to cover his principal object, which was an attack upon this place. 
These events require no comments; they merit and no doubt will re- 
ceive the immediate attention of the government. The people are 
in great alarm and have talked of collecting in stations. A dispatch 
has also been received from the Illinois Territory informing of hos- 
tilities and murders." 

Note as follows: 

"Illinois Territory, July 6, 1811. 

"An express has been received, with information of several other 
murders having been committed by the Indians on the frontiers. In 
fact, I consider peace as totally out of the question; we need not ex- 
pect it till the Prophet's party is dispersed and the bands of Potta- 
watomies about the Illinois river are cut off. Hostilities with them 
has grown into a habit. There is no reason to believe that they will 
make suflBcient satisfaction for the murders they committed and the 
goods and horses which they stole last year, or for the very aggra- 
vated and increased instances of similar hostilities in the present 
year. Energetic measures would lessen hia power of forming ooali- 


tions with other tribes; but we have not the power of taking any 
efPectual means to arrest his progress. If we do not make prepara- 
tions to meet him, an attack is certain. If we make x^reparationa 
formidable enough to deter him, though no war actually take place, 
we have to enoouater all the expense, inconvenience and injury to 
which a war with him would subject us, and there seems to be 
no reasonable ground to hope for a change for the better, whilst he 
is permitted to increase his strength with impunity." 

"Belle Fontaine, July 22, 1811. 
"On the 11th instant I detached a subaltern, sergeant, corporal and 
15 privates, with a month's provisions, to the Illinois river to choose 
a proper site for a block house, for temporary accommodations and 
defense, with orders to scout and reconnoitre the country and to 
watch every movement of the Indians." 

"Ft. Wayne, Aug. 18, 1811. 

"It appears that the fruit of the Shawnee Prophet and his band is 
making its appearance in more genuine colors than heretofore. I 
have lately had opportunities of seeing many of the Indians of this 
agency from different quarters, and by what I have been able to learn 
from them, particularly the Pottawatomies, I am induced to believe 
the news circulating in the papers respecting the depredations com- 
mitted in the Illinois Territory by the Indians, is mostly correct, and 
is thought by them to have proceeded from Marpoc and the influence 
of the Shawnee Prophet. Several of the tribes have sent to me for 

It was therefore thought best to apply moral suasion to the Indians 
of that locality, with the hope that they would, upon discovering the 
intentio^is of Governor Edwards, desist from further schemes of 
murder and robbery. Governor Howard had made a requisition on 
Governor Edwards for the Gasconade murderers which the latter de- 
sired to honor as well as to capture the murderers of the Cox boy and 
Price, and to recover, if possible, the stolen property. Accordingly 
on July 24, 1811, he commissioned Capt. Samuel Levering to under- 
take the mission which would carry him to the Peoria lake country.* 
On that day Captain Levering left Kaskaskia for the Peoria village, 
reaching Mr. Jarrots', in Cahokia, about 11 o'clock the following 
day, where he received his full quota of men, his boat for their con- 
veyance, equipment, provisions, etc. That same night he shipped 
for Ft. Clark with his crew, consisting of himself. Captain Ebert or 
Hebert, Henry Swearingen, Nelson Rector, a Frenchman called an 
interpreter, but really a spy, Wish-ha, a Pottawatomie Indian, and 
eight oarsmen named Pierre St. John, Pierre LaParohe, Joseph Tro- 
tier, Francis Pensoneau, Louis Bevanno, Thomas Hull (alias Woods) , 
Pierre Voedre and Joseph Grammason, all of whom signed articles 
as boatmen and soldiers for the expedition, and each of whom was 
armed with a gun. 

* Suspected of harboring: the culprits and the locality from which all trouble originated. 




On the 28th of July the boat reached Portage des Sioux, where it 
was met by Captain Whiteside with the men of his command, who 
had just arrived from the block house near the mouth of the Illinois 
river, and who informed Captain Levering that his party had fired 
on some Sacs under Quash-qua- me, a few days previous, while they 
were ascending the river. 

While it may distract the attention of the reader from the main 
narrative to relate the details of that incident, it must be admitted 
that no better moment will appear than the present to insert it iu 

"Illinois River Block House, July the 24 th, 1811. 

"Capt. William B. Whiteside: 

"Sir — I conceive it my duty to give you a statement of an affair 
that took place here since you left the block house. All passengers, 
either ascending or descending the Mississippi, both Indians and 
whites, came too at our block house and have been treated with civil- 
ity, until the 28d instant. In the afternoon we discovered two canoes 
ou the river near the Louisiana shore. Agreeable to your orders, I 
hailed them, in order to bring them too, but they did not come, and 
slipt alongside of the island. I took two men with me and went 
across to the island; one of them was a Frenchman who speaks the 
Indian language very well. I hailed them again, as the distance was 
not so great, and could hear them speak distinctly, and told them it 
was my orders to know what Indians passed, 

"There was a Frenchman who spoke from the canoes and gave me 
very insulting and abusive language, and continued going up the 
river. I then told them if they did not stop and come too, I would 
certainly fire on them, and was answered by the Frenchman, "Fire 
and be damned !" Then I fired off my gun for to strike about 20 or 
bO feet ahead of the canoe, which I seen the bullet strike and skip 
along the water above the canoe. Immediately after I seen a stout- 
looking man that we took to be a Frenchman, jump out of the fore- 
most canoe onto the sandbar and fired at me, and was very near hit- 
ting mo. I then was irritated, knowing they must have seen I did 
not aim at them. I then loaded my rifle and done my best at the 
Frenchman who shot at me, but done him no damage that I know of, 
as the distance was 200 or 800 yards. There was two more guns 
fired at us from the canoes, but done us no damage and went on. 
The day before the affair took place, a Sac chief called on me and 
told me he had some Indians behind that would be along in the even- 
ing and would stop. It appears to me that it was the Frenchman's 
fault, as we told the Indians very civilly, in their own language, what 
we wanted with them, and that we would not detain them. I shall 
be extremely sorry to have done anything that may have the least 
appearance of an unfriendly disposition towards Indians that is in 
friendship with the United States. 

A man that called his name Blondo came down the river and had 
met several canoes of the Sac Indians this morning, not far above 
this place, who told him they had been fired on the evening before 

by the people of this block house, and that they were very angry in 
consequence of it. I, not being acquainted with the nature of In- 
diana, may have done wrong, but I have this consolation, if I have, it 
was with an intention of doing right, Myself and the men are all in 
good health. We have no provisions come on yet. I am, sir, 
"Your obedient servant, 

"Samuel Whiteside." 

Letter op Governor Howard. 

St. Louis, July 29, 1811. 

"Sir — I have just been informed that some of the militia of Illinois, 
stationed on or near the Mississippi, below the mouth of the Illinois, 
a few days ago fired on a party of Sao Indians ascending the river 
from this place to Fort Madison with their women and children. I 
cannot believe that this act can be justified by any instructions from 
you. The white man who was with the chief and ahead of the 
party, when this affair took place, says that when they came up they 
appeared much irritated. I expect every day some chiefs from the 
Sacs here, and I think it important that the transaction should be 
satisfactorily explained to them. These people are powerful and 
now very friendly towards us, and 'tis possible that this affair may 
have a tendency to change their disposition in regard to the Ameri- 
cans. When those chiefs arrive, it will afford me pleasure to be 
furnished by you with the means of removing any unfavorable im- 
pression which this affair may have made. I enclose you an extract 
from a letter of Capt. Levering on the subject. I am sir, 

Your humble serv't, 

Benja. Howard. 

His Excellency, Ninian Edwards." 

Goshen, the 4th'of August, 1811. 

"His Excellency, Ninian Edwards. 

Sir — I have the honor of receiving yours of the 2nd instant in 
which I am informed that Governor Howard has made a communica- 
tion to your Excellency expressing a dissatisfaction with respect to 
an affair that took place at the Block House, on the Mississippi river 
between our men and some of the Sac Indians on the 23rd. of last 
month, and wished an explanation of the same. I have written to 
Governor Howard and given him all the information in my power, 
and that will be satisfactory to him, I hope, I do enclose to your 
Excellency a copy of a communication made by the officer to me, giv- 
ing the whole narrative of the transaction that took place with respect 
to firing on the Sac Indians, I can only observe that I think the 
boys was rather too forward, but I believe it was done by the officer 
without considering what the consequences that might result from it, 
would be Although I know him to be a deliberate man and one as 
zealous for the safety of his country as perhaps any one in it. I am, 
very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

Wm. B. Whiteside."* 

*The Edwards papers, pp. 63-63. 


On July 29th, the Levering boat reached Prairie Marcot, 19 miles 
above the mouth of the Illinois river, where Lieut, John Campbell 
U, S. A was stationed with 17 men. That oflBcer reported recent 
trails indicating the presence of 15 Indians. Nothiu)^ further oc- 
curred between that date and the arrival on August cJrd of the expe- 
dition at Ft. Clark where it was met by Mr. Thomas Forsyth the 
Indian agent there, who reported to Capt. Levering that he had 
already delivered Gen. Clark's* letter of a previous date, requesting 
the surrender of the murderers aad the stolen property, to Chief 
Gomo at his village 24 miles further up the river and that the chief 
had manifested an apparently honest desire to comply with the re- 
quests; but that he, Gomo, stood almost alone for the Americans. 

On August 4th, Jacques Mettie, of Peoria, reported that one of 
the Shoal Creek murderers was Nom-bo-itt, a Pottawatomie, at that 
moment in the Yellow Creek village of Chief Mat-cho-quis. about 90 
leagues from Peoria, and that another Pottawatomie named Me-nac- 
queth, was at Latourt or White Pigeon, on the route to Detroit; and 
that the third one of the Cox murderers was Es-ca-puck-he-ah, or 
Green, then 10 or 12 miles beyond White Pigeon, probably at the 
apple orchard on the Kick-kal-le-ma seau.f (Kalamazoo.) 

Immediately on arrival, Mr. Fournier was sent forward to visit 
Gomo and notify him of the presence below of Captain Levering 
with a message from Governor Edwards, but before reaching Gomo's 
village, an Indian had preceded him with the report that an armed 
party of 50 men had arrived at Ft. Clark. In face of such numbers, 
Gomo concluded to take with him an escort of 14 armed warriors, 
with which he at once marched down the river, floating the L^nited 
States flag, to a point about 80 rods above the quarters of Cap- 
tain Levering. At that point the chief received a message from 
Levering to the effect that he. Levering, desired Gomo to call at his 
quarters and receive a letter sent from Governor Edwards. Gomo 
called, and after learning of the contents of the letter, at once com- 
plied cheerfully and also agreed to return at once to his village and 
send his young men out to call in the following Pottawatomie chiefs: 
Neng-ke sapt, or Fire Medals, at Elkhart, Ind.; Topenuj'-boy, on the 
River St Joseph; Mo-quau-go, on the Qui-que que river; Wi-ne- 
mange,| or Cat Fish, on the Wabash. That Marpoc and his princi- 
pal chiefs had gone to Detroit and probably would not return till 
autumn. The chiefs of the towns on Fox river were at Milwaukee; 
Little Chief on the An Sable or Sand; Masseno, or Gomo, about 
seven leagues above Peoria; Black Bird, chief of the Ottawas, on the 
An Sable. At the conference Gomo displayed willingness to render 
every assistance to the Americans in running down the murderers 
and recovering the stolen property. 

With him was a cross bred Menominee- Pottawatomie, named Me- 
che-kenoph, or Bittern, who stated that the Price murderers were 
five Menominee brothers, whose names he repeated. 

*Gen. Wiliam Clark waa then the superintendent of Indian affairs for the entire locality, 
t Edwards. 39. 
i Winnemec. 


Bring furnished with tobacoo for distribution among his absent 
chiefs, Gomo then left for his village. 

In his absence, a difference arose in relation to the policy that 
should be pursued by the council of Indians. Speculation on 
Gomo's probable policy was discussed and its result imagined, out 
of which it was evolved that the Indians in all probability would 
adopt the prevalent policy, supposed to be the one recommended by 
the English, of sending some talkative or boisterous Indian like Lit- 
tle Chief to make promises from time to time until the affair had 
blown over. Thereupon Captain Levering resolved that he should 
attempt to make a serious impression upon the Indians by demand- 
ing a joint council from the tribes in the territories of Illinois, Indi- 
ana, Michigan and Louisiana to hear his grievances and act on them 
unitedly, so that thereafter, no individual chief could say, "it is none 
of my particular business, but my neighbor's." With this policy in 
mind, Levering's party the next day proceeded up stream until dark 
when a village, 20 miles from Ft. Clark was reached. At that point, 
the crew refused to go further, insisting that they were not employ- 
ed to work after dark, and Captain Levering was compelled to em- 
ploy two Indians to take him and Mr. Fournier by canoe four miles 
further up the river to a creek. From thence they were conducted 
through "a moist and thicketty bottom" to Gomo's village, reaching 
that place about 11:00 p. m. Gomo and his Indians were awakened 
from their sleep without bad humor and the embassy invited to a 
lodge, a large building built of bark, 25 by 50 feet inside, occupied 
by about 80 persons Scaffolds 6 to 7 feet long, 6 feet wide and 
5 feet high, extending all around the building afforded a space upon 
which to sleep and sit. Upon this. Levering and Fournier were in- 
vited to mount and sit next the family of Gomo himself. Though 
late and inconvenient, Gomo's wife prepared and served a dish made 
from new corn, which was eaten by the whites while Gomo sat by 
and silently smoked. Two fires were smoldering near the center of 
the room, about which the men had gathered to sit in silence; a 
mark of respect to their guests. 

The following morning, Gomo and another chief returned to 
Peoria, from which point and hour, it has been thought best to re- 
peat the narrative in full from Edwards' History of Illinois. 

"Captain Levering introduced the conversation by saying to Gomo 
that he wished a private talk with him, which he hoped would be 
useful; that he would not then speak the words of our father who 
sent him; that they were more interesting, and particularly concern- 
ed all the nation, and that he was reserving them for the council of 
chiefs who would be convened in a few days. 

"Gomo replied that he would, was rejoiced that he had been sent 
on this errand, and wished that the chiefs could attend and hear for 
themselves, our father's words; for no communication which he or 
any other Indian might make would be believed. They would, he 
said, call him sugar mouth, and charge him with being excited by 
fear or moved by treachery. 


"For that reason, Captain Levering wished the presence of as 
many chiefs and leading characters, from as many villages as could 
be collected, that none should be left in a state of ignorance that 
might and probably would be the means of involving the whole 
nation in a war. He stated to Gomo that our great father desired 
that peace and friendship should exist between the red and the white 
man, yet one chief might and could, from want of the proper infor- 
mation^ frustrate all these blessings; that it was important for the 
Indians all to know that, although the whites wished peace and 
friendship, some of the Indians had committed outrages, which, if 
not satisfactorily explained and atoned for, would end in their des- 
truction. "His father, before sending him, had advised with their 
fathers on the west of the Mississippi and on the east of the Wabash, 
and he now spoke agreeably to their united deliberations. Although 
our fathers did not resent the first injury, it was only through a dis- 
position of forbearance, hoping that it was an act of some unruly in- 
dividual, which the chiefs would correct; for the whites cannot con- 
ceive that individuals among the Indians can continue to perpetrate 
outrages without the countenance and encouragement of the chiefs. 
They believe that the chiefs can restrain their people from the com- 
mission of acts which will be injurious to their nation. The most 
forbearing, the greatest patience may become fatigued and worn 
out. Though friendship, on our part, should be abundant as the 
waters of a great river, yet, interrupt it till you choke it and it will 
be converted into a flood of destruction, and in its course it could 
not discriminate the innocent from the guilty — while any good man 
would lament the sufferings of the innocent.* 

"Gomo wished that all the chiefs could attend and hear the words 
of their father, arid expressed a wish that Captain Levering should 
also tell them the words he had spoken. He said that he would send 
for them, although he thought it probable that the chiefs of the St. 
Joseph and Qui-que que rivers and Yellow creek were abst-nt from 
their homes, for there were a number of runners from the British 
among them, with talks and messages, which was probably the occa- 
sion of Marpoc, and many Indians from this and other towns, trav- 
eling lately towards Canada. In order to lengthen the conversation, 
Captain Levering continued as follows: "At about my age past, the 
British and the Americans had a seven years war. Washington, the 
man that handed you the papers which you showed to me before 
leaving your village, was our Great Father, that had conducted our 
warriors to the war. He is now dead, but we love him, for he was a 
good and brave man and fought for our riglits against the unreason- 
able pretensions of the British. Tbey would not allow us to be full 
men, able to manage our own affairs; but, under Washington, we 
fought them for seven years. They were worsted and asked for 
peace. We love peace and happiness; and Washington became our 
Great Father. But, ever since, the British cannot be our generous 
friends; they are jealous of our growing strength, yet they know th&t 

* It must be stated that by reason of th(^ many vicious InflJans, mixed up with the few 
good Indians of the lUlaois river country, the whites found it impossible, finally, to distin- 
guish and separate them. 


in case of war they cannot stand before us, and they are continually 
striving to get the Indians into trouble with us, in order to resent 
their enmities. They offer the Indians protection while they are 
unable to protect themselves. If they could protect themselves, they 
would wage open war on us. If they could have beaten us my life- 
time ago, they would have done it, and Washington, who gave you 
those papers, would have been hung. But they were conquered, and 
General Washington, 18 years ago, made a treaty with the Indians, 
declaring that we will be friends with the Indians; and they made a 
law that if an American should kill an Indian, that it should be the 
duty of every governor of our different States and Territories to catch 
that man and put him to death; and that if any one should settle on 
any of your lands he should pay $1000 and be imprisoned for twelve 
months. Such are the papers which that great and good man put 
into your hands, and which you have shown to me. All of our 
fathers, ever since, would treat you as children. They would also 
remain at peace with the British; but for our kindness they must at 
least treat us with justice — not insult us, not murder our people, nor 
steal our horses." 

"Gromo's elder brother spoke of a time when the British put tha 
Indians in the front of the battle. Gomo said he saw Washington 
in Philadelphia, when they made the treaty of 1793; that there were 
two of the horses in the possession of his tribe, and a third in his 
own possession which he had bought, saying that at the time of the 
purchase he did not know that it had been stolen. He said that they 
should be delivered up. 

"On the 8th of August, 1811, Captain Levering delivered, at the 
Governor's request, two commissions — one to Thomas Forsyth, as 
justice of the peace for the town of Peoria, and the other to John 
Baptiste Dupond as captain in and for the same place, both of whom 
took the oath of office. 

"Mr. Dupond said the Indians would expect him, now that he was 
a chief, to give them some meat and tobacco, and that some unpleas- 
antly disposed persons would instigate the Indians to worry him, and 
that he hoped the Governor would notice such; that he did not wish 
to accept the commission but that, as there were unfavorable reports 
of the place,* he was willing to let it be known that there is a person 
well disposed to the government. 

"On the 15th of August, Miche-Pah-ka en-na, theKick-a-poo chief 
and 11 of his warriors arrived and called on Captain Levering, who 
told the chief that as he was the only chief he had seen whom our 
father knew to be friendly with his white children, he was particu- 
larly pleased to see him. He gave them some refreshments, and the 
chief remarked that he had always heard that our father was kind 
and good and he was happy to see an evidence of it in his sons, and 
more particularly as some of his young men were present to witness 
the friendly disposition. Captain Levering told him that their father 
and his greater chiefs were all known, some of them through the 
papers, some of them from the word of mouth, and they all desired 
to live in friendship with their red children. 

*Peorla was reputed to be the breedine eronnd of all the Indian conspiracies and troubles. 


"On the same day Gomo, Little Chief and others waited on Cap- 
tain Levering. Little Chief said that he had come to hear the words 
of his father and he hoped that they would be all told to them as they 
were written. Forsyth replied, with much warmth, that if they ap- 
prehended any deficiency they must get another interpreter. Little 
Chief said if they had come to his village he would have furnished 
them with a cabin and plenty to eat, and, as he had come to hear the 
words of his father, he wished to know where he should go. Captain 
Levering replied that the white men were aggrieved and had sent 
him to talk with the Indians; that he was a sojourner among them, 
but, being in a strange place and unprovided, he could not give them 
the kind and quality of provisions equal to his wishes. Little Chief 
then showed him a paper and asked him what it was. Captain Lev- 
ering informed him that it was a pass from Captain Heald of Chicago, 
dated July 11, 1811, stating that Little Chief, a Pottawottomie, was 
on his way to St. LouIr; as a further protection he gave him a flag. 
The chief replied that he had given him a piece of coarse cloth; and 
said that he was in the habit of speaking loud, but when they came 
to the council they must not mind it. Captain Levering replied that 
their white brethren used different kinds of cloth for different pur- 
poses; the kind put into the flag was the best to flow in the wind, 
being light; and, when it was made into a flag, their white brethren 
respected it and would hurt no one under it; he carried it to war, and 
before he would lose it he would lose his life. 'The loudness of your 
voice will make no difference if you only talk of the business of the 
nation.' In the evening, about dusk, Captain Levering walked up 
the bank of the river, intending, if a suitable occasion should ofPer, 
to deliver his address to the Indians. He observed the flag on the 
fence, flying with the Union down; and, Mr. Fournier standing near, 
he requested him to tell the Indians that they had hoisted their 
colors wrong, for the stars should be upward The Indian that Four- 
nier addressed himself to, replied that he knew it but it was not he 
that had put it so. Captain Levering walked on a few steps and, 
seeing Little Chief coming out of the gate, he walked back a few 
steps, carelessly, and desired Fournier to say to Little Chief that the 
flag was hoisted wrong; that the stars should be above. Little Chief 
replied that he knew it; he was not an American — he was an Indian, 
Some person must have made it in the night, for it had large stitches 
and the sewing was very coarse. 

"Captain Levering prepared the following address, to be delivered 
to the Indians on the next morning: 

" 'Brothers, Chiefs and Warriors — On yesterday I told you 
how much we respect the flag of the United States; that, through 
an act of friendship, one has been given to some one of you to guard 
you in safety to St. Louis. The hoisting of the flag with the stare 
downward is considered as degrading the flag, and an insult to 
the United States, and our white enemies, whenever they take one 
from us, hoist it so with the intention of insulting the government of 
the United States, nor can the circumstance be less insulting when 

— 6H. 


it is done by the Indians, after they are duly acquainted with the 
mode and etiquette. 

" 'Myfather, a part of that government, feels himself aggrieved in 
his children, by some persons from this quarter; yet, being unwill- 
ing to use hasty measures, that are apt to injure the innocent with 
the guilty, and hoping to find you disposed to be friendly, has sent 
me to talk with you — yet I can not, nor will not, while you are in- 
sulting the government. You must turn your flag and have it placed 
properly, or I will immediately leave here without delivering our 
father's talk.'" 

"At a very early hour on the next morning, the Indians had raised 
the flag, Union up. 

"Being informed, on the morning of the 16th of August, that the 
Indians were ready and on their way to the council room, Captain 
Levering invited the inhabitants of Peoria to attend, and, accom- 
panied by Mr. Forsyth, Mr. Rector, Mr. Swearingen and Captain 
Hebert, met the Indians in the council room. He then proceeded to 
address the Indians as follows: 

" 'Brothers, Chiefs and Warriors — The weather is cloudy. In 
the region south and west of this, you will see none moving — all hav- 
ing drawn toward their cabins, in apprehension of a storm. But our 
father, who presides over the tribes between the Mississippi and Wa- 
bash, being a good man, has sent me to invite you under this shelter 
to smoke a pipe in profound meditation — having our ears open to 
the voice of the Great Spirit, and our hearts disposed to obey its dic- 
tates — to see whether all may not subside, be calm, fair and cheerful. 
But first let us smoke a pipe, and then attend to the talk of our 

"The following is Governor Edwards' address to the Pottawattom- 
ies, delivered in council at Peoria, on the 15th of August, 1811: 

"Illinois Territory, July 21, 1811. 

"To THE Chiefs and Warriors of the Tribes of Pottawattomies, 


OF Illinois — My children, you are now met together, by my desire, 
on a very important occasion. You are now to be asked to do an act 
of justice. Should you refuse it, it may once more involve the red 
and white brethren in all the horrors of bloody war. On the other 
hand, if you should perform what justice itself calls for, it will 
brighten the chain of friendship, which has for a long time united 
the red people with their white brethren of the United States. 

'*My children, ever since Wayne's treaty, our Great Father, the 
President of the United States, has faithfully fulfilled all his treaties 
with you. He has endeavored to make his red and white children 
live as one great family, loving and obliging one another, and he has 
always strictly forbidden his white children from doing harm to their 
red brethren. 

"My children, for a long time the bloody tomahawk and scalping 
knife have been buried. The sun of peace has been upon us, bless- 
ing us with his light and giving gladness to our hearts. The red 


people have eujoyed their forests and pursued their game in peace; 
and the white people have cultivated the earth without fear. But, 
my children, these bright prospects are darkened. A storm 
seems to be gathering which threatens destruction, unless it should 
be dissipated by that justice which you, as good men, ought to ren- 

"My children, while we trusted to treaties with you — while we be- 
lieved our red brethren to be friendly — some of our people, fearing 
no danger, have been plundered of their property and deprived of 
their lives by some of your bad men. 

"My children, last year a perogue was cut loose on the Mississippi 
and a considerable quantity of goods was taken out of it, and carried 
off, by some of your people. A great many horses have been stolen 
from this Territory, both during the last and the present year, many 
of which have certainly been carried off by some of your people. 
Other horses have been stolen from the neighborhood of St. Charles, 
in Louisiana. I demand satisfaction for these outrages. 

"My children, on the 19th day of July, last year, in the district of 
St. Charles, and territory of Louisiana, a party of Pottawatomies 
stole several horses. On the next day they were pursued by the 
white people, who lost the trail and quit the pursiiit. On that night 
those Pottawatomies fell upon those white men, in their camp, killed 
four of them, wounded a fifth, and carried off several horses and 
other property. Among those Indians were Cat Fish, 0-hic-ka-ja- 
mis and Mis-pead-na-mis. I demand that these bad men, and all 
others who were of the party, together with the property they stole, 
shall be delivered up to Captain Levering and his party, or that you 
yourselves shall deliver them and the property to me. 

"My children, on the 2nd day of last June, on Shoal creek, in St. 
Clair ccunty, in this Territory, three of your bad men went to the 
house of a Mr. Cox, plundered his property, took two guns, two 
mares and colts, and a stud horse, barbarously killed his son and took 
his daughter a prisoner. A few days after this outrage, near the 
Mississippi, in the same county and territory, others of your bad 
men killed a man by the name of Price, and wounded another by the 
name of Ellis. I demand that these bad men, together with all the 
property they took off, shall be delivered to Captain Levering, or that 
you shall deliver them and the property to me. 

"My children, the blood of those innocent men who have been 
wounded and murdered, cries aloud to the Great Spirit for ven- 
geance. The hearts of their relations and brethren bleed with sor- 
row, The fire of revenge flames in their hearts, and they thirst for 

"My children, I have found it almost impossible to prevent the 
white people from rushing to your towns, to destroy your corn, burn 
your property, take your women and children prisoners, and murder 
your warriors. But I told them that those who have done the mis- 
chief were bad men; that you would disapprove their conduct and 


deliver them to me as enemies both to you and your white brethren. 
I commanded your white brethren not to raise the tomahawk or go 
to war with you, and they obeyed me. 

"My children, now open your ears to hear my words, and let them 
sink deep into your hearts. If you wish for peace with us, you must 
do us justice. If you disapprove those murders and other outrages 
that have been committed, you must deliver up the offenders; for if 
your harbor among you such deadly enemies to us, you cannot be 
our friends, and you ought not to expect our friendship. 

"My children, Grovernor Harrison demanded some of those bad 
men, when they were within his territory, and they fled to the Illi- 
nois river and took up shelter among you. I now demand them, and 
you must not say that they are fled elsewhere. They murdered our 
people — they are our enemies — and if you have protected them, and 
they belong to your bands, you must find them and deliver them up, 
or we must consider you as approving our enemies. 

"My children, liars and bad advisers are among you; they profess 
to be your friends, and they deceive you; they have their interest in 
view, and care not what becomes of you, if they can succeed in their 
designs. Avoid such people. 

"My children, you can remember when such men pursuaded you 
to make war upon your white brethren of the United States. They 
promised you great assistance, but they left you to fight your own 
battles, and you found it necessary to sue for peace. At that time 
you were stronger than you are now; the woods were then full of 
game of all kinds; large numbers of you could collect together and 
traverse the country without fear of wanting meat. But this cannot 
be done now. 

"My children, when we were at war with you, we were then weak; 
we have now grown strong — have everything necessary for war, and 
are your near neighbors. Our Great Father's dominions extend 
over vast countries, bounded by the great waters; his great towns 
and cities are hardly to be counted, and his white children are thick 
and numerous like the stars of the sky. 

"My children, your Great Father, the president of the United 
States, has nothing to fear from wars, but he wishes to be at peace 
with you, because he loves you and wishes to make you happy. You 
ought to try to merit hie kindness and avoid his resentment. 

"My children, your Great Father asks nothing but justice from 
you. Suffer not bad advisers to persuade you to refuse it. In kind- 
ness, none can exceed him; but if you should determine to treat him 
and his white children as enemies, storms and hurricanes, and the 
thunder and lightnings of heaven, cannot be more terrible than will 
be his resentment, 

"My children, Capt. Samuel Levering will deliver you this talk; he 
is authorized, by me, to demand of you the property that has been 


Btolen, and those bad men who committed the murders, and all who 
were of the party. You will confer with Captain Levering, and come 
to as speedy a determination as possible. 

"My children, let justice be done, let all cause of quarrel be re- 
moved, and let us live like brothers. 

"Your affectionate father, 

"NiNiAN Edwards." 

The council again met on the 16th of August, to receive the answer 
of the Pottawattomies. Gomo spoke as follows: 

"We have listened well to your information, and hope that you 
will give the same attention to our words. 

"I am very glad that you have come among us, and that you have 
delivered the words of the Grovernor to all the chiefs and warriors in 
hearing. I intended to have gone to see the Governor, but it is much 
better as it has occurred, that he has sent his talk here. 

"You see the color of our skin. The Great Spirit, when he made 
and disposed of man, placed the red skins in this land, and those 
who wear hats on the other side of the big waters. When the Great 
Spirit placed us on this ground, we knew of nothing but what was 
furnished to us by nature; we made use of our stone axes, stone 
knives and earthen vessels, and clothed ourselves from the skins of 
the beasts of the forest. Yet we were contented. When the French 
first made large canoes, they crossed the wide waters to this country, 
and on first seeing the red people they were rejoiced. They told us 
that we must consider ourselves as the children of the French, and 
they would be our father; the country was a good one, and they would 
change goods for skins. 

"Formerly we all lived in one large village. In that village there 
was only one chief, and all things went on well; but since our inter- 
course with the whites, there are almost as many chiefs as we have 
young men. 

"At the time of the taking of the Canadas, when the British and 
the French were fighting for the same country, the Indians were so- 
licited to take part in that war — since which time there have been 
among us a number of foolish young men. The whites ought to 
have staid on the other side of the waters, and not to have troubled 
us on this side. If we were fools, the whites are the cause of it. 
From the commencement of their wars, they used many persuasions 
with the Indians; they made them presents of merchandise, in order 
to get them to join and assist in their battles, since which time there 
have always been fools among us, and the whites are blamable for it. 

"The British asked the Indians to assist them in their wars with 
the Americans, telling us that if we allowed the Americans to remain 
upon our lands, they would in time take the whole country, and we 
would then have no place to go . Some of the Indians did join the Brit- 
ish, but all did not; some of this nation in particular , did not join them. 
The British persisted in urging upon us that if we did not assist them 
in driving the Americans from our lands, our wives and children 


would be miserable for the remainder of our days In the oourse of 
that war, the American General Clark came to Kaskaskia, and sent 
for the chiefs on this river to meet him there. We attended, and he 
desired us to remain still and quiet in our own villagje, saying that 
the Americans were able, of themselves, to fight the British. 

"You Americans generally speak sensibly and plainly, At the 
treaty of Greenville, General Wayne spoke to us in the same sensible 
and clear manner. 

"I have listened with attention to you both. At the treaty of 
Greenville, General Wayne told us that the tomahawk must be 
buried, and even thrown into the great lake; and should any white 
man murder an Indian, he should be delivered up to the Indians; and, 
we on our part, should deliver up the red men who murdered a white 
person, to the Americans. 

"A Pottawattomie Indian, by the name of Turkey- foot, killed 
Americans, for which he was demanded of us; and although he was 
a great warrior, we killed him ourselves in satisfaction for his murders. 

"Some of the Kickapoos killed an American. They were demand- 
ed, were given up, and were tied up with ropes around their necks 
for the murders. This was not what the chief who made the demand 
promised, as they were put to death in another manner. Our custom 
is to tie up a dog in tbat way, when we make a sacrifice. 

"Now, listen to me well, in what I have to say to you. The red- 
skins have delivered up their offenders. 

"Some time ago one of our young men was drunk at St. Louis, and 
was killed by an American. At another time some person stole a 
horse near Oahokia, The citizens of the village followed the trail, 
met an innocent Kickapoo, on his way to Kaskaskia, and killed him. 
Last fall, on the other side, and not far from Ft. Wayne, a Wyandot 
Indian set fire to a prairie; a settler came out and inquired of him 
how he came to set fire. The Indian answered that he was hunting. 
The settler struck the Indian and continued to beat him, till they 
were parted, when another settler shot the Indian. This summer, a 
Chippeway Indian, at Detroit, was looking at a gun; it went off acci- 
dently, and shot an American, The Chippeway was demanded, de- 
livered up and executed. Is this the way that General Wayne ex- 
hibits his charity to the red-skins? Whenever an instance of this 
kind happens, it is usual for the red-skins to regard it as an accident. 

"You Americans think that all the mischiefs that are committed 
are known to the chiefs, and immediately call on them for the sur- 
render of the offenders. We know nothing of them; our business is 
to hunt, in order to feed our women and children. 

"It is generally supposed that we red- skins are always in the wrong. 
If we kill a hog, we are called fools or bad men; the same or worse, 
is said of us if we kill an horned animal; yet, you do not take into 
consideration the fact that while the whites are hunting along our 
rivers, killing our deer and bears, that we do not speak ill of them. 


"When the French came to Niagara, Detroit, Mackinaw and 
Chicago, they built no forts or garrisons, nor did the English, who 
came after them; but when the Americans came, all was changed. 
They built forts and garrisons and blockades wherever they go. From 
these facts we infer that they intend to make war upon us. 

"Whenever the United States make the Indians presents, they 
afterwards say that we must give them such a tract of land; and after 
a good many presents they then ask a larger piece. This is the wa y 
we have been served. This is the way of extending to us charity. 

"Formerly, when the French were here, they made us large pres- 
ents; so have the English; but the Americans, in giving their pres- 
ents, have always asked a piece of land in return. Such has been the 
treatment of the Americans. 

"If the whites had kept on the other side of the waters, these acci- 
dents could not have happened; we could not have crossed the wide 
waters to have killed them there; but they have come here and turned 
the Indians in confusion. If an Indian goes into their village, like 
a dog he is hunted, and threatened with death. 

"The ideas of the Pottawattomies, Ottaways and Chippeways are 
that we wish to live peaceably and quiet with all mankind, and at- 
tend to our hunting and other pursuits, that we may be able to pro- 
vide for the wants of our women and children, But there remains a 
lurking dissatisfaction in the breasts and minds of some of our young 
men. This has occasioned the late mischiefs, which, at the time , 
were unknown to the chiefs and warriors of the nation. I am sur- 
prised at such threatenings to the chiefs and warriors (old people) 
who are inclined entirely for peace. 

"The desire of the chiefs and warriors is to plant corn and pursue 
the deer. Do you think it possible for us to deliver the murderers 
here today? 

"Think you, my friends, what would be the consequence in case of 
a war between the Americans and the Indians? In times past, when 
some of us were engaged in it, many women were left in a distressful 
condition. Should war now take place, the distress would be, in com- 
parison, much more general. 

"This is all I have to say on the part of myself and the warriors of 
my village. I thank you for your patient attention to my words." 

"After Gomo had finished, he laughingly said that we have had 
long talks: will not a little whisky enable us to sleep? Captain Lev- 
ering understood him by lulling their fears. 

"On the next day, being the 17th day of August, Little Chief spoke 
as follows: 

"Listen to me my friends, if you wish to know the ideas and senti- 
ments of the chiefs and warriors here present today. Give the same 
attention to my words that I did to those of yesterday. 

"At the conclusion of the American and Indian wars, the Ameri- 
cans asked us to remain at peace and in quietness. I and my war- 
riors have always observed the advice. 


"One of the promises of the Americans to the Indians, at that time, 
was that whenever murders should be committed on either side, the 
murderers should be delivered up to the opposite party. We have 
delivered up offenders; the Americans have delivered none. 

"The intention of the Pottawattomies, Ottaways and Chippeways 
has been to remain peaceable and quiet, as they always have done, 
and still wish to do; and when that is observed, there will be nothing 
to fear, as you will see today. 

"At the peace of Grreenville, it was agreed on both sides to deliver 
up all the prisoners; I myself ran from town to town gathering all; 
and General Wayne said, 'now all is completed and hereafter we will 
see which of us (red or white) will first take up the tomahawk. It 
shall now be buried.' But from your talk of yesterday you threaten 
to make war against us; to cut off our women and children. 

"You astonish us with your talk, When you do us harm, nothing 
is done; but when we do anything, you immediately tie us up by the 
neck; some time ago we brought in a number of Osages, prisoners of 
war; you demanded them, and we delivered them up. There is no 
recompense for us. 

"You may observe the ideas of the chiefs and warriors of the Illi- 
nois river. Listen to their talk and see whether it is not right. We 
wish that the Governor at Kaskaskia may hear our words. 

"You see how we live — our women and children. Do not my 
friends suppose that we are accomplices with murderers. Take cour- 
age and let us live in peace and quietness, as we have heretofore 
done. You said that we, our wives and children , should live in peace, 
You hear what the chiefs in council say: they cannot interfere in the 
demand you have made. They cannot interfere in any bad business 
of the kind. You see the situation of the Pottawattomies, Chippe- 
ways and Ottaways today. The Shawnee Prophet, the man who talks 
with the Father of Light, blames us for not listening to him You 
do the same. We are like a bird in a bush, beset, and not knowing 
which way to fly for safety, whether to the right or to the left. If 
our young men behave ill today, you blame the Shawnee Prophet 
for it. 

"The chiefs are reproached by the young men generally, They say 
to us, 'you give your hand to the Americans today, and in the future 
they will knock you in the head.' This is the occasion of their late 
unruly behavior. 

"Remember what you told us on yesterday. Among other sayings, 
you threatened to kill our women and children. Do not think that 
those young men that committed the murders belong to this place. 
They came from the village of the Shawnee Prophet. All the mis- 
chiefs that have been done have been committed through the influence 
of the Shawnee Prophet, and I declare this to you for the truth. 

"Behold the Shawnee Prophet, that man who talks with the Great 
Spirit and teaches the Indians to pray and look to God! But for 
us, we do not believe him. We wish to chase our deer and live in 
peace with the Americans. 


"Ever since the Shawnee Prophet has been on the Wabash river 
he has been jealous of the chiefs and warriors of this river. He sus- 
pects that we give information and a favorable ear to the Americans, 
and says that the Americans will act like traitors to us. 

"For my part I suspect no wrong. I do not listen to the bad ad- 
vice of the Prophet. 

"Our great chiefs of the Pottawatomies, Chippeways and Ottaways 
command us to observe the alliance between us and the Americans, 
that we and our children may live in peace and comfort. These are 
the reasons for not listening to the Shawnee Prophet. 

"My dear friends, do not believe us accomplices in the mischiefs 
recently committed; we wish peace. 

"Observe the chiefs and warriors in council. We think of nothing 
but to live in peace and quietness. We would have been very much 
surprised if the Americans had come and made war on us, feeling 
ourselves perfectly innocent of these offenses. 

"We think nothing of what is past, as we are innocent. These 
are also the sentiments of the Kickapoos; and we. the chiefs of the 
several tribes now in council, join our hands together and hold them 
as fast as I now hold the wampum in my hand 

"See, my friends, how matters stand today. If you wish for war 
with us it lies altogether with yourselves. It is better to avoid it if 

"If the Americans should commence war with us, we should have 
to fight in our own defense. The chiefs are of the opinion that it is 
best to remain at peace. 

"I have finished, my friends. Perhaps you take us for little chil- 
dren We whip our children, but men will defend themselves. 

"For myself, I am indifferent. It would be the same with me to 
raise or bury the tomahawk. I can but die at last. 

"Observe, my friends; since our peace with the Americans we have 
been and still are a poor people. We have not even a piece of rib- 
bon to tie our speech.* 1 have finished." 

"After Little Chief had concluded. Captain Levering spoke as fol- 

"Brothers, Chiefs and Warriors — I have listened with close 
attention to your words, and I shall be careful to convey them to 
our father. It is for him to say what shall be done. But, being 
among you, with my ears and eyes open to things that could not be 
known to the distance of my father's cabin, I think that he will not dis- 
approve of my speaking to you in my own words, for I shall hold 
fast to his mind, I discover that you harbor a number of incorrect 
opinions, that render you dissatisfied with your white brethren; and 
I am really so far your friend, that in case I saw you and my white 
brethren about rushing each other into destruction through want of 

* A sarcasm on Governor Edwards' speech which had about It. a ribbon. 


light, if I was able, I would inform you of it. But if I thought you 
were acting with your eyes open, you might abide the consequences; 
I should not push myself in the way. 

"As you have spoken on many subjects, I wish to have time to 
look over them, and I also wish to put my words on paper, that I 
may show them to my father at Kaskaskia. I shall hope to meet 
you here again in the morning." 

After the council adjourned, the chiefs, in behalf of their respect- 
ive nations, offered him the hand of friendship. 

On the next morning Captain Levering continued his address as 
follows : 

"Brothers, you have offered me your hands of friendship. If there 
was not something sincere within, to give your ofPer a cordial recep- 
tion, I should not have requested this opportunity of speaking to 

"The brave and generous chief can show himself in his village at 
at all times, and that, too, with his head loftily erect! Honesty, 
still prouder can traverse the globe naked, and that through the 
glare of day. 

"Our fathers' mind and words to the Indians being as pure as 
sterling silver, they have no fear nor objection to their sons talking 
to them, so that their words are open and as clear as your native 
fountains; yet they wish you to be careful about listening to every 

"Red men never injured me or my relations, and having grown up 
far from their paths, I can have no prejudices or resentments 
against them; and as all men, both red and white, understand how to 
estimate honesty, I may say that I have no inducement to deceive 
you. The very nature of my errand must assure you that the welfare of 
my white brethren commands that I shall speak the truth. I shall 
be no false prophet. I am not endeavoring to be a chief among you. 
No generous man would ever be ofPended with the free, open, decent 
candor of another, even though it should come from an enemy. Now 
brethren, listen to the facts— all the white people can tell whether I 
lie, for we have it down in black and white, and the most of them 
can read. 

"The first white people that came across the waters, and settled on 
this side of them, were Spaniards, and they settled on islands further 
distant than the mouth of the Mississippi. These people, seeing 
flattering hopes in the west, gave the news, and encouraged many 
people to come over from many nations, residing on the other side of 
the great waters. The English were the first to settle on any part of the 
land on this side of the mouth of the MissiBsippi,and all around the east 
and north to the end of walking. After them came the French, who set- 
tled on the other end of Canada. Then came the Dutch, on another 
part of the large shores; and many people came from numerous 
nations, on the other side of the waters, that perhaps you never 
heard of. The Americans were formerly the British; our forefathers 


were British ; the British king owned us as his children , and we obeyed 
him like dutiful children. When he made war against the French 
in Canada we went with his young men to fight his battles; and we 
were proud to be and remain his children, until about 40 years ago, 
when he began to ask things of us that were unreasonable. 

"Although we had at that time regarded him as our father — be- 
lieving that he had a right to ask it of us, we as dutiful children 
gave him money and warriors, and both he and his big council ac- 
knowledged that his childen had done more than their duty. But 
in course of time he and his council thought that we were growing 
too rich; that riches would give us the desire of leaving them, and 
that we would become a nation of full strength. To prevent this, 
they endeavored to take our money from us without asking, and that 
too, whether we were willing or not; just as though your chiefs 
should hamstring your young men, through fear of their leaving 
them. This is exactly the case, for we never refused his requests, 
but when he began to draw by force large quantities of honey from 
a small, poor tree, we complained, but our complaints found a deaf 
ear. We preferred nakedness, cold, hunger and all the horrors of 
war, to such degradation. We fought him for seven years, under 
poverty and hardship. The Indians did not know how much we 
were injured, or they would not have increased our hardships. But 
under Washington — a man now dead, yet we delight in remember- 
ing him, for he was good and brave — our warriors fought our battles 
and led us to well earned victory. The English asked for peace 
and acknowledged us to be a separate nation. 

"This was the beginning of the American nation, when we chose 
Washington, our victorious chief, to be our Grreat Father. Since 
then, the British cannot be our generous friends, although they dare 
not come to open war with us. As a chief once said to me, "They tell 
half lie, half truth— firing big gun into our canoe, and saying it was 
a mistake!" They set the Indians on us to resent their own enmities, 
and for the purpose of engrossing all the profit of the Indian trade. 

"Can you not see, brothers, that the British ofiPer you protection, 
when, in case of open war, they cannot stand in Canada? when they 
cannot protect themselves? If I had sucked the same breasts with 
your chiefs and warriors, I would tell you this. 

"Now, brothers, attend, and you will begin to learn that your com- 
plaints against the Americans are founded in error. 

"Was it the present Americans that crossed the water to your land? 
We were then British, and governed by a British king, whom we 
had to fight as an enemy to our rights and welfare. The English 
settled here some 210 years ago; the present American nation is not 
of my age; and our government and Great Father, in their disposi- 
tion, are as different from the British king, as the summer from the 
winter day. The present Americans were nowise instrumental in 
crossing the ocean; the first coming of their forefathers was owing 
to the British king, who rules his sons far more imperiously than 
you suspect. If wanted, they must go and fight, and cannot say 


nay. Even then, although we were British, and under their king, 
we, like you, found ourselves here, and from necessity we must be 
near neighbors. It is, therefore, our interest to cultivate friendship, 
unless we intend to destroy each other. 

"I must have proven to you by this time, that your prejudices to 
the Americans, at least in one instance, are unfounded. I could, in 
a little time, make it appear that nearly all of your supposed griev- 
ances are owing to a misunderstanding of our nation. If it is true, 
you will find it agreeable as well as our interest to nourish and water 
the friendship of the red and white men. 

"Although our father constructs forts outside the settlements of 
his white children, he does not, as you seem to think, act differently 
from the French or the British. I have seen and have heard of forts all 
along the British line in Canada I have seen other forts along the lakes 
and elsewhere, that were built by the French; and let me tell you, 
chiefs and warriors, that the most of the forts in this country were 
built by the British and French. When we have the Spaniards on 
one side of us, and the British on the other, in forts, and they are 
endeavoring to make our red brethren discontented with us, is it not 
advisable for us to keep up and garrison those forts that came to us 
by the chance of war? Does the garrison at Chicago, Detroit, De- 
fiance, Ft. Wayne, or that at the mouth of the Missouri, or any 
other within your knowledge, come out to war with the Indians? 
Those forts are intended and are kept up merely to protect our 
friends; and to suppose that they presage or threaten war, when they 
have never committed any, is rather an overstrained idea. 

"You say that the whites first led the Indians to acts of outrage, 
by inviting them to join in war against the whites; and, consequently, 
the white people are to blame for the bad practice among the In- 
dians! But, I ask, have the Americans even solicited the Indians 
to join them in war against the British, or against any nation? I 
answer, no. Our forefathers, even while we were yet fighting to be- 
come a nation, advised the Indians to lay on their skins at home, 
raise corn and kill deer, but not to engage in war on either side; and 
such has been the advice of our fathers to the Indians ever since. It 
is true that some Indians, since then, have offered to join us, and 
certainly you would not object to our receiving and taking sides in 
favor of our friends. Your ideas of the treaty of Grreenville are alike 
inaccurate. You suppose that our fathers promised that all mur- 
derers on either side, should be delivered up to the opposite party. 
That cannot be the case; for our laws would not allow our Great 
Father, General Wayne with him, to make such a stipulation in a 
treaty. All offenders against our laws must be tried by our laws and 
by a jury of 12 of our citizens, This is the way an Indian would 
be tried under our laws, and in the same manner would a white man 
be tried for killing an Indian. I know this to be true (although you 
have said that there is no recompense for an Indiac,)that when I left 
Kaskaskia, there was a man in jail, fastened with irons by the wrist, 
for having abused an Indian; and this was done by order of the Gov- 


ernor. because he thought it just. The treaty of Greenville requires 
of each of our governors to catch a murderer of an Indian and to 
have him tried for murder, and if found guilty, to see that he was 

"In answer to your complaint in the case of an Indian that was 
killed at St. Louis, I must tell you more of our laws, and you will 
learn that the whites equal the red men in their conception of jus- 
tice. I cannot hinder the belief that somebody told you wrong in 
the case of the Indian at Detroit; but I know something of this at St. 
Louis. Whenever a man makes an attempt to kill another, a third 
party coming up, may kill the first to save the life of the second; and 
our laws do say that the third was right in so doing — for the act of 
the first makes the supposition strong that he was an unruly and bad 
man; the second might have been a good man, and his life should be 
saved. All this is like the case in St. Louis The Indian was drunk, 
flourishing his tomahawk, and threatening to kill. Judge Meigs (a 
chief), without weapons, stepped up to the Indian for the purpose 
of persuading him to be quiet; the Indian drew his tomahawk on the 
judge, and the young man, coming up and seeing him in danger, 
killed the Indian to save the judge's life, Judge Meigs told me 
this. He is now governor of Ohio. 

"You must not think, from my words, that I am unfriendly to the 
Spanish, French or English. They are my brothers, and they, as 
well as we, are here from like circumstances. They, as well as others, 
who have come from over the waters, are equally under the same care 
and protection of our Great Father. 

"Let us acquaint ourselves with times past, and with things that 
do not immediately concern us, with the view of improving our 
minds and dispositions, and not strain our brain to find out causes 
of discontent and quarrel. Let us consider and find out what will 
promote our mutual benefit and harmony. 

"You have looked more to the threatenings of our father's words 
than to the justice of them. Let us think of them for a while; and 
in turning to them I would not now, or at any other time, make them 
appear woxBe against you than the plain talk of truth, and neither of 
us, I hope, are so far worse than children as to be frightened at 
facts. It is true as our father also tells you, that the head chief of 
all our tribes would, like the sun, bestow his genial blessings on all 
— the weak and the strong — on the mole hill as well as the mountain; 
and even when his goodness should be obstructed, he is yet mild and 
forbearing for a season, hoping that a sense of right and wrong will 
correct and restore the evil; but when he finds that forbearance and 
kindness fail— like the sun, when fogs and poison threaten, the fire 
of his justice will dissipate and destroy the evil. Before I left our 
father's cabin with his words for you, a runner of his had returned 
from our father and chief on the west of the Mississippi and one 
from our father to the east on the Wabash, and our father knew that 
their minds and determinations were in unison with his, and also 
with that of our Great Father of all the tribes. Our father told you 


of the murder of five whites and of the horses that were stolen at the 
same time between the Mississippi and Missouri rivers; this summer 
one has been murdered on one of the creeks that empties into the 
Kaskaskia, and an attempt was made to carry off a woman; since 
then, one has been wounded and another murdered near Piasa rock, 
on the Mississippi; and I myself have heard of 35 horses having 
been stolen by the Indians, during this summer." 

"Little Chief said: 'My friend, I request you now, to take the 
names of chiefs and warriors, that you may show to your father in 
Kaskaskia how ready we have been to attend his words.' 

"On the 18th of August, the Sac chief, Little Sturgeon, called on 
Captain Levering, who explained to him the circumstance and cause 
of Captain Whiteside having fired on some of his nation on the Mis- 

"The council assembled again, and after Captain Levering had 
given his advice, Gomo said: 'We have listened with patient atten- 
tion, and I hope that the Great Master of Light was noticing it. When 
the Master of Light made man, he endowed those who wear hats 
with every gift, art and knowledge. The redskins as you see, live in 
lodges and on the wilds of nature.' 

"The council then adjourned. Gomo delivered up two of the 
horses, and Little Chief agreed to deliver to Captain Heald, at Chi- 
cago two more; and Gomo said he would endeavor to have them all 
returned as soon as they could be found. 

"The two chiefs told Captain Levering that the murderers of the 
Coles party were two Indians by the name of Esh-can-ten-e-mane 
and 0-at-che-cum-mich, and that they were both at the village about 
20 miles on this side of the Prophet's village. After the departure 
of the chiefs, Little Chief returned and said that he wished to tell 
Captain Levering, in private, that the murderers of the Coles party 
could be taken without out any trouble, by inviting them, among 
others, to a meeting at Fort Wayne next fall, when their names being 
known, the commandant could seize them." 

This was the first of many talks with Indians in an effort to secure 
the property and murderers mentioned, and it came to nothing but 
promises, a feature of diplomacy which they used successfully dur- 
ing all of the campaign of 1812-14, As a matter of fact some of the 
murderers were sitting in that council at the time and the "loud talk- 
ing Little Chief" knew of their presence, Gomo must have known 
the fact too, but, presumably fearing a loss of influence with his 
people, who largely favored the English, he dared not expose them. 

So far no Indian had been punished for the frequent murders of 
the region, which omission had more to do with subsequent troubles 
than any other cause. They feared no punishment, and if, as in 
this instance, a fair promise could tide over the evil day, no Indian 
was so abandoned or undiplomatic as to refuse it. Therefore, the 
fine promises here — and no prisoners. Captain Levering returned 
to Governor Edwards with them and soon after died from the expos- 
ures of his trip. 


Meantime Joseph Trotier of Cabokia, a sagacious Frenchman who 
had been sent among the Kickapoos along Sugar creek, in the north- 
ern part of Logan county, returned, bringing the same story of in- 
nocence and fine promises for the future. 

This period of hostility (1811, and indeed until 1818,) was taken 
so seriously by the War Department as to be denominated the "In- 
dian war," projected by the British and such restless spirits as the 
Prophet, Black Hawk, and others. The council at Peoria, from 
which so much was expected, developed no present relief and no 
prospect for the future, for the moment it was dissolved, most of 
the tribes represented there, posted oflp to Maiden for British advice 
and supplies, as may be seen: 

"ViNOENNES, Sept. 17, 1811. 

" states that almost every Indian from the country above 

this has been or was then gone to Maiden, on a visit to the British 
agent. We shall probably gain our desired point at the moment of 
their return. If, then, the British agents are really endeavoring to 
instigate the Indians to make war upon us, we shall be in their 
neighborhood at the very moment when the impressions which have 
been made against us are most active in the minds of the savages. 

" succeeded in getting the chiefs together at Ft. Wayne, 

though he found them all preparing to go to Maiden. The result of 
the council discovered that the whole tribes (including the Weas and 
Eel rivers, for they are all Miamies,) were about equally divided in 
favor of the Prophet and the United States. Lapousier, the Wea 
chief, whom I before mentioned to you as being seduced by the 

Prophet, was repeatedly asked by what land it was that he 

was determined to defend with his blood, whether it was that which 
was ceded by the late treaty or not, but he would give no answer. 

" reports that all the Indians of the Wabash have been, or 

are now, on a visit to the British agents at Maiden. He had never 
known one fourth as many goods given to the Indians as they are 
now distributing. He examined the share of one man (not a chief) 
and found that he had received an elegant rifle, 25 pounds of powder, 
50 pounds of lead, three blankets, three strands of cloth, ten shirts, 
and several other articles. He says every Indian is furnished with a 
gun (either rifle or fusil) and an abundance of ammunition. A trader 
of this country was lately in the King's stores at Maiden, and was told 
that the quantity of goods for the Indian department, which had 
been sent out this year, exceeded that of common years by £20,000 
sterling. It is impossible to ascribe this profusion to any other mo- 
tive than of instigating the Indians to take up the tomahawk. It 
cannot be to secure their trade; for all the peltry collected on the 
waters of the Wabash in one year, if sold in the London market, 
would not pay the freight of the goods which have been given to the 

"ViNOENNES, Oct. 6, 1811. 

"The Indians have again been plundering our citizens. They took 
eight horses from a detached settlement in the Illinois Territory 
about 30 miles above Vincennes, in open daylight." 


"Vermillion River, Nov. the 2ad, 1811. 
"A letter from Colonel Miller (whose indisposition was such as to 
oblige me to leave him at the new fort) , announces that an attack 
has been made upon a boat loaded with corn, which was ascending 
the river from the fort to this place. It was fired on four miles above 
the fort and one man killed." 

Following the battle of Tippecanoe, one would naturally look for a 
cessation of hostilities, but under the influence of English agents and 
the Prophet, hostile acts were spread over a much greater extent of 
country than before. The focal seems shifting from the Wabash to 
the Illinois. 

News from St. Louis, dated Nov. 23, 1811, came to Governor Ed- 
wards that a band of Illinois river Pottawatomies had killed, just be- 
fore, about 20 head of cattle and many hogs, the property of the 
inhabitants of Peoria, which acts were accompanied with threats of 
indiscriminate death should the inhabitants take part with the Amer- 
icans. Peoria, the spot where Captain Levering had received such 
fair promises! 

Prairie du Chien, then in Illinois Territory, was likewise threat- 
ened by Sioux and Winnebagoes, and it may be said with truth that 
not one settlement was immune from the scourge of the red men's 

The campaign of 1811 closed with no advantages gained by the 
whites, unless knowledge of the certain issue of war with England in 
the very near future may be called such , which would give time for 
the preparation of invasion or defense. Congress had called for in- 
formation concerning the acts of the British, and so far as those acts 
concerned Illinois at this period, the following correspondence may 
shed some light: 

'Trom Capt. H, Starke: 

"Ft. Madison, Jan. 1, 1812. 

"Mr. George Hunt has arrived from the mines, and brings the 
melancholy intelligence that all the Americans of that place have 
been massacred by the Puants and Winnebago Indians, His life 
was spared only on the supposition that he was an Englishman." 

On Jan. 5, 1812, N. Boilvin reported from Prairie du Chien, to 
Governor Howard, that Indians were rising. About the same time 
Maurice Blandeau, from the Spanish mines (Dubuque) reported that 
he entertained fears for the frontier. 

"From Gen. William Clark: 

"St. Louis, Jan. 12, 1812. 
"I have this moment heard, by an express from the commanding 
officer at Ft. Madison, to Colonel Bissell, that a party of Winnebagoes 
(part of them of the Prophet's party) did, on the 1st instant, rob and 
kill several American traders, near the Spanish mines, on the Mis- 


"From Gov. Benjamin Howard: 

"St. Louis, Jan 13, 1812. 

"I have the honor to enclose you the copy of a letter from Mr. 
Johnson at Ft. Madison. The information it contains proves clearly 
that our difficulties with the Indians are not at an end; and, my own 
opinion is, that as soon as the winter is over, we have much danger 
to apprehend from them. I feel no hesitation in recommending a 
campaign to be carried on in the spring against the hostile Indiana 
on the Illinois; for, until some of those tribes are punished, we shall 
not have a durable peace with them." 

(Copy of the Letter.) 

"Ft. Madison, 7th Jan., 1812. 
"Sir — I am sorry to inform you that on the 1st instant a party of 
Puants, about 20, arrived at JSlr. George Hunt's house, lead mines, 
etc., killed two Americans, and robbed Mr. Hunt of all his goods. 
Mr. Hunt, bearing the name of an Englishman, saved his life; at 
the same time, another party went to Nathan Pryor that was, and 
killed him, after killing all the Americans there, as they thought, the 
head men observed, the Americans had killed a great many of their 
people, and that they intended to kill all they saw. 

"I expect they went upward, in search of more. Hunt and his in- 
terpreter, Victor Lagotery (Lagotiere) arrived here last night. . Mr. 
Hunt on his way here, was informed by the Foxes, that a large party 
of Puants had set oui for this place. The Foxes showed every dis- 
position to be friends, and promised to save all his goods they could. 
On the 3rd your express left here afoot; poor fellow, I fear he will 
meet the Puants. 

"Yesterday the express left here with Mr. John MoRae for St. 
Louis, with many letters and public papers. Will you do me the 
favor to show this letter to Gen. William Clark and ask him to write 
General Mason, informing him the goods I furnished Hunt are all 
lost? Every hour I look for a war party, and God only knows when 
it will end. I hope you will cause immediate relief, by increasing 
our number of men at this post. In haste, 

"I am your very humble servant, 

"John Johnson." 
"His Excellency, Gov. B. Howard, St. Louis." 

"From Capt. H. Starke: 

"Ft. Madison, Jan. 26, ]812. 

"I omitted to mention to you, that about the 6th instant, there was 
a very general council held by the Sac Indians, relative to peace or 
war, when their decision was for peace." 

"This would indicate that notwithstanding the statements of Black 
Hawk to the contrary, his party of 200 or 300, which was always in- 
fluenced by British influence, was alone in traveling to Canada for 
presents, and finally enlisting in the British service after war had 
been declared against England." 

—7 H. 


"Chicago, Feb. 7, 1812. 
''Capt. N. Heald: 

"An express arrived here on the first of the month from St. Louis, 
sent by General Clark, Indian agent at that place, for the purpose of 
finding out the disposition of the Indians between here and there. 
This express is a Frenchman, who is well acquainted with the Indi- 
ans; and he is of the opinion that there are many of them determined 
to continue the war against the whites." 

The further fact was announced in the letter: "He (the French- 
man) told me that the Indians on the Illinois were hostile disposed 
towards the United States, and that the war between the Indians and 
white people had just commenced, alluding to the late battle on the 

"St. Louis, Feb, 18, 1812. 
"General Clark: 

"On the 8th. instant, a party of that nation (Winnebagoes) , some 
of whom were known, fired on my express, about 40 miles above the 
settlements, who was on his return from Prairie du Chien, the mines, 
and Ft. Madison. On the 9th, an American family of women and 
children was killed on the bank of the Mississippi, a few minutes be- 
fore the express passed the house." 

"Ft. Wayne, Ist March, 1812. 
"From Wm. Wells (of Ft, Dearborn fame:) 

"In my letter of the 10th ultimo, I informed you that the Indian 
chief, Tecumseh, had arrived on the Wabash. I have now to state 
to you that it appears that he has determined to raise all the Indians 
he can, immediately, with an intention no doubt, to attack our front- 
iers. He has sent runners to raise the Indians on the Illinois and 
the upper Mississippi; and I am told has gone himself, to hurry on 
the aid he was promised by the Cherokees and Creeks. 

"The Prophet's orator, who is considered the third man in this 
hostile band, passed within 12 miles of this place on the 23rd. ultimo, 
with eight Shawnees, eight Winnebagoes and seven Kickapoos, in 
all 24, on their way as they say, to Sandusky, where they expected to 
receive a quantity of powder and lead from their father, the British." 

"Chicago, 11th March, 1812. 
"Capt. N Heald: 

"I have been informed, and believe it to be true, that the Winne- 
bagoes have lately attacked some traders on the Mississippi, near the 
lead mines; it is said they killed two Americans, and eat them up, 
and took all their goods; there was two French traders whom they 
robbed of all their goods, and suffered them to go alive. This news 
came to me from a Frenchman at Millwaike, who has been to the 
Winnebago nation. The Winnebagoes who escaped from the Proph- 
et's town are still in this neighborhood." 

Penetrating the interior of Illinois, a band of marauding savages 
ascertained the presence of one Andrew Moore and his son who were 
returning from the Jordan block house. While encamped near the 


crossing of the old Massac road over the middle fork of the Big 
Muddy, they were attacked and killed after a bloody struggle; after 
which the horses were stolen. In Jefferson county, Moore's prairie, 
perpetuates the names of the murdered men. 

At Tom Jordan's fort, on the road to Equality, about eight or nine 
miles east of old Frankfort, three persons named Barbara, Walker 
and James Jordan, stepped outside, after dark, to secure some wood 
Some Indians who lay concealed in the brush, opened fire and killed 
Barbara, wounded Jordan in the leg, while Walker escaped. 

"St. Louis, March 15, 1812. 
"General Clark: 

"I this moment received an express from Fort Madison, with let- 
ters from the agent at that post which informs me that on the 8rd. 
instant, a war party of five Winnebagoes killed one of the corporals 
of that post, a short distance from the fort. By express I received a 
talk from a band of the Sacs, nearest our settlements, declaring their 
determination of continuing in friendship with the United States." 

"St. Louis, March 22, 1812. 
"General Clark: 

"The Winnebago bands, part of the Kickapoos, and some of the 
Pottawattomies are yet friendly to the Prophet, and may join him 
again in the spring. His brother, Tecumseh, returned from the 
southern tribes in December last; he made great exertions to get the 
Shawnees and Delawares of this territory to join the Prophet's party, 
but without success. He proceeded to the Sacs and Sioux country, 
where his counsels have been more attended to, The Prophet's com- 
bination is not the only one we have to watch in this quarter. I 
strongly suspect a coalition of the Pottawattomies will take place un- 
der that vile fellow called the Marpock, who has been all the winter 
at Fort Madison, and no doubt has received his lesson, as he has 
sent runners to his nation, informing them, among other excitements, 
that he will play a new game with the Americans. The point where 
they are to build their town is at some small lakes, 60 miles north- 
west of Chicago; I am informed through the Indians that some of 
the Senacas of upper Canada are coming over, either to join the 
Prophet or reside with the Sacs, whom they have applied to for 

"Illinois Territory, March 23, 1812. 

"Advices from Chicago, Peoria and Fort Madison, all confirming 
the hostile intentions of the Indians between the lakes and the rivers 
Illinois and Mississippi; the Sioux supposed to have joined the hos- 
tile confederation; more murders committed." 

In April, three families over in the Wabash country, were mur- 
dered. One, the Huston family, on the Wabash; another, the family 
of Mr. Harriman, on the Embarras, and the third, the family of Mr. 
Hinton, on Driftwood fork of White river. 


On April 6, 1812, a party of ten or eleven Winnebagoes attacked 
the little settlement of Mr. Lee at Hardscrabble, about three miles 
up the south branch of the Chicago river from Fort Dearborn, near 
the present junction of the canal with that river, and killed two men, 
one named Liberty White, the other a Frenchman. Following is the 
report of Captain Heald on the affair: 

Ft. Deakborn, at Chicago, 15th April, 1812, 

"The Indians have commenced hostilities in this quarter. On the 
6th inst. a little before the sun set, a party of eleven Indians, sup- 
posed to be Winnebagoes, came to Messrs. Russell and Leigh's cabin 
in a field on the portage branch of the Chicago river, about three 
miles from the garrison, where they murdered two men; one by the 
name of Liberty White, an American, and the other a Canadian 
Frenchman, whose name I do not know. White received two balls 
through the body; nine stabs with a knife in his breast and one in 
his hip; his throat was cut from ear to ear, his nose and lips were 
taken off in one piece, and he's skinned almost as far round as they 
could find any hair. The Frenchman was only shot through the neck 
and scalped. Since the murder of these two men, one or two other 
parties of Indians have been lurking about us, but we have been so 
much on our guard, that they have not been able to get any scalps." 

One would think from reading that letter that Captain Heald 
would have doubted the expediency of leaving Ft. Dearborn on his 
ill-stared trip four months from that day. 

As these troubles continued to come from the Peoria Lake country. 
Governor Edwards made a final effort to pursuade the Indians to stop 
them, as well as to live up to their promises made to Captain Lever- 
ing, to which end he invited them to call upon him for a final talk. 

In April a deputation of them, Pottawatomies, Chippewas and 
Kickapoos, headed by Gomo, came down the river to meet him at 
Cahokia. While journeying down, an inconsiderate action on the 
part of the whites nearly caused the mission to fail. Following is 
General Clark's account of it: 

"St. Louis, April 12th, 1812. 

"Some of the chiefs, considerate men, warriors, women and children 
from the bands on the Illinois River, in all, sixty, are now here. They 
came down by the invitation of Governor Edwards, to council on the 
differences existing between these bands and our citizens, etc. Near 
the mouth of the Missouri, on the way to see the Governor, they were 
fired on by a party of the inhabitants of the Illinois Territory, fortu- 
nately no one killed. They are now under my protection and I 
believe so much alarmed that they will not visit the Governor at 
Kaskaskia, Those chiefs have informed me that a large party of 
Winnebagoes are out on a war party intending to attack the frontiers 
of this territory." ' ^ 

The foolish act created some excitement and might have interfered 
with the subsequent council, had not the Indians been assured by 
General Clark and Governor Edwards of their regret at the unfortu- 
nate affair and the irresponsibility of the parties committing the 


indiscretion. Gomo readily believed them and with his associates 
proceeded to Cahokia on his mission. 

"Council held at Cahokia, April 16, 1812, between Gov. Ninian 
Edwards, and the following chiefs and warriors: 

Of the Pottawatomies — Gomo, Pepper, White Hair, Little Sauk, 
Great Speaker, Yellow Son, Snake, Mankai, Bull, Deman, Neck-kee- 
ness-kee-sheck, Ignace, Powtawamie, Prophet, Pamousa, Ish-kee-bee, 
Toad, Man-wess, Pipe-Bird, Cut Branch, The South Wind, and the 
Black Bird. 

Kickapoos — Little Deer, and Blue Eyes (representative of Pama- 
wattan). Sun Fish, Blind-of-an-eye, Otter, Mak kak. Yellow Lips, 
Dog Bird and Black Seed. 

"Of the Ottawas — Mittitasse (representative of the Black Bird), 
Kees-kagon, and JMalsh-wa-she-wai. 

"Chippewas — The White Dog. 

"Governor Edwards addressed th«m as follows: 

"Chiefs and Warriors of the Pottawatomies, Kickapoos, Chip- 
PEWAYS AND Ottaways: — My desire to preserve peace and friendship, 
if possible, between the red and white people, induced me to send for 
you; and I am glad you have come to see me, according to my re- 
quest, because it shows a desire on your part as well as mine, to keep 
the tomahawk buried, 

"My children, your Great Father, the President of the United 
States, has given many proofs of his love for the red flesh, and the 
red skins will always find him a kind protector so long as they act 
with pure hearts. He loves both his red and white children, and 
does not wish either to do hurt to the other. 

"My children, for a long time the bloody tomahawk and scalping 
knife have been buried. The red people enjoyed their forests and 
pursued their game in peace; and the white people cultivated the 
earth without fear. We were all then happy, and your Great Father 
was glad to see it. For some time past, a storm has appeared to be 
gathering. Injuries have been done, anger has been produced, and 
war has appeared to be almost unavoidable. 

'•My child ren, that great deceiver, the Shawnee Prophet, has been 
hired by the British to tell you falsehoods and to cause ycu to raise 
the tomahawk against your white brother. He pretended to hold 
talks with the Great Spirit, to impose upon the weak and foolish. 
He promised many things. He promised his followers victory at the 
battle of Tippecanoe; but the American chief, Governor Harrison, 
proved that he was a liar, 

"My children, before the Shawnee Prophet began to work with a 
bad heart, you were all happy; but he has distracted the red skins 
and their happiness is gone. 

"My children, those who listened to the Shawnee Prophet have 
gained nothing but misery; many of them were wounded, and others 
lost their lives and left their friends to mourn over their folly. 


"My children, the British have had other bad birds flying among 
you. I am not surprised that some of your young men should have 
been deceived by them. Bat there are some of you, great chiefs, who 
are old warriors, and wise enough to know them better Some of 
you know the horrors and folly of war well enough to wish to avoid it. 

"My children, you can remember when the British advised the red 
skins to make war upon their white brethren of the United States. 
They then promised you great assistance; but they deceived you and 
left you to fight your own battles, and you found it necessary to sue 
for peace. At that time you were stronger than you are now; the 
woods were then full of game of all kinds; large numbers of you could 
collect together and travel through the country without fear of want- 
ing provisions. But this cannot now be done. 

"My children, when the red and white people were formerly at war, 
we were then weak; we are now grown strong — have everything 
necessary for war — and are your near neighbors. Our Great Father's 
dominions extend over vast countries, bounded by the great waters; 
his towns and cities are hard to be counted, and his white children 
are as thick and numerous as the stars of the sky. 

"My children, your Great Father has nothing to fear from war with 
you, for if it were possible for the red skins to conquer one army, he 
could soon have another, ten times as strong to oppose you. But he 
does not wish for war. You have nothing to hope from it, and you 
can have peace if you will do justice and comply with your treaty. 

"My children, we are about to engage in a war with the British. I 
wish you to see how different our condition is from theirs. We do 
not wish you to take any part with us in the war; we do not wish you 
to fight for us, because we know we are able to whip them without 
your help; when we were as little children we fought, conquered 
them, and took the whole United States away from them ; and if we 
fight them again, we shall whip them and take the Canadas away 
from them. For this purpose our Great Father now has an army of 
185,000 men, 

"My children, the British pretend to be your friends, but their ob- 
ject is to get you to fight their battles; and they care not what be- 
comes of you afterwards. They tell you of the power of their king 
over the great lake. They say to you, that he can conquer us, but 
they know this is not true. If they thought they were able to fight 
us, why are they so anxious to get you to assist them? 

"My children, the British would now load you with presents, if you 
would engage in the war, but remember these presents would last you 
but a little while and would cost you very dear; for if you join them 
in the war against us, remember now my words: We shall take 
Montreal and all Upper Canada. British traders and English goods 
will never be suffered to go among you again. Our own traders will 
all be recalled. War will be waged against you. Your country will 
be taken and strong garrisons will he built in order to retain it. 


Consider how you are to live without any trade, when, at the same 
time, you will be so harassed with war, that you can hunt nowhere 
with safety. 

"My children, your young men may not believe these things, but 
your old warriors and brave chiefs have sense enough to know they 
will come to pass. I tell you these things, because I am so much 
your friend, that I do not wish you to bring those evils upon your- 
selves, your wives and helpless children. 

"My children, we do not wish to afflict you unless you raise the 
tomahawk. When you do this, you may not get peace as soon as you 
may want it; for if your Great Father, the President of the United 
States, is obliged, by your bad conduct, to go to war with you, he will 
strike such a blow as will be sufficient to prevent the red people from 
ever going to war with us again. 

"My children, remember it is easy to get into war, but hard to get 
out of it again with advantage. 

•'My children, I am satisfied that many of you have too much sense 
to listen to all the Prophet's lies, and hate him in your hearts, be- 
cause he deceived your friends and has brought trouble on you all. 
But some of your people have listened to him, or other bad advisers, 
and they have done us injuries which cannot be overlooked. 

"My children, guilty as the Prophet has been, he has not done all 
the mischief; others have done mischief, hoping they would escape 
punishment by laying the blame upon him; but this must not be 
suffered. While some of your tribes have been professing peace, 
your men have been committing depredations upon us. This cannot 
be suffered; unless such bad men shall be given up for punishment, 
the tribe must be answerable for their conduct. Your Great Father 
has been waiting to see if justice would be done in those oases by 
yourselves, and this has led you into an error; for you suppose that 
because he has not made war upon you to revenge himself, that he 
does not mean to have satisfaction, and you do not seem to think 
yourself bound to deliver up such bad men; but even protect them, 
knowing their guilt, and they are encouraged to do more mischief. 
If this conduct should be suffered, our people might be murdered 
every day, and we never could get satisfaction — because we could 
not distinguish the guilty from the innocent. 

"My children, while we trusted to treaties with you — while we 
believed our red brethren to be friendly — some of our people on this 
side and some on the other side of the Mississippi, fearing no dan- 
ger, have been plundered of their property and deprived of their 
lives by some of your bad men; many horses have been stolen, for 
which no satisfaction has been made, although it was promised. On 
the 19th day of July, 1810, four men were killed and a fifth wounded 
in the district of St. Charles, in Louisiana. On the 2d of June, last 
year, three of your bad men went to the house of a Mr. Cox, in this 
country, plundered him of a great deal of property, barbarously kill- 
ed his son, and took his daughter a prisoner. A few days afterwards 


another party killed a man by the name of Price, and wounded 
another by the name of Ellis, in this country also, and near the Miss- 

"My children, these were great outrages, but I used my exertions 
to prevent the people from rising to revenge themselves, and I sent 
Captain Levering to you to demand of you to give up the offenders, 
as you had bound yourselves, by treaty, to do. You did not deliver 
them up, yet you say that you wish to be governed by the treaty, and 
still you will not comply with it. 

'"My children, when 1 demanded those bad men, by Captain Lev- 
ering, you professed not to know where they were; and still you said 
you could not deliver them up. Since that time I have found out 
that some of them were actually with you — that they are positively 
of your party, and have resided near Peoria ever since. 

*'My children, you stated that the chiefs did not know, when mis- 
chief was done, who of their party committed it. We know enough 
of yoar customs to satisfy us that such things are seldom concealed 
among you. Bat this, if true, was no excuse for failing to deliver 
those you knew to be guilty. 

''My children, you complained that we never delivered up our men 
to you when they did mischief. We are not bound to do so by the 
treaty; we punish our men when we can prove them to be guilty, 
just as we would punish the red people for the same offenses. But 
you have failed to give up the late offenders for us to punish them, 
nor have you punished them yourselves, though you know them to 
be guilty. 

•'My children, when I sent Captain Levering to you with my talk, 
I was 6sorry to find, in the answer I received statemeats so much 
like those which the Prophet is in the habit of expressing. You at- 
tempted to draw a contrast between the people of the United States 
and French and British; you then said the French and British never 
built torts, but that the Americans did so. This is not true. When 
the British first made great canoes and crossed the great lake (the 
ocean) they always built forts; and so did the French. There are 
the remains of old forts everywhere near the great i''.ke; both the 
French and English built forts at Pittsburgh, on the Ohio, You see 
those works at St. Louis. There is also a fort called Fort Chartres, 
between this place and Kaskaskia. There are forts in Canada and 
many other places that were built by the British and French. 

"My children, you also said to Captain Levering that when the 
French and British made presents to the Indians, they never asked 
any land; but that the Americans never made you any presents, ex- 
cept they asked first for a little land and then for a groat deal. 

"My children, there is indeed a difference between us and the 
French and British in this respect. We never take your land with- 
out payine: you for it. They claimed all your land and took it when- 
ever they wanted it, without paying you anything. They did not 
acknowledge that you had any land, and they have transferred it all 
to us, without paying regard to your claim. 


"My children, when the British first crossed the great lake, the 
red people owned all the land to the great water. The British took 
it all from you, and never paid anything. The red people also owned 
Canada; but that has been taken from them, and you have never heard 
that the Indians received anything for all the lands that the British 
now hold there, nor did you ever hear that the Freuch paid for the 
land they held on this or the other side of the Mississippi river. 

"My children, we never want to buy your land, or take it from you, 
unless you wish to sell it, and then we will give you the price that 
you ask for it. You cannot show that we ever took a foot of your 
land since we got clear of the King of England, without paying for 
it, and we are not answerable for the sins of the British King; for we 
all know that he is not a good man, and that he did great injustice to 
the red people, by taking their land without paying for it, although he 
now pretends to be their friend, because he wishes them to fight for 
him. I hope, therefore, I shall hear no more upon this subject. 

"My children, you told Captain Levering that if we did not have 
peace with you, it would be our fault. This is not true ; we only ask jus- 
tice of you. If you do justice, we wish for peace; but we cannot con- 
sent that the land shall be stained with the blood of our innocent 
brethren, without some satisfaction being given. Peace upon such 
terms, is worse than war. 

"My children, the blood of these innocent persons who have been 
wounded and murdered cries aloud tj the Great Spirit for vengeance. 
The hearts of their relations and brethren bleed with sorrow, and 
they thirst for revenge. 

"My children, now open your ears to hear my words, and let them 
sink deep into your hearts. If you wish for peace with us, you must 
do us justice. If you disapprove those murders and other outrages 
that have been committed, you must deliver up the offenders, or 
punish them yourselves; for if you harbor among you such deadly 
enemies to us, you cannot be our friends, and you ought not to expect 
our friendship. 

"My children, you can choose peace or war upon proper terms. If 
you choose peace and will do justice, it will rejoice the heart of your 
Great Father and the hearts of all your white brethren. 

"My children, if you or any other red people should be for war we 
shall be ready for you. I have an army coming on for the defense of 
my people. It will soon be at this place, and if any more murders 
should be committed upon our people, I shall take revenge. You 
must not let any such bad men come from among you, and you must 
not harbor among you bad men of other tribes, knowing that they 
have injured us 

"My children, it now appears that the Winnebagoes are about to 
make war upon us, and it is probable that other red people will also 
do mischief, hoping that it will be laid upon the Winnebagoes; but 
I shall be upon my watch to detect and punish all such. 


"My children, there has lately been much mischief done. I have 
strong reason to believe that others besides the Winnebagoes, have 
been concerned, and that some of you have kaowledge of it, If you 
are friends I expect you will tell us all you know. 

"My children, let justice be done, let all cause of complaint be re- 
moved, and let us again live like brothers. 

"My children, we do not want your land. We have more land 
already than we can use, and I shall neither propose to buy it, nor 
does your Great Father, or myself, wish to take a foot of it from you. 
Those who tell you to the contrary, tell you lies and wish to deceive. 

"My children, shut your ears against all evil counselors and com- 
ply with your treaty and you shall still be treated as friends and 

In reply to which, Mettetasse rose and said: "This is the one 
(pointing to Gomo) who is to answer your speech of yesterday, in 
the name of us all — Pottawatomies, Kickapoos, Chippeways and Ot- 

The Pepper — "My father, my brother here, the oldest chief, will 
answer you. We have all heard your speech of yesterday, and we 
will all hear his answer to you, and, when the council is over, we all 
desire to go home.'' 

The Little Deer — * 'My father, I am of the village of the Great 
Lick. I speak in the name of Blue Eyes, the representative of Pam- 
awatam. I give you my hand, and wish to be peaceable. You might 
have heard talk of me, and I am well known by all these Indians 
here, and it is well known to them all, that I never listened to the 
Prophet; and I am the first chief who, after the battle of Tippecanoe, 
went to Governor Harrison with my flag 

"My father, my chiefs and warriors are here, who all know me to 
be a peaceable Indian. My village is small. This man (meaning 
Gomo) will speak to you, and we will all agree to what he will say. 

"My father, the people of my village are now anxious for my re- 
turn, to hear the result of this council. 

"My father, we have reflected on your speech of yesterday, and we 
have consulted together. Gomo will answer in the name of us all. 
We wish to cross over so soon as the council is over." 

After which introductions Gomo arose and with self-consciousness 

"My father, you have heard what my war chiefs have said. I will 
speak to you as the Great Spirit inspires me. 

"My father, in this manner the Great Spirit has taught me to speak 
by giving me a pipe and tobacco, therein to make my father smoke. 

"My father, this is the pipe we have smoked together. I smoked 
out of it in coming down to see you. 

"My father, all the chiefs that I left at home hold their pipes in 
their hands, to smoke with us on our return. 


"My father, we always kept fast hold of the pipe of peace. That 
pipe will remain with you; and although it remains with you, it is 
still in our hands. 

"My father, while you are smoking that pipe, your children smoke 
also with you. 

"My father, when the Great Spirit created us, he gave us the pipe 
of peace. The wampum we wear was made by our white brothers. 

"My father, the manner in which I present you the pipe is our way 
and was transmitted to us by our ancestors, and we now know you 
hold it. 

"My father, all that you said yesterday was well said, and I assure 
you, it has sunk deep into my heart, and it is from the bottom of my 
heart that I will speak. 

"My father, if I came here, it was to hear your words, and therefore 
I thank you for what you did say. 

"My father, I am not to make a council of myself, and when my 
chiefs tell me what to say, I do so. Therefore what I now say is 
from them all. 

"My father, I now show you I obeyed your orders. I intended to 
go and quarrel with the Prophet, but I have put that ojff because you 
sent for me. 

"My father, what has scared all our towns and villages is that affair 
that happened on the Wabash.* 

"My father, we have reflected considerably since yesterday. It is 
neither you nor I that made this earth, and the Great Spirit is angry, 
and we do not know what he will do. 

"My father, by what I see today, probably our Great Spirit is 
angry, and wants us to return to ourselves and live in peace. What 
I now say is from the bottom of my heart. 

"My father, you see many children have sold their lands. The 
Great Spirit did not give them the land to sell. Perhaps that is the 
cause why the Great Spirit is angry. 

"My father, you have often been deceived. A chief will come and 
sell land. Can a chief sell land? I am a chief, but I am poor and 
worthy of pity, and want to live in peace on our land. 

"My father, if there could be found among us one chief who had 
influence enough to deliver a murderer, I would be happy to see such 
a chief. 

"My father, you probably think I am a great chief. I am not. I 
cannot control my young men as I please. 

"My father, I am a red skin; I am not a great chief. I am a chief 
whilst my young men are growing, but when they become grown I 
am no more master of them. 

* Battle of Tippecanoe. 


"My father, the Great Spirit created us all. We have not the 
same power that you have. You have troops and laws. When a man 
does ill, you have him taken and punished; but this we cannot do. 

"My father, I could very easily secure or kill the murderers you 
mention, but unless the whole of my chiefs and young men are con- 
senting, I would be killed. 

"My father, concerning the murderers, we will consult all together, 
and we will then know what we will do. 

"My father, I have not forgotten General Wayne's counsel, and I 
have always tried to follow it and live in peace. 

"My father, at the time the red skins were fighting, I was not 
among them. I was then traveling through the States, and went to 
Washington City, to see our Great Father, and I was led to several 
sea ports in America. 

"My father, when Turkey-foot came here and killed your white 
children, you desired be should be killed. We got together and con- 
sulted among ourselves and we killed him. 

"My father, the Kickapoos were those that killed your children on 
the Missouri. You demanded the murderers Here is the Blue 
Eyes present who brought them in. 

"My father, it is impossible for us to bring in murderers. They 
are too much dispersed and too far ofP. 

"My father, here is my oldest brother (General Clark) , that I saw 
two years ago, who told us to live in peace, which I have always 

"My father, in our treaty we are bound to deliver up murderers. I 
am not the only chief who could not deliver up murderers. 

"My father, at the Miami village, a Pottawatomie was killed by an 
American. We never demanded the murderer, but the factor there 
covered our dead brother by giving us goods. 

"My father, I have heard the good advice of your speech. I never 
listen to any evil birds. I am for living in peace, and I will return to 
my people and rehearse them your speech. 

"My father, at the time the British and Americans fought in the 
last war, we never meddled in it. We used to come down here and 
follow the advice of a chief who was then here. 

"My father, I have always said to you we never meddled in the 
British battles, and, therefore, do you think we would now join them? 
No, never. 

"My father, no one can say I ever went to the English factories, or 
ever got a blanket from the English. When I wanted a blanket, I 
would buy one from our trader. 

"My father, I must tell you the truth. I went to see them two 
years ago, and when I got there the Indians, on seeing me, said, 
'Here come an American,' and it was with difficulty I got home with- 
out starving." 


•'My father, a father, when he wants his children to do well, in- 
struots them. You did so yesterday, and I was well pleased. 

"My father, you asked me to tell you what was going on in our 
towns. I cannot now say, for I have been long absent, in our sugar 
camps. When I return home, I will be able to learn. 

"My father, I will state what I learnt last fall. 

"My father, When Mainpock went to war, he had one of his young 
men killed, who was an Ottawa, and related to another old man, and 
this old man sent his son to the English. He said 'My father has 
sent for goods.' And they told him he must be very sorry for the 
loss of his son. 

"My father, the British then told him, 'Why do you go to war 
against the Osages? Go against the Americans; they are close.' 

"My father, when his son returned, the old man answered the 
British agent, telling him to fight his own battles, as he was deter- 
mined to live in peace. 

"My father, do you think we would join the English? We remem- 
ber when you beat them, they left us in the lurch, and we had to fly. 
Certainly we will not join them again. 

"My father, wo have friends among us who often tell us not to join 
the English — that they will again forsake us; therefore we remain in 

"My father, I do not speak for all the Indian nations; I speak for 
those here. 

"My father, you will easily know those who will assist the English; 
it cannot be kept hid. 

"My father, sometimes it makes me reflect, when I consider on the 
promises you made us, not to leave us in misery. 

"My father, you told us, when you spoke to the Black Bird, that 
our fires would always be kept up clear, and that we should not suf- 
fer. This has not been kept. 

"My father, my chiefs have gone among the nations and received 
prisoners, and returned them. 

"My father, I never tried to sell land to get goods to cover us. I 
always got my covering from my hunt. 

"My father, I am not of those men who go and see their father to 
sell land. I go and see my father to hear his words. 

"My father, my desire is that our lands remain as clear as this blue 

"My father, you see I have brought you our wives and children, 
to show you how ragged they are. 

"My father, I thought of asking you to place a factory in our town 
of Peoria, but on account of the Winnebagoes, who are roving about, 
should any be killed, we might be blamed; therefore I will not, at 
present, ask for one. 


"My father, if it was your wish to send us goods, we would wish 
the factor to be a man who has resided with us. 

"My father, I have been asked to go and see our Great father. 
The voyage is so long that I would wish to remain at home in peace. 

"My father, you sent for us and we came down, and were fired at. 
We wish you had a fort at the entrance of the Illinois river, at which, 
in coming down, we might stop. 

"My father, when a garrison will be there we will come and see 
you oftener, and feel better protected. 

"My father, we are four nations here. Whatever the English may 
do, you may rest assured none of us will join them. 

"My father, I am at the other end of Peoria lake. It is there 
where we will reside, and remain in peace in hunting to support our 

"My father, we intend to meet and draw near to one another, with 
the intention of living together in peace. 

"My father, I have not much sense, but when you shall send any 
of your young men into our towns, they shall not be afraid for it. 

"My father, when you sent us Captain Levering, he was received 
and well treated by all our people. 

"My father, it is all I have to say. I hope the Great Spirit will 
assist me in complying with what I have said." 

Governor Edwards' Keplt. 

"My children, I will speak to you in a plain and short manner, and 
I wish my words to sink deep into your hearts. 

"My children, if any of your white brethern had gone among you 
and committed murders and robberies, your Great Father never 
would have forgiven them for it, but they would have been punished 
as soon as their guilt could be proven. 

"My children, your Great Father cannot forgive those who have 
murdered his white children and taken their property. Your Great 
Father's children would no longer love him if he were to suffer such 
things to pass unpunished. 

"My children, your Great Father now asks you to do nothing for 
him but what he would do for you, in the same circumstances. 

"My children, you objected to give up those bad men to be hung 
like dogs, as you call it, and I now agree to permit you to kill them 
yourselves; and, if you will consent to do it, I will send a man with 
you to see it done, and we shall then have peace. 

"My children, you do not acknowledge that all of the murderers 
are of your party, except those who killed Cox and took his sister 
prisoner. What you say may be true, and I now only demand that 
you shall deliver to me or that you shall kill those murderers that 
you acknowledge are of your party. 


"My children, these three murderers that I now demand arePotta- 
watomies, and I call upon you, great chiefs and brave warriors of the 
Pottawatomies, to comply with your treaty and deliver up these bad 
men, or kill them yourselves. 

"My children, I want to see if you will do that justice which you 
acknowledge is in your power, and then I shall believe you tell the 
truth when you say you wish for peace; and you shall be treated as 
good and dutiful children of your Great Father. 

"My children, you say our people are not always punished when 
they do you injury, but we always punish them, if we can find them 
out; and you have no excuse for not punishing those who have lived 
among you and whom you know to be guilty. 

"My children, you say these bad men are gone to the Prophet. 
This I know is not true, for one of them you left near Peoria, with a 
sore foot, and they have lived in three leagues of Peoria for a long 

"My children, it is no excuse for you to say that these men are 
gone to the Prophet, because they were with you when I demanded 
them of you last year, and you have had it in your power to deliver 
them up for a long time. 

"My children, you cannot suppose that we are people who can suf- 
fer our brethern to be murdered without having revenge. When we 
demand the murderers of you, you say they are gone to the Prophet. 
When Governor Harrison demanded them of the Prophet, he said 
they were gone to you. You cannot suppose us such fools as to be 
put off this way. 

"My children, suppose some of our bad men were to go and kill 
your warriors, and you could prove the fact. You find them to be 
the children of the American chief, Governor Harrison; you go to 
him and demand that they should be punished. He tells you they 
are gone to Governor Edwards. You then come to me. I tell you 
they are gone to Governor Howard. You go to him. He tells you 
they are gone to Governor Harrison, by which you could get no sat- 
isfaction. You would think we were trying to make fools of you. And 
we now think the same thing of you. You would want revenge, and 
so do we want revenge; and we will have it. 

"My children, think of these things. One day or other you will 
be sorry that you did not listen to my advice, and you will then be 
convinced that I was your friend. 

"My children, I have heard your words, and I am sure there are 
good men among you, and wish we could be friends. It may be a 
hard case for you to punish your bad men; but you must remember 
it is a hard case for us to have our children and brothers murdered 
without revenge. If you will do us justice by punishing your mur- 
derers, and be friendly with us as brothers, you shall be protected 
against white people and red people also. The Great Spirit made us 
all, and loves us. I wish to take you to my heart and cover you with 
my wing. We do not want to buy your land, but we will not give 


up what we have bought. You sold the lands, or your fathers did, 
and you have no right to keep the pay and the land too. If twenty 
of your men murder a hundred of our people, what are we to do? We 
cannot find them and you will not punish them; what are we to do? 
You surely do not expeot that we will let our people be murdered, 
without revenge. If you will not give up your bad men who kill us, 
we must kill as many of yours — and then we may kill the innocent, 
which we do not wish to do," 

GoMo's Keply to the Gtovernor's Second Speech. 

"My father, we are happy to hear what you have said, for we have 
come down here for that purpose. 

"My father, what you have recommended me to do, I will do. 

"My father, we came here to hear your words; the chiefs and war- 
riors have all heard you. You will hear what I have done when I 
get home, 

"My father, this is all I have to say to you. We will pay attention 
to your words." 

When Gomo said that the battle of Tippecanoe put hia people to 
flight, the conclusion naturally occurs to us that a good beating like 
that of Harrison's would have saved all this ceremony which accom- 
plished nothing and saved the territory muah annoyance and blood- 
shed, Nothing serves to subdue an Indian so much as a good chas- 
tising, the battle of the Thames serving as the best example I can 

Gomo had learned well, how to meet and neutralize Governor Ed- 
wards' stern address; and well he applied his tactics in this instance. 
By bringing their women with them, ragged and dirty and appealing 
to the generosity of Governor Edwards, they not only refused to re- 
turn the murderers, robbers or property, but they secured abundance 
to eat and to wear, carrying back the same in triumph until another 
talk might be demanded, perhaps. 

That Governor Edwards had little faith in those Indian promises, 
may be seen from various reports to Governor Harrison, one of 
which is as follows. 

Illinois Territory, April 24, 1812. 

"Has held a council with the Pottawatomies, Kickapoos, Ottawas 
and Ohippe«7as; little dependence to be placed on the their profes- 
sions; hostile Indians approaching the settlements " 

In that same month of April, 1812, the families of Messrs. Hutson 
(Huston on the Wabash), H'lrriman (on the Embarrass) and Hin- 
ton (on Driftwood fork of White river) , were murdered. 

In May, a party of Indians came to the house of a Mr. McGowan, 
about 40 miles from Vinoennes, and killed him in bed. His family 


Levering's mission had failed, Grovernor Edward's talk had failed, 
and as a last resort to avoid trouble by peaceful methods, he issued 
the following: 


Whereas, It is deemed improper to furnish the Indians with spir- 
itous liquors at Peoria, 

I do hereby forbid all persons whatsoever, to sell, exchange or in 
any manner give or deliver, to any Indians, or Indian, any spiritous 
liquors or any ardent spirits within 20 miles of Peoria. And I do 
hereby enjoin it upon Thomas Forsythe, or any other justice of the 
peace for St. Clair county, to enforce this proclamation. 

In testimony whereof, I have caused the seal of the Territory to 
be hereunto affixed. Griven under my hand at Kaskaskia, this 24th 
day of May, 1812. 

Ninian Edwards, 
By the Governor: 

Nat. Fope, Secretary. 

But the proclamation had not the slightest weight with the Illinois 
river Indians, saturated with hatred for Americans, as they were, 
and so far as the advancement of peace by peaceful overtures was 
concerned, the efforts of Governor Edwards were ended, and hopeful 
that the government would relieve him from sole responsibility, he 
set about strengthening his defenses; notifying neighboring govern- 
ors and urging action by the President or Congress, as soon as the 
latter might "find time to consider our condition." 

Governor Harrison wrote on the situation from — 

"ViNOENNES, 3d June, 1812. 

The information received within a few days from Governor Ed- 
wards, (and he has better means of acquiring it than I have, from 
the intercourse that is kept up between the Tippecanoe and Illinois 
river,) confirms that which I had previously received from a principal 
Pottawatomie chief, viz: that the major part of the Winnebago tribe 
are at Tippecanoe with the Prophet and Tecumseh; small bands 
from the Illinois river and the east of Lake Michigan, making a 
force at least equal to that which they commanded last summer, and 
that their intentions were entirely hostile. The Governor also says 
they are at this time, nearly 800 warriors embodied at Peoria; that 
the British agents were endeavoring to effect a peace between the 
Sioux andOhippewas for the purpose of uniting both those tribes in the 
war against us, and they were making large deposits of Indian goods 
at their establishments on Lake Michigan, and on the communication 
between that and Lake Superior." 

On June 18, 1812, Congress took the matter up, having previously 
called for details concerning the movements of the Indians and the 
possible influence of British agents in spreading them. Many of the 


letters submitted with the report have been given already. It is 
sufficient to note the fact that those letters formed the basis for the 
following report: 
•'12th Congress. No, 135. Ist Session. 

Northwestern Frontiers. 

"Communicated to the House of Representatives, June 13, 1812. 

"Mr. McKee, from the committee to whom was referred so much 
of the President's message as relates to Indian affairs, reported: 

"That the attention of the committee has been directed to the fol- 
lowing inquiries: 

"1st Whether any, and what, agency the subjects of the British 
government may have had in exciting the Indians on the western 
frontier, to hostilities against the United States; 

"2nd. The evidence of such hostility, on the part of the Indian 
tribes, prior to the late campaign on the Wabash; 

"3rd. The orders by which the campaign was authorized and 
carried on. 

"The committee have obtained all the evidence within their power 
relative to these several inquiries. The documents accompanying 
the President's message to Congress of the 11th instant, contain all, 
and some additional evidence to what had been obtained by the 
committee, in relation to the first inquiry. Those documents afford 
evidence as conclusive as the nature of the case can well be supposed 
to admit of, that the supply of Indian goods furnished at Fort Mai- 
den, and distributed during the last year by the British agents, in 
Upper Canada, to the Indian tribes, were more abundant than usual; 
and it is difficult to account for this extraordinary liberality on any 
other ground than that of an intention to attach the Indians with 
the British cause, in the event of a war with the United States. 

"That the Indian tribes should put to hazard the large annuities 
which they have been so long in the habit of receiving from the United 
States; that they should relinquish supplies so necessary to their com- 
fort, if not to their existence, by a hostile conduct, in the absence of 
all other evidence, is not the least convincing proof that some agency 
has been employed to stimulate the savages to hostilities; and, hav- 
ing pursued a course of conduct which must lead to a forfeiture of 
those advantages, renders it at least probable that they had assur- 
ances of receiving an equivalent elsewhere. 

"Additional presents, consisting of arms and ammunition, given 
at a time when there is evidence that the British where apprised of 
the hostile disposition of the Indians, accompanied with the speeches 
addressed to them, exciting disaffection are of too decisive a charac- 
ter to leave doubt on the subject. 

"With regard to the second subject of inquiry, the committee are 
of the opinion, that the evidence accompanying this report, together 


with the official oommunication made to the executive, by the Brit- 
ish government, afiPords such evidence of the hostile views and inten- 
tions of the Indians as to render it the duty of the President of the 
United States, to use the necessary means of protecting the frontiers 
from the attack with which they were threatened. 

"Accordingly, in pursuance of the provisions of the act of Con- 
gress, entitled 'An act for calling forth the militia to execute the 
laws of the Union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions,' the 
executive ordered the Fourth regiment of infantry, with one com- 
pany of riflemen, under the command of Colonel Boyd, from Pitts- 
burg to Vincennes, subject to the further orders of Governor Harrison, 
who was authorized with this force, and such additional number of 
companies from the militia as should be deemed necessary to establish 
a new post on the Wabash, and to march against, and disperse, the 
armed combination under the Prophet. 

"These considerations, together with the documents, are respect- 
fully submitted." 

War with England had been anticipated by the people of Illinois 
for a considerable period; in fact it was a matter of comment that 
hostilities had not been declared a year or so before. But on June 
18th the climax was reached when war was formally declared and ad- 
ditional precautions were taken all over the frontier. On July 14th, 
1812, Governor Edwards applied to Lieutenant Colonel Bissell to re- 
occupy the block house, on the Mississippi, which had been aband- 
oned for some time. Over the Mississippi, in the St. Charles district, 
Captain Kibby with his rangers protected the country from the mouth 
of Salt River to Loutre Island in the Missouri, and while it may be 
said to augur long suffering, hardships, disasters and death, a feeling 
of relief spread over the community, because the enemy could now 
be met on equal terms, if such were possible. 

The slender support lent by the United States to Illinois Territory 
may be seen by the report of United States troops present on June 
6, 1812, as certified by the Adjutant General, in and around Illinois 
being: Fort Massac, 36; Fort Madison, 44; Vincennes and vicinity, 
117; Fort Dearborn, 53. While the munitions issued were deplorably 
insufficient to maintain a show of aggression, as will be seen by "the 
returns of the number of troops in service on the peace establishment 
and additional military force of 1808." Also stands of arms loaned 
to the militia, issued conformably to the law of April 23d, 1808: Illi- 
nois Territory, 216 stands of arms; 45 pistols; 216 equipments for 

While the territorial militia aggregated little more than a decent 
battalion, at the time war was declared, it was ever ready and willing 
to run down murderers and robbers, and what little of retaliation we 
find, was confined to members of that militia who rode to revenge in 
small detachments. By defense of the continued Indian raids upon 
its friends and property, its numbers had been augmented gradually 


until at this time four regiments were actively defending the frontier; 
the First, of Raadolph County, along the Mississippi, consisted of 
two battalions; the sSecond, of St. Clair County, consisted of three 
battalions, one of them "the light Infantry;" the Third and Fourth 
of that part of Randolph County along the Ohio and Wabash and 
extending inland to a point about the middle of the county as it then 
existed, one of which, "the rifle company," was the second battalion 
of the Fourth. Later in the year, the two latter occupied the two 
new counties of Johnson and Gallatin, which were then organized by 
the Governor's proclamation. 

Those rangers continued their duties with tireless zeal, gaining no 
brilliant advantages, but confining the depredations of the Indians 
reasonably, and the thought cannot be avoided that if the same vigor 
of body and particularly the same vigor of mind had been used by 
Captain Heald at Ft. Dearborn, that frightful slaughter of men, 
women and children might have been avoided. But Hull's message 
came; the Indians from the Illinois River pressed forward to that 
point to receive a share of the plunder, and murder, if chance afforded 
the opportunity, and thus momentarily, the settlements of the south 
became exempt from punishment. The Ft. Dearborn massacre being 
the next event in sequence and in importance; an effort will be made 
to disentangle the many stories given to us with sincerity, yet with 
Buch great width of version, that at first reading one is confused and 

We are told * that a wild season of alarm followed the murder at 
Hardscrabble. Captain Heald's report, already quoted, would indi- 
cate that a feeling of insecurity prevailed all along the line of settle- 
ments. Messengers from General Clark of St. Louis, who gathered 
information with their progress, reported activity among the Missis- 
sippi river Indians. Horse stealing became unusually aggravating. 
Reports from the Rock river and Illinois river tribes, were of the 
same tenor and calculated to cause the prudent commander to place 
himself in a posture of security. The settlers about Ft. Dearborn 
organized themselves and fortified the log "agency house," on the 
river bank, just west of the fort, by planking up the porches and 
otherwise preparing themselves to sustain a siege. Thus organized, 
we are told in Munsell's history, that these men composed the "12 
militia," mentioned by Captain Heald in his report as having taken 
part in the fight of Aug. 15, and as having been killed to the last 
man. But Captain Heald appeared indifferent. His faith in Indian 
character must have been so great that he could not be persuaded to 
think ill of the race, or fear that any respectable number, after the 
protestations of friendship by the leaders, would menace the garri- 
son. It must have been his unbounded confidence in them which 
permitted his policy of hesitation. An old Indian fighter, inured to 
savage trickery, would have fortified himself against every manner 
of contingency; but Heald dawdled; disregarded the advice of his 
subordinates for stupid, and at the same time discretionary instruc- 
tions, and Ft. Dearborn fell. 

*KirklaDd'8 Chica&ro Masaacre, 79. 


His muster roll for May, 1812,* showed his garrison to have con- 
sisted of one captain, (himself); one second lieutenant, Linai T, 
Helm; one ensign, George Ronan; one surgeon's mate. Dr. Isaac V. 
VanVoorhis; four sergeants, one of them Hayes and one Holt; two 
corporals, four musicians and 4:1 privates, of the First infantry, which 
was practically the same force he had on Aug. 15, as will be noticed 
by Heald's later report and the letter from the Adjutant General 
dated April 2, 18Sl,f which stated that the garrison's strength was 54 
regular infantry; 12 militiamen and one interpreter (Capt, William 
Wells) . Of the regulars, but 25 or 30 were available, the others 
being then on the sick list. 

On the 9th day of August, 1812,J Captain Heald received orders 
from General Hull, at Detroit, to "proceed with my command, to 
Detroit by land, leaving it in my discretion, to dispose of public prop- 
erty, as I thought proper." It appears that evacuation, too, was 
discretionary with him. Winnemac, or Winnemeg, the friendly In- 
dian who bore the orders to Heald, told the captain that he knew, 
(how he knew is not conceivable, but he knew) their contents, and 
vigorously opposed their literal observance, or, if Heald insisted on 
leaving, then to leave at once, and, by forced marches, distance the 
Indians, while they were dividing the plunder. 

When these orders came, we are told by Mrs. Kinzie, in "Wau- 
Bun," that a council of officers was held to consider them; that Lieu- 
tenant Helm and Ensign Ronan, together with Agent John Kinzie,§ 
opposed evacuation; but against all advice, Captain Heald decided 
to evacuate — sometime. To leave, meant total annihilation of every- 
thing owned by Kinzie; the accumulation of a lifetime, and naturally 
with his influence with the Indians, he felt disinclined to sufPer 
while he considered removal unnecessary. He knew the Chicago In- 
dians personally; he knew the Indian character; he knew, or thought 
he did, how to deal with them in all ordinary emergencies, while 
Heald never had had the slightest experience with them before his 
arrival at Ft. Dearborn. It may not seem at all strange, therefore, 
that being the legal agent || of the government for the Indians and 
well-beloved, he should expect Heald to respect his counsel to 
some extent when a question of such gravity to him was suddenly pre- 
cipitated upon the commanding officer, who had at that time, abund- 
ant supplies of provisions.'ammunition and a formidable stockade, 
behind which, a long period of resistance could be made. In view 
of all the circumstances, one cannot deny the strength of Kinzie's 
position, especially when fortified with the advice of Helm and 
Ronan, the remaining officers. It has been said that Ronan was un- 
friendly to Heald and desired his discomfiture; but no less authority 
than Mrs. Heald herself, denied the allegation to her son Darius, in 

*Klrkland'g Chicago Massacre, 182. 
t Fergus Hist. Series No. 18. p. 49. 

lEarly Chicago. 61; Nile's Register. etc.; Captain Flaald's report. 
?Mrs, Heald, througrh her son. admitted that Elnzle objeeted to leaTins. Eirkland, 93. 
i Interpreter and tradar. 


a manner to command respect and dismiss the charge as groundless. 
Anger under such circumstances could have played no part in ar- 
ranging a plan to save a garrison with its many helpless proteges. 

On the morning following the arrival of his orders, Captain Heald 
read them upon parade, thus giving them currency among the Indians 
almost immediately, which may have been unfortunate, by giving 
them as it did, opportunity to assemble great numbers, by their 
gossip, of covetous and unfriendly Indians, seeking at all times, to 
make trouble for the whites. 

We are also told that upon one occasion, while Captain Heald was 
conversing with Mr. Kinzie, on the parade, he remarked, "I could 
not remain, even if I thought best, for I have but a small store of 
provisions." "Why captain," remarked a soldier, regardless of his 
position, "you have cattle enough to last the troops six months." 
"But I have no salt to preserve it with." "Then jerk it," replied the 
soldier, "as the Indians do their venison." Unhappy condition, if 
such a state existed in that garrison! In all probability, the fact 
was, that no one in Ft. Dearborn, respected the genius of Captain 
Heald to command. 

During the period of inaction which followed, Mrs. Kinzie has 
told us that the Indians entered the fort in defiance of the sentinels; 
even the officers quarters were not respected. 

On the afternoon of Wednesday, Aug. 12,Captain Heald accompanied 
by John Kinzie, the government interpreter, held a council with the 
Indians just outside the fort, to arrange for the distribution of the 
property among them and arrange for an escort of sufficient strength to 
protect the little force in its march to Detroit. Precautions were at 
that time taken to prevent surprise, by opening port holes and plac- 
ing therein, cannon trained directly upon the Indians, for use in 
case they attempted any unfriendly demonstrations. Their numbers 
had increased to include many from points not tributary to Ft. Dear- 
born, which demonstrated that the news of the coming distribution 
had gone on the wings of the wind to friendly and unfriendly alike 
and that much more probably would be expected than they had 
right to expect. Heald promised the Indians a distribution of the 
goods, in return for the employment of a sufficient force of friendly 
Indians from their number to escort the garrison through hostile 
territory. It is more than probable that Heald made no reservations 
from his gift, or that he forgot to expressly stipulate that no liquors 
were to be included in the distribution, and after the conclusion of 
the "'talk," returned to the fort, assured that he had accomplished 
everything necessary for his safe removal to Detroit. 

Once within the fort, with time to consider and council about the 
details of the distribution, no doubt, the unwisdom of furnishing 
them with liquor to madden the young men occurred to all and in 
addition, allowing them arms to use against the garrison, in case the 
friendly leaders could not restrain the young men and then it was, 
as supposed, wisely determined to destroy tbe liquor and the surplus 
firearms; a wise decision, but one which may have been a large factor 


in inciting the Indians to a high pitoh of anger. It is sad to admit 
that the Indian would barter his soul for liquor but it was neverthe- 
less the fact and when expected, the probable loss of it, was apt to 
bring about a change of feeling from friendship to fiendish hostility, 
and that transformation has been acknowledged to exist in this case. 

"On the 13th,* the goods consisting of blankets, broadcloths, cal- 
icoes, paints, etc., were distributed as stipulated. The same evening 
the ammunition and liquor were carried, part into the sally-port. f 
and thrown into a well which had been dug there; the remainder 
was transported as secretly as possible through the northern gate, 
the heads of the barrels knocked in and the contents poured into the 
river. The same fate was shared by a large quantity of alcohol belong- 
ing to Mr. Kinzie, which had been deposited in a warehouse opposite 
the fort."J Suspecting something unusal, the Indians crept closely to 
the fort to observe the action of the whites, as well as the darkness 
would permit, to see if any deception were to be practiced against 
them. At fitful intervals, the destruction of the guns and liquor 
was discovered and on the following afternoon at another council, 
the whites were charged with perfidy, for which they would receive 
no explanations; and subsequently Black Hawk, ever ready to abuse 
the Americans, stated in his autobiography that the whole animus 
of the attack was created because the Americans had broken their 

Capt. William Wells, uncle of Mrs. Heald, then at Ft. Wayne, 
having learned of Hull's order to evacuate Ft. Dearborn, conceived 
the plan to be unsafe and unwise, and to counteract it if possible by 
starting at once for that point with an escort of 30 Miamies to head 
it off. The destination was reached in safety on the 13th of August, 
and in the consultation which followed found it impossible then to 
remain as he had wished, and as became a good soldier that he was, 
joined heartily with his escort in the plans for evacuation, to follow 
in a day or so. Meantime, Black Partridge, before then the friend 
and ally of the whites — who had received from President Madison a 
medal for his conspicuous services, at the treaty of Greenville, or 
near that time, and which he prized highly, called on Heald on the 
14th to surrender his medal and rejoin his friends because he could 
no longer restrain them. His course as reported in "Wau-Bun" 
was creditable. "Father, I come to deliver to you the medal I wear. 
It was given me by the Americans, and I have long worn it in token 
of our mutual friendship. But our young men are resolved to im- 
brue their hands in the blood of the whites. I cannot restrain them, 
and I will not wear a token of peace when I am compelled to act as 
an enemy." 

Even after this declaration, no council was convened; no plan of 
march with a view of mitigating or avoiding the dangers, was formu- 

*Captsiin Heald placed the date of the distribution on the 14th, which would aeem more 

tAn under£:round passaere to the lake, 



lated, and the possibility of battle seemed to have no consideration. 
Possibly with the augmented force of Captain Wells, all fears of 
dangers were removed; but Captain Wells himself had penetrated the 
gathering gloom, and in token of his fear of war and its dreadful con- 
sequences, had blackened his face for the morrow. 

At 9:00 o'clock of the 15th , Captain Heald marched out with his 
little cavalcade of soldiers, cattle, horses and wagons, 25 women, the 
Indian escort, estimated at 300. 

The Kinzie family, with the exception of John Kinzie, were to 
travel by boat along the margin of the lake, intending to ascend the 
St. Joseph river to Bertrand or Pare aux Vaches. The party con- 
sisted of Mrs. John Kinzie, John H Kinzie, the daughters, Ellen 
Marion and Maria Indiana, and the son, Robert A, Kinziej together 
with the nurse, Josette LaFramboise, a clerk of Mr. Kinzie's, two ser- 
vants, the boatman and two Indians as guards. The precaution of 
the passage by boat had been recommended by To-pe-ne-be,a friendly 
chief, who early that morning had warned Mr. Kenzie of projected 
trouble from the "escort"; but regardless of his personal safety, Mr. 
Kinzie marched with the column, to accept his chance with life and 
death, as became a man. 

First in the line was Captain Wells, with half his mounted Mi- 
amis, followed by the 12 militiamen and such of the regulars as 
could bear arms; next came the wagons containing supplies of food 
and ammunition, camp equipage, women, children and the sick. 
Bringing up the rear, were the remaining half of Wells' Miamis, Mr. 
Kinzie, Mrs. Helm and Mrs. Heald, all mounted, making a procession 
about five blocks long. On the river, which then bent to the south 
and entered into the lake at the foot of Madison street, the boat fol- 
lowed slowly, so slowly that it had reached the mouth of the river 
only, when a messenger from To-pe-ne-be overtook and brought the 
party to a halt by hurriedly advising it of the impending attack and 
probable bloody battle. 

The cavalcade had proceeded to a point at or not far from the 
present Fourteenth street, when Captain Wells rode back from his 
advanced position, shouting, "They are about to attack us; form in- 
stantly and charge upon them." 

From the rising sand ridges to the right (west) , above which the 
heads of Indians were suspiciously rising and falling, a volley of 
musketry followed. The wagons were put back next to the lake, the 
men taking positions in front of them, in comparative safety. But 
when the order came to charge them, they moved forward 200 or 300 
yards in front of the wagons, which brought them a like distance 
from the Indians and exposed them to a merciless fire from be- 
hind the drifts of sand, and then the Miamis fled. It has been said 
that Wells ordered the movements of the men, but it is not conceiv- 
able that a mere reinforcing subordinate would offer a command over 
the head of Heald, his superior, in the midst of a battle, with that 
superior then at his very elbow. 


The charge on the breastworks of sand followed gallantly, but mer- 
cilessly slanghtered.the great majority of the little band of soldiers who 
had fought their last battle. Heald received a bullet in his hip; Captain 
Wells, with a ball through his lungs, rushed to his niece, Mrs, Heald, 
to say, "Farewell, my child; tell my wife, if yon live to get there, I 
died at my post doing the best I could." As he turned his horse fell, 
while a party of six or seven Indians wera forming to concentrate an 
attack for his undoing. No sooner had a bullet pierced his body 
when the assailants pounced upon his warm body, out out his heart 
and, after parading it, cut it up and ate it among them. By the time 
a point at or near the present Sixteenth street had been reached, the 
slaughter which followed is supposed to have occurred. 

Finding his men dead or dying, with no possibility of escape left, 
Heald advanced to meet Black Bird in the midst of the enemy, to 
make proposals of surrender. Then a brief conference followed, 
which terminated hostilities, and gave to all prisoners their lives; but 
with a pertinacity of forgetfulness, or ignorance, the poor, helpless 
wounded were omitted from the negotiations, and a few moments 
later were barbarously butchered. They had stipulated, through 
the interpreter, Peresh LeClerc, a half-breed boy in the employ of 
the Kinzies, for the preservation of their lives and those of the remain- 
ing women and children and for their delivery at some of the British 
posts, unless ransomed by the traders; but in all the details, and they 
seemed many, there had been no thought bestowed on the wounded. 

Marching southward, Heald had the benejQt of the lake to his left 
and his wagons to the right. Massed, the enemy could have been 
checked, until the fury of the first assault had subsided, when in 
common with Indian tradition, finding repulse their only reward for 
each assault and death, they had surely abandoned the fight for the 
plunder behind, and withdrawn their forces. Nothing disheartens 
the Indian so much as a stout resistance, and no band of warriors so 
soon abandons a strong resistance as the American Indian; but no 
order to form back of the wagons was given. 

Among the dead were Dr, Isaac V.VanVoorhis and Ensign Ronan, 
with 24 more regulars and the 12 militiamen; but the report of Cap- 
tain Heald is hereto attached: 

"Pittsburg, Oct. 28, 1812. 

On the 9th of August I received orders from General Hull to evac- 
uate the post and proceed, with my command, to Detroit by land, 
leavini? it to my discretion to dispose of the public property as I 
thought proper. The neighboring Indians got the information as 
early as I did, and came in. from all quarters in order to receive the 
goods in the factory store, which they understood were to be given 
them, On the 13th, Captain Wells, of Ft, Wayne, arrived with about 
30 Miamis, for the purpose of escorting us in, by request of General 
Hull. On the 14th I delivered the Indians all the goods in the fac- 
tory store, and a considerable quantity of provisions, which we could 
not take with us, The surplus arms and ammunition I thought 
proper to destroy, fearing they would make bad use of it if put in 
their possession. I also destroyed all liquor on hand soon after they 


began to collect The collection was unusually large for that place, 
but they conducted themselves with the strictest propriety until after 
I left the fort. On the 15th, at 9:00 a. m., we commenced our march; 
a part of the Miamis were detached in front, the remainder in our 
rear, as guards, under the direction of Captain Wells. The situation 
of the country rendered it necessary for us to take the beach, with 
the lake on our left and a high sand bank on our right, at about 100 
yards distance. We had proceeded about a mile and a half when 
it was discovered thpt the Indians were prepared to attack us from 
behind the bank. I immediately marched up, with the company, to 
the top of the bank, when the action commenced. After firing one 
round we charged, and the Indians gave way in front and joined those 
on our flanks. In about 15 minutes they got possession of all our 
horses, provisions and baggage of every description* and finding the 
Miamies did not assist us, I drew off the few men I had left and took 
possession of the small elevation in the open prairie, out of shot of the 
bank, or any other cover. The Indians did not follow me, but assem- 
bled in a body on the top of the bank, and, after some consultation 
among themselves, made signs for me to approach them. I advanced 
toward them alone, and was met by one of the Pottawatomie chiefs, 
called Black Bird, with an interpreter. After shaking hands, he re- 
quested me to surrender, promising to spare the lives of all the pris- 
oners.! On a few moment's consideration I concluded it would be 
most prudent to comply with his request, although not put entire 
confidence in his promise. 

After delivering up our arms, we were taken back to their encamp- 
ment near the fort, and distributed among the different tribes. The 
next morning they set fire to the fort, and left the place, taking the 
prisoners with them. Their number of warriors was between 400 
and 500, most of the Pottawatomie nation, and their loss, from the 
best information I could get, was about 15. Our strength was about 
54 regulars and 12 militia, out of which, 26 regulars and all the mili- 
tia were killed in the action, with two women and 12 children. En- 
sign George Ronan and Dr, Isaac V. VanVoorhis of my company, 
with Captain Wells of Fort Wayne, to my great sorrow, are num- 
bered among the dead. Lieut. Linai T. Helm, with 25 non commis- 
sioned officers and privates, and 11 women and children, were pris- 
oners when we separated. Mrs Heald and myself were taken to the 
mouth of the river, St. Joseph, and being badly wounded, were per 
mitted to reside with Mr. Burnett, an Indian trader. In a few days 
after our arrival there, the Indians went off to take Fort Wayne, and 
in their absence, I engaged a Frenchman to take us to Michilimack- 
inac, by water, where I gave myself up as a prisoner of war, with one 
of my sergeants. The commanding officer. Captain Roberts, offered 
me every assistance, in his power, to render our situation comfortable 
while we remained there, and to enable us to proceed on our journey. 
To him I gave my parole of honor, and came on to Detroit, and re- 

* An indication of bad sreneralship. 
t The wounded were ignored. 


ported myself to Colonel Proctor, who gave us a passage to Buffalo; 
from that place, I came by the way of Presque Isle, and arrived here 

The following which treats of the fate of more of the prisoners may 
be of interest: 

Chicago — Among the prisoners who have recently arrived at this 
place (says the Plattsburg paper of the 21st ult.) from Quebeck, are 
James VanHorn, Joseph Knowles, Paul Grommow, Elias Mills, 
Joseph Bowen, Nathan Edson, Dyson Dyer, James Corbin and 
Phelim Corbin, of the First regiment of U. S, infantry, who survived 
the massacre at Fort Dearborn or Chicago, on the 15th of August, 
1812. It will be recollected that the commandant at Fort Chicago, 
Captain Heald, was ordered by General Hull to evacuate the fort and 
proceed with his company to Detroit, that having proceeded about a 
mile and a half, the troops were attacked by body of Indians, to 
whom they were compelled to capitulate. Captain Heald, in his re- 
port of this affair, dated Oct. 23, 1812, says: "Our strength was 54 
regulars and 12 militia, out of which 26 regulars and all the militia 
were killed in the action, with two women and 12 children; Lieut, Lina 
T. Helm, with 25 non-commissioned officers and privates and the 11 
women and children were prisoners when we separated." Lieutenant 
Helm was ransomed Of the 25 non commissioned officers and pri- 
vates and the 11 women and children, the nine persons above men- 
tioned, are believed to be the only survivors. They state that the 
prisoners who were not put to death on the march, were taken to Fox 
river in the Illinois territory, where they were distributed among the 
Indians as servants. Those who survived remained in this situation 
about nine months, during which time they were allowed scarcely a 
sufficiency of sustenance to support nature, and were then brought 
to Fort Chicago, where they were purchased from the Indians by a 
French trader, agreeable to the direction of General Proctor, and 
sent to Amerstburg, and from thence to Quebec, where they arrived 
on the 8th of November, 1818. 

John Neads, formerly of Virginia, who was one of the prisoners, 
died among the Indians, between the 15th and 20th of January, 1818. 

Hugh Logan, an Irishman, was tomahawked and put to death, he 
not being able to walk from fatigue. 

August Mott, a German, was killed in the same manner for the 
like reason. 

A man by the name of Nelson was frozen to death while a captive 
with the Indians. He wa3 formerly of Maryland. 

A child of Mrs. Neads, the wife of John Neads, was tied out to a 
tree, to prevent its following and crying after its mother for victuals. 
Mrs. Neads afterwards perished with hunger and cold. 

The officers who were killed on the 15th of August had their heads 
cut off and their hearts taken out and boiled in the presence of the 

Eleven children were massacred and scalped in one wagon. 


Mrs. Corbin, the wife of Phelim Corbin, in an advanced stage of 
pregnancy, was tomahawked, scalped, cut open, and had the child 
taken out and its head cut off. 

The names of some of those who served in the action, and whose 
names were not mentioned by Heald, are of the militia: Charles Lee 
and his son; Pittill, Burns and Ruesell. 

Of the regulars: Sergeants Hays and Holt, and privates, James 
VanHorn, Joseph Knowles, Paul Grrummon (or Grrumow or Gromit) 
Elias Mills, James Bowen, Nathan Edson, Dyson Dyer, James Cor- 
bin, Phelim Corbin, John Neads, died; Hugh Logan, prisoner, killed; 
August Mott, prisoner, killed; John Cooper and Nelson. 

During the tragedy of Ronan's death, while berating Dr. Van 
Voorhis for cowardice, Mrs. Helm, barely escaped death from the blow 
of a tomahawk aimed by a young Indian, but, by dodging it and grap- 
pling the young man about the neck. While struggling, she was seized 
by another and hurriedly borne to the lake and there submerged, as 
she believed for a kinder death than by the hatchet; but her head was 
cautiously supported until the battle was over, when she was borne 
by her former friend Black Partridge to the sandbanks; thence on 
horse-back, she was escorted back to the Chicago river. The Kinzie 
boat was permitted to return and the family re-entered their house, 
to which Mrs. Heald, badly wounded was removed the following day. 

On the 16th, the Indians fired the fort, and later the prisoners, 
distributed for different points until removed, some to reach safety, 
others, to die miserably of hunger, by exposure or wound, or all 

Long years afterward, when Captain Heald had passed away, his 
widow sought recovery for the property of the family, alleged to have 
been lost; but as such a proceeding was reported unfavorably, the 
claim was rejected. Following is a copy of the report of the pro- 

"To the Honorable, the United States Court of Claims: 

The petition of Rebekah Heald, the widow of Major Nathan 
Heald, late of St. Charles county, in the State of Missouri, most 
respectfully represents. 

That on the 15th day of Aug. 1812, her husband, then Captain 
Heald, an officer of the United States Army, commanded Fort Dear- 
born, in or near Chicago; that she, your petitioner, resided there 
with him, and that they were possessed of considerable personal 
property, all of which was lost at the destruction of said Fort Dear- 
born, on the said 15th day of Aug., 1812, by the Indians, and by 
whom they were taken prisoners. 

That an inventory or schedule of the property thus lost is here- 
with annexed, together with its supposed valuation. 

Your petitioner further states, that after the death of her husband, 
she, in the month of Dec. 1847, petitioned Congress for payment and 
remuneration for the property so destroyed by the Indians and lost to 


them. That her petition was forwarded to the Hon. Tho's. H. Ben- 
ton, then a Senator in Congress from Missouri and was accompanied 
by the despositions of two ladies of Chicago, who were well 
acquainted with all the facts in relation to their capture and the de- 
struction of their property; that by some strange fatality, the peti- 
tion and testimony were lost or mislaid, and were never presented to 
Congress; that both of the ladies at Chicago are now dead; that their 
testimony, duly taken, was full and complete; that her said petition 
was furthermore accompanied by the additional testimony of Col. 
John O'Fallon and Col. John Ruland, of St. Louis, Missouri. 

Your petitioner prays that her claim may be examined and ad- 
judicated upon, in such manner as may be conformable to the rules 
and regulations of your court; and, if necessary, that a commission 
may be granted to take the depositions of witnesses in St. Louis, 
Missouri, to substantiate her claim. 

The major part of the property lost, was her own and over which 
her hus'oand exercised no control; but perhaps when legally consid- 
ered, the title was in him. If such be the construction, then I 
appeal in the name of his legal representatives for payment. 

Relies upon fifth article of Amendments to the Constitution, three. 
United States Satutes, 261; Id. 165, chapter 121; and general prin- 
ciples of public law. 

Rebekah Heald. 

United States, to Rebekah Heald Dr. 

For loss of property (personal,) taken and destroyed by Indians, 
on the 15th day of Aug. 1812, at Fort Dearborn, on the destruction 
of the fort, viz: 

One neero woman, Ciclly. and her child, valued at $1,000 00 

One sl(ie saddle, bridle and martinffale 3t 00 

Three horses 600 00 

Two cows and calves 60 00 

Household furniture 200 00 

Silver spoona end tumblers 75 00 

Table furniture complete 75 00 

Clothii.ff 600 CO 

Jewelry, ear rlnsra, breastpins, rinsrs, etc 60 00 

$2,685 00 

State of Missouri, ) 

[• ss. 
County of St. Charles. ) 

I, Rebekah Heald, do swear that the facts stated by me in the 
petition, so far as they are of my own personal knowledge, are true 
and so far as they depend upon the information of others, I believe 
to be true; and that the schedule annexed, is a true account of the 
property lost, and the estimated value, say, $2,5S5 00. 

Rebekah Heald. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me the undersigned Justice, this 
9th day of Oct. 1855. 

Josiah B. Cosby, 

Justice of the Peaee. 
A certificate of magistracy follows. 



To the Honorable y the Court of Claims of the United States: 

Rebekah Heald, a petitioner to the Court of Claims, begs leave to 
file this supplementary petition, to make certain amendments which 
she is advised are necessary to her original petition. 

Your petitioner founds her claim on the implied contract which 
exists between the government and its citizens, to afford them pro- 
tection against all hostile depredations, and the repeated recognition 
of their liability in cases similar to this of your petitioner. 

No one is interested in the said claim but the petitioner and the 
legal representatives of her late husband, in whose behalf she peti- 
tions, who are Darius Heald, (son of the petitioner and her late hus- 
band, Nathan Heald,) and Nathan Heald MoCausland and Alexan- 
der A. McCausland, (grandson of the petitioner and her late husband, 
Nathan Heald.) 

Your petitioner desires that her petition may be so amended as to 
include the above statements, and prays leave to amend the schedules 
thereunto annexed, by adding thereto, a watch and a gun, that were 
lost at the same time and in the same manner set forth in the peti- 
tion, and that were of the value of $150. 

Rebekah Heald. 
State of Missouri, J 

> ss. 
County of St. Charles. ) 

This day personally appeared before me, Josiah B. Cosby, Justice 
of the Peace, duly authorized by law to administer oaths within and 
for the county aforesaid, Rebekah Heald, whose name is subscribed 
to the foregoing petition and who by me being duly sworn, upon her 
oath says, that said petition and the facts therein set forth are true, 

Sworn to and subscribed before me, this 4th day of Jan. 1856. 

Josiah B. Cosby, 

Justice of the Peace. 
A certificate of magistracy follows. 


In the Court of Claims. 

Rebecca Heald, vs. The United States. 

Judge Blackford delivered the opinion of the court. 

"The petition states the following facts: The petitioner is the 
widow of Captain Heald deceased. On the 15th of Aug. 1812, her 
husband was captain in the army of the United States and then 
resided with the petitioner, his wife, at Chicago. 

At that time. Captain Heald was commandant of Fort Dearborn, 
in or near Chicago, where he and the petitioner then had personal 
property of the value of $2,585.00. 


The Indians, on the 15th of Aug. 1812, destroyed Fort Dearborn, 
when all said personal property was lost and Captain Heald and the 
petitioner, his wife, were taken prisoners. The greater part of the 
personal property so lost, belonged to the petitioner. 

The object of the petitioner is to recover the value of said personal 
property either for herself or for the legal representatives of her said 

At the time of said destruction of Fort Dearborn, the United States 
and the Indians were at war; and the claim thereof is for the value 
of private personal property destroyed by an enemy in time of war. 
We think that there is no difference in this case. The government 
is not bound to pay for the property in question. No doctrine is 
better settled than that the goverment of an invaded country is not 
liable to pay for private property destroyed by the enemy. This sub- 
ject was before us in 1856, in the case of Cassius M. Clay and the 
decree was against his claim. In the opinion in that case, the 
authority of Vattel is relied on. That author speaks of the damages 
caused to individuals by acts of the enemy and says: "All the sub- 
jects are exposed to such laws and woe to him on whom they fall." 
The members of a society may well encounter such risk of property 
since they encounter a similar risk of life itself. Were the State 
strictly to indemnify all those whose property is injured in this man- 
ner, the public finances would soon be exhausted; and every individ- 
ual in the State would be obliged to contribute his share in due 
proportion — a thing utterly impractical. Besides, these indemnifica- 
tions would be liable to a thousand abuses and there would be no 
end of the particulars. It is therefore to be presumed that no such 
thing was ever intended by those who united to form a society. 

Our opinion is that the petition shows no cause of action." 

Ft. Dearborn fell; its garrison, wantonly slaughtered, but prepared 
the savages for more raids to the south, where their butcheries might 
continue until the last white man was destroyed or driven away. No 
man realized that position so forcefully as Governor Edsvards and no 
man could have made better or quicker preparations to defeat them 
by anticipating the dangers entering the enemy's country. 

The support of the militia was called for quickly and as quickly as 
it could be concentrated, every available man responded. On the 
11th day of September, Colonel Russell, who had been ordered, from 
near Vincennes, promptly left that point with two small companies 
of United States rangers, commanded by Captains Perry and Modrell* 
to join Governor Edwards and move up the Illinois to make a dem- 
onstration before the hostile Indiana (there concentrated) of a char- 
acter to cower them, which if ineffectual was to be followed by 
chastisement and destruction of their villages; likewise to recover the 
property and murderers sought by Captain Levering, to suffer no 
possible miscarriage. Gen. Samuel Hopkinsf commander of the 
Kentucky troops raised for the occasion, some 2,000 in number, was 

•Davidson and Stuve. 268. 
tAnnala of the West. 616. 


ordered to move up the Wabash to Ft. Harrison, destroy the villages 
in his course near the Wabash; march across the prairies of Illinois 
by way of the headwaters of the Sangamon and Vermillion rivers; 
form a junction with Edwards and Russell and together sweep all the 
villages along the Illinois river. 

General Hopkins' Kentuckians, undisciplined, and hopelessly insub- 
ordibate, after crossing into the Illinois prairies, became reckless and 
disorderly. It was known among them that the success of the expe- 
dition depended entirely on their activity and secrecy. Yet they 
loitered and shot game along the way and otherwise disobeyed the 
positive commands of the veteran general and his aids to such a 
shameful extent that the Indians in all the territory desired to be 
covered, learned the object of the movement and fled north to safety, 
just as had been feared when orders for secrecy and haste had been 
given. The season was rainy and the roads naturally slow; competent 
guides were lacking and on the fourth day out from Ft Harrison, the 
army lost its course in the vast prairies and returned disgraced, to 
the Wabash. What a mortifying finish, after writing the following 
letter to Grovernor Shelby of Kentucky, as gallant old General Hop- 
kins did! 

"ViNOENNES, Sept. 29, 1812 

My present intention is to attack every settlement on the Wabash, 
and destroy their property, then fall upon the Illinois; and I trust in 
all the next month to perform much of it. Serious opposition I hardly 
apprehend, although I intend to be prepared for it."* 

On October 6th, 1812, General Hopkins addressed Governor Shelby 
an account of his march which we shall consider before relating the 
story of the Edwards and Russell exploit: 

Fort Harrison,! 6th Oct. 1812. 
My Dear Sir — The expedition of the mounted riflemen has ter- 
minated. The Wabash was recrossed yesterday and the whole corps 
are on their way to Busseron, where the adjutant general will attend, 
in order to have them properly mustered and discharged; and where 
their horses may get forage during the delay necessary for this object. 

Yes, sir; this army has returned without hardly obtaining the sight 
of an enemy. A simple narrative of facts as they occurred will best 
explain the reasons that have led to this state of things. 

The army having finished crossing the Wabash on the 14th inst., 
marched about three miles and encamped. I here requested the at- 
tendance of the general and field oflBcers and captains, to whom I 
imparted the objects of the expedition and the advantages that might 
result from a fulfillment of them. The nearest Kickapoo villages 
were from eighty to one hundred miles distant, and the Peoria not 
more than one hundred and sixty. By breaking up these or as many 
as our resources would permit, we would be rendering a service to all 
the territories. That from their numbers, this tribe was more favor- 
able than any near us; and from their situation and hostility, had it 

•Nlles Keclster. 176; vol. 3. 
L tA short distance above Terre Haute, commanded by Capt, Zachary Taylor. 


more in their power to do us mischief; of course to chastise and de- 
stroy these, would be rendering real benefit to our country. It was 
observed by some officers, that they would meet the next morning, 
consult together and report to me their opinions; desiring at the 
same time to be furnished with the person on whom I had relied for 
intelligence of the country. 

This council was held, and all the intelligence furnished that had 
been requested, and I had a report highly favorable to the enter- 
prise. This to me was more gratifying, as early as our encampment 
at Vincennes, discontents and murmurings, that portended no wish 
to proceed further. At Busseron, I found an evident increase of dis- 
content, although no army was ever better or more amply supplied 
with rations and forage than at this place. At Fort Harrison, where 
we encamped on the 10th, and where we were well supplied with for- 
age, etc, I found on the 12th and l-:5th many breaking off and re- 
turning without applying to me for a discharge, and as far as I know, 
without any notification to their officers: Indeed, I have every 
reason to suppose the officers of every grade, gave no countenance to 
such a procedure. 

Thinking myself now secure in the confidence of my brother officers 
and the army, we proceeded on our march early on the 15th, and 
continued it four days, our course near north in the prairie until we 
came to an Indian house, where some corn, etc., had been cultivated. 
The last day of the march to this place, I had been made acquainted 
with a return of that spirit of discontent, that had, as I had hoped, 
subsided, and when I had ordered a halt near sun set (for the first 
time that day) in a fiue piece of grass in the prairie, to aid our horses, 
I was addressed in the most rude and dictatorial manner, requiring 
me immediately to resume my march, or his battalion would break 
from the army and return! Tliis was a Major Singleton! I mention 
him in justice to the other officers of that grade. But from every 
information, I began to fear the army waited but for a pretext to 
return! This was afforded next day by our guides who had thought 
they had discerned an Indian village on the side of a grove about ten 
miles from where we encamped on tiie fourth night of our march, and 
turned us about six or eight miles out of our way. An almost uni- 
versal discontent seemed to prevail, and we took our course in such 
a direction as we hoped would best atone for the error of the morning. 
About or after sun set, we came to a thin grove affording water; here 
we took up our camp; and about this time arose one of the most 
violent gusts of wind, I ever remember to have seen, not proceeding 
from clouds. The Indians had set fire to the prairie, which drove on 
us so furiously, that we were compelled to fire around our camp to 
protect ourselves. This seems to have decided the army to return: 
I was informed of it so many ways, that early in the next morning 
(October 20ch), I requested the attendance of the general and field 
officers, and stated to them my apprehensions, the expectations of 
our country, the disgrace attending the measure, and the approbation 
of our own consciences. Against this, I stated the weary situation 
of our horses and the want of provisions (which to me seemed only 
— 9H 


partial, six days having only passed since every part of the army, as 
was believed, was furnished with ten days in bacon, beef or bread 
stuff) the reasons given for returning; I requested the commandants 
of eaoh regiment to convene the whole of the ofl&oers belonging to it, 
and to take fully the sense of the army on this measure; report to 
commandants of brigades, who were requested to report to me in 
writing; adding that if 500 volunteers would turn out, I would put 
myself at their head and proceed in quest of the towns; and the bal- 
ance of the army might retreat in safety to Fort Harrison, In less 
than one hour the report was made almost unanimously to return. I 
then requested that I might dictate the course to be pursued that day 
only, which I pledged myself should not put them more than six 
miles out of the way, my object being to cover the reconnoitering 
parties, I wished to send out for the discovery of the Indian towns, 

About this time, the troops being paraded, I put myself in front, 
took my course and directed them to follow me; the columns moving 
off quite a contrary way. I sent Captain Taylor and Major Lee to 
apply to the officers leading the columns, to turn them. They were 
told it was not in their power. The army had taken their course and 
would pursue it. Discovering great confusion and disorder in the 
march, I threw myself in the rear, fearing an attack on those who 
were there from necessity, and continued in that position the whole 
day. The exhausted state of the horses, nor the hunger of the men 
retarded this day's march; so swiftly was it prosecuted that it was 
long before the rear arrived at the encampment. 

The generals Ray, Ramsey and Allen, lent all their aid and author- 
ity in restoring our march to order and so far succeeded, as to bring 
on the whole with much less loss than I had feared; indeed I have no 
reason to think we were either followed or menaced by an enemy. I 
think we marched at least 80 or 90 miles in the heart of the enemy's 
country. Had he possessed a design to fight us, opportunities in 
abundance presented. So formidable was our appearance in the 
prairie and in the country (as I am told) never trod before by hos- 
tile feet, must impress the bordering tribes with a sense of their 
danger. If it operates beneficially in this way, our labor will not be 
altogether vain. 

I hope the expense attending this expedition will be found less 
than usual on such occasions. I have consulted economy in every 
instance; subject only to real necessity has been the expenditures. 
The forage has been the heaviest article. 

To the officers commanding brigades, many of the field officers, 
captains, etc, my thanks are due; many of the old Kentucky veterans, 
whose heads are frosted by time, are entitled to every confidence 
and praise their country can bestow. To the adjutant, quarter master 
general and members of my own family, I feel indebted for ready, 
able and manly support in every instance. Let me here include our 
friend George Walker, our judge advocate-general, who lived with me 
and took more than a common share of fatigue and toil, and who did 
all in his power to farther the service in the corps of spies and guides, 


under the direction of Major Dubois, and the two companies of Ken- 
tucky and Gwatkin who encamped near me and were under my im- 
mediate orders. I experienced an alertness and attention highly 
honorable to them. Tliese corps were ready to have gone on to exe- 
cute any service; the whole amounted to about 120, and deserve hon- 
orable mention. 

Mr. Bairon and Messrs. Lacelly and LePiant, interpreters and 
guides deserve well of me. I am certain we were not 20 miles from 
the Indian village when we were forced to retire and I have many 
reasons to prove we were in the right way. 

I have myself (superadded to the mortification I felt at thus re- 
turning) been in a bad state of health from first to last; and am now 
80 weak as not to be able to keep myself on my horse. 

A violent diarrhoea has pursued me ten days past, and reduced me 
extremely low. I had resolved to continue with the line of march a 
little, if unable to ride. There are yet many things of which I wish 
to write; they relate substantially to prospective operations. Soon 
again shall I have the honor to address your excellency. In the 
mean time be assured of the perfect consideration and high regards 
of your obedient friend and servant, Governor Shelby. 

Samuel Hopkins.*" 

The part assigned to Governor Edwards and Colonel Russell, more 
hazardous, was executed with precision and despatch, though fraught 
with nothing brilliant. Happily Governor Reynolds, in whose debt 
the State of Illinois must always remain, was a member of that expe- 
dition, as sergeant in the company of William B Whitesides, and has 
left us the following faithful account of it: 

"Towards the last of September, 1812, all the forces of the United 
States rangers and mounted volunteers, to the number of 350, were 
assembled at Camp Russell and duly organized, preparatory to 
marching against the Indians, and join the army under General Hop- 
kins. Camp Russell was one mile and a half north of Edwardsville, 
and then on the frontier. 

"Colonel Russell commanded the United States rangers; Colonels 
Stephenson and f Charles Rector were in command of the volunteers; 
Major John Mordock, Colonel — Desha, United States army, and 
several others (names not recollected) were field ofiicers; Captains 
William B. Wbiteside, James B. Moore, Jacob Short, Samuel White- 
side, Willis Hargrave (William McHenry, Janny and Lieutenant 
Roakson, with a small independent company of spies, consisting of 
21 men,) commanded companies. 

"Colonel Jacob Judy was the captain of a small corps of spies, 
comprising 21 men. (Governor Reynolds was in this company.) J 

* Nilng Reeister, 204, Vol. 3. 

t Davlilsun and Stuve, page 270, say Elias Rector. 

X He was priacipally a member of W. B. Whiteside's company. 


"The staff of Governor Edwards were Nelson Rector, Lieut. Robert 
K. McLaughlin, United States army, and Secretary Nathaniel Pope. 
There may have been more, but the writer does not recollect them. 

"This little army being organized, and with their provisions for 20 
or 30 days packed on the horses, they rode (except in a few instances, 
when pack horses were fitted out,) took up the line of march in a 
northwardly direction. 

"Captain Craig, with a small company, was ordered to take charge 
of a boat, fortified for the occasion, with provision and supplies, and 
proceed up the Illinois river to Peoria. 

"This little army at that time was all the efficient force to protect 
Illinois. We commenced the march from Camp Russell on the last 
day of September. At that period the Indians on the Sangamon, 
Mackinac and Illinois rivers were both numerous and hostile. 

"The route lay on the west side of Cahokia creek, to the lake fork 
of the Macoupin,* and across the Sangamon river below the forks, a 
few miles east of Springfield. We left the Elkhart grove to the leftf 
and passed the old Kickapoo village on Kickapoo creek, and directed 
our course towards the head of Peoria lake. The old Kickapoo village 
which the Indians had abandoned, was destroyed, J Ab§ the army 
approached near Peoria, Governor Edwards dispatched Lieutenant 
Peyton, James Reynolds and some others to visit the village of the 
Peorias, but they made no discoveries. 

"There was a village of the Kickapoos and Pottawattomies on the 
eastern bluff of the Illinois river, nearly opposite the head of Peoria 

lake. II 

"The troops moved with rapidity and caution towards the village 
and encamped for the night within a few miles of it. Thomas Carlin 
(late governor of Illinois) , Robert Whiteside, Stephen Whiteside and 
Davis Whiteside were sent by the governor to reconnoitre the posi- 
tion of the enemy, and report to the commanding officer. This duty 
was performed at considerable peril, but with much adroitness. Their 
position was found to be about five miles from our troops, on a bluff, 
and surrounded by swamps, impassable by mounted men, and scarcely 
by footmen The swamps were not only miry but at that time cov- 
ered with high grass and brushwood, so that an Indian could not be 
discovered until within a few feet of him, 

"In the morning earlj', and concealed by a dense fog, the army 
marched, and it was not long before Captain Judy, with his spies, 
came on an Indian and squaw. The captain shot him, but while 
staggering and singing his death song, Captain Wright, of Wood 
river settlement, incautiously approached him, when, with the in- 

* Which was crossed near the present site of Carllnville. 
t Crosfein? Salt creek not far from the present city of Lincoln. 

i Which by reason of offensive pictures drawn by the Indiana, was reduced to ashes 
'i Fearing attar>k. the army from this point on, marched after dark until until mldnlgrht, 
which dispensed with the use of camp fires. 
II Black Partridge's map. 


stinctive emotions peculiar to a dying Indian, he shot and mortally 
wounded Captain Wright, who died after he was brought home. The 
squaw was taken prisoner and afterwards returned to her nation. 

"The army marched under the bluff, that they might reach the vil- 
lage under cover, but as they approached the Indians with their 
squaws were on the retreat to their swamps. Instant pursuit was 
given, and in a short distance from the village, horses, riders, arms and 
baggage were overwhelmed in the morass. It was a democratic over- 
throw, for the governor and his horse shared the same fate as the 
subaltern, or the private soldier. We were all literally swamped. 

"A pursuit on foot was ordered, and executed with readiness but 
extreme difficulty. In the chase many of the enemy were killed, and 
at every step, kettles, mats and other Indian property were distributed 
in the morass. 

"Captain Samuel Whiteside, with a party, pursued the scattered 
enemy to the river, and several were shot in attempting to cross to 
the opposite shore. So excited were the men that Charles Kitchen, 
Pierre St. Jean and John Howard crossed the river on logs to follow 
the retreating foe. The Indians fled into the interior wilderness. 
Some of our men were wounded, but none killed, in the charge. 

"On our return to the village, some children were found hid in the 
ashes and were taken to the settlement. After destroying their corn 
and other property, and securing all their horses,* we commenced the 
homeward march. After traveling till dark to find a good camping 
ground, the rain set in, and the night was dark. Not knowing but 
that there were other Indian towns above, and learning that the ex- 
pedition of General Hopkinsf had failed to meet us, we apprehended 
danger from a night attack. Many of the soldiers had lost their 
blankets and other clothing in the swamp, and there was much suf- 
fering in camp that night. 

"Captain CraigJ arrived at Peoria with his boat, where he remained 
several days, was repeatedly attacked by Indians, but, being fortified, 
and on his own ground, sustained no damage. He returned with the 
stores in safety. The troops marched back to Camp Russell, where 
they were discharged." 

Natur vlly, reports by officers of their own actions, are apt to reflect 
as much credit as the results will justify by judicious straining; 
therefore this expedition which might have frightened the Indians 
into temporary good behavior, and probably did, yet it received a 
dignity from the report of Grovernor Edwards, which may seem un- 

I am well aware that public utterances receive injudicious and reck- 
less criticisms from the thoughtless. I am well aware that we cannot 
judge of conditions so competently as those present at the time, but 
from the manner in which Governor Reynolds treated it; the pusil- 
lanimous conduct of Hopkins' troops and the assinine and criminal 

* Seme 80 head. 

t As well as Cttptain Oral?. 

t His exDluit follows a few pasres later. 


action of Craig, we must, while conceding that to the expedition amid 
the Indians, until they recovered breath to do more damaga, we must 
regard with regret the treatment given the villages of the friends of 
the whites. We will admit that much mischief was hatched in their 
villages; possibly the Fort Dearborn massacre, of it who shall say an 
indiscriminate assault should have been made upon friend and foe 
alike? It was an incident of Indian life and character to find such 
conditions, and when a raid was contemplated, the highest intelli- 
gence should have directed its execution. 

Finding no reinforcements from Hopkins and Craig and suspect- 
ing attack from the exasperated Indians, Grovernor Edwards turned 
his face toward Camp Russell, and reached it with his command after 
13 days absence. 

Strange as it may seem, a controversy arose as to who should have 
the credit of originating the expedition. The question should have 
been, to whom should we credit the execution of it. 

Following is Governor Edwards' report: 

"Elvirade, Randolph Co., 
Illinois Territory, Nov. 18, 1812. 
'To the Hon. Wm. Eusiis, Secretary of War, Washmgto7i City: 

Sir — Of the perils to which this territory has been exposed, during 
this year, I need add nothing to my former communication; but I 
beg leave to trouble you with a sketch of my military operations. 

In the early part of the season, and until the month of August, my 
measures were entirely of a defensive and precautionary character, 
having kept a few companies of mounted riflemen ranging across the 
territory in such a manner as to cover our frontier, their line of 
march being sometimes three and never less than one day's journey 
in advance of our settlements. 

While this plan afPorded the best practicable means of obtaining 
timely notice of the approach of a large body of Indians, I thought 
that small parties, from whom I apprehended at that time the most 
danger, seeing our line of ranging so far beyond the settlements, 
would naturally be afraid to cross it, lest their trail should be dis- 
covered and they be cut off And as there were so many points in 
the territory equally accessible to them, I preferred the disposition 
of my small force to that of collecting it together at any one place; 
and my success has exceeded my most sanguine calculations, not hav- 
ing lost a single life, on as dangerous and exposed a frontier as any 
in the United States. 

In the latter part of August, being convinced that a large body of 
Indians intended to attack us, and Colonel Russell, who had arrived 
only a short time before with one company of rangers, being called 
off with them to Vincennes, I immediately determined to collect and 
organize the most eiBScient force in my power, to take the command 
of it myself and defend the territory to the last extremity. Many 
circumstances induced me to believe that the meditated attack would 


be made on that part of our frontier which lies between the Missis- 
sippi and Kaskaskia rivers, under which conviction (which subse- 
quent events proved to be well founded) I established and supported 
several forts, at convenient distances on a line frc^m one river to the 
other, and as near to the center of that line as a due regard to other 
circumstances, which were entitled to weight, would admit of. I 
built a large strong fort, at which I collected my principal force — it 
being a point from which I could most conveniently aid or relieve every 
other part that might be attacked. 

Whilst the small body of infantry I had in service were relied on 
for the defense of these forts, between four and five hundred mount- 
ed riflemen were kept almost constantly ranging in the country be- 
tween us and the enemy. But scarcely were these measures put into 
operation, before I ascertained the very day on which the Indians 
proposed to assemble at Peoria for the purpose of coming down upon 
us, the route they intended to take, and the objects they had in view; 
and I collected together, with as much dispatch as possible, all my 
mounted men, with the intention of setting out on an expedition 
against them, so planned as to fall in their rear and surprise them, 
from which I did anticipate the most glorious result; and I am well 
convinced I would not have been disappointed, for they had taken 
such extraordinary precautions to prevent their intentions being dis- 
covered, that ihey themselves entertained no doubt that they had 
succeeded. But with every effort in my power to accomplish my ob- 
ject, I was forced most reluctantly to abandon it, merely because the 
contractor failed to supply the necessary rations. 

It then became necessary to meet the danger in some other way; 
and calculating rather upon desultory attacks from the enemy, than 
a united one, I endeavored to have them opposed at every avenue 
through which they would be most likely to invade us— for which 
purpose I detached one company up the Illinois river, in a well for- 
tified boat, armed with muskets, blunderbusses and swivel. 

The mounted riflemen I sent out in separate detachments to differ- 
ent parts of the same river, with orders to keep up a constant com- 
munication with each other, and to act either separately or together, 
as circumstances might require. 

All these detachments, except one, fell in with Indian trails, gave 
chase to the Indians for several days in succession, and would cer- 
tainly have overtaken them, had they not been retarded by the heavy 
rains that fell about that time Finally those Indians, after having 
stolen seven horses and wounded two men, in an unsuccessful attack 
they made on one of our forts, were completely repulsed, and re- 
turned about the last of September to their own villages. 
Of their number, various accounts have been given. All, however 
agree that it was considerable, and I am pursuaded that there is not 
one well informed man in this country who does not now believe that 
if timely preparations had not been made to resist them on the fron- 
tier that I occupied, the consequences would have been melancholy 


and distressing. As the least of them, had only a few families been 
killed, others would have removed, and terror would have pervaded 
and depopulated this territory. 

When I found that the Indians had retired from our frontier, I 
began to prepare for an expedition against them; being fully con- 
vinced that I could so regulate it as to surprise them in their villages 
at the head of Peoria lake, At this time I calculated on no assist- 
ance or forces whatever, beyond what I had raised in the territory; 
but after every preparation was made and the day of our departure 
fixed on, I received a letter from Colonel Russell, proposing to me an 
expedition somewhat similar, and promising to come on before the 
day I had appointed for marching. He accordingly arrived, with a 
part of two companies of rangers, consisting of 50 privates and their 
oflBcers, and tendered me his services, which I gladly accepted by ap- 
pointing him second in command, well knowing and duly appreciat- 
ing his great experience in Indian warfare and his merits as a mili- 

Through him I also learned that General Hopkins was to march to 
Peoria with at least 2,000 mounted volunteers, and would arrive at 
that place about the time I expected to be at the head of Peoria lake. 

In consequence of this latter information, as an addition to my or- 
iginal plan, I sent one company of volunteers, with two boats, to 
Peoria, one of them being well fortified and the other carrying as 
much provisions as I could collect, and the necessary tools to enable 
General Hopkins to build a fort at that place, provided he chose to 
do so, or, otherwibe, to build it myself under cover of his army, whilst 
it was marching, as he proposed it should do, up the Illinois river. 

On the 18th of October, having made arrangements for the defense 
of the frontier in my absence, and leaving a force, which under ex- 
isting circumstances, I deemed adequate to that object, I commenced 
my march with about 400 mounted volunteers. On our way, we burnt 
two Kickapoo villages, on the Saline fork of Sangamon river— till 
which time I had permitted it to be understood that I intended to 
march to Peoria and cross the Illinois at that place. But ns my plan 
was entirely a different one, I then thought it advisable to call a 
council of officers and unfold to them my real views and intentions, 
in which, they all concurring, we marched with uncommon rapidity 
to a large village at the head of Peoria lake, inhabited by Kickapoos 
and Miamies. It was situated at the foot of a hill, which terminates 
the low grounds of the Illinois river at that place and runs many 
miles parallel with it. In front of this village, the bottom, which is 
three miles wide, is so flat, wet and marshy, as to be almost utterly 
impassable to man or horse. Unfortunately our guides, instead of 
leading us down the hill at the village, as I had expected, led us into 
the bottom about three quarters of a mile below it, and thereby de- 
ranged a plan of attack which I had at first contemplated. As we 
approached the towa, the Indians were seen running out of it in con- 
siderable numbers, and for some time I thought they were forming 
to give us battle. 


With the center of my little army I vrss marching in a direct 
course towards them, the right wing being ordered to gain their flank 
on the right of us, whilst the left was directed to out off their retreat 
to the river. Bat in a short time, I discovered them, some on horse- 
back, others on foot, all running as fast as they could at right angles 
from that which I was pursuing, towards a point of woods in which 
I expected they intended to form. I immediately changed my course, 
ordered and led on a general charge upon them, and would have suc- 
ceeded in cutting off their retreat had it not been for the unsound- 
ness of the ground over which we had to run. We, however, rushed 
upon them with such impetuosit}^ that they were forced to scatter 
and take refuge in the swamp, in which those who were on horse- 
back left their horses so completely mired that they could not move. 
A part was pursued through the swamp to the river, where several 
were killed and the town of Cheqeneboc (a Pottawatomie chief, who 
headed the party that came down to attack us) together with all the 
provisions and other property it contained, was burnt. Another 
party was pursued into the swamp in a diffeient direction; several 
were killed, but finally they rallied at that point in such numbers 
that those who pursued them were forced to retreat. I then sent in 
a reinforcement, which induced the Indians entirely to give ground. 
The pursuit and fight over, we returned to the village, which with a 
great quantity of provisions and other valuable Indian property, we 
burnt and otherwise destroyed. We brought ofP with us about 80 
head of horses and four prisoners, having kilkd, according to the 
Indian accounts, frequently given, between 24 and '60 Indians, with- 
out the loss of a single man, and having only one wounded; which, 
in my opinion was entirely owing to the charge that was made upon 
the enemy, as they were run so hard that when they attempted to 
form, they were out of breath, and could not shoot with sufficient 

Not meeting with, nor hearing from Hopkins, and knowing that 
my force was too weak and our horses too much fatigued to attempt 
anything further, I detached a party the next day to Peoria to leave 
directions for the captain who commanded the boats to return as 
speedily as possible. This party burnt another village that had been 
lately built within half a mile of Peoria, by the Miamies; and we all 
returned to my headquarters, at Camp Russell, after a tour of 18 
days, only. 

The conduct of both the men and officers under my command was 
highly honorable to themselves and useful to our country, They 
were uniformly obedient to my orders, appeared sincerely desirous of 
giving me every assistance in their power, and in the attack upon the 
Indians they displayed a gallantry and intrepidity that could not be 

You will clearly perceive, from the nature of my arrangements and 
plans of operation, that they have been actively employed in the most 
arduous duties, and I hope they will soon receive the reward that is 
due to their services. 


The boats did not return till the 15th inst. which has delayed this 
communication to this time, 

I have the honor to be, veiy respectfully, sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

NiNiAN Edwaeds." 

Considerable acrimony was displayed subsequently, in comment- 
ing on this expedition. Friends of Edwards, Russell and Hopkins, 
all contending for its inception by their respective partisans; but 
upon final judgment, the contention of Governor Edwards was adopt- 
ed and he stands now secure in gaining whatever of good may have 
come of it. Upon the other hand, Gosi'ernor Shelby on the second of 
the following March, wrote to Governor Edwards, expressive of his 
conviction that the troops ordered from Kentucky, "had been pre- 
vented from reaching the territory by dishonorable steps." 

The detachment of the militia from St. Clair county was discharged 
by Governor Edwards at Camp Russell, with a lengthy letter on 
November 10, to which the officers and men replied on the same day, 
through William Whiteside, lieutenant colonel, chairman, and James 
B. Moore, clerk.* In this letter and a message of Governor Edwards 
sent to the legislative council and house of representatives, Dec. 2, 
1814, the expedition is set out and the character of the service de- 
manded of the rangers explicitly detailed, with recommendations of 
alterations in the militia laws. 

And now follows the pnrt taken in that expedition by Captain 
Craig, of Shawneetown: Being unable to join Governor Edwards' 
forces at the Peoria village, he reached that point much later, and 
notwithstanding the fact that the governor had left orders to return 
to Camp Russell, he proceeded to reduce to submission those people 
thought to have been actually engaged in hostilities among the 
French and Indians of that village. In April, he was directed to 
prepare for service, but before he could collect his men his orders 
were countermanded, as we shall notice by his letter attached: 

"Shawneetown, Illinois Teeritobt, 28th April, 1812. 
"Dear Sir — I received your orders of the 12lh instant, directing 
me to come on immediately to Kaskaskia and at the same time re- 
ceived your note countermanding them orders. I have made use of 
every exertion in my power to have my company ready by the time 
the next express arrives, to march. Governor, I want you to state, if 
you see proper, in the next express, in what way we must come, the 
payments per day, etc. I am much in hopes you will receive us as 
mounted riflemen. I shall certainly have my company as large and 
as well equipped as possible. I am bound to attend your call if I 
have only five men, but I have no doubt but I shall have near the 
quantity. I have not sent the swords you sent for, for want of an 
opportunity. We have received accounts at this place of the Indians 
doing considerable damage on the Wabash. Report says from several 

♦Edwards' Hist. 73 to 76. 


boats that passed three days since that the Indians have killed three, 
and some say more men, just below the mouth of Green river — all 
since the battle on the Wabash. The correctness of those reports are 
yet uncertain with me. I have the honor to be, sir, 

'Your most obedient servant, 

"Thomas E Craig." 
"His Excellency, Ninian Edwards.''* 

Subsequently he was ordered to report, man the protected boats of 
provisions, intended for the army, ascend the Illinois to the Peoria 
village, and there assist in the punishment designed for the Indians 
and such whites as might be found hostile or engaged in secret 
schemes to defeat the arms of the State or government. As nisual, 
he was late in reporting, and notwithstanding the fact that the gov- 
ernor's party had returned after leaving orders for Craig's return, 
that oflficer proceeded up-stream to the village and committed the 
most stupid, reckless, I may say criminal act to be found in the rec- 
ords. Let us absorb his own account: 

"Shawneetown, Illinois Territory, 10th Deo., 1812. 
"Governor Edwards. 

"Sir — No chance sooner offered for the conveyance of a letter to 
you. Since my return home, I have felt anxious to communicate the 
charges I have against Thomas Forsythe & Co , or the citizens of 
Peoria. Forsythe, from every appearance, was chief commander. 
Sir, agreeable to your orders, 1 went to Peoria with my company on 
board the boats placed under my command. I landed at Peoria on 
the 5th day of November and left the place on the 9th. On my way, 
not far below Peoria, I met two canoes loaded mostly with squaws and 
children, accompanied by five men. They were brought to the boats. 
They said they were running from the Indians on their way to Par- 
tushdism I kept one of the men on board my boat; the balance 
past. This was a Frenchman called Polete. He said the Indiana 
had told him what your men had done, etc., and that they had seen 
Benet and Nail with you, and on that account had got mad with the 

"After fixing out my sentinels at Peoria at a proper distance, I 
marched my company through the village, when I found the doors 
of the houses open, and all the property left; appeared like entire 
loss to the owners. I hourly expected you or General Hopkins' army 
at that place. I thought the property they had left might be taken 
as a prize. I thought no men more deserving than my own. All the 
property that could be found was put on board the boats. We made 
use of some pork and ate the fowls. The pork I paid for. On the 
evening of the same day I landed there, I was anchored in the river, 
or lake opposite. At dark I saw a canoe with six men about one mile 
below me; they appeared to be in great haste. I thought them to be 
Indians, as they appeared to shun us. I sent some men and had 
them brought to the boats. They were the company of Forsythe. I 

* The Edwards papers, page 68. 


unarmed them and took them on board the boats. They told me that 
Forsythe had sent them on to see what we were doing. At the same 
time he might have come himself or written to me by them. This 
was the first I had ever heard of his coming. He was then a little 
distance below Peoria. The next morning his men wanted to meet 
him. I released four and kept two. The evening after, Forsythe 
came with about 25 men and all the squaws and children we had met. 
After going through the proper ceremony, was admitted to pasa. 
From the recommendation I had got of Mr Forsythe, I was glad to 
see him. They took up their dwelling in town I suspect, as usual. 

"I asked Forsythe if he would anchor in the lake with me that 
night. He said not. I asked him if he was not afraid of the Indians. 
He said they were all gone and he apprehended no danger, and I be- 
lieve none of the citizens, from their actions. The sentinels on board 
my boats could hear and see them passing through town with candles, 
and hear canoes crossing the river all night for several nights. We 
would land in the morning to cook, and see fresh horse tracks in 
town. There is no doubt they were Indians. Forsythe and myself 
were in company every day. On the third day, Forsythe made ap- 
plication for the property we had got in town, he said it belonged to 
him and the citizens. I, without hesitation, landed the boats and 
let them take all they claimed, except some of my own cooking tools 
and the peltry and property that came out of Laoroix and Bensong's 
house, as I was told they were in Canada, trading with the British. 
This property I held as a prize for the use of my company, though 
subject to your order. Forsythe and myself lived in this way, I 
thought perfectly friendly, for six or seven days. I am convinced 
the French knew of your return and did tell him, but not me. They 
were in council every day, and did detain Governor Howard's express 
against his will after my letting him have rations to bring him down. 
I asked Mr. Forsythe when he expected you at that place. He said 
he was convinced that you were about 90 miles above Peoria, at a 
place called Flat Island, and would be there in the course of six or 
seven days. About midnight of the 6th of November the wind blew 
so hard in the lake that we were forced to drop the boats about one 
quarter of a mile be^ow Peoria. We there cast anchor. The wind 
still continued to blow with such force that it broke our cable and 
drifted the armed boat on shore. It was at that time very dark, and 
our anchor lost I thought myself secure, as it was impossible for 
the Indians to discover us before daylight, except they were in town 
at the time we passed. Betwixt the break of day and daylight, I 
opened the cabin door and was talking with the sentinel on the stern 
deck; we had spoke but few words before we were fired on, by I 
think ten or more guns, not more than thirty yards from the boat. 
The men were instantly fixed for battle, but was disappointed, as they 
made their escape immediately. We only heard them yelp after the 
fiira. As soon as it was clear daylight, I had the boats landed about 
the center of the village and sent to know what had become of the 
citizens. They said they had heard nor seen nothing. I then sent 
to the place from which we were fired on. There were tracks plenty, 
leading from that place up to the village. This was what I expected. 


I instantly had them all taken prisoners, except Howard's express. 
They were all in Forsythe's house, with their guns. Their guns ap- 
peared to be just tired; the most of them were empty. I gave them 
time to collect their property, which was done immediately, For- 
sythe said his cattle would be lost. I told him to take four of his 
men and hunt his cattle; th-it I would wait two days longer, and that 
he might drive them through the way he said he wanted to take 
them. He said it was too late; his cattle was gone, etc, Howard's 
express came on board my boat and told me that seven of the citizens 
went out, they said to hunt beef, that morning we were fired on. They 
started about the break of day and returned by daylight. He said per- 
haps there were more, for they never would let him know what they 
were going to do, and would talk together in his absence. He said he 
wanted to come with the six men in the canoe, but Forsythe would 
not let him. We stayed two days after they were taken prisoners. I 
made them furnish their own rations all the time I kept them. I 
burnt down about half the town Peoria, and should have burnt the 
whole and destroyed all the stock, but still expected Hopkins' army 
to pass that place. There was a keg of powder buried in Lecroix's 
house. While burning down, I found four American muskets in their 
possession and one keg of musket balls, and one musket in Forsythe's 
house under the floor and some brass musket moulds, 

"On our way down the river, they were all unarmed, I gave them 
permission to camp on shore while I anchored in the river. They 
always preferred the Indian side for their camping ground. Forsythe 
appeared sulky and obstinate; in fact, every part of his conduct gave 
rise to the strongest suspicion of his not being a friend, and in short, 
I am well convinced that the citizens did nothing but what he was 
knowing too. He claimed property after refusing to take it at Peoria. 
He got all his property, and I am afraid, more. He and the rest of 
the damned rascals may think themselves well off that they were not 
scalped. I find it impossible for me to describe his conduct in a 
proper manner. I have been very unwell since my return home. I 
can scarcely sit up to write you; but mending. 

"I have the honor to be, sir, your humble servant, 

"Thomas E. Craig. 

"His Excellency, Ninian Edwards,* Governor and Commander-in- 
Chief, etc., of Illinois Territory, Elvirade."f 

He burned down most of the houses in the village; captured the 
inhabitants indiscriminately, and took the helpless creatures down 
stream to a point below the site of the present city of Alton, where 
he landed and left them in the woods; men, women and children — in 
the month of November, without food or shelter and from which 
place they finally struggled to St. Louis (and their old village) in an 
almost starving condition — 75 in number, or thereabout. 

* The Edwards Papers, page 86 

t Got. Edwards' home farm, eo named in honor of his wife. 


Among the number was Autoine Le Clare, a French half-breed, the 
first settler of Davenport, and a man who ever occupied a high posi- 
tion in the estimation of his neighbors. Another was Indian Agent 
Thomas Forsythe, who for reasons of S!;ate, was not permitted to 
disclose his office and for which reason, he had been abte to endear 
himself to the French and Indians to an unusual degree. For the 
indignity suffered at this time, he was later appointed agent for the 
united tribes of Sacs and Foxes at Ft. Armstrong, an office of great 
importance which he held until 1831, when for political reasons, he 
was superceded by Felix St, Vrain, who, the following year, was 
murdered by the Indians in the Black Hawk war. 

At the conclusion of that demonstration, most of the militia was 
mustered out, as we have seen 

The "Pond settlement massacre" October, 1812, spread terror over 
that section for a long time, but it did not frighten John Pond from 
pursuing the murderers unto death for the atrocity. That story so 
stern and romantic by turns, was told me by Dr. Daniel Berry of 
Carmi, who took it down from the lips of Prussian Pearce, son of 
Col. Hosea Pearce, the famous Illinois pioneer, and soldier. Let me 
recite it: 

About 1812 a man named John Pond opened a clearing in what is 
now Indian Creek township, near New Haven. He soon had neigh- 
bors and the community was called the "Pond settlement." One day 
in October, Pond was called away from home to help some new 
comers to raise a cabin He left his wife and two little boys at 
home and was absent all day. On returning at night he found his wife 
killed and scalped in the cabin, and his two little boys scalped and 
lying outside in the corner made by the old fashioned stick and mud 
chimney joining the cabin wall. 

Pond lost no time in calling on his neighbors and before midnight 
a pursuing party of vengeance was formed. It was learned that 
three Indians of the Pi-an-ka shaw tribe had been skulking about 
the settlement, and as this tribe was then living far up the Wabash 
the chase promised to be a long one. Three men, John Pond, 
Pearce, a brother of Col. Hosea Pearce, and Trousdale, were the 
party who proposed to have retribution. 

They were well mounted while the Indians were on foot. From 
indications it appeared that the killing had been done in the morn- 
ing; and as the pursuing party could not start until the following 
morning the Indians had 20 hours start. The trail was found by no- 
ticing the disturbed conditions of the wild pea vines in the little 
prairie, westward. 

The men pushed forward through the woods which ia those days 
were open underneath, by reason of which the party soon reached Bon 
Pas creek in the northern part of the county. On the prairie the grass 
grew high and the trail could be followed easily; not, however, until 
the third day did the party discover "fresh signs." 

The next morning at sun rise they found in the Coffee creek bot- 
tom three Indians seated, quietly making their breakfast off a wild 
turkey. With steady nerves, each man picked out his Indian and 


shot. One of the guns missed fire, but two Indians fell dead, They 
hunted for the other Indian all day, but failed to find him, as he 
made for the creek and they lost his track. The white party had to 
return home with their vengeance only partly satisfied. 

Years later the people around Pond became too numerous for his 
comfort and he moved further west. 

The incident of the massacre and the pursuit faded away from the 
memories of the old settlers, amid the bustle of the incoming civili- 
zation, but years afterward when one of the actors in the fore- 
going scene, Pearce, had become an old man, he, too, feeling that the 
country was becoming too thickly settled for his comfort, emigrated 
to western Missouri, where lands were cheap, of which he could ob- 
tain a plenty for "the boys." One of Trousdale's sons went there 
with him. 

These two were away from home one day, and at night stopped at 
the house of a middle aged man, living on a fine and well furnished 

After supper, the host, in the course of conversation, ascertaining 
the locality of his guests' former homes to have been in White, 
county, 111., asked, "Do you know anyone in the Pond settlement?" 

"Why, that is right where I lived," replied Pearoe. 

"Did you ever know John Pond? " 

"Yes, sir." 

This started Peace to talking, and he told all about Pond and the 
killing of his wife and boys, the pursuit of the killers, etc. 

Pearce was an interesting narrator and he told the story as vividly 
as the facts would allow. 

A slight pause was made at the finish, when the host said, "Well, 
stranger, that is a mighty tough story, but I reckon it is about as 
true as any you ever told." As he said this he stepped to the high 
mantle shelf on which stood a clock; this he opened and took there- 
from a little parcel wrapped in whitish paper that showed the marks 
of age and much careful handling. 

While doing this, Pearoe was getting mad at the doubt thrown on 
his veracity by the words of the man, who, as he stood slowly open- 
ing the little parcel, threw out reconnoitering side glances, noticing 
betimes the change in Pearce's countenance. The climax came, of 
course, but the farmer calmly continued by unbinding and saying: 
"Now, don't get excited at what I said, I only meant to prove what 
I am going to show you is true," 

By this time he had taken from the paper a little tuft of flaxen 
hair which seemed to be grown from a piece of skin the size of a 

As he held it up he said, "Here is the scalp of one of John Pond's 
boys;" and bowing down his head, parting the hair from the crown, 
revealed a shining bald scar, when placing his finger on the spot, he 
dded, "and there is where it came from." 


Pearce had forgotten that while both boys had been scalped, only 
one was killed, although both were left for dead. He had forgotten, 
too, that among the trophies of the dead Indians the things most 
highly prized by Pond were the tiny scalps of his boys, which he 
had recovered. 

Let it not be understood that the rangers of Missouri were idle 
while those reports were current and while those plundering raids 
and murders were multiplying. Though settlements were few and 
far apart, the great distances were covered by pursuing parties al- 
most constantly. In fact it may be said for the rangers, that all of 
fighting, vengeance, reprisal, victory which came to the whites, came 
through the steadfastness of companies of rangers or other detach- 
ments and not from any combination of command or concerted expe- 
dition. Those rangers were here, there and everywhere, abating not 
their energies to protect the feeble settlements and by the time the 
year 1813 came round, with its renewed needs of protection, the 
rangers went from fort to fort, repairing some, enlarging others, 
removing families'^to safer posts and running down thieves and mur- 

On Feb. 9th, 1813, ten Indians eluded the vigilance of the Illinois 
rangers, passed down near the Wabash, and massacred two families 
at the mouth of Cache (Cash ) river, on the Ohio, seven miles from 
the Mississippi. 

In the month of March of this year, David McLain, a minister of 
the gospel, and a Mr, Francois* Young, traveling from Boone's lick 
into Kentucky, crossed the Kaskaskia river at "Hill's ferry" in Clin- 
ton county, and near Hill's fort; at which point they were fired upon 
by a party of Indians. Young was killed and scalped; McLain's horse 
was shot, and fell but he escaped to the woods, pursued by the In- 
dians at full speed. One by one they were distanced and fell back, 
uatil one alone was left He, an athletic fellow, continued. MoLain, 
encumbered with a heavy overcoat, wrappings on his legs and spurs, 
had much to contend with, but with these great disadvantages, he 
gained. As a fioal attempt to head him off, his pursuer fired, but 
missed him. Casting aside the heavy ooat, McLain hoped the prize 
would be seized by his pursuer and the chase abandoned; but the 
plan was ineffectual. Still pursued, he adopted a series of tactics 
quite incomprehensible at this da}': He first made signs of surren- 
der, until the Indian came up, when he assumed an attitude of defi- 
ance until the Indian had fired and (by dodging) missed him. Then 
running again and inaugurating the same scheme of a truce and 
chase, he continued. During one of the feints, he threw his 
breast forward, he inadvertently threw backward an arm and received 
a ball in it, which lost to him its further use. During the chase, he 
had thrown away his boots, and still he ran along the bottoms until 
the river was reached There, exhausted, he accepted the only chance 
left him to escape by plunging in and attempting to swim with one 
arm. For the eighth time the Indian loaded and fired, missing Mc- 
Lain who swam diagonally down stream while his pursuer abandoned 

♦Annals, 733. 


the chase with a yell. The water was cold; the man was wounded 
and exhausted and almost unable to stand when he reached the oppo- 
site bank, yet he crawled up and after incredible effort and suffering, 
reached the Badgley settlement the following morning. A party of 
volunteers returned to the scene, buried Young and recovered Mo- 
Lain's saddle bags. 

Such were the dangers surrounding the settlers of Illinois in those 

Following is another story of the shocking murders of those days: 

* "His Majesty's Allies." 

"The savages are zealously employed to serve "his majesty" and 
earn for themselves annihilation. They have lately committed many 
murders in the Indiana and Illinois territories, and fears are enter- 
tained of an attack upon St. Louis, etc., beyond the Mississippi. 

"Extract of a letter from a gentleman at Kaekaskia, dated Feb. 27, — 
"A horrid instance of savage barbarity occurred in this territory on 
the 9th instant, upon the bank of the Ohio, seven miles above its 
mouth In my last, I mentioned that an Indian trail had been dis- 
covered passing from the northward in a direction to the mouth of 
that river, crossing the road about half way between this and Shaw- 
neetown After we heard of General Winchester's defeat, we con- 
cluded they were runners going to the southern and southwestern 
Indians, with the news of that disaster — which conjecture was prob- 
ably correct. On their arriving upon the Ohio, it seems they traced 
the shore till they came to where three small crafts were lying in 
front of two cabins occupied by a 'Squire Clark and a Mr. Kennedy. 
The former was standing before his door when the savages (ten in 
number) came up the bank toward the house. One of them, who 
could speak English and whom Clark knew, called out to him not to 
be afraid for they were friends — that they had traveled far, and 
wanted something to eat; on this, Clark permitted them to come up 
and they shook hands very cordially. Setting their guns against the 
house they went in, and C — ordered his Wife to prepare them some 
victuals. She did so, and they sat down and they ate heartily. 

No white people were in the house, but Clark and his wife and a 
neighbor who happened to be there, On their rising, two of them 
were observed to place themselves in the door passage, which excited 
some suspicion but not much alarm. Two others came and stood by 
the neighbor, one of whom (who could talk English), set to feeling 
the white man's shoulders, knees, etc., and said, "you be stout man — 
you be strong man — can you run fast?, etc," Soon, the man perceived 
the other Indian drawing his tomahawk at his head, which he in part 
avoided, but it struck in the upper part of the forehead and pealed 
the skin down to the bone of the eyebrow, which arrested its force. 
The man plunged to the door, and knocking over one of those 
stationed there, made his escape toward a creek near at hand, with 
four or five of the savages at his heels. He sprang upon the ice 

*Nllei refflater, vol. <, p. 135. 

— lOH. 


which giving way, let him down to his middle in water — he scram- 
bled up, however, upon the unbroken ice, which bore him across. 
The Indians chose not to follow. Perceiving this, he made a short 
halt to observe what would be done. He discovered Kennedy coming 
from his cabin toward Clark's, and about half way was shot down. 
He saw Clark rush out of his door and run, but he too was shot 
down. He saw no more, but hastened to give the alarm. 

A force assembled as soon as possible and went to the place, but 
the Indians had crossed the river and could not be seen. They found 
the bodies of Kennedy and Clark as above mentioned, and on enter- 
ing Clark's house, found Mrs. Clark cruelly tomahawked and dead. 
Proceeding to Kennedy's, they found his wife and one child also 
murdered, two of their children, a boy and girl missing, supposed to 
be taken away, as one of the girl's shoes was found in one of the 
craft which took them across the river. 

The situation of Mrs. Kennedy was shocking, beyond description. 
She having been pregnant, her body was found entirely naked, cut 
open and the child taken out and hung up on a peg in the chimney. 
Her entrails were scattered all about the door and the hogs were eat- 
ing them. Both houses were plundered of all they could carry off. 

Thus ends the history of a horrid scene. The slain were five in 
number exclusive of the unborn infant, and two missing. The bodies 
were decently interred, and men have gone across the river in pursuit 
of the savages. 

The people of St. Louis are much alarmed by the defeat of General 
Winchester, on account of the encouragement it will give to hostile 
Indians. They consider themselves more in danger than other parts 
of the country, as their town would be the first object. They have 
determined to fortify, and have also sent out for 400 Osage warriors, 
who are considered friendly — but I can hardly approve of the latter 

The prospect for 181B was gloomy enough, The general govern- 
ment made no provisions for the militia and on June 8,* Governor 
Edwards discharged them from service. The moment that was done 
hostile Indians began collecting about Peoria lake, from which point 
marauding parties again began to harass the settlements. They 
concentrated in such great numbers and became so bold and bloody, 
that it at once became evident that the country must be protected 
and the enemy scattered, else the former exertions of defense would 
quickly be obliterated and many of the fortifications reduced. 

About June 1, 1813, Gov. Benjamin Howard, of Missouri, had 
resigned his office and accepted a brigadier general's commission in 
the government service, to command the rangers from the territories 
of Illinois and Missouri. / 

On July 16, Ft. Madison was attacked by the Illinois Sacs, Foxes 
and Winnebagoes, for the ninth or tenth time, but while the Illinois 

♦Annals 737. 


Indians were the invaders, the affair did not occur on Illinois soil 
and was defended by no part of the Illinois troops; therefore, though 
the event was important, as was the subsequent evacuation of Ft. 
Madison, it will not receive notice here.* 

Toward the Peoria lake hostiles General Howard then directed his 
attention and while he fought no pitched battles and met with no 
resistance, it may be said that his expedition was beneficial, in that 
it scattered the Indians from that seditious section for all time. 

Capt. Nathan Boone, who had been sent by General Howard with 
16 picked rangers, to act as spies, was stationed between the Illinois 
and Mississippi, While there he was attacked on the 15th of Au- 
gust, 1813, by a party of 10 or 50 Indians. Captain Boone formed 
his men back from the camp fires, and, as expected, the Indians 
rushed on the camping ground. There had surely been much loss 
to the enemy had it not been for the effect of a recent rain on the 
ammunition and arms of the whites, who did little execution with 
them; so little, indeed, that the company was forced to retreat, after 
one of the number received a slight wound in the hand. 

The Illinois rangers, being transferred to General Howard's com- 
mand, he at once moved forward. 

For three or four weeks the Illinois regiment had lain encamped 
on the "Piasau" opposite Portage de Sioux, waiting for re-enforce- 
ments until directed to concentrate at Camp Russell, when the men 
swam their horses over the Illinois about two miles above its mouth. 
On the high ground in Calhoun county a skirmish was had with a 
party of Indians. To meet them. General Howard with the Mis- 
souri troops crossed the Mississippi from Ft. Madison, swimming the 
horses, while men and baggage were transported in canoes. When 
joined, the force consisting of rangers, militia and volunteers, num- 
bered about 1,400 men, under General Howard's command. Robert 
Wash and Doctor Walker, of St. Louis, were members of his staff. 
Cols. Benjamin Stephenson, of Randolph county. III , and Alexander 
McNair, of St. Louis, commanded the regiments. W. B. Whiteside 
and John Moredock, of Illinois were majors in the Second or Illinois 
regiment and William Christy and Nathan Boone were majors of 
the First, or Missouri regiment, Maj. Robert Desha, a United States 
oflBcer from Tennessee, occupied a position. Col. Eli B. Clemson, of 
the United States army, was inspector. In addition to these, there 
were among the number some United States rangers from Kentucky 
and a company from Vincennes. Of the companies of Illinois men, 
the only names of captains of this expedition which have come down 
to us are Samuel Whiteside, Joseph Phillips, Nathaniel Journey 
and Samuel Judy. 

The army marched along the Mississippi f for several days, until 
the present site of Quincy was reached, where then stood a Sac vil- 
lage and encampment, that is said to have contained 1,000 warriors. 
This had the appearance of being deserted but a short time before. 

• See Steven9"'BlRck Hawk War." 

t Stephenson Dlong the west, the others to the east. 


Continuing its march along the Mississippi to a point some dis- 
tance above the lower rapids, the army struck across the country for 
the Illinois river, which was reached below the mouth of the Spoon 
river, from which place the march was made to Peoria village, at 
which place was found a small stockade, commanded by Colonel 
Nicholas of the United States army, and upon which the Indians 
had made an unsuccessful attack just previous, During the march, 
trails were found in abundance, made by the Indians in their flight 
to the northward. 

The following morning General Howard marched his troops to the 
Senachwine, a short distance above the head of Peoria lake, to 
Gomo's village. There it was found that the enemy had gone by 
water up the river. That and two other villages were burnt. 

This march covered all the territory from which danger was an- 
ticipated, and having discovered no enemy, the army returned to 
Peoria, to assist the regulars in the erection of a fort, which when 
finished was called Ft Olark. From that point Major Christy, was 
detached with a party, to ascend the river with two armed and pro- 
tected keel boats, to the foot of the rapids, there to break up any 
Indian establishments that might be found. Major Boone, with 
another detachment was sent to traverse the country on Spoon river, 
and from thence proceed in the direction of Rock river. 

Passing to the east side of the Illinois river, the rangers cut 
timber, which they hauled on truck wheels to the lake and rafted 
over the lake. The fort was erected by the regulars under Captain 
Phillips, which required about two weeks service from the rangers 
and militia. 

Finding only tracks, the forces of Majors Christy and Boone re- 
turned with reports that the enemy had abandoned the country in 

It was unfortunate that General Howard could not have pursued 
the march originally intended, by returning by way of the Rock 
river valley and visiting the strongholds of the Winnebagoes and Sacs, 
particularly the village in which Black Hawk and his mercenaries 
lived; but by the middle of October the weather became excessively 
cold, against which the troops had no protection and the horses no 
forage. Therefore, with the enemy dispersed far into the interior 
and every prospect of further peace ahead. General Howard moved 
his army back to Camp Russell, where it was disbanded on the 22d 
day of October. Had the weather permitted him to have pursued 
his original design of cleansing the Rock river country it might have 
been the means of defeating the bloody enterprises of the bloody 
Sacs in the following year and later. But all things considered, while 
but two men were lost; while the fighting was insignificant, the gen- 
eral result in good to the settlements was great, and one may say 
lasting. The huge array for those days, brought forth the remarks: 
"White men like the leaves of the forest — like grass in the prairies — 
they grow everywhere." Had the Sacs and Winnebagoes seen them, 
I am sure there had been no bloody 1814 to notice. 


And here it may be well to insert an item of great importance in 
the annals of Sac history; an event which has long been a matter 
of conjecture and invariably set down by writers untruthfully — the 
elevation of Keokuk to be the war chief and head of the Sac nation — 
to the great discomfort of Black Hawk when he returned from fight- 
ing the Americans. 

On learning of the approach in great numbers of the whites, the 
Sacs for want of a leader, by tumultuous lamentations were for in- 
stant retreat; but in the emergency Keokuk rose, offered to lead any 
number, however few, against the Americans, however great, to 
victory or defeat. His eloquence and bravery appealed so forcibly 
that his reward followed, by his selection as "war chief," though it 
must be said that most of the Sacs were then comfortably protected, 
below, by the Americans. 

The following rare and important documents, pertaining to this 
expedition of General Howard, were discovered just before going to 
press. By reason of their great value in furnishing details which 
can be found in no other place, they are given in full: 

Copy of a letter from General Howard to Governor Clark, dated 
Ramsey's Creek, Sept. 16, 1818. 

"The direction given to the troops has been most fortunate for the 
frontier. The 2d regiment crossed the Illinois about three miles 
above its mouth, and moved up between the two rivers. On its 
march it was discovered that several large parties had crossed from 
the Illinois to the Mississippi; they were pursued, a rencontre took 
place between a small party of the rangers, whose horses were stolen 
by them. The Indians were driven into the Illinois with great pre- 
cipitation. Some Sacs arrived on the night of the 14th, at Cap au 
Gris. I had a conversation with Black Tobacco on the ]5th, who 
informed me that on the 14th, just above Cap au Gris, he saw three 
Indians of the Illinois with horses they had stolen from this side. 
While conversing with him another party arrived, stating that about 
two hours before they saw the trail of about 50 Indians, four miles 
above Cap au Gris; the 2d regiment, commanded by Col. Stephen- 
son, was about ten miles above, the same side of the Mississippi. I 
instantly sent an express to Col. Stephenson, ordering him to detach 
a sufficient force to attack them; I then proceeded on to this place; 
I have not heard from him since, but expect intelligence every 

The First regiment is now in my view, crossing the Mississippi; 
tonight or in the morning a junction of the regiments will be formed. 
I find that a number of small parties were on this side since the 
troops came up, and have no doubt but a movement of between 800 
and 500 Indians has been made down the Mississippi and Illinois in 
concert; those of the Illinois crossed over to the settlements on this 
side. The movement of the troops between the Illinois and Missis- 
sippi, and also on this side, has completely routed them, together 
with the boats which ascended the Illinois, all of which movements 


are simultaneous. Although they have discovered troops under my 
command, I believe they will still be embarrassed in finding out 
their destination from their present positions. 

I feel great anxiety lest some small parties have gone to the set- 
tlement of Sugar Creek and Shoal Creek in Illinois, My force is 
much less than I expected when I saw you; the troops in Illinois 
have been sickly and many remain, others were sent back. The 
troops now with me are remarkably healthy and in high spirits, al- 
though we have had immense rains. I have sent expresses along the 
line of frontier from Cap au G-ris to Loutre on Missouri, admonish- 
ing the people to be on their guard. I have left some troops to re- 
connoitre; they are now actually engaged. I enclose you a letter to 
the people of Illinois, advising them to be guarded at least for a few 
days; I would thank you to forward it by the first conveyance; in 15 
days I hope to write you further. The party of Sacs and Foxes at 
Cap au Grris is considerable. Mr. Boilvain met them, but they would 
go on. I advised them to remain on an island near Cap au Gris un- 
til his arrival, and all go to the Portage des Sioux together, agreeably 
to your orders. I knew if they went to St. Louis it would be useless 
to them and troublesome to you. The contractor's agent will furnish 
them with provisions." 

From The American Weekly Messenger, vol 1, page 125, of Nov. 13, 


St. Louis, Oct. 2, (1813) . 

A few weeks ago we noticed that the Sacs and Foxes would winter 
on the north side of the Missouri, above the Loutre, where a factory 
would be established for them. On Sunday last, 155 canoes arrived 
at Portage des Sioux, where Governor Clark held a council with 
them. They have hitherto and continue to show every mark of neu- 
trality in the present contest. That part of their nation who have 
joined the British wished to come in, but they would not receive 
them, as it would commit them with the United States. These 
wretches have gone to Prairie du Chien to join the Sioux, who expect 
Dickson with his regulars from Canada. They have taken a decided 
part with the British. The plan of detaching the Sacs and Foxes 
from the Mississippi, and from the neighboring hostile bands (who 
infest its bank), is wise, and will no doubt lead to fortunate results. 
Our army will meet now an enemy in every savage band, and, from 
measures now in operation, that vengeance they have so long merited 
will fall on them with redoubled fury; for the shades of our unsus- 
pecting farmers, their innocent wives and children, call aloud for 

The whole amount of Sacs and Foxes who have gone to the win- 
tering grounds, with a United States factor, is thought to exceed 
1,500 souls. B-sides those contained in 155 canoes which ascended 


the Missouri on Monday last, near 500 warriors crossed over by land, 
accompanied by Blondeau, their interpreter. 

War has broke out between the Sacs and loways, and two or three 
Sacs have been killed. We sincerely hope that government will no 
more meddle in their quarrels, to restore peace. Grovernment should 
let them settle their disputes in their own way, for they are vipers 
who will turn and inflict a deadly wound on their deliverers. 

The regular troops who manned the gunboats have safely arrived 
at Peoria, and in a few days have erected a fort. General Howard, 
with the mounted men, will reach the Illinois, fifty or one hundred 
miles above Peoria, ascending the Mississippi as high as the two 
rivers in pursuit of a large body of Indians whose trails were discov- 
ered on the frontiers, and intended to visit the villages of the hostile 
bands between Peoria and Lake Michigan. 

From American Weekly Messenger, Vol. I, Page 111, for Nov, 6, 

Copy of a letter from Brig. Gen. Benjamin Howard, to the Secre- 
tary of War. 

Headquarters, St. Louis, Oct. 28th, 1818. 

Sir — I had the honor of expressing to you the opinion during the 
last summer that a movement of troops to dislodge the Indians at the 
head of Peoria lake was indispensible to guard against that pressure 
upon our frontier in autumn which I believed would take place. It 
was with pleasure I found the measures approved. In pursuance of 
the plan on the 19th of September the effective rangers on the Mis- 
souri and Illinois were concentrated at Tower Hill, east of the Miss- 
issippi, thirty miles above the frontier. In embodying these troops 
the immediate safety of the frontier was steadily kept in view by 
moving detachments in such directions as would enable them to dis- 
cover and dislodge any parties which might be upon our borders. 
The First regiment, commanded by Col. McNair, was marched on the 
west side of the Mississippi and crossed just below the rendezvous; 
the Second, commanded by Colonel Stephenson, was marched on the 
east side of the river, crossing the Illinois a few miles above its 
mouth; a detachment of about 200 regulars, under the command of 
Lieutenant Colonel Nicholas of the First regiment of United States 
infantry, at the same time ascended the Illinois in armed boats. It 
was soon ascertained, upon the arrival of those several detachments 
at points a little beyond the settlements, that the enemy had de- 
scended the Illinois to invade the frontier. A skirmish Hook place 
between some of Colonel Stephenson's command and a party of In- 
dians; the latter were driven. From the appearance in the route of 
the First regiment some parties had crossed to the west side of the 
Mississippi, upon the approach of the troops. I have no doubt of 
the Indians having returned to their canoes in the Illinois when they 
found Lieutenant Colonel Nicholas rapidly ascending the river, and 
fled before him without injuring a single citizen. Believing that 


the frontier would be safe for the moment, I marched the mounted 
troopa up the Mississippi bottom to Christy's creek, passing opposite 
the encampment of the Sac nation who have professed themselves 
friendly, but many of whom I believe have taken part in the war 
against us, while others were undecided. 

At this time Mr Boilvain, Indian agent, was in the neighborhood, 
sent by Governor Clark, to conduct them to the Missouri, where they 
had agreed to winter. However unsettled their neutrality might 
have been before, the display of troops in their vicinity soon con- 
firmed it; they immediately descended the Mississippi to the Portage 
des Sioux, from whence they were sent up the Missouri from Chris- 
ty's creek. The army was marched across the country, towards 
Pioria, and on the evening of the 28th arrived within a few miles of 
the old village. That night three men were sent to discover whether 
the command of Lieutenant Colonel Nicholas had arrived, and bear- 
ing a letter to that officer, stating my position, and calling for such 
information in regard to the enemy as he might possess. During the 
night he descended the Illinois river, to my encampment, and re- 
ported to me that the day before an attack was made upon his com- 
mand at Pioria, where he had commenced building a fort agreeably 
to my orders; however, the enemy was soon dispersed by a well di- 
rected discharge of musketry, with the aid of a six pounder from two 
unfinished block houses. It was evident that the assailants suflPered 
in this attack, but to what extent could not be ascertained. None of 
our men were killed, and only one wounded. On the 29th the 
mounted troops arrived at Pioria and so soon as provisions could be 
drawn, were marched up the Illinois to the villages at the head of 
the lake, which was the direction in which the enemy appeared to 
have retired from Pioria. Upon my arrival at those villages, I found 
them deserted. From the examination made by reconnoitering par- 
ties, I had no doubt of the Indians having ascended the Illinois in 
canoes, which is so situated from swamps on both banks that it was 
impossible to pursue them by land. The villages were destroyed, 
and some property of inconsiderable amount, taken. The army then 
returned to Pioria, and remained until the garrison was put in a state 
of defense. Shortly after my return I sent a detachment, in two 
armed boats, under command of Major Christy, in pursuit of the 

This detachment ascended the Illinois, above the mouth of the 
Vermillion to the rapids and within 75 miles of Chicago; but it was 
impossible to come up with the Indians, notwithstanding the great 
efforts of the commanding officer and his command Soon after the 
departure of Major Christy, Major Boone was sent with about 300 
men in the direction of Rock river, to examine whether there were 
any parties in that quarter. He penetrated the country northwardly 
from Pioria, in my opinion within 45 miles of Rock river, and re- 
ported that there were several encampments on the Maquoine, which 
appeared to have been deserted about the time the army arrived at 
Pioria. The mounted troops remained near Pioria from the 2nd 
until the 15th of October, during which time they were actively en- 


gaged, together with the United States infantry, in erecting Ft. Clark, 
which stands at the lower end of the lake, completely commanding 
the river. This important fort was erected under many disadvant- 
ages, the weather being unusually cold for the season, and without 
the aid of a single team; the timbers were hauled by the troops a 
considerable distance to the lake (nearly a mile in width) and rafted 
over. This fort is unquestionably one of the strongest I have ever 
Been in the western country, and certainly highly important to the 
safety of the three territories, with the defense of which I have been 

On the 15th, the mounted troops moved from Pioria for the settle- 
ments, pursuing generally a south course until they arrived at Rus- 
sell on the 2l8t instant, when the mounted militia were discharged. 
The Indian rangers, on the march, were sent across from old Kicka- 
poos town to Vincennes under the command of Captain Andre. The 
safety to the frontier, which was anticipated from this movement, 
has been fully realized, and the same enemy that has kept our exposed 
settlements under continual apprehensions of danger, was compelled 
to flee before a force in their own country, less than that assigned by 
the government, for the immediate defence of the frontier. It is 
with pleasure I acknowledge the energetic and intelligent execution 
of my orders by those officers to whom I confided the command of 
detachments and laudable conduct of the officers and men generally, 
during the campaign, but more particularly on those occasions (not 
infrequent) when it was hoped and believed by all that the enemy 
would give us battle. I am, sir, with high consideration, 

Your humble servant, 

Benjamin Howard. 
To Hon. John Armstrong. 

P. S. — I have delayed the transmission of this communication 
until I heard of Captain Andre, who was sent across direct from the 
Kickapoos towns to Vincennes. He has reported to me his safe ar- 

General Howard died, and the year 1813 closed with no advantages, 
"producing an annual expenditure to a great amount, without gaia- 
ing an inch of ground or a single advantage of the enemy."* Our 
frontiers were still considered insecure, Governor Clark's expedition 
to Prairie du Chien and his establishment of Ft. Shelby (later consid- 
ered) was a bright spot, but it soon flickered and again threw the 
country into darkness. f 

After the battle of the Thames the Illinois Indians deserted in 
large numbers, to return to their native haunts. The greater num- 
ber tired of the defeats inflicted upon them and resented what they 
claimed to have been bad treatment by the English; but the Rock 
river Sacs and some of the Winnebagoes returned to the Mississippi 
river to pursue a series of murderous attacks all along the line of 
settlements. Beginning with the Wood river massacre, which may 
not, however, be charged immediately to those Indians, the year 1814 

* Governor Edwards' me^oagre. 

t Stevens' 'Black Hawk War" treats thia sabjtct In fall. 


baoame the bloodiest ia coafliot of all the bloody years of our war of 
1812-181i. I shall take the liberty of copying intact the best ac- 
count of that. 

*WooD RivEE Massacre. 

(By Volney P. Richmond, of Liberty Prairie, Madison County. Illinois.) 

"Since my earliest recollection, I have heard and read of the 
Wood River massacre, by the Indians, and have often had the place 
pointed out to me where it occurred. I was early acquainted with 
Capt. Abel Moore, and with several of Captain Moore's children. 
Maj. Frank Moore cannot tell when he did not know me. I often 
stopped to hear his father tell pioneer stories. I knew, but was not 
intimately acquainted with, the other members of the Moore family. 

Some years ago, some one published an account of the Wood River 
massacre so very incorrect that I answered it and told what I knew 
about it. In that paper, the scene was laid near where the two rail- 
ways and wagon road cross Wood river, at a place called Milton, 
some two miles or more from where I knew it to have taken place. 
Not long after I met Major Moore, and after thanking me for making 
the correction, said, that I was nearer to it than any one who had 
written before me; but that I was still some what off, I said I would 
try again, and with his help, and his sister's, Mrs Lydia Williams, 
I thought I could get a correct history of it. There has been no 
account of it heretofore written (not even my own), that is perfectly 
reliable; as this, being a part of the early history of Madison county, 
should be. Of course, there is no one who can personally vouch for 
the facts of this Indian massacre, in 1814, during the last war with 
England; but the remaining children of Capt. Abel Moore would be 
able to come nearer to it than any one else. They have often heard 
the story from their father and mother; and I too, have heard it from 
their father. 

The Indian massacre occurred on the southwest quarter of section 
five, in Wood River township, Madison county, Illinois, on the 10th 
day of July, 1814. The persons killed were Mrs. Rachael Reagan 
and her two children, Elizabeth (or Betsy) aged saven, and Timothy 
aged three years; two children of Capt. Abel Moore's, William, aged 
ten, and Joel aged eight years; and two children of William Moore's, 
John, aged ten, and George, aged three years. Mrs Reagan and 
children went to spend the day at the house of William Moore, on 
the farm now owned by Mrs. William Badley. Returning in the 
afternoon by way of Capt. Abel Moore's farm, now the property of 
George Cartwright, two of whose children, William and Joel, started 
home with them to get some green beans. Miss Hannah Bates, Mrs. 
Abel Moore's sister, visiting there, also started to accompany them 
to remain at Mrs. Reagan's; but after going a part of the way, she 
suddenly changed her mind, as if warned by some presentiment, and 
against the earnest entreaties of Mrs. Reagan, retraced her steps and 

*No. 6, of publications of tiie Illinois State Historical Library, page 93. 


hastened back to Captain Moore's, At the point where she turned 
back she could not have been more than 200 or 300 yards from 
where the dead body of Mrs. Reagan was found. Mrs. Reagan and 
the six children were all tomahawked and scalped, and they remained 
all night on the ground where they were murdered, the Indians strip- 
ped them of all their clothing, as well as scalping them. 

William Moore having returned that day from Fort Butler, near 
the site of the present village of St Jacob, where he was on military 
duty, to look after the women and children at home, became alarmed 
as night approached and the children not returned, and went in search 
of them, first going to his brother's, Abel Moore's place, to see if they 
were there. His wife, who was Mrs. Reagan's sister, also started on 
horseback to look for them, taking a diflFerent route from the one 
her husband went. Although they did not meet until they both re- 
turned home, they both found the lifeless bodies in the darkness, 
lying by the wayside, and each placed a hand upon the bare shoulder 
of Mrs. Reagan. Mr Moore returned as he went, by Abel's house, 
to notify the family there of the massacre, and warn them of the pos- 
sible danger that night. When Mrs. William Moore found the chil- 
dren lying by the road she thought they had become tired and had 
laid down to sleep. She got down from her horse to pick up the 
youngest child, but just then a crackling noise and flash of light from 
a burning hickory tree near by alarmed her, and fearing Indians 
might be in ambush there, she sprang on her horse and reached home in 
advance of her husband. Mrs. Reagan and her two children were 
killed nearest Capt. Abel Moore's place, the other children were 
found lying further on, two at a place. One, the youngest child, 
three years old, when found was still alive. A messenger was sent 
for the nearest physician, who came and dressed the wounds of the 
little one, but it did not survive the treatment. 

John Harris, a young man living at Capt. Abel Moore's, was sent 
that night to Fort Russell, near the present city of Edwardsville, 
where Captain Moore was in command, and to Fort Butler, com- 
manded by Captain Whiteside, to notify them of the massacre. 
Leaving the latter post about 1:00 o'clock that same night, about 70 
rangers from both forts, among whom were James and Solomon 
Preuitt, arrived at Moore's block house (on the farm owned by the 
late William Gill, and now by a German named Klopmeyer), just 
as the sun was rising, and proceeded on to the scene of the massacre. 
They soon found the trail of the Indians marked by broken bushes and 
trampled grass, with some stains of blood, made probably by the fresh 
scalps. In hot pursuit the rangers pressed upon the fleeing red devils 
and overtook them about sunset upon a small stream in the northern 
part of Morgan county. One of the Indians hid in the top of a fallen 
tree and was shot by James Preuitt; of the other nine (they being 
ten in number), but one escaped, and he got away by diving in the 
water. (The stream mentioned, was called by the early French 
traders, La Belleause, but after the occurence narrated, it has been 
known as Indian creek, and the spot where the Indian escaped is 


now know as Cracker's bend). The rangers, who were led by Cap- 
tain Whiteside, camped on the creek that night and returned to their 
forts next day. 

The morning after the massacre, the friends and relatives pre- 
pared to bury the dead; and that was no small undertaking. There 
was nothing like any sawed lumber in the whole country; and besides 
axes and hoes they had but few tools of any description. They de- 
cided to bury the dead bodies where a few of the early settlers, who 
had died some time before, were buried, on section 24, four miles 
east of the Moore settlement; and that was the first burying ground 
in that part of the country. Their only means to convey the bodies 
to the burying ground was on rough sleds drawn by oxen. The 
graves were dug with coffin shaped vaults at the bottom, which were 
lined with slabs split from trees near by, as nearly like plank as pos- 
sible; and after the bodies were placed in the vaults they were cov- 
ered over with the same kind of split slabs. The seven were buried 
in three graves ; Mrs. Reagan and her two children in one grave; 
Captain Moore's two children in another; and William Moore's two 
children in the third. 

When I first visited that grave yard, which was situated in a 
heavy growth of timber, there was an old church near by, built by 
setting poles in the ground and siding up with rough split boards, 
and covered with the same. 

"Moore's settlement" in the forks of Wood river was commenced 
in 1808, by George, William and Abel Moore, William Bates, Ran- 
som Reagan, Mr. Wright, Samuel Williams, Mr. Vickery, and a few 
others, and their families. On George Moore's farm was a block 
house fort where the settlers assembled when apprehensive of Indian 
attacks. At the time of the massacre of Mrs. Reagan and the chil- 
dren there was but one man in that fort. He was George Moore, a 
gunsmith, who made and repaired rifles for the settlement. Of those 
who took refuge in the fort that night there is now (1898) probably 
but one living, Mrs. Nancy Hedden, a daughter of Capt. Abel Moore's. 
She resides at San Diego, Cal.,and was at that time about a year and 
a half old. 

Such is the true history of the Wood River massacre. I have taken 
much time to trace out all the facts here stated, and I believe them to 
be correct, I have often been over the ground where it occurred and 
have been well acquainted with the Moores and their descendants all 
of my life." 

The two following letters are introduced for reference purposes, 
only; they lead up to what follows: 

"The Northern Indians— We are really afraid that we shall sorely 
repent of the lenity shown these savage allies of the 'defender of the 
faith,' last winter; when, if we had suffered them to lie down in the 
bed they had made for themselves, we should have suffered little from 
them hereafter. But this consolation remains, that we erred on the 
side of humanity. 


They have committed several murders lately — A letter from the 
Illinois territory, says, "Much do I fear that we shall find that the 
armistice has had the effect of pampering the savages in the winter, 
for war in the summer." 

Extract of a letter from Col. Anthony Butler, commanding Michi- 
gan territory and its dependencies and the western district of upper 
Canada, dated 12th Feb., 1814 to Governor Edwards. 

"The principal object of this letter is to apprise you of my having 
some time since dispatched a small but active and and confidential 
detachment to St. Joseph's; who seized Mr. Bailly (agent to the 
Michilimacinac company) and five others, with all the British merch- 
andize in that quarter; and after traversing with great celerity, 600 
miles, in going and coming, lodged with me the prisoners, safely. 
Whilst they were at St. Joseph's they discovered that Dixon had 
ascended Lake Michigan as high up as Green bay, with five large boats 
loaded with merchandize for the Indians. From the Green bay he as- 
cended the Fox river to a certain point where the goods were landed, and 
he procured pack horses and penetrated into the interior, exciting the 
Fals Avoines and Winnebagoes as he went on, by speeches and pres- 
ents, to be ready for war, Emissaries are sent to the Kickapoos for 
the same purpose, and each are promised that the Sacs and Sioux 
shall unite with them. A Fals Avoine Indian has been with me; his 
nation will not engage in the enterprise which Dixon meditates; but 
the Winnebagoes who are restless and turbulent, are assembling and 
holding councils, and will coalesce with any other Indians, or march 
alone against the point Dixon shall direct, who is said to possess as 
much influence over them as he does over the Sioux. It is not sup- 
posed that he intends an expedition against this territory, but rather 
that he will attack your territory, or some part, perhaps, of the Mis- 
souri, at last nothing of this sort may take place; Dixon may not be 
able to collect a sufficient force to act; or the Indians may refuse, 
after they are assembled, to march against the point he will advise; 
yet as the event of an attack is possible, and the information comes 
to me direct, and in such terms, and by such means, as leaves no 
reason to doubt Dixon's views, his intentions or his object; it became 
my duty, as a citizen, and more so as an officer of the Government, 
to apprise you of the communications I had received upon the sub- 

From Niles, Vol. 6, 118— April 16, 1814. 

Copy of a letter from Governor Edwards to General Harrison: 

"United States Saline, Illinois Territory, March 17. 

Sir — The Indians have realized my expectations, by recommenc- 
ing hostilities in this territory. 

The information which I have from time to time received, leaves 
no doubt on my mind that Dickson has been engaged ever since your 
battle on the river Trench, in preparing for a descent upon St. Louis, 


&c. The last I heard of him previous to my arrival at this place, he 
was at Green bay, distributing presents to the Indians, and some of 
the Pottawattomies of the Illinois had gone to meet him at that 

Since I came here, I have received a letter from Col. A. Butler, 
commander at Detroit, stating that the movements of the Indians 
who submitted to you in October last, indicate hostility — confirming 
all my information of Dickson's designs — and strengthening suspic- 
ions I had previously entertained that the Sioux intended to unite 
with the enemy. He had learnt that Dickson had penetrated into 
the interior of the country, and thinks his object is to attack this 
territory, and a part of Missouri. He concludes by saying, 'as the 
event of an attack is possible, and the information comes to me di- 
rect, and in such terms, and by such means as leaves me no reason 
to doubt Dickson's views, his intentions or his object, it became my 
duty as a citizen and more so as an oflScer of the G-overnment, to ap- 
prize you of the communication I had received upon this subject." 

As those plans were contemplated and in train of execution, be- 
fore the disaster of the Niagara frontier happened, it is to be pre- 
sumed, that their influence will be decisive. And I am sure I need 
not say to you, that a larger body of Indians can with more facility 
attack St. Louis and Cahokia, than any other point on the American 
frontier. You must know the amount of force provided for repelling 
any attempt they may make. I presume you will be convinced, that 
if it be the object of the enemy to produce a diversion of any part of 
our forces from Canada, that he will make his attempt in time to 
secure that object. 

The recent alarms and the want of protection, are depopulating the 
territory. The settlements are so isolated and detached, so equally 
exposed, and the points of attack so numerous, that it would be im- 
practical to raise any force from the local militia by draft, and if 
raised, it would be useless, unless it were mounted, which I have no 
power to order. 

I have the honor to be, respectfully, sir, your most obedient 

N. Edwards, 

Six Niles, 113— April 16, 1814. 

To allege that Governor Edwards formed the expedition to Prairie 
du Chien which is reviewed at length a little later, without giving his 
reasons would be unfair, therefore the following letter is set out in 

"Kaskaskia, I. T., March 22, 1813. 

"A few days ago, I transmitted to you important information rela- 
tive to the British and Indians in the upper parts of this territory. 
An express yesterday, brought me information that 18 pieces of can- 
non and a British officer had arrived at Prairie du Chien. The ice is 
now completely out of our rivers. Some spies that I sent up the Illi- 
nois river are returned, reporting that they saw too much Indian 


signs to proceed as high up as they were directed. The express 
states that an Indian was discovered a day or two past very near to 
Fort Kussell; he evidently was a spy. 

"I have melancholy presages of what is to happen in the country, 
particularly at Prairie du Chien, or rather at the mouth of the Ouis- 
consing. Should the British take possession of that place, I need 
not point out to you the diflSculty of retaking it, or the importance 
of it to them. By water we should have to ascend? 00 miles, by land 
not less than 400. Seven thousand Indians may easily be assembled 
at that place. Last year in time of peace, there were 8,377 there in 
the months of April and May. The following facts, which you need 
not doubt, will show its importance: goods can be carried there from 
Montreal by way of the CJtawas river, more expeditiously, with less 
expense and more safety, than by way of the lakes. It is a fact that 
a canoe from Montreal by this route, arrived with dispatches to a 
gentleman at Cahokia, in 33 days. On his return he went in the 
same canoe to Makanac, by the Illinois river and could thence have 
descended to Montreal in nine days. The traders of Montreal have 
passed from Lake Superior to the Mississippi, thence into the north- 
west, and have been brought into collision with the Hudson Bay 
company. The British can easily push a trade up the Columbia 
river. And combining all these facts, a person tolerably acquainted 
with the geography of the country, the nature of the fur trade, the 
inducements with the North-west company to retain it and the evi- 
dent policy of the British in supporting it, can have no doubt of their 
inducements to occupy the mouth of the Ouisconsing. 

•'These anticipations make me feel for my country's honor; cer- 
tainly it must be destructive of its reputation to permit such plans to 
be realized. The point I have mentioned, once fortified, will be more 
difficult to take than Maiden. I am well apprized of all the objec- 
tions that may be made to these speculations, on the score of provis- 
ions; but those who make them cannot know much of the supplies 
that can be furnished by the settlements of Green bay (where there 
is an elegant merchant mill, fine farms, etc) and Praire de Chien 

"I never could see the advantage of so great a struggle for Maiden. 
Montreal once taken, it would fall of itself; and one single expedition 
would drive to the Mississippi country all the Indians that ever had 
intercourse with that place. It would not cut off the intercourse as 
has been supposed. 

"Notwithstanding I have regularly communicated information which 
must have shown what our situation would be at this time, and not- 
withstanding our present difficulties, I am now as I was last year, 
totally without any instructions, acting upon my own responsibility. 
I have had great success in raising volunteers from the local militia; 
and neither they nor myself have been idle. I again set out tomor- 
row for the frontiers." 

Letter from Governor Edwards to Governor Shelby, copied in 4th 
Niles Register, page 148, which in turn was taken from the Kentucky 


Governor Edwards for so long a time had endeavored to take 
Prairie du Chien and fortify it, that, (in the absence of Greneral 
Howard) Governor Clark finally consented to carry the scheme into 
execution by sending a force of men to that point to build and garri- 
son a fort, thereby the better to control the country contiguous, and 
restrain wavering Indians from joining the forces of the British. 
Col. Robert Dickson, Indian trader and British officer, had occupied 
the place as a storeroom for the furs of his company and as a vantage 
point for his country. At the time of which we treat, Dickson was 
using the point especially as a recruiting station, and just before 
Clark set out on his expedition, had left for Green Bay and Macki- 
naw with 85 Winnebagoes, 120 Falsavoines* and 100 Sioux,f where 
they might more effectively oppose the Americans. Behind him, 
Colonel Dickson left a small detachment of "Mackinaw fencibles" 
under command of Captain Deace to defend the place, or in case of 
necessity to evacuate and notify him of danger from the enemy. 
Naturally, the time was propitious for Governor Clark's investment, 
and very naturally too, Deace with his handful of men withdrew 
without firing a shot. The remaining Sioux and Foxes who had 
been hovering near declared to remain friendly with the Americans. 
At first the frightened inhabitants fled, but upon finding the Ameri- 
cans in no mood to be revengeful toward them, all returned. 

Governor Clark's force which consisted of 200 men, enlisted for 
60 days, left St. Louis in five barges under his immediate command 
May Ist, 1814. At the mouth of Rock river the Sacs made a demon- 
stration against the expedition by the irregular firing of small arms; 
but on taking from them their canoes and otherwise impressing upon 
them the strength of the command, the affrighted savages sued for 
peace. At Dubuque's mines the Foxes were more tractable and 
readily fell into an agreement of peace. 

Once landed the militia at once began the erection of a temporary 
defense, while 60 of Major Taylor's company of the Seventh infantry 
under command of Lieutenant Perkins took possession of the old 
house belonging to and occupied by the Mackinaw company as quar- 
ters, using it for the like purpose. Then work at the new fort was 
begun on what was considered one of the strongest positions on the 
western waters. Two block houses were built on its angles and 
another on the bank of the river at the extreme of a ravelin, formed 
to preserve a communication with the river. The fort was finished 
in a few days, named after Gov. Isaac Shelby of Kentucky, Ft. 
Shelby, and was occupied by the regulars. 

With the capture of Prairie du Chien all of Dickson's papers, let- 
ters and his journal fell into the hands of the Americans from which 
an entry is copied: 

"Aug. 2nd, 1813. 

"Arrived from below, a few Winnebagoes with a scalp, Gave 
them five carrots of tobacco; six pounds powder; six pound ball," 

* Menomlnees. 

t Twenty days before Clark's arrival at Prairie du Chien. 


All his letters were found to have been signed: "Agent and super- 
intendent to the western Indians." 

Governor Clark remained long enough with the troops to see the 
place safely in the hands of the Americans; but utterly ignoring the 
probability that the British would surely return, he returned to St. 
Louis a few days before the fort was completed, leaving Lieutenant 
Perkins for shore duty and two of his largest armed boats in the 
river under command of Aid-de-camp Kennedy and Captains Sulli- 
van and Yeizer, whose united force amounted to 125 men. Still 
later, the time of enlistment having expired, Capt, John Sullivan 
withdrew his company and 32 men from the forces of "The Governor 
Clark" under Yeizer and sailed back to St. Louis, leaving the boat 
of Captain Yeizer alone with the little band of regulars to defend the 
new fort against the combined forces of English which were even 
then on the march to retake it. "The Governor Clark" carried one 
six-pounder on her main deck and a three-pounder and ten howitzers 
on her quarters and gangway and that she, with the regulars was 
considered invincible may be found from the following lofty extract 
from a St. Louis paper of the time, of issue July 2nd, 1814. 

"Last Saturday an armed boat under command of Capt. John Sul- 
livan brought his company and 32 men from the Governor Clark, to 
St. Louis, their period of enlistment having expired, leaving Captain 
Yeizer in command of the Governor Clark. The fort is finished, 
christened Ft. Shelby, and occupied by the regulars, and all are 
anxious for a visit from Dickson and his red troops." 

Alas for human and military vanity! Captain Yeizer was dis- 
lodged without delay and with little efifort, leaving Lieutenant Per- 
kins and his slender garrison of 60 men to defend the place against 
the attack of 1,200 Indians and British troops. 

On the return of General Howard to St, Louis he at once per- 
ceived the danger of leaving the new fortification with so slight a 
garrison and without dela}^ put under motion a relief expedition 
under Lieut. John Campbell U. S. A. to ascend the river as expedi- 
tiously as possible, to reinforce the garrison; but before the expedi- 
tion had a fair start disaster befell the American troops as it fell 
upon Lieutenant Campbell himself. 

On the 17th of July a body of 1,200 British and Indians arrived 
before the place and demanded its surrender. Lieutenant Perkins 
answered that he should defend it. Before this answer had been re- 
ceived by the British however, the latter had opened a brisk fire 
upon the boat, "The Governor Clark," from a battery of one or two 
three-pounders, which was quickly answered by the boat with its 
six pounder. To silence the boat, if possible, the enemy crossed to an 
island fronting the village, which position enabled them to reach with- 
in pistol shot of the boat, and fire upon it from the heavy screen of 
trees, thus rendering harmless the grape which poured from the boat. 

The galling fire of the enemy became so harmful that the boat 
moved down the river to avoid it, but in so doing ran a gauntlet of 

— IIH. 


musketry for nearly nine miles. Retiring still further down the 
river, Captain Yeizer sent his skifif with nine men still further down 
to reconnoiter, where the party came in sight of Captain Riggs' boat 
in deadly conflict with the Indians, in Campbell's battle. Much 
maneuvering was thus required by the reconnoitering party to enable 
it to return to "The Governor Clark," which in the meantime had 
fallen in with the sutler's and contractor's boats of Campbell's fleet, 
thus augmenting his own strength, and in turn affording some pro- 
tection of those boats the three fell down stream and later arrived 
safely at St. Louis. 

The loss of Captain Yeizer was seven wounded; Lieutenant Hen- 
derson, Ensign St. Pierre and five privates, one of whom died on the 
way down stream after the amputation of a leg. 

For several days Lieutenant Perkins made a gallant defense of the 
Shelby, but when ammunition and provisions ran out he was forced 
to surrender. 

Dickson's conduct in paroling them and furnishing them a pro- 
tecting guard until all danger from the Indians down stream had 
been passed was magnanimous enough to command a retraction of 
some of the many bad things which the newspapers had said about 
him and his alleged blood-thirstiness in dealing with American 

Thus in a moment was dissipated the dream of Governor Edwards! 

Returning from their trip to Prairie du Chien, which Governor 
Clark had regarded as successful, it was a source of much pain to be 
admonished by General Howard that it might prove worse than fu- 
tile, and that reinforcements to make Ft. Shelby strong enough to 
resist a siege or an attack which would be sure to follow, should be 
sent at once to take the places of those withdrawn. Accordingly 
Lieut. John Campbell, of the First regulars, was entrusted with com- 
mand of the expedition, consisting of 42 regulars and 65 rangers.* 
Three keel boats were supplied, with the contractor's and sutler's 
boats in company, making a party, including boatmen and women, of 
133. Rook river was reached without event, where the commander 
with a slender guard visited the Sac village, just above — the home 
of Black Hawk — to ascertain the disposition of the Sacs of that 
place. He was received hospitably and assured of their friendliness 
with every mark of good faith. He made the Indians many presents 
and remained there the greater portion of the day. 

Setting sail up stream, he was accompanied by the good wishes of 
all; a fair wind for his keel boats and auspicious auguries for the 
voyage. But the wind, blowing briskly at the start, soon enlarged 
into a gale which separated the boats and drove the contractor's and 
sutlers' boats far aheadf with the ammunition and their slender ser- 
geant's guard. The cargoes in two barges were endeavoring to fol- 
low, while the commander's boat had fallen two miles behind; the 
latter inclined to the last or lee side in search of the main channel. 

* Left July 19. 1811. 

t Meeting the "Governor Clark" a.a we hare seen. 


As the gale inoreased this boat drifted into shallow water within a 
few yards of the high, grass-covered bank, waist high; a few steps 
from the boat an umbrage of willows set out from the shore. 

At that point Lieutenant Campbell thought proper to remain until 
the wind subsided, comparatively secure. Far from being secure, 
the Indians, who, in the meantime had received word of the repulse 
of the Americans at Prairie du Chien, started in pursuit of the expe- 
dition, and easily overtaking it at that point, opened a galling fire on 
the unsuspecting boat, killing with the first fire all the sentries. 

On each shore the savages were observed in motion; some in canoes 
were rapidly crossing to the battle ground, until it was declared about 
700 Indians were assembled within a few yards of the boat. With a 
concerted whoop, the Indians commenced a tremendous fire, which 
was answered with a swivel and small arms from the barge. At that 
critical juncture Lieutenants Riggs and Rector, of the rangers, who 
commanded the two barges ahead, dropped down. Riggs' boat 
stranded about 100 yards below Campbell's, and Rector, an Illinois 
officer, to avoid a like misfortune and the raking fire of the enemy, 
anchored above; both barges then opened a brisk fire upon the 
enemy, but as the latter fired from coverts little harm was done them. 
Lighted arrows were fired at the sails, at first without effect, but 
after an hour of unequal contest Campbell's barge ignited and the 
flames rapidly spread. To relieve it, Rector cut the cable of his 
boat and fell down to windward of Campbell's boat and took oJBP the 
survivors. Finding it impossible to render assistance, Riggs, with a 
number of wounded on board and in danger of being blown to shore, 
made the best of his way down stream. 

In this bitter engagement, three regulars were killed and 14 were 
wounded; two died on their passage down; one ranger was killed and 
four were wounded, while Lieutenant Campbell and Doctor Stewart 
were desperately wounded. Two women and a child were also se- 
verely wounded, one woman and the child mortally Lieutenant 
Riggs, who rejoined the other boat at St. Louis, had three men 
killed and four wounded. The contractor's and sutler's boats were 
joined by the returning troops, who had been driven out of Ft. 
Shelby by the English and Indians and reached St. Louis safely. 
That bloody engagement lasted two hours and 20 minutes | and it 
was indeed one of the bloodiest and fiercest of the war. To chastise 
the perfidious Sacs, became at once the duty of Governors Edwards 
and Clark, and Maj. Zachary Taylor was selected for the purpose; to 
ascend the river and punish them. He left Ft. Independence with a 
force of 334 effective officers and men in keel boats Aug. 2, 1814, and 
reached Rook river without meeting any opposition, on the after- 
noon of the 4th. Later, great numbers were discovered about the 
mouth of Rock river, running wildly in every direction. Opposite 
the mouth of the river Major Taylor reported the presence of an 

I Stevens' Black Hawk War, 18 $t »ea. 


island, which with the western shore of the Mississippi, was covered 
with horses, ostensibly placed there for the purpose of inviting a 
raid; but the plan, if so conceived, failed. The treacherous wind 
played another vicious prank by suddenly rising and shifting until 
by the time Major Taylor reashed the head of the island mentioned, 
which he computed to be a mile and a half long, it blew a hurricane, 
quarterly, down the river. With great difficulty he finally landed at 
an island of six or eight acres, covered with willows, near the middle of 
the stream and about 60 yards above the other island, intending to re- 
main there until the storm passed. That was about 4:00 o'clock p. 
m., and large parties of Indians appeared on both sides of the river, 
while others were crossing, backward and forward; but not a shot 
was fired. Far intb the night rain added to the misery of the men. 
About day light the boat of Capt. Samuel Whiteside was fired on 
and a corporal was mortally wounded. The willow island appeared 
filled with Indians and when fully light. Major Taylor prepared to 
drive them out; but with great composure they waded down to an- 
other island just below, upon reaching which, Captain Whiteside, to 
the left, fired into them. Returning the same, the Indians retreated. 
When Captain Whiteside again opened fire. Captain Rector was 
ordered to drop down with his boat and rake the island below with 
artillery, and to fire on every canoe he could find passing across the 
river. But the Indians had successfully scattered and no canoes 
appeared on the river, so he dropped further down to destroy several 
canoes lying on shore. After finishing the last boat and securing 
his men safely back on board, the artillery sent down by the British, 
opened fire on the little fleet from behind a knoll about 350 paces 
away, and badly shattered Lieutenant Hempstead's boat. Exposed 
to this merciless fire the little flotilla fell further down stream for 
more than half a mile. In addition to the artillery, shot from small 
arms was poured into the Americans from all sides, Capt. Stephen Rec- 
tor here receiving, as had his brother Nelson in Campbell's battle, the 
brunt of the attack. He was attacked at the beginning of the en- 
gagement by a very large party, but with his three pounder and 
muskets, the latter were driven off. 

For two miles the fusillade was poured into Taylor's men with 
great damage and not till three miles had been covered were they 
able to effect a landing in safety to hold a council. 

In that battle Major Taylor had 11 men badly wounded, three 
mortally, and with the outnumbering horde of savages and English 
against his 334 men and officers, he conceived it would have been 
madness to continue the unequal contest, with no prospect of suc- 
cess. At the council which followed he put the question to his 
officers direct and to a man, his position was sustained. Accordingly 
the expedition, a pronounced failure, fell down the Mississippi to 
the "Lemoine," 

Returning again to the settlements, we find continued murders; 
the reasons for which may be found, in a measure, to be stated in 
the following letter: 


"St. Louis, 12th of January, 1826. 

"Upon entering the duties of Governor and Superintendent of In- 
dian AfiPairs of the Territory of Missouri, I was informed by General 
Benjamin Howard, who commanded the western department, that, 
in June, 1813, the principal chiefs of the Sac and Fox nations visited 
him, and ofPered the services of their nation to the United States, in 
the war then carried on by the British and certain Indians, against 
the United States. In answer to General Howard's refusal to accept 
their services, the chiefs expressed much regret, and observed that, 
when war was all round them, it was impossible to restrain the braves 
from taking part; that they preferred the American side; but, as the 
Americans would not sufPer the Indians to join them in the war, they 
must go and join the British, who had invited them to do so. Without 
loss of time, I sent an agent after the Sacs and Foxes, inviting them all 
to meet me, in council, at Portage des Sioux, on the 28th of Septem- 
ber, 1813. In that council the Sacs and Foxes agreed not to join 
either party in the war, and to proceed, agreeably to my wish, to the 
south side of the Missouri river, and remain on the lands of the 
United States, outside of the settlement, and near the Osages, during 
the contest. In 1814 a part of the friendly Sacs became restless in 
their peaceful situation, and determined to return to their old village. 
More than half of the nation took their families beyond the settle- 
ments, returned, and attempt«d to rob the United States factory on 
the Missouri, which was defended by the friendly part of that na- 
tion, which remained south of the Missouri river, Failing in their 
attempt on the factory, they scattered and robbed the upper settle- 
ments on the Missouri, and returned to their old village on Rocky 
river, and immediately commenced a destructive warfare against the 
settlements of the Territory, and continued it till about June or July, 
1815. The Sacs of Rock river, in conformity with the second and 
third articles of their treaty, entered into the 13th day of May, 1816, 
delivered up 22 horses which they stole after they were notified of the 
treaty of peace with Great Britain." 

On August 5th, while working on their farm near Shoal creek, Mr. 
Henry Cox and his sons were attacked by a party of Indians, who 
killed and sadly mutilated one son and took another prisoner. 

As a relief, however, to this constant repetition of blood and mur- 
der, with no offset in revenge, comes the remarkable story told of 
Thomas Higgins, a native Kentuckian,* a ranger in the Illinois ser- 
vice, a resident of the Silver creek country.f near the Bradsby's, and 
an altogether redoubtable man in fact and fancy. To single out his 
remarkable and desperate battle, one might be incredulous, and prob- 
ably by the time this narrative is finished he will be hopelessly so. 
But we have Mr. Higgins' word for the truth of every part of the 
same, so what can the historian do, but record the story verbatim: 

A "station" or block house. Hill's fort I believe, had been erected 
about eight miles southwest of the present site of Greenville, which 
in those days was one of the many points of rendezvous for the rang- 

• Born 1790. 

t Came to Illinois in 1807. 


ers while ranging over the Territory, and at that time it was gar- 
risoned by 11 men, including Thomas Higgins, under command of 
Lieut. John Journey, of Capt. Jacob Short's company.* 

On the 20th day of August,t signs of Indians in the neighborhood 
were discovered in the vicinity; at night a party of them was seen 
prowling about the premises, to rout which the garrison left the 
fort the following morning before daylight. Before traveling far 
Lieutenant Journey found his command surrounded by 70 or more 
Indians, who without delay opeaed fire on the whites, killing Jour- 
ney and three others and wounding two others named William Bur- 
gess and John Boucher. The horse of Higgins was shot in the neck 
and fell, but soon rose to run; but Higgins, "to get one more pull at 
them," declined to move while the others were hastening away to 
cover, and, leveling his gun, the foremost Indian fell dead. Then 
mounting his wounded horse, Thomas could easily have escaped had 
not Burgess in his agony, cried out from the grass, "Tom, you won't 
leave we.?" "Come on," shouted Higgins. "I can't come; my leg is 
smashed to pieces," replied poor Burgess. The appeal was too pow- 
powerful for Higgins, who dismounted and endeavored to place Bur- 
gess on the animal's back, to get him back to the shelter of the fort; 
but the horse took fright, ran, and left both men to the mercy of the 
pursuing Indians. Determined to yet save the wounded man, Hig- 
gins told him "to limp off on three legs, and he would protect him." 
Slowly the poor fellow crawled on his hands and a knee through the 
grass to safety, while Higgins remained to fight it out with the In- 

He had reloaded his gun and stood ready to make the charge count 
for as much possible, a good deal as I remember the man in the pic- 
ture of my boyhood, "The Trapper's Last Shot," only he had no horse 
like the trapper. 

Thus standing, three Indians appeared to close in on him, at which 
he turned to run for a ravine nearby, of which he remembered; but 
scarcely had he proceeded a rod when his leg, wounded in the first 
fire from the Indians, failed him, and he could run no more. The 
largest of the Indians drew a bead on him to fire, which Higgins be- 
lieved he must receive if he could not dodge. He dodged, but re- 
ceived a bullet in his thigh and fell, momentarily. As he was rising, 
two other Indians fired and both balls hit the unfortunate Higgins, 
driving him again to the ground; but with loaded gun in hand, he 
rose again to receive the three who were now so close as to touch him 
perhaps. They had thrown away their guns, believing that of course 
they could easily despatch him with their knives, and were rushing 
upon him, whooping and yelling, with spears, knives and tomahawks 
raised high in the air. He hoped to frighten them off by feints of 
shooting, to enable him to retain his load until the last stratagem had 
been worked; but they refused to frighten and in a moment more all 
had been over with Thomas Higgins. In that supreme moment, he 
raised his gun and fired, bringing down the largest Indian, dead. 

* Edwards. 347-s. ' 

tKeyuolds' Pioneer History. 378: Annals. 716. ( 


The two others, furious at the 1o3b of tbt ir companion, rushed upon 
Higgins with savage fury to finish his career of Indian fighting. 
They pressed the encounter with knives, slashing the prostrate man 
inhumanly; with the tomahawk one Indian cleft the side of his head, 
nearly severing an ear and leaving the bone bare. The force of the blow 
felled him again, and in an instant a spear was presented to his breast, 
and all that remained mortal of the redoubtable Higgins was again 
upon the "point" of extinction, but the stricken and fainting hero, 
with four bullets in his body, grasped the spear with such strength 
that when the Indian attempted to withdraw it, he was happily re- 
stored to a standing posture by the obliging Indian, who sought to 
extricate it, and thus the battle was brought to a less unequal period. 
In his extremity, Higgins had again grasped his gun, with which, 
when again erect, he brained his antagonist, leaving but one foe re- 
maining with whom to settle; but the blow broke the stock of his 
gun and reduced it to a state of hopeless uselessness -and with 
another antagonist waiting to be considered, the bloody drama was 
in a decided state of incertitude — until help from the garrison came. 

This terrible afiFray was witnessed from the stockade, (which had 
been regained by the troops) with incomprehensible equanimity, 
until a Mrs. Pursley became so excited that just as that last Indian 
was upon the point of getting the agencies of death nicely in motion, 
she shrieked that "she could not stand and see so brave a man as 
Higgins murdered by the Indians," so she mounted her husband's 
horse and rode forth to the rescue. The men of course could not 
lag, with that brave example before them and they followed. In all 
human probability the Indian had just covered a few degrees of the 
circle of the blow which was to kill his enemy, when he saw the 
party and fled or was killed, when Higgins fainted. 

Governor Reynolds tells us that he had the story times without 
number direct from Higgins and has related it to us in his "Pioneer 
History." Judge James Hall has also recounted it in his communi- 
cations to the editor of "Annals of the West," wherein he gave the 
story credence, because Higgins had likewise told him the same 
story; thus it comes to us from two distinct sources, yet from the 
same original 

But Higgins attempted to tell it to Judge Joseph Gillespie, who 
has recorded much of value in Illinois history, in the most careful 
and conscientious manner, and who in this instance took the trouble 
to run the same down by cross-questioning Higgins rather severely 
and by getting the real facts from a disinterested witness of the fight 
who was one of the so-called rescuing party, one Hiram Arthur, "a 
remarkably honest and truthful man, who was in the fort, and ob- 
served it all." He, Arthur, branded the story thus: "about nine- 
tenths of the account of the melee is all bosh." He conceded Higgins' 
bravery but added that he "'was in the habit of telling tremendous 
yarns " Accordingly Judge Gillespie committed his judgment Jan- 
uary 25, 1883, to paper 


It is unfortunate that we are obliged to doubt so fine a piece of 
tragedy, but when so high an authority as Judge Gillespie has seen 
fit to pronounce it untrue, I am compelled to adopt his version of the 
affair. Gen. Benjamin Howard, commander of the government 
forces, whose services were needed more then than ever, died on Sep- 
tember 18th, which melancholy event added as much or more to the 
general gloom than any of the disastrous defeats of 1814. 

Almost the last murder of the year was that of Mrs. Jesse Bayless, 
who was killed one Sunday evening in Sugar creek bottom,* not far 
above the present town of Aviston. It seems that the dogs, annoyed 
at the presence of something strange about the premises, began a 
furious barking. Some hogs that had strayed were thought to have 
been the agency which caused Mrs. Bayless and her husband incau- 
tiously to approach the thicket where the object or objects seemed to 
be. In an instant a volley of musketry disclosed the presence of 
Indians and Mrs. Bayless was mortally wounded. Carried to the 
house of her father, Mr. Bradsley, she soon thereafter died. This 
was practically the last casualty, and the campaign in Illinois, with 
sporadic cases of theft and other small annoyances, may be said to 
have closed. Over in Missouri, however, Illinois Indians continued 
a constant warfare well into the year 1815, after the treaty of Ghent 
had been signed and promulgated; but those raids, wicked as they 
were, should not be treated in this place. They continued until the 
war department assigned Andrew Jackson to this department, with 
orders to report to St. Louis, there to attach himself to the head of 
the troops he would find awaiting him and march against the Rock 
River Sacs for the purpose of annihilating them. Duncan Graham, 
head of the British intriguers at that point, had formed a profound 
respect for Andrew Jackson, by reason of the New Orleans affair and 
other events, and without ceremony at once fled to Canada. 

Up to that hour the messengers sent from St. Louis to Rook river 
had been killed or sent back; but when Graham left, messengers 
were at once despatched to St. Louis to inquire why no treaty was 
being offered them and why they could not meet their esteemed 
American friends in a friendly council without any farther misun- 
derstanding, that they had in reality been desiring a good under- 
standing for some time; in fact the United States could not act half 
quick enough to please them. The treaty of Portage des Sioux fol- 
lowed in 1815 and following that in 1816, the other recalcitrant Sacs 
went down to St. Louis and there signed the treaty which was sup- 
posed to end the troubles between the white and red men for all time. 

That the English had formed an alliance, offensive and defensive, 
with Tecumseh, under which they had promised to sustain the In- 
dians as an independent sovereignty in their claims to the country 
south of the lakes, and made the line established by the treaty of 
Greenville the permanent boundary between the Indians and the 
United States, never to be abrogated without the consent of the con- 
tracting parties, is not now doubted. Of course, the former of the 

* Present Clinton county, where O. and M. R. R. crosses a stream. 


two propositions was not mentioned at Grhent, but the latter waa 
made the subject of the sine qua non, which means, as we know, 
"without which nothing," no treaty. The British plenipoteatiaries 
insisted, until it became apparent that further insistance meant no 
treaty, and they yielded the point, f 

During the war it has been estimated that 800 horses were stolen 
by the Pottowatomies of Illinois alone from Illinois and Missouri 

Statement of property destroyed by Illinois Indians in the war of 
1812-14, which belonged to residents of Missouri: 

Sacs, and Sacs and Foxes '^?'5Si ?5 

Winnebasoea J'ifn 2S 

Pottowatomies ■^•^2" "" 

Kickapoos *2f ]° 

Sacs and fuants ^5 00 

$30,233 68 

Every male person who could load a rifle went into service, and 
many women lent their help to make bullets and load guns, while 
many another helped in the fields, maintained near the forts during 
the absence of the ranging. Most of this paper has been confined to 
individual loss and defences and one or two campaigns to the Illinois 
river, but the fact should not be lost that those Illinois rangers, though 
they won no battles and made no brilliant battlefields, were constantly 
on the alert, ranging from one blockhouse to another between the 
Wabash, the Ohio, the Mississippi and the Illinois. In fact it may 
be said of them that in a general sense the whites met with nothing 
but losses from 1810 to 1815; but the fact remains that without the 
efforts of those same rangers, the Indians had not only swept every 
evidence of civilization from the confines of Illinois territory, but 
Missouri as well. The least tribute I can pay to their memory is to 
attach to this paper the names of as many as I have been able to 
gather from records and a very wide correspondence, and that I shall 
do after singling out one in particular, whom Judge Hall has seen fit 
to mention at some length 

Colonel John Moredock. 

The name of Colonel John Moredock has been mentioned casually, 
but to give it the importance deserved by that noted frontiersman, a 
brief summary of his career has been taken from Judge Hall's 
"Sketches of the West."' 

He was a member of the Territorial Legislature of Illinois, a dis- 
tinguished militia officer and a man generally known and respected 
by the settlers of that region. 

He was the son of a woman who had been married several times 
and as often widowed by the tomahawk of the savage. Living always 
upon the frontier, she was finally left husbandless with a large family 
of children, at Vincennes, where she was induced to go further west 

t In Niles. vol. 6. d. 11*. maybe fonnd incontrovertible authority on this point. Speeches 
by Governor Proctor. 


once more, with a party about to remove to Illinois, whence a few 
families had recently preceded them. Mrs. Moredock and her friends 
embarked at Vincennes in boats, intending to descend the Wabash 
and Ohio rivers and ascend the Mississippi. The party proceeded 
in safety until the Grand Tower on the latter river was reached, 
where, owing to the embarrassments to an easy navigation, it became 
necessary for the boatmen to land and drag the boats around a rocky 
point, swept by a violent current, At that point a party of Indians, 
lying in ambush, rushed upon them and murdered the whole party, 
Mrs. Moredock with all her children, except John, included. He 
fortunately had been consigned to another party, 

When just crossing the threshhold of manhood, John Moredock 
found himself the last of his race, in a strange land. Regardless of 
the disadvantages arising to a man in those wild regions, when at 
his best, enjoying peace and plenty, he formed the resolution of ex- 
ecuting vengeance on that band of savages before thought of per- 
sonal comfort should ever receive recognition, and without loss of 
time he took up his quest. It was ascertained that the outrage had 
been committed by a miscellaneous party of 20 or 30 Indians, formed 
into a band to plunder and murder. The band was spotted by 
Moredock and its actions for more than a year were watched accu- 
rately, before the moment arrived that permitted him to strike. At 
length he learned that the Indians were hunting on the Missouri 
side of the river, nearly opposite the American settlements. He 
raised a party of young men and pursued them; but that time they 
escaped. At the head of another party, he soon thereafter sought 
them and had the fortune to find them one evening, encamped for 
the night, on an island, in security as they thought. Moredock's 
band, about equal in strength to the Indians, waited until the dead 
of night and then landed, turning adrift their own canoes with those 
of the enemy, which meant annihilation to one of the two parties of 
men. The fight ensued, in which every Indian was killed save 
three, who plunged into the river for safety and thereby escaped, 
while the whites lost not a man. But Moredock was still unsatisfied 
so long as a single representative of the murderous band remained. 
He learned the names and persons of the three Indians, whom he 
now pursued with secret, yet untiring diligence, until one by one, 
the last one fell by his hand. Nor did he falter at that period. He 
had resolved never to spare an Indian, and,with that passion ruling his 
breast, he roamed the forests silently and alone. If he met an Indian 
alone, that Indian was seen no more in his native haunts; if a party 
was met, too large to attack, one by one, its members generally met 
the same fate, for he had skilled himself so thoroughly in the use of 
the rifle and the wonderful and numberless expedients by which the 
woodman subsists, pursues an enemy or conceals himself and his 
design from discovery, that he became invincible. Thus by his 
mastery of the woodman's skill, he became practically invincible. 

Colonel Moredock was a square-built, muscular man of remarkable 
strength and activity. In athletic sports he had few equals; few men 


were willing to oppose him in single combat. Sternly couragous, he 
pursued a determination with the coolness and constancy of fate; 
but withal, he was not cruel or unsocial by nature. On the contrary, 
he was a man of warm feelings, and even temperament with his 
neighbors. At home, he conducted a large farm with industry and 
success, gaining a deserved popularity with all his neighbors by his 
popular manners and benevolence. Away from the trail, he was 
cheerful, convivial, hospitable; and no man of the Territory achieved 
a larger acquaintance or respect. In the service from 1810 to 1815, 
he was an officer in the ranging service, acquitting himself with 
credit and receiving at its close, the command of the militia of his 
county, at a time when such an office was honorable and desirable. 
At the formation of the State government, his name was prominently 
mentioned for the office of Grovernor, but his unqualified refusal to 
serve, compelled his great following to seek another. At a green old 
age, he died.* 

While it may not be said that such hatred permeated the breast 
of every Illinois pioneer in June of 1812, it is a fair presumption, 
that most of the militia, with records against the Indians of more or less 
of an aggravated and personal nature, harbored such sentiments to a 
modified degree, without carrying them to the extremity of death at 
sight, because few deaths among the Indians from the militia, as a 
body, have been recorded, 

Another story has been told of Moredock f 

In December, 181-1, whilst the command of Capt. James B. Moore, 
consisting of about 50 rangers, had charge of a drove of cattle near 
a grove on Sugar creek, on the trail between Camp Russell and Peo- 
ria, Indians were discovered near by, one of whom was singled out 
for pursuit. After a hot chase William Hewitt overtook the Indian, 
who without resistance, surrendered himself and gun. Moredock, 
unfortunately, was of the party and coming up at the moment of 
surrender, raised his gun to fire. Hewitt protested vigorously, but to 
no purpose as the Indian must have interpreted, because upon seeing 
the apparent futility of Hewitt's eflForts to save him, he wrenched the 
surrendered gun from Hewitt's hand and pulled the trigger just as 
Moredock's bullet crashed through his head. Poor Hewitt fell dead 
as the result of his intercession and that death attributable to More- 
dock, may properly be called the last in Illinois resulting from the 
war, and should have awakened the men to a sense of humanity for 
the future. 


I" May 1, 1809, Abram Clark was appointed captain of a militia 
company in St. Clair county. The following appointments followed: 

May 2, William Whiteside, major; William B. Whiteside, captain. 

* Another phase of Moredock's character la giwen hy Governor Edwards, later on; prob- 
ably authentio. 

t Hist. St. Clair county. 126. 

I Alao published in Illinois State Historical Library publications. No. 3, Territorial 
Records of Illinois. 


May 3, Elias Rector, adjutant general; Shadrach Bond, Jr,, lieu- 
tenant colonel commanding; John Moredock, major; Elihu Mather, 
adjutant of the St. Clair regiment; Jean Beauleau, Etienne Pincen- 
neau, John Scott, James Moore, William Preuitt, Francois Racine, 
Henry Munroe Fisher, James Stockton and Franklin Jarvis, cap- 
tains; Greorge Dement, Joseph Manegle, George Atchison, Enoch 
Moore, first of a cavalry company; Jacob Ogle, second of a cavalry 
company; John Teaters. Pierre Lizje, Samuel Kinney, Samuel Judy 
and Isaac Ferguson, lieutenants; and William Blair, Henry Mace, 
cornet of a cavalry company; William Scott, Jr., Baptiste Saucier, 
Francois Dernette and Harry Cook, ensigns of the St. Clair county 

May 4, Michael Brisbois, lieutenant, and John Mario, cardinal 
ensign of a company at Prairie du Chien. 

May 5, David Anderson, captain of a company in Randolph 

May 6, Pierre Menard, lieutenant colonel commandant; Robert 
Robinson, major; Giles Hull, Thomas Leavens and Antoine La 
Chappelle, captains; John Worley, Absalom Cox, William Goings, 
Jesse Griggs and James Hughes, lieutenants; and Daniel Hull, 
William McBride and Benjamin Vermillion, Jr., ensigns; all for Ran- 
dolph county. 

The following list contains the names of all oflBcers of the milita 
appointed from Governor Edwards' induction into office to the close 
of the war and the subsequent disturbances, until the treaty of 1815 
at Portage des Sioux, after which the territory relapsed into 

May 7, Andrew Barbeau captain, and Pierre LeOompte, lien- 
tenant, for Randolph county. 

May 17, Michael Jones, adjutant of regiment of Randolph county, 
and Antoine LaChance, ensign." 

June 23, a new battalion of militia having been formed in that 
part of Randolph county, lying on the Ohio river. Governor Edwards 
directed the commanding officers of companies therein to hold elec- 
tions for the purpose of electing captains and for the recommenda- 
tion of a major. 

Governor Edwards having returned to assume the duties of his 
office, and learning that some of the officers of the militia were in 
many ways unworthy the commands to which action Governor Pope 
had appointed them, it was resolved to call an election whereby the 
men could select officers whose names were to be submitted to the 
Governor for appointment. This general order was issued on July 
4, and from the immediate and continued appointments to office in 
the militia, it is to be presumed the elections were duly held. 

Of course Governor Edwards was Commander-in-Chief. 

His difPerent aids, were Nicholas Jarrot, William Rector, William 
Mears and Shadrach Bond, Jr. 

Brigadier general, William Rector. 


The general's aids, John H. Robinson and David Anderson. 

Brigade inspector, Benjamin Stephenson. 

Adjutant general, Elias Rector and Robert Morrison. 

His aid, Thomas T. Crittenden. 

The first and third (the new one for the Ohio and Wabash country) 
regiments were from Randolph county; the second was from St. 
Clair county, the officers of whioh appear to have been as follows: 

First Regiment, 

(Consisting of two Battalions.) 

Colonel, Michael Jones, who was subsequently removed, and 
Thomas Levin was made lieutenant colonel commanding. 

Majors, Thomas Levans (or Levin), James Hughes, Isaac White 
and Pierre LaCont (or LeCompte ) 

Adjutants, David Anderson and Elihu Mather. 

Quarter master, Ezra Owens. 

Provost marshal, John McFerron. 

Judge advocate, James Finney. 

Fife major, Benjamin Fort. 

Captains, Stace McDonough, Robert Gaston, Philip Trammel, 
James Ford, Hamlet Ferguson, William Simpson, John Beard (who 
resigned) , Philip Fouke, William Alexander, Pierre LeCompte, Ab- 
salom Cox, Otho Lewis, (who resigned), John Lacey (who re- 
signed) , Owen Eavans, William Boone, Jacob Fisher, John Cochran 
(who resigned), Jesse Griggs, Clement Drury (who resigned), 
Samuel Levering vice Philip Fouke removed, Philip Fouke reap- 
pointed, Ajalon Dillingham, William C. Greenup, vice Levering, 
deceased, Henry Lewis, vice Fouke moved away, Gabriel Duscher 
and John Cockran (spelled Cochran above). 

Lieutenants, Jacob Fisher, Thomas Roberts, Jesse Griggs, 
Clement Drury, Isaiah Levans, William McBride, Nicholas H. 
Stephenson. John Hibbins, Francis Wheatly, Samuel Levering, 
William Everett, George Steele, Bazil Levens, Antoine Louvier, 
William C. Greenup vice Samuel Levering promoted, John Thomas, 
Philip Rochblave, vice Greenup promoted, Henry Connor, Elias 
Bancroft, Antoine Blay, Jr., Antoine Blay, Sr. and Hypolite Menard. 

Ensigns, Thomas Wanley, John Hill, Antoine Louvier, William 
Everett, Antoine Danis, John Pillars, George Steele, Dickinson 
Garrett, John Murphy, James Smith, James Gill, Joseph Z. Wam- 
satt, James Lee, Henry Clendennen, Philip Rochblave, Samuel 
Vermillion (who resigned), Adam Woolwriok, William Worley, 
Thomas V. Swearingen, Jacob Bowerman, Otho Lewis and Henri 

Quarter master's sergeant, Clement C. Conway. 


Second Regiment (St. Clair county) . 

Consisting of three battalions, one of them called "The Light In- 

Colonel — William Whiteside. 

Majors— John Moredock, William Prueitt, Samuel Judy. 

Adjutants — James Smith, William B. Whiteside (who resigned) , 
and Samuel Judy. 

Surgeon — Trueman Tuttle. 

Provost Marshal — Simon Vanosdal, 

Judge Adyocate — Russell E. Hicoook. 

Bugler — Simon Wheelock. 

Captains — Amos Scott (Squires), Jean Beaulieu, Etienne Pincen- 
neau, John Scott, William Preuitt, Samuel Judy, Toliver Right, 
Abraham Clark, Jacob Short, Abraham Stallions, John Lowton, Wil- 
liam Edes, Valentine Brazil, Samuel Whiteside, Edward Ebert, Jean 
Baptiste Duford, Solomon Preuitt, Isaac Griffin, William Savage, 
James D. Thomas, Nathaniel Journey, vice William Edes, resigned, 
Isaac Ferguson, Henry Cook, vice Judy, promoted, and Nicholas 
Ohurzo (Jourange?) 

Lieutenants — Joseph Maneagle, Pierre Lize, William McDaniel, 
William Gilham, Valentine Brazil, Henry Cook, Solomon Prueitt, 
Abraham Stallions, Moses Quick, Jacob Ogle, John Vaughn, Andrew 
Bankson, Daniel Primm, John Lindley, James Bradsby, Josiah Rob- 
erts, Pierre Martan, John Goings, Titus Gregg, Samuel Allen, Isaac 
Gilham, rice Cook, promoted, and Hypolite Maillette. 

Ensigns — John B. Saucier, Nicholas Fargeon, Phillip Rader, 
James Duett, James Bradsby, Samel Whiteside, Thomas Rotter, 
James Thomas, William Griffin, Christopher Barnhart, Thomas 
Greene, Titus Gregg, Augustus Pinsino (probably Pincenneau), 
George Mitchell, Isaac Gilham, Peter Waggoner, Marshall Hawkins, 
John Soott, vice Barnhart, Samuel Gilham, vice Isaac Gilham, pro- 
moted, Samuel Swagert, Elijah Talbot and William Bradshaw. 

Second Regiment, 
first battalion. 

Major John Moredeck. 

Capt. Jacob Short - 80 

Capt. John Scott 7S 

Capt. Abraham Stallions 65 

Capt. Edward Ebart 91 

Capt James B. Moore 

Total. First Battalion. 



Major Samuel Judy. 

Capt. Amos Squires 61 

Capt. Samuel Whiteside 66 

Capt. Solomon Preuitt 60 

Capt. Henry Cook 79 

Capt. Cale Jourange 

Total. Second Battalion. 



Major William Preuitt. 

Capt. Valentine Brazil 

Capt. Isaac GrifiBn 30 

Capt. Nathaniel Journey 49 

Shoal Creek company 

Total. Third Battalion 69 

Aggregate 700 

Third Regiment. 
(Consisting of two battalions.) 

Colonel, Isaac White. 

Majors, Philip Trammel, Hamlet Ferguson, Owen Evans and Wil- 
liam Simpson. 

Adjutant, Henry Kenyon. 

Paymaster, Francis Leach. 

Quarter Master, John Murgly. 

Surgeon, Henry Oldham. 

Surgeon's Mate, Thomas Shannon. 

Drum Major, John Ormsby. 

Fife Major, James Hensley. 

Quarter Master's Sergeant, John Choiser. 

Sergeant Major, John Campbell. 

Captains, Willis Hargraves, James Trousdale, Joseph Mott, Wil- 
liam Alcorn, who died from his wounds; Thomas GrriflBth, Leonard 
White, John Cooper, William McHenry, vice Mott removed; Lewis 
Barker, vice Cooper resigned; Thomas Williams, David Snodgrass, 
resigned; Thomas Green, John Cole, James Fox, Rice Sams and 
John Bradshaw. 

Lieutenants, Joseph Riley, resigned; Adrian Davenport, Jr., David 
Snodgrass, Arthur Jourdan, Gabriel Titsworth, Thomas Wells, Henry 
Kenyon, did not accept; Eirey (probably Ira) Ledbetter, Frederick 
Busel, vice Davenport, resigned; William H. Ramsey, Jarrot Tram- 
mel, vice Jordan, removed; William Maxwell, James Simpson, re- 
signed; James Fox, Samuel Waters, Samuel McGowan, William 
Hughes, Thomas Whitaker, Levi Hughes, Thomas Reid, Martin 
Harwick, Vincent Larkins, Lewis McMillan, John Patterson and 
Daniel T. Coleman. 

Ensigns, William Simpson, Jr., Irvin Wilson, Jarrard (probably 
Jarrot) Trammel, Jr., Edward Prator, Samuel Waters, Walker 
Daniel, John Forester, resigned; William Thrash, John Scroggin, 
vice Porter; Edward Prather, Curtis Anderson, David Tude, Dicken- 
son Garrett, William Maxwell, John Bushfield, John Hargrave, Leon- 
ard Waller, John Hogan, William McFallridge, John Tweedy, 
Stephen Kirkendal and Irvail Borin. 


About Nov. 28, 1811, the Fourth regiment was organized from the 
Wabash country, which consisted of two battalions, one of them 
"the rifle company" for which the following officers were elected and 
later appointed by Governor Edwards: 

Lieutenant Colonel, commanding, Philip Trammel. 

Majors, James Ford and Willis Hargrave, 

Adjutant, George E. Hart. 

Paymaster, Francis Wheatley. 

Quarter Master, John Murphy. 

Quarter Master's Sergeant, John Choiser. 

Surgeon, Henry Oldham. 

Surgeon's Mate, Thomas Shannon, 

Judge Advocate, James Ratcliflf. 

Provost Marshal, Adrian Davenport. 

Drum Major, John Ormsby. 

Fife Major, Nathan Mays. 

Captains, Leonard White, Lewis Barker, William McHenry, Thos. 
E. Craig, John Graves, John Wicks, James Steele, Benjamin, Wilson, 
James A. Whiteside and James McFarlin, vice Wilson, resigned. 

Lieutenants, Jarrot Trammel, Frederick Bucks, Asa Ledbetter, 
William R. Ashley, John Campbell, James Davenport, Alfred Wood 
and Edmond Rose. 

Sergeant Major, Absalom Ashley. 

Ensigns, James Bradbury, William Maxfield, John Scroggins, 
John Damerwood, John Lucas, William McCormick, Joshua Wil- 
liams, Elbert Rose and Elisha Gordon. 

Thus stood the field and staff roster of the Illinois militia on June 
18, 1812, when war was declared between this country and Great 

On Sept. 14, 1812, Governor Edwards, by proclamation, set off the 
counties of Madison, Gallatin and Johnson. 

Subsequent to the declaration of war, as changes were needed in 
the four regiments, they were made by Governor Edwards down to 
Dec. 6, 1815, as follows: 

FiBST Regiment. 

Captains — James Creath, William Boone, George Franklin, Henry 
Barbeau (resigned), Archibald McNabb, John Cockran, Otho Le- 
vans, Absolom Bradshaw, Thomas Roberts, William Belderback, Ab- 
solom Cox (independent company mounted volunteers) , 

Lieutenants — George Franklin, John Lacey, William Belderbeok 
(2d Lt), James Clendenin, Adam Woolrick, Samuel Raner, John 
Belderback, Amos Paxton, Archibald Steele, David Anderson, Geo. 
Creath, William McBride. 


Ensigns —James Clendenin, John Belderbaok, Archibald Steele, 
Francois Menard, Amos Paxton, James Clark, John Wooton, John 
Sykes, John Vance, Samuel Mansker, Cyrus Fulton. 

Judge Advocate — John MoFerron. 

Provost Marshal — Jacob Fisher, 

Surgeon — George Fisher. 

Surgeon's Mate — William Reynolds. 

Second Regiment. 

Colonel — Samuel Judy. 

Majors — John Scott, Amos Squire. 

Captains — William Jones, Ephraim Woods, Augustus Trotier, Au- 
gust Pinconneau, Samuel Judy (an independent company) , Enoch 
Moore, William Arundell, John Stuntz, John D. Thomas, Thomas 
Pullum, Robert Gill. 

Lieutenants — Hugh Walker, John Springer, Louison Parois, John 
Giger, Thomas Cox, R. C. Gilham, William M. Going, Eli Savage, J. 
Preuitt, Jacob Clarke, John Jarvis, Jr., Joseph Duncan. 

Ensigns — William Crownsur, Thomas Finley, Baptiste Shamber- 
ger, Thomas Cox, Thomas Nicholson, Etienne Douza, James Cham- 
bers, Henry Carr. 

Surgeon — James R. Eustis. 

Judge Advocate — John Reynolds. 

Third Regiment. 

Major— Thomas GriflBth. 

Captains — John F. Smith, Daniel T. Coleman, James B. Bailey, 
William Thornton, Martin Harrick, John Shultz, Thomas Lawrison. 

Lieutenants — John Harris, Ebenezer Kealough, John Tweedy, Ste- 
phen Smith, William Hickam, William Richy, James Fisher, James 

Ensigns — Nathan Longston, William Johnston, John Whitaker, 
Isaac Borin, William Tripp, John Shultz, John Fisher, Robert Mil- 

Fourth Regiment. 

Colonels — Willis Hargrave (vice Ph. Trammel, resigned) . 

Majors — Thomas E, Craig, Leonard White. 

Captains — Jarrot Trammel, Harrison Wilson, John G. Damewood, 
Joseph Pumroy, Daniel Boltinghouse, Moses Garrett. 

Lieutenants — John Forester, Samuel W. Kimberly, Archibald 
Roberts. Henry Stum, S. Clayton, Nathan Clampet, Seth Hargrave, 
John Townsend, John Compton, 

— 12H 


Ensigns — Harrison Wilson, John G. Wilson, James Hodgkins, 
Wyatt Adkins, Hiram Tedwell, William Eubanks, Samuel Hargrave, 
George Viney and James Chism. 

Paymaster — Leonard White. 

Adjutant — Henry Kenyon. 

Surgeon's Mate — Walter White. 

Aide-de-Camps to Commander-in-Chief — Nelson Rector, Hugh H. 

Adjutant General — Benjamin Stephenson, William Alexander. 

Chaplain — Joshua Oglesby. 

Capt. George Kennedy, at Prairie du Ohion; Lieut. James Ken- 
nedy, same 

By reason of frequent enlistments, discharges and re- enlistments 
among the militia, it has been found almost impossible to place be- 
fore the reader any systematic statements of their services or com- 
plete rosters of the various companies ; but such records as we have 
at hand are here reproduced: 

Pay roll of company of militia commanded by Capt. William Alex- 
ander of the county of Randolph, Illinois Territory, by order of 
Ninian Edwards, Governor of said Territory. (July 4th to July 
29th, 1811.) 

William Alexander 

William McBride 

Amos Chaffin 
David Everett 
George Wilson 
John Anderson 

Adam McDonald 
William Dees 
George Cochran 
Joseph Koblnson 

Joseph Vassnme 
George Martin 
James Curry 
James Murtry 
Calvin Laurence 
Idmar Patton 
Drury Stephens 
Leonard St. John 
John Hill 
John McBrlde 
John Lively. 
Daniel Hull 
James McNabb 
Jean B, londrow 

FTiy&tea— Concluded. 

Joseph Conway 
Robert Robinson 
Alexander Camudy 
Joseph Petoin 
John Fillers 
Joseph Miller 
Daniel Winn 
Jerome F. Pure 
John F. White 
Arch. Snodgrass 
Amos Robinson 
Edward Lay 
John Crawford 
Daniel Bllderback 
Robert Haggins 
Israel Bailey 
William Welch 
George Creath 
John May 
James GUI 
Robert McDonald 
Edward Rolls 
John Fisher 
John Baptiste Pera 
Joseph Butea 
Louis Dore 
William Bllderback 
Joseph E. Verman 
Henry Null 
James White 
Simeon Brundage 
Eli Lankford 
James Eden 


Capt. Henry Cook's company. (Formerly the company of Capt. 
Samuel Judy, who was promoted.) 

A list of the first company detached from the Second regiment of 
militia, Illinois Territory, for a three month's tour, by order of the 
Commander-in-Chief, 3rd March, 1812. Inspected at Cahokia 

Henry Cook 


Christoplaer Barnhart 

Samuel Gillham 
Wm. Bradahaw 
Charles Gillham 
Thomas Eitchell 

Hiram Beck 


Bolin Sheperd 


Areas. John 
Anderson, Robert 
Adkins, John 
Acklea. Richard 
Andrew. Thomas 
Bradshaw. Jonas 
Bradshaw. Field 
Bill, Jesse 

Blankenshlp. Thomas 
Cox. Thcma!< 
Diliplain. Joshua 
Dodd. Michael 
Downing. Thomas 
Elliott, Alexander 
Emmert, Andrew 
Fase. George 
Flnley. John 
Gillham. J. Clement 
Gragg. Ezra 
Gillham. William 

i^TiY&tes— Concluded. 
Green. Royal 
Graham. Jonathan 
Hawks, John 
Hewitt, George 
Hntton. Samuel 
Johnston. John 
Kirkpatrick, John 
Kick, Justus 
Kitchens, Charles 
Llnvill. Aaron 
Ledbetter, Merrill 
Luster, Joseph 
Linder, Jacob 
Lockhart, Bird 
Moon, David 
McFadgin. James 
McDow. John 
Newman, John 
Newman, John, Jr. 
Ogle, Joseph 
Prewltt. William 
Quigley, Samuel 
Ryan. William 
Rogers. Henry 
Rendell. Thomas 
Samples, Benjamin 
Samples. David 
Starkey. John 
Smith. Uton 
Talbot. John 
Vanhoofer. Abraham 
Vickery. John 
Wilson. James 
Wardln. Hardin 
Wodams. Absalom 
Waddle. Davis 
Wlllbanks, Willey 
Whiteside. Robert 
Whiteside, Jacob 

Mustered and inspected by Elihu Mather, Adjutant Second regi- 
ment, Illinois Territory Militia. 

Capt. John Scott's company, 

A list of the third company, detached from Colonel Whiteside's 
regiment, the 3rd of March, 1812, as infantry. 

John Scott 

Titus Gragg 


Philip Roder 


John Mitchell 
Jacob Randleman 
William Cerns 


Burdette Green 
Christopher Hatterman 
James Porter 
John Stallions 


Atchison. George 
Bradshaw, Abealom 
Bradshaw, James 
Clover. James 
Carr. Leonard 
Cullen. Patrick 
Clark. Jacob 
Cramer. Phillip 


Privateg— Continued— 

Private*— Coniud«d— 

Eyman. Jacob 

Porter. John 

Fry. Joseph 

Robins. John 

Goldsmith, Charles 

Ramay. Thomas 

Hoean, Prior 

Ramey. Georje 

Huffman. John 

Sink. Daniel 

Hawk. Robert 

Todd. Thomas 

Jerome, Asyl 

Trout, Jacob 

Jamison. Alexander 

Toland, Isaac 

Jones, Martin 

Wells. Alexander 

Johnston, James 

Winters. John 

Miller. Abraham 

Whaley. James 

Moore. John 

Whaley. Baker 

Moore, Enoch 

Whiteside, David 

Mears. William 

Wbiteside, John L 

Patten, Robert 

Mustered out and inspected by Blihu Mather, adjutant Second 
regiment militia, Illinois Territory. 

Capt. Jacob Short's company. (First.) 

Muster roll of mounted riflemen, detached from the Second regi- 
ment of militia, Illinois Territory, for a three months' tour by order 
of the Commander-in-Chief, March 3, 1812. 

Jacob Short 

First Lieutenant- 
John Moredock 


Henry Carr 


Robert Middleton 
Alexander Scott 
George Mitchell 
William Arundel 


Borrier, Jacob 
Bresance, John 
Bankson, Andrew 
Bier. John 
Brierham, John 
Cooper. John 
Clover. Adam 
Carmack. Isaac 
Eastes, John 
Eckman. David 
Guyee. Daniel 
Hendricks. James 
Hayes. Zachariah 
Hoke. Elijah 

Prlv&tea— Concluded— 

Hill. Peter 
Jarvis. Fulden 
Kennedy David 
Marney, Thomas 
Middleton. William 
Middleton. Robert 
Myers. John 
McKlnney. Daniel 
Porter. Thomas 
Phillips. William 
Quigley. William 
Rittenhouse, William 
Radcllff, Charles 
Risenbousfh, Peter 
Scott, Samuel 
Stout, Henry 
Steele, William 
Short. Hubbard 
Shook. Samuel 
Tldwell. Hiram 
Wlsser.John B. 
Walker, John 
Wilderman. James 
Wills. Peter 
Wilderman, George 
Walker. Henry 
Waddle. John 
Williams. Jeptha D. 
Walker. William 
Wilderman. Jacob. 

Mustered and inspected by Elihu Mather, adjutant Second regi- 
ment, the 3d of March, 1812, as infantry. 


Capt. James B. Moore's company. 
First company, April 15 to May 3, 1812. 

James B. Moore 

First Lieutenant- 
Jacob Oele 

Second Lieutenant- 
John Vaugn 

Simon Wheeler 


John T. Luslt 
Septimus Mace 
Thomas Piper 
Jesse Miller 

Bless, William 
Biecrs, Isaac 
Bonham, Samuel 
Bear, Joseph 
Bloom, John 

Privates— Concluded. 

Baderely. Hiram 
Davidson, John 
Gillham, Icham 
Qillham. William 

Goings. Pleasant Ipmhahlv Ooine' 
Goings, William j "ODaDiy uomg. 

Kirkpatrlck, James 
Kirkpatrlfik. Francis 
Lemon, William 
Moore. J. Milton 
Mace, Henry 
Morgan. Arthur 
Ogle, Joseph 
Rutherford. John 
Robinson. David 
Robinson, Israel 
Shook, Aaron 
Talbot, Thomas 
Talbot, Joshua 
Teter, Philip 
Vanarsdale. Simeon 
Wright. Richard 
Wilson, Cath 
Walker, Charles T 

Capt. James B. Moore's second company, 

A muster roll of a volunteer company of cavalry, commanded by 
Capt. James B. Moore, of St. Clair county, Illinois Territory. By 
order of his Excellency, Ninian Edwards, Governor, from July 27, 
1812, to Aug. 11, 1812. 

James B. Moore 

First Lieutenant- 
Jacob Ogle 

Second Lieutenant- 
Joshua Vaughn 

Simeon Wheelock 

John T. Lusk, )8t 
Septimus Mace 
Thomas Piper 
Jem Miller 

William Reed 
James McKlnney 
John Davidson 
Pleasant Goings 


Ackerman, David 
Bonham. Samuel 
Biggs. Isaae 
Bell. Jesse 
Brlggs, Wm., Jr 
Blanklnship, Thomas 
Bradshaw. Absalom 
Beck, Guy 
Cox, Matthew J 
Crocker, John 
Clark. Isaac 
Dunnlgan, Isaiah 
Deleplaln, John 

Privates— (7owc?Md«d. 
Davidson, Wm. C 
Foncher, Anthony 
Gillham, (sham 
Gillham, Ezeklal 
Gillham, Clement 
Good, John 
Gillhata, Charles 
Gillham, William 
Hays, Zfichariah 
Hultt, John 
Jervis, Fielding 
Elrkpatrlck, James 
Kirkpatrick, Francis 
Moore, J. Milton 
Moore, Daniel Q 
Mace. Henry 
Morgan. Arthur 
Matheny, Charles R 
Nr.wlau, Bennett 
Ogle, Joseph (son of B. Ogle) 
Otwell, William 
Porter. William 
Quick. Moses 
Robinson, David 
Robinson. Israel 
Handle, Thomas 
Shook. Aaron 
Sanders. George 
Teter. Philip 
Talbot. Thomas W 
Talbot. William 
Vanarsdale, Simeon 
Walker. Charles P 
Wilson, Cath 
Wright. Ri3hard 
Wllbanks, Hardy 
Whiteside. John L 
Wright Isham 
Whitney, Aaron 


A muster roll of a detachment of mounted riflemen commanded by 
Ensign Samuel Whiteside, of St. Clair county, Illinois Territory. 
By order of his Excellency, Ninian Edwards, Governor of Illinois 
Territory, from Aug. 7 to Aug. 22, 1812. 

Samuel Whiteside 

Titus Qi&ee 
John Swigert 
Henry Taylor 
Aaor Gragg 
Abram Howard 
Wm. Pursley 
John Pursley 
Joseph Borough 

Privates— Concluded. 

Matthew Roach 
John Lacey 
David Porter 
John Howard 
Abram Vanhoozer 
Roland Hewitt 
Alexander Blram 
John Davidson 
Jacob Smelcer 
David Qragg 
Charles Kitchens 
John Gragg 

Capt. Samuel Whiteside's company. 

A muster roll of a volunteer company of mounted riflemen, com- 
manded by Capt. Samuel Whiteside of St. Clair county, Illinois 
Territory, by order of His Excellency, Ninian Edwards, Governor of 
said Territory. Date of enlistment August 22nd; enlisted to Nov. 
13th, 1812. 


Privates— Continued, 

Samuel Whiteside 

Ferguson. Joseph 

Fnlmore. John 

First Lieutenant- 

Groats, William 

Titus Gragg (or Qrelg) 

Gragg, John 
Howard, William 

Second Lieutenant- 

Howard, John 
Hewitt, Roland 

John Swigert 

Hanlon, Matthias 

Hewitt, George 


Higgins, John 

Henry Taylor 

Hawk, Philip 

Harmon, George 


Jacobs, John 

Jesse Creek, 1st 

Johnson. James 

Azor Gragg (or Grelg), 2nd 
Abram Howard, 3rd 
Wm. Simpson, 4th 

Kinder. George 
Kitchens. Charles 
LeCompt, Isaac 
Lacev. John 


Lamotte. Joshua 
Lee, Samuel 

John Pursley 

Lee, Joseph 

John Waggoner 

Langlue, Raphael 

William Parsley 

LaBrau, Baptiste 

Harmon Gragg 

McFsrling. Walter 

Marney, James 


McFadgin, James 

Armstrong, Aaron 

Million, Jesse 

Bishop. Benjamin 

Myers. Joseph 

Burgess, William 

Ogle. Jacob 

Bridges, Allan 

Posey, Jubilee 

Borough. Joseph 

Plant, Pierce 

Bayne, Ellsworth 

Phillips, William 

Brisco, John 

Pixley. John 

Bradshaw, Jonas 

Powell. John 

Brundage. Simeon 

Patterson, Joseph 

Barnsback, George 

Pullum, James 

Balmmle, Louis 

Paine, John 

Cornelius. Daniel 

Preuitt, William 

Chelton. William 

Porter, David 

Carter, David 

Pierce, Daniel 

Davis. Samuel 

Roach, Matthew 

Delorme, Huber 

Right, William 

Ferguson, John 

Stockton, Samuel 


Privates— Continued. 

Samples, Benjamin 
Sampler, David 
Smelcer, Jacob 
Stockton, Robert 
Sweeten. Moses 
Smith. Thomas 
Tolley. James 
Teeter. John 

Privates— Conc/wded 

Tramble, Toussant 
Tucker, Napees 
Turner. John 
Vanhooser. Abram 
Williams. Joseph 
Whiteside. Joseph 
Warren, Benjamin 

Muster roll of general and staff oflficers of a detachment of militia 
of Illinois Territory, ordered into the actual service of the United 
States, and commanded by His Excellency, Ninian Edwards, Gov- 
ernor and Commander-in-Chief of the Territory aforesaid: 




ment of 

of service. 


Ninian Edwards 

Ellas Rector 

Benjamin Stephenson.. 

Na^h. Pope 

William Rector 

Nelson Rector \ 

Robert Todd j 

Adjutant General.... 

Brigade Major 

First Aid 

Second Aid 

Volunteer Aids 

Sept. 2. 1812 
Sept. 10.1812 
Sept. 2,1812 
Sept. 20.1812 
Oct, 10.1812 

Oct. 18,1812 

.. do 
.. do 
.. do 
.. do 

.. do 

10. 1812 

"Endorsed, examined, approved, certified and returned by me ac- 
cording to law, to the Commander-in Chief. 

Eli AS Rector, 
Adjutant General Illinois Territory.'^ 

Capt. Absalom Cox's company. 

Muster roll and inspection return of a detachment of the First 
Regiment of Illinois militia under the command of Capt. Absalom 
Cox at Kaskaskia, the 3rd of September, 1812. 

This detachment did not go to Peoria, but was no doubt left be- 
hind to protect the settlers. 




Absalom Cox 

Alien, Solomon 
Beatty. John 


Bagfirs. George 

Thomas Roberts 

Clark, James 
Little. William 


Lively. Reuben 
McBridB. Thomas 

Adam Wobrlck 

Miller. John 
McFarland, James 


McClinton. John 

Robert Foster 

Pillere, John 

William McDonald 

Patterson. James 

Richard Robinson 

Ross. Andrew 

Samuel Reiner 

Smyth. John 

Steel. Archibald 


Thompson, Robert 

John Irwln 
Shadrach Lively 

Thompson. William 
Wilson. John 

Amos Lively 

Edward Clark 



Bogres, Jesse 
Chalfln. Seth 
Connor, George 
Marvel. Chester 

McLauerhlln. Wm. 
Jarvis, Matthew 
Robston, Hagh 
Warley. John 


Adklns. James 
Glenn, Georee 
Lamer, Patrick 

McMurtry. Abraham 
Vermillion, Benjamin 


Bowman. Jonathan 
Ciendinin, John 
Craln, Squire 

Johnston. David 
May, William 
Steele, James 


Ball, James 
Barber, Alexander 
Beson, Thomas 
Belsher, George 
Fulton, Cyrus 
Garver. William 

Garner. Charles 
Hall, William 
Lard, Samuel 
Petel. David 
Win gate, Adam 
Sleter, James 


Beatt, Alexis 

Lessauree. Pascal 

Beatt, Louis 

LaChasspell, B. 

Beatt, N. 

LeMlene, Louis 

Baker. George 

Mitchell. James D. 

Bearwais, Alexis 

Montrow. B. 

Curry, Joseph 

Paxton. Amos 

Chinia. J. 

Segar, Louis 


Smyth, James 

DePreet, Francis 

St. Pierre, Robert 

Gendeon, Jean 

Tolouse, Francis 

Lee. Ralph 

Troupa, Manuel 


Alter, Auguste 

Barboure Andre 

Qodere, Alexis 

Godere, Joseph 

Gidier, Jean Marie (or Godere) 

Louglore. Francis 

Liouglore. Etlenne 
Rilguer. Joseph 
Roy. Andre (or Rol) 
Tongue, Francis 
Tongue, Joseph 
Yasseuer, Joseph 


David Anderson, 
Inspector- Adjutant, First Illinois Militia. 

Capt. Thomas E. Craig's Company. 

A muster roll of a company of volunteer riflemen, raised in Illinois 
Territory, under the command of Capt. Thomas E. Craig in the ser- 


vice of the United States, by order of His Excellency, Ninian Ed- 
wards, Governor of said Territory, from the 5th September to the 2d 
December, 1812. 


Privates— OowcJuded. 

Thomas E. Crale 

Richard Hayden 

Robert Cox 


Hiram Hlrelns 

John Forrester 

Randall Davis 
William Gable 


Harrison Wilson 

Lewis Younsr 

Edward Farley 
Sampson Dunn 

David Stanley 


James Wrisrht 

Walker Skantlln 

Enoch Brown 

Charles Hill 

Edward Stokes 

John G. Wilson 

Jacob Willis 

Phil Buckner 

Elisha Livingston 

John Powell 


Robert Preston 

Samuel Green 
Dennis Clay 
Russell E. Haycock 

Joseph Lepau 

David Johnston 

Joseph Gordon 

John Clendenin 

Willis Wheeler 

Joel Crane 

Squire Crane 


A.lex Barbour 

John Ormsby. dnimmer 
Nat. Reeves, flfer 

Spencer Adklns i 
Amos Paiton 
John Farney 

George Glun 


Michael Burrla 

Ellas Hubbard 

John Lord 

Thomas Hatfield 

Lasadore Gander 

Jacob Tocum 

Inlam Bart 

Stephen Fowler 

Peter Bono 

Moses Kawllngs 

George Connor 

John Hazleton 

Richard Hazel 

John Woods 

John Campbell 

Robert Hfirrls 

David SiPley 

William Corn 

George T. Woods 

Charles Druyer 

Antoine Sander 

Henry Jenna 

Lawis Freedom 

Arthur Owens 

John B. Genam 

James Drake 

Edward Miller 

Samuel Eimberly 

Capt. Willis Hargrave's Company. 

We, the undersigned, being formed into a company of mounted 
volunteers, under the command of Willis Hargrave, as Captain, ten- 
der to your Excellency our services, to perform a tour of duty 
against the Indians on the frontiers of Illinois Territory, and hold 
ourselves in readiness to march at a minute's warning to any point 
you may direct. 


Enlisted Men— 

Willis Harsrave 

Boatrlght, Thomas 
Berry. Joel 

First Lieutenant— 

Battenhonse, Daniel 

Wm. McHenry 


Bradbury. John 
Blackford, Ephralm 

Second Lieutenant- 

Blackford. Reuben 
Buck. Frederick 

John Graves 

Covington. Edward 
Cates, Robert D 


Carr. James 

Thomas Berry 

Cannon, Simon 


Enlisted Men— Continued. 

Enlisted Men— Concluded. 

Chambers, Barnabas 

McAllister. Thomas 

Davenport, James 

McDanlel. James 

Dnnnell, Josiab 

McCormlck, William 

Dover. John 

Potter, Rial 

Depkers. Michael 

Smith. John 

Fowler. William 

Small, James 

Flemlner. Philip 

Slocumb, Charles 

Garrett. Dickinson 

Summers. John 

Garrison, James 

Stovery. Thomas 

Hannah, James 

Stewart. Ell 

Hargrave. Seth 

Stern. Philip 

Harris. Glllam 

Standlee, Neadham 

Howard, Abner 

Stewart. Charles 

Hamilton, ^.lexander 

Snodgrass. David 

Loner, James 

Sparks. Charles 

Lisanbee, Jeremiah 

Trammel. David (a spy) 

Love, John 

Trammel. Thomas 

Lawton. John 

Trammel, James 

Lane. Joseph 

Upton. Joseph 

Maxwell. Wm. 

Upton, Thomas 

Mouldlnff. Taylor 

Wilson. James 

Moulding. Richard (a spy) 

Williams. Aaron 

Moulding. Lee * 

Wheeler. Henry 

May. Morris 

Whooley. David 

Mileh. David 

Whltford, Martin 

Morris. John 

Winkler. Adam 

Morris. George 

Wheeler. William 

Mitchell. John 

Williams, Thomas 

McKlnney, Thomas 

Yonnr, Nathan 

In a morning report of Sept. 12th, 1812, made at Camp Russell, 
" of the troops under the command of Maj. Benjamin Stephenson," 
it will be found that Maj. Stephenson's command for that date 
comprised the companies of Captains James B. Moore, W, B. 
Whiteside, Absalom Cox, Jacob Short, Willis Hargrave, Samuel 
Whiteside, Nathaniel Journey, and Amos Squires, with an aggregate 
of 570 men, 

In another "morning report" dated Oct. 10th, 1812, we find "troops 
under the command of Lieut. Col. Whiteside" to have been the com- 
panies of Captains N. Ramsey, Thos. E. Craig, Willis Hargrave, 
Absalom Cox and James Trousdale, with a combined force of 316 
men; the stafiP return on the back of which included, present: one 
surgeon, one surgeon's mate, one adjutant, one sergeant major, and 
one judge advocate. 

Capt. Philip Tramell's company (Leonard White's): 

Muster-roll of a detachment of mounted militia called into the 
service of the United States under the orders of His Excellency, 
Governor Edwards, to guard military stores from Shawneetown to 
Camp Russell, under the command of Philip Tramell, Lieut. Colonel 
of the 4th Regiment, Illinois Militia, acting as captain, from the 12th 
day of October to the 31st day of October 1812: 

Philip Tramell 

Morton Ewbanks 

Blue. Solomon 
Cumins. William 
Campbell, John 

Privates— Co«ciud«d, 

Gillard. John 

Inman. James 

Lee, James 

Murphy, John 

McFarland. James 

Pompey. servant to Philip Tramell 

Sibley, David 

Sibley. Isaac 

Wilson. Covington 

Wheeler. William 


I do certify that the within muster-roll exhibits a true statement 
of the detachment for the purpose mentioned therein, and that James 
Ratcliff furnished a wagon and team for the purpose of transporting 
military stores from Shawneetown to Camp Russell, which was em- 
ployed in the United States service from the 5th day of October 
until the 31st; the same month, with Adam Croaoh, wagoner, Wil- 
liam Morrison furnished wagon, team and driver, for the same pur- 
pose, from the 9th of October to the Slst of same month. Meed 
McLaughlin and Davis Gillard each furnished wagon and team and 
driver, for the above purpose, from the Blst of same month. 

Philip Tkamell, 

Lieui. Colonel 4th Illinois Militia, now acting as Captain in place 
of Leonard White. 

Capt. Dudley Williams' Company, 4th Regiment, Oct. 14th to Nov' 
5th, 1812, "against the late invasions of the hostile Indians." 


Piiy&tes— Concluded . 

Dudley Williams 

Cain, Robert 

Clarlt. Richard 


Coshler, Daniel 

Dayid Moore 

Cook, James 

Davis, Asher 


Dilkerson. Hiram 

Reuben Linn 

Davis, Isaac 
Fuel, Henry 

Futral. Thomas 


Fort. MJcajah 

A.lfred Lindsey 

Futral. Wllburn 

Ferguson. John 


Griffith. Hiram 

Joseph Ferguson 

Hallin, John 

John Reed 

Harrison, Furnas 

Henry Qrlffln 

Hallin, Andrew 

James JVloore 

Jennings. Samuel 

Ladd, Elijah 


Mathlas, William 

Mitchell, Jeremiah 

Wm. Magee 

Matthews, John 

James Brown 
Thomas Armstrong 

Maybnry, John 
Neal, John 

John JarroS 

Randolph. James 

Rascow, Jesse 


Reas, Samuel 

Armstrong. William 

Show, John 

Bramlett. Harvey 

Stevens, Ezeklal 

Barnes, Allan 

Thomas, Matthew 

Bridges, Joseph 

Walker, John 

Brownfleld. Charles 

Wolf. Redden 

Blaslngham, James 

Walker. Samuel 

Calhoun, Daniel 

Woolf, James 

Cravens. William 

Williams, Joseph 

Casten, Thomas 

White. Thomas 

I certify that the foregoing is a correct muster-roll of my company, 
and that they were mustered into the service of the United States 
Saline, on the 14th day of October, 1812. 

Dudley Williams, Captain. 

Examined and approved: 

B. Stephenson, Brigade Major. 

Also endorsed by a certificate of Philip Tramell, Lieut. Colonel of 
the 4th Regiment, Illinois Militia: "That this company found their 


own provisions from Christian county to the United States Saline, 
and back again, which going and coming may be considered 160 

Captain Judy's Spy company, 1812. 

Muster roll of Captain Samuel Judy's company of mounted spies, 
called into service under the command of His Excellency, Ninian 
Edwards, Oct. 18th, 1812, to Nov. 12th, 1812 (spy company) . 

Samuel Jady. 

Adams. Calvin 
Adkins. John 
Cox. Thomas 
Clark. Edward 
Cook, Henry 

Cosey, Pierre (or Crossey) 
Praxier, Robert 
Qllham. Isom (or Isaac) 
Going, William 
Qilham. Samuel 

Privates— (7oMttnMed. 

QrliHn. William 

Liarmer, Patrick (or Lamer) 

Lusk. -John T 

Moore, George 

Newman. Joseph 

Nix, Ambrose 

Right. Tolivar 

Radcliff. William 

Reynolds, John 

Smith, Thomas 

Stockden. Davis 

Waddle. Alexander 

Muster roll of regimental and staff officers ordered into service by 
His Excellency, Ninian Edwards, Governor and Commander-in-chief 
of the Illinois Territory, from the 18th day of February to the 16th 
day of June, 1813: 




Phillin Tramwell 

Major , 

Nathaniel Journey 

George Fisher 

William Reynolds 



Surgeon's Mate 

Daniel G. Moore ........................ 


Aaron Whitney 

Sereeant Mai or... 

I do certify that the foregoing muster roll exhibits a just statement 
of the regiment and staff officers, as above stated, this 16th day of 
June, 1813. 

B. Stephenson, 

Brigade Major, 
Sergeant James N. Fox's detachment. 

Muster roll of a detachment of rangers on the frontier of Johnson 
county, under the command of Sergt. James N. Fox, from Feb. 17th, 
1813, to March 1st, 1813. This detachment being called into service 
by order of His Excellency, Ninian Edwards, Governor of said Ter- 

James N. Fox 


Blane. Mose 
Buchan. James 
Deason. George 
Davis, John 

Privates— f^on(tn«ed, 
Edwards. William 
Flannery, James 
Griffin. Daniel 
Harris, Buckner 
Norton, John P 
Rawllnson, Shadrach 
Rawllnson, William 


Elvirade, Randolph County, Illinois Terkitory, 

May 4th, 1813. 

Sir — A short time ago I received a letter from Colonel Bond, in- 
forming me that you had authorized him to request me to raise and 
organize three additional companies of rangers. I immediately 
wrote you that I supposed what had been done would be sufficient, 
and that those three companies who, through me, tendered the Pres- 
ident their services as rangers, would be accepted. 

They have been notified by me that they have been accepted, but 
lest some accident may have prevented my letter from reaching you, 
I will here give the names of these officers, all of whom have been 
chosen by their companies and approved by me: 


James B. Moore 

Second Lieutenant- 
Samuel Gllbaur 

First Lieutenant— 
Darid Robinson 


Arthur Armstrone 

Second Lieutenant- 
Arthur Morgran 


Jacob Short 

John Hnitt 

First Lieutenant- 
Nathaniel Journey 

Samuel Whitslde 

Second Lieutenant- 
Andrew Bankston 

First Lieutenant- 
Joseph BorouKh 


John Journey 

These officers and those of the companies raised here last year are 
all exceedingly anxious to be commanded by Benjamin Stephenson 
as their major, with the exception of an ensign and a lieutenant who 
were absent at the time. They have unanimously petitioned me on 
this subject. The privates comprising the battalion are equally de- 
sirous of it, and I can most conscientiously say that, in my opinion, 
the Territory does not admit of a better choice. 

The Legislature of this Territory, at its last session, by the solici- 
tations of certain individuals, was induced to ask for this force and 
to recommend John Murdock (Moredock) to be authorized to raise 
and command it. But I beg leave to observe that the force I have 
raised has been upon a different plan altogether. Murdock has not 
raised a man and has endeavored to throw every impediment in my 
way. He is not qualified, either by his knowledge or experience, for 
the command, and those who have recommended him will not pre- 
tend to say that his habits do not form a most important objection.* 

I have the honor to be 

Your obedient servant, 

N. Edwards. 

* ah which is also herein quoted, must be regarded as sllsrhtly exacrfferated. 


From a "daily and weekly report of a detachment of rangers of 
the Illinois Territory, under the command of Benjamin Stephenson, 
brigade major, April 17, 1818," it is found that the command was 
made up of the companies of Capt. B. Whiteside, Capt. James B. 
Moore, Third company; Capt. Samuel Whiteside, Capt, Jacob Short 
and Capt. Nicholas Jarott, the muster of which, with the exception 
of Moore and Short, are not to be found. 

Capt. James B. Moore's (3d) company: 


Privates— Concluded. 

James B. Moore 

William Ryan 
John Stalllngs 

First Lieutenant- 

David Porter 

David Robinson 

John Waddle 
John Briscoe 

Second Lieutenant— 

John Moore 

Artliur Morgan 

Jacob Clark 
John Clover 


William Harrington 
David Moore 

John Huitt 

Thomas J. Mattingly 
Willy Harrington 


Felix Clark 

Thomas Jordan 

Stephen Rector 

Jacob Young 

Joshua Vaughn 

Benjamin Mamey 

Charles Gillham 

James Button 

George Richardson 
William Griffin 


William Going 

Isaac Basey 
James Talbot 
Henry Randieman 
John Crawford 

Pleasant Going 
Fleming Cox 
Bartley Cox 
Aaron Whitney 
Martin Wood 


Bennett Nowlin 
Henry Mace 

Enoch Moore 

Isaac Smith 

Jesse Miller 

Daniel Winn 

Joseph Miller 

Roland Huitt 

David Miller 

Edward Crouch 

Abraham Miller 

Isaac Carmack 

John Enoch 

Ellsha Taylor 

Jonathan Knox 

Andrew Robinson 

Anthony B. Connor 

William Hogan 

Samuel McFarland 

Prior Hogan 

George Lary 

Robert Hawke 

Thomas Johnston 

Richard Windsor 


Jude Converse 

Marcus Pelham 

John Hogan 

Peter Wills 

William Chance 

Thomas Marney 

Josiah Langford 

Solomon Strong 

John Callino 

Amos Shook 

Daniel Converse 

Francis Pelham 

Janus Marney 

William Forgason 

Benjamin Edwards 

Hiram Huitt 

AlexandPT Biron 

Joseph Forgason 

George Hawk 

Oman Beman 

Eli Langford 

John Finley 

Jacob Luntzford 

Fielding Porter 

John Marney 

John Ryan 

Thomas Marney 

Stephen Laery 

John Ferguson 

Ellhu Axely 

Jesse Harrison 

Examined and approved: 

B. Stevenson, Brigade Major. 


Capt. Jacob Short's company. 

Muster roll of a company of mounted rangers, commanded by Capt. 
Jacob Short, called into the actual service of the United States by 
his Excellency, Ninian Edwards, Grovernor and Commander-in-Chief, 
from the 27th day of February, 1813, to the 31st day of May, 1818, 

Jacob Short 

First Lieutenant- 
Nathaniel Journey 

Second Lieutenant- 
Andrew Bankston 


John Journey 

John Brigance 
Alexander Scott 
George Mitchell 
James Wyatt 
Robert Thomas 

Richard Acklesa 
Robert Lynn 
George Soy 
Nicholas Darter 
George Wise 
Samuel Ware 

Anderson. Robert 
Adair. William 
Allen. Solomon 
Alexander. Hugh 
Banksou. Elijah 
Barnes, Ellsworth 
Brimberry, Jacob 
Boucher, John 
Brlckey, Preston 
Bateman, Abraham 
Brooks. Taphney 
Burgess, William 
Cox. Beujamin 
Clark. Isaac 
Corathers. John 
Clark, Janus 
Cralne, Squire 
Drocker, Jacob 
Drocker, Thomas 
Darneal, Isaac 
Duncan. John Sr 
Duncan, John Jr 
Davidson, James W 
Dodge. Stanley' 
Edes. Matthias 
Edes. William 
Fray. Joseph 
Fulton, Cyrus 
Gaston, Robert 
Gragar. Jacob 

Hopton, John 
Hill, Nathaniel 
Hill, Jesse 
Hill, Burrill 
Hawkins, Martial 
Huse. Robert 
Journey, William 
Jotinston, David 
Kerns, Jacob 
Lloyd, David 
Juee, Samuel Sr 
Lee, Samuel Jr 
Llnley, John 
Llveley, John 
Lard, John 
Liveley, Reuben 
Lard, James Jr 
Mattock?, Alexander 
Moore, James 
Moore. William 
Morris, Thomas 
Miller. Edward 
McKiniiey. Daniel 
McElroy, William 
McNeal, Abel 
Neal, Henry 
O'Neal, William 
Posey, Aden 
Patterson, Samuel 
Prenitt. Field 
Preuitt. Joseph 
Pritchard. Jacob 
Rutherford, John 
Scott, Francis 
Sealey. Henry 
Swlgart. George 
Swlgart. John 
Short, Hubbard 
Stout. John 
Scott. John 
Short. Moses 
Stout. William 
Smalley, Abraham 
Thomas, Abraham 
Tilford, William 
Virgin. William 
Wakefield, Charles 
Wakefield George 
Watley, Henry 
Woods, John 
Wilderman. Jacob 
Walker. John 
Wakefield. John A 
White, Andrew 
Whitley, Mills 
Wlnghart, Adam 
Walker, William 
Wright, Peter 
Whitley. John 
White. David 

Examined and approved. 

B. Stephenson, 

Brigade Major. 


Capt. William Boon's company 

Muster roll of a company of mounted volunteers of Randolph 
county, Illinois territory, commanded by Capt. William Boon, and 
called into service by His Excellency, Ninian Edwards, Governor of 
said territory, from the 6th day of March, 1813, to the 5th day of 
June, 1813: 


Dory, Louis 

Willlam Boon 

De Gognie, Gregone 
Davis. Ralph 

First Lieutenant- 

French, Levi 
French, Samuel 

John Lacey 

Fisher, William 

Second Llentenant— 

Garner, Charles 
Qodler, Erne 

William Bllderback 

Gaston, William 

Gadler. John 


Glenn, Isaac 

John Bllderback 

Glenn, Thomas 
Garner, Francis 

Robert Gaston 

Garner, William 
Gendron, Baptiste 
Godler. Isadore 

Louis La Chapelle 

Hughes, James 

Michael Buyat 
Amos Chaffin 

Honnon, Jacob (or Hannan) 
Hull, Daniel 

Lee. James 


La Franbrls. Joseph 

Joseph French 
Adam Wolrick 

Lively, Shadrach 
Leone, Jabez 

Zophue Brooks 
Henry Barbeau 

Lazadder, Jacob 
Maohan, John 
Montroy, Francis 

May, Jacob 


McDonough, Stace 

Alexander, Robert 

Philhart. Jacob 

Bailey. David 

Plllet, Peter 

Bllderback. Charles 


Barnett, William 


Bowerman. Jacob 

Roberts, Elias 

Bllderback, Daniel 

Roy (or Roi), Andr6 

Buyat, Benjamin 

Robinson. John 

Bart, Julian 

Roberts, John 

Barbeau. Antolne 

Robinson, James 

Chaffln, Ellis 

Snodgrasa, Archibald 

Cochran. George 

Steele. Archibald 

Craine, Joel 

Tilford, William 

Connor. Henry 

Teabeau, Henry 

Cossy, Peter 

Thompson, Robert 

Clarke, Alexander 

Tamarava. Levi 

Clyne, John 

Tamarava, Jean Baptiste 


Wootan, John 

Creath, George 

Wadley, Thomas 

Dolin. Peter 

Wlnghart, Adam 

Drury, John 

Young, John 

Examined and approved. 

B. Stephenson, 

Brigade Major. 


Capt. Nathan Chambers' company. 

A muster roll of a company of militia in the Illinois Territory, 
under the command of Capt, Nathan Chambers, as footmen. Called 
into the United States service by his Excellency, Ninian Edwards, 
from the 12th day of April, to the 12th day of May, 1813. 

Nathan Chambers 


John Sayaee 


Henry Carr 
John Nichols 
James Baukson 
Joseph Duncan 

William Scott 
James Crocker 
Charles Cox 
Henry White 

Armstrong, William 
Abernathey. Robert 
Aberuathey, Miles 
Baker, Abraham 
Broom, John 
Bankson, Patton 
Bone, Barnet 
Bond, Burnet 
Chambers. James 
Crocker, Arthur 
Crocker. William 
Crocker, John 
Dancan, William (or Dunkln.) 

Pilv&tes— Concluded. 

Duncan. Kohert, Sr. 1 t^ ^j 
Duncan. Robert, jr. ; or Dunkln. 

Farrar, Robert 
Fike. Abraham 
Gilbreath. Hugh 
Gasklll, Paul 
Oaskill, Jonathan 
Holcomb, Joseph 
Hagrerman, Benjamin 
Hutton. Unnry 
Hill, Jonathan 
Johnson, Malcom 
Journey, John. Sr 
Langiiton. Nuthan 
Winson. Abram 
Maddos. Leven 
Middleton. Robert 
Middletin, Reuben 
Moore, Ri'bert 
Mooney. Bryant 
McCracken, James 
Nichois, George 
Nichols, Pleasant 
Nlchola, Thomas 
Peek, Daniel 
Pea. John 
Petty. Jftmes 
Robertson, John 
Swan. Francis 
Scott, Samuel 
Van Wlnkie, Job 
Wakefield, S'meon 
Wakefield, William 

Lieut. Daniel Gr. Moore's company, 

Muster roll of a company of volunteer infantry. Commanded by 
Lieut. Daniel G. Moore, and called into service by his Excellency, 
Ninian Edwards, Governor of Illinois Territory, from May 9, 1813, 
to June 9, 1813. 


Friv&tes— Concluded. 

Daniel Q. Moore 

Beck. James 

Braman. John 


Bartlett. William 
Cosby. Hezeklah 

Martin Jones 

Ennls. Jesne 

William P. Rowdon 

Ennis. Willfam 

Benjamin Stidman 

Fullmore. Juhn 

Zadock Newman 

Hill. Burrlll 

Hill. James 


Jones. William 

George Moore 
James Beaman 
John Ku«sell 

KlrKpatrlck, John 
Klrkpatrlck, Harrison 
Klrkpatrlek, ihomas 

Eli Savage 

Lortun, John 
Moore, Abel 

Newman, Joseph 


Newman, John 

Beck. John 

Rlggor. Henry B 

Bows. John 

Starkey, Jesse 

-13 H 


Capt. William Jones' company — (1818), 

A muster roll of a company of volunteer infantry, commanded by 
Capt. William Jone8,ordered into the service by His Excellency, Ninian 
Edwards, governor of the Illinois Territory, May 9, 1813 to June 9, 


William Jones 

John Sprlnsrer 

Thomas Flnley 

Edward Reavis. lat. 
John Whitley, Sr.. 2nd. 
David White (spy) 3rd. 
Robert Brazil. 4th. 

Solomon Preuitt 
Jacob Gragg 
Matthew Means 
David Smeltzer 
David Smelson 
Andrew Lockhart 

Anderson, James, Sr. 
Anderson, James, Jr. 
Brazil. Richard 
Brazil, William 
Bateman. Abraham 
Brazil, Valentine (spy) 
Bateman, William 
Cox, Ephrlam 
Cox, Henry 
C hilton. Matthias 
Chilton, Joshua 
Chilton. James, Sr, 
Chilton, James, Jr. 
Chilton. Wlllam 
Dollarhide. Aguilla 
Davis. William 
Finley, Howard 
Finley, Moses 
Finley. John 
Finley, James 
Ferguson Isaac 
Glger, John 
Green, John 

Privates— Concluded, 

Green, Henry, Jr. 

Green, Henry, Sr. 

Green. John 

Henson. Benjamin 

Henson, John 

Hill. John 

Hopton, John 

Howard. Wm. (spy) 

Hlgglns. John 

Hill. James 

Hill, Burrell 

Hott, John 

Howard, Abraham (spy) 

Hutton, George, Sr. 

Hutton. George, Jr. 

Jones, Martin 

Jones, John 

Llndly, Joseph 

Lindly, John 

Lockhart, Byrd (spy) 

Lockhart, William 

Lindly, Simon, Sr. 

Lindly, Simon, Jr, 

Lindly, Samuel 

Lockhart, Andrew 

Neely, Jacob 

Preuitt, Fields 

Roberts, William (spy) 

Roberts, Andrew 

Stubblefield. Wm. (spy) 

St. John. Joseph 

Stubblefleld. Easly 

Smeltzer, Herman 

Tayee, George (spy) (or Tayes) 

Tayer, Battler (or Bartlett Tayes) 

Tetrichs, Jacob 

Tetrlchs, Charles 

Tetrichs, Abram (spy) 

Tetrichs. Peter 

VanHoozer. Abraham 

Whitley, Mills 

Whitley, John, Jr. 

Whitley. Randolph 

Walker. Henry 

Whitley, Ellsha 

White, Robert 

White, David S. 

Capt James B. Moore's company — (4th company.) 

A muster roll of Capt. James B. Moore's company of mounted 
rangers of the Illinois Territory, under the command of Maj. Benja- 
min Stephenson, from the 1st day of June to the 16th day of the 
same month, 1813, by order of His Excellency, Ninan Edwards, gov- 
ernor, &c. 

Captain — 

James B. Moore 

David Robinson, Ist. 
Arthur Morgan, 2nd. 

John Hewitt 

Daniel Converse 
Jacob Young 
Benjamin Marney 
James Hutton 



Privates— Concluded, 

Isaac Baser 

Knox, Jonathan 

James Talbot 

Lary, George 

Henry Kandleman 

Lacey, Stephen 

John Crawford 

Lankford. Eli 

Lankford, Josiah 


LuntEford, Jacob 

Axley. Elisha 

Moore. Enoch 

Brlsco. John 

Miller, Jesse 

Beeman, Orman 

Miller, Joseph 

Biron, Alaxander 

Miller. David 

Clark. Jacob 

Miller, Abraham 

Clover, John 

Marney, Thomas 

Clark. Felix 

Moore, John 

Cox. Fleuiine 

Moore, David 

Crouch. Edward 

Mattlngly, Thomas Q. 

Connor. Anthony B. 

Mace, Henry 

Carmack, Isaac 

Marney, John 

Cox. Bartlfett 

Marney, James 

Converse. Jud 

McFarland, Samuel 

Chance. William 

NowHn. Bennett 

Collins. John 

Pelham. Marcus 

Davidson. Samuel D. 

Pelham. Francis 

Enochs, John 

Porter, Fielding 

Edwards. Benjamin 

Porter. David 

Ferguson, William 

Royalston. Hugh 

Ferguson, Joseph 

Ryan. John 

Flnley. John 

Ryan. William 

Ferguson. John 

Rector. Stephen 

Gillham. Charles 

Richardson. William 

Griffin. William 

Robinson, Andrew 

Going. Pleasant 

Ramey, Thomas 

Going, William 

Roberts, Ellas 

Glenn. George 

Strong, Solomon 

Harrington. William 

Shook, Amos 

Harrington. Wylle 

Stalllngs. John 

Huitt. Hiram 

Smith, Isaac 

Huitt, Koland 

Taylor, Elisha 

Hogan, William 

Vaughn. Joshua 

Hogan. Prior 

Vanarsdall. Simon 

Hawk. George 

Wills. Peter 

Hogan. John 

Waddle. John 

Hawks. Robert 

Wood. Martin 

Harrison. Jesse 

Winn, Daniel 

Jordan. Thomas 

Windsor. Richard 

Johnston, Thomas 

Whitney. Aaron 

The following interesting document, taken from Brink's "History 
of Madison County," is reproduced for its value in dates and names: 

"Edwardsville, September 24, 1814. 

Sib — This day there was an election held at this place for a cap- 
tain and first and second lieutenants, by the volunteers that have of 
late been raised in consequence of your request to Isam Gillham and 
J. G. Lofton, Esq. The company detained the election until about 
the 4 of the o'clock in the afternoon in hopes we would have been 
joined by Mr. Stout and a party from that neighborhood. On being 
disappointed, we proceeded to elect John G. Lofton, captain, Thomas 
Kirkpatrick, Ist lieutenant, and Samuel G. Morse, 2d lieutenant, and 
intend when orders are received, to elect the balance of the officers, 
so as to dispose of the officers in each settlement which may join. 
We assure your Excellency that the old men have volunteered with a 
spirit that reflects an honor on the old veterans of '76. The notice 


of the election was so short in this settlement that the people had 
not general notice, but there remains no doubt but the company will 
be complete before this reaches you — there are 70 on the list now. 
The above officers were elected by a unanimous vote. 

Very respectfully, yours, 

Thos. Kiekpatriok, 
G. Cadwell, 

Judges of the Election.'^ 

Last men called into service; Captain Boultinghouse's company. 

Daniel BonltlnghOQse 

First Llentenant— 
John Groves 

Second Lieutenant- 
Robert Tavery 

Third Llentenant— 
John Morris 

Thomas Tavery 

William Nash 
Stephen Stanley 
James Boyd 
James Hopkins 
Tira Kobinson 

John Wilson 
Robert Boyd 
David Haney 
William Cammins 
Asa Ross 
Robert Clark 


Adkins. Wyatt 
Adkins. William 
Adkins, Jesse 
Burney, John 
Brown. John 
Boultinghouse, James 
Bonltlcghoase, Daniel 
Barney. Charles 
Brown. David 
Buckles, John 
Burney. William 
Beck, John 
Bowman. Jesse 
Corn. James 
Clayton. Archibald 
Cates, Robert D 
Coley (Cooley), Henry 
Collins, Hugh 
Chambers, Willis 
ChaDB>«»r3 Tbomaa 
Culbt..«on. Joseph 
Chambers, William 
Clark, William 
Chaffin, Ellas 
Dunlap, James 
Dover, John 
Daniels, David 
Daniels, John 
Dennis, John 
Daniels, Joseph 

Davenport, James 
Dickinson, Charles 
Davidson. Samuel 
Ferret. John 
Gaston, Thomas 
Gaston. James 
Ga»ton, John 
Gaston, Robert 
Hencely, James 
Hencely. Charles 
Harris, Nathan 
Hargrave, Seth 
Hix. James 
Henry. Alden 
Hyde, Ezekial 
Hampton Jonathan 
Hannhh. Brier 
Hart, John 
Haynes. James 
Jones. Hiram 
Kirkendall, Benj 
Kirkendall, Jesse 
Lane Rolln (RolUn) 
Lucas, John 
Lawry. Joseph 
Lamb. Moses 
Lezenby. Charles 
Morris. John 
Martin, George 
Morris, George 
Merlday. William 
Moore, John 
Martin, John 
Meloy, Edward 
Michel. Edward 
Martin. James 
Metcalf Joel 
Morris, James 
McHenry, Daniel 
McAllister, Thomas 
McCormick, William 
McGee. William 
McGahan. John 
McCoy, Wil-iam 
McAllister, John 
McCann. George 
Porter, Real 
Potter, Edward 
Patton. James 
Pool. Thomas 
Poley, John 
Perry. John 
Read. William 
Rowan. Arrhibald 
Reede. Elijah 
Stumm. Geurge 
Stanley, Neeiiham 
Steward Jonathan 
Selph, Ell 
Steward, Charles 
Steward, Philip 
Snodgrass, Daniel 
Stafford, Robert 
Sweeton, Moses 
Stark, Edmond 


privates— Continued. 

Privates— Concluded. 

Stumm, Henry 

Wilson, Arvln 

Tra8k, William 

Wheeler. Henry 

Tramell, Jarrard (Jarrot) 

Walla. John 

Taylor, Merrltt 

Wilson. Thomas 

Taylor. Nimrod 

Walden, Reuben 

Vaughn. William 

Whltaker. John 

Wilson. Irvin 

Young, Nathan 

WlUon, James 



A Trip From Pennyslnania to Illinois in 1851. 

(By W. W. Davis.) 

"Perhaps the most famous year in modern times was 1809, Dar- 
"win, Tennyson, Gladstone, Mrs. Browning, Lincoln, Oliver Wendell 
Holmes, Edgar A. Poe, were all born in 1809. Another year of re- 
markable events was 1851. Kossuth, the Hungarian patriot, and 
Tupper the proverbial philosopher, visited the United States; Joanna 
Baillie died, Jenny Lind was married, and the World's fair in Lon- 
don, all took place in 1851. In that year, too, my father and I made 
a trip to Illinois. 

It was a great undertaking for that day. It meant a round trip of 
3,000 miles by rail, canal, stage and steamboat. There were no rail- 
roads across the continent, and traveling was tedious. Iowa and 
Illinois were on the frontiers, and Ohio was the focus for most emi- 
gration. People generally moved by wagon, and the journey from 
eastern Pennsylvania occupied a month. They took a solemn fare- 
well of their friends, as they never expected to see them again. 

At 11:00, Wednesday morning, June 3, we took the cars at Lan- 
caster an old town, founded long before the Revolution, its North 
Queen and East King streets testifying to the loyalty of the early 
inhabitants. Through Harrisburg, over the Susquehanna, Hunting- 
ton, Lewiston, along the picturesque Juniata. 

Wild roved an Indian girl. 

Brleht Alfarata; 

Where roll the waters of 

The bine Jnniata. 

Passing Hollidaysburg and 38 miles of inclined planes over the 
mountains, Johnstown was reached at 2:00 on Thursday morning. 
Little did the straggling town dream of the overwhelming catastrophe 
less than 40 years afterwards. Here we were transferred to the canal, 
our first and last experience of that primitive method of transporta- 

George William Curtis calls the Nile the "Paradise of Travel." 
This can hardly be said of the canal, yet the long ditch has a charm. 
Slow of course, only as fast as a mule can walk or trot, but then there 
is no danger of collision, of misplaced switch, of scalding steam, of 
crushing timbers, or any other dreadful disaster. No rush, plenty of 
time. True, the accomodations were not luxurious, but you cannot 
always be at the Waldorf-Astoria. Diogenes would have felt per- 


fectly at home. On risiag in the mDrning, a tin dip ;er was at hand 
to dip the water from the canal into a tin basin for the face and 
hands, and common towels were ready to complete the toilet. These 
were limited in number and soon became saturated with abundant 
and indiscriminate patronage. A common comb and brush which 
fastidious folks hestitated to employ. The meals were substantial 
but monotonous; breakfast, dinner and supper consisting mainly of 
tea and cofFee, bread and butter, ham and bacon, liver and sausage. 
As much exercise as you pleased, when tired of lying or sitting on 
the deck or promenading its contracted area, you could readily step 
ashore at one lock and walk to the next, as they were often only a 
mile apart. Perhaps the most exciting diversion of the voyage was 
the gymnastics required of the passengers when the lookout warned 
of coming obstacles, "bridge" meant a slight ducking of the head, 
but "low bridge" meant a violent contraction of the whole anatomy 
to escape contact with some low roadway crossing the canal. Night 
was our worst trial in the frail bark, There was no sound of revelry. 
Extemporaneous shelves were placed along the sides, one over the 
other, and a delicate man below was in danger of being crushed by 
some stout fellow above. A close curtain swung on wire separated 
the sexes. Long before day the air in the narrow cabin became dis- 
tressingly foul, and at earliest streak of dawn, there was a general 
scramble for the deck and the pure air of heaven. 

To the lover of nature, the canal is an ideal method of travel. 
Rocks and trees, birds and flowers on the shore can be studied leis- 
urely in detail, and every landscape is indelibly photographed on the 
memory as it slowly vanishes in the distance. The Pennsylvania 
central was in process of construction, and as we moved through the 
deep valleys or ravines, we could see the workmen on the track away 
up on the hillsides. But every thiog comes to an end, even the novels 
of Samuel Richardson, and on Friday we reached Pittsburg, 103 miles 
from Johnstown; time, 30 hours. 

At Pittsburg we began our 1,000 miles of sail down the Ohio. Our 
boat was the "Messenger," a light vessel, the same on which Charles 
Dickens was a passenger in 1842. It was on his return to England 
that he wrote "American notes for general circulation," arousing 
some patriotic indignation. But Boz was not too severe, our manners 
and methods were certainly crude, and he honestly said so. He was 
not censorious or uncharitable. For instance, some tobacco chewers 
who called at his room in Washington, missed the spittoon at five 
paces, giving Dickens some reason to doubt the vaunted proficiency 
of American riflemen. He was surprised at the dismal quiet prevail- 
ing at mealtime. Nobody says anything to anybody, no laughter, no 
cheerfulness. Dinners are swallowed as if the necessities of nature 
were not to be coupled with recreation or enjoyment, and so on. 
These strictures were certainly justifiable, but there was a good deal 
of kicking against the presumption of the author of Pickwick in 
treading upon our American toes. 


Sitting on the deck of the Messenger, sailing down "the storied 
Ohio," as Mr. Thwaites calls the beautiful river, we were ready for 
any object of interest. A few miles below Parkersburg is Blenner- 
hassett's island. What a world of history and pathos and romance 
hangs around those wooded shores! You think of the young Irish- 
man and his wife fleeing from the old county, crossing the AUeghe- 
nies, and rearing in these primeval solitudes a home of ease and 
elegance; of Aaron Burr's appearance in this bower of Eden with his 
dreams of empire; of JefPerson's proclamation and the charge of 
treason; of Blennerhassett's flight and arrest; of the imposing trial 
at Richmond before Chief Justice Marshall, and Barr's acquittal. 
After a hopeless struggle to restore his shattered fortunes, Blenner- 
hassett died on the island of Guernsey, in 1831, while Barr, as we 
know, with the mark of Cain upon his brow, ended his days in dis- 
grace near New York, the city of his early triumph. William Wirt, 
an Attorney General of the United States, was the prosecutor of 
Barr for treason, and some of us may remember his fervid rhetoric 
in exonerating Blennerhassett from all guilt in the conspiracy. 

"Who is Blennerhassett? A native of Ireland, a man of letters, 
who fled from the storms of his own country to find quiet in ours. 
Possessing himself of a beautiful island in the Ohio, he rears upon 
it a palace, and decorates it with every romantic embellishment of 
fancy. A shrubbery that Shenstone might have envied blooms 
around him. Music that might have charmed Calypso and her 
nymphs is his. An extensive library spreads its treasures before 
him. A philosophical apparatus offers to him all the secrets and 
mysteries of nature. And to crown the enchantment of the scene, a 
wife who is said to have been lovely even beyond her sex, and graced 
with every accomplishment, had blessed him with her love." 

The island has returned to its orignal solitude, and nothing is left 
of Blennerhassett's happy home but an old well which still furnishes 
water to an occasional excursion. 

We arrived at Cincinnati on Monday morning, the third day after 
leaving Pittsburg, a distance of 465 miles, and went to the Broadway 
hotel. Cincinnati was then the largest city west of the Alleghenies, 
and bore the proud title. "Queen of the West." It was at the head 
of river navigation in the low water of summer, the depot for all 
merchandise or produce to be transported to St. Louis or New Or- 
leans, a center of hog traffic and pork packing, and a general metrop- 
olis for business and pleasure. Here was Nicholas Longworth with 
his 200 acres of Isabella and Catawba grapes and wine vaults, and a 
national reputation for horticultural enterprise. The population 
was over 150,000 to Chicago's 30,000, five to one, but the ratio is now 
reversed. The finest hotel was the well known Burnet House. 

To Louisville the next morning by steamer Telegraph. A daylight 
ride of 132 miles. A short distance below Cincinnati, on the Ohio 
shore is North Bend. On a wooded hill the tomb of President Har- 
rison could be plainly seen. After his death in Washington in 184:1, 


the body was interred in the Congressional cemetery, but was after- 
wards removed by the family to this spot The grave was neglected for 
years. The ground was ceded by John Scott Harrison, his son, to Ohio 
on agreement that the state would keep it in order, and in 1887 the 
legislature voted a tax to build a monument. Mrs. Harrison, who 
survived the general to 1864, is buried by his side at North Bend, 
which seemed to be a part of the family estate. This son, John, was 
a man of some note, having been in Congress from 1853 to 1857. 

On leaving Louisville, we were obliged to take an omnibus to the 
foot of the rapids, which interrupt navigation in low water. Our 
steamer was the Lady Franklin. She was full of freight and passen- 
gers. Thirty miles below Shawneetown, III., is Cave-in-Rock, the 
resort of Mason, an outlaw, who plundered flatboats and traders in 
1801. Cairo came into view at dusk. A group of small houses and 
wharf boats, low and desolate, did not make as striking a picture as 
Constantinople. Passing from the Ohio river into the Mississippi 
our boat was floating on a waste of waters. It was a rainy season in 
the west and all streams were over their banks. The bottom lands 
were covered for miles in every, direction. Our pilot made no at- 
tempt to keep in the channel, but took short cuts over fertile farms. 
On the raging current were borne trees, cabins, sheds, stumps, debris 
of every description Roosters on a barnyard fence crowed to us in 
vain for rescue. Just one week from Pittsburg, 1,100 miles, we 
touched the wharf or levee at St. Louis, a city even then of 100,000 
people. The streets leading from the river were narrow, crowded 
with drays as the steamboat trade was at its height, but they were 
dirty, dead rats being conspicuous in this rubbish, 

From St. Louis, 20 miles up the Mississippi to Alton. Here we 
had to take stage across the country. Our introduction to the 
Sucker state. No luxurious Concord coach with upholstered backs, 
but a rough spring wagon with a canvas cover and soft boards for 
seats. What roads! . A series of swamps. 

"We traveled all night, but the continued jolting prevented sleep. 
Happy dreams of Pullman cars would have lightened our slumbers. 
We reached Jacksonville about dinner time; 79 miles from Alton in 
23 hours . Jacksonville was already the seat of asylums, the blind, deaf 
and dumb and insane, and also of Illinois college. Here we struck 
the railroad from Naples on the Illinois river to Springfield, and 
boarded the first train for that city. This was our destination, and 
for two weeks we enjoyed the society of our relatives and early 
friends of my father, who had moved from Pennsylvania. 

Dr, William S. Wallace opened a drug store on the east side of the 
square, married a sister of Mrs. Lincoln, was long a popular physi- 
cian, and was appointed paymaster during the Civil war. J. Roland 
Diller was in the postoffice. Obed Lewis carried on the carriage 
business, married a daughter of Major lies, and was elected mayor. 
Reuben F, Ruth opened a harness store on the south side of the 
square, and was in later years president of the Marine bank. Roland 
W. Diller and his brother, Isaac R , joined the colony afterwards. 


Eoland and his friend Corneau continued the old Wallace drug store, 
which for years was the popular rendezvous in the city for men of all 
politics. Around the rusty stove gathered Lincoln, Douglas, Judge 
Logan, Baker, and the worthies of that day whose names have since 
become so familiar. 

Capt. Isaac R. Diller, who acquired his title in the Mexican war, 
was clerk of the House in 1850; postmaster of Springfield under 
Pierce from 1853 to 1857; consul at Bremen, Germany, under Bu- 
chanan from 1857 to 1361; consul at Florence, Italy, under Cleveland 
from 1886 to 1890, later making his residence in Chicago. His wife, 
Lenora, was the daughter of Doctor Heaton, a large land owner in 
Jersey county, who ended his days in Chicago. 

Daring our stay in Springfield, Mrs. Wallace gave a tea party in 
our honor, inviting her sister, Mrs. Lincoln, Mr. Lincoln and a few 
others. A table full, a lively company, but of the sayings and doings 
of the occasion, there is no record. Often since have I wished for 
the memory of Macaulay and the pen of Boswell to chronicle the 
table talk of that assembly. The Lincoln of 1851 was not the Lin- 
coln of 1861, whose fame gave every utterance widespread import- 
ance. In Congress from 1847-1849, but with no reputation outside 
the State. No doubt, he told some of the jokes that afterwards went 
the rounds of the papers, and made him the popular storyteller of his 
time. He may, for instance, have quoted the lines he composed for 
the title page of his early arithmetic, but I am not willing to be 

Abraham Lincoln, 

His band and pen. 
He will be srood. 

But God knows when. 

Springfield at that day gave little promise of its present beauty 
and prosperity. All business centered on the public square and the 
old State house was the most commanding object Here Lincoln sat 
as a member of the legislature, and was one of the "Long Nine" who 
led in the removal of the capital from Vandalia. The desk he occu- 
pied in the State house is now a cherished souvenir in the possession 
of Roland W. Diller. On the north side of the square was a succes- 
sion of little houses, called by the citizens "Chicken Row." The 
town had about 4,000 people. 

Turning our faces homeward we went by rail from Springfield to 
Naples, on the Illinois river, 70 miles, and at Naples boarded the 
steamer Connecticut for the voyage up stream. Heavy rains made 
the river look like a vast lake, bottom lands covered to the distant 
hills. We arrived at Peru the next day, a sail of about 200 miles, the 
limit of navigation on the Illinois. Here, again, the Sucker stage as 
a change in our method of locomotion, and we were soon floundering 
through the sloughs of the rolling prairies. It was in earl)'- summer 
and flowers and grass were waving in all their luxuriance. Bryant, 
the poet, before he became a fixture in New York, came to Illinois in 


1832 to visit his brothers who had settled at Princeton, and was in- 
spired by the enchanting landscape to sing one of his noblest poems: 

"These are the gardens of the desert, these. 
The unshorn fields, bounrtle8^ and beautiful. 
For which the speech of England has no name— 
The prairies, I behold them for the first. 
And my heart swells, while the dilated slsht 
Takes In the encircling vastness, Lo! they stretch 
In airy undulations, far away. 
As If the ocean in her gentlest swell 
Stood still, with all his rounded billows fixed 
And motionless forever." 

During a vacation visit in 1846 to his mother and brothers at 
Princeton, the poet Bryant's stage experience gives a good idea 
of Illinois roads in rainy weather. "A little before sunset, we were 
about to cross the Illinois canal. High water had carried away the 
bridge, and in attempting to ford, the coach wheels on one side rose 
upon some stones, and on the other side sank into the mud, and we 
were overturned in an instant. We extricated ourselves as well as 
we could. The men waded out; the women were carried, and nobody 
was drowned or hurt. A passing farm wagon conveyed the female 
passengers to the next farm house. To get out the baggage and set 
the coach on its wheels, we all had to stand waist deep in the mud. 
At nine we reached the hospitable farm house, where we passed the 
night in drying ourselves and getting our baggage ready to proceed 
the next day." 

From Peru to Dixon, an all-day stage ride of 60 miles, a distance 
now traversed by the Illinois Central trains in two hours. At Dixon, 
on Rock river, we hired a special team to take us to Sterling, 12 
miles west, also on the river. Here we were again among friends 
from Pennsylvania. Hugh Wallace and brothers, Geo. Woodburn 
and Ezekiel Kilgour, from Cumberland county. They came in 1837, 
Hugh Wallace was perhaps the most prominent citizen. He gradu- 
ated at Washington college, read law with General Porter in Lancaster, 
was a member of the Illinois legislature 1846-1852, and was appointed 
by Pierce, register of the land office at Dixon. At his hospitable 
frame cottage, known as "the fort," he and his noble wife, n6e Mary 
Gait, entertained Senator Douglas, U. F. Linder, Judge Leffingwell 
and other noted men of that time. The western part of Sterling is 
built on his old farm. 

Another esteemed citizen was Col. R. L. Wilson, who was a mem- 
ber of the legislature when the capital was removed from Vandalia to 
Springfield, and took an active part in that event. The committee 
was called the "Long Nine," from their height; all were six feet, and 
consisted of Herndon and Fletcher of the Senate, and Edwards, Daw- 
son, MoCormick, Stone, Elkin, Wilson and Abraham Lincoln of the 
House. Colonel Wilson was clerk of the Whiteside county circuit 
court from 1840 to 1860, and was appointed paymaster by Lincoln 
during the war. 

Sterling stood high and dry on its lime stone hills along the river, 
with a population of 200, in houses scattered over the prairie, east 
and west of the court house. It was a "green county town," as 
William Penn wrote of Philadelphia in its infant days. 


Oar visit at Sterling ended, we left Dixon on our last stage ride» 
for Aurora, 70 miles, and reached there at noon the next day, having 
stayed all night on the way. The railroad from Aurora to Chicago 
was the only one in Illinois in 1851, except that from Naples to 
Springfield. Chicago had only 30,000 inhabitants, but was begin- 
ning to boom. Buildings low; no skyscrapers, many of frame. ,Our 
hotel was the old Tremont. The streets were covered with plank. 
Omnibuses were the only means of transit. No union depots, as no 
through lines of railroads radiated from the city. The purchase of 
some good corner lots then on State street would have associated 
our name with Marshall Field's, 

From Chicago, a varied and delightful course homeward. Across 
Lake Michigan to New Buffalo, the western terminus of the Michi- 
gan Central, which had not then entered Chicago. It was late at 
night when we took the train and at 11:00 the next day we were in 
Detroit. Here resting all night, at 11:00 the next morning we em- 
barked on the steamer Mayflower and after a charming sail, the boat 
was at her wharf in Buffalo before we were out of our berths. By 
rail to Niagara Falls. My boyish enthusiasm was aroused as I gazed 
at last on the wondrous curiosity so, of ten admired in my geography. 
The suspension bridge below the falls had been erected not long 
before and was considered one of the engineering triumphs of the 
age. Cataract House was the principal hotel on the American side. 
Mrs. Sigourney was a stranger to me then or I should have uttered 
her appreciative lines: 

"Flow on forever, in thy glorious robe Of terror and] of beauty. 
Yes, flow on, Unfathomed and resistless." 

Buffalo to Albany over the New York Central, down the Hudson 
in the Reindeer; New York to Philadelphia via Jersey City, Trenton 
and the Delaware, Philadelphia to Lancaster. 

We were gone nearly eight weeks, June 3 to July 26, traveling by 
actual measurement 3,226 miles, at an expense for both of us of $180, 
not much more than the trip would cost today with all our improved 

Although over 50 years have passed since that early tour "and rny 
dear father, whose affectionate companionship added so much to its 
pleasure, has gone to his reward, many of the incidents have the 
vividness of yesterday. I live the trip over every year of my life. 
"Haec olim meminisse juvabit. 

"Oft In the stilly nlffht. 

'Ere slumber's chain has bound me, 
Fond memory briugs the light 

Of other days around me." 



(Hon. E. A. Snlvely.) 

Considering the part the newspapers and newspaper men have 
played in the history of Illinois, the entire time of this meeting 
could be taken up ia recounting their victories, and then the half 
would not be told. For this occasion I have determined to make no 
reference to any person whose connection with the press began sub- 
sequent to 1860, leaving a history of the latter part of the last century 
to be taken up by some one at a future meeting of the society. 

I have selected this period in the State's history, at this time, 
because with the beginning of the war of the rebellion, there was a 
complete change in the newspapers of the State, The campaign of 
1860 was so closely allied to this change that it should be included 
in a history of the press of the State, which deals with it as it is 
today. As we know newspapers there were few of them in Illinois 
in the years of which I shall speak. 

I propose to tell of the newspaper as it was in an era when no one 
had dreamed of a telephone, an ocean cable, an automobile, a woman's 
club, the daughters of the American revolution, a steam thresher, a 
selfbinder, appendicitis, heart failure, or any of the other many mod- 
ern improvements that now engross so much of our attention. 

The average citizen of today, who takes his evening paper with his 
supper knows little of the paper 60 and 70 years ago, and still less of 
the struggles of the earnest men who, under the very greatest diffi- 
culties, produced the early newspapers of the State. 

The first newspaper published in Illinois was'published at Kaskas- 
kia and called the "Illinois Herald," the publisher being Mathew 
Duncan, the first issue dated Sept. 6th, 1814. It was a three column 
folio, and the most of its space was given up to the publication of the 
laws of Congress. The paper was subsequently sold to Daniel P. 
Cook and Robert Blackwell. Mr. Cook sold his interest to Elijah C. 
Berry, who subsequently became the purchaser of Mr. Blackwell's 
interest. When Cook and Blackwell purchased the paper they 
changed its name to the "Illinois Intelligencer." When the seat of 
government was removed to Vandalia, the "Intelligencer" or at least 


a goodly portion of it, went along and the name of the paper was 
changed to the "Vandalia Intelligencer." Its name was again 
changed in 1823, to "Illinois Intelligencer," and it was an important 
factor in the fight against the calling of the constitutional conven- 
tion in 1824. When the printing material of the "Intelligencer" was 
divided, that part which remained at Kaskaskia was utilized in the 
publication of a paper called the "Republican Advocate." Elias 
Kent K;me was the editor, and after his election to the United States 
senate, he sold the paper to Robert K. Fleming, who had been in 
charge of the mechanical department. Mr. Fleming moved the 
material to Vandalia and attempted to establish a paper there, but 
meeting with no encouragement, he moved the material to Edwards- 
ville and established the "Illinois Corrector." In about one year 
the "Corrector" was suspended and the material taken again to Kas- 
kaskia where a paper called the "Recorder" was published, and it 
continued from November 1828 until October 1833, when the material 
was removed to Belleville and the "St. Clair Gazette" established. 

In July or August, 1818, Mr. Henry Eddy started from Pittsburg 
with a printing outfit, intending to go to St. Louis and there publish 
a paper. At Shawneetown the boat was stranded on a sandbar. The 
citizens of the town, learning Mr. Eddy's intentions, induced him to 
unload his printing material and the "Shawnee Chief" was given to 
the world on the 5th day of September, 1818, and Illinois was the 
proud possessor of two newspapers. After a few issues the name of 
the paper was changed to the "Illinois Emigrant." 

On May 23rd, 1819, at Edwardsville, Hooper Warren began the 
publication of the "Edwardsville Spectator." Hooper Warren was 
one of the great men of his day. A most forceful writer, his bravery 
was a twin brother to his ability. He was opposed to slavery, and 
in the battle to make Illinois a slave State his editorial pen was one 
of the greatest weapons in the conflict. He sold the "Spectator" 
and then repurchased it, moving the material to Springfield, where 
he published the "Sangamon Spectator." In 1829, in company with 
two other gentlemen he went to Galena and established the "Galena 
Advertiser" and "Upper Mississippi Herald." In 1836 he removed 
to Chicago and established the "Commercial Advertiser," which was 
the third paper published in Chicago. Subsequently in 1850, he 
removed to Princeton and published the "Bureau Advocate," and 
afterwards again removed to Chicago where, in company with Z. 
Eastman he published the "Free West and Western Citizen." 

The fifth paper published in the State was called the "Star of the 
West," and was published at Edwardsville. A man named Miller, 
accompanied by his son, owned a printing office in Pennsylvania, 
which they started with to the West looking for a location. Upon 
arriving at Edwardsville they were induced to unload the material 
and set up an office, and the paper was called the "Star of the West." 
It became an advocate of the pro-slavery constitution and was pub- 
lished from Sept. 14th, 1822, until July 28th, 1824, one week before 
the convention was defeated. 


On the 25th day of April, 1829, the first issue of the "Pioneer," 
published at Rook Spring, made its appearance. It was printed by 
Thomas P. Grreen and his son, but it was edited by Rev. John M. 
Peck. No mention of the early history of Illinois is complete with- 
out bringing out prominently the life and history of Rev. John M. 
Peck, and paying tribute to his work and worth not only in aiding 
to defeat the pro-slavery constitution, but for the publication of his 
Gazetteer and his untiring zeal in behalf of the upbuilding of the 
new State. The "Pioneer" was a five column folio and was the first 
religious paper published in Illinois. 

Some of the historians assert that the publication of the "Western 
News" began in 1826 or 1827. This is an error. The "Sangamon 
Spectator" of Jan. 26, 1828, contains the prospectus of the "Western 
News" and "Farmers' Weekly Intelligencer " The paper was to be 
published as soon as cJOO subscribers were secured at $1.50 each. 
Evidently when this prospectus was printed there had been a sus- 
pension of some of the papers because it states there was then only 
four newspapers in the State. 

Beginning with the early 80's and from that time on newspapers 
were established as the towns grew in population, and I will not fol- 
low up, in chronological order, the various papers which made their 

The first daily established in Illinois was the "Gazette," published 
then, as now, at Galena. Its first issue was June 1, 1817, and nine 
days later the first issue of the "Chicago Daily Tribune" made its 

Prior to the war, the editors of papers had a more extended per- 
sonal acquaintance — or were known by a much greater proportionate 
number of people — than are the editors of today. The reason for 
this can be found in the smaller number of papers then as com- 
pared with the present time and the impersonality which now sur- 
rounds the papers, and especially the great metropolitan papers. 

In the earlier days the establishment of a newspaper was not 
caused by the desire on the part of the business men to advance 
the business interests of their town and county, so much as the 
material interests of the politicians." The majority of newspapers in 
Illinois, or at least, so far as numbers go, a most respectable minority, 
were owned and controlled by the politicians of the county seat. 
While printing material was high-priced, the amount required to 
establish a political "'organ" was small, and the advantages to the 
party, or a faction of a party, were considered very great. The early 
history of newspapers shows that many were established. They were 
published through one campaign and then suspended and the ma- 
terial hauled away to some other field. Thus a part of the old 


"Intelligencer" printing office went from Kaskaskia to Vandalia, 
thence to Belleville and finally again landed at its starting point. 

The newspaper then was not published to furnish news, but ideas. 
The small amount of news furnished, was intended merely to give 
force and effect to the editorial utterances The paper seldom con- 
tained more than one editorial in each issue, and in a majority of 
cases, the article was written by the local politician whose native 
sense and acquired education made him the most prominent figure 
in his party. The editorial was not written hurriedly and neither was 
it written in the style of a freshman or a sophomore. It was the re- 
sult of the same study and research which characterizes the minister 
in the preparation of his sermon. The principles of government, 
the action of congress and the State legislature were discussed in a 
manner that showed the development of great study and profound 
thought. This one article was called the "leader," and the country 
paper of ante- war days would, under no consideration, go to press 
without its "leader." If the politicians had not written one and the 
editor could not, there was recourse to the scissors and one of the ex- 
changes published farthest away. Seldom was the editorial page 
graced with more than one article. At times of great political ex- 
citement more than the usual amount of space was sometimes devoted 
to the discussion of political matters, but it required a presidential 
or gubernatorial election to bring this about. There was practically 
no local news. A matter which now would be served up in a column 
in any newspaper would then be disposed of in a half dozen lines. 
Mrs. Jones might give the most elaborate pink tea ever known in the 
county, but there would be no mention of it in the paper. The birth 
of a two-headed calf, the sale of a 900 pound hog or a visit of the 
member of congress might be recorded in a line or two, but it re- 
quired some such event to produce a local item. The subscription 
list was small and often paid in cord wood, beeswax, potatoes, pork, 
cabbage or anything else the farm produced. 

While all that I have said of the meagerness of the editorials in 
the press, it is no doubt true, that the greatest battle, in the news- 
papers, ever known in Illinois, was that waged for and against the 
adoption of the pro-slavery constitution. The papers were few in 
number and small in size. But their columns were filled with such 
brainy production as never before or since have been known. Among 
those opposed to the convention were Governor Coles, Morris Bick- 
beck, John M. Peck, Samuel D. Lockwood, Robert Blackwell, Daniel 
P. Cook, Henry Eddy, George Forquer and others, Among those 
who favored the convention were Elias Kent Kane, Jesse B Thomas, 
John McLean, Samuel McRoberts, Chief Justice Phillips, Judge 
Casey, and others of equal ability and prominence While but few 
of these men were actively engaged in the newspaper business, it is 
but just to them and the craft, that their names be considered when 
newspaper history is written, because they were all, more or less, 
financially interested in the publication of the papers of that day. 


And each of them, either in the form of communications or in edito- 
rials written for the few papers then in existence, placed himself 
along with the men whose names adorned the editorial columns of 
the papers. That great contest, to the issue of which Illinois, un- 
doubtedly, owes her position today, was a battle of intellects — a 
battle of brain against brain — a battle in which every superior mind 
in the young commonwealth took part, and through the columns of 
the press carried on a warfare never before equaled. What could 
not the State afford to pay for a file of the newspapers of that day? 
What an example and an inspiration they would be to the modern 
journalist whose only idea is to paint everything as yellow as pos- 

When early newspaper men, in Illinois, are mentioned, the mind 
instinctively turns to Alton and the murder of Lovejoy. His life, 
his history and his tragic death are familiar to all. He was a type 
of the old-time editor, albeit, he was a man of far more ability than 
most of them, and with a courage that was never excelled. Others 
there were who believed all he believed, who taught, but in a differ- 
ent manner all that he taught, Many of these lived to see the fulfillment 
of his desires and to realize that the blood of that martyr was one of 
the seeds of the final abolition of slavery. 

The destruction of another newspaper office resulted in a tragedy 
which marks almost, if not quite, as important an epoch in our history. 
Some parties in Nauvoo established a newspaper in opposition to 
mormonism. Only one issue was printed, when the city council, 
under the lead of Joseph Smith, declared the paper a nuisance and 
ordered the press and type thrown into the Mississippi river. This 
outrage on a free press together with other offenses against the laws, 
lead to the arrest of Joseph and Hyrum Smith, their incarceration 
in the Carthage jail and their subsequent death. 

John Wentworth became editor of the Chicago Democrat in 1836 
and continued in that capacity for more than a quarter of a century. 
He imparted to the columns of his paper much of his unique person- 
ality. It was he who gave to the State banks and their currency the 
name of "wild cat" and for many issues of his paper each column on 
its first page was ornamented with a picture of the ferocious animal. 
He was one of the three men who have represented Republican 
and Democratic constituencies in Congress from Illinois. 

Joseph Medill assumed editorial control of the Chicago Tribune 
on the 18th of June, 1855. It is doubtful if any other paper wielded 
an equal influence in the earlier years of the Republican party. The 
State has had no more independent journalist than Mr. Medill. As 
a general thing he was always to be found in line with his party. 
The most notable example when he saw his duty to be cut loose from 
his party fetters was in 1869, when he ran as an independent dele- 
gate for the constitutional convention, After his election he was 

— 14H 


offered the presidency of the convention by the Republicans, but re- 
fused. He had advocated non- partisanship in the selection of dele- 
gates and he adhered to his position. 

It has been generally understood that Gov. John M. Palmer estab- 
lished the Carlinville Free Democrat, now the Carlinville Democrat. 
In his "memoirs," however, he, says, he and his partner merely loaned 
the money to the gentlemen who established the paper. It is true, 
however, that it was understood that Grovernor Palmer was the power 
behind the throne in the early days of the paper's publication, and 
this fact gave the paper a wide influence. In 1878 Governor Palmer 
came into possession of the Illinois State Register, which he pub- 
lished for some time. Once when he was called upon to defend 
something which appeared in the Register, he said that while he 
owned it, he hired an editor and never wrote anything for it except 
on Saturday night, and then he only wrote checks. 

Paul Selby, in 1848, assumed editorial charge of the Morgan Jour- 
nal, and subsequently, for a time, edited the Quincy Whig. For 
18 years he was editor of the Illinois State Journal. He was always 
firm in his beliefs, and expressed them in a calm, dignified manner. 
He was conscientious in his work, and in his long career enjoyed the 
respect of all. 

Charles H. Lanphier entered the office of the Illinois State Regis- 
ter in 1836, when the paper was published at Vandalia. When the 
office was removed to Springfield, Mr. Lanphier went with it, and his 
connection with the paper continued until 18B6, during 20 years of 
which time he was the editor. Mr. Lanphier was a close personal 
and political friend of Stephen A. Douglas, and it was he who man- 
aged the senatorial campaign in 1858. 

Judge T. Lyle Dickey for a short time was the acknowledged edi- 
tor of a Whig newspaper in Rushville, and it is no doubt true that 
for two or three years he and James W. Singleton were the real edi- 
tors of the paper. 

John W. Merritt assumed control of the Belleville Advocate in 
1848, and three years later moved to Salem, where he published a 
paper called the Advocate until 1864, when, in company with his son, 
he purchased the Illinois State Register, which he conducted for a 
number of years. 

Perhaps the one family most noted in the history of Illinois jour- 
nalism during the period of which I write was the Brooks family. 
S S, Brooks began his editorial career at Edwardsville about 1832. 
From there he went in turn to Jacksonville, Alton, Springfield, 
Quincy, Lewiston, Alton, Quincy, Peoria, Quincy, Upon returning 
for his third residence in the latter city, he was elected clerk of the 
circuit court, and was filling that position at the time of his death. 

Austin, John P., Martin and Samuel S., ail sons of S. S. Brooks, 
were noted for their connection with the press of Illinois. Austin 
Brooks began his newspaper career in Shawneetown before he was 21 
years of age Subsequently he went to Mt. Carmel, In 1847 or 1848 
he went to Quincy, and from that time until his death in 1870, was 


connected most of the time as editor and publisher of the Herald. 
He was a second edition of George D. Prentice, and no paper in the 
State was oftener quoted than the Herald under his management. 

John P. Brooks began his editorial career in 1848, taking charge of 
the Canton Register. He afterwards entered the ministry, but at 
different times was engaged in newspaper work. In 1862 he was 
elected State superintendent of public instruction. 

Martin and Samuel S. Brooks have both been connected with 
newspapers in the State, but that connection was subsequent to 1860. 

In 1855 James M. Davidson began the publication of the Fulton 
Democrat, which he conducted until 1858. The year following he 
begun the publication of the Squatter Sovereign, and after changing 
its name to the Havana Post, sold it to John B. Wright in the sum- 
mer of 1861. In 1865 he became the owner of the Carthage Repub- 
lican, which he conducted until his death in 1894. He was recog- 
nized as one of the ablest editors ever connected with the press in 
central Illinois. ^ 

Mr. Davidson was no doubt the first country editor to resort to 
cartoons. He was his own artist. He drew his cartoons on a piece 
of paper, then transferred them to the bottom of some old patent 
medicine stereotype cut and with a sharp knife finished the work. 
They were equally as original and appropriate as any which now 
embellish the pages of the metropolitan papers and were very prop- 
erly envied — and often borrowed — by his brother editors. 

James ShoafiP, for years connected with the press of our neighbor- 
ing city of Decatur was known all over the State. He was a kind, 
genial man, a vigorous and forceful writer when he felt the occasion 
demanded it, 

In 1843 John H. Bryant became the editor of the Bureau Advo- 
cate, and continued with the paper until 1863. Prior to Mr. Bryant's 
assuming charge of the paper each issue of the paper was edited by 
a committee of Whigs, a committee of Democrats and a committee 
of Liberty advocates, each party having the use of two columns in 
which to advocate its cause 

John G. Nicolay began his literary career prior to the war, as editor 
of the Pike County Journal, a Republican paper published in Pike 

I have named a few only, of the most prominent men connected 
with the press prior to 1860. In a general way, I have selected 
those whose business was journalism in the strict sense of the word, 
and leaving out of count those whose connection with the press was 
a mere temporary matter for the accomplishment of some particular 

So far as I now recall there are only seven persons actively en- 
gaged in journalism today, in Illinois, who were so engaged prior to 
1860. These are Charles Holt, Kankakee Gazette; William Osman, 
Ottawa Free-Trader; Ben. F. Shaw, Dixon Telegraph; W. T. David- 
son, Fulton Democrat; S. Y. Thornton, Canton Ledger; George W. 


Harper, Robinson Argus and H. M. Kimball, Macoupin County 
Argus. Chas. Holt began his career as an editor in 1848, but he did 
not come to Illinois until 1864, and since that time has been con- 
stantly in the business. 

William Osman has been connected as editor and publisher with 
the Ottawa Free-Trader since its establishment in 1848. 

W. T. Davidson became proprietor of the Fulton Democrat in 1858. 

S, Y. Thornton became part owner of the Fulton County Ledger 
in 1856 and the following year became its sole owner and has con- 
tinued as sole proprietor and editor since. 

H. M. Kimball began his career as editor of the Carlinville Free 
Democrat in 1856. 

George W. Harper began the publication of the Banner at Pales- 
tine in 1856. After serving in the army he settled in Robinson 
where he has since published a paper. 

Benjamin F. Shaw has been connected with the Dixon Telegraph 
for almost half a century. He was a member of the Anti-Nebraska 
Editorial convention which met in Decatur on the 22nd of February, 
1856, and was also a member of the first Republican State convention 
in this State, and he has steadily held to that faith since. 

The old time editor was one of nature's most perfect composites. 
In the office he was type setter, job printer, pressman, bookkeeper, 
business manager and editor. He was prominent in every movement 
that was for the benefit of his town. He was secretary for his party 
conventions and committees. Sometimes he was a leader in the 
church and superintendent of the Sabbath school, and sometimes he 
did a great deal more than his share towards raising the government 

He was posted upon all questions from the tarifP to the proper time 
in the moon to plant potatoes. He could discuss foreign affairs or 
the creed of any religious sect. He may never have been possessed 
of $100 at one time, but he could discuss financial questions with 
the head of the bank of England. No man in the community received 
as little pay (unless it was the preacher) for the amount of good he 
accomplished. He went about his tasks with a willingness and a 
cheerfulness that evidenced his patience under circumstances and 
conditions that often were the most discouraging. He was firm 
in his convictions but accorded to others the same rights he claimed 
for himself. Like Charity, as described by St. Paul, the old time 
editor suffered long and was kind, he thought no evil; he was not 
pufiFed up; he vaunted not himself; he rejoiced not in iniquity but 
rejoiced in the truth; he hoped for all things and endured all things, 

A few of the number were in no way creditable to the profession — 
they were coarse, vulgar and brutal in their editorials, but these soon 
fell by the wayside while the gentlemen in the sanctum remained as 
a living monument to the survival of the fittest. 


The old time editor saved Illinois from the curse of slavery. He 
followed along, but more often lead, the march of improvement, and 
at all times was in the fore-front of all movements to aid in develop- 
ing the State. As population increased and the time came when the 
newspaper was a necessity, and not a luxury, he was ready to meet 
the demands. Many of them suspended their papers and took up 
arms in defense of the flag, and on their return fitted themselves 
into the new environment as best they could, but found that in the 
general conduct of a newspaper, they had to serve a new apprentice- 

Nearly all of the men who were prominent in the newspaper his- 
tory of our State during the period which I have briefly and most 
imperfectly covered, have gone to their long home. On the founda- 
tions builded by them has been erected a press that is recognized 
everywhere as leading that of any State in the Union. At the meet- 
ings of the national editorial association, Illinois has for years occu- 
pied the seat of honor, and the hundreds of splendid newspapers 
today which reflect the industry, enterprise and intelligence of the 
communities in which they are publi8hed,owe their beginning to the 
tireless energy and unceasing toil of the pioneers of Illinois journal- 



(Paul Selby. A. M.) 

Not only the State of Illinois, but the entire nation, owes a debt 
of gratitude to an earnest and progressive group of Illinoisans for 
what has been accomplished, within the last 40 years, in the develop- 
ment of a system of national education based upon instruction in the 
practical and mechanic arts, as well as in general literature, languages 
and the abstract sciences, and I felt that it was due to the memories 
of the champions of this measure, that some record of their labors 
and achievements should go into the "Transactions" of this Society. 
In this I refer to the act passed by the Congress of the United States 
in 1862, and approved by President Lincoln on July 2d of that year, 
making a grant to each state and territory of public lands in the 
proportion of 30,000 acres for each Senator and Representative or 
Delegate in Congress to which such state or territory might be enti- 
tled, for the "endowment, support and maintenance of at least one 
college, where the leading object shall be, without excluding other 
scientific and classical studies, and including military tactics, to 
teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the 
mechanic arts, in such manner as the legislatures of the states may 
respectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical 
education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and profes- 
sions in life." An evidence of the far-reaching results which have 
attended the operation of this act, is furnished by the fact that, ac- 
cording to the report of the Commissioner of Education for the year 
ending June 30, 1903, there are now 66 institutions in existence based 
upon this appropriation of public lands — embracing at least one in 
each state and territory of the Union except Alaska— having a total 
yaluation of property amounting to nearly $70,000,000.00, and giving 
instruction in their several departments during the year 1902 to more 
than 47,000 students. 

Although it may naturally occur to some that this subject has been 
treated with entire accuracy and ample completeness by Mr. Pills- 
bury in his comprehensive article on "The University of Illinois," 
printed in the biennial report of State Superintendent of Public In- 
struction (Dr. Richard Edwards) for 1887-88 —and, while recogniz- 
ing the value of that excellent article, I have not hesitated to draw 
upon it for many facts in the preparation of this paper — I hope to 
be able to present some additional items obtained from other sources, 

Jonathan Baldwin Turner. 


including contemporaneous journals, the records of Congress and 
some of the principal actors in securing the enactment of this meas- 
ure, which may not be without interest in this connection. 

By way of preface, it may be said that the subject of founding 
schools affording opportunities for industrial training, not only for 
the benefit of the laboring classes, but for the promotion of social 
and domestic economy in connection with literary and scientific in- 
struction, began to attract the attention of philanthropists and econ- 
omists at an early day. As early as 1651, during the days of the 
the "Commonwealth" in England, as appears from an article by the 
late Prof. Henry Barnard in the "American Journal of Education" 
of 1871, one Samuel Hartlib, in a volume entitled, "An Essay for ad- 
vancement of Husbandry-Learning; or Propositions for the erecting 
a college of Husbandry; and in order thereto, for the taking in of 
Pupills or apprentices; and also for Friends or Fellows of the same 
CoUedge or Society," proposed a plan of instruction in agricultural 
pursuits, stock-growing, the study and management of soils, etc., in 
connection with popular education, in some respects not unlike that 
championed by the friends of industrial education two centuries 
later. That he had the sympathy and cooperation of Milton, Cow- 
ley and other distinguished men of that period in his enterprise, 
is shown by their correspondence with him approving his plans. 
("American Journal of Education," 1871, pp. 29, 191.) Hartlib, 
who was the son of a Polish merchant, married an English woman, 
and spent his life and fortune in the effort to promote his scheme, 
dying in poverty in 1665. A generation later we find that Thomas 
Budd, who had come from England in 1678, and a few years later re- 
ceived a large grant of land from New Jersey for building a market 
and court house at Burlington, in that colony, in 1685 issued an elab- 
orate treatise favoring a requirement that all children should receive 
at least seven year's schooling; that this should include both literary 
and mechanical training; that 1,000 acres of land should be set apart 
for the support of each school, and that the children of the poor and 
the Indians should receive the same benefits therefrom, free of charge, 
as other pupils. ("Industrial Training Two Centuries Ago," by 
George P. Morris— Popular Science Monthly, 1887, p. 608.) These 
two schemes bear so strong a resemblance to each other as to justify 
the belief that the later one may have been suggested by the earlier. 

It is claimed that Edinburg University was "the first university in 
Europe to possess a chair of agricultural science," founded "as far 
back as 1790." Several institutions in England at a later period 
maintained departments in which agriculture was taught as a science, 
the most notable being the Royal Agricultural College at Gloucester, 
founded in 1845. The greatest activity in the development of tech- 
nical education appears to have been in existence, however, in the 
continental countries of Europe in the early part of the last century, 
especially in Switzerland. Germany, France and Belgium, and later 
in America. An agricultural college was founded in Hofwyl, Switz- 
erland, in 1806 — one report says it was established in 1804, as a 
manual labor experiment, Originally intended for the benefit of the 


peasantry class having "no other property than their physical and 
mental faculties," in the thirty years of its existence it passed through 
a course of development similar to that of some of our American 
schools, during which classical and normal departments were added. 
During the first half of the last century a decided advance was made 
in this line in many European countries, to which a strong impulse 
was given by the International Exposition at London in Ibol. An- 
other developing cause in connection with technical education, at a 
later period, has been traced to the Franco-German war in 1871, at 
least as regards the two countries engaged in the struggle; and it is 
now conceded that Grermany is in the lead in this line, with her rival, 
France, a close second, followed by Austria, while similar movements 
have been started in Italy, Holland, Sweden and Russia, and even in 
Japan and some of the South American republics. In Germany and 
most of the European states these institutions take the form of tech- 
nological schools, in which engineering and the higher branches of 
practical science are taught. 

So much has been said by way of introduction to the main topic 
of this paper, as indicating what had been in progress in other 
countries, and illustrating "how history repeats itself" under varying 
conditions, in different periods and among widely separated peoples, 
possibly, at times, without the knowledge of its most active agents. 
Coming to our own country, we find that, as early as 1820, the sub- 
ject of manual labor in connection with the Maine Wesleyan Semi- 
nary began to be agitated with a view to aiding indigent students, 
and five years later the plan was put in operation, including both 
farm and mechanical industries Probably the next step taken in 
this line was the founding of the "Oneida Institute of Science and 
Industry," established at Whitesboro, N. Y., in 1827, by the Rev. 
George W. Gale, who afterwards became one of the founders of the 
city of Galesburg in this State, which was named in his honor. Mr. 
Gale retired from the Oneida Institute in 1835, and two years later, 
in conjunction with others who had united with him in locating a col- 
ony in Knox county, 111., matured his plans for the establishment of 
the "Knox Manual Labor College," which was put in operation^ in 
1838, A few years later, the manual labor feature having been elim- 
inated, this institution took its present name of Knox College. 

It is worthy of note that the manual labor feature was incorporated 
in the plan of several institutions established in Illinois at an earlier 
period, including Illinois College at Jacksonville, McKendree College 
at Lebanon, and possibly others. "Agriculture" and "some branches 
of mechanics" were named by the founders of Illinois College as "part 
of the system of education whereby the health of the students will 
be promoted and their expenses diminished," and the college started 
with a farm of 160 acres, farming utensils, a carpentet shop, and 
other implements of industry, while I have the authority of the pres- 
ent president of McKendree College, Dr. Chamberlin, for the state- 
ment that a manual training department was established in connec- 
tion with that institution in 1836 and a shop erected. This was be- 
fore the days of the gymnasium and foot-ball, and although the 


manual labor feature, as a part of the "college curriculum," was 
dropped later, there were still those who, from necessity or choice, 
availed themselves of the privilege of "working their way through 
college," and afterwards won distinction as scholars and in profes- 
sional life, an illustrious example being our revered friend and the 
distinguished educator, the late Dr. Newton Bateman. 

Another institution which adopted the manual labor feature in a 
more positive manner and had considerable prestige in its day, was 
the "Ebenezer Manual Labor School," organized by the conference of 
the Methodist Episcopal church in 1835 or '36, under the presidency 
of Rev. Peter Akers, who had previously been president of McKen- 
dree College, It was located four miles north of Jacksonville and 
continued in operation several years under three or four different 
presidents, Three young Chippewa Indians were educated in this 
school, who afterwards became prominent as missionaries among 
their people. About the same year Dr. David Nelson, a native of 
Tennessee and former slave-holder, but denounced as an Abolition- 
ist, established just outside the boundary of the city of Quincy what 
was known as "Mission Institute," for the purpose of educating 
young men contemplating becoming missionaries. This school, pro- 
jected on the manual labor plan, was the successor of another of a 
similar character set on foot by Dr. Ely and Nelson in Marion 
county, Mo., from which they were driven by the friends of slavery. 
A Rev D. W. EUmore, who settled in what is now St. Charles town- 
ship, Kane county, 111 , about 1836, projected the establishment there 
of a large industrial school, and in 1851 had platted a village as its 
location, which he had named "Asylum." A bill for the incorpora- 
tion of the school is said to have been introduced in the legislature, 
but the consummation of the scheme was defeated by his death by 
lightning, July 29, 1854. There has been no more prominent insti- 
tution of this class than Oberlin College, Ohio, which was originally 
founded as a manual labor school with the avowed purpose of admit- 
ting pupils without regard to color; and it is claimed that, during the 
iBrst 25 years of its existence, a majority of its graduates supported 
themselves by teaching or by manual labor. Although its manage- 
ment provoked bitter hostility, it still exists and is recognized as one 
of the influential and prosperous institutions of the middle west. 

It would be interesting to follow out the history of some of these 
institutions in detail did space permit, but this is impracticable 
within the space allotted to this paper. Their existence marked a 
transition period in the history of education, implying an effort to 
furnish to the young an opportunity of securing an education while 
supporting themselves by their labor. With the passing of the 
necessity for schools of this character in consequence of the more 
liberal endowment of institutions and the increased wealth of the 
people, the term "manual labor school" has undergone a marked 
change in meaning, implying as it does now an institution whose 
pupils, while receiving literary and scientific instruction, are quali- 
fying themselves by a systematic training for some business pursuit 
either in commerce, in the arts, as electrical or civil engineers, or as 


skilled mechanics. The manual training and technological schools, 
existing now in nearly every large city of the country — of which the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in Boston, is a notable ex- 
ample — furnish an illustration of the progress that has been made 
in this direction within the past half century — a progress called forth 
by the marvelous inventions during the same period, and which it 
has, at the same time, tended to promote. 

The conditions and events already described, while indicating what 
a progressive and philanthropic class were seeking to accomplish by 
crude and imperfect methods, often in the face of insurmountable 
obstacles, naturally leads up to the period in which Illinoisans be- 
came prominent and influential factors in a movement which was 
finally crowned with success and was of interest to the whole nation. 
From an early period in its history Illinois had been in possession of 
what was known as a "college"' and "seminary fund" — the first based 
upon a percentage of the proceeds from the sale of public lands 
within the State, and the second derived from the direct donation of 
two townships of such lands, in accordance with the enabling act of 
1818, empowering the people to organize a State government — both 
being in practical recognition of the declaration contained in the 
Ordinance of 1787, that, "Religion, morality and knowledge being 
necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools 
and the means of education shall forever be encouraged." Though 
set apart for a specific purpose, these funds had been appropriated 
during a period of stress in the State treasury to the payment of 
current expenses, and never applied to the purpose for which they 
were intended. Previous to 1850, as population increased and agri- 
cultural and other industrial organizations began to multiply, there 
arose a strong demand for the restoration of these funds and their 
application to the founding of a State institution, either for the edu- 
cation of teachers or furnishing instruction in branches related to 
the practical arts and sciences, or both. 

One of those who took a deep interest in the question at this early 
day was Prof. Jonathan B, Turner, of Jacksonville, who had been, 
for 14 years, a professor in Illinois College, from which he retired in 
1847. In a convention of teachers held in Pike county in 1850, he 
suggested a plan for the establishment of a State university based 
upon the college and seminary fund — then estimated at about 
$800,000 — which met with the earnest approval of those present, and 
soon after he delivered an address at Griggsville in the same county, 
in which he gave utterance to his views in reference to a "system of 
national education." This is believed to have been the prelude, if 
not the actual inception — at least so far as the west was concerned — 
of the measure which, in the next 12 years, was debated with con- 
stantly increasing interest, in educational conventions, industrial 
associations and other deliberative bodies throughout the country. 
The subject was taken up by the press — especially the agricultural — 
with the result that Professor Turner was invited to address a con- 
vention of farmers, held at Granville, Putnam county, Nov. 18, 1851, 


in explanation of his scheme. This convention was held under the 
auspices of the "Buel Institute," an association composed of mem- 
bers from Putnam, LaSalle, Bureau, Peoria, Marshall and Livingston 
counties, accustomed to meet two or three times yearly for the pur- 
pose of holding annual fairs and discussing topics of common interest, 
"Buel Institute" was organized in 1846, at Lowell, LaSalle county, 
where Benjamin Lundy, an early abolitionist and the proselytizer of 
William Lloyd Garrison, in 1839 projected the issue of his anti- 
slavery paper — "The Genius of Universal Emancipation" — but which 
was frustrated by his death soon after coming to Illinois. 

The association embraced among its members the more prominent 
and progressive citizens of that section of the State, many of whom 
were farmers, including the Bryants (John H. and Arthur), brothers 
of the poet William Oullen Bryant, of whom the first named still 
survived until about two years ago at Princeton in Bureau county. 
Among the speakers occasionally called upon to discuss public ques- 
tions before the institute, were Owen Lovejoy and others of State 
and national reputation. 

The object of the meeting referred to, as announced in the call, 
was "to take into consideration such measures as might be deemed 
most expedient to further the interests of the agricultural community, 
and particularly to take steps towards the establishment of an Agri- 
cultural University." Professor Turner was made "chairman of the 
committee on business" which, among other items, reported the fol- 

"That we take immediate measures for the establishment of a uni- 
versity in the State of Illinois, expressly to meet those felt wants of 
each and all the industrial classes of our State; that we recommend 
the foundation of high schools, lyceums, institutes, etc., in each of 
the counties on similar principles, as soon as they may find it prac- 
ticable to do so." 

The report adds: 

"After reading the above resolutions. Professor Turner proceeded 
in an able and interesting manner, to unfold his plan for the estab- 
lishment and maintenance of the Industrial University. 

Daring the second day's session resolutions were adopted express- 
ing approval of "the general plan for an Illinois State University for 
the industrial classes presented by Professor Turner," and requesting 
him to "furnish the outlines of his plan" for publication. Provision 
was also made for its gratuitous distribution in pamphlet form, with 
the request that it be copied by the press; appointing a central com- 
mittee (of which Professor Turner was named as chairman) to call 
a State convention of the friends of the measure coincidently with 
the meeting of the next session of the Legislature, and requesting 
the Governor, in the event of the calling of a special session, to enu- 
merate among the subjects to be acted upon, "the establishment of 
an Industrial University." In a letter written by Professor Turner 


in 1865, giving his recollections of the history of the movement, he 
says: "This (the Granville convention), so far as I know, was the 
first deliberative body by whom this subject (of an Industrial Uni- 
versity) was ever discussed." 

"The Plan," as it was called, was given to the public through 
the medium of the press, and at once called forth wide comment and 
discussion. Evidence of the date of its appearance and the character 
of its recommendations, is furnished in the Patent Office report (Ag- 
ricultural Department) for 1851, in which it was published in full. 
As a reason for providing means for the more liberal education of 
the industrial classes, "The Plan" says: 

"The same general abstract science exists in the world for both 
classes (the professional and the industrial) alike; but the means of 
bringing this abstract truth into effectual contact with the daily bus- 
iness and pursuits of the one class does exist, while in the other case 
it does not exist, and never can until it is created. The one class 
have schools, seminaries, colleges, universities, apparatus, professors 
and multitudinous appliances for educating and training them for 
months and years for the peculiar profession which is to be the bus- 
iness of their life. . . . But where are the universities, appara- 
tus, the professors and the literature specifically adapted to any one 
of the industrial classes? ... In other words, society has 
become, long since, wise enough to know that teachers need to be 
educated; but it has not yet become wise enough to know that its 
workers need education just as much." 

It then proceeds to discuss the questions: 1. "What do the indus- 
trial classes want?" and 2. "How can that want be supplied?" 

The answer was: 

"They want, and they ought to have, the same facilities for under- 
standing the true philosophy — the science and the art — of their 
several pursuits (their life business) , and of efficiently applying exist- 
ing knowledge thereto and widening its domain, which the profes- 
sional classes have long enjoyed in their pursuits. . . . They 
need a similar system of liberal education for their own class, and 
adapted to their own pursuits; to create for them an industrial litera- 
ture adapted to their professional wants; to raise up for them teachers 
and lecturers to elevate them, their pursuits and their posterity to 
that relative position in human society for which Grod designed 

Among the needs of such a system, it was argued, were "a suffi- 
cient quantity of land of variable soil and aspects" for experiments in 
agriculture; "buildings of appropriate size and construction for ordi- 
nary and special uses;" "philosophical, chemical, anatomical and in- 
dustrial apparatus;" cabinets "embracing every thing that relates to, 
illustrates or facilitates any one of the industrial arts;" specimens in 
natural history — animals, birds, reptiles, trees, shrubbery, plants, 
etc. Instruction, it was maintained, should be given in anatomy and 
physiology; in animal and insect life; the nature, composition and 
regeneration of soils; in "political, financial, domestic and manual 


economy;" "the true principle of national, constitutional and ciril 
law;" "the laws of trade and commerce;" in "bookkeeping and ac- 
counts," etc. This part of "The Plan" concluded with the general 
declaration — 

"No species of knowledge should be excluded, practical or theoret- 
ical; unless, indeed, those specimens of 'organized ignorance' found 
in the creed of party politicians and sectarian ecclesiastics should be 
mistaken for a species of knowledge." 

The influence of such an institution, it was contended, should be 
to teach "that work alone is honorable and indolence certain dis- 
grace, if not ruin;" that "the final object to be attained with the in- 
dustrial classes, is to make them thinking laborers, while of the pro- 
fesional class we should make laborious thinkers.^^ Then, in answer 
to the suggestion that such a system of education and the themes it 
involved might be regarded as "too sensuous and gross to lie at the 
basis of a pure and elevated mental culture," it was pungently added: 
"If the created universe of Gcd and the highest art of man are too 
gross for our refined uses, it is a pity that the 'morning stars and 
the sons of God' did not find it out as soon as the blunder was made." 

Whether a classical department should be attached to the proposed 
institution was a question left to be determined by the future. "The 
first thing wanted" in the realization of the scheme, Professor Turner 
argued, "is a national institute of science to operate as the central 
luminary of the national mind," although this, he thought, had been 
furnished in the then recent establishment of the Smithsonian Insti- 
tute at Washington, He then adds this significant paragraph: 

"To co-operate with this noble institution, and enable the indus- 
trial classes to realize its benefits in practical life, we need a univer- 
sity for the industrial classes in each of the states, with the conse- 
quent subordinate institutes, lyceums and high schools in each of the 
counties and towns. The object of these institutions should be to 
apply existing knowledge directly and efficiently to all practical pur- 
suits and professions in life, and extend the boundaries of our present 
knowledge in all possible directions." 

A second convention was held at Springfield, June 8, 1852, the 
Legislature being then in special session under a call issued by the 
Governor naming the disposition of the college and seminary funds 
as one of the questions for consideration. Professor Turner acted 
as its chairman, and the convention adopted a memorial, which was 
signed by him and submitted to the Legislature with the proceedings 
of the Granville convention of the preivous year. While this memo- 
rial indicated some modification in the policy advocated by the 
friends of the measure in Illinois, it also gave evidence of progress, 
the result of correspondence and comparison of views with its friends 
in other states. It urged that a beginning be made towards carrying 
the scheme into effect, in some form, at as early a day as might be 
deemed prudent by the Legislature, with the added suggestion that, 
"if possible, it be on a sufficiently extensive scale to honorably jus- 
tify a successful appeal to Congress, in conjunction with eminent citi- 


zens and statesmen in other states who have expressed their readi- 
ness to co-operate with us for an appropriation of public lands for 
each State in the Union, for the appropriate endowment of universities 
for the liberal education of the industrial classes in their several pur- 
suits in each State in the Union." 

Here we have the distinct enunciation of the proposition for "an 
appropriation of public lands for each State in the Union," as a basis 
for the endowment of a university in each in aid of industrial educa- 
tion; and this suggestion, coming ten years before the enactment of 
the law of Congress adopting this principle, is believed to have been 
the very earliest sug2:estion in this direction, as in "The Plan" sub- 
mitted at the Grranville convention, we had that of a "university for 
the industrial classes in each of the states." At a third convention 
held in Chicago, Nov. 14, 1852, more positive ground was taken in 
favor of action by Congress looking to a donation of public lands. 
One of the acts of this convention was the organization of the "In- 
dustrial League of Illinois," for the promotion of the objects had in 
view by the advocates of industrial education, (1) "By disseminat- 
ing information, both written and printed, on this subject;" (2) ''By 
keeping up concert of action among the friends of the industrial 
classes," and {'6) "By the employment of lecturers in all parts of the 
State," to hold meetings and instruct the people on the question at 
issue. Professor Turner was chosen principal director of the league 
and one of its lecturers, while Bronson Murray, then a resident of 
LaSalle county, and Dr. R. C. Rutherford were the others. Mr. 
Murray is still living at an advanced age in New York City, while Dr. 
Rutherford died in that city a few years ago. The convention of 
1852 also declared — 

"That this convention memorialize Congress for the purpose of 
obtaining a grant of public lands to establish and endow industrial 
universities in every state in the Union." 

In the plan of action outlined by the "Industrial League," the fol- 
lowing were named as departments of a State University proposed to 
be established in Illinois: 

1. A Normal School department for the education of teachers 
(based upon the seminary fund). 

2. A department of Practical Agriculture. 

3. A department of Practical Mechanics. 

4. A Commercial department. 

(Incidentially it may be added that, among the measures advo- 
cated at these various conventions, were the establishment of a State 
Normal University and of Departments of Agriculture and Educa- 
tion in Washington — the first of which was realized by act of the 
Legislature in 1857, and the others by act of Congress in 1867.) 

The action of the convention at Chicago in 1852 established the 
attitude of the friends of the measure in Illinois, and, by opening 
the way for united and harmonious action among its supporters in 


all the states, went far to insure final success. Its growth from a 
scheme for a single state institution, based simply upon the college 
and seminary fund, to a plan for an institution in each of the states, 
based upon a donation of public lands, furnished an illustration of 
the process of "gradual development." No enterprise of equal mag- 
nitude, either as to the number of individuals, communities or states 
whose interests were to be subserved, or involving such vast financial 
results, in connection with the cause of popular education, was ever 
broached or brought to a consummation in this or any other country. 

The principal act of the fourth convention, which met at Spring- 
field, January 4, 1858, Bronson Murray presiding, was the adoption 
of a petition to the State Legislature requesting that body to 
memorialize Congress "to appropriate to each state in the Union an 
amount of public lands, not less in value than $500,000.00 for the 
endowment of a system of industrial universities, one in each state, 
to cooperate with each other and with the Smithsonian Institute, for 
the more liberal and practical education of our industrial classes and 
their teachers in their pursuits." The response by the Legislature 
was the adoption, by unanimous vote of both Houses, of a series of 
resolutions, almost in the identical language of the petition, instruct- 
ing the Senators and requesting the Representatives in Congress 
from Illinois to support a measure of the character suggested, and 
authorizing the Governor to forward a copy of these resolutions to 
the Governors and Legislatures of the other states, and invite their 
cooperation to the same end. 

Meanwhile the subject had been taken up by the press, by agricul- 
tural and educational associations, and by legislative bodies in other 
states. The New York Tribune of September, 1852, had the follow- 
ing: "Prof. J. B. Turner, of Jacksonville, in behalf of a convention 
at Granville, has put forth a plan for an industrial university, which 
sets forth the pressing and common need so forcibly that we copy 
the larger part of it." In a later issue, commenting upon the action 
of the Illinois Legislature just referred to, the same paper said: "It 
is worthy of note that one of the most extensive of public land (or 
new) States, proposes a magnificent donation of public lands to each of 
the states in furtherance of this idea. . . . Suffice it that the Leg- 
islature of Illinois has taken a noble step forward, in a most liberal 
and patriotic spirit, for which its members will be heartily thanked by 
thousands throughout the Union." One of the noteworthy indorse- 
ments of the same act came in the form of a letter from the Hon. 
Edward Bates, afterwards President Lincoln's first Attorney- General, 
addressed to Bronson Murray, then corresponding secretary of the 
newly organized State Agricultural Society. The letter bore date 
"St. Louis, Sept. 20, 1853," and was as follows: 

"The Legislature of Illinois has done itself honor in passing the 
resolution, a copy of which accompanied your letter. It is peculiarly 
fit and becoming in that honorable body to take the lead in the great 
efPort to educate the classes devoted to agriculture and the useful 
arts, and thus to make productive labor attractive and honorable by 


giving it the strength of knowledge and dignity of science. For Illi- 
nois is destined to become, and that right soon, the first and greatest 
agricultural State in the Union." 

But the history of a period so pregnant with momentous results 
for the whole nation, would be incomplete did it fail to make men- 
tion of what was going on in other states. In New York, Gov. 
Washington Hunt, who had been one of the earliest and most zeal- 
ous advocates of a system of industrial education, in a message to 
the legislature commended to their consideration the subject of "an 
institution for the advancement of agricultural science and of know- 
ledge of the mechanic arts," and suggested the setting apart of a por- 
tion of the proceeds from the sale of lands for taxes for the establish- 
ment of such an institution. The Massachusetts Board of Agricul- 
ture memorialized the legislature of that state in behalf of a similar 
measure, with the result that the latter body adopted a resolution 
suggesting "that Congress appropriate a portion of our public land to 
establish and endow a National Normal Agricultural College, which 
shall be to the rural sciences what the West Point Academy is to the 
military, for the purpose of educating teachers and professors for 
service in all of the states of the Republic." The signers of the 
memorial to the Massachusetts legislature included the names of 
Marshall P. Wilder, Edward Everett, Henry W. Cushman and John 
W. Lincoln, besides others of state and national reputation. Among 
those participating in a convention at Albany, N. Y., on January 26, 
1853, to "consider the subject of a practical national system of uni- 
versity education," and serving on a committee to report a plan, 
appear the names of Pres. Francis Way land, of Brown University; 
Bishop Potter, of Pennsylvania; Washington Irving, Governor Hunt 
and Senator John A. Dix, of New York; President Hitchcock, of 
Amherst College; Prof C. S. Henry, of the Smithsonian Institution; 
Prof. O. M. Mitchell, the astronomer and later a general in the civil 
war; Professor Pierce, of Cambridge, and Rev. Ray Palmer, the 
noted hymn writer. A. J. Downing, the celebrated painter and hor- 
ticulturist, who lost his life by the burning of the steamer Henry 
Clay on the Hudson, in 1852, was an ardent supporter of the measure 
in its early stage. There were no more influential factors in the pro- 
motion of the enterprise east of the Alleghenies, both at this time 
and at a later period, than Ezra Cornell, of New York, and Judge Asa 
Packer, of Pennsylvania, both of whom made munificent donations 
for the endowment of agricultural colleges in their respective states. 
Among the more active cooperators with Professor Turner in his 
own State, in addition to those already mentioned, may be named: 
W. F^ M. Arney, afterwards governor of the territory of New Mex- 
ico; Jesse W. and Kersey H. Fell, of Bloomington; Gov. A. 0. 
French; David L. Gregg, then Secretary of State but gftorwards 
United States Commissioner to the Sandwich Islands; William 
Gooding, former chief engineer of the Illinois and Michigan canal; 
John Wood, afterwards Lieutenant-Governor and Governor of the 
State; J. S. Wright, the founder and proprietor of the "Prairie Far- 
mer;" James N. Brown, president, and John P. Reynolds, secretary 


of the State Agricultural Society; Dr. J. A. Kennicott, a prominent 
horticulturist of Northern Illinois, besides the members of the "Buel 
Institute," whose action first "set the ball in motion" in 1851, and, in 
the later years of the agitation the great mass of the members of the 
State Agricultural and Horticultural Societies. Senator Stephen A. 
Douglas also became a friend of the measure in the later years of his 
life and, if he had lived until 1862, would have been one of its sup- 
porters in the United States Senate. That John A, Logan was not 
a supporter of the measure on its passage through the House was, 
no doubt, due to the fact that he was then battling in the field for 
the integrity of the Union. 

So far the history of this measure has been followed from its 
original introduction to the people at the Granville convention of 
1851, through years of agitation, tutelage and development, until it 
reached substantially the form in which it was submitted to Congress. 
Its history in that body may be concisely told. On Dec 14, 1857 — 
six years after the Granville convention and five years after the sug- 
gestion, in the memorial to the State Legislature adopted at Spring- 
field, of a grant of public lands — Hon. Justin S. Morrill, then a 
Representative from Vermont, introduced his first bill granting to 
each State and territory 20,000 acres of land for each Representative 
and Delegate in Congress from such state or territory, for the estab- 
lishment in each, of schools for teaching the agricultural and me- 
chanic arts. This having been reported back unfavorably by the 
House Committee on Public Lands four months later, he immediately 
submitted a substitute in which the territories were omitted from 
the provisions of the act, and this passed the House by 105 yeas to 
100 nays. In the Senate no action was taken on the bill at this ses- 
sion, beyond its reference to the Committee on Public Lands, which 
reported it back without recommendation. 

In the early days of the next session (December, 185S) , Senator 
Stuart of Michigan, called up the bill in the Senate, but that body, 
by the casting vote of the Vice President, refused to consider it. 
Later Senator Wade of Ohio came forward as its champion, and on 
Feb. 7, 1859, by a vote of 25 yeas to 22 nays, it passed the Senate 
with amendments which were agreed to by the House. This bill was 
vetoed by President Buchanan on the ground (in general terms) of 
bad policy and doubtful constitutionality. 

On Deo. 15, 1861 — just four years and one day after the introduc- 
tion of his first bill on the subject — Mr, Morrill introduced a new 
laill (known as House Bill 138), which, having been reported back 
unfavorably by the Committee on Public Lands, was referred to the 
Committee of the Whole on the State of the Union. On May 2, 
1862, Senator Wade again came to the front by the introduction in 
the Senate of substantially the same bill as that introduced in the 
House by Mr, Morrill This having been reported back with amend- 
ments by Senator Harlan of Iowa, Chairman of the Senate Commit- 
tee on Public Lands, after several days' debate passed the Senate 

15 H. 


by 22 yeas to 7 nays. In the House it was taken up June 17, finally 
passing that body by 90 yeas to 25 nays, and received the approval 
of President Lincoln on July 2, 1862. The large decrease in the op- 
position vote in both Houses, as compared with that of 1858 and 1859, 
was due in part to the withdrawal, in the first year of the rebellion, 
of members from the southern states who had been the most deter- 
mined opponents of the measure on alleged "constitutional grounds." 
The act, as passed, granted 30,000 acres for each Senator and Repre- 
sentative or Delegate from the several states and territories, making 
the total appropriation on the existing basis of representation 9,272,- 
000 acres, of which Illinois received 480,000. According to the report 
of the Commissioner of Education for 1903, the public lands so far 
distributed to the states and territories under the act, have amounted 
to 10,320,843 acres, of which 934,980 acres remain unsold, the amount 
realized from the lands sold aggregating $11,126,534. This undoubt- 
edly indicates a lack of business judgment in the disposal of lands in 
some cases at prices far below their intrinsic value, or what might 
have been realized a few years later; but, as already stated, it has 
resulted in the founding of 66 State institutions which, but for this 
act, would never have come into existence, and which now, by acces- 
sions received directly from the several states or private donations, 
have increased their property valuation to $69,660,303, while the in- 
stitutions themselves, during the year ending June 30, 1902, gave in- 
struction to 47,047 students. By an act passed by Congress in 1890, 
making an additional appropriation of $15,000 annually from the 
public treasury to each state, "for the more complete endowment 
and support of the colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the 
mechanic arts," with the provision that it should be increased by 
$1,000 yearly until it had reached $25,000, each state and territory 
is now in receipt annually of the latter sum, which it would probably 
not have received but for the original act of 1862. 

The approval of the act by President Lincoln, has linked his name 
for all time with one of the most beneficent and far-reaching meas- 
ures of that history-making period. 

While many minds in different parts of the country had been 
turned in the same direction during the preliminary stages of the 
agitation which resulted in the passage of this act, to Prof. Jonathan 
B. Turner must be conceded the credit of conceiving, developing 
and placing before the country the most elaborate and comprehensive 
plan, as well as one most nearly in accord with that finally adopted. 
During this period he remained the recognized head of the move- 
ment in Illinois and the west generally— its representative and 
spokesman — vigorously supported by the "Industrial League" and 
other organizations which he had assisted in setting on foot. It nec- 
essarily followed that he was in close communication with friends of 
the movement in other states, especially in the east, where.he already 
had a reputation as an educator as well as a practical anH progress- 
ive agriculturist. The most efficient support of the measure came 
through the memorials addressed to Congress by the Illinois Legisla- 
ture and by agricultural and educational associations, traceable to 


inflaences which he had been chiefly instrumental in setting in motion. 
Mr Morrill faithfully reflected the views of these various organiza- 
tions in his action in Congress Referring to this subject, Professor 
Turner says in his letter of 1865, to which reference has already been 
made: "We forwarded to him (Mr, Morrill) all our documents and 
papers, and gave him all the encouragement we could." Of Mr. Mor- 
rill's part in this great achievement. President Greorge W. Atherton, 
of the Pennsylvania State Agricultural College, in an address at New 
Haven in November, 1900— after Senator Morrill's death— says: 

"It seems certain from our present point of view, that Mr. Morrill's 
largest fame will forever be identified with the measure which he de- 
vised and carried to a successful issue for the establishment and 
maintenance of a great system of institutions of higher education, to 
be aided by the United States, organized and controlled by the indi- 
vidual states and fitted in as an integral part of the whole scheme of 
public instruction." 

While there will be no question as to the justice of this tribute to 
Senator Morrill, it should be remembered that this measure had an 
earlier history than its introduction in Congress, which was of at 
least equal interest and importance, and without which it would 
never have become an accomplished fact. This consisted in the orig- 
inal conception of the measure and, while involving the labor of ex- 
plaining its purpose to the people, included the duty of creating a 
public sentiment which should demand its adoption by Congress. 
The men who did this had a task no less difficult than its friends in 
the halls of Congress, and which required years for its accomplish- 

When it is remembered that this act, approved by the "Great Lib- 
erator," provided for the establishment "in each state" of "at least 
one college where the leading object shall be, without excluding mil- 
itary tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agri- 
culture and the mechanic arts in such manner as the legislatures of the 
states may respectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and 
practical education of the industrial classes in the several pursuits 
and professions of life," and that nearly 50,000 pupils of both sexes 
and all conditions are now annually enjoying the benefits of 66 such 
institutions located in 50 states and territories, the following extract 
from Professor Turner's "plan" of 1851, reads like a prophecy scarce- 
ly less striking in some of its features than Abraham Lincoln's 
"house-divided-against-itself " speech in 1858. Summing up the 
main features of such an institution as he hoped to see established, 
Professor Turner then said: 

"Let the reader contemplate it as it will appear when generations 
have perfected it in all its magnificence and glory; in its means of 
good to men — to men of all classes; in its power to evolve and diffuse 
practical knowledge and skill, true taste, love of industry and sound 
morality — not only through its apparatus, experiments, instruction 
and annual lectures and reports, but through its thousands of gradu- 
ates in every pursuit of life, teaching and lecturing in all our towns 
and villages — and then let him seriously ask himself, Is not such an 


object worthy of at least an effort and worthy of the State which God 
himself, in the very act of creation, designed to be the first agricul- 
tural and commercial State on the face of the globe?" 

As a part of State history in connection with this subject, it 
may properly be added that, while Illinois had been anticipated by 
several States in the establishment of industrial colleges — notably 
New York, Pennsylvania and Michigan, which had founded institu- 
tions of this character, or endowed chairs of agriculture in connec- 
tion with institutions already in existence before the passing of the 
act of 1862— and while Michigan was the first State to avail itself of 
the benefits of that act, steps were taken in the Illinois Legislature at 
the session of 1867, for the establishment of the "Illinois Industrial 
University," which was finally located at Urbana and formally inau- 
gurated in March following, with the late Dr. J. M. Gregory as regent. 
At first it was a regular manual labor school, from one to three hours 
labor per day being required from each student five days in the week. 
This feature was soon changed, allowing that labor should be volun- 
tary, except when constituting some part of a regular study, and in 
1885, by act of the Legislature, the institution received its present 
name of "University of Illinois." 

Wliile similar changes have taken place in other States, and may be 
regarded as departures from the original plans of the advocates of 
"industrial education," it detracts nothing from the importance of the 
service rendered by them in their successful championship of that 
measure between 1851 and 1862. 

This paper would be incomplete did it fail to present some sketch 
of the man who bore so conspicuous a part in the events to which it 
refers. Born in Templeton, Mass., Dec. 7, 1805, Jonathan Baldwin 
Turner grew up on a farm, but began teaching in a country school 
before reaching his majority. After spending some time in an 
academy at Salem, Mass., he entered the preparatory department of 
Yale College in 1827, supporting himself meanwhile, in part by man- 
ual labor arid teaching in a gymnasium. Two years later he entered 
the classical department at Yale, graduating in 1838, and immediately 
accepted a position as tutor in Illinois college at Jacksonville, which 
had been established four years previous. In the next 14 years he 
gave instruction in nearly every branch in the college curriculum, 
during a part of the time occupying the chair of Rhetoric and English 
Literature. In 1817 he retired from college duties to give his atten- 
tion to scientific agriculture, in which he had felt a deep interest. 
At the same time he took a deep interest in practical education for 
the industrial classes, and, being a teacher by instinct, he wrote volu- 
minously on educational and theological themes. About 1849-50 
he began formulating that system of industrial education with which 
his name was so prominently identified in later years. After 12 years 
of almost continuous labor and agitation, he had the satisfaction of 
seeing the system which he had advocated adopted by act of Congress 
in the Morrill bill, and approved by President Lincoln — his personal 
friend — July 2, 1862. An uncompromising foe of slavery, the most 


bitter opposition to his plan of popular education, in the earlier stages 
of its discussion, came from his political adversaries. In his cham- 
pionship in behalf of this measure, as well as in the treatment of all 
questions of belief and policy with which he had to deal in practical 
life, he gave evidence of originality, initiative and a certain degree 
of uncompromising independence which, while it not unfrequently 
aroused the hostility, commanded the respect even of his opponents 
and inspired the admiration of his friends. Demanding freedom 
of speech and of thought for himself, he freely conceded it to others. 
A radical and an enthusiast in reference to those questions which he 
deemed of vital importance to the welfare of society — whether of polit- 
ical reform, education or religion — he spoke with a logical power 
and earnestness which carried conviction to the minds of others and 
imparted to them the same enthusiasm which inspired himself. His 
prominence as a political factor was indicated by the fact that he 
was twice a candidate for Congress, though, representiDg the minor- 
ity party in his district, an unsuccessful one. Nearly 66 years of 
bis life were spent as a citizen of Jacksonville, 111., where his notable 
career was terminated by his death, Jan. 10, 1899, at the age of a 
little over 93 years. 

No more fitting conclusion can be given to this paper than the 
following quotation from an address by the late Dr. Newton Bateman 
— himself an educator of national reputation, for 14 years State Sup- 
erintendent of Public Instruction, and for a quarter of a century 
President of Knox College at Galesburg — delivered on the occasion of 
the inauguration of the University of Illinois, March 11, 1868: 

"In the west, the man whose voice rang out earliest, loudest and 
clearest in this great movement — whose words pealed and thundered 
through the minds and hearts of the people, * * * whose tre- 
mendous broadsides of irrefragable facts and logic, and fiery rhetoric 
* * * brought nearly every farmer and artisan hurrying to his 
standard from far and near, and put in motion the imperial columns 
of our free-born yeomanry — the man who threw into the struggle not 
only the best and deepest longings of his heart, and who pleaded for 
the uplifting and regeneration of the masses and for the 'millennium 
of labor,' as the patriot pleads for his country and the Christian for 
the salvation of God — the man whose able reports, instructive ad- 
dresses and thrilling eloquent speeches were caught up and re-echoed 
by the enlightened press of the whole country, and which furnished 
at once the material and the inspiration of auxiliary cooperative 
movements and organizations in many other States — and the man 
who, as I believe, through all these multiplied and overwhelming 
labors, was animated not by considerations of self-aggrandizement 
or sordid gain, but by the loftier purpose of serving his race and 
honoring God by uplifting and blessing the toiling millions of his 
children— that man was Jonathan Baldwin Turner." 



(Mrs. John A. Logran.) 

When Illinois was a part of the great Northwest Territory she had 
her intellectual giants who made themselves heard at the capital. It 
is not the purpose of this paper to go into a minute history of Illi- 
nois or to attempt to give sketches of all her illustrious men. 
Though long familiar with the history of the most conspicuous 
characters, there are many whom I have not known personally, for 
you must remember that Illinois was admitted as a State in 1818. 
Long before admission, however, lUinoisans had made profound 
impressions in the councils of the Nation by their superior abilities, 
acumen acd political wisdom. 

Among the early settlers in the great Northwest Territory, who 
cast their lot in that part subsequently included in the boundaries 
of Illinois, there came from Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania,. Ken- 
tucky and North Carolina some remarkable men of collegiate educa- 
tion and rare mentality. These, together with the large number of 
French colonists, followers of LaSalle, who j&rst settled in Southwest 
Illinois were without question, in advance in intelligence and erudition 
of any of the pioneers who had ventured beyond the Alleghanies. 
Among them we find such conspicuous names as Shadrack Bond, Sr. 
and Jr.; John Rice Jones; Pierre Menard; William, James and 
Samuel Morrison; Israel Dodge; John Hay; James McRoberts; 
Robert Reynolds; Dr. Geo. Fisher; the Andersons, Thompsons, 
Erwins, McDonalds, McBrides, Clarks, Edgars, Popes, Jenkins, Lo- 
gans, Marshalls, Beggs, Thomas, and a score of others who have in 
one way and another contributed to the glory and prosperity of Illi- 
nois and made their own names immortal. 

The scandals that had been brought upon the Northwest Territory 
through the dishonest speculations and frauds perpetrated on the 
Indians and earliest settlers by the connivance of St. Clair, the first 
governor of the Northwest Territory, and his friends, were very 
grave; his action being so flagrantly wrong that both VVashington 
and Jefferson severely rebuked him. Consequently the movers of 
the proposition to organize the Territory of Illinois were seriously 
embarrassed. It required much sagacity, consummate diplomacy, in- 
dubitable evidence of sterling integrity and public spirit to secure 
favorable action by Congress and the government. 

It was intended to make not less than three, or more than five 
states out of the great Northwest Territory, therefore it was a matter 


of no small moment that all prejudioe should be removed from th9 
movers of the proposition so that the various interests of the new 
territory should be properly protected. 

Shadrach Bond, Sr., the delegate sent to Washington to secure the 
passage of the bill authorizing the organization of the territory had 
to exercise much skill in every move he made. He proved himself 
equal to the commission. He was a farmer originally from Mary- 
land, was a man of unusual ability without much education, but in 
the matter of managing diflScult problems remarkably skillful. He 
was genial and affable and made a most favorable impression, ac- 
complishing much more than was expected and quite as much as 
could be done today by the most astute representative from any of 
the territories that have recently been admitted as states. His only 
desire was to secure a government that would protect the pioneers 
and original settlers of the rich territory that was only waiting to 
be colonized to make it one of the most productive of the Union. 
The people rewarded him by making him the first Grovernor after 
the admission of Illinois as a State in 1818. 

The advancement of the Territory from the first to the second 
grade was naturally rather slow, notwithstanding the activity of the 
people and marked ability of the delegates in Congress. However, 
in January, 1818, Nathaniel Pope, the delegate in Congress at that 
time, introduced a bill providing for the admission of Illinois as a 
state. Few territories have been so fortunate as Illinois was in their 
delegates in Congress at the time of their petition, for admission as 
states. To his far-seeing statesmanship we are indebted for the pre- 
sent prowess of Illinois, commercially, politically and geographically. 
He appreciated that in all republics there was ever danger of disso- 
lution, should one member of the confederated states have advan- 
tages independent of the others. He understood the importance of 
the commanding position Illinois would occupy through her geo- 
graphical situation if the proper boundaries were established and 
maintained. No petitions were placed in his hands setting forth the 
important points to be incorporated in the bill establishing bound- 
aries and fixing the status of the State and her relations to other 

In the fertile brain of Nathaniel Pope was conceived the wonder- 
ful provisions of the bill under which Illinois was admitted. The 
clause extending the boundaries "north of the southern bend of the 
lake" giving extensive coast line on Lake Michigan; extending the 
western boundary 50 miles west to the Mississippi river, establishing 
the boundaries on the east and southeast along the Ohio river to the 
confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, giving ue 150 miles 
coast on the Ohio river, was a masterful stand evermore as silent 
barriers against any movement for the dissolution of the Union. 

The area included within its boundaries is of such a character that 
it will continue to furnish support for a population of millions and 
will also provide channels for the commerce of the world. Nathaniel 
Pope watched with jealous care, vigilance and fidelity every interest 


of the new State so favorably launched through his wise statesman- 
ship. His son, Maj. Gen. John Pope, rendered conspicuous service 
to his country in the Civil war and thereby added laurels to the name 
of Pope so prominently identified with Illinois. 

Ninian Edwards and Jesse B. Thomas were elected United States 
Senators by the first Legislature, Two more dissimilar men could 
not possibly have been found. Senator Edwards was a lawyer by 
profession, He had been on the bench in Kentucky before he came 
to Illinois. He brought with him to his new home where he was 
destined to be so fortunate, all the dignity of the judiciary which 
well befitted him for the Senate. He was a man of imposing appear- 
ance, always well dressed, tactful and intelligent, he soon became an 
important member of the Senate acquiring a national reputation. 
Mr, Monroe appointed him, on the expiration of his term in the 
Senate, Minister to Mexico. He became, however, involved in trou- 
ble through partisanship in the presidential campaign of 1824, on 
account of charges of corruption he made against W. H. Crawford, 
then Secretary of the Treasury. He was called before an investigat- 
ing committee and failing to prove his charges, feeling ran high 
against him, and he resigned his mission to Mexico; returning to 
Illinois to continue his warfare on dishonesty in public affairs by 
attacking the banking system which had wrought such financial dis- 
flster to the new State. Albeit the banking influence was against 
Mr. Edwards he was elected Governor of the State and was inaugu- 
rated with much pomp and ceremony, appearing before the General 
Assembly, wearing a gold lace cloak over a suit of fine broadcloth, 
short breeches, long stockings, top boots, he delivered his inaugural 
address with much dignity and eloquence. 

With the prejudice then existing against dress and display it was 
curious that Governor Edwards should have always succeeded in his 
campaigns notwithstanding he invariably canvassed, decked out as 
above described, and was driven from place to place in one of the 
finest carriages of the times, drawn by four magnificent horses with 
two colored servants on the box. He would not descend to the low 
electioneering arts of the times or cater to the mob by providing free 
whiskey on every occasion as many good men did, In Congress and 
as Chief Executive of Illinois, Governor Edwards was a potent in- 
fluence in all that was done for the advancement and development of 
his State aud country. 

Senator Jesse B. Thomas was also a large and liberal minded, 
good natured man, in no sense cultured or a good speaker, but a 
most adroit and winning man. It was a maxim with him that 
"no man could be talked down with loud and bold words, but any 
one might be whispered to death," which is indicative of the frank 
and honest man that he was. He bad no secrets, but won the support 
of Congress for the measures he desired to pass by his honesty of 
purpose and sincerity cf manner. 

Daniel P. Cook, member of the House of Representatives from 
1819 to 1826, was one of the most talented representatives Illinois 


has ever had. He was accomplished, consistent, morally courageous, 
a fine speaker, astute in judgment, gracious and sincere in manner, 
his personality gave him great power in the house. He rose to the 
chairmanship of the ways and means committee. He secured the 
donation of 800,000 acres of land for the construction of the Illinois 
and Michigan canal. His name has been perpetuated by naming 
the county of Cook for him. 

Almost all the counties in the State are named for men who have 
distinguished themselves in the service of the State and it is to be 
regretted that there are not more counties to be named for other illus- 
trious Illinoisans. 

Daniel P. Cook was succeeded by Governor Duncan, who was an 
honest, agreeable man of sound convictions, but little education, and 
from annals consulted does not seem to have equalled Mr. Cook in 
ability, statesmanship or efiPectivness in securing legislation in the 
interest of his State. 

John McLean, of Shawneetown, was also a prominent figure from 
Hlinois. He served one term in the House, and was twice elected to 
the Senate, but did not live to serve out his last term. He died in 
1830. He was one of the leaders in both Houses. The county of 
McLean was named in his honor. 

Elias K, Kane, originally from New York, one of the ablest law- 
yers of his time, was also twice elected to the United States Senate, 
but died in Washington during his second term. 

Brilliant, finely educated and endowed by nature with all the qual- 
ities of head and heart that go to make a manly man, he was enabled 
to render important service to his State in the Senate as he had in 
the Constitutional Convention. 

Judge Sidney Breese, a college graduate, fine logician and a man 
of genuine qualities, was also a United States Senator from Illinois. 
To him belonged the credit of having first agitated the question of 
railroads. He was not so brilliant or eloquent as some others, but 
was a prodigious worker and gained many points in Congress for 

In 1837, Stephen A. Douglas was elected to Congress from the 
Peoria district. "The Little Giant," as you remember he was called, 
had occupied his seat but a brief time when he attracted universal 
attention by his brilliancy and readiness in debate. He knew 
nothing of reticence, but was a dashing, daring, aggressive man, who 
would have accomplished more if he had been less impulsive. He 
was an intense partisan and would probably have followed the Demo- 
cratic party in its advocacy of slavery but from the fact that he 
represented a free state and it would have cost him his position. 
The joint discussions between Stephen A. Douglas and Abraham 
Lincoln will ever stand as the most remarkable exposition of politi- 
cal questions and principles that has ever occurred, developing abilities 
in both men previously unknown to their most ardent partisans. 


Mr. Douglas won the prize of election to the United States Sen- 
ate, but Mr. Lincoln won the popular vote. Douglas' victory did 
not stay the swelling tide that was carrying the Nation to the con- 
flict of the "impending crisis." In the Senate Mr. Douglas quickly 
attained the leadership of his party. It is doubtful if the records of 
Congress have preserved more eloquent speeches than those of Mr. 
Douglas on the questions he espoused. "The Missouri Com- 
promise," "Kansas Nebraska Bill," "Popular Sovereignty" and other 
questions of vital national importance, he advocated with all the 
vehemence of his intense nature. His appeal for the adoption of 
the Crittenden Compromise as the last hope of averting the Civil 
War is still ringing in my ears, though 43 years have come and 
gone since I listened to his burning words as he stood in the Senate 
pleading for peace at any cost save the dissolution of the Union. 
His personal magnetism and the earnest words were of no avail, and 
he had to bow his head in submission to another disappointment, 
having been defeated for the Presidency in 1860. He was loyal to 
his country and when he could hold his party no longer, he arrayed 
himself on the side of the Union and was among the most sincere 
patriots who hailed Mr. Lincoln's coming to Washington with un- 
feigned joy, believing that he would save the Union from dismem- 

Many of the southern Senators, personal friends of Senator Doug- 
glas, had left Washington before the 4th of March, 1861, to join 
the secession movement. I can never forget his deep grief over the 
state of afiFairs. Night after night he came to the house where John 
A. McClernand, P. B Fouke and John A. Logan and their families 
lived, to talk over the approaching conflict; or how during the strug- 
gle over the Crittenden Compromise he would send for the above 
named to come to his residence on "I" street, where they met many 
other loyal democrats who could not follow their party to the destruc- 
tion of their country aiid the dissolution of the Union, No man 
could have done more than Douglas to undo the mistakes he had un- 
wittingly made. Could he have lived a few months longer he would 
have been a great power in support of Mr, Lincoln and the war 
measures that had to be adopted. Illinois is indebted to him for 
much that marked her advancement and gave her power and influ- 
ence in the Nation, not the least of which was securing legislation 
that resulted in the building of the Illinois Central railroad. 

Lyman Trumbull, that patient, astute, faithful Senator was the an- 
tipode of Douglas, in every respect. He was always deliberate, cool and 
calculating, a good lawyer, able debater. He labored incessantly in 
the interest of Illinois but within much narrower lines than Doug- 
las. He served his State, however, for 18 years in the United 
States Senate with great credit and fidelity. 

O. H. Browning, his colleague, appointed by Governor Yates to 
succeed Senator Douglas, was a ponderous sort of a man but one 
who wielded great influence. After his term expired he was secretary 
of the interior and for a brief time secretary of the treasury. 


During the eventful years between '56 and '61 Illinois had some of 
the ablest men in the House of Representatives that have ever served 
in that body. E. B. Washburne, Owen Lovejoy, the great champion 
of human rights, Wm. Kellogg, his friend and co-worker, I. N. 
Arnold, I. N. Morris, John A, McClernand, Samuel Marshall, John 
A. Logan and many others. These men differed in politics, but 
were earnest patriots. Washburne was long considered the "watch 
dog of the treasury" because of his vigilant scrutiny of everything that 
came before Congress asking appropriation of public money. His 
New England traits of character never deserted him and made him 
one of the most careful of legislators. His great abilities, methodical 
mind and intense devotion to his country caused him to be indefat- 
igable in his duty and enabled him to exert a marvellous influence 
in the House. After General Grant's inauguration, March 4, ly69, 
Mr. Washburne was made secretary of state for a short time, before 
going to Paris as our American minister. Mr. Washburne belonged 
to the Galena coterie who exercised so much power in State and 
national affairs. He is said to have been the discoverer of U. S. 
Grant. Be that as it may, General Grant was indebted to Mr. 
Washburne for the potent influence he used in his behalf before 
General Grant had achieved a reputation which placed him beyond 
need of influential friends. 

Mr. WashbuVne was one of Mr. Lincoln's faithful supporters, ad- 
vocating with much earnestness every measure and movement sug- 
gested by Mr. Lincoln for the salvation of the Union, and freedom 
of the slaves. Of his brilliant career as a diplomat it is not for me 
to speak on this occasion. Suffice to [^say, everything he ever did 
reflected honor and glory upon Illinois. 

Hon. I. N. Arnold, one of the most refined, conscientious and ac- 
complished of men, labored assiduously during his term in Congress 
for every measure for the development and progress of the varied 
interests of Illinois. 

To him belongs the honor of introducing and causing to be adopted 
the first resolution in Congress advocating the entire abolition of 
slavery in the United States. On the 15th of February, 1864, Mr. 
Arnold moved the adoption of his resolution as follows: 

Resolved, That the Constitution should be so amended as to abolish slavery 
in the United States wherever it now exists and to prohibit its existence in 
every part thereof forever. 

The resolution when first introduced provoked much discussion 
by the foremost men in the House and it was a signal triumph for 
Mr. Arnold to have passed it. His record is one of unblemished 
integrity, alike creditable to his State and to himself. 

The fearless Owen Lovejoy was the great leader against slavery. 
It is doubtful if his impassioned defense of himself and his friends 
in the protection of fugitive slaves has ever been equalled in elo- 
quence and pathos. He devoted his whole life to the advocacy of 
the emancipation of slaves and left a glorious record as one of the 
first and most brilliant advocates for human freedom. 


Hon. John A. McClernand, a lawyer, a student and an indefatiga- 
ble worker, made an enviable reputation in the House of Representa- 
tives. In the trying months preceding Mr. Lincoln's inauguration 
there was no more loyal man than General McClernand. He co- 
operated with Douglas and the "war Democrats" of the House, de- 
claring all the time that if the threats of the south of secession were 
carried out that he would shoulder his musket to have Mr. Lincoln 
inaugurated and would join the army to put down the rebellion. He 
kept his word and was among the first to leave the halls of Congress 
for the tented field. 

Close on to Mr. Lincoln's inauguration came the rumbling sound 
of the firing on Sumpter, when every man who represented Illinois 
in Congress arrayed himself on the side of his country and either 
went to the front to fight for the preservation of the Union or re- 
mained to vote for men and measures with which to put down the 

Mr. Lincoln, as chief executive of the nation, had no cause to grieve 
over the disloyalty of members and senators from his own State. 
Those who came to take the places of those who went to the front 
dared not dishonor Illinois and themselves by affiliating with, or by 
aiding or abetting, the enemies of the Union. 

During the long, sad years of that unhappy conflict, Trumbull and 
Browning, in the Senate; Washburne, B. O.Cook, S. W. Moulton, A. 
C. Harding, and many others without regard to party affiliations, loy- 
ally and ably represented the great Prairie State which had given to 
the nation its chief executive in its most trying hour of need. 

Immediately following and since the war no state in the Union has 
been more eminently represented. There has been no time when 
members of her delegation did not stand in the front rank of Ameri- 
can statesmen. 

Among the most illustrious was the invincible war governor of Il- 
linois, Hon. Richard Yates, whose keen intuitions, unwavering re- 
publicanism, sagacity, genial disposition, kind heart and native 
eloquence made him the statesman and peer of any man in the 
United States Senate. Charles Sumner once told me that Senator 
Yates, in his opinion, "was one of the greatest men who had ever 
been in the American Senate." 

It seemed that the great civil war, with its prodigious events, had 
developed a race of giants who were destined to be as distinguished 
in peace as they had been in war. The men who had fought the bat- 
tles of their country and those who stood on the watch towers at home 
to protect the government from insidious foes in civil afPairs were 
keenly alive to the possibilities and interests of the State and 

The people, anxious to reward them, elected the genial, honest, 
loyal, intrepid General Oglesby, first as Governor, then as Senator of 
the United States. He was as faithful in the Senate as he had been 
in other high positions. 


Gen. John M. Palmer, the gallant soldier and conscientious, able, 
upright executive, was also promoted to the Senate, where he added 
lustre to his already illustrious name. 

Hon. David Davis, Mr. Lincoln's appointee on the supreme bench, 
deemed it the crowning glory of his life that he should be chosen to 
represent Illinois in the United States Senate, where his long expe- 
rience as an associate justice enabled him to render inestimable ser- 
vice as a member of the Senate judiciary committee. 

Shelby M. Cullom, General Logan's colleague at the time of his 
death, came into the Senate unusually well fitted for the distin- 
guished position of a United States Senator on account of his long 
experience as a legislator and speaker of the House in the Illinois 
legislature, governor of Illinois and member of Congress. During 
the 21 years of his peerless service in the Senate no man has done 
more for his State or acquired a higher national reputation as a 
statesman and incorruptible man. Time forbids an enumeration in 
detail of the important legislation in which he has taken active and 
conspicuous parts. 

Hon. A. J. Hopkins, Senator Callom's present colleague, is des- 
tined to be prominent in all legislation for his State and country. 
His 20 years in the House of Representatives, where he was a most 
valuable member, qualifies him to take a high place at once in the 
Senate. His great pride in his native State, pre-eminent abilities and 
unswerving integrity are guarantees of his future potent influence 
in that august body. 

I trust it may not seem unfitting in me to speak briefly of that 
other native Illinois Senator, Gen. John A, Logan. From his major- 
ity to the day of his deathj his whole life was devoted to the public 
service, either on the field or in the forum, into which he threw with 
intensity the whole weight of his gigantic abilities, indomitable en- 
ergy, dauntless courage, honesty of purpose and loyalty to his coun- 
try. After serving in the Illinois legislature he entered Congress in 
185S, commanding much more attention than would have been ex- 
pected for one of his age. Resigning after his election to a second 
term to enlist in the defense of the Union, he followed the flag of his 
country for more than four years. Immediately after the surrender 
at Appomattox and peace was declared, he was called to resume his 
seat in the House, March 4, 1871, in compliance with the behest of 
his State, he took his seat in the Senate. For evidence of his achieve- 
ments for Illinois and his country I have only to point you with par- 
donable pride to the magnificent statue of enduring bronze which was 
erected by his State, which stands in Lake Park, Chicago, silhouetted 
by the shimmering waters of Lake Michigan; and to the no less su- 
perb one of him in one of the finest parks in Washington, erected by 
Congress and his devoted friends and admirers. To recapitulate the 
measures of legislation of which he was the author and active sup- 
porter would require more time than is allotted to this paper. 


Those chosen to represent the people in the House were, for the 
most part well equipped for the herculean task of legislating upon 
the stupendous questions of reconstruction, adjustment of the prob- 
lems that were the fruit of the Rebellion, and for the carrying out of 
the many progressive enterprises for the development of the resources 
of the country and the extension of the boundaries of civilization. 

Hon. S. M, Cullom, Gen. John F. Farnsworth, Gen. S. A. Hurl- 
burt, Horatio C. Burchard, Gen. Thos. J. Henderson, Hon. John 
Wentworth, General J. L. Beveridge, Capt. John R. Thomas, Col. B. 
F. Marsh, Honorables Wm. M. Springer, S. S. Marshall, Richard W. 
Townshend, Norman B. Judd, Adlai E Stevenson, Samuel W Moul- 
ton, David J. Bdker, Jehu Baker, Wm. R Morrison, JohnB. Hawley, 
B F. Funk, Eben 0. Ingersoll, John A. Logan, Joseph G Cannon, 
A. J. Hopkins, R. R. Hitt, Vespasian Warner, C. B. Farwell, and 
many more illustrious men, have each in his own way contributed to 
the progress of Illinois and the advancement of the nation. 

There have been times when a crisis in national affairs seemed im- 
minent. Illinois has always on these occasions had some one who 
could step into the breech and help avert the difficulties. I can not 
forbear mentioning one that occurred during Mr. Johnson's admin- 
istration when he undertook to eject Mr. Stanton from the war de- 

General Logan was then a member of Congress from Illinois at 
large and also Commander-in Chief of the Grand Army of the Re- 
public. He at once assembled the "Civil Army of ex-union soldiers," 
stationed his pickets, took up his abode in the war department with 
Secretary Stanton and protected that officer in the discharge of his 
duties until the crisis had passed. All of which was done so tact- 
fully that very few knew of General Logan's action. Had Mr. John- 
son carried out the schemes his perfidy had planned there is no 
prophesying what might have happened. 

This is only one of the many instances in which Illinois took con- 
spicuous part in the solution of national problems. 

Of this galaxy of statesmen many have gone to their reward, but 
they left behind them immortal names that reflect undying glory 
upon Illinois as well as themselves. 

Of those who remain in Congress to honor Illinois are Hon. Shelby 
M. Cullom, Chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations; 
Hon. A. J. Hopkins, Hon. J. G. Cannon, Speaker of the House, Hon. 
R. R. Hitt, Chairman of the House Committee on Foreign Relations, 
Col. B. F. Marsh, Hon. H S. Boutell, Col. Vespasian Warner, Hon. 
George E, Foss, Chairman of the House Committee on Naval Affairs, 
Col. James R, Mann, Geo. W. Prince, James R. Williams, and Geo. 
W. Smith. 

No words of eulogy would be too much to speak for them as men 
and legislators. The high positions they occupy, their long service 
in Congress, the influence they have in legislative matters, the bene- 
factions they have secured for Illinois, tell in stronger words than I 


could utter of their achievements and usefulness. As long as Illi- 
nois sends such men to Congress she will not be dislodged from her 
exalted position as one of the most important states in the Union. 

Had I not already trespassed too long, I would gladly mention the 
names of many more who have honored Illinois and demonstrated 
that they are "superior men" as the name Illinois signifies. Of those 
who were given an opportunity by an indulgent people to make for 
themselves imperishable names and a chance to add lustre to their 
State, but who have failed to improve their opportunities, it were 
better to leave in the nitch of oblivion into which they have passed. 



(Hon. James A. Connolly.) 

The subject assigned me — The Country Lawyer — has its limita- 
tions, but I will assume that it relates to all but metropolitan lawyers, 
inasmuch as it is the fashion of the day to speak of the country as 
including every place outside the boundary lines of a metropolis. 

While the country lawyer might be classically termed "Rusticus" 
yet if we take him as a class he will be found anything but a 
"rustyouss," when it comes to a dexterous use of the "nice sharp 
quillets of the law." 

His clothes may not fit him like those of his city brother, but that 
is the fault of his tailor. His hair and beard may not be trimmed 
in "fashion plate" style, but that is the fault of his barber. 

His office may not be swept and dusted daily; the "Horn Books" 
may not be bright and clean as in the library of his city brother, and 
smart clean volumes of reports and digests may not be so numerous, 
but what are there look like old soldiers just returned from a long 
campaign — they show that they have seen service. 

While Hale, Coke, Blackstone, Chitty, Stephens, Story, if they 
could return, would feel like unnaturalized foreigners in the offices 
of his metropolitan brother, they could drop into the country lawyers' 
office and feel at home, for they would find the cream of their life 
work holding the place of honor on his book shelves and their names 
household words in his unpretentious home. 

The country lawyer loves "old friends, old books," and before the 
advent of the reformers, he loved the other member of the famous 
trinity — old wine — preferably of the Kentucky brand. 

The country lawyer is a ruminant animal. 

He don't swallow his legal food hastily, but he loiters in the rich 
fields of the "Horn Books," knee deep in juicy legal provender, and 
filling himself, retires to leisurely chew it over, until healthy diges- 
tion enables him to assimilate it and make it a part of himself. 

He don't have to hurry. He don't have to eat, sleep, think, ac- 
cording to a time-table made by some street or steam railroad com- 
pany. He makes his own time table, changes it to suit his own 
convenience, and is, therefore, always on time, 

He never runs to catch up, and he never waits at the station, but 
he makes the trip from sun to sun once every 24 hours just as 


well as his hurrying metropolitan brother, even if he does not move 
forward quite as rapidly to the plaoe where "Finis" is to be written 
on his last page. 

While the metropolitan lawyer may be the clown in the cirous, 
winning the applause of the half tickets, by his quips, his tumbles, 
and his swelling importance, the country lawyer is the all around 
variety man who holds the attention of the whole tickets, by his 
bareback riding, ground and lofty tumbling, tight ropa walking, and 
blowing the trombone in the band. 

The country lawyer sits in Congress and Legislature while his 
metropolitan brother plays Sherlock Holmes in quest of the fugitive 

The country lawyer is the nag that can pull his share of a load of 
corn to market, or be stripped of his harness, mounted, and run and 
win a race at the cross-roads. 

The country lawyer is something like the poet; he is more born 
than made, and Humor presided at his birth, for a good joke never 
gets inside the lines of his circuit without giving him a call, and 
meeting a welcome. 

Skim the cream off your metropolitan bar and what have you left? 

Skim the country cream off the milk in the dairy and what have 
you left? 

According to Darwin, it took a long time for the process of evolu- 
tion to "evolute" the tails off our ancestors, so that their descendants 
might comfortably wear fashionable trousers, but the process of 
evolution works more rapidly on the country lawyer, and often, when 
we find a metropolitan brother winning all the races on the fancy 
track of a metropolis, until he attracts the world's attention, when 
the world hunts up his pedigree and training, it finds him as a colt, 
putting on legal muscle by nibbling the short stubby grass of jury 
trials around the primitive courts of country justices. 

Such early feed in the legal pastures of the country, gives wind and 
mettle to the legal racer, and makes him a thoroughbred as surely as 
the limestone blue grass of Kentucky, or the ozone of California give 
it to the equine thoroughbred. 

And when, in his maturer years he wins the metropolitan races, 
he forgets the plaudits which greet him, while his thoughts turn 
back with pleasure to the scanty country pasturage of his early days, 
wherein he had to hustle 

"From early morn 'till dewy eve," 

for a living. 

With the country lawyer the law is still a profession, while with 
his metropolitan brother it is a gainful business. 

The country lawyer is a good deal of a fixture — he is the trunk of 
the tree— while his metropolitan brethren are the branches. The 

—16 H. 


beauty is in the branches, but the sap is in the trunk. The branches 
bathe in the sunshine and wave in the breeze, because the trunk 
supports, uplifts, sustains them, and gives them new life when they 
droop and fall. 

The country lawyer is an eclectic, while his metropolitan brother 
is fast becoming a homeopath, dealing in specifics and specialties. 

In the broad field of equity the country lawyer roams, confident 
and at ease, armed with all the weapons of full and even justice, while 
his metropolitan brother rarely ventures into these fields unless pre- 
ceded by an injunction, which he relies on as often and as implicitly 
as the darkey does on his rabbit foot. 

The country lawyer can, if he choose, live by the rule quoted by 
Sir Edward Coke: 

"Six hours to sleep, to law's grave study, six, 
Four spent In prayer, the rest on Nature fix." 

But his surroundings force our metropolitan brother to live by the 
rule of Sir William Jones: 

"Seven hours to law, to soothing slumber seven. 
Ten to the world allot, and none to heaven." 

Metropolitan law colleges are factories that turn out students as 
keen, polished pocket knives and razor blades. 

Country law oflBices are factories that turn out students as broad 
axes, each tempered and fashioned by an experienced workman. 

When comes the conflict between right and wrong the broad axe 
is better than the pocket knife or razor blade, though not so polished 
or keen of blade. 

When truth is to be rescued from the wilderness of falsehood the 
broad axe is the weapon needed. 

When the interests of corporation or capital are involved, the 
smaller, keener, more polished blades are highly efiPective, but when 
the life, the liberty and the property of the individual citizen are 
assailed, the broad axe is the weapon for their defense. 

When the foundations for the structure and jurisprudence of a 
state are to be shaped the broad axe is indispensable. 

As nature, in all her varied moods of storm and sunshine, furnishes 
the Indian, with tropes and similes wherewith he garnishes his rude 
speech to the point of moving eloquence, so does nature, in her daily 
touch of the county lawyer — nature, as it comes to him in the 
spreading fields, the clear skies, the unstudied gossip of neighbors, 
and the shrewd but homely speech of those among whom he lives, 
give to him the strength of speech, a breadth of thought, a copious- 
ness of illustration, an insight into the motives and minds of men, 
that enables him to touch with master hand the chords that lead to 
their hidden thoughts, and move them at his will. 

The law is a coy maiden. She is not to be had for the asking. 
She dislikes the "sounding brass and tinkling cymbal," and flies 
from war's alarms. 


The rude jostling she meets with in the busy metropolis, where 
the dollar is Deity, makes her shrink from it, and exclaim with 

"Give me. Indnlgrent Qods! with mind serene 
And guiltless heart, to ranee the sylvan scene; 
No splendid poverty, no smllina: care. 
No well bred hate, no servile grandeur there." 

The country lawyer, in his full stature, is an American product. 

It does not flourish in Europe. The law there isno;^ a coy maiden, 
but a worried and worn out wife, married to force, but she has no 
control over the house, except when the old man is asleep, and even 
then she gives her orders with bated breath, lest it may awake him, 
to drive her out of the house as he has so often done. 

The country lawyer cannot mature under such a regime, for he is 
a guard on the people's watch tower, and has always been the first to 
sound the alarm when force or wrong were found attempting to 
usurp the domain of law. 

The country lawyer by years of calm study, undisturbed by smiles 
or frowns of fortune, years of reflection, of observation, and of fric- 
tion against his fellows in the every day walks of life, gradually 
gains wisdom as the bee gathers honey, and strength as the athlete 
gains it, by daily endeavor, until, year after year in our nation's his- 
tory, we find him coming from the obscurity of his country law office, 
to lead the bar of a metropolis, to adorn the bench of state and fed- 
eral courts, and crystalize into enduring law the wisdom he gained 
in his country practice and life, by the study of those books which 
God made — the minds, the thoughts, the aspirations, the feelings of 
his fellow men with whom he was so long and so closely in touch 
during his years as a country lawyer. 

Life may not bring to him as many golden sheaves as to his met- 
ropolitan brother, but if the intellectual part of man survives, and 
we believe it does, it brings to him that which he can take with him 
when Charon comes to ferry him over, whereas the golden sheaves, 
so laboriously gathered, must be left behind in eternal quarantine, 
as infected baggage, and the country lawyer leaves to the generations 
that are to follow, the legacy of a jurisprudence enriched by him, for 
the protection of the life, liberty and property of man. 

To the country lawyer the court is a sacred temple where justice is 
the presiding goddess, to which the lowly and oppressed may flee for 
sanctuary. To him the bar is an idealized altar for the ministration 
of sacred rites, not a mere place for the money changer. 

The bar of the past was composed of country lawyers, earnest, 
learned, modest, and conspicuous as an exemplar of all that was high 
minded and honorable. 

It pleaded the cause of the lowly and succored the distressed while 
yet the gods of mythology were worshiped, before the dawn of Christ- 
ianity upon the world. Undistinguished for piety, yet it has done 


as much in the world's history to curb the passions and shape the 
morals of mankind as the pulpit. Not boasting its valor, yet its 
bloodless victories have advanced the standard of personal liberty far 
beyond where the warrior dared to place it. 

For 19 centuries it has stood on sleepless watch in the vanguard of 
civilization, hurling its lances against the mailed front of wrong 
wherever it appeared. Though the mists of the centuries have gath- 
ered around it, yet they have brought to it the treasured wisdom of 
the centuries. Time has not dimmed its eyes to discover wrong, nor 
cooled its courage to defend the right, and the faintest whisper of 
the oppressed still comes to it with the force of a command to spring 
to the defense. It is one of the great centripetal forces of the world, 
holding all the material interests of mankind within their proper 
orbit, through all the long procession of the centuries. 

It has ever been distinguished by good fellowship, and a broad 
catholic spirit; welcoming the neophyte to its ranks with the same 
cheerfulness that it recognizes and rewards the merits of its mem- 
bers, encouraging them to roam in all the fields of learning, and cull 
the choicest blossoms of Science, of Rhetoric and of Poesy, to adorn 
their mistress — the law. 

No narrow jealousies disturb its harmonies. Its fidelity and in- 
tegrity — enforced by neither edict nor statute — are not to be bought 
with a price, but are none the less assured by that lex non scripta 
found alone in the breast of honor. 

Its highest honors are reached by no royal road, and those who 
win may wear them more securely than ever king wore crown, full 
well assured of the unselfish homage of their fellows. 

Its highest rewards spring from the consciousness of a trust well 
kept, a duty well performed. Its best victories are those which lift 
a feeble right above a giant wrong. Its monuments, more enduring 
than brass or marble, are found in the tombs of garnered wisdom, 
gathered from its ripened members, whose names and fame coming 
down to us through the centuries invite us all to more exemplary 
lives and higher efforts to adorn our profession. 

In ages past the work of the bar was not in accumulating pelf but 
in laying deep and firm the substructure of society, and its labors 
have resulted in the security of life, liberty, and property in most of 
the civilized world. Such was the work of our predecessors. 

The country lawyer of today must maintain and preserve what they 
secured. The burdens laid down by them must be taken up by us, 
and if we hope that future generations will remember with respect 
the bar of today, we must see to it that our era is marked by the same 
love of learning, the same encouragement of modest merit, and the 
same high standard of personal integrity that marked and made re- 
nowned the bar of country lawyers of the past. 



(Prof. George W. Smith.) 

The evidence that salt was made within the limits of the present 
State of Illinois by other people than Indians and Europeans, would 
not be regarded as very trustworthy before a court of the common 
people. But to the man who is accustomed to look into the things 
about him in a scientific way, there is abundant evidence that salt 
was manufactured in Southern Illinois by a people whose history 
antedates that of the tribes who inhabited this country at the com- 
ing of the Europeans. 

The evidence of prehistoric salt-making in the southern part of this 
State, rests very largely upon the fact that 'in the region of Salt 
springs and Salt licks, a species of pottery is found whose use can 
be explained on no other theory so well as on the one which assumes 
that the vessels were employed in the manufacture of salt. 

On the Saline river, which flows toward the east and southeast 
through the counties of Williamson, Saline and Gallatin, there are 
two very noted localities. They are about four miles apart. One lo- 
cality is noted for a very strong salt spring, a strong sulphur spring, 
and a fresh water spring. This locality has several names, but is 
usually called the "Nigger Spring," the "Nigger Well" and the 
•'•Nigger Furnace." It is four miles down the river from the present 
town of Equality, The other locality is marked by what in early 
times was called the "Half Moon Lick," and also by very strong 
deep wells. This point is about one mile from the town of Equality 
and very near the Saline river. 

The earliest known English people to settle in this locality came 
about 1800, or possibly in IS02. In the region of the "Nigger 
Spring" and in that of the "Half Moon Lick," the earliest English 
settlers found large quantities of all sorts of pottery, tomahawks, 
arrow heads, vases and other similar articles. In addition to these 
familiar articles, there was found a species of pottery unlike that 
found in other localities. These pieces of pottery seemed to be parts 
of large vessels. 

A sketch of Illinois published in Philadelphia in 1837, contains a 
short account of Grailatin county. The "Nigger Spring" is called 
the "Great Salt Spring." This sketch says: "The principal spring 
was formerly possessed by the Indians, who valued it very highly, 
and it appears probable that they had long been acquainted with the 


method of making salt. Large fragments of earthenware are con- 
tinually found near the works, both on and under the surface of the 
earth; they have on them the impression of basket or wicker work." 

Mr. George E, Sellers, a very noted man of Gallatin county, in an 
article in the September issue of the Popular Science Monthly for 
1877, attempts to disprove the current belief that the markings on 
this pottery were made by a basket or frame work in which the ves- 
sel is supposed to have been molded. His theory is that the impres- 
sions were made by wrapping coarse cloth around the vessels as they 
were lifted off of the mold, which was within the vessel. Mr. Sellers 
quotes from a number of scientific writers who seem to have either 
visited the region around the "Great Salt Spring" or else had speci- 
mens of pottery from that locality. All the gentlemen who have ex- 
amined this peculiar pottery are of the opinion that the vessels were 
used in the manufacture of salt. 

Mr. Sellers first visited the place as early as 1854, and he says at 
that time that all about the salt springs there was an abundance of 
this pottery. Just above the springs on a ridge which was in culti- 
vation as early as 1854, Mr. Sellers found acres actually covered with 
the old salt pans. He thinks the people, whoever they were, were 
accustomed to take the water upon the hill and there in the pans 
let the water evaporate. Possibly the process was hastened by drop- 
ping into the pans large stones, previously heated in a fire. Again 
all around the "Half Moon Lick" which is near the town of Equality, 
large quantities of the same kind of pottery has been found. In the 
report of the Illinois board, World's Fair Commissioners 1893, page 
283, Prof. Wm. McAdams says these salt pans have been found in 
abundance both in and around the salt works in Illinois, and in Mis- 
souri, near St. Genevieve. He describes them all as having those 
peculiar markings to which I have referred, Mr. McAdams found 
two of these pans entire near the salt works at St. Genevieve, Mo. 
They were serving for a coflBn. It seemed the corpse was put in one 
of these pans and another pan inverted over the first one, and then 
some earth thrown over the casket. Professor McAdams says these 
salt pans are from three to five feet in diameter. 

There are traditions that the salt springs, wells and licks on the 
Saline river in Gallatin county, were operated by the Indians and 
French for many years previous to the coming of the English about 
1800. Certain it is that the French understood the salt making pro- 
cess; the Indians without doubt knew where the springs and licks 
were. An English gentleman writing to the Earl of Hillsboro in 
1770, in speaking of the region around the mouth of the Wabash and 
the Saline rivers, mentioned the abundance of salt springs in that 

Capt. Thos. Hutchins in a book called "Topographical Description 
of Virginia" in describing the region of the Wabash says: ''The 
Wabash abounds with salt springs and any quantity of salt may be 
made from them in a manner now done in the Illinois country." 
This was in 1778, 22 years before the coming of any English people. 


Mr. Charles Carroll of Sbawneetown, told me it had always been 
his understanding that the French operated the wells and springs 
several years previous to ISOO. A history of Illinois said to have 
been written by Calvin Leonard and published by Ivison, Blakeman, 
Taylor & Co , about 1870, has an account of salt making by the 
French and of a massacre of them by the Shawnee Indians. The 
Chicago Historical Society knows nothing of such a book and I have 
doubts of its existence. Count Volney who made a tour of North 
America from 1795 to 1798 spent considerable time in Vincennes in 
1798, and speaks of the "brine springs" at St. Genevieve, Mo., but 
says not a word about the springs on the Saline river. Mr. Wm. 
MoAvoy, now of Equality, says that Gen. Leonard Wl its knew Vol- 
ney very well and says that General White told him (MoAvoy) that 
Volney stayed a month in the neighborhood of the salt works. I 
pressed Mr. McAvoy very closely and he still insisted that Gen. Leo- 
nard White had often told him of Volney's visit to that locality. 
But I could not find a single word about the salt works on the Saline 
in Volney's writings. So I am inclined to think there is some error 
in Mr. McAvoy's tradition. 

The earliest reference I was able to find in the American State 
papers is in the law of May 18th, 1796. In an act of this date it is 
made the duty of the surveyors working for the United States and 
making surveys in the territory northwest of the Ohio river "to ob- 
serve closely for mines, salt springs and salt licks and mill seats." 
Evidently there were no wells or springs operated in Ohio this early 
for in the life of Ephraim Cutler, son of Rev. Manasseh Cutler, he 
says that in 1796 when he came to the settlements below Marietta 
that there was no salt to be had west of the mountains except at 
Marietta, and what was for sale here had been brought over the 
mountains on pack horses; he says further that this salt was sold for 
16 cents per pound. 

Mr. Cutler further says that in 1798 the Shawnee Indians told 
Lieut, Geo. Irving that 50 miles inland from the Ohio river there 
was a salt spring. Search was made and the spring found near what 
is now the town of Chandlersville, ten miles southeast of Zanesville. 
A salt company was organized by four settlements, and men sent to 
make salt — four men could make six bushels a week by hard work. 

In the winter of 1799 and 1800, Wm. Henry Harrison was the 
delegate in Congress from the Territory of the Northwest. In his 
report Mr, Harrison says: "Upon inquiry we find that salt springs 
and salt licks on the east of the Muskingum, and near the Great 
Miama are operated by individuals, and timber is being wasted: 
Therefore we recommend that salt springs and salt licks, property of 
the United States in the Territory Northwest of the Ohio, ought to 
be leased for a term of years." 

The report was referred to the committee of the whole but no 
definite action was taken on the committee's recommendation. Har- 
rison became Governor of the Indiana territory in the summer of 
1800. In 1802 he visited Kaskaskia and was there importuned to 


call a convention to take steps looking toward the introduction of slav- 
ery into the Northwest territory, The convention was called in the fall 
of 1802. Among other things, the convention asked Congress to 
annul the 6th Article of the Ordinance of 1787, and to grant Saline 
below the mouth of the Wabash to the territory. Congress received the 
memorial and granted neither of the two requests, 

On March 8, 1803, Congress authorized the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury to lease the salt springs and licks for the benefit of the Govern- 
ment. On June 7th of the same year, Harrison negotiated a treaty 
at Fort Wayne between the Grovernment and five Indian tribes. 
This treaty ceded to the United States 2,038,400 acres of lands in 
what is now southern Indiana and Illinois, 

In the same summer of 1803, Governor Harrison leased the saline 
on the Saline river to a Captain Bell, of Lexington, Ky. I am inclined 
to think that probably this Captain Bell was at that time working 
the salt springs on Saline river by permission of the Indians. Rey- 
nolds says the first white man to settle in Shawneetown was Michael 
Sprinkle who came about 1802, and about the same time a French- 
man La Boissiere settled there and ran a ferry to accomodate people 
who were coming out of Kentucky to the salt works on the Saline 

Captain Bell no doubt worked the salt springs till the end of 1806, 
for the records show that for the year 1807 the works were leased to 
John Bates of Jefferson county, Kentucky. 

By Act of Congress, March 26, 1«04, there were established three 
land offices— one at Kaskaskia, one at Detroit, and one at Vinoennes, 
and by the same act all salt springs, wells, and licks, with the necessary 
land adjacent thereto were reserved from sale as the property of the 
United States. The Territorial Governor was authorized to lease 
these salt wells and springs to the best advantage of the Government. 
On the 80th of April, 1805, Governor Harrison appointed his friend, 
Isaac White, then of Vinoennes, to be government agent to reside at 
the salt works and receive the rental due the United States. Mr. 
White assumed the duties of his position and was assisted by John 
Marshall who probably lived in Shawneetown. Just where White 
resided is not known, but presumably at what I have designated as 
the "Nigger well," some four miles below Equality. In 1806, Sept. 
8th, Governor Harrison appointed Mr. White a captain in the Knox 
county militia, From evidence of a private nature, White himself 
became lessee of the salt works in 1808 and perhaps retained control 
of them till 1810 or 1811. While Captain White was residing at the 
salt works he became involved in a difficulty with a Captain Butler 
and Butler challenged White to mortal combat. The challenge was 
accepted, and two days before the day set for the duel Captain White 
wrote his wife, who perhaps was at Vinoennes, a very touching letter 
telling her he expected to be killed. On the same day that he wrote 
his wife, he made his will, signed, and sealed it. On the day set for 
the duel Butler and White both appeared on the appointed spot and 


they were informed by their seconds that horse pistols were the wea- 
pons—distance six feet. Butler backed down and refused to fight, 
saying that it would be murder and he could not engage in such an 

In 1811 Captain White, now a colonel in the Illinois militia, sold 
out his interest in the salt works to three men, Jonathan Taylor of 
Randolph county, Illinois, Chas. Wilkins and James Morrison of 
Lexington, Ky. From the beginning of 1808 to 1811 Leonard White 
afterwards known as Gen. Leonard White, seems to have been the 
Government agent, He himself later on became interested in salt- 
making. In the summer of 1811 Col. Isaac White was in Vingennes 
and was initiated into the Masonic lodge at that place; and on Sept. 
19, 1811, he was raised to the sublime degree of master Mason. Col. Joe 
Daviess of Kentucky, who was in Vincennes at that time, acted as 
Worshipful master. Colonel Daviess was in Vincennes in response 
to an invitation from Governor Harrison preparatory to an attack 
upon the Indians. On Nov. 7, 1811, Colonel Daviess and Colonel 
White fell side by side in the Battle of Tippecanoe. 

On Feb. 12, 1812, Congress created the Shawneetown land district- 
Thos. Sloo was appointed register end John Caldwell was made receiver- 
In this same act a provision authorized the President to reserve not 
less than one township of the land around the salt works from sale. 
Leonard White, Willis Hargrave. and Philip Trammell were made a 
commission to select the lands which should be reserved as the 
"Saline reservation." They performed their duty and set aside 
96,766.79 acres. This was something over four townships. This was 
and is yet called, the "reservation." About the same time Mr. Sloo 
notified the general land office that there were saline indications in 
other localities in southern Illinois and he was accordingly author- 
ized to make reservations adjacent to such springs or licks. Mr. Sloo 
made a tour of inspection and as a result about 84,000 acres addi- 
tional were reserved for saline purposes. 

From 1807 to the admission of Illinois, Aug. 26, 1818, the entire 
rental accruing to the United States from the Salines on the Saline 
river was 158,891 bushels, and the total cash turned into the treasury 
for the same time was $28,160.26. Ohio turned in $240 in the same 
time, while Indiana, Kentuckv and Missouri made no returns. 

In 1818, April 18, an Enabling act was passed by which Illinois was 
permitted to make a constitution and apply for admission into the 
union. The act contains seven sections; the sixth section has four 
parts Part two reads as follows: "All salt springs within such 
State, and the land reserved for the use of the same shall be granted 
to the said State, for the use of said State, and the same to be used 
tinder such terms, and conditions, and regulations, as the Legislature 
of the said State shall direct; Provided, The Legislature shall never 
sell, nor lease the same for a longer period than ten years, at any one 


In pursuance of this act the constitutional convention met at Kas- 
kaskia in the summer of 1818 and made a constitution. In that con- 
stitution are some provisions that used to be a great mystery to me. 
Act 6 deals with the question of slavery. Section 2 of the 6th article 
reads as follows: ''No person bound to labor in any state, shall be 
hired to labor in this State except within the tract reserved for the 
salt works near Shawneetown ; nor even at that place for a longer 
period than one year at any one time; nor shall it be allowed there, 
after the year 1825. Any violation of this article shall effect the 
emancipation of such person from his obligation of service." The 
2nd section of the 6th article provides that all indentures entered into 
without fraud or collusion prior to the making of the constitution, 
according to the laws of Illinois Territory, shall be held as valid and 
the person so "indented" must be held to a fulfillment of the agree- 
ment in the contract. Section 1 provides that no person could be 
held to service under an indenture hereafter to be made, unless the 
person was in a state of freedom at the time of making his contract. 
And indentures made by negroes and mulattoes are not valid for a 
longer time than one year. This 6th article deals almost wholly with 
conditions at the salt works on the Saline river at the time the con- 
stitution was made, 

Congress, as well as the territorial legislature of the northwest ter- 
ritory, was memorialized time and again for some relief from the 6th 
article of the ordinance of 1787. As soon as Indiana territory passed 
into the second grade of political organization the legislature passed 
a law permitting the bringing into the territory of negroes and mulat- 
toes who were slaves in other states. 

The law which regulated the bringing in of the slaves while Illinois 
was a territory was passed by the legislature of Indiana in 1805 It 
provided (1) that slaves over 15 years of age might be brought in 
from slave states and within 80 days the owner might enter into an 
agreement with the said slave by which the slave agreed to work in 
Illinois for a stated time for a consideration. (2) If within the 30 
days the slave refused to enter into such an agreement his master 
had 'SO days in which to return him to a slave state. This law was 
applicable in any part of the Indiana territory, but it was specially 
advantageous to the lessees of the salt works on Saline river. Mr. 
Sellers says in the article in the Popular Science Monthly that the 
• "Nigger well or salt works was worked almost wholly by negro slaves." 

The Rev. Samuel Westbrook, now 95 years of age, told me he came 
to Johnson county in 1812, and from there finally to Equality in 
1826. At that time the wells about the "Half Moon Lick" were vig- 
orously operated. I was very particular to ask him about the use of 
slave labor, and he seemed to think there were a great many negroes 
and mulattoes at work in the various forms of industry, but he 
seemed to think that most of the colored people were free at that 


In my search for information relative to the use of slave labor in 
the salt works, I was directed to a colored family seven miles north- 
west from Equality. I found the man of the house, Mr. Geo. Elliott, 
about 50 years old, while an unmarried sister was 62 years old. I 
found these colored people very intelligent and quite prosperous farm- 
ers. When I made my mission known, Mr. Elliott said his sister 
would provide me with all their old papers. His sister brought out 
a large roll of papers that belonged to their father. From these two 
colored people and the papers I secured the following facts: Their 
father, Cornelius Elliott, was born a slave in 1791. His master was 
John Elliott, of Maury county, Tenn. Cornelius had evidently been 
a laborer in the salt works on the Saline river from the time he was 
old and large enough to be of service. In 1819 Timothy Guard, one 
of the lessees of the salt works, seems to have gone into Tennessee 
and bought this slave, Cornelius, of John Elliott. He brought the 
negro to the "Half Moon Lick" and set him to work. Cornelius was 
a cooper, and barrels were in great demand In 1821 Timothy Guard 
had it in his heart to set Cornelius free. It appears that Cornelius 
had earned $1,000.00 in the three years. Either Mr. Guard had re- 
ceived directly the profit of the negro's labor and counted it worth 
$1,000 00, or else the slave had been permitted to "lay by" his earn- 
ings. At any rate I read an indenture on parchment which was 
written in Timothy Guard's handwriting in which he says that in 
consideration of $1,000.00, cash in hand, he gives Cornelius his free- 
dom, The document is signed by Timothy Guard and sworn to be- 
fore John Marshall, a justice of the peace. Following which is a 
certificate by Joseph M. Street, who was clerk of the court, to the 
efPect that John Marshall was a justice of the peace. 

Within a few years after Cornelius had purchased his own freedom 
he bought the freedom of his mother and three brothers. For one of 
his brothers he paid the sum of $550.00, and I read the manumission 
papers. In 1828 Cornelius married a free negress from Kentucky. 
He then bought 80 acres of land and commenced farming. He after- 
wards bought more land, and at the time of his death he owned 360 
acres of good farming land six or seven miles northwest of Equality. 

This story of Cornelius Elliott i^ probably only one of scores of 
similar stories which may be truthfully told of the period of "indus- 
trial service" in the salt works in Gallatin county. 

In 1818, when Illinois became a state, the salt springs, wells and 
licks, with the lands adjacent, became the property of the State of 
Illinois. At this time there were in existence five distinct leases of 
salt wells and springs from the United States to individuals. The 
leases had been made by Ninian Edwards, representing the govern- 
ment, and all bore date of ] 817. One was with Willis Hargrave and 
Meredith Fisher, a second was with Jonathan Taylor, a third with 
George Robinson, a fourth was with James Ratcliff, a fifth with Tim- 
othy Guard. 

The benefit of the unexpired leases from Aug. 26, 1818, to June 19» 
1820, fell to the State of Illinois. The legislature which met at 
Kaskaskia the winter of 1818-19 authorized the Governor of the State 


to continue these leases with the above named gentlemen. The Gov- 
ernor was also authorized to lease the Big Muddy Saline for a term 
of ten years. This saline was in Jackson county, three miles west 
of the present city of Murphysboro. This saline had been leased to 
Conrad Will, March 25, 1815 for three years. Brownsville was made 
the county seat of Jackson county in 1816. The salt wells were near 
the town, one a half mile above, and one a mile below or down the 
river from the town. Mr. Will came to Kaskaskia from Pennsyl- 
vania about 1811. He bought a drove of cattle and took them back 
to Pennsylvania. He must have returned shortly after this, for he 
seems to have been in Kaskaskia some time previous to his leasing 
the wells in 1815. It is more than probable that either Mr. Will or 
someone else was working the wells on Big Muddy prior to 1815. At 
least Mr. Will returned to Pennsylvania the second time, it seems 
after kettles to make salt. These kettles Mr. Will probably brought 
down the Ohio, up the Mississippi and then up the Big Muddy on 
keel boats. He brought his family to Brownsville about 1814 or 
1815. They lived at first in a double log house which is said to have 
stood for many years Help was scarce in Jackson county in 1815, 
so Mr. Will is said to have gone into Kentucky and brought slaves 
to his salt works. Conrad Will was a doctor, and his granddaughter, 
now living in Carbondale, has some of his books He made salt and 
ran a tan yard. He served in the Constitutional convention of ]818 
and in several of the early legislatures. He has one granddaughter 
who was born in 1828, several years before Mr. Will's death. 

In 1824 the legislature authorized the Governor to lease the Big 
Muddy saline to James Pearce. In 1827, Mr. Pearce not having ac- 
complished much in his salt making, the legislature relieved him of 
his obligation relative to the salt works. In 1884 the wells were 
leased to Conrad Will again till 1840, at this time, 1840, the lands 
should be sold. There is no record of any income to the general 
government or to the State from the Big Muddy saline. 

At this place, as I have noted, there were two wells about a mile 
apart. The machinery consisted of a row or double row of kettles 
set over an open ditch; the sides of this ditch were lined with cut 
sandstone; at one end of the row of kettles the fires were kept going 
and at the other end of the row was a smokestack. The kettles were 
very large, holding about 100 gallons each. To within the past ten 
years the old furnaces were quite undisturbed, but of late the rocks 
have all been taken out to make foundations. The old kettles are 
scattered over the neighborhood and are used chiefly for scalding the 
hogs at butchering time. One of the wells had a copper pipe run- 
ning down into the earth through which the water flowed out at the 
top. A few years ago an enterprising citizen hitched his team to the 
pipe and twisted it off several feet below the surface. Water still 
flows out at that point. 

There was in the first part of the last century a saline in Monroe 
county, nine miles due west of the present city of Waterloo. It was 
owned and worked by Gen. Edgar. The Hon. A. C. Bolinger, of 


Waterloo, took the pains to secure some facts about this saline, but 
he was unable to secure any information of value. Col. Wm. R. 
Morrison was unable to furnish anything definite, but suggested that 
Dr. Lewis James, of Old Mines, Mo., might be able to give some 
valuable facts concerning this saline, but a letter to the doctor failed 
to bring a response. 

In 1826 the United States Senate asked the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury for a complete report of all incomes from the salines and also a 
description of all reservations. In this report from the Secretary of 
the Treasury no mention is made of salinea in Monroe, Madison or 
Bond counties. However, from reliable sources we know that Judge 
Biggs made salt in Madison, on Silver creek, and in Bond on Shoal 
creek. And from an act of the legislature in 1827, it appears that 
Stephen Galliard and Samuel Montgomery were lessees of a saline 
on Shoal creek, in Bond county. By act of the Legislature, Jan. 23, 
1838, the Governor was authorized to lease the salines in Bond county, 
or to appoint an agent to take charge of them. 

The wells were on section 32, in township 6, range 4. One section 
was reserved from sale. The first well was just at the edge of the 
water of Shoal creek. The settlers dug a second well on higher 
ground and drew the water with ordinary water buckets. The boil- 
ing was done in kettles, and it is said there were as many as 90 of 
them. Many of the kettles are to be found in the locality. 

Besides Montgomery and Galliard above referred to, James Coyle, 

Spencer, John Lee, and other made salt here. James Coyle 

settled near the wells in 1817, and on April 4, 1822, a son, Jeremiah 
Coyle, was born, and he still lives on the old homestead. I am in- 
debted to the Rev. Thos. W. Hynes for the facts about the Shoal 
creek saline. 

In the early days of salt making on the Saline river wood only was 
used for fuel. The water was boiled in large cast iron kettles, hold- 
ing from 60 to 100 gallons. They were placed in rows, and one fur- 
nace would sometimes have from 20 to 30 kettles. At first the furnace 
was close to the well or spring. Timber was plentiful and it was not 
difficult to keep the furnace supplied with fuel. As time went on the 
process became more systematic and the works grew. More timber 
was needed to make more salt. The item of hauling wood three or 
four miles became a serious one. In those days there were "profes- 
sional axe-men," expert teamsters," and '"skilled firemen." It was a 
busy scene; 20 or 30 axe-men in the timber, eight or ten four or six 
mule teams on the roads from the timber to the furnaces, six or eight 
regular firemen, kettle hands, coopers, salt packers, salesmen, time- 
keepers, boarding house keepers, freighters, hoop-pole merchants, 
and hangers-on by the score. 

The water was put in fresh at the fire end of the row and moved 
from kettle to kettle back toward the chimney where there was a 
large, flat stirring off pan. Attached to this pan was a large drain- 
ing board; the salt was scraped up to one side of the pan and shoveled 


up on this board, The water drained back into the pan and the salt 
became dry It was then taken to the salt shed, where it was packed 
in barrels, and was then ready for the market. 

When the timber had been used up back three or four miles, then 
they moved the works to the fuel. The water must now be gotten to 
the furnaces. This to modern engineers would be a simple problem, 
but to our friends of 100 years ago, it was not so simple a task. The 
plan required a long, tedious preparation. Large, straight trees, from 
16 to 20 feet long in body were cut. They must be at least ten inches 
in diameter at the small;:end; this would make them 14 to 16 inches 
in diameter at the large end. With a four-inch augur, a hole was 
bored lengthwise through this log. The opening in the large end 
was seamed to about six inches in diameter, while the small end was 
trimmed down to about six inches from outside to outside. Strong iron 
bands were then put on the large end, and the small end of another 
log was forced into the large end of the first log. The second log 
was driven into the first with a sort of battering ram such as we have 
used to bombard the large hickory trees to knock off nuts in the fall 
of the year. These wooden pipes were laid from the spring or well 
to the furnace, which was often three to five miles away. The pipe 
lines are said to have been always straight, and went over hills and 
across creeks, However, the country is comparatively level. When 
the pipes crossed the creeks they weighted the pipes to the bottom 
of the stream with large castings, in the general form of a horeshoe. 
These were straddled over the logs and are said to have weighed 250 
to 300 pounds. All the pipes made prior to 1850 were made by hand, 
but about 1850 or probably a little later they were bored by horse 
power, As said before, the pipe line took a straight line from the 
well to the furnace. At the well a pump, or rather an elevator was 
rigged up, a continuous belt with flat buckets riveted to it. This 
crude elevator raised the water 10, 20 or 30 feet as needed, and thence 
it flowed down an upright pipe which connected at the bottom with 
the regular pipe line. I was not able to determine whether or not 
there were relay stations, but I am inclined to think there were. The 
cisterns where these elevators were located were called "histing 

The fact that this piping system was in use in an early day has led 
to some errors with regard to wells. Some people living in those 
regions have thought there was a well wherever there was a furnace, 
and the old furnaces are thick all over the country. This is not the 
case; there were few wells, but the piping system carried the water 
in all directions The two chief places where wells were sunk were 
at the "Nigger Spring" and at the "Half Moon Lick." It has been 
estimated that one hundred miles of pipe was laid from 1800 to 1873. 

The first wells were probably square and were 20 feet in diameter, 
and about 60 feet deep. They were walled up with logs. All the old 
wells as they appear to-day are circular and are about 20 or 25 feet 
in diameter and from four to ten feet deep with sloping sides. The 
water rose in these wells to within a few feet of the top of the ground. 
In what may be called the middle period of salt making, pipes were 
sunk in the bottom of these wells and a stronger brine secured 


Timothj^ Guard, who was connected with salt making as early as 
1816 and as late as 1880 or later, dug a deep well near the "Half 
Moon Lick" perhaps as late as 1825. The well was dug down some 
60 feet and walled up and then a boring was made in the bottom of 
this well. A very fine quality of brine was thus secured, and Guard's 
well is a very noted place, though few could point out the exact spot. 
A large tree is growing on the inner mark>in of this well; its banks 
are grassy and water stands in it some six feet below the surface of 
the ground. This well was used till about 1854. About this time a 
company was formed consisting of Stephen E,. Rowan, Andrew Mc- 
AUan, Chalon Guard, Abner Flanders, Broughton Temple and Jo- 
seph J. Castle. They made preparation to manufacture salt on a more 
extensive scale than ever before. They sunk another deep well at 
great expense, and expended so much money that the company broke 
up and Castle and Temple eventually became the owners of the 
grounds and improvements. These two men proceeded to complete 
the preparations for the manufacture of salt. Large boilers, engines 
and pumps were installed. Large boiler iron evaporating pans were 
placed over the furnaces instead of the kettles. These pans were 
from 12 to 20 feet wide and extended from the grates to the smoke 
stack, a distance of 60 or 70 feet, There were three such rows of 
pans all connected with the same smoke stack. The old pans are 
lying there now in the weeds and brush. I calculated their area and 
found they covered about 3,000 square feet. The pans were from ten 
to twelve inches deep. Coal had been discovered in a near-by hill and 
it was substituted for wood. A tramway was built from the coal 
mine to the furnaces. 

The water or brine was pumped from the deep wells to the top of 
the "thorn house." This thorn house was a frame structure resem- 
bling in general appearance the false work used in constructing a 
bridge across a small river. It was 20 or 80 feet wide at the bottom, 
and extended 60 feet high narrowing toward the top. This would be 
the end view. It extended some 150 or 175 feet in length. There 
were quite a number of cross beams, ties and braces and the whole 
inner space was filled with bundles of thorn bushes. These bundles 
of thorn bushes were carefully packed in the frame work in such a 
way that all space was completely filled with them. These thorn 
bushes were found in great quantities all about the works. On top 
of this thorn house running its entire length was a trough full of 
small holes. The brine was pumped into this trough and allowed to 
flow gently to the other end, and if it did not all trickle through the 
holes on the first trip it was guided into another trough and caused 
to flow down it till all had passed through the openings in the bot- 
tom of the trough. This brine now trickled through the thorn fag- 
gots to the bottom of the structure where it was caught in a large 
trench and conveyed to a large retaining basin. This "thorn house" 
was a great mystery to the infrequent visitors to the salt works. 
There are two explanations of its office in salt making. One that the 
brine in passing from the top of the structure to the bottom lost by 
evaporation 40 per cent of the water. This was a great saving of fuel 


and labor in the boiling process. Another explanation of its use was 
this: In evaporating the brine by boiling the water there were de- 
posits of some substance like gypsum in the bottom of the pan which 
adhered to the bottoms of the pans and if not often removed would 
prevent the passage of the heat from the fire to the water and thus 
the pans would be burned. Now the thorn bushes were supposed to 
have the power to crystallize this foreign matter and thus purify the 

This plant was owned and operated by Temple and Castle from 
about 1854 to 1873. They are said to have made 500 bushels of salt 
every 24 hours. 

In about 1873 Temple and Castle constructed a very complete 
plant a mile away at the coal mine, thinking it cheaper to move the 
water to the coal than the coal to the water. The plant was an ex- 
pensive one and when everything was nearly ready for work, hard 
times came on, salt became cheap, and the new works were never put 
into operation. In course of time the machinery was removed, and 
little is left to mark the new plant, 

On Deo. 18, 1903, I visited this region. I spent four days in gath- 
ering up the facts concerning this great industry of a former age. It 
was a pleasant task. Mr, A D. Biankenship, a former student in the 
Normal, was kind enough to furnish me a conveyance and accompany 
me in my investigations. On reaching Equality I was fortunate to 
make the acquaintance of Messrs. Moore, druggists, who are very 
much interested in preserving the story of early days about their 
town. Mr. Harry Moore accompanied me to the old works. The 
ground is quite level and subject to overflow. The day was an ideal 
spring day, and as I stood on the spot where for three-fourths of a 
century a great industry flourished I had a strange feeling. It was 
deathly still, there were no noises, no bird songs, no cattle, no life. 
A mile away we could hear the noise of the village, a passing train, 
and the noise about the coal mine and coke ovens. We soon came to 
the cinder roads and then we knew we were near the furnaces. Now 
and then we passed an old well. We had a camera and we took views 
of wells, pans, thorn bushes, etc. We found the old furnaces. The 
outlines of the old pans are still to be seen. One old pan is quite 
well preserved, but it will soon be mouldered back to earth whence it 
came. We found the old retaining cistern and found the location of 
the old residence of Temple and Castle. About a quarter of a mile 
away we visited the noted "Half Moon Lick " This is some one- half 
quarter long and half quarter wide at the widest part. It is about 
20 or 25 feet deep and is destitute of any growth except some willows 
and tufts of grass. This lick is supposed to have been the resort of 
wild animals for centuries past. The teeth and bones of mastodons 
have been found here. We got a fairly good view of this lick. 

The afternoon I spent with Mr, MoAvoy, a very intelligent and 
courteous old gentleman who came to Equality about 1855. Mr. 
McAvoy is a friend of Mr. Temple and is in possession of much 
valuable information which he has gathered in the last half century. 


The second day I visited the "Nigger Well," four miles below 
Equality and across the river from the town. There was a downpour 
of rain this day which prevented me from making a close study of 
this region. However I was able to find the exact spot, the "Nigger 
Spring" which was salt and is the one evidently just used. The 
sulphur spring which I found very strong and was evidently formerly 
in use for the old timbers are still to be seen imbedded in the mud, 
and the fresh water spring not far away. These were all described 
by Colonel Sellers as early as 1854. Just to the right as you go 
down the river toward the southeast is a high range of hills and at 
the "Nigger Well" the bluffs come close to the river and it is just 
up on these bluffs where Colonel Sellers used to find the Indian 
graves and evidences of a village. A few yards below the springs I 
found a native to the manor born. He had lived in that immediate 
vicinity for 50 years, and seemed a little surprised to think any one 
would attach any importance to these old salt springs. He told me 
that in a little bottom field just in front of his house and lying just 
below the springs that he had plowed up bushels of broken pottery 
and that the whole field seemed to be one big furnace. I asked him 
if any salt had been made there within the last 50 years, and he said 
that everything looked just as it did 50 years ago. I examined care- 
fully the trees and I am very sure there are many of them 3 feet in 
diameter and yet Colonel Sellers affirms that in an early day every 
stick of timber was out off for fuel, I learned from the native above 
referred to that there was an old pipe line running from the springs 
near to an old furnace down the creek, but across from his house, 
and he said that he was sure the old kettles were there yet, but said 
they were covered up in the dirt but he was sure they could be 
found. He said further that another line of pipe led to a furnace 
further down the river. This line may have led to Weed's works 
which were one-half mile below the island ripple. 

I visited Shawneetown and spent considerable time with Mr. 
Charles Carroll whom I found to be a very pleasant gentleman. He 
is probably the best informed man in Shawneetown on early Gallatin 
county history. I spent some time in the recorder's office verifying 
some facts which I had gathered elsewhere Incidentally I took oc- 
casion to visit the old flag said to have been carried in the revolu- 
tionary war by General Pavey. I also viewed for a few moments the 
old brick house in which General LaFayette was entertained. This 
is called the Rawlins house. Finally I viewed with no little interest 
the humble home in which Illinois' greatest soldier and our honored 
guest today were married. (General and Mrs. Jno, A. Logan.) 

The third day, in company with Mr. McAvoy, Mr. Mclntyre, Mr. 
Bunker, and Mr. Smith, I visited again the old salt works on the 
outskirts of Equality. This second visit was very profitable, for Mr. 
Mclntyre was, from a boy, an employ^ about the works, most of the 
time in the capacity of cooper. Mr. Mclntyre knew every foot of 
the ground and with his help I drew a map locating every important 

— 17H. 


place of interest about the grounds. On this day, in company with 
Dr. Gordon and Mr. McAvoy, I called to see Uncle Peter White 
(colored) now 70 years old. Uncle Pete was brought up in the im- 
mediate vicinity of the salt works. When he was 10 years old he 
and three other children were kidnapped and taken into Arkansas and 
sold. He was afterwards rescued by Watt White. Uncle Peter's 
memory is good and I gathered some valuable information from 

On the fourth day I visited the Elliott family previously referred 
to and also the Rev. Samuel Westbrook now living in El Dorado. 

Mr. Westbrook was born in 1809. He came to Johnson county in 
1812, and in 1826 he came to Equality and began laboring in various 
capacities in the salt making business. He was, among other things, 
a teamster. He had lived in the immediate vicinity of the salt works 
for the past 78 years and has a very vivid picture of most of the in- 
cidents which occurred within that period. 

The men and women who have lived in this region from a very 
early day are very few and their ranks are thinning every day. In a 
few years there will be none living whose lives cover the period of 
salt making. And so far as I have been able to find out little, if 
anything, has ever been written and printed of this great industry of 
southern Illinois. 







Morris Blrkbeck. 



(Daniel Berry, M. D.) 

Morris Birkbeok was born sometime in the year 1763 in the vici- 
nity of London, England. He died June 4th, 1825, aged 62 years, 
and lies buried in New Harmony, Indiana. He came up and out of 
the sub strata of English life. His character we must measure by 
his work. Of his personality we have an outline in Mr. George 
Flower's History of the English settlement in Edwards county. 

He says: "The father of Morris Birkbeck, also named Morris, was 
an eminent Quaker preacher, whose good name was well known by 
friends in America as well as in England. Old Morris Birkbeck, as 
he was familiarly called, when his son arrived at manhood, although 
eminent as a preacher, was by no means so for his wealth or worldly 
possessions. But he gave to his son a much better education thaa 
generally falls to the lot of the children of poor Friends. 

"Morris Birkbeck the younger, had a thorough knowledge of Latin, 
and a slight knowledge of Greek. In after life he mastered the 
French language so as to read it with facility. Whilst a mere youth 
he was appointed clerk to a Friends' meeting. The duties of this 
office made him a ready writer, and a systematic arranger of docu- 
ments and papers of every kind. Very early in life he was placed 
upon a farm. There it was that he learned by experience farming 
and farm work. When a young man he hired a farm with no capi- 
tal of his own, and with a very small capital borrowed from a friend. 
He worked on the farm with great assiduity, not only with his own 
hands, but with such labor as his limited means allowed him to com- 
mand. He watched his own progress, or rather position, with great 
solicitude. He has often told me, that many times when he took 
stock, after valuing everything he possessed, even his books and 
clothes, he found himself worse than nothing, but by perseverance 
he acquired a little. He afterward took, on a long lease, a much 
larger farm called Wanborough, containing 1,500 acres of land, near 
the town of Guilford in the county of Surrey. This farm he worked 
with great perseverance and spirit, always adopting improvements 
in husbandry, implements and live stock, that appeared of any prac- 
tical value. Here he acquired a competence and brought up a 
family of four sons and three daughters, to whom he gave a liberal 
education and to whom he was a most kind and indulgent parent." 

Here is Mr. Flower's description of the man: 


"When I first became acquainted with Mr. Birkbeck he was nearly 
50 years old, enjoying excellent health. Mental and bodily activity 
were combined with unimpaired habits. In person he was below 
middle stature, rather small, spare, not fleshy but muscular and 
wiry. With a constitution not of the strongest, he was yet a strong 
and active man. His bodily frame was strengthened and seasoned 
by early labor and horseback exercise in the open air. He was cap- 
able of undergoing great fatigue without injury. His complexion 
was bronzed from exposure; face marked with many lines; rather 
sharp features, lighted by a quick twinkling eye and rapid utterance. 
He was originally of an irascible temper, which was subdued by his 
Qaaker breeding, and kept under control by watchfulness and care. 
But eye, voice and action would occasionally betray the spirit work 

"Mr. Birkbeck was of quick perception and lively conversation* 
often spiced with pungent remarks and amusing anecdotes. He was 
a general and rapid reader, and notwithstanding his business occu- 
pations, showed a decided taste for scientific investigation, for which 
be always found time to indulge." 

When Mr. Flower first met Mr Birkbeck, Mr. Flower was 
about 25 years old. Another interesting allusion to Mr. Birkbeck in 
Mr. Flower's History is this: 

"After the downfall of Napoleon, and the peace succeeding a 20 
years war, Mr. Birkbeck invited me to accompany him in a journey 
to France, to which I readily acceded. We traveled together three 
months in that coantry, avoiding the usual route of English travel. 
Passing from North to South to the shores of the Mediterranean, 
skirting the Pyrennes, and returning through the heart of the coun- 
try to Paris, we saw more of the country and Frenchmen at home, 
than we otherwise should, if confined to any one of the popular 
routes of travel." 

Many years ago, through the courtesy of Mr. Alfred Flower, a son 
of Mr. George Flower, I had the pleasure of reading the manuscript 
itinerary of that journey written by Mr. Flower himself. It is a very 
interesting account of a trip undertaken for pleasure and profit, 
because the two travelers were incidentally studying the Merino 
sheep industry. 

But Mr. Flower continues in his history: "On our return Mr. 
Birkbeck published his 'Notes of a Journey through France.' It 
had a wide circulation in England, and was well known in America. 
It was the first book I met with at Monticello, the residence of 
Thomas JefiPerson. 

"About this time Mr. Edward Coles, on his return from a diplo- 
matic mission to Russia, spent some time in England. An introduc- 
tion to Mr Coles in London was succeeded by a visit to Mr. Birk- 
beck's house and family at Wanborough. Here an intimacy and 
friendship was formed, in consequence of which Mr. Coles, when 
Governor of Illinois, appointed Mr. Birkbeck his Secretary of State." 
At this point in Mr. Flower's History, Mr, E, B, Washburne, its edi- 
tor, makes the following note: 


"Edward Coles was elected Governor of Illinois in 1822. His 
election was followed by a contest which continued for 18 months 
and which, for bitterness and despen.tion, is without a parallel in the 
history of political struggles in the United States. It resulted from 
an attempt to change the free State constitution of the State into a 
constitution tolerating slavery. Though Governor Coles was a Vir- 
ginian and had been a slave holder, he was the leader of the free 
State men who fought out the great battle of freedom in that terrific 
conflict. By this time the English colony in Edwards county had 
become an important factor in the politics of the State. Morris 
Birkbeck, Gilbert T. Pell, his son-in-law, George Flower and Rich- 
ard Flower, his father, played an important part in this contest in 
opposition to the slavery propogandists." I would remark here that 
much of the time of Mr. George Flower and his father was taken up 
at this period, in negotiating the purchase of the Rapp colony of 
New Harmony, Indiana, for Mr. Robert Owen. This purchase was 
consummated in 1824, at a cost to Mr. Owen of about $140,000.00. 

Mr. "W'ashburne continues: "The vigorous and facile pen of Mr. 
Birkbeck was called into requisition, and his writings were widely 
read, and exercised a great influence on public opinion. 

In 1824, David Blackwell, then Secretary of State, resigned his 
office, and Governor Coles, recognizing the services of Mr. Birkbeck 
and his exceptional fitness for the position, appointed him in his 
place in September, 1824. The nomination had to be confirmed by 
the Senate, and that body, having a pro-slavery majority, rejected 
him on Jan. 15, 1825, he having held the office only three months." 

English tenant farming became a poor business during the peace 
following the downfall of Napoleon. Mr. Birkbeck sold out his 
lease of Wanborough and all his personal property pertaining to the 
farm. This sale netted him more than $55,000, and this sum we 
may consider as his contribution to the English enterprise in Ed- 
wards county. 

He embarked with his family from the port of London, on board 
the ship America, Captain Heth, in April, 1817. They arrived at 
Norfolk, Va., in the month of June, of the same year. 

Mr. George Flower, who had been traveling through the western 
settlements searching for the prairie lands, of which he had read in 
Imlay's work, and concerning which he had great doubt, joined the 
Birkbeck family party and came west with them. Mr. Birkbeck's 
observations on this tedious horseback journey from Pittsburg to the 
prairie land of Illinois, are contained in "Birkbeck's Notes of Travel 
in America." Read that book and then go over the same route and 
you will have a better understanding of the man. You shall see, 
that, as we say in these days, "he sized things up," as he came along 
— told what this and that locality was fitted for — and you realize 
that now they are doing just what he predicted for them. 

He was now about 55 or 56 years old, just in his ripe prime. We 
have Mr Flower's pen picture of the man, and the strongest charac- 


istios we see there, are: a man of strong, unbending will power; a 
man of intense nervous energy, where every fibre of muscle — every 
mental endeavor can be tuned up to high concert pitch, and stay 
there until the work is done; we see that this work is to be directed 
by inflexible honesty and a very high grade of intelligence. He was 
a man who would always fall into the right place, because with his 
bithright of abilty and training he could adapt himself to anyplace to 
be filled with prime elements of manhood. He was a man with a broad, 
catholic mind, made so by wide reading, reflection and experience. 
If the Territory of Illinois had been a personality endowed with 
prescience to know the peril and ordeal she was to pass through as 
an infant State, and had desired to bring up and train a champion, 
defender and preserver in her distress, she could not have devised a 
better school than the one through which Morris Birkbeck passed. 

I want you to go back and look at the condition of such a man, as 
we know Mr. Birkbeck to have been, in the England of 1816. Just 
imagine the galling, bitter, burning irony of the situation that must 
have tortured his very soul. With all his attainments, aspirations 
and wealth he was not classed as a citizen, could have no lot nor part 
in the governmental affairs of the land. He was an inhabitant, just 
that and nothing more. As an inhabitant he was just a grade or two 
above the rabbits in his lordship's warren and the foxes and pheas- 
ants in his game preserves. 

As he grew up he saw the sturdy American colonies assert their 
manhood by throwing off the yoke of servile distinction bred of a 
thousand years of castle tutelage; standing proud and dominant in 
the full power and majesty of their re-captured Saxon birthright of 
freedom. He saw the blood, horror and tumult of the French revo- 
lution, where amid untold atrocities the top of society went down 
and the bottom came up. His Quaker breeding led him to look on 
such things, and such procedure with disgust and loathing, while his 
mature reflection recognized the woeful disparity between classes, his 
sensitive nature and habit of thought counseled moderation in the 
means to attain better ends. He was anxious and willing, at any 
cost, to assert and maintain his own manhood, rights and freedom, 
but his solicitude did not stop here, he was anxious that all men 
should enjoy the same privileges. From the nature of the case — he 
was driven to espouse the anti-slavery cause in the land of his adop- 
tion. In this work of the English colony of Edwards county, Mr. 
Birkbeck had a two-fold task. One might say that he fought the 
pro- slavery men with a sword in one hand, while with the other he 
waved the olive branch of peace to his neighbors, This English 
movement into Edwards county was by no means a welcome one to 
the settlers in the vicinity, neither was it looked upon with anything 
like friendly appreciation. You must remember they came there 
only six or seven years after the battle of New Orleans; that many of 
the victors in that battle were settled around them; and of those who 
were not with General Jackson behind the cotton bales, many had 
suffered from depredations and killings by the Indians "egged on by 


the British," as the phrase was. To these Mr. Birkbeck's office was 
one of reason and conciliation. He could make them see the un- 
righteousness and cupidity of the British cause and action; he could 
impress them with the sympathy of himself and fellow colonists, be- 
cause of being sufferers, like themselves, from British injustice. 
Feeling as he did, the expanding influences of his own manhood, in 
bis newly acquired relief from caste prejudice, he could talk to them 
of the glorious prospects around them and the social conditions that 
allowed a man to grow to his full size. 

In the work of arousing public indignation against the contem- 
plated change in the State Constitution to admit slavery, Mr. Birk- 
beck was certainly the acknowledged leader. In the tight that fol- 
lowed the call for a convention he furnished all the ammunition. 
His pen was ever ready and potent. He could appeal to all classes 
of society, the illiterate as well as the learned. Over the name of 
Jonathan Freeman his letters were spread broadcast over the State, 
sowing the seed of a crop of passionate protest against the plans of 
the pro-slavery men. Newspapers were few and there were not many 
readers, but there were thousands of good memories in the land. 
The percentage of illiteracy, in those days, was something we hardly 
dare look back upon. But there was an agency that was courage- 
ous; which became burning soul inspired ally of Mr. Birkbeck. 

The itinerant preacher, the circuit rider, was abroad in the land. 
These zealous men were coming and going through every settlement 
with their saddle bags loaded with the gospel and Birkbeck's letters. 
These letters were read at every meeting and house where the 
preacher held service or was entertained. The listeners carried them 
away in their memories and at every house raising, log-rolling, bury- 
ing, wedding and infare, they were "norated round," as the phrase 
was used, for the spreading of news. 

I heard of Birkbeck's letters 25 years before they were published 
in Mr. Flower's history. I got them with no tarnish on their inten- 
sity and brilliancy. 

Nearly 50 years ago I was teaching school in Lawrence county. I 
wanted to learn something about practical surveying, and one vaca- 
tion became a pupil of the county surveyor, Mr. Walter Buchanan. 
This society ought to have a sketch of that man. He was one of the 
pioneers in a colony of Scotch-Irish Presbyterians. He was a man 
of splendid physique, with a head and face denoting high intellect- 
uality; his manner was genial, cordial and so kind that everyone 
called him Uncle Wat. His education was limited, but he had more 
than any book knowledge could give. He was a mathematical 
prodigy. His neighbors said of him, "he is a natural born mathema- 
tician." I used to think of him as a mathematical monstrosity. He 
was full of what he called crank questions, and one could not be with 
him ten minutes before one was thrown at him. He had a book full 
of abstruse problems — all invented by himself. Nothing pleased 
him so well as to have some one give him a hard one, something that 


he could think about, as he expressed it. I found some "tough cus- 
tomers" in a new book I had. I copied many of these and read them 
to him at various times. I would hardly finish reading one before 
he gave the solution. 

I finally came to the conclusion that he was possessed of a sort of 
sixth sense, something that I could not comprehend; and with this 
extra sense he thought with circles, triangles, squares, cubes, conic 
sections, parabolic curves and tangential lines, much in the same 
way as I thought with words. I never met a man with such a 
memory. In our long rides about the country, whenever I could 
lure him away from his tormenting mathematics, I would get him to 
talking about old times On one occasion, he asked me: "Did you 
ever hear how Birkbeck skinned the preacher?" I never had. This 
opened up a long talk about the convention and anti-convention 
days, and Mr. Birkbeck's work in "heading off" the convention men. 
In Mr, Buchanan's account: "There was a preacher, Mr. W., who 
thought he would like to look horns with Birkbeck on the divine 
wisdom and holiness of slavery. The letter was printed in the 
papers. Mr. W. was very proud of it. I reckon he was sure he had 
squelched Birkbeck, and a right peart lot of other folkg thought so 
too. But Birkbeck came back at him with another letter. There 
was a right smart chance of scripture in both letters." Here Mr. 
Buchanan broke into a laugh. "I never can help laughing," he 
said, "when I think how Mr. W. must have felt and looked when he 
saw his hide hanging on the fence." "Perhaps he did not realize 
that he had been skinned," I suggested. "Well," said Mr. Buchanan 
reflectively, "I know that Solomon says that you can bray a fool in 
a mortar, but he comes out the same old fool. May be he did not 
know he was skinned. Everybody else did; and, as proof of the skin- 
ning, nobody ever heard any more from Mr. W." With that he re- 
peated the contents of those two letters. 

Years after, when I read the letters in Mr. Flower's History, I 
recognized the fact that I had heard them before, almost word for 
word, The old feeling of bitterness engendered in that old time 
struggle, was but slightly toned down in Mr Buchanan's narration 
of it. In the summer of 1860 I became acquainted with Mr. George 
Flower and his wife. Through the courtesy of their son-in-law, Mr. 
Charles Agniel, I read some of the manuscript of the history. That 
year Mr. Flower was putting the finishing touches on it. In Sep- 
tember of the same year he presented it, together with some valuable 
autograph letters, to the Chicago Historical society. It was in the 
society's library a long time before it found an appreciative reader. 
In 1871 such a reader picked it up and was interested. He lived in 
the country and obtained permission to take it home with him. Dur- 
ing its absence from the city the Chicago fire came. This manu- 
script and the letters were all that was saved to the society. After 
ether years it thrilled another man, Mr. L. Z, Leiter. He generously 
contributed the money for its publication. This was done in 1882, 
the work being edited by Mr. E. B. Washburne, Only a limited 
number of copies were printed. The book ought to be republished. 


Its tenth chapter deals with the convention and anti-convention 
days, and the spirited language of Mr. Flower gives us a fair view of 
the ferocity of the struggle. 

Perhaps it would be of interest to inquire into the cause that 
brought on the most critical period in the history of Illinois when, 
in its infancy, it came very near shipwreck on the rocks of slavery. 
Momentous as the occasion was, it arose from what we would now 
consider a very trifling thing. This was a small commercial enter- 
prise known as the salines of Gallatin county. 

In the territorial times the land in the vicinity was a government 
reservation. The government leased these salines to individuals, 
and when the Illinois Territory was enacted into a State, the salines 
were turned over to the State. When under the generalf government 
control the lessees were allowed to bring slaves into the Territory for 
the purpose of working these salines. Under this arrangement hun- 
dreds and thousands of slaves were introduced into the southern part 
of the Territory, chiefly from the states of Kentucky and Tennessee. 
The company who held the lease of the salines from the State was 
composed of Granger, Gard, White and others. The State allowed 
the work to be done by slaves; but in Article 6, Section 2 of the first 
Constitution, there was a provision which read thus: 

"No person bound to labor in any other state, shall be hired to 
labor in this State, excepting within the track reserved for the salt 
work, near Shawneetown, nor even at that place for a longer term 
than one year at any one time, nor shall it be allowed there after the 
year 1825. Any violation of this article shall effect the emancipation 
of such persons from his obligation to service." 

Mr. Flower says in his history: 

"Here the whole thing was supposed to be settled; everybody 
thought freedom was established, and, under that belief, emigrants 
from free states and from Europe came in and began to make per- 
manent settlements for themselves and families. These settlers saw a 
menace in the practice of the company working the salines. Under 
the law a slave could be employed there but one year, at the expira- 
tion of which time he had to be sent back to where he came from. 
The truth was, few or any of them were allowed to leave the State, 
but were paroled out to the friends of the lessees, and in many cases 
bartered for land or sold for cash." 

The general inspector of the salt works for the United States gov- 
ernment, and also for the State, was Major Willis Hargrave, of 
Carmi. He was with General Jackson at New Orleans. He was 
made a general in the Black Hawk war. He led about 500 White 
county men into that war. 

When the lease of the Salt Works company, with its slave labor 
privilege, was about to expire, the company could not ask for an ex- 
tension of its concession from the State, because of the constitutional 
barrier. But Major Hargrave was equal to the emergency; he would 
change the constitution of the State. Probably no man in the State 
had a wider acquaintance than he. As a member of the Territorial 


legislature, and State Senator in the First General Assembly, and as 
inspector of the salines, where everybody came for salt, he had op- 
portunities for making friends possessed by few men. 

As this was the first attempt made anywhere in the country by a 
corporation, or trade monopoly, to run the government, it is interest- 
ing to see how the work was started. In this work Major Hargrave 
was the master spirit. We must not forget that he was a forceful 
man. With him common, ordinary men were like clay in the hands 
of the potter. His army experience had taught him the value of 
organization and the importance of attention to the smallest details. 

In his legislative experience he had learned to work the machine 
that was to accomplish his purpose. His first object, then, was to 
shape that machine to his liking, in the election of members to the 
coming Third General Assembly. With the spirit of a born tactician 
and strategist he stealthily placed his scouts and advance guards so 
as not to alarm the enemy. All the counties were organized. Four or 
five careful, discreet, thorough-going partisans, men of position, were 
appointed captains of the movement in their counties. Each of thesQ 
selected a squad of like character, for work in all the settlements. It 
was the duty of this detail to talk into being by easy gradations a 
general, pro slavery sentiment, and to know how every man in his 
settlement was going to vote. The next thing to do was to place the 
battery of newspapers in position 

You have seen the leader of an orchestra assemble the players to 
tune up their instruments, preparatory to the grand overture In 
some such fashion Major Hargrave tuned up this newspaper artillery. 
They were not to alarm the people. In the opening of the fight they 
were to shoot nothing more dangerous than paper wads showing the 
benign expediency of extending the slavery privilege with a well de- 
fined limit. 

But as the fight grew, the discharges from these guns began to do 
some damage, until finally they began to deal in red hot shot and 
shell calling for a change in the constitution to admit slavery. Hap- 
pily there were some papers that could not be trained in such fashion. 
Under such circumstances the election of the Third General Assem- 
bly took place. 

This Assembly of 1822-1824 contained 54 members — 18 Senators 
and 36 Representatives. Among these were four men directly inter- 
ested in the salt works as lessees. Leonard White, of White county, 
and Michael Jones, of Gallatin, were in the Senate; Daimwood of 
Gallatin, Sloo of Hamilton, and Hargrave's man Logan, of White, 
were in the House. This man Logan had been elected by his friends 
in the Methodist settlement in White county, under pledge to vote 
against any change in the constitution. He it was who introduced 
the resolution calling for the convention. My authority as to the 
manner of his election is from the mouths of old settlers. The record 
tells the rest. 

Every once in a while we hear men and women sigh for the 
*_'good old days, when men were honest." If these people will 
just look up the transactions of that Third General Assembly of Illi- 


nois, they will be better satisfied with things as they are now. The 
words caucus, ring, boodle and graft were not in use then, but they 
had the full grown things just the same. This was the method of 
procedure as recorded by Mr. Flower, and he says he gives it in the 
words of an eye witness: 

"The history of the business appears to be shortly this: Certain 
members of the Assembly, anxious to introduce a forbidden system 
among us, formed themselves into a junto, or caucus, soon after the 
commencement of the session, and offered to other members their 
votes in favor of any proposition which those members had any in- 
terest in carrying, in consideration of their pledging themselves to 
support the measure of a convention. (Doesn't that sound like up to 
date legislation?) 

By the accession of these, their first victims, the junto, in fact, be- 
came the legislature, as by comprising a majority of both houses, it 
was capable of carrying every question, the convention alone ex- 

Other representatives, who had not as yet bartered away their in- 
dependence, soon discovered that they were completely at the mercy 
of the junto; and, in order to recover the means of serving their con- 
stituents on those points of local interest, which when combined, 
form the general weal, suffered themselves, one by one, to be bought 
over, until the function had acquired nearly two thirds of the whole 
number of votes — the strength requisite to carry their favorite 
measure, without the accomplishment of which, they declared they 
would not quit Vandalia. 

They repeatedly tried their strength by preparatory resolutions, 
and at length, on the 5th of February, brought forward the main 
question; but it was decided against them by a majority of two. 
They were not, however, to be so baffled. They carried a vote of re- 
consideration, and the resolution was laid upon the table. On the 
11th of February, having gained over the deficient votes by means 
which it would be invidious to mention, the resolution was again 
brought forward, and again lost, through the defection of a mem- 
ber who on a former occasion, had voted for it. Notwithstand- 
ing this second decision, they persevered in their purpose. One of 
the party, although in the constitutional minority on the last divi- 
sion, again moved a reconsideration of the question. The speaker 
declared the motion to be out of order, because the mover was in the 
minority. They attempted to overrule the decision of the speaker, 
by an appeal to the house, but the chair was supported by a majority 
of three. Here, it might be supposed, the question was finally de- 
cided, and would have been allowed to rest; but it proved otherwise. 
On the succeeding day, the vote confirming the speaker's decision 
was reversed, and the motion for reconsideration, made by one of the 
minority carried ; and to extinguish the vote of the defaulter, and 
create a favorable one in the room of it, as no such vote could be 
found in the house, they had recourse to a proceeding, the most un- 
just and impudently tyrannical that ever, as I believe, disgraced the 
Legislature of a free country. 


By an arbitrary resolution, in direct violation of law, they ex- 
pelled one of the representatives who had been established in his 
seat, by a decision of the House, and introduced in his room a man 
favorable to their views, who had been declared, by the same decision, 
not to be a representative. Thus was Mr. Hansen illegally expelled 
from his seat in the Legislature, and Mr. Shaw illegally placed in. 
Having accomplished this, they brought forward the main question 
the third time, and carried it by the vote of this man, whom they 
created a member for the express purpose, at the close of the ses- 

Ford, in his history of Illinois, confirms this statement, but makes 
the tergiversation of the Assembly more apparent, He says, on page 
52. When the Legislature assembled, it was found that the Senate 
contained the requisite two thirds majority ; but in the House of Rep- 
resentatives, by deciding a contested election in favor of one of the 
candidates, the slave party would have one more than two thirds; 
but by dividing in favor of the other, they would lack one vote of 
having that majority. These two candidates were John Shaw and 
Nicholas Hansen, who claimed to represent the county of Pike, which 
then included all the military tract and all the country north of the 
Illinois river, to the northern limits of the State, 

The leaders of the slave party were anxious to elect Jesse B. Thomas 
to the United States Senate. Hansen would vote for him, but Shaw 
would not. The party had use for both of them, and they deter- 
mined to use them both, one after the other. For this purpose, they 
first decided in favor of Hansen, admitted him to a seat, and with his 
vote elected their United States Senator; and then, toward the close 
of the session, with brute force, and in the most bare faced manner, 
they reconsidered their former vote, turned Hansen out of his seat, 
and decided in favor of Shaw, and with his vote carried their resolu- 
tion for a convention." 

Mr. Wafahburne's note in Flower's history p. 205 reads as follows: 

"In the account Mr. Flower has given of the celebrated contest be- 
tween Shaw and Hansen, he has simply followed the accepted histor- 
ical version. Governor Reynolds and Governor Ford are both mis- 
taken when they state that Hansen was admitted to a seat in the 
lower branch of the Legislature, in order to vote for Thomas, for 
United States Senator, and was then put out in order to admit Shaw, 
for the purpose of having his vote for the convention resolution. 
Hansen was the sitting member whose seat was contested by Shaw. 
The contest was settled in the early part of the session, and without 
any reference whatever either to the Senatorial or convention ques- 
tion. The House decided that Hansen was entitled to his seat. It 
was only at the end of the session, and after Hansen had 
held his seat unchallenged for eleven weeks, that he was turned out, 
to put Shaw in, so by his vote to carry the convention resolution. 
The proceeding was lawless, revolutionary, and utterly disgraceful 
and contributed largely to the defeat of the convention scheme before 
the people." 


After the resolution calling for a convention to change the consti- 
tution was carried, until the election in August 1824, the war grew 
bitter and fierce. The pro- slavery men knew their arch antagonist. 
It is sometimes, in the opinion of posterity, the highest compliment and 
tribute to a man's power, that can be given him, to hang him in effigy, 
and hunt him like a mad dog at the point of a pistol. Mr Birkbeck 
achieved both of these distinctions in Vandalia. He was there hung 
in effigy, and, as a defenceless man, had to flee from the pistols in 
the hands of partisan blinded, maddened judges of courts, distracted, 
let us hope, with something beside politics. 

But all this did not deter him. As the fight continued he in- 
creased in efforts and in strength. His pen neither slumbered nor 
slept. Just at the close of the campaign he issued an address to the 
people. This appeared in the Illinois Gazette, and was also printed 
in hand bill form and sent out by men, hired for the purpose, all 
over the stale. Please observe there was no campaign fund then, and 
all this expense was borne by Mr. Birkbeck. It was this address that 
turned the tide of battle, and because of this, and its artistic, intrinsic 
merit, I cannot refrain from giving it entire. 

"An address to the citizens of Illinois for the day of election, and 
worthy of their serious attention preparatory thereto: 

"Blessed beyond all the nations of the earth in the enjoyment of 
civil and political freedom, under a constitution which is the admi- 
ration of the wise in every nation to which the knowledge of it has 
extended, the citizens of this great republic have yet to deplore that 
there exists within it a system of oppression, greatly exceeding in its 
cruelty and injustice all other calamities inflicted by tyranny upon 
its victims, an inheritance of wretchedness, extending from genera- 
tion to generation. 

"In those sections of the republic where this system prevails, a large 
proportion of the people distinguished from the rest by color, but 
alike susceptible to pain and pleasure, with minds capable of im- 
provement, though disgraced by their condition, are deprived of all 
rights personal and civil, and groaning in hopeless servitude. The 
effect of this evil upon the states, laboring under this curse, (in ad- 
dition to the every day misery of the slave) is to obstruct their improve- 
ment to an astonishing degree, especially by repressing population 
According to a census made by Congress in 1774, Virginia at that 
period contained 650,000 inhabitants. New York, including Vermont, 
and Pennsylvania including Delaware, contained together only 
600,000— that is to say, 50,000 less that Virginia alone, In 1820, by 
the last census. New York, Pennsylvania and Delaware contained, 
omitting fractions, 2,600,000 free persons; having increased above 
four fold in 46 years, eight of which were under a consuming war. 
But these states had during this period, delivered themselves from 
slavery, that still more consuming plague with which we are now 
threatened. Virginia unhappily remained in bondage; and by the 
census of 1820, instead of a population of two million and a half, 
which she probably would have attained, if free, had little more than 


1,000,000, of which 445,000 were slaves; exposing a deficiency arising 
from this source in that single state, of 2,000,000 of free persons. 
In the value of land and the amount of manufacturing and commer- 
cial capital vested in public institutions, canals, hospitals, seminaries 
of learning, etc., the contrast is still more remarkable; a ten-fold 
proportion in favor of the free state is probably below the truth. 
To this add the number and vast superiority of their towns and cities 
and cultivated farms, with the industry, tranquility and security of 
the inhabitants. 

"Pursue the comparison throughout the Union, and such is the 
lamentable result; misery and vice, restraining population where 
slavery prevails, and drying up all the sources of prosperity. 

"We are assembled this day to make our election between freedom 
and its blessings, and slavery and its curses unutterable; between 
good and evil. Indiana, our sister state, has given us an example of 
wisdom by an overwhelming majority against a slave making con- 
vention. Ohio, another sister rejoicing in her own freedom, is ex- 
erting herself in the generous hope of laying a foundation of universal 
emancipation; as appears by an earnest appeal to the Union lately 
issued by her legislature. United as we are with these states in a 
solemn compact against the admission of slavery, let Illinois prove 
herself worthy of their aflBnity, and coming forward with one consent 
on the side of wisdom and virtue, let us disappoint the hopes of a 
short sighted party among us, who would sacrifice our permanent 
interests to their mistaken views of temporary advantage. The indi- 
vidual who presumes thus to address you is no politician; has no 
object at variance with the general welfare; no ambition but to be a 
friend of mankind, and especially his brethren of this State." 

Here spoke the patriot; the lover of his kind; the far seeing man 
of affairs; the keen logician and broad minded statesman. 

Through the courtesy of Hon. James A. Rose, Secretary of State 
for Illinois, I present here the vote of Illinois by counties in the 
election held Aug. 2, 1824. 




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Majority against the convention, 1,668. 

I want you to notice the counties that gave those large pro-slavery 
majorities. Look at them then, and now. While the rest of the 
State has been advancing with leaps and bounds, these, blest with a 
wealth of material facilities, are creeping along in much the same 
old, old fashion. Why? Let me tell you. 

The body politic is sometimes attacked with a peculiar disease. 
As the sociologist has not yet recognized this lesion, or complaint, I 
venture to give it a name. It is communal atrophy, or arrest of de- 
velopment. It is really an interesting study in ethnology. To un- 
derstand it we must take a lesson from Darwin. More than 60 years 
ago, this gentleman, in his book — "The Origin of Species" — showed 
to the world that in his study of the laws of animated nature he 
found there were three great paramount principles, which he called 
Natural Selection, The Survival of the Fittest and Cross Fertilization. 
He proved conclusively that cousin-ship marriage was a crime against 
nature; that the infraction of this law of cross fertilization, whether 
in plants or animals, was followed by the penalty of degeneracy, de- 
cadence and annihilation. 

The priests and preachers could not use Darwin in their business; 
but the stock breeders, the flock masters, the agriculturists, horticul- 
turists and floriculturists did. By following the laws, Darwin indi- 
cated; each, in his line, selecting the best unrelated individuals as 
progenitors, and continuing this practice through all succeeding 
generations, they have given to the world the four distinct types of 
horse; they have bred the horns off the ox; the bristles off the hog; 
given us many sorts of sheep, each sort having a distinct grade of 
wool; and they have adorned, beautified and rendered more endura- 
ble what the preacher calls "this vale of tears" with fruits and flowers 
such as the garden of Eden never saw. 

Strange to say, Darwin, with all his acute penetration, failed to 
recognize the fact that our mutual Uncle started out to breed his na- 
tion on these same three principles, 200 years before Darwin was 
born. He gathered in the best, bravest, most virile men, and the 
most womanly women that broad Christendom could furnish; here 
was natural selection; the weakest of these succumbed in the perils 
of early colonization, here was the survival of the fittest; these sur- 
vivors of all the contributing nationalities, intermarried and their 


progeny have done the same, until now Unole Sam presents to the 
admiration, respect and fear of the world, a new type of men and 
women, such as never trod the earth before. 

But there was an exception. There were two sorts of early colo- 
nists. The first, who broke into the country by their own energy. 
Nothing could have kept them out. The second, those who, lacking 
this initial force, were brought into the country as menials to the 
first class. This was notably the case in Virginia. The lot of these 
was an unhappy one. Their services were supplanted by slaves. Left 
to their own devices they could not make headway against the large 
plantations and the new order of things. They moved away into the 
mountain regions of southwestern Virginia, eastern Tennessee and 
Kentucky, carving out little farms in the fertile valleys to supply 
their simple wants. Here they remained isolated for genera- 
tions. There was no intermingling with the bounding, strenuous 
new life that was accomplishing wonders all around them. There 
was no chance to improve the stock by cross fertilization. On the 
contrary, there was constant intermarriage among closely related 
families with resulting degeneracy, or communal atrophy. 

The more adventurous among these left their mountain homes 
and came to the Illinois Territory, hoping, in time, to carve out a 
plantation and own a slave. They formed the majority of the popu- 
lation in the counties along the Ohio river. 

Intermixed with these, and forming settlements north of them, 
were many emigrants from the Carolinas, Georgia, Central Kentucky 
and Tennessee. These were men from Scotland, Ireland, France and 
Germany. They had lived long enough with slavery to learn to hate 
it and all that followed in its train. These men helped make the 
State and did manful duty in fighting against a change in the con- 

Standing here and looking back over the 80 years that mark a daz- 
zling phenomenon of progress, in which the emancipated soul— freed 
from the shackles of untold centuries of caste, creed and kingly pre- 
rogative—has given to the world a constantly accelerating series of 
glorious, transcendent actualities, that so far surpass the most fervid, 
audacious dreams of the older philanthropists, philosophers, men of 
invention and men of business, as the tidal wave surpasses the tiny 
ripple of a brooklet; we can hardly realize the tremendous destinies 
that trembled in the balance of that slender 1,600 majority for free- 

But look at the logic of the situation: With Illinois as a slave 
state, and Missouri already doomed, nothing could have saved Wis- 
consin and Iowa from the same fate. Kansas and Nebraska would 
have remained impotent possibilities in the womb of the great Ameri- 
can desert. 

We must remember that the flow of emigation in 1824 was a small 
affair when compared to the movement of later years. At that time 
the contributing nations of Europe had not recovered from the Napo- 
leonic scourging. 


With Illinois as a slave State, and with the sure prospect of a fur- 
ther spread of slavery in the northwest, small as the stream of emi- 
gration was, it would have ceased coming to the United States, It 
would have been directed to Canada, or deflected to Australia, New 
Zealand and to the Dutch and Huguenot colonies at the Cape of 
Good Hope. 

The eastern states would have dwindled in poverty. There would 
have been no incentive to domestic manufacture. 

With the spread of slavery in the northwest, there would have 
been no trumped up excuse for a war with Mexico. There would 
have been no acquisition of California; no gold discovery that has 
changed the whole material and social features of the country; go 
which ever way you will and for thousands of miles you are among 

There would have been no civil war. The slave power would have 
had eminent domain in this land, and the present United States, 
instead of being a triumphant actuality, would have remained the 
feverish dream of an enthusiastic lunatic. 

That feeble majority was brought about by the work of a few in- 
trepid men who were willing to fight for better things. Foremost 
among these was Morris Birkbeck. Look back at the situation and 
the desperate crisis. There was the State — an immature maiden in 
the grasp of rapacious lust and cruel greed — crying for a deliverer. 
Birkbeck came to her relief. With masterful strength and tact he 
encouraged her friends and beat off her enemies; took her by the 
hand, led her, turned her face toward the Goddess of Liberty and 
bade her smile. She owes to her fearless champion a debt of eternal 

Now in the plentitude, gladness and majesty of more mature years, 
let her erect to the memory of this man a monumental shaft fitting 
to his worth and work. Let it be surmounted by an enduring bronze 
figure of her defender in her hour of need, that all generations may 
see and learn to love him. Let this grateful tribute rise on the lake 
shore of the city he made possible, facing the east whence he came, 
facing the sun in his rising — that his radiant beams shall gild the 
benignant countenance with a glory akin to that he caused to gleam 
on the face of the maiden Illinois. 

-18 H. 




( By Hon. William H. Collins.) 

James D. Morgan was born in Boston, Mass., Aug. 1st, 1810. His 
father was a sea captain in the East India trade. When nine years 
of age he quit school, and, thrown upon his own resources, he became 
an apprentice in a cooper shop. Active and full of the spirit of ad- 
venture, so quiet and prosaic an employment did not suit him and 
at the age of sixteen years, he shipped for a term of three years upon 
the ship Beverly. 

When about 30 days at sea, a mutiny broke out. This was sup- 
pressed, but later, the vessel burned to the water's edge, the crew 
escaping in boats. They were several hundred miles from land. 
Drifting in their boats, they suffered great privation and severe 
hardships, but finally landed upon the coast of South America. 

He returned to his native city and found employment with Peleg 
Churchill. Among the papers left by the general, I find the follow- 
ing contract: ' Boston, Oct. 27, 1832. This agreement made and 
concluded between Peleg Churchill on one part, and James D. Mor- 
gan on the other part, witnesseth: That the said Morgan agrees to 
work for the said Churchill one year from the 29th, at the following 
rates as foreman of his, the said Churchill's fish store or shop, as the 
case may be. The first six months, the said Churchill is to pay the 
said Morgan $1.42 per day, including evenings when the business 
shall require it, and $1.50 per day the last six months: Provided, 
however, that if the said Churchill shall want the said Morgan 
in the cooper shop before the first six months shall expire, then the 
said Churchill is to pay the said Morgan $1.50 per day from the time 
he commences in the cooper shop. Said Morgan is to lose his own 
time when he is absent and receive his wages on demand by perform- 
ing his part of this contract." 

With this prospect of earning $1.42 per day, he married Miss 
Jane Strachan. In 1834, he left his native city and settled in Quincy, 
Illinois. He engaged in various enterprises. Pork packing was one 
of the most important kinds of business at that time. Quincy became 
an important center of trade for a large district, The river afiPorded 
an outlet toward the south for the products of the farms of this part 
of Illinois. The manufacture of whiskey, flour and pork products 
created a great demand for barrels. To supply this demand, in con- 



nectiqn with Mr, Ed. Wells, he established an extensive cooper shop. 
The forests of the country furnished an unlimited supply of cooper- 
age material, and the business was eminently successful. 

After five years he became engaged in a bakery and confectionary 
store. For a time he had an interest in a grocery store. He became 
a contractor for public work and paved the levee at the steamboat 
landing. The substantial and durable character of this work, after the 
wear and tear of more than half a century, attests the honesty and 
thoroughness with which he executed his contract. 

He entered into partnership with 0. M, Pomeroy, under the name 
of Pomeroy & Co., for the packing of pork. The firm afterward be- 
came Pomeroy, Morgan & Bond. He was engaged in this business 
for about 25 yeara. He accumulated a comfortable fortune, as for- 
tunes were estimated at that day. 

Morgan had belonged to a military company in Boston. He had a 
natural fondness for military affairs. If he had any over-mastering 
passion, it was for a soldier's career. Consequently, he threw him- 
self with energy and enthusiasm into the work of organizing a mili- 
tary company in the young city of his residence. He helped recruit 
and organize the "Quincy Greys." It became a company of marked 
local fame for the excellence of its drill. It was armed with the old- 
fashioned flint-lock musket. It drilled in accordance with the Scott 
Manual of Arms and Tactics, Organized in 1837, this company was 
maintained for several years and out of it grew organizations which 
were kept up in some form, until the breaking out of the civil war 
in 1861. 

The Mormon war having its theater of operations in Hancock 
county, immediately north of Quincy, Morgan was brought into 
prominence, as the captain of a company of about 50 men, called the 
"Quincy Riflemen." They were mounted, and during the war did 
patrol and police duty. 

Upon the breaking out of the war with Mexico, Captain Morgan 
organized a company of 100 men. It was made Company A of the 
First regiment Illinois infantry, commanded by Col. John J. Hardin.* 
Hardin was killed in the battle of Buena Vista. Captain Morgan 
was on detached service at the time of this battle, but from the roof 
of a church upon the position he was detailed to guard, the battle 
field was in full view. He once told me of the chagrin and disap- 
pointment he felt at being compelled to remain an inactive specta- 
tor. So far from congratulating himself and his command, for being 
out of the risks of the fight, it was a grief to him to be denied the 
"luxury" of it. He appredated the gay sally of General Kearney, 
who, when asked by a commander of a regiment where he should 
"go in," replied, "go in anywhere; there is lively fighting all along 
the line." 

* See letters of Hardin to Morgan appended to this sketch. Orljlnal letters In library of 
Qalncy Historical society. 


For a time during the war, Captain Morgan was in command of a 
battalion consisting of Companies A and I. Among other officers of« 
the battalion was Benjamin M. Prentiss. George T. M. Davis and W. 
H, L. Wallace, who was in command of a brigade and killed in the 
battle of Shiloh. 

At the close of the Mexican war, Captain Morgan returned to his 
home, but his interest in military organization remained strong, and 
he became the captain of the "Quincy City Guards," receiving his 
commission from Gov. Joel A. Matteson. 

I first heard of General Morgan in Jacksonville, at the Wabash 
station. The civil war had opened and a train came in from Quincy 
with a company of volunteers, on their way to Cairo. A large crowd 
had collected and B. M. Prentiss (afterwards a major general by bre- 
vet) made a characteristic speech, in which he alluded to one Captain 
Morgan who was on his way with them, but with a broken leg, so 
that he could not come out to address the crowd. From what I after- 
wards knew of him, I think the reason for his not appearing was not 
so much because of his lameness as his distaste for display and speeeh 

At Cairo, companies from various points in the State were organ- 
ized into regiments. As during the war with Mexico, there had been 
six regiments of Illinois infantry; it was deemed advisable, in com- 
pliment to them, to begin the numbering of the new regiments with 
the number seven, so the regiments were numbered. John Cook, of 
Sangamon county, was made colonel of the Seventh; Oglesby, 
of Macon county, colonel of the Eighth; Paine, of Warren county, 
colonel of the Ninth, and Prentiss, of Adams county, colonel of the 
Tenth. He was soon promoted to be a brigadier general, and Morgan 
became colonel of the regiment. 

Cairo was the main strategic point in the west. The control of 
the Mississippi river was an absolute necessity for the suppression of 
the Rebellion, It was the base from which advances could be made 
southward. At this point the volunteer army was gathered at the 
outbreak of the war for a "three months" service. It was soon found 
that more than a "three months" service would be required and the 
regiments were reorganized for a three years' enlistment. 

Colonel Morgan, immediately upon assuming command of his regi- 
ment, began to train his officers and men in the details of military 
discipline and drill. He inspired all under his command with a pride 
in the regiment. This he had accomplished during the three months' 
service, and the training received under his work at this time was 
such, that numbers of non-commissioned officers and privates of the 
regiment were made commissioned officers in the regiments organized 
at a later period. 

My personal acquaintance with Colonel Morgan began in August, 
1861. Governor Yates offered me an appointment in the military ser- 
vice, and as it seemed to me that having no training as a soldier, I 
could be most useful in the line of work in which I had had some experi- 


enoe, I was induced to take the position of chaplain. Colonel Mor- 
gan expressed a desire for my appointment to his regiment. My ac- 
ceptance of his proposal brought me into daily contact with him. 

The Tenth regiment was ordered to Mound Oity. The camp was 
on a level plain and the parade ground well adapted for a drill ground. 
Morgan loved to drill his regiment, With a voice singularly clear 
and penetrating, his commands could easily be heard from one end 
of the battalion to the other. Every day the regiment was called for 
drill. Every evening came dress parade. Every movement in Har- 
die's Tactics was carefully practiced until every oflBcer and private 
knew exactly what to do in response to the word of command. 
"Fancy" movements, never used in actual war, were practiced. It 
made officers and men active and alert. The regiment became a 
sensitive, efiFective machine, animated by a living spirit, controlled 
by a master mind. 

The special duty of the regiment, while at Mound City, was to 
guard the gun boats which were being constructed. With these 
boats and the "Tyler," which was an ordinary steamboat transformed 
into a "tin-clad," General Grant made his attack upon the Confeder- 
ate forces encamped opposite Columbus at Belmont. They were be- 
ing made ready for a raid into Missouri. Colonel Morgan and his 
regiment were not included in the attacking forces. The sound of 
the cannon could be plainly heard at Mound City. The roar of the 
battle profoundly agitated Colonel Morgan. He nervously paced to 
and fro in front of his quarters, his features revealing grief mingled 
with anger. He told me of his experience on the roof of the church 
in sight of the battle of Buena Vista. The tears coursed down his 
cheeks as he exclaimed with disgust and grief, "They are in the fight 
and we are carpet soldiers." He did not then see that he would have 
abundant opportunity for battle before the close of the war. 

The Tenth regiment next camped on Bird's Point. While here 
the expeditions to Forts Henry and Donelson were undertaken, but 
Colonel Morgan with his command remained behind on garrison duty. 

He was very happy when he received orders to move toward New 
Madrid. The Confederates occupied this place, protected by redoubts 
and gun- boats, Morgan's command moved close to the Confederate 
lines ia the night and threw up breast-works. During the next day 
they were under fire and Colonel Morgan seemed happy. New Ma- 
drid was abandoned in the night. A couple of gun-boats had run 
past Island No. 10, and two small steamers had come down through 
a slough which flanked the Island. The Federal forces crossed the 
river and Morgan's regiment, with others, entered into an exciting 
race to get possession of a narrow neck of land between Tiptonville 
and Reelfoot lake. If this neck of land could be reached in advance 
of the Confederates, their retreat would be cut off. The race was 
won and, our forces being supported by the gun-boats in the river, 
the Confederates were unable to go further and a fight seemed use- 
less. I will never forget the event. General Paine, Colonel Morgan 
and others were lying on the floor of a cabin when two Confederate 
officers were brought in. One of them, a German by birth, in broken 


English, said: "I am here to surrender Grenerals Grantt and MoCall, 
with about 4,500 men; I have been in arms all my life and I never 
thought it would come to this." "Such is the fortune of war," said 
General Paine. Colonel Morgan said not a word but his face indi- 
cated the profound satisfaction which he felt over the result of the 
day's efforts, the capture of Island No. 10 and so large a body of 
troops almost without the loss of a man. In the morning General 
Pope arrived on a transport. He rubbed his hands with delight, his 
face wreathed with smiles. He congratulated Morgan warmly but 
Morgan was, as usual, absolutely undemonstrative. 

A trip down the river to Fort Pillow followed. Meantime the bat- 
tle of Shiloh had been fought and the army under Pope was ordered 
back to Cairo and thence up the Tennessee river. The army landed 
at Hamburgh and moved forward, constituting the left wing of the 
forces under General Halleck in his advance upon Corinth. Colonel 
Morgan's regiment took the lead and, by a bold attack, drove the 
enemy out of a densiey wooded creek bottom, secured the bridge on 
the road to high ground beyond. He participated in what was called 
the "siege of Corinth" and, upon the evacuation of the place, moved 
southward to Booneville, having some slight skirmishing on the way. 
The regiment was camped at Big Springs and the program seemed 
to be to lie quiet and camp and await for Beauregard's next move. 

At this time desiring a different force of service, I left Colonel 
Morgan's staff and resigning, returned north and assisted in raising 
a regiment. I saw nothing more of the Colonel until in the spring 
of 1863, I arrived in Nashville. He was in Nashville at this time. 
He had been commissioned a Brigadier General. During the latter 
part of 1862, he had been in Tuscumbia, Alabama, where he had re- 
lieved Gen George H. Thomas. His brigade was in Gen. John M. 
Palmer's division; he was in Nashville when General Bragg made his 
raid into Kentucky. No better oflBcer could have been selected for the 
service of holding this capital city in the heart of the Confederacy. 
There were many officers who could have planned campaigns better 
than he, but no one could be found who would carry out a definite 
program and hold on in defense of a position he was assigned to, with 
a more obstinate determination and indomitable purpose than he. He 
was watchful, devoted to his duty and obedient to a strict interpreta- 
tion of orders. 

General Bragg made no direct attempt to re-capture Nashville. He 
undoubtedly reasoned that if his expedition to the Ohio river was 
successful it would inevitably fall into his hands. 

During the campaign of 1863, Colonel Morgan commanded a bri- 
gade in the Reserve corps. As the army moved forward toward Chat- 
tanooga, his main duty was to organize and handle the troops which 
guarded the railroad. Upon this railroad, running from Louisville 
to Nashville, and on toward Stevenson, Bridgeport and Chattanooga, 
Eosecrans depended for his supplies. It was of first importance to 
put the care of it in the hands of a careful and competent officer. 
General More:an was chosen for this task. After Rosecrans moved 
south of the Tennessee river, crossing the ranges of Sand, Racoon 


and Lookout mountains, General Morgan made his headquarters at 
Stevenson, Ala. It was here that he received a dispatch from Gen- 
eral Roseorans on the afternoon of the battle of Chickamauga. Sep- 
tember 20th, stating that the army had met with a great disaster and 
that he (General Morgan) must use his utmost endeavor to keep the 
railroad from falling into the hands of the enemy. It was this service 
in the rear of the army which prevented Morgan's brigade from par- 
ticipation in the battles of Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain and 
Mission Ridge. 

When the army was organized for the Atlanta campaign. General 
Morgan was assigned to the command of the First brigade of the 
Second division of the Fourteenth corps. This brigade consisted of 
the Tenth, Sixteenth, Sixtieth Illinois, and the Tenth and Fourteenth 
Michigan infantry. 

In February, 1864, a demonstration was made toward Dalton, Ga,, 
to prevent General Johnston from sending troops to re- enforce the 
Confederate army in Mississippi. Morgan's brigade participated in 
this, and at Buzzard Roost, was in the advance. Several of his regi- 
ments worked their way into the gap and suffered severely. The in- 
formation General Morgan gained in this affair, was of great value 
to General Sherman when he began his campaign for the capture of 
Atlanta. I was at this time on the staff of Gen. John M. Palmer, 
and often heard the conversation at the headquarters of the Four- 
teenth corps, and I remember that once when General Sherman and 
others were discussing the advisability of a direct attack upon the 
gap, General Morgan freely protested against the plan. He said: "I 
tried that last February and found that it was a hornet's nest; it is 
stronger now than it was then." I think that he prevented a direct 
attack which would have been exceedingly destructive to those en- 
gaged in it. The army moved by the flank through Snake creek gap 
and the Confederate army retreated from their strongest positions. 

The bloody assault upon the Confederate line at Kenesaw moun- 
tain on the 27th of June, was participated in by a party of the 
Second division and in front of the position held by Morgan's 
brigade. At a meeting of the general officers on the evening before 
the assault, the question as to which of the brigade commanders 
should lead was discussed. Finally Gen. JefiF C Davis, the division 
commander, said: "Well, Morgan, you are the oldest man and Mc- 
Cook of the Third brigade the youngest. So MoCook will lead, 
Mitchell will support and you will be the reserve." "All right" said 
McCook, "Here's for glory or a soldier's grave." 

General Morgan advised that the assault be made with the regi- 
ment "doubled on the center" but it was decided to charge with regi- 
mental front. The result was a bloody repulse. Just before the 
assault I was standing by MoCook, who was seated on the root of an 
oak tree talking to Colonel Gross, and heard him say, with great 
energy of expression: "We'll right shoulder shift, double quick, 
and by G-d we'll go right over those works." He was shot and mor- 
tally wounded after reaching a Confederate salient. It was not prob- 


able, that if Morgan's plan of formation had been adopted, the 
assault would have been successful. The ground was so difficult, the 
obstructions so elaborate, the undergrowth so tangled and dense, the 
morning so oppressively hot, and the fire of batteries and musketry 
so severe, that the effort was foredoomed to failure. 

General Morgan lost an opportunity for a signal service while the 
siege of Atlanta was in progress. For this he has been sometimes 
severely criticized. General Sherman was disposed to think he was 
not without blame for a failure to carry out his plan. I think so far 
as it was a failure, it was the result of General Morgan's conception 
of his duty to follow exactly his orders. This was his fundamental 
dominant principle as an officer. He was a literalist in interpreta- 
tion. The circumstances and situation may be easily comprehended. 

General Hood on the 28th day of July marched out of Atlanta by 
the Lickskillet road for the purpose of attacking the right of the 
Union line which had just been, in the night, moved into position. 
It was an effort to repeat his movement of the 22nd day of July, 
when he attacked the left rear and front of the Union line. It was 
like bringing the two blades of the vast shears together. It was in 
the angle between these blades that General McPherson was killed. 
The movement was skillfully planned and but for the indomitable 
courage and firmness of our veteran troops, would have resulted in a 
grave disaster. On the 28th of July, Sherman attempted to give 
Hood a taste of his own tactics Having discovered that a large 
force was preparing to assault our right which had taken new ground 
in the night and had not entrenched. General Sherman decided to 
send the Second division around the Confederate flank and strike 
them in the rear, as soon as they become engaged. To make this 
movement they had to march down the Lickskillet road for about a 
mile and then turn eastward, then northward with a left wheel. Gen. 
J. C. Davis being sick, Morgan was placed in command. He set out 
on his march with a guide who was believed to be familiar with the 

Meantime the Confederate attack had opened, Morgan continued 
his march, Sherman was at the headquarters of the Second divison. 
He was impatiently walking to and fro, nervously twisting his hands 
together behind his back. He expected to hear from Morgan's 
guns. He told Captain Watson of Davis' staff, "Go tell Morgan 
not to mind the roads, to march to the sound of those guns." 
Morgan, led by his guide and a literal construction of his orders, had 
kept on the road and had marched away from the battle. In all 
probability if General Morgan had carried out the plan of General 
Sherman, he would have inflicted a heavy loss upon the enemy and 
probably captured many prisoners. Our thin line was of itself, suf- 
ficient to repulse the Confederate assault, leaving several hundred 
killed and wounded on the field. General Morgan failed to execute 
the movement and lost a great opportunity. 


After General Davis had been put in command of the Fourteenth 
corps, General Morgan was placed in command of the Second divis- 
ion. Not long after this change in the command, General Sherman 
began his movement to Jonesboro. It was the fortune of the division 
to make an assault upon the Confederate lines. 

General Morgan here had an opportunity for carrying out his 
theory of assaulting the enemy with unloaded guns. This was a 
kind of "hobby" of his. He advocated it very strongly. He believed 
that firing and loading guns while making a charge, tended to confu- 
sion loss of time and momentum. On this occasion, his command moved 
over open ground in plain view of the enemy. They carried all be- 
fore them and captured General Govan with his entire brigade, and 
a battery of eight brass field guns. This battery was brought to corps 
headquarters the next morning, and the gun carriages and equip- 
ments burned. General Govan sat on a stool near by and witnessed 
the destruction of his battery with tearful eyes. 

General Morgan led his division on the "march to the sea" and 
northward from Savannah to join the army of Virginia under General 
Grant. At the battle of Bentonville, his division was handled with 
great skill and did obstinate fighting and brilliant work. Johnston 
with his entire army attacked two divisions which were practically 
isolated. For a time it seemed sure that the Federal command would 
be defeated. They had been taken by surprise and in detail. The 
roar of the battle, however, soon brought assistance, and the Confed- 
erate army was repulsed. 

In the history of the army of the Cumberland it is claimed "that 
viewed in relation to the magnitude of the army successfully resisted 
by eight brigades of infantry, and Kilpatrick's cavalry, which held 
position on the left and rear, the objects and hopes of the enemy and 
the character of the fighting by Morgan's division, this engagement 
takes rank among the decisive battles of the war," 

For his distinguished services in this battle he was made major 
general by brevet. 

General Morgan was in the army until the close of the war. And 
during his period of service never was absent from duty for a day. He 
never asked for a furlough. When mustered out of service in the 
month of August, 1865, he returned to his home in Quincy. 

General Morgan was twice married. His first wife died in 1855. 
He married Harriet Evans, a native of Massachusetts, June 14, 1859. 
He had two sons, William and James. William is a resident of 
Quincy, 111 , James lives in Everett, Mass, 

General Morgan felt greatly interested in the society of the army 
of the Cumberland. He always made an efiFort to attend its annual 
meetings. He was president of the organization in 1895 and opened 
headquarters in Chattanooga, at the time the Chickamauga park was 
opened and dedicated. Here he met, with the warmth of feeling 
only an old soldier can feel, many of his old army friends. 

He was for years treasurer of the State Soldiers' and Sailors' 
Home. He was a vice president and for years a director of the First 


National bank; a director of the Whitney & Holmes Organ com- 
pany; of the Omaha & Kansas City Railway company; a stockholder 
in the Empire theater, the Newcomb hotel, the Quincy Gas Light 
and Coke company, the Qainoy Gas Light and Power company, and 
also a director in the Barlow Corn Planter company. 

In politics he was a Democrat of the old school. He was never a 
blind partisan. If he thought his party in the wrong, he was free to 
speak his mind. He had the courage of his convictions. In local 
politics he advocated measures and men solely with reference to 
their being in line with what he deemed to be for the public good. 
He was an outspoken enemy of unsafe financial legislation. He was 
a "sound money" Democrat and did not sympathize with the theo- 
ries of Mr. Bryan. He regarded the doctrine of states sovereignty, 
as having been definitely settled by the civil war. 

In his religious sympathies he was liberal and broad. For many 
years he was a leading spirit in the Unitarian Congregational church. 
He endowed a fund for the bestowment of prizes for scholarship in 
the public schools. He was always ready with a helping hand for 
causes his judgment approved. Calm and undemonstrative in man- 
ner he was a man of deep and tender feeling, If he had been born 
in ancient Greece, he would have been a Spartan. If in Rome, he 
had first seen the light, he would have followed the eagle in a Roman 
Legion. If his birth had been in Cromwell's time, he would have 
been a soldier of the commonwealth. If he had landed in Boston or 
Plymouth in Colonial times, he would have stood shoulder to shoul- 
der with Miles Standish. He came in time for a great war, and 
though not brillant like some of the soldiers of that war, he had in 
his makeup and to its core, the tough, rugged and solid qualities of 
the soldier, He ever stood for law, order and honor. He held his 
country's welfare as paramount to any question of his personal for- 
tune. He risked his life in all the hardships of army experience, in 
camp, on the march and in battle. His name to those who knew 
him in business, at home, in the field, will ever suggest simplicity, 
honesty, fidelity, heroism and patriotic devotion. 

His strong constitution enabled him to reach the ripe age of 86 
years, 1 month and 12 days. He passed away Sept. 9th, 1896. His 
body was laid to rest in Woodland cemetery. 

Letters of John J. Hardin to Gen. Jas, D. Morgan. Originals 


"Jacksonville, June 6th, 1846. 
"Dear Captain — I have just returned from Springfield. Baker 
has just returned from Washington. He has authority to raise an 
additional regiment of infantry. His arrival made great confusion 
amongst those who wanted high commissions there. I suppose he 
will have no trouble in getting a regiment, as more than 80 com- 
panies will volunteer, and he can increase the number to 40. Many 
of the volunteers in Sangamon wish to go with me, but I don't desire 
this, as it might make some difficulty, and there are too many big 
men there, anyhow. 


I wrote ^Colonel Flood that you need not change your uniforms 
unless you wished it. I should prefer your retaining your present 
uniforms; it is niuch handsomer than the one adopted by the govern- 
ment, and I have discretion to change it. The companies in this 
county will uniform in cadet grey jeans. It looks better than the 

It seems yet undecided whether we will march to the city of Mex- 
ico or against the eastern provinces of Mexico. If against the latter 
I have written to permit us to mount. The route in this case would 
be by Ft. Gibson, on the Arkansas, to Chihuahua. 

I am much gratified at your request to have your company attached 
to my regiment. I want no better men nor oflBcers than I have al- 
ways found in that company. A place shall be reserved for them, 
and that place on the right of the regiment. 

I design to have two flank companies of riflemen attached to the 
regiment; yours shall be the first, if they desire it. I will write you 
again in a few days. 

I will write to Judge Lott and shall report another company from 
Adams. If there is not a full company, I will unite them with 
others. I will try also to save them a place in my regiment. 

Yours truly, 

John J. Hardin." 

"We will rendezvous at Alton. But our place is fixed in the orders 
of the government. 

Here, merchants are furnishing the uniforms and agree to have it 
charged on the pay roll. They will certainly get their pay. 

We will be ordered to be on the ground by the 25th inst. 

Volunteers should have a blanket, a fatigue suit of any color, an 
extra pair of shoes, two or three strong shirts and a butcher knife in 
a scabbard. 

The government officers have written to the Governor that they 
have ready for the volunteers camp kettles, mess pans, canteens^ 
knapsacks, haversacks, axes, spades and hatchets. 

The government will have our tents made in St. Louis and furnish 
them at Alton. 

Sixty-four privates, eight non-commissioned officers, three commis- 
sioned officers, two musicians, make a full company. The number 
may be increased to 93." 

"Jacksonville, June 11th, 1846. 
"Captain Morgan — I desire to have with me a brass band in addi- 
tion to the band of drums and fifes. Major Warren thinks you have 
some musicians in Quincy who would go with us. If they are good 
musicians or those who would be apt to learn, I would like to have 
them. Is there anyone in Quincy who will go with us who is compe- 
tent to teach the band and act as leader? If so, let me know. We 
are entitled to 22 musicians in the regiment, which will make the two 


bands. Three tenor, three bass and three fifes will answer for regi- 
ment, with a good band of brass instruments I will have a box made 
for the instruments. 

It seems to me you had best get your uniforms before you go to 
Alton. There will be a rush there for all sorts of equipments, and 
it is probable we will not remain there long. The ladies of this place 
have volunteered to make up all the clothing for the troops. If there 
is an especial good drummer and fifer write me and I will find a place 
for them, Good musicians are scarce here. I am pleased to hear 
how nicely you are getting along. We will rendezvous at Alton 
about the SOth. Colonel Churchill, the inspector general of the 
army, will muster us into the service. 

Yours truly, 

John J. Hardin." 

To this letter and on the same sheet is a letter from Major W. B. 

"Above you have all the information in this place. We will be mus- 
tered into the service on the 30th; in the meantime can you not get 
your uniforms? Your old one is a good pattern. I am sorry you did 
not write sooner on the subject of major. Under the impression that 
you would quit the riflemen, Hardin and myself stand pledged to old 
Buck Weatherford, I will do what I can for your friend Taylor, but 
there are 80 odd applicants for that office; no pledges have been 
made to anyone. Prentiss will be adjutant and must provide two 
good horses. He will mess with the staff. Colonel Churchill is de- 
sirous, upon my recommendation, to have E. Everett attached to his 
family, and will offer him some appointment. 

What is Kelly and Lott doing? Will they go, and will they join 
our regiment? The regiment is now all full, and unless you and they 
desire it, the places will be all filled. 

Write me immediately. You will have some interest in knowing 
the pay, so I send you the several amounts as given in the Army 
Register for 1845: Captain, $126.85; first lieutenant, $93.11: second 
lieutenant, $76.30; adjutant, $119.11. Phil is drilling a company 
every night. 

Yours truly, 

W. B. Warren." 

A Letter from Governor Ford. 

Executive Department. 

Capt. James D. Morgan — Your company is accepted as one of the 
companies to compose the three regiments to rendezvous at Alton, 
provided that it shall contain not less than 64 nor more than 80, over 
and above the commissioned officers, non-commissioned and musi- 

As soon as your company is uniformed, you will march to the place 
of rendezvous at Alton, In addition to uniform each man will have 
to furnish a blanket, and it is advisable that each man provide him- 


self with one fatigue suit of clothes, one pair of shoes, one pair of 
boots and two pair of woolen socks. If your company cannot get 
their uniforms at home I think they may be able to obtain them in 
Alton or St. Louis. You will be allowed 20 cents for every 20 miles 
travel, rations and transportation of baggage and provisions while 
marching to the place of rendezvous. I am informed that nothing 
will be allowed for transportation of the men, as they are supposed 
to march on foot, but the allowance above specified will more than 
pay for their transportation by steamboat, when that mode is prac- 
ticable. You will report to Col. James Shields. 


Thomas Ford." 

"It will be of no use to come with less than 64 privates who can 
stand a thorough inspection. Let me know by the next mail whether 
you can comply. If no answer, I will be compelled to order another 
company in lieu of yours. 

Thomas Ford." 



( By Hon. B. G. Rombauer.) 

I have been requested to present to you a brief history of the life 
of Gustavus Koerner, an eminent citizen of your State. It is the life 
of a patriot, scholar, lawyer and author, who was equally distin- 
guished in every one of these callings, and of whom it may be truth- 
fully said, as was said of England's sweetest poet, "nil tetegit quod 
non ornavity It is a life covering a period of 87 years, more than 
67 of which were devoted to the elevation of the condition of his fel- 
low men on both sides of the Atlantic. It fell into a period of the 
history of his native and of his adopted country which to a great ex- 
tent moulded the ultimate destiny of both. 

It is impossible in the brief space of time during which I am jus- 
tified to occupy your attention to enter into minute details. My 
object will be to present to you a truthful portrait and its setting, a 
view of both of which is essential to a correct understanding of the 
man, and of his successes and failures, The history of his life is in- 
telligible only as part of the history of the times in which it fell. 

His Early Youth and Education. 

Gustavus Koerner, whom I shall hereafter designate by the per- 
sonal pronoun mainly, was born in the free city of Frankfort on the 
Main, on the 20th of November, 1809. His father Bernhard, was an 
extensive dealer in books, engravings, and other works of art. His 
mother, whose maiden name was Maria Magdalena Kaupfe, was a 
woman of great culture, and devoted herself to his early tuition. In 
1816, at the age of seven he was sent to a select school, which had 
been established in Frankfort on the Pestalozzi system, He fre- 
quented this school until he reached the age of 15 in 1824, when he 
was transferred to the Frankfort gymnasium. He continued there 
until he attained the age of 19 in 1828. During the last year of his 
attendance he had the benefit of the private tuition in the classics 
of Dr. Fextor, a nephew of the poet Goethe. He then went to the 
University of Jena, which as the mother of the famous student or- 
ganization known as "Bursohenschaften," was the hotbed of revolu- 
tionary sentiment in Germany. There for one year he heard lectures 
on civil and criminal law and medical jurisprudence, it being his in- 
tention to devote himself to the profession of the law. An untoward 
incident compelled him to leave the University. Duels between 

QnstkVQS Eoemer. 


students, and officers of the army, were then frequent, although the 
government sought to repress them by severe punitive measures. In 
one of these duels he acted as second for one of his fellow students, 
who was seriously wounded. He concluded for his own safety to 
leave the University of Jena, and go to that of Munich, where his 
most intimate friend, later his brother-in-law, Theodore Engelmann, 
was then attending lectures. A peculiar episode, to which I shall 
refer hereafter, decided him to leave Munich at the close of the year, 
and to go to the University of Heidelberg, where he finished his law 
studies, and on the 14th of June, 1831, at the age of 22, graduated 
with high honors. 

During the period while he attended the various universities, he 
made in vacation extensive foot tours, through Germany, Switzer- 
land and the Tyrol, accompanied by his fellow students. While these 
on the one hand tended to develop his physical condition, they on 
the other hand filled his imagination with ever varying pictures, and 
brought him in contact with all classes of the population. 

Viewing the circumstances surrounding his early life, it is appar- 
ent that they were particularly favorable to his healthy and thorough 
intellectual , physical and moral development. While the means of 
his father were sufficient to afford him a thorough education, they 
were moderate enough to impress the young man with the convic- 
tion that his future was dependent on his own energy and acquire- 
ments. His father's business gave him ready access to extensive 
literary and art treasures, and he acquired in early life the habit of 
extensive and carefully selected reading, which habit he retained 
through life. He also became early a student and lover of art, his 
father's extensive art collections furnishing the facilities for his so 
doing. This made him in later years, not only a competent judge 
of art, but an art critic of very respectable attainments. 

His Participation in Political Events in Europe. 

In order to judge fairly his political activity in Europe, we must 
take into account the atmosphere which surrounded his childhood 
and early youth The political state of Europe at the time of his 
birth was peculiar. With the exception of England, Europe was 
dominated almost exclusively by the arbitrary will of one man, 
Napoleon Bonaparte, not unfitly named the king of kings. After the 
disastrous defeat of Prussia at Jena, came the Peace of Tilsit, and 
Prussia was portioned among the allies of the Conqueror, as a fit 
retribution for her share in the unholy partition of Poland, Then 
came the war of liberation of 1813, which in the main was not a war 
of the princes against the conqueror, since many of them were his 
allies, but a war of the German people against him, despite their 
princes, who sought but their own aggrandizement in the general 
upheaval. It was Napoleon who was the incipient founder of Ger- 
man unity, by wiping many principalities of its petty tyrants from 
the map of Europe, and by rousing its people to a common effort in 


their resistance against him. What this man of blood and iron 
began, another man of blood and iron continued, until the humilia- 
tion of Jena was cancelled by the triumph of Sedan. 

Koerner's father was a German patriot of the liberal type, an in- 
veterate enemy of Napoleon, and an ardent supporter of the rights 
of the people. Many men whose names were then and thereafter 
prominently connected with the history of the times, frequented his 
house. Among them were Chas, von Stein, Prussia's fearless Pre- 
mier, Ernst Moritz Arndt, the bard of liberty; General Blucher, the 
hero of Waterloo, and the unfortunate enthusiast, Chas. Louis Sand, 
who in 1820, expiated his rash act on the scaffold, and whose mem- 
ory I presume was still honored as that of a martyr at the University of 
Jena, his Alma Mater, when young Koerner became a student of that 
University eight years later. Growing up under these conditions, 
it is natural that young Koerner developed into an earnest champion 
of the liberties of the people. When he reached Jena in 1828, Ger- 
many was in a ferment. Its many rulers, forgetful of the salvation 
of their thrones by a heroic people; forgetful of the many promises 
of reform which they made to them during the days of their dire 
need, vied with each other to curb the liberties of the people 
everywhere. Untractable legislative assemblies were dissolved, the 
liberty of the press was modified and in some instances wholly abro- 
gated, and no expedient was left untried which might aid in re-in- 
stating the ante-bellum conditions of rulers by the grace of God, 
alone. Shortly after his arrival in Jena he became a prominent 
member of the Burschenschaft, a student society, which was then the 
leader in the movement for the political regeneration of Germany. 

An incident which occurred while he was hearing lectures in Mu- 
nich made him feel, in his own person, the results of arbitrary gov- 
ernment. On Christmas eve, 1829, the population celebrated as 
usual, by noisy demonstrations, the advent of the midnight hour. He 
and some of his companions were serenading one of his fellow stu- 
dents, who resided near one of the city gates. The hilarious popula- 
tion joined in the serenade with fife and drum, and the demonstra- 
tions probably became somewhat noisy. One of the guards of the 
city gate rushed out and attempted to arrest Koerner, seizing him 
by the collar. A fellow student of his knocked down the officious 
soldier. The real culprit escaped but Koerner, the innocent cause of 
the accident, was arrested, thrown into solitary confinement and kept 
there for a period of four months, at the termination of which he was 
discharged, it being ascertained that he was wholly free from blame. 
Yet such was the terror of the "rulers by the grace of God" in those 
days that this trivial incident resulted first in the closing of the uni- 
versity altogether, a measure which, owing to the earnest remon- 
strance of the magistracy, was subsequently modified so as to exclude 
non-resident students only. Koerner utilized his solitary confinement 
by pursuing his legal studies alone. After his liberation, and during 
the rest of the scholastic year, being still excluded from the univer- 
sity, he pursued them with the aid of private lecturers. 


After he graduated, in 1831, he did not return home, but made his 
headquarters for some time in Heidelberg, and thence made excur- 
sious into neighboring districts, learning the sentiments of the peo- 
ple on the absorbing topic of German unity and liberty. In the 
winter of 1831-2, a meeting of the Bursohenschaft was held in Stutt- 
gart, which resolved, among other things, "It is the aim of the Ger- 
man Barschenschaft to secure the unity and liberty of the German 
people by revolution, and we recommend that all members of the so- 
ciety join the Patriotic league, in order to secure a common constitu- 
tion of the re-united country, guaranteeing, among other things, 
freedom of speech and liberty of the press.'' 

In May, 1832, he attended a m-'eting of German patriots, held in 
the ruins of Hambach castle, which lasted for three days, and which^ 
as he himself says, was the most enthusiustio gathering that he ever 
saw on either side of the Atlantic At the close of the festivities 
the many thousands there assembled took a solemn oath, with up- 
lifted hand, repeating Schiller's version of the oath of the confeder- 
ated Swiss on Ruetli mountain. 

All these events impressed him, as they impressed mnny others 
equally ardent and enthusiastic, with the conviction that Germany's 
regeneration was close at hand He was selected by the leaders to 
make a missionary tour to the various universities to ascertain their 
views and secure their cooperation in a general uprising, and un- 
questionably found them as enthusiastic as himself. He devoted to 
this journey part of February and March, 1333, and returned to 
Frankforton-the-Main on the 17th of the latter month. 

He was informed, upon his return, that steps had been taken for 
a simultaneous uprising at Frankfort, Stuttgart and Kassel, and that 
some military aid had been promised in the latter place; that some 
arms and ammunition had been bought and that even a provisional 
government had been agreed upon, with Dr Schtiler, then an exile 
residing in Metz, France, at its head He was commissioned to call 
on Dr SobiUer and to secure his acceptance of the office, which he 
did, returning to Frankfort on March 30th. The date of the upris- 
ing was set for April 3d. It was to begin with the seizure of the 
main guardhouse and the headquarters of the constabulary, followed 
by the storming of the armory and the distribution of arms among 
the people, who were expected to rise en masse in support of their 
own political emancipation. 

It would seem, on reflection, that this movement was doomed to 
failure from the start. Large standing armies are not overthrown 
by resolutions, however eloquent. Professors, however learned, are 
not adapted to direct a movement requiring an intimate knowledge 
of the sentiments of the people, which they do not possess, and at 
least some skill in military operations, of which they are wholly de- 
ficient. The assemblies in Stuttg<irt, and in the ruins of Hambach, 
were composed mainly of enthusiasts, who infected each other with 
their sanguine vifws and who firmly believed that their ardor was 
shared by the majority of the people. Germans, as a general rule, 
— 19H 


are slow and delibarate, and are not prone to act on the spur of the 
moment, like Frenchmen, or the inhabitants of southern Europe, 
and, since knowledge of the meditated movement, if it was not to be 
betrayed, had to be withheld from the multitude, the masses would 
necessarily be called upon to join in it spontaneously, on the spur of 
the moment, without much reflection or deliberation. 

On the evening of April 8d, 1888, 60 young men, mainly students 
from all parts of Germany, assaulted with the bayonet the guard of 
the main guardhouse in Frankfort and captured and disarmed the 
garrison. The fatalities were few. One of the sergeants fell in de- 
fending it and young Koerner received a painful but not serious bay- 
onet wound in his left arm. Loss of blood prevented him from par- 
ticipating in subsequent assaults, and he was taken to his home. The 
headquarters of the constabulary were likewise taken by assault, but 
there the resistance was more obstinate. Five soldiers and two of 
the insurgents were killed and a number wounded on both sides. 
Although the alarm bells were sounded, but few people assembled in 
the streets calling to arms and cheering liberty and the republic. No 
adequate force could be mustered for the storming of the armory, 
and in a comparatively short time the few insurgents were dispersed 
or captured by the rapidly assembling military forces and the revo- 
lution of 1838 was at an end. 

It goes without saying that Koerner's continued abode in Germany 
after this incident was out of the question. His capture at best 
meant many years imprisonment, to which all his associates were 
subjected, who were not fortunate enough to escape. He remained 
in hiding with some friends for some time, his wound, though not 
serious, preventing his immediate departure, and then disguising as 
a female, succeeded in passing through the gates at Frankfort, which 
were closely guarded. His smooth face, slight figure and exception 
ally small hands and feet, enabled him to make this disguise effect- 
ive. His devoted sister, Augusta, accompanied him in his flight. 
On the highway they were joined by his friend Theodore Engel- 
mann, also an active participant in the storming of the guard house, 
and hence also a fugitive. The friends made a circuitous route, in 
order to reach France, where they thought they would be corapara- 
lively safe, although it seems they were pursued even into that 
country by demands for their extradition, Protected from capture 
by many of their liberal friends both in Germany and France, they 
succeeded at last in reaching Havre where the Engelmann family was 
at the time preparing to sail for the United States of America. On 
the first of May, 1838, in company of the Engelmanns, he embarked 
on the ship Logan for New York, which they reached after a journey 
consuming nearly seven weeks, on the 17th of June. He was not 
to see Europe again until he returned to it 28 years later as Minister 
and Envoy of the United States to the Court of Madrid. 


The Journey Westward and Founding a Home in St. Clair 

County, Illinois. 

On the 20th of June, 1833, Koerner recorded in the Marine Court 
of New York city, his intention to become a citizen of the United 
States. Many companions of his voyage did likewise, — among their 
number Frederick Engelmann, his son Theodore Engelmann, Henry 
Abend and John Scheel, all of whom afterwards became residents of 
St. Clair county, Illinois. Within a week after their arrival in New 
York the whole party started westward, by steamer to Troy, thence by 
the New York and Erie canal to BufPalo; thence by lake steamer to 
Cleveland; thence by the newly completed Ohio canal to Portemouth; 
thence by steamer down the Ohio, and up the Mississippi to St. Louis. 
This route seems circuitous, but was the only rail and water wsy route 
to the far West in those days. The steamer Jay over for quite a while 
in Cincinnati, then the Queen city of the West, both in name and 
importance, where the emigrants met a large number of intelligent 
Germans and were much impressed with the extensive vineyards cov- 
ering the hills of the Ohio, not unlike the vineyards of their cherished 
Rhine. In St. Louis they met Theo. Hilgard and Theodore Kraft, 
who had reached the West the year preceding, and had settled on a 
farm in St, Clair county, Illinois, about six miles east of Belleville. 

It was the intention of the emigrants who came by the Logan to 
settle in Missouri. One, Duden, who had come to the United States 
years before, and had founded a settlement on the Missouri river, in 
Warren county, Missouri, which even at the present day bears the 
name of Dudenville, had written a very exaggerated account of that 
locality, which account had been extensively circulated in Grermany. 
Koerner and Theodore Engelmann were deputed to visit this War- 
ren county paradise, in order to verify Duden's representations, and 
found them far below the mark. 

There was however a more potent reason which deterred these 
emigrants from settling in Missouri. The trip which the two young 
men made on horseback through some of the interior counties of 
that state, brought them into direct contact with the "peculiar in- 
stitution." They witnessed the cruel beating of slaves by order of 
their masters, often for trivial causes, — the pernicious separation of 
mothers from their children by sale, and other demoralizing influ- 
ences of chattel slavery. Their report determined the emigrants not 
to settle in Missouri. Frederick Engelmann thereupon bought a 
farm in Illinois, about six miles east of Belleville, and on the 3rd of 
August, 1833, his family, accompanied by young Koerner, who was 
engaged to be married to his daughter, transferred themselves, and 
their wordly possessions, on ox teams from East St. Louis to the 

Their life on the farm was of primeval simplicity. The produce 
of their land, and the game with which the country was then teem- 
ing, was sufficient to supply their simple table. The life of a farmer, 
however, was not congenial to Koerner's taste, and he decided to fit 
himself for his original profession, that of the law. 


His Caeeer as Jurist and Statesman. 

I speak of Koerner's activity as a jurist, and statesman, under one 
head, because his work and activity in these two capacities was 
closely connected. His thorough knowledge of the civil law, which 
is founded on codified principles, was of great advantage to him in 
his studies of the common law, which is founded on immemorial 
usage and precedents. The foundation of both is supposed to be 
common sense, intelligently applied in the light of experience to the 
varying social and commercial conditions of mankind. 

At the date when he became a resident of Illinois, any one could 
become its citizen, who had resided in it for a period of six months, 
and who had recorded his intention to become a citizen of the United 
States, No one, however, could hold a State oflSce, or become an at- 
torney at law, unless he was a citizen of the State. Study in the of- 
fice of some lawyer of good standing for a period of two years, or the 
diploma from a law school, was another pre requisite of admission to 
the bar, as also a supposed thorough examination by the Supreme 
court of the applicant's qualifications. The latter pre-requisite, as 
many of us know from experience, was then, and remained for many 
years thereafter, a mere sham. 

Since his means were limited, he desired to enter upon the labors 
of his profession as soon as possible, and hence choose the college in 
preference to study in a lawyer's office. He went to Lexington, Ky,, 
to attend there the law school which stood under the direction of 
Judges Mays and Robertson of the Kentucky court of appeals, and 
which enjoyed a great reputation in the west. The lecture course 
consisted only of one year, at the expiration of which he returned to 
Belleville, and in June, 1885, passed his examination before the 
Supreme court in Vandalia, then the capital of the State. 

His professional acquirements even at that early stage of his career, 
must have been of a high order, because within a few months after 
his admission to the bar, he was offered a partnership by A. W. 
Snyder, who was then probably at the head of the bar in southern 
Hlinois, Thus he became a member of the law firm of Snyder & 
Koerner, which after the election of Snyder to congress was enlarged 
by the admission of James Shields, the General Shields of the war 
for the Union, and a gentleman who enjoyed the remarkable distinc- 
tion of representing at various times three different states in the 
Senate of the United States. In fact, those of us who knew the Gen- 
eral personally, are aware, that had the Constitution of the United 
States permitted his so doing, he would have felt equal to represent 
them all, at one and the same time. 

Koerner took an active part in public life, almost from the date of 
his admission to the bar. Slavery was not then an issue, between 
the leading political parties, and did not become an issue until many 
years afterwards. In common with the great majority of American 
citizens of German birth, his political affiliations were with the dem- 
ocratic party. He took an active part in the VanBuren campaign 
(1886) and since he spoke English, German and French with almost 


equal fluency he soon became one of the most popular, and sought 
after political speakers. While small in stature his voice was sono- 
rous and far-reaching. He spoke gracefully but in an impassioned 
manner, possessing in a high degree the courage of his convictions, 
and uttering them fearlessly, and hence excercising a marked influ- 
ence over his hearers. 

He took a still more active part in the exciting political campaign 
of 1840. Although the Whigs carried the country by an overwhelm- 
ing majority, Illinois remained Democratic. In this campaign he 
spoke at public meetings in every part of the State, being well re- 
ceived everywhere. Without his solicitation, he was selected by the 
presidential electors of the State as their messenger to carry their 
vote to Washington. It is characteristic of the slow transit in those 
days, that his journey from Belleville to Washington, although con- 
tinuous, consumed l-l days, more than twice the time that would now 
be needed for a journey from Belleville to London. While in Wash- 
ington, Governor Reynolds, then congressman from Illinois, intro- 
duced young Koerner to President Van Buren, John Quincy Adams, 
Daniel Webster, John 0. Calhoun, Henry Clay and Thomas H. Ben- 
ton, so that his visit to the capital proved equally interesting and 

On his return to Illinois he was appointed by Governor Carlin a 
member of the commission to appraise all property of railroad com- 
panies to whom State aid had been extended, preliminary to the 
foreclosure of the lien of the State. To the great surprise of his po- 
litical friends he declined the office, although its emoluments were 
considerable. He assigned as a reason for so doing that he was not 
technically qualified to fulifil its duties satisfactorily. It seems he 
could not conceive how anyone could aspire to hold an office which 
he was not qualified to fill — a view which I regret to say was shared 
but by few men in public life then, or at any time since. 

In December, 1840, Shields, one of the firm of Snyder, Koerner & 
Shields, was appointed auditor of public accounts, and subsequently 
judge of the supreme court of Illinois. In the following year Adam 
W. Soyder. the other member, became Democratic candidate for 
governor of Illinois, and died in May, 1842, These events led to the 
dissolution of the firm of Snyder, Koerner & Shields, and to the for- 
mation of the law firm of Bissell & Koerner, the same Bissell who 
afterwards, in 1856, became the first Republican governor of Illinois. 

Meanwhile, in 1841, Koerner himself was elected to the lower 
branch of the General Assembly, overcoming the bitter opposition of 
the so-called Native Americans, and served with distinction for one 
term, being a prominent member of the two most important commit- 
tees, that of ways and means and the judiciary. In 1844 he again 
canvassed the entire State in the interest of the Democratic nomi- 
nees, and it was due to his efforts mainly that Stephen A. Douglas 
was elected to Congress from the Quincy district, and that both the 
city and Adams county, hitherto Whig strongholds, were carried by 
the Democrats in that year. 


In 1845 Shields was appointed by President Polk commissioner of 
the general land offioe. The vacancy on the supreme bench thus 
caused was filled by Koerner's appointment through Governor Ford. 
At the expiration of the short term, he was re- elected by the legisla- 
ture for a full term, By the constitution adopted in March, 1848, 
however, the supreme court was reorganized and made a purely appel- 
late tribunal, The number of its judges was reduced from nine to 
three, and it was provided that thereafter they should be elected by 
the people, instead of being elected by the legislature, as heretofore. 
In September, 1848, Samuel H. Treat, John D. Caton and Lyman 
Trumbull were elected the first judges of the supreme court under 
the new dispensation, and Koerner left the bench the January fol- 
lowing, His judicial opinions, reported in volumes 7, 8 and 9 of the 
Illinois reports, are distinguished alike by a thorough conception of 
legal principles and elegance of diction. 

Meanwhile the curtain rose on both sides of the Atlantic over 
events far-reaching in their consequences. In 1848 Louis Philip, 
king of the French, was dethroned, became a fugitive, and the Re- 
public was proclaimed with the poet Lamartine at its head. The 
people rose all over Europe against their oppressors, and the millen- 
ium of liberty seemed close at hand. In the United States the war 
with Mexico was initiated, in the opinion of many a most unjust and 
unholy war, and the tocsin sounded everywhere calling volunteers to 
arms. Koerner, whose love for his native land was not wholly over- 
shadowed by his loyalty to his adopted country, took an intense in- 
terest in both events. A mass meeting of German Liberals, which 
assembled in Belleville, selected him to draft an address to the Ger- 
man people, calling upon them to rise unitedly against their oppress- 
ors, and form a confederated Republic, on the plan of the United 
States of America. He drew such an address, a very statesmanlike 
paper, which was printed and circulated in innumerable copies 
throughout the Fatherland. His then law partner, Bissell, organized 
the Second regiment of Illinois volunteers, consisting mainly of Ger- 
mans, which did yoeman service in Mexico. His former law partner 
Shields resigned his position in Washington, and was commissioned 
by President Polk, first a brigadier general, and then a major gen- 
eral, serving first under General Taylor, and then under General 
Soott, and was severely wounded first at the battle of Cerro Gordo, 
and then almost mortally wounded in the assault upon Ohapul- 

The failure of the revolutionists of Europe, brought for the first 
time a large political emigration to America. The tide set in in 1849 
and was not exhausted until 1856. Many of the emigrants were 
theorists and ideal dreamers who had no accurate conception either 
of existing conditions in the United States, or of the artificial struc- 
ture which constituted the fundamental framework of the govern- 
ment of a free people. Almost each of the more prominent leaders 
had his own theories of government, and promulgated a program, 


containing some grains of sense, in a mass of hair-brained sugges- 
tions. One of the many programs thus published may serve as a 
sample It demanded: 

1. Uniform compensation on all kinds of labor. 

2. Doing away with all executive functionaries, and vesting sov- 
ereign power, in a legislative assembly consisting of one house. 

8. Ownership of all public utilities by the people. 

4 Repeal of all restrictions on naturalization, and intervention in 
behalf of all republics. 

5. Progressive taxation. 

6 Increase of wages of hand laborers. 

7. Changing penitentiaries to reform schools. 

8. Gradual emancipation of slaves, with a fixed period of the final 
extinction of slavery. 

Koerner, who had been bred an American jurist, and who for a 
period of nearly 20 years had carefully observed the political work- 
ings of our institutions, at once turned his attention to combating 
these wild theories. With keen analysis, and a satire which cut to 
the marrow, he demonstrated their utter fallacy. It was due to him 
in a great measure, that many of these political exiles, instead of ro- 
maining fire-brands, dangerous to the welfare of the commonwealth, 
became in course of time some of its most useful citizens. 

The Illinois constitution of 1848, had reduced the salary of judges 
of the Supreme court from $2,000 to $1,200, and the salary of the 
Governor to $1,500. It seems to have been the policy of the people 
then and for many years thereafter to lodge sherifFs and collectors in 
palaces, and the heads of the judiciary and executive departments, in 
humble cabins. The reduction of the salary of the high judiciary, 
and executive, prevented Koerner, whose means were limited, and 
who had a rapidly increasing family, to aspire to either of these 
positions, although his political friends urged him to do so. In 1852, 
however, he accepted the democratic nomination for Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor. The duties of the office absorbing but a limited part of his 
time, during the session of the Legislature, enabled him to devote the 
bulk of it to his lucrative law practice, in which he was then associ- 
ated with Wm. R. Morrison. He was elected by a large majority, 
and held the office until January, 1857. 

It was during this period, and owing to the slavery issue which 
was becoming a burning question, that the personal and political re- 
lations between him and Stephen A. Douglas, gradually decreased in 
intimacy, while those between him and Abraham Lincoln increased 
in the same proportion. The admission of Texas as a slave state, 
was followed by that of California as a free state in conformity with 
the Missouri Compromise. But when New Mexico and Arizona were 
acquired by purchase, with the Wilmot proviso, forever prohibiting 
slavery within their territory, the southern states claimed that it was 
a violation of that compromise since part of these territories lay south 


of the compromise line of 36 degrees, 30 minutes. The ill feeling 
between the advocates and opponents of chattel slavery, became 
strongly accentuated, and a rupture became imminent when Kansas 
and Nebraska applied for admission. 

Douglas, who had presidential aspirations, and needed the support 
of the south, tried to devise a medium of accommodation, and brought 
forward his famous doctrine of "Squatter Sovereignty," enabling 
each territory prior to its admission as a state, to determine by its 
proposed constitution whether it would be slave or free. He at once 
alienated the extremists north and south, and when the Lecompton 
constitution of Kansas, sustaining slavery, was rejected by Congress, 
on the ground that it was carried by fraud and violence, the rupture 
became complete. 

In 1855 a number of prominent men, without regard to their for- 
mer party aflfiliations, assembled in Pittsburg and issued a call for a 
convention to be held in Philadelphia in 1856, with a view of form- 
ing a new party. It was to be known as the Republican party and 
was to be built on new lines. The principal plank in the platform 
was to be exclusion of slavery from territories. Koerner, who was 
an uncompromising opponent of the further extension of slavery, was 
earnestly solicited to join the movement. He declined to do so, as- 
signing as a reason that, as an executive officer of the State, elected 
by Democratic votes, he was not justified to sever his connection 
with that party until it had officially declared that it was not opposed 
to the further extension of slavery. At the same time he announced 
that should his party do so, he would not hesitate for an instant to 
bid farewell to his former political associates. The convention met 
in Philadelphia and adopted a platform which was outspoken against 
the further extension of slavery, although non-committal in other re- 
spects on divergent issues between the two leading parties, since it 
had to recruit its forces from both. It nominated Fremont, a dem- 
ocrat, for president, and Dayton, a Whig, for vice president. Koer- 
ner attended the convention as a careful observer of its proceedings, 
although not a delegate, and was highly pleased with its action. 

Shortly thereafter the Democracy of the State, as well as the De- 
mocracy of the country succumbed to the influence of the Southern 
states. He at once severed his political connection with his former 
associates and was nominated by the Republican party for Congress 
in the BoUeville district, but was defeated by his opponent, Robert 

Then came the historic campaign of 1858, in which Douglas suc- 
ceeded in obtaining the senatorial nomination in spite of the opposi- 
tion of the national Democratic administration and in spite of the 
heroic efforts of the Repablican party, who tried to supplant him 
with a man who, then almost a novice in the political arena, was soon 
to become the foremost figure of the civilized world. 

It Tvas in this campaign that the friendship between Lincoln and 
Koerner, which was to remain a close bond between the two men 
until the death of the martyred President, was firmly cemented. 
They had been associates as counsel before, in several important 


cases, but this campaign brought them into close contact as associ- 
ates on the stump, and Koerner soon recognized the firmness and 
astuteness of his friend and his thorough fitness to become the head 
of the nation in the most critical period of its history. When the 
convention of the Republican party met in Chicago in 1859, the men 
most prominently named for the presidency were Seward, Chase, 
Cameron and Bates. Lincoln was little more than a dark horse, but 
owing to the national reputation which he had acquired in his polit- 
ical debates with Douglas, during the memorable campaign of 1^58, 
a very formidable one, Schurz, a member of the convention from 
Wisconsin, was a strong advocate of Seward's nomination, while 
Koerner, a delegate from Illinois, was a strong advocate of that of 
Lincoln. Both these states possessed a large German population 
and many delegates from them belonged to that nationality. Schurz 
had not then obtained his marked prominence and was comparatively 
a novice in politics, while Koerner had been in public life for many 
years and was thoroughly at home in a political convention. It is 
no wonder, therefore, that his indefatigable labors among these dele- 
gates in favor of his candidate were very effectual. The argument 
that Lincoln stood a better chance to carry the Western states against 
Douglas, the presumptive presidential candidate of the Democracj^ 
than any other man whose name was mentioned in connection with 
the Republican nomination, turned the scale in his favor. 

In the light of subsequent events, an incident connected with this 
convention is worthy of note. Greeley, Schurz and Koerner were not 
only members of the committee on resolutions, but also members of 
the sub-committee of seven who drafted the platform. Greeley in- 
sisted on a high tariff plank, but finally compromised on a tariff for 
revenue with incidental protection When he found, however, that 
the sub-committee was determined to reject "squatter sovereignty," 
which was one of his hobbies, he left the committee sessions in a 
huff" and their "subsequent proceedings interested him no more." It 
is illustrative of the exigencies of our politics that 12 years after- 
wards Koerner, as the nominee for Governor of the Democrats and 
Liberal Republicans, found himself constrained to advocate for the 
presidency the same Horace Greeley whose antics in the Chicago 
convention were a source of amusement to his fellow members of the 
committee, and who shortly afterwards evolved the historic phrase, 
"Let our wayward sisters part in peace " 

The choice of Lincoln was justified from the standpoint of expedi- 
ency no less than that of merit, because it is a matter of history that 
in the ensuing canvass he received the electoral vote of every free 
state with the exception of New Jersey, which he divided with Doug- 

In the beginning of 1861, and after several of the slave states had 
already seceded, Virginia called for a conference of all the states, to 
be held February 4t.h, to consider a compromise of existing differ- 
ences. Governor Yates appointed Koerner a delegate to this con- 
vention, but the latter declined the appointment, stating he could 
not participate in the deliberations of any convention the assembling 


of which impliedly conceded a legal right of secession, which he de- 
nied. When Lincoln, after the assault on Fort Sumpter, issued his 
call for 75,000 volunteers to serve three months, Koerner addressed 
him a strong personal letter, denouncing this half way measure and 
calling the attention of the President to the precedent established by 
the Swiss Confederation which, when seven cantons with an armed 
force of 30,000 tried to secede, at once called for 150,090 volunteers 
and suppressed the insurrection in course of a few months. Within 
a short time the original call of 75,000 was changed to 300,000, and 
the time of service from three months to three years. We all know 
how even this force proved inadequate and how, before the close of 
the war, when the ardor of the North had greatly cooled as a result 
of successive reverses, drafting had to be resorted to. Had Koerner's 
advice been followed the war might have been brought to a close 
within a year, although it is highly improbable that it would have 
resulted in the complete abolition of slavery. Judging by ultimate 
results, a temporizing policy was justified. 

In April, 1861 , volunteers began to assemble everywhere Upon 
the request of Governor Yates, Koerner removed to Springfield, and 
took charge of the organization of Illinois volunteers. While there 
he first met U. S Grant under peculiar circumstances, He thus 
narrates the episode himself: "One day E. B Washburne brought to 
my office a man of slouchy appearance, and introduced him as U. S. 
Grant, of Galena, stating that he was a graduate of our military 
school, and had seen service in Mexico. Washburne thought he 
might be utilized in the organization of our forces. I went with 
them to Yates, merely introducing Grant and reporting what Wash- 
burne had stated. Shortly afterwards Washburne came to my room 
and reported that their mission had failed , and that Yates had in- 
formed him there was no vacancy. Next day, having thought over 
the matter, and concluding that Grant might prove of considerable 
service, I went to Yates and urged his appointment, personally. He 
at once appointed him assistant quartermaster with a salary of $2,00 
per day." Shortly afterwards, his qualifications being better under- 
stood, Grant was put in command of Camp Yates, and when the 
Twenty- first regiment, Illinois volunteers, was organized, he was 
elected its colonel, and began that brilliant military career which, be- 
fore the expiration of four years, made him the foremost soldier of 
the world. 

It is a strange coincidence that Koerner became thus instrumental 
in furthering the fortunes of the most beloved president of the na- 
tion, and of its greatest soldier, both citizens of the State of Illinois. 

Looking back to the early history of the war, the superficial ob- 
server is surprised to find that our first colonels, brigadiers, and even 
major generals, were civilian politicians, who had little if any mili- 
tary training. The reason for this is obvious. Our regular army 
and its officers were a body segregated from the people, and not at 
all in touoh with popular ideas. They were even prohibited by law 
from exercising the elective franchise. They looked upon volunteers 
with distrust, which the latter repaid with interest. For volunteers, 


an army meant a mass meeting of the people in arms. At first the 
soldiers elected their officers of the line, and the officers, their field 

On the other hand, the people had confidence in their political 
leaders and readily flocked to their standard, but the discipline which 
the office-holders could enforce against the man whose vote he had 
solicited but a short time before, was necessarily lax. It took years 
until an armed mob was converted into a disciplined army marching 
at the tap of the drum and sound of the bugle in serried phalanx to 
certain victory. Before the war closed all our armies, and most of 
the army corps, were commanded by trained regular army officers. I 
was somewhat amused myself, when I found thai the colonel of the 
regiment in which I first enlisted, although a politician of national 
reputation, was not qualified to put the regiment through the manual 
of arms. 

The military career of Koerner was short and uneventful. He was 
authorized by Governor Yates to raise a regiment, which he did, and 
which, originally known as Koerner's regiment, subsequently became 
the Forty-third Illinois infantry He never commanded the regi- 
ment in the field, being detached as aid with the rank of colonel, on 
the staff of Major General Fremont, the commander of the western 
department. His duties as such, however, were more political than 
military. The President desired to have some one in the western de- 
partment, in immediate touch with its commander, on whose reports 
as to the affairs of that department he could absolutely rely, and 
Fremont desired someone who could be of service in procuring the 
necessary reinforcements from Illinois. He retained the position 
until June 16th, when he was appointed by the president, and con- 
firmed by the Senate, Cnited States Minister to the court of Madrid, 
as successor to Schurz, who had returned to the United States seek- 
ing a military command. 

I may mention in this connection that President Lincoln was 
anxious to provide for Koerner soon after his election. He first de- 
signed him for the mission to Berlin, but Norman B Judd, who failed 
to secure a cabinet position, insisted on that appointment for him- 
self, and Koerner was not the man to embarrass the President by 
urging his own persoual claims. He next offered him a position on 
the supreme bench of the United States, which he was compelled to 
decline, owing to the then very limited compensation of the office, 
coupled with the expense of living in Washington with a numerous 
family. So inadequate was the compensation paid in those days, 
even to the highest officials of the nation, that Koerner found himself 
forced to resign even the Madrid mission, after being its incumbent 
for two and one half years, not being able to make two ends meet 
with the salary assigned to him, allhougli that salary was twice as 
large as that of a judge of the supreme court. 

The Madrid mission was then, next to those of St. James and Ber- 
lin, the most important foreign mission. The armed intervention in 
Mexico by European powers, including Spain; the revival of the 


slave trade by Spanish vessels, which were enabled to ship their hu- 
man cargoes from Africa to Cuba, owing to the forced withdrawal of 
American cruisers for use at home; the landing of Confederate 
cruisers in Spanish ports, and the manifest desire of Great Britain 
to bring about strained relations between Washington and Madrid, 
made Koerner's position exceedingly irksome. Add to this that there 
was a constant change in the person of the Spanish secretary of for- 
eign relations, no lees than five different persons (Calderon Col- 
lantes, Marshal Serrano, Marquis de Mira Acres, Senor Arrazola and 
Senor Francisco Pacheco) filling that office in lees than two years, 
and it is evident that the position of our minister at that court was 
anything but a sinecure. He states that in less than two years he 
sent 114 dispatches to Secretary Seward, receiving as many in reply, 
most of them relating to matters of serious import. He made re- 
peated requests to be relieved from the duties of his onerous position, 
but at the earnest solicitation of President Lincoln, retained his post 
until the most important matters of controversy between the United 
States and Spain were definitely settled. 

During his sojourn in Spain he employed his leisure moments in 
studying Spanish architecture and art, ancient and modern, and pub- 
lished several short treatises on the subject, to which brief reference 
is made in another part of this paper. 

After his return to the United States he devoted himself mainly to 
re- establishing his former lucrative law practice, which, during his pro- 
tracted absence, had fallen into abeyance. He was too much accus- 
tomed to public life, however, and too prominent a figure to be per- 
mitted to retire from it entirely. In 18n8 he became an elector of 
the Republican party in Illinois, and as such canvassed the State in 
the interest of General Grant, its presidential nominee. He did not 
perform this task with his usual enthusiasm since, in his opinion, the 
fit President for a free people was a jurist and not a soldier. The 
subsequent appointments of Stewart as Secretary of the Treasury, 
and in violation of the law, because he was an importer; of Borie and 
Robeson as successive Secretaries of the Navy; of Cox and Delano 
as successive Secretaries of the Interior, and of the notorious Belk- 
nap as Secretary of War, were not designed to create confidence in 
the wisdom of the administration, and many earnest Republicans, 
who had been founders of the party, were led to believe that the 
President was inclined to look upon a public office not as a public 
trust but as a private snap. 

The very questionable transaction in the dicker for the acquisition 
of San DDmingo, which was opposed by some of the purest Republi- 
can leaders in the Senate, added to the foregoing, induced many 
prominent Republicans, and among them Koerner, to make open war 
on the administration and determined them to defeat the re election 
of Grant if possible. 

In Missouri, some time before, a party had been formed, known as 
the Liberal Republican party. It had succeeded, with the aid of 
Democrats, to re-elect its state officers, including a majority of the 
legislature, and had sent Schurz to the United States Senate. This 


party, in fact, was not then a national party, its original program re- 
lating almost exclusively to state issues. Its local success embold- 
ened the opponents of the national administration to try the same 
experiment on a larger scale in national politics. 

In 1872 a movement was initiated in Missouri to extend the Mis- 
souri program over the United States and make it the foundation of 
the platform of a national party. With that view a convention of 
delegates, volunteer and not accredited, was called to meet in Cincin- 
nati in the first week of May of that year. The leaders hoped to 
duplicate successfully the movement which, nearly successful in 1855- 
6 and wholly successful in 18G0, had recently proved locally success- 
ful in Missouri They ignored the fact that the conditions were en- 
tirely dissimilar. The movement of 1855-6 had an ethical ideal base, 
the preservation of the Union with universal liberty, while the move- 
ment of 1872 was one directed against objectionable men and the ob- 
jectionable methods of the national administration. The local move- 
ment in Missouri succeeded because it was initiated bj^ Republicans 
with a view to restore the elective franchise to the bulk of the Dem- 
ocrats of that of which they had been deprived by a proscriptive 
constitution, hence the seceding Republicans could dictate terms to 
their Democratic brethren and were sure of the support of the latter 
on any terms. In the national campaign of 1872, the Democrats 
were in a position to dictate terms and candidates to the seceding 
Republicans. I tried to moke this difference plain to some Illinois 
delegates to Cincinnati, including Koerner, who, on the eve of the 
convention, called upon me, and who all felt confident that Lyman 
Trumbull would be the nominee of the Cincinnati convention. I felt 
confident that the nominee of the allied parties would be dictated by 
a number of prominent Democrats, who had contemporaneously met 
at Covington with a view of bringing the necessary pressure to bear 
on the Cincinnati convention. The supposition that the southern 
Democrats would ever consent to the nomination of Trumbull, who 
was one of the foremost opponents of the extension of slavery into 
the territories, and one of the foremost supporters of a vigorous prcs- 
ecution of the war against them, appeared to me as the wildest dream. 

We all know the result of the Cincinnati convention and the dis- 
astrous termination of that campaign for the allies. The man who 
was in favor of "squatter sovereignty" in 1860, and in favor "to let 
our wayward sisters part in peace," became the forced choice of the 
convention for the presidency, with the man who, elected by the 
Liberal Republicans of Missouri governor of that state, had deserted 
his party and had affiliated wholly with the Democrats, as his running 
mate. The candidates were doomed to defeat the day they were 
nominated, wholly regardless of the fact whether one of them had 
"buttered his watermelon." Koerner himself, who was nominated by 
the Democrats and Liberal Republicans for Governor of Illinois, was 
overwhelmingly defeated, although he led the national ticket by over 
25,000 votes. 


His next political activity in the national arena was in the Tilden- 
Hayes campaign of 187G. A conference of reformers met in the Fifth 
Avenue hotel, New York, May 15, 1876, and appointed a committee, 
with Schurz as chairman and Theodore Roosevelt as one of its mem- 
bers, who i8s^ed an address to the people, insisting on a reform of 
the civil service, the resumption of specie payment and a jugt treat- 
ment of the re-united Southern states It was not the aim of this 
convention to bring about the nomination of independent candidates 
for national offices, but simply to bring sufficient pressure to bear on 
the conventions of the two leading parties to make them nominate 
candidates friendly to reform. Koerner, who had been invited to at- 
tend the New York meeting, could not do so, being engaged at the 
time in other duties as a member of the International Peace Confer- 
ence. He was, however, thoroughly in sympathy with the movement, 
and, upon the nomination of Tilden by the Democrats and Hayes by 
the Republicans, he at once declared for the former who, as annihi- 
lator of the Tweed ring, had demonstrated his earnestness as a re- 
former. He canvassed the State of Illinois in the interest of his 

That Tilden was elected President of the United States, receiving 
not only an overwhelming popular vote, but also the majority of the 
electoral vote, if honestly counted, few people doubt at the present 
day. That the electoral commission found sufficient technical legal 
difficulties to uphold this verdict, and that its so doing was brought 
about by a strictly party vote of its members was perhaps the first 
severe blow struck at the integrity of our judiciary and hence is to 
be deplored. However this may be, the readiness with which the 
illustrious candidate and the numerical majority of the American 
people submitted to the ruling, preferring to rest under its ban rather 
than to plunge the country into the horrors of another civil war, has 
furnished a precedent of the people's obedience to the law as pro- 
mulgated by its constituted authorities, which, in its final results, is 
of inestimable value to the future welfare of the Republic. It is 
needless to add that, although thoroughly convinced of the injustice 
of the electoral commission's finding, Koerner was among the fore- 
most to counsel moderation and submission. 

He also took an active and earnest interest in the subsequent cam- 
paign?, which resulted respectively in the elections of Garfield and 
Cleveland, speaking occasionally to large audiences, although his 
advanced age and the increased demand made upon his time by his 
professional duties precluded his canvassing the entire State or 
speaking outside of its borders. It must be remembered that during 
the entire period of his political activity he was no less active as a 
practitioner. The judicial reports of the Supreme Court of Illinois 
and of the Supreme Court of the United States, bear convincing 
proof of that fact. I have, myself, witnessed his trying an important 
case before a court and jury, the trial lasting for several days, when 
he was past the age of 80, and can vouch for the fact that he con- 
ducted the trial with a vigor, intelligence and attention to detail 
which might well have aroused the envy of any lawyer in the prime 
of life. 


His Work as an Educator and Author. 

Every author of right is, or should be an educator in the broader 
sense of that term. If he is not he has failed in his mission. I do 
not make any distinction in that respect between writers of pure fic- 
tion, and those dealing with serious problems of life. Koerner fully 
realized the truth of this proposition, and the great bulk of his liter- 
ary work was of a character, conferring practical benefit on hiscotem- 
poraries. Being of a vivid imagination, and keen and critical per- 
ception, his mind at an early age took a literary turn, which was fur- 
thered by bis close association in the gymnasium at Frankfort, with 
Henry Hoffmao, a boyhood friendship, which was to last through 
life. HofPmann subsequently became a writer of some note, and a 
poet of respectable standing, although his main claim to be remem- 
bered by posterity rests upon his "Strubelpeter " This little pam- 
phlet, written in doggerel verse, and illustrated by the author him- 
self, with excellent pen sketches, dealing with the various naughty 
habits of little children, has been the delight of millions of their 
number, on both sides of the Atlantic, has been translated into var- 
ious languages, and has become for the growing generations, what 
the Bible and Shakespeare are for the adult. Koerner began his 
literary efforts, as most of us do, by writing verses, when very young. 
These efforts seem to have been frequent at first but rapidly de- 
creased in number with advancing age. He seemed to have pre- 
served the manuscripts and they were found among his posthumous 
papers. While they show good command of meter, elegance of ex- 
pression, and a fair amount of poetical sentiment, they do not indi- 
cate that he ever could have risen to the front rank in that class of 

His first appearance before the public as an author, was an inter- 
esting and instructive description of his voyage across the Atlantic, 
which was published in Cotta's "Ausland," in 1834. Shortly after 
engaging in practice of the law he became a regular contributor to 
the "Anzeiger des Westens," the first and then the only German daily 
in the city of St. Louis, of which his friend and classmate Weber, 
was the editor. These contributions dealt mainly with political ques- 
tions, discussing and critizing public measures. About that time he 
began to be an occasional contributor to English periodicals, on sim- 
ilar subjects. 

In 1837, Dr. George Englemann and others, began the publication 
of a periodical named "VVestland," of which Koerner became a cor- 
responding editor, although owing to the fact that he was still ostra- 
cized by the home government, his connection with the periodical 
was not made public. The venture did not prove a financial success 
however, and the publication was discontinued within a year. 

Aware, that one of the main aids of public education, is a free and 
select library, he with others founded the Belleville Public library, 
about the same time. This undertaking, very humble in its incep- 
tion, grew rapidly under his fostering care, In 1863, the title to the 
library was transferred to the city of Belleville, and it now numbers 
more than 20,000 carefully selected volumes. 


Shortly after his settlement in Belleville, there being no public 
school in the place at that time which the children of Grerman emi- 
grants could attend with advantage, he established a German and 
English school there, and became its first teacher for a brief time. 
Shortly thereafter however, a school was established there by Ban- 
sen on the pattern of the Frankfort elementary school, which became 
the foundation of the German-American system of schools which 
under the superintendence of Raab became highly beneficial to edu- 
cation in Southern Illinois. Koerner himself remained an influen- 
tial school director until his departure for Madrid. 

In 1847, he wrote an essay on the history and statistics of Ger- 
many, which he read at the session of the Illinois Literary and His- 
torical society of that year. In 1818 he prepared the address to the 
German people, referred to in a preceding part of this paper. In 
1855 he wrote the letter addressed to the Republican editors of Illi- 
nois, defining the issues then before the country and his own posi- 
tion regarding them. This was published in pamphlet form in two 
languages and entensively circulated. 

In 1859, he delivered the main address on the occasion of the cen- 
tennial of the birth of Schiller, the poet, which was also published 
in pamphlet form. During the Franco German war he wrote the 
open letter to Wendell Phillips, published in the Chicago Tribune, 
which led that brilliant but somewhat eccentric agitator, to recant 
some of his former views on that subject, publicly expressed. 

Of course it is impossible within the limits of this paper to specify 
in detail Koerner's literary and educational activity, which was so 
manifold, and extended over so many years. The above instances 
are given more for the purpose of showing the character, than that 
of showing the extent of the work. He appeared frequently on the 
lecture platform, he was a constant contributor to the press both 
English and German, both east and west, daily and periodical, liter- 
ary and political. No one who was not familiar with his great in- 
dustry and tireless energy, could well conceive how he found time 
for the performance of all these labors. 

Among his more extensive writings may be mentioned, "Koerner's 
Spain," a description of that country, its political and social institu- 
tions, and its ancient and modern art and literature; "The history of 
German Settlers in America," a very extensive work dealing with 
the subject of German Colonists, from the earliest date to modern 
times. These two books were published in German. Also the fol- 
lowing works in English, "Critical discussion of history and limits 
of the Monroe Doctrine," written for and forming part of the "Cyc- 
lopedia of Politial Science, etc.," edited by John J. Lawlor. "The 
Scope of Punitive and Exemplary Damages," written for and read 
before the American Bar Association, and "Critical Analysis of 
Blaine's 'Twenty Years in Congress.' " 


His Family Life. 

Koerner's father died in 1829. His mother, brothers, and sisters, 
he never met again after he left Europe for America, although he 
took a fostering care of their interests while they lived. He sur- 
vived them all. While visiting his friend and classmate, Theodore En- 
gelmann, in 1832, he became acquainted with the latter's sister Sophy, 
which acquaintance soon ripened into affection, and resulted in an 
engagement while the two young people crossed the Atlantic on the 
Logan. As soon as his professional earnings permitted him to do 
so, on the 17th of June, 1836, the two became one. That the two 
became one was in this instance more than a trite conventional 
phrase The union which lasted for a period of nearly 52 years was 
in every respect a most happy one, and after his wife died, March 1, 
1888, the loneliness of the bereaved husband was truly pathetic. I can 
truthfully say, that although during a long and somewhat eventful 
life, I have had many occasions to observe the lights and shadows of 
family life, I have never witnessed one so thoroughly cheered by 
mutual affection, trust and confidence. Their trials and difficulties 
were many. The first household which they founded in Belleville 
was totally destroyed by tire, and their children were saved with diffi- 
culty from the flames. The proverbial wolf did probably more than 
once prowl around their door, Of the eight children, five sons and 
three daughters, issue of their marriage, only three survived their 
parents. Most of these children died in their infancy, but the oldest 
son Theodore, a young man of great promise, died at a maturer age 
while a cadet at West Point, and their youngest daughter Pauline, 
wife of George H. Detharding, a Belleville merchant, died within a 
comparatively short time, after her marriage. All these trials and 
afflictions, however, but drew the parents with each other, and with 
their children, into closer union if possible. Of their surviving 
daughters, the elder, Mary, married Henry Engelmann, geologist 
and chemist, late of LaSalle, Illinois, and now resides as a widow in 
Cleveland, Ohio. The younger, Augusta, married Roderick E. Rom- 
bauer, a lawyer in St. Louis, and for many years presiding judge of 
the St. Louis Court of Appeals. The surviving son, Gustave A., was 
associated with his father in the law practice, during the latter years 
of his life, and now resides in St. Louis, Missouri. All hold the 
memory of these parents in grateful veneration. Whoever visited 
the Koerner home in Belleville, modest and unassuming, ornamented 
with an extensive library and some art treasures, but otherwise sim- 
ple and unostentatious, could not fail to be impressed with the fact, 
that it was an ideal home. It had seen the gathering of many under 
its hospitable roof, and of some who were among the foremost of their 
days, and it was while a guest at this house, that Carl Schurz pre- 
pared the famous speech which he delivered at Veranda Hall, St. 
Louis, during the campaign of 1860, which in my opinion is by far 
the best effort of that brilliant orator, and which more than any other, 
attracted to him the gaze of the then contending political forces. 

— 20H 



This sketch would not be complete, without a summary of the gen- 
eral features of the character of the man with whom it deals. Fore- 
most among these was his innate sense of justice, and his constant 
endeavor to subordinate his private interests to the general welfare. 
He readily forgave private injuries, but would never condone the 
breach of a public trust. While both were at college, Frederick 
Heeker, then not less impetuous than in later years, picked a quarrel 
with him without any provocation, which student fashion, resulted 
in a challenge and duel. Heeker was a noted good swordsman, and 
as such rather given to seek broils, than to avoid them, but Koerner 
was a better one, and in the onset which followed soon put his an- 
tagonist hors de combat. When the two men met years thereafter on 
the prairies of Illinois, Koerner was the first to extend to the fugitive 
the hand of friendship, I have frequently heard him extol the good 
qualities of his early opponent, without referring to any of his foibles, 
some of which were rather pronounced. He delivered eloquent pan- 
egyrics on the occasion of Hecker's funeral, and at the unveiling of 
his monument in St. Louis. 

During the Garfield campaign, he denounced in his public 
speeches that presidential candidate in the most unmeasured terms, 
going even beyond the limit of legitimate criticism. But when the 
president-elect made an earnest effort to rid the country and himself 
of machine rule, and carpet baggers' domination, and partly as a re- 
sult thereof fell the victim of the assassin's bullet, Koerner was the 
first to applaud his conduct, and at the memorial meeting held at 
Belleville, upon the occasion of the President's death, as chairman of 
the meeting delivered the eulogy. 

He was naturally reserved in his intercourse with men, and those 
who knew him superficially thought him cold, but those who knew 
him intimately realized that heart of man never beat in warmer 
sympathy with his fellow man, and that the cold exterior hid almost 
a womanly tenderness. 

He was never a seeker after wealth, measuring its value truly as a 
means of independence, and some aid in dealing justly and fearlessly 
with men and measures, He was generous and charitable, often be- 
yond his means. When quite a young man, witnessing the sale of a 
free negro, under the infamous law of this State which provided that 
free negroes coming into this State, should be ordered to leave, and if 
they failed to do so at once, should be fined, and on failure to pay the 
fine should be sold into temporary servitude, he paid with his slender 
means the fine of the negro thus to be sold, and turned him free. 

In discussing the freedom of religion, he used the word "right" in- 
stead of the inappropriate word, "toleration." He was himself a 
Pantheist, but a great respecter of every creed. In the many discus- 
sions which he had with Robert Gr. Ingersoll on the subject he dis- 
countenanced the conduct of that witty lecturer, and thus reports 
their final interview: 


"I told him that the people require a religious system, which they 
can grasp and which is in harmony with their instinctive sentiments 
and aspirations. If such a system, erroneous though it be, gives 
them rest, then it is wrong to destroy the hope and consolation furn- 
ished by their faith. No philosopher has yet solved the problem of 
man's ultimate destiny. However illusory the doctrine of future re- 
ward and punishment may be, there are millions of people, who are 
kept by it within the bounds of morality. I told him that as a states- 
man he should give due weight to this last proposition. IngersoU 
replied that 'truth should be proclaimed at all hazards,' to which I 
replied, 'where lies the truth?'" 

I have in what I have said endeavored to draw as complete a 
sketch of the life of your fellow citizen, as I was justified to do, 
within necessarily confined limits. The pencil at times may have 
trembled in my hands, because the deceased in life stood very close 
to me, but I have tried to draw the lines of the portrait straight 
and true. When I say that among the many prominent citizens 
of this commonwealth, there were probably some more potent to for- 
ward the welfare of its people, but that there was not one more wil- 
ling and ready to do so than Grustavus Koerner. I claim to have pro- 
nounced a just verdict on the law and the evidence. I thank you for 
having given me an opportunity to do so, and I trust that you will 
preserve in your valuable archives, this tablet, among the enduring 
monuments which they contain of your illustrious dead. 



(Robert A. Gray.) 

I am here today to raise my voice in behalf of a people that 
never had justice done them by historians, either in Europe or 
America, namely the Scotch-Irish. In that long struggle which ter- 
minated in our independence, they played perhaps the most import- 
ant part of any nationality engaged on our side. Oppressed beyond 
measure at home, they emigrated to this country in droves, bringing 
with them an undying hatred to English intolerance and oppression 

When the last bigoted tyrant of the detestable house of Stuart 
sought to win back the English throne by the aid of the Irish Cath- 
olics, whom his grandfather had ruthlessly plundered of their posses- 
sions; the Sootch-Irish of Ulster rallied in defense of their religion, 
and liberty, and behind the walls of Derry, bade him defiance: Here 
105 days they sustained a siege without a parallel in history since the 
fall of Jerusalem; you can read in the glowing pages of Macauley, 
the record of that siege, of its more than three months of heroic 
fighting; the women dying with the men in their desperate resistance; 
fighting side by side with them in the trench and in spite of famine, 
pestilence and death in every shape, cheering them on to victory. 
The religious liberty of Europe was secured behind the walls of 
Derry, and what was the reward of the victors? On the return of 
peace the men that saved the government of England to the Houses 
of Nassau and Brunswick, found th emselves prescribed, banned and 
outlawed, and placed in the same category with their Catholic fellow- 
subjects who had sought to overthrow the government. The Catholics 
had submitted on the solemn promise that their rights would be re- 
stored and their religion protected, but alas! both Catholic and 
Presbyterian, soon found themselves the victims of religious intoler- 
ance and oppression. The infamous penal laws and laws against 
non-conformity; test oaths and oaths of supremacy, debarred them 
from all offices of honor and trust, they could neither preach, teach, 
or sit on juries; they were forbidden to marry unless the ceremony was 
performed by an established clergyman, otherwise their children 
were declared bastards and could not inherit property. Was it any 
wonder that under these circumstances they emigrated to this country 
in droves, bringing with them an undying hatred to English oppres- 
sion, In the twenty years preceding the American revolution, over 
600,000 came over, the greater part from the province of Ulster, and 
of the nine counties, Ulster, Antrim and Donegal furnished the 


most. A limited territory in the latter county furnished, I believe, 
more historic families to this country than any other section of the 
same extent, either in Europe or America. Standing on the top of 
Mingarry hill one can see the former homes of more than 20 families, 
all of whom have left historic names in the country of their adoption. 
Here, nestling at your feet and overlooking the beautiful valley of 
Glenmaquean, lies the old homestead of the Buchanans; a little lower 
down, but in plain view on the other side of the valley in the parish 
of Kye lies that of the Calhouns, Houstens and Ewings; ofF to the 
left about two miles lies the Polloch or Polk homestead and in the 
adjacent village of Convoy was born Major- General Richard Mont- 
gomery; from the same neighborhood came the Grays, Pattens, Gra- 
hams and Polucks; from Ramelton in the same county, came Francis 
Makemie the founder of the Presbyterian chuch in America, and at 
a later day Robert Bonner of the New York Ledger. This vast tide 
of emigrants settled mostly in Pennsylvania, Maryland and the Caro- 
linas, though many settled in New York and New Jersey, and over 
20,000 in New England. The Cumberland valley, the Piedmont 
region in Virginia, Tennesee and Kentucky, were settled almost ex- 
clusively by this race. In the passenger list of one ship that sailed 
from Belfast in May, 1728, you will find the names of the ancestors 
of the best historic families of Pennsylvania, Virginia, Kentucky 
and Tennesee, such as the Prestons, Breckenridges, Pattens, Mc- 
Dowells, Irvines, Grays, Campbells, McElroys, Mitchells, Logans and 
Caldwells, and in another ship soon after they were followed by the 
Meades, Morgans, Marshalls, Barrys, Waynes, St, Clairs, Armstrongs, 
Fultons, McKeans, MoClures, McKibbens, Orrs, McClenahans and 
many others too numerous to mention. 

If one were to read our American history as written and taught in 
our schools, it would be imagined that had it not been for the New 
England Puritans alone, our Revolutionary struggle would have been 
an entire failure. But I say here, without fear of contradiction, 
that, had it not been for the outspoken words, the bravery and the 
indomitable spirit of the Scotch- Irish of Georgia, Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, Virginia and the Carolinas, there would have been no in- 
dependence, Froude, the English historian, says: "This race fur- 
nished 50 per cent of the patriot army." The first newspaper advo- 
cating an appeal to arms was the Continental Gazette, edited by 
Isaac Anderson, a Scotch-Irishman. The first declaration of inde- 
pendence was made almost in the exact words of Jefferson's immortal 
production in Mecklinburg county. North Carolina, two months before 
the latter. Every delegate to that convention, with two exceptions, 
were Scotch-Irish by birth or parentage. Here are some of their 
names: Polk, Barry, Alexander, Downs, Graham, Irwin, McClure, 
Wilson and Patten. Thirteen of the signers of the declaration of 
independence were of the same race, viz., Hancock, Thornton, Whip- 
ple, Paine, Smith, Taylor, Read, McKean, Nelson, Rutledge, Wither- 
spoon, Carroll and Lynch. Charles Thomson, who wrote it from 
Jefferson's rough draft. Colonel Nixon, who was the first man to read 


it to the people from the steps of the old State House in Philadel- 
phia, and Captain Dunlap, who printed the first copy of it, were of 
the same race. The first blood shed in the struggle for self-govern- 
ment was not at Boston, Concord or Lexington, as is generally stated 
by historians, but at Alamance, N. C, amongst the Scotch-Irish, two 
years before Lexington. Here, in defense of their just rights, they 
bravely faced Governor Tryon and his organized forces, and though 
defeated at that time and forced to abandon their homes and cross 
the mountains, where they settled in the Watauga valley (the first 
settlement west of the mountains) , they there afterwards proved that, 
though overpowered, they were still unoonquered; and, in the en- 
suing struggle, from that Watauga settlement came a body of patriots 
that proved their hatred to tyranny on every battlefield of the south. 
It was their broad boast that there never was a Tory amongst their 
race or in their settlement. They furnished a large majority of Ma- 
rion's men, and at Guilford court house, the Cowpens and King's 
mountain, they paid England back for her oppression. At the Cow- 
pens the gallant Morgan, the son of an Irishman, commanded and 
won the battle that eventually led to the surrender of Cornwallis, At 
King's mountain all the officers in command, with the exception of 
Colonels Sevier and Shelby, were Scotch Irish, as were the greater 
part of their men. 

Of the other gallant leaders in that memorable struggle who were 
of the same race the following names occur to me, and they were but 
a part, and a very small part, of that heroic race that shed their blood 
so freely to win that freedom which we enjoy. First in honor as 
in place was Maj. Gen Richard Montgomery, who fell at Quebec, 
and his companion in arms, Daniel Morgan, the hero of the Cowpens 
and Saratoga Heights, who commanded the Virginia riflemen who 
were nearly all of the same race, and who were pronounced by Bur- 
goyne to be the most effective body of troops in either army; John 
Stark, the hero of Bennington; Mad Anthony Wayne, who stormed 
Stony Point; General Sullivan, who conquered the Five Nations and 
avenged the massacre of Wyoming and Cherry Valley ; Gen. Hugh 
Mercer, who fell at Princeton; Gen. John Eager Howard, who com- 
manded the gallant soldiers of the Maryland line, who were nearly 
all of the same race, as were also their brigade associates, the gallant 
"Blue Hen's Chickens" of Delaware. 

By the way, it was from a Scotch-Irishman named Caldwell that 
the sons of Delaware derived this name. According to the story I 
found in an old scrap book, Caldwell was a gentleman of prominence 
who lived in Sussex county; he was a sportsman, whose horses and 
game-cocks had a wide celebrity. His favorite axiom was, that the 
character of the progeny depends more on the mother than the father; 
hence for thorough gameness you could always depend on the pro- 
geny of his favorite blue hens. 

When the news of the battle of Lexington reached Delaware, the 
martial spirit of her people was aroused, and in a very short time a 
full regiment was raised and a day set for them to organize. On the 
morning of that day a full company from Sussex county under the 


command of Captain Caldwell was the first to arrive on Dover Green, 
and on top of their loaded baggaiT'^ wagon was a coop of the blue 
hen's chickens crowing loudly. The company was given the right of 
the regiment, and under Colonel Haslett was sent to the north. 
After their gallant conduct in covering the retreat from Long Island, 
the whole regiment was dubbed "The Blue Hen's Chickens," a name 
that has stuck to the people of the state ever since. This gallant 
regiment, largely composed, as I have said, of Scotch-Irish, fought 
at Trenton, Princeton, Brandy wine, Germantown and Monmouth. 
They were then sent south, and at the fatal battle of Camden the 
gallant game cock fought his last battle. When in that battle the 
militia fled without firing a shot, the Blue Hen's Chickens with their 
comrades of the Maryland line rallied round old DeKalb and fought 
till they were almost annihilated. Their lieutenant-colonel, 
Vaugn, and Major Patten were taken prisoners. The few that were 
left participated in the battle of Guilford court house and were pres- 
at the surrender of Coruwallis. 

Gen. Henry Knox, Washington's chief of artillery and closest 
friend; Colonel Fitzgerald, his favorite aid- de-camp; General Read 
of Pennsylvania; Generals Clinton, Hand. Poor, Maxwell, Hamilton, 
Stewart, Mcintosh, Pickens and Rutherford; Sergeant Jasper who 
raised the fallen flag at Moultrie, for which gallaiit act he was pre- 
sented with a sword by Governor Rutledge, himself a Scotch-Irish- 
man by descent; and John Paul Jones, who was the first to hoist the 
American flag on the sea, were all of the same race. So was Robert 
Morris, who, on his own personal credit, raised the money that en- 
abled Washington to move his army to Virginia and capture Corn- 
wallis. Sad to say, his ungrateful country suffered him to die in 
poverty and bankruptcy. Oliver Polloch (Polk the name is now 
spelled) was treated in a similar manner. He had borrowed $70,000 
from Count O'Reilly, governor of Cuba, and turned it over to Gover- 
nor Henry of Virginia. This money enabled the governor to equip 
George Rogers Clark for his Illinois expedition, one of the greatest 
events of that memorable period. On the 4th day of July, 1778. a 
little band of Virginia soldiers, recruited in great part in the Scotch- 
Irish settlements of that state, under the command of Clark the son 
of an Irishman, and commissioned by Patrick Henry also the son of 
an Irishman, after one of the most memorable marches in history 
since Hannibal crossed the Alps, captured the French village of Kas- 
kaskia, in Illinois, then under British rule. The result of this con- 
quest was the cession of the whole northwest to the United States, 
a territory then but little known and lightly valued, but which now 
constitutes the richest and fairest section of country over which our 
flag floats. Without this territory so conquered, the United States 
would have been restricted to the comparatively narrow limits of the 
Alleghanies and the Atlantic ocean. You are raising monuments all 
over your country to your famous men, whilst the grave of George 
Rogers Clark is entirely neglected and his name almost forgotten. 

Mark what Washington said of this race and tell me if there was 
ever a higher compliment paid to a people. In the darkest hour of 
the Revolutionary war, when surrounded by his few freezing, fam- 


ishing soldiers at Valley Forge, he was asked what he proposed to do 
now as the cause seemed to be hopelessly lost. Here is his reported 
answer: "If all else fails, I will retreat up the valley of Virginia, 
plant my flag on the Blue Ridge, rally around the Scotch-Irish of 
that region and make my last stand for liberty amongst a people who 
will never submit to British tyranny whilst there is a man left to draw 
a trigger." 

This race has furnished the following Presidents, viz: Madison, 
Monroe, Jackson, Tyler, Polk, Taylor, Buchanan, Johnson, Grant, 
Hayes, Arthur and McKinley, whilst Jefferson and Roosevelt, on the 
maternal side, were of the same stock. A number of our vice-presi- 
dents, amongst them your own honored citizen, Adlai E. Stevenson, 
were of the same race. Our earliest supreme bench was in great part 
filled by men of the same race. John Marshall, ihe most eminent 
legal light that ever filled the position of chief justice, and his asso- 
ciates, Rutledge, Wilson, Blair and Ivedell, were all of the same stock. 

In the war of 1812, Scott and Jackson on land, and Barry, Stewart, 
Perry and McDonough in the navy, added new glory to their race. 
Of our late war it is needless to speak. The deeds of Grant, Mc- 
Pherson, Sheridan, Slocum, Logan, Blair, Wallace, Oglesby,McCler- 
nand and hundreds of others are familiar to all. Nine of the gov- 
ernors of our own State were of this race by birth or parentage, viz: 
Bond, Cole, Reynolds, Ewing, Duncan, Carlin, Ford, Beveridge and 
Hamilton; and, in fact, there are more of this race in our highest 
offices today, legislative, executive, judicial, ecclesiastical and educa- 
tional, than any other race in this country according to their number, 
and less of them in our poor houses and alms houses. To use the 
words of a late writer, "they are teaching in our colleges, universities 
and common schools; they are preaching in our pulpits; they have 
fought our battles; they have written our literature in prose and po- 
etry; they have led public opinion in the direction of liberty, right 
and justice; they have made and administered our laws and, owing 
to their efforts and example, our country is freer, stronger and better 
today. But you will look in vain in their ranks to find a socialist or 
an anarchist." "Wherever you find a Scotch-Irishman," says another 
writer, "you will always find him the same; the same self-reliant, 
persevering and, at times, dogmatical asserter of his own opinions — 
opinions, by the way, formed from close thought and reasoning. 
The same clear, firm assertion of his belief, whether in religion or 
politics; the same God-fearing honesty and loyalty to friendship that 
not even the fear of death can shake." "Wherever that race predom- 
inates,'' says another writer, "you will find personal freedom and 
representative government." The church and the school house al- 
ways accompany them. Attached to old habits and customs, they 
are not easily led into new fashions and habits of thought or action 
until, by careful consideration, they are convinced of their truth and 
utility, As educated freemen, they pay due deference to the consti- 
tuted authorities but, at the same time, they will just as strictly con- 
fine these authorities to their prescribed limitations. Whoever would 
rule the Scotch-Irish must rule them through right and sufficient 


reason. The eloquent Proctor Knott, in speaking of this race and 
their achievements, said: "Would you know their names? You will 
find them in every walk of private usefulness and public honor; in 
every department of literature and in every branch of science; in 
every avenue of active enterprise and popular progress; in the pulpit 
and at the bar; on the field and in the cabinet; on the bench and in 
the legislative halls; in our highest courts and in the presidential 
chair, They and their sons have written them in imperishable char- 
acters upon the brightest pages of our country's history. Go read 
them there." 



(Belle Short Lambert.) 

The corporations and unions which are so marked a feature in the 
commercial and industrial affairs of today, the associated charities, 
the fraternal leagues, the social clubs which have so large a place in 
civic life, are manifestations the world has not seen before, and would 
not have been possible in an earlier stage of society. They have dis- 
tinguished the period and named it the "Age of Organization" 
Numberless are the combinations through which this spirit of organ- 
ization has manifested itself and all classes, all orders of men, are 
drawn into its entangling meshes, 

In the long history of the race, each epoch has been characterized 
by social phases peculiar to its time, and there has been endless vari- 
ation in the relative position of woman. In this generation, it has 
come to pass that she is a sharer and co-laborer in a vast realm of 
affairs hitherto deemed outside her province, and in these new re- 
sponsibilities and opportunities she has found incentive and neces- 
sity to enlarge her life and broaden her intellectual and ethical 
culture that she might attain to her highest self; and in finding this 
better self, give expression to it in a more gracious womanliness, a 
more efficient service in her share of the world's work. 

To meet this necessity came the spontaneous movement toward 
the woman's literary club. Its phenomenal growth proves that there 
was a need it could supply. It is no longer a fad, but is ingrained 
in our civilization, and though yet in its immaturity, we can no 
longer doubt its immediate or prospective usefulness as a factor in 
the life of the community or of the State. 

The Woman's Club movement, unlike that of some organizations, 
cannot be traced to one definite source nor to the forcefulness of one 
great leader. It has been evolved from conditions and shaped by 
many influences. 

The purpose of this sketch shall bb to indicate its beginning and 
to follow the lines of its development, rather than to give with full- 
ness the history of many individual clubs, since the great number in 
the State and the similarity of their work would necessitate endless 

"Where shall I find the origin of the woman's club?" I asked a 
man who is my neighbor. After a moment's reflection, he replied^ 
"In the Methodist class meeting," 


I laughed incredulously, but he continued, "There is the place she 
first found opportunity of giving Toice to her thought. I believe you 
will find it began there." And since my neighbor is a scholar and a 
Presbyterian, his perspicuity and orthodoxy may not be lightly 

The radical changes in the industrial world that removed from the 
home to the factory, the weaving of cloth, the cutting and sewing of 
heavy garments, the drying and canning of fruits and vegetables, 
left woman leisure for reading, for thought and observation. This 
opportunity, with a natural social inclination, evolved the idea of the 
reading circle, and then it was but a step to the society for the study 
of history and literature. 

The earliest of these appeared in our own State and elsewhere 
soon after the close of the Civil war. It has often been said that the 
great struggle of the 60's developed woman's capacity and resource- 
fulness; that through the commissary departments and other relief 
measures her ability as an organizer was shown as never before. 

With the dawn of peace and happier years, it was natural that this 
awakened energy should find new channels, Between 1870 and 1880, it 
began to manifest itself through various educational, moral, religious 
and reform movements. The Woman's Missionary Societies, the 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union, the Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Woman, the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle, 
and the Equal Suffrage Association are among the more prominent 
dating from that time. 

The missionary societies were speedily propagated among the 
churches, and have maintained a steadfast growth. 

The Woman's crusade which started in a little town in Ohio in '73 
was caught up with enthusiasm in Illinois and at a convention in 
Bloomington in October 1874, the Illinois Woman's Christian Tem- 
perance Union was organized, Francis Wlllard serving as secretary. 
Four years later she was made president and the subsequent year 
was called to stand at the head of the national organization, a place 
she filled with signal ability, until her death four years ago. Beloved 
and honored everywhere, Francis Willard found her most numerous, 
most able support in the unions of her own State which today has 
475 of these organizations, distributed in 91 counties. In the 40 de- 
partments of this great body, women find not only occasion for bene- 
volent service, but the opportunity of self development as well. 

The A.S80ciation for the Advancement of Woman was instituted at a 
congress called by New York Sorosis, Oct. 14th, 1878. Mrs. Mary 
A. Livermore, then living in Chicago, was elected president, serving 
two years. Maria Mitchell and Mrs. Julia Ward Howe held the 
office during the three years following, when the president was again 
chosen from Illinois, Mrs. Kate Newall Doggett of Chicago filling 
the office for three years. The second convention, and the 11th, of 
this association, met in Chicago, so that from the first, its impression 
upon the women of this State was marked, 


Thirty years ago the Equal Suffrage association of Illinois was 
formed, and while it has not attained the object for which it stands, 
it has helped bring about many beneficent changes in the laws relat- 
ing to women and children, and as a pioneer has led the way and 
made possible the achievements of more recent organizations. 

The Chautauqua plan for home study, originated by Lewis Miller 
and Bishop John H. Vincent in 1874, became very popular in this 
State, where there have been about 675 circles in 425 localities. Over 
200 were in towns of 500 to S,500 inhabitants. More than 60 were in 
little hamlets; the others in cities. One third have had an existence 
of four years or more, while many circles finishing the Chautauqua 
course, continue under other names and other lines of work. 

These moral, religious, educational and reform movements, as has 
been shown, enlisted the earnest cooperation of Illinois women, and 
this State led others in the number and efficiency of the societies de- 
voted to these various causes. Here as elsewhere, they absorbed 
most of the talent and ability for organization during the period of 
the '70s, although a slight stimulus was given to literary and 
aesthetic culture by the Centennial exposition, and a number of art 
associations and several for the study of literature and history were 
formed about that time. Few of them are still in existence, but they 
mark the time when the first groups of women began to choose for 
themselves, independently of any directing organization, the lines 
of study they most inclined to pursue. 

The earliest association of women in Illinois, and one which ante- 
dates all others anywhere, is the Ladies' Education Society of Jack- 
sonville, which a few months ago observed its 70th anniversary. 
While it can hardly be included in the club movement, since it pre- 
ceded it by 40 years, in its spirit and work it is in accord with the 
most altruistic of modern associations. Organized Oct. 3d, 1838, for 
the purpose of helping indigent girls in this then frontier country 
to obtain an education, it has during this time assisted 1,584 students. 
Last year, tuition was paid for 23 young women attending 12 schools 
from Stanford university on the Pacific Coast to Oberlin in Ohio. 
Before the establishment of public schools, funds were solicited east 
and west, but the present income of the society is derived from in- 
vested funds, legacies, and voluntary gifts, while beneficiaries are 
preferably those who are beyond the high school course and desire 
special or advanced work that they may prepare themselves for 

Another forerunner of this movement is the Plato club founded by 
Dr. Hiram K. Jones in 1860. It included both men and women in 
its membership and met on Saturday mornings for nearly 40 years, 
until its continuance was prevented by the failing health of the 
leader. Doctor Jones was recognized as the leading Platonist of the 
age and when last summer his body was laid to rest beneath the 
trees, Jacksonville recognized that its chief patron of letters and 
philosphy had left vacant a place that never again will be filled. 


Quinoy claims the proud clistinotion of having the oldest literary 
club for women in the United States. The Friends in Council dates 
its birth from the autumn of 1866, when 12 ladies agreed to meet 
weekly for reading and conversation. After meeting in this way for 
more than two years, they effected a formal organization in Febru- 
ary, 1869. A further distinction of this council is that it has its own 
club house, the gift of a devoted member, who in many other ways 
promoted the culture and literary interests of Quincy. 

Jacksonville Sorosis was organized and adopted a constitution in 
November, 1868. No name having been decided upon when that of 
the famous New York club was announced, permission was sought to 
adopt it, and this society became the second to bear the beautiful and 
significant name which since is so widely used. 

Jacksonville Art association, the first in Illinois, was instituted 
Dec. 17th, 1873. Both ladies and gentlemen are numbered in its 
membership, and its monthly meetings and its exhibitions have for 
30 years been one of the pleasant features in the life of the com- 

The second art society in this State was formed in Lincoln just 
after the Centennial exposition in 1876. From the influence of this 
one, came the Art club of Champaign in the same year, and then the 
Art society in Springfield in 1877. Decatur had two art classes; 
Bloomington the Palladen and the Historical and Art society, both 
founded in '79. These societies mothered the club interests that ap- 
peared later in these cities. 

Through the happy inspiration of Mrs. R. B. Latham, representa- 
tives of these associations were invited to her home in Lincoln, when, 
after two days of delightful program sessions and social converse, it 
was decided to organize a Central Illinois Art union to meet annually. 
This was in May, 1880, and for 14 years these meetings were con- 
tinued, their beneficial fellowship attracting and bringing in other 
societies from Peoria, Carlinville and Pana, and their influence doing 
much to develop an appreciation of good art in this part of the State. 

Besides these art societies, there were organized during this period 
1870-1880, a few other clubs, well scattered through the State, the 
southernmost being at Cairo. There the Woman's Club and Library 
association was instituted in 1875 with the double purpose of raising 
funds for a library and of improvement of its members through dis- 
cussion of domestic, moral, social and political questions. That 
these objects have been successfully realized, all who know the city 
and its people will testify. 

Situated as Cairo is in the lowland where the streams of two mighty 
rivers meet in swelling flood, the utmost effort has been required to 
hold within bounds these swirling waters. In the construction of 
costly levees, the city's revenues have been expended, leaving little 
for ornamental public buildings, and therefore the efforts of the club 
to found a library were much appreciated. 


In two years, the first books, 1257 carefully considered volumes, 
were purchased. The collection increased steadily and in 1881 the 
books were presented to the city and the entire movement made per- 
manent by the gift of a fine building erected by Mrs. A. B. Safford 
to the memory of her husband. The lower floor is devoted to the 
library, and the elegant, artistically furnished suite of rooms on the 
second floor is the permanent home of the club. 

The Ladies Reading Circle of Mattoon, the Monday club of Eock- 
ford, the Tuesday club of Pana and the Clionian of Pontiac, date 
from 1877, the Every Wednesday of Elgin from 1879. All these 
clubs are devoted to the study of literature, have passed their quarter 
century mile stone, and have fostered the growth of a vigorous pro- 
geny of later clubs in their vicinities. 

In Chicago, clubs dating their formation from the '70s are the 
Fortnightly 1873, the Friends in Council 1875, the Woman's Literary 
club of Millard Avenue, 1878, and the Chicago Woman's club 1876. 

The first three organized for intellectual and social culture through 
the study of history, and literature, and their membership was lim- 
ited to 25 or 30, The Friends in Council continue in the original 
plan; the Fortnightly in 1886 was incorporated and its membership, 
extended to 200, includes those ladies most prominent in the city's 
social and literary circles. The Millard Avenue club has not only 
extended its membership, but its scope and now includes the usual 
lines of practical work. 

The fourth club named in this group, the Chicago Woman's club, 
although a direct outgrowth of the literary societies, bore the im- 
press of other influences, and was a radical departure from accus- 
tomed lines. Its purpose was more broadly inclusive, and as defined 
in the constitution is "mutual sympathy and counsel; united effort 
toward the higher civilization of humanity, and general philanthro- 
pic and literary work." We note that the literary feature is last 
named, and while the club is strong on this side and has commanded 
the service of the best talent the city contains, still this interest has 
been kept subservient to the practical work which was the chief ob- 
ject of its founders. 

The club was divided into six departments, reform, home, educa- 
tion, philanthropy, art and literature, philosophy and science. 
Through these departments, the club with its 900 members has en- 
gaged in many lines of work — that which is corrective relates mostly 
to women and children. It secured the appointment of women phy- 
sicians to care for women patients in the hospitals for the insane in 
Cook county and Kankakee; it procured seats for girls in retail 
stores, it established a kindergarten for poor children; it supported 
for many years a school for boys in the jail, which pro/ed of such 
benefit and such a valuable aid to discipline that the support has 
been assumed by the county, the management still being under the 
supervision of the club. It raised $40,000 for the Manual Training 
and Farm school for boys at Grlenwood, and has done much to pro- 
mote the establishment of vacation schools. 


Several societies have grown out of the Chioa^o Woman's club, 
suoh as the Public School Art association, to promote school room 
decoration and art instruction in the schools; School Children's Aid, 
now in its 15th year, the means of keeping needy children in clothes 
and thus in school. It originated the Municipal Order League; the 
Political Equality League; and the Protective Agency for Women and 
Children. This protective agency has for its purpose the securing 
of justice to those who are wronged and helpless, by giving legal 
counsel free of charge and extending to them moral support, In the 
18 years since it came into existence, it has handled 24,708 cases and 
collected in wages and other claims $35,202. These are a few of the 
many lines of extensive and original work which made the Chicago 
Woman's club in the first years of its organization unique among 
clubs, and which introduced into the club movement of Illinois a 
new type and standard. 

The societies of this first decade in the club movement, being few 
in number, have been given specific and individual mention because 
they mark the beginning of the movement and because they illustrate 
the different types, even as we find them to-day after nearly 80 years. 

In the second decade of this movement, 1880-1890, the develop- 
ment was in numbers rather than in methods, and literary societies 
became generally distributed in towns and cities throughout the 
State. Some included both men and women in their membership. 
One of the few remaining in that plan is the Author's club of 
Springfield, which has met fortnightly since February, 1882. The 
range of topics considered in these 22 years is similar to that pur- 
sued in all literary societies and embraces history and literature of all 
people, science, philosophy, economics and biography, How com- 
prehensive these studies have been can hardly be suggested until 
club calendars of by- gone years set it before us 

Classes for the study of Shakesperean drama and Browning clubs 
were popular in the latter years of this period, and extended beyond 
it. There were, however, a few clubs organized on the new and 
broader basis of a departmental club. Among these were the Peoria 
Woman's club, founded in 1886. It has, during the past 18 years, 
centralized the literary, musical and philanthropic interests of the 
city and has become a strong body of influence, 

In 1887 the same result was achieved in Decatur by bringing to- 
gether a number of existing societies — musical, literary, art study 
and philanthropic — and making of them one incorporate body. A 
monument to the harmony and wisdom of the plan is seen in the 
substantial club house built by the members through the formation 
of a stock company. 

The most active period of the Woman's Club movement in Illinois, 
as in other states, has been from 1890 to the present time. This 
period has been active not only in the number of societies formed, 
but also in the advancement of those already existing, and has been 
characterized by the inauguration or development of great national 
associations of women. The Columbian exposition greatly facilitated 


these national movements, and with its splendid exhibits and its 
congresses and its gatherings of representative women exerted a 
stimulating influence in the Woman's Club movement of this 

The Woman's Relief corps instituted in 188B as auxiliary to the 
Grand Armj'^ of the Republic, has been established in 240 army posts 
in the department of Illinois, and 12,000 Illinois women are enrolled 
in it, in pledge of loyal relief of needy families of United States' 

The Daughters of the American Revolution, founded 14 years ago, 
has extended until it is represented by chapters in every state in the 
Union. Illinois, with 31 chapters and 2,200 members, ranks among 
the highest of the states in respect to numbers, and claims pre-emi- 
nence as having in the Chicago chapter, the oldest chapter of the 
Daughters of the American Revolution. 

The Daughters of the Revolution has an Illinois State society, or- 
ganized in 1901. The Dames of the Loyal Legion instituted a society 
of the State of Illinois in May, 1899. Its object is to cherish the 
memory of those whose distinguished services during the civil war 
aided in preserving the integrity of the government. All these asso- 
ciations strive to foster the spirit of ardent patriotism and to obtain 
and preserve records pertaining to national and local history. 

The National Council of Women and the International Council of 
Women were founded in 1888, and, with their affiliations, they are 
the largest and most powerful associations in the world. All the 
greater organizations of women in the United States are affiliated 
with the National Council. 

The National Congress of Mothers which has a branch in our 
State is one of the recent organizations, having been instituted in 
Washington on Feb. 17, 1897. 

The General Federation of Woman's clubs which was organized in 
New York in 1889, held its next session in Chicago in 1892. So 
much of pleasure and of profit came from this meeting with club 
women from other states, that the matter of a federation of clubs in 
our own State was soon under consideration. Mrs. Clara P. Bour- 
land called a meeting for this purpose in Chicago on Oct. 11, 1894, 
when with great unanimity the Illinois Federation of Woman's clubs 
was brought about. Seventy-seven clubs came into the federation 
the first year, and the number has increased to 246, representing a 
membership of 24,000 women. While there are double this number 
of societies in the State, those that have come into this federation 
are the strongest, most forceful organizations, and they represent 
every district and all the larger towns in the State. The organization 
is on the congressional district plan, with a vice-president from each 
district, in addition to the usual officers. In this way all the clubs 
are kept in close touch with the work of the federation. 

There are 19 standing committees. Besides the ones relating to 
the conduct of business and meetings, there are the education, do- 
mestic science, literature, art, music, forestry, library extension. 


philanthropy, civil service, industrial and legislation. These com- 
mittees are the life of the federation, and through them, all clubs are 
made familiar with the most advanced ideas in their special and var- 
ious lines of work. I 

The art committee has eight collections of good photographs, water 
colors, etchings, pottery and glass, wall papers, textiles and rugs, 
which are loaned at cost of expressage for exhibition, or for club 
study. The literature and music committees strive to create higher 
standards and are ready to offer suggestions for programs A musi- 
cal library is loaned to clubs desiring it. Library exterlsion is carried 
on by means of 225 traveling libraries which have been contributed 
by clubs through the State — they contain 11,000 volumes, and are 
sent to schools, clubs, or country places, at cost of transportation. 
The philanthropy committee urge the seeking out and the care of the 
unfortunate, and in co-operation with the education, industrial and 
legislation committees, has helped to frame and secure the passage 
of some of the best corrective laws affecting women and children that 
have ever become operative in the State. Among them may be men- 
tioned the Juvenile court, the Compulsory education, and the Child 
Labor laws. 

While these committees and the work done through them indicate 
what the federation stands for, they by no means represent its entire 
influence. No one club has in it all the elements of a perfect club. 
In this fact lies the strength of a union of many, since in a compari- 
son of methods and plans, there results a modifying, and a develop- 
ment that brings all to a better standard. Through the federation, 
there has been in the past ten years much improvement in the char- 
acter of clubs all through the State, even the most conservative have 
felt its influence. Ten years ago the majority were entirely literary 
in their scope, now, while sustaining the literary side in better 
arranged subjects of study, there are few that do not in addition to 
that, extend some support to worthy objects. Many small clubs have 
re-organized on the broader, more inclusive lines, indicated by the 
federation's work, while new organizations very generally adopt that 

In the time allotted this paper, it is obviously impossible to even 
enumerate the great numbers of clubs of the present period. The 
most that can be attempted is to show some of the best and strongest 
features of their work. 

Among these features, the mission of music and art has not been 
lost sight of. Both fill a large place in club plans and all depart- 
mental clubs have music sections. The Amateur Musical clubs of 
Bloomington and Belvidere, and the Beethoven of Havana, all or- 
ganized in 1883, well illustrate the valuable influence of such so- 
cieties. They not only add brightness and pleasure to club sessions, 
but exert a refining influence on the taste and appreciation of com- 
munities. Besides their own recitals and special programs for child- 
ren and young people, these societies secure artists of note for 
concerts, and in every way conspire to elevate the standard of music. 

— 21H 


The early art societies have been mentioned. Others have growa 
up, and in Chicago there are a number that are devoted to art inter- 
ests, besides those that contribute in some way to the support of art. 
Among those which are identified with the woman's clubs are the 
Altrua circle, the Arch6 club, the Municipal Art league, the Nik6, 
the Exhibition Committee of the Municipal Art league and the Pub- 
lic School Art society. The last two are sustained by the co-opera- 
tion of many clubs in and around Chicago. The Aroh6 has, from its 
inception, been one of the most influential of these in cultivating the 
sentiment for and appreciation of art. Organized in 1888 as a small 
circle, meeting to discuss art topics, it has now attained a member- 
ship of 400. It has held annual salons, giving artists opportunity to 
exhibit their work and to compete for prizes to the amount of $400, 
which is awarded each year. The Exhibition Committee of the Mu- 
nicipal art league is made up of delegates from various powerful 
clubs of the city. Its object is to promote the success of the annual 
exhibition of works of Chicago artists, which takes place at the Art 
Institute, when the artists and nearly all the clubs are brought to- 
gether, and where much is accomplished for art life in Chicago. A 
number of clubs purchase annually one or more pictures at these 

Educational afiFairs claim much attention, inasmuch as they bear 
so vital a relation to the welfare of children. A noticeable depart- 
ment of the club work in Bloomington are the Mother's clubs con- 
nected with the city schools. They have a large membership, and 
meet once a month to discuss the school work in its various phases. 
They have given entertainments to raise money for the purchase of 
pianos and other needed fixtures. They have helped to secure man- 
ual training in the high school, toward which the Woman's club of 
Bloomington gave $500, showing an interest in this work that is gen- 
eral throughout the State. This large club has also supported a 
kindergarten, as have clubs in Pekin, Alton, Chicago and other places. 
The Ravenswood Woman's club has found a way by which, for two 
years past, it has provided daily a warm lunch for 400 high school 
pupils at a cost of about nine cents per capita. Many clubs have 
evinced their interest in the public schools by decorating school 
rooms in the gift of good pictures and in supplying clothing for needy 
school children. 

Domestic science has become one of the most absorbing objects 
with club women. The Fortnightly of Urbana has the honor of hav- 
ing introduced it as a study in the first school in the State to 
place it on its schedule. This was done in 1897, the members of the 
Fortnightly furnishing the necessary appliances by which 125 pupils 
had lessons in cooking and 800 in sewing. Chicago next introduced 
this study and now, largely through the influence of the clubs, the 
idea is being carried out in schools where funds are available for that 
purpose. Where this is not possible, the clubs, in several instances, 
have undertaken to give such instruction in Saturday classes. A sig- 
nal success has been made by the Watseka Woman's club, which, 
organized in 1899, has for four years conducted a sewing school every 


Saturday morning, with a salaried superintendent and eight volun- 
teer teachers from the club. They have a two years outline of work 
and an enrollment of 75 each year. 

Grrowing out of a very general concern evinced in this important 
subject, domestic science associations have been formed in a large 
number of counties through the State They are, in most instances, 
affiliated with the farmer's institutes and hold their annual sessions 
at the same time. In some counties monthly or fortnightly meetings 
are held. From these county associations has grown the Illinois 
Association of Domestic Science, which was organized in 1898. In 
Chicago, interest in this subject led to the founding of the School for 
Domestic Arts and Sciences, which was established in 1901 through 
the co-operation of individuals and of women's clubs. 

Village improvements have, in some places, been undertaken with 
marked success. In Winchester, the Monday club, and her daughter, 
the Portia, have made the little park in the business square a joy to 
all beholders. In Lincoln, a paved way to the cemetery and a beau- 
tiful stone entrance have been secured through efforts made by two 
clubs. In this city, too, and in several other towns, unsightly blocks, 
adjacent to railways, have been transformed into places of beauty 
with grass and flowers. In Freeport, a granite boulder, with an in- 
scribed bronze tablet, has been set up by the club to mark the place 
of the Lincoln-Douglas debate of 1858. In Springfield, the Woman's 
club led in the organization of the associated charities; and, in* Jack- 
sonville, the Woman's club, having successfully petitioned the board 
of education for the introduction of manual training and domestic 
science in the public schools, all clubs felt encouraged to unite this 
winter in a petition to the city council for the passage of an ordinance 
providing for a city matron. The ordinance was passed by a unani- 
mous vote and the appointment to the office was made according to 
the recommendation of the club. And thus it is, in many ways, that 
clubs are giving attention to their local conditions and the needs ap- 
parent in their civic afPairs. 

The universal interest embodied in the clubs of today, how- 
ever, whether they are new organizations or old ones "born again," 
is philanthropy. In its modern interpretation, philanthropy no 
longer means a scattering of alms, but requires the more costly ser- 
vice of giving of self in helping the unfortunate to find a way to help 
themselves Such an exemplification of altruistic service do we find 
in those who take up residence in the settlement houses, amid the 
squalor, poverty and ugliness of their surroundings. And, among 
the clubs for women in our great metropolis, none are more valuable 
than those connected with these settlements. There are perhaps 10 
or 12 of them. Hull House Woman's club, with its 400 members, is 
the largest and the oldest, having been organized in 1892. These 
clubs are associations of women of different creeds and nationalities 
in a fellowship that broadens their sympathies and makes them tol- 
erant. In the statement of their objects, we find these things: "The 
making of better wives, mothers, sister's and neighbors; the promo- 
tion of friendliness, of happy homes, healthful children, and the ele- 
vation of the idea of good citizenship and social responsibility." 


The University of Cbicago Settlement Woman's club, in the stock 
yards district, has secured for its neighborhood a free public bath 
and a gymnasium that is also used as an assembly-room for social 
gatherings. The women are observant of the condition and needs of 
their district, and a committee is sometimes appointed to confer with 
the ward alderman regarding the supply of garbage boxes, removal 
of refuse or other sanitary measures. The close of the World's Fair 
left many people without employment and, to relieve the distress, 
the Chicago Woman's club and the South Side club opened emergency 
work rooms, where needy women were provided with sewing and paid 
every night in groceries and clothing, receiving also a hot lunch free 
of charge. The work room of the South Side club was in the stock 
yards district, and was continued until 1901 when, the necessity for 
such assistance being no longer evident, the work was changed to 
that of a settlement character. 

The Social Extension club, which grew out of this friendly move- 
ment, has secured for its tenement district a play ground 200 feet 
square. For several years this has been a source of enjoyment to 
the youth of this neighborhood, who heretofore had only the street, 
with its danger to life and morals. 

Nothing is more worth doing than to help those who are doing 
their utmost to help themselves. Much valuable assistance is given 
in harmony with this idea. The West End Woman's club, among 
the score of alien causes to which it lends its support, has several in 
which it leads as a pioneer; one is the placing of a large number of 
typewriters in a night school where young women receive instruc- 
tion free of charge. The Klio association is best and widely known 
through its philanthropic work in the management of the "Noonday 
Rest," where 1,900 self-supporting women take luncheon daily, with 
good wholesome food at its lowest expense, and with enjoyment of 
the fine pictures and library, the music and the rest rooms, that make 
the luncheon hour home like. 

The Chicago Woman's aid, which, with 700 members, is engaged 
in so many philanthropies, supervises and pays for the art education 
of a gifted lad studying in the Chicago Art institute. 

The founding and sustaining of a hospital is a great thing, because 
of the expense and responsibility involved; and yet several clubs in 
our State have undertaken this, because of its serious needs in their 
vicinities. The Champaign Social Science club was moved to act in 
this matter because of the sad case of a burned child with no one 
and no place to care for it properly. Through the generosity of Mr. 
Burnham and others, the hospital was built, and for ten years has 
been sustained by the club, though with much labor and anxiety. 
In Elgin the Woman's club maintains the Sherman hospital and a 
training school for nurses, raising $12,000.00 annually for that pur- 
pose. Danville has two hospital societies, and in Chicago the Chil- 
dren's Hospital society has led to the formation of the milk 
commission, which last summer greatly reduced the mortality among 
children, through the distribution of more than 190,000 bottles of 


sterilized milk. The support of the Jackson Park sanitarium for 
infants, and of visiting nurses in tenement districts, are kindred 
philanthropies that are undertaken by other clubs. 

The Woman's clubs of Austin, Park Ridge, Rogers Park and other 
suburban places have given country outings to children from the 
settlements and vacation schools. In these ways clubs have sought 
to make life safer, cleaner and happier for the children of the poor. 
Perhaps the greatest advance towards this is through the Juvenile 
Court law, by which young offenders may, as wards of the court, be 
placed in the care of probation oflBcers who try to safeguard them 
from wrong doing, and help them to a better standard of morals. 
The support of a probation officer is a responsibility that has, most 
willingly, been assumed by several of the large clubs, and others 
make contributions for this purpose. 

In some towns where there are many clubs a union has been 
formed among them. In Bloomington 12 of the most promising are 
united in a congress formed by the Men's College Alumni club. In 
Mattoon and Quincy the Local Council of Women combines all. The 
Cook County league brings together most of the 90 clubs in and 
around Chicago, and expedites the work that is common to all. Joliet 
and Rockford have their city federations. These federations promote 
social unity, and are admirable instruments in the consideration of 
civic affairs and in the directing of philanthropic enterprises; as has 
been proven in Rockford, where, through its federation of woman's 
clubs, 35 traveling libraries have been given the public schools, a 
library of 200 volumes given to an outlying industrial district, a 
Pingree garden managed, contributions made to the vacation schools 
and a juvenile court officer supported. 

All these achievements, and many others which might be enumer- 
ated, are sources of gratification, and they show that through this 
club movement women are manifesting, as never before, an intelligent 
interest in municipal and state affairs which is of beneficial effect in 
our great commonwealth. And yet, beyond these accomplishments, 
is the good that, through the movement, has come to woman herself. 
By instinct and education, women are less democratic than men. 
The exclusive feeling has been fostered by long established conven- 
tionalities. Men have an easy good comradeship, a free and happy 
ignoring of differences in opinion and taste, which women should 
learn to emulate. The tendency of club life is to overcome this 
narrowness and to engender that kindly appreciation that recognizes 
merit of whatever order and whatever origin. 

More important, too, than all the achievements mentioned, is a 
basic fact underlying and fundamental to them, which in its signifi- 
cance is of more importance than any, and through which is the 


promise of greater things to come. This is the drawing together of 
women of communities, of the state and of the nation in mutual 
sympathy and helpfulness, in concerted study of affairs and in united 
effort to advance the well being of all. This is the most valuable 
fruitage of club life, and portends a time when woman also, freed 
from narrow hindering standards, may attain a truer conception of 
her own powers, and in her enlarged sphere of service in civic and 
in national life, help to realize that kind and humane social state 
that is the ideal federation of the world. 

Illinois Federation of Women's Clubs. 

1894. Organized in Chicago. 

1895. First Annual Meeting at Peoria. 

1896. Second Annual Meeting at Springfield. 

1897. Third Annual Meeting at Jacksonville. 

1898. Fourth Annual Meeting at Chicago. 

1899. Fifth Annual Meeting at Quincy. 

1900. Sixth Annual Meeting at Kockford. 

1901. Seventh Annual Meeting at Decatur. 

1902. Eight Annual Meeting at Champaign and Urbana. 

1903. Ninth Annual Meeting at Cairo. 

1904. Tenth Annual Meeting to be held at Danville. 







H. H. Candee 




Kohert Hall Wiles 

Kreeportand Chicaeo... 


Evanston. ................ 



Robert B. Farson 



Thaddeus P. Stanwood 



George R. Bacon 







Name of Clab. 





1 Cairo Woman's Club. 

1 Decatur Woman's Club. 

1 ^'eoria Woman's Club. 

1 (^hampalen Social Science Club. 

1 Chicago Woman's League. 

8 Chicagro Woman's Club. 

9 Lawndale Literary Club. 

10 Ottawa Monday Club. 

11 LaGrangre Woman's Club. 

14 Springfield Every Wednesday. 
14 Waukegran Sesame Club. 
14 C'hicaeo Every Wednesday. 

21 Tiie Atlantic. Quincy. 

22 Wilmette Woman's Club. 

23 E. Re Nata, Streator. 
23 Chicago Friday Club. 

23 Otfawa Woraau's Progress Club. 

24 Galesburg Hawthorne Club. 

31 Irving Park Woman's Literary Club. 

2 Argyle Park Portia Club. 
4 Streator Callers Club. 

4 Aurora Woman's Club. 

6 Chicago Household Economic Asso- 
{ elation. 

11 Raven swood Woman's Club. 
14 Lake View Woman's Club. 
14 Chicago Alternate Club. 

14 BAtavIa Columbia Club. 
14 Chicago Hull House Woman's Clnb. 
16 Riverside Woman's Reading Club. 
16 Chicago Catholic Woman's National 

16 Henry Woman's Club. 
26 Kenwood Fortnightly. 
5, Ottawa Tuesday Club. 

5 Klgin Womens' Club. 

12 Englewood, Harvard Woman's Club. 
ISiEnglewood, Home Club Fortnightly, 
15; Havana. Beethoven Club. 
19,LaHarpe Womens' Club. 
22iDanvllle Literary Class 


Chicago Kilo Association. 
Chicago Brotherhood National Coun- 
cil of Jewish Women. 


Name of Club. 


April 8 

>Iay 2 





June 6 

July 2 

Aug. 2 










Savana Womens' Literary Club. 

Ittcksonvllle Wednesday Class 

Aurora West Side Reading Circle. 

Kreeport Shak^spearf» Society. 

EflQagham Emerson Club. 

Rogers Park Woman's Club. 

Poutiac Cliontan Society. 

Monticello Wcmans Club. 

Woodlawn Woman's Club. 

River Forest Woman's Club. 

Sycamore Literary Columbian Club. 

Social Science Club of Champaign. 

Pekln Woman's Club. 

Galesburg Mosaic Club. 

Chlcaeo Olio Club. 

Pana Tuesday Club. 

Peoria Womens' Catholic League. 

Paris Monday Club. 

Entrlewood Nineteenth Century Club 

Pekin Woman's Club. 
Hinsdale Womens' Club. 
Jacksonville Monday Conversational. 

Evanston Womens' Club. 
Chicago South Side Club. 
Moline Daughters of the American 

Dixon, Pnidian Art Club. 
Chicago Newspaper Womens' Club. 
Chicago. Illinois Womens' Press *>^s- 

Springfield Woman's Club. 
Jacksonville Sorosis. 
Lacon Womens' Club. 
Moline Fortnightly. 
Monmouth Fortnightly Club. 
Toulon Womens' Club. 
Chicago West End Womens' Club. 
Woman's Keeley League, Bioomlng- 




[By President M. H. ChamberliD, of McEendree College.] 

The task assigned me by the President of this Society is not a little 
embarrassing, from the fact that the proprieties of this occasion 
would be violated were I to consume the time adequate for even its 
proximate fulfillment. Even the skeleton sketch to which I must 
confine myself, of a movement, the beginning of which runs parallel 
with the earlier civilization of Illinois, and which has maintained an 
unbroken existence for more than three quarters of a century, will 
have its deficiencies. 

The history of Illinois education — especially as to its highest 
forms — when fully written, will prove one of its most interesting 
chapters. For the most part, the first promoters of higher education 
found its zealous adherents in the various religious denominations, 
and, in our earlier history, these organizations were so engrossed in 
antagonistic discussions, over what will now be conceded as mere 
dogmas, that the rivalry between them could hardly be held as fra- 
ternal. These antagonisms, coupled with the wholesome, though 
unfounded, fear on the part of "outsiders" of movements which 
might lead to the union of church and state, and, on the part of 
others, the unwholesome fear of the "Yankee" made it impracticable, 
prior to 1835, to secure legislation, from the General Assembly of the 
State, granting corporate privileges for denominational institutions. 

The Baptists, Methodists and Presbyterians, severally, were active 
in their espousals of some corporate form of expression whereby 
education might be fostered under their respective auspices. 

The Methodists, from the date of their coming into Illinois, were 
the ardent friends of education. After their organization, in 1824, 
into the Illinois Conference, embracing all the territory west of the 
Ohio to the Pacific — excepting Missouri — and north to the British 
Possessions, the question of providing an institution of learning for 
its patrons became a much discussed proposition among its people. 
At its annual session, held in Mt. Carmel, III, September, 1827, Rev. 
Peter Cartwright presented a memorial from certain citizens of 
Green county, praying the consideration of that body in behalf of 
establishing a Conference seminary. This led to the appointment of 
a committee of five, the Rev, Peter Cartwright being one Af the num- 
ber, to examine into the situation and report back to the Conference 
at its next session. 

This can be fairly counted the beginning of McKendree college 


























On Feb. 20, 1828 — lees than five months after the adjournment of 
the Conference— the people of Lebanon, a village of about 200 souls, 
to anticipate the action of this committee, determined, independent 
of church affiliations, that the seat of this proposed institution of 
learning should be located in their midst. Articles of association 
were promptly formulated by Rev. A. W. Caead, to which subscrip- 
tions were solicited "for the erection of an edifice for a seminary of 
learning to be conducted as nearly as may be, on the plan of Au- 
gusta college, Kentucky." The articles provided that "Any sub- 
scriber in the sum of ten dollars should become a shareholder — shares 
to be transferable," that each shareholder should be "entitled to send 
one scholar for each share, free of house rent, and charges for the 
public library, etc; also shall be free from charge for fuel." The 
building was to be two stories in height and "not less than thirty-six 
by forty-eight feet, with two wings of suitable dimensions for con- 
venience, to be commenced as soon as $600 dollars is subscribed " It 
was further provided that "The Illinois Conference is respectfully 
solicited to take the institution under its fostering care," etc, with 
the added statement that "It is very desirable that the Missouri An- 
nual conference should unite with the Illinois conference and make 
it a conference seminary for both conferences " The final provision 
runs as follows: "In case the Conferences do not signify, by special 
communication to the secretary of the institution, their intention to 
aid the institution by the first of October, the stockholders shall, on 
notice, convene and select a suitable number of managers and other 
officers whose powers and duties shall be delegated to them by the 

To these Articles of Organization, still preserved, are appended the 
names of 104 persons — three of them women — whose subscriptions 
toward establishing the institution aggregated the sum of $1,385.00. 

As evidence of the systematic zeal with which these early pioneers 
were pushing this educational enterprise the subscribers met, on 
March 1st, and elected the following persons as trustees: Samuel H. 
Thompson, Nicholas Horner, George Lowe, Theophilus M. Nichols, 
Joshua Barnes, John Thomas, sr. , Samuel C. Stites and David S. 
Witter. At this meeting it was resolved to erect an edifice, and A. 
W. Casad, Nathan Horner and George Lowe were appointed a com- 
mittee to purchase a certain eight acre tract of land owned by 
Richard Bradsby, provided the same might be secured at a figure not 
exceeding $3.00 per acre; the committee also being authorized to 
let the contract for the erection of the building. On November 8th. 
the Conference not having, at its session in the preceding October, 
taken the institution under "its fostering care," as expressed in the 
Articles of Organization, the stockholders held a meetins: and elected 
thirty three managers, of which body the Rev. Samuel H. Thompson 
was made president, David S, Witter secretary and Nathan Horner 

•For Articles In full, and slffnaturea. see appendix.— Exhibit 1. 


The managers were chosen from a wide area of territory and em- 
braced some of the most conspicuous persons connected with the 
early day history of the State, as will be seen from the names here 
given: Rev. John Dew, Rev. Joshua Barnes, Col. Andrew Bankson, 
James Riggin, Thomas Ray, David L. West, Col, E. B. Clemson, 
Rev. Samuel Mitchell, sr., V\^m. Padfield and Wm. Bradsby, of the 
County of St. Clair; Rev. Peter Cartwright and Charles R. Matheny, 
of Sangamon county ; Hall Mason, Rev. Washingtun C. Ballard, John 
C. Dagger and Major Isaac Furgeson, of Madison county; Rev. 
Aaron Wood, of Mt Carmel; Hon. Shadrach Bond, of Kaskaskia; 
Rev. Smith L. Robinson, of Kaskaskia Circuit; John Tillson, jr., of 
Hillsboro; Peter Hubbard, of Bond county Charles Slade and Pom- 
roy Easton, of Carlyle; John Logan, of Jackson county; Major John 
Phillips, of Washington county; Col E. C. Berry, of Vandalia; Dr. 
Thomas Stanton, of Waterloo; Rev. Zadock Casey, of Jefferson 
county; Rev. Andrew Monroe, Major John O'Fallon and George W. 
Kerr, of St. Louis City; Rev. Alexander McCallister, of St. Louis 
county, and Rev. Jesse Green, of Missouri District. 

At the same session an elaborate Constitution* was formed, de- 
fining, in detail, the powers and privileges of the organization, as 
also By-laws and Rules were adopted. The nature of the work, both 
as to the Preparatory and College Departments, was indicated and 
the importance of employing some one capable of "teaching the 
higher branches of Mathematics, Natural and Moral Philosophy, and 
the Latin and Greek Languages" was emphasized. This was in 
keeping with the provision contained in the original Articles that the 
"Seminary of Learning" should be conducted "as near as may be on 
the plan of Augusta College, Kentucky," then in operation with full 
courses of collegiate studies. f 

That no time should be lost in waiting for the completion of the 
building — preliminary steps for the erection of which had already 
been taken — the two school houses of the village were rented, and on 
Nov, 24, 1828, with Mr. M. R. Ames — subsequently Bishop — as prin- 
cipal, and Miss McMurphy, assistant, McKendree College, then 
known as "Lebanon Seminary," was opened for public patronage. 
The year was divided into two sessions of five months — each session 
being followed by one month's vacation. The terms of tuition were 
fixed for the "lower branches at $5,00 per session." and for the 
"higher branches," embracing Mathematics, Natural and Moral Phi- 
losophy and the Latin and Greek Languages, "at $7.00 per session." 
The close of the first term showed an enrollment of 72 students, five 
of whom were women, yielding a revenue of $464.41. The principal 
received, as compensation for his services, $115 00, and the assistant 
$83,33. The Board of Managers, by resolution, highly complimented 
Miss McMurphy for her excellence as a teacher, and appointed a 

*For full text o£ Constitution see Appendix.— Exhibit 2. 

tAugusta Collegre. founded in 1822. was the successor of Cokesbury Collegre, founded 
by the Methodists, near Baltimore Md., In 1785. and destroyed by an incendisry fire In 
1795. Augusta College, yielding to the unfortunate Influences created by the acrimonious 
discussion of the slavery question, closed its doors in 1844. leaving McKendree the oldest 
existing college having its origin under Methodist auspices. 

Bishop E. R. Ames. D D.. L. L. D.— First Principal McKen«lree college, 1828. 
From photoeraijh taken in later years. 


committee to urge her continuance in service for another session. 
Both Mr. Ames and Miss McMurphy were elected to their former 
positions, with equal salaries, each to receive $25 per month for a 
five months' session. 

As a bit of history, it is as gratifying as it is significant, that Mc- 
Kendree, commencing its career with college espousals, in an era 
when it was seriously believed that the lack of "gray matter" in the 
brain of woman disabled her from the successful pursuit of any but 
the most simple sort of mental culture, should have made up its 
Board of Instruction (small though it was) from the two sexes, in 
equal numbers and on equal salaries, at the same time welcoming 
women to the privileges of tuition. This condition of things never 
met with a solitary protest in the legislation of the early managers. 
On the contrary, there was, up to 1836, constant solicitude on the 
part of its members to provide adequate means to meet the require- 
ments of women students, and Mrs. Peter Akers, followed by Miss 
Polly Thorp, as faculty teachers, were successors to Miss McMurphy. 
About the last named date it seemed that feminine patronage disap- 
peared, not from any hostile legislation on the part of the Board, but 
in spile of its persistent attempt to furnish adequate facilities for its 
proper maintenance. The records show that in the Board session of 
1852, 1866, 1868 and 1869 the subject of co-education was resur- 
rected, and while it was not restored until the latter date, by a vote 
of fourteen to seven, there is on record no evidence that the 
small minority held any other grounds of objection than inadequacy 
of preparation for its re-introduction. After thirty-five years of un- 
broken experience with the joint system of education, McKendree 
has no disposition to retrace its steps, or even to advocate "Segrega- 
tion" of the lady students because, as is substantially held, by some, 
her superior precocity and intellectual grasp is so much more mani- 
fest than that of her brother, in the recitation room, as to discourage 
the latter in intellectual endeavor; nor on the further ground of her 
unfitness to create a splendid ''college spirit" by itinerating in a cos- 
tume not wholly unlike that of a knight of the middle ages, to do 
strenuous service in behalf of her college on the bone-breaking, in- 
sane-making and death-dealing "gridiron." 

The building, the construction of which was commenced in 1828, 
was completed the succeeding year and, after 27 years of service, in 
1856 the first erected edifice for higher education in the State of Illi- 
nois, went up in fiames kindled by the hand of an incendiary. 

In 1830 the Illinois Conference took McKendree College under its 
"fostering care," and at a general meeting of the stockholders a re- 
organization was efPected whereby it was provided that in future 
there should be elected eleven managers by the Conference and five 
by the stockholders, to have in custody the afPairs of the institution. 
Later, the Missouri Conference accepted the College as its institu- 
tion, and for a time, sent visiting members to the sessions of its 
Board of Trustees. Its adhesion to the College, however, was luke- 
warm, induced by the growing sentiment against free state ioflu- 
ences, and in a little time its official patronage was discontinued. 


Bishop MoKendree, about the period last named, in his rounds 
over a diocese embracing a territory half continental in its propor- 
tions, visited Lebanon. He was greatly pleased with the prospects 
of the new institution of learning and pledged, as a donation, 480 
acres of land located in St. Clair county, for the promotion of its in- 
terests, with the expressed desire that the Missouri conference should 
join, with the Illinois, in giving its patronage and support. It was 
at this time that the name of the institution was changed to "McKen- 
dree College." So important did the Bishop hold the object of 
maintaining an institution of learning for the two conferences named, 
that he committed the execution of his will to the entire board of 
Bishops of the then undivided church, Bishops Roberts, Hedding, 
Andrew, Waugh, Morris and Soule. The last named was given power 
by his associates, to carry out the provisions of the will, which duty 
he performed by a conveyance of the land to McKendree college 
in 1889. 

In 1834 the board of managers"appointed a committee to petition 
the Legislature for a charter for the institution, under the name of 
"McKendrean College," The Baptists and Presbyterians in like 
manner, presented similar memorials, and, as an illustration of the 
old adage, "in union there is strength", it resulted in the passage of 
an omnibus bill*, which was approved Feb. 9th, 1835, granting 
charters for the Illinois, McKendrean and Shurtleff colleges, repre- 
senting, respectively, the Presbyterian, Methodist and Baptist denom- 
inations, all of which still exist and have done splendid work for 
western civilization. It should be stated that the original bill was 
amended to include a fourth institution, the "Jonesboro College" 
which passed out of existence many years ago, if indeed, it was ever 
organized. This amendment seems to have been required to secure 
the necefesary vote to pass the bill. The trustees named in the act 
for the McKendrean college, were John Dew, Samuel H. Thompson, 
James Riggin, Nicholas Horner, George Lowe, Robert Moore, 
Theophilus M. Nichols, Joshua Barnes, Samuel Stites, David L. 
West, Nathan Horner, Joseph Foulke, Thornton Peeples, John 
S. Barger, Nathanial McCurdy, A. W. Casad and Benjamin Hypes — 
seventeen in al