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(About 1750) 


Prepared for publication by 
The Division of Archives and History 

Director and State Historian 








Portraits of Johnson ix 

Autographs from Volume II xiii 

Preliminary campaigns, 1 755-1 756 1 

Seven Years' War . 473 

Appendix 897 



Colonel William Johnson Frontispiece 

From an oil painting in the Albany Institute and Historical and Art Society. 

Site of Johnson's fortified camp at Lake George 6 

From a photograph. 

Colonel Moses Tilcomb 14 

From a portrait in the Public Library, Newburyport. The original was in 
the possession of Robert Frothingham formerly of Brooklyn. A reproduction 
of it is to be found in Currier's " Quid Newbury." 

Hendrick 16 

From a contemporary copper engraving in the Emmet Collection, New York 
Public Library. 

Rev. Stephen Williams 18 

From a copper plate engraving in the New York State Library, Albany. 

William Williams 18 

From a print in the New York State Library, Albany. 

Bloody Pond 24 

From a photograph. 

House of Lydius 30 

Enlarged from a " Map of Lake Champlain from Fort Chambly to Fort 
St Frederick or Crown Point. Surveyed by Mr Anger King's Surveyor in 1732. 
Made at Quebec the loth of October 1748. Signed de Lery." 

Colonel Ephraim Williams' grave 48 

From a photograph. 

Colonel Williams' monument 60 

Erected in 1854. From a photograph. 

Sir William Johnson? 96 

From an oil painting labelled as by T. Adams in the possession of Robert W. 
Chambers, Broadalbin, N. Y. 

The Johnson (?) portrait 1 28 

From an engraving by T. Cole in the museum at Letchworth Park, New York, 
made from a drawing of the oil portrait in the possession of W. L. Bryant 
of Buffalo, N. Y. 

Sir William Johnson 160 

From a photograph of a mezzotint engraving by Spooner of a drawing by 
T. Adams, published in 1756. In the New York State Library, Albany. 

Sir William Johnson 192 

From a contemporary print in the New York State Library, Albany. 

Sir William Johnson 224 

From a contemporary print (1756) in the New York State Library, Albany. 


vi Illustrations 

Sir William Johnson 256 

Prom a contemporary print by A. Walker in the New York State Library, 

? Johnson >...,.,,* 256 

From an engraving by F. Bartolozzi. See the preface on " Portraits of 

Hendrick and Sir William Johnson 288 

From a photograph of the monument on the battlefield of Lake George. 
Erected by the Society of Colonial Wars. 

Lord Loudoun . 514 

From a mezzotint engraving by Spooner in Smith, J. C. British Mezzotint 
Portraits, of an original painting in oil by Allan Ramsay. 

Site of Fort William Henry ........... 730 

From a photograph. 

Lord Howe 800 

From a photograph in the possession of S. H. P. Pell of Ticonderoga. It is 
from a painting in possession of one of the descendants of the Howe family 
in England. 


State Reservation at Lake George 2 

From the Fifth Annual Re fort of the Society for the Preservation of Scenic 
ad Historic Places and Objects, Albany, 1900. 

The Lake George campaign 4 

From a reconstructed drawing of Timothy Clement's map published in 1756. 
In Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of America, V:s86a, b. 

Fort Edward 52 

From a copy in the New York State Library made from a copy said to be 
of an original in the American Antiquarian Society, Worcester. It is not very 
similar to the plan of Fort Edward on the Clement map (see p. 4 of this 
volume) or to that on the Blodget map published in his work called The Battle 
near Lake George. 

Fort William Henry 312 

From A set of plans and forts in America, reduced from actual surveys, 
1763* published in London by LaRoque? or Mary Ann Rocque? 

French map of country from Fort Edward to Crown Point 420 

From letter to Sir Thomas Robinson in the Public Record Office, C. O. 5.46, 
London, England. 

Johnson's map of Lake George and vicinity 422 

From letter to Sir Thomas Robinson as above. 

Montcalm's attack on Fort William Henry 728 

From A set of plans, etc. See above under the plan of Fort William Henry. 

Montcalm's map of the country from Crown Point (Fort St 

Frederic) to Albany 740 

From a copy of the original which is in the possession of Arthur G. Doughty 
of Ottawa. This was presented about the year 1800 to the Hon. Mr Neilson 
by a Recollect Father, who stated that it had been designed for Montcalm. 
It is _ to be found in Knox Historical Journal of the Campaigns in North 
America, edited by A. G. Doughty, 111:28. 

Lake George and vicinity 870 

From Mante, History of the Late War, London, 1772. 

Abercromby's attack on Ticonderoga 872 

From Almon, Remembrancer, London, 1778. The plan is reproduced in 
Winsor, Narrative and Critical History of America, V:S24. 



There are two well authenticated contemporary oil portraits 
of Sir William Johnson. The first of these is now in the pos- 
t session of the Albany Institute and Historical and Art Society. 
It was obtained in 1921, by John M. Clarke, president of that 
society, from John Leonard of Culmullen House, Drumree, 
County Meath, Ireland. Mr Leonard got the portrait from his 
uncle who lived in Warrenstown in the same county. Anne 
Warren, Johnson*s mother, came from that place. 

Accompanying the portrait is an autograph letter (also in the 
possession of the Albany Historical Society) from Johnson to 
his father, dated October 31, 1754. As it has been printed 
at the end of volume one, only the last paragraph is given here : 

HON RD . S* 

As I cannot wait of you myself yet a while, I send you my 
Picture, w h . I had drawn four years ago, the Drapery I would 
have altered, but here is no Painter now can do it, the greatest 
fault in it is, the narrow hanging Shoulders w h . I beg you may 
get altered as Mine are verry broad and square. 


Our interest in this centers in the last paragraph. From this 
it is evident that the portrait was made about 1750. There 
may be some question as to the use of the word " drawn " in 
connection with an oil portrait. From this word it might be 
maintained that this letter refers to a drawing and not to an oil 
painting. The idea would be that Johnson had a drawing made 
from which some painter was to make a portrait in oil. The 
word " draw," however, was used then as now with reference 
to portraits in oil. Samuel Pepys in his Diary written in the 
century preceding uses the word thus. 

Had the picture which Johnson sent his father been only a 
drawing from which this oil painting, which we now have, was 


x Portraits of Sir William Johnson 

to be made, the artist in oils would most probably have made the 
changes which Johnson particularly wished to have made in the 
" narrow hanging Shoulders." Were it merely a drawing John- 
son would have been more than likely to say something about 
having the shoulders changed when it was done over in oil. He 
evidently felt that the portrait was such in its defects in the 
shoulders that no one but a painter in oils could make the altera- 
tions. His father evidently never had the alterations made as 
the " narrow hanging Shoulders " still show in this portrait. 

Where Johnson had it done or by whom cannot be deter- 
mined. A careful search fails to reveal the name of an artist. 
It may have been painted by some itinerant portrait painter who 
visited him at Mount Johnson or he may have had it painted on 
some one of his visits to New York or Albany, and then had it 
sent to him after it was finished. The latter would seem probable 
in view of the fact that the narrow shoulders were painted with- 
out his having a chance to have the artist alter them. 

There is a coincidence in the fact that a drawing from which 
Spooner made his mezzotint of Johnson, (of which more later) 
was done by T. Adams, and that Robert Adams (Adems) was 
Johnson's secretary at this time. It was Mrs Adams, his wife, 
who took this portrait to Johnson's father in Ireland. It is, how- 
ever, a coincidence which tells us nothing. A statement by some 
that the painting was by Hudson is not supported by a com- 
parison of it with any of Hudson's works. This painting shows 
none of the high quality found in the portraits done by so eminent 
an artist. 

By 1 750 Johnson had become an important personage in the 
Mohawk valley. He was colonel of the warriors of the Six 
Nations and of fourteen companies of militia. Governor Clinton 
had placed in his hands all the papers of the department of 
Indian affairs. He had built an imposing stone house at Mount 
Johnson and had entertained there the eminent Swedish naturalist 
Peter Kalm. It was but natural that he should have his portrait 
painted at this time and that the artist should have portrayed him 
in his military uniform. 

Portraits of Sir William Johnson xi 

The portrait shows a man of about thirty-five years, which 
was Johnson's age at the time. The high, broad forehead, the 
prominent nose and cleft chin characterize this likeness as they 
do the later portrait and engravings which were made of him. 

A second contemporary oil portrait of Johnson is at present in 
the possession of the heir presumptive to the baronetcy, Frederick 
Colpoys Ormsby Johnson, whose address is: Lamorna, Wyke 
Road, Weymouth, England. This is the portrait which Stone 
had copied in oil When it was in the possession of the above 
gentleman's father, John Ormsby Johnson, who was Sir Wil- 
liam's great grandson. About 1 876, Edward F. DeLancey pur- 
chased this copy from Stone and donated it to the New York 
Historical Society in 1 896, in whose building in New York City 
it still is. It was from this copy that Stone had the engraver 
J, C. Buttre make the steel engraving which appears as the 
frontispiece of Stone's Life of Sir William Johnson. 

Correspondence with F. C. Ormsby Johnson says that no 
name of an artist can be found on the original in his possession* 
" It was," he says, " varnished and touched up (not very 
cleverly) some years ago. The signature, if it ever existed, 

would have been discovered, I think, by the artist, who touched 

it up. 

This portrait shows Sir William at a much more advanced 
age than that painted in 1750. As far as it can be judged it 
shows a man about fifty to fifty-five years of age. If such judg- 
ment is correct, it must have been done somewhere between 1 765 
and 1770. 

A comparison of the two portraits shows such striking simi- 
larities as to leave no doubt that they are of the same man. 

There is a third portrait in oil, said to be of Sir William, in 
the possession of the novelist Robert W. Chambers at his house 
in Broadalbin. About its authenticity there is some doubt. 
There is, however, enough of a similarity to the two preceding, 
particularly in the chin, to warrant a feeling that perhaps it may 
be a portrait of Sir William. There is no name on the painting 
itself, but on the frame there is placed the name of T. Adams, 

xii Portraits of Sir William Johnson 

of whom mention has been made above in connection with the 
drawing from which Spooner made his mezzotint. This portrait 
Mr Chambers says he got from his father who obtained it by 
purchase. Further than this he knows nothing. A comparison 
of it, however, with the engraving from one of the London maga- 
zines in 1 756 shows sufficient similarity to warrant the belief that 
possibly either the portrait was based upon the engraving or vice 

A fourth painting, said to be of Sir William, is in the posses- 
sion of William L. Bryant, 1231 Elmwood Avenue, Buffalo, 
N. Y. It is so unlike Johnson in every detail that nothing but 
doubt may be said to surround the claims for its authenticity. 
Numerous letters which passed between Sir William George 
Johnson and William L. Bryant's father diow that at first the 
former showed no confidence in the belief that it was to be taken 
for a portrait of Sir William. Then by one of those common 
episodes in self persuasion he became convinced from a series 
of doubtful tales that it was truly an authentic portrait. 

A wood engraving was made of it and is signed T. Cole. A 
copy of the engraving hangs in the museum at Letchworth Park, 
New York. 

There are four contemporary engravings of Sir William. One 
of these published in 1 756 is a mezzotint by Spooner from a 
drawing by T. Adams. Of the latter artist this is the only 
known mention in the history of artists, but Spooner is a well 
known engraver. The other three engravings are from London 
magazines. There is a fifth engraving by Bartolozzi, but it is 
sometimes entitled Sir William Johnson, and sometimes Sir John 
Johnson. There is a possibility that it represents neither and 
is in reality a portrait of Colonel Guy Johnson. Fiske in his 
American Revolution (1896 edition, 1 :304) says that General 
De Peyster, who originally thought of this portrait as one of 
Sir John Johnson, told him that he had a " suspicion " that it 
was a portrait of Guy Johnson. 


State Historian 



xiv Authographs from Volume II 

Audiographs from Volume II xv 


A. D. S. 

Scpr. X 7755 

An appointment of a Regimental Court Martial for y e Imme- 
diate Tryall of Such Crimes as have been Committed by any 
person in My Regiment & Cognizable before a Regimental Court 

Cap*. Jo*. Whitcombe President 
Lieu 4 Jn. Stebbins 


Lieu 1 . Thompson 

Ensign Jn. Tisdale 
Ensign Daniels 

and of your Doings herein you are to make Return Given 

under my hand at Lake S'. George 


Headquarters September p e 3 7755 

The Proceedings of Court Martial held here this day in order 
for to try any prisoner In Col Rugles Regiment that shall be 
found guilty and there being none apprehended In s d Regiment 
[ ] found guilty of any Crime So the 1 

INDORSED: Report of Reg*. Court Martial appointed by Col. 


A paper which followed this in the Johnson Calendar, and was 
destroyed in the fire, comprised undated information given by Daniel Claus 
regarding efforts of Shirley's agents to prevent Indians from joining John- 

1 Remainder of manuscript illegible. 

2 Sir William Johnson Paper* 

son and action of Hendrick and others to defeat their influence. This 
was followed by Johnson's letter of September 3d to the lords of trade 
on the Caghnawagas, Shirley's agents among the Indians, the writer's 
desire to be independent of Colonial governors and progress of the expe- 
dition (printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y., 2:684-89; Q. 2:399-401, and 
Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 6:993-97). Not destroyed. 


September 3-October 5, 7755 

There is no Letter from General Johnson to the Secretary of 
State, but the Board of Trade have transmitted one to them, 
dated the 3 d . of Sep r . full of Complaints against Governor Shir- 
ley who has, as General Johnson says endeavoured to do him 
all the Prejudice He can with the Indians, that He has repre- 
sented him as an Upstart, entirely dependant upon him, & that 
He furnishes him with all the Money & Presents for the Indians, 
& that He can pull him down, when He pleases. That M r 
Shirley employs one Lydius to the Indians who is a Person odious 
to them; that M r Shirley in order to detach the Indians from 
M r Johnson, has made them such large Offers, that M r Johnson 
has been obliged to yield to very unreasonable Demands from 
them. In support of this, M r Johnson incloses the Speech of the 
Great Mohock Indian, relating what M r Shirley had said to 
Them. General Johnson thinks these Proceedings contrary to 
the Commission given him by General Braddock by which he 
was appointed sole Superintendant of the Indian Affairs. That 
He cannot fullfill the King's Expectations, if his Proceedings are 
to be controulled by a Governor, and unless a certain Fund is 
appointed, & confided to his Disposal, for that Service, & unless 
He is put on that Footing, He desires to decline the Charge 
The only Reason he can guess for M r Shirley's Conduct is, his 
not having provided 1 00 Indians to escort him to Oswego, which 
the Indians said was unnecessary, as the Road lay thro' their 
Country. There is no Letter from M r Shirley, on this Subject, 

Mn British Museum, AdditL Mss. 33.029. fo. 215 (Newcastle 


Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 

but, in one of the 5 th . Oct r : on the Action at Lake George, He 
refers to Copies of two Letters to General Johnson, for his Senti- 
ments of his Conduct, and says, He dont yet certainly fynoiv, what 
the Issue of that Expedition will be this Year, but has reason to 
think it Jvill be dissatisfactory to all the New England Colonies 
as well as Himself. 1 

In M r Shirley's Letter to General Johnson, He does not make 
any particular Accusation, but seems to hint, that He has taken 
a wrong Road to Crown Point, That the Fort he is building at 
Lake George is useless, presses him to go on, and by all means 
endeavour to make Himself Master of Tironderoge Thinks 
He must have sufficient Force for that purpose That his 
Account of the Strength of the French is aggravated and 
differs from him in his opinion of the Conduct of the French in 
the late Action. 

INDORSED: Disputes between 
Governor Shirley 
& General Johnson 
Sep',3 2 


Portsmouth September 3 d . 1755 

That His Majesty may be advised Of the progress of the 
Provincial forces Employed for removeing the Encroachments 
made by the French at Crown point, I Think it my duty to 
Transmit! a Copy of Major General Johnson's letter to me of the 

1 Italicized matter was underlined in the original. 

2 The transcriber in London states that the date is in the hand of New- 
castle, but correspondence of a later date is embraced by this review. 

In Public Record Office. C. O. 5. 16, London, England. 

4 Sir William Johnson Papers 

24 th of August, from the Camp, on Hudson's River, also a Copy 
of the result of a Council of war held at the same place, on the 
further proceeding of the Army, by which it Will appear that a 
reinforcement is generally advised to, which I have urged on the 
Assembly of this Province to provide For, But the Council and 
Assembly are Averse at present to any Augmentation Alledging 
that the regiment In the service of this Province Consisting of 
500 men is Equal to 5000 men in The Service of the Massa- 
chusetts Government, and at present that Government Has but 
1 500 men in this Expedition. 

General Johnson's demand For an Additional force at this 
late hour, makes me doubtfull of our Success, The Defeat of the 
late General Braddock on the Ohio, I am apprehensive makes 
General Johnson the more Cautious, which at this Critical Con- 
juncture Is absolutely necessary, for should Governor Shirley 
meet with a defeat at Niagara and General Johnson at Crown 
point, it will so dishearten our Indians, and so greatly Animate 
those In the French interest, that there would Be the greatest 
danger of the Indians of the Six Nations and those in friendship 
With them going over to the French For this reason only the 
greatest Caution Is necessary to be used at this time, and Unless 
we are sure of haveing a Superiour force, it will be safer to retreat 
than To risque a defeat I am With all possible respect 
Your most faithfull Servant 


The Right Hon ble SlR THOMAS ROBINSON 

INDORSED: New Hampshire Sep r . 3 d . 1755.^ 
Gov r . Wentworth. 
R Oct'. 6*. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 5 


A L S 

4 Sep. 1755 

As the Express sent [ ] some urgent Business of 

own has [ ] Hans to forward some dispatches 

General [ ] some to yourself and General Lyman, 

thought it might be proper to acquaint you with it, least this 
;lay might otherwise be prejudicial to that Gentleman. I am S r . 
Your most obed*. humble Servant 


His Excy S r . Charles Hardy arrived here the 2 d . Instant about 

P l Mer. and landed at 1 2 the next day under the discharge of 

ic Cannon & received by the L l . Gov. the Council Corp r . & 

>rincipal Gentlemen the Militia being under arms. I believe 

lim to be that amiable Person he is represented to be. There's 

LO News after a Passage of ten Weeks. The doctor writes. 

'he Rope is sent 

)DRESSED : To Major General Johnson 

at the Camp at Lake S*. Sacrament 

fDORSED: Albany 7 Septem r 1 755 

Rec d & forwarded by Sir 

Your most humble Serv* 


6 Sir William Johnson Papers* 


Camp at Lake George 4 Sep r . 1755 

I arrived here with about 1 500 Men the 28<th> past in the 
Evening, all was thick Wood, not a Foot of Land cleared, Our 
time since has been chiefly spent in opening the Ground about us 
& forming some regular kind of Encampment building temporary 
Store houses for Provisions & c . these Matters are now nearly 
accomplished. We have fixt on a Spot for a Fort 2 it is clearing 
& near 400 Men employed, who I hope in a few days will have 
the Fort in great forwardness & that it will be put into a respect- 
able Condition before the Army leaves this place. 

I find since I left the Great Carrying Place the Works there 
have advanced but slowly the Men murmur at being employed 
in these Matters & many of the chief officers do not seem very 
sanguine about them, indeed that due Subordination w ch is neces- 
sary in Military Life seems very much wanting among us. I 
daily remonstrate on this Point & do all in my power to support 
it, but the Causes I fear lay too deep & are too general to be 

There are now at the Great Carrying place 5 Companys of 
Col. Cockrofts Reg 1 . & the New Hampshire Reg f . By a Letter 
last night from them, I find they have Quarrelled with each other 
that blows have past & some are wounded. 

The New York Companies are in a Mutinous Condition for 
want of Pay & threaten to go off, nay I think a large Body did 
attempt it. When we left Albany Col. Cockcroft applied to me 

1 By Wraxall. 

1 See Samuel Blodget, The Battle Near Lake George, p. 5. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 7 

told me that he proposed his Reg*, should be paid up to the 
ic they were to march & then Issue no more pay till their return 
-As I did not conceive they should have any use for money in 
ic uninhabited Woods I thought the thing right & reasonable & 
gave my Consent. But I find not only the Companys there but 
the 3 Connecticut Companies here insist upon having their Pay 
agreable to the Act of Assembly, that is Monthly; the Com- 
panies here threatened to go off if they were not paid I took 
measures to quiet them, but was obliged to give one of the Cap- 
tains leave to go to Albany in order to get his Pay & I have 
wrote Col. Cockcroft that as the Act was positive & left nothing 
to Circumstances, I thought he must direct the pay Mas rs . either 
to come <or send> some Person for 'em to Issue the pa<y. In 
short> there is not through * the Troops <in gener>al due 
Subordination kept up. <^The of ^> fleers are most of them low 
weak People, <^who have nei^>ther the ability nor Inclination 
to maintain a necessary Superiority, some of them I believe are 
sorry Fellows & rather join with than restrain their Men. I have 
this morning ordered one Cap 1 Hall of the 3 Connecticut Com- 
panies into Confinement upon suspicion of being concerned with 
one of his People in selling the Store Rum to the Indians. The 
Indians are perpetually Drunk, their Insolence is scarce to be 
born at these times they give me not a Moments rest or leisure. 
However I send Scouting Parties daily out every way. By the 
last Scouts from Tionderogue, the French had thrown no Works 
up there, they discovered a Party of the Enemy of about 20 
thereabouts. I have ordered the Battoes up from the Carrying 
Place or at least 200 as soon as possible when they arrive & put 
in order, if I get no Intelligence to prevent it, I propose to set off 
with a part of the Troops & take post there. We are greatly 
distressed for want of Waggons many have deserted the Service, 
Numbers of Horses tired so that without a fresh Recruit we 


8 Sir William Johnson Papers 

shall I fear be fatally delayed. I have wrote & given Orders 
on that head. 

I have with me or at least there has joined me ab*. 250 Indians 
they seem hearty & well disposed Severall more daily expected 
they are very uneasy about the Cagnawagas & have sent another 
w ch is to be the last Embassy to them, & I hope to have the result 
in a day or two. 

<What with the> trouble I have with the Indians & that 
disorderly management there is among the Troops, I am almost 
distracted. I have neither rest night nor day, nor a comfortable 
thinking hour to myself. Our Sick increase our Men impatient 
to have the affair ended & most of the officers little better, yet 
they will not carry things on with that order & Application neces- 
sary to forward our Proceedings. I would exert Authority but 
I cannot be sufficiently seconded. 

If your honour finds this Letter a confused one, my Circum- 
stances must be my Apology. I write by bitts & Scraps, Inter- 
uptions w ch . I cannot prevent come upon me, & Matters w * 1 . 
must not be delayed interfere. 

A Scouting Party of Indians yesterday discovered a tract 
about as they thought 7 or 8 days old of 1 50 or 200 French & 
Indians w ch . led directly to Scenectady, I immediately sent an 
Express there & to Albany to put them on their Guard. I have 
this day Sent a party of our Forces with some Indians to intercept 
them if possible. We have no Interuption from the Enemy. Gen- 
eral Lyman had one Man Scalped & 1 taken Prisoner ab*. 3 
Miles from Great Carrying Place; they were looking for Cattle 
belonging to the Connecticut Troops. 

With the Indian Scouts & if the Sentrys & Guards will do 
their Duty I am not affraid of any Insult from the Enemy but 
God help us our Sentrys I fear a a diligent 1 have 

1 Writing illegible. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1 7 55-1756 9 

>rdered Patrolls every half hour round our whole Encam<^p'ts^> 
during the Night & if my Orders are observed, I do not dread a 

This Lake called Lake S l . Sacrament by the French, I have 
called Lake George not only in honour to his Majesty but to 
assertain his Dominion here. 

To the Hon ble JAMES D<ELANCEY> Esq r 

INDORSED BY WRAXALL: Generals Letter to Gov*. 


4Sep'. 1755 


<Camp at Lake George 4 Sep tf /755> 

I have lately received a long < Letter from General > Shirley 
tis in Answer to one I wrote him, & if I <had time> to send 
you the Copy of it, you would only be con < fused un>less I 
would also send you a former I reed from him <& my> answer 
w * 1 are at Albany. This Letter is wrote with all <the> Inso- 
lence of a Man drunk with power, envenomed by Malice & burn- 
ing with Revenge his Arguments are Weak & confused they 
bear the evident Marks of Passion overruling Reason he 
asser<ts> Facts notoriously false, & attempts tho very clumsily, 
artfully to pervert all my Actions & Arguments in short the 
Attorney General appears quite rash. I have wrote him, but 
told him I believed his, & I am sure my time would not allow me 
to give a proper answer to his Letter w ch is all the notice I have 
taken of it. however I perceive plainly from the Stile, Temper & 
Character of the Man that I may expect every thing that can be 

By Wraxall. 


10 Sir William Johnson Papers 

executed by a bad Man abandoned to passion & enslaved by 
resentment. I have therefore in defence of my Character, w ch 
is all I am truly anxious about thought it a prudent step to write 
the Letter I herewith send you to the Lords of Trade 1 after 
perusal you will please to Seal & forward it, and if truth & 
Prudence permit, I wish it might carry with it your Sentiments in 
a general way. 

I am under a good deal of Anxiety lest my future Sch< ernes > 
with regard to the Expedition, should be too much retarded & 
<even> defeated, by the want of Waggons & Provisions fall- 
ing short. I have done all in my power to prevent both. There 
is no due Subordination among the Troops, & the officers with 
very few Exceptions a set of low lifed Ignorant People, the Men 
lazy, easily discouraged by Difficulties, & from the popularity 
of their Gov 18 neither accustomed or disposed to obedience. 

However I am pushing all I can to embark with a part of the 
Troops in order to take post at Tionderogue provided the Scouts I 
have out dont discover a Strength there too much for us. 

Great numbers of our Waggoners have deserted, some of them 
coming up threw the Shot they were loaded with into the Woods, 
they have plundered the Provisions they brought in their Wag- 
gons, in short they are a set of great Rascals. 

The Specious Patriotism of the Albanians in helping forward 
the first Division, so splendidly set << forth in the News papers, 
was truly > thus. Intimations <were given by a Friend of theirs 
about > Gov r . Shirley that there < would be a general press> 
for Steersmen & c . to help him f or < ward to Oswe>go to shun 
this as the greater Evil, a consultation <^was^> held & the patriot 
Scheme aforementioned agreed on by w ch means the dreaded 
Press was defeated. In no respect, whatsoever without pay did 

1 See reference above to letter of September 3 to lords of trade. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


any of the Inhabitants help forward the other Divisions, but on 
the Contrary when Waggons were wanted hid them & drove 
away their Horses to the Delay & distress of the Service All 
their Generosity & public spirit remains as much a secret as ever 
it did. 

The Paragraph in the News Papers about the Cartridges at 
Saraghtoga, I have inquired into & is in every part a gross & 
impudent Falsehood. 

Both writers in & Printers of New Papers take Liberties at 
this Juncture, w ch are not only founded in Impudence & Ignorance 
of the true state of things, but are or may be very injurious to the 
public Good, party views may justify it to themselves yet in sober 
Truth they ought to have their Ears Cropt for it. This is not 
enjoying the Liberty, but proving the Licentiousness of the Press. 

I wish you would convey without any authors name the Sub- 
stance of these 4 last paragraphs into Franklin's Paper 1 You 
will oblige a Number of officers here & make an offering to truth 
& justice. 

I inclose you a Speech made by the Indians of the Upper 
Mohock Castle 2 to me in the presence of a number of the Chief 
officers of these Troops, it came from their own free will without 
my even expecting it, I have such another at Albany from the 
lower Castle & Authenf ick Papers to prove many other Scan- 
dalous Proceedings of Gov r . Shirley & his Agents. 


General's Letter to M r 
Pownall 4 Sep' 1 755 

x The Pennsylvania Gazette. 

2 Hendrick's speech at a meeting of officers and Indians at Lake George 
on September 4th, repeating words of Shirley to the Mohawks, is printed 
in Doc. Rd. to Col. Hist. N. Y. t 6:998-99. 

12 <Sir William Johnson Papers 


Quebec 350 

Trois riviere 

Montreal 400 


Lapointe 300 


Lagalette 50 

S. Jean 40 

La belle riviere 300 


A. D. S. 

^Headquarters: Camp at Lake George Fryday, 

5 Sep'. 1755. A. M.> 

At a Council of War <held by General Johnson> 


The General 

Maj r . General Lyman Lieu 1 Col. Whiting 

Col. Ruggles Lieu* Col. Cole 

Col. Titcomb Maj r Fitch 

Col. Williams 

Capt. Wraxall Sec'? 

Arcle. The General desired the Opinion of the Coun- 
cil about officers & Men to Garrison the Fort 
at the aforesaid Camp. 

1 The numbers in this list apparently show the strength of certain forces. 
It is entered in the Johnson Calendar as belonging to the early part of 

Preliminary Campaigns, / 755-77 56 13 

The General Acquainted the Council that tho 
he had issued strict orders against selling Rum 
to the Indians, yet he found they were not 
obeyed, for that Rum was constantly & plenti- 
fully sold to the Indians who were in great 
numbers daily made Drunk thereby & that he 
apprehended some very fatal consequences 
would arise from this Disobedience to orders & 
that he judged the Matter very worthy of being 
considered by the Council, that if they could, 
they might give him their Opinion what further 
Measures could be taken to prevent this per- 
nicious Practice & to keep the Soldiers from 
concerning themselves with the Indians. 

The Opinion of this Council is that a Cap*. 
2 Subs & 100 Men will be sufft. to be left to 
Garrison the Fort at the Camp at the Great 
. Carrying Place 

The Members of this Council acquainted 
the General that they would do everything in 
their Power to cause his Orders against selling 
Rum & to prevent any dealings whatsoever 
from being carried on between the Soldiers & 
the Indians. 



14 'Sir William Johnson Papers 


Camp <at Lake Ceorge> 6 Septb' 1755* 


I am glad to hear by y r . favour of yesterday y l <you> are 
safe arrived at the Great Carrying Place. You & y r . Regm 1 
cannot be more desirous of Joining me than I am you should 
do so. 

But by ye last ace 1 , of the New York Regm*. at y r . Camp, it 
will by no means be prudent to leave them to themselves besides 
our prov 8 . here grow short & untill we get a recruit You would 
distress us & be distressed yourselves. I propose to leave a CapP. 
& 1 00 Men fit for duty at y e . Fort where you are, the officer & 
Men cannot yet be fixed on, however they shall none of them 
come out of y r . Regm 1 . wch I propose to take w lh . me in y e . first 
Division w ch Marches from hence as I make a great dependance 
upon them. In two or three days at furthest I hope to send you 
orders to join me here, in y e meantime I must desire & expect 
that y r . Regm 1 . & the New Yorkers will apply to & finish the 
Works. Collo. Bagly is to remain with You. a sufK number of 
Men & a couple of days brisk working will do the Business. I 
am glad you are forwardg the Battoes I very much want them 
here in order to Caulk & get them ready for Embarking. Pray 
make use of the Artillery Horses to forward the Service, the 
Waggoners I believe to be in general a parcell of Rascalls & little 
Credit to be given to them, few of their Complaints are just, you 
will examine & do as you find needful, but keep them up to their 
duty & have a strict Eye over them. I am afraid of fatal delays 
for y e . want of Waggons. 

Mn Doc. Rei to Col. Hist. N. Y., 6:999, is a letter of September 
6th from Sir Charles Hardy to the lords of trade touching reinforcements 
for Johnson. 


Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 15 

Good Weather is wearing away fast, no time must be lost the 
moment we can leave this place I will depart. 

I am persuaded you will in all respects forward the Service & 
depend you shant remain a minute longer where you are than 
necessity & the good of the Service requires. 

I am Sir Your very hum Serv 1 . 

<Desire Col. Cock>croft to 
< write me> what disposition 
<^his peo^>ple are in. I long to 
have all the Troops up here. 

INDORSED BY WRAXALL: General's Letter to Colonel Blanchard 1 


A. D. S. 
Camp at Lake George 7 Sep r . 1755. P. M. 

At a Council of War held by General Johnson. 
Pre st . General Johnson Lieu 1 . Col. Whiting 

Maj r . General Lyman Lieu 1 . Col, Cole 

Col Ruggles Maj r . Fitch 

Col. Titcomb 
Col. Williams 

Cap 1 Wraxall SecT. 

The General Acquainted this Council, that a few days ago 
at <a]> Meeting of most of the Members here present, the Ques- 
tion concerning a> Fort to be built here had been considered; 
that it had been agreed on a Fort here was necessary & the 
Ground recommended by Capt Eyre w ch had been viewed by 
most of those Gentlemen, w ch they approved of and that Cap 1 

1 A signed letter from Johnson to Blanchard, dated September 7, 1 755 
was sold at Henkels's auction room in Philadelphia on November 7, 191 1. 

16 'Sir William Johnson Papers 

Eyre should plan & direct the Building One Capable of 
commodiously Garrisoning 100 Men. The General further 
acquainted the Council that a good defensible Fort w ch might be 
maintained even against some Artillery was very necessary not 
<only to secure a Retreat to the present Forces in case of Neces- 
sity, but to maintain the possession of his Majesty s Title to this 
'important pass for the time to come, and desired the> opinion of 
this Council of War thereon. 

It is the Opinion of the Majority of the Members of this 
Coun<cil> that a Picketted Fort be built without Delay under 
<the> Direction of Colonel Williams, sufP. to contain & 
accommod<ate 100> Men 



A. D. S. 
<Camp at, Lake George, 7 Sef> r /755> 

ndian?> Intelligence 

Pres 1 General Johnson Lieu* Col. Whiting 

Maj r . Gen 1 . Lyman Lieu* Col, Cole 

<Co>l. Ruggles Maj' r . Fitch 

<Co>l. Titcomb Cap* Eyre, 
Col. Williams 

Several Indian officers Wm Printup, Interp r . 
Cap* Peter Wraxall Seer? for In. <affairs.> 
Most of the Indians at this Encampment 

<Three Indians sent by the General on the Scout towards 
Crown Point returned this afternoon & bring the following 

^ Hendrik the Mohock chief being told the Intelligence by the 
s' d . three Scouts delivered it as follows 


Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


Bro". When we first set out from hence we went to South Bay 
wh<ere> we spied the Tracts of 2 Men w ch we followed & 
came to the Tracts of <3> more w ch we pursued & in Journey 
towards Evening (3 Nights ago) we heard 6 Guns fired & we 
proceeded on our Journey till Night & in the morning the day 
before Yesterday we heard so many <Guns> fired that we 
could not count them, upon w ch . we counselled tog<[ether]> & 
thought this Army must be proceeding by way of Wood Creek, 
but upon going that road we found we were mistaken for 
<there> were no tracts that way, upon w^ we turned back 
towards South Bay in our road found three large Roads made 
by a great Body of Men Yesterday w ch we judge were 
march<^ing^> towards the Carrying Place & we hereupon made 
all possible Dispatch hither to acquaint you herewith, as we 
expect there may be an Attack made at the Carr^ Place either 
to day or this Night. 

The Ind n . officers & Interp 8 . being withdrawn the General 
asked the Above officers present their Opinion wh<af> measures 
were most adviseable to pursue on the above Intelligence. And 
the General called in some of the Sachems to give their Opinion. 

Two Expresses were immediately dispatched to Col Blanchard/ 
Commanding officer at the Fort at the Carrying Place & Scouting 
Parties sent out from all the Troops h< ere, > Guards Doubled! 
& all the Men ordered to lay on their Ar<ms> all Night, all 
w ch was done with the Advice of the aforesa<id> Commanding 
officers here. 


Sea? for Ind. <Affairs & c .> 

|8 Sir William Johnson Papers 


[tat de 1'Armee franchise] 

[2 Battaillons] [774] 

[Soldats] desMilices [H56] 

[Cann]oniers [67] 

[R]eserve 362 

Sauvages 659 

Canooteurs & 2 Domestiques 67 

Officiers & Cadets des Sauvages 14 

[In]terprete et Aumoniers 4 

Nos Domestiques 8 

[Chir]u[r]giens 6 




Battaillons 774 

Milices 1393 

Troupe de la Colonie 1 92 

Cannonirs 67 

Officirs & Cadets de Sauvages 14 

Sauvages 659 


Copied from a Paper of the French Generals 

1 Not later than September 8, 1 755. Compare Rutherfurd to Shirley, 
September 22, 1 755. This State and Recapitulation in the French is 
in Public Record Office, C. O. 5.46, London, England; transmitted by 
Johnson to Shirley on September 22. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 



State of the French Army 
Soldiers of militia 

Boatmen and 2 servants 
Officers and cadets of the Indians 
Interpreter and chaplains 
Our servants 




Colonial troops 


Officers and cadets of Indians 




















Sir William Johnson Papers 


M. le B. de Dieskau General 

M. de Mercier M. de Montreuil Maj r . M. Pean Maj r . des 
Marechal des Logis Gen 1 , des Troupes Troupes & Milices 

Officiers attaches aux Mess", de Roquemaure Corps de Reserve 
Sauvages Lieu*. Col. Com dt . 

Mess rs . de S l . Pierre 
de Longeuil 
de Montesson 
de Niverville 

les Troupes de France, 

formant la Colonne du 


De Celoron Com dt . les 

Troupes de la Colonie 

M". de Re-, 


sous les 


Mess". Trebert 








La Cres- 



Environ 700 Sau- 
vages - Iroquois, Al- 
gonquins, Nipissings, 

o 3- 

n> <-* 

o" c/> 


De Raymond 
Com dt . la Colonne 
de la Droite 
De Vassan Com dl . 
la Colonne de la 


de St. 
de Cannes Off r . 

de Varennes 
de Langy 


M". La Fontaine 

De S. Pierre Com*, les 


De Repentigny Com*. 

un Corps de 

Reserve de 300 hommes 

sous les Ordres de M. de 

S*. Pierre 

300 Miliciens choisis, 

et 27 ou 30 Off", del 

Milice ou Bourgeois 


ces 300 Miliciens 

composes de 200 

Voyageurs de Mon- 

Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5.46, London, England. Inclosed 
in Johnson to Sir Thomas Robinson, January 1 7, 1 756. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 17551756 


irons, Abenakis 

Colonne de la 

M. de Vassan 
Com dt . la Colonne 

Colonne du Centre 

2 Brigades de 3 
Comp es . chacune 



Mess" de Vassan 

f de Gannes 
I de Meloise 
'I de Contre- 

Second Brigade 

Mess", de la Colom- 
biere, Com dl . 

M. de Roquemaure 
Com dt . la Colonne com- 
posee de 2 Cornp". de 
Grenadiers de la Reine et 
Languedoc, en tete 
8 Pelotons de la Reine 
8 Pelotons de Languedoc 
La Comp ie . des Canoniers, 
Bombardiers, et des Mili- 
formant la Colonne 


Les Sauvages et le Corps 
de Reserve formant 
Chaque Comp e . des deux 
Colonnes composee d'un 
Sergent, d'un Corporal, 
de 15 ou 16 Soldats des 
Troupes de la Colonies et 
de 100 Miliciens plus ou 

Douville 2 Tambours par Brigade 
de farro- 


de Mor- 

treal, 30 des trois 
Rivieres, et 70 de 

Colonne de la Droite 

M r . de Raymond 
Com dt . la Colonne 

2 Brigades de 3 
Comp 68 . chacune 

Premiere Brigade 

M s . de Raymond 
Com dt . 

de Becan- 

.^ i i j 
de la ronde 


Second Brigade 

M rs . de Beaujeu 

Cadet d'Albergathy, 
garcon Major des 2 

du muy 
de Beran- 
3 Comp 8 . - ger 

de L'Es- 

Cadet de L'Esper- 
vanche, garcon Major 
des deux Brigades 
de Vicherville garden 
Major de Brigade 


Sir William Johnson Papers 

Dusable garden 

Le Chev. de la Mil- 
tiere Cadet de Lan- 
guedoc gar^on Major 
de Brigade 



Baron Dieskau General 

M. de Mercier 

M. de Montreuil Maj r . M. Pean Maj r . of 
G 1 . of Regulars Regulars & Militia 

Officers in the Indian Mess", de Roquemaure 
service Lieu 1 : Col. Com*: 

Mess" deS 1 : Pierre 
de Longeuil 
de Montesson 
de Niverville 

Mess". Trebert 







the Regulars of France, 
forming the Column of 
the Center 

De Celoron Corns, the 
Troops of the Colony 

De Raymond 
Com. the Right 

De Vassan Corns, 
the Left Column 

Reserve corps 


under the 
orders of 

Repen -JM.deS': 
tlgn y [ Pierre 
de Cannes 
Off r . Major 1 
de Varennes 
de Langy 


Mess" : La Fontaine 

300 picked Militia, 

1 Garrison major 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


La Cres- 

>ut 700 Indians- 
iroquois, Algon- 
quins, Nipissings, 
Hurons, Abenakis 

De S<: Pierre Com*, the 


De Repentigny Com*, a 

Reserve Corps of 300 

men under the orders of 

M. de S<: Pierre 

Column of the Center 

and 27 or 30 ofK 
of Militia or volun- 
teer Citizens. 
These 300 Militia 
composed of 200 
Rangers from Mon- 
treal 30 from Trois 
Rivieres, and 70 
from Quebec 

Left Column 

M. de Vassan Com 8 , 
the Column 

2 Brigades of 3 
Comp 8 : each 

First Brigade 

Mess", de Vassan 

de Cannes 

2 p 8 i de Meloise 
" i de Contre- 

M. de Roquemaure 
Corns, the Column com- 
posed of 2 Comp 8 : of 
Grenadiers of la Reine 
and Languedoc, at the 

8 Platoons of la Reine 
8 Platoons of Languedoc 
The Compy: of the Artil- 
lerymen, gunners, and 
Militia forming the 

Right Column 

M. de Raymond 
Corns, the Column 

2 Brigades of 3 
Comp 8 . each 

First Brigade 

Mess" : de Raymond 

de Becan- 


Second Brigade 

Mess", de la Colom- 
biere, Corns. 


3 Comp 8 :^ 

The Indians and the 
Reserve Corps forming 
the van-guard 
Each Compy. of the two 
Columns composed of a 
Sergeant, of a Corporal, 
of 15 or 16 Soldiers of 
de Farro- the Colony Troops and of 
bert 100 Militia more or less 

de Mor- 

3 CompV 


Second Brigade 

Mess": de Beaujeu 
fDu Muy 
Ide Beran- 
3 Comp s J ger 

[ pervanche 

24 Sir William Johnson Papers 

2 Drums to a Brigade Cadet de L'Esper- 

Cadet d'Albergathy, vanche assistant Ad- 
assistant Adjutant of jutant of the two 
the 2 Brigades Brigades 

de Vicherville assist- 

Dusable assistant ant Adjutant of Bri- 

Adjutant gade 

Chevalier de la Mil- 
tiere Cadet of Lan- 
guedoc assistant Ad- 
jutant of Brigade 


D. S.' 
<Gzmp at Lake George, 9 Sept. /755> 

Minutes of a Council of War held by General Johnson: 
^Pres 4 ^ General Johnson ^Lieu*^ Col. Cole 

<Maj r > General Lyman Maj r Fitch 

.> Ruggles Cap*. Eyre. 

J > Col. Pomroy 
<Lieu<> Col. Whiting 

Cap 1 . Peter Wraxall Seer*. 

The General Accquainted this Council that he had call<ed> 
them together in order to consider, in the present State of th<is> 
Army, & from the Intelligence gained from the French General 
his Aid de Camp & several Prisoners taken & from the Papers 
gained from the Enemy ; what Measures they would advise to be 
taken at this critical Conjun<cture>. 

The Unamious Opinion of this Council is <that> the Gen- 
eral be desired immediately to dispatch an Express to the several 
Gov' 8 . who have raised Troops on this Expedition <by> One 
general Letter to be sent to the Province of the Massachusetts 

PQ o 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 25 

lay, giving as Summary an Account as time & Circumstances 
permit of the Engage<ment> of Yesterday & of the Intel- 
ligence derived from it & the present State of this Army, and 
th<at> we employ all our time in securing ourselves here in 
the best manner possible. 

P. Lyman 

Tim . Ruggles 

Seth Pomeroy 

Nathan Whiting 

Edw d . Cole 

Eleaz Fitch 

Will: Eyre 


The Library Collection contains the draft in poor condition of John- 
son's report, written September 9th and 1 0th, to the colonial governors 
on the Battle of Lake George. (See Johnson Calendar, p. 48.) It 
was printed in the London Magazine, 24, 1 755 and reprinted in Doc. 
Hist. N. 7., 2:691-95; Q, 2:402-5. 

In Doc. Hist. N. y., 2:696, reprinted from the Gentleman s Maga- 
zine, is a small map of the country round Lake George. In Doc. Rel. 
to Col. Hist. N. y., v. 6, are printed four papers relating to the battle 
of September 8th: a letter of September 10th from Peter Wraxall, at 
Lake George, to James De Lancey, giving an account of the battle, 
p. 10034; a letter of the 10th, containing a gunner's description, p. 
1 005 ; returns, dated the 1 1 th, of killed, wounded and missing, p. 
1006-7; and Johnson's conference on the llth and 12th with Indian 
warriors, p. 101 1-13. In Doc. Hist. N. Y., 2:689-90, is an account 
brought to New York from Albany of the battle and reinforcements in 
motion. In Doc. Rel to Col Hist. N. Y., 10: between p. 316 and 399, 
are a number of letters, reports and narratives, from the French, relating 
to the battle of the 8th. They include letters from Baron Dieskau, 
M. de Vaudreuil, Vaudreuil's instructions to Dieskau, a journal and 
letters of M. de Montreuil, '* Dialogue between Marshal Saxe and Baron 
de Dieskau in the Elysian Fields," reports by Commissary Doreil, and 
other matter. A letter from Dieskau, dated New York, June 22, 1 756, 
to Count d'Argenson, contains praise of Johnson's humanity in saving 
Dieskau from the vengeance of the Indians, p. 422-23. 

26 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 


<9 Sept /755 l > 

<Questions ask>ed the French <Prisoners and their answers, 
being Sworn upon the Holy> Cross 

The Deposition of John <Ferry> 

< Questions how many Regiments Came from France this 

Answer 6 Battalions 500 men in Each. 

Question how many men of these <[Battalions> Arrived at 

Answer 4 Battalions of 2 Came to Crown <Point and> 
2 Went to Cateracowa one in July and one in August 

Question how many Regulars Came from the Carrying Place. 8 

Answer about <500,> of which 340 Came here and 120 
Stayed with the Battoes. 

The Deposition of James Minor. 

Question When Did you Come From Mount Real <Mon- 

Answer the 25 of August. 

Question how many Canadians and Indians Was the Came 

Answer, about 1000 Canadians and 800 Indians. 

Question When Did you Get to Crown Point. 

Answer the first of September. 

Question how many Day Provisions Did you bring from 
Crown Point. 

Answer 1 5 Days Provisions in about 1 00 Battoes. 

Question how many men Came from the fort to the Carrying 

Answer 3500. 

Question how many men Did you leave at Crown Point 

Answer 250. 

1 The conjectural date is supplied. 
2 At Ticonderoga. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 27 

Question how Many men Came in the party that attacked us, 

Answer 1800. 

Question how long Did it take you to Come from the Carrying 
lace to where you Left your Battoes to Come here. 

Answer one Day and a half. 

Question how long Did it take you to Come there to where you 
met our party. 

Ans r 3i Days the Distance about 36 miles. 

Question Did not all the Militia That Could be Raised at 
Mount Real Come out upon this party. 

Ans r most all. 

Question Where there was plenty of Provision at Crown point 

Answer there Was. 

The Deposition of Cap*. James Couraveau. 

Question What number of Ships and Troops Came to Que- 
beck this Summer. 

Ans r He Could not tell But thought about 1 400. 

Ques*. when Did <you> Come from Mount Real. 

Ans r . in Aug 1 . 

Question how many men Came with you to Crown point 

Ans r about 3000. 

Quest, are not the Greatest number of the Militia In Canady 
Gone out to the Several Forts. 

Ans r , they are the Greatest Number of them. 

Ques 1 . are provisions plenty in Canady 

Ans r . they are in Sufficiency. 

Question how many men Came on this Detach <ment> that 
attacked this Fort. 

Ans r . about 1 700. 

< Question in what places the French are throwing up Works 
between here and Crown point. > 

<Ans r at the> Narrows. 1 

1 Not the Narrows of Lake George, but the passage in Lake Champlain 
variously known as the Two Rocks, Pulpit Rock and the Narrows. See 
Fitch's Map of Washington County, New York, in Trans, of N. Y. State 
Agricultural Society, 9: opposite p. 932. 

28 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

Question Whether he Knew where he was Designed <when 
he Set> out. 

Answer no but Supposed for the fort <at the> Carrying 

INDORSED BY WRAXALL: Examination of Some French 

Prisoners taken at Lake George 
7 b ' 1755 

A. L. S. 

<Sep*. 70* /755.> 

May itt Plese yuor Excelancy 

as I had y e . honour of A Letter <from> you this Sumer on 
Indian Affairs with a Me<sidge> to Scaroadey which I 
Deliverd him before Brad<ck,> and Return d . you his answer 
which I hoop you have Received I Make Bold att present to 
Wright you to <^give^> you Some account of y e . Situation of 
Indian Affairs in those parts. Since y e . unhapy Defeatt of ginreal 

1 George Croghan was born in Ireland, and died at Passayunk, Pa., 
in 1 782. After coming to America, he lived on the west bank of the 
Susquehanna river, early engaging in the Indian trade. His knowledge 
of the aboriginal character and languages led to his employment as the 
Pennsylvania agent in the Ohio country. With a commission as captain, 
he accompanied Braddock in the expedition against Fort Duquesne. In 
1 756 Croghan entered Johnson's Indian department and was made deputy 
agent, having in charge the Pennsylvania and Ohio tribes, and for a num- 
ber of years continued a management of Indian affairs that was marked 
with skill and courage. He made a settlement near Fort Pitt; and in 
1 768 secured from the Indians a tract of 1 00,000 acres between Otsego 
lake and Unadilla river in New York. At the outbreak of the Revolution 
he was a member of the Pittsburgh committee of correspondence. A 
daughter of Croghan married a British officer, Lieutenant Augustine Pre- 
vost, afterward, in the war of the Revolution, General Prevost. Part of 
the tract on Otsego lake became the property in 1 783 of William Cooper, 
father of James Fenimore Cooper, the novelist. See Doc. Rel. to Col. 
Hist. N. 7., 7:982-83 (note). 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 29 

Bradock the purticklors of which Action you have Seen in the 
papers the Indians from y e . Ohio has this Sumer kilK and Tuck 
prisoners Nott Less then 100 hundred of Men Women and 
Children outt of y e . back Setelments of Verginia to ohio. there 
has been some Indians att Philedelphia from o<hio> Since 
our Defeete to Treat with this goverment Some of which I am 
<^Shure^> was in y e action against us that Day genreal 
Brad<ock> was Defeated what y e . Governor and them has 
Don I Cant Tell butt itt is My opinion we have very few Indians 
to Depend on Nor Do I See any pains Takeing by any of y e . 
Goverments hear to Draw any of y e . Indians back or Even to 
Secure those that are yett in our Intrest. I main y e . Suthered 
Indians who I judge will Soon be Drown to y e . french Intrest as 
Governer Glin purchest there Cuntry from them which has been 
y e . Case with y e . Indians on Suskahanna Sence M r . Pen purshest 
y c . Land Last att Albany Cheefe of which Indians are Since 
flead to ohio and undoubtedly become Aleys to y e . french as 
you are Scensable all Indians hate to Live on any Land that 
they Cant Call thire own. 

<A Great Many of ye uper Chorigees^> is unready Crost 
y c . greatt < Mountain and gon> to Setle on y e . ohio y e . Six 
Nations Seems <very Muc>h of y e . french side of y e . question 
and Dose all <they C>an to oblidge all y e Tribes Setled on 
ohio to Joyne y e , french this is only My own opinion of y e . 
Six Nations You are a better Judge which way they are 
Inclin d . then I can be Butt I Ashure y r . Excellancy without there 
be Imediatt Industry us d . with y e . Southerd Indians and what 
few are hear of y e . Six Nations Dalaway & Shannas yett 
Remaining y e . whole will be in y e . french Intrest by Next May 
for y e . french are Now Makeing what Indostrey they Can 
AMongst y e . Southerd Indians and <un>less you give Posatiff 
Instructions to y e , governers <hear> To Secure y c . Intrest of 
those Indians I Despair <of> itt being Don and indeed Direc- 
tions how they Should proceed for they hate to be att any 
Expence or Truble Nor Do any of them understand Indian 

30 . Sir William Johnson Papers 

Affairs I hoope you will pardon Me for Taking upon Me to 
give you So Long and Tadious an Acount butt as I am Scensable 
y e . Weight of all Indian Affairs in those parts Lays on you and 
that ginreal Bradock putt Me on kings pay for My Asistance 
with y e . Indians here I think itt My Duty and persweeds My 
Self y r . Excelancy will Excuse Me giveing you this Truble as 
y c . unhapy Difrence between governor Morris and our ASembly 
hear has prevented this goverment from Doing any thing for y e . 
Defence of this Cuntry and as I Live 30 Miles back of all Inhab- 
itance on y e fronteers I have been oblidg d . to <Rase a Volunteer 
Company on My own> Expence and am building <a Small 
Stockade fort to Secure> what Litle Estate I have Left which 
<Men and My> Self will be Ready att any Time to Serve 
<his Magesty> when CalK On I Expect you will See Capt. 
orme y e <ginreel's> Eadecapt who Can Inform you on what 
footing Gin<>eal> Bradock put Me or whether I Don My 
Duty as far <as> was putt in My power if I can be of any 
Service in y e . Expedition to you or in Indian Afairs in this Part 
of y e . Country I Shall be very Proud to Serve his Magisty and 
Expects y r Intrest if you Shall think Me Deserving on Inquiring 
into My Conection and *you will Write Me an answer by y e . 
first opertunity. I am y r . Excelancy's Most hum<ble> and 
obeedent Servant 

Cumberland County 

ADDRESSED: On His Majesties Service 



Major General William Johnson 
at his head Quarters. 

INDORSED: George Croghans Letter 
dated Sep*. 11. 1755 

1 Manuscript torn. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 31 

Contemporary Copyi 1 

Lake George 10 th : Sef> r : 1755. 


As Major General Johnson is sending your Excellency an 
Express to inform your Excellency of our Affairs in these parts, 
I take the Opportunity to inform you, that by his Order I have 
built a Fort at the Carrying place, which will contain 300 Men; 
it's in the form of a Square with three Bastions, & takes in Col 
Lydius's House; This Worke is pallisaded quite round, which 
is its chief Security from a surprize or sudden Attack; as I was 
oblig'd to leave that place, and most of the Troops to come here, 
it was out of my power to make the Rampart and Parapet, of 
a sufficient height and thickness, to stand Cannon, or the Ditch 
wide and deep enough to make it's Passage very difficult; how- 
ever I think 3 or 400 Men will be able to resist 1 500, provided 
they do their Duty, if Cannon is not brought against it. I beg 
leave to inform Your Excellency, that I am of Opinion, its very 
necessary that a strong and regular Work is erected at this place, 
to keep possession, so far of this Country, and the more so, if it 
should be found not practicable to go any further this Campaigne. 

The Enemy by all Accounts are very formidable, & I think 
it not improbable, they will pay us another Visit soon: if they 
can seize, and take our Work at the Carrying Place, I fear it 
would be attended with bad Consequences, as it would cut off 
our retreat and Communication with Albany, and totally stop 
our Reinforcements and Provisions from Joining us; if another 
Road could be not found ; which I believe is not easy to be met 
with. I cannot help thinking, that what induced the French, or 
may induce them hereafter to attack us here, is fearing we would 
not attempt to go any further, so was resolved to cutt us off before 
we retired ; for surely, if they are a match for us, and dare Storm 

Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5. 46. London, England. Inclosed 
in Shirley to Sir Thomas Robinson, October 5, 1755. 

32 Sir William Johnson Papers 

our Camp so far from Crown Point ; and consequently from their 
own Strength, how much more advantage would they have over 
us, if they waited for our approaching them, and that with part 
of our force; whilst they could make use of all theirs, besides 
being posted advantageously; it's certain the Enemy behaved 
gallantly, and did much more than I thought they dare attempt: 
however they are repulsed, and their General taken, who I 
beleive to be an excellent Officer, and who we are sure of is a 
Man of resolution; these few thoughts I beg leave to throw 
before your Excellency: General Johnson was wounded soon 
after the Action began, in encouraging the Troops, and making 
the necessary disposition to sustain the Attack, the Numbers of 
our killed, Wounded and missing I presume he acquaints you of, 
but the loss of the Enemy is very uncertain. I sincerely wish 
your Excellency Success. 

And am 

Your Excellency's most Obedient 
humble Servant 

Will: Eyre. 

His Excellency General Shirley, 
a true Copy Ex a . by 



Letter from Cap 1 . Eyre 

to Major General Shirley 

dated 10 th : Sep r : 1755. 

N. 2. in Maf. Gen 1 . Shirley's Letter 

of Oct r . 5*: 1755. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1 7 55-1 7 56 


A. L. S. 

[Albany. Sep'. /2, 7755] 


I shou'd before have Acknowledged [ ] 4 th 

Ins 1 , the Moment I receiv'd it, I sent to the Mayor, [ ] 

Vanderhyden, who took such Measures as they thought Proper 
I did all in my Power to Secure his Majestys Garrison I also 
gave Intelligence to Col Glen & the Commanding Officer of 
ffort Cosby 

I now with the greatest Pleasure Congratulate You on Your 
happy Victory of which however I know no Particulars but 
[ ] Report, for I am sorry to tell You that the 

Mayor & Corporation have not once Communicated to me any 
letter they receiv'd Nor let me know of an> Express they sent 
away. You will be Perhaps likewise Informed that I have not 
fired any Guns on the Joyfull Occasion, which I hope You will 
be Assured did not proceed from any want of Respect to You, 
but in the first Place from not receiving any Message or Informa- 
tion from the Mayor (Except what Cap*. Correy told me in a 
Private Maner) and next from being soe short of Powder to 
fire a Round, and I thought a Single Gunn only would Alarm 
the Country. 

You Sir May be (and I hope are) Convinced of My Sincere 
regard for You and believe I do not only re Joyce in Your Success 
as it Respects the Public We [1] fare but in a More particular 
Manner. Am truly Glad of the Honour You have Obtained 
which I hope will Increase In Your Compleat Triumph over 
Our Enemys Pardon any More but hope this will find You in 
Perfect Health & beg my Respects may be Acceptable & when 
You will please to Honour me with any Commands they shall 
be Punctualy Obey'd by him who is with the greatest Respect, 

Your most Obed* humble Serv*. 

Vol. II 2 

34 Sir William Johnson Papers 

P. S. My Complim ts to Gen 1 Lyman &c Cap 1 Eyres, Raxall 
& all Your Officers I shall be Obliged to You for the Honour 
of a line only to satisfy me You receiv'd this Letter. 

To The Hon ble MAJOR GEN L JOHNSON Commander in 
Chief of all his Majestys [forces] at Lake George &c 

INDORSED BY WRAXALL: Hub 1 Marshal 12 Sep r . 

Rec d . 20 d<> 

1755 Ans d . 21 d<> 


L. S. 
Camp at Oswego September 12 17 [55] 


I am to acknowledge the Receipt of your Letter dated 1 st . 
Instant from the Camp at Lake George inclosing a Copy of the 
Minute of your Council of War held at the Great Carrying place 
the 22 d . and 23 d . of August. 

No Apology is wanting for your not sending me a particular 
Answer to my Letter of the 4 th . past; instead of wishing to have 
one, I could wish I had not receiv'd your Letter of the 27 th . July 
in Answer to mine of the seventeenth. 

I am sorry to hear that the Fatigue of the Duty, you are 
engag'd in, hath made a bad Impression upon your Health; I am 
sensible, it must be great, and heartily wish you Health to go 
through it. 

For my part, I have had one continu'd Scene of Disap- 
pointrn 18 . from the Want of Waggons, and Desertion of Battoe- 
men, &c from the time of my leaving Schenectady to this Hour, 
which, with the great Increase of Business, that has fallen upon 
me by the Death of Major General Braddock, hath given me a 
very great Share of <the> Fatigue. 

It gives me great Satisfaction to find by Letters from the Lieut 1 . 
Gov r . of the Massachusetts Bay, and the Gov t . of Connecticut 
in answer to mine pressing them to send you a Reinforcement, 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 35 

mt you are by this time a thousand Men at least stronger, than 
rhen I left you at Albany ; and by the Minute of the Council of 

r ar, that you are probably before now join'd by the New Hamp- 
lire Forces, which there was some Reason to despair of your 
ever being. 

The Chief Command of His Majesty's Forces in North 
America being devolv'd upon me by the Death of Major General 
Braddock, Colonel Dunbar the Commanding Officer of the 
"orces to the Westward hath apply 'd to me for Orders ; I had 

jfore directed him to march the Troops to Albany, there to 
wait further Orders ; and expect they will begin to move very soon 
thither, where they will be at hand to be employ'd in any part of 
his Majesty's Service relative either to the Expedition under my 
own Command, or that under your's, that may require 'em; and 
for that Purpose, must desire you to let me know from you as 
frequently as you can, the Situation of the latter, in as particular 
manner as may be. 

I am not a Judge of which is the most advantageous Route for 
your Forces to march thro' to Crown point. But think in general 
that the Opinion and Advice of your Council of War was right: 
and I am of their Opinion with regard to the Strength and Oppo- 
sition, you are threaten'd with, (w * 1 . yet I expect will be a Strong 
one) that great Allowances are to be made for French Boasting: 
I have letely rec d . here a Letter from Admiral Boscawen, inclos- 
ing a Copy of one, he had wrote to the late General Braddock, 
in w ch . he says the French Squadron had on Board Six Bat- 
taillons of Foot, eight Companies of w ch : he took in the Lys, that 
1 1 00 of the Troops were in Garrison at Louisbourg ; so that sup- 
posing all the Rest were destin'd for, and had got safe into 
Canada, & that none of the 3000 were lost upon their Passage, 
there will remain by that Ace*, but 1 500. 

The Intelligence, you receiv'd from Canada by your Indians, 
of 300 Battoes being gone to Cadaraqui is I believe in part true; 
it agrees in Substance with undoubted Intelligence, I have receiv'd 
from some of the Indians with me, and confirm'd by a Party, 
which I sent to an Island very near the Fort; But I believe the 

36 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

Number of Battoes may be something magnify 'd: That there is 
now a number of Regular Troops there, of 500 at least, I cer- 
tainly know from the number of Officers Tents in an Incampment, 
w ch . was seen by our People at three Quarters of a Mile Distance, 
and the Dimensions of the Ground, it takes up; it is said by 
another Indian that a Month ago he was to<ld> at the Fort by 
the French that they expected a much larger <N>umber of 
Forces than that very soon from Canada, & then they should 
make a Visit to Oswego. 

By an Ace*., I have had from Niagara, there seems reason to 
think that the Indians, who were concerned in the Defeat of the 
late General, are much disgusted at the Treatment, they have 
<re>ceiv'd from the French both at the time, & since that 
Action, which w*. the loss of Men, they received in it (said to be 
30 at <le>ast) and the Opinion, they have conceiv'd from it of 
the Bravery of the English notwithstanding the general Ignominy 
thrown upon the unfortunate Army by their own Countrymen, 
that the Action may possibly not operate so much to the prejudice 
of the English, as we had reason to fear it might. 

I am sorry to find from the Minute of your Council of War 
that the Cagnawagas seem so obstinately bent to take up the 
Hatchet on the Side of the French; it is possible, the loss of 
forty or fifty of them may open their Eyes to perceive the Folly 
of their taking part in the Quarrels between the Engl<ish> and 

I am unwilling to mention any thing here concerning Ind<ian> 
Affairs; But am oblig'd from a Letter, I have within three 
Day<s> received from Sir Thomas Robinson one of his 
Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State, to repeat it to you to 
send me a Copy of the Instructions, you receiv'd from the late 
General Braddock, together a Copy of his Commission to you 
for the management of Indian Affairs. 

I wish you Success in His Majesty's Service now under your 
Command, and am, Sir, Your most Humble Servant, 


Preliminary Campaigns, 7755-7756 



A. L. S. 
Saturday 13 Sep. 7755. 3 oClock P M 


I have beg'd the favour of D r . Shuckburgh to write you a few 
Lines : But as I have a moments time I shall just inform you that 
last Night Gov r . Hardy received the Copy of a Letter from Col. 
Blanchard dated the 9 th : Instant wrote before he had received a 
full Account of the Event of the preceeding day. We are much 
encouraged by a Letter from D r Middleton wrote at the same 
time so hope you have at least kept your Post if not beet the 
French. To Morrow, S r . Charles, 1 Lieu*. Gov r . de Lancey, 
(M r . Pownall), Cap*. Rutherford & one other of the Council, 
M r . Horsmanden I surmise, & my self are to set out for Albany, 
I dont yet know, but suppose M r . Barrens the Gov rs . Secretary 
will go. M r . O. de Lancey goes afterward I believe & talks of 
raising a small Company as a Body Guard to his Excy, who has 
most favourable Sentiments of you and is perfectly well 
acquainted with your Character: We have taken 3 Snows, and 
it is said 4 Ships laden with Prov s . for Louisburgh. Adieu my 
dear S r . and believe me to be yours w th the most sincere affection 


P. S: If your Stores are expended, or there is want of 'em I 
suppose you'l send an immediate account 

1 Sir Charles Hardy was born in England in 1716(?) and died at 
Portsmouth, England, May 18, 1780. Entering the navy in 1731, he 
was elevated in 1741 to the command of the Rpe; and in 1744 went 
out to Newfoundland in charge of a convoy. In 1 755 he was knighted 
and made governor of New York, an office from which he retired in 1 75 7, 
returning to England. The following year he assisted in the reduction 
of Louisburg ; and the next year had a part in the naval victory of Quiberon 
Bay. In 1 762 he was promoted to a vice admiral's rank, and in 1 770 
to that of admiral of the blue. Four years later he was chosen to represent 
Portsmouth in parliament. In 1779 Hardy commanded the channel 
squadron, which successfully operated, though without an engagement, 
against a combined French and Spanish fleet, formed to facilitate an 
invasion of the British coast. See Dictionary of National Biography. 

38 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A. L. S. 

Camp at the Great Carrying place 
Sept' 14*. 1755 


M r . Lyman ComysJ. I have let him have a party consisting of 
a Lieu*, one Serj*. one Corp 1 & thirty men to Guard the Waggons 
till they meet a party from Your Camp to relieve them. 

John Thomson of the Mohawk's Country left our Camp the 
Day before your letter came to hand. Our people at present is 
some thing better I hope you will Order me to joyn you very 
soon. I expect we shall have a Mutiny as soon as Our Soldiers 
here that the are allow'd half a pint of rum 3P Day by y e 
Provin [ce] . I have Issued no more all along then a Gil. 

Please to fill up Lieu*. Mich 1 Thodey Commission as Cap*,, 
in the Room of C. Van Den Bourgh Deceasd. as to our Serg*. 
Major I am afraid will not answer for a Lieutenant. If poor C. 
M c .Ginnis Compy. is not fill'd up, I shall take it as a favour you 
be pleased to let me have it as it's a Coustomary thing for Field 
Officers to have Company's. I wish You joy of the good Success 
you lately meet with. I wish I had a few good Carpenters, & 
some Wall pieces, we have Six French Prisoners shall be glad 
to Know what I am to doe with them. I am Sir 

Y r Most Obd'. Serv'. 


ADDRESSED: To Major Gen 1 . Johnson 
at Fort George 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


A. D. S. 

Head Quarters <Camp at Lake George Sunday 14 Sef> r 

/755> 1 

At a Council of War held by Maj r <Gen 1 Johnson> 
Pres*. Major Gen 1 Johnson Lieu*. Col. Whiting 

Maj r . Gen 1 Lyman 
Col. Ruggles 
Col. Blanchard 
Lieu 1 Col. Bagly 
Lieu* Col. Gilbert 

Lieu*. Col. Cole 

Major Fitch 

Cap* Eyre Quarter M r Gen 1 & c . 

M r Glazier Adjut* Gen 1 . 

Peter Wraxall Secr^. 

Art clc 1 The General Acquainted this Council of War, that 
from the late Designs of the Enemy to attack the Fortifica- 
tio<ns^> at the Great Carrying Place, he is apprehensive the 
Enemy may yet make an attempt upon it and as it has no Cannon 
to defend it & is a Post of the utmost Importance to us par- 
ticularly at this Juncture, he proposes to reinforce it with the 3 
Connecticut Companys now here belonging to the New York 
Reg*, and that the whole of said Reg*, should be posted there till 
further Orders, unless this Council of War should give him good 
reasons to the contrary or advise any Measure more eligible. 

2 The General acquainted this Council of War that his 
Opinion had always inclined to have some stronger Fortifications 
than a picketted Fort built here, but had yielded to the Opinion 
of the Council of War & to their Informations that most of the 
Troops had an Aversion to digging & that the Majority of the 

1 In Doc. Rel. to Col Hist. N. Y., v. 6, is a letter of September 14th 
from Sir Charles Hardy to the lords of trade, reporting Johnson's success 
on September 8th, p. 1002-3. In Doc. Hist N. Y., 2:697-98, is a 
minute of the provincial council of the 14th, containing intelligence of the 
action of the 8th and measures for provisioning Johnson's army and observ- 
ing a thanksgiving day. 

40 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

officers & Troops were eagerly bent on having on<ly a> pick- 
etted Fort. 

<As to the First Article, this Council> of War are of 
Opinion <tbat the s'd. Three Com>panys now under Maj r . 
Fitch 3 , Command should <be sent> to reinforce the remainder 
of the New York Reg*, at the Great Carrying Place. 


(N. B.) The Second Article was read to the Council but the 
General did not take any vote or Resolution thereon, finding the 
Council averse to having any other Fort than a picketted one. 

INDORSED BY WRAXALL: Minutes of Council of War 

HSep'. 1755. 


Df. S. 1 
Camp at LaJ^e George /5 Sep r . 1755. 


I have your Letter of this Day by Lieu 1 Thoody. 2 The filling 
up the vacancies in your Reg 1 , must be deferred till the hurry of 
Buisness is a little abated. 

When the Men know they are allowed half a Pint of Rum a 
day & will not be easy without it you must 'een let 'em have it. 

With this Convoy you will receive 22 Prison <ers,> some of 
them are badly wounded & I hope your Humanity will lead you 
to have them dressed & taken proper care of, & keep a strict & 
good Guard over those who are capable of making their escape, 
and when a good Guard goes down to Albany let them be sent to 
the Magistrates there in order to be forwarded to New York. 

I send part of the three Companys of your Reg*, with these 
Waggons & the remainder will set out to morrow with the French 

1 By Wraxall. 

2 Lieutenant Michael Thody, of Captain Isaac Corsa's Westchester 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1 7 55-1 7 56 41 

General The Baron De Dieskau & his Aid de Camp. I desire 
you will prepare the best Accommodations possible for the Gen- 
eral & during his Stay to have him treated with the utmost respect 
& good Usage & to forward him to Albany in the Litter & by a 
Battoe as he shall Choose & D r . Middleton (who is to attend 
him) advise. His Aid de Camp & the French Man out of the 
Rhode Island Reg 1 , are to attend him. It will be proper in a 
Civil way to keep a sharp Eye on the Aid de Camp And the 
officer who goes down to Albany to keep a good look out. 

Pray use your best Endeavours to keep up good Guards, Peace 
& Order amongst the Troops under your Command, & keep in a 
watchful Posture against the Enemy. I woud have you daily 
send out small parties of 3, 4 or 5 to Scour the Woods for a mile 
or two round you. 

The Waggons are to return to Albany in order to bring up 
more Provisions as fast as they can. pray do y r . Commissaries 
p<jo>vide any Waggons or send any provisions up. I some 
time ago sent a positive Order to all the Commissaries to dis- 
p<^a^>tch the whole Provision & Stores with the utmost Expedi- 
tion. I hope you have taken care to enforce my orders upon y r . 
Commissaries, that no future Blame may lay at y r . Door. 

The Remainder of the Waggons will set off tomorrow Morn- 
ing with the Tents & c . of your Companys. 

I am Sir Your hum Serv*. 


You will send down the Prisoners you have to Albany along 
with y e rest & transmit me in writing what Intelligence you can 
get from them. 

Ensign Stevens who Commands a Party of the Connecticut 
Militia is to take charge of the Pris rs . to Albany, those who can 
make an Escape you must secure properly. 

INDORSED BY WRAXALL : Gen ls . Letter to Col 

Cockcroft with 
Prisoners & c . 
and the CoK Letter 

42 , Sir William Johnson Papers 


Camp at Lake George 15 Sep r . 1755 

I herewith send you a Power to impress Waggons, Horses & 
Drivers for the use of the present Expedition & I re[fer] you to 
the Preamble of the same for the reasons for my so doing. We 
have only 60 Waggons come in last night all we have had for 
near 10 days & if they had [not] arrived we should have wanted 
Bread. I gave sometime [ ] the most positive Orders in 

my Power for sending with the ut[most] dispatch possible all 
the Provisions & Stores belonging to the Army lying at Albany, 
but I find by the Accounts I receive that people hide their Wag- 
gons & Horses & that it is with the utmost Difficulty that any can 
be got, as large reinforce [ments] are coming to us & the greater 
part of our Stores behind, and the season for this Expedition 
wearing away, there is a most absolute necessity in order to carry 
the same into Execution, that all our Provisions & Stores should 
be sent from Albany w[ith]out Delay. I therefore call on & 
crave your utmost assist [ance] to obtain or impress all the Wag- 
gons & Horses in your County in order to make but one or two 
turns & to bring the remainder of the Battoes from the Carrying 
Place hither for w ch purpose [ ] or 800 Waggons will be 

necessary, & I shall upon Advice [ ] proper Guard 

to escourt them. I have ordered all [ ] who com- 

mand any of the Reinforcements coming to [ ] to 

take under their Convoy such Waggons as may [be] ready. The 
Commissaries are not able to procure Wag[gons] by their own 
Authority. I therefore call yours in [ ] assistance. 

I apprehend there are more Waggons to be had in the County of 
Albany than we want, but your Warrant empowers you to 
impress in the Neighbour [ing] Counties if found necessary. The 

By Wraxall. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 43 

want of Wag[gons] will I fear retard our proceedings w** may 
stop the Expedition] 

Those Waggoners who have deserted I expect you will put 
into Jail without Exception as also all those who will not obey 
the Legal calls upon them and that in all respects you will exert 
yourselves to promote & forward His Majesty s Service as you 
will answer the Contrary upon a Remonstrance that will be made 

I am gent n . & c . 

I send from hence to Col. Cockcroft 22 French Pris rs . there 
are 5 or 6 more at the Carrying Place w ch Col Cockcroft will 
send along with these. You will please to give the officer a 
Receipt for them & provide Passage for 'em to New York except 
one 1 who is to be deliv* 1 . to Cap*. Corry [for?] the Indians. 

of the City of Albany 

INDORSED : Generals Letter to the May'. 
& Magistrates of Albany 
with Warrant for im- 
pressing Waggons & c . 


M. Le Baron De Diersau Marechal Des Camp[s] et armees 
envoye en Canada pour Commander toutes Les troups. 

De Barnier Aide De Camp, Lieu* reform [e] De royal 
suedois ensuite place a la suite De ulay Dartois 


The Baron Dieskau, Major General, sent as commander in 
chief to Canada 

De Barnier, Aid-de-camp, half-pay lieutenant of the Royal 
Swedish, later ranked in succession to Ulay Dartois 

^ee Doc. Rd. to Col. Hist. N. Y. t 7:55, for delivery of French 
prisoners to Indians. 

2 Memoranda jotted down, which have no reference to the document. 

44 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 


Camp at Lake George </6 Sepr. /755> 


Major Fitch will deliver you this, he Marches with the 
remainder of the 3 Companies of your Regiment, by the first 
oppertunityl desire you will transmit me a general return of your 
Regm*. The French General and <^his> Aid de Camp go 
under Major Fitchs Convoy. I repeat my desire that you will 
receive the General with all due respect and take care that he is 
so treated by every Body, dont let any one Croud about him to 
indulge their impertinent and ill mannered Curiosity. You will 
have a good Eye upon the Aid de Camp. I would have Cap*. 
Schuyler and 50 good picked Men go with the Baron, his Aid de 
Camp and the Waggons verry early tomorrow Morning, for 
Albany and if possible to go thro in a day. Doctor Middleton 
is to accompany the Baron down to New York on their Arrival 
at Albany, Cap 1 . Schyler is to conduct the Baron and his Aid 
de Camp to my House and it is my positive Order to Cap* 
Schyler to keep the Baron and his Aid de Camp clear of the Mob 
and so to range his People and March them as to suffer no Person 
to come within them. Let Cap 1 . Schyler deliver the Letter here- 
with to Cap*. Marshall who I have desired to send a Serg*. and 
6 Men as a constant Guard at my House till the General and his 
Aid de Camp imbark for New York. I think it will be proper 
to send a Cap*. & <50> Men to reinforce Cap 1 . Schylers Guard 
for 4 or 5 Miles from your Fort, let Cap*. Schyler take particular 
care that the Aid de Camp cannot play him any trick and let him 
be well watched this night, he will sleep with the Baron and must 
no ways be bound. The Soldier who talks French is to attend 
and remain with the Baron. 

I again recommend to You to keep your Troops in the best 
and most cautious posture of Defence and to preserve peace and 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


jood order amongst them. I expect soon to give You further 
>rders and am Sir 

Your Most Hum Serv*. 
'ou will take care of the 
Dispatch of all Waggons 
going and coming, 


INDORSED: Gen ls . Letter to Col. Cockcroft 
with French General 
16Sep' 1755. 


A letter of September 16th from Johnson to Sir Charles Hardy on 
the battle and conditions in the camp (Johnson Calendar, p. 49) is printed 
in Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y. t 6:1013-15. 


Camp at Lake George 16 Sep r . 1755 

Cap 1 . Schyler conducts the French General the Baron de 
Dieskau and his Aid de Camp to Albany and is to lodge them 
in my House, during their stay. I must desire You will order 
a Serg* and 6 Men to be posted as Guards round my House not 
only as a Security upon the Aid de Camp but to prevent all 
manner of persons from coming to my house from that imperti- 
nent Curiosity which is so abounding at Albany and so little 
regulated by Decency and good Manners. You will please to 
give positive orders herin to your Serg*. and Men As soon 
as ever Doctor Middleton thinks the Baron may with safety take 
his Passage for New York I would have him and his Aid de 
Camp be sent forwards with a proper Guard on board the Sloop 
The Baron is a Man of Quality, a Soldier & a Gentleman and I 

46 , Sir William Johnson Papers 

recommend him to any Civilities in your power to show him and 
which may contribute to his ease and Satisfaction. I am Sir 

Your Most Hum Serv 1 

INDORSED BY WRAXALL: Gen ls Letter to Cap 1 

Marshall ab l . French 
Gen 1 . 16Sep'. 1755 


<Camp at Lake George 16 Sep r . /755.> 

As your present ill state of <health unfitts you for the dis- 
charge of> your Duty in this Army, you have my < Liberty to 
go down to^> New York in order to promote your Recovery, 
as <soon as that takes> place you are to repair with all possible 
Dispatch to your <post in>> the New York Regm 1 . under my 
Command or to follow such fu<^ture^> Orders as you may 
receive from me relative therto. 


You are to Accompany the Baron De Dieskau the Fre<nch> 
General and to use your utmost skill and Diligence to get 
Wounds cured and to establish his Health 


On your Arrivall at Albany you are to accompany the Baron 
and his Aid de Camp to my House and there attend him and not 
suffer the Curiosity or impertinence of any persons either to retard 
his Cure or offend him and I would have verry <few> persons 
admitted to talk either with him or his Aid de Camp <as> few 
of the Dutch Albanians as possible and I give you this Discre- 
tionary power in my house. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 47 


As soon as you think it is safe for the Barons health I would 
have you accompany him and his Aid de Camp to New York. 
On your Arrivall there have the General and Aid de Ca<mp> 
on Board with the Guard, wait on the Governour & acquaint 
him of their Arrivall that he may give his orders thereupon. 

INDORSED: Instructions to D r . Middelton 

A. D. S. 

[Lake George 16 Sep. 1755] 

] General Johnson 
] General Lyman 
] Ruggles 
] Blanchard 
] Gilbert 
] Bagly 
Lieu* Col. Pomeroy 
Lieu* Col. Whiting 
Lieu 1 . Col. Cole 

Cap*. Eyre Chief Engineer & Q r M r Gen 1 . 
[ ] Glazier Adjutant General 

Cap* Peter Wraxall SecrT. 

The General Accquainted this Council of War that the 
Occasfion] of his calling them together was upon a Message 
bro* to him by the Adjutant General from Maj r Gen 1 Lyman & 
some other Field Officers relative to moving the pres[ent] 
Encampm*. to where the picketted Fort is now Building 

The Council desired the Opinion of the Quarter- M aster Gen- 
eral upon the Advantages of the Two Situations & w* 1 *. he 
judged most eligible all circumstances considered. 

He gave it in favour of remaining on our present Ground 

This opinion was agreed to by this Council of War. 


48 Sir William Johnson Papers 


L. S. 2 

Camp at Lake George 17 Sep r . 1755 

The 10 th . Ins. I dispatched to You by Express an Account of 
Our Engagements with the Enemy on the 8 th . I have reviewed 
that Letter, it was wrote at different times. Circumstances led 
us to expect a fresh Attack, two Alarms Actually happened 
during the time it was writing. An Army like Ours after such 
Events is not easily restored to a Calm. We were all fatigued 
both in Body and mind. In such a Scituation it was both difficult 
to collect and pen a distinct and exact Relation. However upon 
a Reexamination of the Copy of that Letter and a more mature 
Enquiry into the facts it contained, I found no essential Error 
I sent at that time to the Lieu*.. Governour of New York the 
French Generals order of Battle found among his papers, which 
I suppose either by private Letter or publick prints you have seen. 
I Yesterday wrote a long Letter to the Governour of New York 
lately arrived, in which I remarked upon some Variations in the 
Accounts given in my aforesaid Letter to the several Govern- 
ments transmitted to You, and gave him also some fresh Intel- 
ligence all which I desired he would and I doubt not he will 
Communicate to You and the other Governments. 

One thing I omitted in that Letter. In my aforesaid General 
Letter, I said, that from the French Generals papers it appeared 
he brought with him into Canada from Europe 3171 3 Regular 

1 Spencer Phips, whose name originally was Bennett, was the son of 
Dr David Bennett of Rowley, Mass.; his mother's name was Spencer. 
Spencer Bennett, on being adopted by his uncle, Sir William Phips, took 
by statute the family name of the latter. He was elected a councilor in 
1 722, and afterward reelected nine times. He was lieutenant governor 
of Massachusetts from 1 732 to his death, which occurred on April 4, 
1757. He administered the government from September 1749 to 1753, 
and in 1756 and part of 1757. See Doc. Rel to Col Hist. N. Y., 
10:43 (note). 

2 In Massachusetts Archives. Manuscript in State Library 
by fire. 

C/ Baron de Dieskau's Forces above. 

Preliminary Campaigns, J 7 55-1 7 56 49 

Voops upon a further & more Accurate Inspection. I find 
lat Account was taken from a blotted memorandum of his 
(which I sent to the Gov f . of New York) and is the Amount 
of the Army under his Command, Regulars, Militia and Indians 
which were either at Crown Point or Ticonderogo, and from 
which he Detached the Body which we engaged, the Number 
>f Regular Troops therin mentioned are above 700 I believe 
ic brought many more to Canada, part of which are sent to 
Cadarachqui and the other part kept to oppose us. 

By the unfortunate Death of two Colonels and several Officers 
the three Massachusetts Regiments there are sundry Vacancies 
I was at a loss how to fill them up, whether by Seniority of 
Commissions from the three Regiments or by Succession out of 
each. I calld a Council of War who gave it in favour of the 
former Method which I have accordingly pursued pro temper e. 
If Your three Regiments are to be considered as three Batallions 
forming one Regiment and one Corps, the Vacancy must remain 
as adjusted for the present, to wit by Seniority of Commissions 
upon the whole If they are distinct and Independant Regi- 
ments then by seniority in the respective Regiments where the 
Vacancies are. I have not yet given Commissions & shall not 
till you satisfie me in these points, and this you will please to do 
as soon as possible 

Our wounded for the most part, I am afraid will not be calp- 
able of Service this Season Our Sick daily increase and as 
the Weather is of a Sudden become very wet and Cold I am 
afraid their Numbers will grow and indeed I am sorry to per- 
ceive and confess that our People in general, do not show that 
Spirit and alacrity which might have been expected from the 
Providential defeat of our Enemies and the prospect of the 
Business before us smiles do not seem to dwell on their Counte- 
nances from the one, nor Ardor inspired for the other. 

However I am Building large flat Bottomed Boats for our 
Artillery, have sent Spies to learn the posture of the Enemy 
keeping Scouts to observe their Motions and putting everything 
in all the forwardness in my power If the expected reinforce- 
ments Arrive, & a sufficient Number of Waggons can be got 

50 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

from Albany to bring up our provisions and Stores from thence 
& the Carrying Place and Warm Cloathing sent. I hope the 
Mens Spirits will revive and the necessary Ardor be universal 
amongst us I believe at present we are not more then between 
18 and 1900 Men fit for duty with the 150 Men arrived from 
Your Government under Col. Whitcomb; none yet come from 
Connecticut or elsewhere, from New York I expect none, the 
Regiments are forced to borrow Bread from one another. 
Unless these things are put on a right footing very speedily the 
Season will be elapsed I am greatly distressed by the prospect 
and would be glad it was taken into Consideration and the 
Opinion of the Governments concerned sent me as soon as 

I should be more particular, but I desired Gov r . Hardy to com- 
minicate what I wrote him to the rest of the Governments and 
my Scituation will not allow of Repetition 

I am 

Most Respectfully 


This Letter goes by Major Hoare 
who is a Gallant active officer 
& deserves preferment as much as 
anyone I know in our Army & I 
hope it will be in my power to give 
him one of the vacant Lieu* Colonel- 
ships, I have put him in order 

INDORSED: Lake George Septem r . 
17. 1755 Letter from 
Maj r . General Johnson 
to Gov r . Phips 

ADDRESSED: On His Majestys Service 

The Honourable 

Governor Phipps 


Preliminary Campaigns, 1 7 55-1 7 56 51 

D/. 1 

<Camp at Lake George 18 Sepr. 1755 

Two or three Days ago Your obliging favour of the 2d Inst 
from Philadelphia came to my hands. ^> 

I am so sittuated & <in such Circumstances that it is impos- 
sible for me> to have suff 1 time or make use of the < requisite 
Materials to return > you such an answer & send you such 
Papers <as I would wish to do. The> Military Department 
I am placed in, the <^late visit from the Enemy ^> the appre- 
hension of receiving another from them, <before we are> rein- 
forced, the Dread of our wanting Provisions by being Dis- 
ap<pointed of > Waggons, these in general & many other 
particular matters <^w ch require my^> serious & constant atten- 
tion, not only unfits me almost for any other Buisness but wholly 
engrosses my Time. In the next place the < Papers w ch > I 
must have recourse to in order to comply with your Desires & 
my own Inclinations, I left at Albany lest the Fortune of War 
might throw them into the Enemy hands. 

My proceedings in Indian Affairs by virtue of Gen 1 Braddocks 
commission was sent down to New York & deposited in the hands 
of M r . Banyar Deputy Secret of the Province, upon your 
Application to him, he will furnish you with a Copy. All the 
other Papers are at Albany. 

In order to give you a full view of Indian Affairs as they 
<stand> at present, we must look a great way back, I must 
have a number of Papers w c !> I can not come at & sit down for 
some Days to no other Employment, however this I would 
gladly do to furnish you with the necessary Mater<ials> for 
giving the Ministry an adequate Conception of them, tho they 
have had these materials put into their hands, w** 1 . I believe have 

1 By Wraxall. 

52 f Sir William Johnson Papers 

been <too> voluminous for their time & patience, & would 
make their way much better by your Conversation. As to the 
present Disposition of the Six Nations with regard to the British 
Interest, they were I am fully persuaded, after the late Meeting 
at my House, better disposed th<an> for these 40 years past. 
The loss w ch . the Mohocks in particular have sustained by our 
late Engagements with the Enemy here, has more effectua<lly> 
wounded the French Interest among them & will by their Influ- 
ence more weaken it among the other Confederate Nations, than 
any other Event w ch could have been expected. The Cagna- 
wagas whose attachment to the French & whose Influence over 
our Indians was a great prejudice to us, have behaved treacher- 
ously, & lost the<^m^> the Friendship & Confidence of the 6 
Nations, who have very warmly accused them to me of a breach 
of Faith & Friendship, & earnestly desired, the Cagnawagas may 
never again be permitted to trade either at Albany or Oswego, 
the Cagnawagas are supported & the French enabled by these 
Trades to carry on their Indian Trade & Interest, so that if they 
are hereafter totally excluded from trading <at> these Places 
& especially at Albany, it will be a most powerful 
to weaken the French Indian Influence & increase our 
but> such is the Mercenary Spirit of the Albanian Indian 
Traders <^that unless the^> Powers of Gov*. be very vigorously 
& dilligently exert<ed, they will carry on this pernicious trade, 
& sacrifice the public Good to private advantage. 

Another thing upon w ch the securing & increasing our Indian 
Interest very greatly depends, is the Issue of our present arma- 
ments against> the French, if <\ve drop them or if we are not 
in a> great Measure Successful, our < Indians will dread as 
they> have long done the power of the French, & <think ours 
too weak> to be depended on and will therefore lean tow<ards 
the Fr>ench & tho not naturally inclined to it, pay Obedience 
<to them> 

The Indians who were with me, did after our <late Engag>e- 
ments leave us & are gone home except 3 or 4 this they 




Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


assured > me was not from Fear or treachery, but in compli- 
ice with <^their^> constant Custom after a Battle wherein they 
lad met with <any> loss, w ch they did the 8 Inst, when a great 
lany of their Chief <Sachems> & Warriors were killed by 
ic Enemy, w ch . has so far from cooled <^them]> that they are 
iraged to the highest Degree & detirmined to <pursue> the 
Tench with implacable Revenge & will I doubt not, return when 
re are ready to go forward. This is the fullest & best Account 
am able to give you at present relative to < Indian > Affairs. 
As to the Expedition we are engaged in the Difficulty of 
jetting Waggons to bring our Provisions Stores & c . here in time 
lateness of the Season, the want of sufficient reinforcements 
te Number of the Enemys Troops, their Strong & advantageous 
>lds between this & Crown Point, together with the present 
iickness of our Army will I very much fear, stop our proceeding 
further this year unless a Winter expedition should be thought 

Cap* Eyre planned & in a great Measure under his Direction 
was finished, a respectable Fortification at the Great Carrying 
Place ab*. 1 5 Miles from hence one of the great & most important 
passes between Canada & this Province where we are now 
encampt is another equally important, but the Obstinacy & 
Ignorance of those officers by whose advice I am obliged to regu- 
late my Proceedings, has prevented a Strong Fort being erected 
here however, I have wrote to the Gov ls about it & I believe one 
will yet be made here We shall then have a strong Curb upon 
Canada this way, & in case of a War, if the necessary steps are 
taken by <land> in these parts & a Fleet with some Troops 
sent up the River <St> Lawrence towards or to Quebec & 
our Opperations chime < together >, I cannot doubt but we 
might next year be Masters of Can<ada> put an End to the 
French Power this Way & be Masters of <the> invaluable 
Fur Trade & c . In this Scheeme I <include> our Opperations 
from Oswego & particularly securing <the Navigation > of 
Lake Ontario. 

54 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I will not trouble you with <any Account of or any reflections 
upon General Shirley's Conduct with regard to Indian Affairs or 
his Behaviour to me. I think he has judged ill with regard to 
the one, & acted very ungentleman like with regard to the other. 

I began a small collection for you. They are at my House, 
I> shall endeavour to < increase it & please God I return there 
I will> send you the little Cargo by some <Vessell to 
London. > 

I look upon Evans' 8 Map of N America <to be the best> 

M r . Wraxall who is my Aid <de Camp & Sec>retary & 
also Judge Advocate, all without pay or Per<quisites t>akes 
Consequence to himself from the manner in w ch you 
pleased to mention him, & thinks the improbability of 
seeing you in America a real loss to him, he desires you 
accept of his Salutations & best Wishes, he is well known to 
<M r > Fox & Lord Hallifax & if it falls in your way I wish 
you < would > mention him in an advantageous Manner to those 
Ge<^nt n ^> in my Name & as having great Merit with me. 

I shall on my side & I hope you will on yours, support our 
Correspondence. I shall always esteem you in every Light & in 
every Sittuation. I wish you all imaginable Felicity & am un- 
feignedly Dear Sir 

Your Affect. & obliged hum. Serv*. 

I have seen nothing of M r . Shaw 
as yet, if he comes I shall upon 
y r . recommendation give him what 
Encouragm*. is in my power. 

INDORSED: <General's Letter to Cap 1 
Orme> 18 Sep r . 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1 7 55-1 7 56 



A. D. S. 
Camp at Lake George 18 Sep' 1755 

a Council of War held by Maj r General Johnson 

General Johnson Lieu* Col. Pomeroy 

Maj r Gen 1 . Lyman Lieu*. Col. Whiting 

Col. Ruggles Col Bagly 

Col Blanchard Lieu 1 Col Cole 

Col Gilbert, Adjutant General 

The General proposed for the Opinion of this 
>f War, whether considering our present Circumstances & our 
>ittuation with regard to the Enemy whom by intelligen<^ce>- 
icre is some reason to think are not far off & may make another 
Attack, it is most adviseable to contract our present Encamp*, or 
Decamp to the Ground where the picketted Fort is building. 

It is the Opinion of this Council of War that the present 
Encamp*, be kept with the follows Alterations That Col. Bagly s 
& Col. Blanchards remove their Encamp* 8 & the Flank Breast 
work to run along the Flank of Col. Ruggles' 8 & the Rocky 
Eminance on the Left Flank if found adviseable to be left with- 
out the Breast works, w ch alterations are to be immediately set 


General then desired this Council of War would 
<propose> any other Expedients w * 1 might occur to them 

< besides > what were < already > taken to forward the present 

This Council of War are unanimously of Opinion that the 
car<rying> into speedy Effect this Expedition depends upon a 

< proper > Supply of Waggons & that all Measures w ch can 
be thoug<ht> on have been already taken for obtaining them 


56 Sir William Johnson Papers 


A. L. S. 
<Crea* Carry Place Sep r 19th: 1755> 


I arrived Safe att the Fort < about 7 oClock in the evening> 
after I left the Camp. The French Gen 1 went off <the next 
morning> under as comfortable Circumstances as could be 
expected, and <is doubtless> By this Time Safe in Albany, 
I have been very ill since <my> Arrival, which hope will 
Excuse my not writing you sooner. I find too much Truth in the 
hints which have been given your honour, nothing done nor like 
to be done. Cursing, Damning Swearing and drinking engrossing 
the chief of the Time. The contrast is so very great Betwixt the 
Two parties in the Reg 5 , that every thing Labours with Difficulty. 
The Col. this morning has ordered all the invalids that are unfit 
for Service to be Stripped of all the Cloathing given them by the 
province, to be discharged and Sent off the Consequence of which 
must be that some of them must go naked and perish ; Should be 
glad of your hon s . advice whether their cloathing must be taken 
from them yea or nay, for I must confess that I cannot see it to 
be Just; tho' my Opinion has not been Ask'd; it is the universal 
voice of our three N England Companys, that they are willing to 
Stay here or go any where else so as they may but be disjoined; 
your honour will order as shall be thought most prudent 
Remain your most Obedient humble Servant 


P: S: desire my name may be so far Secreted that no personal 
Difference may arise Between my Sup r . officer & me which I 
would by <all> means avoid 


ADDRESSED: To Maj r . Gen 11 . W m . Johnson Esqr 
att Lake George 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 57 


L. S. 1 
Camp at Oswego Sef>t r . I9 lh . <7755> 


Three Days ago I receiv'd a Letter from M r . Stevenson of 
>any inclosing a Copy of the General Letter, w ch . you have 
it to L*. Gov r , Phipps & the Governors of the other Colonies, 
w ch . have rais'd Forces for the Expedition against Crown point, 
giving an Acco*. of two Actions, w ch . happened on the 8 th . Instant, 
between the Army under your Command and the French; in the 
first of w ch . a Detachment of 1 000 English commanded by Col. 
Williams, & a Party of 200 Indians of the six Nations were 
defeated with a considerable Loss on their Side; In the second, 
the French & their Indians attacked the main Body of your Army 
in their Camp at Lake George, & were repuls'd with a more con- 
siderable one on their's. 

M r : Stevenson informs, me that upon finding, I had no Letter 
directed to me among the Packetts, which came from your Camp, 
& discovering the Words upon the Seal Side of that directed to 
Gov r . Phipps ; " please to dispatch a Copy of this Letter to Gen- 
eral Shirley, my time & Circumstances won't permit <^my^> 
writing to him immediately," he open'd it, & took a Copy of it, 
to be sent forthwith to me; & as the Events contain'd in it so 
nearly concern his Majesty's Service under my immediate Com- 
mand, as well as his other Service upon this Continent under my 
Direction, I can't avoid expressing my Surprize at your Omission 
to acquaint me with them directly from yourself ; which, let your 
Hurry & Circumstances be what they would, you might at least 
have done, by ordering your Secretary or any Clerk to transcribe 
a Copy of your Letter to the Gov rs : to be Sent me from Albany, 
instead of desiring L*. Gov r . Phipps to Send me one from Boston. 
What could be your Reason for postponing my being 

in Massachusetts Archives, 54:1 36-41 inc., and extract in Public 
Record Office, C. O. 5.46, London, England. Printed with certain 
errors and omissions: R. I. Col. Rec. 5:455. 

58 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

acquainted with these Matters, which I ought to have known as 
soon as possible, to so distant a time as my hearing from M r . 
Phipps must have been, seems difficult to say. 

However that may be, my Duty to his Majesty requires me to 
take the first Opportunity of transmitting you my Sentiments upon 
the present State of the Service, w ch . I have put under your 
immediate Direction. 

Upon the State of your Letter to the several Governors, 
<Sir> it appears to me that the late Defeat of the French 
Forces and their Indians in the Engagement at your Camp hath 
given you a favourable Opportunity of proceeding, as soon as the 
expected Reinforcement from New England shall join you, to 
Tenonderoge which Post, since you have taken the Route to 
Crown point, that you have done, it is of the utmost Consequence 
to the Success of the Expedition under your Command to make 
yourself Master of as soon as possible. 

By the Acco*. given in the Copy of the Minute of your Council 
of War inclos'd to me in your Letter of the 1 8t . Instant, concern- 
ing the Strength of your Army a few Days before the late 
Actions, and in your Letter to the Governors, of the loss, you 
sustain'd in both Engagements, the Number of your remaining 
Troops must, upon the Arrival of your Reinforcement from New 
England, exceed 4000, and that of your Indians be upwards of 
two hundred. 

From the Acco*. given you by the French General your pris- 
oner, of the Strength of his Army in the beginning of the first 
Action it consisted of 200 Grenadiers, 800 Canadeans, and 
<700> Indians of different Nations, and from the Ace 1 , given 
you by his Aid de Camp of the loss of the French & their Indians 
in both Actions, and the pursuit w ch . ensu'd, they lost in the 
whole 1000 Men, and the Major part of their Chief Officers, 
together with Mons r : S l Pierre the Officer, who had the Chief 
Command & greatest Influence over the Indians ; so that accord- 
ing to their Acc ts :, w ch : seem most to be depended upon, the 
French had not above 700 Men left of their whole Army, w ch : 
attack'd your Camp. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1 7 55- 1 7 56 59 

In these Actions, Sir, you have experienc'd the good Behav- 
ir of your Officers and Troops, who must now be flush'd w th . 
icir late Victory. The French on the other hand must be 
reatly disconcerted by the late Defeat of their Army, & loss of 
icir General & so many of their principal Officers; and the 
Tench Indians in particular (w ch : consist of different Nations) 
the loss of Mons r . S*. Pierre, who seems to have been a neces- 
iry Officer for keeping them together. 

You before acquainted me in your Letter of the 1 st . Instant 
from your Camp at Lake George that " some Indians, you sent 
out on the Scout, told you, they had discover'd a <^ Party 
French and Indians at Tenonderoge, But that no works 
then thrown up; and that you was impatient to get a Number of 
Battoes up & put in order, when you propos'd to proceed with a 
part of the Troops and endeavour to take post at Tenonderoge : " 
I hope, Sir, if that is not yet done, that you still propose doing it 
as soon as possible; The Necessity of driving the Enemy from 
that Pass still continues; The longer time is given them to fortify 
it, the more difficult it will be to dislodge them, and the more you 
will lose the Advantage, w ch . their Defeat, and your own Victory 
have given you to effect it. 

You say in your Letters to the Governors, " your Men have 
suffer'd so much Fatigue for three Days past, & are constantly 
standing upon their Arms by Day, half the whole upon Guard 
every Night, & the Rest lay down arm'd and accoutred, that 
both Officers & Men are almost wore out ; That the Enemy may 
rally, & you judge they have considerable Reinforcements near 
at hand, so that you think it necessary to be upon your Guard, 
and be watchfull to maintain the Advantage, you have gain'd." 
To make the most of the Advantage, you have gain'd, <]it 
se^>ems clear, Sir, that you should make use of the Opportunity 
<^it^> hath given you of proceeding upon your Expedition, whilst 
the Spirits of your own Army are elated with Success, & those 
of the Enemy lower'd by the loss of the greatest part of theirs. 

60 Sir William Johnson Papers 

As to your Apprehensions, that the Enemy might rally, & that 
they had considerable Reinforcements near at hand; it is men- 
tion'd in your Letter that your Men and Indians pursu'd the 
French soon after their Repulse, slaughtered great Numbers, and 
took several prisoners, among whom was the French General 
himself, so that their Army was intirely routed ; & your's Masters 
of the Field : Rallying the second Day after so general a Route 
as this, is, I believe, unknown in the Case even of great Armies ; 
and that the small Remains of the French Army should return 
the next Day to the Attack of your Camp, where they had so 
lately felt the Effects of your Cannon against their Musquetry, 
seems not much to be apprehended: It is more probable that the 
Slaughter, they had suffered in the pursuit, with the loss of their 
Chief Officers, will in the End occasion, if not a total Dissipation 
of the Indians, yet at least <^a^> great Desertion among them, 
and of the Canadeans too. 

Upon what Foundation you judge, that the French Army had 
considerable Reinforcements near at hand, is not mentioned in 
your Letter, it seems more likely, that they sent all the Forces, 
they could spare from Tenonderoge & Crown point (where you 
say so many of the Regular Troops are posted) to attack your 
Camp ; especially as they were to do it only with Musquetry. 

You say further in your Letter to the Governors, " that from 
the Papers of Mons r . Dieskau, the French General, you find, he 
brought under his Command to Canada in the Men of War lately 
arriv'd at Quebec 3171 Regular Troops, who are partly in Gar- 
rison at Crown point, & encamp'd at Tenonderoge, & other 
advantageous Passes between your Camp and Crown point." 

* That you expect very Shortly another & more formidable 
Attack, & that the Enemy will then come with Artillery; That 
the late Col. Williams had the Ground clear'd for building a 
Stockaded Fort, and that your Men are so harrass'd and oblig'd 
to be so constantly upon watchfull Duty, that you <think> it 
would be both unreasonable, &, you fear, in vain to set <the>m 
at Work upon the Design'd Fort. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 61 

I* That you design to order the New Hampshire Regiment up 
your Camp to reinforce you, & that you hop'd some of the 
designed Reinforcement would be with you in a few Days, & that 
when those fresh Troops arriv'd, you should immediately set 
about building a Fort." 

I hope you will before now have receiv'd my Letter of the 1 2 th . 
Inst 1 . in which I sent you an Acco*. from Admiral Boscawen's 
Letter to the late General Braddock, of the Number of Troops, 
w ch . were sent from France this Summer to North America, & 
what part of them arriv'd in Canada; w ch . will shew you that 
there must be some Mistake in the above Account extracted by 
you from M r . Dieskau's Papers, of the Number of those, w ch . 
arriv'd with him at Quebec: It is clear from this Acco*. that the 
whole Number sent from France was, as M r : Dieskau's Papers 
make 'em to be, about 3000; & by other undoubted Acc ts ., as 
well as the Admiral's, that of these he took eight Companies in 
the Alcide & Lys Men of War, & that 1 1 00 are in Garrison at 
Louisbourg: now supposing <that> the Remainder arriv'd at 
Quebec without any loss in their Passage (w ch . is not very likely) 
the most, that got to Quebec must be 1 675 ; five hundred at least 
of which I have Intelligence from Indians, who came here from 
Cadaraqui at different times within these five Weeks, & a Party 
of Indians & Albany men, whom I Sent there since that time, are 
now encamp'd close to that Fort, & a Number of them were kill'd 
(according to your own Ace'.) in the late Attack upon your 
Camp & the pursuit, w ch . ensu'd; so that the Remainder, sup- 
posing them to be now, as you say, partly in Garrison at Crown 
point, & encamp'd at Tenonderoge; and other advantageous 
passes between your Camp & Crown point, can't amount to near 
the Number, w^ 1 . you seem to think are there. 

I can't therefore but think, you may spare from the Fort at the } 
Carrying place, & from your Camp at Lake George, a Body of 
Troops more than sufficient to drive the French from Tenon- 
deroge, & possess yourself of that pass; & hope you will lose no 
time for doing it. 

62 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

If Crown point is inaccessible to the Army now with you thro' 
the Route, you have taken to it, it will proba<bly> be more 
so to double the Number of Troops the next year, and must be 
come at thro' another Route; in w ch . Case the Fort, you design 
to build at the End of the Lake will be of little or no Utility for 
carrying on another Expedition, & but of very little, even for the 
Defence of the Country between Lake George, late Lake S l 
Sacrement, & Hudson's River, whilst two Roads lye open for the 
French to make Incursions into it; viz*, thro' Wood Creek and the 
South Bay, the latter of w ch . they have lately made use of to come 
at both your Camps. 

As to your Expectation of a more formidable Attack very 
Shortly from the Enemy ; and that they will then come with Artil- 
lery ; I suppose that Artillery must be brought from Crown point 
or Tenonderoge: and if the French should imagine, that you 
design to attempt nothing further this Campaigne than building 
the Stockaded Fort, you propose, I think it probable enough, 
that they may make you a Visit at your Camp with Cannon; in 
which Case I doubt your Fort, when built, would not Stand long. 

But I believe the thoughts of the French are <Cat> present 
taken up in securing themselves against a Visit <from> you at 
Crown point; which I hope may be still made them this Year 
with Success ; & that to enable you the better to do it, the Colonies 
may Send you a second Reinforcement in time. 

I am sorry to hear that you received a Wound in the late 
Engagement, and hope that the Ball is by this time extracted 
from your Thigh, & your Wound in a fair Way of healing: I 
congratulate you upon your Success hitherto, & wish it may be 
increased in the remaining Operations of the Campaigne, and 
am, Sir, 

Your most Humble Servant. 


Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 63 

L. 5. 

Lake S'. George Sep. y 19, 1755 
HON D . S*. 

agreeable to and in obedience to your Command I began to 
Build Scows or flatt Bottom [ ] to transport the 

Canon & war like Stores &c to [Crown] Point and Drew a List 
of thirty Six Carpenters out [of] Coll: Bagleys Reg*, which 
work'd several Days and [ex]pected to be Excused from millitary 
Duty so Long as [they] worked with me, but since their officers 
have Put them on other Duty they Refuse to work as Carpenters. 
[ ] I have not a man att work as a Carpenter and 

therefore Cannot go on with y e above s d . Busness Therefore I 
Beg your Hon r . would suply me with a Sufficient num[ber] of 
Carpenters or I Cannot Proceed. 


Cap 1 of y e Carpend[ers] 

To the Hon bl . WlLL M . JOHNSON Esq r . 
and General of y e Army 

A. L. S. 

Fort Lyman 20 th . Sept r . 1755 * 

Inclosed I have sent you a Return of the [ ] my 

command, should have sent you one before, could I [ ] 

from y e different Companys before. The Gen 1 , his Ade Camp & 
the other french Prisoners (Except three who are dangerously 
] are Sent to Albany, the others I will send as 
soon a possible. I could get no Intelligence from any prisoners. 

1 In Doc. Rd. to Col Hist. N. Y., 6:1008-9, is a letter of September 
20th from Thomas Pownall, in New York, to the lords of trade, con- 
taining an account of Captain McGinnis's victory on September 8th. 

64 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

If you'l be pleased to give orders y*. the waggoners who return 
from the Lake to load their Waggons with Stones for they will 
be of great use here if there be any Chimneys or Barracks to be 
[bui]lt, we have several men I intend to discharge for the are 
at an Expence to the Province & of no service to the Regiment 

I am S r . 

Y r . most Obd'. Serv 1 . 


ADDRESSED: To Maj r . General Johnson 
at Lake George 

INDORSED BY WRAXALL: Col. Cockcroft 20 Sep r . 

rec d d 

Ans d . 21 d 

A. L. S. 

<Albany, 21 st. Sepr. /755> 

I most cordially congratulate you on your Success > it will 
I hope be a prelude to a more general < Victory > that may put 
you in Possession of what you <^aim at. Your^> Wound I hope 
will not be troublesome to you or pre<vent your> going on; nor 
will you be detained I believe any long<^er time]> for Waggons, 
which the Governors presence and vigorous <^orders^> will soon 
bring in. I wrote you before that the L*. Gov. M r . Rutherford 
and M r . Horsmanden attend S r . Charles, whose Secretary, M r . 
O DeLancey, & myself make up the whole Train. Before I left 
New York, I fell into Conversation w th M r . Pownall, who I find 
is very desirous if he goes home to carry your dispatches, and 
that you should refer their Lordships to him for any Explanations 
you may think necessary, or in any other way you think best. It 
will be of some use to him, and you will receive every Act of 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 65 

Friendship in his Power, by the strongest Representation of your 
Services to the principal Men he may have an opportunity of con- 
versing with. I find your character and Consequence are both 
well known at home, and S r Charles makes no doubt of the 
Ministrys getting you an appointment equal to your great Merit. 
He seemed much pleas'd that you had undertaken Indian affairs 
on so disinterested a Footing, & that it would in the End redound 
greatly to your advantage. The New England Men are con- 
stantly coming in. I am surprised to hear those from Conn*, 
bring nor expect any Tents, depending on Bark Houses which I 
am told the New Hampshire People are very expert at, & when 
they decamp roll up the Bark & carry with them. The Season 
is late & as you observe the utmost dispatch requisite. Dunbar 
is moving this way but it is doubtful if he may arrive in time to 
sustain you. His regulars & Engineers &c would be extremely 
serviceable, But how will you manage it as to the Command. 
He is of a disposition <I hear not to give up a Point; and I doubt 
if the Irregulars will be imp>atient to attack <Troops intrench'd 
up to> their Eyes which I expect they <will be at> Crown 
Point. At Tionderogue I expect their wh<ole Army> saving 
a few to garrison the Fort. I hope the Can<non are> to be 
mounted in the Scows you are building, as y<ou may> rely on 
being opposed at your landing any where. 

I beg my respects to Cap*. Wraxall & Cap*. Eyre. The Gov. 
has bro*. up a parcel of Musket Bullets, if your Grape Shott are 
expended these may do. Youl write for wh<af> you want. 1 
am dear S r . with the greatest Sincerity yours &c 


Pray did the Rope arrive safe 


INDORSED: 7K 2K 1755 Banyars letter 

Vol. II 3 

66 , Sir William Johnson Papers 


D/. 1 
Camp at Lake George 21. Sep r . </755> 


Last night I reed y rs of yesterday. There are so many sto<res 
to be> bro*. up & so much Work for the few Waggons w ch are 
sent from Alb<any &> their present Employment so very neces- 
sary to the Service, that we must not yet take them off for any 
other Work. I am very desirous of <having> the Fort (to w ch . 
I give the name of Fort Edward in hon r . to the Second 
Pri<nce> of the Blood of that name) finished & I desire you 
will contribute to <it> all that is in the Power of the Troops 
under your Command. 

I approve of your discharging such Men as are only an 
Exp<ense> to the Province & no Service to the Reg*, their 
Arms you will keep; give them their Cloathing, w ch cannot I 
think with Jus<^tice^> or propriety be taken from them, & if any 
pay be due to them give them a Certificate for it. 

I propose very speedily to remove part of your Reg*, hither & 
replace them by Detachm ts . or Troops from hence. 

I once more desire you will employ all the Men who <are> 
not upon necessary Duty in compleating the Fort all in their 
Power & give its Name out in Orders, keep advanced Sentrys 
Alert & small Scouting parties for two or three miles round you. 

I am Sir Your Hum Serv 1 . 


1 By WraxalL 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 67 


D/. 1 

Camp at Lake George 21 Sep r . 1755. 

By the Advice of the Council of War here, I am desired to 
direct & I do it accordingly, that no more of the Reinforcements 
sent from your Government may leave Albany till further Orders, 
than such a part of them as are necessary to Guard the Stores & 
Provisions w ch . may be dispatched from Albany hither. You 
will please to take Notice hereof & govern yourself accordingly. 
I am Sir Your very hum Serv*. 


To the Commanding officer of the Reinforcements for the 
Crown Point Expedition belonging to the Gov*. of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay. 

A Letter of the same Tenor & date was wrote to the Com- 
manding Officer of the Connecticut Reinforcements 


[Lake George, Sept 21, 1755] 

I 3 ] 

[ ] [directions, you [ ] 

[ Jfore those w ch are or may [be able to send] [such?] 

Stores & Provisions as can be loaded [on horses] 

You will please to take due notice here [ ] 

[ ] ur selves accordingly. 

[To?] I am 

[CJommissaries of the Several Gentlemen 
[Governments concerned in Your very hum s[ ] 

the present Expedition against W M JOHN [SON] 

Crown Point. 

1 By Wraxall. 

2 Draft in handwriting of Wraxall. 
8 Several lines burned off. 

68 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

A. L. S* 

Albany 21 Sepr 7755 

I am come up to this place to attend Sir Charles Hardy & 
take this opportunity to congratulate you on the victory you have 
obtained over the French, I hope this will prove the prelude to 
greater success. The Governor sends you a copy of one of the 
French Generals letters, wherein he does justice to the Civilities 
he has recieved from you. You will see by it that the Caghna- 
wagas are not altogether in the power of the French & you will 
consider what methods may be the most proper to draw them 
over to us & persuade them to return to their Brethren in this 
Province. The Govenor is sensible of your merit & influence 
with the Indians & will do you justice at home on this article. 
I shall always be ready to do you any service being Sir 

Your most humble servant 


My compliments to Cap ts Eyre & Wraxall & congratulate them 
on this Event. I shall write to Wraxall. I suppose tomorrow 



A. L. S. 

Albany y* 21 [September 1755.] 

I have only time to Congratulate you on the Glor[ious] Success 
your Army has enjoy 'd under your Direction [ ] to 

your own Great Glory 

1 In New York Public Library, Emmet Collection. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 69 

It gave me very sensible satisfaction to Hear from our friend 
Doctor Middleton that the Wound you received was not Danger- 
ous and that you are in a Condition to Conduct The Forces I hope 
to future success and Dont Doubt it from so happy a beginning I 
should be glad to Receive any Intelligence your time will permit 
you to Communicate I am here with S r Charles Hardy who is 
Come Merely to forward the Service you are Engaged in and 
seems quite bent to Do every thing in His Power to secure you 
future success & Honor Make My Compliments to Ay res 
Wraxall & Other friends I am in haste and Only time to say 
How Much success I wish you being with sincerity S r 

Your Humble Ser* 


INDORSED BY JOHNSON : 7 br . 2 1 8t . 1 755 

Oliver De Lanceys letter. 


D/. 1 

Camp at Lake George 

21 Sep 1755 

Last night I was favoured with yours of the 1 2 Inst. 

I am very much obliged to you for your Congratulations on 
our repulsing the Enemy. Providence was very favourable to 
us & to Heaven I think is due the principal share of Glory. 

Time would not permit me to give any one in Albany a par- 
ticular Relation of that Days Actions if it had I should have 
done it to you in the First place as his Majestys Commanding 
officer there. I did not doubt, w ch I find was the Case, but the 
Relation woud come as soon from some others who were on the 

Ayer Collection, Newberry Library, Chicago, 111. 

70 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I have my hands so very full of Business that it will not permit 
me to enlarge. My best wishes attend you & your Family. 

I am Sir 

Your most hum sevt 

Capt Eyre & Wraxall 
beg their Compliments 
may be accepted by you 
& yours. 



A. D. S. 

Camp at Lake George 21 Sef> r . 1755 
Sunday P. M. 

At a Council of War held by General Johnson 
Pres 1 General Johnson <Lieu l Col.> Whiting 

Major General Lyman> <Lieu l > Col. Cole 
<Col. Rug>gles <Lieu t > Col. Whitcomb 

<Col. B>lanchard M r Glazier adjutant Gen 1 . 

<Col. B>agly Cap 1 Eyre Quarter M r . Gen 1 & 

<Col. G>ilbert 

Cap 1 p eter Wraxall Seer'?. & c . 

st . Article> The General acquainted this Council of War 
that from vari<ous> accounts he had received he had reason 
to believe that there was <not> that Harmony amongst the 
Troops at the Fort at the Great Carr. Place w ch . he judged 
necessary to subsist in order for the Security of & carrying on the 
Service depending on that important Post &, therefore judged 
<it> necessary that some alterations should be made with 
respect to <that> Garrison & desired the Opinion of this Coun- 
cil of War hereupon. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 71 

2 d . a rticle That as some Members of this Council of War had 
esterday mentioned to the General something of a Scheme of 
ringing up some of the Stores on Horses back as the most Expe- 
itious Method he desired that Method might be now considered 

if thought adviseable whether the General should be desired 

give any Orders thereupon. 

Upon the First Article this Council of War are of opinion 
that the 5 Companies raised in the Province of New York in the 
Reg* under the Command of Col. Cockcroft be removed from 
the Fort at the Great Carrying Place to this Camp, but the Coun- 
cil were equally divided in their Opinions whether they should be 
replaced by a Reg 1 , or Detachments from home. 

Upon the Second Article the Council are of Opinion that the 
General be desired to write to all the Commissarys at Albany to 
emp<loy> as many Horses as can be got w ch . can be over & 
above those w ch . are or may be emplo<yed> in Waggons, to 
bring up such Stores & Provisions as can be loaded on Horses. 

The Council further advised that Gen 1 , should stop the Rein- 
forcements sending hither, at Albany, till further Orders unless 
such Convoys as are necessary to Gu<dard^> the Waggons 
coming from Albany hither. 


Extract * 

Extract of a Letter from John Rutherford Esq e . 
Captain of one of the New York Independent Com- 
panies, & Member of His Majesty's Council for 
that Province Dated at Albany 22 d : September 

There is such various Accounts of the late Engagement at 
Lake George, that I shall give your Excellency in a few words, 

1 In Public Record Office, C. O. 5. 46, London, England. Inclosed 
in Shirley to Sir Thomas Robinson, October 5, 1755. 

72 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

what I think I can trust most to in our own Officers accounts of 
the English, & Le Baron Dieskau's account of the French, who 
is a Marechal de Camp, & Command r . in Chief of those Troops 
sent from Brest, and, as His Aid D Camp tells us, of all the 
Forces in Canada: He was wounded, & made Prisoner, with 
30 more, mostly wounded, after y e retreat of the French; His 
wounds are very dangerous, but y e Surgeons have some hopes of 
His recovery. Coll : Johnson might have about 2500 Men at y e 
Camp Includeing Indians, & 500, at the Carrying Place Fort, 
the Baron's account of Troops brought from Montreal, to Crown 
Point & Tinonderogue is as follows, with y e detachment he 
carry 'd from thence with Him to reconnoitre y e Carrying Place, 
& endeavour to surprize our Fort, not being able to gett Satis- 
factory Intelligence from the Indian Parties he had sent out. 

Troops brought from Canada The Detachment w lh . the 

2 Battaillons 774 Baron at the Engagement on 

Milices 1393 the Carrying Place, and At- 

Troupes de la Colonie . 1 92 tack upon the English Camp 

Cannoniers 67 on Lake George. 

Officiers des Sauvages. 14 Troupes reglees 200 

Sauvages 659 Canadiens . 600 

Sauvages 600 



The two Battallions of 774 men, were of those newly arrived 
from Brest, as were the 200, call'd regular Troops in the detach- 
ment: the Baron march'd towards our Fort with His detach- 
ment, but changed his mind on a Post being kill'd, and some 
Waggoners taken, by whose letters & Information he found Gen- 
eral Johnson was encamp'd at the Lake, & finding 1 000 Men, 
& y e Indians were comeing to assist those at the Fort from y* 
Camp, he march'd towards y e Camp, & made a very pretty 
deposition to surprize & cutt them off, viz*, the 1000 Men; but 
the Caghnawaga's, who y c Baron insists were Traitors to Him 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


all along, discover'd themselves before y e Time; however as 
Gen 11 . Johnson's party retreated in confusion, after a few fires, 
the Baron follow'd them close in hopes of entering with them 
into y e Camp; but He mett with such a warm Reception from 
the Cannon, and Deserted by His Indians, & most of the 
Canadeans, That His Regulars were mostly all kill'd, and Him- 
self wouded and made Prisoner. 

I am &c 
a true Copy 

INDORSED: Extract of a Letter from 
Captain Rutherford to 
Major General Shirley 
dated Albany Sept r . 
22 d . 1755. 
N. 5. 

in Maj r . Gen 1 . Shirley's 
Letter of Oct'. 5*: 1755 

Df. 1 

<Camp at Lal?e George, 22 Sep'r. /755.> 

My last to Your Excellency bore date the 1 Oth In st . with a 
particular ace*, of the Actions of the 8th do. That day & its 
Consequences throw our irregular army into a good deal of Con- 
fusion. As some of the Prisoners > reported a Bo<dy of 1000 
Men more were marching from Tionde^> rogue & as all Cir- 
cumstanc<es required a prudential Caution, for 2 or 3> days 
after we kept our Selves in a Sta<te of Preparation, b how- 
ever, > heard no more of the Enemy, tho we < had several false 
alarms from the^> apprehensions of our own People; these 
< things together with taking> Care of our Wounded burying 

1 By Wraxall. 

74 Sir William Johnson Papers 

the Enemies as well <as our own, repair>ing & Strengthening 
our Breast Work, filled up <our Employment for> many Days. 

I herewith transmit your Excellency < Return of the> killed, 
Wounded & Missing from the Morning & 1 Engage- 

ment of the 8. I am apt to believe tho most Opinions <are 
to> the contrary that the Enemys loss is not greatly superior 
to ours. 

We have the honour of taking Prisoner their General & Com- 
mander in chief of the French Kings Troops in Canada, <the> 
Baron De Dieskau, whom at his own request tho badly 
<Wounded> I sent to Albany in a Horse Litter his Wound 
has pierced his Blad<der> & I fear will prove Mortal, he bore 
his Fate like a Philosop<her a> Soldier & a Gentleman, his 
Aid de Camp who surrendered < himself > is gone with him, & 
from this Camp & Fort Edward at the Great Carrying Place 
(w ch I have so named in honour to our young Prince of that 
name) about 25 Prisoners, several taken died of their 
Wo<^unds^> and it was with great Difficulty I prevented our 
Indians from <^ knocking^* the General & all in the head. 

To my great Mortification, I must confess to you, that Not- 
withstanding the Providential repulse we gave to the Enemy, Our 
Troops are so far from being invigorated thereby or filled with 
<any> Additional Ardor for pursuing the Main Plan, that the 
reverse <of> this has been evidently the Case almost ever since. 
The 2 resolute & obstinate Attack made upon our 

Breast work in the Face of our Cannon seems to have given our 
Troops a dread of the Enemy. We have had wet & cold days 
since, the Men are thinly 2 ill bedded & Tented were 

pretty much fatigued, by the Engag<ment.> by the false alarms 
& precautions taken afterwards, Bad weather, * Life 

to w^ they are wholly Strangers, Sickness since the 8. greatly 
incre<ases> amongst; Winter at no great Distance, Family 
tyes, In short all 2 Causes put together, have so influenced 

our Men that they are by <no> Means inclined to proceed 

1 Word omitted as illegible in copying; it is undoubtedly "afternoon." 
Omitted in copying. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 75 

further & I have reason to believe many of their officers of the 
same Mind. I have called a Council of War & given therein 
an opening to be let into the true State of things, but tho 
m<any> of the Members spoke plain enough without Doors, 
they gave an Opinion in Council in favour of pushing the Expe- 
dition forwards, & <tho some> of the Members moved for it 
yet Inquiries w ch would <have put> matters in a true Light 
were over-ruled. Tis true the < Desertion and want of Waggons 
for some time past, had none of the foregoing Incidents taken 
place would have so retarded our Operations, that had we been 
suff* in number, the true Season for pushing our Designs would 
have been greatly elapsed. Before the Visit paid us by the 
Enemy I had sent to reconnoitre Tionderogo & if the French had 
not taken post there, I had Battoes bro* up & did intend to have 
embarked myself with a chosen part of the Troops & tried to 
taken possession. 

But the Enemy & consequent Intelligence have <put an 
End to that Scheme, for they> have not only a number of 
Forces there, <but thrown up Strong works, & h>ave a Vessell 
w ch sails & brings all sor<ts of Supply s from Crown Po>int 
thither, and I have some reason <from Intelligence to believe > 
they have a Body of Men between this & Ti<onderogue at 
South Bay the only place > we hear favorable to our Landing. 
It is impossible for me <to conseal these > Intelligences from 
the Troops, tho I am convinced it < tends to weaken their > 
Expedition Appetite. 

Two or three days after our late Engagements the <Indians> 
were preparing to leave this Camp & told me they desired a 
M<eeting> & would Accquaint me with their Resolutions & 
Motives. I inclos<e yr> Excellency what passed on this 
Occasion. They told me in private <that> one very prevailing 
Motive for their going Was that as the Sword <was> now 
drawn between them & the French Indians, they thought <it> 
absolutely necessary to return home, consult with their People, 
put themselves in a posture of Defence & would then return at 

76 ir William Johnson Papers 

my Call. They also complained to me that our People left them 
exposed to the Enemy in the Morning & did not second them. 

I hope the Gov*. of New York will exert itself to put an abso- 
lute End to that pernicious Trade between Albany & Canada 
by the Means of the Cagnawagas. I shall write or- speak my 
Sentiments warmly & freely to S r . Charles Hardy upon it. 

The 24. Sep r . Last night I reed. y r . Excell? 8 . Letter bearing 
date the 12 Inst. This Letter waited a Secure Opportunity to 
be finished & forwarded, as parties of the Enemy are hovering 
about us I have not sent any publick Dispatches of moment for 
many Days past. I am sensible of & have a fellow feeling in 
your Excell? 8 Fatigues & Disappointments. I did not get a 
Waggon from the Mohocks or that part of the Country, & tho 
many more than I wanted were in being in the other parts of the 
County of Albany, yet I was al<ways> distressed by the want 
of them & plagued to Death with what <T had.^> 

The Reinforcements particularly from Connecticut <are com- 
ing> thick upon us, by fresh Numbers they are Welcome, but 
as hu<^ngry^> Guests who with our old People consume Pro- 
visions as fast as the Waggons bring them, they in that point will 
if we are to pro<ceed> retard us. 

I shall as fresh Matter of any Importance, or New 
<Motions> take place, embrace every Opportunity of advising 

From all that I am able to Collect, Baron D<ieskau> bro* 
with him to Canada ab'. 1500 regular Troops, <half of w ch > 
he retained to oppose us, & dispatched the other <half to oppose 
y r Excellency. 

I will send you herewith the Copy of a rough Memorand m I 
found amongst some lose Papers of his since I wrote you last, & 
w ch I take to be in his own hand writing, & to be an Ace 1 of the 
Troops at Tionderogo when he was Encampt there. It has 
neither place nor date to it. His Order of Battle when he 
marched against us I sent to the Lieu l > Gov r . of new <York 
as a matter more of amusement than of Importance. > he wrote 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 77 

two Letters to the < French Ministry before he left> this Camp 
in w ch he puts down his Num<bers, 200 Grenadiers, 600 > 
Canadians & 600 Indians. 

I herewith send y r Excel!?, a Copy of General < Brad- 
do *> Commission & Instructions to me. 

Two days ago I reed, a Letter from S r Charles Har<dy, 
*> of New York advising me of his Arrival at Albany 
in ord<er to> forward his Majesty's Service in both Expedi- 
tions. he has x & send us Waggons almost every 

day. I have gently press<^ed hm^> to come hither, as I can- 
not in prudence lay the whole of my pr<esent> Sittuation in 
writing before him, neither will my time perm<jt it.> If he 
cannot come, I must I believe send my Aid de Camp & <Sec r y 
to> him with my Sentiments & c . 

My Council of War are playing Politicks upon <me;> some 
of them have unadvisedly pressed for numerous reinforce- 
men<^ts,^> unknown to me & promised Matters I believe beyond 
what Cir<cum> stances did Justifie & our present Sittuation 
renders even pro<^bable,^> hence they are unwilling to own in 
Council what they see & know & even speak of in private Con- 
versation. They have opposed with <^great^> Obstinacy the 
building a respectable Fort at this important Post, w ch whether 
the Expedition goes on or not, would in my Opinion have been 
a very prudent Measure, they declared any other <than> a 
Stockaded Fort would breed a general Dissatisfaction thro the 
Army & in Short that the People would work at no other. So 
I was over-ruled & obliged to consent to Stockades 
is in hand <but> when it will be finished I know not. If 
Gov r . Hardy comes <here,> I hope to get a strong place of 
Defence yet erected. Many <^days^> ago It was agreed in 
Council of War & I ordered the Breast 2 the Camp 

to be repaired & Strengthened tis not yet done, tho 
days work to the Troops off Duty A Cap 1 & 50 Men whom 
I < ordered >' out to stay 5 days as a Scout of Observation & 

1 Omitted in the copy. 

2 Omitted in the copy. The missing words are evidently " work near. 

78 'Sir William Johnson Papers 

Intelligence retur<ned> l the third day heard or thought 

they heard some Party of the Enemy & returned the 3 d . Morn- 
ing, the Cap 1 says his Men had the Start <and> would not 
stay out. 

This Evening 3 Spies I sent to Crown Point returned. They 
<went> very near to it, Judged there were between 5 & 600 
Men there & a <Camp of Ind>ians. They have fortified the 
high Ground w ch over looks <the Fort, & were> very busy 
digging Trenches & raising Works. They <took a distant View 
of Tionderogo. In their return could perceive a very considerable 
Encamp*. There heard some French Horns play, several 
Muskets fired & judged they discovered a Fort built or building. 
They say the way by Land, except 4 Miles on this side Tion- 
derogo, is impracticable for Cannon. I propose to send Spies to 
take a more exact View. 

We had this day a Man disserted from the < Rhode Island 
Reg 1 . He speaks> French & is an Intelligent Fello<w; by 
all accts a great Rasc>al & I am informed had declared if 
<ever he deserted he would go> to the French. I sent a party 
to intercept <him but miss>ed him. I am persuaded he is gone 
over to <the Enemy & I fear wi>ll give them too particular an 
Acc f of us. 

I most sincerely Wish Your Excellency Success in the 
important Service you are engaged in & am 


Y r Excellencys 

Most Obed'. hum <Serv l .> 
<To Gov. SHIRLEY> 

1 Omitted in the copy. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 



A. D. S. 
<Camp at Lake George 22 5ep r . 1755 P. M. 

At a Council of War held by General Johnson at his Tent 


Major General Lyman and all the Field> officers of <the 
several > Reg ts . in Camp except <Col. Goodrich absent by 
sickness &> Maj r Nicholls <de>tain d by his Wound 

Cap 1 . Eyre Q r . Master Gen 1 & M r Glazier Adjutant Gen 1 
Peter Wraxall 

The General laid before this Council of War the follo<wing> 

That as some Reinforcements are already ar<jived &> 
others daily expected That as the Gov r . of New York <is 
come> up to Albany in order to forward this Service & by his 
Lett<ers> to the General is exerting all his Authority to get a 
suffic<^ient^> number of Waggons, and hopes he shall thereby 
be speedily able to forward the Provisions & Stores belo<nging> 
to this Army. The General desires this Council of War will 
take into their Consideration, all the necessary Circumstances w ch 
relate to proceeding from hence towards Crown Point & give him 
their Opinion on this important Subject. 

It is the Unanimous Opinion of this Council that every further 
Measure be taken by the General in order to prepare the Army 
<to> proceed forward on the present Expedition as soon as 
the desi<gned> reinforcements & the necessary Stores & Pro- 
visions Cannon & ca . arrive here. 

In consequence of w * 1 Opinion the General is adv<ised> to 
order the 1 8 D s . at Albany to be brought up here & to apply to 
the Gov r . of New York for some more Cannon, Mus<ket> 
Ball & Flints, and to order the Shot & Shell from the half Mon 
to be brought up hither. 


60 'Sir William Johnson Papers 


A. L. S. 

Albany 23 Sep. 7755. 

D R SiR 

I begin to doubt if the Mohawks will join you in any consider- 
able numbers. Yesterday 4 of the lower Castle came hither; 
Thomas is the Name of him is the head of the Family & they 
come to demand their prisoner, the wrong one had been kept, 
and these Indians went 7 miles after the Vessel but not over- 
taking her, M r O DeLancey went on and got on board & brought 
one who best answered their description, but who is not the right 
neither, but they are pleased & intend to adopt him, in the room 
of their Uncle Jacob; this is a queer Custom, but I suppose it 
took its rise from the necessity they saw of keeping up their 
Numbers. The Governor gave each of them a Gun, 2 Ib powder, 
4 Ib Lead & 2 Boxes of Paint. Thomas said he had an Uncle 
& a Cousin at home, & that he must give his Gun to one of them. 
The Gov. understood his meaning & gave him 2 more Guns 
cautioning him ag*. telling. These 4 go immediately thro the 
Woods from their Castle to join you. They say a Council was 
held lately at their Castle at which I find it is a Custom for the 
old Women even to preside, the Women were against their going 
again, saying their Loss is already heavy, & that perhaps they 
would have no body left to take Care of their Wives and chil- 
dren, meaning that they might all be kill d and therefore they 
should stay and fight at their Castle. These 4 said, that is 
Thomas told the others whatever their determination was, he and 
his Family were resolved to go again to their Brother Johnson 
this is the Man whom the Governor by your means stop* last 
year from going to Canada. They went away at 2 oClock 
extremely well pleased & took their Uncle as they now call their 
Prisoner along with them to whom the Gov. gave a 2 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 
Omitted as illegible. 

I Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 81 

inket, Stock 8 . & Shirt. We do not know what is the deter- 
miiation of the other Castles. A Message of Condoleance is to 
be sent to each Nation, in which they will be acq d with the Gov r8 
app*. their Services acknowledged in the late Action, & the 
Reputation of their Ancestors as well as their own argued as an 
incitement to them to return to the Army I think the two 
Castles of the Mohawks might have been sent for, the presence 
of a new Gov r . might have added to the Weight of their Engage- 
, ments to you. I mentioned this opinion tho not to the Gov r : & 
was answered it would throw them into Confusion; It may be 
so, but I think the other Nations could not take Umbrage at it 
as they might have been told the Reason and any of the others 
that could attend in time might have done so. Perhaps there is 
a better Reason. I have not heard what it is and do not think 
myself knowing enough in those affairs to give my opinion. I 
have been very particular in this Matter, that you may take your 
accordingly. Our Citizens have subscribed 500 to be 
sent up in Refreshments to your army, on which head I suppose 
M r . O DeLancey will write you. O That I could stop the 
swift Motion of time at this Juncture, or the Severity of the 
Season may not stop your Operations. I saw about 1 000 Conn*. 
Men drawn out before the Gov s . door this Morning, they make 
a difficulty of marching yet 2 they might eat up your 

Prov 8 : I told some of their officers to do as the French did carry 
1 or 15 days Prov 8 . in their Sacks. Some Voluntiers came on 
horseback I hear from Boston. I think the people here are but 
indifferently armed, a matter which might to be look d to & their 
arms mended. A Company march d to day to mend the Roads, 
which are excessive bad & which if not mended may drive your 
Army to great Straights. The Passage from Ticnonder 
on Land I am told is unpassable, or rather that ther ar no Pas- 
sage, and after the best Information from M r . Cuyler, you 1 have 
great difficulty in Landing. In short if you will have Victory, 
you must I think purchase it dear, as you have done this, tho of 

1 Omitted as illegible. 

2 " Leeft " in the copy. It should probably be " lookt." 

82 Sir William Johnson Paper* 

no great Consequence as to reducing your numbers, for you 1 have! 
enough not many less I apprehend than 8000. The Governor! 
recommends the building of Ovens, to Transportation! 

of Bread which receives damage in carrying. I was concerned 
to see you even reduced the Necessity of giving up your Senti- 
ments as to the Fort where you are, A Strong and very large j 
one, or Store Houses, should be built some where properly situ- 
ated, that we may send up prov 8 . in the winter which I appre- 
hend we may have occasion to do whether you carry your Point 
or not But it is more especially necessary if you abandon your 
principal design D. Shuckburgh, and Ayscough are here, the I 
latter comin voluntarily to do any Service in his Way. We 
are all well drink your health & Success after Meals, and S r . 
Charles wishes to see you. A Motion prevails among your 
People I hear that he intends for the Camp; I think not, & that 
his stay will not be much longer here. I am with my best wishes 
D r S r . your most 


The Gov r . extremely anxious about the building of Forts and 
I am in doubt whether he will not go himself if nothing less 
could build them this Inter Nos. 


D/. 2 
Camp at Lake George Tuesday [23 Sef> r 1755] 

8 oClock 

I have just received an Account by a Man dispatched [ ] 

a Scouting Party who are out towards South Bay, that [ ] 

of their Scouts heard People's Voices & saw one Man who they 
took to be a French Man & discovered a number of Fresh 
] in the road w ch leads from South Bay to Fort 

1 Omitted as illegible. 2 By Wraxall. 

(Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 83 

[ send you this advice as I received it, & think it proper you 
uld be on your Guard & tomorrow morning early send 2 or 3 
Parties of 3 Men ea[ch] to Scout towards South Bay, & Wood 
Creek. And if [you?] get any Material Intelligence send me 
an acco[unt] with all possible Dispatch. I am Sir 

Your very hum 

, INDORSED: Letter to Col. Cockcroft 

23Sep'. 1755 


[Lake George, Sept 23, 1755] 

] [re]mainder of [ ] 

] to releive You and the five Comp[anies] [ ] 

[ ] Province of New York and for him 2 to [ ] 

[ ] the said Fort. 

You are to hold Yourself in readiness with [ ] to 

March hither with the first Convoy of Waggons after [ ] 

Arrival, with the necessary Baggage &c. 

In the meantime send a party to bring up the Battae[us] 
[w ch ?] may be drifted from the Fort and take care to preserve 
them with their Paddles and setting Poles in the best order 

If Sir Charles Hardy Gov r . of New York should give You 
] of his coming up hither and want a Guard You will 

1 Several lines burned off. 

2 Colonel Ruggles, who was to relieve Colonel Cockcroft. This was 
mentioned in the burned portion of the letter. See Johnson Calendar, 
p. 51. 

84 Sir William Johnson Papers 

take care to order him one proper and sufficient to conduct him 
to Fort [Edward] 

I am 

Your Verry Hum 1 Serv[ant] 
INDORSED: 23 Sep r 1755 


The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar by Johnson's 
orders of September 23d, drafted at Lake George, to commanding officers 
of provincial regiments in camp to supply New Hampshire troops with 
provisions. Destroyed by fire. 


D/. 1 
<Camp at Lake George 23 Sep r 1755. 


I am honoured with your Excellency 5 Letter of the 21 In 81 
by Express. As I have great reason to suspect the Enemy have 
parties to observe our Motions & to get a Prisoner if they can, 
particularly between this Camp & Fort Edward (w ch is the name 
I have given to> the Fort laid out by Cap* <Eyre at the Carry- 
ing Place in hon>our to Prince Edward) I do not < think it 
prudent to lay all> those Matters before you & transmit you 
< those Papers w ch > I should otherwise do, in answer to your 
< Letter & upon> your arrival at Albany. 

If it is consistent with your Excell<;ency s > State of Health 
& the public Calls upon you, I think it would <at this important 
Juncture be of Great> & useful Consequence to the Service I am 
engaged in, if <your Excell>ency would honour me with a Visit 
at this Camp & <that the> Gentlemen of the Council accom- 
pany you. Should this <be> consistent with your other public 
< Engagements > & your Excellency should detirmine to do it, 
please to <acquaint> the Commanding officer at Fort Edward 

1 By Wraxall. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 85 

om I shall ^thereupon order to> meet you <with> a 
Guard & order < another > Guard from hence to Conduct you 

If I cannot expect the honour of seeing your <ExcelL v > here 
where an English Governor never yet set his Foot, I <^will> 
either write you at large upon the present State of affai<js> & 
transmit you the necessary Papers relative to the Expedi<^tion^> 
under my Command & send them with proper Guard, w ch if 
these Papers were ready I coud not prudently do at present 
1 without too much weakening the <Camp> having several 
Parties out, or D< is > patch a Person to You with all the 
requisite Papers & qualified to give you the necessary Informa- 
tion Were it prudent for me to wait on You my Wound will 
not permit my travelling so far. I should otherwise eagerly 
embrace the Opportunity^ of paying my personal respects 
to you. 

I am most respectfully Sir Your Excellency 8 . Most Obed* 
hum Se<rv*> 

We are but very ill provided with Musket Ball & Flints & 
should be glad y r Excell? would send us a Supply. 

To SIR CHARLES HARDY Gov r of New York & c 


A. L. S. 1 

Albany 24 September: 8 P: M. 

I wrote you yesterday and informed you of the Steps taking 
here respecting the Indians. To morrow Morning M r . Ogilvie 2 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

2 Rev. John Ogilvie was born in New York City in 1 722, and died 
there November 26, 1 774. He was graduated at Yale, received into 
the ministry and sent as a missionary to the Mohawks. He was chaplain 
to the Royal Americans, with appointment dating from September 1, 
1756; accompanied Sir William Johnson against Fort Niagara and 
General Amherst against Canada ; and in 1 764 was made assistant minister 
at Trinity Church, New York. 

86 Sir William Johnson Papers 

& M r . Van Schaick, 1 Recorder of this City set out with a Mes- 
sage from the Governor 2 to be delivered to each Castle of the I 
Mohawks the substance of which as I acquainted you is to cover I 
their dead & press them to join you as soon as possible, the like | 
Ceremony is to be performed at the Castles of the Oneides and I 
Tuskaroras, & afterwards at the Schoharry and Auchquage 1 
Castles, but the formality of Condolence is to be avoided, as it 1 
is said it would take up much time. This Afternoon L l . Butler I 
arrived here from Schenectady, and says the Indians are very 
backward, that he has engaged the Promise of about 20 only, 
and that the five upper Nations have sent a Belt to the Mohawks 
signifying that they would not intermeddle, that the English & 
French had a design to kill them all, That the Mohawks might 
do as they pleased but if they join'd you, they would kick them 
from them and have no more to say to them. To morrow the 
two Castles of the Mohawks are to meet at the lower one, where 
this Message & black strouds Belts &c will be delivered; may it 
produce a change in their Sentiments. I suspect from the Com- 
plaints of the Baron, who says the Caghnewages were not only 
backward themselves but perswaded others to be so, that our 
Indians and they have some Understanding together From 
his Letter this should appear a favourable Juncture to bring the 
Cachnewages over to us, tother Victory, and its odds but we gain 
them; A small Present was given to day to a Cachnewaga 
who came over about 18 months ago he appears hearty, says 
he 11 join you, that he has 5 Sons among that People, whom he 
will endeavour to bring back. I doubt if all the Reinforce- 
ments will join you early enough to proceed, if not, those behind 
may stay at the present Camp & strengthen the building there. 
If they should all join you I think 'twould not be adviseable to 
take the whole for these Reasons. Many are poorly armed, 

1 Sybrant G. Van Schaick. 

2 See below Message to Indians, September 24. 1755. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 87 

others not so fit or able to proceed, and yet if you conquer or 
should be overpowered, such, tho of little use, will be counted in 
the numbers, and lessen the Merit or add to the disgrace. Too 
many will retard the Dispatch necessary, and a number is proper 
to be left for the Security of the rest, in case of any Misfortune 
besides it will be difficult enough to carry Provisions for this 
Reason I wish the Example of the French was followed who 
carried 1 5 days Provision, how much would this lessen Carriage 
where the Troops move by Land & Batoes maybe scows. 1 

Youve heard perhaps of poor Cap 1 . Kings death; the doctor 
has mentioned to M r . Barons 2 your former Inclination for a Com- 
pany. In Conversation with the latter on this Subject I told 
him, I did not understand your Commission as Col. of the 6 Nat 8 . 
was yet made out, that I believed you might be glad of both, but 
was perswaded could not accept of the Company in lieu of 'tother, 
which would not only give much higher Rank but better Pay. 
He seemed to think both, were incompatible. S r . Charles will 
I think do you any Service he can, but you must desire his 
Friendship and let him know wherein he can serve you. I think 
you should not delay obtaining your Comm n . as Colonel which 
by the Board of Trade, was recommended in a Report to the 
King in Council. I read so much of the Copy of it, shown me by 
M r . Pownall, as I think I formerly acquainted you on our Way 
to Alexandria and I wonder the Commission has not been issued. 
Perhaps the Notion prevails that the Indians must be Regimented 
in this Case, and the Expence prevents their doing any thing in 
it. I see no impropriety in your having the direction of Ind n . 
affairs under the Title and Rank f Col. without their being 
regimented. A fairer Occasion you cant have then the present 
Circumstances of affairs give you & I am sure the application 
you make yourself will be well seconded; I wish you may have 

1 The original was probably " scarce." 

* Benjamin Barons, secretary to Sir Charles Hardy. 

88 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

an Opportunity of making a personal Friendship with S r . Charles 
before he leaves this Place for N York. If you dont think there'* 
danger of Letters being intercepted, I shall write again perhaps, 
but it's time to hope a few Lines from you, especially as I now 
look on myself as your Neighbour almost. My Compliments to 
Cap 18 . Wraxall & Eyre. Is M r . Wraxall the only Aid de Camp 
you have. Nothing of Dunbar nor any certain accounts from 
the Westward, my apprehensions of their doing continue. A 
Meeting of Comm rs : is proposed at N Y in Nov. next, it will 
hardly take Place so soon if you can I suppose youl be present: 

25Sep'. 9P: M. 
I shall venture this, as I imagine the Enemy have not yet 
received * their Surprize ; it is to be sent from Fort Edward by 
Express and perhaps will go with some Eschort or Party. Have 
you left Cannon enough or do you apprehend there's Necessity 
for 'em at Fort Edward. I rec'ed your Ere; whether I shall 
have the pleasure of seeing you I think will depend on your 
answer to S r . Charles's Letter w ch . I've not seen. They have 
just rec'ed advice in London of the taking the 2 French Ships of 
War, but the French did not know it by the latest accounts. I 
am D r . Sir your obed'. hble serv 1 


we've just heard of your Orders of the 21 to the Comm 8 . and 
officers of the Troops here. 

1 " Recovered " probably. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 




Return of Men fit for Duty Camp Lake George 23 & 24 

Se^ 1755. 

[assachusetts Col. Gilberts Reg*. S. C. D & P. 207 
*. Col. Bagly 245 

d. L'. Col. Whitcomb 8 Detach 1 . 150 


New Hampshire 244^ 

Rhode Island & Draughts in Artillery 186 

Connecticut Gen 1 . Lymans Reg* 326 

d. Col. Goodrich 8 , w** 1 2 Additional Comp 8 . 370 
Companys of Connecticut Reinforce 18 410 

50 on Scout 24 Sep r . 2138 

Comp 8 . Reinfs Col. Chauncey 162 

,ieu' Col. Worsters C. 57 

5 Comp 8 . New York 329 

Lisi of Invalids * 

Lake George y e 21 rt Sep r . 1755 
Andrew Lovjoy 
Samuel Meecham 
Benj a Warriener 
Aaron Warriener 
John Mun 

David Cunningham 
John Miller 
Ezekieh Hale 
Samuel Whitman 
Robert Crage 
Robert Sanderson 

The above Nam d . Invalid Have Liberty to Return to New 
england Given them, Sence the 8 th ensta* p r Tho 8 . Gilbert 

1 By Wraxall. 

*On the back of the above. 

90 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 


The preceding return is followed in the Johnson Calendar by a letter 
of September 24th, now burned, from Johnson to the lords of trade on 
the recent victory, return of the Indians to their home, trade between 
Albany and Canada, and the means to separate the Caghnawagas from the 
French (printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y., 2:698-700; Q, 2:407-8; Doc. 
Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y. t 6:1009-10). This is followed by Captain 
Robert Rogers's report of scouting at Crown Point, submitted to Colonel 
Joseph Blanchard, and by him to Johnson, September 24th (printed in 
Doc. Hist. N. Y. t 4:259-60; Q, 4:169). Original destroyed by fire. 

A. L. S. 1 

Providence September 24, 1755. 

Your Letter of the 9 th . Instant with many Letters from other 
Officers in the Camp, have given us an Account of your Engage- 
ment, with the Enemy the Day before. Many here were in 
Pain for you fearing you would be attacked, before you were 
reinforced; and altho this Action happened according to our 
Fears, yet the Successfull Event exceeded our Hopes. 

Those who from their past Experience might be led to think 
they had Nothing more to do than to attack furiously, and yell 
hideously to make them victorious, have been modestly shewn 
their Error, they have been taught to turn their Backs, and leave 
their Brethren and Commanders behind them; They who Stole 
a Victory from Braddock, and cheated that Hero out of his 
Life by Sculking, have been openly arrested by English War- 
rants, and sent to Settle their Accounts with him, where Nothing 
will be gained by Ambuscades. 

We all rejoice, yea we rejoice much at your Success, yet are 
not half so much pleased with that as with your Conduct and 
Bravery. We esteem it a sure Earnest of further Successes that 
you are able to obtain certain Intelligences and not be surprised 
or deceived. We are not more encouraged by your Ardor to 
engage, than by your Judgment to retreat, as on one Hand Suc- 

1 In New York Public Library, Emmet Collection. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 7755-7756 91 

cess can add Nothing to your Courage, so on the other we hope 
it will take Nothing from your Caution. We congratulate you 
on the Opportunity of displaying your Humanity and Beneficence, 
to one who for his great Ability in the Art of War, hath been 
recommended by the renowned Count Saxe, and Commisioned 
by the Grand Monarch. 

And altho like all other Men we had much rather rejoice than 
mourn, yet are we not so insensible to Merit, as to deny our 
Tears to the Sacred Memory of Williams, Titcomb, and all 
those other Sons of Liberty, who bravely Sacrificed their Lives 
in their Countrys Cause ; nor are we less afflicted for the Loss of 
that great American King, our faithfull Friend and Ally, who 
encouraging his Brethren and fighting in our Cause, was struck 
by that renowned Bullet, commissioned to destroy more Good 
Sense, than any before it had ever done. 

This small Colony have raised 350 men to reinforce you, four 
Companies of which are already gone, and the other three are 
now ready to move forward, and every Thing is and will be 
provided, which we can think or be informed is necessary for 

Those Large Reinforcements from the Colonies of the Massa- 
chusetts and Connecticut!, added to the Army you already have, 
and those from New Hampshire and this Colony, we hope will 
enable you to overmatch the Enemy in Numbers and Succeed in 
the designed Enterprise. However should the French pushing to 
the utmost make their Force to defend equal to yours to attack, 
Let it be known in New England as soon as possible for Men 
enough are here yet left, ready and willing if the Cause so require, 
Speedily and very greatly to encrease your Numbers. 

Your Most Obedient and 

Most Humble Servant 



92 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 


At a Council held at the City of 
Albany on Wednesday the 24 th day 
of September 1755. 

His Excellency Sir Charles Hardy Knight &<*. 

James De Lancey "1 
Daniel Horsmanden lEsq r *. 

John Rutherford J 

The following Message being read and approved of, was sent 
by the Recorder of this city M r . Van Schaick and the Reverend 
M r . Ogilvie Missionary to the Indians. 

To the Mohawk Oneide and 
Tuskarora Nations of Indians, as 
also to the Indians of the Schohary 
and Auchquage. 

Message to the 
Ind s . to cover their 
dead and invite the 
Warriors to return 
& join the army. 

Brethren. The Great King Your Father having been pleased 
to appoint me Governor of this Province, I thought it necessary 
to acquaint you therewith as early as I could, and concluded to 
send you a Message, as the publick affairs which require my 
presence at New York will not permit my calling you together 
before I leave this City. A String of Wampum. 


Since my Arrival, I have seen the Records of the late proceed- 
ings between you and General Johnson, and cannot but express 
the Satisfaction I feel in finding both you and us so firmly united 
in that covenant chain, which had its beginning beyond the 

1 Council Minutes, 25:83-84. 

Preliminary Campaigns, / 7 55-1 7 56 93 

Memory of Man, and which hath been so carefully preserved 
hitherto from the least stain or rust. . Nothing can convince me 
more of your intention to continue this Friendship inviolable, 
than your joining with us in the proper Measures to repel the 
French from their encroachments. Whether we or you receive 
any Injury, I look on the Authors equally our Enemies, and that 
the Covenant between us Obliges both to make it a Common 
Cause. From this principle it is, that I am as sensible of the 
Loss of your great Men in the late Action, as you yourselves 
can be, and give you these Strouds &c to cover your Dead, to 
wash the Tears from your Eyes, and drive away Sorrow from 
your Hearts. 

As we have now paid the Regard due to our deceased Warriors 
for the present, and mean to condole you in due form when time 
will admit of it; I earnestly invite you to return to the Assistance 
of your Brethren, the English, who now only wait that they may 
proceed with you to finish the good Work already so successfully 

I have the great King's Command to assure you of his pro- 
tection, and under that you will remain secure against the Threats 
or designs of all your Enemies. The loss of some of our great 
Warriors ought not to discourage, but rather animate us to go on 
to revenge their deaths on our Enemies ; with this View We have 
increased our Enemies 1 Army to double the Number it was in the 
late Battle. Your Forefathers were justly distinguished for their 
great Bravery and gallant Actions. It was this made them the 
Terror and Scourge of their Enemies, and no one dared to offend 
them. You have shewn yourselves by your undaunted behaviour 
in the Battle to be the Descendents of such Noble Ancestors. 
Come on then with us, and by facing the Enemy again, continue 
to deserve that Reputation, for which neither the Memory of 
your Forefathers, or yours, will ever be forgotten. I call upon 
you in the name of the Great King your Father to follow us ; your 
own Interest and the Strictest Ties of Friendship Oblige you to it. 
If you shou'd stay at home while your Brethren the English are 

1 " Enemies *' in the manuscript. 

94 f Sir William Johnson Papers 

proceeding under General Johnson against the common enemy, 
The French and their Indians will Ascribe it to Fear and dread of 
them ; an Imputation which I am persuaded you never yet have 
or ever will deserve. 


D/. 1 
Camp at Lake George 24 Sep r 1755 

Instructions for Colonel Tim . Ruggles 


You are to take the returned Waggons under your Convoy 
& march with the remainder of your Regiment from this Camp 
to Fort Edward to relieve Col. Cockcroft who I have ordered to 
march hither with the first Waggons after your Arrival with the 
5 Comp 8 of his Reg* raised in the Province of New York You 
will take care to march with proper advanced & flank Guards & 
so as to cover the Waggons from any Parties of the Enemy. 


On your arrival at Fort Edward, you are to take on you the 
Command of the same & take care that what remains to compleat 
it be finished as speedily as can possibly be done & you are from 
time to time to advise me of your proceedings & what assistance 
you may want herein. 


You are to keep up a due Subordination & Discipline Amongst 
the officers & soldiers under your Command & take care to be 
always guarded against a surprize & ready to receive an attack 
from the Enemy, besides your Out Sentrys from break of day 
till Night you are to send small Scouts of 3 or 4 towards Wood 
Creek & round about you for 2 or 3 miles & upon the Intelligence 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 7755-7756 95 

of the March of any Body of the Enemy to give me immediate 
Notice by 2 or more brisk Men to set out a Quarter of an hour 
at most one after the other & also to Albany. 

You are to take care and Secure the Battoes from Damage or 
drifting & not suffer any one to abuse them, to send Parties 
down the river as far as the next Carrying Place to bring up 
those if any w ch . may be drove down there. 


In case the Gov r . of New York should write to you for a 
Guard to meet him you are to send him a Cap ts Guard or such a 
Number as he may desire consistent with the safety of your 

L. S. 1 

Camp Osnego Sep. 24 th : 7755 

Yesterday afternoon I received your Letter dated 9 th . Instant, 
being a Copy of that to the several Governors of the Colonies 
concern'd in the Expedition under your Command, and the same 
with what M r . Stevenson transcrib'd from your Letter to Gov- 
ernor Phipps, and sent me seven days ago, as you will perceive 
by mine to you of the 1 9 th . Instant. 

In your last I received a Copy of the Orders and Instructions 
for the regular Troops sent to Cadaraqui, which are a Confirma- 
tion of the Intelligence, I sent you in my last, viz*, that 500 of 
the Regular Troops, which came from France with M r . Dieskau, 
are encamped at the Fort there ; It appears also by those Instruc- 
tions, that there were at least 166 Cannadeans sent with them 

1 Original destroyed by fire. There is an extract in Public Record 
Office, C. O. 5. 46, London, England. The letter is printed in Cor- 
respondence of William Shirley, ed. C. H. Lincoln. 2 :280-83. 

96 Sir William Johnson Papers 

on the I 81 : & 2 d . of Aug*. last; & that a Number of Indians are 
there likewise. 

By the Express, which delivered me your Letter, I received 
one dated 10 th : Instant from Cap*. Ayre your Engineer, inform- 
ing me of the Strength of the Fort built at the Carrying Place; 
and that with a Garrison of 3 or 400 Men, would be able to 
resist an attack of 1500, if no Cannon were brought against it; 
and that in his Opinion it is very necessary that a strong and 
Regular Work sho d : be erected at Lake George, to keep Posses- 
sion of that Country so far; that if the French can seize and take 
the before mentioned Work at the Carrying Place, he fears 
it would be attended with bad Consequences, as it would cutt 
off your Retreat and Communication with Albany, and totally 
stop your Reinforcements & Provisions from joining you, if 
another Road cannot be found; which he believes is not easy to 
be met with; that he thinks what induc'd the French or may 
induce 'em hereafter to attack you at Lake George, is fearing 
that you would not attempt to go any further, so were resolved to 
cutt you off, before you returned, & seems to infer from thence 
that the Enemy must be so formidable, as to make it unadviseable 
for you to proceed further; and concludes with extolling the 
Gallantry & Resolution of the French Troops in their late attack 
of you. 1 

I agree, Sir, in Sentiments with your Engineer concerning the 
bad Consequences of the Enemy's taking the Fort at the Carry- 
ing Place, and am much concerned at the Weakness of its Works; 
especially as both yourself and he are apprehensive of another 
attack at Lake George with Cannon; If I was in your situation, 
my chief apprehensions would be that the French would make an 
attempt upon that Fort with Cannon, which they might Trans- 
port thither as easily as to Lake George; and I think you judg'd 
extremely right in sending a Detachment of 1000 Men to his 

1 Transcript in Public Record Office has these additional words: " and 
the Opinion he hath conciev'd of M r . Dieskau from his Conduct in it as 
an excellent Officer." 

(About 1756. By T. Adams ?) 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 97 

Support upon the first alarm of the Enemy's being upon their 
March towards it: and for my own part, 1 I must own, I should 
have tho*: it a better piece of Conduct, in M r . Dieskau, if, after 
defeating the Party under Col Williams's Command he had 
attack'd the Fort at the Carrying Place, instead of your Camp; 
which, according to your Engineer's account of it, might have 
been more easily won with the Force he had with him, than your 
Camp been storm'd. 

I can by no means adopt your Engineers Opinion of the urgent 
necessity of immediately erecting a strong regular Fort at Lake 
George for maintaining Possession of the Country so far: In my 
Opinion the most material Place for erecting the strongest Works 
is at the other end of the Carrying Place (at or near where the 
Fort lately built stands) which is about 1 7 Miles distant from it: 
It seems to me that a Regular strong Fort there would be a much 
more essential one for covering the Country against the attacks 
of the French from the River Champlain, thro the three several 
Routes, that lead from thence to it, than one at Lake George, 
which would leave it uncovered in two of those Routes: Besides, 
how could a Fort at Lake George be supported, when it's Com- 
munication with Albany was cutt off, which, as your Engineer 
rightly observes, would most probably be the Case, if the French 
should take our Fort at the Carrying Place. 

I would therefore recommend it to you in the strongest man- 
ner, as an Object, which deserves your attention, to have the 
Fort at the Carrying Place strengthened as much as the Circum- 
stances of your Army will admit, consistent with your proceeding 
directly to Tinonderogue. 

As to the formidable Strength of the Enemy, you will have to 
encounter in your March thither, I have told you my Sentiments 
at large in my last Letter ; and with regard to the Gallant Behav- 
iour of their Troops in the late actions; I must own, I differ 

1 Transcript in Public Record Office has these words : " tho I doubt 
not of M r . Dieskau's being an excellent Officer, I must own I should 
have thought it a better piece of Conduct in him." 
Vol. II 4 

98 f Sir William Johnson Papers 

widely in Opinion from your Engineer ; Their Retreat was a very 
bad one without Conduct or Resolution ; they could not otherwise 
have suffered so great a Slaughter, as you say they did, in the 
short Pursuit made of them by your Troops & Indians, which 
jump'd over the Barricads of your Camp after them. 

The more I think of your situation, the more adviseable I think 
it will be for you to proceed to Tinonderogue ; as the Honour 
of his Majestys Arms and the Interest of the Colonies seem to 
require it: The Consequences, I fear will be bad, if you do not; 
and I cant but hope that you will see these matters in the same 
light, which I view them in. 

The weak Condition, which I found this place in, and our want 
of dry Provisions have hitherto inevitably hinder'd me from pro- 
ceeding in the Expedition under my Command, but both these 
Obstacles will, I hope, be so far surmounted in three days, as to 
permit me to do it: 

I wish you a speedy Recovery of your Wound, and much 
Success, and am, Sir, 

Your most Humble Servant. 


P: S: Be pleased to Communicate this to Cap 1 . Ayre; I have 
not time to write to him before I Sail 

L. S. 1 

Albany Sep'. the 25th 1755. 

I received yours by the return of my Express by which I was 
in hopes I should have had some Account of the State of your 
Army, with a return of Provision & Stores, and your answer to 
some other points contained in my Letter to you by that Express; 
As I would not have you risque any Papers falling into the 
Enemys hands, if you judge sending them to me may endanger 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 

; I must desire you would send to me a Person you can con- 
in, properly instructed from you, that can give me every 
iformation you may be desirous of communicating to me, 
jgether with a Plan of Fort Edward and the one I am told you 
re building upon the Lake, both which I hope, as I observed to 
in my last, will be so constructed for the receiving proper 
iarrisons for their Security this Winter, together with proper 
lagazines for Provisions & Stores. 

As I apprehend the Indians joining You at this Juncture may 
of great Service for Scouting Parties & c . I have this day sent 
r . Ogilvie their Minister, and the Recorder of this city to the 
lohawks Castles, with a Message and some Black Strouds to 
>ver their Dead, and have used all the arguments in my power 
prevail on them to repair immediately to Your Camp, and that 
will condole them on their Loss, as soon as time will admit of it. 
While I am writing this Col. Dyer of the Connecticut Forces 
shewn me your Order to him to continue here, with the 
lainder of the Forces under his Care, till further directions. I 
lould have been glad to have known your intentions on this head 
mer, as it was but this morning, I recommended it in Council to 
lat Gentleman, as well as the other Commanders of Provincial 
\>rces in this City, that are intended for your reinforcement, to 
leave this Place & join you immediately. 

I observe you are desirous of my seeing your Camp with the 
Gentlemen of the Council. I should be glad you would by the 
return of this Express let me know in what instance you think 
my immediate presence might be of Service, for I shall be at all 
times glad to have it in my power the Public Service whether in 
Camp or City. 

By the first Waggon I will send you some Musket Ball & 
Flints for the New York Forces for whom I presume you want 
them ; if for others You will take care they are accounted for. 

I shall recommend it to the Commissaries, and see they dis- 
patch the Provisions to you, for which service there are a great 
number of Waggons employed. 

100 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

I hope your Wound will mend daily, but cannot this time 
expect to have the pleasure of seeing you here, Whenever it is 
you may be assured it will give pleasure to 

Your most Obed 1 . humble Serv 1 . 


P. S. I hope the Baron Deskieu's Wounds are better than when 
he came down here. 




L. S. 1 

Camp at Osnego Sept'. 25 th 1755. 

As it is possible that your Wound may render you unable to 
proceed in Person to Tenonderoge, in such Case I would recom- 
mend it to you to order Major General Lyman, who I apprehend 
hath escap'd unhurt, or Colonel Ruggles, in Case General Lyman 
should be unable to go in person, to march the Forces under your 
Command to that Pass, and take possession of it, and secure it 
against the Enemy, leaving with you such a Number of Troops 
as you shall judge sufficient for strengthening the Works at the 
'Carrying place, and erecting such at Lake George, as you shall 
think absolutely necessary. 

If nothing further could be done this Campaigne than gaining 
Tenonderoge, yet that would be carrying a great 2 for the 
protection of the Country behind, this year, and facilitation of 
the Reduction of Fort S 1 . Frederic the next Spring. 

You will give me leave to press this Matter again upon you, 
as what nearly concerns his Majesty's Service, and the Interests 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

2 Word omitted in the copy. " Point" satisfies the sense. 

Preliminary Campaigns, / 7 55-1 7 56 101 

of the Colonies; and must greatly redound to your own Honour 
and that of the Army under your Command; and I should be 
glad, you would consult your Field Officers upon it. 

I hope your Health will permit you to go upon this Service 
in Person, and earnestly wish, your Attempt may crown'd with 
all the Success, you can desire; which I cant but think it will if 
you proceed. I am, 

Your most Humble Servant 


Z)/. 1 

Camp at Lafe George 26 Sep r . 7755 

I am favoured with your Excellencys two Letters of the 22 
& 24 Inst. 

I forgot to mention in my last that the Council of War had 
advised that the 1 8 pds. at Albany should be brought up here & 
that I should apply to Your Excellency for more small Cannon. 

I have talked with Gen 1 . Lyman & the Officers about Ovens. 
They think it would occasion waste & go to slow to be useful. 

Your Excellency hath shown your Humanity & Zeal for the 
Service in directing Hospitals to be provided for the Wounded & 
Sick. You have all our grateful Acknowledgments for it. 

As I flatter myself with the honour of seeing you here, I refer 
particulars to that Meeting, if I am disappointed in that, to the 
other Expedients proposed in my last. 

I am most respectfully, 

Sir your Excellencys 

Most Obed*. hum Serv*. 

Gov r of New York &c. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

102 'Sir William Johnson Papers 


A letter of September 26, 1755, from Johnson to Colonel Timothy 
Ruggles, at Fort Edward, which called for returns of boats and troops, 
apprised of tracks of enemy near Wood Creek and South Bay and 
cautioned against surprise, following the above in the Johnson Calendar, 
p. 52, was destroyed by fire. 

Contemporary Cop}; 1 

September 26, 7755 
Province of the Massachusetts Bay. 

The Committee appointed to take under Consideration the two 
letters last received from General Johnson, having attended the 
Service report as their humble Opinion 

That his Honour the Lieutenant Governour be desired to 
acquaint the General with the great Satisfaction which this Court 
takes in the Conduct and brave Spirit shown by the Officers and 
Soldiers in the late Engagement with the French and Indian 
Enemy and the Welcome reception which the News of this sea- 
sonable and important Success has met with throughout the 
Province and the dependence which is placed, under God upon 
the Continuance of the Same spirit in order to the effectual obtain- 
ing the proposed ends of the Expedition. That the General be 
desired to assure the Forces in the Pay of this Province that con- 
stant care shall be taken by the Government and all necessary 
Provision be made for their Comfortable support during the 
continuance of Service 

That his Honour the Lieutenant Governour be further desired 
to inform the General that the Minutes of Council referred to in 
his first Letter did not accompany it and that the Several Papers 
mentioned in his last letter to have been sent to New York have 
not been received here, and although the Province and City of 
New York are nearest to the Place of Action which the Court 
suppose is the Reason why they were first sent thither, yet as this 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 103 

Government is principally concerned in the Expedition it will 
most agreeable that all Papers and Advices of importance 

should be forwarded hither direct and that in every respect we 

should be considered as Principals and particularly that the 

French General and other Prisoners of Note may be sent to 


All which is humbly Submitted & * Order of the Committee 

James Minot 

September 26. 1 755 

In Council September 26. 1 755 Read and Ordered that this 

Report be Accepted 

Sent down for Concurrence 

J Willard Sec*. 

In the House of Representatives Sept r . 26. 1 755 
Read and Concur'd 

T Hubbard SpK 
Copy Examined 

^ THO S . CLARKE Dpi?. Sec*. 


A notification, dated September 27th, by Oliver DeLancey and 
Cornelis Cuyler at Albany, relating to stores forwarded, was destroyed 
by fire. It followed the above paper in the Calendar, of which see p. 

Df. S. 2 

Boston Sepr. 26. 1755 

I have received your Letter of the 1 7 th . Instant, And as that 
Part of it which relates to the Filling up the Offices which are 
become Vacant by the Death of Coll. Tidcomb Coll. Williams 
&c requires a more immediate Answer I shall confine my self to 

1 & by mistake for ^. 

2 In Massachusetts Archives. 

104 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

that Subject at present referring other Matters to the next Oppor- 
tunity which I suppose will soon happen 

I am sensible it must have been difficult for you to determine 
in what manner to regulate the succession of Officers. There 
are inconveniencies both ways. It is not very agreeable to have 
Officers of inferior rank advanced over the heads of others in the 
same army who a few days before were their superiors in rank 
but in those forces the inconvenience is not so great as it would 
be in his Majestys regular troops for there the Officers would 
rank according to such promotion in future services whereas here 
upon the expiration of this particular service and the raising new 
Troops any reform or alteration may be made that may be thought 
proper ; but there is a peculiar circumstance attending these Regi- 
ments which has great weight with me. Each Regiment consists 
mainly of people in one vicinity whose Officers were appointed 
from among themselves to encourage the enlistment & render the 
service more agreeable to the private soldiers. 

I therefore think it will be liable to the least exception if in the 
present case you deliver Commissions for Colonels to the two L l 
Colonels of Titcombs & Williams' Regiments & advance the 
other Officers in each Regiment according to their seniority. As 
this was a pretty nice point I thought it best to take the opinion 
of his Majestys Council & they fully concur with me. 

The greatest part of our New Recruits of 2000 Men are 
already on their March And the rest, I hope, will follow in two 
or three days. I have commissionated Coll. Ichabod Plaisted, 
Coll. Richard Gridley, Coll. Josiah Brown & Coll. Joseph 
Thatcher to command the four Regim ts . now raising; The said 
Collonels have rec d . my Instructions to march their Regiments 
to the Camp & their to take your Orders. 
I am Sir. 

Your very humble Serv 1 


Preliminary Campaigns, / 7 55-1 7 56 105 

Since the writing the foregoing Letter a Committee of the 
mncil & House of Representatives appointed to consider your 
last Letters have made report which has been accepted & 
rhich I herewith transmit you Being informed that the Gov- 
i*. of Connecticut have furnished blank Commissions to fill 
such Vacancys as may happen I have likewise thot fit to send 
a number & deliver Major Hoare Twenty under a blank Cover 
directed to you 

INDORSED: L 1 . Govern 8 . Letter to 
General Johnson. 

A. L. S. 1 

Lake George Sepr 26 ih 1755 

Last night I Being apponted to go the Grand Rounds not 
being able to go my Self ; Sent 2 of my officers Found the Guards 
& Centrys at 4 Clock In y e morning In there Several Posts well 



L. S. 

Ne York 26th Sep. 1755 

I had the Honour to write you the 1 7th In st . with M r . Bev : 
Robinson, to send you an ac* of some Refreshments which were 
sent up to you for the Forces under your Command, The Spirit 
of Gratitude to you & your Brave Troops still continues, & y e . 
People of Queens County, Long Island have raised & sent here 

1 On back of Johnson to Eyre, September 29, 1 755. 

106 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

for your Army 1000 Sheep, which M r . Robinson & I. (who are 
Agents Volunteers for y r . Service) are sending up as fast as 
possible & hope they will come safe & be acceptable, there are 
some Gunners going up to you, by Cap ta . Saul Bayard you will 
receive this, & I have sent by him a Cannister of Tea & some 
Liquerish, which was forgot, to be sent with the other things. 

I wish we knew what was the Most agreeable thing to send up 
to you as more Money is raising daily, & y e Philad'a People are 
raising something to be sent as Present to you. 

May God Prosper you, be carefull of y r self, the loss of you 
is not to be repaired at present to the Provinces so for their Sakes 
& ye rest of y r . Friends, if you have no regard for yourself, be 
not too prodigal of y r Valour, which gives pleasure & Joy to 
every Body. 

My best respects to Cap. Eyers lett him know Colo Dunbar 
is on his March from Philad'a here, to go to Albany with his 
Forces, Adieu D r Sir & believe me with great Esteem 
Y r . most obed & verry hum Serv*. 



^ A letter of September 26, 1755. by William Williams, at "Oneyda's 
Carrying Place," following this in the Johnson Calendar, was destroyed 
by fire. It conveyed to Johnson congratulations for victory, regrets for 
the death of Colonels Titcomb and Williams and a request for a com- 
mission for the writer's son in Williams's regiment. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 7755-7756 107 

A. D. S. 1 

Camp at Lal(e George 
Satturday 27. Sep. 1755 p. M. 

At a Council of War held at General Johnson's Tent 

General Johnson 

Major Gen 1 . Lyman 

All the Field officers of the several Reg ts in this Camp 
except Maj r . Nicholls 

Cap*. Eyre chief Engineer &c 
Cap*. Glazier adjutant Gen 1 . 

Peter Wraxall SecrT. &c 

1 The General accquainted this Council of War that Col. 
Blanchard of the New Hampshire Reg* has several times com- 
plained to him, of the Difficulties he met with in obtaining Pro- 
visions for his said Reg 1 agreable to the Resolutions of the Coun- 
cil of War of the 22 & 23 Aug* and as the General has Issued 
his Orders in Consequence of the said Resolution of the Council 
of War, he desires this Complaint may be taken into Consider- 
ation & the proper Measures, to prevent it for the Future advised 
being apprehensive that very ill Consequences will other wise 
arise to this Service. 

2 That pursuant to the advice of the Council of War of the 
21 Inst he had sent Orders to the Commanding officers of the 
Reinforcements from Massachusetts Bay & Connecticut to remain 
with the Troops under their Command at Albany till further 
Orders except necessary Convoys for escourting the Waggons 
w * 1 might be dispatched from Albany as this was done in con- 
sideration of the then Scarcity of Provisions in Camp & the 
Uncertainty at that time of obtaining a suff* Number of Waggons 
to bring provisions to supply the Troops here together with the 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

108 'Sir William Johnson Papers 

said Reinforcements but since the arrival of the Gov r . of New 
York at Albany the supply of Waggons has greatly increased, 
and that the Gov r advises the General many more Waggons are 
engaged, he proposes to this Council of War whither he shall 
order the reinforcements now at Albany & the rest as fast as they 
arrive to march up hither with all convenient Speed. 

3. The General accquainted this Council of War that One 
Henry Cooke of Major General Lymans Reg 1 , asserted to Cap 1 . 
Wraxall that the Expedition to Crown Point was not to go for- 
ward this year, for that General Johnson pulled General Lyman 
back who was for proceeding forward, and that he had heard 
this from above 100 Persons in this Camp upon w^ 1 Cap*. 
Wraxall as Aid de Camp to General Johnson thought it prudent 
to order the fellow into Confinement, where he now is. 

The General then told this Council that he apprehended the 
circulation of such Groundless False & Malicious Reports would 
have a tendency to over throw this Expedition & to injure his 
Character & he must therefore desire this Council of War to the 
utmost of their power to repress the Growth of such Scandalous 
Untruths, and as they have for the Major part been Eye Wit- 
nesses to the whole of his Conduct to this Day relative to his 
Command of the Army, that they would declare their Opinion 
of his Conduct relative to the above Charge & inform him whether 
he has neglected any or if there are any further Measures in his 
power to pursue or Order w ch may contribute to Expedite the 
present Expedition against Crown Point. 

4. The General further accquainted this Council that he is 
informed most of the officers & Men of the 5 Companys of the 
New York Reg 1 who arrived in Camp yesterday had heard as a 
Common Report that Cap 1 . Eyre chief Engineer, Director of the 
Artillery & Quarter Master General to this Army was confined 
& put into Irons for ordering the Cannon to be fired over the 
Enemies heads in the late Engagement on the 8 Inst & for show- 
ing the French Generals Aid de Camp the most easy Plans for 
the Enemy to attack this Camp & for several other Treacherous 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 109 

Practices. The General told this Council of War that such 
False & Villainous Reports of a Gentleman whose Fidelity he 
has the utmost reason to be assured of & with whose Services in 
his several Stations in this Army he is perfectly satisfied gave him 
very great uneasiness & hoped The Gentlemen of this Council of 
War will discountenance all such vile Reports & give that Testi- 
mony to Cap*. Eyre's Character w^ 1 it Merits. 

Upon the first Article, this Council of War are of Opinion 
that the New Hampshire Reg 1 , is to be provided by the commis- 
saries of the several other Gov 18 . in this Camp in the follow'g 
Proportions Massachusetts Bay 4/9 Connecticut 2/9 New York 
2/9 Rhode Island 1/9. 

Upon the 2 d . Article. The Council were of Opinion the Con- 
sideration of this Article should be posponed a few days, when 
Col. Bagly delivered in a paper to the General containing as 

By y r . Honours leave 

1 . "I would propose to this Council whether it would not be 
adviseable to take under Consideration what Forces we Appre- 
hend would be sufficient to proceed forwards towards Crown 
Point and what Quantity of Provisions would be adviseable to 
take with us when we leave this Encamp*, and by what time we 
may reasonable suppose that Quantity of Provisions &c. can be 
procured here considering the Season of the Year. 

2. "' Whether it is Judged adviseable to proceed any further 
Towards Crown Point at that Season of the Year. 

3. ''* Whether it would not be adviseable to send all the Sick 
& wounded that is not likely to do Duty for some time home and 
also that the General send & Stop the Reinforcements that are 
not yet arrived here, that the Burthen of the Gov ts . may be in 
some Measure eased, and all the Forces that are here that can 
be employed, be immediately set to work in building a place of 
Strength Magazines & Store houses in order to secure the Artil- 
lery Stores & Provisions & hold the Ground we have under God 

110 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

W ch was read to the Council of War, who gave their Opinion 
that the consideration of them be deferred to another Opportunity 
or whenever the General thinks proper to summon a Council of 
War upon them. 

Upon the third Article this Council of War are Unanimously 
of Opinion that the Words spoken by Hen?. Cooke to Cap 1 . 
Wraxall were false, and Groundless, & are convinced that Gen- 
eral Johnson has constantly taken every Step in his Power to 
promote the Good & to bring into Effect the present Expedition 
& thus cannot propose any better Measures than those now on 
foot to expedite the said Expedition 

Upon the Fourth Article this Council of War are of Opinion 
that the Reports therein mentioned in relation to Cap*. Eyre are 
intirely False Malicious Scandalous & Groundless, & that they 
will write to their several Governments to discountenance any 
such reports & that his Behaviour in said Engagem't was 



The preceding was followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 53, by a 
letter of the 27th from Colonel Jonathan Bagley on further progress, 
sick and wounded, reinforcements and fortification; one of the 28th to 
Governor Hardy on action of council of war as to reinforcements, men- 
tioning absence of Indians, number of effective men, Captain Eyre's plan 
of forts and Bagley *s description of picketed fort and instructions without 
date to Colonel Thomas Gilbert regarding supplies, wagons and deserters. 
These were destroyed by fire. 

A. D. S. 1 

Camp at Lake. George 

HeadQuarters 28 Sep'. 1755 

The General having directed the several Surgeons in this Army 
to Attend & they accord'gly came. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 1 1 1 

The Gen 1 , desired they would with all possible dispatch return 
to him the Number of Sick & Wounded now in Camp under 
their C'are respectively 

That they would at the same time give in writing their several 
or joint Opinion of the Disorders most prevalent & to what prin- 
cipal Causes in their Judgment they are owing, also what Pros- 
pect there is of the Sick & Wounded speedily recovering If any, 
what things are wanting to comfort 'em & forward their Recovery 

All w^ they are to sign either seperately or jointly as they 
may agree among themselves. 


A. D. Camp 


The preceding minute was followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 53, 
by Captain Robert Rogers's journal of a scout to Ticonderoga, submitted 
to Colonel Joseph Blanchard, and by him to Johnson, September 29th 
(printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y. t 4 :260-61 ; Q, 4 : 1 70.) Destroyed by fire. 

L. S. 1 

Camp at Osvego Sept r . 28 ih . 1755. 

I send the Inclos'd Extract of Gov r . Lawrence's Letter to the 
late Major General Braddock for your further Satisfaction, that 
it is not in the least probable notwithstanding the Baron Dieskau's 
papers, the Reports of Prisoners, and boasting Messages from the 
French Governor, that there should be at Crown point & Tenon- 
deroge above seven hundred of the Troops, w ch . came from 
France this Summer to Quebec. 

I have nothing to add, but that it is my Opinion, that if this 
Campaigne is to end with erecting a Work at Lake George, 
especially if that at the Carrying Place is not strengthen'd we 
shall be hard put to it next Summer to defend Albany ; if on the 

1 In Ayer Collection, Newberry Library, Chicago, 111. 

112 , Sir William Johnson Papers 

other hand the Pass at Tinonderoge is taken this year & kept 
(which I hope the daily Arrival of your Reinforcement from 
New England will enable you to do) it will put it into our Power 
to compass the Reduction of Crown point early .the next Spring, 
if it should be found impracticable to do it this Fall, which yet 
I hope may be the Case. 

I am. 

Your most Humble Servant. 


Extract from L*. Gov r . Lawerence's Letter * to 
Major General Shirley dated Halifax 

July 16th. 1755. 

14 The strengthering ourselves upon the Isthmus is now The 
great Object of my Attention, more especially as I am inform'd 
by Admirall Boscawen, that it is most probable by this time a 
great part of the Troops intended directly for Quebec are arriv'd, 
which were about 17 or 1800 Men, exclusive of Officers: We 
are pretty certain that upwards of 1 000 are got into Louisbourg, 
which, by all we can learn, were destin'd for this Place, with two 
sixty four Gun Ships, had not our Fleet happily fallen in with 
their's, and disconcert their Measures." 


A. L. S. 2 

Albany 29 Sep'. 1755. 

I this moment received your Letter and find you have mistaken 
my meaning very widely. I do not imagine it is necessary for 
you to ask a favour in the common acceptation of the Expression. 
I mean to inform Sir Charles of the footing on which youve 
accepted the direction of Indian Affairs, the prejudice these 

1 Which evidently also gave the paragraph to Braddock. 
9 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 17551756 


affairs have formerly occasioned to y r . private Fortune and par- 
ticularly the Sums you are in * what you are informed 
was intended as an appointm 1 . for you, and how far anything of 
that nature has been done for you. These things are well known 
here, but I very much doubt if they are in England. Sir Charles 
is a Gentleman who I think will not look upon you as a Debtor 
of his, if he represents these Facts, and sets forth the necessity 
the Gov 1 are under of recompensing your Services and Losses, 
or run the risque of your throwing up the direction of Ind n . affairs 
which they must think, and I shall applaud you if you do, should 
they continue to neglect you. But you will consider how unusual 
it is for them to grant a Favour unask'd, how great soever the 
Merits or Pretentions of the Persons are. They are on the Con- 
trary I acknowledge, too ready to forget these things when men- 
tioned. Your Case is particular and it is as it were their own 
Interest to promote yours; you'l Excuse me then if I tell you 
again my Sentiments which are to write to Lord Halifax & lay 
your Case before him, Sir Charles will back it, when he knows 
from yourself what it is, and M r . Pownall will join in the same 
Interest. This Measure once tryed, were it my own Affair I am 
sure I should not only act in the manner you think of doing, but 
would instantly shew a becoming Resentment, and throw a pall 
on y e Commissions & Employments: and you'l do well in my 
opinion to tell his Lordship that the Expence attending Indian 
affairs, or even living among them in any publick Character, or 
otherwise than as an Inhabitant, will be too heavy for you to 
sustain, & reduce you to the Necessity of giving up the Manage- 
ment of them into their Hands. On this Occasion, I've often 
thought if there be any Person that can succeed you. As there 
is not, it ought to be the Care of the Ministry to appoint some 
power 2 to assist you, to be intirely under your Direction & as you 
are the only person who can recommend that you should recom- 
mend him. Find out if you can one of your own Disposition, & 

1 An omission in the copy. 

* " Power " in the copy. The word was probably " person.*' 

114 * Sir William Johnson Papers 

by your Instructions he may fill your Place with Credit & in this 
way there ought to be a kind of succession even more than two, 
but all under the Superior In short a kind of System must be 
formed for this Important End, and not left to the uncertain 
Events of little Expedients, such as a few Presents formall Mes- 
sages and Stuff of that Sort, which may amuse them, but can 
never give the British Nation that Weight and Influence with 
them which we may feel the want of as long as there are Indians 
on the Continent. 

The 30*. 

Since the above I had this Morning some Conversation with 
Sir Charles, who is very uneasy at the present Situation of Affairs, 
and wonders you are not more explicit in pointing out the diffi- 
culties you find yourself under: Finishing Fort Edward, by 
building Barracks &c for the reception of a proper Garrison and 
building a defensible Fort at the Camp are points that take up 
much of his thoughts & indeed nothing else keeps him here. This 
Matter was mentioned in Council & referred to a Comm'ee this 
Morning who are to make Report : This I expect will be sent to 
you with a Letter from himself, recommending these Matters as 
independently necessary whether you proceed or Not; they are 
so obviously so, that a Man in his right Sences, must see it imme- 
diately. But as nearly as I can judge, you are opposed in almost 
every right measure. Sir Charles suspects this gives you great 
uneasiness. I told him I believed it did, and that I believed you 
thought yourself neglected by the Ministry at home in their not 
having fix'd some appointment for you before this time. He 
seem'd very desirous to know what you expected or desired, 
intimating as I thought that he would be very ready to give you 
his Interest. We were interrupted & the discourse ended. Besides 
these two Forts I think it necessary to build one between the 
Wood Creek and the South Bay; it seems by the Map there is 
a Situation that will command the entrance into the Wood Creek 
& the South Bay, unless the distance be greater than I apprehend. 
If you build no other than the picketed Fort at the Camp, it will 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 115 

not be safe to leave any Stores or Cannon there on your Return, 
it would be a kind of Trap to catch us in, and if M r . Eyres's 
Plan must not be pursued, Every thing must be brought back to 
Fort Edward, & if that be not secured by a proper Garrison every 
thing must be brought hither, a pretty affair indeed and for 
which we shall be deservedly laugh'd at, for if you take Crown 
Point, you must I think demolish it and retire to a Post where a 
Garrison can be supplyed in the Winter, which it will be imprac- 
ticable to do at the distance the former is. You'l hardly carry 
Provisions enough to leave there, and the Enemy will scarcely 
leave enough to answer this purpose So that take the Matter 
in what view you please it is necessary to build these Forts. I 
shall not send this unless I have a very safe opportunity. No 
accounts from Oswego of any Consequence, an Express is 
expected hourly that went from here on the 20 th : I am S r . with 
great Sincerity 

your obliged humble serv 1 . 


Oct. 1 st . The Report is finished: you'l observe the Fort recom- 
mended at the South Bay is at the head of the South Bay, not 
where I mention, the L l . Gov. thinking there is no Ground there 
but what is sometimes overflowed. It is conditional only; and 
if you determine not to proceed further, the least we can do is 
to build and secure these Forts, and if it is in your Power to 
remove the objections or to make the army do it, it will be a 
Reflection on you not to do it. All these Forts appeared always 
to me absolutely necessary tho we had Crown Point, and one 
Expense now does it. I must observe to you that Sir Charles 
is very exact, and if he has a Right, will expect particular Infor- 
mation of every material Occurrence, as well as the Situation of 
your Army. He's uneasy that you are not explicit, looking 
on the whole affair this way, in great measure at least, within 
his own department, and that he may be answerable for any Mis- 
carriages that he could have prevented : whether to go on or 

116 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

Not is a Matter of very great Consequence to determine and the 
Considerations that prevent it ought to be very weighty as the 
Expence of these Reinforcements is immensely great, and every 
one, Save the few here who see some of your difficulties are fill'd 
with high Expectations. How will you pass with your Cannon 
from the Lake to Tieronderoga, a portage I am told of a mile & 
a quarter, or how will you carry your Cannon any considerable 
way. Can you preserve any of your Oxen for this purpose. 


A. D. S. 1 
Camp at Lake George 29 Sep r . 1755 

At a Council of War held by General Johnson at his Tent. 

Pres*. Gen 1 . Lyman & all the Field officers in Camp except 
Major Nicholls detained by his wound. Cap 1 . Eyre Chief Engi- 
neer &c. Cap*. Glazier Adjutant Gen 1 . 

Peter Wraxall Seer'?. 

The General accquainted this Council of War, that having 
some Papers to lay before them & other Matters relative to the 
present State of this Army for their Consideration, & having been 
also applied to by some of the Members present to call a Council 
of War he had accordingly directed the Adjutant General to 
give Notice to all the Field officers in Camp to attend at 3 oClock 
this afternoon precisely. 

1 . The General then laid before this Council of War the Last 
Returns made him of the Troops in this Camp the Returns of 
the Commissaries of Provisions also the Returns of the Several 
Surgeons of the Sick & Wounded with their Observations & 
Opinions upon the Disorders most prevalent here &c. Upon 
which the General desired the Opinion & advice of the Members 
present, what might be most Expedient for the good of the 
present Service. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, / 7 55-17 56 117 

2. The General accquainted this Council of War, that he 
rent this Morning to see in what forwardness the Picketted Fort 

flat Bottomed Boats were, and that he did not see above a 
lozen Men at the Fort who were sitting down & no work going 
forward, and that there was not one flat Bottomed Boat finished 
and Lieut. Combes one of the Overseers of the Workmen told the 
General that he had not above 10 or 12 hands to work. The 
General further put this Council of War in mind that it had 
formerly been agreed that 500 Men should daily work at the 
said Fort till it was finished, and near 100 Carpenters were 
promised to work at the s d . Flat Bottomed Boats till a suff 1 . 
number were compleated; agreable to which he Issued his Orders 
and as a sufficient number of said Boats were unanimously judged 
also lately necessary to carry on the present Expedition The Gen- 
eral desired this Council of War will take the Consequences of 
this delay therein into their serious Consideration, and propose 
what further Measures he can follow or what other Orders he 
can give which may be effectual to remedy those Consequences. 

3. The General also accquainted this Council of War that a 
number of Soldiers in this Camp daily come with Complaints 
to him & his Aid de Camp of the loss of their Blanketts & of 
their Distress thereby & also of their want of Cloaths, both w ch 
he apprehends may if not speedily remedied, produce fatal Effects 
to the present Service, and that it already makes it extreamly 
difficult to get the Men to do the daily Duty of this Camp. 

4. The General accquainted this Council of War that S r . 
Charles Hardy Gov r . of New York had in his Letters to him 
from Albany expressed his Opinion that a more respectable Fort 
than a picketted One should be built here & so constructed as to 
be able to receive a proper Garrison for its Security this Winter, 
together with proper Magazines for Provisions & Stores, all which 
(he writes) he judges necessary to facilitate the Expedition or 
to support Crown Point if taken, and that Albany concurr in the 
same Opinion. 

5. The General laid before this Council of War the Opinion 
of Cap 1 . Eyre Chief Engineer & director of the Artillery with 

118 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

regard to the Artillery & Stores w ch he judges necessary to pro- 
ceed W A against the Enemy considering the late Intelligences 
obtained, if those are to be depended on. 

Upon the First Article this Council of War is of Opinion, that 
all such Men as shall be judged by the Commanding officers of 
each Regiment & the Surgeons, unfit for Duty & unlikely to be 
fit for Duty this Fall, should be discharged 

Upon the Second Article The Council are of Opinion that Col 
Baglys Proposals in the Minutes of the Council of War of the 
27 Inst be now considered w ch they apprehend may produce their 
Opinion upon this Article. 

The Council are of Opinion that Major Champlin be desired 
to give in to the General a Calculation what Quantity of Pro- 
visions 7000 Men will consume in 7 days & how much time it will 
probably take to have them brought here & that he transmit the 
same with the Minutes of this Council to Several Gov* 5 concerned. 

Col. Bagly desired leave to withdraw his Second Proposals & 
that part of the 3 d . relating to the Reinforcements upon the last 
Article of his 3 d . Proposal relating to a Place of Strength &c. 

It is the Opinion of the this Council that a Place of Strength 
with Magazines & Stores houses & Barracks be immediately set 
about to be built with all possible Dispatch. Resolved by this 
Council of War that it be made large enough to Garrison upon 
Occasion 500 Men & that 700 Men with such officers as the 
General shall appoint be detached out of this Army to work 
constantly in compleating the said Fort under the Direction of 
Cap*. Eyre w ch Men are to be excused from all other Duty. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 119 


Camp al Lake George 29 Sep r . 7755 

I desire you will give me y r . Opinion in Writing whether 
the Artillery & Stores thereunto belongs at this Camp, at Fort 
Edward & left on the Road between said Fort & Albany are, 
according to the Intelligences we have received relating to the 
Enemy sufP. for proceeding on the present Expedition 

Y & c 

Chief Engineer & c . 

A. L. S. 

Lake George 29 th . Sep: 7755 

Pursuant to Y r . order of this Day, to know my opinion 
whether the Artillery & Stores here, at Fort Edward, & on the 
Road from Albany to the last Mentioned Place are Sufficient 
to proceed against Crown Point, I answer no upon the Suppo- 
sition that our Acc ts . from the Front are to be depended on, As 
their Information acquaints us that they have (Meening the 
Enemy) thirty three Pieces of Cannon, many of them 16 & 24 
p drs . equal or nearly to our 24 & 32 p dr8 ., and also thirty five 
mortors. now our strength consists of four Battering Pieces, viz. 
two 32 p drs . & two 1 8 p d ". two 1 2 p ds . & eight 6 p d . besides one 
13 Inch Morter with four Smaller ones from five Inch & a half 
Diameter to Seven Inches, and add to this a Scarcity of 6 p d . 

1 20 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Ball. These are my reasons for determing me to think our pres- 
ent State of Artillery not sufficient. 

I am S r . 
Y r . Most Ob*. Serv'. 


N. B: 

Our Howitz Split during the late Engagement 

Df. 1 

Camp at Lake George 30 Sep r . 7755 

This letter will be delivered to your Excellency by M r . 
Wraxall my only Aid de Camp & Sec r y. from my first entering 
upon the Command of this Army to w ch he has also acted as 
Judge Advocate all without any appointm*. or Perquisite. 

I cannot send your Excellency a Person whom I think more 
capable or more proper, to give you all those Lights with the 
assistance of the Papers he carries with him w ch may be needful 
to assist y r . Excellencys Judgment of our present Sittuation & 
those future Proceedings w ch . may be most adviseable. I have 
given M r . Wraxall my Instructions part of w * 1 are to desire y r . 
Excellencys opinion with relation to the Expedition under my 
command all present known circumstances considered, and that 
you will be pleased to furnish him therewith as soon as may be 
convenient that he may proceed with it & his other Dispatches & 
Papers according to my instructions to Boston & the other Gov ts . 
whose Troops compose this Army. 

Tho I have not the pleasure w ch . I very much long for of being 
Personally known to y r . Excellency, permit me Sir to introduce 
M r . Wraxall to you as a Person who has been highly serviceable 

1 The original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


the publick & one for whom I have a singular esteem. I am 
lost respectfully, Sir 

Yr Excellencys 

IDORSED: Copy of Letter to S r . Charles 
Hardy & other Gov". 


An order, dated September 30th, from Johnson to Colonel Timothy 
Ruggles, calling for spades and shovels, and authorizing the detention of 
Massachusetts troops at Fort Edward, followed the preceding in the 
Johnson Calendar, p. 54. It was destroyed by fire. 


Camp at Lake George 30 th . Sep*. 1755 


I wrote your Excellency a long Letter dated 22 d Ins*, and 
theirwith transmitted you sundry Papers referred to in my said 

Herewith I send, 
N. 1 . The Last Returns of the men in this Camp fit for Duty 

& sick. 
2 Commissaries returns of Provisions 

3. The Surgeons Returns with their Opinions and 


4. The Returns of the Artillery Stores and Ammunition 

5. Cap 1 . Eyre's Report Concerning the Artillery 

6 Minutes and Extracts from Minutes of Councils of 


7 Minutes of Council of War of 29 th : Ins*. 

8 Plans of Fort Edward & of Fort designed here by 

Cap*. Eyre with a Sketch of this Encampment 

9 Copy of Cap*. Roger's Intelligence of Crown Point 

1 In Massachusetts Archives. The draft was destroyed by fire. 

122 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

1 0. Copy of Ditto* Intelligence Posture of the Enemy at 

1 1 Roll of French Indians who Came with the Troops 

under Baron de Dieskau 
12. Major Champlin's Report Concerning Waggons. &V 

These Sir will Lead you into the most Distinct View. I am 
able to give you of our Present Scituation, and all matters rela- 
tive to my Command. I beg your Excellency will Look into 
Them, and transmit me your Opinion and Directions as soon as 
Possible; I am apprehensive from the almost Universall Inclina- 
tion of The Troops to Return home and refresh Themselves, 
That there may be some Difficulties in geting a proper number of 
men to Garrison The Intended Fort here, as well as Fort Edward, 
and Perhaps unless some Additional Pay be Given it may not be 
Compased without Compulsion, which does not appear to me a 
Prudent method. 

The Good of the Service induced me, and I have for Forms 
sake given M r . Beamsly Glazier a Commission as Adjutant Gen- 
eral to this Army. He is a Very Active and Serviceable man 
and Wou'd I Think be a Proper officer to Command this Fort. 

M r . Wraxall my only Aid de Camp and Secretary, and Who 
has also Acted as Judge Advocate to this Army Carries this 
Letter to Albany, to forward from thence to your Excellency; 
I thought it necessary to send some Person to lay before S r . 
Charles Hardy the present Scituation and state of affairs relating 
to my Command, and to proceed forward to do the same to the 
Goverments and Commanders in Cheif of the severall Gover- 
ments who have Troops on this Expedition, and I did not know 
a more Capable or Proper Person, I Could send then M r . 
Wraxall, tho I very unwillingly Part with him, as his assistance 
has been and Would be Very usefull to me; but my reasons for 
Dispatching him are more prevalent than those for keeping him 
Still with me 

He is to endeavour to obtain and Carry on with him The 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 123 

Opinion of the several Goverments relative to this Expedition, 
and to proceed from Albany to Boston, and also to desire the 
Several Goverments to transmit their Opinions to your Excel- 
lency with all Possible Dispatch 

I am 

most Respectfully 
Sir your Excellency's &c 

W m . Johnson 

A Scouting Party of the New Hampshire Reg*. Bro 1 In yester- 
day a Wounded Indian of The Penobscot Tribe, who was the 
Second Person of that nation at the Kennebeck treaty last year; 
he was Among the Indians at the late Engagement: tho I have 
used Every method I Can get Nothing to be Depended on from 
him, the New Hampshire and Other Scouts dailey find numbers 
of the Enemy Slain in The Woods. 

a true Copy ex d : 

To his Excellency 

General Shirley &c 


D/. 1 

[30 Sep. 1755] 

That P. W. receive the Generals Instructions viz 

To go from this Camp to Albany & if the Gov r of New York 
is there, to lay before him the follows. Papers 

1 . The Last returns of Men fit for Duty & Sick. 

2. The Commiss". Returns of Provisions 

3. Returns of Artillery Stores & Amunition in this Army 

4. Doctors reports of Sick & Opinions thereupon 

5. [Returns of Batoes here & at Fort Edward fit for 

Service.] 2 

1 By Wraxall. 

2 Words in italics and enclosed in brackets are erased in manuscript. 

124 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

6. Papers taken from French Gen 1 . & taken from the Enemy. 

7. [Intelligence from Prisoners] 1 

8. Copy of French Gen ls . Letter to. 

9. Intelligence from Crown Point & Tionderogue from 

Cap*. Rogers &C. 

10. Minutes of Councils of War 

11. Minutes of Council of War of the 29 Sep r . 

12. Sketch of present Encampm*. 

13. Plans of Fort Edward & Fort Henry proposed here 

14. Cap*. Eyre's Report concerning Artillery. 

15. Minutes of last public Conferences w th the Indians in 

this Camp. 

16. [French Gen/ 5 Memor. of State of his Army 
Number of Men at Fort 

and to Accquaint S r . Char 5 . Hardy with all such other particu- 
lars as may be necessary to give him the most ample State of 
this Army within the knowledge & abilities of the said P. W. 
who is in the Generals name to request S r . Charles'* Opinion on 
the whole with regard to future Proceedings & Prospects in 
writing. All w ch he is to endeavour to get finished with the 
utmost Dispatch, & then proceed without Delay with all the 
aforesaid Papers to Lieu 1 Gov r . Phipps of Massachusetts Bay 
& pursue the same Directions in relation to him as above men- 
tioned to S r . Char 8 . Hardy & desire Gov r . Phipps to dispatch 
Expresses with Copies of all the above Papers & c . to the Gov rs . 
of New Hampshire & Rhode Island unless Gov r . Hardy & 
Phipps should think any other method more eligible, you are 
then to take Gov r . Phipp 8 advice for y r . proceeding to Con- 
necticut in order to go thro the same measures with Gov r . Fitch 
as you had done to him & Gov r . Hardy after that you are to 
proceed to New York where you shall hear from me. You are 
to send me to this Camp unless you receive my future Directions 
to the Contrary as frequent advices of your Proceedings & 
transmit me all such Papers all such Intelligence as you shall 
shall 2 needful for the good of the Service & my future regulation. 

1 See note 2, p. 123. 2 Repetition and omission in the original. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 125 

Provided the Advice of any of the Gov" should be for alter- 
ing the Plan of y r . Proceedings herein given or adding any thing 
further to them, you are at liberty to act thereon according to 
your best Discretion. 

INDORSED BY JOHNSON : Instructions to Capt n . Wraxall. 


At a Council held at the City of 
Albany on Wednesday the first day 
of October 1755. 

His Excellency. Sir Charles Hardy Knight Capt. General 

James De Lancey 

Daniel Horsmanden 
John Rutherford 


The Reverend M r . John Ogilvie who returned 
Answer of the two fa s Evening from the Mohawk Castles, whither 
Mohawk Castl to himself and M r . Van Schaick had been sent to 
the Message requir- deliver a Message from his Excellency 2 to the 
ing them to return I nc ji ans tne re (M r . Van Schaick being gone for- 
to the army. war j w iti\ it to the other Nations) waited on his 

Excellency in Council, and presented the answer 
of the two Castles to the said Message, at the same time 
acquainting his Excellency, that notwithstanding it appeared by 
the Answer of the lower Castle, that they were averse to the 
joining the Army again, he found on his return thither from the 
upper Castle, that Several of the Warriors were determined to 
return and join General Johnson, and that he believed about 
thirty of them would proceed accordingly. 

*In Council Minutes, 25:88-90. 

2 See Message to Indians, September 24, 1 755. 

126 Sir William Johnson Papers 

The Answers being read were ordered to be entered and are 

as follow. 

Fort Williams 7^26* 1755. 

The Indians (of the lower Castle) answer to his Excel- 
lency's Message sent by Sybrant Van Schaick Esq r . and 
the Reverend M r . John Ogilvie. Interpreted by Jacobus 

Abraham alias Saghstaghretsy spoke and asked whether 
we were ready to receive their Answer, and that we should 
inform them of it, when it was told them that we were 
now ready to hear. 

Then Peter alias Tacquayanont (who lately turn'd from 
the French) directing his discourse to his Excellency the 
Governor spoke as follows. 


We return you our sincere thanks for the kind and tender 
manner in which you have covered our dead, and we are 
well pleased that at your first coming into your Government, 
You have expressed so great a regard for our people and in 
a manner agreeable to our ancient Customs. 

Shew'd the String and Retook it. 

We are heartily glad upon your safe arrival over the great 
Lake, and we are thankfull to the King our Father who 
has appointed You. We are sensible of the great Business 
You are engaged in at present, and hope for a happy Meet- 
ing when the publick Business will admit of it. 

Shewed the Belt. 

You have pressed us to return and join our Brother General 
Johnson. Our behaviour in the late Battle is a Sufficient 
proof that we are firm in your Interest. But considering 
the great loss we have had, you should have allowed us to 
breathe and to recover our Spirits, look round and see how 

Preliminary Campaigns, 7755-7756 127 

our Warriors are thinned; do you not think this gives us 
great concern? Would you swallow all our Fighters at 
once? You now call upon us Mohawks to rise and go 
forth immediately, but as the upper Nations have met with 
no loss, we would advise you to use your Endeavours with 
them, and strive to get them out upon this occasion. 

We were likewise promised upon our going out, that this 
Castle should be guarded. It is true you have put an 
officer with 25 Men in to the Fort. But as the Fort and 
our Castle are separate from each other, we do not think it 
is sufficient, as this Officer if anything should happen, could 
not be at the King's Fort and in our Castle at the same 

You have covered our dead and then immediately desired 
us to go out to Battle : This Seems very inconsiderate. Do 
you think that we should leave our Women and Children to 
be swallowed up with Sorrow. At first when we were 
desired to go out, it was told us we should only serve as 
Scouts, and in case of the Enemy's approach, we were 
promised to be led aside, but instead of that, we were placed 
in the Front of the Battle, and met with a considerable loss 
of some of our principal Men and Fighters, and you see now 
what a little number of us are present at this Meeting. 

Upon which the Speaker returned the Belt, which shews their 
not complying with our Request. 

Connajoharie September the 29 th : 1 755 

The Indians (of the upper Castle) answer upon the Mes- 
sage aforesaid. 

Abraham (Henry's Brother killed on the late Battle) 
spoke and addressed his Excellency the Governor. 


We are sensible of your great goodness in sending us this 
Message; and return you our hearty thanks, that upon this 

128 , Sir William Johnson Papers 

Melancholly Occasion you have covered our dead War- 
riors. We look upon this as a particular Mark of your 
Understanding, that upon your first coming into the Govern- 
ment you conformed so exactly to our ancient Customs. 


We are thankfull to our Father the King for <your 
appointment^ to the Government, and we Congratulate you 
upon your safe <arrival. We> are particularly sensible 
of the Great King our Father's Goodness <in giving> you 
directions to assure us of his gracious protection. 


You have taken notice of the Friendship which Subsists 
between the English and us. We acknowledge it, and think 
it our duty to maintain it. 


You pressed us to join our brother Warraghjeyagey. We 
have considered of it, and look upon it reasonable. But as 
this matter intirely concerns our Warriors, We leave them to 
Act as they think best, and make no doubt that several of 
them will join General Johnson, <tho> not so many as we 
could wish, because Several of them are now very Sick 
since their return from the Camp. 

A. L. S. 1 

New York, Oct. y I st . 1755 
D R SiR 

I take the Opportunity of an Express going to Albany ,to 
send you my hearty Congratulations upon your late glorious 
Success your Honor and Advantage give me leave to assure 
you will ever be most agreeable to and sincerely desired by me. 
I wish you may be able to succeed in your great Undertaking 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

(At Buffalo) 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 129 

>ut I despair of it this Season by the lateness of it and I can 
isily conceive the various Sentiments and Oppositions you have 
combat with in a Camp of such extraordinary People. I wish 
I could have rec'd those Papers relative to your Congress and 
also have heard from you before I left this place I wish you 
would do me the Favor to write to me in England directing for 
me in Hollis Street near Cavendish Square pray present my 
>mpliments to M r . Wraxall and believe me D r Sir 

Y r Sencere Friend & Humble Ser vt - 


A. L. S. 1 

2< Oct. 1755. 

I forgot when I put up the Pacquet this moment, to mention 
a Report that has reached Sir Charles, & which I heard this 
Morning. I mean the Differences between Gen. Lyman & Cap* 
Eyre, and the universal dissatisfaction and Quarrels among the 
officers. I hope you will use your Authority to prevent the ill 
Consequences that must otherwise attend such Broils, if the Case 
be really as reported, since no Good can be expected from an 
Army in such a situation. Y". &c 


INDORSED: To Major General Johnson 
at the Camp. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 
Vol. II 5 

130 Sir William Johnson Papers 


L. S. 1 

Albany 2 Oct". 1755 

I have received your two letters of the 26 and 28 of September, 
and shall as soon as possible send you the Guns you desire For 
the future when you make any Demands of this sort, I must 
desire you will let me know the Service for which you want, or 
the Result of the Council of War. 

Upon examining the two Plans of the Forts, I am still of the 
opinion the Fort proposed to be built on the Lake by the chief 
Engineer ought to have been built, instead of the picketed one 
you are now finishing. My Letter to you of the 2 1 st of September 
carried you my opinion on this head, and I am confirmed in these 
sentiments with respect to the Importance of that Post, whatever 
may be the Success of the Expedition against Crown Point. I 
could urge many Reasons on this Matter, but the inclosed opinion, 
of His Majesty's Council here before whom I laid the Plans, and 
referred the further Consideration of it, is so full, that it will save 
me the Repetition of them. I therefore judg'd it proper to send 
you their Report to me, and shall only add that as you must 
leave a proper Force in your Camp when you proceed towards 
Crown Point, I am of opinion, if that Work was begun before you 
go, those left behind you may 2 reception of a 

sufficient Garrison, to maintain it against any Force the Enemy 
may send this Winter, and to prevent their making any Incursion 
into these Provinces. 

I observe upon the Plan you sent me of Fort Edward Captain 
Eyre is of opinion the Ditch should be deepned and enlarged, 
and the Parapet and Rampart made higher and broader, and as 
it does not appear to me there are now proper Barracks for 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

2 Manuscript torn; several words missing. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


lodging Men or Stores for Provisions, I must recommend it to 
you to order those Works to be set about, that they may be com- 
pleted before the bad Season sets in, which I apprehend may be 
done by the Garison there, You will consider of the Importance 
of this Post for the Security of Hudson's River, upon which the 
Safety of these Provinces greatly depends; and you will observe 
i<s a > the inclosed Report of the Council that Governor Fitch, 
is the same opinion with my self, with regard to the Forts, and 
the Importance of those Posts. 

Last Night M r . Ogilvie returned from the Mohawks Castle,* 
he tells me some of their Warriors will join you, and that he 
believes part of them may set out to-day, I hope they will soon 
be with you 3 with five others raised by Subscriptions 

in that City to serve in your Army as Gunners I shall detain 
them here to go to you with the Cannon. I intend to give M r . 
Bayard a Commission, but as I do not know what Train officers 
you have with you, if I can get no Information before he leaves 
this City, I shall leave a blank in the Commission for your filling 
up, and I must desire you will give him as high Rank as you 
can, that of Captain I should approve. 

The last Article of the Council's Report which recommends 
the Securing a Pass on the hither End of the South Bay is a 
Matter you will consider of, and not let the Constructing such a 
Work retard your proceeding on the Expedition, as that must 
be left till next year, if it cannot be done this. 

I have been in hopes of seeing a proper Person from you, that 
might give me the Informations you thought necessary to com- 
municate to me, and must desire you will let me know as soon 
as possible, if you will want Shott for the small Cannon I shall 
send you. carrying three and four pound Ball, as we have none of 

" Is " in copy; should be " in*' evidently. 
2 See Reply of Indians to Messengers, October 1, 1755, 
8 Manuscript torn ; several words missing. 

132 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

that size here, part of these Cannon I suppose you intend shall 
be mounted at Fort Edward. I am Sir, 

Your most obed*. humble Servant. 




A letter of the 2d from Goldsbrow Banyar to Johnson, following the 
above, was destroyed by fire. Cannon, boats, wagons, stores, reinforce- 
ments and public interest in the expedition were the subjects. See Johnson 
Calendar, p. 54. 

D/. 1 

Lake George 3 d . Oc l . 1755 

I received your Excell? 8 . favour of the 2 d . Inst: last night, 
and can only now add that it is, & always was my opinion, to 
have this Place well fortified, as likewise some work of strength 
at the Carrying Place: the first is now begun and I hope will be 
so completed as to answer the Intended Purposes and as to the 
other (I mean Fort Edward) the Garison now is employed in 
building Barracks &c for a proper number of Troops, but can 
not without some inconveniency at present set about strengthening 
the Ramparts, this I propose to go upon when our Work here 
has got into some forwardness. The Cannon I mentioned to 
your Excell? I believe will be most Serviceable (at present) at 
Fort Edward, as there is no Artillery there, And what we have 
got here will not be too much for the Fort now a building. We 
have none of that sort of Shot y r . Excellency talks of sending for 
less than 6 p drs . As to my opinion in regard to a Fort at the End 
of South Bay, to be now put in hands, I look upon it not to be 
practicable, nor prudent, as it will oblige us to divide our Force 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 7755-7756 133 

& consequently give the enemy their choice which Part of y e . 
army to at'ack ; besides I assure you the men are not over willing 
to carry on what is now in Hands. 

As Cap*. Wraxall is before this time with y r . Excell?. I think 
it unnessary to repeat the same that I sent by him, and what 
further you desire to know I believe he can Satisfy you in. I 
should have been much more explicit in my former Letters had 
it not been for fear of the acc ts . falling into the Enemys Hands, 
& thinking at the same time, to send Down M r . Wraxall, who I 
judged would better answer the purpose, I am y r . Excellencys 
Most Obedient Humble Serv*. 

His Excellency Gov R . HARDY. 


Adjutant Philip Richardson's report of October 3d, to Johnson on 
mounting guard following the preceding in the Johnson Calendar was 
destroyed by fire. Set Calendar, p. 54. 

A. L. S. 1 

Albany 3. October 1755 

I arrived here last night about 7 oClock stopped at y r . house, 
delivered your Sis r her Letter, went to the Gov r . supped, & went 
to Bed greatly fatigued with the Gov r . was only Lieu*. Gov r . 
& Oliver, 2 Banyar came in a little before Supper Conversation 
various but enough to let me see they were for pushing forward 
& at least making some Effect 8 to compound for the great addi- 
tional Expences by Reinforcements. 

This Morning waited on S r . Charles with Papers he & Lieu 1 . 
Gov r . only present at first, Horsmanden * came in at the latter 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

* De Lancey. 

1 " Effect " in the copy. It should probably be " effort." 

4 Daniel Horsmanden, one of the Council, afterward Chief Justice. 

134 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

end of my reading them (for I read them Number by Number) 
They ridicul'd Doctors reports, said they were pompous & in 
many points incredible. Major Champlins Calculation they 
believed not correct, (the delay of Waggons I found touched a 
sore place) we were never like to have 7000 Men fit for Duty. 
Did not believe the Enemys artillery were any ways equal to the 
Informations mentioned in Cap*. Eyre's Opinion perhaps a 
/en> Small Mortars & a fer 6 pounders. Cap 1 . Rodgers' Intel- 
ligence from Tionderogo, not to be depended on, should send 
again & again to be confirmed in the Truth of it I told 'em I 
did not believe there was another Man in the Army woud go, 
try if there is not, was replyed. Councils of War short & not 
explicit in their Opinions, told 'em you were aware of that, but 
for political reasons found they would not or at least those who 
led would not, mentioned L. 1 & R. 2 saying whatever their 
private Opinion they would not give it in Council against 
proceeding. That you should put points, Vis how many men 
adviseable to proceed & with how many days Provisions & 
oblige the Council to give a positive Answer, or tell 'em you 
would complain to their Gov ts . Flat Bottomed Boats agreed to 
be put in hand ab*. Sep r . y e 29. a Complaint that not one quite 
finished, hon> come that matter not tafyen notice of before? I told 
'em Orders had been given, Carpenters would not work, num- 
bers proposed not to be had. If Orders not obeyed (was 
replyed) complain to Gov ts . of their officers for disobedience & 
thereby stopping the Service. Upon this Article of Flat Bot- 
tomed Boats & want of the 100 Carpenters, I wish you would 
direct Webster & Combes to draw up & Issue a Report & send 
me Copy. I represented in general & gave many particular 
Instances of the constant & little regard payd to y r . Orders. 
Gov r . said he believed it, saw y r . Sittuation & pited you, but that 
you should threaten leading officers & complain before now to 
their Gov ts . of it. 

1 General Phineas Lyman. 

2 Colonel Timothy Ruggles. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 7755-7756 135 

Gov r . said he would make a push with 4000 Men, march by 
Land, some artillery & provisions in Battoes by water. Will you 
call a Council & propose? 1 . with what number of men it will be 
adviseable to proceed & make at least an Effort, if the Enemy 
found by a Council of War (to be called when you come near 
them) too strong to be attacked & that nothing can be done why 
then retreat, Gov t8 . will be satisfied that trial was made & will 
not be easy otherwise. 

This or some what to this purpose said. 

2 d . how many days Provisions to take along? it was doubted 
whether there were not provisions enough to make a push & leave 
sufK with what daily coming for the rest of the Troops (get a 
rough return of Quantity of Provisions in Camp, great Quantitys 
gone since the last return & much live Stock. Lyman has no 
more Bread here Emerson but little). 

3dly. Whether Reinforcements shall be ordered up Make 'em 
give a postive Answer to these points & please to send me Copy 
as soon as possible. 

In short S r . Charles seemed to think you should bring matters 
to a point with the Council of War. Another thing was said, 
that the Troops w * 1 lay idle here should mend Boats. I answered 
where were their Tools all we had were employed about the 
Tent 1 no reply was made to it. between Fort Edward & 
Seraghtoga roads very bad Many almost impassible places 
between this & Seraghtoga Call Waggoners & take their 
Opinion & also officers who have commanded late Convoys. 
You must have flour up & not Bread, make it a fourth Article 
about Ovens. Fort is a most agreable Subject, Gov r . Fitch 
approves it. 1 8 Pd 8 . 2 cannot go from hence till roads are mended, 
ask Waggoners they are under your immediate Orders Coun- 
cil of War you know advised to have them up, reason must be 

' Tent " in the copy. It plainly should be " fort." 
2 " Cos." in the copy. See, however, Hardy to Johnson, October 5, 

136 'Sir William Johnson Papers 

given why not ordered cant Field ps. go in Battoes. they 
said if you could not attack Tionderogo why not the advanced 
post of the 1000 Lieu*. Gov r . said the Carrying Place 
the beginning or Landing 3 Miles from where Fort & grand 
Camp is. how is that? On the whole I found they were com- 
bined to bring this Province off about Waggons & if a Pass x is 
not made or good reasons given against it the cry will be raised, 
most of the old Stock of Provisions is gone up, I have not had 
time to get a particular Ace 1 , what remains here, I will do it 
tomorrow. This is the Substance of what past this day from 9 
to near 1 oClock. my reflections are crude & unconnected upon 
it, I can only throw out loose hints w ch you will improve & 
enlarge within your self. I expect Maj r . Hoare to call for this 
Packet every Minute. He bro*. a Letter from Gov r . Phipps 
I presumed to open it (being directed on His Majesty's Service) 
in order to offer my Opinion if points occurred. Am glad I did. 
Hansen. Stevenson & I dont know who else opened y r . General 
Letter, sent by Express, upon acct of the outside writing w ch was 
to send Copy to Gov r . Shirley, they took Copy & sent it, 
Inclosed it again to Gov r . Phipps, but forgot to put Minutes of 
Council in w ch Stevenson sent afterwards. Tie enquire dis- 
tinctly into the affair and if you please you may refer the Explana- 
tion to me in a Line or two to Gov r . Phipps. French Gen 1 , is 
easily answered, he could go no where but to New York by 
reason of his Wounds, poor Man I saw him this Evening I 
think he cant live long. Wants to go to New York. Gov r . says 
not in a Condition. 

This afternoon Stevenson gave me a Letter from Shirleys Aid 
de Camp ordering me positively up to Oswego to my Compy. 
Showed it to S r . Charles told me to write 3 Lines to him, that 
I was engaged to you & public Service would suffer by my aban- 
doning you & the Cause I was engaged in & he would settle it 
with Gov r . Shirley, says unless Shirley shows him powers equal 

'"Push" probably. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 137 

to Braddocks, he shant command Indep 1 . Comps. S r . Charles 
a prerogative Man & dos not seem to want Spirit. Speaks 
highly & friendly of you, but wants you to make Council of War 
speak out, & that you prove plainly, no Stop on y r . side. Are 
there provisions for the reinforcements, if so, will you order them 
up. I hav't seen Collonels, will tomorrow If S r . Charles gives 
me time, he talked of giving me some answer, but said private 
Orders, he did not think prudent, public he believed Council 
would decline. Rutherford says nothing will satisfie but a Trial, 
he knows it will fail but says it must be made, he thinks as we 
do in all other points. 

S r . Charles expects to fill up vacancies in Cockcrofts Reg 1 . 
let Cockcrofts give him an account of 'em. Champlin, Thody 
will & must help Adams write or Copy, publick papers. Sup- 
pose you proposed a push to where the thousand Men are or some 
where on this side of 'em. by what I can judge, they are little 
Solicitous here whether it succeeds or no, so that some attempt 
is made. If you try, I know Men wont go & want of Cloathing 
& c . will be a plea, let it be so & then Truth will glare, it only 
glimmers now. send for reinforcements & try them, if pro- 
visions Short send 'em back again. Turenne * must not go away. 
Nor Ruggles who told me he should apply. 

S r . Charles & Lieu*. Gov r . say the papers to be carried thro 
the Gov ts . will only discourage them, Cloud all their Hopes 
I mistrust they are affraid of Consequences upon this Province 
about Waggons. I said, you thought these things should not be 
concealed they said the Facts were not strong enough sup- 
ported. I said I could enlarge support &c. They said by & by 
when matters had a stronger Light thrown on them twould be 
better, I said no, misrepresentations would anticipate & preju- 
dice your Judgments. Several Vessells from Connecticut & 
Boston on the way, some in the River & some warm Cloathing 
arrived, may be with you by the time you are ready. I shall wait 

1 An ironical allusion to Lyman. 


138 Sir William Johnson Papers 

your answer to this & your Commands & perhaps send you an 
Express to morrow with more particulars, & some of these more 
perfected. I am forced to write just as matters come into my 
Memory. I have not time to digest & put things into form. I 
am extreamly anxious to have you call the Council of War & 
bring things to a point I hope my rough hints, lame & Slovenly 
as they are may be of Service, depending Heart & Soul is devoted 
to serve you & to make you appear in that honourable Light w ch 
you truly deserve. Adjutant General should make a report in 
writing how ill all orders are observed. I know tis a tender point, 
policy obliges him to Shun it & I believe you must not urge it too 
Strong I tried warmly, but found he gave back If flat bot- 
tomed Boats dont go on, reasons must be given & also why they 
have not. 

God almighty bless you & be assured I truly am 

My Dear Sir Your faithful Affect'e FH. & Serv 1 . 


to day I propose to read Sir Charles particulars in point from 
my Journal beginning with y r . entering on the Comm d . & account 
for every day I have read it to Rutherford he is convinced of 
every thing. 

S r . Charles is anxious but I dont think prejudice, tho I suspect 
y e late & indeed present Great man is y e Snake in y e Grass, 
dont forget me to Eyres I * as Proxy for him, her Eyes 

struck fire at it. 

*An omission in the copy; original apparently illegible. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 17551756 


A. L. 1 

Albany 4 Octo'. 1755 

Major Hoare* who was to have set off very early this Morn- 
ing was prevented by S r . Charles Hardy who was writing a Letter 
to you, this Letter is not yet finished tho now 6 oclock p. m. 
The Major proposes to set off early to morrow morning. For 
above an hour before Dinner I was with S r . Charles alone. He 
is of opinion I should not proceed to the other Gov t8 . but on the 
contrary return to you immediately provided I thought myself at 
Liberty to do so from your Instructions, w ch . I showed to him. I 
told him that I imagined it would be most agreeable to you for me 
to wait an Answer from you with your Directions w ch of the Two 
I should do. He repeated again that he thought these Papers & 
my being sent with them would only embroil the Gov ts . & render 
their hopes desperate with regard to the Expedition for this year. 
I believe it would be the natural Consequence of their perusing 
these Papers, but then I told Sir Charles the Cloud must burst 
very soon, & that unaprized of it they were at present, they might 
reproach you for keeping them in the Dark, & by that means give 
your Enemies if you had any (as was probable) an advantage 
over you. He again urged the opinions of Council of War were 
not explicit enough to serve the purpose intended, & some of the 
papers of too gloomy a Cast to be perfectly consistent with that 
general opinion w ch . stands minuted in the last Council of War. 

There appears to me reason in the Argument. They are 
extreamly urgent for having the Fort finished without delay in the 
most respectable manner. That everything on your side be 
pushed forward in order to be ready to make an Effort whether 

1 Unfinished. Original destroyed by fire. 

2 Major William Hoar, later employed by Governor Shirley in enlist- 
ing men at Lake George. See Shirley to Bradstreet, Correspondence 
of William Shirley, ed. Charles Henry Lincoln, 2:335. 

140 'Sir William Johnson Papers 

that should be complied with by the Council of War hereafter, 
or not, if the latter that it may appear you did every thing w ch 
could reasonably be expected from or was incumbent upon you. 
Sunday Morn. here I broke off, & went to S r . Charles again. 
I found him finishing his Letter to you. I told him that as he 
seemed to approve my immediate return to you 

INDORSED: Cap*. Wraxalls Letter 


A. L. S. 1 

Albany 5 Oct. 1755 

A few minutes after Cap 1 . Wraxall's departure several sloops 
came in from York. Sir John Sinclair, was arrived there, also 
Captain Orme who is gone to Boston to embark for London, 
Lieu*. Miller & Ogilvie. Dunbar was expected there yesterday, 
& I am told was determined none of his People should stop at N 
York. I'll send you the Papers I can pick up. From M r . 
Wraxall I learn'd much of your present Situation. Bad as it is, 
I can't say I'm at all apprehensive any thing that may reflect on 
your Conduct can be laid to your charge ; I would do every thing 
to forward the Service, & make the necessary Preparations for a 
Push, in which case if any thing prevents it, youl have the Satis- 
faction of convincing the World youve done your duty. Facts 
and not People's reports or Surmises, too much, often, the Effect 
of Inclination or Resentment, will set things, and this is not the 
time to lay them open to view. At the same time that the prep- 
arations are making for your moving, I hope you'l be extremely 
attentive to the Works in hand, and see that the proper accom- 
modations are made for Garrisons, a Matter of infinite Conse- 
quence, and if built strong and tenable, will in my opinion, with 
the disappointment the enemy have met with in their defeat, I had 
almost said, amply repay us for the Expence tho it be very great 
indeed: Have both objects in view. I believe Dunbar will have 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 17551756 


enough, & if he sho'd join you, I would not differ as to the 
Command; it in my opinion clearly belongs to him, and if he is 
prudent he'll do nothing but attack a Fort or Intrenchments but 
in consequence of your opinion, and in this Case the Council of 
Warr will advise him whether to go on or not, in which youl 
have only a Voice & consequently not so great weight to rest on 
you. Dont let any thing give you too much uneasiness. So far 
as I can see into Matters, if there be any Blame it will not lye at 
your door, nor any where in particular, but is to be attributed to 
many Causes, in which most of the Governments will share. As 
to the Command, I suspect more Difficulty in those under you. 
I hope you propose writing home on your own affairs. I dont 
like your setting down on the meagre food of Resentm*: and 
twould be too great an injury to your self when you write on this 
Head, be explicit as to the appointment you'd have. I like that 
much that is proposed for you, but remember it should give you 
Rank, or I dont think it worth your acceptance, and if they dont 
repay you the Sums you've advanced, it will be a poor Recom- 
pense, considering the infinite Trouble it will be attended with. 

The 6 th . I hear by D r . Middleton who conveys this that you 
are much indisposed which I attribute in some Measure to the 
Concern you are under. I still suspect we shall do 1 from 

Oswego, the Express arrived about 3 oClock this afternoon but 
nothing has transpired. I impatiently wait to hear that you are 
better and am D r . Sir 

your affectionate humble Servant 


at the Camp. 

A letter of the 6th to Benning Wentworth, commending Colonel 
Blanchard and regiment on return home, explaining that Symes and 
Rogers, scouts, consent to remain, and mentioning despatches sent by 
Wraxall for the governors, was destroyed by fire. See Johnson Calendar, 
p. 55. 

1 Sentence not completed. 

142 'Sir William Johnson Papers 


L. S. 1 

Albany October 5 ih . 1755 


I have received your Letter of the 30 th . Septem r . by M r . 
Wraxall, and have examined all the Papers he brought with him. 

I observe by your Instructions to him, he is directed after 
having advised with me to repair to the other Governments and 
lay those Papers before them. 

Upon a due consideration of the whole after a close Examina- 
tion of the Papers sent by M r . Wraxall, I cannot see any use in 
his going to the different Governments with them, but I fear great 
Evil may attend it. You will consider the Provinces concerned 
in the Expedition under your Command, have been at a very 
great new Expence in making the necessary Provision for this 
Service, great Numbers of Men have come into this City (and 
now remain here) to reinforce your Army, these big with 
Expectation in going forward, what will be the case if nothing 
is done, or even attempted. 

I cannot undertake to give you an opinion as You have desired 
by your Instructions to M r . Wraxall, either in a Publick, or 
private Capacity, the Business is of great Importance and to many 
concern'd in the measure, to be guided by the Council of any one 

What I now offer to you are only such Sentiments as I would 
give to a Friend, without expecting him to be in any degree guided 
by it. The Papers you propose laying before the different Gov- 
ernments, I cannot but think a little premature, and will serve no 
other purpose, than to sett them upon Inquirys, like Men dis- 
piritted, after the Efforts they have made, Inquirys that can tend 
to nothing, but create uneasiness with each other and I doubt end 
in this. 

Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-17 56 143 

As M r , Wraxall informs me, the Council of Warr are not 
acquainted with your design in sending him to the different Gov- 
ernments, when the Gentlemen in the Superior Command of the 
Forces belonging to these Provinces, come to hear, you have 
transmitted such Accounts, which they doubtless will from their 
Friends, you may depend they will draw this conclusion, that you 
the General and Commander in Chief had taken measures to 
throw Cold Water on an Expedition, that they was desirous of 
Prosecuting with Vigour. I would therefore recommend your 
writeing Letters to the Governours, if you think any such measure 
necessary, and therein give them a short state of your present 
Situation, and acquaint them that you are preparing every thing 
proper for carrying on the Expedition. And if after all your 
Efforts you find you cannot proceed, by the Season being to farr 
advanced, for want of Provisions, or from any other unforseen 
Accidents, it will then be time enough to inform the Governments, 
and proper for you to have the Concurrance of the Council of 
Warr (who I observe in your Councils only give general Answers 
to general Questions, or Propositions) for your future 

I would also recommend to you in the meantime, to send strong 
Scouting Parties on the Lake, to drive the Enemy from any Lodg- 
ments they may have on any of the Islands where they resort, I 
suppose only to observe your motions, this will have the appear- 
ance of doing something, and indeed may have very usefull 
Consequences, by keeping your Men in Action, and may put a 
Prisoner into your hands, from whom you may get a more perfect 
intelligence of the Enemys motions. 

I observe by the Papers the flat bottomed Boats for Trans- 
porting the Cannon, are very backward, it may, and indeed is 
very necessary for you to be particularly carefull that this matter 
with every other that depends wholly on you as the Cheif in Com- 
mand be carried into Execution with all possible dispatch, that 
it may hereafter appear to the World, that the Expedition to 
Tionderogo, or Crown Point, was not retarded, or postponed to 
next Year, for want of any steps that you could take, a Charge 

144 'Sir William Johnson Papers 

some would gladly accquit themselves off, and Burthen others 
with. As I hope by this time some Indians may have joined you, 
they will be of great use to you as Scouting Partys. The 
Recorder is not yet returned, that I cannot tell you what Effect 
my Message has had upon the whole. 

M r . Wraxall tells me the Roads are so bad that it will be 
difficult for the large Cannon to be drawn to you, however if you 
Judge it necessary to have them, I would recommend your sending 
Orders for their being Transported to you, with direction to the 
Commanding Officers of the Connecticut Forces here, to Escort 
them this Department being wholly in you, and Moneys granted 
to you for this Service. 

It gave me great satisfaction to hear by M r . Wraxall your 
Council of Warr have come into the building the Fort plan'd by 
M r . Eyre, instead of finishing the Picketted one, let me recom- 
mend it to you to dispatch the Completion of it, for I must say, 
it would have given me great concern, to have had that advanced 
Post abandoned and left to the Enemy to have Seized this 
Winter, their Vigilance certainly would not have overlook'd it. 

I must also desire you will give the necessary Orders for the 
Completion of Fort Edward, that it may be, together with the 
Fort building on the Lake, fitt to receive proper Garrisons for 
their security this Winter. 

As I do most heartily wish you all Success, and every thing 
that may add to your own wishes, and contribute to Your 
Honour, it is from this Motive I have thus freely laid before you 
my Sentiments, not as His Majestys Governor of this Province 
but one who is ready to serve you. 

The small Cannon You have wrote to me for, I should hope 
may more or less be intended for Fort Edward, I find there are 
but few here fitt for Service, and if to be destined as above I 
should be glad to have the earliest advice that they may be carried 
there I am Sir. 

Your most obed: humble Servr': 


Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 145 


A. L. S. 1 
Jamaica, L. Island October 5. 7755. 


I doubt not but that you have heard of our County's Sending 
your Army a Thousand Sheep; which I hope you will receive 
safe. As a Repetition of the Efforts of the benevolent Dispo- 
sition of the People of this County, may be wanted, either in the 
same Commodities or Cattle, it may be proper to acknowledge 
the favour either by private Letter, or to mention it when anything 
of Moment is to be publickly communicated. A Line or two in 
this Manner would not only encourage our People to farther 
Good Works, but Spirit up others. 

We have your Army very much at heart here, praying that the 
Ultimate Ends, of your tedious Campain, may be fully answered, 
before you are obliged to retire to Winter Quarters. 

Please to give my hearty Regards to Major General Lyman, 
whose Pupil for near 2 years, I had the Honour to be. 
With due Regard from Sir 

your assured Friend & very humble Serv't 


When anything remarkable occurs, a Line from you would be 
very acceptable. 

Original destroyed by fire. 

146 Sir William Johnson Papers 


L. S. 1 
Camp at Osnego October 5 th . 1755 


Inclos'd is a Copy, N 1 , of a Letter dated 9 th . of Sept r : from 
Major General Johnson 2 to me, giving a particular Account of 
two Actions between him & the French at & near the Camp at 
Lake George, late Lake Sacrament, in his way to Crown point; 
a Copy, N 2, of a Letter from Captain Eyre, Engineer in that 
Expedition to me upon the same Subject, dated Sep r : 1 th . from 
the Camp at Lake George; a Copy, N 3, of a Letter dated 
Sep r : 19 th from me to General Johnson in Answer to his of the 
9* of Sept r : ; a Copy N 4, of another Letter from me to General 
Johnson dated Sept r : 24 th . in Answer to Captain Eyre's; 
Extract, N 5, of a Letter from Captain Rutherford to me dated 
Sep r : 22 d . giving a succint, and I believe, exact Account of the 
two beforemention'd Actions, a Copy, N. 6, of a List of the 
forces, w * 1 . the French General is supposed by General Johnson 
to have brought with him from Canada to Crown point & 
Tinonderoge, found among his Papers, & thought to be wrote 
in his own hand. 

Since those two Actions General Johnson hath reciev'd very 
great Reinforcements from New England, particularly from my 
own Government of the Massachusetts Bay, & the Colony of 
Connecticutt, the former of which hath in the whole voted 4300 
for that Expedition, & M r . Johnson must, according to Accounts 
transmitted to me from New England have had in the whole 
8000 Men at least: What will be the Issue of that Expedition 
this Year, I don't certainly know yet, but have Reason to think 
it will be a dissatisfactory one to all the Colonies of New Eng- 
land, as well as to myself. 

Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5.46., London, England. 
2 See Johnson to the Governors of Colonies, September 9, 10, 1755, 
Doc. Hist. N. Y., 2:691-95. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 147 

I would for the present, Sir, beg leave to referr You to the 
inclos'd Copies N 3 & 4 of my Letters to General Johnson for 
my Sentiments of his Conduct, & Directions to him upon these 
Events, so far as it was proper for me to send them to him at 
the Distance, I am from him. 

I have the Honour to be with the highest Respect 

Your most Humble and most 
Obedient Servant, 


Knight of the Bath &c. 

INDORSED: Camp at Oswego Oct r : 5 th : 

Maj r . Gen 1 . Shirley 
RDec r . 18 th 

D/. 1 

Boston 6 Oct r . 1755 

I wrote you the 26 Ult. in answer to your fav r of the 1 7 th . 
by Major Hoar, & by him sent you the Report of a Committee 
which was accepted by both Houses, and may serve for your 
Governnm* in the matters therein refer'd to. 

The Secretary of the Province has since rec d . a Letter from 
his Excelly. Gov r . Shirley wherein he desired that I would recom- 
mend to the Assembly the sending Comis rs . to meet Comis rs . from 
the other Governments to consult upon a plan of Operation for 
the ensuing Year. I accordingly sent a Message to the two 
Houses then sitting wherein I recommended this Affair to them 
as you will see by the copy of said Message which comes inclosed 
herewith: I likewise send you the Answer of the two Houses 

In Massachusetts Archives. 

148 'Sir William Johnson Papers 

respectively, by which it appears that they were in no kind of 
disposition to hearken to such a proposal. The Government 
have exerted themselves this year as far as could reasonably be 
expected from them, hoping that by the help of this last 
Augmentation of 2000 Men together with the Reinforcments 
from the other Governments you would be able to carry the 
Point this Fall, and I very much fear if it be not now pushd to 
the utmost, they will be discouraged from attempting it another 
year for altho' this Government have made provision for borrow- 
ing money to supply the Treasury, yet it is found very difficult 
to obtain the Mony that is wanted. The Inhabitants of this 
Province are generally willing to take the Treasurers Notes 
carrying Interest at the rate of 6 ^ cent <P Annum, for such 
Supplies as we can furnish among Ourselves, but the great 
demands for Provisions which must be purchased in the other 
Governm 18 & for Waggons to transport them to the Army puts 
the Committee of War to great difficulties in raising Mony for 
these Services so that if the Government were willing to go into 
the Expense of another Campain, yet it would be almost imprac- 
ticable to raise the Mony to carry it on. 

I the rather think myself obliged to give you this notice because 
of the prevailing opinion in some of the Southern Governm' 8 . of 
the necessity of another Campain in order to execute the Plan 
you are upon. This Governm*. will probably be calld upon to 
exert itself to the Eastw d another year & it is very doubtful 
whether they will ever come into the Measures that have been 
proposed to them, I must therefore press it upon You to exert 
yourself to the utmost of your power with these fresh reinforce- 
ments to bring the Affair to an Issue this Fall. The Committee 
of War inform me that they have dispatchd a sufficient quantity 
of Provisions & of warm cloathing for the Soldiers, and I hope 
nothing will be wanting for their Encouragement. 

INDORSED: October 6, 1755 Letter 

from IJ. Gov r . Phips to Maj r . 

General Johnson. 

Enter'd in L r book B page 15. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 



Camp at La^e George 

7 October 1755. 

I have ordered a party of 50 Men to repair some bad places 
& to mend some Bridges in the Road between this Camp & Fort 
Edward. I have also sent orders to Col. Ruggles to detach 
another party from Fort Edward to do the same from that Fort 
to y e East side of y e River at Saraghtoga. I take the Liberty 
to inclose your Excellency my orders w h . I beg the fav r . of you 
to send to the Commanding officer of the Connecticut reinforce- 
ments at Albany to send 200 Men to mend the road repair 
Bridges &c. from Albany to the West side of the River at 
Saraghtoga. They will want some person who knows the Road 
to assist them. A proper Number of Hatchets, spades & shovels 
will be wanted, send them I cannot, & how to obtain them at 
Albany without y r . Excel!? 8 , interposition I know not. there are 
none in the publick stores there. 

M r . Wraxall informs me that at the N. End of an Island 
opposite the House of Killiaan de Ridder, 2 if the Bank on the 
west side is dug away & a Waggon passage made the Ford of 
the River is not above Horse Knee high, whereas thro the usual 
Ford unless the Waggons are uncommonly high the water 
generally comes into the Waggons by w h . means the Provisions 
have been often damaged. 

As M r . Van Schaik who is Commissary of the Artillery 
Waggons &c. is gone up to the Indians, I am under the necessity 
of applying to y r . Excellency to order the 1 8 pounders to be dis- 
patched hither as soon as the Road will be ready for them. The 
Express who brings this drove one of the 32 p d . up here & says 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 
1 An inhabitant of Saratoga. 

150 'Sir William Johnson Papers 

if y r . Excellency will empower him he will procure Horses & 
drivers for these 18 p ds . When they are ready. I inclose your 
Excellency an order to any of the officers of the Provincial Rein- 
forcements to furnish a Guard for them of 150 or 200 Men. 
If M r . Van Schaik should be returned Your Excell?. will be 
pleased to give him the Orders concerning these Cannon. 

Yesterday I sent down to Fort Edward to be dispatched on 
to Albany a French Deserter, he gave much more favourable 
Acc ts . of the Enemy at Tionderogo than we lately received. I 
have this afternoon sent some fresh Spies thither & shall continue 
to do so till I receive Informations w h . may so confirm each other 
as to be depended on. I have sent out a Party who are to post 
themselves in such a manner as I am in hopes to intercept some of 
the Enemys Scouts & procure us a Pris r . two or three. 

By the returns delivered in yesterday we have fit for Duty 
Serg ls . corp 8 . Drums & Private 2560 Sick & wounded 540. 
The New Hampshire Reg*, are gone home except 6 or 8. 

The Fort I find goes on all things considered pretty well there 
are many difficulties to combat against, from that averseness to 
Labour, & the want of due subordination w h . I very early found 
to be the capital sins of this army. I have made war against 
them by every method within the extent of my Power & abilities, 
but to me at least, they are invinceble. 

I do not expect this Fort with its Barracks, Magazine & store 
houses will be compleated in less than a Month from this date. 
We are in great want of Broad Axes the Mas r . Carpenter reports 
that 60 Broad axes at least are wanting. I do by this Express 
write the Commissaries & direct them to purchase that Number 
& send them up with all possible Dispatch. Col. Ruggles writes 
me that his People are employed in Getting Timber &c. for Bar- 
racks & store houses at Fort Edward, but from my Information 
those things will not be finished in due time unless some Carpen- 
ters are sent up there. The w 1 of Carpenters here, the 

1 Omitted in the copy. The completed word would probably be 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 151 

many Difficulties met with in obtaining & keeping to work those 
who have been employed as been frequently represented to me 
by the Mas r . Carpenter & I did & do every thing in my power to 
remove these obstructions. I desired Cap*. Webster who is at 
the head of the Carpenter work & was Commissioned at Boston 
for that purpose to make me a Report of these Matters in writing, 
he has this day done it & I inclose y r . Excellency a Copy of it. 

I propose if I am able to attend, to call a Council of War in a 
day or two, if not, to direct General Lyman to preside & propose 
in writing the Subject or Subjects I would offer to their con- 

Col. Cockcroft writes y r . Excellency with regard to the 
vacancies in his Reg 1 . The inclosed Letter I received from poor 
Cap 1 . McGuines the day of his death. I think it my Duty to 
the memory of that Gallant Man to let you see it. 

I have 7 or 8 Indians here & expect some more today. I am 
most respectfully Sir your Excell? 8 . &c 
To His Excellency 

Gov r . &c of New York. 

Without delaying the Fort, a 
sufK Number of Carpenters can- 
not be got here to go upon the 
flat bottom Boats. This matter 
I shall lay before y e Council. 


Orders from Wraxall to Captain John Taplin, of Bagley's regiment, 
for repairing roads; to Captain Robert Rogers, for scouting toward 
Carrying Place and Ticonderoga ; from Johnson to commissaries for 
Lroadaxes ; from Wraxall to commanders of Connecticut reinforcements 
to repair road from Albany to Saratoga; and Wraxall to Colonel Ruggles 
to repair road from Fort Edward to Saratoga, with directions on leaves of 
absence and pretended discharges, following the above in the Johnson 
Calendar were destroyed by fire. All were of the 7th of October. See 
Calendar, p. 55. 

152 Sir William Johnson Papers 


A. L. S. 1 
Camp Lake George Oct*. 7 ih . 1755 


I take leave with Submission to acquaint your Honour how 
I have proceeded as to y r Comands relating to y e Carpenters 
Work from the 6 th . Sept r to this Date. Your Honour was 
pleased to give it in y e General Orders of that day, that I should 
be supply'd with as many Carpenters out of the Army as I 
should have Occasion for, in order to build a Number of Flat 
Bottom'd Boats to transport the Cannon, Warlike Stores &c. In 
Compliance, I did all possible I could to Engage a Number of 
Carpenters for the above s'd Work, I obtained to the No: of 
ab*. 50 & began the Work, the 7 th . Inst. we were alarm'd & the 
8 th . were attacked by the Enemy, 6 of the Carpenters were kill'd 
& Several wounded, the rest so fatigued as not to be fit for Work, 
& we having No Breast Work Nor Magazine No Work could 
be done to the Boats for 9 or 10 days after y e . Engagem 1 ., then 
the Orders were issued for me to be supply'd w lh . Carpenters to 
proceed in the Work, I Raised all I could w ch was Some days 
20, 1 5 or there abouts, when I urg'd them to work they told me 
they were here as Soldiers & not Carpenters, & without better 
Encouragement they would not work as Carpenters. I have One 
Boat fit for 2 partly Caulked, one more ab*. half built, which 
was all I could do with the Hands I could raise. Since w ch on 
the 29 th . y r . Honour was pleas'd to issue Orders for building 
the New Fort, w ch necessitated omitting the Boats, because there 
was not Carpenters enough for both Works, & Moreover we 
have not broad Axes enough for the required Dispatch, there 
being about 30, whereas there will be Occasion for 60 more 

1 Original destroyed by fire. There is a copy in Massachusetts Archives. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1 7 55-17 56 


all this is humbly Submitted to your Honour being as near 
is I can represent the True State of the Case. 
From y r . Honour's Most humble & Most Obedient Servant 

Cap 1 of y e Carpenders a 

To the Hon blc WlLLIAM JOHNSON Esq r . General of the Army 
encamp'd at Lake George. 


A letter of October 7th, from Goldsbrow Banyar to Johnson, follow- 
ing the above in the Johnson Calendar, was destroyed by fire. It dealt 
with a French deserter from Ticonderoga, impeachment of Rogers's 
reports, spirit of officers and men and the advantage of an advance on 
Ticonderoga. See Calendar, p. 55. 

Df. S. 2 

Camp at Lake George 8 Octo r . 1755. 

The Night I left this place the General was seized with an 
Inflamation in the side of his Head & throat, the pain afterwards 
pitched in his Ear & gave him inexpressible Torment, he has 
been bled, blistered & purged, he has had very little Sleep & 
taken as little Nourishment, he is extreamly weak & continues 
in much pain tho not so severe as it was. his sittuation renders 
him incapable of answering your Excellencys friendly & obliging 
Letter w ch I brought him. he has devolved that honour upon 
me. Permit me my good Sir, in the first place to return your 
Excellency my very grateful acknowledgments for that Generous 
Candor that condescending Friendliness & that truly polite 
Reception which you were pleased to honour me with in my 
private Capacity; If I know my own Heart, it is naturally 
tenacious & grateful upon receiving Testimonies of this kind, 
and the most respectfully disposed towards you in your public 

l See Minutes of Council of War, 1755, Oct. 9. 
2 Original destroyed by fire. 

154 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Capacity yet my sensibilities lead me disinterestedly to esteem 
you & to wish for yours, as Sir Charles Hardy divested of every 
Power but that amiable one of engaging the Heart; 

My worthy & excellent Friend Gen 1 . Johnson, has the same 
impressions from your Letter to him, as I have from your 
Behaviour to me. Allow me who have had the Opportunity of 
an undeserved Intimacy with him to say he is a Character w ch 
every good Man will esteem. In his present public Station, he 
has no motives of Action but what appear to him for the public 
good, in his political Relation to this Province, he has no 
Ambition but as prove his Loyalty & Duty to his King & Country 
his Inclinations & his Constitution, both detirmine for the future 
to be as much the private Man as possible, he has no selfish 
Ends to serve, he will enter into none of the narrow Circles 
of Party, & disdains the unpatriot machinations of Faction. 

Gratitude & respect for your Excellency pressed upon me to 
speak of myself. And the same Feelings towards General John- 
son dictated what I have said with regard to him. If I have 
gone out of my way I hope my Intentions will plead my 

The General approves of my return upon y r . Excellencys 
judicious Sense of the Matter. He is strengthening his Measures 
and proposes to regulate his future proceedings upon the Plan 
w ch vou nave intimated to him. Whatever may be the event of 
this Campaign or how much soever it may disappoint the San- 
guine Expectations of the sev 1 . Gov ts . concerned, the General 
will rest his character upon a just & fair Enquiry, as to popular 
Breath, its infection is unavoidable, but to a Wise Man, conscious 
Rectitude will prevent the Disease from being Mortal. 

By the General's public Letter to your Excell? you will see 
that your private hints have not been lost upon him. 

As to the small Cannon, at the next Council of War, he pro- 
poses to mention your Excellencys Opinion as well as that of 
the Gentlemen of the Council, that if Granted they ought to 
be for the Defence of Fort Edward, and that this Opinion was 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 


given to me. for of y r . private Letter the General will take no 
mblic Notice. 

The General desires you will accept of every good wish his 
Heart is capable of offering, I beseech y r . Excellency will do 
me the same honour & permit me to assure you that I am 

Sir Y'. 

Will you please to present my Salutations to M r . Barrons. 



A report of scouting by Philip Lord follows the preceding letter in 
the Johnson Calendar. (See p. 55.) It is printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y., 
4:262; Q, 4:1 70. It is followed in the Calendar by a letter of October 
9th to Johnson from John Pownall in London (Doc. Hist. N. Y., 
2:7002; Q, 2:4089), and a request from Chaplain Solomon Page, of 
October 9th to Johnson for a furlough to visit sick family. These papers 
were destroyed by fire. Pownall's letter is also printed in Doc. Rel. to 
Col. Hist. N. Y., 6:1017-18. 

In Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 6:1016, under date of October 8th, 
is a letter to the lords of trade from Sir Charles Hardy, in Albany, men- 
tioning the action of September 8th. 

A. L. S. 1 

[Albany] October 9: 1755. 

It gave me great Satisfaction to hear by Col. Blanchard, that 
your Fever had left you or was considerably abated. May you 
soon find yourself well and in a Condition to proceed: Col 
Dunbar's horses left Philadelphia last Wednesday week the 1st 
Instant. If they come soon & the Colonel goes up S r . Charles 
will take that Opportunity I believe to pay you a Visit, which 
I imagine may be of singular use, Can you contrive any Method 
to furnish the Men with covering for their Horses? If nothing 
further is done, I fear the Expence the Provinces have been 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

156 Sir William Johnson Papers 

lately put to will dispirit them, & be of infinite disadvantage to 
the Measures of the next year. You are sensible your own 
Reputation is highly interested. Gen. Shirley has given away 
Kings Company to his own Cap 1 . Liutenant, which S r . Charles 
thinks is interfering in his department, and a Step I believe he 
imagines that Braddock would not have taken, he's (Shirley) 
much embittered ag*. you: He complains that you did not send 
him an Account as early as any one of the Battle. His Wings 
will soon be dipt. I believe, and if you dont give him a lift out 
of the Stirrup as far as in your Power I shall wonder at it. 
Among that l Boston Colonels is one Col. Gridley a gentle- 
man who I find has made Gunnery and the Art of Bombard- 
ing his Study. He was of great Service in this way at the 
Siege of Louisburgh, will be now of great Ease to my Friend 
Captain Eyre, if a good Understanding is kept up between them, 
which you'l endeavour to create & preserve. He is, I take him 
to be, one of those Men who make the fewest Difficulties, which 
is by a Resolution to surmount them. About 3000 of your pick'd 
Men, assisted with 600 Regulars & the Company of the Train 
besides your own Train will do the Business if cold weather 
does not prevent them. The French must I think retire very 
soon & leave only a Strong Garison & I cant say I expect Winter 
in good Earnest till Christmas, a cold day or two or a little Ice 
does not make Winter. 

Capt Bayard will deliver you this whom I am desired by the 
Commissioner to mention to you as a brave deserving man. The 
Gov r . has given him a Commission as Captain in the Train. I 
am- D r . Sir yours with great truth 


Lord Hansen at N Y is dead, no material News on Sunday 
last. M r . Morris 2 & his Assembly at Varriance & the Virgs. 
proposing to do something on that side. 

"That" in the copy; "the" perhaps intended. 
2 Robert Hunter Morris, lieutenant governor of Pennsylvania. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 17551756 



Df. S. 1 

Camp at La^e George 9 October 1755 
Thursday Morning. 


As my present Illness renders me incapable of holding a 
Council of War in person, I have ordered one to consist of all 
the Field Officers in Camp with Cap 1 . Eyre and the Adjutant 
General, and I desire you will lay before them the following 
Papers, which I have directed my Secretary to attend with. 

1. S r . Charles Hardy Govern r . of New Yorks Letter to me 
bearing date the 2 d . Inst. with a Report from the Gentlemen of 
His Majesties Council with him at Albany. 

2. Cap tn . Websters Report to me conserning the Flatt 
Bottom'd Boats. 

3. Major General Shirleys Letter to me bearing date the 25. 

4. The last Returns of Men fit for Duty, Sick and Wounded 
in this Camp also all the Returns which have been given in 
from the Commissaries since my Order of the 7. Instant. 

Upon these Papers I desire you will Acquaint the Council of 
War, that as I have been informed the Roads and Bridges 
between this Camp and Albany are in great want of Repair, I 
yesterday ordered a Party of 50 Men to mend the Road &c. 
from hence to Fort Edward. I also ordered Col. Ruggles to 
detach from said Fort 50 Men to repair the Road and Bridges 
from thence to the East Side of the River at Saraghtoga. I have 
also ordered a Detachment of 200 Men of the Connecticut Rein- 
forcements at Albany to mend the Road from that City to the 
West side of the River at Saraghtoga. I have applied to S r . 
Charles Hardy to direct the 4 Eighteen pounders to be sent from 
Albany hither. I have also ordered the Commissaries of the 
severall Governments at Albany to send hither with all possible 

Original destroyed by fire. There is a copy in Massachusetts Archives. 

158 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Dispatch 60 Broad Axes in Consequence of Cap*. Websters 
Report. These previous Measures I thought necessary to take, 
and I desire to know whether the Council of War approves of 
them and would advise any further ones. 

I desire their opinion upon the following Points. 

1. Whether in the present state of this Army, its provisions 
Military Stores, number of Battoes now here, and the 
Intelligence gained of the posture of the Enemy, it be 
adviseable in our present Scituation to undertake an imme- 
diate Attempt upon Ticonderogo or on any Passes or posts 
between this Camp and that important Pass. 

If the Council of War are of opinion it is, I desire they 
will advise me, what number of men, what Quantity of 
Provisions, and what Artillery I shall order upon this 

If the Council of War are of opinion that an immediate 
March and Embarkation towards Crown Point is not 
adviseable, I desire they will give me their reasons against it. 

2. Whether the Flatt bottomed Boats now unfinished shall be 
compleated without delay and how many more I shall order 
to be Built, and if Tools and Workmen cannot otherwise 
be obtained, whether they shall be taken from the Fort now 
Building here, where there is a Scarcity of both, so that 
not one half of the Works can be carried on together. 

3. Whether I shall order all the Waggons as fast as they bring 
Provisions and Stores up hither to stop at Fort Edward and 
bring up the Battoes and other stores there, & also send 
directions down to Albany to bring up the Shells which lay 
at the Flatts and the Shot which remain at the half Moon. 

My Secretary brings you also to lay before the Council 
of War, the Report of a Committee of the Council & of 
Representatives of Massachusetts Bay upon two Letters of 
mine to Gov r , Phipps. Likewise a Letter from the Agents 
of New York employed to forward the Generous Presents 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 159 

from some Gentlemen of that City, and the Present of 1 000 
Sheep and some Cheese from the Inhabitants of Queens 
County on Long Island, upon which I would desire this 
Council of War to give me their Opinion of Conveying the 
Gratefull Acknowledgments of this Army for these Season- 
able Acts of Beneficence. 

I have also directed Cap*. Wraxall my Aid de Camp to 
give You, to lay before this Council of War a Letter 
directed to him from Col. Ruggles relating to his Applica- 
tion to me for leave to go to Boston, I desire they will 
take the same into Consideration and give me their Opinion 

I am Sir 

Your most hum Serv 1 . 



D. S. 1 
Camp at Lake George p. M. Thursday 9 Oct r . 1755 

At a Council of War summoned by General Johnson & held in 
Major General Lymans Tent. 

Pres 1 . Major General Lyman Pres*. 
all the Feild officers in Camp 
Capt Eyre chief Engineer &c. 
Cap 1 . Glazier Adjutant Gen 1 . 
Peter Wraxall Sect'?. 

General Lyman directed the Secretary to read to this Council 
of War the annexed Letter to him from General Johnson pro- 
posing the Subjects referred to the Consideration of this Council 
of War. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. Copy in Massachusetts Archives. 

160 , Sir William Johnson Papers 

The Council of War approve the previous Measures w^ the 
General has taken as mentioned in his s d . Letter & desire he 
would in Case good Broad axes cannot be procured in Albany, 
send to the Commissaries for 1 00 wt of the best Heart & Club 
Steel and in case the Axes can be procured to send them only 
half a hundred Weight & a hogshead of Sea Coal. 

Lieu 1 . Col. Whitcomb desired leave to withdraw finding him- 
self out of Order. Col. Chauncey & Col. Dyer came to the 
Council of War. 

As to the First point on w ch the General desires the Opinion 
of this Council of War 

They are Unanimously of Opinion that in the present Cir- 
cumstances of this Army an immediate attempt upon Tionderogo 
or any passes or Posts between this Camp & that important Pass, 
is not adviseable. And for these Reasons. The Want of a 
sufficient Number of Men & a suff*. Quantity of Provisions as 
to the Second Point it is the Unanimous Opinion of this Council 
of War that no Tools or Workmen shall be employed on the 
Flat Bottomed Boats so as to hinder the compleating the Fort 
now building here. 

As to the third point it is the Unanimous Opinion of this 
Council of War that it is necessary for the Subsistence of this 
Army that all the Waggons which can be obtained be kept 
employed in bringing Provisions & other necessary Stores for the 
Troops engaged in this Expedition. 

With regard to the Report of the Committee of Massachusetts 
Bay the Council desire the Gen 1 will let the Commanding officer 
of each Reg 1 have a Copy of that part of it w ch declares the 
good opinion of that Government of the behaviour of the Army 
in the late Engagement in order to publish it to their several Reg t$ . 
and all the Members of this Council of War desire the General 
in his next Letter to Gov r . Phipps to express their Gratitude for 
the obliging Notice w ch the Gov 1 . of Massachusetts Bay have 
taken of them & the Troops here. 

With regard to the Generous Pres*. from the Inhabitants of 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


the City of New York & of Queens County of Long Island, the 
General is desired to write a Letter to Messrs. Robinson & Wal- 
lace & to Messrs. Jones & Connel with the grateful acknowledg- 
ments of the officers in behalf of this Army for their Seasonable 

The Council of War are of opinion that the General give Col. 
Ruggles leave to go to Boston 



Following the preceding in the Johnson Calendar, (See p. 56) are an 
order of October 1 Oth to Moses Emerson and other commissaries for 
axes ; proceedings of the same date in the trial by court martial of William 
Caleb and Thomas Sear j ants, acquitting the former and finding the latter 
not deserving of punishment; an undated memorandum of Lieutenant 
Sawyer's desertion; and a letter of the 10th from Johnson to Benning 
Wentworth, mentioning illness, the return of Wraxall and advices to be 
sent to Governor Phips. All were destroyed by fire. 


Camp at Lal^e George 10 October 1755 


My last to your Excellency bore date the 7 In st . As I still 
continue mostly confined to my bed, wholly to my Tent & my 
pain very little decreased, I wrote a Letter to General Lyman 
that I had ordered a Council of War & desired he would lay the 
papers & points therein mentioned before them for their opinion, 
Copy of w ch . Letter & the Minutes of Council thereon I inclose 
your Excellency. It was judged by the Council of War that 
with the Reinforcements arrived since the last returns were made 
our fit for Duty were ab*. 3000. That all the Provisions meat 
excepted upon the Commiss r8 . last returns the 7. & 9. Inst. then 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 
Vol. II 6 

162 9 Sir William Johnson Papers 

in Camp were not suff '. for more than 1 or 12 days, that tho 
the French Deserters Intelligence seemingly differed with Cap* 
Rodgers's yet as he left Tionderogo 3 or 4 days after Rodgers 
& the latter was ready to swear to the truth of what he had given 
in writing, they were of opinion both Acc ts . were reconcilable to 
Truth; the said Deserter said the Enemys force amounted to 
6000. when assembled at Crown Point before part of them 
advanced to Tionderogo between w^ places there is but 1 5 Miles 
distance. As y r . Excellency has doubtless examined this Deserter 
more accurately perhaps than was done here you will be able to 
make a Judgment hereon. I beg y r . Excellency will transmit 
his Examination to Gov r . Phipps at Boston & send me one. 
General Lyman examined him here, my illness preventing me, & 
he kept no Minutes. 

M r . Wraxall informed me Gen 1 . Shirley had ordered him up 
to Oswego, & that y r . Excellency had taken that matter under 
your Management, W^ I am extreamly glad of & very much 
obliged to you for. I soon found myself distressed by his 
absence, he has always been a most necessary & useful person 
to me, & he will remain so as long as my Military connexions 
last. The loss of him would not only be a private one to me, but 
I think an essential one to the public relative to this Expedition. 
I wrote M r . Shirley before he set out for Oswego that M r . 
Wraxall was my Secretary & aid de Camp. The affairs w ch 
have passed thro him & the Papers which are in his hands & 
under his Mannagment make it absolutely necessary that he 
should not be taken from me to a sittuation w ch . must rob me of 
that assistance without which I cannot give an Account of my 
Conduct to the Gov ls . concerned, w ch they will reasonably 
expect & may probably demand, and I cannot but think Gov r . 
Shirleys abrupt & peremptory orders to him, an unkind intention 
towards me. It is not meerly upon my private but on the public 
Interest that I must thank y r . Excellency for y r . Interposition and 
claim the continuance of it in regard to this Gentleman, who has 
no pay who reaps no Perquisites for all his Labours & the 
Dangers to w ch he has exposed himself in this Service. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 163 

My Pain continues & I think increases. May Your Excel- 
lency be a stranger to pain & intimate with every real Pleasure. 
I am with great Esteem Sir 

Your Excellencys most obed 1 . & obliged Serv 1 . 

INDORSED: General's Letter to Gov r . Hardy 10 Oct r . 1 755. 


Z)/. 1 
Camp at Lake George 10 Octo r . 1755 


By Major House 2 I was favoured with your Honours Letter 
bearing date 26 Ult. 

As to the Unfortunate Vacancies in the Three Regiments 
from your Gov*. what I did therein was conformable to the 
Opinion of the Council of War & from the necessity there was 
of supplying those Vacancies till I was properly informed. I 
neither had in this Case nor have I ever had in any other the 
least partial Bias more in favour of one officer than another, 
further than that Preference w ch the good of the Service & mani- 
fest Personal Merit led me to. 

Tho I apprehended the Character conferred upon me, gives 
me the right of some Judgment & entitules me to some Influence 
in these affairs, yet I acquiesce s in the Detirmination w ch your 
Honour with the Concurrance of His Majestys Council have 
made in this Matter. 

I am so unfortunate as to differ in Opinion with Your Honour 
concerning that peculiar circumstance w ch had such great Weight 
with you. Sure I am, that the popular channel thro w ch this 

1 Original destroyed by fire. There is a copy in the Public Record 
Office, C. O. 5.46., London, England, that was inclosed in a letter from 
Johnson to Sir Thomas Robinson, January 1 7, 1 756. Also in Massa- 
chusetts Archives. 

2 " House" in the copy; should be Hoare. 

8 Word omitted in the copy; supplied from the London transcript. 

164 ,Sir William Johnson Papers 

Army in general roll d its officers, was a Capital defect in its 
Original Construction & w ch has given me inexpressable Vexation 
& almost constant Obstructions in carrying that little command x 
w ch . I have been able to do. A Popular choice in Military Life 
& that by new Levies is founded in Ignorance & will be guided 
by Caprice, such officers will in all probability be like the heads 
of a Mob, who must support their preheminence by unworthy 
Condesensions, & Indulgences subversive of order & of the very 
Existance of an Army. After assuring you Sir that there are 
several officers in this Army worthy of the Rank they bear, I 
will also assure you there are very many under the Rank of Field 
officers who are in no respect but by their Commiss 118 . superior to 
any of the Men they command, nay that are utterly incapable of 
Acting in the posts w ch have fallen to their Lot. For my own 
Share I was not bred to Military Life, nor do I claim the knowl- 
edge of an experienced officer. I have held myself quite indiff* 
to the Ceremonials, & only been attentive to essential parts of 
Discipline. All my Orders if inspected will I believe be found, 
both easy to be understood & as easily obeyed, yet they have in 
very few Instances been duly complied with, & many daily & 
notoriously Violated. If I am asked why I did not enforce my 
Authority supposing I had w ch . I think I had not the requisite 
powers to do it. I answer the Evil was too general to admit of a 
Remedy, it was radical in the Constitution & could not be con- 
quered but by a Dissolution. General Court Martials & Regi- 
mental Ones have been held but with a Success suitable to the 
Fabric which occasioned them. 

I ask your pardon for Expatiating so much on this Subject, 
I have felt it & I feel it, & I wish the Gov ls concerned may not 
feel it also. I will conclude by observing to your Honour, that 
however popular Gov'. may be by some Esteemed in Civil Life, 
in Military Life it is incompatible with any rational Expectations 
of Honour & Success. 

My Secretary has filled up y r . Commissions for Colonels to 
Messrs. Bagly & Pomroy of Lieu*. Colonel to Maj r . Nichols, 

1 See note 3, p. 1 63. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


& I have desired Col. Bagly & Col. Pomroy to give in a List of 
the other Vacancies in their Reg ts . & who are to succeed by their 
respective Senioritys when they shall be also filled up upon your 
prescribed Plan. I shall send Col. Ruggles such a Number of 
Blank Commissions as he has Vacancies in his Reg*. 

If there are any Fees due upon these Commissions they are due 
to your Secretary mine take none of any kind. 

The General Letter which I sent to your Honour was opened 
(upon the presumption of the writing on the back of it) by M r . 
Stevenson at Albany & a Copy sent to Gen 1 . Shirley, the Min- 
utes of Council were omitted to be inclosed & M r . Stevenson 
says he sent them afterwards under Cover to you. this affair 
was utterly without my Concurrance & very contrary to my 

Whatever Papers I have sent to the Gov*. of New York, I did 
it with no other 1 View, than as a Method of the most eligible 
Comveniency to get them transmitted your way. From selfish or 
Ambitious Views, I make my Court to no Gov 1 . having no 
political Schemes to carry, & resting every future Plan of my 
Life on a private Bottom. A Lesson w ch mortifying Experience 
has taught me. 

As to the French General, his Aid de Camp & the French 
Prisoners, I thought the Nearest Capital the most prudent to 
send 'em. As to the punctilio so strenuously urged by your Com- 
mittee it never entered into my head. The French General poor 
Man & several of the Pris". were not in a Condition to be con- 
signed 2 by any other chanel than I sent them. They are now 
out of mine & under the Jurisdiction of the Gov r . of New York, 
who if he could with a wish convey them to you would I fancy 
most readily do it. 

A few Days ago I sent a Deserter from the French Camp at 
Tionderogo, the only one we have had from them, down to 
Albany, he said, the Army at Crown Point before their March 

1 " Another '* in the copy; " no other " in the London transcript. 

2 The transcript in the Public Record Office has " conveyed." 

166 'Sir William Johnson Papers 

to Tionderogo consisted of about 6000 That upon the return 
of the remainder of the Party w ch attacked our Camp, the whole 
army moved to Crown Point except ab*. 400 left at Tionderogo 
& 70 as an advanced Party for Scouting at the Narrows from 
whence he made his escape he sayd they were building a Work at 
Tionderogo w ch was then 5 Logs high, he said there is a Work 
carrying on upon the Rocky Eminence near Crown Point. 

You will observe this Ace*, differs from Cap*. Rodgers's Intel- 
ligence concerning Tionderogo w ch I transmit you herewith, but 
as Cap 1 . Rodgers was there on Sunday the 28 Inst this Deserter 
left it the Thursday before, & supposing the latters Ace*, true the 
former may be so also as Tionderogo is but 1 5 miles from Crown 
Point, however I have sent out other Spies who I expect will clear 
up this seeming opposition. If they return before I send off this 
Letter you shall have their Intelligence. 

I send your hon r also herewith Cap*. Rogers's Intelligence 
from Crown Point. 

By the last Returns made me the 7 Inst the Men fit for Duty 
in this Camp were 2560. Sick & Wounded 540 in both Serg ts . 
Corp 5 , & Drums included. The Reinforcements arrived since 
will make up the fit for Duty ab*. 3000 By the Commissaries 
returns & a calculation made thereon last night at the Council of 
War we had not above 1 or 12 days Bread. 

By a Violent Inflamation in my Head & Ear, I have been for 
some days past mostly confined to my Bed wholly to my Tent. 
I therefore summoned a Council of War to meet Yesterday after- 
noon & wrote a Letter to General Lyman to lay what I had to 
refer to them before the Council, a Copy of that Letter & the 
Minutes of Council thereon I inclose you herewith, also a Copy 
of Cap*. Websters Report & General Shirleys Letter. The 
Gov r . of New Yorks Letter & the Report of his Council are 
chiefly ab*. the Fort erecting here & Cannon. 

As by our Scouts have discovered partys of Observation from 
the Enemy who come in Cannoes upon this Lake I sent ab*. 60 
or 70 Men to lodge themselves upon an Island near to the Carry- 

Preliminary Campaigns, 17 55- 17 56 


ing Place in order to lay in wait & intercept some of these Parties 
they are not yet returned. I keep constantly out 2 Parties on each 
side the Lake of 50 each who send out small Scouting Parties to 
discover any Motions of the Enemy so as to prevent a Surprize. 1 

I have about 8 or 9 Indians here of the 6 Nations & expect 
some few more. 

Col. Blanchard & his New Hampshire Reg*, have left us, the 
Mens enlisting time being out & no advices from their Gov r . con- 
cerning them. They are a loss to us as they did the chief part of 
the Scouting Duty are very 2 extreamly well calculated for it. 

There are arrived at this Camp about 500 of the Reinforce- 
ments from your Gov*. Col. Willards Reg 1 , included. I am 
Most respectfully Sir Your Honours 

Most Obed*. hum Serv 1 . 


The preceding letter was followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 56, by 
a letter of October 1 to David Jones and Thomas Cornel from Johnson, 
acknowledging a present of cheese and sheep from Queens county (printed 
in Doc. Hist. N. 7., 2:702-3; Q, 2:409-10). It was destroyed by 

D/. 8 

Camp at Lake Ceorge 10 Oclo r . 1755 

Your favour of the 16 past with Sundry presents from the 
Inhabitants of your City was forwarded to me from Albany by 
Ol deLancey Esq r . a few days ago. 

1 In the copy the word is suspicion ; corrected from London transcript 
*In copy "were**; "very** in London transcript. 
1 Original destroyed by fire. 

168 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

Yesterday I laid your Letter before a Council of War of all 
the Field officers in this Camp & I send you inclosed an Extract 
from the Minutes of the same in consequence thereof. 

This Instance of publick Spirited Beneficence from Your City, 
has not only impressed Universal Gratitude upon the Hearts of 
this Army, but filled them with a just Sense of your Patriotism 
in this Generous Instance. I have ordered a Feild officer & a 
Surgeon from every Reg*, in Camp to meet & make an equitable 
Division of what is arrived, in w ch . the Troops at Fort Edward 
who were in the Actions of the 8 Sep r . & the Sick of the rein- 
forcements are to be included. 

these presents are a relief to Distresses & a supply to wants 
w ch . would otherwise have been without remedy in our Circum- 
stances & Sittuation. 

Neither myself nor any belonging to my personal Family either 
officers or Servants will Share any of these Presents, as I appre- 
hend the rest of the army may stand more in need of these Sea- 
sonable refreshments. 

I beg you Gentlemen in particular & all the other Contributors 
in general, will Accept of my grateful applause to that honour 
w** 1 you have done yourselves, & for that well timed Relief w ch 
you have given to the Troops under my Command. 
I am 


Your most obliged & obed 1 . Serv*. 

To MESSRS. ROBINSON & WALLACE Merch 18 at New York 



Camp at Lake George 10 OcF. 1755 


I wrote Your Excellency the 30 Inst. with sundry Papers 
designed to give you the best State in my power of the Troops & 
affairs under my Direction. M r . Wraxall on his arrival at Albany 

Preliminary Campaigns, 7755-7756 169 

gave that packet to M r . Stevenson to forward to Your Excel- 
lency. The night after his Departure I was seized with an 
Inflamation in my head w ch . gave me inexpressible Torment, I 
have been bled, blistered & purged, w ch . with want of Sleep & 
appetite confines me to the bed. My Pain is some what abated, 
but is still such as I can get but little Sleep. As my Instructions 
to M r . Wraxall directed him to consult S r . Charles Hardy upon 
his future proceedings, that Gentlemans advice & my illness occa- 
sioned his return hither in 5 days after his departure from hence, 
w ch gave me g rea t Satisfaction, as I found he was too necessary 
to me here to spare him on my designed Plan and some other 
Circumstances having intervened, has induced me not to transmit 
at least at present duplicates of those Papers w^ 1 I sent to y r . 
Excellency. One is, that I chuse first to hear from you upon them. 

The 8 Inst I rec d Your Excellencys several Letters bearing 
d~tes the 19, 24, 25 & 28. past 

As to my not sending Y r . Excel!?, an Ace*, of the Actions of 
the 8 past at the same time I did it in a general Letter to the sev- 
eral Gov ts . The Council of War gave their opinion that I should 
with all possible Dispatch send that Letter to Gov r . Phipps. This 
I did, and the Person appointed to carry it not being one under 
my Command, was so impatient to be gone that he would scarce 
wait till that Letter was finished and the officers also urging me 
not to delay him. As there had been no time to look over the 
Papers of the French General & other Pris" so as for me to 
judge what might be necessary to send your Excellency, I was 
more easy on the head of delaying my Letter to you w ch . I was 
determined to send by the first opportunity & did it accordingly. 

I assure your Excellency that my not dispatching you a Lettr 
before or at the time I did the general one was owing to unavoid- 
able Obstacles, & that I thought 2 or 3 days differ was not of 
material Consequence, this & not want of that attention w ch is 
due to your Station & Sittuation, was what regulated my Con- 
duct. Your Excellency will please to consider or be informed, 
that I have no writers but my Seer?. M r . Wraxall, & a Deputy 
. & they have no pay or perquisites for what they do in this 

170 Sir William Johnson Papers 

way, & that no Establishment was made for me of this kind. 
M r . Wraxall has been & is my only Aid de Camp. In this Sittu- 
ation I think my self excusable if I cannot be so punctual & 
diffusive in my advices as might otherwise have been expected 
from me. I hope your Excell?. will accept this as an Appology 
for my not entering into a particular reply to your several Letters 
before me. Any Advice w 6 * 1 . it has been in my power to send 
you, w ch . appears to me to have any connexion with or could have 
any probable Influence on that part of His Majestys Service w ch . 
your Excellency has the personal Direction of, I have trans- 
mitted you with all the Dispatch w ch . Circumstances would permit, 
and I am conscious of no wilful Neglect herein, whatever Insinu- 
ations may be made to the contrary. 

Your Excellencys Letter of the 25 Sep r . I laid last night before 
a Council of War. The Minutes of that Council I transmit you 

By the last returns the 6 & 7. Inst the Number of Men fit for 
Duty at this Camp were 2560. Men Sick & Wounded 540. 
Serg ts . Corp 5 . & Drums included. The Reinforcements arrived 
since was calculated last night by the Council of War, to make 
the fit for Duty 3000 the Bread then in Camp sufK for about 
12 days. I have about 7 or 8 Indians with me & am advised 
more are coming. I expect they will be but few. 

The time of Enlistment of the New Hampshire Reg*, being 
expired & no Letters from their Gov r . relative to them being 
come to Col. Blanchard > they are all marched home except ab*. 
4 or 5. who stay with Cap 1 . Rogers, this is a great loss to us in all 
our Scouting Duty, as it was principally done by them, & tho I 
continue to send parties out, I am afraid the Duty will not be so 
effectually done. 

A French Deserter the only one we have had, came some days 
ago to our Camp. I sent him down to Sir Charles Hardy, who 
I suppose if he gives any Intelligence w ch may be useful to Your 
Excellency will transmit it you. He gave here a diff*. Acct of 
the Enemy at Tionderoga from what Cap*. Rodgers did. He 
was examined before Gen 1 . Lyman but as he Deserted from 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 171 

Tionderoga, 3 or 4 days after Cap*. Rodgers was there, the 
officers present at his Examination & who were at the Council of 
War last night, think both Accounts are reconcilable. I have 
dispatchecT other Spies to Tionderogo, who may return before I 
can send off this Letter, if so you shall know the News I bring. 
I have also sent a party of 1 00 Men to an Island in the Lake to 
Intercept any of the Enemys small partys, who are frequently 
sent out to watch our Motions. 

I do not recollect any thing further that I have to acquaint 
your Excellency with at present. 

I hope the obstacles w ch have inevitably hindered your Excel- 
lency from proceeding upon the Expedition under your command 
are as you hoped so far surmounted as to have enabled you to set 
sail nearly ab*. the time you mention, & unfeignedly wish you 
ay meet with the desired Success in an Undertaking of so much 
Importance to the Interest & welfare of His Majestys Dominions 
in N. America. I am with all due respect Sir 

Y r . Excellencys Most obedt hum Serv*. 

I have given orders & taken Measures for the Completion of 
Fort Edward. 

INDORSED: Generals Letter to General Shirley 10 Octo r . 1 755. 


D/. 1 

Camp at Lake George 11 October 1755. 

Please to accept of my unfeigned thanks for your very obling'g 
& Esteemed favour of the 24 past by Major Hoare. 2 

The French Generals Order of Battle w ch I directed Cap 1 . 
Wraxall my Seer 1 "?. & Aid de Camp to inclose to Gov r . 
DeLancey, I expected would be immediately printed at New 
York for the Entertainment of the public. I was not aware that 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

1 " House " in the copy ; should be Hoare. 

172 * Sir William Johnson Papers 

it would give any Jealousy to y r . Gov*. & indeed it was not found 
among the Papers till my general Letter was closed, for we had 
not then had time to examine the papers w * 1 were taken, both 
M r . Wraxall & myself were very much vexed to see a Letter in 
the New York Paper published with his name to it. We have 
understood since, that Letter was a composition of parts of his 
& of another wrote from this Army. The Letter he wrote was a 
Scrawl hurried over, without the least apprehension it would ever 
be published, intended only as a point of respect to M r . DeLancey 
then commander in chief of the Province to w ch . M r . Wraxall 
bears a Civil connexion as you know I also do something from 
one of us might reasonably have been expected, and this Method 
Circumstances pointed out. 

As to the General Letter opened at Albany & the Minutes of 
Council omitted to be re inclosed. I have explained that Matter 
in my Letter to Gov r . Phipps w ch I doubt not will be commu- 
nicated to you as also what I have said upon the other Papers 
sent to the Gov r . of New York w ch he says he sent copies of upon 
the receipt of them. 

Tho I have always looked upon your Gov*. as having the lead 
in this present Expedition, yet I apprehended the others were not 
to be totally neglected, & as no Establishment was made, to enable 
me to carry on the diffusive Correspondence w ch seems to be 
expected from me, it has been & is impossible for me to fulfill 
those Expectations. All my writing Buisness Originates with 
M r . Wraxall and I have but one Copier under him. M r . 
Wraxall has also been my only Aid de Camp who writes & 
delivers out all my Military orders, Instructions &c. this detail of 
Duty even in a regular army of equal Numbers to this would be 
thought too much for one Person, & in this is extreamly fatiguing, 
he has also acted as Judge advocate & tho there has been but too 
much foundation to give him his hands full in this Department yet 
Prudence on the One hand, & the little advantage to the Service 
found upon Trial on the other, has relieved him from much 
Employ*, in this office. These Posts M r . Wraxall accepted 
without even the prospect of any pay from the public, declared 

Preliminary Campaigns, 7755-7756 


ie would take none from me & has given up every Perquisite w ch 
>elongs to two of them, he has sustained them greatly to my 
>atisf action, to the advantage of the Service & very honourably 
for himself. 

I will appeal to you Sir whose Penetration I know to be equal 
to your Candor, whether that punctuality could be observed or 
whether it has been in my power to afford those gratifications 
which have I doubt not been expected from me. 

Tho this Expedition was embraced with great Ardor & a very 
laudible Spirit appeared throughout most of the Colonies con- 
cerned Yet there were some Capital Errors in its construction 
& w ch . I fear has in a great measure tended to disappoint the 
Sanguine Expectations of the Colonies. It would be too great a 
Tax upon your Patience & upon my time to descend to particulars. 
Believe me my very good Sir, that I accept your friendly Inti- 
mations with a grateful heart & desire Consequences to myself 
from your Generous concern about me, and I shall profit by it. 
Whenever I consider the Great Expence of the Colonies, & that 
uncommon exertion of themselves w * 1 has appeared in fav r . of 
this Expedition I am apprehensive the Events of this Campaign 
will not be equal to their Hopes, & perhaps all that has been 
done will to the generality appear of little consequence & merit, 
because all was not done. I am conscious that I have acted up 
to the extent of my abilities & of my power, & I am prepared to 
prove it. the Station I am placed in is exposed to too much & 
to too little Fame, considered as the just result of Conduct. I 
prefer the inward conviction of my own rectitude to every pre- 
carious S x of applause. 

Public affairs require my putting an End to this Letter, & 
leaves me only time to assure you that I am with great Esteem 
Dear Sir 

Your most obliged hum Serv*. 

I am very much out of order with a violent Inflamation in the 
side of my head, w ch confines me mostly to my bed. 
To the Hon ble THO S . HuTCHINSON Es<J. 

1 Word apparently illegible. Perhaps "Salvo." 

174 'Sir William Johnson Papers 


A report of camp guards, dated October 1 1 th, from Christopher 
Champlin, following the preceding in the Johnson Calendar, p. 57, was 
destroyed by fire. 


Df. S. 1 

Camp at Lat^e George 

II October 1755 

Application having been made to me by Your Self in con- 
junction with several Feild Officers in this Camp, to order a 
Council of War to take into consideration & give their Opinion 
on the present state of this Army & all Circumstances relating 
thereto, and whether it is not best Immediately to inform the 
Governments concerned in the Expedition, thereof, & desire their 
Orders as to future Proceedings. 

And to consider whether it is not best to dismiss a Number of 
Invalids from the Service. 

As my illness disables me from being holds, a Council of War 
in Person, I desire you will preside at this which I have summoned 
in [consequence of the above application, & lay before the Mem- 
bers thereof the foregoing Articles contained in the said Appli- 
cation made to me, to ivit 2 ] conformity to the above Application 
and make me a Report of their Opinions on the above Subjects 
in writing 

[/. To taf^e into Consideration the present state of this Army 
& all Circumstances relating thereto 

2. Whether it is not best immediately to inform the Govern- 
ments concerned in this Expedition thereof, and desire 
their Orders as to future Proceedings. 

"Original manuscript in New York Public Library; in Wraxall's 

2 Words in italics and inclosed in brackets are erased in original manu- 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 175 

3. To consider "whether it is not best to dismiss a number of 
Invalids from the Service. 1 ] 

I am Sir 

Your most hum serv*. 

D. S. 2 

Camp at Lake George 11 ih . Oct r . 1755 

We would humbly propose to your Honour to call a Council 
of War to consider of the present state of this Army and all cir- 
cumstances relating thereto, and whether it is not best imme- 
diately to inform the Governments concerned in the Expedition 
thereof and desire their Orders as to future proceedings, and to 
consider whether it is not best to dismiss a number of Invalids 
from the service and am 

Your Honours 

most Obed*. hum Serv 18 . 

To the Hon ble . William P Lyman 

Johnson Commander in chief of Seth Pomroy 
the Army at Lake George. Elip 1 . Dyer 

Elihu Chauncey 
A true Copy Examined by me Nathan Wniting 



1 See note 2, p. 1 74. 

2 In Public Record Office, C. O. 5. 1 7. p. 35, London, England. In 
Sir Charles Hardy to Sir Thomas Robinson, November 27, 1755. A 
draft of this document in the Library Collection was destroyed by fire. 

1 76 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Camp at Lake George 11 October 1755 

At a Council of War held in General Lyman's Tent 

General Lyman president 
All the Field officers in Camp 
except Lieu*. CoK Ward & Lieu*. Col. Whitcome 
absent by Sickness 
Cap*. Eyre Engineer Gen 1 . &c a . 
Cap*. Glazier, Adjutant Gen 1 . 

Peter Wraxall Secretary 

General Lyman acquainted this Council of War, that application 
having been made by himself and sundry Field Officers now 
present to General Johnson to call a Council of War upon the 
following Articles. 

1 . To take into consideration the present state of this Army and 
all circumstances relating thereto. 

2. Whether it is not best immediately to inform the Governments 
concerned in the Expedition thereof and desire their orders as to 
future proceedings. 

3. To consider whether it is not best to dismiss a Number of 
Invalids from the service. 

General Johnson had by reason of his present Indisposition 
desired him to preside at this Council of War, and to make a 
Report of their proceedings. Whereupon General Lyman 
desired this Council of War to take the foregoing Articles in to 
their serious consideration and give their Opinion on the same. 

It is the opinion of this Council of War, that a Member of 
this Council from each Province be appointed a Committee to 
draw up a particular state of this Army, and all circumstances 
relating thereto, and make a Report of the same to this Council 

Preliminary Campaigns, 17551756 


of War at their next meeting. And the following Gentlemen 
were appointed to be that Committee 

Col. Bagley for Massachusets Bay 

Col. Dyer for Connecticut 

CoK Cockcroft for New York 

Major Champlin for Rhode Island. 

The Council deferred their opinion upon the second Article 
till the Committee had delivered their Report upon the first. 

Upon the third Article this Council of War are of Opinion, 
that such Soldiers as are unfit for duty, and are not likely to be 
of any service to the Army this Fall, may have a Furlow to 
return home from the Commanding Officer of each Regiment 
with the Generals approbation 

The Council of War was then Adjourned by the presid*. to 
6 Clock to Morrow Evening. 

12 October Sunday Evening about 6 Clock 


Major General . Lyman 

All the Field Officers in Camp except Lieu*. Col. Ward and 
Lieu*. Col. Whitcomb 
Major Payson added to the Council 
Cap*. Eyre and Cap 1 , Glazier. 

Peter Wraxall Secretary. 

The Committee delivered in their Report of the particular 
state of this Army and all circumstances relating thereto, which 
was read to the Council and is as follows. 

WHEREAS the Council of War have appointed and chosen 
us William Cockcraft, Elip 1 . Dyer, Jonathan Bagly, and 
Christopher Champlin, as a Committee to take into Consideration 
the present state of this Army and all circumstances relating 
thereto, and make Report thereof to the said Council. We in 
consequence thereof make the following Report. 

178 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

We find that our Army at Present Encampt near Lake George 
including the Reinforcements already arrived consists of about 
3600 Men, the Garison now at Fort Edward of 500 men, and 
the recruits at Albany and on their March hither of about 2500 
men, the whole amounting to 6600. whereof by the several 
returns from the Regiment here, and at Fort Edward, it appears 
that about 700 are unfit for duty, besides many others who must 
soon inevitably be rendered incapable of Duty, thro' want of 
proper Lodging, Bedding, Watchcoats, and other necessaries 
against the inclemency of the weather to which they are con- 
tinually exposed, in Camp duty, in building the Fort mending 
the Roads, Advanced and scouting parties, in all which different 
services they cannot have the use of fire. 

[As to the Grand and important point of Provisions, it is 
notorious from returns of the several Commissaries from time to 
time given in, the Army in General has never at any time (since 
their Encampment at Lake George) been possessed of two 
weeks provisions 1 advance, (saving the Article of Meat) not- 
withstanding the utmost efforts used by his Excellency Governor 
Hardy at Albany, in impressing Waggons and furnishing the 
Convoys, and that too when the weather was favourable and the 
Roads Waggons and Horses all in good order, much less can we 
now expect to have such a supply of Provisions, when our Troops 
are considerably Augmented, the inclemency of the Weather 
daily encreasing, and the Roads in may places almost impassable, 
numbers of Waggons broke and destroyed, many horses killed 
and worn out in the service, and from the present Season of the 
year, heavy rains may be daily expected, when the three Branches 
of the Mohawks River, and Hudsons River at Saraghtoga will 
be rendered impassable, but admitting all our former Advantages 
were still to continue, yet before it could be possible to get up 
from Albany provisions for the present Consumption and also a 
Sufficiency for the Army to proceed, the Season would be so 

1 Word omitted jn the original; probably "in." 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1 7 55-17 56 


far advanced, that it would be morrally impossible to undergo 
the rigour of the Weather. 

The above Considerations are humbly submitted to the 
honourable Members of the Council of War by their 

Most Obed 1 . hum e Serv ts . 

William Cockcraft 
Elip'. Dyer 
Jonathan Bagly 
Chris: Champlin. 
Camp Lake George 
October 12 th . 1755. 

The foregoing Report was unanimously accepted by this 
Council of War] as containing the present state of this Army 
and all circumstances relating thereto. 

Upon the second Article this Council of War are unanimously 
of opinion that the General be advised to transmit the Minutes 
of this Council, to the several Governments concerned and desire 
their orders as to future proceedings. 

P: Lyman. 
Peter Wraxall Secry 

A true Copy from the Original Examined 
by me PETER WRAXALL Secry 

Copy Exam d . by 

Gw BANYAR D Secry 

INDORSED. Camp at Lake George 

Oct r . 11*. & 12-- 1755 
Minutes of Council of War 
in Gov r . Hardy's of the 
27. Nov. 1755 


There are found in the Johnson Calendar (See pp. 56-57) a commis- 
sary report of October 1 1 th from Moses Emerson on rum, axes and pro- 
visions forwarded by Samuel Gardineer; an order from Wraxall of the 

180 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

same date to Major John Hazelton, at or near Albany, to oversee the 
wagon train of the army ; minutes of a court of inquiry held on the 1 1 th 
and the 15th, investigation of alleged mutinous conduct of Captain Esekial 
Peirce and finding of guilt; proceedings of a council of war held on the 
1 1 th regarding the state of the army, proper course to adopt and dismissal 
of invalids; and a letter of the 1 1th from Philip John Schuyler to Wraxall 
on evidence given at court martial against William Caleb, accused of 
sleeping at his post. All were destroyed by fire. 

A. L. S. 1 

Albany 12 Octo. 1755. 

Your Letter of the 7 th I had an opportunity of seeing as it 
was laid before the Council. Two things in it gave me a great 
deal of Uneasiness, the first, which surprizes every body here, 
that the Flat Bottomed Boats began so long since, advance so 
slowly, that one only is yet finished; and the other that the Car- 
penters are not only unwilling to Work but wanted Broad Axes 
if they were willing to work. As to the first, as I understand the 
Matter, it is owing to the confusion the Army were thrown into 
after the Attack, which prevented their doing anything but what 
tended to secure themselves ag l . a second attempt: we at this 
distance are not so proper Judges, & therefore have never appre- 
hended any such thing, but rather thought the Enemy were in 
that Situation. And tis hard to conceive that 100 Carpenters 
could not be spared for the Scows. They dont want complete 
Workmen. And as to the 2d since without them Crown Point 
could not be attacked, nor prudently without building Forts to 
secure your Retreat, are not these things inseparable from the 
Service the Men were inlisted in. And if the Provinces have 
not made Provision for Extra Pay to those who are employed as 
Carpenters (as our Province has done by allowing 50) their 
Pay is large, & this & the Spirit they pretend to have for the 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


Enterprise, ought to have contented them, relying that the diff l . 
Provinces would if it was reasonable make them some allowance. 
For my own Part I think they have no right to expect it, and 
that the Publick are in titled to every Mans Service, from the 
highest to the lowest, be it in their Power to exert it in whatever 
way, on the Terms they engaged, which was Pay and Provisions. 
And this backwardness is I fear owing principally to the officers 
not exerting that Authority, which however week it may be 
thought, would upon tryal have been found effectual: 'tis vain to 
think of carrying on our Expedition if the Men will not work, 
they are paid & fed for it as well as to fight, & the latter is not 
to be done without the former, as they cannot approach an 
Enemy. The Expence you see must otherwise be infinite. 
Again, if Carpenters or Mechanicks of any kind (I speak of 
those found among the Army not those who are under perticular 
agreement) are to be paid, why not Labourers, and if for build- 
ing Forts or Scows, why not for throwing up Intrenchments round 
their Camp, since every Measure of that Sort is equally necessary 
for their Preservation. I am ashamed of them. These are the 
blessed Effects of that unbounded Liberty we boast of & value 
purselves for. Every Man with you thinks himself as at home, 
& that he's a right to be directed by his own Sentiments. In this 
Case the very Essence of an Army is wanting, I mean a due 
Subordination. I confine what I say to general things principally. 
I know you must suffer a good deal on these Accounts, and 
imagine you see these things in much the same light as I do. My 
view in taking notice of them, is only to remind you of the neces- 
sity (in matters of greater concern) there is of its appearing in 
a proper manner that you exerted the Authority you are invested 
with. That you should be reduced to the necessity of abandoning 
the Work on the Scows, that the Fort might go on, & that the 
latter will take a month still to finish is what cannot I think be 
accounted for, but by the officers and Men being disobedient to 
orders, and where the whole are so, there's no Punishing. The 
stop put to the Scows, seems, tho I suppose it is not, a measure 

182 Sir William Johnson Papers 

taken in Consequence of a determination not to proceed further. 
If you have not waggons or provisions enough, I believe it is not 
sufficiently well known here. The Governor inquired about your 
Order for Broad Axes, w ch perhaps had not come to light or you 
supply 'd so soon otherwise. The Commissaries on all sides 
appear to me to have been too indolent. And how clearly am 
I convinced now, how serviceable M r . DeLancey would have 
been if he had come up here 3 Months ago. a Hint that was 
given time enough. To conclude since I Fear we cannot do what 
is most wish'd for : I hope we may secure Ticonderoga, the Fort 
at the Lake & Fort Edward, and lay up all the Batoes and 
Stores in Places of Security, that there may be no necessity of 
another Provision next year. I need not apologize any more 
for the Freedom I take. Adieu and believe me to be sincerely 


M r . Ogilvie begs his Compliments & will write to you soon. 
I begin to grow homesick & I dont see we are likely to go from 
hence this fortnight. 


The foregoing letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar (See p. 57) 
by a report of the officers of guard and day; John LJscom's report as 
captain of artillery guard; Captain Robert Rogers's report of scouting 
(Doc. Hist. N. 7., 4:262-63; Q, 4:171); Timothy Putnam's report 
to Rogers (Doc. Hist. N. 7., 4:266; Q, 4:173); Israel Putnam's 
report to Rogers (Doc. Hist. N. Y.. 4:264-65; Q, 4:172); and Cap- 
tain Hunt's report to Rogers (Doc. Hist. N. Y., 4:265; Q, 4:172-73). 
all of October 12th. All were destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 7755-7756 


L. S. 1 

a albany Le 72 8 K 7755 

Si mes forces m'avoient permis Monsieur, de tenir plutot la 
plume, je n'aurois pas attendu jusques a ce jour pour vous 
renouveller les sentimens de reconnoissance que je dois a toutes 
vos bontes. Celles que j'ai regues de vous dans votre Camp et 
celles que je regois ici tous les jours de M de . votre soeur sont 
d'une nature a n'etre jamais oubliees. 

malgre La triste situation ou je me trouve moy meme, je n'ai 
pu m'empecher de partager avec M de . ferrall Les peines de celle 
ou elle se trouve, quoyque je n'ai jamais eu lieu de m'en apperce- 
voir, par la force qu'elle a pris sur elle de me la cacher, et de 
vouloir me persuader meme que je ne luy causois aucun embarras, 
un des motifs qui me feroit le plus desirer ma guerison, seroit de 
pouvoir trouver quelqu* occasion dans ma vie, ou je serois asses 
heureux de pouvoir vous temoigner et a elle tout ce que je dois 
a ses bontes a ses soins et a ses attentions, qui passent peut etre 
tout ce que j'aurois pu esperer dans le sein de ma famille 

je ne connois point asses mon etat, Monsieur, pour vous en 
rendre Compte. je souffre toujours, et je ne vois encore point de 
jour pour ma guerison, surtout a L'egard de la blessure qui passe 
par la vessie; cependant on m'assure que je ne suis point en 
danger et on me trouve en etat de me faire partir demain pour 
new york 2 ce que je desirois ardament, moins par 1'esperance d'y 
trouver plus de secours qu'ici, que par 1'envie que j'avois de 
delivrer madame votre soeur de I'embarras que je luy cause, et 
pour luy oter de devant les yeux un objet qui doit renouveller sans 

Mn New York Public Library, Emmet Collection. 

2 On October 7 Governor Hardy wrote from Albany to a committee 
of the council at New York that he proposed in a few days to send down 
the Baron and his aide and desired that suitable lodgings be provided 
and the aide admitted to parole but kept away from the fortifications. 
Council Minutes, 25:76. 

184 Sir William Johnson Papers 

cesse ses douleurs, quoyque je n'aye jamais eu lieu de m'apperce- 
voir ni de L'un, ni de L autre 

vous avez eu la bonte, Monsieur, de vous charger de mes 
premieres lettres pour le Canada, je vous demande le meme service 
pour cellesci. 

soufrez, je vous prie Monsieur, que j 'assure ici M. D'airys et 
M. votre aide de camp de mes sentimens d'estime et d'amitie que 
je leur dois pour eux meme et pour celle qu'ils m'ont temoignee. 
j'ai L'honneur d'etre avec un tres sincere attachement 

Votre tres humble et 

tres obeissant serviteur 


mon aide de camp a L'honneur devous presenter ses sentimens 
pleins de respect et de reconnoissance et d'assurer de ses civilites 
M d'ayres et m. de wrexell. 


At Albany the 12th of October, 1755 

If my strength had permitted me, sir, to take a pen in hand 
sooner, I should not have waited to this day to renew to you 
the expressions of gratitude which I owe for all your kind favors. 
Those which I received from you in your camp and those which 
I receive here every day from your sister 1 are of a nature never 
to be forgotten. 

In spite of the unhappy situation in which I find myself, I can 
not help sharing in the grief of Mrs Ferrall for the situation in 
which she finds herself, although I have never had reason to 
observe it, because of the effort which she has made to conceal 
it, and even of wishing to persuade me that I was causing her no 

1 Wife of Captain Matthew Ferrall, or Farrell, killed at the battle of 
Lake George. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 185 

trouble. One of the motives which makes me most desirous of 
recovery is to be able to find some opportunity in my life in 
which I shall be so happy as to be able to testify to you and to 
her to all that I owe to her kind acts, to her care and to her 
attentions, which exceed perhaps all that I could have hoped 
for in the bosom of my family. 

I do not understand my condition sufficiently, sir, to be able 
to give you an account of it. I suffer continually, and I see no 
day as yet for my recovery, particularly as regards the wound 
which traverses the bladder; however they assure me that I am 
not in danger, and they find me in a condition to be sent off 
tomorrow to New York, which I ardently desire, less from hope 
to find there more relief than here than from the wish which I 
have to relieve your sister of the trouble which I cause her, and 
to remove from her eyes an object which must continually renew 
her sorrows, although I have never had occasion to perceive 
either the one or the other. 

You have had the goodness, sir, to burden yourself with my 
first letters for Canada; I ask of you the same favor for these. 
Permit me here, I beg you, sir, to assure Mr Eyre and your aide- 
de-camp of my feelings of esteem and friendship, which I owe 
them for themselves and for that which they have shown to me. 

I have the honor to be with a very sincere attachment, 


Your very humble and 
very obedient servant 


My aide-de-camp has the honor to present to you his feelings 
of respect and gratitude and to send his regards to Mr Eyre and 
Mr Wraxall. 

186 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 


D/. 2 
Camp at Lake George 13 October 1755. 


I am favoured with your Honours Letter bearing date the 
22 Sep'. 

Your congratulations on our Success against the Enemy are 
very acceptable & obliging & your kind concern for my wound 
has my particular gratitude; The Ball is not yet extracted, how- 
ever it gives me little or no pain, but from another cause I have 
been & continue so much Discorded as to be mostly confined to 
my Bed & wholly to my Tent for several Days. It began with a 
violent Inflamation in the side of my Head, w ch afterwards fixed 
in my Ear where it remains & gives me great anguish. I have 
been blistered, purged & twice Bled, all w ctl has made me 
extreamly Weak. 

It has been thought necessary at this Juncture that a Field 
officer from the Troops of your Gov*. should be dispatched to 
you, in order to represent our present Sittuation & all other Cir- 
cumstances relating to this Army in a more ample & satisfactory 
manner than can be done by writing. Lieu*. Col. Pitkin was 
named to me by Gen 1 Lyman & other Gent n . horn your Gov 1 . as 
a proper Person. 

I was pleased with their choice, he has been with us from the 
beginning, & is a Gentleman of whose Capacity & Merit I have 
a high opinion. I shall refer your Honour to him for particulars. 

1 Thomas Fitch was born in 1 699 in Norwalk, Conn. ; was graduated 
at Yale College; studied law, and filled the offices in his native colony 
of councilor, judge of the superior court, lieutenant governor and governor, 
occupying the last named from 1 754 to 1 766, when, because of his com- 
pliance with the requirements of the stamp act, a new governor was thrust 
into his place by the general assembly. He died July 18, 1774, and 
was buried at Norwalk. 

2 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


Herewith I transmit you the Minutes of a Council of War I 

imoned the 9 Inst & wrote a Letter to General Lyman to 
>reside thereat & lay the particulars before them as mentioned in 
my s d . Letter to him a Copy of w ch is annexed to the Minutes, 
Copies also of Cap 1 . Websters Report & Gov r . Shirleys Letter 
referred to in the said Minutes. By the returns from the several 
Reg ts . here the 7 & 8 Inst. we then had in Camp 2560 Men fit 
for duty & 540 Sick & wounded, Serg ts . Corp 8 . & Drums 
included. By reinforcements arrived at 8 & 9 th at Night the 
Council of War calculated our Numbers fit for Duty in Camp 
to be about 3000. 

By the last Intelligence we received from Tionderoga, by Cap 1 . 
Rodgers of the New Hampshire Reg*, a Brave & honest Man, 
who was very near the French Encampm*. there, he says the 
Enemys Camp appeared as large as ours & that he judged he 
saw a Work or Fort there & Artillery, that at the Head of the 
Carrying Place, they had an advanced Camp of, as he judges 
near 1000. French & Ind s . 

Three other Spies I Sent to Tionderoga who returned yester- 
day, being two Cap ts & one Ensign say they did not dare venture 
near enough to Tionderoga to make observations, finding or mis- 
trusting they were discovered by the Enemys out Scouts. That 
on this side the Carrying Place they were very near & plainly saw 
two Encamp 1 *, of the Enemy on each side the Lake one of French 
& one of Indians, w ch two of them say, they judge to am*, to 
between 7 & 800 Men, one of them writes a 1 000. The Lake 
at this place they say is not above 32 or 33 Rod over, and that 
they heard the noise of Workmen w lh . axes & other Tools as if 
Works were making w ch they could not clearly discover for the 
thick Brush. 

Some days ago a French Deserter came to this Camp the only 
one we have had. He left Tionderoga (w ch is but 1 5 Miles from 
Crown Point) 3 or 4 days before Cap*. Rodgers was there, 
Gen 1 . Lyman examined him. He reports ' there were at the 
advanced post only 70 or 80 of the Enemy & ab*. 400 at Tion- 

188 Sir William Johnson Papers 

deroga. It is thought tho these Acc ts . vary, they are yet recon- 
cilable when the Distance of time is considered, & the Distance 
from Crown point to Tionderoga. He said he knew of no 
Artillery. I sent him down to Albany to Gov r . Hardy & I shall 
desire Col. Pitkin to take with him a Copy of this Fellows 
information. Tomorrow I propose to send some more Spies & 
upon their Return & Intelligence being favourable & our getting 
a suff*. supply of Provisions, to propose to the Council of War 
some further Proceedings against the Enemy w ch if Prudent & 
practicable I am extreamly desirous should take place. 

I send also your Honour herewith a Copy of an Application 
made to me by General Lyman & sundry officers for a Council 
of War on the Points therein mentioned. I complied & the 
Minutes of said Council of War go herewith. 

I submit every thing as to future Opperations wherein present 
Circumstances do not authorize me, to those Directions w ch the 
several Gov ls . concerned in this Armament shall think proper to 

I should have been more punctual & frequent in my Cor- 
respondence with your Honour, but has not been in my Power. 
M r . Wraxall who is my Sec r y. has been also my only Aid de 
Camp & till very lately Judge Advocate, for all w ch . offices he 
has neither pay or Perquisites nor was any Establishm*. provided 
by the Gov ts . for them. My hands & his have been always so 
full of the immediate Concerns of the Army, that my public 
Correspondence has unavoidably suffered by it. I am most 
respectfully Sir y r Honours Your most ob dt hum Serv*. 

To the Honourable 


Preliminary Campaigns, 1 7 55-1 7 56 189 

Df. 1 

Camp at Lake George 13 October 1755 


My last to Your Excellency was the 10 In st . herewith I 
transmit you a Copy of an Application made to me in writing 
by General Lyman & sundry other Feild officers to order a Coun- 
cil of War upon the Points mentioned in said Paper. I complied 
with their request & inclose Your Excellency the Copy of the 
Minutes of said Council. 

They have desired a Feild officer from Connecticut & Massa- 
chusetts should go to their respective Gov ts . with Copies of the 
Minutes of this Council as a very Necessary Measure at this 
Juncture. I have given my Consent for Lieu*. Col. Pitkin 2 & 
Col. Ruggles to go. 

I have wrote those Gov ts . that when Circumstances will allow 
me to renew my proposal of making any advances towards the 
Enemy, I shall do it, as I should be most sincerely rejoiced to 
promote any Prudent Measures for our proceeding further. 

Yesterday the Party I sent up the Lake & the Spies I dis- 
patched to Tionderogo returned. The former report they were 
discovered by the Enemy & near being circumvented by them. 
The latter report the Enemys Scouts were so thick & alert about 
Tionderogo they durst not venture near enough to make any dis- 
coverys. That on this side the Carrying Place where the Lake 
is not above 32 or 30 Rods Wide, they plainly saw two Encamp- 
ments on the two Points, of French on one & Indians on the 
other w ch . they judged amounted to 7 or 800. (two Cap ts . give 
this Number an Ensign another of the Spies for they went sepe- 
rately) reports near 1 000 that in the Morning for they viewed 
'em by their Fires at night they heard a great noise of workmen 

1 Original destroyed by fire. The last two paragraphs added by 

2 John Pitkin, of East Hartford, Conn. 

190 Sir William Johnson Papers 

with axes Adzes, Saws &c. but could not see what work they 
were about for the Brush, this is a summary of their Reports, & 
as to this advanced Party corresponds with the former Ace*, of 
Cap*. Rodgers whose Bravery & Veracity stands very clear in 
my Opinion & of all who know him, tho his Reg 1 , is gone he 
remains here a Volunteer, & is the most active Man in ourArmy. 
Tomorrow he proposes to set off with two or three pickeoMen 
take a review if he can of Tionderogo & proceed to Crown Point 
for a Pris r . Cap 1 . Angel of the Rhode Island Reg*, a thinking 
Man & a good officer, proposes to set off tomorrow in order at my 
desire to sound the Lake as he goes along & endeavour to take a 
View of the Enemy at the Carrying Place or narrows & at 

I have mentioned Cap 1 . Rodgers more particularly as I have 
Understood some Insinuations have been made to his Disad- 
vantage I believe him to be as brave & as honest a Man as any I 
have equal knowledge of, & both myself & all the Army are 
convinced that he has distinguished himself since he has been 
among us, superior to most, inferior to none of his Rank in these 
Troops. I am most respectfully Sir 

Your Excellencys Most obed 1 . & obliged Serv*. 

I propose to order two or three companies of the expected 
Reinforcements, besides the two I have already ordered to rein- 
force Fort Edward, in order to compleat the works there, but 
unless we can be furnished with a Supply of Axes Spades & 
shovels, both Forts cannot go on together, for we can spare no 
Tools from hence but could employ more, and I dread the Season 
& other Circumstances, unless these Forts are compleated with all 
possible Dispatch & indeed as the reinforcements pour in upon 
us, near 500 arrived this Evening, we shall soon want Bread & 
some other Provisions. Another thing I beg leave to lay before 
Y r Excellency, w ch is to press some large flat Bottomed Boats 
w ch are to be had I apprehend at & about Albany, for passing 
the Sprouts & the River at Seraghtoga, for if Rains come, those 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 191 

places will be impassible for Waggons. I keep constant Road 
parties out between this & Fort Edward, & have ordered the same 
from thence to the River on this side Seraghtoga. 

The General would have all the Reinforcements stay at 
Albany but such as the necessity of the Service may call for. He 
dreads the want of Bread here. Our Numbers are more than 
Sufficient for every present purpose here. Tools we very much 

The General is verry Weak with pain, want of Sleep &c. and 
keeps mostly in Bed. I have the honour to be Your Excellency s 

Most Obedient & Obliged Serv*. 

To His Excellency SlR CHARLES HARDY. 


This letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar (See p. 57) by John 

Taplin's report of scouts, of October 1 3th (printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y., 

11:266; Q, 4:173) and Henry Babcock's report, of October 13th 

(Doc. Hist. N. Y., 4:266; Q, 4:173). Both were destroyed by fire. 


L. S. 1 
Camp at Lake George 13 Oct r . 1755. 


My last to Your Honour bore date the 10 Inst. since which 
an Application was made to me in Writing by Major General 
Lyman & sundry Field Officers to order a Council of War upon 
certain points contained in said Written Application, a Copy of 
which I herewith send you, I complied with their request & trans- 
mit you also a Copy of the Minutes of their Council of War. 

The Council were of opinion that at this Critical Juncture a 
member from each Gov 1 . might have to go in Person with these 
Minutes in order to give such Ample Information as might 

1 In Massachusetts Archives. The draft of this letter was destroyed 
in the Capitol fire. 

192 Sir William Johnson Papers 

be necessary to possess the Governments concerned in this Arma- 
ment with a just State of our present Sittuation & Circumstances. 
As the former Council of War were of opinion I should give 
Col. Ruggles leave to go to Boston, I have done it & send this 
Packet by him; to him I refer you Sir & I cannot refer you to a 
more capable Person for all such Information relative to this 
Army which you may stand in need of. he is at the Head of 
those Commanding Officers who have enforced Subordination in 
the Regiments they Command, kept up the Dignity of their Rank 
& distinguished themselves in a meritorious Manner, particularly 
in our late Engagement with the Enemy, His Feild Officers & 
Liu* Nixon among the Inferior Officers are some of the foremost 
in my good Opinion, and had it been left in my power I should 
have paid them the distinction due to their Merit on the late 

Yesterday the Party I sent out & the Spies to Tionderogo 
returned, the former report they were discovered by the Enemy 
& in danger of being circumvented & Obliged to secure them- 
selves; the latter report they found the Enemys out Scouts so 
vigilant & thick about Tionderogo, they did not dare venture 
near enough for Observation, but say they plainly discovered an 
advance Encampment of the Enemy at a narrow pass on this 
Lake about 32 Rod Wide & about 4 or 5 Miles from Tion- 
derogo, French on * side & Indians on the other, amounting, 
(two of them report, Captains) to between 7 & 800 the other 
an Ensign, reports to about 1000 This Confirms Captain 
Rodgers former Account as to the advanced post, to morrow I 
propose to send out Captain Rodgers again with a Captain on 
whom I have equal Dependance to review the Enemy. Cap 1 
Rodgers who is a Gallant honest Man says he will proceed to 
Crown Point & if possible bring us a Prisoner. Crown Point is 
1 5 Miles distance from Tionderogo. 

When Circumstances will justify my proposing our proceeding 
further towards the Enemy to a Council of War, I shall renew 

Emission in the copy; "one" should be supplied. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 17 55-1 7 56 


Proposal, in the mean while I would Wish that our Sittuation 
all relative Circumstances may be taken into Consideration & 
rders sent me to regulate my future Conduct 
I am most respectfully Sir 

Your most Obed 1 hum serv*. 


As the Dispatch of these Minutes is recommended to me by the 
Council of War, I must beg your Honour will transmit as soon 
as possible a Copy of these Minutes as well as the Papers in 
mine of the 10 Inst to the Gov rs . of New Hampshire & Rhode 
Island I cannot get them done in time This Evens. 9 or 1 
Comp 8 . of y r . Reinforcem ts arrived. I fear we shall want Bread 
for the Army. The Fort is in hand & I am pushing it forward. 
To the Honourable 



L. S. 1 
Camp at Osnego Octo r . 13 th . 1755 


Last Night I receiv'd your two Letters dated at Lake George 
the 22 d . and 30 th . Sept r ., with the papers inclos'd, in the latter 
of which you desire my directions as soon as may be. 

You acquaint me in your letter of the 22 d . of Sept r . you think 
the time even then grately elaps'd for proceeding further. 

In the same letter you Inform me you have sent your Secretary 
to the Several Governments for their respective Opinions upon 
the present Situation of affairs Under Your Command, and pro- 
pose they shall be transmitted to me, so that my directions are 
to be founded upon their Opinions ; Your Secretary's Tour, and 
the Return of the Opinions of the Governments to me, will prob- 
ably take up to the End of Nov r . w ch will be Extreamly late for 
me to send you Directions. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 
Vol. II 7 


Sir William Johnson Paper* 

The time for your desiring my Directions Should have been 
as soon as possible after your action with the French on the 8 th . 
Instant, at w ch time you Informed by the way of Albany, all the 
other Governors Concerned in the Expedition under your Com- 
mand, of it. 

You must have however received, Sir, by this time, all the 
directions, I could properly give you at this Distance, and w ch I 
thought it my Duty to send you unask'd ; w ch then was to proceed 
to Tinonderoge. 

With regard to the Work Erected at the Carrying Place, and 
the other proposed to be Built at Lake George (Sketches of both 
w^ Cap*. Eyre hath sent me) my Sentiments concerning them 
continue the Same; the first I think is at all Events too Weak; 
as to the latter, if the Expedition against Crown point is to end at 
Lake George (w ch I dont think the Colonies concern'd can pos- 
sibly acquiesce in, nor the Government at home be Sattisfy'd 
with) then I think for covering Albany it will be Necessary not 
only to have a Strong Fort Erected at Lake George, but at South 
Bay too, and perhaps another at the end of Wood Creek; after 
all with x the Frontier of New England will still remain Expos'd 
in a great Measure to the Incursions of the French & their Indians 
from Crown point, Unless another Fort is Built at Otter Creek 
or some other proper place: If the Fort at Crown point is to be 
reduced, there will, I think, not be a Necessity for a very Strong 
Work at Lake George, or at either of the other two places. 

I am very sorry to find by your letter of the 22 d . Sept r . that 
you disapprove of the Behaviour of the Officers & Soldiers under 
your Command since the Action at Lake George. 

You well know my Opinion concerning the Serviceableness of 
your Secretary; that it is a very different one from what you 
Express, in your Letter of the 30 th . of Sept r ., of him some of 
your officers wou'd have been in my Opinion more proper to have 
been Dispatch'd to their respective Governments for their Opin- 

So in copy. "Wch*' rather than "with" was probably written. 

I Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 195 

ions; w** 1 might in that way have been more Expeditiously and 
Effectually Obtain'd than by sending him. 
Upon the Application of the late Cap*. King, who then Com- 
manded one of the Independent Companies posted here and in 
w ch he is a Lieutenant, I could not Dispense with Sending orders 
five weeks ago, to be delivered to him upon his return to Albany, 
directing him to repair to his Post here. 
I am Sir, 

Your Most Humble Servant 



The preceding letter was followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 58 by 
a report of officers of guard and day, dated October 1 3th, which was 
destroyed by fire; William Symes's report of scouting, written October 
14th, destroyed, but pn^ecHnTyocTHist. N. Y. t 4:268-69; Q, 4:1 74; 
Jejles Fonda's report of scouting, written October 14th, destroyed, but 
printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y. t 4:267-68; Q, 4:174; William Symes's 
report of scouting, undated, destroyed, but printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y., 
4:267; Q, 4:173; Wraxall's orders to regimental commissaries for sup- 
plying Captain Samuel Bayard and five men, with provisions and rum by 
weekly rotation, in this order, New York, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, 
Connecticut, dated October 14th, destroyed; and Johnson's orders of the 
same date to commanding officers of provincial regiments to march to 
Albany, or, if there, to remain, provisions being short, with directions for 
convoying provision train, destroyed. 


D. S. 1 
Camp at La^e George 14 th . October 1755 

To the Hon ble WlLLIAM JOHNSON Esq r . Major Gen 1 & Com- 
mander in cheif of all the forces now in Camp or Elswhere 
Designed for Crown Point. . 

The Humble Petition of William Cockcroft in the behalf of 
the Commission'd NonCommission'd officers & Soldiers belong'g 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

196 'Sir William Johnson Papers 

to my Regm*. who was in the Late Ingagement Humbly Sheweth 
That whereas application has been made to me Respecting the 
plunder they took from the Enemy on the 8 th . Ultimo and brought 
into this Camp by s d officers and Soldiers, Who rec d . Orders to 
March back to Fort Edward from whence they came, was in 
hopes that Each man might for the Good Service he had done of 
carry 'd the plunder he had taken with him, But was hinder'd by 
Some New England Officers from carrying any who told, 'em 
it was the Gen lls Positive orders to Stop all plunders from 'em 
That an Equal Dividend might be made of the same to the Men 
who Engag'd on the Same Ground where they fought Since 
which tho Severall Times requested that if any did belong to 
'em that they might have it. But as yet no Dividend has been 
made Either of Plunder or Money, And my men thinking 'em 
Selves wrong'd have Petition'd me to See them Justice done, as 
the Hampshire men was w l them had not any thing taken from 
'em I must in their behalf Petition your Honours to Get 'em 
Righted as I think myself in Duty bound so to do In doing of 
which you 1 very much Oblige your Petitioner Who is for 'em 
Your most Obed: H ble Serv* 



Camp at Lake George 14 Octo r 1755. 

Colonel Ruggles I suppose furnished you with such standing 
Orders as I have given him relating to the Command of Fort 
Edward & I hope you will see them duly put in Execution, tho 
I gave repeated orders for having the Road from Fort Edward 
to Seraghtoga thoroughly mended, Bridges & Causeways made 
& Repaid 2 where they are wanting. I find by a party from 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

2 Should be " repaired." 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 197 

Albany last night, they are in a deplorable Condition; I desire 
you will order such an officer as you can depend upon & a party 
suff'. to have this Work perfected with all possible Dispatch, 
for otherwise it will be impossible for us to get Provisions hither 
in Waggons or Cannon bro*. up to us, if 50 Men are not sufK 
let 1 00 or more be Detached, it is what must & shall be done, 
& I expect a strict Account from you of this Matter. I would 
have the party stay out 5 days & if it cannot be compleated in 
that time beginning from the East side of Seraghtoga River, let 
another party be immediately sent out on their return. If the 
party consists of 50 let there be a Cap*. 1 Sub & 2 Serg ts . if of 
near 1 00 1 Capt 2 Subs & 4 Serg ts . and return me the names 
& c . of the Commission officers who are sent. 

You are out of the Massachusetts Reinforcements to make up 
your Garrison 600 Men fit for Duty. And by the advice of a 
Council of War this Day, I shall inclose you an Order to the 
Commanding Officer of the remaining reinforcements expected 
from Massachusetts to return back with the first Convoy of empty 
Waggons to Albany as also any Connecticut Reinforcements 
who may arrive at your Fort. This is done on Ace*, of the Bread 
w ctl . cannot or is not sent up fast enough to subsist the Troops 
w ch . are here. I woud have send to meet the Massachusetts 
Troops w ch . are said to be coming thro the Woods with the 
Inclosed order to march to Albany & follow the Orders w ch . I 
shall lodge there for them. Every Monday you are to make 
returns to Cap*. Wraxall my Aid de Camp of all Troops in Gar- 
rison at Fort Edward & acquaint me from time to time of your 

I am Sir 

Your very hum Serv*. 

To the Commanding officer at Fort Edward. 

Send under a secure Guard Blanchard the French Deserter to 
me, and send the others well secured to the Gov r . of New York 
at Albany. 

198 'Sir William Johnson Papers 


The preceding was followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 58-59 by 
an undated petition from the officers of Colonel Ephraim Williams 4 s regi- 
ment asking that Colonel Pomeroy succeed Williams and other vacancies 
be filled from regiment when practicable; a deficiency return of ammuni- 
tion of October 14th, from Colonel Eliphalet Dyer; and an undated 
return from Colonel Elihu Chauncey's regiment. These were destroyed 
by fire. 


D. S. 1 
Camp at Lake George P. M. Tuesday 14 Octo r . 1755 


General Lyman, Presid*. Lieu 1 . Col. Whiting 

Col. Cockcroft Col. Harris 

Col. Dyer Col. Pomeroy 

Col. Chancey Maj r . Champlin 

Col. Bagley Cap*. Eyre 

Col. Willard Cap* Glazier 

Lieu 1 . Col. Nichols Peter Wraxall, Seer 1 *. 

General Johnson by Cap*. Wraxall his Aid D. Camp & Sec- 
retary desires this Council of War will take into Consideration, 
the Number of Men now at this Encamp* and the Quantity of 
Bread in the several Commisarys hands, & also the probable Con- 
sequences of the great rains of yesterday, last night & this day, 
with regard to the future supply of Bread & some other Stores 
from Albany, likewise, the Reinforcements from Massachusetts 
Bay now on their March hither & part of them probably already 
got to Fort Edward, & give their Opinion Whether under our 
Present Circumstances it will not be a necessary Measure, after 
Garrisoning Fort Edward with 600. Men fit for Duty, to order 
the remainder of the Reinforcements w ch may be arrived there, to 
march down to Albany immediately, and to take Measures to 
send notice to the rest who may be on the Road from Massa- 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


chusetts hither to march also to Albany & remain there till further 
Orders. Or what other Measures with respect to these Matters 
they may think adviseable. 

2 The Secr f y also read to this Council of War a part of Letter 
from the Gen 1 , to S r . Charles Hardy Gov r . of New York con- 
cerning the Reinforcements at Albany, for their approbation. 

3 The General further desires this Council will consider & 
advise him if he can take any Step or give any fresh Orders in 
order to make the present Stock of Bread in Camp, last as long 
as possible in order to avoid Distress, if the Roads or other Cir- 
cumstances should Delay our expected & necessary Supplies. 

4 M r . Wraxall further laid before this Council of War from 
Gen 1 . Johnson, the Petition from Col. W m . Cockcroft, w ch was 
sent to him this Day & desires the Council will take it into Con- 
sideration & give their Opinion thereon. 

Upon the First & Second Articles it is the Opinion of this 
Council of War that all the reinforcements w ch may be at Albany, 
on the Road to Fort Edward or at Fort Edward unless such a 
number of the Massachusetts Reinforcements as may be necessary 
to compleat the Garrison at said Fort to 600 Men fit for Duty, be 
ordered by the General to remain at, return, or march to Albany 
& remain there till further Orders. And that the General be 
advised to Order the Duty of Guards & Convoys from Albany 
to be done by the Massachusetts & Rhode Island Reinforcements 
by proportionable Detachments as that Burthen has lately lain 
Chiefly on Connecticut. 

Upon the 3 d . article the Council cannot at present think of 
any Advice necessary for them to give to the General in relation 
to any fresh Orders. 

Upon the 4. article, the follow'g Gentlemen are appointed a 
Committee to take an ace*, of all the Plunder taken in late 
Engagements on the 8 Sep r . 

Liu*. Col. Nicholls Lieu*. Col Whiting Lieu*. Col Cole & 
Cap* Matthews who are to render an Ace*, to a Council of War. 


200 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 


The above document was followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 58 by 
Wraxall's instructions to Colonel Timothy Ruggles, dated October 1 4th, 
in relation to Massachusetts reinforcements at Fort Edward, forwarding 
and care of provisions, permission to go to Boston, and despatches. It 
was destroyed by fire. In the Johnson Calendar, p. 59 are a minute 
of Council, of the 16th, respecting a supply of bread for the army, 
and orders of the 1 6th from Wraxall to Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Gil- 
bert respecting officers in command and vacancies in the regiment. Both 
were destroyed. 


D. S. 1 

Camp at Lake George Thursday 16 Octo r . 1755 
The Examination of a French Deserter. 
Pres't General Johnson 

Maj r . General Lyman 
Lieu*. Col. Cole 
Cap*. Schuyler Interp r . 

Peter Wraxall Seer'?. 

Honorie Blanchard of the Marines came from Rochelle to 
Louisburgh in the Centliver Man of War ab* 1 8 Mo 8 , ago among 
some other Recruits for Mons r . S*. PiereV Comp? who he says 
was killed at this Camp. That he came with 400 Marines & 
Canadians to Crown Point in the Beginning of Aug*. that he 
staid 3 Weeks there with the Army under General Dieskau w ch . 
consisted with Indians of 3500 Men. One half of w ch Mons r . 
Deskau marched with hither & the other half was left at Crown 
Point & Carillon, that he remained at Carillon with 400 Troops 
posted there when Mons r . Dieskau marched to this Camp. That 
Mons r . Dieskau marched hither with all the Queens Regiment 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

2 Legardeur de St Pierre. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 201 

& half the Reg*, of Languedoc, w ch made up 800. the other 
half of the Languedoc Reg 1 , remain'd at the Narrows near the 
Drowned Lands called by the French LaRoche where they threw 
up some Intrenchments. That since the Troops w ch returned 
from the Engagement here left Carrillon, where they staid but 
one night, no more than 400 Troops have been posted there & the 
Commanding officer cKanged every Fortnight. That there are 
2QQ Canadians constantly employed in throwing up Works at 

he says Mons r . S ! . Peirre, One of the La Cornes Mons r . 
Longeville 1 Son to the Gov r . of Montreal, Mons r . Montressor, 2 
were all killed here or died of their Wounds. 

That about a fortnight ago he & 1 5 more were fired at as they 
were upon this Lake in a Canoe. 

That they used to keep an advanced Guard a League & a half 
from Carillon but now they have carried it to 2 large Leagues & 
a half on a sandy point where they have some Entrench 48 , that 
it consists of 70 Men & that the Lake is wide where they are 
posted & on the Aft side coming here that they never keep out 
any Parties by Land. That they have ab* 1 5 Canoes & Battoes 
at Carrillon the Canoes carries 20 & the Battoes 50. 

he was asked if he knew what Orders were given to the 
advanced Guard in case they discovered the approach of the Eng- 
lish Army he says the Advanced Guards were to retire to 
Carrillon & at Carrillon the French Army the Soldiers say was 
to Join 'em from Crown Point and that 3000 Men could fight 
in the Entrenchments at Carillon w * 1 . is of a Square Form of 50 
yards each side & 5 Foot deep & 1 5 foot broad 

That they have thrown up a Breast work at Carillon to cover 
the 400 Men posted there & people are continually at work & 
they have cleared the Wood all about there. 

That they have a Cavillier Battery upon the Rocky Eminence 
near Crown Point, & judges they have a 1 00p s . of Cannon at the 

1 Charles Jacques Le Moyne, third Baron de Longueuil. 

2 M. de Montresson. 

202 Str William Johnson Papers 

That Mons r . LeEpeigniers Commands at Crown Point. That 
2 days before he left the Advanced Guard there came an Engi- 
neer there with the Major of the Queens Reg*. & posted them 
a League nearer this Way. 

That they brought no Prisoner with them when the Army 
returned from the Attack there, and that the French would have 
kept some of our People who were taken Prisoners but the Indians 
killed em all. 




This document is followed in the Johnson Calendar (See p. 59) by 
Captain William Eyre's plan and directions for completing Fort Edward, 
dated October 1 7th ; Wraxall's receipt for axes and order for augers, of 
the 1 8th, to Moses Emerson and other commissaries ; his orders of the 
same date to Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Gilbert about French deserters, 
with mention of commissions filled and sent; Johnson's orders of the 18th 
to Captain Samuel Howe to repair road near Fort Edward; a letter of 
the 18th from Sybrant G. Van Schaick, at Albany, to Johnson about 
cannon and shot to be sent to camp ; a letter of the 1 8th to Johnson from 
Surgeon Thomas Williams concerning sickness of Colonel Pomeroy; and 
proceedings of a court of inquiry, held the 18th, on conduct of officers 
sent as scouts. All were destroyed by fire. 

A. L. S. 1 

Albany 18 Oct r . 1755 Saturday. 

Since my last which was sent several days after it was wrote, 
I have seen your Letter of the 13 and the Minutes of the 1 1 & 12 
sent with it. The State of the army is represented in Terms very 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


trong, & which clearly show the impossibility now of sending the 
>roper Supplies in due time, and therefore I cannot help acqui- 
ring in the opinion that you cannot proceed unless you should be 
iclinable to build at Ticonderogo any Work that we may keep 
til next Spring. As to this, I am told the 5 French regulars lately 
come to Fort Edward all agree that there are no more than 400 
Men at that place intrenched & a picketed Work encompassing 
it. At the same time I consider the Information of the Enemy's 
having taken Post at the Narrows in the Lake, and that having 
about three thousand men at Crown Point they may easily & soon 
send a Reinforcement to Tionderoga, if they should not have 
been obliged by the Season to send their principal Strength away, 
and trust to those 400 & the Garrison they may leave. If they 
are not retired, the taking this Post may be attended with much 
difficulty, otherwise I apprehend not, as we may send a Force 
suff 1 . that may come upon them before they can get anp Succour 
from Crown Point perhaps we might do this if they are not retired, 
but then the Measure would be fruitless perhaps, as they might 
in this Case retake it. 1000 or 1200 Men I should apprehend 
would be sufficient to be detached for this Service with a few 
small pieces of Cannon to secure the Post if taken. In Possession 
of this, we have the way open all but 15 miles. Some tell me 
we may proceed from here by Land as well as by water others 
say not. I should be glad to know how it is, I think it is not 
practicable by Land. I shou'd think the want of Provisions 
would be no obstacle to this measure if thought adviseable on 
other accounts, which, will much depend on the Intelligence you 
receive. The taking this Post will add much Credit to the army : 
and we may flatter ourselves enough of the Season is still left. I 
am a little surprised at the Councils disapproving of the building 
of ovens I forget their Reasons now, but when I read them they 
appeared of no Weight, and Ovens must be built in the End I 
suppose It is a most insolvable addition to the Expence & 
Trouble the sending Bread, and waggons are scarce enough 
already in this Method 3 are required where one would do 

204 Sir William Johnson Papers 

If you still find Difficulty in provisions may it not be proper 
to send down some diligent Person to see that the Roads are 
mended and the Waggons lose no time in their way, also to 
remove any obstacles the waters may occasion. If all will not do, 
I see youl soon be reduc'd to the necessity of lessening your num- 
bers, a loss that should be avoided if possible, least it might be a 
discouragement to those left. You have now only two points to 
accomplish (since it seems you cannot compass the grand one) the 
taking & securing Tionderoga if thought practicable & prudent, 
and the finishing the Forts in hand, & a third I might add of no 
small Consequence the collecting & even inventorying all the 
Battoes, Guns, Ammunition, Provisions Tools and other Pro- 
visions you leave. The care & account of which will afford a 
great Satisfaction to the Interested, as on the other Hand, the 
wasting of them will be a great discouregement to f 1 Operations. 
Is it not 2 necessary to send up the 4 18 pdn I think not, nay 
I am of that opinion tho you were to proceed, & why should 
we risque more than is absolutely necessary. I understand the 
Recorder is to wait your further Orders as to this. My 
dear Friend if your health will permit you consider if proper 
accommodations are not made for Garisons in the Forts they 
must be abandoned & the Stores in them lost, the greatest Dis- 
grace that can possibly attend you or the army. As far as I can 
find M r . Shirley does not incline to garrison them with Regulars, 
which Hint you'l keep to your self, perhaps when he arrives here 
he will change his mind. I cant see how he will answer the not 
doing it, and if the provinces should be inclinable to garrison 
them, put them to the Expence of doing it when the Kings Troops, 
who must be paid and fed will be unemployed. Dunbars Troops 
are not yet landed, the Inhabitants say they cant quarter them 
I suspect they'l encamp to morrow, that Barracks will be built for 
500, and as to the rest, I think they might quarter them in the 

1 The remainder of the word not copied. " Future " or " farther " was 
evidently written. 

" Not " for " now," evidently an error in copying. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


ittlements to the N ward that the people have abandoned. The 
Baron went off yesterday, well pleased with his accommodation 
on board, & with the Compliment of a Guard of Regulars to 
the \ The Gov r . has furnished him with 1 00 Guineas & given 
him Credit on M r Alexander for what he really wants. I doubt 
he cant live. Have you taken a proper Receit to secure the 
Money he has from you. 

Thus far I had wrote when the Servant call'd me to dinner, 
& very ready I was for it, as you may think when near 3, and 
the Alteration of the Air with a relaxation from Business of 
about 5 weeks which has given me a share of Health & Spirits 
that I have not felt the kind influences of these 9 Months While 
at Dinner came in Col. Partridge from Boston M r . Lyman 
came in when we had just done, & he was leaving us I Stop'd, 
and learn'd from him M r . Partridge's Business, which he told 
Lyman, is, as a Plenipo, to push on if possible the Expedition 
ag'. Crown Point. Partridge met Ruggles in his way & learnt I 
suppose from him the State of affairs. He says they (the Boston 
People) have fall'n on a Method to send up their own Provisions, 
& enquired of Lyman what there was, if there was enough, & 
prest him to use every Method in his Power to send them up In 
short whatever be the Motive I cant tell but his sole Business 
Lyman says is, maugre every Obstacle, to push things forward 
to an attack. The Success he meets with & the determinations 
here shall be the Subject of my next Letter I dont know if 
it be from any thing I have wrote that you conclude doubts are 
entertained here of Cap 1 . Rogers's veracity : I meant & still think 
he was imposed upon himself, & indeed to what Cause can you 
impute his mistake, which made almost thousands instead of hun- 
dreds. I think you push the Point a little too far in your Letter 
in his behalf unless Sir Charles had given Occasion for it in 
any of his Letters. Youl make a prudent use of any thing I may 
write by way of Information without communicating to any one 
more than you find necessary. This Gentleman is very close and 

1 Word omitted; "transport" possibly. 

206 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

tho' he knows (I think) that I have a most sincere Friendship for 
you, yet I cannot tell if he would like my writing to you Even 
what I do know, from an opinion perhaps that what is necessary 
to be communicated to you should come from himself. I fancy 
by your not writing that you are not so well as I cou'd wish you 
to be. It was owing to your Recommendation or to what you 
write, that M c .Ginnis was appointed. Cockcroft desired one of 
the Companies The few French Ships at Louisburgh stole 
away in a Storm. Kolburne a could have taken them it's said at 
Boston but the admiral's Orders did not it was thought justify 
the captian 2 of Ships going from America. And the Admiral 
did not Care to risque hanging. Adieu I shall soon write. 


About 30 Mohawks were here 'tother day, although the Gov. 
sent to tell them to go through the Woods from Schenectady He 
offered them 2 p s . Strouds some Pipes & Tobacco w cil they 
refused but were afterwards asham'd of it he gave them another 
& 1 Ib of Vermillion & they went away satisfyed, & said they'd 
sett off immediately to join you. Are they with you and how 
many of their Colour Dont forget to write to London concerning 
your own affairs & remember your Friend at Oswego you may 
depend on his doing you every good office in his Power Dunbar 
wont stir an Inch till he receives further Orders. My Compli- 
ments I beg you'd present to M r . Wraxall & Cap*. Eyre. The 
artillery I now hear will move to Morrow Morning under Eschort 
of lOORh. 



The preceding letter was followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 59 by 
a report of Aaron Hitchcock, officer of guard, to Colonel Ebenezer 
Nichols, officer of the day, dated October 18th. It was destroyed by 

1 Evidently Holbourne. 2 Evidently " capture. 1 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-17 56 


Copp 1 

Camp at Lake George 18 th October 1755. 

I have order'd a Council of War of all the Field officers at 
this camp at 5 o'Clock this Evening, and as my indisposition still 
renders me unable to be at it, I desire you would preside. I send 
by my Secretary Cap* Wraxall the intelligence from the last 
Scouts towards Ticondorogo, and the Examinations of the 5 
french Deserters transmitted me from Fort Edward, and the 
Examination of Blanchard one of them whom I sent for here, 
also a letter with some papers I reciev'd from L l Gov r Phips this 

1 * l . I would propose to the Council of War whether they think it 
adviseable I should order a Detachment from this army to 
embark as soon as possible and attack the Enemy posted at 
or near the carrying place, & in case of their Success to pro- 
ceed and endeavour to dislodge them from Ticondorogo. 

If the Council of War approve of one or both of these 
attacks I desire they will advise what number of men & how 
many days Provisions it will be adviseable for me to order 
thereon, as also what further measures occur to them prudent 
to be taken upon this Scheme 

Blanchard the Deserter has declared himself willing to go 
as a Pilot or Guide upon these attacks. 

If a Council of War should not approve of either of these 
attacks, I desire they will express their Reasons or objections. 
2. I desire the opinion of this Council of War, whether consider- 
ing our present Stock of Bread & the prospect of our future 
supplies they would think it adviseable for me to order any 
part of the Forces drawn here to Albany in order to Decrease 
the Consumption of that necessary article, or any other 
measures which may tend to prevent a fatal Scarcity of it 

1 In Massachusetts Archives. 
Capitol fire. 

Johnson's draft was destroyed in the 

208 'Sir William Johnson Papers 

I have directed Cap* Wraxall to attend the Council of War 
with the last Returns of the Troops here, & those from the 
several Regimental Commissaries in order to assist the 
Deliberations of the Council of War on this important 

3. Several officers are daily making applications to me for leave 
to return home, both upon acco ts of their healths and several 
other Reasons, as I am apprehensive their leaving this army 
may be a discouragement to the Troops now here, at Fort 
Edward & at Albany. I would desire the opinion of this 
Council of War what they would advise me to do in this 
matter. I am, Sir, 

Your humble Servant 

A true Copy W m Johnson. 



Camp at Lake George Saturday P. M. 18 th October 1755. 
Present Major General Lyman Presid* 

All the Officers in this Encamp 1 Col Pomroy, 

Col Willard L' Col Ward U Col Whitcomb 

absent by sickness 

Capt Eyre Engineer General 

Capt Glazier Adju* General 

Peter Wraxall Sec'? 

General Lyman directed the Secretary to read to this Council 
of War the annexed Letter 2 to him from General Johnson and 
the sundry papers therein mentioned and desir'd the Council of 
War would take the matters mentioned in General Johnsons 
letter into their consideration & give their opinion thereon 

1 Manuscript in Massachusetts Archives. Wraxall's draft was destroyed 
in the Capitol fire. 

2 Johnson to Lyman, October 18, 1755, q.v. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 7755-7756 209 

4. The President acquainted the Council he had reciev'd a mes- 
sage from the General whilst this Council was sitting that as 
the Colonels of the Massachusetts Reinforcements who 
arriv'd this Evening had acquainted him that they had a 
number of Carpenters in their Regiments he desir'd the Coun- 
cil of War to give their opinion whether the flatt bottomd 
Boats should be put forward that in case of proceeding further 
no delay might happen for the want of them. 

The Council of War desir'd they might be adjourn'd till 
to morrow afternoon at 4 a Clock, and the Presid* adjourn'd 
the Council accordingly. 

Sunday 19 th October 1755. P. M. The Council of War 
met according to the adjournment of yesterday 
Present as Yesterday 

Added to the Council L l Col Ward, major Pay son, major Whit- 
ing and major Richardson, arrived in Camp this afternoon. Col 
Harris absent. 

Upon the first article this Council of War Vote to Refer the 
consideration of it to their next meeting for the sake of further 
Intelligence, and in the mean time advise the General to have the 
Battoes haul'd up examin'd & Repair'd. 

Upon the second article the Council are unanimously of opinion 
that the consideration of it be referr'd to their next meeting 

Upon the third article this Council of War are unanimously of 
Opinion that the Flatt Bottom'd Boats still continue in their 
present situation. 

P Lyman 
Peter Wraxall Sec-r 

A true Copy of the Original minutes 

PETER WRAXALL Sec r y to the General 

Copy examin'd 

ty THO S . CLARKE Dp* 

210 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Copp 1 

Albany 18. Oci. 1755 

The last week I was in Boston transacting my private Affairs 
when the Gent", of the Committee of War for the Government 
of the Massachusetts earnestly solicited me to take a Journey to 
Albany to Inquire into the state of their stores & if I found the 
Expedition against Crown point was like to go on, to exert myself 
to the Utmost to get the stores belonging to that Government 
Convey'd from Albany to Lake George for which also there is 
a Vote of the L l Gov r . & Council. The Com tee of War have 
also wrote to Connecticut that they would exert themselves at this 
Critical Conjuncture 

I have this day waited Upon his Excellency Gov r . Hardy who 
was pleased to Communicate to me the minutes of the Council 
of War at Lake George & Inform me that thereupon Col Ruggles 
and L*. Col Pitkin were gone to their respective Governments for 
their advise & direction which I am almost morally certain will 
be (if Possible) to push the Expedition this season. 

I also Informed Gov r . Hardy of what I was charged with 
from the province of the Massa & had his advice to send an 
Express to your Honour to know whether it is possible to go 
thro with the Expedition this fall if the provissions & Stores were 
Spedily sent up. I must beg y r Hon rs . Spedy Answer to this 
Important Question that I may know how to Govern my Self 
in the Affair Committed to my Charge. And I think I may 

1 In Massachusetts Archives. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 21 1 

Assure your Hon r . that the Stores &c on the part of the Massa 
lhall not be wanting.- 

I am &c 


INDORSED: Oliver Partridge 1 Letter to Maj r . Gen 1 . Johnson. 


General Return of <f/ze Troops at Lae> George p e 79 & 20 

Octo'. 1755. 

Serg ts . Corp 5 . Serg ts . Corp*. 

Diffic 1 . since Drums & Private D r . & Private 

last Return. fit for Duty < absent & 

unfit> for Duty. 

26 General Lymans Reg* 290 161 

50 Col. Goodrichs Reg' 267 1 25 

53 Col. Chaunceys (part of Reg*. . 358 79 

66 Col. Baglys 121 60 

73 Col. Pomroys 204 55 

8 Col. Willards 2 O. at Albany 1 69 77 

25 Col. Cockcrofts 5 Comp' 285 27 


42 Col. Harris'' 302 40 

Col. Dyers Reg 1 360 

Cap 1 . Gage's Compy. in Col. 

Willards Reg' 25 35 

2381 659 

1 Oliver Partridge was born in Hatfield, Mass., June 13, 1712, and 
died in Hadley, Mass., July 21, 1792. He was graduated at Yale 
College, practised law, was a delegate to the Albany Congress in 1 754. 
and to the Stamp Act Congress of 1 765 in New York City. 

212 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 



An order of October 20th from Johnson to Captain Doolittle to 
reconnoiter near the Carrying Place and Ticonderoga, following the 
preceding in the Johnson Calendar (See p. 59) was destroyed by fire. 


D. S. 1 
Camp at Lake George Monday Evening 20 Octo r . 1755. 

At a Council of War summoned by Major General Johnson 

Major General Lyman 

all the Feild Officers at this Camp (except Col. Wil- 
lard & Lieut Col. Whitcomb absent by Sickness and 
Major Richardson) 
Cap*. Eyre Chief Engineer &c 
Cap*. Glazier Adju*. General 
Major Doughty of a Massachusetts Reg*, at Albany 

Peter Wraxall Seer 1 *. 

The General having summoned this Council of War & by 
reason of his ill state of Health being unable to attend it in Per- 
son desires Major General Lyman to Preside, & has directed 
Cap*. Peter Wraxall his Secretary & Aid de Camp to lay before 
this Council of War the following Letters & Papers which are 
just now come to his hands by an Express from Albany. 

1. A Letter from S r . Charles Hardy Gov r . of New York now 

at Albany with the Minutes of a Council he called there 

2. A Letter from Gov r . Fitch of Connecticut 

"Original destroyed by fire. This is taken from the Hastings proof. 
A Record Office copy differs from it slightly in capitalization, punctua- 
tion, and some other unessentials. The copy in Public Record Office, 
C. O. 5.17., London, England was transmitted by Governor Hardy 
November 27th. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 7755-7756 


A Letter from Col. Oliver Partridge 1 from Albany who is 
there as an Agent from the Committee of War of the 
Province of Massachusetts Bay. 
4. A Letter from Col. Peter Gilman of a New Hampshire Reg*, 
of Reinforcements arrived at Albany. 

Upon which the General desires they will in particular advise 
him what answer, they think proper for him to make to the fol- 
lowing Paragraph in Col. Partridges Letter. 

" I also informed Gov r . Hardy of what I was charged with 
from the Province & had his advice to send an Express to your 
Honour, to know Whether it is possible to go thro with the 
Expedition this Fall if the Provisions & Stores were speedily sent 
up. I must beg Your Honours answer to this Important Ques- 
tion that I may know how to govern myself in the affairs com- 
mitted to my charge & I think I may assure Your Honour that 
the Stores on the part of Massachusetts shall not be wanting." 

The Presid't put the Question, whether it was advisable to 
proceed with the Expedition this Fall. 

Voted in the Negative, for the following Reasons. 

The Council adjourned to 5 oClock tomorrow Evens. 

21. 5 oClock met accords, to adjourn*, pres*. as yesterday. 

Viz in the first place beg Leave to Refer to a report of y e State 
of y e Army as Unanimously Agreed to by a Councill of War 
the 1 1 & 1 2 Inst lately Transmitted to y e Severall Govern- 
ments for their Consideration with Respect to y e Decrease 
of y e Waggons Increase of y e badness of The roads 
Difficulty of passing the rivers &c. 

And now would farther Add that our Supplys Since have 
been & Still are Decreasing y e rivers rais'd the roads worse 
& no forrage for horses Imploy d . in this Service. 

2 nd . Before it would be possible by y e whole United force of all 
the Governments Concern'd to afford us a proper Supply 

1 Partridge to Johnson, October 18, 1 755, q. v. 

214 Sir William Johnson Papers 

which we apprehend would not be possible till The Middle 
of November nor even then the Lake would be in Danger 
of Freizing or the Wind high & Bostirous which would 
Indanger the Loss of our Army by Water & Especially our 
Artillery & by a Small Scum of Ice prevent our Passage Or 
Cutt off all Manner of Supply of Provisions which might if 
our Army gone forward leave us in a Desperate Situation. 

3 Our Soldiery in General by their Long Encampment here by 

reason of our Transports not arriving at Albany & the 
Difficulty of Transporting y e Provisions here from thence 
being Thereby Subjected to Cold & Wet without any 
Lodging but the Ground but one blankett to Lye on & to 
cover & many none at all whereby & other Camp Dificulties 
Near one third of our Army are Sick & Unfitt for Duty 
their Spirits Exhausted their Strength & Vigor Enervated 
that if now a full Supply of Comfortable Lodging & 
Cloathing was here their General! recovery Cannot be soon 

4 Several Cannon necessary for the Expedition yet at Albany, 

Shells, Shot, Powder & upwards of Four hundred Battoes 
at Fort Edward yet to bring forward, which before this 
time could not be got here without Exposing the Army to 
suffer for want of Provisions & still to bring forward, will 
stop such a proportion of Carriage for Provisions as will 
be employed for that Service. 

5 if our whole recruits were here arrived So many being Dis- 

miss'd as Invalid & Worn out in y e Service the present Sick 
here Necessary attendants for them with what must pru- 
dently be Left in garison att fort Edward & here would 
reduce our Army able to goe forward to not more than four 
thousand & by the best Intelligence from our Scouts who 
have had a Criticall View at Ticonderogo the Enemy 
amount to Three thousand & a Thousand more Cheifly 
Indians at an Advanced post forward both properly 

Preliminary Campaigns, 7755-7756 


Intrench'd & preparing for y e best defence y e attention of 
y e Enemy now drawn off from y e Eastward & Westward 
are able to afford you 1 a large Reinforcement as we are not 
able to make any preparations here without their Intelligence. 
But on y e whole if our Severall Governments for whom we 
are Acting in whose Intrest lies our own in whose Service 
we are & whom we are willing to Serve to Death when 
Call'd if they Can remove those pricipall objections or if 
not as we progress our Selves Under their Instructions 
They Advise us to press forward Our own Lives we will 
Risque & Wilingly Submitt the Event. But to Conclude 
we with the Utmost Submission apprehend That to have 
had this Expedition Succeeded Our Recruits Should have 
been Sooner rais'd The provisions & all other Needfull 
preparations previously made & gone forward that they all 
arriving in fresh Spirits & recruiting Vigor Not Subjected to 
a long Dull & Sickly Encampment the Bane of New Eng- 
land Men would probably have Surmounted all opposition 
& by the blessing of Heaven had desir'd Success. 

This Council of War desire the General will transmit these 
Minutes to the several Gov ts . who have Troops on this Expedi- 

Peter Wraxall P LYMAN 


The Council gave it as their Opinion the 1 8 p ds now at Albany 
should not be imediately sent up but remain for further Orders. 



1 So in the Hastings proof, 
in the Record Office copy. 

It should doubtless be ym. It is " them 

216 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Camp at Lake George 20 Octo r . 1755 

I wrote Your Honour the 13 Inst by Lieut Col. Pitkin with 
sundry Papers therein mentioned to all w ch I beg leave to refer. 

Two days ago I called another Council of War, upon Intelli- 
gence from 5 French Deserters who came & surrendered them- 
selves & say the Enemy have but 70 or 80 Men as an Advanced 
Guard on this side the Carrying Place & about 400 posted at 
Tionderogo & no Artillery. I proposed for their Consideration 
& Advice, whether I should Order a Party to dislodge the Enemy 
from one or both of these Posts. The Contrariety of Evidence 
between our own Scouts who have lately reconnoitred the 
Advanced Guard & w ch two of them say are between 7 & 800. 
& another says near 1 000 and the former Intelligence from 
Tionderogo puzzeled the Council of War & induced them to 
pospone their Opinion to another or the next Council of War, as 
in 3 or 4 days we expect Cap*. Rodgers & small party from 
Crown Point where they are gone to reconnoitre & try for a 
Prisoner. I have this day sent out a Cap*, a Lieu* & 5 Men 
to observe with the utmost exactness possible the posture of the 
Enemys advanced Guard & Party at Tionderogo. I expect they 
will return in 3 or 4 days, when I propose to call another Council 
of War upon this Subject, in the mean time I have ordered all 
the Battoes we have here to be got in readiness for an Embarka- 
tion if adviseable. 

By the Returns of the Commissaries yesterday We have but 
6 days Bread in Camp, & by the late Rains the Roads & Waters 
make it scarce possible for Waggons to come along. Numbers 
break, the Provisions are damaged & the Horses so fatigued as 
not to be capable of a second Trip. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 217 

I inclose Your Honour a Copy the Proceedings of a Court of 
iquiry held upon one Ezekiel Pearce Cap*, in General Lymans 
Leg*, from these Proceedings & from a variety of other Cir- 
istantial Evidence he appears to me to be a Dangerous, Pesti- 
lent & Turbulent Fellow, unworthy to serve his Country in any 
>hape, very improper to be kept in this Camp, & undeserving 
>f any Rank in this Army. I shall therefore do what is in my 
power to mark his Character with the Infamy it Merits, w * 1 is 
to order him out of this Encampment, to have no harbour at Fort 
Edward & not to be regarded as an officer by any of the Troops 
under my Command. His Mutinous Intentions deserve Death, 
but that is beyond my Author. I understand he was at the 
Head of a large Knot of worthless & Lawless Fellows who are 
a Disgrace to the Commissions they bear, but since his Con- 
finement & Trial this Confederacy is broke & I cannot find them 
out. The Want of due Subordination the little respect w ch is 
daily paid to my Orders, the Democratical (if you will alow me 
the term) Fabrick of this Army in general, have given me 
unspeakable perplexity & in my opinion must ever impede & 
render any great Undertakings extreamly hazardous, against an 
Enemy who have all the opposite Advantages however this when 
in my power shall not prevent my attempting any thing or every 
thing that tends to produce the great End of this Armament. 
I am Sir Y r Honours Most Obed* hum Serv 1 . 


Extract of a Letter 2 from the Hon ble . Benjamin Green Esq r . 
dated Halifax October 21 st . 1755. 

The Fleet sail'd on Sunday last, since which we have had 
constant bad weather. The night before the Fleet Sail'd We 
detected an horrid Scheme that had been laid here by some of the 
principal French officers, which w th a Plan of the Town & Bat- 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

2 Person addressed unknown. 

218 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

teries &c was done on exceeding thin paper, & in extream small 
writing & was folded & pressed as close as possible & put up in 
the middle of a Wash ball to go to Canada by way of Louis- 
burg. It was to take this place this Winter, there was to be 
2000 Canadeans, 1000 Indians & 500 Regulars & 50 of the 
Train with Cannon &c. They were to encamp first on the Wind 
mill hill &c> and when they had taken the Town they were to fire 
the Batteries upon our Ships. The Inhabitants were all to be 
Shutt up in the Church & Fire to be set to it, and they were to 
put all the Troops to the Sword without Quarter. You'l see 
what abandoned Villians they are and that they will not yet let 
us alone. The Admiral put it to the Chief person who was 
concern'd (the Captain of the Alcide 1 ) who denied it upon 
which the Admiral shew'd it to him in his own hand writing to 
his horrible confusion. 


This paper was followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 60 by a cer- 
tificate, undated, from Peletiah Bliss and Amos Putnam, relating to the 
illness of Colonel Seth Pomeroy and need of his removal from camp; and 
a letter of October 21st to Johnson from Goldsbrow Banyar, at Albany, 
dealing with testimony of four French deserters, employment of Indians 
against French settlements, encampment of regulars and Colonel Ellison'* 
illness. Destroyed by fire. 


Camp at Lake George 22. Octo r . 1755. 

I wrote your Honour the 20 Inst with a Copy of the Proceed- 
ings of a Court of Enquiry upon Ezekiel Pierce. Since w ch . 
I am favoured with y r . honours Letter bearing date the 1 3 Inst. 

It was by the Advice of a Council of War, that my General 

1 The Chevalier Hocquart commanded the Alcide, captured by Admiral 

2 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


er with an Account of the Engagements on the 8 Sep r . wrote 

all the Gov". was sent by Express to Gov r Phipps & w^ I 
not doubt but he would have communicated with all possible 
speed to the other Gov". 

I inclose your Honour a Copy of the Minutes of a Council of 
War I summoned the 20 In st . this with those you have I doubt 
not before now received from Lieut Col. Pitkin, will give you 
an ample View of our present Sittuation & I presume convince 
you, if not of the impossibility, of the inexpediency of our pro- 
ceeding for some Weeks. There is an Article not mentioned 
by the Council of War, w ch I think I have good Grounds for 
believing. It is a general indisposition amongst the Troops to 
proceed further, arising from the severity of the Season, a sur- 
feit of the Military Life its fatigues & hardships, & an extreme 
fond inclination of returning to their more comfortable homes & 
the endearments of Family tyes. 

Your Honour may depend that your just Quota of Troops to 
be left in Garrison shall be observed. 

As to the Fort building here, whatever insinuations have been 
made to your Honour to the contrary, I am convinced the ground 
is the most Advantageous of any w ch could be chosen here & 
has not within 370 paces of it any rising Ground w ch Commands 
it, and that distance is not within Battery in Breach. 1 This Fort 
has born & continues to bear the Malignant Malice of some, for 
w^ 1 I can find no other reason than Ignorance & Obstinancy. 

Your Honours Intimations so politely given on the Subject, I 
receive with a most grateful respect, my Opinions of your Candor 
& Judgment is such that I shall always in every Instance pay the 
greatest regard to your Sentiments & advice. 

I am with great Esteem 


Your Honours Most Obed*. hum Serv*. 

We have not above 4 days bread in Camp. 

To the Honourable GOVERNOR FlTCH 


220 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 


Df. S. 1 
Camp at Lake George 22 Octo r 1755 


I sent down Orders some time ago to the Commanding Officers 
of all the Reinforcements at Albany that their Troops were to 
remain there till further Orders except such Guards & Convoys 
as might be absolutely necessary for the Service & those to be 
as few as Prudence wou'd permit this was done upon the scar- 
city of Bread amongst us & the danger at this Season of the 
year of a due Supply failing. We have not now above if we 
have 4 days supply of Bread in Camp. Till you can send up 
some Bread in particular & other Stores in general for your Reg 1 , 
you must remain at Albany & assist in making the Roads or other 
Matters relative to the Service. The Guards & Convoys hither 
were to be taken by proportionable Detachments from the Massa- 
chusetts & Rhode Island Reinforcements, have you waited on 
S r . Charles Hardy Gov r . of New York at Albany if not I 
desire you will do it, & apply to him if you should want any 
Advice or assistance in w^ the good of the Service is concerned 

I am &c 



D/. 1 

Camp at Lake George 22 October 1755 

I am favoured with Your Excellencys Three Letters bearing 
dates the 11. 15 & 18 Inst. 

The French Deserter came hither when my pain was so great 
that I was incapable of attending to Business. Gen 1 . Lyman sent 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 

him to Fort Edward & I understood in order to be forwarded to 
your Excellency. As to the officers not fulfilling his orders or 
acting in the absurd manner your Excellency mentions, I am sorry 
for tho not surprized at it, my daily experience has afforded many 
& grosser instances of Disobedience & Ignorance, & beyond my 
>wer either duly to punish or to prevent. 

The 1 4 Inst I gave Orders to the Commands, officer at Fort 
Iward to send under a secure Guard 4 other Deserters to your 
xellency. I hope that has been more duly complied with than 
ihe above Instance. 

I judge our men fit for duty now here (for all the Returns 
tho ordered the 20 are not come in) may amount to near 4000 
out of w ch . no more than 3. 4 & 500 at most have been at work at 
the Fort for some days past, tho 700 was agreed to by the Council 
of War to work daily there when we were not above 2600. fit for 
duty. I have given repeated orders I have sent the most serious 
& pressing messages, some few Colonels have themselves pressed 
an attention to this important article, yet so it is. I have issued 
out this Morning a fresh order in the most peremptory manner for 
1 /3 of each Reg 1 , in camp to go upon the Works. I am deter- 
mined if this order is disobeyed by only one two Col 3 , to put 
them under arrest, if too general I shall be almost tempted to 
leave the Command of the Army to Gen 1 . Lyman & make a 
Remonstrance upon it. Gen 1 . Lyman has always been a great 
Enemy to this Fort & dos every thing in his Power to throw cold 
water upon it. Says tis only beneficial to New York, will be 
disapproved by the other Gov ts . who will not consent to Garrison 

Most of the Carpenters in the 3 Massachusetts Reg ts . of Rein- 
forcements are employed in building Hutts & Houses for their 
Men & officers, so that hitherto we have found little profit from 

I am thankful to Your Excellency for the marks of respect you 
have paid to the Memory of Capt McGinnis. The young man 
now Capt of the Company I have little knowledge of, they tell 
me he is a sober Modest Man of good Spirit 

222 Sir William Johnson Papers 

As to Cap*. Morris's Ace*, of the Indians I have nothing of, 
from, or seen any of them & should such a number come have no 
Provisions for them. I have 6 or 7. here who do not choose to 
go out on the Scout & are of no Service at present. 

I am very glad y r . Excellency sent up D r . Ascough to the 
Wounded Indians, it will greatly please them. 

The 1 8 I called a Council of War upon the Intelligence from 
the 5 French Deserters who deliv d . themselves to the Guard going 
to Fort Edward & the further Examination of Blanchard one of 
them whom I sent for hither, & who says their Advanced Guard 
is ab*. 7 or 8 Miles on this side Tionderoga & consists of 70 or 
80 Men & that they have about 400 at Tionderoga & the rest 
of the Army at Crown Point. No Artillery at Tionderoga but 
a breast work. I proposed to them whether they would advise 
a Party to be sent against one or both of these Places, & how 
many. They adjourned for their answer to the 19. when they 
postponed their opinion till we got further Intelligence. They 
were so puzzled with the absolute contradiction between, the 
Information of these Deserters & our several Scouts that they 
judged necessary to suspend their judgments till more Intelligence 
could be got. The next day I sent out a Cap*, a Lieu 1 . & 5 Men 
as a reconnoitering Party to the Advanced Posts & Tionderoga 
with written orders to take the most exact view they could. They 
are not yet returned. They advised in the meantime that the 
Battoes here should be hauled up for caulking. I have ordered 
it. I proposed also to them to go on with the flat bottomed Boats. 
They unanimously gave their opinion that they should continue 
in their present Sittuation. 

I have wrote Cap 1 . Conine to withdraw his men within the 
Stockades. Could not some of the regular Troops under well 
chosen officers garrison his Majestys Indian Forts & save the 
Crown the Expence of these additional ones. 

The Baron Diskau told me when he was here that if any one 
was to be sent to Crown Point he did not believe they would be 
suffered to leave it & I do not know how or which way I can con- 
trive to convey his Letters. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1 7 55-1 7 56 


Your Excellencys favour of the 18 In 8t . with the Minutes of 
>uncil I laid before a Council of War together with some other 
;tters, the Evening I rec d it. The Minutes of that Council I 
iclose your Excellency & beg leave to refer you thereto. I 
iclose you also Cap*. Rodgerss, Lieu* Butterfield & Ensign 
Pitmans * Intelligence from Tionderoga. They arrived last night 
with the Scalp. When the other Scouts come in from Tionderogo 
I may call another Council of War to repropose an Attack that 
way, but I fancy it will not pass. In short The men in general 
are so tired with a camp life & so homesick that I verily believe 
any great Number would not march if called upon. The sick 
increase, we bury 12 & 15 as I have been informed some times 
in a day. I dont suppose we have more than 5 ds. bread now in 

I referred Co 1 . Partridge to y r . Excellency, & I beg you will 
please to let him have a copy of the above Minutes, unless 
General Shirley should be come to Albany to whom I also write. 
By venturing out of my Tent, I believe I catched cold, & my 
pain in the ear is returned again, & I had not a wink of Sleep 
last night. I am most respectfully Sir Your Excellencys Most 
Obd< humble 

INDORSED: GenK Letter to S r . Charles 
Hardy 22 Octo'. 

L. S* 

Camp at Lal^e George 22 October 1755 

My last to Your Honour was the 1 3 Instant to be deliver'd or 
forwarded by Colonel Ruggles. 

Since which I am favoured with Yours of the 29 Sep r .. and 
6 Ins 1 ., the former by Col. Gridly, who arrived here a few days 

1 Israel Putnam, not Ensign Timothy Putnam. 

2 In Massachusetts Archives. Johnson's draft was destroyed by fire. 

224 i Sir William Johnson Papers 

ago. He seems to deserve the Character you give him, and if 
all the Officers of his Rank in this Army were equal to him I 
should have thought myself verry happy in my Station and have 
flattered myself with Prospects equivalent to the hopes and 
expectations of the Governments. I propose Col. Gridley to 
Command at Fort Edward and inspect the finishing the Works 

Your favour of the 6 Ins*., with the papers therin, I laid before 
a Council of War the Copy of whose Minutes. I transmit you 
herewith. A few days ago five french Deserters fell in with & 
surrendered themselves to a Guard of ours Marching to Fort 
Edward I sent for the most Intelligent of them and Examined 
him. He said they were of the Advanced Guard 5 or 6 Miles 
on this Side the Carrying Place. That between 70 and 80 Men 
were kept there, and between 4 and 500 at Ticonderogo. The 
rest of the Army at Crown Point. This Account so strangely 
contradicts the repeated Accounts from our own Scouts, that the 
Council of War posponed giving any Opinion on my Proposal 
till we got further Intelligence. Cap*. Rogers and two other 
Officers with a Scout were then put for Crown Point I sent the 
next Morning a Cap*, a Lieu*, and 5 picked Men with written 
Instructions to take the nearest and most exact View they pos- 
sibly could of the posture of the Enemy at Ticonderogo and their 
advanced Post. When they return I shall probably renew my 
proposal to the Council of War. The Battoes are turned up and 
drying for Caulking. 

I inclose Your Honour the Minutes of a Council of War I 
summoned the 20 Ins 1 . I cannot possibly without delaying the 
Express who waits to return to Col. Partridge transmit Copies 
of these Minutes to the Governours of New Hampshire and 
Rhode Island I must therefore beg Your Honour will order 
them to be Copied and sent. 

Cap*. Rogers and 2 other Officers returned last Night from 
Crown Point, they Scalped a French Man who would not sur- 
render in sight of the Fort. The Hill near the Fort is they say 

Jor the land :Ma: 

f/fo'n/f. //<'"/{/>/</>//* r'tt/.tn 

Preliminary Campaigns, 7755-7756 225 

fortified. They had a View of Ticonderogo in their return and 
of the Advanced Post. They Assert that to their best Judg- 
ments there were at least 2000 Men at the former and 1 000 at 
the latter. 

Our Sick and unfit for duty increase, the Weather Cold and 
Wet which I am afraid will increase their Number. We have 
not more than 4 days Bread at present in Camp, the Roads 
almost impassible, the River not fordible. I have ordered Par- 
ties to mend the Road clear from Albany thither, but I fear the 
nature of them is such as will elude Art if much Rain comes. I 
dread the Consequence and our Fort goes on Slowly. I am Sir 
Your Honours Most Obed 1 .. Serv 1 .. 

I inclose this open to 
Col. Partridge to seal 
and forward. 
To The Honourable 



A. L. S. 1 
Camp at La^e George 22 Octo r 1755 

On the fourteenth Day of October I Embarked in a Burch 
Canoe at the Camps on the South End of Lake George With 
Four Men Beside My Self & Sailed twenty five Miles & Landed 
on the west side of the Lake then Traveled by Land and on the 
Eighteenth Day I arived on the Mountain on the West Side of 
Crown point there I lay that Night & all the Next Day and 
Observed Ambuskers Built upon the Mount about Thirty Rods 
To the Southwest of Crown point fort in the Evening went Down 

1 Original destroyed by fire. Printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y., 4:269-70; 
Q, 4:175. The following is from the Hastings proof. It varies from 
the copy in the Doc. Hist, in capitalization and punctuation. 
Vol. II 8 

226 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

To the Houses that was built upon the lake to the South of Crown 
point & Went into a barn that was well fill'd with wheat & Left 
three Men & proceeded with one Man To make further Dis- 
coverys at the fort and found a Good place To ambush within 
Sixty Rods of the fort & Imediatly went back & took our partners 
& Ambush'd at the proper place we had found & there we lay 
Till about Ten of the Clock & Observed Several Canoes passing 
up & Down the lake & Sundry Men that Went out To work 
about their Secular affairs & Judged the whole that was in the 
fort To be about five Hundred at length a french Man Came 
out of the fort Towards us without his Gun & Came within fifteen 
Rods of where we lay then I with another Man Run Up to him 
In order to Captivate him But he Refused To Take Quarter 
So we kill'd him and Took of his Scalp in plain Sight of the fort 
then Run and in plain view about Twenty Rods & made our 
Escape the Same Night we Came Right West of Tianarago 
about three Miles & upon a Mountain in plain Sight of their fort 
& See large Incampments Round it & heard a Vast Number of 
Smal arms fired Judged there To be Two Thousand Men at 
Tianarago & on the Twenty first Day Got To Our Canoes about 
Eight of the Clock in the Morning & found all Safe & about 
Nine of the Clock in the Evening arived all well at our Encamp- 
ments where we Set out. 

The above account is the Cheif Discovery that we Made at 
Crown point & Tianaragoe. 


To the Honourable WlLLlAM JOHNSON Esq r Commander in 
Cheif of the Forces at Lake George this presented By Your 
Honours Most Humble Serv 1 

INDORSED: Cap* Rodgers & O Ace* of Scout to Crown Point 
rec'd22Octo' 1755 

He varies in spelling his own name. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 77557756 



The above letter was followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 60 by 
Johnson's letter of October 22d, to Oliver Partridge on council of war, 
despatches and want of provisions. It was destroyed by fire. 


Camp at Lake George 22. Octo r . 7755. 

My last to your Excellency was the 1 In st with sundry papers 
to w cK . I beg leave to refer. 

The Spies I sent to Tionderoga returned with an Account that 
they found the Enemy s out Guards so alert that way, that they 
did not dare venture to come near enough to make any distinct 
Discoveries. They say they had a very clear view of the 
advanced party who are near 2 miles on this side the Carrying 
Place. They say there were 2 Encamp*, on each side of the Lake 
amount?, to about 7 or 800 French & Indians, one of them (for 
they went seperately) say to 1000. These were 3 Commission 
officers 2 of them Captains. This Ace*, confirms Cap*. Rodgers 
w ck . I transmitted to y r . Excellency. 

Since these People came in, 5 French Deserters delivered them- 
selves up to a Guard of ours marching to Fort Edward who car- 
ried them thither. They came from the advanced Guard posted 
when they left it, about 5 miles from Tionderoga, but say it was 
to be advanced the next day 2 miles nearer this way. That it 
consists of between 70 & 80 men, that there are between 3 & 400 
at Tionderoga, no Artillery or Fort, only a Breast work thrown 
up. That the rest of the Army were at Crown Point. 

Upon this I called a Council of War & proposed for their 
opinion whether I should send a Party either to endeavour to cut 
off this advanced Guard only or a number suff*. to make an attack 
upon Tionderoga. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

228 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

The Council finding such an unaccountable Opposite between 
this Intelligence, & those we have had from our own Scouts, 
agreed to postpone their opinion, till some further Intelligence 
could be obtained. The next day I sent out a Cap*, a Lieu 1 . & 
5 Men with written Instructions to take the nearest & most dis- 
tinct View possible of the Enemy at these Posts. They are not 
yet returned. Last night Cap*. Rodgers & two more officers 
arrived from Crown Point. They went with two Men more in 
their Company & have bro*. a Frenchmans Scalp, a Copy of their 
report I inclose your Excellency. Also Copy of the Minutes 
of a Council of War the 1 1 & 12 Inst. Copies of w ch . Col. 
Ruggles carried to Boston & Col. Pitkin to Connecticut. I 
should have transmitted them to Your Excellency before but I 
was advised from Albany that you were on your way down & 
am told this will probably meet you arrived there. 

I also inclose Your Excellency the Minutes of a Council of 
War held the 20 Inst. 

Upon the best calculation I can make for I cannot get the 
Returns all in, There are at this place about 4500 Men fit for 
Duty, ab*. 800 given in Sick & unfit for Duty. And not above 5 
days bread in Camp. Our Fort here goes on slowly. I do all in 
my power to push it. Directions & Orders for finishing Fort 
Edward are given. 

I am Sir 

Your Excellencys Most obd*. hum. Serv*. 

INDORSED : General's Letter to 

Gen 1 . Shirley Octob'. 22 1755. 

(Preliminary Campaigns, 1 7 55-17 56 229 

Df. S. 1 
Camp at Lake George, 22 Octo r . 1755. 
I have yours of the 18 In* 1 . If sending the Shot from the 
dalf Moon will take up Waggons w ch would otherwise be bring- 
ing Bread, pray speak to S r . Charles & I believe he will withdraw 
his Order. 

The 18 pounders are to remain at Albany till further Orders 
I am 


Your hum Serv 1 . 

To SYBR T . G. V. SCHAICK Esq r . 


Quefcec 23 Octobre 1755. 
Lettre de M. Ulntendant Bigot au Ministre 

Un habitant me remit il y a quelques jours un cahier de registre 
ecrit en Anglais qu'il avail trouve sur le champ de bataille apres 
Faction qui s'est passe au Fort Dvquesne, il ne s'y est trouve 
d'interessant que deux minutes des instructions que le General 
Braddock avait donne au Colonel Johnson et au Colonel Shirley, 
je les ai fait traduire par M. Perthius, Con c au conseil superieur 
et j'ai Thonneur de vous en adresser cy-joint les copies. 

Les instructions du Colonel Shirley confirment bien le projet 
des Anglais de s'emparer de Niagara et de toute la partie de terre 
qui borde au sud le Lac Ontario, sous pretexte de proteger les 
cinq nations, et les faire rentrer dans leurs anciennes possessions, 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

* In Public Archives of Canada, Correspondances Officielles, v. 11, 
1755. F. 300. 

230 'Sir William Johnson Papers 

que les Anglais pretendent que nous leur avons enleve. Vous y 
remarquerez, Monseigneur, que ce Colonel est authorise a tirer 
sur le Tresor du Roi d'Angleterre les sommes necessaires pour 
ses operations, ce qui prouve que ce prince fait la grande partie 
des depenses pour 1'execution des projets qu'il a forme contre le 

J'ai Thonneur d'etre avec un profond respect. 

Votre &c 


Joint a la Lettre de M. Bigot du 23 novembre * 1755. 
Instructions 2 

du General Braddock au Colonel Johnson commandant un corps 
de 5. a 600 hommes destine pour 1'attaque du fort S l Frederic, 
campes au Lac S* Sacrement et aux environs. 

Vous feres voir aux Sauvages des six nations un acte que vous 
remettra le Colonel Shirley et vous leur feres en mon nom la 
lecture des Instructions suivantes. 

Comme il paroit par un traitte fait a Orange par les cinq nations 
alors et Johnnans Lieutenant Gouverneur de New York, par 
lequel les dittes cinq Nations remirent tous les pais de chasse de 
castor qu'ils avoient conquis il y avoit alors huit ans, sous la 
protection du Roy d'Angleterre qui devoit leur en garantir la 
possession pour eux et pour leur usage, et qu'il paroit aussy par 
un acte passe en 1726 entre les trois nations Goyongouins, 
Sonontouans, Oneyonts et le Gouverneur alors de New York 
qu'ils avoient remis toutes les terres consistant en 60 mille a 
prendre des Lacs en allant dans les terres, en comencant par un 
crique que 1'on apelle ou Baye de Niaouenre* Canahogue sur 

*ou Baye de Niaouanre. 

1 This evidently should be " Octohre." 

'In Collection Moreau de St Merv. 1750-1756. F. 202, 12:252. 

Preliminary Campaigns, / 7 55-1 7 56 231 

le Lac de Choueguin Canahoguet sur tout le long dudit Lac et 
tout le long du detroit depuis le dit Lac jusqu'a la chute de 
Niagara et tout le long du Detroit depuis ledit Lac jusqu'a la 
chute de Niagara x et tout le long du lac Ontario jusqu'au crique 
nome Sodoms qui apartient aux Sinnakeens et depuis Sodoms 
jusqu'a la montagne apelle Tegerhunekserade$ qui apartient aux 
Cayouges et depuis Tegerhunekserade jusqu'au crique qu'on 
nomme Cayhunghage qui apartient aux Onondages** Toules 2 
les dittes terres estant de 60 mille anglois, toutes lesquelles terres 
depuis les susdits Lacs ou Rivieres allant directement en pro- 
fondeur dans le pays ren ferment tous les villages des dittes trois 
Nations avec toutes les Rivieres, Criques et Lacs qui se trouvent 
dans les dittes limites aux conditions d'estre proteges et deffendus 
par Sa Majeste et ses successeurs pour toujours et conserves pour 
1'usage des dittes trois Nations leurs enfans et leurs successeurs; 
Et comme il paroit que les Francois de temps a autres par fraude 
et par violence ont construit de bons forts dans les limites des 
terres susdittes en contravention des conventions portees audit 
contract et traitte, vous assureres en mon nom les dittes nations 
que je suis venu de la part et au nom de Sa Majeste pour detruire 
tous les dits forts et pour en batir qui puissent proteger les dittes 
terres et les leur assurer a eux et a leurs successeurs pour toujours 
conformement au but et a 1'esprit du traitte Et en consequence 
sommes les de lever la hache et de venir prendre possession de 
leurs propres terres. 

Je soussigne Conseiller au Conseil Superieur certifie avoir 
traduit de 1'anglois en frangois la piece cy dessus et des autres 

t Lac Ontario. 

$ Montagne qui doit estre entre la Baye des Goyogouins et Choueguin. 
ou La Famine. 
** ou Onontagues. 

1 The repetition here occurs in the original. 
" Toutes " was probably written. 

232 * Sir William Johnson Papers 

parts, dont la minutte a este deposee au Secretariat de Monsieur 
Tlntendant de la Nouvelle France. 

A Quebec le 20 octobre 1 755. 

signe: PERTHIUS. 

Nous Intendant de la Nouvelle France 

Certifions que nous avons entendu dire a tous les anglois qui 
sont venus en ce pais que M. Perthius, Conseiller au Conseil 
Superieur, parloit tres bien la langue angloise et qu'il la 
traduisoit parfaitement. 

Fait a Quebec le 22 octobre 1 755. 


Quebec, 23d October, 1755 

Letter of Intendant Bigot to the Minister 

Some days ago a Canadian delivered to me a minutebook 
written in English which he had found on the battle field after the 
action which occurred at Fort Duquesne. Nothing of interest 
is found in it except two drafts of instructions which General 
Braddock had given to Colonel Johnson and to Colonel Shirley. 
I have had them translated by M. Perthius, counselor to the 
superior council, and I have the honor to transmit to you the 
copies, hereto attached. 

Colonel Shirley's instructions well confirm the scheme of the 
English to seize Niagara and all the portion of land along the 
southern shore of Lake Ontario, under the pretense of protecting 
the Five Nations, and reestablishing them in their ancient pos- 
sessions, which the English pretend that we have taken from 
them. You will observe in these instructions, my Lord, that this 
colonel is authorized to draw on the treasury of the King of Eng- 
land for the sums necessary for his operations, which proves that 

Preliminary Campaigns, 7755-7756 233 

that prince bears the greater part of the expenses for the execution 
of the plans which he has formed against Canada. 
I have the honor to be with profound respect. 

My Lord 

Yours etc. 

Attached to M. Bigot's letter of November 23, 7755 


of General Braddock to Colonel Johnson, commander of a force 
of 500 to 600 men intended for the attack on Fort St Frederic, 
encamped at Lake St Sacrement and in the vicinity. 

You will show to the Indians of the Six Nations a deed which 
Colonel Shirley will deliver to you and you will have the follow- 
ing instructions read to them in my name. 

As it appears by a treaty made at Albany by the then Five 
Nations and John Nanf an, 1 Lieutenant Governor 'of New York, 
by which the said Five Nations transferred all the beaver 
hunting grounds, which they had conquered eight 2 years before 
that time, to the protection of the King of England, who 
was to guarantee to them their possession and use, and as it 
appears also by a deed executed in 1726 between the three 
nations, Cayugas, Senecas, Onondagas, and the then Governor 
of New York, that they had assigned all the lands for sixty miles 
in breadth, taken from the lakes into the country, beginning at a 
creek which is called either Bay of Niaouenre* Canahogue 
on the Lake of Choueguin Canahogue,t running the whole 
length of said lake and of the strait from the said lake to the 
falls of Niagara and along Lake Ontario to the creek named 

x The triple error of the interpreter which changed John Nanfan to 
Johnnans apparently arose in one particular from his mistaking the f for 
the long s common at that period. 

2 Eight in the French. " Four Score" in the English deed of 1 701 ; 
eighty in the English deed of 1 726, See Doc. Rel to Col. Hist. N. Y. t 
4:908, and 5:800. 

234 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

Sodoms, 1 which belongs to the Senecas, and from Sodoms to 
the mountain called Tegerhunekserade,$ which belongs to the 
Cayugas, and from Tegerhunekserade to the creek which is 
named Cayhunghage, which belongs to the Onondagas,** all 
the said land being of the breadth of 60 English miles, all of 
which lands from the aforesaid lakes or rivers running in depth 
directly into the country, inclosing all the villages of the said 
three nations with all the rivers, creeks and lakes which are 
found within the said limits, on the conditions of being pro- 
tected and defended by his Majesty and his successors forever 
and preserved for the use of the said three nations, their children 
and their successors; and as it appears that the French from time 
to time by fraud and by violence have constructed strong forts 
within the limits of the aforesaid lands in contravention of the 
agreements expressed in the said contract and treaty, you will 
assure the said nations in my name that I have come on the part 
and in the name of his Majesty to destroy all the said forts and 
to build some which will suffice to protect the said lands and 
insure them to them and their successors forever agreeably to the 
object and the spirit of the treaty. And, for this purpose, summon 
them to take up the hatchet and to come and take possession of 
their own lands. 

I the undersigned, counselor to the superior council, certify 
that I have translated from the English into French the paper 
attached to this and other portions, the draft of which has been 
deposited in the secretariate of the Intendant of New France. 
At Quebec, the 20th of October, 1 755 

signed: PERTHIUS. 

We, the Intendant of New France, 

Certify that we have heard it said by all the English who have 
come into this country that M. Perthius, Counselor to the 

1 " Usually Identified with Sodtis," W. M. Beauchamp, Aboriginal 
Place Names of Ne York. P- 242. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


Superior Council, spoke the English language very well and that 
he translated it perfectly. 

Done at Quebec the 22d of October, 1 755. 


Peletiah Bliss and Timothy Warner's certificate of the 23d of Lieu- 
tenant James Tracy's sickness, with General Lyman's permit to go home, 
and a letter of the 23d from James Brown, of Bridge Hampton, L. I., 
announcing to Johnson a present of 12 cattle from his parishioners and 
declaring a warm interest in the success of the expedition, are in the John- 
son Calendar, p. 61. These were destroyed by fire. 

* Or Bay of Niaouanre. 1 
t Lake Ontario. 2 

J Mountain which should be between the Bay of the Cayugas and 
Oswego. 3 

Or La Famine. 4 
** Or Onontagues. 

1 A name which Beauchamp appropriates to Chaumont bay, on Lake 
Ontario, Aboriginal Place Names, p. 96. 

2 The above note is incorrect. The deed of 1 70 1 does say *' the lake 
of Swege," and the deed of 1726 says "Lake Osweego"; but Lake 
Osweego and Sweege are early names for Lake Erie. Beauchamp, 
Aboriginal Place Names, p. 66, 67, 132, 171. The line described in 
the deed of trust began at Canahogue (Cuyahoga river) , where it empties 
into Lake Erie, and followed that lake eastward. If we must suppose 
that this fact was known to Perthius, it is still apparent that his interpreta- 
tion of Choueguin Canahogue reveals confusion of thought. 

" Tegerhunkserode, a hill east of Sodus bay and belonging to the 
Cayugas in 1 758. It was called Tegerhunckseroda in 1 726.*' Beau- 
champ, Aboriginal Place Names, p. 242. 
4 Salmon river. 

236 'Sir William Johnson Paper* 

D. 1 

Camp at Lake George. 24 Octo r . 1755. 
Instructions For Col. Gridley 


You are to march from hence with two Companies of the Regt 
under your Command, to Fort Edward & take on you the Com- 
mand of that Garrison. 


You are to direct & inspect the compleating of the Works there 
agreable to the Plan & Directions W ch Capt. Ayre left with 
Major Fitch. 


You are order out Parties of 50 or 1 00 men according to the 
Number of the Tools w ch can be spared to mend & repair the 
Road & Bridges between said Fort & Seraghtoga, and order 
a Bridge for Waggons to be made as soon as possible over a 
certain Creek about 8 or 9 miles from the sd Fort. The road 
Parties are to stay out 4 whole days at work & to be relieved the 
5th you will exert your self to have this very necessary piece of 
Duty Diligently & faithfully performed. 


Major Hoare having made a complaint to me that the late 
vacancies in Col. Ruggles's Reg 1 , are not filled up according to 
Seniority, you are to enquire into the same, & if Lieut. Col. 
Gilbert sent me an undue list of the officers to be promoted You 
are to order him into Confinement, & make me a distinct Report 
thereon. You are also to order a Court of Enquiry upon a cer- 
tain Pris r . of said Reg*, who by discharging his Gun killed & 
wounded some Soldiers there & send me the proceedings of the 

In Ayer Collection, Newberry Library, Chicago, 111. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 



You will keep a Guard at the Bridge beyond the Fort, to stop 
& secure Deserters or such as leave this Army without furlough 
or Discharge & to search Waggons, that they do not carry off 
any of the Stores or other Property belonging to the Public & 
to turn such back as do not when they are empty bring stones for 
building the chimnees at Fort Edward, & send an Acct of their 
names to the Commissaries at Albany in whose Service they are 
employed. You will also keep out small Scouting Parties daily 
& nightly for 3 or 4 miles round to prevent any Surprize or Insult 
from the Enemy. 


You are to send me a General Return of your Garrison every 
Monday, & to stop as little Bread or flour as you prudently can. 


Camp at Lake George 24. October 1755. 


I wrote Your Excellency the 22. with sundry Papers to w ch 
I beg leave to refer you. 

I find a large Scow is very much wanted to ferry the Waggons 
& Horses across the River at Seraghtoga Cap*. Webster our 
head carpenter is extreamly ill with a Flux w ch is a great Draw- 
back upon the Works here. There is such a general disinclination 
to Labour amongst the Troops here & particularly with regard 
to the Fort, so much yet to be done, & the time for doing it so 
short, that I cannot think it by any means adviseable to send 
carpenters away to make this Scow and indeed I apprehend we 
have none here who are proper Judges of its Construction. I 
beg therefore Your Excellency will acquaint the Provincial Com- 
panies at Albany that they must hire some Workmen there who 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

238 'Sir William Johnson Papers 

understand this Matter to build a proper Scow with all possible 
Dispatch and I would have a Company of the Massachusetts 
Reinforcements at Albany with an active careful Captain posted 
at the East side of the River at Seraghtogo where there is good 
Quarters for them in order to assist the Waggons & carry on any 
further Service to w ch they may be ordered. 

Col. Gridley is to march from hence to morrow with Two 
Companys of his Reg*, to take the Command of Fort Edward & 
to expedite the Completion of that Fort, as also to have the Road 
from thence to Seraghtoga thoroughly repaired & Mended, w ch . 
I understand is not done according to my Orders, tho Men have 
been constantly upon it. 

M r . Butler arrived here Two Nights ago with about 9 or 10 
Mohock Indians. The rest who set out with him, were met by 
a Party who were returning from hence homewards, they 
disauded them from proceeding & told them a heap of idle 
Falshoods, & by this Means drew all except the above Number 
away with them. These came to me this Morning & told me 
that as we were not ready to go forwards they were desirous also 
of returning home, that they came chiefly to pay me a Visit & 
see how I did & would now go & give their Bretheren an account 
& that when I was ready to go & sent them word both their 
Castles would come to a Man. They are gone & I have now but 
four Indians with me. I find the Indians are not inclined to go 
out on the Scout either by themselves or in Company with our 
People. They seem to be infected with the Epidemical Disease 
of our Troops, Home Sickness, & I fear with regard to both, it is 
incurable for this Season. 

To send the Indians scalping among the Inhabitants of Canada 
& destroying their out Settlements, is a work w^ will require pre- 
vious Ceremonies & a more formal Application than can be made 
here. I not only think this point may be compassed, but some 
more Consequential Measures possible to be effected, in order to 
distress the French Indian Interest, but this will require time, 
some artful Managment, & a Diligent Application. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 239 

Col. Cockcroft Informs me he has recommended One M r . 
Richardson an Adjutant at present in one of the Massachusetts 
Reg ts to y r . Excellency for a Vacant Lieutenancy in his Reg*, 
he has distinguished himself very advantageously, & had it been 
in my power to have promoted him to a Captain in his own Reg 1 , 
it should have been done. 

Will your Excellency please to direct the Inclosed Letter for 
Gov r . Lawrence to be forwarded I have received a very polite 
one from him 

To His Excellency S*. CHARLES HARDY 


Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Gilbert's receipt, given at Fort Edward, 
for cannon, dated October 24th, following this in the Johnson Calendar, 
p. 61 was destroyed by fire. 


D/. 1 
Camp at Lake George 24 October 1755. 


Last Night I was honoured with your favour of the 25 past. 

Your approbation of the Behaviour of the Troops under my 
Command in the late happy repulse given the Enemy, I have 
communicated to several of the principal officers here, who join 
with me in esteeming it amongst the most honourable consequences 
of the day ; and I beg you will accept of our joint Gratitude for 
the same. 

Your favouring me with a Letter on this occasion & your very 
polite & friendly sentiments in my favour therein, gives me all 
those pleasing sensibilities, w ch . worthy & amiable Characters 
have the distinguishing Privilege of imparting. 

I wish our progress since the late action had been such as 
entitled us to your further notice, but our great distance from 

Original destroyed by fire. 

240 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

Albany, the Disappointm*. of a suff 1 . number of Waggons, to 
supply us with the requisite Stores & Provisions for proceeding, 
the late arrival of the Reinforcements, the great increase of sick- 
ness in our Camp, the unfavourableness of the Season, the want 
of warm cloathing & proper Bedding for the Men. These things 
have not only been insuperable Obstacles to our proceeding, but 
dejected our Mens Spirits & given them a much greater keenness 
for returns, home than going forwards. We have not now more 
than 2 days Bread in Camp, the Roads so Bad & the water so 
high, that the supplying us is not only extreamly Difficult, but I 
dread will be fatally slow. 

I am building a respectable Fort here to maintain His 
Majestys possession of this important Pass, the work goes on 
slowly, the men are much disinclined to Labour & I am very 
anxious lest it should not be timely compleated. I have had 
another Built at the Carrying Place ab*. 1 8 Miles nearer Albany 
from hence at another considerable Pass, that also is uncom- 
pleated. However both these Works are going on & tho not so 
briskly as I would wish, yet I hope will be timely finished so as 
to receive Garisons this Winter. And with this I am apprehen- 
sive our present Campaign will end, unless the Troops should be 
kept up for a Winter Expedition. 

Tho the Ball cannot be extracted I feel no pain or incon- 
veniency from my Wound, but I have been confined to my Tent 
for near a fortnight by a violent & painful inflamation in the side 
of my head, tis now better & hope to get out of Confinement in 
a day or two. 

May Health, honour & Success continue to attend you. I am 
with great respect Sir 

Your obliged & Obed*. Serv*. 

Cap*. Wraxall my only Aid de Camp & Sec r y. begs you will 
present his comp ts . to Admiral Boscawen to whom he was 
formerly well known in Jamaica. 

To the Honourable 


Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 241 


This letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar (See p. 61) by an 
ler of the 24th, issued by Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Gilbert for the 
;st of Abraham Loucket, Surgeon Thomas Williams's certificate, dated 
25th, of the sickness of Ebenezer Moulton, Oliver Cole and Sergeant 
ill; proceedings, dated the 26th, in the trial of Abraham Loucket by 
>urt martial; Captain Doolittle's report of scouting to Crown Point and 
Iconderoga, dat7d the 26th (printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y. t 4:270-71 ; 
Q, 4:1 75-76) ; Stephen Miller's report as field officer of the day, dated 
the 27th; Jelles Fonda and Philip Lansing's return of bateaux, undated; 
and minutes, dated the 27th, of a court of inquiry convicting Lieutenant 
Asa Noble, charged with mutiny and plunder. These papers were 
destroyed by fire. 

L. S. 

Boston Ocr. 25. 1755 

The several Letters which Col. Ruggles was charged with 
have been forwarded to me from Holden, 2 but Col. Ruggles 
himself has not yet been in Town. The Gen 1 . Assembly met 
here the 22 d . Instant, & are still sitting, & seem to be under great 
Concern, least the Expedition to Crown Point should not be 
push'd forward now you have had such large Reinforcements of 
Men from the several Colonies concerned in it: And I herewith 
send you a Vote pass'd this Day by the two Houses, which will 
show you how much they have the thing at Heart, And I must 
press it upon you not to dismiss any Man till you hear further 
from Me And that you would in the mean time be making all 
the necessary Preparations as tho it was a thing determined to 
proceed with all possible Dispatch. I am Sir, 

Your humble Servant 

S. Phips 
Hon ble . W M . JOHNSON Esq'. 

1 In Massachusetts Archives. Not an autograph. 
1 Underscored in copy. Hardwick is written in the margin. Hardwick 
was Ruggles's home. 

242 ' Sir William Johnson Paper* 


A. L. S. 1 

Albany 27 Oc*. 7755. 

I am favoured with yours of the 23 d . and really partake in 
the Concern your present Situation gives me. I have suspected 
it since a few days after my Arrival, but knew it was irremedi- 
able. Tho believe me, I do not think this adds much to the 
merits of your C: of W-r and the Army, who seem to me to 
have had no inclination to proceed since the Battle Otherways 
they would have finish'd their Scows & prepared every thing else 
for a March in Case Provisions had arrived, which they could not 
be certain would fail them. Instead of this, what have they 
done. Your Scows and Fort at the Lake too might have been 
finish'd by this time, had your New England Men been actuated 
by that noble Spirit they have amused the world with so long. 
I may be in an Error but dont believe a single Syllable of 
Rogers's Information. The Lives of the Deserters are in our 
Power, who might be convinced their Lives would have paid for 
any Misfortune the Consequence of their false Information. I 
see they take no Notice of the Deserters Information, but rest 
upon the critical View of Tionderoga at three miles distance. 

You have done every thing in your Power, & I know both 
your Inclination & Reputation will lead you to persevere in that 
disposition to the last act of Securing Garrisons in the two Forts 
which I suppose you'l think of doing whether the Regulars be 
ordered or not if they are ordered, a few of your best & 
activest Men should be left as Rangers. Your Credit is much 
interested in securing the Footing you've gain'd You see the 
Opinion of the Council about dismissing some of your Troops. 
It is a measure I see you'l quickly be reduced to, and I hope 
when done, that it may not discourage the rest who may be left 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 243 

hind. Cant you spur on those wretches By representing to 
them the danger they are in of loosing the Credit of their Victory, 
as well as of that Name they sustain in the World, unless they 
secure their Conquests for such I call the Forts when built. Gov- 
ernor Fitch, sensible that the Expedition will probably be laid 
aside, is very anxious on this Point, and believe me, those who 
are of a Contrary Opinion will have little Satisfaction in it upon 
their Return home. I laugh at & despise the Man you mention 
as an advocate for this Sentiment, and his Reason for it, is of 
little weight as I apprehend himself will soon be in the Esteem 
of the Publick. I am very sorry you could not be present in 
Council. If you can speak to any one be present yourself the 
next, and be very particular in recommends, the necessary 
Measures to be taken in Case the Expedition as I apprehend it 
is already laid aside. I would give my own Opinion and then 
receive theirs, and oblige them too to act according to mine, if 
there's appear'd unsupported by Reason. M r . Ponnall is just 
come. M r . Montresor the Engineer is come here too. The 
News from Boston is later than that they bring. (Boston Paper) 
The former says Hawke has taken 5 French Men of War & that 
about 20 French Merchantment are sent in to English Ports. A 
Warr seems inevitable Adieu and believe me to 

yours most effectionat 


The Commiss'r is over & desires to be remembered to you. Sir 
Charles seems to wish a Party may be sent to the Enemy's 
advanced Post as the opinion of the Council is. M r . Ponnall 
last Night (it's now 28) read me I believe all his Letter he now 
writes I really think the Matter he speaks of requires Explana- 
tion, the Method of doing it must be thought of, it would look 
a little odd to write a Letter on that Subject only. Carpenters 
are about sending up by the Commissaries to build Scows & about 
1 00 Men are going to Saraghtoga the Comm. of the Massachu- 

1 Omitted in the copy. 

244 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

sets having rece'd an Extract of your Letter. Let not any thing 
that you can do be wanting to complete every thing necessary in 
the best Manner. I'm glad Coll Gridley is gone to Fort Edward 
Give my Compliments pray to M r . Wraxall & M r . Eyre - 
Barracks for 500 Men are building between the Stockades & the 
Street running North from the Church. 


This letter was followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 61 by minutes 
of a court of inquiry, dated the 27th, in which Joseph Gilbert, accused 
of discharging his gun, thereby killing and wounding several persons, was 
acquitted. They were destroyed by fire. 

A. L. S. 

Lake George Oct'. 27* 1755 

To the Honb le Maj r General Johnson now in the Camps Sir 
Stephen Davis one of my Sarg 1 the bearer hearof is a man that 
has as I understand bin burnt out and Drove of from the Western 
frontiers three times by the Enemy by which he is redused to 
verry Low Circumstances the third and Last time he removed 
his family which are young and helpless to Hadley 3 d . precinct 
where he has the Summer past by his fingers Ends Supported 
them and when the Order Come out for recruts for this army in 
our Government the Capt of that place presd S d Davis up hear 
and the towns people rise up against itt and Several offered to 
Come in his room even the Cap ts own Son S d to his Father in the 
face of the Company that he had rather Come in his room it 
made Such Great uneasiness but all would not Do Davis must 
Come Since that he has Letters from home which he will Lay 
before your Honour which represent his Family Sick and in 
verry Destitute Circumstancies and none to pity or Relieve them 
and if your Honour upon Consideration of the Case in your 

, 1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 245 

lorn Can thing x it fit S d . Davis Should be allowed to return to 
family it will Greatly oblige him 
These from S r 

your most Dutifull Humble Serv* to Command 



Amos Putnam and John Calef's undated certificate of sickness of 
Lieutenant Ephm Hail, following this in the Johnson Calendar, p. 62 
was destroyed by fire. 

D. S. 2 

October 27, 1755. 

^ovince of the Massachusetts Bay 

The Committee appointed to take under Consideration the 
several Letters & Papers received from his Excellency Governor 
Shirley and Major General Johnson, have maturely considered 
the same & have likewise fully discoursed with Colo. Ruggles, 
who lately left the Army destined for Crown Point, concerning 
the Situation & Circumstances of it; and are upon the whole of 
Opinion, that it is expedient the Army should proceed imme- 
diately upon the Expedition, and that the Committee of War 
make the necessary Provision for this Purpose: And in order 
more effectually to carry the Design into Execution, that it will 
be expedient that three Gentlemen of Weight and Influence 
should forthwith repair to Albany, to correspond with the Com- 
mittee of War here & forward the Necessaries to the Army, and 
if need be to purchase such Articles as may be wanting upon any 
Emergency, or such as cannot so well be sent from hence. And 
that the other Governm t8 . concerned in the Expedition be 
acquainted with these Resolutions and desired to join some 

1 So in copy ; k is intended. 

2 Original destroyed by fire. 

246 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Gentlemen from each of them respectively to carry on the same 

The Committee are further of Opinion that as His Excel- 
lency Govern r . Shirley now is or will very probably soon be at 
Albany, his Excellency be desired to use his Weight and Influ- 
ence with all concerned in the Execution of this important Plan, 
in order to engage them to proceed with Resolution and Dispatch. 

In the Name & by Order of the Committee 

J. Osborne 

In Council October 27. 1 755. Read & sent down 
In the House of Represent Ves. October 27. 1 755. 
Read & Ordered that this Report be accepted 
Sent up for Concurrence 

T. Hubbard Spk r . 

In Council Octo r . 27. 1 755. Read & Concurr'd 

Tho. Clarke Dp*. Sea* 
Consented to, S. Phips. 

Copy examined $ THO S . CLARKE Dp*. Seer?. 

L. S. 1 

Southold Oct. 28 1755 

Esq rs . 

Major Generals & Commanders in Chief of the Provincial Forces 
design'd against Crown Point 

We the Subscribers, & Ministers of the Gospel, in the Town 
of Southold, on the Island of Nassau, in the Province of New 
York in America, beg Leave to present the following. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 



As it hath pleased the sovereign God of Armies to bless & 

:ceed the provincial Forces under your Command in the late 
ippy Action, near Lake George; which has fired every loyal 
Ireast thro* the respective Provinces, with signal Sentiments of 
Gratitude & thankfulness to almighty God, & under Him, with 
proper Acknowledgements to your Honours: so with raised 
Hopes & Expectations of the happy Event in the Reduction of 
Crown Point: which appears Matter of the highest Consequence 
to the Security of our future Peace and tranquility, & of all our 
most precious Priviledges, civil and sacred. We assure you 
Gentlemen, you have our united & repeated Prayers with our 
respective Congregations, (& indeed those of all the Ministers & 
Congregations thro* this Province, & New England.) to the Lord 
God of Armies, for your future Success and Prosperity in these 
most important Enterprises. We wish you Prosperity in the 
Name of the Lord: We wish your Success in the speedy Prose- 
cution of the present Enterprise that God may be with you in the 
Camp; be with you in your Marches & Engagments; teach your 
Hands to war & your Fingers to fight, & in the End procure you 
a glorious Name & Renown. We feel, tho upon y e Island our 
Hearts & Affections, as our Interest, heartily united to our dear 
Friends & brave Country-men of the Main Shore, who are bravely 
hazarding their Lives for the common Cause & Safty, & pray 
never to put up a Petition to Heaven, without bearing you upon 
our Hearts, with feeling Sentiments of Gratitude & Honour & 
with most earnest importunate Requests for your Safty, Success & 
happy Conquest. 

Our People in Token of their Sentiments of Gratitude have 
collected near three hundred fat sheep with some cheeses & some 
proper Necessaries of Cloathing, (as the Inhabitants of the neigh- 
bouring towns in the County have of fat Cattle &c) for the use & 
Refreshment of the Army, or a Present, which we hope will 

248 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

safely reach the Camp & be Kindly received. We feel ourselves 
nearly allied to our dear Friends of Connecticutt, & the neigh- 
bouring Colonies, & can heartily say, your People shall be our 
People, & your God our God. We wish we were able to make 
a Present an hundred times as large. We should be heartily 
willing, Gentlemen, you should, were it possible, look into our 
Hearts & there see the Sentiments we bear to you, & all our dear 
Friends in the Camp as the Defenders of our Country under 
almighty God. 

We are with great Respect, your Honours' obedient obliged 
humble Serv* 



The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar (See p. 62) 
by the following papers which were destroyed by fire: Wraxall's order 
for nails, directed to Moses Emerson and other commissaries at Albany, 
dated the 28th; minutes of a court of inquiry in relation to disorderly 
conduct of Dr Peter Middleton, dated the 28th; Colonel Ichabod 
Plaisted's report of arms and ammunition in regiment, dated the 28th; 
Colonel Nathan Whiting's report of ammunition, dated the 28th; Thomas 
Gage's report of ammunition in Colonel Willard's regiment, dated the 
28th; orders to Captain Robert Rogers for scouting, dated the 29th; 
James Reed's report of scouting, dated the 29th (printed in Doc. Hist. 
N. 7., 4:271; Q, 4:176); and Dr Peter Middleton's request for an 
opportunity to defend himself in writing or be heard by a new and 
impartial court, undated. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


Df. S. 1 

Boston October 29. 1755 

The General Court appointed a very large Committee of their 
Members to consider the present state of the Army & what are 
the most adviseable steps to be taken at this critical conjuncture ; 
and Col. Ruggles coming to town soon after was fully heard 
by the whole Court and afterwards added to the Committee and 
after mature deliberation they agreed upon a Report which has 
been accepted by the Court copy of which I shall herewith for- 
ward to you. In consequence of this Report three Gentlemen 
viz. James Minot John Choate & Samuel Livermore Esq have 
been chosen & approved of to proceed to Albany & I expect they 
will set out in two or three days & I must desire you to corre- 
spond with them in all things pertaining to their Commission which 
will be founded on the said Report. I am sensible as well from 
Col. Ruggless general Character as from the particular account 
you have given of his Conduct that it is of importance he should 
repair to his Post without delay & therefore I have dispatched 
him as soon as possibly I could and I refer you to him for a more 
particular information of the sentiments of the General Court 
respecting your further proceeding. I am 

S r Your most humble servant 


INDORSED: October 29. 1755 L f . Gov r . Phips's Letter to MajV 

1 In Massachusetts Archives. 

* The remainder of the indorsement is mutilated. 

250 Sir William Johnson Papers 


D. S. 1 
Head Quarters. 

Camp at Lake George Thursday Evens. 30. October 1755 

At a Council of War held by General Johnson whereto all the 
Field officers in Camp were summoned 


The General 

Maj r . General Lyman Col. Cockcroft 
Col. Harris Col. Bagley 

Col. Dyer Col. Plaisted 

Col. Chauncey Col. Browne 

f Lieu*. Col. Cole Lieu*. Col. Fry 1 , , . . 
1 Lieu*. Col. Worster Ma,\ Richardson J absent by ^^ 
Lieu 1 . Col. Cummins Lieu 1 . Col. Ward 
Lieu 1 . Col. Nicholls Lieu 1 . Whitcomb 
Lieu*. Col. Whiting Maj r . Payson 
Maj r . Cbamplin 
Maj r . Kingsbury 
Maj r . Gage 
Maj r . Miller 

Cap*. Eyre Chief Engineer &c. Cap 1 . Glazier Adj*. Gen 1 . 

Peter Wraxall Secr-r. 

The General accquainted this Council of War that as by the 
Minutes of One held here the 1 8 or 19 Inst the Consideration of 
his Proposal concerning an attack on Tionderoga or the Enemys 
Advanced Guard posted on this side the Carrying Place was 
postponed till further Intelligence was obtained; he now laid 
before this Council of War, Captain Rodgers & Companys Rela- 
tion of their Scout to Crown Point, and Cap*. Dolittle's Ace*, of 
his reconnoitring Party towards Tionderogo. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. There is a copy in Public Record Office, 
C. O. 5.1 7, London, England; transmitted by Governor Hardy November 

Preliminary Campaigns, 7755-7756 251 

The General hereupon desires this Council of War will now 
take into their Consideration the first Article proposed by him in 
the s d . Minutes of the 18 Inst. (w ch were read to the Council 
from the Original) & give him their Opinion agreable to his said 
Proposal as therein Minuted. 

The General made the following previous Observations to 
this Council of War. 

(1.) That the Information of the German Deserter who was 
brought into this Camp and the Five others who were carried 
to Fort Edward, are all uniformly positive that the advanced 
Guard of the Enemy do not exceed 80 Men, and that our 
Scouts have reconnoitred at such a Distance in such Circum- 
stances that their Accounts, particularly as to this advanced 
Guard, may be supposed very inaccurate. 

2. That it appears to him, the taking or cutting off this advanced 
Guard or Party, is a feasible attempt and what the Duty & 
honour of this Army call for & incumbent upon him to recom- 
mend to their favourable attention that he has ordered a 
Survey of the Battoes & 85 are returned to him as fit for 

3. That if this attempt should succeed (which he thinks if well 
conducted it may) it will not only raise the Reputation of this 
Army in the Eyes both of our Friends & Enemies, but discour- 
age the latter tend to increase our Influence & Consequence 
amongst our Allied Indians, weaken the French Indian Interest 
& probably prevent many Scalping Parties from disturbing our 
out settlements this ensuing Winter. 

. The General also laid before this Council of War a Letter to 
him from Col. Peter Gilman Commanding the New Hampshire 
Reinforcements now at Albany, and the Minutes of a Council 
held by S r . Charles Hardy at Albany. 

Upon which he desired the Opinion of this Council of War, 
Whither they think it adviseable for him to dismiss the said Rein- 
forcements from this Service. 

252 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Upon the first Article referred to in the Minutes of the Council 
of War of the 18 or 19 Inst. this Council of War gave their 
Opinion that both attacks were not adviseable. 

Voted that the further Consideration of this Article be deferred 
till further Intelligence is obtained w ch is daily expected by Cap 1 . 
Rodgers & his Party gone down the Lake or by any other Means. 

With regard to the New Hampshire Reinforcements the Coun- 
cil of War are unanimously of Opinion that they be not yet a 
while dismissed, as the State of this Army has been transmitted & 
referred to the Consideration of the several Gov ts concerned & 
as it would cause a general Uneasiness among the rest of the 




D/. 1 
Camp at Lake George 30 Octo r . 1755 


Yours of yesterday with the sundry returns therein mentioned 
I received. As the Court of Inquiry have found the Discharge 
of Gilbert's Piece to be Accidental & without Malice, You will 
please to order him out of Confinement. 

I herewith send you Authentic Copies of Lieu 1 . Col. Gilbert's 
List of officers w ch . he sent me to fill up Commissions for, & 
W*. by the Extract of Cap'. Wraxall's Letter to Col. Gilbert, I 
judged was agreable to the Plan determined by the Gov r . & 
Council of Boston, if not Col. Gilbert has grosely imposed on me 
& made a false Return. You witl order a Court of Inquiry on 
this Matter & send me their Proceedings; you have a Copy of 
Major Hoare's Letter to Cap*. Wraxall. 

I approve of your taking the Two Load of Bread & hope M r . 
Emerson will send you a speedy & suff l . supply. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 253 

To give Col. Ruggles's Reg 1 , leave to go home is I think at 
this juncture too delicate & important for me to order. I leave 
to your Discretion the consenting to furloughs for particular 
Person in w cl \ I doubt not you will consult the Good of the 
Service. You will give out in orders y*. no Furloughs are 
granted without y r . consent. 

I greatly depend upon you to expedite the compleating of Fort 
Edward, to lose no time, to employ every hand that can be useful 
is of the utmost Consequence to the Service at this Season of the 
Year. I am Sir Y &c. 


Commd r . at Fort Edward 


The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar (See p. 62) 
by these papers, destroyed by fire: a request, undated, from Dr Peter 
Middleton for a copy of the proceedings of a court of inquiry; a protest, 
undated, by Dr Middleton against the finding of the court, with a request 
for an impartial hearing; Josiah Stanley's request for a furlough, dated 
October 3 1 st ; orders to commanding officers at Albany to furnish a guard 
for Lieutenant Governor Pownall as f ai as Fort Edward, dated the 3 1 st ; 
orders to Captain Samuel Angell to reconnoiter near the Carrying Place, 
dated the 3 1 st ; orders to Colonel Richard Gridley for forwarding trowels 
and hammers, for sale of arms of French deserters for their benefit, and 
a guard for Lieutenant Governor Pownall from Fort Edward, dated the 
31st; and orders to the commander of the Massachusetts reinforcements 
at Albany to expedite the movement of wagons at Saratoga, dated the 


Nev> Haven 3/ October 1755 

Your Letters of the 13 th Instant, by Lieu*. Colo. Pitkin and 
of the 20 th . and 22 d . by Cap 1 . Stores came to Hand during the 
Session of the General Assembly in this Place, before whom, I 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

254 Sir William Johnson Papers 

laid the several Matters, for their Consideration, And am to 
acquaint You in Addition to what I wrote in my last that the 
Assembly, altho greatly concerned to have the Expedition pro- 
ceeded in further, and willing to exert themselves to their Utmost 
for that Purpose, Yet being made sensible by the Intellegence you 
have given, that it appears impracticable, they have come into a 
Resolve for discharging, as many of the Troops as may be spared, I 
from the necessary Services, yet remaining to be performed, a 
Copy of which I enclose for your Information and Direction, so 
far as relates to this Colony. You will therefore observe the 
Directions therein given in discharging such Part of Our Troops, 
as shall be judged proper, to be released and sent Home, from 
the Service under your Care. I have wrote to Major General 
Lyman Directions in some Matters which relate to our own 
Troops after discharged, not apprehending it proper to Trouble 
You with those Things. 

(Rendering you my hearty Thanks for your good Service) 
I am S r . Your most humble and Obedient Servant 



D. S. 1 

[October 31? 1755] 
Anno Ri. Rs. Georgii, 2di. 29no. 

At a General Assembly of the Governor and Company of His 
Majesty's English Colony of Connecticut in New England in 
America, holden at New Haven in said Colony on the 2d 
Thursday of October, 2 Annoq. Dom: 1755. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

2 October 9, the date when the general assembly convened. Public 
Records of the Colony of Connecticut, 10:420. 425. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 7755-7756 255 

tlESOH-YED that, it is the opinion of this Assembly, that such, 
so many of the Troops, raised by this Government, and 
under the Command of Major General Johnson, as (Regard had 
to fortifying, garrisoning, and other occasional Operations) may 
safely be drawn off, be forthwith dismist, and at Liberty to return 
Home, And that the Number to be retained in said Army, be 
according to the Quota originally proposed and agreed on, 
between the Governments, in said Armament concerned. And 
further, that in such Dismission the Troops first sent into said 
Service, be preferred, save only such of them as may voluntarily 
remain therein. And His Honour the Governor is desired hereof, 
to advise said General Johnson, by immediate Express to him 
with a Copy of this Resolve. 

A True Copy, Examd. per GEORGE WYLLYS. Secret 

Df. S. 1 

Camp at La^e George 

31. Octo'. 1755 

Your letter of the 28 Inst I laid before a Council of War last 
night for their Opinion whether I should dismiss the Troops under 
your Command at Albany. They gave their Opinion that as a 
State of the Army & the several Circumstances relative to our 
present Sittuation has been transmitted to the several Gov u . & 
[is their Directions in consequence of it desired. Answers to w^ 
in are expected in a few Days, that I should not at present dismiss 
!i your Troops, & also that such a Dismission would at this Juncture 
be a predjudice to the Service by discouraging the rest of the 
Troops. I hope a very few days will enable me to give you some 

1 In Aycr Collection, Ncwberry Library, Chicago, 111. 


, Sir William Johnson Papers 

possitive Orders, till when you will remain in your present Sittua- 
tion with your Regiment. 
I am Sir 

Your very hum Sv f 


Commanding officer of the 
New Hampshire Reinforcements 
at Albany 


Camp at Lake George 31 Octo r . 7755 

Your Excellencys favour of the 28 Inst inclosing the Minutes 
of Council is before me. 

Last night I summoned a Council of War & herewith is a Copy 
of the Minutes, and also a Copy of Cap*. Dolittles report of his* 
reconnoitring Party that went to Tionderogo mentioned in said I 
Minutes. I warmly urged an attempt to surprise the Enemysj 
Advanced Guard on this side the Carrying Place, but besidesi 
the reasons Minuted for deferring their Detirmination on thatj 
point, it was said, that the Men were all possessed with a fii 
Persuasion that we were to proceed no further this Fall, that 
finishing the Fort was to be their last Labour, that if this Scheme 
was to take place, it would totally discourage them from going onj 
with the Fort, that it was with great difficulty & nice Mannag-j 
ment that their Spirits were kept up for the Works, that by far 
greatest part of the Men were quite home-sick, no ways incline 
or disposed for any further Opperations against the Enemy 
that they were & had been for some time at short allowance ol 
Bread, & their Stock of Rum almost Expended. All this & mi 
more to the same purpose passed in the course of the Debate. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 




Preliminary Campaigns, 17551756 


As to ordering any of the Troops down to Albany, they were 
utterly against it, not only that we may in a few days expect to 
have answers to the Dispatches sent to the Gov ls . of Massa- 
chusetts & Connecticut, but that the present Temper of the Troops 
would render it not only an imprudent but a fatal Measure. 

I have ordered Col. Gridley & he has promised to forward 
Compleating Fort Edward with the utmost Dispatch, I have rein- 
forced that Garrison with 1 00 Men. I have ordered Four Wag- 
gons from Albany to be loaded with Fodder & to come up, Two 
to assist at Fort Edward & two here; for some days past the 
Works here have gone on with Spirit, the Bastions & ramparts are 
finished & a great part of the Earth thrown up for the Parapet, 
one of the Barracks roofed, another almost ready, the Mason 
Work in hand, some of the Magazines compleated & the rest near 
finished & Cap*. Eyre tells me that in 8 or 10 days if the Weather 
permits he hopes it will be in a defensible Condition. 

As to the Garrisoning of these Two Forts this Winter I am 
affraid it cannot be done with these Troops, the time of Elist- 
ment of the Massachusetts Troops, expires in December & 
January, as I think dos the Connecticut, Col. Cockcroft tells me 
some of his Peoples Enlistments are already expired & I heard 
from One of his Serg ls . that the Major part of the Reg 1 , expires 
next Month & that they will not be disposed to stay longer. Pro- 
vincial Forces in general do not seem formed for Garrison. And 
I believe there will not be near a suff*. number of Men & officers 
found disposed to remain in Garrison, & in my own private 
Opinion., from my Experience & Conversation amongst their 
Officers, I should not think it prudent to leave these Forts wholly 
in their hands, however this be, it is I think now time to take this 
Matter into serious Consideration & fall on effectual Measures 
relating to it. 

I did not know the Deserters bro*. any Arms with them. I 
shall write to Col. Gridley to get them & send 'em down to your 
Excellency, but I fear that meaness of Spirit of w ch I have seen 

Vol. II 9 

258 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

so many Instances in this Army, has interposed & will defeat 
my Intentions. 

I thought what I wrote to Your Excellency in mine of the 24 
Inst would be sufK for a Company of the Massachusetts Rein- 
forcements to be posted on the East side of the River. I will 
inclose y r . Excellency an Order in form for that purpose. Cap*. 
Rodgers the most active officer in this Army is gone down the 
Lake with about 28 or 30 picked Men in Battoes in order to inter- 
cept one or more Canoes w ch . Blanchard the Deserter tells me, 
are daily sent about 12 or 15 Miles this way in order to make 
Discoveries, I gave him particular Directions & if the Enemy 
comes in his way, I hope he will do something. 

I applied to the Council of War last night to recommend to 
me a proper & capable Officer to go with 3 or 4 more in order 
to indeavour at such a Discovery of the Enemys Advanced 
Guard as may remove the Difficulties & Uncertainties w** are 
started on that point. 

I must repeat to Your Excellency the Difficulties w^ I forsee 
about Garrisoning the Forts this Winter out of these Troops if 
the rest of the Army is Disbanded. 

Your Excellency mentioned some time ago your design to send 
up some Bullets & Flints, we are very scarce of both. No Ladles, 
Spunges or Rammers came with the Cannon to Fort Edward. 
None can be spared from hence. 

I have about 10 or 12 Indians with me a small Scouting 
Party of them are gone to Wood Creek & South Bay, and three 
upon a Scalping Scheme to Crown Point. I am 

Sir &c. 

To His Excelly. S R . CHARLES HARDY &c. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 



L. S. 

Camp at Lake George /*' November 1755 

Though we are loath to trouble You, with Complaints against 
an Officer here in the Army. Yet the Indignity put upon us by 
Colonel Dyer is such, that we cannot in Justice to ourselves pass 
it over. 

We have been credibly informed that Col. Dyer reported to 
You, that Sunday the 26 th ., when we were upon Duty on the 
Quarter Guard at the Front of Col. Cockcrofts Regiment, That 
from Midnight till the firing of the Morning Gun, We neither 
went our Rounds nor relieved our Gentry's nor turned out our 
Guard to the Grand Rounds, But behaved in a supine negligent 
manner unbecoming Officers intrusted with such an important 
Command Whatever were Col. Dyers Motives for representing 
us in a Light so unworthy a Soldier we know not, but as we are 
none of us conscious of the least Defect of Duty that Night we 
look upon this his Piece of Information so malicious and hurt- 
full to our Character, that we beg we may have an Oppertunity 
of vindicating ourselves before such as you shall think proper to 
appoint for the Examination of our Conduct. That same Night 
also we received a most gross affront of another kind from Lieu*. 
Isaacs of Col. Chanceys Reg 1 , who officiating as Adjutant that 
Morning took upon him to impose one of his Sergeants upon us 
for a Lieutenant, who accordingly had the Impudence to intrude 
himself amongst us into the Guard Room and was accordingly 
entertained as became a Commissioned Officer. As these Prac- 
tices are not only equally destructive of all Subordination & 
Discipline, but an unwarrantable Abuse of manifast Insult upon 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

260 'Sir William Johnson Papers 

us we hope that you will please to give us Redress upon those who 
are the Authors of this Imposition. We are with Respect Sir 
Your most Ob*, humble Servants 





Roger Billings's report of scouting (printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y. 9 
4:274; Q, 4:177), dated November 2d, following the foregoing in the 
Johnson Calendar, p. 63 was destroyed by fire. 


D/. 1 

Camp at Lake George /. November 1755 

Both your very esteemed favours of the 8 & 24 Sep r . came 
the same day to my hands. I was then confined by an Inflama- 
tion in the side of my head w ch . kept me partly confined to my 
Bed wholly to my Tent for above a Fortnight, It is but a few 
days since I have dared venture abroad, & am forced even now 
to do it with Caution. 

This is one Cause that has kept me Silent tho so agreably pro- 
voked by your Judicious elegant & friendly Letters, to have done 
myself the honour of answering them. Besides this Impediment, 
is the great Variety of public Buisness w ch constantly & indis- 
pensibly calls for my attention. It is impossible for me regularly 
to correspond with or distinctly to transmit to the several Govern- 
ments who have raised Troops on this Expedition those Papers & 
Advices w ch are necessary for their Information & to furnish me 
with their Directions; I have thus far constantly desired the 
Lieut Gov r . of Massachusetts Bay to send Copies to Your 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 7755-7756 261 

Honour & the Gov r . of New Hampshire of my Dispatches to 
him. The Gentleman who is my Secretary, is also my Aid de 
Camp, & this without either Pay or Perquisites; (for no Estab- 
lishment was provided by the Colonies) ; his hands have been 
constantly full & it has not been in my power to relieve him from 
his Constant Application. I believe the attention w^ an irregular 
Army calls for. is much greater than that of a regular one. Sure 
I am that my perplexities have been without intermission & my 
Patience put to a very severe trial. I will not trouble you with 

I have mentioned these things in general to justifie my keeping 
two such Letters as yours so long unanswered by me. 

When this Command was pressed upon me, I was fully pos- 
sessed of its Importance. I foresaw that it would bring upon me 
a great deal of Fatigue, & confessed that it demanded Abilities 
to w ch I did not pretend to be equal, however united Applica- 
tions drew my Consent. I have exerted my self in every Shape 
to the utmost of my Tether. It is very probable that the Event 
will fall short of the public Expectations of the Colonies Con- 
cerned, of the Expence they have been at & the Numbers of Men 
they have sent, in neither of w * 1 . can I reasonably charge them 
with a deficiency: And if Disappointment should as it possibly 
may, turn their reflections upon me, I am calmly conscious of my 
own Innocence, and if I should be Authoritively called upon to 
do it, I have materials to justifie my Conduct. 

One short reflection I will make upon the Subject & so con- 
clude it. That the warmth of Imagination & the Vivacity of 
hope, are very apt not only to outstrip possibilities, but to prevent 
a sedate & judicious attention to Circumstances by w ch means we 
reason upon imaginary Principles & draw suitable Conclusions. 

Our Army since the Engagement has grown more & more 
Sickly, their Vigor declining, & their Vivacity subsiding, The 
Reinforcements seem rather to have shared than added any thing 
to the cure of our Distempers. They have so much increased the 
Consumption of our Provisions particularly Bread & Rum, that 

262 'Sir William Johnson Papers 

of the former we have been for some time at short allowance, & 
of the latter we have scarce any left. Our Men are quite home- 
sick subdued & surfeited with the fatigues & hardships of a Mili- 
tary Life, no ways disposed to go forwards, impatient to return 
home, averse to the Common Duties of a Soldiers Life, Indolence, 
Murmuring & repining are their glaring Characters. 

We have been above a Month erecting a Fort here to secure 
the Ground we have fought for or a retreat in case it had been 
necessary, or to preserve our Artillery & all other Stores w ch it 
would have been impossible to have carried off at this late Season 
of the year, this Important Fort wants yet a great deal to com- 
pleat it & unspeakable are the Difficulties I have met with & do 
meet with in carrying it on. This Character of the Army is in 
a great Degree as applicable to the officers as the Soldiers. But 
I must do the Troops from your Colony the Justice to say that in 
general, both Officers & Men, have from the begining distin- 
guished themselves amongst the very best & particularly so in our 
Action against the Enemy. 

The State of this Army & the several Circumstances relating 
to it, by the Advice of Two Councils of War, I transmitted the 
13 & 22 Octo 1 ". to Gov r . Phipps who I desired to send you 
Copies. We are impatiently waiting the Sentiments & Directions 
of the several Gov ts . in consequence thereof. 

M r . Hopkins Your Son was at this Camp whilst I lay ill, by 
w ch means I was prevented from Showing him those Civilities 
w ch . his relation to you would have disposed me to. 

I understand by Col. Cole that some reports have been spread 
to the Disadvantage of his Character as an officer In justice to 
him I must assure you that I have always found he acted worthy 
the Comand conferred on him and I wish he had always been 
at the head of the Reg*. 

I am Sir with great Esteem Your Honours Most Ob dt hum 

To the Honnorable Gov*. HOPKINS of Rhode Island. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 263 

A letter of November 1st from Abraham Lansing, at Fort Edward, 
to Johnson on court martial proceedings, following the preceding in the 
Johnson Calendar, p. 63 was destroyed by fire. 


{Camp at Lake George 2 Nov T . 1755} * 


You are to imbark with the party under your Com- 
mand in order to join Cap*. Rodgers, You are to keep the Men 
orderly and Silent upon pain of Death & not scatter the Battoes 
out of sight of each other Your self or the next officer in Com- 
mand to be in the last Battoe in order to bring up the Rear regu- 
larly, on your joining Cap*. Rodgers you are all to be under his 
Command & deliver him my Letter herewith. I have directed him 
to consult with the Officers when Occasion requires Your Suc- 
cess depends upon Secrecy & Silence let that be your principal 
Care & Attention, take Connor in the Battoe with you as a 
Pilot. And Let the officer who brings up the Rear, have the 
Indian who came from Cap 1 . Rodgers in his Battoe. 


A letter of November 2d from George Muirson, of New York, 
announcing to Johnson a present of fat cattle, stockings and mittens from 
people of Suffolk county, in the Johnson Calendar, p. 63 was destroyed 
by fire. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

* Date supplied from the Johnson Calendar. 

264 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

Df. 1 

Camp at Lake George 2 Nov r . 1755 

By returns from the several Commissaries this day, it appears 
that We have not on the whole more than 5 days allowance of 
Bread in Camp with Flour Rice Meal & Samp we might make 
out 9 or 1 days, the Men for the most part have been for some 
days past at short allowance w ch together with the want of Rum, 
occasions a great deal of murmuring & uneasiness. I wish it may 
not increase & end fatally unless sufficient Supplies are speedily 
sent particularly for the Massachusetts Troops. The Connecticut 
I hear have large Quantities of Bread or flour upon the Road. 
If for the want of Bread we should be obliged to abandon this 
place or the Troops should refuse to stay, Words nor even 
Imagination cannot paint the dreadful & infamous Consequences, 
equaly important it is that a proper Quantity of Provisions should 
be left for the Garrisons here & at Fort Edward where they are 
likewise short of Bread. 

I send this to you by Express to give you timely Notice that 
you may without the least Delay exert your selves proportionably 
to the Number of your respective Troops & the great importance 
of the affair, I call on you to do it & I expect you will make 
use of your utmost Power & Diligence to save the public & this 
Army from the impending Evils with w ch it is by the want of 
Bread threatened. You will consider how precarious the Season 
of the year renders our Resource, so that not a day should be 
lost. S r . Charles Hardy's zeal has been manifested at a very 
critical Juncture & the ready Exertion of his Authority has prob- 
ably saved us from the last & greatest Distress, and I persuade 
myself if when you show him this Letter as I desire you will do, 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary) Campaigns, 1755-1756 265 

he will continue to Strengthen y r . hands & lend you every kind of 
assistance within the reach of his Authority 

I am 


Y &c. 

To MR MOSES EMERSON and the rest of the Provincial Com- 
missaries at Albany. 


D/. 1 

Camp at Lae George Sunday night <^Nov. 2.> 

By returns from the Commissaries this day I find we have not 
above 5 days allowance of Bread in this Camp. The Men have 
been for some days at short allowance this & the want of Rum 
occasions a great deal of Murmuring & Uneasiness. I am 
alarmed at the Consequences on all Acc ts . The Inclosed Letter 
is to accquaint the Provincial Commissaries at Albany of this 
Matter to order & to urge them in the strongest Manner to hasten 
Supplies. I have mentioned your want as well as ours. 

Send forward this Letter by a good Serg*. & 7 or 8 or 1 2 brisk 
Fellows to Seraghtoga with an order to the officer there to send 
it by a Serg*. & 5 or more Men without delay to Commissary 

Pray send the Trowalls & Hammers by these People 

I am Sir y rs 


If you can send a good Express a Horse back do it. I have 
ordered a Company to Seraghtoga if they should not be arrived 
& you have no horse the Men must go forward, upon Second 
thoughts if you should get a horse I believe it will be safest to 
take a Guard to Seraghtoga. 

Original destroyed by fire. 

266 'Sir William Johnson Papers 


A. L. S. 1 

Albany. No* 2*. 1755- 


I had this day the pleasure of your's of y e 3 1 8t . 2 And am really, 
without Compliment, greatly obliged to You for it & for y e 
honor You do me in y e enclosed Order as also for y e Guard You 
intended me from Fort Edward. I was determined upon com- 
ing up & your Letter fixd me, but this Evening we have an 
account that M r Shirly dined today at Scenectady & is to be 
here directly tomorrow. As soon as ever y e Confusion that 
Matters are in here can be any how remedied, we must go down 
directly for N York where I am obliged to be y e 1 th at a Con- 
gress And I am thus by circumstances that I expect I can be 
of no use in, nor any good from; deprived y e pleasure of seeing 
You & talking with You which woud have given me the highest 
satisfaction. If I go to England I shall certainly not go till y e 
latter end of this month. If it be possible for You to come to 
NYork do. 

S r Charles Hardy is very much your freind & has wrote to 
England very strongly in your favor, if you apply to him for y c 
1300 due to You. He will I beleive (M r Watts lead me to 
think so) be able to gett it for you, such is y e disposition of y e 
Assembly towards You at present. And I know he will try. 

I beg You will (if I must despair of y c satisfaction of talking 
with You) write me by minute or memorandum or any how 
answers to y e several points I have proposed to You. I mean 
by them to enable myself to be a Freind. I have seen all y e 
Matters relative to your wretched (as Milton calls it) painfull 
Preheminence in y e Command of the glorious & victorious New 
England War. I want nothing to make me see it clearler, seing 

1 In New York Public Library, Emmet Collection. 

2 Not found. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 17551756 


might possibly make me feel for You with more anxious sensa- 
tions - Tho* at present I must pity You. Yet I shall live to 
congratulate You & I hope soon. Virtue may, like Fire, lye 
buried & smotherd for some time, & by oppression it may seen to 
be quite putt out. Yet will it burst forth at length with a more 
splendid & active Vigour. Keep up Your Spirits, & keep up 
your hopes. I can almost venture to tell You you will be pro- 
vided for with honor. 

Permit me my dear Sir, to remind You, 'tis y e advise of a 
sincere freind who wishes You to be more prudent than perhaps 
I should be able to be myself in y e same Case, permitt me to 
remind You of y e Fable in Homer, where, as we used to read 
at school, when y e Aggravations that Achilles suffer'd had 
wrought him to be just going into Acts of Resentment Minerva 
laied her hand upon his hand & putt it back. And y c Forbear- 
ance that he with y e utmost & most painfull reluctance submitted 
to, ended in his greater & more establish'd Glory. 

I shall propose in such a manner as I shall hope to be able 
to carry thro', y e Building of a picquetted Fort, & laying in a 
Magazine of Flour at Sacondaga Creek north of your house. 
I shoud be glad, to enable me to propose this properly, to know 
y e nature of y e Ground from y c Settlements on your Creek, to 
y* Forks at Sacondaga Creek. It is I find but seven miles north 
1 5 East, half sandy pine Land. The Creek I am told, were it 
not for a barr at y c mouth, where it enters into Sacondaga river, 
is capable of being navigated with large Shallops & y e Secondaga 
River capable of a Navigation with large boats as far as y e Falls 
about 8 miles above Fort Edward. However, that both are 
capable of a navigation with large Flatts like y e English lighters. 
If these Facts be true, as I am told I may depend upon them to 
be, I am Certain, that, besides y e benefit a Fort woud be in that 
part, Provisions especially Flour might be more easily collected 
in a magazine there, & infinitely more easily sent from thence, 
early in Spring, down y e Stream, than from Albany up y e Stream 
that is so rapid at that season. If You can contrive it any way 

268 'Sir William Johnson Papers 

I wish you woud have that matter inquired into, y c Whole Pass 
from Your Creek down sacondaga Creek & y c Sacondaga River 
to y e Falls, reconoitred; & send me an Account by y c time of y c 
Congress, or if that cannot be done time enough, send me y e 
best account you can gett me. 

Tho' I have troubled You with many troublesome questions 
yet there are none, as far as I am sensible, impertinent, & none 
but what I coud make great Use of y e Answers to. If you can 
favor me with such answer do, I shall be obliged to You. May 
I beg such before I go to England. I intended to pay my 
respects to your Sister today with Cap 1 Rutherford, but her 
Servant Maid said She was not well enough to see Company. 

I am Sir most sincerely yours 



Brief descriptions will be found in the Johnson Calendar, p. 63-64 
of Samuel Angell's report of a scout along Lake George, dated November 
3d (printed in Doc. Hist. N. 7., 4:274-75; Q, 4:1 78) ;J*oberJ^ 
Rogers's report of a scout and an engagement, dated the 3d (printed in 
Doc. Hist. N. y. f 4:272-73; Q, 4:176-77); Johnson's warrant for 
rehearing the case of Dr Peter Middleton by a court of inquiry, dated the 
4th; minutes of a council of war at Lake George, dated the 4th, con- 
sideration of points resumed and postponed. All were destroyed by fire. 


Camp at Lake George 2 Nov r . 1755 

Agreable to Your Message & Desire I send You a Reinforce- 
ment of 2 Men under the Command of Cap 1 . Billings who 
with the Men are to put themselves under your Command. 
I would recommend to you to act with silent Caution & so to post 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 2 Omitted in copying. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


your Men as to cut off their retreat to Tionderogo. It appears 
to me most adviseable to begin the Attack from the Water secur- 
ing their Canoes & that at break of Day. You will consult with 
the Officers upon your proceedings but the Stroke must be struck 
without delay. If there are any Works & time will permit 
destroy them, do your Buisness as soon as possible & dont delay* 
one Moment when you have done the best you can suffer no 
Men to delay time by looking after Plunder, for if you are dila- 
tory the Enemy from Tionderogo may come upon you & be too 
powerful for you to make a safe Retreat 

A. L. S. 1 

Albany 4 Nov\ 1755. 

I have read your Letter of the 3 1 and the Papers that accom- 
panyed it and very much approve of the manner you recom- 
mended the particulars to the Council of Warr: Tho from the 
disposition the army seems to be of I expect very little Good 
from it It's extremely well judg'd to discover your thoughts 
as to the Garrison of the Fort at the Lake. & the other too if any 
difficulty is likely to occur concerning that: How the General, 
who has ordered Dinner at 3 this afternoon & expected by that 
time, will dispose of his Troops I cant tell. Barracks are going 
on with. You had a Company last Warr at M l . Johnson, do 
you think it may be proper for you to take and apply for one 
now. They'l be useful to the Service if M r . Ps: Scheme of a 
Fort at Sacondage takes place I suppose he has mentioned it to 
you, if not take no Notice of it from me it is to facilitate the sends. 
pris's: 2 down that River to Fort Edward or some proper place 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

2 This word evidently should be " provs:, 
the copy " pris's:," for prisoners, appears. 

for provisions, though in 

270 'Sir William Johnson Papers 

contiguous I like it if the River be not inteirupted by any con- 
siderable Fall, and Mills for grinding Wheat &c be immediately 
set up. I see the advantage of it to you & like it the better for 
that reason Do you think it proper, or perhaps you may have 
represented to the General the necessity of Regulars to garrison 
the two Forts. I dont think they'l be safe with irregulars only. 
Indians ought to be kept there & presents put into the Hands of 
the officer for them, this is your department I believe you've 
not desired Sir Charles, but he has I understand from M r . P. 
recommended you strongly to the Great, in a manner you your- 
self could choose to have it done. Should you pay Militia when 
there are so many of the Kings Troops to garrison the Indian 
Forts. I have orders to send a part of the Musket Shot and 
Flints to you but cant imagine you can really want them. 

I believe were expected in N. Y. for I receive no Letters or 
Papers if I can get the list to inclose to you I will. The Army's 
complaining always of the want of Bread if they have Flour 
enough I think I could make a shift with that: Remember the 
securing Battoes Scows Cannon Stores Prov s . the two Forts 
and view the one where you are often if your Health permits. 
Your Barrels or the Staves of them may serve for others to Barrel 
Beef drove up & Salted at Fort Edward It is necessary there- 
fore to preserve them, they want no Store Room but a look out 
to prevent the Burning of them Adieu. 

I am yours most affectionately 


Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 271 

A. L. S. 1 

AW. 4: 1755. P: M: 3. 

About }/2 an Hour ago I sealed my Letter to you of this day: 
Since which an Express arrived here from Boston with Pacquets 
for Gen Shirley from England. All that I hear yet is that he 
has a Comm n . or Comm 8 . in chief with all the Powers Mr 
Braddock had & some say the Comm 8 . for the Vacancies 
are come to him blank, this Fact is not so certain as 'tother. 
About 1 50 Merchantmen are taken from the French by Way of 
Hostage I suppose, among 'em its said 3 Men of War, but 
nothing but the 1 8l . Fact is yet to be credited I shall only say, 
How necessary it is since things are thus situated, that a good 
understanding be established & continued among the great Folks 
We should regard the Service, & not think of the Persons in 
whom the Power is placed. If this is not done, the Preparations 
that are necessary will go on heavily this Winter, and nothing 
will be in readiness against next Spring, or against a General may 
come from England. The King was not 2 & wars not pro- 
claimed nor expected to be so until his return. It is absolutely 
necessary that altercations which concern you Cease, and as the 
other person concerned has now also the Power he can wish 
for, I suppose he'll gladly relinquish to you what I dare say 
will appear to be your department, and be glad too to keep up a 
good Correspondence with you. If he sees his own Interest he 
will, and with every one else if it be possible. 

Yours DrS r : 


It's now 5 oClock : I suppose this New app 1 . may make some 
alteration in the whole System So you'l read my other Letter as 
wrote before the alteration. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

1 Illegible: " returned " may have been written. 

272 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 


Camp at Lake George 4 Novr. 1755. 


A few Days ago I received Your Excellencys favour of the 
25 Sep r . inclosed in a Letter from Col. Gilman at Albany. 

The Activity & Usefulness of Col. Blanchards Reg 1 , woud 
prejudice me in favour of any other from your Province. 

By Col. Gilmans Letter I find the Stores & Provisions for his 
Reg 1 , were not arrived & that the People were enlisted only to 
the 5 of next Month. 

Since the Visit w ch the Enemy paid us here we have been kept 
extreamly short of Bread & tho S r . Charles Hardy Gov r . of 
New York came up to Albany purposely to invigorate & forward 
every thing at Albany & has exerted his Authority in the strongest 
Manner he could yet Waggons have been so scarce the Roads at 
this Season of the Year so bad & the Stores about the Country 
quite beat out, that we have had only a bare Supply of Bread for 
present Consumption, & tho the Men have been at short allow- 
ance for sometime past we have not above 4 days bread now in 
Camp. For these reasons & some others, the Council of War 
advised me to order the Reinforcements that were at Albany to 
remain there till further orders. 

Col. Gilman in the Letter w cjl . covered yours wrote me, that 
as he was informed we should not go forward this Fall, he was 
desirous of marching his Reg 1 , back before full Winter should set 
in w ch . woud be most for the health of his People & be some sav- 
ing to the Province. The Gov r . & Council of New York at 
Albany gave also their opinion in favour of this measure. I laid 
both before a Council of War, who gave their opinion that it 
was not adviseable immediately to dismiss the New Hampshire 
Reg*, as it woud greatly discourage the rest of the Troops, who 
are quite tired of their Military Life & exceeding earnest to 

Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


irn home. And also that as the State of their Army & all 
Circumstances relating to it had been transmitted to the several 
iov ts . concerned for their Direction, w ch . we are daily expecting, 

would be most adviseable first to have the Gov ts . Answers. 

I transmitted to Gov r . Phipps this State of the Army & desired 

would send your Excellency Copies thereof. It would have 
iprudently delayed time to have wrote distinctly to the several 
Gov t$ . concerned. 

It has been a mortification to me that I have not been able to 
correspond distinctly & frequently with your Excellency but as 
the Gov ts . concerned made no Provision for a Sec r y. & Clerks & 
no Establishment for an Aid de Camp, Cap*. Wraxall has acted 
in both those Capacities without Pay or perquisite & has had his 
hands constantly full. 

Our Fort here is pretty far advanced to its completion it has 
met with many obstructions & the Men have been very backward 
in working there w ch has been partly owing to several of their 
officers. It had the sanction of a Council of War & 700 were 
promised daily to work at it. I hope however it will be in a 
tenable condition in 8 or 9 days. 

I am very suspicious that as our Opperations will not equal the 
hopes & wishes of the public, Dissatisfaction & Reproach will 
arise, but at the same time I am convinced all Circumstances 
considered we have done what has been in our power, at least I 
am fully conscious I have exerted my utmost Influence & abilities 
to obtain every possible advantage & improve every Circumstance 
for the public Good. Want of Waggons, Reinforcements pour- 
ing in & consuming the old Stock of Provisions & Stores their 
own not arriving in time The late Season & bad Roads 
Sickness nakedness & hardships endured by the Troops & thereby 
disheartened This was out of my power to remedy, nor are the 
Consequences imputable to me. When all things are calmly 
weighed & considered, I believe it can be made appear, that this 
Army has warded off the most fatal blow that ever threatened 
these Neighbouring Colonies, & tho their Expence has been very 
great, it has not been ill laid out 

274 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I wish your Excellency every thing that is wish worthy and 
am most respectfully Sir 

Your most Obed* hum Serv*. 

INDORSED: General's Letter to 
Gov r . Wentworth 
4 Nov. 1755. 


Albany 5. NoV. 1755 

I now send by Jacob V. Vrancken a Cask of 1(H Nails 
agreeable to y r Honors Orders. The Augers M r . Lyman 
promis'd to send, w ch . conclude he has done I rec d . your Hon". 
Orders of 2. Inst. this day & shall show it to S r . Charles Hardy. 
I have had a Majestrate & some Constables at Schenectady & 
down the River for 3 or 4 days after Waggones, but as yet have 
had but 35. come in, w ch have loaded chiefly with Bread and 
Rum. Am very glad Connecticut Troops are like to have a large 
supply of Bread in Season, hope they'l be able to repay what they 
Borrow'd of Massachusets 

M r . Titcomb wrote me he had lent Connecticut 50 Cask 
Bread, & it is likely some of the other Commissarys have also 
supply'd 'em M r . Lyman himself thinks he shall be obleig'd 
to make Two Trips to repay what Bread he owes I cant help 
thinking that the Massachusetts Troops have been better supply'd 
than Connecticut & am sorry to have Massachusetts only singled 
out as Deficient I shall do every Thing in my Power to get 
up the Provisions Your Hon r . will please to Excuse my 
troubling you with this 

I am Sir 

Your Hon". Obed*. Servant 


1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 275 

D/. 1 

Camp at Lake George 5 Nov r . 1755. 

Yours of Yesterday with the Returns I received last night. I 
am sorry for your Indisposition & hope it will soon leave you. You 
direct Major Fitch to forward every thing with all the Dis- 
itch possible. I have ordered 4 Waggons to be sent from 
Albany, two of w ch I propose shall stay at Fort Edward to bring 
itone for the Chimneys & to do every other work for w ch they 
be wanted & two here, they are to Load Fodder to maintain 
their Horses. You will when they are employed order them a 
suff 1 . Guard. 

I am sorry for the Enemys triumph by the Scalp they have 
taken, the Stupidity of our People & their constant disregard 
to Orders will give the Enemy these advantages, I apprehend 
their Scalping Parties will grow more & more thick upon us, I 
doubt not you will give the proper Orders & take all the precau- 
tions in your power. As to Scouts & Guards, I am quite of your 
Opinion, let us however do our Duty & the Enemy will punish 
them if they dont do theirs. As to the Plunder taken I refer the 
Disposition of it to your Orders. 

By the Letters you sent me from Gov r . Phipps I received his 
Orders in Consequence of a Vote of the Council & House of 
representatives, not to discharge any Man till further Orders, 
w ch you will notice accordingly. 

Col. Browne has received Complaints from his officers, that 
your Surgeon will not take Care of his Sick Men & that fresh 
Provisions are deneyd them, if they pretend Sickness to cover 
Laziness as I am convinced numbers here do, I applaud the Sur- 
geons Honesty, & to such I would Order no Work no Victuals. 

I am Sir 

y n . &c. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

276 Sir William Johnson Papers 


D/. 1 

Camp at Lal^e George 5 Nov r . 1755. 

As I understand you are the Eldest officer, I suppose my 
orders formerly sent to the Commanding officer of the Reinforce- 
ments at Albany rests with you, but I find Major Hazelton gives 
out the orders for the Guards for Waggons & all Convoys sent 

I expect that you take that Duty upon you & that you acquaint 
all Commissaries that when they have any Provisions or Stores 
to send off, to give you timely notice & that you do thereupon 
immediately order suff*. Guards for the same by proportionable 
Detachments from the Massachusetts & Rhode Island Troops. 
And I desire you will acknowledge the receipt of this Letter by 
the first opportunity & conform to its Contents. 

You are not to discharge or give a Furlough to any officer 
or Soldier belonging to the Massachusetts Troops till you receive 
my Orders for the same. 

You are to wait on Sir Charles Hardy Gov r . of New York 
about a Company to be posted on the East or West side of the 
River at Saraghtoga & take his directions in that affair & act upon 
them & I desire you will show him this Letter. 

I am Sir 

Your hum Serv 1 . 


There occur in the Johnson Calendar, p. 64 Johnson's letter of 
November 5th to Governor Hardy, inclosing affidavits of two wagoners, 
with the judgment of a council on the matters attested; a letter of the 5th 
from Dr Peter Middleton to Johnson, protesting against a ruling of a 
court of inquiry and asking a reexamination ; and Captain Ichabod Phelps's 
report of the 6th regarding deserters in charge. They were destroyed by 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


A. D. S. 

Camp at Lake George Nob. p e 6, 7755 
Return of Military Stores in <Cmy possession > as p r Order of 

gor General Johnson Esq r . 

mon ball 
32 Pounders 69 
18 do. 689 

12 do. 201 

6 do. 750 

grape Shott 1 32 charges 
Cartridge 25 d. 

13 Inch Shells 36 

7&9 do.235 

4 boxes musk 1 , ball 

1 casks wadding 

!/4 cask match 

white cordige exspended 

Tarrd d. d. 

1 tin powder measure for 32 


2 d. d. 18 


1 do. do. 12 


2 do. do. 6 

8 powder horns 
1 priming wires 
2 pair brass calloper compasses 

1 pair brass scales led & weight 

2 copper rammers to fill fuses 
400 fuses filld & primd 

2 12 pounders Iron 

46 do. d. 

46 d. Brass 

1 13 Inch Mortar Iron 

2 7 do d<>- -do. 

29 Inch d. brass 

1 4 carriage for different 

sized guns 

2 hand screws 
6 tannd hides 

80 Pick axes 
1 Iron crows 

6 Lint Stocks 

20 Rammers & spunge staffs 
2 gunners mallets 
4 formers sized 

7 copper ladles sized 
6 cartridge boxes 

1 5 crab hanspiks 

8 reams cartridge paper 

16 Broad axes (Delivered 
all the spades, shovels, wood 
axes, deliverd to the people 
at Work on the two forts. 
What are lost, broke or 
spoild, cannot Ace*, for till 
are returnd to the magazine 

278 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

2 cask nails 4 - - Whip Sawes 

8 leather buckets 30 Paint Polins 

2 Jinns & f urneter 3 bars steel 

fourteen cannon 4 d. Iron 

2 32-pounders Iron Powder in y e magazine 

2 18 d. d. whole Barrels 1 4 

halfe d. 385 
Quarter Casks 4 
< 1 Hoit Burst in the ingagement 
1 Jinn broke 

RlCH D . SMITH Corns 1 *. Military Stores> 

INDORSEDS Return of Gcmms? 8 . of 
Military Stores 


Following the above return in the Johnson Calendar, p. 64 arc these 
papers, which were destroyed by fire: Major Christopher Champlin's 
report of main and camp guards, dated November 6th; and a letter to 
Colonel Richard Gridley, of the 7th, from Johnson on a court of inquiry, 
custody of Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Gilbert, returns of garrisons and 
military stores for General Shirley, work on forts and naming of fort at 
Lake George (William Henry). 

Z)/. 1 

Camp at Lake George 7. Nov r . 1755. 

In Compliance with your Excellencys order of the 5 Inst. I 
herewith transmit you 

1 . A General Return of the Troops under my Command 
at this place. 

2. Copys of the several Commissaries returns of the Pro- 

visions in their hands. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 279 

3. The Return from the Commissary of Military Stores. 
I have wrote to Col. Gridley Commanding officer at 
Fort Edward to transmit you Returns of that Garrison 
of Military Stores & Provisions there. 

4. A Copy of the Minutes of the last Council of War. 

5. A Copy of Capt Dolittles Information of the Enemy 
at Tionderogo. 

6. A Copy of Capt. Rodgers & Comp 8 . report. I have 
had no Intelligence from Crown Point since the last I 
sent you. 

Overlooking the Copy of my last Letter to y r . Excell?. I find 
there is a mistake in the number of Men fit for Duty. It should 
have been ab*. 3500 of TV ch . about 800 calculated as Sick & unfit. 

The Fort finishing here w ch . I have named William Henry 
after Two of the Royal Family, if y e Weather permits will I 
hope be speedily fit to receive a Garrison. 

I have sent a reconnoitering Party to endeav r . a view of the 
Enemys advanced Guard since Cap*. Rodgerss Skirmish also Two 
Indians to Crown Point. I am Sir 

Your Excellencys Most Obed*. hum. Serv 1 

To His Excellency 



The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 6465 
by four papers which were destroyed: Michael Thodey's report of a 
scout toward Wood creek, dated November 8th (printed in Doc. Hist. 
N. 7., 4:277; Q, 4:179); James Connor's report of inspection of the 
enemy's advance guard, datecl the 8th (printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y. t 
4:276; Q, 4:1 78-79) ; minutes of a council of war, held November 8th, 
touching dismissal of Connecticut and New Hampshire troops and move- 
ment against enemy; and Philip Lansingh's report of guards, dated 
November 9th. 

280 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 


D/. 1 
[Camp at Lake George, Nov. 9, 7755 2 ] 


My not being Master enough of the French Language, & hav- 
ing been for near 3 weeks confined, mostly to my Bed wholly 
to my Tent, with an Inflamation in the side of my head, has 
prevented me from putting those acknowledgments upon Paper 
w * 1 my heart gave you for the honour You have repeatedly done 
me by your Letters. 

I beg my very good Sir, that you will believe me when I 
assure you, that I have been that I am & always shall be 
unfeignedly anxious for the reestablishment of your Health & 
the perfect Cure of your Wounds. 

I felt all those Inconveniences w h you suffered at Albany, & 
I lamented my want of Power to have instantly remedied them 
however I am greatly obliged to my Sis r . that her Conduct was 
so agreable to you & I shall ever esteem her the more for it. 

I sincerely rejoice that your Spirits are revived & that you have 
such well grounded hopes of a Cure. You are in the hands of a 
Gentleman of whose Skill the world in general & myself in par- 
ticular have a very high Opinion, & one who is capable of being 
the Agreeable Companion as well as the able Physician 

You will see Sir by the dates of this Letter that I am where 
you left me a variety of Circumstances has occasioned it. 

It is probable I shall soon be at New York, where the greatest 
pleasure I wish for, is to find you in health & Tranquility, towards 
w ch I shall be always ambitious to contribute to the utmost Extent 
of my Abilities. 

Capt Eyre is extreamly ill &, under the Apprehension of a 
Fistula he proposes to go down to New York as soon as possible 
in order to apply to & put himself under the advice & Directions 
of D r . Magra. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

2 Date supplied from Johnson to Magra, November 9, 1 755. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 7755-7756 281 

Please Sir to accept of my most cordial good wishes & the 
most respectful salutations of Capt Wraxall my A D Camp. I 
have the honour to subscribe myself with perfect Esteem, 

yrs &c. 

My Comp 18 . to Mons r . Bernier in w ch . M r . Wraxall joins me 
& desires the hon r . of his Comp 18 . to Yourself 

A. L. S. 1 

Fort Edward Novern': 9 th . 7755. 

I Receiv'd your favour of y e : 7 th . and have Transmitted to 
General Shirley a State of the Stores &c of this Garrison agree- 
able to your Order, tho* it was much against my inclination to 
write any more to him, for we never can agree till an alteration 
of Nature in one of us.- 

Four waggons are come two of 'em I detain for drawing 
Stones for the Chimneys agreeable to your Order, I believe the 
Barracks will have the first Story finished tomorrow. I was 
out yesterday & hope in a few days to be able to tend it closely 
my self; & get it finished as soon as possible. 

I am Glad Fort William & Henry is near finished. 
I am w th Respects 

Your Most Humb 1 : Serv*. 


1 In New York Public Library, Emmet Collection. 

282 Sir William Johnson Papers 


D/. 1 
Camp at Lake George, Nov. 9, 7755. 


I was extreamly rejoiced to hear the Baron was under your 
Care M r . Wraxall & I recommended him to your Skill at the 
first Interview we had with him. he is a worthy & an Amicable 
Man & I very much Interest myself in his Perfect Recovery, w^ 
I find he hath now hopes of, & if possible I always had when he 
should come under your Care. 

You will please to present him with the Inclosed Letter. I 
have told him you will translate it for him. 
I salute you with my best Wishes 

I am 

Your very humser 1 . 

INDORSED: Generals Letters to the 
Baron Dieskau & D r . 
Magra9NoV. 1755 


Camp Lake George 9 Nov r . 1755. 

By a Public Print from Boston which came hither this day 
we are informed that His Majestys Commission is arrived con- 
stituting Your Excellency Commander in Chief of all His 
Majestys Forces in North America, upon w^. I take this first 
Opportunity to congratulate you. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 283 

Last Night I held a Council of War & inclose your Excellency 

Copy of the Minutes of the same together with Copies of the 
Lesolves of the Gov 1 . of Connecticut, of Gov r . Fitchs Letter & 
>f Connors Information mentioned in said Minutes. The Returns 
>f the Commissaries were the same I sent you the 8 Inst. by w h . 

>n Calculation it appeared we had not 4 days allowance of 
Iread in Camp. 

This day I received a Letter from Lieu*. Gov r . Phipps with a 
Copy of a Report of a Committee of the Assembly & w h . I find 
has been also transmitted to your Excellency. 

I propose to lay it before a Council of War for their advice as 
to my proceedings in Consequence thereof, & shall advise you the 

I wrote lately to S T . Charles Hardy upon the Subject of Gar- 
risoning Fort William Henry & Fort Edward. I think it proper 
for me to observe to your Excellency, that the present Temper & 
turn of the Troops under my Command & the general run of 
their officers, do in my Opinion render them improper Troops for 
such a Duty, & that unless they are formed on another Plan it 
will be an unadviseable Measure. 

If I am to hold the Commission I received from General Brad- 
dock for the Sole Superintendency of Indian Affairs, I think from 
the present Face of public affairs & the Prospects before us, that 
the Public Interest & the Duty of that appointment call for my 
utmost attention & an immediate application to them only; I am 
convinced this is a critical Juncture w ch if not properly improved 
will be of the utmost ill Consequence to the British Indian 
Interest. Thus Sittuated, the public Good & my Duty to His 
Majesty seems to require that I should surrender the honor con- 
ferred on me in the Command of this Army, and under these 
Considerations I am willing to relinquish my Military to attend 
to my Indian Department in w h . I apprehend I shall be able more 
effectually to serve my King & Country. 

Hereon I refer myself to Your Excellency & beg you will take 
these Matters into your Consideration & favour me with your 
Answer thereon. 

284 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Cap*. Eyre is extreamly ill & quite incapable of doing any 
Duty & the Doctors tell me that to all appearance it will not be 
safe for him to venture. 

Cap 1 . Eyre for some time past has been much out of order; 
however he attended the works tho in constant pain. Two or 
three days ago he was unable to stir out & upon the Surgeons 
examining they found he had a Fistula & thought he might be 
safely cut here, w ch he consented to upon Ace*, of the Fort being 
now so far advanced that he could give verbal Directions for its 
Completion. He was cut this Morning the 1 th . & is tollerably 
well after the operation. 

The Connecticut Troops this Morning refused to do any Duty 
either to work at the Fort or to mount Guard. They say they 
cannot live upon a Biscuit a Day & half a pint of Flour w ch is 
what they are allowed & that they want a Sauce to their Meat 
w * 1 they are used to & cannot live without it. They were packing 
up to go off & some had actually got without the Breast work but 
were prevented from proceeding. As soon as I received notice 
of it, I sent for General Lyman & other Commanding officers. 
They told me that unless a certain number of Days were fixt for 
their working at the Fort & then that they should do no more but 
be discharged agreable to the Orders of their Gov ts . (w ch I find 
the Men are all Acquainted with) they could not undertake to 
retain them in the Service. Upon this I told the Gentlemen to let 
them know, that if they would work 1 2 Days longer at the Fort & 
immediately conform to their Duty in all other respects, & that I 
had no orders to the contrary from their Gov ts . I should dismiss 
them upon the Plan prescribed me. The Gentlemen are just 
gone & assure me that this Method will restore Obedience & 
Tranquility, but of that I am doubtful as I apprehend there are 
other Causes at the Bottom. 

Major Hoare of Col. Ruggles's Reg*, has made a Complaint 
to me of great injustice done him by Lieu*. Col. Gilbert of the 
same Reg*. & who I think from the state of the Case has behaved 
unworthy the Commission he bears I dont apprehend I have 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 285 

power to punish him as he deserves. The Major has applied to 
me for leave to wait on y r . Excellency & lay his case before you. 
He has shown himself a brave & active officer, so that not only 
Justice but his Merit induces me to grant his desire of going down 
& I refer y r . Excellency to him for particulars. 

I am Sir & c . 



A letter of November 10th from Johnson to Commissary Emerson, at 
Albany, on supplies of bread, and padlocks, and a report dated the 1 1 th, 
of Indian scouts, Hendrick and Nicklas, after observations near Ticon- 
deroga (printed m~^ocr7JisTl^Yr^:27S' t Q, 4:180) follow the 
letter to Shirley in the Johnson Calendar, p. 65. Destroyed by fire. 


A. L. S. 1 

Albany Novem r . II 1755. 

I wrote you a few days ago you that Gen. Shirley 

was appointed Com r . in chief: whether it is by any particular 
Commission & Instruct 8 . I know not, it is an act however of the 
Regency, and will continue at least till the Kings arrival. It was 
absolutely necessary to remove all doubt by an actual placing of 
the Power in somebody this is done in a very ample manner to 
Gen Shirley very little comes to my knowledge worthy yours 
Some say 4 Reg ts . are to come over, be that as twill it's in 
general expected that a Comm r . in chief will be app d . soon for 
America. I am of opinion the Breach between you is too wide 
to be heal'd, all I shall say on that Subject is that if it is not, & 
the Command rests where it is, the Public may, probably suffer 
by it. Were it my own Case as long as I continued in the Comm n . 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

2 Omitted in copying. 


Sir William Johnson Papers 

and any thing remained of the Fund, I would do what I could to 
keep up a good disposition in the Indians, and to induce them to 
go on Service when wanted, let who will be the Conductor of the 
Army or the director General I cannot think he has Power, 
or if he had, that he would venture to supercede your Commis- 
sion, if he does himself will feel the Injury rather than you, and 
till then it will be expected that you make the best use of the 
authority committed to you that the Circumstances of things will 
admit of. 'twould be a shocking thing that the Publick Good 
should be impeded by any difference between Persons intrusted 
with the power to promote it this I fear, and hope you'l avoid 
as much as possible. I know your Views & actions concerning 
the Publick are as little directed by your own private views as it 
is possible for those of any Person to be. As Most People have 
this opinion of you whatever Provocations you receive, it will 
nevertheless be expected that you do not suffer your Resentm 1 
to get the better of your Publick Spirit. When things are better 
understood it will be known where the fault lies. I just now hear 
there are 3 Comm rs . from Boston instructed not to suffer one of 
their People to go home, but to push on the Expedition. Tis not 
so much the want of Provisions, tho I believe there is a deficiency 
in that article, as the want of an Inclination to proceed; & I 
veryly believe that if, after the Battle, you'd had every thing 
necessary, the army would not have proceeded. There are many 
who for want of being better inform'd think you, and not the 
army were averse to proceeding. I hear none of that opinion 
here. It is not a time now to refer to their opinion, but it should 
be a reason for your continuing to recommend the Reasons, as 
well as the Measures you propose. You were certainly right to 
consult on all occasions, but perhaps it had been better for the 
Common Cause if you had been guided by y r . own Judgment, or 
at least have try'd your authority early. I hear the State & Con- 
dition of your army are demanded of you, as a Foundation for 
Orders for further Proceedings. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-17 56 287 

November 1 1 A . I have kept the above in my Pocket these 5 
days I believe for want of a good opportunity. The Powers 
granted M r , Shirley are by act of the Regency till his Majesty's 
pleasure is known. The Sergeant to whom you gave a Letter 
lately for Sir Charles lost that and his Pack of Clothes together, 
so that there is no account from you of Rogers' s Skirmish. How- 
ever exaggerated his acco t8 . are thought here to be, every one says 
he is a bold useful man, and deserves well of the Publick. We 
heard that you were sending off 600 Men to the advanced Post. 
But no News we hear from the Camp is credited unless from 
yourself and you know you seldom write. If I have not already I 
intended to hint to you to order the Cask emty Casks to be pre- 
served; in Case it should be thought proper to salt Beef at Fort 
Edward. Much is said here as to this Point ; whether there is or 
not a practicable Road to be made from the Carrying Place to 
South Bay, and whether this is or not the best way to go to Crown 

< Point. This was the way you said you would go. For this 
Reason some People think a Fort unnecessary at the Lake. I 
should be glad of your Sentiments on this Matter, and how far 
if you go through the Lake, the artillery & Stores must be carryed 
by Land, and whether in case the South Bay Road is practicable, 
we should not still be obliged to Land and drive the Enemy from 

i Tionderoga, that is whether they could not otherways stop us 

' here Wou'd not the Narrows too, be a dangerous Post to 
remove an Enemy from. In short I mean your opinion whether 
the Lake or the other Passage is the best way Comm". from 

i Conn*, are here, those from Massachusets are expected tomorrow. 
And then I suppose all Matter as to your x will be 

settled. when and not before Sir Charles will leave this Place. 
I am d. Sir, yours most afectionately, 


1 Word omitted in copying. 

288 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 


D/. 1 
Camp at Lake George II Nov r . 1755 


This morning about 19 or 20 Men of the New York Reg 1 . 
mutined & marched off with their arms, they murmur at the bad- 
ness of their Provisions, that their Months pay is due, that their 
Enlistments were expired & that their officers abused them. They 
were bro*. back, I went out to them & so far answered their 
Objections that for this time they are pacified, but I fear tis but 
Fire covered with Ashes w ch may soon break out again & as I 
dread from the Disposition of the Troops, that if these fellows 
should go off it would infect others & spread perhaps throughout 
the whole I would therefore desire that you will in case a party 
should go off from hence that when they come to Fort Edward 
you would turn out a proper account of y r Garrison & make them 
Prisoners, I would not have you fire upon them so as to kill any 
unless absolutely necessary but endeav r . all you can to intimidate 
and secure them & then send them with a Strong Guard hither 

I am 

y r . humserv 1 . 

Capt Wraxall rec'd the Inclosed Letter this Morning w ch I 
think proper to send you The Writer came once up here with a 
Guard, Spoke to M r Wraxall & desired he might be introduced 
to me w ch M r . Wraxall put off this is all he knows of him 


Johnson's order, dated November 1 1 th, to commanders at Albany to 
march to the east side of the lake to meet the enemy, following the pre- 
ceding in the Johnson Calendar, p. 65 was destroyed by fire. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 


Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


A. L. S. 1 

Albany NoV. II. 55 

Lett me thank you for your late Letter & the very accurate 
account of the Rout from Ft Edward to the Mohawks. I beleive 
I shall be able to gett carryed into Execution the building a 
picquetted Magazine with a Garrison, by giving it in hints to 
other people who are willing to catch at anything upon which 
they can build a merit. 

I mentioned to S r Charles Hardy, the matter Relative to the 
Canadien & French Prisoners, He is sorry that the giving them 
again is an after thought after they have had quarter once given 
them but however if you will by yourself or the Indians make 
a formal demand of them he will lett them be delivered to you. 
I mention'd it also to the L* Governor, he is of the same mind. 
Sr Charles Hardy hopes & depends upon seing you as soon as 
you can be releived from y r present Command, he has deferrd 
talking or corresponding with Gen 1 Shirley on points of Indian 
Affairs till he sees you. He wishes, if you can possibly, that you 
woud come hither or to N York by the Mohawks away, that is 
to call upon them before you come here or to N York. 

It seems the French are reduced to the making a desperate 
push. They have and will have certainly some scheme to attack 
you by surprize or draw you unawares into some action ; for God's 
sake suspect Every thing. Wherever you fight lett it be your own 
choice, not their force or artifice. 

Things here are under strange confusion & military 2 Service 
under much dissatisfaction. Pay 8 my Respects to Cap 1 . Eyres 

1 In Aycr Collection, Ncwbcrry Library, Chicago, 111. 

2 This word is questioned in the copy. 

8 This word is bracketed in the copy, as doubtful or supplied. 

Vol. 1110 

290 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

& all freinds, And wish you all success & happiness. I don't 
despair yet of seing you. I remain my Dear Sir, your most 
affectionate faithfull Servant. 


D/. 1 

Camp at Lake George 1 1 Nov r . Tuesday night 

Just now Two Indians who set off some days ago for Crown 
Point are arrived & say they were prevented from proceeding by 
Discovering a Large Army of the Enemy on this side the Nar- 
rows on the East side the Lake. The chief of the Two is a Man 
I can depend on is a brave Indian & he is very positive in his 
Information & says our Troops here appear but a handful to them. 
Since these Indians came in, Capt Rodgers & his Party are 
arrived ; they say they saw a very Large Smoke about that Place 
w ch . the Indian describes, tho they were not as I understand so 
near as the Indian. 

By the Advice of the Commanding Officers here, I send your 
Excellency this Express & inclose you My Order to the Com- 
manding Officers of the Reinforcements at Albany to march 
hither with all possible Dispatch, w ch I beg you will circulate 
amongst them without delay, & We hope you will Order the 
Regular Troops to our Assistance. Whether they propose an 
Attack upon Fort Edward or here is uncertain. I have given Col. 
Gridley Notice & directed him to take every necessary Measure. 
I am 

yr Excellencys Most Obed*. hum Serv 1 . 

To His Excellency 


1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 291 


Johnson's letter of November 1 1 th to Colonel Richard Gridley, on the 
nearness of the enemy and need of good management, following the fore- 
going letter in the Johnson Calendar, p. 65 was destroyed by fire. 


In Doc. Rel. to Col Hist. N. Y. t 6:1020, is a letter, of November 
1 1 th, from Sir Thomas Robinson, at Whitehall, notifying Johnson that 
he has been raised to the dignity of a baronet. 

A. L. S. 1 

[Albany] Nov. 12, 1755. 

The Comm n : are expected hourly. You see the necessity of 
employing a number of Parties as well to prevent the Enemy 
intercepting your Provisions as to be some little Cover to the 
Country. No one would imagine you are in great want of Prov*. 
As the Council of War thinks proper to detain all the Men there, 
this Measure I apprehended would long since have reduced them 
to actual Want. One convoy intercepted, will drive you to great 
Streights. What method do you think best to get Prov 8 . up the 
next Winter. Sho'd not Pork be sent from N Y to this Place 
before the winter sets in, in order to be sent in slays when the 
Snow permits. Cannot you find means to keep a small Party 
going between the Camp & Fort Edward, & between that & 
Albany in order to carry your dispatches. The Comm n . &c. 
will in a few days I suppose settle what is to be come of your 


1 Original destroyed by fire. 

292 f Sir William Johnson Papers 



Camp at Lake George 12 Novemb r . 1755. 


Since my dispatches last night, there are Contradictions between 
the Indian acco*. & Cap*. Rogers & his party who went out Sep- 
erately on different Sides of the Lake. Cap*. Rogers is positive 
the Enemy are at Tenonderogo, the Indians as positive they are 
between this & the Carrying place, & are a Prodigious Body. 
You will dispatch the inclos'd to General Shirley either by some 
Brisk men to Seraghtoga, & they to Send it forward, or a Horse- 
back as you will think best, I leave it to you but would not have 
a moments delay, but let it go forward with the utmost dispatch; 
you will keep a good look out a party advanc'd on this road will 
I think be proper; God knows whether the Enemy will Visit us 
or not, & w * 1 . of us first, so that no precautions are to be omitted; 
I have order'd all the Reinforcements with as much provision as 
they can carry, to March Instantly, if you find needfull you may 
Reinforce yt Garrison, I am greatly hurried 


please to send me a Copy of mine last night & this Letter for I 
have no time to take Copies 

To Colo. Gridley 
a True Copy 



The preceding letter was followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 66 
by Thompson and Connor's report of scouting, written November 1 3th j 
(printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y. t 4:279; Q. 4:180); Lieutenant Peiter | 
Becker's report of scouting to eastward dated the 1 3th (Doc. Hist. N. Y., 
4:278; Q, 4:180); minutes, of the 13th, of a council of war, relating 
to an entrenchment around Fort William Henry and despatches to Albany; 
and Johnson's letter, of the 13th, to General William Shirley regarding 
information given by scouts. Destroyed by fire. 

Original destroyed by fire. 

I Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 293 

Connajoharie 12 lh . Nov f . 1755. 

This is to acquaint you that there is a Post from Oneida who 
' informs us, that there is an Onondaga Indian from Oswegatie, 
who tells us that the French Governor made Inquiry of the Indians 
who had taken the French General Prisoner, upon which they 
answered the Oneidas. O says he, that is all I want to know, I 
can take them likewise, I have Snow Shoes & every other Neces- 
sary for that purpose. 

And therefore with this Belt of Wampum the Oneidas request 
General Johnson & General Shirley at once to build a Fort at 
Oneida if they please, and immediately to put Men into it for 
their protection and they desire likewise that they would supply 
them with Cannon Powder & Ball. Now Brethren protect us 
all and that as speedily as possible, and pray dont forget to 
acquaint General Johnson, and we desire an Answer directly. 
We have sent the News every where and to Onaquage. Nothing 
More, but we are 

Yours &c 

BRANDT'S X mark 

P: S: We desire to know by the first Opportunity whether we 
are to have a Fort or not. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

294 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 


Of. 1 

Camp at Lake George 12 No\> r . 1755 


The Express with my Letters last night set off about 1 2 oClock 
when the Letters were sealed & every thing ready for their 
Departure. Cap*. Rodgers came in & told us that upon further 
Consideration & comparing the Indians account with his own Dis- 
coveries, he was persuaded the Army the Indian had seen was at 
Tionderogo. The Indian was called in & confidently assured us 
he was so well acquainted with Tionderogo & the Country there- 
abouts & had so clear a View of the Enemy that he could not 
be mistaken. Rodgers grew as positive on his side. I again put 
it to the several officers present whether any alteration should be 
made in my Letters, it was unanimously agreed they should go 
as they were & they urged me not to keep the Express a moment 
longer, One Gent n . indeed said he would not give any Opinion 
the positiveness & contradiction on both sides appeared so equally 
strong. the other Indian, a younger one, confirmed his Com- 
panions Ac*, with equal warmth. 

After the Express went, I sat up till near 3 this Morning with 
both the Indians, minutely examined them, compared all Circum- 
stances they continued unvariably positive. Early this Morning 
I talked to Rodgers; he still persists the Indians are mistaken, 
that he counted 150 odd Tents at Tionderogo, saw an Indian 
Encamp 1 , hear them Dance &c. & this the same day the Indians 
say they saw the Encamp*, this way & heard a great number of 
Drums beat, the Indians saw also their Fires by night w ch . in 
Number & largeness exceeded they say all they ever saw & made 
it as Light as day, that there was no End of their Numbers 

Immediately upon the Indian News I dispatched a party for 
observation towards where the Indians place their Discovery 

Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


This Morning early Two Indians 3 Indian officers & an able 
Woodsman with 2 or 3 of our People set off to reconnoitre. Two 
days ago our usual Scout of 30 Men marched for South Bay 
Wood Creek & to the Narrows in the drowned Lands with 
Orders upon Discovering any Body of the Enemy to dispatch a 
Brisk hand or two hither & to Fort Edward. We have no Intel- 
ligence as yet from them. For my part I was puzzeled last 
Night I remain so still. If my Opinion leans any Way it is in 
favour of Cap*. Rodgers for unless the Enemys Motions are very 
slow I think we should at least have heard from our Scouts who 
marched two days ago. and yet when I reflect on the general 
Behaviour of our own People I cannot fully depend on their 

As I was pressed by the Officers last Night to mention their 
hopes, that the Regular Troops might come to our assistance & 
as I am sensible it may be attended with many Inconveniences & 
that the Scarcity of Provisions here particularly Bread may make 
a precipitate March of Bad Consequence I think it proper without 
taking any further Advice to lay matters before your Excellency 
in the most concise & yet clearest manner I am able & wholly to 
refer the Issue to Your Excellency The Provincial Reinforce- 
ments I would by all means have march with the utmost Dispatch 
& the Commissaries send forward without delay all the Provisions 
they possibly can 

I am 

Your Excellencys Most obed* hum Serv 1 . 

INDORSED: General's Letter to Gen 1 . 
Shirley 12 Nov. 1755. 


Sir William Johnson Papers 


Albany NoV: 13*. 1755. 


Yesterday in the Afternoon I receiv'd your Letter of the 1 1 th 
Instant by Express giving an Account of the Discovery of a large 
Body of French on the East side of Lake George advancing 
towards your Camp. Upon the Receipt of it Orders were imme- 
diately given to the Commanding Officers of the Provincial 
Troops rais'd for the Reinforcement of the Army under your 
Command, w ck are quarter*d about this Place to collect their 
respective Corps forthwith in order to march w th . all Dispatch 
to your Assistance, each Man to carry with him as much pro- 
visions & ammunition as he can speedily march with. 

Accordingly I expect that 800 of those Troops will march this 
morning, and the remainder, w ch by advice of the Gov". & Field 
Officers of the Regular Troops now here are reserv'd to escort as 
large a Quantity of Provisions for the Subsistence of your Army 
as all the Waggons & Horses, that can be immediately procur'd 
by Sir Charles Hardy upon this Emergency, can carry: and I 
hope they will follow the first Division of the Troops in twenty 
four Hours. 

Upon this Occasion I have determin'd to send a Detachment 
of 500 of the Regular Troops now here to strengthen you further, 
w * 1 shall proceed to the Army, as soon as a Body of the like 
Number of Militia shall be rais'd here to proceed with them as 
Scouts & Rangers in their March & Guides thro the Country. 

I hope this Reinforcement will be sufficient for your Support 
against any Attack, w cK the Enemy may make upon you: and 
doubt not but you will be able soon to give a good Account of 
them: I wish you all imaginable Success, and am, 


Your most Humble Servant. 



Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 297 


Johnson's order, of November 1 3th, to reinforcements to hasten their 
march from Albany to camp, following the preceding letter in the Johnson 
Calendar, p. 66, was destroyed by fire. 


D/. 1 
Camp Lake George 15 Nov r . 1755. 


Please to forward the Letter herewith immediately by an 
officer & 1 2 or 13 Men to Seraghtoga, where a Party are to take 
them forward to Albany without the least delay. 

One of Scouts to South Bay discovered a very late Tract of 
Four going towards Fort Edward. I am convinced the Enemy 
extreamly want a Prisoner & I beg you will prevent straggling 
all in your power & no parties under five to go out. please to 
advertise them hereof at Seraghtoga. 
No Discoveries since my last. 

I am 

Your most Obed* Serv 1 . 


Albany NoV. 15*: 1755. 

His Excellency Sir Charles Hardy yesterday Communicated 
to the General a Letter he had received by M r . Stevens and three 
Indians, from the Conajoharie Castle, containing a Message from 
the Oneida Indians, requesting that a Fort might be immediately 
built at their Castle, that they might have some Cannon & Ammu- 
nition and that some white men might be posted there for the 
defence of it. 

/Original destroyed by fire. 

296 ' Sir William Johnson Paper* 

Whereupon there was a meeting at 10 oClock this Morning 
at the General's. 


His Excellency General Shirley 
His Excellency Sir Charles Hardy 
The Hon ble . James DeLancey Esq r . 
The Hon blc . Thomas Pownal Esq r . 

The Messengers were called in and the following Message 
delivered to them in Writing and explained to them by the Inter- 

Brothers of the Oneida Nation 

I have heard the Message from you, directed to myself and 
General Johnson, which was forwarded to me thro the Mohawks 
Castle, and in Answer thereto do now inform you, that before 
I came to the Carrying place in my way from Oswego, I had 
heard that you had desired a Fort should be built at your Castle, 
and I thereupon ordered about 20 Men from Burnetsfield to go 
to build it, and I was afterwards told, that the Men were gone 
to your Castle to build it. I shall now write to Cap 1 Williams at 
the Carrying place and to Justice Petri, that if the Men are not 
yet gone to send them Immediately. I shall also send you a good 
officer with 30 Soldiers and two great Guns with Powder and 
Shott, and every thing else necessary for your defence. 

Brothers, be not dismayed at the French, they want to 
frighten you, and to turn your faces from fighting against them, 
and to keep you at home least you should do them harm, you may 
depend upon it, that I shall do all in my power to defend you, 
and all my Brothers of the Six Nations and I shall let our 
Brother General Johnson know the Message you have sent, he is 
at present fighting against ours & your Enemies the French, and 
he will do all in his power also to you and all our Brethren. 

With this Belt of Wampum I confirm all I have said. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 



L. S. 1 

Albany No*. 15 th . 1755. 

I have nothing to add to the inclos d , 2 but to desire that you 
will let me know, as soon as possible, what you now apprehend 
to be the Strength and Situation of the Enemy, and likewise the 
State of your army if you have any thing to add to the last 
Accounts you transmitted to me. 
I am, 

Your most Humble Servant, 


P. S. His Majesty's Service will not permit me to accept of 
your Military Commission before this Campaigne is over. 

INDORSED: General Shirleys Letter 
to General Johnson with 
Indian Papers ab*. Fort 
at Oneida. 


Camp at Lake George 15 Nov r . 1755 

The Two Battoes with officers w ch Informed Your Excellency 
in my last of the 1 3 Inst I had dispatched upon further Discovery 
of the Enemy, returned the next Morning; they went about 12 
or 14 Miles down the Lake to the first Narrows. They dis- 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

2 Oneidas to Stevens, November 12, 1755, and Shirley and others to 
Oneidas, November 15, 1755. 

300 'Sir William Johnson Papers 

covered several Smoaks; saw a Birch Canoe paddle very swiftly 
to an Island on the East side* near to which they were & where 
there appeared a small Fire A Whistle was given upon which 
the Fire was put out they found they were discovered, lay 
upon their Oars a while to consult & look round them they 
judged it not safe to proceed & returned hither about 4 oClock 
Yesterday Morning. I then sent out another Scout to go down 
the Lake in a Battoe about 6 miles, to Land on the West side 
travel about 8 Miles by Land, get upon an Eminence & make 
what Observations they could. They returned Yesterday after- 
noon, say they saw the smoak as it were of expiring Fires on the 
East side, but discovered no Cannoes or any People. Another 
Land Scout from the N. E. returned Yesterday Evening say 
they saw a pretty large smoke to the S. E. of the Mountain where 
they posted themselves. Several other Scouts have returned but 
made no Discoveries w ch clear matters up, or serve to give a 
detirminate Opinion, perhaps before Noon or in the Afternoon 
I expect the return of some Indian officers Two Indians & some 
of our People, who I sent to South Bay, Wood Creek & across 
the Mountains 3 days ago. I propose to keep this Letter in 
expectation of Intelligence from them. 

When Cap*. Rodgers had the Skirmish with the Enemys 
Advanced party he told me he heard Two Alarm Cannon fired 
at Tionderogo. I find upon looking over his Written Report he 
has omitted this Circumstance, he persists that he was not mis- 
taken but very plainly heard the Cannon. Now I apprehend, 
that upon this alarm the Enemy assembled at Crown Point & 
from all parts of the Country that way, marched to Tionderogo, 
imagining our Army was coming forwards, posted themselves in 
some advantageous Pass to oppose us, and that this was the Army 
the Indians saw, for I cannot bring myself to think they were 
mistaken, the oldest of them to this Moment is as positive as 
ever with regard to the greatness of the Fires & that he clearly 
saw a vast number of Tents. Whether that Army remains, is 
broke up upon further Discovery that this Alarm was groundless 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 301 

or are taking Measures to Attack us, which of these is the Case, 
I will not pretend to detirmine. perhaps before the close of this 
Day some of our Scouts may help us to form some more certain 
judgm 1 . 

By Advice of a Council of War we have moved our Artillery 
over to Fort William Henry & most of them are mounted there. 
We have almost finished a double Entrenchment round the Fort 
have removed thither our Powder Military Stores & Provisions. 
And propose if the Numbers of the Enemy should equal our 
Intelligence that upon their coming to attack us, we will make 
our Stand there, which we judge will be more safe & formidable 
than in this Camp, in the other Case our Force must have been 
divided, it was suspected (& I believe with reason) that our 
Men wou'd most of them have run to the Fort, and besides this 
Measure will probably Baffle the Schemes of an Attack w ch the 
Enemy may have formed, supposing to have disputed the Point 
in our Encamp*, here. 

About one oClock the Party I sent to South Bay, returned 
they went round the Bay & 10 to Wood Creek neither discovered 
the Enemy nor the Traces of any except a Party of about 4 very 
lately passed towards Fort Edward, a Scout down the Lake 
also return discovered a Fire where the others did of yesterday 
heard 3 Indians whoop on the East side, whistling on an Island 
saw Two Canoes who made from them. 

The Fort is in a finishable Condition. Two Ranges of Bar- 
racks built but we are distressed for boards to floor them, when 

compleated they will contain Men. The Timber is getting 

for another Barrack. The Connecticut Troops are detirmed not 
to stay longer than their 1 days w ch . expire next Wensday & I 
am affraid their going off will spread a general Inclination thro 
the rest to do the same, particularly the New York Reg*, part of 
w^ actually set off a few days ago & with the utmost Difficulty 
I prevailed on them to stay a little longer, they alledge their 
enlistments are out & also demand their Pay w ck was due the 
first of this Month. We have not in the whole more than 3 days 

302 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

Meat & Bread in the Camp & unless speedily supplied dread the 
Consequences will be extreamly fatal!. 

To His Excellency 


Following the foregoing in the Johnson Calendar, p. 66, is a letter, of 
November 1 5th, from J. C. Maine to Wraxall, in which his release from 
custody at Fort Edward is asked. Destroyed by fire. On the same page 
are three papers, of November 16th, which were destroyed by fire: orders 
to Lieutenant Richard Rogers to reconnoiter Ticonderoga and ^lown 
Point (printed in Doc. Hist. N. 7., 4:281 ; Q, 4:182); a letter to 
Colonel Richard Gridley concerning J. C. Maine's case, lack of news 
by scouts, and guards; and a letter to Governor Hardy about reports of 
scouts, information brought from Canada by an Onondaga Indian, inability 
to devote time to Indian affairs, and a proposal to send militia. 

D/. 1 

Camp at Lake George 16 Nov r . 1755 

You are to proceed with the Party under your Command in 
a Battoe as far down the Lake towards the Enemy s advanced 
Party as you find you prudently can. then land on the East side 
& take a View round about if you can discover any considerable 
Encampment of the Enemy, if so to make the most exact dis- 
covery you can of their Numbers &c. If you discover no 
Encampment thereabouts proceed to Tionderogo & make the 
best Discoveries you can there & return hither as soon as possible. 

Given under my hand at the 

Camp at Lake George 1 6 Nov r . 1 755 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 303 


Camp at Lat^e George Sunday Morning 16 Nov r . 1755. 

Yesterday afternoon I dispatched a Letter to your Excellency 
by a Party to Fort Edward, to be immediately forwarded from 
thence to Saraghtoga from thence to Albany. No further 
Intelligence concerning the Enemy hath since arrived. A party 
went yesterday with orders to Scout to South Bay & down Wood 
Creek. In the Evening I sent a Party with 3 Battoes down the 
Lake to make & push for all the Discoveries they could. 

This Morning about 2 oClock I received by Express Your 
Excellencys Letters of the 13 Inst. 

As none of our various Scouts have brought any Intelligence 
w ch clear up the Contradictions between the Indians & Cap 1 
Rodgers's I grow more & more inclined to believe the Indians 
were under a mistake (or that the Army they saw advanced is 
retreated to Tionderogo). 

The Three Battoes I sent down the Lake yesterday Evening 
are this Minute come in sight. I will detain the Express to send 
you their Report. 

Two of the said Battoes are come in (the other was one sent 
from the Works) the Third Battoe with the officer of the party 
& 9 Men they left determined to proceed upon discovery, there 
not being Provisions enough for them all. They went about 16 
or 1 7 Miles down the Lake & discovered nothing. 

Two Indians 1 Indian officer & Two others are now going off 
for Tionderogo to discover the posture of the Enemy, & if the 
Army is not there or advanced on this side are to proceed to 
Crown Point for future Discovery. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

304 'Sir William Johnson Papers 

If any fresh Intelligence of importance arrives I will dispatch 
an account of it by Express to your Excellency. 
I am Sir 

Your Excellencys Most Obed 1 . hum Serv 1 . 

To His Excellency 


In the Johnson Calendar, p. 67 are found Lieutenant David Water- 
bury *s report, dated November 1 7th, of a scouting expedition (printed 
in Doc. Hist. N. Y. t 4:280-81 ; Q, 4:181-82) ; and Captain Eliphalet 
Fales's report of scouting, also of the 17th (Doc. Hist. N. Y., 4:283; 

Q, 4:183). Both were destroyed by fire. 



[Albany*]. Nov. 17, 1755 

At a Meeting at His Excellency Major General William Shir- 
ley's the 17: NoV: 1755. 6 oClo. P. M. 


His Excellency Major Gen 1 . Shirley 
His Excellency Sir Charles Hardy 
The Hon ble . James Delancey Esq r . 
The Hon ble . Thomas Pownal Esq r . 
The Hon blc John Rutherford 
The Hon ble . Daniel Horsmanden 
The Hon ble . James Minot 

John Choat Esq r . 
Oliver Partridge Esq r 
Sam 1 . Leveredge Esq. 

Commissioners from 
the province of the 
Massachusets Bay 

Benjamen Hall Esq r . Commissioners from the 

John Hubbard Esq r . Colony of Connecticut 


1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Place supplied from the Johnson Calendar. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 305 

That it be recommend as the Opinion and Advise . . / 
of the Members of this Meeting, that the Army under the Com- 
mand of Major Gen 1 . Johnson, do advance against the Enemy, 
and attempt to remove them from their encroachments as far as 
they are able at this Season. 

above Copy from the Minutes 


D. S. 2 

Proceeding of a Court of Inquiry held at Fort Edward Monday 
November the 1 7 1 755 By order of the Commander of the Said 

Cap 1 Thaxter President 

Leiu* Burbeck 

Leiu* Powers 

_ . _ f Members 

Leiu* 1 albot 

Leiu* Clark 

Complaint Exhibitted By Cap* Moses Deshon who was Cap* of 
the pickett found on the Sixteenth Instant Against Mathew 
Bright John Mahar Francis Conner David Anderson James 
Baker Thomas Morgan James Powers. For deserting the Fort 
on the Lord day and treating the Said Cap* and officers with 
Disrespectfull Language and using many profane Speaches 
when the Said Cap 1 was bringing them disarmed into the fort 

The Prisoners being Called and asked whether they ware Guilty 
of* Not they Reply 'd Not Guilty 

1 Omitted in copying ; probably omitted by Alexander. 

"Original destroyed by fire. 

* This word plainly should be " or." 

306 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

On which the Court proceeded to Try and Called the Evidences. 
Ensign Blake 


Serg*. Standley 

Edward Worster ^ .. n ., 
^ i- A -i i Guilty as rolloweth 
Cornelius Anmbal 

By whose Evidences we 
-find the above Prisoners 

Mathew Bright John Mahar Francis Conner Guilty of deserting 
the fort on the Lord Day of profane Swareing & treating their 
Superior officers with Disrispectfull Language and threating the 
Said officers when disarmed if they had their arms would not be 
so disarnTd again by the Said officers. David Anderson Guilty 
of deserting the fort on the Lord day and Treating his Superior 
officer with ill Language by telling him he was a dam Liar 
Thomas Morgan James Baker Guilty of deserting the fort on the 
Lord day and when order'd back by the guards behaved them- 
selves disrispectfully unto their Superior officers. James Powers 
guilty of deserting the fort on the Lords day. 

For which Crimes wee order'd them Back unto their place of 
Confinement and their to Continue until the morrow Ten of the 
Clock in the forenoon and then to be Conveigh'd unto the place 
of Correction and their to receive their punishment as followeth 

Mathew Bright, John Mahar Francis Conner Each Receive 
thirty Nine Stripes on their naked Backs with a whip or Birch 

David Anderson Receive fifteen Stripes on his Naked back 
with a whip or Birch 

James Baker Thomas Morgan To Ride the wooding horse 
one hour Each 

James Powers To pay twelve pence Sterling 

all which we Humbly Submitt unto your Honnours 
From your Honnours Humble Servant 


Preliminary Campaigns, 1 7 55- 1 7 56 307 


Testimony of George Braman at Fort Edward, against a prisoner by 
name of " Whetmore," dated November 1 7th, in the Johnson Calendar, 
p. 67, was destroyed by fire. 


D/. 1 
Camp at Lat^e George 

Monday Morning 17 Nov r . 1755. 


The Connecticut Troops have flatly refused to go out on the 

5 days Scout towards South Bay & Wood Creek w ch was 
marched this Morning, they say their time is out on Wensday & 
they will stay no longer. Their Feild officers have been with me 

6 tell me they have used all their Influence but in Vain. When 
they go off I fear the New York Reg*, will not stay & that the 
Infection will spread amongst the rest of the Troops. We have 
not more Meat & Bread than will serve the Troops here one day 
in short there is a general Dissatisfaction w ch I affraid may pro- 
duce Consequences the most distressing & fatal. I have sus- 
pected these things for some time past but General Lyman in 
particular & several other officers in general when I have sug- 
gested my Apprehensions have glossed things over & represented 
the Mens Inclinations in such favourable Lights as did in some 
Measure lead me to think I was mistaken in my Suspicions, in 
my Opinion no time is to be lost in falling on Measures to Serve * 
His Majestys Two Forts our Artillery & its Stores. And I am 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

* Evidently this word should be " save. 1 

308 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

clearly of Opinion that from present Appearances, it will not be 
adviseable to depend on the Provincial Troops for these Garrisons. 
I am 
Your Excellencys Most Obed'. hum Serv 1 . 



Since writing the above Col. Whitcomb of a 
Massachusetts Reg*, has been with me & says 
it was with the utmost Difficulty that he & his 
chaplin prevented the Reg*, from marching off 
to day & thinks he shall not be able to retain 
them tomorrow. 


A letter to Johnson from William Alexander, dated November 1 7th, 
inclosing minutes of a council of governors and commissioners held at 
Albany, and asking report of action thereon, follows the foregoing letter 
in the Johnson Calendar. It is followed by Israel Putnam and Stephen^ 
Schuyler's report of a scout to South bay, dated the 18th (printed in 
Doc. Hist., N. K, 4:279-80; 4:181); and Johnsons letter, of the 
18th, to inhabitants of Suffolk county, acknowledging donation of fat 
cattle, with a note to George Muirson. Destroyed by fire. 

A. L. S. 1 

Albany 18 No*. 1755. 

I am f avour'd with your Letter of the 10 and have just now 
seen your Letter to Sir Charles of the 1 6, with Extracts of yours 
to the General of the 9 th I have seen too the Letter to you in 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 309 

Consequence of the Opinion of the Grand Meeting held last 
fight which lasted till this Morning, there's nothing more in it 
was recommended by the Gov. & Council by the Report of 
the 1 8t . & the Minute of the 27 Oct. But I observe it leaves a 
hole for the Council of War to creep out at, if it should be 
possible to proceed. Today I understand the Gen. has agreed 
to garrison the two Forts at the Kings Expence, but with Irregu- 
lars. I suppose he'll appoint officers. It was urged it might be a 
disappointment the next year, if Regular Troops were sent 

It was yesterday given out in Orders that a New Regiment was 
to be raised, & Cap 1 . Bradstreet to be L*. Colonel of it. Kenier * 
is promoted to the Rank of Major. I hear nothing of tother 
Regiment that is to be raised, it's said. Some suspect the Jersey 
Troops are to be taken into one of the two Regim 1 *. 

The Promotion of Bradstreet gives great Chagrin to the Euro- 
pean Majors. There's some Secret in this affair, for a few Months 
ago the General & Bradstreet were on no good Terms. He now 
aims at the Superintendency of Indian affairs at least as to the 
foreign & uppermost 3 of the five Nations. It's said the Commis- 
sion to you should be of a different Nature, I suppose to make 
room for other Persons. I was told lately you had rece'd 5000 
Sterl'g on account of Indian affairs 2 from Braddock the rest 
from his Successor, I imagine the 1600 Gen Shirley paid you 
& what you recived from our Province on acco*. of the Expe- 
dition is meant. Much is said to lessen the Merit of your Service, 
and great Fault found at your not proceeds, the Blame of which 
is industriously thrown upon you. And so little do that Party 
think that the Publick have Reason to ask or wonder why the 
Niagara Expedition did not go on, that it is said " It's surprizing 
they could do so much." I am apprehensive you may be under 
a necessity of justifying yourself to the Blame of others. We 
shall if it be possible see you at New York. For if your Inidns f 

1 James Kinneer, major of 50th regiment? 
* Indians. 

31 ' &r William Johnson Papers 

Fund is Exhausted I doubt you'l get no further Supply. You 
are not sworn as a Counciler, nor have you seen Sir Charles, 
who's much yo r . Freind & greatly wishes to see you. The Meet- 
ing of the Governors is appointed for the 1 st . decem. at N York 
Sir Charles will certainly leave this Place on the 20 th : wind 
& weather permitting; and the General talks of embarking two 
days afterwards. As to other Politicks the Scheme of opera- 
tions is to be setled. There is no prospect of much unanimity, 
nor do I think the proper will be formed as soon as they 
ought to be. Some expect many hope, and, it may be appre- 
hended, a few dread the Arrival of a New General. God send 
it, and give you Health. 

I am D r . S r . 

yours most affectionately 


I was told the Presents for the Western Ind s . arrived to late 
at Oswego, & that all or most of them are left there. The Oneidas 
sent a Message lately desiring a Fort may be built in their Coun- 
try. It is ordered and to be garrisoned w h Regulars If the 
Gen 1 , does not secure Ind : Scouts, think of doing it if you can & 
represent to the Ind s . the necessity of this Measure for the Security 
of the Fort at the Lake which covers them in some Measure. They 
must be on the Watch too as they expect a Snow Shoe Attack. 
I hear a Survey is to be made under the direction of the Engi- 
neers from Fort Edward to Wood Creek & South Bay to dis- 
cover if there be a practicable Road to be made that Way. In 
this Case they should have 8 or 1 trusty Indians, such as you can 
recommend and procure for them. It's said by the General that 
there's not a practicable Road from the N. End of the Lake to 
Tionderoga I mean that Carrying Place. I should not be sur- 
prized if some Regulars should be still ordered up either as an 
Eschort to the Engineers or as a Garrison, or both perhaps. 

1 Omitted in copying. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 311 

Musket Ball & Flint are sent. M r . Pownalls opinion is that we 
might avoid Tionderoge by leaving it on the Right & making a 
Road from the N End of the Lake to the Fort at Crown Point, 
About 12 or 14 miles. In this Case we must raise our Cannon 
Stores & Waggons by Takles a considerable heighth from the 
Lake. One Division should march first with whatever is abso- 
lutely necessary and invest the Fort ; the other bring up the artil- 
lery & Baggage after them. The Road he thinks may be prac- 
ticable soon for Carriages. But it must be examined, to see 
whether it be so or no : none but Indians can do this : The Men 
can march on the West side the Lake, till they come to the Bay 
there to be ferryed over thence to the further End where the Road 
is to begin. The Passage for the Waggons Horses and Stores 
must be by water through the Lake in Scows. or Flatts and 
Batoes. I think the whole will be attended with too great difficul- 
ties. And as we can probably move before the French can, we 
may go the way you intended. I send you M r . Pownal's Sketch 
of this Matter. I believe it will go hard with you soon for want 
of Prov 8 : all useless Hands should be dismissed, & as many as 
can be spared sent to Fort Edward to save Carriage to the Lake. 
Do not suffer the Fort & artillery & Stores to be in any danger. 
The two Reg ls . consist of about 1 1 00, 500 are to be sent to 
Schenectady, the rest to be kept here, in Barracks, & Block- 
houses fitted up to receive them. 

312 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 


D. S. 1 
Camp at Lake George 18 Nov r . 1755. A. M. 

Head Quarters 

At a Council of War held by General Johnson 

The General 
Major General Lyman 

Capt Eyre 
Col. Plaisted 

Cap*. Glazier 
Col. Harris 
Col. Cockcroft 
Col. Bagly 

Peter Wraxall Seer*. 
Col. Dyer 
Col. Chauncey 
Lieu 1 Col. Whiting 
Lieu 1 Col. Cummins 

The General having been apprized by several of the Field 
Officers of the Connecticut Troops that the said Troops insisted 
on their Dismission from this Service agreable to the Votes of 
their Legislature & the Generals Promise to them, the Day after 
tomorrow. The General desired the Opinion & advice of this 
Council of War what measures were most adviseable to pursue 
with regard to the Quota of Connecticut for Garrisoning Fort 
William Henry & Fort Edward & for retaining the other Troops, 
in case they should refuse to stay as it is apprehended they will 
when the Connecticut Troops march off 

1 Original destroyed by fire. There is a copy in Public Record Office, 
C. O. 5.1 7, London, England; transmitted by Governor Hardy November 

jr 7 

m\ t V * 
*\ ! WS 

(Preliminary Campaigns, 1 7 55- 17 56 313 

Hie Question was put what number of Men this Council of 
ir thought sufficient to Garrison Fort William Henry & Fort 
500 Voted for Fort William Henry 
400 Voted for Fort Edward.- 
Fhe Question was put whether the General be advised to send 
ientleman from this Army to Albany to represent to the Gov rs . 
& Commissioners there the State of this Army & to know their 
resolutions as to the future Destination thereof. 

Unanimously resolved in the affirmative & that Col. Chauncey 
& Col. Whitcomb do go down upon this Errand. 

Voted that this Council of War understand that the Dismis- 
sion of any part of this Army shall be suspended till some detir- 
minate Orders arrive from the Commissioners at Albany or till 
Col. Chauncey 1 & Col. Whitcomb 2 return or dispatch an account 
of their Negotiation p TER WRAXALL 

L. S* 

Albany Nov r . 18 th . 1755. 


I desire you will send me Word by the Return of this Express 
as soon as possible what Number of Men you shall think necessary 
to employ in the Attempt, w ch . you shall forthwith make against 
the Enemy, in case you determine to make one, what Train of 
Artillery you propose to carry with you in such Attempt; 
Also what Number of Men the State of your Battoes will admit 
of transporting over the Lake, over & above what is necessary to 
be employ 'd in carrying that Train & Warlike Stores; likewise 
what Number of Men the State of the Provisions, w^ 1 . you shall 

1 Elihu Chauncey, of Connecticut. 
*John Whitcomb, of Massachusetts. 
* Original destroyed by fire. 
4 Omitted in copy. 

314 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

be able to get together for making this Attempt will admit of 

I am, 

Your most Humble Servant 



Johnson's order of November 1 8th to Captain Roger Billing to convoy 
wagons to and from Albany, and his letter of the 1 8th to General Shirley 
and Governor Hardy, relating to scouts and bounty for the capture of a 
Frenchman, following the preceding letter in the Johnson Calendar, p. 67, 
were destroyed by fire. 


L. S. 1 
SlR Albany. 18 th : NoV: 1755 

This Evening there has been a meeting of myself, Sir Charles 
Hardy and Commissioners from the Province of the Massa- 
chusets Bay and Connecticut upon the several points contained 
in your last Letters ; they have agreed, upon Measures, for settling 
all those points in such a manner, as they apprehend, will be 
most conducive to his Majesty's Service, and most satisfactory 
to the Officers and Soldiers under your Command. For this pur- 
pose Commissioners from the several Governments concerned will 
set out from hence for your Camp tomorrow. I give you this 
Intimation by Express, that you may have it in your power, to 
quiet the minds of the Army, until those Gentlemen shall arrive : 
for which purpose you will be pleased to Communicate this to 
your Officers and Soldiers in such manner as you shall judge 

I am Sir 

Your most hm ble . Servant 


1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 315 


Df. 1 
Camp at Lake George 18 Nov r . 1755.* 

wrote your Excellency this Morning to w^ 1 I beg leave to 
refer. Since that Letter went off I called a Council of War & 
inclose your Excellency a Copy of the Minutes of the same. 

Just now I reed your Excellencys of the 15 Inst. with the 
papers therein inclosed. I am glad a Fort is likely to be built at 
Oneida. Your Excellency may recollect that I have recom- 
mended Forts to be built at the residence of each of the several 
Nations, I have explained myself thereon to the Lords of Trade, 
to obtain the Indians consent properly & to effect the Scheme 
vigorously will I think be quite adviseable. I inclose your Excel- 
lency a General return from the last returns given in & beg leave 
to refer you to Col. Chauncey & Col. Whitcomb for the other 
particulars w * 1 they have in charge & am Sir 

Your Excellencys Most obed 1 hum Serv*. 


The preceding was followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 67 by a 
letter of November 1 8th from Johnson to Governor Hardy, inclosing 
minutes; a letter of the 18th from J. C. Maine, at Fort Edward, to 
Colonel Richard Gridley, entreating pardon; and a letter from Johnson to 
Colonel Richard Gridley, of the 18th, on recent alarm and official mis- 
conduct of Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Gilbert. All were destroyed by 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

1 In Doc. Hist. N. Y. t 2:410, is printed an announcement from the 
London Gazette that a baronetcy has been granted to William Johnson, 
dated November 18th. 

316 Sir William Johnson Paper* 


A. L. S. 1 
Lake George Novemb^. 19*. 1755 

To the Honourable GENERAL WlLL M : JOHNSON. 

A Report of the Scout of Cap ta . Robert McGinnis's Compel 
under Serj*. Freeman 

Honoured S r : 

The 1 7 th . Instant we Set Down the Lake in a Battoe 
& that Night Got within about 5 Miles of the French Army & 
Remained there untill the 10 th . in the Evening; In which Time 
we heard 30 peices of Cannon fired of; After which we pro- 
ceeded on towards the French Army & Spied a French Indian 
Battoe & Chased her untill She Got ashore under the Command 
of the French Army, Upon which they were Alarmed & fired 
two Guns: & then we Retreated as fast as we Could homewards; 
Given Under My Hand at the Request of the whole 


N. B. what they call the French Army in the above Report is the 
Enemys Advanced Guard. 


This report is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 68 by minutes of a 
council of war, held November 1 9th, with action relative to the distribution 
of oxen donated by inhabitants of Suffolk county and acknowledgment of 
the gift; and by a letter of the 19th to Johnson from James Minot, in 
behalf of Massachusetts commissioners at Albany, advising that a force 
be sent to guard wagons. These papers were destroyed by fire. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 




D. S. 1 
Head Quarters 

Camp at Lake George Thursday 20 Nov r . 1755. A. M. 

at a Council of War held by General Johnson 

The General 
Major General Lyman 
Col. Plaisted 
Col. Harris 

CoL Cockcroft 
Col. Bagly 

Col. Thacher 
Cap 1 . Eyre 
Leiu*. Col. Cummins 
Leiu'. Col. Whiting 
Peter Wraxall 

The General laid before this Council of War the Information 
of an Auchquaga Indian transmitted to him by Sir Charles Hardy 
Gov r . of New York, also Cap*. Putnams Report who returned 
yesterday from Tionderogo. 

hereupon the General acquainted this Council of War, that as 
Cap 1 . Rodgers when he was last at Tionderogo had observed an 
Encampment of Indians & Cap 1 . Putnam now confirmed the 
same, he thought, the Enemy s Scheme (mentioned in the above 
Indian Information) of intercepting our Provisions coming from 
Albany might probably be put to trial & that by a Considerable 
Body, he judged it therefore Adviseable that a Strong Detach- 
ment from this Army should be immediately sent to meet & pro- 
tect the Waggons & Guard the Provisions w ch . we have Intelli- 
gence are upon the Road between Albany & this Place. 

hereon he desires the Concurrance & Advice of this Council 
of War. 

It is the Unanimous Opinion of this Council of War that 500 
Men be forthwith detached to cover & guard the Provisions & 
road hither. 


1 Original destroyed by fire. 

318 >Sir William Johnson Papers 


This document was followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 68, by a 
mutilated letter of November 21st from Lieutenant Governor Thomas 
Pownall, at Albany, introducing to Johnson Mr Van Schaik, commis- 
sioned to explore the country between Hudson river and Crown Point, 
with additional remarks on Indian affairs; Stephen Webster and Philip 
Combes's report of the 21st on the number of boats fit for use; and an 
undated letter to Major General Lyman, asking his presence at a council 
of war. They were destroyed by fire. 


D/. 1 
Camp at Lake George 22 Nov r . 1755. 


You are to march with the Party under your Command to 
Albany & on your arrival there to wait on the Commissioners 
from Massachusetts Bay & Connecticut & acquaint them that you 
are ordered down in order to Guard up hither any Provisions 
which may be dispatching for the use of this army & w ch you 
are Accordingly to do provided you meet any Waggons or 
Horses loaded with Provisions or other Stores for the use of this 
army on the road between this & Albany w ch . may stand in need 
of a Guard you are to take 'em under your Convoy. You are to 
march your Men orderly & Silently & prepare against any 
attempts of the Enemy 



This order was followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 6&-69 by a 
letter of November 22d from Johnson to Colonel Richard Gridley about 
donation of cattle, accounting for ammunition, custody of Maine (under 
arrest), sentence on prisoners, despatch to General Shirley and garrison 
of Fort Edward; and a letter of the 22d from Oliver Partridge to a 
person not named, asking for an escort for commissioners on their way to 
Fort Edward, joined in the same manuscript with a letter from Samuel 
N. Nelson to an unnamed person, giving reasons for not sending the escort. 
These were destroyed by fire. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 319 


D. S. 1 

Camp at Lake George 21 [22] Nov r . 1755. A. AT- 
I-lead Quarters 

At a Council of War to w**. all the Feild officers in Camp 
were Summoned 


General Johnson 

Major General Lyman 

All the Feild officers at this Camp except Lieu 1 Col. Fay sick 

abed of a Fever 

Cap*. Eyre chief Engineer &c. Cap 1 . Glazier Adjutant General 

Peter Wraxall 


The General laid before this Council of War a Copy of the 
Minutes of a Meeting of the Governors & Provincial Commis- 
sioners at Albany and a Letter from William Alexander Esq r . 
wherein the same was inclosed, also a Letter from General 

hereupon the General desired this Council of War to take the 
Contents of the above Papers into their most serious Considera- 
tion & give him their Opinion & advice thereon. 

The General Observed to this Council of War, that as the 
Vote of the aforesaid Meeting is next to an absolute Order for 
this Army proceeding forthwith against the Enemy, he would 
recommend that an attempt be made with the utmost Dispatch & 
Vigour w ch . the Circumstances of this Army will admit of. 

The General put the following Question 
what further attempt or attempts this Council of War wou'd 
advise to be forthwith made against the Enemy? 

Original destroyed by fire. 

320 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

Voted that it is not adviseable at present to go forward for the 
following reasons The Council of War desired to be adjourned 
to 8 oClock tomorrow morning w ch the General consented to. 

22 Nov. A. M. 

The Council of War met according to the adjournment of 

To avoid Repitition wou'd Referr to those already Given and 
fully agreed to by a Council of Warr on the 1 1 *. & 1 2 th . of 
Octo: Last, & another of the 20 th : of the same mo: Which We 
apprehended wou'd have proved Satisfactory & Convinceing to 
all Concern'd, but it Seems they have not so proved, Neither as 
yet have they been Removed or Obviated And our further 
attempt ag st . the Enemy at this season is Still Urged by Some 
Concerned as we sincearly Regard the Interest & Safety of our 
Country, & the army under our Care, Relative thereto wou'd, as 
We are in the best Scituation to know both the Circumstances of 
the Enemy, as Well the State of our army and all the Difficulties 
that may attend a further progress, more Especially at this 
advanced Season (and without Presidents) Although Providence 
has hitherto Bless'd us with uncommon Weather, yet in a Short 
Time (Unless the Course of Nature is altered and the Season 
miraculously Changed) We may Expect both Cold & Snow, 
That if happily We shou'd Succeed ag $t . Tionderoger, yet a 
deep Snow Comeing, We Cou'd neither tarry there nor Return 
back as our Battoes are by no means Sufficient to Transport an 
army Baggage &c, Equal for Such atte'pt and the Northerly 
Winds frequent here, Raises Such a Surge as will much Endan- 
ger the Transporting our artillery 'ore the Lake, and may Soon 
be Impassable. 

2dly. Neither are our Troops by any means Sufficiently 
Cloathed for such further attempt, as they are So destitute, that 
by necessary Camp Duty, they are much Disabled & Dis- 
hearten d, tho as fine a Number of men perhaps as may or can 
be produced in New England, yet by there being so Exposed as 

Preliminary Campaigns, 7755-7756 321 

I Well in their Lodging as Cloathing &c & Great part of the army 
brought to a Very Short allow'ce many days without meat, & 
When meat but one Biskit & sometimes two, & when no bread 
only a pint of Flour, Whereby it has been Extreamly Difficult 
for some Time Past to keep the army or a Greater part of them 
from Disbanding them Selves, and Nothing but Pressing on them 
the absolute Necessity of Finishing our Fort so far as to make it 
in some measure Defenceable, to Secure our Cannon & other 
Warlike Stores &c and as Stand against the Enemy cou'd 
Induced them to have Terryed thus long Labouring under 
their Burthens together with an Expectation when that was done 
of returning home to Recruit their Waisted vigour, and before 
the Road and Weather grew so bad as to Expose them to Travel 
2 or 3 Hundred miles thro Snow and Water Week & Strong 
together, to arrive at their Respective homes which if not done 
in a few days is more than probable to be the Case, & may Occa- 
sion a Greater Loss of men than yet has happened, besides the 
Danger of Discourgeing any further Expedition 

3dly: We have not here above Sixty Battoes which Can be 
filled for service the Remainder (tho* no ways Sufficient) at Fort 
Edward which at Present We know not how to get here, the 
Rhodes are so Excessively bad that the Waggoners when they 
Arrive here declare they can Scarce Return home without any or 
but very Small Loads, w ch the aspect of their Horses fully 
verifye, beside their want of Forrage ; & also the Greater part of 
our Shells, Shot, & Powder necessary for s d . Undertaking Still 
at Fort Edward, & the same Difficulties attending their being 
brought here 

4thly The Whole Provisions now in Camp of Bread and 
meat only. Void of most all other Necessaries is not more than 
Sufficient for three days, which is much less than heretofore, Not- 
withstanding all the Resolute attempts and Frequent Engage- 
ments for a large Supply, And tho Considerable is now Expected 
yet haveing a large Quantity in Garrison Seems Absolutely 

322 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Necessary; as thereby it will be easy for the Enemy to Inter- 
cept the same afterwards without large Parties for Guards. 

And the Present urgeing of our proceedings & thereby Cause- 
ing an unexpected Delay to our Troops in their Return, and no 
Directions or Provision making for proper Garrisoning the Forts 
here, Scarcity of Provisions and other Hardships attending our 
Troops will we fear if not Soon Remedied & the Armes Dis- 
banding; notwithstanding the Utmost united Endeavours of the 
officers to the Contrary, produce an Entire Rout and Brakeing 
up of the army in the utmost Confusion, Leaving the Forts artil- 
lery & Warlike Stores Entirely to be taken possession of by our 
Enemy, the Consequence of w ch wou'd be too horrible to Relate, 
& God forbid it should ever happen 

And to Conclude, We are Contious that this army have to the 
Utmost of their Abilities fulfilled their Duty to their Country, 
Exerted them Selves as far as Circumstances wou'd permitt and 
this Council of Warr are so little averse to a Strict and Impartial 
Enquirey into the Truth of these Assertions that they most chear- 
fully rest their honour an Cause upon it 



This document is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 68 by two 
letters, of November 22d, from Coldsbrow Banyar, at Albany, both 
destroyed by fire. The first, written in behalf of Governor Hardy, directs 
care of boats and asks Johnson to report in person at New York the 
results of a conference with Indians. The second is occupied with Hardy 
and Indian affairs. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 



D. S. 

Albany, Nov. 22, 7755 . 

[ ] Knight Captain General [ ] 

in Chief in and over the Pro [ ] York and the Territories 

depending [ ] in America and Vice Admiral of the same. 

You are to give orders to the respective captains in your Regi- 
ment to take proper Care that the men in their Companies be 
duely armed and equipped and furnished with ammunition 
according to Law, that they may be in readiness to march on 
short notice. 

And on Intelligence of the approach of an Enemy You are 
to march them to the defence of Fort Edward, or Fort William 
Henry, or to any Place you shall judge necessary for the defence 
of the Frontiers and repelling the Enemy. 

And Whereas on certain Emergencies it may be Necessary 
that the Militia of the lower part of this County should be imme- 
diately ordered to march and rendezvous here You are there- 
fore to signify your orders to the Lieutenant colonel or the next 
Commanding officer of the Albany Batalion that upon such 
Emergency and in your absence from the City of Albany he do 
forthwith issue his orders to assemble that part of the Militia in 
this City there to receive your orders or those of the next Com- 
manding officer. 

Given under my hand at Albany 
The Twenty second day of November 
one thousand seven hundred and 
Fifty five. 


Colonel, or in his absence to the 
next commanding officer of the 
Regiment of Militia in the County 
of Albany. 

324 'Sir William Johnson Papers 

D/. 1 

Camp at Lake George 22 AW. 7755 

I recieved in a Letter from M r . Alexander a Copy of the 
Minutes of a Meeting at His Excellencys Major General Wm 
Shirleys. w^ I laid before a Council of War, a Copy of the 
Minutes whereof I herewith transmit to your Excellencies. 

There is one point which I think the Council of War have not 
been so explicit upon as it desired. It is the present Disposition 
of the Troops here. Most of their Field officers have told me in 
private Conversation, that they were of Opinion, if the Men were 
ordered to go forward the greatest part of them would flatly 
refuse that the Men & many of their officers in general are so 
bent upon going home, they have with great difficulty been 
retained here for some time past. Our out Scouts, otir Camp 
Duty & indeed every kind of Duty, is carried on with Difficulties 
& delays & performed with reluctancy & murmurings. All things 
considered it gives me no Surprize & is I think the natural Conse- 
quences of the Constitution & peculiar Circumstances of this 

I am most respectfully 


Your Excellencies 

Most Obed'. 

hum Serv 1 . 
To their Excellencys 



1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 325 

A. L. S. 1 
Senecas Land Nov r . the 22. 1755 


This is to let you know that I am in good health & hope this 
will find you in the same, & I received a Letter & that give an 
Account as that you had a sore Battle with the French and 
Indians & gained the Victory which was verry much pleased to 
me that the Lord had fought for you, & us. for the Women 
rejoices verry much of the News, we received 6 Scalps here 
they thank'd the General for so doing. The News that is here 
I will now write as follow. 

The french Man Senusses 2 has been here with 6 Indians & is 
gone to Cayouga another to spake with them the Drunkard and 
the Thickcup are gone along with them for to hear the News 
what the French man says, he has spoke with 4 bands of Wam- 
pum, the first was that he comes for to pay the Brothers a visit 
to speak with her that they should not fight with nobody the 
Second Band says that they all must come in Canada in the 
Spring for to mourn the death of the Brothers that is kilK the 
third Band says the father says how they come to be lost, the 
fourth Band says that y e drunkard is the Occasion of all to bring 
them to the English of big & small but thou art lost thou Eyes 
art as yet shut, then the Drunkard & the Thickcup spake with 
one Band to the Frenchman, &. says that the French should keep 
their Mohawk & Ottowawa & all their Nations at home & then 
we all will stay at home, he made them an Answer that he 
would write home that the french & English should fight it out 
by themselves, they said to him your tongue speak well but 
your heart is false so soon as you are gone it is otherwise. We 
have here News of Ohio that the Mehehandere have fought 
against the English they have killed 105 & taken 70 Women 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

2 Chabert Joncairc. 

326 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

and Children prisoners & here is come one Scalp & here is come 
one Band of Wampum of 6 foot long of Conastoga and the 
English are now Settled close by Susqueana. as for the Senecas 
they order me to write to you that they would come down in the 
Spring to help you to fight if you do. send no more at present 
but if it could be so if you could procure somewhat more presents 
to the Indians for the frenchman had given a great gift to the 
Indians wherefore I was ashamed of. and here I had of Sinocie 
four old Sachems for 14 days & I had nothing to give for 10 
pound is but a little to give the Commissioners alow'd me always 
30 for gifts in time of War. I haved but very hard for 
John Abeel has now 8 Hog 8ds . of Rum for I cant work upon that 
Account 2 for they are every day drunk they force my goods 
from me & say that the goods I have is not mine it is given to 
me to give to them as they would have it. no more at present 

Your Hearty Welwisher & Servant 



[Camp at Lake George, Nov. 23, 7755] 

The Troops here are so uneasy under their manifold Sufferings, 
that I am affraid they may march off in a Body to morrow. 
The Connecticut seem detirmined at all Events to go off to mor- 
row Morning. I desire you will if the Commissioners from 
Albany are with you accquaint them with the above particulars 
& that I think their immediate presence here absolutely necessary 
for the good of the public Service If they are not * 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

2 Omitted in copying. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 17551756 327 

please to dispatch by an Express of 3 or 4 good Men without 
delay what intelligence you have concerning them at all 
Events I beg to hear from you immediately. 

& am 


D. S. 1 

Albany, Nov. 23*. 1755 

To the Commanding Officer of the Troops employ 'd in garrison- 
ing Fort Edward at the Carrying place, & Fort William Henry 
at Lake George. 

You are hereby directed to furnish M r . Meccellar 4 & M r . 
Williamson two Engineers in His Majesty's Service, John Bliker 
& Anthony Vanscoick & their Company, whom we have sent to 
make a Survey of the Lands between Fort Edward & South 
Bay, as also between that Fort & the Falls 2 at Wood Creek, 
with such an Escort of Officers & Men out of the Troops under 
your Command, as they, upon advising with you, shall judge 
sufficient for their Guard in the aforesaid Service: and you are 
to supply the said M r . Maccellar & Company, together with the 
Party of Officers & Soldiers, who shall be sent to escort them, 
with Provisions for such a Number of Days as they shall judge 
the said Service will take up. 


1 Original destroyed by fire. 
1 The present Whitehall. 

328 Sir William Johnson Papers 



D. S. 1 
Lake George Camp 25 ih . Nov: 1755 

Directions to be observed, and followed after, as much as Cir- 
cumstances Will admit in Fort William Henry in case of an 
Attack by Artillery, 

Upon Notice of the Enemys approach, the Commanding offcer 
is to level every sort of Cover round the Garison (if not done 
before) as Soon and as much as possible his time Will allow, 
and to take every Method to deter if not hinder them from getting 
possession of the Eminence to the South West of the Fort, by 
keeping a Constant fire of Artillery upon them Should the 
approach it from the North East, by the West Side of the Lake, 
as they must be much exposed from the Fort in drawing their 
Heavy Guns that way : this Method to be Observed on the Sup- 
possition that the Lake is not frose, and that the Enemy Will 
come by Water within near Gunshot of the Garrison before they 
Land their Force and Artillery. If they should attempt a Seige 
when the Lake is lock'd in with Ice, they Will be under the 
Necessity to mount up the Bank on one Side or the Other, for 
the Surface of the Water is so much below the Garison that they 
will not be able to do any Mischief with Batteries on the Ice, 
besides their being so much exposed, therefore if they march to 
the Westward of the Lake the Method before mentioned should 
be observed. 

If the Enemy should think it adviseable to bring their Artillery 
to the South, & South East Side, by the East Side of the Lake, 
or on the Lake, they Will still be exposed coming that Way to 
the Cannon from the Fort, tho' more remote than the Other, and 
after they have raised Batteries on their Side, as near as the 
Swamp Will allow them, yet they Will not, it's apprehended be 
able to make from those Places practicable Breaches prudent to 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, / 755-7 756 329 

issault what is chiefly to be feared from Cannon at this distance, 

their dismounting of some of the artillery if care is not taken, 
10' let what will be done, accidents may, and will happen. 

But then if the Enemy, as is very likely will endeavour to Cross 
the Swamp to the South East of the Garison, in order to seize 
the above Mentioned rising Ground to the South West; in that 
Case, if this be done within Cannon Shot of the Fort it will prove 

them a difficult undertaking, besides their Loss, before they 
:an accomplish it; and if this Passage is made further off, they 

ill find it not an Easy Matter to ascend the very high & Steep 
lank, that is to be met with there. However in the End it may 
Supposed all those difficulties are to be Surmounted, at the 

cpence of Men, & time, and that they get entrenched on this 
rising Ground, before which is done, the Cannon should be placed 

fast & as quick as is possible ; and great care should be taken 
to Secure all those which can not be made Use of in the most 
iafe Places which the Commanding officer must be the best 
fudge of 

When the Enemy get themselves safely Secured by means of 
trenches and Breast Works, and have or, are rising Batteries, the 
Mortars as well as the Guns should be at Work, to retard and 
hinder the Progress of their approaches; when the Enemy begins 
to descend this Hill, then they become much more exposed, and 
their approach more hazardous and difficult, if the Garison Will 
take their advantage and are obstinate. I may naturally Suppose 
by the time all the Barracks may be much damaged if not wholly 
destroyed, by means of Shells, fire, & Shot, but this must be 
expected, and the Men off Duty to lie in the Casemates where 
they can repose themselves without Danger; Pains ought to be 
used to prevent the firing from spreading as much as possible, 
otherwise, one do not know but it may be possible an accident 
may happen to one of the Magazines; the Powder should be 
divided between them. All that can and will contribute to make 
a Noble Stand, is, by not being intimidated by accidents, con- 
sidering Maturely the advantages the Works and their design, 

330 'Sir William Johnson Papers 

and being resolute, if it must go, to make them deerly Pay for it, 
both in loss of time as well as in Blood, should the resolute 
defence not give time to the Country to come to its relief ; which 
must certainly happen, if the Garison Will act on those honour- 
able Terms, and the following the aforesaid Rules, as nearly as 
Circumstances, and time Will allow. 

When the Enemy advances close to the out Side of the Ditch 
and that by a Superiority of Cannon, and a great loss of their 
Troops, which last must be inevitable cost them, and that from 
this Place they Will be able to make a Breach, & not before 
(except in the Parapet) which will not be Sufficient for them to 
make an assault; then, and not till then, a brave officer ought to 
think of Capitulating, when he may reasonably expect an honour- 
able One, for his former gallant behaviour; and it's generally, if 
not always, that such a difence meets with great respect even from 
an Enemy; and they will not think it a prudent Scheme to force 
a brave officer to be desperate, being convinced from his former 
Conduct he Will make their attempt cost dear, this manner of 
acting must reflect honour on the Commandant & Garison, and 
no doubt but it Will bring him a timely relief, or procure him 
honourable Conditions. 

Scouts should be always kept out to give timely Notice, and 
Sally's during the Siege should be as often attempted as times 
and Seasons will admit; but they should be made with the utmost 
precaution and Secrecy, otherwise they may be cut off, so Weeken 
the Garison, & by that Means Shorten the Siege. 

Every Materiel that can Mend Carriages, Ramparts, & Para- 
pets, ought to be brought into the Fort, otherwise the Ramparts 
& parapets will Soon not be tenable, and the fire of the Cannon 
too soon be lessen'd: besides Spare Planks for repairing Plat- 
forms; a certain Number should be fix'd on for this Service. The 
honours of War are colours flying, Drums a beating, with one or 
two Pieces of Cannon & Match lighted & so many Rounds, and 
Days provisions; and the whole to march thro the Breach; But 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


ds is never alow'd to any, but those who make an obstinate 

WILL: EYRE, Eng r . 

case that the Commandant is acquainted that a Body of Troops 
on their March Without Cannon, He may be assured their 
Intentions are to approach the Garison unobserved, and to Storm 
the Fort by Escalade, which is often Successful, if the People 
Within have not good look out, and reflects great honour on the 
assailants, and the Contrary on the Garison if, they should be 
Successful, but if this designed Attack be discovered by the 
defenders it cannot be Successful if the Commandant and his 
Troops do their Duty, and consequently must be fatal to the 
Enemy: this is one of the most Bloody attacks made against a 
Fortress, and fatal when the Issue is not favourable to the 
assailants, when this is apprehended all the Guns on the Flanks 
should be loaded With Grape Shot, as they being chiefly useful 
on Such Occasions. The Footstep all round the Ramparts should 
be in good repair, that every Part might be full Mann'd. if 
small Brush- Wood can be found a few fascines and Gabions 
should be made upon Notice that the Enemy are making prepara- 
tions for a Siege, they being of the greatest Use to repair the 
Parapets, I mean the fascines fastened with pointed Sticks, and 
the Gabions, by filling them with Earth, Serve Many Purposes, 
but particularly in making Blinds or Traverses on any Part of 
the Works, which are Secur'd by the Besiegers Cannon. 

One third Part if not the half of the Troops, should be on 
Duty at once, and to be relieved Just before Night during the 
Siege. The Small arms to keep a Constant firing both Night and 
Day, but particularly in the former, which time the Cannon should 
cease except the Enemy were making an attempt by Escalade; 
but the Mortars are to be used at all times; this Method Will 
render the Enemy s progress under the Shelter of Darkness very 
hazardous, as well as Slow which otherwise they would make 

332 'Sir William Johnson Papers 

use of to their advantage. A Proper Party should 

be posted in the advanced Work in order to keep the Enemy from 
making a Lodgment close to the Bank and a field Piece may be 
advantageously Used there, taking care that when there appears 
apparent Danger of its soon falling into the Enemys Hands to be 
brought into the Garison. Its impossible to enumerate all the 
Incidents that happen in a Siege, in order to give Directions 
thereupon, therefore those must be left to the Discretion and 
Abilities of the Commanding officer. 

The preceding paper is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 69 by 
Richard Rogers and Daniel Claus's report of scouting, dated November 
25 (printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y., 4:281-83; Q, 4:182-83). 


D. S. 2 
Camp at Lake George 26 Nov r . 1755 


You are to take upon you the Command of the Garrison posted 
at this Fort & to keep up all that Discipline & good order amongst 
the Troops which is necessary for the Preservation of his Majestys 
said Fort & the Tranquility of its Garrison, as soon as possible 
to level the Encamp 1 , near the Fort as it is a Cover to an Enemy 


You are with all possible Dispatch to have the Works com- 
pleated upon the Plan laid down & explained to you by Cap 1 
William Eyre chief Engineer & to make it as habitable & com- 
fortable for the Troops as Circumstances will allow to put it 
in the most defensible Condition & to clear the Woods round it 
as far as Gun Shot. 

1 Omitted in copying. 

2 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 333 


In case of an Attack from the Enemy you are to follow the 
Directions which I give you herewith from the Chief Engineer. 


You are to examine into the State of the Military Stores 
delivered over to you by M r . Smith Commissary General of the 
same, to take care there be no Waste or Embezzlement of them, 
to Examine the powder Magazines & take care to prevent the 
Powder from receiving any Damage. 


You are to order the Battoes to be all hauled over the Bank 
& put in a place of Security under cover of the Guns of the Fort 
& so as not to be a Shelter for the Enemy. The Paddles & 
setting Poles are to be carried into the Fort & both Camp to be 
carefully searched upon the Marching off of the Troops now here 
& all the scattered working Tools to be gathered up & Secured in 
the Fort 


I would have you keep out constant Scouting Parties round 
you of about 6 or 7. And if any of our allied Indians should 
come to the Fort to receive them kindly & Friendly. 


You are to make Monthly Returns of the State of your Garri- 
son to General Shirley & Sir Charles Hardy Gov r . of New York 
& to write to them upon all Matters w** 1 you may Judge necessary 
relating to your Command. 


At a Meeting of several Field officers & the Provincial Com- 
missioners, I was advised to appoint another Major for one of 

334 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

the Two Garrisons, I have accordingly appointed Beamsly 
Glazier Esq r . to be Major of the Troops at this Garrison, and I 
have also appointed Major Kinsbury to be Superintendent of the 
Carpenters at this Fort & M r . Mason to be commanding officer 
of the Artillery You will put them in Orders to be Obeyed 


Agreable to the Opinion of the Council of War held at the 
Fort, the Provisions are to be one common Stock & to be Issued 
to the Troops upon an equal allowance 

W. Johnson 

By Major Gen 1 . Johnson's Command 

Additional Instruction 


In case you receive credible Intelligence of the Approach of 
so formidable a Body of the Enemy as may make assistance 
necessary you are to send me or the Commanding officer of the 
Militia immediate Notice of it by Express. 

Wm. Johnson 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 335 

D. S. 1 

Nov. 24-26, 1755 

Fort William Henry at Lake George Monday Evening 24 Nov r . 

At a Council of War 

Major General Johnson 
Major General Lyman 

and all the Field officers of the Provincial Troops except 
Lieu 1 Col. Frey sick of a fever met this camp. 
Cap 1 . Eyre chief Engineer &c. 
Cap*. Glazier Adjut. General 

The Hon ble . James Minot Esq r . Commiss. from the Pro- 
The Hon ble . John Choat Esq r . vince of Massachusetts 

Oliver Partridge Esq r . Bay. 

Colonel Benjamin Hall Commiss". from Con- 

John Hubbard Esq r . necticut 

Sybt. G. Van Schaick Esq r . Commiss". from the Pro- 

Cap*. Volkert Douw vince of New York 

Peter Wraxall SecrT. 

The Major General Johnson laid before this Council of War 
a Copy of the Minutes of a Meeting held at Albany the 20 Inst 
of the Governors & Provincial Commissaries and desired this 
Council of War would take into their consideration & give their 
Opinion upon those Points therein referred to this Council of 
War ; And that they would also give him their Advice upon such 
other Matters relating to this Service as are left to him which 
they may apprehend necessary at this Conjuncture. 

The Question was put whether 750 Men were suff*. for Gar- 
risoning Fort W m . Henry & Fort Edward. 

Voted for 750 Men officers included 

Original destroyed by fire. 

336 .Sir William Johnson Papers 

The Question was put what number of the said 750 Men 
should Garrison Fort William Henry and what Number for Fort 

Unanimously agreed that 430- be Garrisoned in Fort William 
Henry & 320 in Fort Edward. 

The General proposed to this Council of War whether they 
would advise him for the present to order the Detachments for 
the aforesaid Garrisons in the proportions 1 as settled in the afore- 
mentioned Minutes of the Meeting at Albany. 

Voted in the Affirmative. 

Maj r . General Lyman, Col. Harris, Lieu*. Col. Cole & Major 
Champlin excepted against the said proportions as being too heavy 
for their respective Governments. 

The Council of War was adjourned till to morrow Morning at 
9 oClock. 

Tuesday Morning 25 Nov r . 

The Council of War met according to their adjournment. 

The Commissioners from the several Provinces proposed to the 
General that the Troops agreed to be left in Garrison at Fort 
William Henry & Fort Edward should be considered as a Reg*, 
and that Jonathan Bagly Esq r . should be Colonel of the same, 
Nathan Whiting Esq r . Lieu*. Colonel Edmond Mathews Esq r . 
Major & that New Hampshire Feild officers should have the first 
Nomination of a Captain & Rhode Island the Second. 

Which Proposals the General referred to the Council of War 
for their Opinion. 

The Said Proposals were unanimously approved of by this 
Council of War. 

It is the Unanimous Opinion of this Council of War that the 
Two Garrisons be supplied out of a Common Stock to be pro- 

At the meeting in Albany of governors and commissioners it was agreed 
that a garrison of 600 men for Forts William Henry and Edward should 
be furnished by the colonies, in the following proportions: Massachusetts 
Bay, 185; Connecticut, 154; New York, 123; New Hampshire, 77; 
Rhode Island, 61. Council Minutes, 25:99. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 337 

rided by each Gov f . concerned in proportion to the Number of 

icir Troops retained in said Garrison. 

It is the Unanimous Opinion of this Council of War that it 
recommended to the respective Governments to provide & Send 
soon as possible warm Cloathing & Bedding for the Troops 
are to be left in these Garrisons this Winter. 



Camp at Lake George 

at a Meeting at Head Quarters Wensday Morning the 26 Nov r . 


General Johnson 
Maj r . Gen 1 . Lyman 

Col Bagly Col. Dyer & Leiu* Col. Whiting and 
The Commissioners from the Several Gov ls 

Peter Wraxall 

Seer 1 *. 

The Numbers of said Meeting gave it as their Unanimous 
Opinion that the General appoint another Major & his Destina- 
tion to be for that Fort w ch the General will think most for the 
good of the Service. 


L. S. 1 

Albany 26 ih : NoV. 1755 10 oClock forenoon 

Last Night I rec d . your Packet of the 22 d . Instant directed 
to me and Sir Charles Hardy who embarked two days ago for 
New York. 

Original destroyed by fire. 

338 Sir William Johnson Papers 

As his Majesty's Instructions to me upon Indian affairs make 
it necessary for me to see you soon, I must desire you will come 
to me at New York, where I shall be until the 7 th . of Dec'. I 
suppose the Buisness of the Army at Lake George will now admit 
of your Absence, so as to arrive there by that time, otherwise 
it will be necessary for me to see you at Boston as soon as may 
be: The Military Affairs likewise under your Command, require 
that I should see you before I leave New York, if possible. 

Be pleased to let me know the present state of your Barracks 

at both Forts, and return me your Answer if practicable, by this 

Express in time for it to reach me in f ortyeight hours. 

I am 


Your most humble Servant 



L. S. 1 

Fort George Ne York N0V. 27. 7755 

I am now to acquaint you that I returned to this City yesterday, 
after a long Residence at Albany, where I went with a Com- 
mittee of His Majestys Council soon after my Arrival to this 
Government, to give every assistance in my power for the for- 
warding the Expedition to Crown point. 

[Inclosed are Copys of the most material Councils of Wan 
transmitted to me by General Johnson, during my residence at 
Albany, by which your Excellency will see the principal causes 
that prevented that Armys proceeding down the Lake George 
in their way to Crown point. 

Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5. 17, p. 19, London, England. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


Soon after my Arrival at Albany, I found it necessary to 
Impress all the Waggons and Horses round the Country, for 
supplying the Army with Provisions ; great numbers came in, but 
not sufficient for laying in the necessary Stores, principally owing 
to the great number of Reinforcements coming from the Massa- 
chusets, and Connecticut, after the Battle on the 8 th . of Sep- 
tember, and many from the first mentioned Colony repairing to 
the Camp without a supply of Provisions, being laid in there for 
them; those from Connecticut were kept at and about Albany 
waiting for the arrival of the Stores & Provisions coming round 
by Sea, that did not arrive in many Days after their Forces; the 
same circumstances the Massachusets reinforcements were under, 
with respect to their Provisions and Stores from Boston; so cir- 
cumstanced, your Excellency will observe the Impractability of 
so large a Body of Men being provided with a sufficient quantity 
of Provisions, and Stores, by a land Carriage, furnished by this 
Province only; when at the same time General Shirleys Expe- 
dition to Niagara called upon me to assist his Commissarys with 
Land Carriages also. 

I am informed it was expected that the Army when they first 
moved towards Lake George from Albany, would have carried 
as much Provisions and Stores as their Battoes could have con- 
veyed, but am told the Waters of Hudsons River were then so 
low as made that Impracticable, this delay before General John- 
son was able to march I apprehend to be one principal cause why 
the Army did not move to Attempt the carrying the Expedition 
into Execution after the Arrival of their Reinforcements. 

Thus farr I have endeavoured to give your Excellency a full 
Account of the Difficultys General Johnsons Army laboured 
under, with respect to Provisions and Stores, necessary for so 
large a Body of Men.] 

The Strength of the Enemy at Crown point, and the Pass at 
Tionderoga, on the North end of the Lake, your Excellency will 
find more particularly sett forth in the Inclosed Councils of Warr, 
Informations, the General obtained by his Scouts and from some 
few Deserters from the Marine Company s establish'd in Canada. 

340 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

These Posts being so secured after the Arrival of the Forces 
under the Baron Deskieu, many of them assembled at Crown 
point, leads me to beleive, the Army under General Johnson had 
they been in a condition to have moved forward, (and had had 
their Battoes at the Lake which they never could get, for want 
of Carriages to transport them from Fort Edward, where 400 of 
them lay) would have met with such a Reception, that I doubt 
whether it would have been prudent for them to have made the 
attempt, for though it may appear to your Excellency upon the 
Face of the Council of Warr of the 12 th . of October, that the 
Army at Lake George consisted of 3600 Men, at Fort Edward 
500, Reinforcements at and about Albany 2500, in all amounting 
to 6600. I must observe that the Army at the Camp never 
amounted to near that number, and the most General Johnson 
could have had with him, fitt for Service as appeared by the 
Council of Warr of the 20 th . of October would have been 4000, 
and that at a time the Scouts gave him intelligence that the Enemy 
were three Thousand, besides a body at an advanced Post con- 
sisting of One Thousand mostly Indians. 

From these Informations and the opinion of the Officers in 
their Councils of Warr, I judged it proper to recommend to Gen 1 . 
Johnson to attack the advanced Post of the Enemy, how farr 
they judged this measure practicable I beg leave to referr you to 
the Inclosed Council of Warr of the 30 h . of October, from this 
Council I plainly saw it would be in vain to expect the Army 
would make any attempt on the Enemy, and as I received 
information that Commissioners were coming to Albany from 
the Massachusetts, and Connecticut, to determine the destination 
of their several Forces for the Winter, in conjunction with the 
other Governments concerned in the Expedition, I judged it nec- 
essary to delay my return here, to meet those Commissioners, for 
to fix on the proper Garrissons for the securing the Forts at the 
great Carrying Place, and that on the South end of Lake George, 
till his Majestys Pleasure should be known concerning them; 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 341 

lis meeting was held on the 20 th the result, the Inclosed Copy 
fully inform you of, I shall only beg leave to observe to you, 
lat as the Forces of the Massachusets Bay are under a limitted 
[nlistment, General Shirley assured me, and the Commissioners 
>resent, that he would on his return to his Government use his 
influence with the General Court, that Provisions should be made 
for their Forces to be left in Garrison, or others sent in their room. 

Having thus farr given you the best information in my power 
with relation to this Expedition to Crown point, I shall only beg 
leave to observe to you, that though the Army under the Com- 
mand of General Johnson has not been able to reach Crown 
Point this year they have advanced the Frontiers of His 
Majesty's Dominions by building two very respectable Forts, at 
the Expence of the Provinces. 

As to the several points necessary for me to lay before you, 
respecting our future Opperations, I must beg the suspencion of 
your Excellencys Judgment till I can collect the proper Authen- 
ticated Papers to transmit to you, which I have not time to do by 
this Conveyance. 

What Efforts the Provinces will make to carry this Expedition 
into Execution next Year, I am not able at this time to inform 
you of, though I fear the general disappointments of this, may 
make them rather backward, and more if they find they are not 
assisted by more able and Experienced Generals, than are at 
present on this Continent. I must beg your Excellency will not 
imagine I mean to attack the Conduct of any General Officers 
who have been concerned this Year, but to offer my humble 
opinion which my Duty calls on me to do, in matters of this 
Importance. Military Opperations I believe to be very little 
understood in these Countrys, and they not only want able & 
Experienced Officers to Conduct them, but to advise them in 
making the necessary preperations for them. 

I must beg leave to lay before you in justice to General 
Johnson that he has undertaken this Service, as well the care of 
the Indians, without any reward or pay. 

342 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

Your Excellencys Letter of the 26 th July and one of the 28 
August I have received and shall take care punctually to observe 
their Contents. 

I have the honour to be 


Your most Obedient 
and humble Servant 

P. S. The Baron Deskieu is now here, but the Surgeons report, 
there is but little hopes of their perfecting a cure. 

The Papers I inclose to Your Excellency are as follows, viz 1 . 
Copy of the agreement made at Albany for Dischargeing the 
Forces under General Johnson, except 600 for Garrissons for 
Forts Edward and William Henry. 1 

Minutes of Council of Warr held at the Camp at Lake George 
the 11&120ct'. 1755 

D D 20 & 21 D. 

DO D 30 DO. 

DO DO 18 Nov. 

The Right Hon ble : SlR THOMAS ROBINSON 

INDORSED: Fort George New York 
Nov. 27 th . 1 755. 
GoV. Hardy 

R3< Jan-y. 1756 

1 See Minutes of Council of War, November 24, 1 755, note. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 343 

D. 1 

I William Johnson Esq r . Creation of a Baronet 
GEORGE the Second by the Grace of God &c TO ALL to 
om these presents shall come Greeting Whereas our late Royal 
Progenitor King James the ffirst made it one of the Principal 
cares of his Government to Plant and Improve his Kingdom of 
Ireland and more Especially Ulster a large Province of that 
Kingdom which by the Conduct and Arms of his said late 
Majesty being happily reduced to Obedience his said late 
Majesty laboured to Establish in such a manner that so great a 
Province might not only {flourish with the true Religion Civility 
and good manners but also with Wealth and Plenty of all things 
which might Advance the State of a Common Wealth In which 
Undertaking his said late Majesty's Royal Care did not only 
Endeavour that the Plantation itself might be carried on Towns 
raised Houses and Castles built and ffields Tilled but also that 
so New and Extensive an Establishment of Civil Affairs should 
be Protected and Defended by an armed fforce least any Hostile 
fforce or intestine Defection might Disturb or hinder the Same 
AND WHEREAS it was intimated to his said late Majesty on the 
behalf of some of his ffaithful Subjects that they should be most 
ready to carry on that Royal Undertaking both with their Lives 
and {fortunes AND WHEREAS his said late Majesty being Moved 
with the prospect of so good and pious a Work and kindly 
Esteeming such generous Affections & Inclinations to his Service 
and the Publick Good resolved within himself to be wanting in 
Nothing that might Reward the said Intentions of his Subjects 
Or which might Stir up the Minds and good Wills of others to 
Do their Endeavours and assist in that behalf Therefore Weigh- 
ing and Considering with himself that Virtue and Industry are 

*In Public Record Office, Patent Roll 3649. 29 Geo. II. part 1. 
NO. 10, London, England. 

344 Sir William Johnson Papers 

best Nourished and Encouraged by Honour and that all Honours 
and Dignitys derive their Original and Increase from the King 
as from a {fountain to whose Majesty and Royal State it prop- 
erly belongs to Erect and Institute new Titles of Honour and 
Dignity as from whom the Ancient Titles flowed He judged it 
proper to repay new Merits with new Ensigns of Dignity Where- 
fore of his certain Knowledge and meer Motion after the manner 
of his Royal Progenitors of famous Memory who had and Exer- 
cised this Prerogative of Creating new Degrees of Honour 
amongst their Subjects He of his Royal Power and Authority 
ORDAINED Erected Constituted and Created a certain State 
Degree and Dignity Name and Title of Baronet within his then 
Kingdom of England to Endure for ever and that the said State 
Title Dignity and Degree of Baronet should be and be reputed 
to be a Middle State Title Dignity and Degree of Hereditary 
Dignity between the Degree of a Baron and the Degree of a 
Knight NOW KNOW YE THAT WEE of our more Especial Grace 
certain knowledge and meer Motion have Erected Appointed and 
Created Our Trusty and Welbeloved Subject William Johnson 
of Our Colony of New York in America Esquire (a Man Emi- 
nent for ffamily Inheritance Estate and Integrity of Manners) 
who generously and freely Gave and ffurnished to Us an Ayd 
and Supply large enough to Maintain and Support Thirty Men 
in Our ffoot Companies in Our said Kingdom of Ireland to con- 
tinue for three whole Years for the Defence of our said Kingdom 
and Especially for the Security of the Plantation of our said 
Province of Ulster) to and into the Dignity State and Degree 
of a Baronet and him the said William Johnson for Us our 
Heirs and Successors WEE do Erect Appoint Constitute and 
Create a Baronet by these Presents TO HOLD to him and the 
Heirs Male of his Body lawfully begotten for ever WEE Will 
also And do by these Presents of Our Especial Grace certain 
Knowledge and mere Motion for Us Our Heirs and Suc- 
cessors Grant unto the said William Johnson and to his Heirs 
Male aforesaid that he the said William Johnson and his said 

Preliminary Campaigns, 17551756 


[eirs Male may have Enjoy hold and take place and precedence 
>y Virtue of the Dignity of a Baronet aforesaid and by force of 
icse Presents as well in all Commissions Writs Letters Patent 
r ritings Appellations Nominations and Directions As in all 
Sessions Meetings Assemblies and Places whatsoever next and 
immediately after the Younger Sons of Viscounts and Barons of 
this Our Kingdom of Great Britain and before all Knights as 
well of the Bath as Knights Batchelors and also before all 
Knights Bannerett now Created or hereafter to be created 
(Except those Knights Bannerett which shall happen to be 
Created under the Royal Banners Displayed of Us Our Heirs 
and Successors in Our Royal Army in open Warr And the 
King himself being personally present and also those Knights 
Bannerett w ch . shall happen to be Created under the Royal 
Banners Displayed of Us our Heirs and Successors in Our 
Royal Army by the first born Son of Us our Heirs or Succes- 
sors being Prince of Wales for the time being there personally 
present in open Warr and not Otherwise for the Term of their 
Lives only and no longer respectively and also Except all 
Knights of the Most Noble Order of the Garter and all of the 
Privy Council of Us Our Heirs and Successors the Chancellor 
and Under Treasurer of Our Exchequer the Chancellor of the 
Duchy of Lancaster the Chief Justice of the Kings Bench the 
Master of the Rolls in Chancery the Chief Justice of the Com- 
mon Pleas the Chief Baron of the Exchequer and all and singular 
Judges and Justices of either Bench and the Barons of the 
Exchequer of the Degree of the Coif for the time being (who 
all and singular by reason of their Honourable Order and Labour 
sustained in Affairs concerning the State and the Administration 
of Justice shall have take and hold Place and Precedence in all 
Places and upon all Accounts before all Baronets now Created 
or hereafter to be Created any Custom Usage Ordinance or any 
other matter to the contrary in any wise Notwithstanding) and 
that the Wives of the said William Johnson and of his Heirs Male 
aforesaid successively and respectively by Virtue of the said 

346 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

Dignity of their said Husbands shall have hold Enjoy and take 
Place and Precedence as well during the Lives of such their 
Husbands as after the Death of the same Husbands for and 
during the Natural Lives of such Wives next and immediately 
after the Wives of the Younger Sons of Viscounts and Barons 
and the Daughters of Viscounts and Barons and before the 
Wives of all Persons before whom the Husbands of such Wives 
by force of these Presents ought to have Place and Precedence 
And in regard that the Degree of a Baronet is a Degree of 
Hereditary Dignity the firstborn Son or Heir Male Apparent 
and all the rest of the Sons and their Wives and the Daughters 
of the same William Johnson and of his said Heirs Male 
respectively shall have and hold Place and Precedence before 
the firstborn Sons and Other Sons and their Wives and the 
Daughters of all Knights of whatsoever Degree or Order 
respectively and also before the first born Sons and other Sons 
and their Wives and the Daughters of all persons respectively 
before whom the ffathers of such first born Sons and Sons and 
Daughters by force of these presents ought to have Place and 
Precedence So that such first born Sons or Heirs Male Apparent 
and their Wives as well during the Lives as after the Deaths of 
their said Husbands for and during their Natural Lives and such 
Sons (those Sons following immediately and next after the Wives 
of the first born Sons of such Baronets) shall have and take 
Place and Precedence before the first born Sons and the Wives 
of the first born Sons of every Knight of what Degree or Order 
soever and that the Younger Sons of the said William Johnson 
and of his said Heirs Male and their Wives successively and 
respectively as well during the Lives as after the Deaths of their 
said Husbands for and during their Natural Lives shall in like 
manner have & take Place and Precedence next & immediately 
after the first born Sons and the Wives of the first born Sons 
and before the Younger Sons and the Wives of the Younger 
Sons of all Knights aforesaid WEE Will also and do by these 
presents for Us our Heirs and Successors Grant that the said ! 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 347 

William Johnson shall be Named Appealed Called Plead and 
be impleaded by the Name of William Johnson Baronet And 
that the Style and Addition of Baronet shall be put in the End 
of the Name of the same William Johnson and of his said Heirs 
Male in all our Letters patent Commissions and Writs and all 
other Charters Deeds and Letters by Virtue of these presents as 
a true lawfull and necessary Addition of Dignity WEE Will also 
and do by these Presents for Us our Heirs and Successors Ordain 
that before the Name of the said William Johnson and of his 
Heirs Male aforesaid successively in English Speech and in all 
English Writings shall be Used and Sett this Addition to wit, 
SIR and that in like manner the Wives of the same William 
Johnson and of his said Heirs Male shall Use have and Enjoy 
this Appellation LADY, MADAM and DAME respectively according 
to the manner of speaking AND MOREOVER of our more abundant 
Grace certain Knowledge and meer Motion Wee have Granted 
and do by these presents for us our Heirs and Successors grant 
unto the said William Johnson and to his said Heirs Male that 
they and their Descendants shall and may bear either in a Can- 
ton in their Coat of Arms or in an Escutchion at their pleasure 
the Arms of Ulster (to wit) an Hand Gules or a Bloody Hand 
in a ffield Argent and that the said William Johnson and his 
said Heirs Male successively and respectively shall and may have 
place in the Armies of Us Our Heirs and Successors in the Troop 
nigh to the Banner of Us our Heirs and Successors in Defence 
of the Same which is the Middle Station between a Baron and a 
Knight AND FURTHER WEE do hereby grant that the said Wil- 
liam Johnson and his said Heirs Male shall have two Assistants 
of the Body to Support the pall one principal Mourner and four 
Assistants to the same principal Mourner in their ffunerals Wee 
Will Moreover and do by these presents of our more ample 
Grace certain Knowledge and meer Motion for Us our Heirs & 
Successors covenant and Grant to and with the said William 
Johnson and his said Heirs Male that Wee will immediately 
after the passing of these presents create and Make the said 

348 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

William Johnson a Knight and that Wee our Heirs and Suc- 
cessors will create and make the first born Son or Heir Male 
Apparent begotten of the Body of the said William Johnson 
and of the Bodies of his Heirs Male aforesaid and Every one 
of them a Knight as soon as he shall attain the age of one and 
Twenty years although in the Lifetime of his ffather or Grand- 
father Upon Notice given thereof to the Chamberlain or Vice 
Chamberlain of the Household of Us our Heirs or Successors 
for the time being or in their Absence to any other Officer or 
Minister of us our Heirs or Successors attending the person of 
us our Heirs or Successors TO HAVE hold Use and Enjoy the 
same State Degree Dignity Style Title Place and Precedence 
with all and singular the priviledges and other the premes before 
granted to the said William Johnson and his Heirs Male of his 
Body lawfully begotten forever WILLING and by these pesents 
for us our Heirs and Successors granting that he the said William 
Johnson and his said Heirs Male and every of them successively 
shall and may bear and have the said Name State Degree Style 
Dignity Title Place and Precedence with all and Singular the 
priviledges and other the premisses and that the same William 
Johnson and his said Heirs Male and every of them shall suc- 
cessively be held Baronets in all things and shall be treated and 
reputed as Baronets AND FURTHER of Our more Especial Grace 
certain Knowledge and meer Motion WEE have granted and do 
by these presents for us our Heirs and Successors Grant to the 
said William Johnson and his said Heirs Male that they and 
their said Heirs Male respectively and other Baronets made and 
hereafter to be made from time to time shall for ever have hold 
and Enjoy their Place and Precedence among themselves Each 
of them according to the Priority and Seniority of his Creation 
of a Baronet aforesaid and not otherwise nor in other manner 
AND MOREOVER of our more Abundant Grace and of our certain 
Knowledge and meer Motion WEE have granted and do by these 
presents for us our Heirs and Successors Grant to the said Wil- 
liam Johnson and his said Heirs Male that neither WEE nor our 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 349 

leirs or Successors will hereafter Erect Ordain Constitute or 
Create within this Our Kingdom of Great Britain any other 
Degree Order Name Title Style Dignity or State nor give or 
rant place precedence or preheminence to any person under or 
:low the Degree Dignity or State of a Baron of Parliament of 
lis our Kingdom of Great Britain who shall be or may be or 
accounted used or reputed to be superior or equal to the Degree 
Dignity or place of a Baronet aforesaid nor shall any person 
under the Degree of a Baron (Except before Excepted) by 
reason or colour of any constitution order Dignity Degree Office 
Service Place Business Custom Use or other thing whatsoever 
now or hereafter have hold or Enjoy Place Precedence or Pre- 
heminence before a Baronet aforesaid but that as well the said 
William Johnson and his said Heirs Male as the Wives Sons 
Daughters and the Wives of the Sons of the same William John- 
son and of his said Heirs Male respectively from henceforth for- 
ever shall freely and quietly have hold and Enjoy their said 
Dignity Place Precedence and Priviledge before all Persons 
(Except before Excepted) who shall hereafter be created of 
such Degree State Dignity Order Name Style or Title or to 
whom the Title Place Precedence or Preheminence as aforesaid 
shall be given or granted or who shall claim to have hold or 
Enjoy any Place or Precedence by reason or colour of any Con- 
stitution Order Dignity Degree Office Service Place Business 
Custom Use or other thing whatsoever and before their Wives 
and children respectively according to the true intent of these 
presents without the hindrance of us our Heirs or Successors or 
any other person or persons whatsoever SAVING nevertheless and 
always reserving to us our Heirs and Successors full and absolute 
power and authority to continue and Restore to any person or 
persons from time to time such Place and Precedence as at any 
time hereafter shall be due to them which by any Accident or 
occasion whatsoever shall hereafter be changed anything in these 
Pents or any other cause or respect whatsoever to the contrary 
thereof Notwithstanding WEE Will Moreover and do by these 

350 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

presents for us our Heirs and Successors Grant and Appoint that 
if any Doubts or Questions as to any Place Precedence Privi- 
ledge or other thing touching or concerning the said William 
Johnson and his said Heirs Male and their Wives the first born 
Sons and their Wives the younger Sons Daughters and Wives 
of the younger Sons or any of them shall hereafter arise which 
neither by those our Letters Patent nor by other Letters Patent 
heretofore made in this behalf are Determined such Doubts or 
Questions shall be Determined and adjudged by and according 
to such other Rules Customs and Laws (as to Place Precedence 
or other things concerning them) as other Degrees of Hereditary 
Dignity are Ordered Governed and Adjudged LASTLY WE WILL 
and do by these presents for us our Heirs and Successors grant 
to the said William Johnson and his said Heirs Male that these 
our Letters Patent or the Inrollment thereof shall be in and by 
all things good firm valid sufficient and Effectual in the Law as 
well against us our Heirs and Successors as Against all other 
persons w l . soever according to the true intent of the Same as 
well in all our Courts as elsewhere WEE will also &c without ffine 
in our Hanaper &c IN WITNESS &c WITNESS Ourself at West- 
minster the Twenty seventh day of November 

By Writ of Privy Seal 


We* York, Nov. tf 27. 1755.* 

The best news that I have heard lately is that its probable I 
may have the pleasure of seeing you soon here: I fear your mind 
is troubled with the division we hear the General has been pleased 
to make in the Conduct of Ind n . affairs, as it was universally 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

2 In Doc. Rcl to Col. Hist. N.Y.,6:] 020-2 1 , is a letter, of November 
27th, from Sir Charles Hardy to the lords of trade, in which the Crown 
Point expedition is discussed. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 7755-7756 351 

erstood to be a peculiar appointment in y r . department of the 
edition ag st . the unwarrantable incursions of the French: I 
nt help saying it is hard that the only Person, who has success- 
fully done any thing to make us respectable in our Colonies, 
should be laid athwart or discomposed in his direction of affairs 
so essential to the common Good, while having so serious a 
Charge as that of an army & without vanity may be sensible of 
the great Expectations the Ministry must entertain from his Con- 
duct, whom they have so pointedly allotted to Act. Excuse my 
freedom when I say it would be highly necessary that you write 
yourself to the Ministry, LA Hallifax particularly, the present 
State of affairs what has been transacted & what you may humbly 
think requisite to proceed farther ag st . the French, who are much 
embarrass*d in their Politicks, on our being so superior at Sea; 
our Men of War taking all their Trade, few Vessels escap'd. 
They wou'd willing confine the War to this Continent where 
they know from their previous interest & combination with the 
Ind s . they are now certain of Success, especially as we are so 
disjointed in our Management what will be undertaken next 
year I know not, but it seems we may rather act upon the Defen- 
sive than Offensive, as indeed we have done no more thus & well 
that we did it; the Glory belongs to you, I am joined in that 
Opinion by the acclamations of all equitable Persons who take 
a singular pleasure in allowing the merits of an action where it 
is due, being ever provided ag 8t . the prejudice partiality & odious 
comparisons of the ignorant & evil minded. whatever you may 
read in the News papers I now send up : I must acquaint you that 
M r . Fox late Secretary at War is made Secretary of State for 
the Southern Provinces, which includes this part of the Kings 
dominions L d . Harrington is made Secretary of War, Sr. Tho 8 . 
Robinson late Secretary of y e Interior y c Ward 

Robe the Spaniards are much Sollicited by the french to take 
part in the War against Us, but they are inflexible in their peace- 

1 Omitted in copying. 

352 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

full intentions towards Us. Cap*. John Shirley 1 died here 
Sunday from a disorder contracted at Oswego an incorrigible 
looseness besides I beleive consumptive: he had all Military 
Honours shown at his funeral: I pity the Gen 1 , his father it 
being the second Son he has lost during this Expedition, the 
Baron De Dieskau y r . Prisoner, its yet doubtful whether he 
will recover D r . Magra does not continue to visit him. I wish 
it may be in my power to Keep him alive, I am glad you catch'd 
him he of himself is a good prize, we take him to be a most 
consummate Gen 1 , it is said he was Executor & Legatee to 
Marshale Saxe & a great favourite of his, he is a man of some 
Estate besides his command of two Regiments in the King of 
Frances service, his Aid de Camp Bernier has the Misfortune 
Not to be lik'd by any; having a strange kind of Negative in 
his Countenance something forbidding familiarity, which is not 
the general Characteristick of ye french it seems he is a Savoy- 
ard, vastly inquisitive, narrow in his Sentiments troublesome & 
impertinent, gave some offence to D r . Magra on w^ 1 he discon- 
tinued his visits; I do not understand french so part of this is 
not my own remark, that only relates to his looks & Deportment. 
I have seen Col. Cole's Letter which is wrote w^ Caution 
Modesty & sense I'm sorry your Collegue Provincial drew 
upon himself such severe Remarks on his behaviour & seemingly 
no less true, tis a saying of some Author I have met with that 
Envy may be compar'd to a deceit of the Eye when we imagine 
we go backwards because others go forwards some who it was 
impossible cou'd participate in the Glory of this single action 
seem to Extenuate it tho great as it was in the Execution & much 
greater in Consequence & doubtless will reflect due honour & 
Confidence from the Ministry in England on you the principal 
in this first fortunate Enterprize ag ?l . y e Common Enemy in 
this part of the world. I shall refer the most of my Sentiments 

1 John Shirley was the second son General Shirley lost during the cam- 
paign just closed, the other son, William, having been secretary on Brad- 
dock's staff and shot dead by his chief's side. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 353 

on this & other matters relative till I may have the honour of a 
tete a tete conference being by the firmest attachment y r . friend 
& most oblig'd & most humble Serv 1 . 


D. S. 1 
[I Fort Edward Fry day Morning the 28 Nov r . 1755- 


At a Meeting of the several Commanding officers of the Pro- 
vincial Troops now at this Fort summoned by Major General 


Maj\ General Johnson Lieut Col. Gilbert 

Colonel Gridley Doctor Williams commanding the 

Colonel Plaisted detachm*. of Col. Pomroys Reg*. 

Colonel Harris Lieu 1 Colonel Irving 

Colonel Cockcroft M r . Macceller 

Colonel Whiting 

Peter Wraxall 


M r . Macceller One of His Majestys Engineers produced an 
Order signed by General Shirley & Sir Charles Hardy directed 
to the Commanding Officer of the Troops employed in Garrison- 
ing this Fort & Fort William Henry for an escourt for the said 
M r . Macceller & Company for the Services mentioned in said 
Order w ch was read to the Members of this Meeting. And M r . 
Macceller being asked what Guard he thought necessary to 
escourt him, told the General 250 Men whereupon the 
General desired the Opinion of the Gentlemen present whether 
they thought it safe & adviseable to detach that number out of 
the said Garrisons & what Number of Men they thought would 
be a safe & suff 1 . Escourt for this Service. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 
Vol. 1112 

354 * Sir William Johnson Papers 

It is the Unanimous Opinion of the Provincial Officers present 
that it is neither safe nor adviseable to detach out of the said 
Garrisons, considering their Strength, their Circumstances & the 
present Disposition of the Troops, the said Number of 250 Men 
& that a less number would not be a prudent or adviseable 

The General put the Question whether the Commanding 
Officers at present could detach out of their Troops now here 
under their respective Commands the said number of 250 as an 
Escourt for M r . Macceller & Co. 

It is the Unanimous Opinion of the said Officers that they have 
neither the Power to order nor Influence suff*. to prevail on their 
Men to march upon the said Escourt. 




Df. S. 1 

Fort Edward Fryday Morning 28 Nov r . 1755. 

Your Excellencies Letter of the 26. Inst met me yesterday 
Evening on my March hither from Fort William Henry. 

I hope to see Your Excellency at New York. There are two 
Ranges of Barracks at Fort William Henry two Story high, all 
which want flooring except the upper Story of the North Bar- 
rack, the rest would have been finished but for the want of 
Boards, there is no Glass for the Windows, when compleated 
they will contain about 250 Men, they are to build tempory 
hutts out of the remains of our Camp for the remainder of the 
Garrison, & I expect they will find some Boards in our Encamp- 
ments for flooring & enough for the partitions. I wrote to Com- 
missary Emerson for Locks for the Gates Magazines & Stores 
some time ago but none are yet sent. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 355 

The Barracks for this Fort are not finished but when corn- 
Seated will contain & that commodiously the Garrison for this 
'ort, were all the Materials at hand & the Men to work briskly 
icy might be compleated in about a Fortnights time. 

I am 
yr Excellencys &c. 



D. S. 1 
[Fort Edward, 28 November, 1755] 

Instructions for Lieu*. Colonel Nathan Whiting Commandant 
of His Majesty s Fort Edward. 

..:. !/>: (1) ',= . 

You are to take upon you the Command of the garrison posted 
at this Fort & to keep up all that Discipline & good order amongst 
the Troops posted here which is necessary for the preservation of 
said Fort & the Tranquility of its garrison. 


You are with all possible Dispatch to have the Barracks & 
Works compleated upon the Plan laid down & explained to you 
by Cap 1 William Eyre Chief Engineer & to make it as habitable 
& as comfortable for the Troops as Circumstances will allow to 
put the Fort in the most Defensible condition w ch . is practicable 
& that as speedy as possible. 

Original destroyed by fire. 

356 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 


In case of an attack from the Enemy you are to follow the 
Directions from the Chief Engineer which I shall transmit you 
from Albany. 


You are to examine into the State of the Military Stores 
delivered over to you by M r . Smith Commissary General of the 
same, to take care there be no waste or Embezzlement of them to 
examine the powder Magazine & take every proper Method to 
prevent the powder from receiving any Damage. 


You are to order the Battoes to be taken good care of, that 
they are not abused or damaged by any neglect & the Paddles 
& setting Poles to be all gathered up & carried into the Fort. 


I would have you keep out constant Scouting Parties round 
about of about 6 or 7. And if any of our Allied Indians should 
come to the Fort to receive them kindly & friendly. 


You are to make Monthly Returns of the State of your Gar- 
rison, of your Provision &c. to General Shirley & Sir Charles 
Hardy Gov r . of New York & to write to them upon all Matters 
w ch you may judge necessary relating to your Command. 


Agreable to the Opinion of the Council of War held at Fort 
William Henry, the Provisions are to be one common Stock & to 
be issued to the Troops upon an equal allowance. 


In case you receive Credible Intelligence of the Approach 
of so formidable a Body of the Enemy as may make assistance 
necessary, you are to send me or the Commanding officer of the 
Militia of the County of Albany immediate Notice of it by 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 357 

Given under my hand at Fort Edward this 28 day of Novem- 
ber 1755. 

By Major Gen 1 Johnson 


D. S* 

Fort Edward NoV 29 1755 

A list of the Companys with their Numbers now in Garrison 
att Fort Edward Viz 

My own Comp ................ 42 Inclusive of officers 

Cap 1 . Grants Comp ........... 45 

Cap*. Hobbeys Comp ......... 46 

Cap*. Putnams Comp .......... 46 ~ 

Maj r . Mathews Comp ............ 57 

Cap*, Gaylords Comp ............ 36 

272 Total with Officers 

N B Two of the above Companys Viz. Cap l$ . Hobbey and 
Putnam are not yet arrived from Lake George; Connecticut 
must Still furnish 14 men New York 61 in Order to Com- 
pleat their Numbers &c Maj r Mathews tells me he has 14 
Men gone to Albany with Leave that he expect in a few 

1 Original destroyed by fire* 

358 * Sir William Johnson Papers 

A. L. S. 

Fort Edward Nov' 29* 1755 

I order'd muster of all the Troops in this Garrison This after- 
noon immediately upon Col Gridleys going of & found the Num- 
bers to be but 272 which Supposing the two Company s yet at 
Fort Edward to hold out as they are now Set Down, falls Short 
of the Complement for the Garison here 75, I doubt not you will 
make a Speedy representation of the affair that Some relief may 
be FORTHWITH afforded, I dont find I have above ten or twelve 
Carpenters & but two Sawyers & them borrowed of Col Bagley. 
They I immagine are gone to the other fort with their Comrades : 
What a bad Situation the fort is in, & what want of every thing 
you perfectly know. Col Bagley has a memorandum of Sundry 
Articles wanted which if not Speedily sent Especially the 
Wagons to ride Stone & Nails to Shingle the Barracks, we shall 
Soon be in a very bad Situation, I make no doubt you will do 
every thing in your power to forward every thing Necessary for 
the Works I have ingaged 36 of the Connecticut Company s in 
the New York pay to inlist on Condition of being relieved by the 
14 th . January & having Samuel Gaylor their Capt Ebenezer 
Dyer & William Billings Lieut 8 which I was obliged to promise 
them & beg you would forward the Commissions I have 
informed the Commissioners of the terms of their Staying & of 
their deficiencys in their troops & desired them to take Speedy 
measures to Supply them M r Dyer is my friend & a Worthy 
Active Man I desire the favour you would give him a Commis- 
sion for fort Maj r as such an officer is very Necessary & may be 
a great ease to me, & an Obligation to a Worthy Man I want 
assistance by Some active Man as I really am Like to have much 
on my hands. 

I gave orders to make up the Complement in Maj r Fitchs three 
Companys 54 by detaching, it was done & the Names returned 
to me but not one of them Stayed I wish I may be relieved or 
at Leest have Liberty to go Home for a Season, for I have a 

Preliminary Campaigns, 7755-7756 359 

troublesome time & really want Some relaxtiation from my 


L. S. 1 

Fort George New York 30 Novern'. 1755. 


The inclosed Letter from Col. DeKay 2 I received yesterday 
in the Evening by Express. By the Papers sent with it, there 
is an Account that the Enemy have cutt off a Settlement called 
lower Smithfield, and at another Place have murdered 7 Persons. 
In Pensilvania they have done much Mischief, and lately 
destroyed one of the Moravian Settlements called Mahony near 
Delaware River and kill'd all the Inhabitants but two. They 
are now infesting the Jerseys, and Minisink in this Province, and 
tis supposed as their Rout has been from Potowmack to Dela- 
ware along the Back of the Mountains they will pass through 
the back parts of our Settlements till stop'd perhaps by the Fear 
>f approaching too near the six Nations. From the best Accounts 
we yet have, there is great Reason to believe a number of the 
Delawares Shawanys and Susquehanahs are concerned in these 
Incursions, and if not acting therein, it must be with their Consent, 
since it is through their Country the Enemy's Indians pass to 
perpetrate these Cruelties. 

1 In New York Public Library, Emmet Collection. 

2 Letter not found. Thomas DeKay was colonel of an Orange county 

360 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I think it therefore necessary that a Message be sent by you, 
in my Name, to the different Nations, to acquaint them with 
these Incursions, and even to warn them to be on their Guard 
least there be any Design against them. At the same time to 
insist that they dispatch Messengers to the Delawares, Shawanys 
and the other Nations dependent on the six Nations requiring 
them not to assist the French but to take up the Hatchet and 
assist the English and to let them know that if they go out a 
fighting against the English, the six Nations will consider them 
as Enemies, and treat them as such accordingly. 

This is look'd on as a very proper measure to be taken without 
Loss of time, and I not only recommend it to you as my own 
Opinion, but as the unanimous advice of his Majesty's Council; 
and if the Fund for Indian Affairs is wholly expended, and 
General Shirley is embarked from Albany, or should refuse to 
supply you with Money, I engage to reimburse you the Expence 
this service may be attended with. 

The Accounts I have, give soom room to suspect the River 
Indians may join the Enemy it is proper therefore the six Nations 
should send a Message to those living in the back parts of Orange 
and Ulster counties ordering them to assist us in repelling the 

I am Sir. 

Your most Obed 1 . 

and humble Serv*. 


Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 361 

D/. 1 

Albany 2<*. December 1755. 

Conformable to the agreement of the Governors and Pro- 
vincial Commissioners at their Meeting in this City the 20 Ulto. 
and in Consequence of the Votes of a Council of War, of w ch 
the Commissioners from the several Governments were Members, 
held at Fort William Henry the 24 & 25 Inst a Copy of the 
Minutes of which Council of War I herewith transmit you 
have discharged the Provincial Troops under my Command, 
except the Number agreed to be given by the several Provinces 
for Garrisoning Fort William Henry & Fort Edward. To the 
imanding officers of these Garrisons I have given the best 
Instructions in my power Copies of which I herewith transmit 
rou. Vide (3). 

Thus Gentlemen is this Campaign closed. I think myself 
obliged to observe to you that altho the Sanguine Hopes & 
over-eager Expectations of the Governments concerned, are dis- 
appointed, and which I am informed have been in a great measure 
nursed & strengthened by some of our own Corps from (as I 
apprehend political & selfish Motives) in spight of the Envy 
or Malice of others. I say in opposition to These or any other 
Causes of public Discontent, I think my self obliged to observe to 
You Gentlemen, that our Army hath had the honour by the 
singular favour of Divine Providence, of defeating some part of 
that formidable & ambitious Plan which was concerted at the 
Court of France & put into the hands of the Baron Dieskau to 
execute, a Plan Gentlemen, which had not this army been the 
chosen Instrument of putting into Confusion, would very prob- 

1 Original destroyed by fire. There is a copy in Public Record Office, 
C. O. 5. 46; transmitted in Johnson to Sir Thomas Robinson, January 1 7, 
1 756. In copy the order of two paragraphs is different from that in the 

362 Sir William Johnson Papers 

ably, not only have destroyed all our other Military Operations, 
have totally lost us all our remaining Indian Allies, but have 
plunged these Northern Colonies into the most calamitous sittua- 
tion & opened Streams of Blood from every vein. Far be it from 
me either in behalf of this Army to impute the Glory hereof 
mearly to their prowess, or to insinuate * my own Consequence 
I did, I do & I hope I always shall, gratefully adore the very 
remarkable Interposition of the Supreme Ruler of the Universe. 


From the date of this Providential Repulse by the Authority 
of indisputable Facts & authentic Records, the Circumstances & 
situation of the Troops under my Command I take upon me to 
assert, that it hath not been prudently practicable or adviseable 
for the army to proceed further towards the Enemy. 

without entering into the particular ungrateful reasons which 
have induced me to explain myself as above, give me leave to 
assure You they are such as in my Opinion justifie me for doing it. 

I think my self also obliged to give this public Testimony to 
the Merits of the following Gentlemen 

Cap 1 Peter Wraxall during my Command has without even the 
Prospect of any Pay, without taking any Fee or Perquisite what- 
soever, acted as my only Aid de Camp & Secretary and also as 
Judge Advocate to the Troops under my Command I think he 
has distinguished himself in these Departments, with that Fidelity 
Capacity and unremitted application as deserves the Esteem of the 
public, full well I am convinced it deserves my grateful 

Cap 1 William Eyre was sent to me by General Braddock to 
act in the Expedition under my Command as an Engineer, he 
hath sustained the Duties of chief Engineer, Quarter Master 
General & Director of the Train of Artillery, for neither of 

1 Transcript in Public Record Office has " impute it to my own Con- 
sequence," and the paragraph ends with these words. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1 7 55- J 7 56 


'osts any Establishment was or hath been provided ; he has never 
ipplied for any and as often declared he expects none. His Skill 

unwearied application in planning directing & attending the 
>uilding Fort Edward & Fort William Henry, have been evi- 
dent to the whole Army. In his other Departments he has been 
extreamly useful to this Army, & as a Gentleman early innitiated 
into Military Life, has on many important Occasions shown his 
beneficial Consequence to our Service. 

M r . Beamsly Glazier arrived in our Camp 2 or 3 days before 
the Engagement, he distinguished himself that day every way 
worthy of a good officer. After this he accepted of an Appoint- 
ment from me, of Adjutant General, tho no Establishment was 
made for such an an officer, than w cl1 none was more wanted or 
necessary in our Camp, he has sustained this Post with inde- 
fatigible Diligence & very advantageously for the Service. I 
persuade myself the Justice & honour of the Governments con- 
cerned will make a provision for this Gentleman adequate to his 
fatiguing Services. 


As I am about to close the Military Scene I have acted in, 
I thought I could not quit it with becoming propriety, had I 
remained Silent with regard to these Gentlemen whose Names I 
have particularly mentioned. 

I beg Gentlemen you will do me the favour to communicate to 
your respective Governments my grateful Acknowledgments for 
the honour done me in consenting to my Appointment as Com- 
mander in chief of their Troops, and I hope you & they will 
believe my most solemn assurances, that I have to the utmost 
extent of my Abilities faithfully & Diligently discharged the Trust 
reposed in me, 1 and that if I have fallen short of their Expecta- 
tions & Opinions, it hath been my Misfortune not my Crime, and 
herein I am very willing to stand the strictest & most impartial 
Enquiry. I look upon my Command as now at an End & my 
Authority no longer to exist. If I am herein mistaken, I must 

1 The words which follow, to and including *' Enquiry," are omitted 
from the copy in the Public Record Office. 

364 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

beg to surrender my Commission as Major General & Com- 
mander in chief of the Provincial Forces on the Expedition 
against Crown Point, and to declare my disinclination to act any 
longer in that Capacity. 

I am 

Most respectfully 

Your most Obed* & most hum serv 1 . 

But Gentlemen I must inform you that the officers in general 
have been prevailed on to stay from a regard to the honour of the 
Service & the Welfare of their Country, that it was with the 
utmost reluctancy the Men could be retained in the Garrisons & 
that most of their Enlistments expire in a few * Weeks, their num- 
bers not compleat. that the Commanding officers of the Artillery, 
Gunners & Matrosses are people who I fear are by no means 
equal to that Service and in Short unless these Garrisons are put 
upon a better & more Secure Establishment than it was in my 
power to fix them, I am affraid of the Consequences. I hope 
therefore that without delay these important affairs will be duly 
considered & put on a footing of more Order & Security. I have 
directed the Commanding Officers of each Garrison to make 
returns of the State of them to General Shirley & S r . Charles 
Hardy as soon as possible 


herewith I also transmit you the Engineers Roll of the Officers 
& Men belonging to the Artillery with the amount of the Pay 
respectively due to them. The Good of the Service made it 
absolutely necessary to appoint this Artillery Company & as an 
Establishment was voted for this purpose by the General Court of 
Massachusetts Bay, I make no Doubt the Persons concerned will 
be duly paid. The officers in particular & the Men in general 

1 " four Weeks " in copy in Public Record Office. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 365 

stinguished themselves in a very meritorious Manner in our 
igagement at the Camp 

The Governors of the Several Governments who raised 
Voops on the Expedition against Crown Point. 


In Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y. t 6:1022, is printed a letter, of 
December 2d, from John Pownall to Johnson, informing him that the 
attention of the King has been called by the lords of trade to Shirley's 
interference with the Indian department. 

Df. S. 1 

Albany 2<*. Decemb'. 1755 

Directions to be observed by the Commanding officers at Fort 
Edward in case of an attack. 

Three of the Six pounders should be mounted as Soon as pos- 
sible in the North East Bastion two in the North west, & one in 
the South East, the South west Corner of the Fort to be laid 
out as the chief Engineer has marked it and put into a Posture 
of defence, as Soon as time will allow, and palisaded as the rest 
of the Works. 

If an Enemy should attempt this Place, its reasonable to 
believe they Will do it in those two Sides that are not defended 
by Water, consequently the greater care must be taken to have 
as many Ambrasures made in those Bastions and Platforms, 
which may enable the Garrison to fire upon the Enemy let them 
approach it which Way they Will, great care should be taken 
to oblige the Enemy to begin their approach as far off as is pos- 
sible, by keeping a Constant fire on them With as Many of the 
Guns as can be brought to bear and particularly before they can 

Original destroyed by fire. 

366 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

have time to cover themselves. After they have erected their 
Battery or Batteries against the Garison they Will endeavour to 
destroy and knock down the Top of the Parapet & Palisades 
in order to make a Passage which they may assault, & this Step 
must be wholly left to the Commanding Officer, as he Will Be the 
best Judge of his own Strength, & that of the Enemy ; but if he 
finds himself able to oppose the beseigers, he ought to make a 
Retrenchment behind the Place where he expects the attack in 
case he should be obliged to give Way, in order to save the Gari- 
son from being Sacked or put to the Sword, this Retrenchment 
is only a Breast Work raised, to retire behind if the Breach or 
Passage can not be defended. But If the Enemy should 
endeavour to make themselves Masters of y e Fort by Escalade, 
it must be by Surprize, otherwise it's a very hazardous attempt, 
therefore the Commandant ought to be on his Guard to prevent 
such an attack, but if they should undertake it by mere force, the 
Artillery should be all loaded with Grape Shot, on the Flanks, 
and every Part of the Works Manned as Well as the Number 
Will admit except a proportional Number on the Parade to be 
always ready to Sustain that Part which may be pressed most. 

Small Parties of two or three should be constantly kept out to 
give timely Notice of an Enemy's approach. 

If the Commanding officer finds, after he has done his utmost 
to defend the Garison as long as he can, his next endeavour is to 
obtain honorable Conditions, the honours of War are that y e 
Garison March out With Drums beating Colours flying, two or 
three Days or more of Provisions, as also one or two Cannon, & 
Match lighted. 

during the time that the River is lock'd up by Ice, great caution 
should be used to prevent an Escalade, as an Enemy may then 
approach it on all Sides with ease. 



Preliminary Campaigns, / 7 55-1756 


A. L. S. 1 

New York Decem'. 3<*. 1755 

We've receiv'd your much esteem'd Fav r . of the 18 th Ult. 
agreeable to which have sent you the respective articles you 
ordered except the Box of Lemmons which could not be procured 
pr Bill of Parcells & receipts enclosed & as to your being disap- 
ointed in our keeping up a Correspondence with you during the 
last Campaigne do assure you it was not either want of Inclina- 
tion or Time to do any thing that We thought might be agreeable 
to you but that of imagining you were so burthen'd with Business 
of Importance that writing to you unless on the most pressing 
Occasion would have been Troublesome & Impertinent. 

We've enclosed such of your foreign Letters as are come to 
our Hands 

Our W K, and his Countrymen here desire their Com- 

plim 18 . may be acceptable to you & they are in great Hopes to be 
honour'd with your Company here 'ere the Winter proves an 
Impedim*. to a thing they so much wish for, to testifie which They 
intend on your arival to have 6 of their Capital Merch 1 . Men 
haled out in Batalia in the Stream to proclaim it in so audable a 
Manner as the Sound thereof shall be both grating & Irksome to 
the few here whose private piques or late Contracted dirty party 
Prejudices would wish you a different reception & lest your 
Modesty should induce you to shun a complim*. of this kind they 
beg the favour y r . permission & of your acquainting them when 
you are within a few Miles of this City to the End their attempt 
may be conducted with such Decency & regularity as may make 
it ornamental both to themselves & Country To desire you to 

Original destroyed by fire. 

368 , Sir William Johnson Papers 

accept the Compliments of Messrs. Wallace, Folliott Cunning- 
ham & Torrens would be a particularization that would do 
Injustice to the rest of your Countrymen & Freinds here, other 
than as representatives, in which Light please to receive from Us 
their most sanguine Tenders of Esteem & respect in Conjunction 


Your most Obed*. & most humble Serv ls . 


Contemporary Copp 

3 Decemb'. 1755 

'< Extract of a Letter from Gov r . Morris to General Shirley 
Dated at Philadelphia December the 3 d : 1755> 

<The Unhappy > defeat of the General gave the French 
Infinite < advantage & when they Un>expectedly saw, that this 
Defeat was Attended with the < Retreat of the> Remainder 
of the Army, they found themselves at full <Liber>ty to Act 
Offensively against us, 

As to the Shawonese; a part of them was always perfiduous, 
& declared for the French in the Last Warr; but the Bulk of that 
Nation still Remained faithfull, & did us great Service; the Dele- 
wares are our own Indians, & were depended upon by us, in 
Conjunction with the Sound part of the Shawonese, & the Six 
Nations, to Preserve the Western Indians in our Interest, or at 
Least Prevail Upon them to be Neuter; but to our great Surprize, 
they, the Delewares, & Shawanese, have taken up the Hatchet 
against us, & with uncommon Rage and Fury carried on a Most 
Barbarous & Cruel War, Burning & Destroying all before them, 
& have in this Short Space of time been able to Lay waste a Con- 
siderable Tract of Country, extending a Vast Length; from 
beyond the Apalaccian Hills in Virginia to the River Delaware ; 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-17 56 369 

it may be expected, that they will next fall on Jersey, & per- 
laps New York, as they follow the Chain of Mountains, that we 
:all the Blue Hills, which take their Rise in New England. 

You will see by the papers enclosed, that the Indians have 
roclaimed War. with great Solemnity against all the English & 
threaten not to Leave one of them alive ; & assign, as a Reason for 
this, that they have been too Long treated by the Six Nations, to 
whom they <^are subject, as Women, but will now show them 
that they are Men. 

By all Accounts > they have Sold them< selves to the French, 
& their Towns^> lying Scattered, some on & beyond the <^Ohio, 
others on Both> Branches of the Susquehannah, & others again 
<on the Waters of> the River Delaware, & haveing in every 
of their <Towns, Indians^ of Other Nations, they are Capable 
of Doing abund<ance of> Mischief, they give out, that they 
have sent some of their Chiefs to the Cherokees, & other Southern 
Nations of Indians, & that they have Received favourable 
Answers, & in the Spring expect great Numbers of Indians to 
Join them, & to Assist in the Distruction of this, & the Neigh- 
bouring Provinces, & tho' much of this may be a Vain Boast, & 
without Truth, Yet I think we have Reason to Believe they will 
Act with all the Force, they Can procure, against us, by the 
Secret intelligence., which Accompanies this, & which was Com- 
municated to me by a Person, who has formerly had Considerable 
Dealings with them, & has known their Secrets, whose name I 
desired may be Concealed, they would have their own people 
Believe, this is Scheme to Recover their Lands, & to Reduce 
both the English & French to Narrower Bounds, but tho' they 
may assign this or Any Other Reason for their Conduct, it 
appears plain to me, by the French being said to be Privy to it, 
& it being Inconsistant with the present Engagements of the Six 
Nations to General Johnson, that this is Meer Pretence, & that 
those Indians are intirely under the Direction of the French, who 
have fallen on those Measures, not only to Render it imprac- 
ticable for his Majesty to Undertake the Reduction of Fort 

370 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

Duquesne but <to Cause a diversion of the Forces employed in 
the other Expeditions; and it must be acknowledged to be good 
Policy, as the French can no way Make war so> Cheap as by 
employing <C Body's of Indians, 

But> whatever may have been the <Success of the Dela- 
wares & Shawonese at> the Instigation of the French with other 
Nations, <they have failed^ in their Application to the Susque- 
hannah Indians, th<o they are> in general of their own 
Nations, perhaps they may have prev< ailed on> some few of 
their Loose young Men to Join them, but the Greatest & Best 
part of them Continue true to us, & have assured this Govern- 
ment, that they will take the Hatchet against the French, if we 
will give it them, & Act along with them, as you will see by their 
Messages, which Scarroyady & Andrew Montour delivered to 
me ; & therefore, I sent those two immediately back to them with 
such encouragements, as I could then under the differences, that 
Subsisted between me & <my> Assembly, be Warrented to 
give them; & at the same time sent <Scar>royady & Montour 
to the Six Nations to inform them that the <Delaw>ares & 
Shawonese had fallen upon this Province without <the> Least 
Provocation on our part, & desired to know if this was <done> 
with their Privity; and if not as those Indians were dependent 
<on> them, that they would Call them to Account for their 
Outrages, & Prevent them doing the Like for the future, 

The Susquehannah Indians Complain Heavily & not without 
Reason, that Neither the Six Nations nor General Johnson 
<have> sent any Message to them, tho they were Promised by 
your Excelb: <& m>y self that Messengers should be sent to 
them as soon as the <Six> Nations should have Concluded with 
him, but I shall take Care to <make an Apology, as I Propose 
to send for them to Come & Confer with me on the Plan of our 
Operations, & shall assign to them their part of it, when it will 
soon> be seen what Numbers <they Can bring to our Assist- 
ance, & with> what Vigour they will Act. 

The Southern Indians in our Alliance a<re very Nu>merous, 
& Capable of affording us Considerable As<sistance, but I> 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


am afraid have never been invited to take part with us in the 
Present dispute, the French are now using Means to turn them 
against us, which it is our duty to disconcert, & a timely appli- 
cation may draw a Number of them to Join & Assist us the Next 

a true Copy examin d . by 


INDORSED: Ext<ract of a Letter from> Gov r . Morris, to his 
Excelly: General Shirley Dated 3 Decemb r . 1755 


D. S. 1 
Albany 27 July-4 December 1755- 

John, Cornelius & Joe, three River Indians having applied 
to the Hon ble . William Johnson Esq r : Sole Superintendent of 
Indian Affairs, & laid before him a certain Paper, signed by 
several of their chief Sachems, setting forth that certain Lands 
therein described, do belong to the above named Indians & was 
never sold by the true Owners thereof and which they the above 
Indians also affirmed and further said that the greatest part of 
said Lands were in the possession of Colonel John Rentzelaar of 
this City and were taken up & occupied by him & some other 
Persons, without any Deed or payment having been made for 
the same to the right Indian owners thereof. And the said 
Indians did require & insist, that a proper Consideration should 
be paid them in Money by the Persons now in possession of their 
aforesaid Lands when they would assign over to them their right 
& Title. 

hereupon the Hon ble . William Johnson Esq r . sent to the s d . 
Col. Rentzelaar & desired his Attendance. 

1 In the Canadian Archives. See Indian Proceedings, 1755, May 15 
June 2 1 , note, under the later date. 

372 'Sir William Johnson Papers 

This Day he came & there were present] 1 as follows. 
The Hon blc . Will. Johnson Esq r . 
Col. John Rentzelaar 
Peter Wraxall Secret for Indian Affairs 
and The Three above named Indians. 

Colonel Johnson read the Paper above mentioned to Col. 
Rentzelaar, when the said Rentzelaar declared, that no one Foot 
of those Lands were in his Possession or belonged to him, but 
were in the Possession of sundry Persons living about Kinder- 
hook & Claveroot. 

The Indians then asked Col. Johnson [ f s] Advice, whether if 
they could sell their Title to any white Persons, he would advise 
them to do it. The Colonel told them that he could not pretend 
to determine upon the Justice of their Claim, but that if any 
Persons who would examine into the matter, were willing to 
purchase their said Title, and they were satisfied to dispose of 
the same, he thought they were at liberty to do it, and that white 
People would settle the dispute better amongst themselves than 
the Indians could do with them. 

Albany 27 July 1755. 

The Hon blc . William Johnson 

Peter Wraxall Secret 

William Printup Interp r . 

Carighwage a Tuscarore Sachem. 

he says, that he came down in a Battoe to Schenectady with 
a white Man, that on His Arrival there he was dispatched hither 
to Gen 1 . Johnson with a Letter from Arent Stevens Interpreter, 
he further says that his Grandfather told him to tell the General, 

In a small number of cases, in these proceedings, words or syllables 
at the end of lines were lost in copying. Apparently the manuscript was 
bound, and the mssing parts, being covered by the binding, escaped the 

Preliminary Campaigns, 17551756 


iat the Promises he made to him at Mount Johnson should be 
faithfully fulfilled. 

The said Indian also says, that when he came to Arent Stevens, 
he asked him the s d . Indian how it would now go with the Indians 
as Gov r . Shirley was offering them so much money to go with 
him and whether General Johnson was to be left to go by himself 
after all the Promises made him at Mount Johnson, he further 
says, that the white Man who came down with him in the Battoe 
took him immediately on their arrival at Schenectady to Arent 
Stevens & told him if he did not make haste, General Shirleys 
Agents would lay hold of him & tempt him with money to go to 
Oswego. he replied that it was agreed in the Council of the 5 
Nations, that as he was now appointed Sachem he must take 
care of the News at his Castle & not go to Oswego. 

He asked General Johnson what all this working with the 
Indians meant for by what he had told them at -Mount Johnson 
they looked upon him to have the sole Direction of their Affairs, 
and that these Proceedings had caused great Confusion amongst 
the Indians. 

That he met several Indians on his way dow[n] in Battoes 
going to Oswego and that if these Methods of giving sumes of 
Money to the Indians were pursued, he was of Opinion they 
would delude all the Indians as they went along. 

General Johnson replied 

That these Proceedings were very contra fry] to his Inclina- 
tions & Opinion & done with out his Consent or knowledge. 
That he had wro[te] to Gov r . Shirley about it & hoped it might 
help to put a Stop to them, and that he was sensible these 
Methods would raise great Confusion amongst the Indians, who 
left Mount Johnson fully satisfied & well inclined. That he 
expected the Promises made to him at Mount Johnson would be 

374 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

fulfilled & gave him a String of Wampum to carry this Message 
to the Confederate Nations. 

Albany 29 July 1755. 


Hon ble . Will. Johnson Esq'. 

Peter Wraxall Sec^. for Indian Affairs 

William Printup Interp r . 

Otrowana a Chief Cayouga Sachem & Six Sache[ms] and 
Warriors of Onieda Tuscarore & Messasaga 
Otrowana spoke as follows. 


When I & the rest of my Bretheren here present came as far 
as where Gov r . Shirley now is at Col. Glens near Schenectady, 
the Gov r . called me to him & said, " You Cayouges w^ way 
are you going. I replyed I was going to Albany to see my 
Brother Gen 1 . Johnson; the Gov r . said come turn back again & 
go with me, I am going to Niagara. But I left Gov r . Shirley 
& went over the River to Schenectady. While I & my Company 
were Securing our Canoe, several Persons who I understood were 
employed by Gov r . Shirley, laid hold of the Messasaga Sachem 
who was one of my Company & were ready to pull him to peices 
pressing him in such a manner as if they would force him to go 
to Niagara. I spoke to them & said, dont stop us here, if you 
have any thing to say let us have a Meeting in Town. Then 
several Persons laid hold of them & carried them to Justice 
Fishers & as soon as they got into the House a great many People 
employed by Gov r . Shirley joined the Company. When they 
were all met Col. Lydius came & brought a large Bag with many 
Belts of Wampum, he & Justice Fisher spread them out before 
them, & told him that the King their Father had employed both 
General Shirley & Gen 1 . Johnson to go out & fight their Enemies, 
that Gen 1 . Shirley was going to Niagara & Gen 1 . Johnson to 
Crown Point if God spared their Lives. Then Lydius spoke to 
them as follows. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 375 


hear well what I am going to say, My Heart aked within me 
For the Loss of a great Oneida Sachem called Conochquanie. 
r ou Oneidas are Elder Brothers to the Cayouges, & the Pain 
never get out of my Heart, till I have got a Scalp or Prisoner 
to put in the room of that Sachem, upon w ch . he gave us a very 
large Black Belt of Wampum 

Lydius then laid down a much larger Belt of Wampum & said 
to m[e] pray inform me how I am to proceed in fulfilling 
this my Intention. Brother I beg you will put me in the right 
way how I shall mannage. 

Upon w ch I told him, the Method he had now taken was the 
same I always followed when I wanted to get People to go out 
a fighting with me. After I had spoke with one large Belt I 
then flung down another, went away & wait[ed] to see who 
would follow me. this Method y[ou] have made use of & it is 
Customary amongst us. 

Lydius then said, What I have now donfe] I do both for the 
Oneidas & Cayouges because, both have lost a great Sachem & 
Warrior & I intend it as much out of regard for y r . Nation as 
for the Oniedas. I hope youl put me in the right way to get 
fighters to follow me, for I am fully detirmined to go a fighting 
to Niagara, & some of us will go to one Nation & some to 
another in order to get the Indians to go with us & if we meet 
any Indians on the road we shall take them along. 

I asked Lydius whether his Proceedings were with General 
Johnson's Consent & Approbation. Lydius replyed no. They 
were acting for themselves & going a diff* way fr[om] General 


After this was all over the Belts of Wampum were put again 
into a very large Bag, then we were pulled & hauled by one & 
another telling us, " Come now you must turn back & go along 

1 Name marked out in the manuscript. It was evidently Otrawana. 

376 * Sir William Johnson Papers 

with us & urged us in so strong a manner that we had much ado 
to get out of their hands. 

Albany the Fourth day of August 
1 755. The foregoing Proceedings of 

this Record from Page 1. to page 
83. I Attest 


Secr r y. for Ind n . Affairs. 

Albany 8 August 1 755- 

Three Warriors of the lower Mohock Castle were sent to 
General Johnson by the Sachems & Warriors of said Castle with 
the following memorandum of Canadagayea the Chief Sachem 
of said Castle & also to inform Gen 1 . Johnson of the proceedings 
of General Shirley & his Agents. 

" Memorandum taken from Canadagayea who desired that 
his Deposition should immediately be sent to Warraghiyagy, 
which was the following, and concerned Yohahoaano, (Gen 1 
Shirley) he spoke in the presence of several of the Lower Mohock 
Castle at Mount Johnson Aug 1 . 6 1 755 and said. 

' That when Gov r . Shirley came to the Castle he applied to 
him to be his Speaker to w ch . he hardly would agree & told 
Lydius who spoke to him for it, that he would serve him that day 
but not the next. 

Gov r Shirley then with a Belt of Wampum condoled the 
Losses of their People & passed some other Ceremonies accord- 
ing to Custom Then gave the Belt. 

Then with another large Belt he told them that when he 
parted General Johnson he asked him how many Indians of the 
lower Mohock Castle was to join him, when he answered that 
20 Men were ready for him at Whistle, wherefore he should be 
glad those 20 Men were to set off with him immediately. 

laid down the Belt 

Preliminary Campaigns, 7755-7756 377 

Whereupon the Mohocks said they knew nothing about it 
ifter which he took a Paper out of his Pocket & told them that 

icse doings of General Johnson seemed very strange to him, as 

was him raised Gen[ ! ]. Johnson to the Post he was in now. 

Then Governor Shirley further asked them whether General 
Johnson did not allow them 10/ a day for going upon the out- 
scout and also if he had not told them that those Indians who 
would serve the Crown in this Expedition] were to have 5 
apiece after their return if Successful, and that it should not be 
lost upon them that might happen to be killed as their Family 
was to receive the said Sum. 

The Indians said it had not been told them (when John 
Fisher & the rest looke[d] at one another & smiled) 

Then Gov r . Shirley further acquainted the Indians that he 
lodged some 5000-Sterl8. in General Johnsons hands for the 
use of [the] Indians. 

At parting he told them that he must take the People along 
that was working [ J 1 the Fort, as he wanted hands in the 
Bat [toes] as they were in his Employ. 

Canadagaye also said that they hear[d] Gov r . Shirley stopped 
all the Waggons that was pressed for General Johnson upon the 

All these doings he said appeared strange to them & should 
be very glad to have their Brother Warroghiyagys answer to it, 
especially concerning the Fort as no Body was working at the 
Fort & they soon leaving their Families. 

Deposed in the presence of 

Arent Stevens " 

General Johnson's Answer to the Three Warriors who brought 
the foregoing Memorandum 


Peter Wraxall Seer* 
Arent Stevens Intr r . 

word omitted in copying; probably "at. 1 

378 'Sir William Johnson Papers 


I told Gov r . Shirley according to what you agreed on when 
I saw you last at my House that there were Six of your People 
who were ready to Attend him I promised him no more I 
wrote no such Letter to him as I am informed he showed you nor 
sent any Belt of Wampum by him. 


It was not Gov r . Shirley who raised me up, it was as I told 
you at our public Meeting, by the King your Fathers directions 
to General Braddock. Gov r . Shirley has lodged no Money in 
my hands the Money I received for mannaging your Affairs, 
was put into my hands by General Braddock, he having a Power 
from the King your Father for so doing. If Gov r . Shirley told 
you I had orders to Allow you 10 Shillings 3$ day or to give 
you 5. ^ Man after your return, he imposed on you, for I 
never had any such Orders 

All my Promises I will faithfully fulfill to You, as I have 
always do[ne,] and you may depend upon it, that those who 
remain true to their Engagements & go with me, I will always 
remember & do every thing for them in my pow[er] and I am 
sorry to hear that the Workmen were taken away from building 
your Fort, I wi[ll] write to Justice Fry to press Men to finish it 
as soon as possible. 1 

Head Quarters 

Camp at the Great Carrying Place 
21 Aug*. 1755.- 

Four Mohock Indians sent some time ago by General Johnson 
with a Message to the Cagnawag[a] Indians in Canada & a 
Belt of Wampum in order to prevail on them at least to stand 
Neuter between the French & us. returned & joined Gen 1 John- 

1 This Fort was building by Directions of the Lieut. Govr. of New 
York (upon Genl. Johnson's Application) with a Fund raised by the 
Govt. of New York. Footnote by Wraxall. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1 7 55-17 56 379 

>n this day at the Camp. They reported the following Answer 
>f the Cagnawagas to them & to General Johnson's Message.- 


Last year we opened a Road for you & us to trade to Albany, 
>ut find the Annogongues have stopped it up by killing the 

iglish. We sent to their Sachems & expressed our uneasiness 
at it. We sit still and do no harm, however our said Ro[ad] 
is now shut, & we leave it to you to find anoth[er] 

gave a Belt 


the French Priests by throwing Water upon our Heads, sub- 
ject us to the Will of the Governor of Canada but as you 
are a free People be careful of your safety & do not engage 
Your selves in the Quarrels between the English & French 

a Belt 

"Brother Warragheyagy 

We have received your Message desiring us to stand out of 
your way lest you should tread upon us, Bro r . we return you 
thanks for your warning, but it is not in our power to comply 
with it, for the French & we are one Blood, & where they are 
to dye we must dye also. We are linked together in each others 
Arms & where the French go we must go also. 

Gave a Belt for General Johnson & 
returned that he sent to them. 

Vide page 90. the Conference there recorded should have fol- 
lowed, 1 but by Mistake the following Speeches were entered 
from the rough Minutes on these Records before the Error was 
discovered P. Wraxall Secret. 

1 Wraxall's note relates to the proceedings at Lake George on August 

380 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

Camp at Lake George 4 Sep r . 1 755- 

A. M. 

General Johnson 

Maj r . General Lyman 

Lieu*. Col. Whiting 

Colonel Ruggles 

Lieu*. Col. Pitkin 

Peter Wraxall Sec 1 ?, for Indian Affairs & c . 

Cap*. Butler 1 

Lieu*. Clausse }. Int rs . 

W m . Printup ] 

Sachems of the several Nations of Indians at this Camp 
Hendrik Speaker 

Brother Warraghijagy Sole Superintendent of our Affairs. 

When you went from the carrying Place you left a Message 
to acquaint the 5 Nations that you were proceeding to this Lake, 
& desired we would join you with all possible speed. We 
received this Message & have accordingly joined you here, & are 
exerting our selves to assist you in all matters within our power. 

You know a Message was sent to the Cagnawagas to keep 
out of your way with whi[ch] they would not comply. We are 
now resolved to send once more & our Messengers are here 
presenft] ready to set off and we now return you your Belt. 1 

And now 

Brother you will wait till they return when you shall know 
what Answer [we] receive. 


It is our way upon these Occasions] that the head Man we 
send, takes the People he goes to meet by the hand & desires 

"A Belt Genl. Johnson left at the Great Carrying Place for the 
Indians to join him at Lake George. Footnote fcp Wraxall. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 


icy will come along with him to their fire place, b[ut] as it is 
lot now a peaceable time, we imagine they will appoint some 
>ther place where you & some of your chief Men may meet with 
icm & us in Council 


As our People are always out on the Scout & their Eyes & 

irs always open they heard Yesterday 3 Guns fire at the 

Ja[ce] where we expect to meet the Cagnawagas & we are 

>retty certain they are now waiting for us there, as no Guns 

ive been heard at any other place. 


this is all we have to say now, as we choose to be short as we 
re in haste to dispatch our Deputies. 1 

'res 1 . 

Camp at Lake George 3 1 Aug*. 1 755 

General Johnson 
Colonel Ruggles 

Peter Wraxall Secret for Indian Affairs & c . 
Cap 4 . Butler, Lieu* Clausse & W m . Printup 


Deputies from each Nation of Indians. 
Hendrik Speaker 

Brother Warrighajaghy Sole Superintendent 
When we were lately called to meet you at your & our Fire 

place at your House, you desired us to join & assist you in the 

present Expedition, to which we agreed & have accordingly met 

you here. 

Now we inform you that we have sent out Two Scouting 

Parties two different ways towards the Enemy. 

*A second speech delivered by Hendrick, closing the proceedings, is 
printed in Doc. Rd. to Col. Hist. N. Y. t 6:998-99. 

382 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 


We are sorry to see the Sittuation of your People. We are 
more used to righting in the Woods than they are and when we 
came in yesterday we observed your Sentrys very negligent sitting 
down & not keeping a Sharp look out. however we are ready to 
assist you in every respect and as we are united together with 
you as one People, we hope you will join some of our People in 
your Councils, whose knowledge & Experience may be very 
serviceable to you & tend to your Security & Success, as we are 
well acquainted with the Enemy you are engaged against and 
without this union of Councils you may meet with a sudden & 
fatal Blow. 


We hope as Your People & ours are now united in one Cause 
you will not refuse to take us into your Councils, as that Great 
Man at Ohio did, who had he listened to & regarded the advice 
of those of the 5 Nations who were with him, that unfortunate 
Defeat might have been avoided, dont you follow his Example 
or will meet with his Fate 


As we are now all going upon the same Expedition it is the 
earnest Request of our united Nations that for the general safety, 
Two Good Forts may be built, one at the Great Carrying Place 
& One here as both these Places are every way exposed to the 
French, they having had diff' Roads to attack them and that you 
may by these Two Forts secure your Amunition & Stores w ch 
should they fall into the Enemies hands would Put an End to 
your Expedition 


We are very much disturbed at our present open Sittuation, 
for unless we defend our selves with proper Fortifications, tis 
easy for the French to come suddenly upon us & destroy us; they 
also serve as a safe Retreats in case of Necessity. We are 

Preliminary Campaigns, 7755-7756 383 

icrefore very uneasy on these Points, for should [the] French 
the better of us we should have no Security behind us & the 
Tench would certainly take Possess [ion] & build Forts at these 
>laces if you neglect to do it and proceed with their Army & 
ike Albany and Adjacent parts. 


this is all we have to say [at] present, but to acquaint you 
that to morrow Morning we shall send out our Young People 
[to] scout three different ways. 


It is proposed amongst us that w[e] shall go & meet the 
Cagnawagas & talk with them at a place appointed by them, 
what will be the re [suit] we know not, but it will be proper for 
us to tak [e] a Belt of Wampum with us, and we desire fur [ther] 
that while the Army remains here we may fur[n]ish the out 
scout parties for if your Soldiers go out they may mistake us for 
the Enemy & by that means fire upon their Friends & kill them 
as they did at Ohio which would ruin all our Affairs. 

P. M. Eo. Di. 

General Johnsons Answer to the foregoing Speech of the 

Bretheren of the United Nations. 

Your meeting me here conformable to Yo[ur] Engagements 
is not only very pleasing to me but a proof of your Duty to the 
Great King our common Father, and that you retain towards 
you[r] Bretheren the English those Friendly regards w[ h .] it 
will always be your Interest to continue. 

Bretheren I assure you that we on our * 

1 The remaining part of Johnson's reply is missing in the document. 
For the conference of September 1 1 and 1 2 at Lake George, following 
this, see Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 6:101 1-13. It related to the 
purpose of the Indian allies to return home after the battle. 

384 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

Albany Wensday Morning 

4 December 1755- 

General Johnson Sole Superintend 1 . & c . 
Peter Wraxall Secret for Indian Affairs 
Arent Stevens Interp r . 

Three Expresses were dispatched by the Warriors & Women 
of the Tuscarore Nation to General Johnson one of w ch . being 
tired staid at his House at Mount Johnson the other two came 
hither. Ta won thaw Speaker Delivered himself as follows 

Warraghiiyagey Sole Superintendent of our Affairs 

We praise God for this fortunate day which thro his Favour 
hath brought us again Face to Face in safety. We are dis- 
patched by the Warriors & Women of the Tuscarore Nation to 
acquaint you that our Nation apprehend themselves to be in 
imminent Danger having received Intelligence that a French 
Army is designed again [st] us to cut us off. As we, the Oneidas 
& the Mohocks are said [to] be the People who killed the 
French General & defeated [their?] Army. The French have 
said they are making Snow Shoes & preparing every thing for 
a Winter Expedition, being determined to have Revenge for the 
Blood which we have spilt. As we look on you Brother to be 
one Blood one Heart & one Religion with us, We apply our 
selves to you for assistance in this our Distress & hereupon we 
give you this Belt (gave a large broad Belt) 

We request Amunition & some Big Guns as our Fort is in 
great forwardness, also 400 Men to reinforce us. If you delay 
to assist us it will probably be too late, and should we be cut off 
you will loose faithful & Zealous Friends. Our chief Women 
join in this Application & desired us to tell you that we Warriors 
are sprung from & are apart of themselves. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1 7 55-17 56 385 


We told you before that we were one Heart, one Blood & one 
Religion with you. We repeat it & be assured we are detir- 
lined to remain true to & stand by our Bretheren the English to 
ic last, nor shall it be in the power of the French to alter our 
l.esolutions or draw us off from our Union with you. We will 
lot do as some of our Bretheren of the Onondaga Nation did 
>t War, received Powder & Ball from you & make use of it 
against you. 


We Tuscarores applied to the Oneidas & proposed building 
a Fort for our mutual safety in a proper place but the Oneidas 
gave us no Answer upon which we knowing our Danger agreed 
to build one our selves which is more than half finished. 

Our Brother the Oneida whom we left at your House we 
imagine is charged with a Message to you from the Oneida 
Nation, but this is only our surmise, we have now finished what 
we were charged with & enforce our Message with these 3 
Strings of Wampum (w^. he gave) 

To the foregoing General Johnson made the following reply 
Bretheren of the Tuscarore Nation 

I am equally grateful to Heaven with you for our Meeting in 
safety & to hear that you[r] Nation are as yet well 


You are not strangers neith[er] am I to the Boastings of the 
French & their Arts both by Threats & other Methods of draw- 
ing you off from your Union with us your Bretheren however 
to gua,rd you against any of their Pa[rties] who may be sent 
against you, I will do all that is in my power to secure you and 
I shall send th[em] your Message by Carriiwhio (the Sec 1 ?, for 
Vol. 1113 

386 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

Indian Affairs) who is now going to New York to the G[ov r8 .] 
that are met there, who I doubt not will be as ready as I am to 
Afford you assistance. 

(Gave a Belt & 3 Strings in return) 


A letter of December 5th in Dutch from Myndert Wympel, in Senecas' 
Land, to Johnson about an Indian raid on English settlers, occurring on 
page 70 of the Johnson Calendar, was destroyed by fire. 


D/. S. 1 

Fort Johnson 2 December 6 ih 1755. 

I received yours of 29 th . ult. at Albany, where my Hurry 
would not permit me to answer you. I sent by Colo. Bagly 
Directions in case of an attack how you are to manage. I now 
send you the Commissions you desired for the severall Officers & 
doubt not they will merit them, as they are approved of by you. 
As to Lowell I don't know what to Say, I am afraid he is not 
equal to the Thing, consider it is a great Trust to be reposed in 
him, and I hear he is addicted to Liquor, I mentioned it to the 
Commissioners, but they could not think of another. If you can- 
not get a proper Person, you can give him a Commission yourself. 

As you wrote the Commissioners about your Circumstances 
there, I doubt not they have given you all the Assistance in their 
Power, when I spoke to them concerning the Uneasiness of those 
who Stayed to Garrisson the Forts, their answer was, that they 
did not doubt but the Governments, would relieve them by the 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

2 For notices of Fort Johnson, see Doc. Hist. N. Y., 1 :532, in 
"Description of the Country between Oswego and Albany 1757,** 
and 3 : 1 038-39, in " Rev. Gideon Hawley's Journey to Oghquaga, 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


'ime their Inlistments were out; There are Waggons ordered 
Nails &ca. so hope you will soon have the Barracks in good 
)rder, as the Wheather has been so very favourable 
I am extreamly hurried So that I have only Time to wish you 
ill Happiness that Part of the Works can afford you, and a 
'ictory over your Enemies Should they attempt an attack. 
Jhould that be the Case it would crown all and make you happy, 
rhich is the Sincere Wish of 


Your hearty Friend 
and humble Serv ! . 

at Fort Edward 


Fort Johnson Dec br . 7 th . 1755. 

I received your Excellencys favour with Collo. DeKays letter 
4 th . Inst. at 9 a Clock at night by an Express from Albany 
which I set out next Morning at Day break for my House, 
id left orders for the Interpreter to follow me as Soon as possible. 
r e arrived last night, & this Day I sent to the Mohawks to meet 
my House to Morrow Morning, where will be present Some 
leidas Tuscaroras, & a Seneca who came down w*. the 
iclosed letter from Myndert Wemple, 2 as Soon as I have 
:quainted them with the behaviour of the French & Indians 
the Southward of Us, I shall dispatch a proper Message to 
the Confederate Nations, to whom those Indians as it is 
lought (who are now committing Hostilities against the Eng- 
i) belong, or are dependant on, I shall also Send to those 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

2 Wemple to Johnson, November 22, 1 755, q. v. 

388 9 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Indians liyeing at & near the Susquahana River, over whom as 
well as those of the six Nations I flatter myself I have so much 
Influence as to prevent their annoying any of the Inhabitants of 
this or the Neighbouring Governments and indeed check y c . 
further progress of any other Nation of Indians that way provided 
I have time and am not interrupted. 

The inclosed French Pacquet I this day took from a Schenec- 
tady Man who got it from an Ondaga Indian Just arrived at 
their Castle from Canada the Same Day this Man left it, & not 
knowing but there might be Some thing in it necessary for me to 
know at present I opened It. the Man to whom it is Sent, went 
to New York along with the rest of the Prisonners. I should be 
glad y r . Excellency would please to Send me two or three of the 
Youngest of them, in order to give them to Some of those Familys 
who have lost their Freinds in the late action as it would be verry 
well taken. I find by those Indians Come lately from Canada, 
that there were about a Hundred of the French Indians Killed 
many of whom died of their wounds by the way, and Since, the 
Gov r . of Canada bought as many Slaves, Pawnays 1 &ca., as 
restor'd those who were Slain, and gave their Familys verry con- 
siderable Presents. It is expected I do the Same, & indeed there 
is an absolute necessity for it. If we want them again. I can I 
believe out of the Fund in my hands do it. all to the article of 
guns which I cannot get suitable for them, there is one John 
Abeels an Albany Trader who has for Some years past con- 
stantly carried great quantitys of Rum to the Senecas Country 
Contrary to Law, & in open defiance of all authority, verry much 
to the prejudice of the Service & the weakening our Interest w lh . 
s d . Nations I am credibly informed he has lately Supplied a 
French officer & Interpreter Called Jean cure in Indian Sinuchsis 
at that place w th . Rum & other Merchandise for a present w ch 
Said Sinuchsis gave the Indians after treating with them, nay 
by y e . power of his Rum prevailed on an Indian called the Grote 
Younge & others to go with him to Canada they are gone, and 

^ee Slavery in Ne*> York, h A. Judd Northufi, p. 306-7. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 389 

this Interpreter is expected there in ab*. a Month to Confer farther 
r* that, & the other Nations adjacent. (I have this Day offered 
two French Men who have lived in this province Some Years, & 
aded there Each a Commission in y c . Indian Service in Case 
they would bring Said Jean ceur down a Prisoner, they have 
undertaken it, & expect they will Succeed.) I shall endeavour 
prevent his tampering further with them having this Day 
offered a very considerable reward to two Men who are going up 
there, to bring him down to me if possible, or any other French 
Man who may come there or to any of the Six Nations. I have 
great hopes many Indians will Join us in the Spring if we push 
Matters vigourously. I shall dispatch Messages not only to all 
the allies of the Six Nations but to the Mississagaw Chipawais 
and others living the North side of the Lake, of whom I have 
great reason to entertain a good opinion from the kind acceptance 
a Message of mine met with, w^ I sent last June by a leading 
Man of their Nation. I hear M r * Shirley has sent also to them 
since that time I am 


In Doc. Rd. to Col. Hist. N. 7., 6:1024-27, are printed Shirley's 
letter, of December 7th to Johnson, stating his appointment to succeed 
General Braddock and imposing new duties on Johnson; a new commis- 
sion issued to Johnson on the same day by Shirley; and Shirley's instruc- 
tions, dated the 10th. A letter of the 16th from Johnson to Shirley, 
mentioning frontier hostilities and the Shirley commission, is printed, p. 


Attested Copp 1 

Copy of His Majestys Eighth Instruction 
to Major General Shirley 

You will not only cultivate the best Harmony & Friendship 
possible with the several Governors of our Colonies and Provinces 

1 Destroyed by fire. Accompanied Shirley's letter to Johnson, Decem- 
ber 7, 1755, printed in Doc. Rcl. to Col. Hist. N. Y.. 6:1024-25. 

390 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

but likewise with the Cheifs of the Indian Tribes; and for the 
better improvement of our good Correspondence with the said 
Indian Tribes, you will find out some fit & proper Person agre- 
able to the Southern Indians, to be sent to them for this purpose, 
in like manner as we have ordered Colonel Johnson to repair to 
the Northern Indians, as the Person thought to be most Accept- 
able to them, to endeavour to engage them to take part & act with 
our Forces in such Operations as you shall think most Expedient 
a true Copy Examined by 


Seer 1 ?. 

A. L. S. 1 

New York 8 Decern'. 1755. 

Captain Wraxall by whose Fireside I am now sitting tells me 
M r . Watts is about sending some money to you, which I think a 
good opportunity of signifying to you the great desire Sir Charles 
has to see you as soon as possible. He has something very par- 
ticular he says to confer with you upon as to publick affairs, and 
will be greatly disappointed should you not arrive before Gen- 
eral Shirley's departure. 

M r . Pownall, M r . Rutherfurd M r . Wraxall & myself in a 
Word all your Friends earnestly wish you would hasten hither 
as soon as possible. We are Sir 

Your obed*. & affect, humble Servants 


Pray bring down Shirleys long angry Letter & your answer to 
it. Pownall extreamly presses y r . coming down speedily. A 
reception from many friends here is intended you, w ch will do you 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, / 755-7 756 391 

great honour & give the Attorney Gen 1 , great Chagrin. If the 
multiplicity of other affairs will permit you to think of the 
Counterparts of M r . Clarke's deeds, pray bring with you such of 
them as the Tenants have executed. 

INDORSED: To the Hon ble . Major Gen 1 . Johnson 
at his House at Mount Johnson. 

Df. S. 1 

Fort Johnson Dec r . 8. 1755 

As the present Circumstances of affairs do not require your 
keeping that Fort any longer. You are therefore hereby required 
to deliver up to the Indians of that Castle, what Amunition there 
is left and then withdraw your People, and discharge them You 
are also to take care and store in a safe place what provisions are 
there and take a Receipt for them then send me your Account 
drawn out in a plain distinct Manner, so that I may pay you and 
your Men off. 

I am 

Your Hum Serv 1 . 

W. J. 


A. L. S. 1 

NCJ York 9 Dec. 1755. 

I wrote you three or 4 Lines yesterday signed by Cap*. 
Wraxall and myself, signifying the desire of your Friends that 
you should hasten hither as soon as possible. I cannot help 

Original destroyed by fire. 

392 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

repeating this; to which I will add what M r . Kennedy this 
Moment told me, which was to this Effect, that he was sure if 
you was here all might be reconciled, which he said he had from 
a Person he could depend upon : and I suppose from one who is 
in the Secrets of the other side. I believe they apprehend more 
Difficulties now than they foresaw in dividing the management of 
Indian affairs I do not urge the appearance of a Reconcilia- 
tion as an argument to induce you to come down, I am appre- 
hensive as you have Notice to attend the General here, or at 
Boston, should you not come it may be used as a Reason to lessen 
your Zeal for the Good of the Common Cause, and any future 
Miscarriages as to Indians, may be laid at your door for not giv- 
ing your attendance at the proposed Meeting or Conference 
which will at last take Place soon I believe. M r . Kennedy has 
put me in mind of the Glass I sent you of his, & I should be glad 
of the Book I sent you on the Subject of fortification 

I am 

your effectionate & obed 1 . humble serv*. 



The foregoing is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 70-71 by a 
letter of December 9th from John Watts, at New York, to Johnson, 
about Gilbert Marselis's receipt, a money transaction, Mr Wraxall and 
recent military affairs; a letter of December 10th to Johnson from John 
Watts, in New York, dealing with pecuniary transactions; Shirley's 
instructions to Johnson relative to a council of the Six Nations, extension 
of the Anglo-Indian alliance, completion of the fort in the Oneida country 
and the coming conference at Oswego, dated the 1 0th (printed in Doc. 
Rel. to Col Hist. N. Y. t 6:1026-27); Francis Wade's application for 
a commission, dated Philadelphia, the 10th; and a report of the board 
of trade to the King on the proposal of the Penns to grant Iroquois lands 
to soldiers, dated Whitehall, December 1 1 th (printed in Doc. Hist. N. 
V., 2:704-7; Q, 2:410-12). Destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 393 

A. L. S. 2 

Oswego, Dem br : 16 ih . 1755 

Permit me amongst the croud to Congratulate you upon your 
success against the Enemy may neither jealousie nor Envy, have 
power to lessen your fairly Acquired honors, I hope the public 
will enable you to make an early Campaign, & Accomplish the 
Conquest it has so long wish'd for, if they perform the part, 
uncumbent on them, from Your Zeal & Capacity, they may 
expect a happy Issue, I need not recommend the Bearer Lieu*: 
Mills 3 to you who already know him, his integrity far exceeds 
my abilities, in Panygerick but I will venture to Asure you of one 
thing w ch from his Modesty you might be the last to know, (that 
is) his perfect Attatchment to You & Gratitude for favors 
recieved, During the few Months recess, I wish you all possible 
happiness, & when the Season will permitt Powers equal to the 
arduous task intrusted to your prudence & conduct, I am with 
the most perfect Esteem, 

Your Obliged 

& Most Obedient 

Humble Servant 


1 Gazetter October 7, 1 754 lieutenant colonel of Sir William Pep- 
perrell's regiment, the 5 1st, or 2d American. 

2 In New York Public Library, Emmet Collection. 

* Lieutenant John Mills, of the New York Independants. 

394 'Sir William Johnson Papers 

L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson, Decb r 17th, 1755. 

I have this Moment the pleasure of y rs , and am much obliged 
to you for your kind Congratulations. 

I had Yesterday the Honor of a few lines from Gov r Morris, 
with Severall Papers relating to the Barbarous proceedings of 
the Shawanese & Delaware Indians, I have only time to acquaint 
you that I already Sent Messages to the Six Nations about their 
Behaviour, & insisted Strenuously on their useing all means pos- 
sible to check their Vile proceedings. I have also Sent a Message 
by one of our Indians to the Delawares & Shawanese, forbidding 
them to Act any more in that Manner at their Peril, but to join 
Us in ye Spring against the French and their Allies, w ch would 
be more their interest, and greatly more to their credit than what 
they are at present about ; they do not regard truth if they Say I 
Sent them no Invitation to Join Me, for I Assure you, at the 
several Meetings last June there were three Delawares present, 
whom I sent an Interpreter for, and after receiving their Share 
of the present, they promised to Join me whenever I called, but 
they did not come at my Invitation Shortly after; However I 
have hopes yet of their Reformation, as well as the Shawanese, 
if I have but time to look into those Matters & am not interrupted 
by Everry little Trader & Fellow in the Country, as has been 
the Case, and find is still so; this I am afraid will Stagger the 
Indians & be of fatal Consequence. Excuse my hurry, w * 1 
occasions brevity, being Surrounded by All the Mohawks who 
came to Condole the death of my Sister & Brother-in-Law. I 

1 From Pennsylvania Archives, ed. Samuel Hazard, 2:535. The head- 
ing in the Pennsylvania Archives, " Col. Johnson to Gov. Morris," is 
evidently an error. The letter was probably written to Richard Peters. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


propose going soon to York, where I hope to have the pleasure of 
Seeing You & Saying more. 

Mr. Clause is at liberty, and may go to Philadelphia when he 

I am, with much esteem, 

Your most Obed* 

Humble Serv*, 

INDORSED: Col 1 Johnson, 1 7 Dec r , 1755. 


In the Johnson Calendar, p. 71 is a letter of the 18th to the lords of 
trade on Indian affairs and Shirley's order to Johnson to meet him in New 
York or Boston (printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y. f 2:708; Q, 2:412-13, 
and Doc. Rd. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 6:1023-24). Destroyed by fire. 

Df. S. 1 

Fort Johnson Dec br . 20 th . 1755. 

I this day had the pleasure of hearing of your Welfare, & all 
freinds there by an Indian Called Michael which you may be 
assured gave me no Small Satisfaction I have this day had a 
Meeting of y c Mohawks as I am resolved to go to York in two 
or three days, when I gave them a charge to go to You at Fort 
W m . Hennery and Scour the Woods thereabouts, so that no 
Enemy can Surprise you. Fort Edward or the Settlements here, 
provided they are kept Sober and upon Constant Duty, their 
Signall is a red flag when they come in Sight of the Fort. I hope 
you will be kind to them & give them Victuals enough but not too 
much liquor. If they are well Used they will go constantly there 
the whole winter & relieve each other. pray Send down the 
French Prisoner who was Shot in the thigh and lay in your 

Original destroyed by fire. 

396 'Sir William Johnson Papers 

Encampment by the first opertunity to the Care of Lieu*. Miller 
at Albany, also a return of the Military and other Stores there 
w** 1 . 1 expected before now. We have nothing Strange here Since 
you left Us. My Compliments to Cap ta . Glazier and all freinds 
there, & believe me Sir 

Y r . Sincere Welwisher 

& Humble Serv 1 . 


P. S. You must not put too much Confidence in Michael Or 
his Son. tho they may behave well for ought I know, the Son 
Joseph is a wicked Dog in his Cups Whenever any of them get 
drunk the only way is to disarm them & tye them & not to 
beat them. 

To COLL. BAGLEY COMMD T . of Fort W m . Hennery 

The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 71 by an 
undated nondescript list of names, Bentincks, Yorks, Amhursts etc.; 
Johnson's account, dated December 23d, with Casper Springsteen, with 
Springsteen's affidavit taken before Sybrant G. Van Schaick, recorder of 
Albany; and instructions from Shirley to Johnson to engage Susquehanna 
Indians in the British service, dated December 24th (printed in Doc. Rel. 
to Col. Hist. N.Y. t 7:\Q). Destroyed by fire. 

L. S. 1 

Nev> York Decemr. 24: 1755 

I wrote to you by the last post to Albany and then sent you 
a Commission and Instructions relating to Indian Affairs conform- 
able to his Majesty's Instructions to me on that head: As that 
post has been returned some days I am much surprised that I have 
yet no answer from you, especially as I therein desired your 

1 Original destroyed by fire. There is a copy in Public Record Office, 
C. O. 5. 1067, London, England. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755 17 5( 


icdiate answer, and you must be sensible that his Majesty's 
Jervice on This Continent require a Speedy and explicit adjust- 
icnt 1 of those Affairs. 

I now send you additional instructions, 2 w ch . the present State 
of Pensylvania from the Advices I have lately received from the 
Government of that province require to be immediately Carried 
into execution. 

It gives me great uneasiness that I have not received your 
answer to my last letter, and have order'd the Express who brings 
this to you, to wait for your answer and therefore hope you will 
not fail to send it to me by him. I am Sir 

Your Most Humble Servant 


P. S. I must in particular know whether I am to depend upon 
your following my Instructions now sent you, and those which I 
shall hereafter send. 





D. 8 
Fort Edjvard December p e . 27 th . 1755 

The Examination of Francis Beau jour a French deserter 

Quest, when did you leave Tinondiroga 

Ans r . Last, Monday morning. 

Quest, what were y e Number of Forces then at that Fort 

Ans r . Two Hundred Regulars and one Hundred Canadians, 
also, forty Savages, Viz*. Twenty Abonoquia and Twenty 

" Adjudgment " in the London copy. 

2 In Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y.. 7:10. 

3 Original destroyed by fire. 

398 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

Quest, when did those Savages Come to Tinondiroga 

Ans r . They Came there the 1 5 th . Instant. 

Quest, what Duty do they Doe 

Ans r . Scouting 

Quest, do you Suppose any on that Duty now 

Ans r . Yes Eight, and they are ordered to Scout near this and 
the other Fort, and are promised 1000 Livers as a premium if 
they obtain a prisoner 

Quest, who is Commandant at Tinondiroga 

Ans r . Mons r Lacorn 

Quest, how many men are there now at Crown point 

Ans r . Fifty Regulars and fifty Canadians 

Quest, how long Since the Army Returned to Canady 

Ans r . They Returned on the 14 this month 

Quest, how many did the whole Army Consist off 

Ans r . Three Thousand five Hundred Viz*, two Thousand of 
which were of the Regiments Le Reine & Languidox the Rest 

Quest, was it known by your Forces, that the English Army 
were Returned home, Ans r - Not 

Quest, how many did the French Suppose the English Army 
Consisted off 

Ans r . Five Thousand 

Quest. Why did they leave Tinondiroga while they Supposed 
our Army So Great 

Ans r . Scarceity of Provisions 

Quest. What Quantity of Provisions have they now at Tinon- 

Ans r , Two Hundred Barrells of flour, and about 50 BarrK 
of Pork, no Rum nor Brandy 

Quest, is a General Scarceity of Provisions at Canady 

Ans r . Generally Reported, that provisions are Scarce 

Quest. Why are Provisions Scarce 

Ans r . tis Said that the Provisions sent for our Support were 
taken By the English 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


Quest, do they Expect the English Army will Attack Tinon- 
diroga this Winter Ans r . Yes 

Quest, do they Expect their Forces back from Canady this 

Ans r . Not 

Quest, have you heard any talk from them of making any 
Attack on Either of our Forts this winter; Ans r . No. 

Quest. What Sort of Fort is that at Tinondiroga 

Ans r . it is about the Bigness of Fort William Henry, of a 
Quadranguler Form with four Bastions the Wall about Six feet 
high, and no Ditch, it being Rocky were obliged to fetch the 
Dirt that was Necessary from Distance, that three Sides were 
built with wood & Earth the other only with wood founded on a 

Quest, how many Barracks are there in that Fort 

Ans r . two that will contain 300 Soldiers, besides one Barrack 
for the Officers 

Quest, how many Guns are there within that Fort 

Ans r . 12. Eight 12 pounders and 4 Six Do. & no Mortars 

Quest, which is the best Side for an Enemy to Approach the 

Ans'. The North West 

Quest, was you at the Battle at Lake George, Ans r . No. 

Quest, how many was there in that Battle of the French Army 

Ans r . about fifteen Hundred 

Quest, what was the Number Supposed killed on your Side in 
that Battle 

Ans r . The Number talked of was two Hundred but the 
officers were forbid to tell the Certain Number 

Quest, what did they Judge was become of General Diskeau 

Ans r . It was Reported he was kill'd in the Battle, but Since 
heard by a Letter from Mons r . Longvill that he was a prisoner 

Quest, was there any principle officers besides him that Did 
not Return after the Battle 

400 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

Ans r . Yes Mons r . S*. Pierre Mons r Longvill Son to the Lieu*. 
Governor of Mount Real * and Eight other Officers 

Quest. Did they bring any English prisoners to the Camp 
after the Battle 

Ans r . No. but it was Reported that there were Seven taken 
but were Delivered to the Indians who killed them all 

Quest. Is there any more French men that talked of Deserting 

Ans r . Yes a number about thirteen 

Quest. Do you know what number were left at Niagria and 

Ans r . that the two Regiments that went there last Summer 
were Returned, and Know not how many were Left behind 


The preceding paper is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 71 by 
44 Directions for household affairs each day," not dated. It was destroyed 
by fire. 

[ ] Arent Stevens & Ja s . Glen [ ] 

Interpreters told me 

Since my return from Lake George Arent Stevens the Pro- 
vincial Interpreter told me that he was puzzled how to conduct 
himself by reason of different Applications made to him for that 
M r . Alexander Secretary to General Shirley told him that if he 
would undertake to act for M r Shirley in Indian Affairs he 
should have a larger salary than he received from the Province, 
and that it should be punctually paid him by M r Stevenson of 
Albany. And that upon his, the s d . Arent Stevens complaining 
that his salary was too small, M r . Alexander said it was in my 
power to double it & was surprized I did not do it. Stevens told 
me that he refused M r . Alexanders offers & said that as he was 

1 Charles Lemoine, Baron de Longueuil. 

2 This memorandum was probably made in December 1 755. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


^Reading 3 d Jan*. 1756> 

Governour desires me to acquaint you, that the 
Enemy > Indians encrease in Numbers, and by <an Express 
that came> in the Night, he has receivd an Account that <they 
have> attacked a Company of Men posted for the Defence of 
<Gnadenhu>tten, and as is feard defeated them, tho' this be 
not certain <Be> pleased to make the Governours Apologies 
to the General for not writing to his Excellency; No Man can 
have done more Business than he has been obliged to do since 
his Return and he really had no time. 

We have repeated Accounts that the whole Body of Indians 
is against us, and M r Weiser is of that Opinion and thinks that 

402 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

no Expence should be saved nor time Lost in engaging the 
Southern Indians, for without their Assistance our Country will 
be overrun, as the Peoples Fears rather increase then otherwise, 
and no Body can be got to fight. The Governour and Commis- 
sioners are here in their Way to the Indians Treaty but not an 
Indian has come yet that we hear of & I question whether any 
but such as are with Geo e Croghan about a Dozen will come. 
After we see what Indians appear and what can be done, a 
Proclamation will issue to offer Rewards for Scalps, and to raise 
Men for an Expedition against the Indian Towns on Susque- 

If there be one hundred Indians concerned in this second attack 
of Gnadenhutten and they have succeeded, I assure you they will 
next attack Bethlehem and Easton and make a Lodgment at the 
Junction of the West with the East Branch of Dellaware where 
stands Easton. 

A considerable Relief might be procured if the Six Nations 
would send some of their Warriors (for Rewards to be paid by 
<the Government) down Susquehanna River, as I am persuaded 
many yet wishes us well who are intimidated and would engaged 
for us if properly applyed to, and such Application cannot be 
made> by this Government any <otherways then by General> 
Shirley. Dear sir remind his Excellency <of dis>patching the 
additional Instructions for Gen 1 . J <ohnson, and> the Messages 
to the Southern Governments about <the Southern > Indians, on 
whom alone is all our Dependance for any<thing> effectual to 
be done 

I am Sir 

Your humble Servant 


The Governour desires his Compliments of the * to 

his Excelb., Cap 1 . Morris Major Hawke, Major Kenneer, & 
your Self, & may I add mine. 

1 Omitted in copying. " Season " was probably written. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 403 

If the Six Nations would join in recommend it to the Southern 
Nations to take up the hatchet against the French and their 
Indians, it might have great Weight and should not M r Johnson 
be desired to solicit this of the Six Nations? 


The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar p. 71- 2 by a 
letter, of January 3d, from Johnson, at New York, to Shirley, declining a 
new commission for Indian affairs (Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:11); 
and a French letter, of the 5th, from M. Bernier, in New York, asking 
Johnson to indicate the manner in which Baron Dieskau can repay money 
lent him by Johnson. Destroyed by fire. 


In Dec. Rel. to Col Hist. N. Y. t 7:1 1-13, is a letter, of the 4th. 
from Shirley to Johnson, discussing the nature of Johnson's commission; 
and a letter, of the 5th, from Johnson, at New York, to Shirley, on his 
commission and powers as Indian superintendent, is given, 7:1314. 

L. S. 1 

Ner York, /anr>. 6". 7755 [/756 2 ] p. m. 

As your Excellency has now determined that I shall act by 
General Braddocks Commission appointing me to the Sole 
Management of Indian Affairs, by which Commission "All per- 
sons to whom the direction of the affairs of the Six Nations, or 
their Allies have been heretofore committed, and all others what- 
soever are strictly required and enjoined to cease and forbear 
acting or intermeddleing therein." 

I must beg leave to repeat the request I made to your Excel- 
lency last night, that all agents or others that are acting amogst 
the Six Nations without My knowledge or direction, be with" 

1 In Ayer Collection, Newberry Library, Chicago, 111. 

2 1 755 in the copy. 

404 'Sir William Johnson Papers 

drawn, as it is impossible for me to answer for the administration 
of Indian Affairs, if the Business transacted with them does not 
go through my department. 
I am 

Y r . Excellency's Most obed 1 . Humble Serv 1 . 


A. L. S. 1 

Boston Jan: 7 th 1756 


At the Desier of a number of Gentlemen in this Town I have 
Composed from my Jornal this work 2 However Inferior; pleas 
to permit me to present your Honnour with It; it is Not that I 
think by any means can add any Light to the Generall of that 
Campaign the Least of whos advantages and Knoledg far 
Exseads my Best and Greatiest; However I hoop it will not be 
unexseptable Since it is the Best Exsplanation I am able to Give 
of the Battle; the facts I have Laid Down are without the Least 
partialeti; which I think there is much Need of in Vindeation 
of your Honour, for I Confess it was with Great Surprise the 
Newmorous and Groundless odd Questions that has Ben put to 
me on my Return from the Camp & Elleswhair all which I have 
answerd with candor, altho I have Refused to Name them; and 
have Satisied numbers of people that has misunderstood the Con- 
duct of affairs as they Express it as it carry with it Good Intin- 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

*A Prospective-Plan of the Battle near LaJ?e George, on the eighth 
day of September, 1755, with an Explanation thereof; containing a full, 
though short, History of that important Affair. By Samuel Blodget, 
Occasionally at the Camp, when the Battle was fought. Advertised at 
Boston November 10, 1755; published December 22, 1755, Boston, 

February 2, 1 756, London. Reprint of Henry Stevens, Son & 

Stiles, London. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 405 

tion it is hooped it will met with its Deserved Reward; at the 
Same tim asking your Pardon for Mistakes If any Should be 
found in It after your Examination. 

S r . pleas to permit me to Subscribe my Self your Sinsear 
friend & in Vindication of your Honour 


P : S as the post is waighting and wrote in Great heast & 
for which I ask your pardon & flatter my Self I shall the more 
Readyly Receive It 



A. L. S. 1 

Fort Edward Jan* 8 l 1756 

Your favour of 6 th . December inclosing me Several Commis- 
sions for officers here I duely received; observe what you Say 
as to Cap*. Lowel I am very sensible of the objection you men- 
tion, accordingly have done Nothing with respect to his Com- 
mission but Wait for farther advices; I now hand you a return 
of the forces belonging to this Garison, would observe to you that 
a pretty many of Maj r Mathew Company are returned as absent, 
& by some Complaints of the Men perhaps more returned for 
Duty than are really here; this I find to be a mistake upon the 
muster I intend a Muster of all the Men this Day as I think 
it my Duty to know exactly the Numbers in Garrison, as I would 
not disoblige the Maj r . I should be glad you would desire him 
to Send up all his Men immediately. I send you also the State 
of the provision and Artilery Stores. I Cant get the Commissarys 
to Send up bread we have had none this ten Days, but What 
the Soldiers have brought from Lake George 

M r De Peyster has Sent up Wagons as far as Sarotoge Who 

Original destroyed by fire. 

406 'Sir William Johnson Papers 

have Left their Loads there which the Soldiers are obliged to 
fetch on their backs I could have born with it, had we not enough 
for every one to do to Gary on the Necessary business here & 
horses might easily have been Sent up with bread 

I have got up three Chimneys in the barracks, & one in the 
old House almost finished, one in the Guard House the Men 
might in a few Days more be tolerably Comfortable if they had 
Necessary provision and Cloathing as the articles of beding 
& Cloathing have Not been Sent up the people Suffer very much 
the Want of them they have as yet been very patient having 
been told they would be Sent up as Soon as there was any Slaying 
they now grow uneasy as they think it very possible those Articles 
may be brought on Horses the New York Soldiers are the most 
in want, if Clothing is not sent Soon I dont know what will be 
the Consequence, nor do I See how they can Subsist I hope 
Some measures are taking to relieve those of Connec*. in the pay 
of New York as their time is out the middle of January. I beg 
the favour you would make out M r . Dyer a Seperate Commis- 
sion for fort Maj r as his at present is only interlined & Confines 
his duty to Cap' Gaylor's Company I am Sensible you were 
hurried When it was done I shall take it as a favour to have it 
renewed I imagine that through a mistake you made out Com- 
missions as Ensigns instead of Second Lieuts, as we have no 
Ensigns, neither had they in New York I should be Glad of 
Liberty to alter them 

I send you the Examination of a french deserter which I took 
as he past to Albany, by that you will have all the Intelligence 
I can give you of the Enemy ; Cap 1 Rogers was there about the 
time he deserted I have not his report but hear he thinks there 
was a thousand Men there, dont think me too importunate for 
renewing my request for Liberty to go Home for a Season, 
beleive me to be with the Sincerest Regard 

Your Honours most Obliged & 

very humble Serv 1 . 


Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 407 

PS the Magazine was endangered by the great rain we had 
ie time ago the Water Stood in a pond round it I have 
a drean thro the Bastion the South Side I dont See any 
lamage done 



In Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y. t 7:1431, is printed a communica- 
tion, dated January 9th, to Johnson from Peter Wraxall, ** Some Thoughts 
upon the British Indian Interest in North America, more particularly as it 
Relates to the Northern Confederacy commonly called the Six Nations,** 
with appendix, containing information given by Indians August 8 and 
September 4, 1755, concerning Shirley's efforts to influence them; in 
6:99899, is printed also the information given September 4th. 

Df. S. 

[New York, January 10, I756 1 ] 

Deliver to His Excellency Sir Charles [Hardy or or-]der 
the Cloathing sent by the Assembly of Pensilva[nia] for the 
Troops in Garrison on the Northern Frontiers, & which were 
sent to you from New York by M r . Alexander Golden 


at Albany 

The Articles sent according to M r : Franklin's Letter of Dec r . 
2< 1755. 

1339 warm Waistcoats 750 

1000 pair mill'd Stockings 750 

332 pair knit Mittens 332 

1 Date supplied from the Johnson Calendar. 

408 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

New York, /am? 17: 1756. 

I desire you wile from [time] to time deliver to General John- 
son, or his Order any part of the above Cloathing, for the uses 
of the Garrisons of Fort William Henry, & Fort Edward. 

at Albany 

Df. S. 
New York, January /2, 7756 

[ i 

On my arrival at Albany from [ ] Lake George I 

received a Letter from M r George Ludlow of New York with 
55 coats w ch he informed me were sent by your Directions and 
designed as a present to the Provincial Troops under my Com- 
mand from the Inhabitants of the precinct of Orange Town. 

As the Troops were all discharged except such as remained 
in Garrison at Fort William Henry & Fort Edward, I have made 
use of your Benevolent Intentions by ordering the said coats to 
the Soldiers belonging to those Garisons, to whom they will be 
a very welcome & a well-timed Benefaction. 

please Sir to communicate to our Generous Friends of your 
Precinct, my grateful Sense in behalf of the Army I had the 
honour to Command for their Beneficent Intentions, antj let them 
know the Disposition I have made of their Donation, vill be 
extreamly acceptable & useful. 
I am 

with my best Wishes 
Your most Obed 1 . 

hum serv 1 

of Orange Town 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 409 

rDORSED: Gen 1 Johnson's Letter to Capt David Blauveldt of 
Orange Town with thanks for Coats sent for the 
use of Troops 

NewYorkl2J an yl755 

D. S. 1 

New York January 13 1756 

Instructions to Major-General William Johnson. 2 

1 **. You are to acquaint the Six Nations that I succeed the late 
General Braddock in the Command of all his Majesty's 
Forces in North America. 

2 d . That at the meeting to be soon held at your House with 
the Indians of the Six Nations they be desired to attend the 
Several Meetings which I have proposed to be at Oswego 
next Spring of all the Nations in their and our Alliance in 
order to concert such measures as may be for the mutual 
benefit of them and us; and you are to attend yourself at 
such meeting. 

3 d . You are then to acquaint them of the Behaviour of the 
Shawanese and Delaware Indians in Destroying the Set- 
tlements and murdering the Inhabitants of the Several 
Provinces of Pensilvania & c . 

4 th . You are then to deliver to them my Speech herewith sent 
you, which you are to enforce by all arguments in your 
Power, and with such presents as you shall Judge neces- 

5 th . You are to assure them in the Strongest terms that I shall 
do all in my power to protect them and their Allies from 
any Danger they may apprehend from the French, and as 
the Building Forts in the Several Nations will not only 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

2 C/. Shirley to Johnson, December 10, 1755, Doc. Rel. to Col Hist. 
N. y., 6:1026-27. 


Sir William Johnson Papers 

Secure them from an Attack of the French or their Indians 
but will also more Effectually fix them in the British 

You are to let the Indians of the Cayuga and Seneca's 
Castles know that if they are desirous to have Forts built 
for the protection of their Castles as is done for those of the 
Mohawks; and the Tuscarora, Oneida and Onondaga 
Indians have desir'd me to do for them, I will give orders 
for the Erecting of them, and you are to take care that 
Forts are built as soon as may be for the Tuscarora, 
Oneida, and Onondaga Indians, according to the Model 
herewith sent you in such places as you shall Judge most 
proper, and to supply them with whatever you shall Judge 
absolutely necessary for the Defence of such Forts, and if 
they shou'd desire to have Garrisons posted therein which 
you are to dispose them to do as much as possible ; you are 
forthwith to acquaint me of it. 

6 th . You are to acquaint them that it will be for their ease and 
Conveniency to be supply'd with whatever Goods and 
Commodities they shall want in Exchange for their Furrs 
and Pelleterie, near their own Castles, if they desire it, I 
will cause Trading Houses to be built in their respective 
Nations ; where they shall be furnished with whatever they 
want at Cheaper rates than they have hitherto been and be 
allowed the best prices for their Skins and Furrs, that can 
be afforded, and the Strictest care taken that they shall 
not be impos'd upon in any part of their trade. 

7 th . You are to take care that they be furnish'd with Skillfull 
and carefull Smiths or Armourers, and such as shall be 
agreable to them. 

8 th . You are to dispose them as much as you can, to be desirous 
of having English Ministers reside among them, in like 
manner as the Mohawks have, for the Instruction of them 
in the knowledge of the Christian Religion, and perform- 
ance of Divine Worship among them; as also to teach 

Preliminary Campaigns, / 755-7756 


their Children the Indian Language ; and to let them know 
that in such case I will order Chappells to be built for that 
purpose, and procure Ministers to do the before mentioned 
duty among them; and acquaint them that their Bretheren 
of the Mohawks Castles have found great benefit and 
Satisfaction from it. 
9 th . You are to Visit the Several Nations of the said Indians 
as often as is needfull, and to Inform Yourself of every- 
thing that may be further done for fixing them in the 
Interest of the English and a dependence upon his 
Majesty ; or if they have any Grievances or Complaints to 
make; an Account of both which you are to transmit to 
me as soon as may be. 

1 lfl . You are to use every Expedient in your power to cultivate 
and Improve a good Correspondence with the Indians of 
the Six Nations, and their Allies and Endeavour to prevail 
on them to take part and Act with his Majesty's forces in 
such opperations as I shall think most Conducive to the 
good of his Majestys Service and if notwithstanding the 
Messages already sent by Yourself and the Six Nations to 
the Shawanese and Delawares they should still persist in 
their Hostilities against the English you are in that case to 
tell the Six Nations that we are Determined to revenge the 
Injuries done by those People, and that we expect they will 
Chastize them for such their Behaviour as it bids Defiance 
to their Authority which the Six Nations have always 
maintained over those Indians, and to make them sensible 
that unless they do this, they will not only lose that Author- 
ity forever but with it the Character which the Six Nations 
have hitherto maintained of being the Masters and Supe- 
riors of those Indians. 

1 1 *. You are in my Name strictly to forbid all Persons whom 
you shall at any time hear of or find treating or Conferring 
with the Indians upon any Business of Publick concern 
without my special Authority and direction given them 

412 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

under my hand from Intermedling or Acting therein upon 
any pretence whatsoever at their Peril and forthwith to 
acquaint me with their behaviour. 

12 th . You are to use all the means in your power to obtain all 
possible Intelligence of the Motions and designs of the 
French by employing and sending Indians or others to such 
places as you shall judge necessary and to give them proper 
rewards for their Services which Intelligence you are to 
transmit to me immediately. 

1 3 th . You are to be as frugal as possible in your Execution of the 
trust reposed in you, to render accounts to me of all 
expences, and to draw upon me from time to time for such 
Sums of Money as you shall find necessary to employ for 
his Majesty's Service in the management of Indian affairs 
under your direction. 

1 4 th . You are to use your utmost dilligence in the severall points 
contained in these Instructions conformable to the powers 
and Authorities given to you by a Warrant or Commission 
from the late General Braddock dated at Alexandria the 
15 th day of April 1 755. In consequence of his Majestys 
Instructions to him; and to make report to me of your pro- 
ceedings therein, and of all Material Occurrences which 
may Affect his Majestys Interest with the said Six Nations 
or their Allies, and to observe and follow such further 
Instructions as you shall receive from me as Commander 
in Chief of his Majesty's forces in North America for the 
time being. 

Given under my hand at New York the thirteenth day 
of January 1 756. 


Preliminary Campaigns, 17551756 


^ D. S. 

The Speech of His Excellency Major General William Shirley 
General and Commander in Chief of all His Majesty's 
Forces in North America. 

To the Sachems & Warriors of the Indians of the Six Nations. 

" Bretheren 

The Great King of England your Father having committed 
to me the Command of all His Forces raised & to be raised upon 
the Continent of North America and in a particular manner com- 
manded me to protect your Country and the Lands which your 
Forefathers have conquered and are of right your territories, 
against all violence & Attempts of the French our common 
Enemy, and to cultivate a strict Friendship & alliance between 
him & you. I take the first oppertunity of communicating this 
to you by Major General Johnson whom I have now ordered to 
visit you & take care of your Interest. 


Since I came to this Place I have heard much News which 
concern you as well as all the English & therefore do now send 
General Johnson to speak my Mind to you. 


Perhaps you think the Weather looks somewhat Cloudy, the 
French are proud & have for some time past been very insolent 
more so than is fit for you & us to bear. They threaten more but 
be no frightened. I am not so. They are but few, we are many, 
they are but a handful, if we all take up the Hatchet against 
them, it behoves you Bretheren to be wise and to remain stedfast 
to your old Friends the English; the Great King of England is 
determined not only to protect you as well as his subjects in 
America but to chastise the French for their repeated Insolencies. 

Inclosed in Shirley to Johnson, January 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 
13, 1756. 

414 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 


The Governor of Pensilvania hath informed me that he hath 
sent a Message to you of great importance by Scarrooyady and 
Andrew Montour, I hope you have heard them with great 
Attention and have considered well what they said. 


The Indians called the Delawares & Shawanese who live in 
& near Pensilvania have for a long time past lived in Friendship 
with the People of that Province, Maryland & Virginia, those 
People have always treated them as Friends & Brothers, and 
yet they have without any Provocation, and without giving them 
any Notice, taken up the Hatchet against them & struck their 
Tomahawks in them whilst they lay asleep in their Beds not 
expecting any harm from them, they have killed & Scalped 
numbers, they burnt their Houses & Barns & have killed their 
horses & Cattle. 


The People of Pensilvania are always a Peaceable People, 
they did not love War, not because they are weak & unable to 
fight, they are strong & have great numbers of Men, this 
Behaviour of the Delaware & Shawanese Indians hath made 
them resolve to fight and they will have revenge. 


The Indians the Delawares & Shawanese always lived under 
your Direction, they looked upon you as their Masters, and you 
looked upon them as Women, who wore Petticoats, they never 
dared do anything of Importance without your leave, for they 
knew if they did you would chastise them, yet those People 
have now dared to make war upon your Antient Friends. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 415 


It behoves you to join heartily with the People of Pensilvania 
in punishing those Indians, for unless you do, we cant but think 
you have given them leave to do what they have done, and if they 
have not your leave yet it behoves you more to punish them, if 
you dont they will dare look you in the face, they will think 
themselves as good men as you, and you will loose the Name of 
being their Masters. 


I must again desire you will join in chastising those Indians, 
that you will send some of your Warriors against them, that they 
may know you are still our Friends, that you are Men & they 
are but Women. 

Bretheren of the Onondagas & Cayugaes 

When I saw some of your chief Sachems & Warriors at 
Oswego, your Hearts & my Heart seemed to be one, you prom- 
ised to be true Friends to the English & to join with us against 
our Enemies the French, and I promised to do all in my Power 
to protect you against the French; you desired I would build a 
Fort in your Country, which I will do as soon as the Weather 
is fit for Men to work, you also promised to send some of your 
Sachems to meet me next Spring at Oswego. 

Bretheren of the Oneidas 

Some of your chief Sachems & Warriors met me in my way 
from Oswego at the Great Carrying Place, I desired them to 
tell me whether your Nation would join heartily with us against 
the French but they told me they would not give any answer, till 
they had consulted the rest of your Sachems & Warriors, you 
desired me to send you a number of Men to build you a Fort 
which I understood was to be for you & the Tuscaroras, I sent 
you a Number of Men to build you a Fort, but I have heard 
that they went away, since which I have sent more Men to you 
for that purpose and I hope they have almost finished it. 

416 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

Bretheren of the Mohocks 

In my return from Oswego I had not time to stop at your upper 
Castle at Connajohary, but I sent my Secretary & some of my 
officers there to console with you for the Loss of your Great 
Sachem Hendrick & other Warriors at Lake George & to wipe 
away your Tears & to inquire after your Healths. I visited your 
lower Castle where your Chief Sachems & Warriors there told 
me, that they & we were one, that our Enemies were their 
Enemies and that when the Hatchett was lifted up against our 
Head it was against their Head. 

Bretheren of the Six Nations 

It is now your time to resolve whether you will join heartily 
with the English against their & your Enemies ; I told you before 
that the Great King of England is determined to chastise the 
French and all those who join with them & for that purpose I am 
now raising a great Army to go against them early in the Spring; 
if you join heartily with us, the Work will be easy, your Country 
will then remain in Peace to you, & the Neighbouring Nations 
will know that you are still able to conquer them. 

By His Excellencys 




A. L. S. 1 
Fort W m Henry 14* Jatf* 1756. 

Set out with a party Under My Comand with Orders to 
Distress the Enemy at Carilon we Marched Down the lake 
George on the Ice Till we Came to y e . first Narrows & there we 
Campd the first Night: y*. 15 th in y e . Morning Set Out Again & 
Traveled that Day 25 Miles & then Campd till Midnight & Set 

1 In New York Public Library, Emmet Collection. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 417 


There are found in the Johnson Calendar (See p. 72) the following 
papers, which were destroyed by fire : a letter of January 1 3th to Johnson 
from John C. Hartwick, at Staatsborough, proposing a plan for better 
defending and governing the provincial frontiers (printed in Doc. Hist. 
N. y., 4:294.196; Q, 4:191-92); Hartwick's letter of the 15th to 
Abraham and Paulus Petersen and other Mohawks, conveying congratu- 
lation, condolence and counsel, with request for signatures to a petition 
(Doc. Hist. N. y., 4:296-98; Q, 4:192-93); the address, undated, 
of Mohawk chiefs and others to King George, commending Hartwick's 
plan and petitioning for a land grant in his behalf (Doc. Hist. N. y., 
4:298-301 ; Q, 4:193-95) ; and Hartwick's letter, of the 15th, expres- 
sive of gratitude to Johnson and desire for his prosperity. P. 73, a letter, 
of the 1 7th, from Johnson, at New York, to the lords of trade, arguing 
that his office should be placed on an independent basis and showing 
the need of provincial legislation to undo land frauds (Doc. Hist. N. Y. t 
2:644-48; Q, 2:376-78, and Doc. Rol. to Col. Hist. AT. y.. 
7:7-9); not destroyed. Also a letter, of the 17th, to Johnson from 

1 Erased in the original. 

Vol. 1114 

418 'Sir William Johnson Papers 

Mindert Wemple, in the " Senecas country," about Frenchmen, goods 
and scarcity of food; destroyed by fire. 


In Doc. Hist. N. Y. t 2:709, is a memorial of Johnson to the lords of 
trade (not sent) praying for payment by the crown for expenditures dis- 
allowed by the assembly; dated January 14, 1756. 

L. S. 1 
Kingston January ye: 17 th . 1756 

May It Please Your Honour 

We are Informed That you are to have a Conference With 
The Mohawks Indians, and We Thought, In Duty We Were 
Obliged to Let You Know The Malancholly Condition The 
Poor Inhabitants at Minissink Lye Under and Likewise Some 
part of our County of Ulster, by The Many Cruel and Bar- 
barous Murderings and Burnings, Which Those Savages Doe 
Commit Upon The Inhabitants, 

The People Daily See Nothing but Fire and Sword Devesta- 
tions and Desolations before Their Eyes, and Dread to become 
a Victum to an Inhuman Enemy, they have Laid Waste and 
Made Desolate about Sixty Miles In Lenght Upon Delaware 
River, as We Always Understood That The Delaware and 
Shawanose Indians Was Subject, or at Least Tributary, to The 
Mohawks Indians We Desire That you'll be pleased to Lay our 
Case before Them And to Endeavour If The Mohawks Will 
Order or Direct The Delaware and Shawanose Indians To 
Cease, Commiting Any Further Hostilities Upon The Inhabi- 
tants, And If They be So Obstinate to persist in Their Wicked, 
Proceedings, If We March Up against Those Indians, and 

Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-7 756 


istroy Them In The Manner They Attempted To Doe Us, 
lat The Mohawks Indians Will Not be offended at us. We 
Should Take It as a Great Favour If You Would be pleased to 
Let us Know. What Answer the Mohawks Indians Will be 
pleased to Make to You Upon The Case, We Write you Above, 
If They Will Give us Their Assistance. We Are Your Honours 

Most humble Servants 

Hend Sleght, A: Gaasbeck Chambers 

T Hersbrough Johannis De Lamette 

Evert Wynkoop David DeLametter 

John Hardenbergh P. Edmundus Elmendorph 

Charles Brodhead 


L. S. 1 

New York, Jan. 17*. 1756 

The inclosed letters and Papers of the Baron De Dieskau, 
which I have the Honour to transmit to you, were given me by 
the Baron at the Camp at Lake George after the Action of the 
8 th . of September, I sent them directly to S r . Charles Hardy, 
who not having had a proper opertunity of sending them to Eng- 
land has returned them to me, to send by his Majesty's Ship the 
Nightingale that Sails to Morrow. 

I did not presume to trouble his Royal Highness, or his 
Majestys Ministers with any letters, or Papers relative to the 
affairs of my Provincial Military Command, apprehending it 
would be going out of my way to do so, as I sent all necessary 
Papers to the Governments under whose appointment I acted, 
Supposeing that they would of course transmit every thing that 
was proper to be sent. 

By the inclosed Sketch of the Country betwixt Fort S l . Fred- 

In Public Record Office, C. O. 5.46, London, England. 

420 f 5/r William Johnson Papers 

erick, & Fort Edward, 1 which the Baron delivered me, I ought to 
observe Sir that the French were at that time as little acquainted 
with it as the English, I take the liberty to send you a Sketch 
of the same part of the Country, compiled from the Journals of 
the Scouting Parties I sent out there this Summer compared with 
the Informations of the Indians and Hunters. 2 I ought also to 
observe, that there is a misapprehension in the Barons letter where 
He imagines that the Canadians and Indians forsook Him, they 
continued at the attack till all was near decided, and the last 
push was made by some of their Indians. 

Sir, as I had oportunity of experiencing in the Provincial Mili- 
tary Command I was Honoured with last Campaign, some matters 
that it highly imports His Majesty's Ministers to be apprized of, 
I cannot but think it my Duty to lay them before You to the best 
of my own Observation, and more especially as they may at this 
Juncture be liable to be Misconceived from the appearances of 
the Events of this last Year. 

Provincial Forces acting by themselves are so constituted that 
neither by their Form or Discipline to be fitt for the various 
Duties and Services of a Campaign of any continuance, nor for 
the difficulties, Fatigues, & Events of a Siege, there cannot be 
any well grounded dependance of Success or good to the Common 
Service in Expeditions under an Army so Constituted. 

These were some of the principall reasons which led me to 
desire my dismission from the Provincial Service in a general 
letter, I wrote to the Several Governours who raised Troops 
under my Command, Coppy of which Letter I herewith 
transmit. 3 

As I have thus on one Hand from my own knowledge ventured 
to say what Provincial Forces undertakeing a Campaign by 
themselves in the Form of an Army are not fitt for. I ought on 

1 See opposite page. 

2 See opposite p. 422. 

3 Johnson likewise inclosed his letter of October 10, 1755, to Lieu- 
tenant Governor Phipps. 


H .b 

n o 

pj *- 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 421 

the other to say, where their Merit, and Strength lyes, and what 
they are fitt for. 

1 8t . They are fitt for what may be properly called an Expedition, 
or an Excursion of ten or twenty Days Continuance 

2 d . the objects of his Majesty's Service in this Country being 
either to Erect Forts, or to demolish those erected by the 
French in their encroachments on his Majestys Lands, must 
I cannot but conceive be the Work of his Majesty's Regular 
Troops, but as the way to all Such is thro' Woods & Wilder- 
nesses the Provincial Forces of these Countries as Irregulars 
can the best of any Forces in the World Cover His 
Majesty's Troops thro' these Woods to where their proper 
Scene of Action lyes, they can also in the Same Manner 
escort up all their convoys, and would I should hope, did 
any occasion call for their Service upon Such Duty act with 
Bravery, Spirit, and Success. 

If I have been guilty of any neglect or omission in not 
writeing before to his Majesty's Ministers, or am now too 
forward in troubling You with this, I beg it may be imputed 
to my Misapprehension not my want of respect. 

I have the Honour to be with the 
most profound Respect 


Your Most Obedient 
Faithfull & most Humble Servant 

the Right Honr blc . SIR THOMAS ROBINSON 

INDORSED : New York Jan? : 1 7 th : 1 756. 
S r . W m . Johnson. 
March 11 th 

422 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Df. S. 

[New York, '8 Jan*. 1756] 

I receive the Sword you send me, not only with Sentiments of 
the highest Esteem & Gratitude but as a Testimony of that 
Friendship wherewith you are pleased to honour me. Permit me 
sir to assure you, that it shall be the Ambition of my Life to mani- 
fest to the World in general that I am not unworthy of your 
Friendship, & to Convince you on every occasion, within the 
Extent of my Abilities, that I honour your Character & am 
unfeignedly disposed to render you every Mark of my Esteem & 

May every Felicity attend you & believe me My Dear Baron 
that I am 

with the utmost Cordiality 

Your Affectionate 

& Devoted Ser* 



The Baron 

De Dieskau 

INDORSED: Baron de Dieskaus Letter 

to Gen 1 . Johnson with his Sword 
and Gen 1 . Johnson's Answer 

(See reverse) 


1 Fort Edward 

2 Fort William Henery 

3 Wood Creek called by ye Indians Osserage 

4 Creek Skaihyohowane 

5 Foot of ye Mountains 

, . , f called by the Indians Ticonderaquegon 

6 South Bay & Drowned lands -\ . . , . , . r Q c , T/ 

^signifying a Mass or Conflux of Waters 

, T r (Caniaderoite signifying the 

7 Lake George calld by the Indians -I ^ ^ ^ *~ 6 

8 A Bay call'd by ye Indians 1 where the Scouting Parties hid their 

Kanhusker a Corner J Canoes. 

9 First Narrows 

10 A Bay call'd by ye Indians Sakundawide 

1 1 Second Narrows The French advanc'd Post . . . below which 
The Carrying place Over the Falls. 

12 A Remarkable high Mountain call'd by the Indians Tokaghwanker- 
aneghton. NB beneath this is a little bay from whence in ye course 
of the prickt line (green) turning eastward thro a Gap in ye 
Mountain where the Creek runs thro, 'tis thought by some a road 
may be found, 

1 3 The Sugar Bush 

1 4 The French Fortifyed Post which they call'd Carillon call'd by the 
Indians Tieonderoge signifyeing ye Conflux of two Rivers. 

1 5 Fort St Frederic 

1 6 The Narrows on ye Drowned Land. Two Rocks. 

1 7 A Lake, The Country here is full of Such. 

1 8 A remarkable high Mountain call'd by ye Indians Canucksohory 

19 Advanc'd post of the English Forces from ye Scouting parties went 

out to South Bay & ye Narrow in ye various directions of the green 
prickt lines. 

20 The Point, opposite to Fort St Frediric, calld by the Dutch Crum Pt. 

21 Presqu'Isle. 

22 The Great Lake called by the Dutch Lac Corlear, by the French Lac 

Champlain & des Iroquois, but by the Indian Themselves Caniadere'- 
guaront' which either signifyes the Lac that is ye Gate or Door, or 
else signifyes Barent's Lake so call'd after a Dutchman of that Name 
which the Indians pronounce Guarent. The Entrance between Fort 
St Frederic & Crun Pt into the Lake ye Indians call Tek'yadough- 
niyariga signifyeing two Points of high Land opposite to each other. 

23 Kingiaquocktenoc Falls where is a Portage of 200 Yds. 

24 Narrows not above 30 or 40 Ft: across where Wood Creek runs into 

ye drowned Lands. 

NB The Red Lines show ye Roads that have been open'd & made for 
Carriages. The red prickt Lines ye directions in which tis supposed 
that such may be found. The green prickt Lines shows the Routs 
of the Indians & Scouting Parties. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


A. L. S. 1 

Fort Edward. JarP 24 1756 


I have Wiled away the time till now & have met with Nothing 
extraordinary, I dont find I am any nearer that point of happi- 
ness I promised my Self by going Home, than When the forces 
first went of, but As hope or expectation Supplys the place of 
enjoyment I Live upon that yet. the Garison is now pretty Well 
Setled & I should have no difficulty were it Not that the New 
York people are uneasy for want of the blankets And Cloathing 
they Say they were promised & Which they really want, it is 
time me thinks, they Should have Winter Cloathing If they are 
to have Any; I have repeatedly Wrote to the Commissioners 
And M r D e Peyster, Why they Are not Sent I know not. I 
believe they would Some of them have gone of before now were 
they not really Satisfied that I had done every thing in my power 
to get their Cloathing. 

I have Lately Sent a Scout of eight Men as far as the falls on 
Wood Crick, they were dogged the Day they got to the falls by 
Some partys as they Supposed of hunting Indians, they were 
alarm d in the Night by the firing of Guns, & Shifted thire Loging 
& in the Morning opposite a Mountain Where they Lodged, 
they discovered the head quarters of the Indians & about thirty 
Setting round their fire within 1 5 rod. While Cap* Grant Who 
was the head of my Scout was determining What to do he found 
they had discovered him so he made of and they persued him 
all Day, he came across the South Bay to the other Fort the Same 
Day Which was the Day after Rogers got in with his prisoners, 
one of Rogers Men was out alone upon the Mountain West of 
the Fort Henry Where he was fired upon by An Indian, but 
miss d then the fellow Says he fired at the Indian, killed him 
Went up to him to Scalp him, When he Saw eight more running 

In New York Public Library, Emmet Collection. 

424 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

toward him upon Which he run they fired after And persued 
him, he Escaped them & got in here the Next Day. this is his 
Story, I immediately Sent & Informed Col Glazier that his Man 
was Safe & to know of him Whether he knew Any thing of the 
matter, he tells me they discovered Some Tracts but found 
Nothing of the dead Indian; a considerable flight of Snow fell 
that Evening may they always be so disappointed in all their 
Attempts upon us ; Cap 1 Grants tells me the Ice of Wood Crick 
Will Scarcly bare a Man & he thinks never is Strong so that tis 
Not possible he thinks for them to Visit us that way with Artilery 
this Winter he Says he Sees no possible way to get to South 
Bay & thinks it much more difficult to go by Woodcrick than 
Lake George Which he Imagines the only Way When ever 
forces are Sent on this quarter. 

I have now only to tell you that I am Informed by Cap* Gaylor, 
Who I discharged upon Cap 1 M c Ginnis Company, Coming up, 
that the Commis rs nor M r D e Peyster would pay his Company 
Any thing for the time they have Garison d this Fort, they Say 
they have no Orders. I think it very Strange, they dare not 
venture to advance so much money When I'me Sure they need 
not fear the Honour of the Gov'. As I had my orders from you 
for detaining part of them forces I make my Application to you 
& doubt not you will do every thing proper for you to do to 
enable Cap 1 Gaylord to get his money I beg Leave to Subscribe 
with due Esteem 

Your Honours 

Most humble Serv* 


INDORSED: Fort Edward 24 Jan?. 1 756. 
Col 1 Whiting Letter 


In the Johnson Calendar (See p. 73) is a letter, of January 29th, 
from Beamsly Glazier, at Fort William Henry, to Robert Rogers, direct- 
ing him to reconnoiter Crown Point (printed in Doc Hist N Y 
4 :283_84 ; Q, 4 : 1 83) . Destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 425 

A. L. S. 

Dublin January 37" 7756 

I take this opportunity of the bearer Capt n . Mansel going from 
this kingdom to America to congratulate you upon your glorious 
victory you have gain'd ag*. the perfidious ffrench and Indians 
which has in a great measure retriev'd the misfortune brought 
upon our affairs by the defeat of Gen 1 . Braddock our whole 
kingdom is overjoy'd to find that this Success is owing to a gent", 
of this countrey and say they could expect no less from the nephew 
of the Brave Sir Peter Warren and you may easily imagine what 
joy it has diffus'd among your own relations and friends. I lately 
saw your Bro r . John who manages my Lady Warrens affairs in 
this countrey, he told me his Bro r . had sold his company in Col. 
Pools Regiment, and that he intended to goe to America and 
serve under your command he is in great esteem among the 
military men here and most acceptable to every one that knows 
him your father considering his time of life is in a pretty good 
state of health but his sight is greatly impaird the rest of the 
ffamily are all well and in high spirits my friend Cap 1 . Mansel 
will be ambitious of your Patronage and friendship I think by 
the time you may receive this he will be eldest Capt n . in gen 1 
Otways Regiment which is order'd for America I am under the 
greatest obligations to his father and ffamily and shall be greatly 
oblig'd to you for any acts of favour and friendship that may be 
show'd to him he is esteem'd a very good officer and tho' a young 
man has been upon important services which have given him 
experience in the military way. I presume to address you on his 
behalf as I am persuaded you remember my attachment to your 
ffamily and the regard Sir Peter Warren had for me and wishing 
you all prosperity and success in your glorious enterprizes I 
remain Sir, your most ff aithful and obedient humble servant 


426 'Sir William Johnson Papers 

A. L. S. 

Philadelphia, 2* Feb* 1756 


Whilst I was attending the Governor in his Journy to <the 
Fronteer> of this Province I received your Favour for which I 
make you my heartiest Acknowledgments. To the Condolances 
your Friends have made You on the Deaths of your Sister and 
Brother I very sincerely joyn mine. 

I hope M r Clause will be of Service at the general Convention 
of the Indians and desire you will be pleased to favour him with 
a Copy of the Minutes of what passes at it, for the use of this 
Government, and not suffer him to stay a moment after the Indians 
have given their final answer but proceed with the Minutes and 
your Dispatches to Governor Morris, who will wait with 
Impatience for them as he has suspended the Execution of several 
measures necessary to be taken against these horrid Ravagers on 
our Borders till he knows y e determination of the Six Nations. It 
is not to be doubted, notwithstanding all that is doing or can be 
done for our Defence, but they will continue to murder our 
Inhabitants and destroy their Plantations until the Government 
shall offer high Rewards for Scalps and form some vigorous 
offensive Measures against them. 

As to the Information given by the Smith of our Inhabitants 
having killed and scalped some of the Seneca Indians at Cone- 
wago in our Province, of which S r Charles Hardy has wrote the 
Governor an Account I have his Honours Orders to assure you 
that it is scarce possible any such thing could have been done, as 
none of the persons concernd in this Government have ever heard 
of it, tho the Governor, several of the <Council, M r . Weiser & 
myself have lately been at Conewago the place where the 
Murders> are said to have been <committed and> that this 
River is not in any Path used by the Warriors, but runs thro the 

Preliminary Campaigns, 7755-7756 427 

iterior Parts of the County of York and on the South and East 
les of the South Mountain where I have not heard that any 
Carriers have come since my knowledge of the Province. 

ccuse me for suggesting a Suspicion. May not some of the 
>enecas have joynd the Delawares in their Incursions, and in 
>rder to vindicate themselves in case they shoud be discovered 
lave framed this Story. However a Copy of C r Charles Hardys 
Better to Gov r Morris is sent to M r Weiser with orders to make 
the fullest enquiry into this matter directly & when his answer 
comes it will be imediately forwarded to you. But as no time is 
mentiond in the Information when this shoud have happened, nor 
no place that can be distinguishd nor no names of persons I do 
not think M r Weiser will be able to learn any thing about it. 

Perhaps you may see the Senecas at the General Convention 
who have the Information and by them discover the truth, and 
according as this shall turn out the Governor desires you will act 
towards the Senecas and treat with them in such manner as shall 
best conduce to preserve their friendship & the Reputation of this 
Province for doing Justice to the Indians on all Occasions. 

Scarroyady has favoured the Governor with a Letter dated the 
4 th Jan r y from Oneocguago so that I expect he will be very 
favourable to you at the Convention. 

<He & M r Montour 1 deserves the thanks & Esteem of this 
and all the other Colonies for undertaking this dangerous 
Journy]> and executing their orders so well and faithfully. I 
< desire > you will be pleased to .make them my Compliments 
and < express > for me the vast pleasure I received to hear of 
their Safety. They may return with M r . Clause who has a 
Credit on M r Stephenson to defray their Expences and if neces- 
sary, to provide them w h Cloaths. 

The Governor of Virginia acquaints Gov r . Morris that 130 
Cherokee are already arrivd at Jacksons River in Virginia & with 
the Provincials are going on an Expedition ag* the Lower Shaw- 

1 Andrew Montour, interpreter. For a sketch of Montour, see Francis 
Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe, 1 :58. 

428 'Sir William Johnson Papers 

onese Town w ch is considerd as a Secret of State. M r Dinwiddie 
further says that the Cherokees have expressed themselves in our 
favour, say they will take up the Hatchet ag< the French & fur- 
nish us with a thousand of their Warriors in the Spring I wish 
this may be true or one half of it. No news of a great while 
from England. Every Honour conferrd on you gives me a 
sensible pleasure and woud his Majesty or his Ministers accom- 
pany the Title of Baronet with a proper order on the Treasury, 
it woud be doing still better and no more than what they shoud 
do. My kind service to M r Wraxall. I am with a very sincere 
and cordial Esteem 

your obliged 

humble Servant 


Scarroyady & Montour must 
know if any Senecas have been 
scalpd in this Province having 
both been near the place several times 
this year. 

INDORSED : Feb r y. 2 d 1 756 

Letter from M r Peters 
of Philadelphia 

A. L. S. 

New York 3 J . Feb: 1755 [1756] 
D R . SIR 

Give me leave mongst the many of Your friends to congratu- 
late you on this Signal Mark of Regard which His Majesty has 
so lately Certified to you and hope it is only a prelude to future 
good fortune. 

No Doubt but you will hear of or See the Inviteracy of the 
Boston writers. You and I seem the Butt of their Spleen and 

Preliminary Campaigns, 7755-7756 429 

Resentment, this last Paper of theirs is most Scandalous, No 
>oubt but you will see it, and be convinced how much we are 
ispected by y f . Set of Banditti. 

I am Sorry I have not Some good News to Send you in regard 
to publick Affairs, the Packet has brought nothing very tooth- 
>me. I live in hopes to See better times, if you have Any 
[ews I should be glad to be favoured with a line. Adieu D r . Sir 
;lieve me to be with Much truth & Esteem 

Y r . Sincere Wellwisher &c. 


A. L. S. 1 

New York 4 February 1756 

Vandenbergh arrived last Night: I rece d your Letter this 
Morning, and am oblig d to write in a hurry as the Governor will 
I believe dispatch the Express this Afternoon. I am pleased to 
find by your Letter there are some of the Susquehanahi at your 
House. It would be a satisfaction to know from yourself the 
Reesons they alledge for their quarrel with the English. I wish 
you may accomplish your Scheme of bringing some of them to 
live among the six Nations, and to make the latter incorporate 
those Nations whom they call their dependents into a Nation con- 
federate with the six Nations. The Interest of all will be one, 
and we can assure ourselves of their Friendship with greater Cer- 
tainty than at present. The six Nations themselves appear to 
me not so united as it could be wish d they were. If the French 
Emissaries be kept from among them, and even Messages from 
being sent by Indians, the Party the French have among them 
would drop of course, and till this be done I fear they will act 
very differently, and not any so heartily as the Common Interest 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

430 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

requires. You are the best Judge how to effect all this. The 
Governor says they will want Powder at Oswego the Beginning 
of April if not supplyed sooner I wonder if there be such 
another People under the Sun as the English. Can it be sup- 
posed that after all that M r Shirley has done to save Osipego, 
that a place of so much Consequence should not be better supply d . 
M r . Kennedy says an Express was sent to Scotland for Lord 
Louden, for what nobody could tell, some said to come over to 
America. I hope it may be so There was no Talk, that 
appears by the Prints or private Letters, of sending either Troops 
or a General. Can we be said to have either, except a few hun- 
dred of the former. The Secend Pacquet was to sail in 1 days 
after this. No Letters of Consequence after the 15 Nov r : M r . 
Kennedy read me a part of two he had one to this Effect. Gen- 
eral Johnson was spoke of in the House of Lords with great 
applause another your Friend M r . Johnson is Spoke of 
highly, and tis not doubted his Majesty will compensate him for 
his Services. No private Letters that I hear mention y r . being 
created a Baronet. M r . Franks told me twas mentioned in an 
Article Whitehall Nov r . among the other Promo 8 , that you 
are particularly distinguished as of New Yorl^. No Body doubts 
it. And that you have no Notice of it from private Letters must 
I suppose arise from the Letters w ch , are wrote being so soon after 
it was done, or perhaps before for I cant tell which. I directed 
a Letter with your Title, inclosed to M r . Ogilvie, with a private 
Letter for your self that came in the Pacquet. Tho I hardly 
doubt it, yet I will not address this in that manner as it will not 
go inclosed. No accounts yet whether the New Englanders will 
raise their Quotas of Men. You know I suppose that there are 
3 more Vessels to be built at Oswego as large as the Harbour 
will admit of which is something larger than the biggest of those 
already built. I have nothing material to add that I can think of. 
Let me be favour d with' some Account of your Indian proceed- 
ings, without thinking that I shall know it from those you can send 
the Gov r . who is not always very communicative : And no Intel- 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1 7 55-17 56 431 

ligence he receives goes before the Council but what immediately 
requires their advice. I am D r . Sir 

your affectionate & 

obed. h ble Servant 



L. S. 1 

Fort George New York 4 th Feb*. 1756 

Last night I received your Letter Incloseing Copys of one 
from Colo. Whiteing, and the Indians Speech and Information. 

I am inclined to beleive the French Officer said to have been 
at Niagara, will not so readily make an Attempt on Oswego, but 
rather means to frighten and intimidate the Indians, however, 
it is proper to take every prudent precaution, and you will inform 
the Commanding Officer of Oswego of this and every other 
Information you may from time to time receive, also the Com- 
manding Officers at the two head Quarters at Albany and 

The Six Nations should not be so much allarmed at the French 
Motions, they must see a good Garison at Oswego, and should be 
encouraged to give them Assistance, by repairing to that Fort, 
when they learn from any good Authority, that the French are 
forming any designs that way, I do not doubt but you will pro- 
mote such a Spirit among them. 

I am informed there is not more Provisions at Oswego than 
will serve the Garison to the last Week in March, if you send to 
Colonel Mercer, I must desire you will inform yourself in this 
particular and let me know, that all proper assistance may be 
given them, and in the mean time, if they should be in want, you 
will take all measures in your power to afford them the necessary 
relief, for that Garison must not be reduced for want of timely 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

432 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Supplys ; I should hope if the Waters are and continue to be shut 
for some time, that Horses might get up with Supplys in Sacks, 
which on such occasions must be impressed for this Service; upon 
a full consideration of this matter I must desire you will send a 
trusty Indian to Oswego, to be satisfied in this point, and you may 
use my Name to Colo. Mercer upon it. 

It is very extraordinary that the Commissioners or Commissarys 
at Albany, will not supply the Forces in the Pay of this Province, 
with the Cloathing agreable to my directions, which I have since 
repeated by M r . Oliver DeLancey who has wrote twice to them 
by my order I do by the return of your Express write to them 

I am sorry the Surveyors will not undertake the Service they 
have been desired to Attempt. 

I must recommend your endeavouring to prevail on some 
Indians to continue a constant Scout between our Forts, and the 
Wood Creek, and South Bay, that the Enemy or their Indians 
may not surprize any of our Party's from the Forts. 

I am glad to find you have any hopes of putting an end to the 
Ravages committed in Pensilvania, the Six Nations ingageing 
to put a stop to them will be an earnest of their regard for their 
English Brethren: this matter must be strongly pressed upon 
them. You will as soon as possible send me an account of your 
meeting with them. 

I am Sir. 

Your most Obed: 

humble Servant 

You will forward the Inclosed to Colo. Mercer. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 7755-7756 433 


The preceding is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 7376 by 
Robert Rogers's report, dated the 6th, of a scout to Crown Point (Doc. 
Hist. N. y., 4:284-85; Q, 4:184); conferences between Johnson and 
the United Nations and other tribes, December 7, 26, 1755, Jan. 29, 
Feb. 2-28. 1756 (Doc. Rd. to Col Hist. N. Y., 7:44-74); a letter, 
of March 5th, from John Pownall, at Whitehall, for the lords of trade, 
to Johnson on Lord Loudoun's command, Johnson's superintendency and 
Indian grievances (Doc. Hist. N. Y. t 2:710-11; Q, 2:413-14; and 
Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. y., 7:40-41); a letter, of the 6th, from 
Johnson to the lords of trade on Indian conferences, Indian trade, forts 
and garrisons in the Indian country, missionaries and chaplains, and alarm- 
ing news about Oswego (Doc. Hist. N. Y., 2:712-15; Q. 2:414-16; 
and Doc. Rd. to Col. Hist. N. Y. t 7:41-43). Destroyed by fire. 


L. S. 1 

Fefer* 8*. 7756 

As I have the sole management of the affairs of the Six 
Nations, and their allies, committed to my Care, & trust by his 
Majesty's Instructions, I hereby desire you will communicate 
what ever news is, or may be among the Indians of that Castle 
where you are, or any other, which may reach your ears to me 
immediately and to no Body Else, unless to the Commanding 
officer at Osswego, to whom you are immediately to communicate 
such news as may concern the Safety of said garrison. You are 
to promote his Majestys Interest with Said Indians as far as in 
y r . power by following such directions, & orders as you may from 
time, to time receive from Me. Also to Mend their Arms of 
every kind and their working utensils for which I understand 
Gen rl . Shirley sent you there. 

You are not to Suffer any French Emissaries, or Interpreters 
whatsoever to come into the Ondaga Castle if you can help it. 
if such should come and the Indians countenance them, you are 

1 In Boston Public Library. 

434 Sir William Johnson Papers 

in that case to tell the Indians you will acquaint me of it. Yoi 
need not be afraid of any Bodys displeasure for following these 
directions, as I have Settled that matter with Gen' 1 . Shirley con 
cerning you at New York. 

I am y r 


To M r . John Vanseice 
Smith at Ondaga 


D S 1 

Feb. 17. 1756 \ 

George R. 
Sir Wn. John- George the Second &c a : To Our Trusty and Welbeloved S 

son Bar 1 , to be _ v .. 11 . T , , r > > AV7 

Colo, of the Six William Johnson Baronet, Greeting. We reposing especi 
todia'T &* Agent Trust & Confidence in Your Loyalty, Courage and good Co 
& Superintendant duct, do by these Presents constitute & appoint You to be Colon 
of Our Faithfull Subjects, and Allies, the Six united Natio 
of Indians, & their Confederates, in the Northern Parts of Nor 
America, & You are to observe and follow such Orders aij 
Directions from time to time, as You shall receive from Our Cor 
mander in Chief of Our Forces in North America now and 1 
the time being, or any other Your Superior Officer according 
the Rules and Discipline of War; and We do also constitute!: 
appoint You Our Sole Agent and Superintendant of the szjl 
Indians and their Affairs, with the Annual Salary of Six hundrl 
Pounds Sterling, payable Quarterly at the four most usil 
Feasts or Days of Payment in the Year, out of such Sums f 
Money as shall be in the Hands of the Commander in Chief if 
Our Forces in North America for the time being, applicable) 
the Service of America ; to hold, exercise & enjoy the said Off* 
& Employment with the several respective Salaries, Perquisi's 

1 In Public Record Office, C. O. 324.38, p. 445, London, England. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 435 

& Advantages during Our Pleasure. And We do hereby direct 
Our said Commander in Chief of Our Forces in America for the 
time being, whose Commands & Directions You are punctually 
to observe in all Matters relating to Affairs of the said Indians, to 
take effectual Care, that the said Salary of 600 be duly paid 
& satisfied to you according to Our Will & Pleasure herein 
declared. Given at Our Court at S': James's the 17 th . Day of 
February 1 756 in the Twenty Ninth Year of Our Reign. 

By His Majesty's Command 

H. Fox.- 


In Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., v. 7, are the following letters: the 
lords of trade to Henry Fox, secretary of state, recommending Johnson's 
appointment to the superintendency by a commission from the king, dated 
February 1 7th, p. 35 ; the lords of trade to Sir Charles Hardy, announc- 
ing such appointment, February 17th, p. 36-37; John Pownall, secretary, 
to Johnson on his appointment and Indian grievances, March 5th, p. 
40-41 ; John Van Seice, at Onondaga, to Johnson, on the condition of 
Oswego, March 6th, p. 74; and Henry Fox to Johnson, apprising him 
of a parliamentary grant of 5000, of appointment as colonel, agent and 
sole superintendent, and of royal support in his policy, March 13th, p. 


D. S. 
Contemporary Copp 

Boston, March 77, 7756 

By His Excellency William Shirley General and Commander 
in Chief of his Majestys forces in North America 

You are hereby directed and required out of such Monies as 
are or shall come to your hands for the Contingent uses of his 
Majestys Forces under my Command to pay or cause to be paid 
to Sir William Johnson Baronet or his Assigns without Deduc- 
tion, or Account the sum of Five thousand Pounds Sterl. in 
Dollars at four shillings and Eight pence Each being for Expences 

436 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

in the Indian Affairs Under His Management. And for so doing 
this with the acquittance of the Said Sir William Johnson 
Baronet or his Assigns shall be your sufficient Warrant and 


Given Under My Hand at 

Boston the Seventeenth day of 
March 1756. 

Will-. Shirley 
To Abram Mortier Esq r . 
Deputy Paymaster 
at. Boston 

New England 

By His Excellencys Command 

INDORSED: March 17 lh : 1756 
A Draft from Genr 1 . 
Shirley on Abr m . 
Mortier Esq r . for 

L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson April 2. 1756 

The 20 th . of March I was honoured with Sir Thomas Robin- 
sons Letter to me bearing date the 11. November. 

His Majesties gracious Approbation of my Conduct previous 
to, and on the 8 th . of September, and the honour He hath been 
pleased to confer on me as a Mark of His Royal Favour, adding 
thereto the Condesension of directing His Secretary of State to 
signifie the same to me, I receive with Sentiments of the highest 
Gratitude, and most dutifull respect. 

1 In Public Record Office, C. O. 5. 46, London, England. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 437 

Permit me to assure You Sir, it is and shall be my most fervent 
and Zealous Ambition to manifest on all Occasions within the 
;ach of my Abilities, my dutifull Obligations, and my loyal 
Devotion to His Majesties Royal Person, Crown, and Dignity. 
I have transmitted to the Governours of the several Provinces 
whose Troops I had the honour to Command those Paragraphs 
of Sir Thomas Robinsons Letter which signifie to me, the Honour 
of His Majesties Approbation of the Behaviour of their Officers, 
and private Men, His Royal Commendations of the Alacrity and 
Dispatch with which their Reinforcements were Raised, and His 
Majesties Paternal Assureances of His Favour and Protection. 

I am 

With the utmost respect 


Your most Obedient 
and most humble serv* 

To The Right Honourable 
HENRY Fox Esq r . 


INDORSED : Fort Johnson April 2 d : 

Sir W m . Johnson 
R June 7 th . 

A. L. S. 1 

New York April y 4. 1756 

Having given y r . News Papers to M r . Banyar to forward I 
have little to advise you but woud not let Slip this Opportunity 
of acquainting that an Agent for Indian Affairs is appointed for 
Carolina for y c Southrn Inds. how far his district reaches I'm 

Original destroyed by fire. 


438 Sir William Johnson Papers 

not informed, One M r . Atkins * one of y e Council of y. Province. 
I have seen him at L d . Halifax's Levee, this Cap 1 . Rutherfurd 
writes. I should say Major now. I still attend Baron De 
Dieskau & By S r . Chas. Hardys interest have Gen 1 . Shirleys 
Liberty to do so. You'le see by the Papers that the Quakers 
alterd their Note to their Gov*. & by the Letter .of their address 
seem to applaud their Indian management & by what M r . Claus 
says want to continue it for which they appear to be very unfit. 
This is y e humble opinion of y r . old acquaintance & very humble 


A. L. S. 2 

Philadelphia April the 5*. 7756. 

I would have given myself the Honour of waiting upon you 
immediately after my arrival here, but the Report of your 
Honours being marched with a Body of Men and Indians 
towards the great Carrying place not only detained me, from it, 
but likewise gave me a great deal of Uneasiness of not being 
myself among that Body, Now its not being confirmed gives me 
an Opportunity of sending this to you, and acquaint your hon r . 
in the Name of Skaronyade M r . Montour and all the Indians 
that were last Summer with Gen 1 . Braddock, and at present in 
this City, that they were resolved to quitt this Government and 
live among their friends the Six Nations since times were so 
troublesome at Ohio they are twenty odd in Number Men 
Women and Children. capt n George Croghan, and John 
Davison are likewise coming that Way, the former left this place 
last Wednesday in Order to Settle his affairs at Aukwik, and is 
to be back next Saturday, when We I hope Shall Set off for the 

1 Edmund Atkin, superintendent of Indian affairs in the Southern 
colonies. See Doc. Rel. to Col Hist. N. Y., 7:21 1. 

2 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 7755-7756 439 

Gov r Morris is Striving to give me a Capt ns Commission in 
the Provincials under Colo Clapham a N : E : Man to go to the 
Frontiers and build Forts at Shamokin & ca , NB : The party is 
to consist of 400 Men only, but I can not conceive how that will 
be consistent with me as I plainly foresee Indian affairs must drop 
in this Province as there will be no Indians; Thinking your 
honour was from home I wrote by the Post to Capt n Wraxall and 
by his answer he advises me not to accept of Such a temporary 
thing as a Provincial Commission, he also writes me that M r . 
Banyar to whom he read my Letter acquainted S r . Charles with 
it, but he did not return from the Gov rs before the Post left N ; 

This Province at present is in a most deplorable Situation 
The Gov rs . Party and the Quakers, (whose head is M r Franklin) 
are continually in Dispute with one another, and nothing but 
Confusion reigns here ; the Enemy as reported is descending upon 
them with a Body of 1 600 Strong ; M r Peters is Sometimes most 
distracted and dreads its Ruin if things go on as they do The 
60,000 pound raised lately are expended to one quarter and no 
body knows what good was done thereby. 

The young Man that made his Escape from King Shingo the 
Delaware, Says that the Indians told him how they found out that 
the English and french made an agreement to cut them of & then 
take their Lands in Possession, but that they would prevent that 
if possible, for Saith they if we only Subdue the English first 
we may do afterwards what we please with the French, for we 
have them as it were in a Sheep Den and may cut them off any 
time, for they had no liberty to plant any Corn yet tho' they 
tryed but it was forbid them and we told them that we did not 
give them Liberty to build that Fort in order to make Improve- 
ments but only to fight against the English. 

The People were Surprized that the 6 Nations at the last 
Treaty had not agreed upon knocking the Delawares and Shaw- 
enese in the head ; Skaronyade told them that the 6 Nations were 
resolved to cut them off in case they would not listen to the Mes- 
sage they sent now; the Governour and Council then were won- 

440 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

dering that the Treaty was mentioning nothing of the Nature, I 
told them I did not hear the 6 Nations say any Such Thing in 
publick nor believed they would undertake it. then M r . Montour 
Said it was agreed upon in Some of their private Councils, and 
other things more which never was communicated to any body yet. 

They are now upon promising Rewards for Scalps 30. a Scalp 
and 50: a Prisoner, Before they know the Result of the 6. 
Nations upon the answer the Delawares are to give to their late 
Message I am afeard they will make Evil worse; They think 
here the Message to the Delawares upon the Susquehanna only, 
was of no Consequence or help, but Messages should have been 
Sent to Ohio and to the Indians who live near Fort Du Quesne. 

Last Monday the 29. of March dies Moses Moye Mishes Son 
who came down with me he fell Sick on Sunday Night at 12. 
oClock and expired the next Night about 2. in the Morning he 
was burried honourably in the English Churchyard, and your 
honour will find a paragraph about it in the News papers, Ska- 
ronyade begs of your honour to acquaint the Ralations with it. 

Just now M r . Peters tells me that this Government was going 
to engage 50. or 60. Jersey Indians whereof I was to be com- 
mander, I did not give him a conclusive answer but told him I 
would consult Skaronyade ab*. it. 

There is a Report in Town of a London Vessell being in the 
Mouth of Delaware River. 

The Post goes off and I must conclude; I have given your 
honour a Short Description of the principal Things in Motion 
here and have no more to add but to remain in due Respect 
Your honour 8 

Most Obedient and 

most humble Servant 


P S*. Just now I Seen a Paragraph in the N : York News 
that your Honour Went a Second time towards the Carrying Place 
I hope and heartily wish you Success, We are to Set off the 
Beginning of next Week There is no News from home yet here. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1 7 55-17 56 441 


The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 76 by a 
tier of the 1 2th from John Watts, at New York, to Johnson at Albany 
it finances and military movements. It was destroyed by fire. 

A. L. S. 1 

New York, 20 April 1756. 

Yesterday Morning arrived the Pacquet; which left Falmouth 
the 14 February, but the latest Letters are the 17 th January: 
so that the accounts from Boston are the freshest : The Pacquet 
Intelligence does not mention the appointment of any General, 
but by a private Letter which Sir Charles told me he had, he 
was confident a General officer would be appointed. Several 
young Gentlemen are come hither from Boston, who came in 
one of the Men of War arrived there, who I hear say Lord 
Lowden was actually appointed, and one of them I am told says 
Transports were hired to bring over the three Regiments ordered 
to America. General Shirley's Conduct is universally condemned 
in England. They look on your Victory in much the same Light 
as we do, that is, it saved the Oswego army and the County of 
Albany &c a . Dieskau bears the Character in England of a very 
considerable Officer The Ministry had determined to have it 
recommended to Parliament to distribute 100,000 among the 
Colonies concerned in the late Expedition. The Bostonians I 
hear are disappointed for instead of 50,000 bro 1 in the Man of 
War arrived there it is now said only 15,000 was brought & 
that for the Payment of the two British Reg 18 . Young M r . 
Franks 2 had been consulted about the Money proposed to be sent 
to the Colonies & writes fully on this Head to M r Watts who is 
out of Town & we know not what he writes. Sir Charles has 
ordered the Indian arms & ammunition to be delivered to you. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

2 Moses Franks of Philadelphia? 

442 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

Your last Letters and the accounts that accompanyed them 
give me very great Pain for Oswego, for if they can prevent 
Bradstreet and his Convoy from reaching it, the Garrison can- 
not hold out till a sufficient Force be sent to dislodge the French. 
I hope notwithstanding his mad Conduct, you will (or rather 
have already) endeavour to prevail with as many of the Six 
Nations to join him & go with him to Oswego as possible. It is 
almost all my hopes for I do not see how he can with such a 
chicken hearted Crew as I suppose the Batoe men to be make 
Stand ag* the French. 1 Unless we can save Oswego, farewell to 
all our operations this year, the most we shall be able to do will 
be to retake it. My comp ts to M r . Wraxall : I deliver this with 
two Letters for you and two for Cap*. Wraxall to d r . Shuckburgh 
who will inclose them in a Pacquet with the News Papers. I am 
My dear Sir 

your most obed & 

affectionate h blc Serv*. 



In Doc. Rel to Col Hist. N. Y. t 7:82-85, are printed a report of 
Onondaga deputies to Johnson, dated April 2 1 st, and a report of Mohawk 
delegates, dated the 22d. In Doc. Hist. N. Y., 1 :475-76; Q, 1 :308, 
under April 21, is a council minute containing intelligence from Johnson 
of measures taken by him for the relief of Oswego and the protection of 
Forts Edward and William Henry. 

L. S. 

Philadelphia April 24, 1756 

I have the Honour to acknowledge the receit of yours of the 
8 th . March which M r Clause delivered to me with a Copy of the 
Treaty The Indians adhere so closely to their Tedious Cere- 
monies that I am sensible you must have had a most fatiguing time 

1 See Francis Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe, 2:80-83. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 443 

it. It is however some Compensation to receive the Satis fac- 
>n you Express in finding the Indians so well disposed towards 
tis Majesty's Interest. It was very kind and well judg'd to 
>in Scarroyady with you in the Several matters relating to this 
Government, and it had no doubt a good Effect on the Minds of 
ie Six Nations, and I have the pleasure to find by what you say 
lat Scarroyady is in high Esteem with them. Our particular 
>mplaints are well and strongly laid before them, but I cannot 
iclp expressing my concern at your being obliged to repeat them 
so often before they woud give their final Answer, nor do I 
observe that the Senecas joined with the rest of the Nations in 
their resolutions to send a Peremptory Message to the Delawares 
to desist or that they sent any Deputies. 

You cannot conceive what havock has been made by the 
Enemy in this Defenceless Province nor what Numbers of 
Murders they have committed, what a vast Tract of Territory 
they have laid waste, and what a Multitude of Inhabitants of all 
Ages and both Sexes they have carried into Captivity; By 
Information of Several of the Prisoners who have made their 
Escape from them, I can assure you that there are not less than 
Three hundred of our People in Servitude to them and the French 
on the Ohio, the most of them at Shingas's Town called Kittannin 
about thirty Miles above Fort Duquesne, and Scarroyady and 
Montour must have acquainted you that they saw more or less 
English Prisoners in almost every one of the Delaware Towns on 
the Susquahannah as high up as Diahogo. 

At first the Enemy appeared in small Parties and committed 
their outrages where they coud do it with more safety to them- 
selves, but of late they have penetrated into the Inhabited part of 
the Country in larger Bodies and have defeated Several Detach- 
ments of our Armed forces, burned and laid waste whole 
Countries, and Spread a general Terror amongst us so that I have 
been constrained to yield to the importunate Demands of the 
enraged People (not being able otherwise to afford them a 
sufficient Protection for want of Arms, Amunition and an equal 

444 9 Sir William Johnson Papers 

and compulsory Militia Law) to Proclaim the Delaware Nation 
Enemies & Rebels to His Majesty and to offer large rewards for 
Prisoners and Scalps hoping that this woud engage such of our 
Inhabitants as had any courage left, as well as all others in the 
Neighbouring Provinces, to hunt, pursue and attack them in their 
own Country and by these means keep them at home for the 
Defence of their own Towns and prevent the total desertion of 
the back Counties which there is good reason to be apprehensive 
of, but this measure tho loudly called for on my return from New 
York in December last, and since importunately and frequently 
repeated was not taken till near a Month after the return of 
Scar<joyady> and Montour and by their advice they as well 
as we observing the Power of the Enemies to be daily encreasing 
and judging this the likeliest way to bring them to hearken to the 
Six Nations and to move for Peace upon honourable Terms. I 
own had I had the least notion that they coud be stopt in the 
midst of their furious Carreer, I woud not have gratified the 
People but dispairing of this, you will agree with me no other 
method is so likely as this to bring a force into the Enemys 
Country and drive them from their lurking places and from their 
Towns. The Proclamation a printed Copy of which I herewith 
send you was not issued above a Week before I received from 
S r Charles Hardy the agreeable Account of the return of the Six 
Nation Deputies who were sent to the Delawares and of their 
having assured you " they had made up that uphappy affair 
and that the Delawares expected those of their People who might 
be taken Prisoners by us to be delivered up as soon as possible 
and then they promised to deliver up those they have of ours." 
Be assured, Sir, that I have no Prisoners of theirs, unless one can 
call a Delaware Indian so, who was put into Jayle in order to 
keep him out of harms way, being informed against and lying 
under a strong suspicion of having Burned and destroyed some of 
the Plantations on the Frontiers. Except this I have not a single 
Delaware Prisoner, & this must be well known to them, and 
therefore their Demand does not look well especially, as they 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 445 

were the Aggressors and by all forms of Proceeding (Indian as 
well as English) the Six Nations ought on this account to have 
insisted on it as a Preliminary, and the only Test they coud give 
of their Sincerity, that they shoud deliver up those of our People 
which they have taken Prisoners and of which Numbers are 
known to be in their Towns, and it is expected from the Six 
Nations that they will cause this to be done before I be requested 
to lay down our Arms, who are innocent and most wrongfully 
and unexpectedly attacked whilst living in Peace and friendship 
with the Delawares and all other Indians. 

You may be assured, Sir, that a peace on honourable Terms 
will be extreamly acceptable, as we form this charitable Opinion 
of the Delawares that they were hurried into this Measure by the 
Artifice and Intimidations of the French and did always believe 
when they came to open their Eyes they woud relent and cease 
injuring their innocent Brethren and Allies, who have never hurt 
them either in thought or Action. It was this Opinion of their 
good Disposition toward us that influenced us to suffer so long 
their Hostilities without declaring them Enemies untill the Blood 
streamed in such Quantities down our Mountains and filled the 
Vallies to such a Degree that we coud no longer delay the 
Publication of their horrid treatment of us and wage vengeance 
upon them. 

I do not perceive that any of the Delawares living on the Ohio 
came to the Meeting appointed by the Deputies of the Six 
Nations, or that they have been spoke to, and they are as you well 
know, the most numerous of all, indeed the main Body of the 
Delawares live at Kittannin and the other Delaware Towns on 
and be<yond the Ohio, and> have been the most mischevious, 
and do still, even so late as <last Week> continue to Murder 
and destroy our Inhabitants, treating them w th the most barbarous 
Inhumanity that can be conceived. I shoud be glad to know 
whether these have expressed a desire of Peace and on what 
Terms the Six Nations propose to Settle it, for unless these be 
made to desist, our Inhabitants will be in as bad Plight as ever. 

446 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A Party of Delawares lately doing Mischief on Potomac was 
headed by a French Officer, who was killed, and the Party 
routed, and in this Officers Pocket was found a Paper of Instruc- 
tions from the French Commandant Monsier Dumes at Fort 
Dusquesne, ordering him to burn and destroy what he coud meet 
with on that River, and to kill the English, or take them Prisoners; 
From the Ohio therefore we must expect the greatest mischief and 
all means possible shoud be used to seperate the Delawares and 
Shawonese from the French there, and prevail with them not to 
join in ravaging, burning and laying waste our Frontier Counties. 
Against these the Proclamation was principally calculated and 
you must be sensible I cannot recall it till I know the precise 
Terms on which the Six Nations have or shall have mediated a 
Peace ; You will be the best Judge of what is Proper for me to 
do, or what the Indians will expect from us on this Occasion of 
which be pleased to advise me and favour me with your senti- 
ments which will always have their weight with me as you can 
always come at and settle these matters in conferrence with the 
Indians and we shoud be apt to at <such a Distance > from 

The Colonies are Sensible of your Influence over the Indians 
and admire the Zeal with which you prosecute their true Interest 
and applaud the happy success that has hitherto attended your 
Arms and Negotiations, and in particular the Colonies exposed 
to the French owe you great Obligations for the dispatch with 
which you lately appeared with so considerable a Force at the 
Carrying Place and disappointed the French. May the same 
success attend you in the present March and may we have the 
pleasure to hear you have drove off the Enemy now said to have 
invested that important Fortress of Oswego. I am Sir with great 

your most obed* Humble Servt 


Preliminary Campaigns, 7755-7756 447 

Df. S. 1 

<Fort Johnson 24 April 1756 

My Letter of <yesterday to your Excelly.> I dispatched 
lis morning, but I forgot to < mention > one thing to you w ch I 
think of great importance. 

S r . Charles Hardy writes me that Gov r . Morris by the public 
prints had declared War against the Delawares & Shawanese 
Indians. I am surprized that M r . Morris whose Province was so 
much interested in the result of the 6 Nations Embassy to those 
Indians, who was a principal in it and to whom I sent a Copy of 
my late Proceedings, would not wait to hear the effects of this 
Embassy before he entered into this consequential Measure. 

What will the Delawares & Shawanese think of such Opposi- 
tion, & contradiction in our Conduct? how shall I behave at the 
approaching Meeting at Onondaga, not only to those Indians, 
but to the 6 Nations? These Hostile Measures w ch . M r Morris 
has entered into, is throwing all our Schemes into Confusion, & 
must naturally give the 6 Nations such Impressions & the French 
such advantages to work on against us, that I tremble for the 
Consequences. I think without consulting your Excellency, 
without the concurrence of the other neighbouring Provinces, 
without my receiving previous notice of it, this is a very unad- 
vised & unaccountable proceeding of Gov r . Morris. I cannot 
but be of opinion, if Terms of good Accommodation can be 
brought about, that in the present critical situation of affairs, it 
will be far more eligible than to enter into Hostilities against these 
Indians, especially as a few days will detirmine what part we 
have to chuse. I hope your Excellency will take this interesting 

copy is in the New York Public Library. 

448 Sir William Johnson Papers 

<affair into your Consideration & make use of such Inter> 
position as you <shall> judge necessary thereupon. 

I am 

Your Excellencys 
most obed 1 
hum. ser ! . 


To His Excelly. 

INDORSED: Fort Johnson April 24 th 1756 
My letter to Genr 1 . Shirley 
concerning Gov r . Morris 

A. L. S. 1 

Nen York 25 April 1756. 

I have at length the opportunity of doing what I have long 
wish'd for I mean of congratulating you on a more substantial 
Advantage, than his Majesty's late Honour conferd on you, 
which with the addition made you by Parliament of 5,000 
Sterling, will compleat that Satisfaction which the Service of 
the Publick gave you. I think if you take these two together, 
you will consider them as the highest Compliment paid to any 
American Subject. I shall endeavour to inclose you the Papers 
containing the Extracts of the Votes of Parliament and for addi- 
tional News shall inclose you a few Paragraphs of a Letter to 
me from Boston. It is from a Hand whose intelligence I have 
found generally to be depended on. I believe I shall see Sir 
Charles before I put up this, if I do I may perhaps add something 

Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 449 

Before the Contradiction of the News from Oswego, the Lieu- 
mant Governor, as Sir Charles could not go himself, had offered 
to go to Albany to reside there and give the necessary Directions. 
Whether this alteration will prevent his going I know not. He 
was to have acted under his Majesty's Commission to him as 
Lieutenant Governor, and such Instructions as Sir Charles should 
give him Brasier l has accepted of the offer of a L 1 . Colonels 
Commission from S r . Charles. But Fitch says he cannot with 
propriety accept of a Rank from this Government not superior 
to that which he now holds in his own Government which is 
Lieutenant Colonel. I cannot find tis fix'd yet: 

I send you Extracts which I took from the two Sheets of Com- 
ment one of the 10 February. If there be two different Regi- 
ments to be raised I am in hopes his Majesty may give one of 
them to you. Rutherford's Rank of Major given him by M r . 
Clinton it's said is confirmed some say he is Major of the 4 Ind ts 
is to keep his own Company & to have 1 5s : p diem I have not 
been out to hear any thing So can write nothing with certainty 
but that I am my Dear S r . 

your affectionate 

& obed*. Servant 


My Compliments to Cap*. Wraxall I have forwarded four 
Letters, 2 to each of you: One was sent afterwards to Cap*. 
Wraxall They were all given by D r . Shuckburgh to one M r . 
Sinclair I believe to be left with Parson Ogilvie; to whom be 
pleased to give my Comp 18 . if he is among the 2 at this time. 

1 This should no doubt be Glazier. Beamsley Glazier was in command 
of Fort William Henry. 

2 Omission in copy. 

Vol. 11 15 

450 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

[Extract from Boston Letter] 

Boston April 191756 

I can now acquaint you that your Wishes in some affairs are 
completed: We had a Vessel last week from England. Our 
Governor is superceded as General. He has received private 
Letters by this Vessel from Cap* 8 Rutherford & Morris &c. 
Staats 1 carried the Plan of Operations last Fall to England, but 
arrived too late there, the Scheme or Military Plan being already 
fix'd and the Governors Friends not able to get it altered. The 
Earl of Loudon is Lieutenant General & Commander in chief in 
No. America & Governor of Virginia. Abercrombie is made a 
Major General and coming with him. Webb is made a Major 
General, is on board the Pacquet, and is on his arrival to take 
the Command from Gen. Shirley. There are six Regiments 
coming over, and in their room 6 Hessian Regiments are coming 
over to England One of the Regiments coming to America is 
said to be a Highland Regiment of 1000 Men. Some of the 
Papers mention 4 Regiments to come from England, and 2 to be 
raised in America The Transports were ready for them in 
February last. We imagine Lord Loudon will not be over before 
May, which we think rather too late for the present year. What 
the Plan of operation is we know not, nor where he or the Tran- 
sports are intended to come, but believe that another attack will 
be made on Fort Duquesne. We apprehend it has been no small 
Blott in M r . Shirleys Escutcheon, his drawing the Troops from 
the Southward, and as the Consequences have proved so bad, it 
is not improbable the Gent n in favour of the Colony of Virginia, 
which is so dear to the Crown, have made a Party against him at 
home. I believe this news is no small Chagrin to the Governor, 
and has I believe compounded 2 many designs & Schemes he 

1 Captain Staats Long Morris, of the New York regiment, commissioned 
November 7, 1751 W. C. Ford, British Officers serving in America, 
] 754-1 774. 

2 The word in the original was probably " confounded." 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1 7 55-17 56 


probably might have laid. He had fix'd a day for setting out 
for your Province but on this News has alter'd his Mind, and 
M r . told me he does not go till he receives his 

Pacquets on Webbs arrival. The Parliament have voted 
12000 for the Payment of the Expedition last year, 5000 
of it to S r . William Johnson for his Services. A Private Letter 
mentions that if M r . Shirleys Friends succeed he will be 
appointed Gov. of Jamaica. 

Knowles 2 is ordered home, and made one of the Lords of the 
admiralty and tis thought will have a Command in the Channels. 

Extract from the House of Commons Votes 

Feby 10*. 1756 

Resolved that a Sum not exceeding 81 1 78: 16s be granted 
to his Majesty for defraying the Charge of the Royal American 
Regiment of Foot to be raised for his Majesty's Service in North 
America, for the Service of the year 1 756. 

Resolved That leave be given to bring in a Bill to enable his 
Majesty to grant Commissions to a certain number of foreign 
Protestants who have served abroad as officers or Engineers, to 
act and rank as officers or Engineers in America only under 
certain Restrictions and Qualifications. 

I long to have a very long and particular Letter from you. 
The Reflection 3 some of them at least throw out sly Insinuations, 
signifying the Folly of Harrassing the Militia on slight pretences 
But they seem determined to represent the best actions of Persons 
not of their own Kidney in the worst view. Tell M r . Wraxall 
he must not think I can write to you both at a time. I am hoping 
there is some good News for him in the Board of Trades Letter 
I sent you. 


1 Name omitted in copy ; probably Alexander. 

2 Charles Knowles, admiral in 1 763 and baronet in 1 764. 

8 Should apparently be Reflectors, issues of the newspaper, Reflector. 
See vol. 1 , page 832 (note) . 

452 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Contemporary Copy 

<A Message from the Governor to the Susquehannah 
Indians by Newcastle, lagrea and William Lacquis 
delivered in Counsil 26 th April 1 756 


I have received an account from Sir William John < son sent 
me> by Sir Charles Hardy Governor of New York that imme< 
diately> after the Council held at Fort Johnson, Deputies were 
dis<patched> by the Six Nations to Otsaningo, and that they 
con<vened> the Delawares, Shawanese and other Indians 
from the several Tov/ns on the Susquehannah to the number of 
thr<^ee^> Hundred, to whom they delivered Messages from that 
Council, blaming them for taking the Hatchet against their 
Bretheren the English, and commanding them to lay it down 
immediately, and that they had hearkened to this Mes<sage> 
and had agreed to Strike no more. What I tell you is in this 
Letter (here the Governour gave M r . Weiser Sir Charles Hardy's 
Letter of the 1 6 th . of April to translate to them) and when he 
had made them understand what Sir Charles Hardy had wrote, 
the Governour took a Belt in his hand and proceeded. 


I think it necessary that the Indians at Wyomink as well 
Enemies as Friends should know, that Sir Charles Hardy has 
sent this account to me from Sir William Johnson, and as Two 
of You are of the Six Nations and one a Delaware, I think it is 
proper, that You should undertake to Notify this to them, and 
at the same time let them know as from yourselves, that if they 
are sincerely disposed to Peace, and will deliver up the English 
Prisoners to the Six Nations, and hearken to their Advice in 
laying down the Hatchet, and abide by such Terms as shall be 
agreed on, You can venture to assure them, that though much 
Blood has been spilt, and that the English in resentment of this 
cire well prepared to avenge themselves, yet they have so great a 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


regard to the Six Nations, that it will be in their power to per- 
suade the English <not to prosecute the Warr, but to accept fair, 
and just and honourable Terms. And I provide you with this 
Belt to deliver it to them with such a Speech. 


I> speak my own sincere Inclinations <Vhen I say I am^ 
for Peace, and not only my own but the Senti<ments of 
oth>ers, and particularly the earnest desires of a < number of > 
People who are the Descendants of those who came over with 
the first Proprietor, all these are extreamly desireous to interpose 
with the Government to receive the submission of the Delawares, 
and to overlook what is past, and establish for the future a firm 
and lasting Agreement Peace and Affection between us, and 
have repeatedly applied to me for this Purpose. 


As many Stones have been told to the Indians to our Prejudice, 
I desire you will undeceive them, and particularly I charge Wil- 
liam Lacquis to acquaint the Delawares, that those of their Tribe 
who live amongst us have not had any Mischief done to them, 
but are treated with our usual Kindness, and are at Liberty, and 
live in Peace and Plenty amongst us. I charge You William 
Lacquis to declare the truth to the Indians, and to assure them, 
that they have been imposed on ; and relate the care that has been 
taken as well by the Government of New Jersey as this, of all the 
Indians who have staid with us and that they enjoy our Pro- 
tection, and live as happily as ever. A String 


Pascinosa and some other Shawanese and other Indians have 
not broke faith with Us, but endeavour'd to disuade the Dela- 
wares from Striking us-- When <they> could <not succeed 
they separated from them, and now live together in some place 
near Wyomink I would have you go to them, and let them 
likewise know this account from Sir William Johnson, and assure 
them from me, that if they are inclined to come within the Inhab- 

454 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

itants, You have my or>ders to Conduct them, or if they 
not incline to come now, but> at any other time, they will on 
< sending me> a Message be provided with a safe Conduct 
and <meet with> an hearty Welcome; Let them know that 
Scarro<oyady^> related to me what passed between him and 
them, <and> that Aroas and David have likewise made me 
acquainted with what was said by them, when they were last at 

Then the Governour gave them a String to give Pascanosa 
Newcastle, lagrea and William Lacquis returned the Gov- 
ernour an answer Viz*. That the Messages were very good, and 
what they approved mightily, and would undertake the Journey, 
and deliver them faithfully, but there they must de<sire> the 
Governour to make their Apology to Coll . Clapham 1 and to 
tell him, that nothing but the Governors Commands would have 
enduced them to delay their coming to him. 

The Governour promised he would, and then told them, that 
M r . Spangenberg 2 was desired to be present, having some Dela- 
ware Indians under his Care, that he might hear what was deliv- 
ered to them He desired they would go by way <]of 
B Bethlehem, and take with them one or more of the Indians 
<ther>e, and that M r . Spangenberg would prepare these 
Indians for their Visit, and persuade some of them to accompany 
them to Wyomink. 

A true Copy 

Richard Peters 

A true Copy Examined by 

INDORSED: A Message from the Gov r . 
to the Susquehanah Ind s . 
deliver'd in Council the 26 
April 1 756. Philadelphia. 

1 Colonel William Clapham. 

2 August Gottlieb Spangenberg, Moravian bishop, consecrated in 1 744. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 455 

L. S. 

Fort George New York 28 ih April 1756 

M r : Claus delivers you a Letter from Gov r . Morris * giving 
his Reasons from declaring the Dela wares &c Enemy s. The 
measure appears to me hasty, as I wrote you some Days ago, & I 
hope you will satisfy the Six Nations with respect to it. 

Thus fair I am of opinion with him, that it is unreasonable in 
the Delawares to make an Exchange of Prisoners a Preliminary, 
when they must know none of their People are in Captivity in 
Pensilvania, and such there cannot be in any other Province. 
This part of the Delawares demand should be Carefully, and 
particularly explain'd to the Six Nations, or their Delegates, that 
they may not be in an Error, and be lead to beleive that the 
English have many Prisoners, when it is so notorious they have 
none ; If this unhappy breach was made up, it would give another 
Turn to our Affairs, and most probably enable those Colonys, 
who are so Essen tialy affected by their Inhuman and Barbarous 
Incursions, to Act with more Vigour in Support of the Common 
Cause: surely if the Six Nations are our Friends they will bring 
this matter to a final and short Issue, by Chastiseing them if they 
decline obeying their Orders, and Cherish and receive them as 
Friends and Bretheren if they lay down the Hatchet. But they 
must at the same time take care to withdraw themselves from the 
Neighbourhood of the French and their Indians on the Ohio, 
least by a too frequent Intercourse with them they relapse, & turn 
Robbers & Murderers again. 

I am sorry to hear the Lands on which our Two Forts stand 
on the Northern Frontiers of this Province are so infested with 
French Indians, and none of our Allies move to remove them 
I cannot but say this Conduct has not the Face of Acting like 
Bretheren and Friends, after such Solemn Assurances of their 

1 Morris to Johnson, April 24, 1 756, q. v. 

456 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Attachment to us; It appears clearly to me, that the French are, 
and intend if possible to Cut off the Transportation of Provisions 
and Stores, both Northward and Westward, which I fear they 
will in a great measure effect, and of consequence Impede, if not 
wholly destroy the Prosecuting the intended Expeditions, if the 
Six Nations do not heartily join with us, and drive them, and 
keep clear and open those Roads This is a matter of that 
Importance that I cannot but recommend it seriously to you, 
and on which our hopes of future Success principally depends. 

Your Letter of the 1 8 th . from Burnettsfeild I have received and 
think you have judged prudently in taking the advice and opinion 
of his Majesty's Officers for your further Proceedings. 

Your Conduct merits great Applause, and you may be Assured 
meets with it, with all those you could wish it to do. 

The Advices from England of Lord Louden with more Troops 
for this part of the World you must have heard of. 

I Congratulate you on the Notice the Brittish Parlaiment have 
taken of your Services. 
I am 

your most Obed*. 
& Humble Servant 


P. S. The Indians M r . Claus Carrys with him I hope will 
Interest themselves with the Allied Nations, in Accomodating 
matters with the Delawares. 

INDORSED : New York 28 Apr 1 . 1 756 
Sir Charles Hardys 
Letter to me 

Preliminary Campaigns, 17551756 

These are therefore in his Majestys name to order & Command 
you Jeremy Quackenbush Serg* of said Company to levy the 
Sume of Twenty five Pounds this Curry, from each of the 
said Delinquents & in case of not sufficient Distress to commit him 
or them to Jail according to the Law of this Province in this Case 
provided, and the Sherrif or Jayler of this County is hereby 
required to receive the Body or Bodies of such person or Persons 
& him or them in safe Custody to keep until Said Fine, or Fines 
be paid together with the Jailers Fees for all w cl \ this shall be 
your Sufficient Warrant 

Given under my 
hand at Fort 
Johnson this 29 day 
of April 1 756 
Casparus Brunk 
Lieu* Jacob Halenbeck 
Dirck Bratt 
Jachim Staats 

1 Probably the four persons named below. 

458 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A. L. S. 1 

NCJ York 30* April 1756 

I received yours of the 22 th . yesterday you will before this 
comes to hand have got my last wherein I gave you all the News 
I could then learn from England; Sir Charles after I had sent 
my Letters told me he had received a Letter from Major Ruther- 
ford, who acquaints him that he found on his arrival Lord 
Lowden was appointed Comm dr in chief. He mentions, that the 
King had conferd the Honour of a Baronet on you, & what he 
thought still better the Parliament had voted you 5000. He 
says two Regiments are to be completed to 1000 each & sent 
over with Lord Lowden The Scotch Fuzilleers and Highland- 
ers. The Royal American Regiment is to be raised here in 
America, thirty German officers & some English officers are 
appointed to come over, and some officers to be appointed in 
America. This Regiment is given to Lord Lowden himself, & 
to consist of 4 Batalions, each Batalion of 1000 Men & three 
Feild Officers : where the devil they'l raise 4000 Men in America 
I cannot see. Sir Charles told me you was to have an appointm* 
by which I understood a Salary ; how much I believe he does not 
know. I am glad to see the Prospect increases of your accom- 
modating Matters between us & the Delaw & Shawenese Do 
not spare any pains to accomplish it you can hardly do your King 
& Country a more essential Service, and you'l win the Hearts of 
the Quakers by it (if that were any Motive) who utterly disap- 
prove of Gov r Morris's Proclamation. I have some hopes any 
bad Effects that might otherwise happen from it will be prevented 
by the Interposition of Sir Charles who has sent copies of your 
late Proceedings to Philadelphia. I cant tell what you'l do for 
the Goods necessary to be given at the Meeting at Onondaga, 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 459 

vhich is certainly of the greatest Importance, there are no Goods 
>roper to be purchased here tho some are hourly expected, I 
ippose you have sent Orders here to send up what you want. 
Gen. Shirley arrived here on Wednesday last. I don't think 
;'ll go till the arrival of the next Pacquet, but this is my own 
mjecture. I hope you'l have Arms & ammunition enough, & 
the Indians must be content till the Fall for other Presents. I am 
apprehensive you'l run great Risques at this Meeting, you'l 
therefore do well to be more cautious than your natural Dispo- 
sition leads you to be of your own Safety. I have much the same 
Sentiments about Oswego as you have. You don't mention how 
farr Bradstreet has proceeded. Some here say he's got up I 
don't believe it, nor do I think they will go safe all of them unless 
he has a good number of trusty Indians. Cant you take advantage 
of Colonel Schuyler's Reg*, as a Convoy, and if Gen. Shirley 
has not given him orders to this purpose or discretionary, if there 
be a good Understanding between you as I hope there is, he'll 
step a little out of the way on so important an Occasion. I think 
however you should have at least 1 50 or 200 Regulars along with 
you. I suppose it wont alarm the Delawares & Shawanese. At 
all Events, if I could get no other Guard, I would endeavour to 
prevail on a number of the most active young Fellows in the 
Militia to go with me, & if I could get them on no other Terms 
would make them an allowance & charge it to the General account 
we must loose no advantage for the sake of saving a little Expence, 
nor should the Publick without a Compliment risque your Life. 
P* Merid: I have been to Council since the Morning, which 
was called to determine what should be done with the French 
Neutrals 1 that were destined for their Post but drove off the 

1 His Excellency communicated a Letter from Governor Lawrence (of 
Nova Scotia) dated the 1 1 th. August last sent by a Vessel with about 30 
Families of the Sellers in Nova Scotia, taken at the reduction of that part 
of the Province, inhabited by the People commonly called Neutral French, 
acquainting his Excellency that the result of the Council called on that 
occasion, was that these people should be dispersed among the several 

460 f Srr William Johnson Papers 

Coast to S* Ch rs . and now arrived here. If the People themselves 
will submit, the Method proposed, is to put the Boys out appren- 
tices to Trades, the Girls to Service, and the Men and Women 
to be dispersed on long Island, Staten Island & Westchester, but 
I cannot see how the latter will be provided for unless they will 
take up with working for their Subsistence in the Country, in the 
Farming way. But if they prove refractory & will not part with 
their children, or consent to labour for themselves, I dont know 
what method will be fall'n on. We should I think do what we 
can to incorporate them among us. Virg a . on the contrary I am 
told have apply ed 500 to carry theirs to London. If so, tis a 
very absurd Measure, & may oblige the People of England to 
fall on some Method to get rid of them. They audaciously & 
unanimously refused the Oath of Allegience M r . Lawrence 
writes: or they might have cont'd in Possession of their Lands: 
The Reasons he gives in his Letter shews the Measure of dis- 
persing them among the Colonies was well judg'd. Sir Charles 
told me he had setled the Matter with Gen 1 . Shirley about a 
Guard to attend you to Onondaga & that he said he would order 

Provinces, and that in Consequesce thereof, he had sent a Vessel with that 
Number of Families to this Province. 

His Excellency acquainted the Council, that the Vessel had been 
driven off the Coast in the Winter, and had put into St. Christophers, 
where some of the people found means to make their Escape to the 
French Islands, there being at present only 21 Families, and desired 
the opinion of the Council as to the disposition of them. 

The Council advised his Excellency to recommend it to the Mayor and 
Magistrates of the City, to endeavour to put out the Children to such Per- 
sons as are willing to take them, not doubting but the most of them may 
be thus disposed of, and that they send proper Persons on Board the Vessel 
to consult the disposition of the People, and to represent the advantages 
such a Provision for their Children will be attended with, by learning them 
Trades and useful Employments, by which they will be enabled to support 
themselves and Families comfortably in this Country. And that in the 
meantime Provision be made for their subsistence. All which his Excel- 
lency recommended to the Mayor Mr. Holland, and desired him to 
acquaint the Magistrates therewith and consult them upon it. Council 
Minutes, 25:118. 

Preliminary Campaigns, / 7 55-1 7 56 


1 00 Men I understand you applyed for no more you know 
:st but I dont think it enough; as you should run no risque. 
>ir Charles thinks the Indians have had Presents so lately, that 
iey rec'd * little or nothing of other Presents than Arms & ammu- 
nition. I hinted to him that whatever you used of the public 
Presents you might replace & told him you wanted many things 
w ch you could not procure time enough as there were no such 
things to be had. He answered the arms &c he had given an order 
for were to be given to the Indians in his Name, meaning too 
I suppose as a Present from the King: I dont know whether I 
ever thought to mention it to you, but it has been made an Objec- 
tion by Gen Shirley I heard, that your Proceedings were in your 
own Name and not in the Kings. I take it when the Indians 
speak to the Governor, or to any Person having publick authority 
on solemn Occasion, they mean the English in general, or his 
Majesty but that tis usual for them only to address themselves 
to the Person they are treating with. Nor can you avoid speaking 
to them in your own Name However some general & apt Expres- 
sions interspersed in the Conference may obivate the Objection, if 
there be any thing in it. You follow the usual course of Proceed- 
ings. I intended to give this Letter to M r . Claas who is going 
from hence in a Sloop with Monocantha 2 & about 24 other Ind 8 . 
he brought with him from PhiK but the Sloop wont sail till to 
Morrow & Earhart goes off he tells me in half an Hour: what 
will you have done with the Warrant for 69.7.0 & 72:9.0 
for your Gen 1 . Pay & Ballance of amount of your Onondaga 
Journey? I shall receive the Money due on Myndert Wemps 
Order & give you Credit for it. unless Wemp has since paid 
you, for the order you've endorsed to me is above a year old. 
You ought to take care of your self, for if his Majesty would 
make me a Baronet & give me 5000 I'd leave as many Subjects 
as I could procure for him from my best Endeavours. I believe 
you've not been an Oeconomist, you therefore ought to be saving 

1 So in copy; should be ** need " probably. 

2 Monocatootha, alias Scarooyadi, Delaware Half King. See W. M. 
Beauchamp, History of the Ner York Iroquois, p. 301. 

462 Sir William Johnson Papers 

now, that you may have a little left to apply in Peace & Ease 
when all this Hurley Burly is at an End. My Compliments to 
Cap*. Wraxall I'll take Care of your two Letters. There's no 
oppy either here Phil*, or Boston except the Pacquet: Adieu & 
believe me to be with great D r S r . your most affectionate 

h ble Serv'. 

I am told they are 2000 strong at Oswego. 

A. L. S. 2 

Nei York May 2<*. 1756 

The Consideration of your having a Multiplicity of Business 
on your hands together with the Repeated alarms you've for a 
Considerable time past had of the French's design's on us the 
Oposition of which (and I may say without Flattery the Defence 
of our Country) lay Intirely with you are the reasons I Introduce 
to Apologize for not Embracing a more Early Opportunity to 
Congratulate you on the Dignity His Majesty has been pleas'd 
to Con f err on you which hope you'l now Accept in the most 
hearty manner as well on that Occasion as the Sense the English 
Nation have Shew'n the World they have of your Service's which 
is very grating to a Tribe we have here but times are so Alter'd 
that such of them as used in time past to Froth at the Mouth with 
Detractive Clamour dare not now Utter their filthy Venom lest 
they might have a prompter to make their Exit. And Relying 
on your good nature to Excuse the Familiar manner in which I 
address you (also my not waiting on you the morning you left 
Town which was owing to my being unwell) proceed to give you 
an acco*. of what may be new to you 

Cap 1 . Troy arriv'd in Philadelphia last thursday in 7 Weeks 
from Ireland & bro*. Gen 1 . Webb's Baggage and several Officer's 

1 Omission in the copy. 

2 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


passenger's who say Gen 1 . Webb and the Troop's under his Com- 
mand were Embark'd 'ere Troy sail'd, so that they may be 
Expected Hourly, but am under some Uneasiness for their Safety 
as we have had a most Violent Gale of Wind last night right on 
Shore. Gen 1 . Shirley Sails for Albany this day if the Wind 
abates. The Copartnership between M r . Golden 1 & I Expired 
yesterday, as he does not Intend to follow Trade having a Num- 
ber of Offices to attend, wou'd deem it an Extraordinary favour 
to have the Execution of your Commands here in the same 
manner as when in partnership with the GentK in which you 
depend on the Strictest punctuality Have sold the last of your 
Deer skins the other day at 4 & there yet Remains a small matter 
of the Beaver which is so bad that can't Sell it at any price, its 
thought an Embargo will be laid tomorrow but it's too late for 
most of the Trading people here and in Philad a . have for a Con- 
siderable time been a crowding provision to 'Statia 2 from whence 
it goes Imediately (some in the same Bottom's that carry it from 
hence) among our Enemies 3 I am S r . 

Your most Obed 1 . h ble Serv*. 



The foregoing is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 77 by a letter 
of the 4th from Goldsbrow Banyar, at New York, to Johnson on the 
passage of war bills. It was destroyed by fire. 

1 Alexander Golden. 

2 St Eustatia or St Eustatius, West Indies. 

8 The embargo act was approved by the governor on May 4th. On 
December 29th the governor, under instructions from the king, ordered 
that an embargo should be laid ** upon all ships and Vessels clearing out 
with Provisions, from any Port or Place within His Government, except 
those which shall be employed in carrying Provisions to any other of His 
Majesty's Colonies and Plantations." Council Minutes, 25:152. 

464 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A. L. S. 1 

Nev> York 5 th May 1756 


I wrote you yesterday. I have a moments time to talk to you 
before the Express goes. Major General Webbs coach & some 
of his servants are I hear arrived this Forenoon here, the Coach 
I saw, but I must tell what I hear for I've not had time to examine 

It's said alway's 2 and the Highland Regiment were 
Embarked at Cork, that three were to embark at Portsmouth 
and in all 8 were coming. It's said Webb was sent for back 
after he was proceeding to embark on board the Pacquet. An 
Embargo that was to affect England & Ireland both was to take 
place the 25 March and a greater likelihood than ever of a 
Warr. Webbs baggage Came to Philadelphia where tis said a 
Vessel is arrived from Ireland in 4 or 5 weeks. Orders go by 
this Express to Col: Glen 3 & Renselaer 4 directed to you to 
detach from the Militia as many Men as will make up Albany 
Quota 21 1 Men. They are not sent to you as tis imagined you 
can take no Care concerning that Business as you must be very 
near setting off for Onondaga. 

An Embargo is laid here by Act of Assembly for 21 days 
only, this is absolute, and if Pensilvania & Jersey agree it is to 
continue 3 months. 

An Act is also passed this day to fix the Rates of Carriage as 
follows Between Albany & Schen^ 9 s per day, from thence 
Westward 1 s. per day Between Fort Edward & Fort W m . 
Henry 12 s. per diem and 9 s. is allowed for 30 miles from the 
Place the Waggons are hired til they are employed, & so on their 
return home. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 
2 Otway's. 

3 Lieutenant Colonel Jacob Glen. 

4 Lieutenant Colonel Jeremiah Van Rensselacr. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 7755-7756 


Tell Captain Wraxall I'm much obliged for his Letter, & will 
iswer it as soon as I can, at present he must accept of what I 

ite you as to himself. 

I have had a damnd deal of Trouble about 9 Indians Men 
Women & Children whom M r . Peters has consigned to me: 
They are a part of Monacatutha's Company he left behind the 
Woman is dead they waited for, & he desires I will procure them 
a Passage to Albany. I shall draw on him for the Expence I am 
put to, and if he protests the Bill shall charge his Majesty's 
Superintendant of Indian Affairs for the Northern Division with 
it. You nor M r . Wraxall dont say a word about the 5000 or 
some will have it 6000, the latter 1 000 being given out of his 
Majesty's privy Purse, but I know no authority for the 1000 
I sent you the Vote of ParK for the 5000. M r . Peters writes 
He does not hear any Parties are gone out against the Indians 
since the Proclamation, nor does he believe any thing will occur 
on the side of Pensilv a . to hinder a Peace, and that the Gov r . 
has sent Indian Messengers to Wyoming to notify to the Dela- 
wares there what he has rec d . from S r . Charles Hardy of the 
Return of the deputies of the six Nations and their Success with 
the delawares at Otseningo. God bless you. I am S r . 

your affectionate h ble serv*. 


M r . Peters writes the Duke had recommended a Military Man 
to M r . Penn as Governor and some say Webb is actually 


May 5* 1756. 
Banyars Letter. 

466 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A. L. S. 1 

N. York May 5 th . 1756 

Have Receiv'd your Esteem'd fav r . of the 26 th . Ult. on the 
3 d . Curr*. directed to my late partner & Self which Shew'd him 
and had his directions to undertake Compleating your Orders 
which has Engag'd my whole time and am affraid it wont be in 
my power to Effect as there are many out of the way things in it. 
There's not an Indian Blanket in Town to be had and those 
that are Expected are Engaged to our Province Commissaries 
the Women's Yarn Stockings with Clocks, the Indian arm's & 
Knives 3-4 Garlix & Tinsell to Lace the Hatts cannot be had 
I have Ransack'd every Store in Town and have in two days 
time procured every thing else order'd and in Order to Com- 
pleat the whole if possible have this day dispatch'd my Clerk to 
PhiK where hope to procure the Deficiency Excepting the Gun's 
& Knives which despair getting. Have heard M r . Ogden at 
Newark Expects a Vessell from Bristol hourly have Sent a 
person over to him in Order to Engage the Quantity of Blankets 
but am affraid they're preengaged to that Province & you may 
rest assured that if it's among the possibles your Order's Shall be 
Complied with but must observe to you that most European 
Goods are considerably risen as much owing to the Great demand 
the Army make as the Freight Insur a . &c a being much higher 
than formerly. I don't think you'l be able to get arm's to suit 
you on the Continent as there are none Imported for Sale that 
may be depended on the same sort as you deem so bad Sold 
this Spring for 25 p r O. more then cost here and as to the 100 
Muskets you've now by you believe will fetch a profit therefore 
wou'd advise you to Order them down to me directly and 
also to send a Sample of Indian Arm's & Knives home & Import 
them yourself or please to give me the Necessary directions & I 
will Import them as no doubt there will be more wanting next 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


Spring I am now Lading a Brigg for Bristol which will sail in 
about 3 Weeks if you've any Commands that way please favour 
me with them I have partly Engaged an Ordinary wide Silver 
Lace to put on the Hatts (in Case the Tinsell cant be had) which 
won't come much dearer than old Lace. Gen 1 . Webb's Bag- 
gage & Some Officers from Europe arrived last night p r Stage 
from Philad a . the yard wide Garlix are making into Ruff <led> 
Shirts the Wine Bottling &c a . I am (much hurried) 



Your most obed*. 


Contemporary Copp 

-^Philadelphia the 6 ih May I756> 

In the Absence of the Governor who went last Week to the 
Frontier County, 1 the Council opened your Excellency's Letter of 
the 2 d instant inclosing one of the 24 th April from Sir William 
Johnson to you, finding great Faults with Governor Morris for 
issuing his Proclamation declaring the Delawares (tho* they were 
then Carrying on a most destructive and Ruinous War against 
this Province) Enemies to his Majesty, and offering a Reward 
for their Scalps. And on Considering this Letter, together with 
what your Excellency is pleased to say, Viz*. " that if there 
should appear any thing to Governor Morris which upon recon- 
sideration of this matter may make it adviseable for him to sus- 
pend Hostilities against the Indians effected by his Declaration 
until the Result of Sir William Johnson's meeting the Indians at 

1 " Counties " in the letter printed in Correspondence of William Shirley, 
ed. Lincoln, 2:438. 

468 / Sir William Johnson Papers 

Onondaga is known, you did not doubt but he would think it a 
prudent Measure " and on likewise considering the several 
Letters from Sir Charles Hardy Copies of some of which are 
inclosed the Council have unanimously resolved to advise the 
Governor to publish a Cessation of Hostilities against the Susque- 
hannah Delawares until further Orders, and have directed me to 
acquaint you with their having done so; and that they would 
likewise have advised a general Cessation of Hostilities against 
the Delaware Tribe, was it not a matter of Fact that those from 
Ohio have but lately appeared in large Parties on our Western 
Frontiers & killed & carried away great Numbers of our 
Inhabitants over Susquehannah, & by the last Post from Annapo- 
lis it is expressly wrote by the Postmaster there; that those 
<^Delaware Indians were then murdering within 12 miles of 
Winchester^ having destroyed the Settlements on <Conego- 
chege * & the Con^>nelloways 2 & other places as well in our 
Pro<^vince as in^> Maryland and Virginia, & in Several 
Depositions made by Prisoners who from time to time made their 
Escape from those Delawares, it is possitively declared that they 
were meditating a Grand Attack on this and the Inhabitants of 
the Neighbouring Provinces and that we may expect them as soon 
as their Indian Corn is planted to the number of 2000 Indians 
of different Nations all Embodied against us by the influence of 
the French & those Delawares. 

The Council therefore cannot think it prudent the Province 
being in such Circumstances that those Indians should be 
included within the Cessation of Hostilities. As Sir William 
Johnson has before this time received from Gov r . Morris one of 
the printed Proclamations & his Letter accompanying it, sent by 
M r . Clause who had the Charge of conducting Scarroyady & his 
Company to Fort Johnson & likewise has heard the Accounts 
those Indians would give of the most miserable Condition of the 

1 Conococheague, Washington county, Md. 
2 Conaways, Anne Arundel county, Md. 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 


back Counties, it is hoped that he sees the Measure in another 
Light than he did when he wrote his Letter & will have Con- 
sidered the reasons for it, as set forth by the Governor in that 
Letter, a Copy of which is here inclosed, whereby it will appear 
that when that Declaration was published the Enemy Indians 
were greatly increased in their Numbers and appeared in 
formidable Bodies upon every fresh Descent that the Frontier 
Counties were near being abandoned that the Six Nations 
Indians to a Man, who were Parties & present at the late Treaty 
thought the measure absolutely necessary, advised us & 
assured us it would be agreeable to the Six Nations, & every one 
promised to engage some of the Warriors to assist us against 
<[them, that the Formality of a Declaration tho' necessary to 
animate^> our own People <^ should make no manner of 
difference as to the Enemy's Delawares, who <had been for> 
some time before, & then were Butchering the Kings < Sub- 
jects^ like Beasts appointed for Slaughter or driving them 
<before> them bound with Cords & Naked into a Shamefull 

The Council say when these matters come to be Considered, 
together with the Restrictions in the Proclamation & the distinc- 
tions between those in open War & those who have not join'd 
them, no one can with Justice Censure the Declaration but 
impute the ffault where it does in truth lye, at the Door of the 
Delawares; for they & they only, & not the Shawonese are 
included in the Declaration The Council desire further to 
inform your Excellency that the Gov r . by their advice has sent 
four Indians two of which are of the Six Nations & two ffriendly 
Delawares to Wyomdick x the principal place of Residence of the 
Susquehannah Delawares to notify to them & the Neighbouring 
Indians the transactions between the Deputies of the Six Nations 
and the Chiefs & Warriors of those Susquehannah Indians at 
Otsaningo, 2 as Communicated to him by Sir Charles Hardy from 

1 So in original, for Wyoming. 

2 Robert Hunter Morris to Susquehannah Indians, April 26, 1 756. q. v. 

470 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

S r . William Johnson & that these Messengers had further in 
Charge to assure those Indians that if the Treaty took full effect, 
& their future Actions Corresponded to the Professions made to 
the Deputies of the Six Nations, they should find a ready Dis- 
position in this Government to return to their old Friendship, on 
their giving up the English Prisoners and acknowledging Faults. 

The Council requests of your Excellency that you would be 
pleased to make Sir W m . Johnson acquainted with all those 
matters, that they may be properly mentioned at the Treaty at 
Onondago & if this be done they apprehend no ill Consequences 
can attend the Declaration of War, <^but that it will appear that 
this Government tho' reduced to the necessity of making it, &> 
offering Rewards to <^such as would go out against ^> such a 
destructive Enemy, has paid a <due regard to> the Mediation 
of the Six Nations & will still do it, <nor do> the Council think 
that Sir William Johnson should blame but rather justify this 
step, especially as during the time of the meeting at Otsaningo 
the Delawares from the Ohio where doing their greatest Mischief 
both in this & the Neighbouring Provinces & do still vow not to 
leave an Englishman alive which Conduct should stirr up those 
very Susquehannah Indians in Conjunction with the Six Nations 
to assist us in bringing them to Terms of Peace & to Consider this 
Declaration as made against these implacable & obstinate 
Enemies & not against any that now are, or hereafter may be 
disposed to hearken to the Six Nations in our favour. 

The Council doubts not but the Governor will Concurr with 
them in those Sentiments & supply what is wanting of his Author- 
ity in this Letter, but in the mean time, till he can signify this 
himself, as he is at a Distance, they thought it their Duty to lay 
those matters before your Excellency and request they may be 
Communicated to Sir William Johnson with all possible dispatch, 
to take off any Prejudices that may arise either in his Mind or 
with the Indians on account of this Declaration & least any Acci- 
dent should have befallen M r Clause & the Letters sent by him 
miscarry, they further desire you will furnish Sir William John- 

Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 471 

>n with one of the printed Proclamations & the Copy of the 
iov rs . Letter to him of the 24^ April. I am 

Your Excellency's 

Most obedient Humble Servant 

Richard Peters by 

Order of the Council 
A true Copy Examined by 

His Excellency General Shirley 

A. L. S. 1 

Albany May 8 ih . 1756 

On Thursday Evening Gen 1 . Shirley arrived here about 9 
of the Clock without any Ceremony not a gun fired he has 
dismissed his Guard only two Senterys. the new Generals Coach 
and Servants are arrived at New York. M r . Visher tells there 
is no money come up and others say, the Gen 1 . Desired his 
accounts and he would pay them, there is a good dail of Differ- 
ence between giveing Visher the money, or the Gen 1 , to pay the 
accounts himself. Visher at present complains a good deal if 
it is true, no money is come up all the fat will be in the fire, 
the following piece of News is related by Col. Shote and he 
affirms may be told as matter of Fact. The French Fleet of 1 4 
Men of War and transports with six thousand land forces on 
board bound for Canada, was attacked by the English Fleet, 
and Eleven of the French men of War were taken, with only the 
loss of one 10 Gun Ship of the English, this news came to 
piscataway in a Ship of England in 5 weeks, he was told many 
circumstances relating to the fight but as his memory is bad and a 
very cautious man, he does not give the Circumstantial account 

At last Col Marshal has received his orders to march I wish 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

472 f Sir William Johnson Papers 

they could as easy have filled his Company his Company they 
say consists of 33 of which Eleven is Effective, they say the 
New Gen 1 , will keep his ressidence in the fort I am extreamly 
glad to hear M r Broadstreet and the provisions are like to get 
to Oswego. I am with Compliments to Sir Peter, Sir y r most 
faithfull humble Serv*. 



The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 77, by 
a letter of the 10th from John Watts, at New York, on remittances. 
Destroyed by fire. 


In Doc. Rel. to Col Hist. N. Y., 7:80-82, is printed a letter, of 
May 1 Oth, from Sir Charles Hardy to the lords of trade, discussing John- 
son's Indian proceedings. 


Extract of a Letter from Sir William Johnson 
to General Shirley dated 10 th . May 1756. 

I wish the Companies of Rangers, your Excellency mentions, 
were ready to go upon Duty, when I would hope to be able to 
join Indians with them; and unless this Method takes place, I 
despair of the Communication to Oswego being secur'd. 

A true Copy, 


INDORSED: Extract of Sir William 
Johnson's Letter to 
General Shirley dated 
10* May 1756. 
in Maj: Gen: Shirley's 
of June 23 d . 1 756. 

1 In Public Record Office, C. O. 5.46, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of June 23d from Shirley to Henry Fox. 

Sei>en Years War 



A letter of the 14th from John Ogilvie, at Albany, on page 77 of the 
fohnson Calendar, relating to Indian affairs, disputes of officers, news 
concerning Washington and the French (Doc. Hist. N. Y., 4:301-2; 
Q, 4:195), and one of the 16th to William Kelly, p. 78, ordering 
goods for personal use, were destroyed by fire. 

A. L. S. 1 

Ne York 18 May 1756 


You have the News Papers inclosed: Since which we have 
an account of the arrival at Philadelphia of a Vessel from 
London in 5 Weeks and 3 or 4 days They bring no account 
of any Engagement between the two Fleets, so that what is men- 
tioned in the Papers on that Head is hardly to be credited. M r . 
Myers from Philadelphia arrived this forenoon. By him we 
hear that Lord Lowden & Major Gen 1 . Webb were actually 
embarked with 4000 Troops said to be bound for this Place. 
The Brest Squadron was sailed; and Boscowen with a Fleet on 
a secret Expedition It was thought the Brest Squadron were 
designed to attack Minorca, but I dare say it was intended for 
North America. Wherever they are gone, I suppose Boscowen 
is designed to follow them if our Intelligence will lead him into 
their Tract. 

I have yet heard nothing of the Pacquet. Miller was saild & 
put 'bout & thought to come out as well as Lord Lowden & the 
Fleet with the same wind that brought out this Londoner, arrived 
at Phil a . I have not heard what Convoy was to come with the 
Troops. I hear the dutch wont send over their 6000 Troops 
and that the King of Sardinia has declared he will take part 
with England. M r . Baker and another Gent whose name I have 
forgot, and who I am told was agent for Nova Scotia, were 

Original destroyed by fire. 

474 Sir William Johnson Papers 

appointed to supply the Army here with Money and Provisions, 
& that the latter is coming over. But the News is not digested 
yet and you must wait till the Saturdays Post I suppose before 
the particulars can be sent you Col. Fitch is arrived here and 
goes away for Albany toMorrow or next day. 

Pray how is it as to the Onondaga Mutiny a ? I have a hint 
(only) that tis put off; I should be glad to have the Particulars. 
This News is not spoken off here. And I heard it by chance. 
It's being known might awaken the Fears of our Frontier Set- 
tlers, who seem to be very quiet except in Virg a . & they I imagine 
are attack'd by the French & their Indians I dont mean the 
Shawenese or delawares It's almost time for me to expect a 
few lines from you. I've had the pleasure to be introduced to a 
Relation of yours here; he's been much indisposed since he 
arrived from Boston but is now gaining Strength daily. You'l 
see him soon I suppose 2 I am 

D. S'. 

your affectionate 

h ble Serv. 


The Embargo was taken off. My Comp ts . to M r . Wraxall 
The assembly is adjourned to meet on the 1 st June 



The foregoing is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 78, by a letter 
of the 24th to Johnson from Banyar, touching English opinion of Ameri- 
cans, movements of regulars, Indian affairs, finances etc.; and a letter of 
the same date from William Alexander at Albany, to Johnson, inclosing 
an account of small arms. They were destroyed by fire. 

" Meeting " was written unquestionably. 
2 Guy Johnson probably. He arrived in Boston from Ireland in 1 756. 

Seven years' War 



A. L. S. 1 

Albany May 26*. 1756 


Your favor of the 23 rec'd, shall observe your orders relating 

the Sherif &c a . 

I sent a letter to M r Alex r . who informed me he was sending 
you an Express last Monday Morning, which letter informed you 
of 200 skipple or bushels of Indian Corn being Come up for 
your use which I would have sent you, had I bags Every thing 
else is gone up with Carefull Waggoners and a Charge given 
about the wine in bottles the Invoice is inclosed now you have 
every thing you writ for, except the waistcoat which is not done 
and the Cask of Buck shot from M r Liman he can not procure 
it he says, first he said he would get it. which I would have sent 
up in one day but the Sloops could not unload them as other 
peoples goods interfared. Last night I chanced to meet M r . 
Adams; inter nos, he seemed fine and Mellow, what he has 
been about I know not. The news from Lake George, that Cap*. 
Rogers has taken a french prisoner and kill'd an Indian, the 
prisoner tells that 250 french and Indians were marched to inter- 
cept the provisions, 600 men at tenind a 2 ; 400 at the Narrows 3 , 
one hund: at Crown point. 

Cap*. Rogers with 275 went out to attack the 250 Gen 1 . 
Winslow 4 seems to insist that a diversion must be made at 
Oswego, or he cant march to Crown point, he has ordered that 
no Suttler or woman upon any pretence shall go with the army 
the Gen 1 seems an Elderly man, if his powers were measured by 
his legs he would be but of Slender ability they say Gen 1 . 
Shirley expects daily up 28000 pounds that is a pretty sum 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

2 Ticonderoga. 

8 Two Rocks, Lake Champlain. 

4 John Winslow, of Marshfield, Mass. 

476 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

M r . Alex r . will send you the account of the Arms Patrick 
McGee informs me there are fat Cattle to be had at Goshen, 
tomorrow, I shall endavour to send one load of Indian Corn to 
Schenectady with borrowed bags, for fear your in want. Yester- 
day the trial was between Vanderpool and M r Emerson. It 
went in favour of Vanderpool I cant conceive how they can 
pack a Jury, to bring every thing against Strangers, without even 
the Colour of Justice. 1 however the Lawyer on the other side 
of the Question did his business so ill, that he could not get Judg- 
ment on the Verdict therefore the Court offered him a New 
trial or to argue the matter in Law Next Court, so the Case stands 
at present the Boston Commissioners have no patience about 
it, if any thing could make them swear, they would swear at the 
Albany Jurys, they vow no Strangers Cause ought to be tried 
in Albany unless half the Jury was foreigners they spake 
without reserve of the Injustice done M r Emerson, they say 
they payed their Quota to you, and a great deal to this purpose, 
indeed I think it best that you pay Vanderpool and all them 
Waggons as soon as possible, that Emerson may have no more 
trouble about it sure I am, if I had not baffled them, so, as to 
prevent their taking out Execution against Emerson, the would 
all be on him in Eight days. Vanderpools charge is for 39 days. 
1 7. 11 s Od. the settled price from Albany to Schinectady is 
ten Shills and Six pence allowed by all the Commissarys I 
have paid fifteen load at 1 Os 6d p r Load and shall s 

one more tomorrow for the Indian Corn 1 Os 6d . 8 8 
Paid Flansburrow for packing and boxing the Guns. 3 

8_] 10 

I believe the Indian Corn is 200 bushells I want only bags 
to send it up forthwith, the Waggoners had lists of their 

1 CL Cony to Johnson, July 3, 1756, and May 2, 1761. 

Seven Years War 477 

loads This Family are very much yours, My Compliments to 
Sir Peter, I wish his Gout was a 1 000 mile off, and he as sound 
as a trout. Believe me to be Sir yours to Command 


after M r . Garritse told me all your Goods were gone he found 
the following particulars five Casks near barrel size, a Cask of 
Sugar and a small box which Just made a load and I have sent 
them off which makes one load 

s d 

More 0106 

from below . , 8 11 



The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 78, by a 
letter of May 28th from William Eyre, at Schenectady, to Johnson on 
the Onondaga congress, warlike preparations at Albany, pay of gunners, 
and, in postscript, a letter from Dublin and an expected visit from Warren 
Johnson. It was destroyed by fire. 



Fort Johnson 28. May 1756 

The River Indians whose fajnilies are at Fish Kilns, have had 
a Meeting with the Mohawk Indians, and it is agreed that they 
Shall remove and live with the Mohawks ; Two of those Indians 
are going down to fetch up their Women Children &c a : and I 
send an Interpreter with them; as the Removal of these Indian 
and their incorporation with the Mohawks is an Affair that will 
be I hope of happy Consequence towards the public Tranquility 
and this Juncture I must desire you will give all Assistance in 

478 Sir William Johnson Papers 

your Power to the Indians who are going down, and take Care 
that no just Cause of Dissatisfaction be given to them 

I am 


your verry h ble Serv 1 


To the Magistrates of 
the Precinct of Fish Kilns. 


In Doc. Rel. to Col Hist. N. Y., 7:86-91, is a letter, of May 28th t 
from Johnson to the lords of trade, showing the state of the frontiers to 
southward, criticising Governor Morris's Indian policy and explaining the 
decline of British credit with the Six Nations. It is followed, p. 91 116, 
by a Journal of Johnson's Indian transactions from March 5th to May 
26th. In Doc. Hist. N. Y., 2:7] 7-726, is also printed the above letter 
of May 28th to the lords of trade. 

A. L. S. 1 

New York 29* May 1756 

I had in course your obliging Letter 24 th April, & am greatly 
obliged to you for your good Oppinion, & verry kind Intentions 
towards me, which I hope I shall always study to deserve. 
Believe me, I shall always be proud to serve you But I would no 
more desire, a thing which was not consistent, with your well 
known Integrity to give, then I would hang myself. 

M r . De Peyster says he is glad he had it in his power to 
furnish you with Pistolls; they cost him 3. 10 St. & I paid him 
7 - - for them, which you may order me here, as you please, 
or lett me have the pleasure of receiving it from you at our next 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Seven years' War 


This will be handed you by y r Kinsman, 1 who has been sick 
jre for some time. I have often had the pleasure of seeing him, 
offerd him my best Services It gives me pleasure to think of 
lis being with you, for I take him to be a sensible modest worthy 
'oung Gentleman & one who will yet make a figure, I am sure 
he has my best wishes. 

All your Friends & Countrymen here, remember you with 
much regard Indeed some seem to prize drinking y r . Health, 
more than Health itself to them. I believe drinking y r . Health, 
now you are absent, makes as may Happy, as y r . Good Company 
used to do when present & that did not use to be a few 

I sincerely wish you Health & Happiness, may you continue 
to be a Favourite of y r . Prince, & an Honour to your Country, is 
the frequent & most Earnest Wish of 
Dear Sir 

Your most obed h bl Serv 1 . 


Colo. Dunbar 2 who sailed in the Packett y e . 1 4 th Inst. desired his 
Complim ts . to you in an Especiall Manner. 

Give me leave to recommend to y r usuall Friendship, Cap* 
Rob* Ross of y e 48 Regim*. if you should see him your way, he 
is my perticular Friend, you'll find him a good Man, which is 
enought for you 


L. S. 8 

Albany May 30*. 1756 

I received your favour of the 30 th . 4 the Charge of any 
Rewards you may give to the Indians for delivering up our 

1 Guy Johnson doubtless. 

2 Thomas Dunbar, colonel of the 48th foot ; superseded in November 

8 In Newbery Library, Chicago, 111. 
4 " If " should evidently be supplied. 


Sir William Johnson Papers 

Deserters should hereafter appear improper in your accounts, 
you shall be repaid from the Contingencies. The objection you 
mention against the Garrison of Fort Hunter being proper to go 
into the Mohawk Fort, is what may as well be made against any 
of his Majesty 's Troops, I make no doubt the officer there will 
do his Duty : and if you please to recollect they are troops your- 
self desired but a few days ago for that service. I wish you had 
provided Garrison's of hired men for this purposes as at your 
request I impowered you to do in my letter of the 10 th . April; 
making such Detachments at present from the 44 th . or 48 th . 
Regiments very much distresses his Majesty's, service, however 
in case of any Alarm, I will order the Garrison at Fort Hunter 
to be reinforced, and I can't think the Indians there have the 
least reason to apprehend any dangor, while they are Covered 
from the Enemy by 30 men at Fort Johnson within two miles 
of them, a Party at the Connajoharise Castle. 150 Men at the 
Connajoharie Falls, besides the Troops at Herkerman's & several 
hundereds at Schenectady, any of whom may come to their 
Releif, before they can possibly be obliged to surrender. 

If any deficiency of Provisions should happen to you at 
Onondago, Oroego 1 is the only place it can be supplyed from, 
& on your application to the Commanding officer there you will 
be supplyed, but in that case I must desire you will send the 
Empty Battoes you will have with you, to Oswego for that 

I am 

Your most Humble Servant 


1 Should be Oswego. 

Seven Fears' War 


/ ^ i 

JL^ J. 

Albany, June 2 J . 7756. 


Sir Charles Hardy hath inform'd me of the Subject of his 
inclos'd Letter to you, & desires me to write to you my thoughts 
upon it. 

My thoughts are these : Sir Charles's proposal for the Indians 
of the six Nations to meet him at Albany, or Schenectada, so 
soon as he mentions in his Letter, seems to me to interfere with 
their general Meeting at Onondago, lately concluded on between 
you & them ; as also your proceeding from thence to Oswego ; and 
I believe if Sir Charles had known, that the former of these points 
was determin'd upon in the manner you have lately acquainted 
me it is, he would not have entertained Thoughts of meeting the 
Indians before their going to Onondago. 
I am, 

Your most Humble Servant 



The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 78, by 
one, of June 5th, from William Corry, at Albany, to Johnson, dealing 
with a disturbance in the provost jail, Indian depredations and a panic 
near Fort William Henry; one, of the 5th, from James Furnis, at Albany, 
inclosing a letter from Mr Watts; and one, of the 5th, from Dr Richard 
Shuckburgh, at New York, brought by Guy Johnson, giving news. They 
were destroyed by fire. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Vol. 1116 

482 ' Sir William Johnson Paper* 

A. L. S. 1 

We* York hne 7*. 7756 

Capt n . Miller being arriv^: from London, by whom I have a 
Complect asortment of Europen Goods; among which I have 
Swivel guns, w*. Iron Shott, Musket ball, Swan Shott, about 
200 fine Light Armes w th . Cases to them, They are Such a Sort 
only Something Super r : to a ferile 2 Gen rl Shirley b l : for y e 
use of y e Indians, They are of a Small Musket bore, neat & 
Well finish* 1 , w* Good Locks & neat brass work, If you shul 
want any of y e above or any other Sort of Goods I have you May 
be Shure of haveing them at y c very loest rates I inclose an 
Advertisement by which y c find Miller If 3 for London directly 
he will Sail in Four weaks from The date, If you have any 
Comm ds there or back they shal be duly Executed by him who 
will have pleshure in rendering you any Services, In y e begining 
of apr 1 it was very uncertain when Lord Lowden wold leave 
England, it was Ginerly thought that y e Man of War In which 
ye C 11$ Webb & Abercromb, & Maj r Mudeford was Coming in 
wold Sail y c 20 th of apr 1 . y c money for y c Expedition is to come 
w^ that Ship w th Som Store Ships under her Convoy, we have 
a Large y*. of Irish beef & buter Soon Expected here, y e atten- 
tion of England y e begining of Apr 1 was for y e preservation of 
port Mohone against which place The french had Sent a very 
Strong Armiment from Tulung, Several admerels w* Grates 
part of y e British Navy was Gon Theither, which is all that is 
Mataer 1 : by y e Late Ship from London. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

2 Ferile in copy; changed to ferule in proof; fusile, for fusil, is undoubt- 
edly the original. 

'Should evidently be "is" or "of" for "off." 

Seven Years War 


I conclud w* harty wishes for y r , & helth & am S r . 
de Esteam y r most obd' Humb e . Serv*: 


Nev York, June 7*. 1756 

For London directly 
The Brigantine Maria, Thomas Miller Master: Will sail 
with all expedition, having very good accommodations for pas- 
sengers. For freight or passage apply to Jasper Farmer, or said 


The foregoing letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 78, by 
one, of the 8th, by John Ogilvie, at Albany, to Johnson about packet 
for lords of trade, money with Mr Furnis, and arrival of ship from 
London. It was destroyed by fire. 

A.L.S. 2 

New York 8 June 1756. 

Yesterday morning the Pacquet arrived after a Passage of 
8 weeks lacking a day from Falmouth, so you may imagine the 
Advices are old. She has brought only the February and March 
Mails, but there were some Letters sent down afterwards. 
Colonel Webb and some other officers among the rest Major 
Rutherford are come. Colonel Webb is to take the Command 
immediately, but as I understand from the Major is not to be a 
Major General till Lord Lowden's Arrival, when he is only to 
take rank as such in America. The Fleet were to sail about the 
time this Vessel sailed. General Abercrombie comes with the 
Fleet, on board whereof are only 2 Regiments, the Highland 
and another each of 500 Men, but to be recruited in Scotland to 

" Tuessel " in copy; "success 
2 Original destroyed by fire. 

was probably written. 

484 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

] 000 each, for which they were not to wait. Lord Lowden was 
to embark in about 1 days after the Fleet, in a Cutter, a 20 Gun 
Ship : and this is done its said, that the French might be left to 
their Conjectures only, as to the Destination of the Fleet and 
Transports. I hear Col. Webb has brought your Patent creating 
you a Bar*, the Fees of which are paid by the King: It's said too 
he has a Commission appointing you Colonel of the Six Indian 
Nations &c and another Comm n . appointing you sole Superin- 
tendent of Indian Affairs, with Colonels Pay for the former and 
600 Sterling p r Annum for the latter. Whether he has the two 
last Commissions, I cannot affirm with certainty, there seems no 
doubt he has the first, and I believe if he has not the others, the 
appointm*. are fix'd. In a Letter I wrote M r . Seer?. Clarke 1 
of the 28 Nov r . I took the Liberty to mention pretty fully the 
Hardships you were under, what appointment I had been 
informed was intended you, that you had it not, unless in Brad- 
dock's Commission, and the difficulties you met with by Gen 
Shirley's interfering in Indian Affairs. This Letter he writes 
me, he shew'd to Lord Halifax, the first part of which be sure 
makes me think myself a Man of prodigious Consequence, but 
tis the way of your great Folks to give, what they think, the most 
pleasing turn to every thing they say. It is in these Words : 

" Lord Halifax is pleased his Sentiments and yours agree, and 
says every thing is now settled as you would wish them. Lord 
Louden is made Gov r . of Virginia, and Gen 1 . & Commd r . in 
chief of all the Forces on the Continent, Major Gen 1 . Aber- 
crombie the next in Command ; and Sir William Johnson Colonel 
of the Six Nations of Indians with Colonels Pay, and sole agent 
for Indian Affairs with a Salary of 600 Sterling, a year : which 
with 5000 voted him by Parliament for his past Services, must 
convince every one amongst you (excepting M r . Shirley) how 
highly his Conduct is approved on this side the Water, and 
how deservedly his merit is contested both by Ministry and 

George Clarke, secretary of the New York provincial council, but 
resident in England. 

Seven Years' War 


M r . Clarkes Letter is dated at Bath the 24 Feb?. but I suppose 
you will have more certain accounts of this matter than any I can 
give you, perhaps in the 3 Letters I inclose you, accompanyed 
with one for Captain Wraxall, who Major Rutherford tells me 
has got his Company. It's said Both Captain Eyre's and M r . 
Wraxall get their Promotions in consideration of their Services 
in the Campaign with you. Rutherford got Ogilvie put among 
the List of Captains given in by Lord Loudon for the Batalions, 
but he and many others were struck out to make room for German 
officers on whose Account the Duke set many clever Fellows 
aside & many of them who had been in foreign Service. There 
are a few Lieut : & Ensigns Cornm 8 left for Lord Louden to give, 
just to preserve the Appearance of an opening for Americans. 
M r . Rutherford says he found himself and the other Field officers 
nominated by Gen Shirley broke. M r . Cunningham who came 
over with Sir Danvers Osborn an Officer for Halifax, is come 
hither one of L d . Louden's Aid de Camps. I hear nothing about 
Invasions, attacking of Mnorca, or the Destination of Fleets. 
You will see the news in the Papers. I have not seen the Gov- 
ernor since Webbs arrival, if I learn any thing further this Morn- 
ing I shall add it. I am Dear Sir 

your affectionate & 

obed*. humble Servant 


Pray Give my Compliments 5 Congratulations to Cap*. 

P. S. I have saw the Gov r . what I write is true, except 
perhaps as to the Colonels Pay & Salary too, which I did not 
ask. One M r . Atkins 1 is appointed agent for the Southern 
Division with the like Salary. M r . Pownell I hear comes with 
Lord Lowden as Secretary primier but perhaps he is since nomi- 
nated for the Massachusets Government, I cant tell how it is. 


Edmund Atkin. 

486 Sir William Johnson Papers 


The foregoing letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 78, by 
a letter, of June 9th to Johnson from John Ogilvie, at Albany, about 
letters received and sent, and money paid to John Glen. It was destroyed 
by fire. 


D.S. 1 
Burnets field I0 ih . June 1756 

An Account of Horsehire to carry provisions to Onondaga for 
the use of the Hon ble Sir William Johnson Bart, and Cap*. 
Pattens Company of Grenadiers 

John Jost Herkemer with 2 horses for 25 days @ 

1 2/ for man, and horses p r day "... 15 .. 

Johannes Rasbach with 2 horses 15 

Andrew Weber with one Horse for 25 days at 

6/p r day 7 10 .. 

George Wens with one Horse for Do 7 10 

Adam Bers with 2 horses for 25 days 15 

John Christman one horse for Do 7 10 

John Conrad Frank with 2 horses for Do 15 

D. for a horse which Cap*. Patten took to 
Oswego with Saddle and Bridle, and never 

returned horse nor furniture 6 10 

John Baker with a horse for 24 days @6 7 4 

John Christman had an horse killed w th . carrying 
Adam Bers had two horses rendered unfit for 
any service, so that he could not use them for 2 
Months, for which three horses they charge . . 8 
Andrew Klebsaddle with 2 horses for 7 days ... 4 4 . . 
D. to drive the Oxen with four men, besides 

himself 6 8 

Andrew Weber for pasturage of the Oxen 8 

Stephanus Frank for 1 1 , loaves of bread 11 

Dietrick Stale lost a Bell which he sent with the 

Oxen . . 8 6 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Seven Years" War 487 

John Rasbach lost an horse with a Saddle and 
Bridle which carried Cap 1 . Pattin's baggage . . 6 

carried forward 1 22 3 6 

Brought over 122 3 6 

Fort Johnson December 1756 

I do Certify that the within named persons have been with me 
to Onondaga last Summer, and carried also Cap*. Patton's 
baggage and provisions for the Grenadier Company which he 
commanded, and which was by Gen 1 . Shirley's order 

w. j. 


The foregoing paper is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 79, by 
a letter of June 1 Oth to Johnson from William Williams, at Fort Williams, 
about Onondagas who have come to guard bateaux and escort Sir William, 
also about Canadian Indians. It was destroyed by fire. 

A. L. S. 1 

Albany, June II*. 1756 

This is to let you know that Just now an Express arrived from 
New York, which informs us of the arrival of Major Gen 1 . Web 

we have an account in Every body's mouth, that his Majesty 
has settled on you Six hundred a year Ster : Capt Raxel is made 
Captain in the Room of Cap*. Rutherford Cap*. Rutherford a 
Major, he is arrived with Gen 1 . Web: I spoke with the Express, 
he confirms the above account Gen 1 . Louden daily Expected 

two prisoners taken this day on the other side of the River 
within a Mile of Albany. 

Original destroyed by fire. 

488 , Sir William Johnson Papers 

For God Sake dont expose your self among the Indians, 
rather Send for them, and let them wait upon you let me 
intrate you when you receive this letter Stop, under pretence of 
great affairs, and return home, where you can have an opertunity 
of intertaining the Indians, and conversing with them with safety 
and pleasure, to what you can in their Castle at such a distance 
and hazard. You see I am earnest to comply with your desire 
of my often writing to you I am now going to inquire for a 
post, if I can get y e opertunity of one, shall send off this letter by 
him. if not I shall make bold to send you an Express My 
Compliments and Joy to Sir Peter all here, I mean this family 
Salute you I am Sir 

Yours to Command 



The foregoing letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 79, by 
a letter of June 1 2th from John Ogilvie, at Albany, conveying congratula- 
tions to Johnson. It was destroyed by fire. 

Contemporary Copy 

Philadelphia, June 14, 1756 

[ ] the Camp at Armstrongs [ ] 


Colonel Clapham has communicated to me by a sp[ecial?] 
Messenger the several matters you have delivered to him, as 
[well] from Sir William Johnson, as from our good Friends 
and Allies [the] Six Nations; and I detained the Express no 
longer than was necessary to lay them before the wise Men, 
whose advice I ask in all matters relating to Government, for 
their consideration, and they concur with me in this Answer which 
I am now going to make to you 

Seven Years War 489 


I return you my hearty thanks for your kind Speeches. They 
pve me much satisfaction bespeaking great care and sincere 
Affection for us on the part of Scarroyade and our other Friends 
at Fort Johnson, and on the North Branch of Susquehannah and 
I am particularly oblig'd to you for undertaking this hazardous 

A String 


You tell me that Sir William Johnson finding it too difficult 
for him to take the necessary care of the remote Indians who live 
on the Waters of the Susquehannah, has recommended it to the 
Person who has the Command of the Provincial Forces now on 
their March to Shamokin to take care of them. This is perfectly 
agreeable to me. I have already given him my Orders to Afford 
every kind of Protection in his Power to our Friendly Indians 
and I now repeat the same directions to him, in Confirmation 
thereof I give this String. 

A String 

] have appointed you to represent them 
[ ] ratify and confirm whatever you Transact with 

this Government on their behalf. As you have so full a Power 
from them I must desire you to proceed to this City, the place 
where all my wise men and Councellors assemble together and 
transact there the Publick Business. I have several matters now 
under my consideration of great Importance to our Allies the 
Indians which I cannot communicate but in Council, by this Belt 
therefore I invite you to come to this City and afford me your 
assistance and advice in Council. 

A Belt 

I thank the Indians for the ready and voluntary consent they 
have by you given to our Building a Fort at Shamokin. you must 

490 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

be sensible that this measure did not Originally proceed from me, 
but was first moved by the six Nations who lived among us and 
on their renewing their Request after having been present in the 
great Council lately held at Sir William Johnsons I consented to 
it. I promis'd it shou'd be done and the Forces under Colonel 
Clapham are now going to carry the Promise I made to the six 
Nations when here into Execution 1 


I am desir'd to Build another Fort fourteen Miles above 
Wiomink at a place called Adjonquay I have agreed to this. 

i ] 

I have given notice of your safe Arrival [ ] S r . 

William Johnson and Scarroyady at Fort Johnson. I have sent 
Messengers to Diahogo to give them information of it least they 
shou'd be uneasy at your Absence, and I mention this that you 
may be the more willing to come to this City, where I shall be 
glad to take you by the Hand and place you among my 


You may return to Susquehannah from this City by a nigh 
and Convenient Road without any Danger and I shall take care 
that you be well rewarded for your Trouble 

A String. 

As I expect to see you here, you must not look on this as a 
compleat Answer, you must be sensible from what I have said 
that your Message is extreamly agreeable to Us and will be com- 
plied w th . but I leave several things to be mentioned to you in a 
Personal Conference. 

1 See Doc. Rel. to Col Hist. N. 7., 7:1 14. 

Seven Years' War 


Given under my Hand and the Lesser Seal of the Province 
at Philad a . the 14 th . June anno Dom: 1756 

Seal of the 


INDORSED : A Copy of Governor Morris's 

Answer to what was delivered by 
the Indian Ogaghradariha to 
Col. Clapham at the Camp at 
Armstrong's dat. 1 4 th June 1 756. 

A. L. S. 1 

Albany June p e 19. 1756 

As I had y e honour to Serve Under you last campaign expect- 
ing to meet you here or to have found you at Fort Johnson but 
understanding you was gone among 5 * y e Six Nations. Wait here 
your return With a designe of tending my Service in case you 
enter into Action. I have y c pleasure to inform you that a letter 
I wrote from y e camp two days after y e battle was y c first ace 1 , 
of it that arrived in England & it had y e honour to be laid 
before y e house of Commons, it gives me infinite pleasure now 
to reflect that as when I wrote I had no Sinester Views, nor no 
other on only doing Justice to merrit where ever I Saw it so pray 
excuse my vanity if I tell you. I am not a little proud of having 
y e honour of having made known yours my dear friend Cap*. 
Wraxels & Cap*. Eyre; to no less than y e Commons of great 
Brittain. now S r . William as I have a wife & five children which 
urges me to to the request beg you will reward that litle Share of 
merrit I may Claim in having endeavourd to acquitt myself in 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

492 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

dilligently discharging y e trust reposed in me during y e Camp of 
y e Campeign. which is that you will give me a Leautennacy in 
your Rigement. & as I told you on your acceptance of me before 
so if you honour me with your acceptance of me again. So you 
may be assured my Actions shall allways speak for me & my 
grattitude & fidelity Continue to y e death, as I have not y c 
honour to be intamately acquainted with you yet S r . William I 
am know Stranger to your worth and must beg of you to beleave 
I would not have presumd to have made such a request as I have 
but should have relied on my worthy frend Cap*. Wraxel to have 
done it for me, but alas with agony I write it by what I here I 
fear he is no more, my friends had wrote to him on my behalf 
I am well assured he would have served me & hope for his sake 
you will. 

Remain With all due Respect 

Your most devoted Humble Serv ! . 


P S their is intelligence from fort Ed wd , the enimy have a 
large party employd in Cutting a road & was advanced Within 
ten miles of y e fort Gen rl Winslow detached 400 men to rein- 
force y e garrison & convoy a hundred Waggons on y e 17 th of 
this Instant beg my Service may be acceptable to Cap*. Duller l 
& M r . Adams 2 & M r . Clous. 

In Doc. Rel to Col Hist. N. Y., 7:1 17, is a letter, of June 19th 
from Sir Charles Hardy to the lords of trade, mentioning Johnson's com- 


The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 79 by 
intelligence, dated June 20th, given by an Oneida of French designs 
concerning the Oswego falls, Oneida lake, German Flats and Sir William 
Johnson (printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y., 2:727-28; Q, 2:423). 
It was destroyed by fire. 

1 Captain Butler probably. 

2 Robert Adams, deputy secretary of Indian affairs. 

Seven Years War 493 

A. L. S. 1 

Albany June 27": 7756 


M r Van Epse informed me all the 110 Kettles and also the 5 
or 6 at M rs . Millers he sent to your house which I was very glad 
of. I have taken a Method now to prevent your looseing any 
goods between Albany and Schinectady. I have sent a load of 
blankets and Six bullet moulds to M r . Van Epse, and expect 
more goods by the first Sloop which shall send up as soon as they 

As to news I inclose you my last papers, yesterday we had a 
certain account that Sixteen vessells chiefly transports are arrived 
with troops from England at New York, Gen 1 . Loudon not yet 
arrived, the present plan is all for Crown point, the present 
Musters is Six thousand provincials 3 thousand more expected: 
the two Regiments Web and Burton 2000, the English from 
England when all arrive 3000 several Companys of Artiliry & 
the independants, when Compleat are expected to amount to 
14000 men in the whole yourself and Indians are also men- 
tioned for that Service, it is said in Common conversation, and 
also in the papers that the English Gen ls are to consult with you 
upon affairs a letter is gone to Col. Wouldbe to order him to his 
company he was within an Inch of being discarded, two 
Merc ts . Ships are arrived from England, they say the bill of 
costs is settled at last, the amount is 1 68 thousand Ster. 

our Sloops are impressed to carry up the English troops to 
Albany. Major Mathews I am convinced can clear himself with 
hon r . how ever he is turned out he cant get a hearing untill 
you come down. A Certain Gentle 11 , has done all in his power 
to bind him with Cobwebs and make the world believe they were 

Original destroyed by fire. 

494 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

bell Ropes, it may turn upon their own heads God Speed 
you in all things is the wish of your Affect, humble Serv 1 . 


I heard Sir peter * was very 111 at the Flats. 


>/. S. 2 
Camp at Onondaga Lake 3 June 27 ih . 1756 


I have the honour of y rs . of the 23 d . Inst. 4 

I have not had an answer from the Six Nations as yet, so that 
I cannot with any degree of certainty say what I can do as with 
regard to the Number of 100 Men y r Excell c y desires I would 
engage for the Crown Point Expedition, they tell me I am to 
have their answer to Morrow I hope it will be favourable not- 
withstanding the many 111 impressions our backwardness & Losses 
has made on their Minds, as well as the Indefatigable overtures 
of the French, & their Indians, who have had great opertunity 
this time past of Corrupting them. I am sorry to See there is 
little hopes of any of the Twighties, or other Western Indians 
comeing to Oswego as Your Excellency & myself expected. I 
cannot therefore see the necessity of my going there. 

This Moment two Indians whom I sent from Oneida 1 1 Days 
ago to call the Shawanese, & Delawares returned, & tell me that 
they parted this Morning with 26 Shawanese & Delawares, 
whom I expect will be here this night So that to Morrow I hope 
to hear their Resolutions. I shall use all means in my power to 
bring this Meeting to as Happy an Issue as possible, and if turns 
out well hope to bring down a Number of Warriors with Me, 

1 Peter Wraxall, secretary for Indian affairs. 

2 Original destroyed by fire. 

8 Johnson left Fort Johnson June 3d, reached Oneida the 1 3th, Onon- 
daga the 1 8th, set out to return July 3d and reached home the 7th. 
4 Not found. 

Seven Years War 495 

Whom I must Cloath well &c a . w ch I cannot well do so soon 
unless I had that present at least the Coats, Shirts, Hatts & 
ammunition w h . S r . Charles Hardy has. they never will be so 
acceptable, or of such Service as at my return. When I propose 
(if they go with me) to stick at no Expence to engage them 
heartily as the rest would then fall in the Sooner. 

I am 
y r . Excels*. 

Most Obed 1 . 

Most Humble Serv 1 . 


I find by all the Nations here who ever resorted the Carrying 
place, that Cap 1 . Williams * is a very disagreeable person to them 
they earnestly desire, & insist upon it that he be removed, or they 
will never go on the Scout, or any other Service there. 

I am sorry I am under a necessity of taking so disagreeable a 
task in hand, as to write against any Gentleman, but as I plainly 
see & find he has greatly disobliged all the Oneidas, Tuscaroras 
& Onondagas greatly to the prejudice of the Service, I think it my 
Duty to take notice of it to your Excellency, his Interpreter is 
as much found fault with. 


The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 79 by 
a letter, of the 28th, from John Bradstreet to Johnson about provisions 
forwarded and journey to Oswego, with mention of Captains Vanbarge 
and Patton and Mr Pitcher; and a letter, of the 28th, from William 
Corry, at Albany, to Johnson, about arrival of men-of-war in the St 
Lawrence, Fort Duquesne, arrival of English generals, billeting redcoats 
in Albany and sending supplies. They were destroyed by fire. 

1 Captain William Williams, of Sir William Pepperrell's regiment. 
He was stationed at the Oneida Carrying Place. 

496 , Sir William Johnson Papers 


July the 2*. 1756 

Extract from Sir William Johnson's Letter to Peter Wraxall 
Secretary for Indian Affairs, bearing date from his Camp in the 
Woods between Onondago and Tuscarora, Friday Evening 
July the 2< 1756. 2 

Last Night I finished all matters with the Six Nations to my 
great Satisfaction, I have a number of the Shawenese and Dela- 
wares with me whom I intend to take down to my House, and 
settle all Affairs there with them, as I could not here. The meet- 
ing being broke up before they all arriv'd, the King of the Dela- 
wares came here after the meeting was broke up, he accompany 's 
me also, they will be about 30 in Company of both Nations; the 
King of the Delawares tells me, that he on receiving a Message 
sent him by me from Oneida sent immediately to the Delawares 
on the Ohio, to come to the Onondago meeting, he thinks there 
will come above 1 00 of them, which is a good Sign, I doubt not 
settling that unhappy Affair as soon as I get home. I hope you 
are quite recover'd and that I shall have the pleasure of meeting 
you at my House Tuesday or Wednesday next at furthest. 
A true Extract Ex d . by 

LAMB T . MOORE D? Secrey. 


A. L. S.* 

Albany July 3*. 1756 

Upon the application of some of our poor distressed people I 
trouble you with this Letter. Last week I was sent for to the 
Court House by the Mayor and Justices, they shewed me the 
Gov rs Letter ordering them to call all suspected persons for selling 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania Manuscripts 
Indian Affairs, II, 1754-56. 

2 Johnson set out on the 3d on his return from Onondaga. Doc. Rel. 
to Col Hist. N. Y., 7:150. 

3 Original destroyed by fire. 

Seven Fears' War 


rum to the Indians before them, they made the people sware from 
the Commencement of the act, which was a year wanting ten 
days before they were summoned; they picked out all the 
Strangers from the one end of Albany to the other with much 
discretion and Judg*. but the persons that might be really sus- 
pected of the right breed they passed over, among the number 
sumoned Alex r . McCay confessed that 8 or 1 mpnths ago when 
he lived at New York and traded between York and Albany in 
his Sloop 1 2 or 14 miles below Albany he sold an Indian a pint 
of Rum for 3 brooms and declared he knew nothing of the act. 
William Taylor said about a month before an Indian Captain 
in his march to Lake George from some part of New England 
Quartered his Indians for the time he staid in Albany at his 
house, and he supply'd them in reason according to his orders as 
Soldiers. a Dutch man one Cooper, lately come to Albany 
said he knew nothing of the act and some days before sold an 
Indian a pint of Sider. a Jew said by M r . Alexanders orders 
he sold his servant six Gall 8 , of Rum which he was told was for 
the use of the Indians I observed to the Mayor and Justices these 
sellings did not come within the intent and Meaning of the act, 
and if they thought proper, we would acquaint the Gov r . with 
them and know his pleasure, to which all agreed 

In 4 or 5 days after unknown to the Justices and as I hear by 
the advice of his good Friend the Sheriff, and I suppose to put a 
penny in his pocket, he fixed upon McCay and M r . Taylor and 
granted his warrant to put each of them in Goal if they did not 
each pay the fine of 50 and the Costs, which M r . Sheriff 
chenged 1 to 28S. each as for money leveyed upon an Execu- 
tion M r . McCay paid down the money and Costs, and the 
Mayor sent Taylor to Goal, after he had lain there 24 hours with 
great difficulty I got him out, he giving a bond with two Sufficient 
Sureties for the Money, how the Mayor sliped the dutchmans 
neck out of the halter I cant tell, for he confessed before us all, 

1 In copy, " chenged "; in proof, " changed "; should be " charged 

498 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

he had sold a pint of Sider to an Indian, and refused to swear 
as every Sale here seems quite foreign to the true Sence and 
Meaning of the act their request is, that you would please to 
represent their case to the Gov r . and if his Excellency shall think 
them guilty, they submit, if Innocent, they hope his excellency 
will relieve them of the fine and Costs, as the costs was as unjust 
as the fine The last year when the Indians was in Albany two 
Dutch weomen were committed for selling rum to the Indians 
and refusing to swear, yet they let them out, without paying any 
fine Last week one Huse an Irish man was called before the 
mayor for something, and Huse told the Mayor he could clear 
himself by 20 Evidences yes said the Mayor, Irish Evidences. 

The King and Duke 1 resent highly that the troops were 
oblig[ed] to lay in tents last November Sir John St Clare 
vows he will acquaint his Majesty with the treatment he met 
with from the Mayor, when he applyed to have the last troops 
billeted. I beg you will get this set turned out, I feel the poor 
Strangers oppressions and wish to relieve them. I have a much 
better set ready to put in their places. It is said that Albany is 
to be fortified, which would be good news to you and I. 

States Morris when he was last in England waited on the 
Duke, 1 the Duke asked him if he had the returns of the army 
he said not, have you brought the returns of the two new raised 
Regiments, he said not, what do you come for said the Duke, 
and left him abruptly the next day States rec d an order to 
repair to his Regiment. 

Pray take notice of the Complaint of these poor people. And 
let the Gov r . order me to summon and examine all persons sus- 
pected of Selling rum to the Indians, and I'll put the saddle on 
the right horse. 

I am Sir your most 

humble Serv*. 


1 The Duke of Newcastle. 

Seven Years War 



The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar (See p. 
79-80) by a letter of July 6th from John Abeel, at Fort Williams, to 
Johnson, asking payment of Senecas employed by Abeel; a list, sent to 
Johnson, of supplies, dated the 10th, from Cornel's Jno. Cuyler, assistant 
commissary, at Schenectady; conferences at Onondaga and Fort Johnson 
between Johnson and the Indians, July 1 12 (printed in Doc. ReL to 
Col. Hist. N. y., 7:146-60). These were destroyed by fire. 


Fort Johnson 12 th . July 1756 


Last Night I concluded all Matters with the King or Head 
of the Shawanese, & with the King or head of the Delaware 
Indians, Who live on the Susquehannah the Former at Way- 
oming, the latter at Jiaogo. 2 The Shawanese Chief declares 
that none of his people were concerned in any of the Hostilities 
committed on the Frontiers of the Southern Provinces that they 
have Strictly adhered to their Treatys & Engagements with the 
English and are determined to Continue Acting upon the same 

The Delaware chief has confessed that some of his people 
deluded by the French & the Indians in their Interest did join 
with them in their Late Hostilities & Depredations on the 
Frontiers of the said Governments. That they have seen their 
Error, laid down the Ax, and do repent of their past Misconduct, 
will for the future Govern themselves by the Example of their 
uncles the six Nations, & in Conjunction with them will take up 
& use the Hatchet against the French & all their Adherents. 
This he ratified in the most publick & Solemn manner before the 
Deputy's of the Six Nations who were present & Engaged himself 
that all the English prisoners who had fallen to the Share of his 
people Should be forthwith Delivered up. 

1 In Public Record Office, C. O. 5.17, p. 539, London, England. 

2 Tiaogo. 

500 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I presented the Warr Belt which was Accepted by both these 
Chiefs who sung the Warr Song (which is a Sacred Engagement 
amongst the Indians) with singular Zeal and Warmth 

I think proper to Lose no Time in acquainting your Excellency 
with the Happy Issue of this Important Affair In which I have 
been successfull beyond my Expectations 

The Delaware Chief who was the principal Object has also 
promised to use his utmost Endeavours to withdraw those of his 
Nation whom the French have Seduced to go & live in the 
Neighbourhood of Fort Du Quesne. 

As I See by the publick prints the Governour of New Jersey 
hath published a Declaration of War against the Delaware 
Indians, which as he Could not but know they were Expected 
at the Onondago meeting with the Hopes of Bringing Matters 
to an Accomadation was In my Humble Oppinion a premature 
& very unadvised Measure, and the Governour of Pensilvania 
he must have known, had upon this Account Suspended any 
Hostilities in Consequence of his Declaration of War Some time 
ago published If from these or any other of the Collonys any 
Hostilities shou'd be first Committed against these said Indians, 
The Six Nations will in a Body resent it, And all Our Indian 
Affairs be put into a fatall Confusion, which I beleive no body 
will be able to Compose. I Hope therefore your Excellency 
will judge it proper to Communicate with the utmost Dispatch, 
The General Account which I have Given you to the Southern 
Governments, I would have Sent one to Sir Charles Hardy in 
Order that he might have Transmitted it to the Neighbouring 
Governments to the Southward but as that would have taken up 
more Time I thought it best to referr it to your Exency who I 
hope will if your Sentiments Correspond with mine, Inforce them 
with your own Opinion. 

I shall Only Add that their Appears Every kind of Moral 
Evidence to beleive the uprightness and Sincerity of the promises 
and Engagements of these Chiefs in Behalf of their People And 
that as soon as a Copy of the particular proceedings of this Con- 

Seven Years War 


jress can be Got ready I shall Transmit one to Sir Charles Hardy 
Order to forward to the Southern Governments. 
I hope Some day this week to have the honour of waiting upon 
you and am most respectfully 

Your Excellencys most 

Obedient Humble Serv 1 . 

W m . Johnson 

His Excellency 
Major General Abercromby 


James Abercrombie 
Major General 

A True Copy Examin'd by 
Benj a . Barons 

Pro v . N. Hamp 

INDORSED : Copy of a Letter from Sir 

W m . Johnson to Maj r . Gen 1 . 

Abercrombie dated 

Fort Johnson July 1 2 th : 


in Gov r . Wentworth's Letter 

of July 19*: 1756 


A letter of the 13th to Johnson from John Bradstreet, at Albany, 
inclosing an account and asking payment to Captain Schuyler in the John- 
son Calendar, p. 80, was destroyed by fire. 

502 , Sir William Johnson Papers 

A. L. S. 1 

Albany July the 14*. 1756 

As the provincial Forces have begun their March, and the 
48 Regiment follow them to morrow, to take up the posts as 
they leave them, is the reason that all the Wagons in this part 
of the Country are employed. I am therefore under the neces- 
sisty of beging the favour you will employ the Constables about 
you to collect all the Wagons in your Neighbourhood to rende- 
vouze at Schenectady on Sunday the 1 8 th . Ins*, for the march 
of the 44 th . Reg 1 . & its artillery towards Oswego ; I .shall thank- 
fully pay the Constables for their trouble in empressing the 

I shall be glad to see you soon at this place and to assure you 
with what regard and Esteem I am 


Your most obedient and 
most humble Servant 

To S R . W M JOHNSON Bar*. 


In the Johnson Calendar, p. 80, is found Captain Robert Rogers'* 
journal, addressed to Johnson, of a scout to Lake Champlain, with an 
account of losses which he inflicted on the enemy, and the completion of 
the undertaking July 15. (Doc. Hist. N. Y. t 4:285-87; Q, 
4:184-85.) Destroyed by fire. 

1 In collection of Mr H. R McCullough, North Bcnnington, Vt 

Seven Years' War 



D. S. 
Fort William Henry. July 75*. 1756 

Michael Greenleaf [ ] Says Never in the Service 

His Occupation a [ ] at Crown Point: Eight Days 

From Shamblee before [ ] A Create Numb r of 

troop 8 at Shamblee bound To Carrying [ ] with 

Aboute 500 Regulars A Generall Ariv d From France his Name 
not known no Certain Intilligence at Canada of the English 
Coming Against Crown Point but they Expected it. Never 
Understood y l y e French were Desigend to Attact this Fort: 
Create Stors of Proveshions at Shamblee: Aboute 50 battos at 
S l : John bound to Crown Point Readey To Follow He Meet 
30 That Night before he was Taken. Create Num r in Canada 
Lettly Died with the Small Pox 2 Indaien Cannes Set out 
the Day before he Did with 20 Indaiens & 3 French Men one 
a Lingester To Interupt our Convoys between Here & Albany 
He was Freest to transport proveshions between S*. Johns & 
Carreylong 1 & to Receive twelve Livers p r Trip the Com- 
manding officer Gives 60 Livers for a Scalp & they Sell our 
Prisners for 50 Crowns 2 Days Before he Left St Johns he 
heard there were 2 Rigments Arrived at Canada they understand 
at Canada we have a Number of Ships in y e Mouth of St Law- 
rence River None of there forces to go any other way but to 
Crownpoint & Carrilong A Grate Prospect of a Good Crop this 


504 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

the other Seven Prisners have been Examined are not So 
Intelligible But Give much y e Same account 

INDORSED : A true Exammination 
of the Prisners 

NO. 5 

[ 1 


July 15* [ ] 

taken at Fort [ ] 

& Hennery 

A. L. S. 1 

New York July 16* 1756 


I am heartily glad it's in my Power to congratulate you on 
your safe Arrival from among those whom your Friends here 
thought wou'd have proved your Enemies & the Success I am 
informed you've had is no small Addition to the Pleasure the 
Account of your Safety afforded me : have not wrote you since I 
rece d your esteem d Fav r . of the 3 d . Ult. with your Draft on M r . 
Watts for 1200 which he paid on Sight & is carried to your 
Credit; It has not been in my Power to procure any more Tinsel 
than wou d lace 30 Hats which have sent up p your Linguister 
Jacob 8 . Camynt 2 (or some such Name) the rem r . of the Hats 
still lie by me : have now sent you p a small Boat Hugh Dunlap, 
Mar 8 , a Barrell of British Herrings mark'd W: J. No. 58 cost 
60 s & Carta. 76 which have got out of a Vessell that came into 
the Hook who on hearing there was a Prohibition on the Exporta- 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

2 Jacobus Clement probably. 

Seven Years War 


of Provisions wou'd not enter but proceeded to the West 

Lord Loudon is hourly expected, a Vessell being arrived that 
jft Port & kept company with in the Nightingale (a heavy going 
50 Gun Ship) as far as the Banks of Newfoundland & there 
parted with him in a Fog; & notwithstanding M r . Kilby (who is 
in Partnership w lh Ald n . Baker in the Governm*. Contract for 
supplying the Forces here) is arriv'd with several others who 
have seen & read Numbers of the English Declarations of. War 
publish'd in London the 1 8 th , May last * against the French yet 
one of them has not thro' their Means come to hand; but Lord 
Loudon has 'got them on board, whose Arrival is heartily wish'd 
for here: there are fresh Accounts that M r . Pownall is made 
Gov r of the Massachusetts Bay &c a . & that a Capt". in the Army 2 
whose Name I forget, is made Dep?. Gov r . of Pennsylvania. 

We are now fitting out several Privateers which will be ready 
to sail the Moment Comm 5 . can be obtained : You've enclosed 3 
Letters which came under Cover to me from M r . Fran*. Wade 
of PhildeK w th Directions to forward a Trunk which sent up 
yesterday by Capt n . Bentheysen: Since we've had a Certainty 
of a War with France I had a Mind to take the Liberty to pro- 
pose to you to be concerned in a Privateer out of this Port which 
now take the Liberty to mention to you & request your Answer 
there being now in Port a very fine Bermuda's Cedar Snow, 
reckoned the best Sailer in the West Indies & has been a Priva- 
teer last War it's said of her that there's nothing swims on salt 
Water but what she can come up with, the Man who now has 
her here asks 1500 Guineas for her & in Case you've an Incli- 
nation to be concerned that Way, will engage no Person what- 
ever shall be interested in her but Gent n . of probity & Character 
& if this Proposal shou'd be disagreeable to you hope you'l 

1 The English declaration of war bore the date May 1 7, 1 756. It 
was proclaimed in Albany July 27th in New York City on the 31st. 
Council Minutes, 25:37. 

2 Captain William Denny. 

506 9 Sir William Johnson Papers 

excuse the Liberty taken to propose it by Sir with the utmost 
Sincerity & Esteem 

Your most Obed'. H ble . Serv'. 



This letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 80 by an invoice 
of goods, dated July 18th, sent by William Kelly to Johnson. It was 
destroyed by fire. 


In Doc. Rvl. to Col. Hist. N. 7., 7:117-120, is printed Johnson's 
letter of July 1 7th, to the lords of trade on the Onondaga meeting with 
the Six Nations and his success with the Shawanese, Delawares and River 
Indians at Fort Johnson. A journal of Johnson's proceedings with 
Indians from June 3d to July 1 9th, at Oneida, Onondaga, Fort Johnson 
and Albany, is printed, p. 130-161. In Doc. Hist. N. Y., 2:728-31, 
is printed the letter to the lords of trade. 


Contemporary Copp * 

Albany, July 17, 1756 

As I have lately had a considerable Meeting at Onondaga 
& my own House, with the Indian of the Six Nations and several 
of their Allies & Dependants, I think it my Duty to accquaint 
this Council of War. 

1. That if a Body of His Majesties Troops should act in 
conjunction with the Provincial Levies, now on their March 
towards Crown-point, I can take upon me to give this Council 
of War assurances, that a large Body of our Indians will 
heartily & readily join with & assist in such Operations with 
respect to the Crown Point Expedition as may be found most 

1 In Public Record Office, C. O. 5.47, London, England. Inclosed 
in Johnson to Fox, 1756, July 18th. 

Seven Years 9 War 


iviseable for the Success & honour of His Majesties Arms, and 
His Majestys Service shall render it necessary,* I am ready 
take upon me the Command of the said Indians and give my 
istance to the utmost of My Abilities in every shape that will 
d to promote or produce Success to the said Enterprize, and I 
ther beg leave to declare my Opinion, that without such a 
iction of His Majesty's Troops and Assistance of the Indians, 
I very much fear our Success that way this year. 
2. That provided an Expedition against the Enemy from 
Oswego shall be judged practicable & adviseable this Season, 
and I should not be called upon to act in person towards Crown- 
point as mentioned in the foregoing Article, that I doubt not 
of being able to bring into the Feild, join & assist His Majestys 
Arms that way with a large Body of Indians whom I shall be 
ready to head as I have mentioned in the preceeding Article. 

And I beg leave to give it as my Opinion, that if Circumstances 
should not admit of any considerable Attempt to be made against 
the Enemy this Year from Oswego and the present Obstinacy of 
the Provincials against being joined by His Majestys Troops & 
Indians continues, that it will be very prejudicial to His Majestys 
Indian Interest. 

I was asked what number of Indians I could bring into the 
Feild this Campaign. 

I replied that I spoke within compass when I said I could 

* I am at this time in a very ill state of Health wch was known & 
visible to the Gentlemen present wch. was the reason of my putting in 
those Words. 

508 Sir William Johnson Papers 

depend on bringing Five hundred, provided there was the Appear- 
ance in our favour of a formidable & respectful Enterprize. 

INDORSED: Copy of a Paper from 
S r . William Johnson 
w ch . he laid before & was 
read to a Council of 
War of w * 1 . he was a 
Member, at Albany 
17. July 1756.- 
in S r . W m . Johnson's Letter of 
July 18*: 1756. 


L S 1 

Albany 18. July 1756 

I am honoured with your favour, bearing Date the 13. of 
March last, 2 acquainting me that the Parliament in Consequences 
of His Majestys gracious Recommendation has granted the Sum 
of 5000. as a Reward to me, for that Zeal, and those 
Endeavours, which my Duty to his Majesty, and my Country 
demanded from me. 

And that as a farther Mark of His Majesty's Approbation 
and Confidence, He hath also been pleased to confer upon me, 
a Commission of Colonel, Agent, and sole Superintendant of 
the Affairs of the Six Nations their Allies and Dependants, 
which with your Letter and my Patent, I have received from 
Colonel Webb; Sir 

I beg Leave to assure you, of my most dutyful, and gratefull 
Sensibilities of these distinguishing Marks of his Majestys Royal 

1 In Public Record Office, C. O. 5.47, London, England. 

2 Fox to Johnson, 1 756, Mar. 1 3, is printed in Doc. Rel. to Col Hist. 
N. y.. 7:76-77. 

Seven Years War 509 

Favour, Benevolence, and Confidence, and that I shall to the 
utmost of my Abilities at all Times, and on all Occasions exert 
myself to demonstrate by my Actions, the Truth and Sincerity 
of the Professions I have now made and that in the Disposition 
of what Monies I may receive to carry on His Majesty s Indian 
Service, I shall act with the most prudent Oeconomy in my 
Power, keep as particular and exact Accounts, as the Nature of 
this Service will permit and in all Respects I will be the honest 

As I have had very lately a Great Meeting with the 6. Nations 
their Allies and Dependants at Onondaga, and a subsequent 
Treaty with the Shawanese and Delaware Indians at my House, 
in the Presence of the 6. Nation Delegates which ended but a 
few Days ago, it would be extreamly inconvenient to them, and 
bring a great Expence upon the Crown to call another Meeting 
immediately, and as we are in hourly Expectation of My Lord 
Loudouns Arrival, by whom you tell me a large Present will 
come for the Indians, when perhaps his Lordship may think it 
proper to assemble the Indians, before his Arrival it will I judge 
not be advisable to summon the Indians to a general Meeting, 
neither can I, nor could I timely provide these presents, which 
are indispensibly necessary on such Occasions. 

As the sailing of this Packet, does not leave sufficient Time 
to send full Copies of my Proceedings at Onondaga, and at the 
subsequent Treaty at my House, I have by this Opportunity 
wrote to the Lords of Trade, and give them a summary Account 
of the capital points which have been negotiated at said Meeting 
and Treaty, to which I beg Leave to refer you, as I humbly 
conceive they are of great Consequence to his Majesty s Service, 
and the Welfare, of his North American Dominions, at this 
interesting Conjuncture. 

I take the Liberty to inclose You Copy of a Paper I delivered 
yesterday at a Consultation which Major General Abercrombie 
call'd of several Field Officers, the Governour, and Lieu*. Gov- 
ernour of this Province, and which Paper was read to them. If 

510 / Sir William Johnson Papers 

the Circumstances of Affairs at Oswego should be found such: 
and which I fear they will be: as to render any considerable 
Attempts from thence for this year impracticable, and the 
Obstinacy of the Provincial Forces prevent a Junction of his 
Majestys Troops and Indians to cooperate towards Crownpoint: 
It will certainly very much disgust our Indians, who are pleasing 
themselves with seeing the French speedily humbled, and it will 
require some well concerted Measures to ward off the bad Con- 
sequences to his Majestys Indian Interest. This is one of the 
principal Reasons, which makes me impatient for the Honour 
of a Conversation with My Lord Loudoun. 

I have the Honour to be with high Regard & Esteam 


Your most Obedient, and 

most humble Servant. 


To the right Honourable 
HENRY Fox Esq r . 
&r a . &r a . &r a . 

INDORSED: Albany July 18 th . 1756. 
Sir W m . Johnson 
R Sept'. 29*. 


Contemporary Copy 

Bethlehem, July 2/, 7756 

<The following Information came from the Mouth of Jo. 
Peepy, an Indian now in Bethlehem a Delaware. > 

That Tatteneskund, 1 the King as he calls himself, Tepisgau- 
kunk and Betschihillewi, all of the Tribe <or Nation> of 
Delawares, had told him, that they had been 3 or 4 Weeks ago 
amongst the French at the Fort Niagara. 

1 Teedyuscung. 

Seven Fears' War 


That the French made exceeding much of them, was very open 
and free with them. One of the Chief officers said striking on 
his Breast " I am a man, look at me (stretching out his Arm) 
my Arm is strong and I have thousands more like me." As to 
Provisions they had Bread midling Plenty, but their Meat was 
very scarce, and that little they had was quite spoil'd. They told 
them they expected a supply of Provisions every day. 

Tatteneskund and Company requesting some Goods & c of 
them, the French officer answered " that he would willingly help 
them to every thing they wanted but at present Goods was scars 
with them. He said that they expected four large Ships from 
their Mother Country and if they would come again in two 
Months they should have everything plenty; all what their Eyes 
could see or their Hearts desire." 

The French Captain said " I will now shew you what Works 
we have made to destroy our Enemies," taking them into a Cellar 
& from thence into a Place under Ground where was laid many 
Barrels of Gun Powder, the Indians described it going some- 
times this Way and again another Way, something like a Worm 
Fence, and as far as I can learn, the Mine went at least half a 
<^mile from the Fort, and that there were more such Places 
under Ground, with Barrels of Gun Powder near the Fort. 
Further, when the Indians came away they> talk'd one to 
another, and concluded it <lead that Way> that the English 
would come if they attack'd the fort. 

That all round the Fort for the distance of <near a> !4 of 
a mile was quite clean, every thing being <clear'd out> of the 
Way, and that from the Fort was a fine Road leading to the 
Water (I suppose Lake Ontario) made exceeding regular and 
fine, every thing moved out of the Way, and the Indians thought 
under this Road was the Mine. They say the Fort is situate in 
a Fork, built very strong with a Ditch or Moat very deep round 
it, the Palisadoes are of large Trees, and within another Row of 
Palisadoes and then the Buildings. 1 

1 For plan, see Pouchot, Memoires sur la dermiere Guerre de UAmeriquc 

512 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

When Tatteneskund and Company had been two or three 
days at Fort Niagara, the French Captain took a large Letter 
and laid it open before them, desiring they would give good 
Attention to what he was now going to say viz*. This Letter is 
come from the King of England to <^us,^> and says so much 
"Let us the English and you the French consider what we are 
about. We the English live on one side and you the French live 
on the other side, and we have all the Indians in the midst of us. 
Let us join together at a certain time and squeese the Indians all 
to Death at once, and then we will divide the Country betwixt 
us You can see plainly by this what People the English are, 
and what you are to expect from their Hands." 

As near as I could learn the number of. People at Niagara are 
300 French and 200 Englfch, 100 of the English are Prisoners 
kept very close, not having Liberty to speak to an Indian, and the 
other 1 00 are Indian Traders that used to frequent Allegheny or 
Ohio, have now joined the French, < en joy their full Liberty 
and walk about as Gentlemen. 

When these Indians ask'd for Powder and Lead they^> were 
answered "We have none now to < spare, else we> would 
give you; the Powder you saw under < Ground, we cant> take 
it, it must be kept there for the use we <have told you of>." 
They gave Tatteneskund a fine dark brown < Cloth > Coat, 
very much laced with Gold, which he now < wears. > 

The French chiefly depend on the Help of the Twightwigs 
and Tachquas, 1 who some time since were in the English Interest, 
but afterwards were persuaded to leave the English and join the 

But when Taneskund was at Niagara, there <came> an 
Indian from the six Nations, desiring them by a large Belt, not 
to meddle in the War, neither to join the French nor the English, 
but if they cant help medling, to wait at least four Months before 
they do any thing to assist the French. 


Seven Yean War 


The Twightwigs accepted this Belt, and sent word in answer 
lat they would do so; signifying that they had been blind this 
Winter past, and this last summer till now, but they open now 
their Eyes, and will follow the Direction of the six Nations herein 
as children. 

The beforementioned Nations live very near the Fort Niagara. 
But the beforementioned was not delivered them at Niagara but 
in a Place some Miles off, and the French know nothing of it. 

INDORSED: Copy Indian Intelligence sint 

Express by Letter of 21 st July 1756 
from Timothy Horsefield at Bethlehem 
(thro which the Indians passed who 
gave it) to S r . Charles Hardy, relative 
to the state of the French Fort at 
Niagara & a Message sent by the 6 
Nations to the Twightwees &c a . 


Jdy 22, 7756 

His Majesty s service requires there should be A good Road 
opened by Land to Oswegoe; and the Shortest way possible 
thorough the Country of the Six Nations; this is therefore to 
desire you & both of you will imediately look out for a proper 
Persons to go & Mark it out, with the Assistance of the Oneida 
& Onondaga Indians. Whom I shall Order to Assist them. Send 
the Undertaker down to me Directly, and if you incline either, 
or Both of you to Undertake the Cutting, open & finishing Said 
Road to Oswegoe, which will be a very Considerable Piece of 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

2 Johan Jost Herkimer, father of General Nicholas Herkimer, N. S. 
Benton, A History of Herkimer County, p. 151. 

Vol. 1117 

514 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Work, I would have you come to me as soon as possible, and 
I will Agree with you about it. I would Advice you to it as it 
will be a very considerable thing. 

I am. 

Humble Serv 1 . 

A. L. S. 

New York M> 23 [7756] 

I had this Morning on my arival hear the pleasure of Receving 
your very obleging letter of the 1 8 h * from Capt Wraxell and 
likewais an Accoun* of the great Success you had and the very 
Matterial Sevice you have done at the late Meeting at Onondago 
As the Express waits my finishing this letter and that I hope to 
have the pleasure of seing you in a very few days I beg leave to 
finish this by assuring you that I am with sineer Regrard 

Your most obedeent 

humble Servant 


A. L. S. 2 

New York 23 July 1756. 

I arrived here Yesterday Morn*, ab*. 7 oClock. This Morn- 
ing ab*. 4 oClock L d . Loudoun came up (silently) in a Pilot 
Boat he saw Company ab l . 12. I went to make my Bow 

1 Not found. 

2 Original destroyed by fire. 


Seven Years War 


ith the Multitude, he gave me a very particular & gracious 
option & said aloud he must have a great deal of Talk with 
I staid till the Company mostly withdrew & then gave him 
ir Letter w ch he read equired with singular kindness after your 
Health, he told I had been recommended in the warmest manner 
to him by M r . Fox, 1 Calcraf t 2 &c. that he should be disposed to 
do me any Service in his Power ; some more Speeches of Civility 
passt on both Sides, he dined at the Kings Arms with his own 
Family, M r . Pownall 3 (of whom by & by) Col. Young 4 & 
Major Rutherford 5 of the Royal Americans. Cap*. Kennedy, 6 
M r . Barons, 7 Oliver Delancey & your hum Serv*. I have Just 
left him, gone to see M r . Barons, & as an Express is to go off 
this Evening I sit down to give you these few Lines. I am to 
wait on him between 7 & 8 this Evening. His Countenance is 
full of Candor, his. Eyes Sprightly & good Humoured, he is 
short, strong made & seems disposed & fit for Action, he lets 
himself down with great ease & affability. This is all I can as 
yet say of him or about him. 

M r . Pownall is I understand to have the Gov*. of Boston on 
M r . Shirley's departure, he (M r . P) received me very civilly, 
but there is that something, w ch . flows from the Heart, w ch . I 
thought wanting, he asked very kindly after you. desired I 
would call on him for a little talk tomorrow Morning, he told 
me I must write a Letter to My Lord Halifax for he had 
appeared for me with regard to the Indep*. Commission (credat 
Judaeus appella) however austier like I must write & thank him. 
I asked Pownall about Secretary p. for Ind. affairs, he said the 
Choice & Sallary would rest with you. what Pownall is with 

1 Henry Fox, Lord Holland, secretary of state. 

2 John Calcraft, politician, 1726-1772. 

8 Thomas Pownall, governor of Massachusetts from 1 757 to 1 760. 

4 Lieutenant Colonel John Young. 

5 Major John Rutherford. 

6 Captain Archibald Kennedy. 

7 Benjamin Barons, secretary to Governor Sir Charles Hardy. 

516 f Sir William Johnson Papers 

regard to L d . Loudoun, Cuninghame told me this Morning he 
knew not, but said he soon woud know. My Lord has a Sec r y. 
Pownall seems thoughtful & loaded with Cogitation, the Boston 
People (I hear) begin to Yelp against him. M r . Shirley paid 
his Visit at one oClock. Oliver sticks close & runs about for him 
(L d . Lou) when My Lord sets out is not known, the Man of 
War not come up, but he'll stay no longer than absolute necessity 
requires. Cuninghame is first Aid de Camp & if Pownall dont 
interfere will be chief man. he has but one Aid de Camp more 
as yet, I fancy Morris will come in. Staats Morris married in 
Eng. the Dutchess of Gordon (Dowager) & is to go home in the 
Packet, for a woman of Quality no great Fortune, but Interest 
& alliance will help him, if he's discreet. My L d . told me he 
woud write to Gov r . Belcher ab*. Southern Ind 8 . he has the 
Extract from y r . Letter. By the next Opportunity I will give you 
My Conversation w th . L d . Loudon and M r . Pownall. I have 
now given you all that has past & all that I know within these 
few hours. I told Pownall the allowance you had made me for 
my past Services a<s> Seer 1 ?. w ch he approved. My Bill on 
London is I find sold for time. I dont care to draw for the 
reasons I gave you, if without inconveniency you can send me an 
order upon M r . Watts for 1 00 more I'll be obliged to you 
Paper I have ordered & will go to M r . Ogilvie p r first Sloope. 
Gorgets shall be put in hand. 

I am much as when I left Albany I hope you are better be 
punctual to the Doctors Orders & dont do every thing yourself 

I beseech you to be careful & believe me to be My Dear Sir 

Y". Affectionately 


Seven Years' War 517 

A. L. S. 1 

Schonectady 26 th : /u/j>. 7756 


The Dronkert sons came here yesterday from Albany in 
Licquor, and as I found them a good deel out of temper, I stopt 
them at my house till they were Sober, and then asked them the 
reason, they say when they came to the carry place Capt n : Wil- 
liams took their guns from them and talked of Confmeing them, 
when they asked the reason of such treatment, he said they were 
Senekas and all that Nation were french Men, they answer'd 
if so, why dont you make us Prisoners. Capt n . Williams then 
said, if I had all your Nation togethere here I would do it, the 
Indians then asked him who told him their Nation were French 
Men, he answered them he had a letter from Sir William Johnson 
which Informed him so, upon which they sent Onendaga Indians 
Expresses to Inform the Senekas what danger they had been In. 

My little Child lies so very weak that we Expect her death 
every hour, otherwise I should have come up with these Indians, 
however if you have Occasion for me, shall Imediately come on 
receiving your Orders. 

I am with the Utmost respect. 

Your Most Obed*. Hum ble : Serv': 


Original destroyed by fire. 

518 , Sir William Johnson Papers 

A. L. S. 1 

[7Ven> York. July 26, 7756] 

You & Captain Cuninghame will soon I hope meet each other, 
were I present I should not stand silent upon the occasion. I am 
deeply in with you both & therefore my Pen shall speak. I must 
have something to say between you, for I value you more than 
any two Men in this part of the World, and if I was put to it, I 
believe I should confess, more than any two Men on both sides 
the Atlantic. I can witness you are no Strangers to each others 
Merit (according to the Measure of my Judgment) do you 
testifie my affection for you both. 

I dont think this Letter a necessary one, and as I write it 
unasked I will aver tis the officiousness of Friendship & to show 
my own Importance. This I am sure is the Case, that if you love 
one another, I shall love you both the better for it, and if you dont 
I was never more mistaken in my Life. 
I am heartily 
My Dear Sir 

Your Sincere Friend & faithful Serv*. 


1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Seven Years War 


A. L. S. 1 

New York 26. July 1756 

Such a Scene of hurry, what can I say of it! My Lord is to 
set off this Morning or this day he has been so crouded that 
till last night no getting near him however he then sent for me. 
he opened with Military Matters about my Company. Next 
about Oswego on this Subject I mentioned the Article of Rum, 
its great Plenty private Sale prejudice both to Indian 
Service & Troops. Bradstreet reported to be concerned 
Kings Battoes said to have been made use of last year for private 
Trade. William's at Carrying place, & him at Fort Hunter 
Stuyvesant selling to Indians, w ch you may remember from 
Buttlers Complaint. I told him that from you he would hear 
more at leisure & explicitly upon these Subjects. Pownal to 
whom I had mentioned these things before was for the most part 
then present & spoke of the abuses with warmth. 

Then Gov r . Belcher's Proclamation came upon the Carpet, 
he read to Pownal & me what he had wrote to send away this 
Morning, it was polite but strong against any Warlike Measures 
against Shawanese or Delawares with whom you had treated 
praising Your Conduct in the Affair I had given him a general 
Ace 1 , of y r . Treaty. 

Cuninghame has asked me if I choose to be near My Lord & 
be in his Family. I told him that I was by Friendship & I appre- 
hended by my office engaged to you, that otherwise I would 
gladly embrace the Honour of being near My Lord, thanked 
him &c. 

I shall take the Liberty (I speak so because recommendations 
are with me such tender points) to give Cuninghame a Line or 
two of Introduction to you. he is a Discreet worthy Young 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

520 ,Sir William Johnson Papers 

Fellow, & I dare say you will be pleased with him, tho very lively 
he is a Man of Business & I think you You will be pleased when 
you talk with him on that Subject he will put My Lord in Mind 
of things, w ch may escape him in the variety & load of affairs, 
but without Joke I hope you will show him that favour & Con- 
fidence, as my friend I believe you will, but to forward matters 
is my principal reason. I wish you would let him know (what 
without Flattery I esteem an honour) that I am your Friend 
how pleased shall I be (& I hope it will be the case) if he takes 
with you & that you will put your hand into the Cov 1 . Chains with 
us. tis a Circumstance I wish for, it may help public affairs & 
promote our private Tranquility. You must not forget me to 
My Lord, & say what you honestly can in my favour. I long 
to hear how you are, if you dont write the 1 two or three Lines 
I shall think you unkind, or that you dont Give my Heart 
that Credit it deserves with you. (tis a Secret) but Cuninghame 

does not overlike P 1. I hint it you will make a proper 

use of it. 

I have talked with Magra, he says he will have nothing to do 
with me till Lord Loudon is gone & I am a Man of more Leisure 
I have wrote much I have much to write. The Packet goes to 
morrow. I feel my self not capable of much Application I 
want some relaxation & to ride a Horse back &c. however if you 
ask me of My Lord for your self & want me, I wont stay a 
Moment, at all Events, if you can let me stay a little say how 
long if you can. 

Your Proceedings to the Board of Trade cant go yet awhile, 
no Packet or Vessell going after this for some time. Your Ace 18 , 
of the first 5000 must be finished & a Copy for the Board to go 
with the Proceedings. I dont forget a Clerk for you. The 
Gorgets I have spoke ab*. but not yet agreed for. I must Visit 
L d . L. Pownal &c. I must finish some Letters this Letter will 
show you my head is in a ferment, in two or three days I hope 

" the " in the copy; " me " was probably written. 

Seven years' War 


to be cool, by a hint from P 1 he seems to think as I do 

about D ys 1 Politicks & hearts towards you. 

I am truly Y r *. 

if you will 

take care of y r . Health 



The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 81, by a 
letter, of July 26th, from Robert Leake, commissary, at Albany, to 
Captain Abercromby, aide-de-camp, about guard to Oswego for cattle 
and drivers; a letter, of the 26th, from Cornel's Jno. Cuyler, at 
Schenectady, to Johnson on means of transporting supplies; and a letter, 
of the 26th, from William Kelly to Johnson on defective and also missing 
goods. They were destroyed by fire. 

A. L. S. 2 

Camp at Shamokin 27 th . July 1756 

I return you thanks for your kind and agreeable Letter of the 
15 th . of May p r . the old Man Ogaghradarisha to whom I have 
shewn all the Civility that lay in my Power & such as is due 
to his Merit and the Character you give him. I beg you'll give 
my kind respects to M r . Mont 8 , Scaroyade & y c other g 
B 5 of the six Nations and Assure them of my 

sincere Friendship for them. I heartily congratulate them on 
their Arrival at the Mohawks Country, and return them many 

1 De Lanceys. 

2 Original destroyed by fire. 

3 Montour. The last three letters bracketed in the copy. 

* ** Great " was probably written. In the copy all the letters but the 
initial are bracketed. 

5 " B " followed by a blank space in the copy. " Brethren " was 
written evidently. 

522 Sir William Johnson Papers 

thanks for their kind remembrance of me. I have Hopes from 
the great Experience of S r . William Johnson in Indian Affairs 
that the Treaty at Oswego will be successful & terminate well 
for the English Interest. I wait with the Expectation of having 
the Pleasure to see some of my Bretheren here to give me the 
agreeable News, and I shall rejoice when I have the Opportunity 
of taking them by the Hands & bidding them a hearty Welcome 
to my Habitation. I have agreeable to their Request transmitted 
every thing the old Man related to me, to Governour Morris, 
who immediately sent for him to Philadelphia, to converse w*. 
him in Person ; and three days ago he arrived here. He is now 
on his Return to you & will relate to you every thing that pass'd 
at Philadelphia while he was with the Governour. 

On our March from Harris's Ferry x I erected a Fort at Arm- 
strongs about thirty Miles from this place on the Susquehannah, 
and have been here a Fortnight in which time we have built 
Barracks sufficient to contain five hundred Men and inclosed 
ourselves with Pickets in form of a Semi-circle from the River, 
in order to be more secure till we have erected a strong Fort. 
The Plans of the two Forts I now send you. 

I wish you all the Success & Happiness you can desire. & am 

Your most humble Serv 


Ogaghradariha will deliver to my Brethren. Scaroyade &c. a 
Speech from me, with a String of Wampum to seal the same. 
P. S : I have omitted to inclose the Plans of the Forts as I have 
sent them to Sir William Johnson. 

M r . Lewis Montour is here with me, & begs you'll remember 
his Love to his Brother M r . Andrew Montour. I sent p Oga- 
ghradariha a small present of Tobacco to Scarroyade. Jagrea 
is now with me also p their Desire 


Harrisburg, Pa. 

Seven Years War 523 


The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 81, by a 
tter, of July 27th, from Cornel's Jno. Cuyler, at Schenectady, to Johnson 
supplies forwarded and receipt; a letter, of the 27th, from John B. 
n Eps, at Schenectady, about supplies sent; and a letter, of the 27th, 
>m William Kelly, in New York, mentioning articles sent by John 
Hogan and the sailing of five privateers. These letters were destroyed 
by fire. 

A. L. S. 1 

Ne> York 27 July 1756. 

I find Gorgets with the Kings Arms & your Cypher made of 
good Silver & to do Service will come higher than 26s apeice. 
the Silver Smith here says those at Albany if made for that price 
must be very base Metal. If you could send me down One for 
a Pattern & the price you would go to, it would I think be the 
best way & I cannot but imagine to have 'em made here must 
save money, as I have spoke to a very honest Workman. 

As I wrote you fully yesterday I have nothing New to say, let 
me repeat to you to take care of your Health & be Obed 1 . to 
Physical Orders. I apprehend the State of Affairs will not call 
you forth this Season & I hope you will be in perfect plight by 
the next. I have not been able to attend to my own Health as 
yet & am much as when I left you. however when you want & 
call me I come, I suppose my self to be & that I shall be under 
your Direction, if you can set a time when it will be necessary 
for me to come up I would be glad to know it afore hand, as some 
Preparation will be necessary and if a Tent will be necessary for 
me this Season that I may get it made tho unless I alter much 
for the better I shall not be fit for the Feild. I take the Liberty 
to inclose you a few Certificates, if Hare should be able to get 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

524 Sir William Johnson Paper* 

me any good Men. 4. for each to him delivered at my Quarters 
& 8s. to Drink Kings Health God bless you. I am my Dear 

Your faithful 

& affect 6 , friend 
& Servant 



The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 81-82, 
by a complaint of Senecas against Captain William Williams for accusing 
their nation of being in the French interest; dated Fort Johnson, July 
28th. It was destroyed by fire. Also by a copy of the proceedings at 
Easton of Lieutenant Governor Robert Hunter Morris, William Logan, 
Richard Peters, Benjamin Chew and John Mifflin of the council, and 
conferences of the same, assisted by Joseph Fox, John Hughes and 
William Edmunds, commissioners, with Indian envoys, including Teedyus- 
cung, the Delaware king (printed in Perm. Arch., 2:722-30, and 
Penn. Col. Rec. 7:207-20). Dated, July 25-31. Not destroyed. 

A. L. S. 1 

Nev York, 31 July 1756. 

I have made several Enquiries in relation to a Person to act 
as a Clerk or Deputy Seer?. The Person I mentioned to you 
that I had in my Eye, I have talked with, his present Salary & 
his future Prospects under D r . Johnson 2 from the Colledge, 
greatly exceed what he would expect in our Way. besides his 
hand writing w ch . is very indiff*. would be an invincible Objection. 
I heard of another who in point of School learning would do, 
but upon Enquiry into his writing, I found he wrote a learned 
hand, alias a bad one & also very slow. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

2 Dr Samuel Johnson, president of King's College. 

Seven Years' War 


This is not the most fertile Soil for needy, learned Men & I 
am afraid it will be difficult to answer our Wishes in all respects. 

A M r . Farril has been recommended to me by the Colledge 
Person above mentioned he was with me this Morning, he is a 
Man of about <3>7 or 38, born in the North of Ireland 
writes a good hand & fit for Dispatch tells me he understands 
Accounts & is skilled in the common parts of the Mathematics 
understands Surveying but is not a Schollar, he says he 
understands the English Language, has been a School master in 
the Jerseys, is now out of Employ & is very well inclined to 
make Trial. He is a Married Man but his Wife & Family are 
in Jersey where they are to stay. I told him I would write to you 
about him, that upon your Answer, I would let him know. That 
if you approved of his coming up upon Trial & the thing did not 
hit his Charges should be paid. I desired him if he was any ways 
inclined to Liquer to tell me for if so it would never do he 
declares he is not he seems a Man of Strength & capable of 
Fatigue; his Physogmony favourble and appears to be Modest. 
If he should meet with your Approbation, I told him I believed 
his Salary would be about 50 p Annum, (to be out of mine). 
I fear a Man of School Learning, a good writer & an Accomptant 
will be difficult to meet with. People of this Country in general 
I dont think will answer. One of this Province I should for 
many reasons be averse to. Mr. Farrel is quite a Stranger here 
& has no Provincial Connexions, a point with me much in his 
favour, if you would have him come up, I believe We must 
advance him 3 or 4. I shall wait your Orders hereupon & if 
you incline to try him I believe best loose no time. 

I have enquired about a Gun Smith, but I can hear of none 
Armaments by Land & Privateering coming on employ all these 
People & they are much wanted. 

Some body I forget who, told me your 5000 waits your 
Orders in Eng d . L. Loudoun I suppose can tell you for certain, 
if it dos, I would advise you to send over a Power of Attorney 
with as little Delay as possible, tis bad Policy to let Money lay 

526 Sir William Johnson Papers 

in the great offices, especially in War time. I would beg leave to 
recommend my Friend Calcraft to be your Agent in this Affair. 
I apprehend you will be no where better served or safer & that 
it will be somewhat of good Policy, he may then pay himself for 
the Charges of your Commission. I believe the Power you send 
must be signed in the Presence of Witnesses who are going to 
Eng d . Leiu*. Gov r . will tell you. If you write Calcraft 1 I would 
be obliged to you if you would say something to this Purpose. 
' That as my friend was one reason among others of y r . applying 
to him on the Occasion." I am impatient to hear from you. first 
to know how you are. 2 d . what Face matters wear. 3. whether 
any fatigues are cut out for you, w ch I am anxious about. I have 
rode out but once as yet, am still weak but I think better. I 
wait y r . Commands w * 1 I shall Obey w th chearful punctuality, I 
am hiring a House & in it a room for you & a Tvife may follow, 
if I get quite well, my paper wont admit ceremony. 


Adieu. y rs . truly 

A. L. S. 2 

[August, 1756} 

We had the honnour of yours of the 22 d . Ulti. annent laying 
out a Road from hear to oswego throw the Six Nations, and as 
for my part, Hanios Pettrie, I am oald, and lame in one of my 
jips, and It's not in my power to Undertake any Such fatigue; 
and for me, Joast Harkemer, I dare not leave my house upon 
account, of the Millitary, for they Tieraniece over me as they 
think proper, For the Commanders use me as 111 as the Common 

1 For a sketch of John Calcraft, see Dictionary of National Biography. 

2 Original destroyed by fire. 

Seven Yean War 527 

Soldiers, In short they take a prerogative power in their own 
hand, Not only by Infesting my house, and taking up my Rooms 
at pleashure, but takes what they think Nesserarie of my Effects 
for theire own use with out asking, and if shuch doings Is 
allowed to go on not only I and my familie must suffer but also 
all my Niebours. 

And as for my part Conrat Franks, It is not possible for me 
to undertake it upon account of Soldiers, Battoee men & Saillors 
&c. for My house every day is full Either of one sort or another, 
and within this short time has suffered Considerable by the Sail- 
lors under, Capt n . Harris Command for they not only, use my 
house as they thought proper but likewise took what ever of my 
live Cattle they thought proper for theire use, without either 
asking liberty or paying me for their Vallue, and Supposing I 
should undertake Such a thing, and leave my house, as matters 
Stands in, at present; I must Immagine never to See Either my 
wife or Chieldreen again. And notwithstanding all the Endeav- 
ours one and all of us has made we cou'd not find any one proper 
person that would undertake such a piece of work; and althou 
one and all of us would be ready and willing to do any thing that 
wou'd tend to his Magisteies Service or the good of our Country, 
yet as matters Stand now we must be Excused. We Remain 
with Dew Respect 

Hon d . Sir 

Your honours most 
obedient and most 
humble Serv". 


528 Sir William Johnson Papers 

L.S. 1 

Albany 3 d . August 1756. 

As I find it is Your Opinion, that ten Shillings, which is all 
the Private Men of the Stockbridge Indians have to receive, in 
case a Month Pay should be kept back, will not answer their 
present Exigencies, as they tell you; I must leave it entirely to 
you to Pay them up to the time you shall think proper. 

I am, Sir, 

Your Most Obedient 

Humble Servant 


A. L. S. 2 

[Albany] Thursday 5 August 1756 

An Hour after you left us, M r . Pownall call'd in at M r . 
Oglivies House, and asked me whether you had wrote to Lord 
Halifax I answered I knew not, but believed you had not. I 
understood he had been talking with you on the Subject & from 
that Conversation expected you would write. He made so much 
a Point of it as to desire I would write to you putting you in 
mind of it. Observing a few words might do to this purpose. 
Acknowledging his Lordships goodness in interesting himself in 
your Favour to obtain the appointments & other Advantages 
lately granted you. [which M r . Pownall assured me were very 
much owing to his Lordships activity and personal Sollicitation in 

1 In New York Public Library, Emmet collection. 

2 Original destroyed by fire. 

Seven Fears' War 


the affair] * assuring his Lordship of your constant attention to 
that part of the General Service committed to your Care and 
already begun under his Direction, and that you shall gladly 
:eive and be punctual in observing his Lordships Directions in 
lis important Branch of his Majesty's Service You See the 
Intention of it. Which is to express your Gratitude, and to let 
his Lordship know you look upon yourself as under his Direction 
that is of the Board at which he presides. This I really take 
to be the Case, tho not to exclude the Secretary of State. Whose 
Letters or Orders M r . Pownall tells me, will as to the Points 
relating to your Department, take their Rise from Lord Halifax, 
or at least he will be privy to every thing of that Nature. And 
in many Cases you will receive Orders from that Board, to which 
I suppose as usual you will transmit your Proceedings as I sup- 
pose you are also to do to the Secretary of State where any of 
your Proceedings are forwarded upon his Majesty's Orders 
signifyed by him. Will it not be proper to acknowledge the 
Receit of your Comm n . & M r . Fox's Letter. You know these 
Hints, take their Rise from Friendship, and therefore will excuse 
the Frankness of them. You must be sensible of the use of keep- 
ing up a good Understanding with the Leading Men, you are 
fairly in the Saddle, and must make the Seat easy. 

That Villain Jere we heard this Morning is kill'd by the 
Soldiers at Schenectady. I wish he had met his Deserts sooner, 
or he had not come down at this time, and that you may prevent 
it s giving the Indians the uneasiness apprehended by some here, 
& especially to the delawares, who may imagine themselves in 
like Circumstances, and liable to like Treatment. 

Give my Compliments to M r . Ogilvie pray We shall go on 
Tuesday 2 next I believe. I am Dear Sir W m . your affectionate 
& obed. h ble Servant 


1 Bracketed in the copy. 

2 On August 1 1 th Governor Hardy issued a press warrant at Albany 
to Sir John St Clair; and that day apparently returned to New York. 
Council Minutes, 25:135. 

530 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 


The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 82, by a 
letter of August 5th from Cornel's Jno. Cuyler, at Schenectady, to 
Johnson about provisions sent; and a letter of the 6th from Oliver DC 
Lancey, at Albany, on sending Indian presents and the pay for them. 
These were destroyed by fire. 

A. L. S. 1 

Albany August 6*. 1756 

I rec'd your favour within this hour and have been at Sir John 
S ! Clears and Commissary Lakes, 2 and I expect to get with the 
utmost difficulty a 100 skipple sent up this day in bags I have 
borrowed from different people and hope I shall get the 
remainder sent up tomorrow Waggons not one in Albany 
these waggons came from other parts and were twice pressed 
if possible all your goods here shall be sent up tomorrow the 
Casks were so bad we could not pack the corn in them as to 
M r . Mathews he was mobed among them one held him by the 
Collor, an other behind his back Kicked him, a third with a Stone 
Struck him on the Shoulder so I have been informed the Case 
was, but he did not shew a proper resentment for which I was 
very angry with him but really the Mans Spirits are so broken 
with their persecuting him that he is quite Cast down 

There is a report here that the Duke of New Castle is in the 
tower that salt is like to be excessive dear therefore order them 
to take care of the salt in the pork barrells, let them wash it, and 
dry it, it will be as good as the first day, that Cap* Rogers is 
sending down a French deserter to be hanged, there was found a 
paper in his waste Coat which shewed the plans of Fort Edward 
and William Henry and all our Schaims well drawn, he was with 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

2 Robert Leake, commissary of stores. 

Seven Years' War 


Rogers on an Outscout and endeavouring to betray him was 
found out. they say New Castle is accused of some neglect as to 
the fleets sailing this in a hurry my office full Compliments 
to M r . Oglieve his family well Mr 8 . Oglevi here last night 

Y rs Sincerely 


Lake disaapointed me the Waggons to Morrow disapointment 
then Lord . 

get 16 bags made, been in Schinectady fraights M r . Van 
Eps for waggons and bags 

A. L. S. 1 

New York 6 Aug*. 1756. 

The Packet arrived last night the Letters were delivered this 
Morning. I have none myself by 2 M r . Franks has from his 
Friends w ch . say, that the Spanish Ambassador received Dis- 
patches from his Court containing Copy of Mons r . La Glasion- 
iere 3 Letter to the French Ministry accquainting them that his 
Squadron came in sight of ours under Admiral Bing, 4 who 
declared 5 an Engagement but La Glasioniere came up with him 
& they engaged for some time when Bing shoved off for Gibraltar 
& that we had one Ship more than the French. The 23 of June 
No News had arrived in England of the Surrender of S*. Philips 
Old Blakenny 6 makes a Defence w * 1 . is highly applauded by the 
French, but it was universally expected he could not hold out 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

2 " By " in the copy ; " but " was written probably. 

s Marquis de La Galissoniere, French naval officer, formerly governor 
of Canada. 

4 John Byng, born 1704, shot for neglect of duty in 1757. 

5 " Declared " in the copy. " Declined " was written evidently. 
'General William Blakeney. 

532 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

jmany days longer. Lord Anson, 1 all the World rave at Bing. 
Admiral Howke 2 is saild for the Mediterranean Mens fears are 
great for Gibraltar. They dread Boscowen 3 wont be strong 
enough for the Best 4 Squadron w^ is at Sea. Mons r . 
5 is sailed with a Squadron for North America. 
Hannoveriens Landed. Political Complaints, Disorders, 
Tumults &c. in England Mens hopes are ebbed & a flood of 
fears are driving in. Gov r . of Gibraltar 6 in disgrace for denying 
a Reg 1 to M r . Bing who was ordered to call there for one. Lord 
Tyrawley 7 sent there in his room. In short M r . Franks's Letters 
are very Gloomy & if they speak the Sense of the Public, tis a 
November-June with *em in England. 

Considerate Minds will not take their Hopes & Fears from 
Spirits easily depressed & easily elated. Let us hope the best & 
not fear the worst, oh that we could, at least may we be able 
to transmit better news to them than they send us. 

I will add no more lest I should loose the first Boat than that 
I truly am 

My Dear Sir 

Your sincere Friend 

& Affect Servant 


I hope I have a Letter on the Way from you. I repeat when 
you want me say, He come without Delay. 

Lord George Anson, English admiral, born 1 697, died 1 762. 
2 Edward Hawke, English admiral, born 1 705, died 1 781 . 
8 Edward Boscawen, English admiral, born 1711, died 1 761 . 
* " Best " in copy; should be " Brest." 

5 The name omitted is evidently Montcalm. " The first week in April, 
Montcalm . . . gave Hawke the slip and stole out of Brest with 
a squadron of six of the line and another thousand men," J. S. Cor- 
bett, England in the Seven Years' War, p. 101-2. 

6 General Fowke was governor of Gibraltar. 

7 General James O'Hara, Lord Tyrawley, " governor if Minorca 
until 1 756, when he was sent out on the Gibraltar expedition." Diction* 
ary of National Biography. 

Seven Years' Wat 



The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 83, by 
a letter of August 7th from Johnson to Captain John Bradstreet on 
transportation of Indian supplies. This paper was destroyed by fire. 


Fort Johnson August 7 th . 1756 

As there is a Road to be Cutt from the German Flatts to 
Oswego now directly, this is to give Notice to all who may incline 
to Undertake or work at the Same, to come imediately to my 
House, & they Shall know y e . Terms. 

I am 


Y'. Humble Serv*. 


To all the Inhabitants of Scohare 

A. L. S. 1 

Schenectady Camp 8 ih . August 1756 

By a Letter lately come from LA Loudon we find he is much 
incensed against the Officers who were concerned in Jerrys Death ; 
it would be doing them a Singular favour, as well as obliging the 
whole Reg 1 ., to endeavour to pacify My Lord, as he seems now 
determined to proceed against them if not prevented by y r . kind 

I am apprehensive, My Lord, thinks the Worst of Conse- 
quences may arise from this affair, believing the Indians so pro- 
voked, as there may be no satisfying them ; Our accounts by Cap*. 
Buttler, I think say, that the Mohowks are no Way displeesed, 
& that the Sachems of the other Nations, think the Indian deserved 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

534 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

what he met With, and that they would endeavour to pacify 
their Young Men ; if it's so, I request you Will be so kind, as to 
Inform my Lord of it, by the return of this Express, and You 
Will much Oblige and serve the whole Corps. Col. Gage does 
not write till the Messenger returns from you to His Lordship, 
so request you will be Speedy. I am D r . S r . William 

Most Sincerely Yours 


Copp 1 

Herkimer 8 ih . Aug. 1756 

To SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON, Bar*, at Fort Johnson. 

I can no longer avoid acquainting you of the extreme ill 
behavior of Justice Herkimer 2 , his family & relations who are 
not only perpetually making the Indians drunk with Rum, which 
they sell in most unreasonable quantities but are taking all 
opportunities to create an animosity between the Officers, Soldiers 
& the Indians. Of this, I have most authentic proofs as this 
scandalous & perverse conduct of these people may & will, if 
persisted in, produce the worst of consequences. I thought it 
my duty to acquaint you of it, & desire you will exert your 
magisterial authority to stop this growing ill, which will save me 
the disagreeable office of doing that by force of arms which 
ought to be done by the powers of governments As there is 
at this time a quantity of Rum in the houses of Herkimer & 
his daughter to prevent future mischief I think it should be seized 
which I did not care to do without first having your opinion 
thereon. When Herkimer meets with any thing he does not 

1 In Library of Congress, Force Transcripts, Miscellaneous, v. 3. 

2 Johan Jost (Hanyost) Herchheimer, or Herkimer, father of General 
Nicholas Herkimer, of the Revolution. ' 

Seven Years' War 535 

like, he threatens to complain to Bradstreet, but this does not 
leter any one for doing any thing consistent with Honor, & 

With very great esteem, 
I am, Sir, 

your most obedient humble 

Horatio Gates 


A. L. S. 1 
Nerv York Sunday Evening [August 8, 7756 2 ] 


This afternoon I received your very kind favour of the 2 d . Inst. 
the Three Lines in the Margin, to wit, that you would be glad to 
see me as soon as I conveniently can, prevent my entering into 
any of the Subjects, as I will set out from hence as soon as I can 
get my self ready w * 1 . I hope will be towards the end of this 

I shall bring a Sample of the Gorgets. I shall bespeak your 
Cloaths & I propose if I dont hear from you before I go to the 
Contrary, to bring up M r . Farril with me, upon Condition if an 
Agreement is not made for his Stay, that the Expences of his 
going & returning be paid him. 

Tho I still feel the Effects of my late illness, I am much better 
& Magra promises to furnish me with traveling Orders. 

I thank God the pain in your Breast is removed I hope your 
Cough will soon follow as to the rest you deserved the Scourge 
& I wont say I pity you. however pray be Obedient & regular. 
The Examination of y r . Onondaga Proceedings, Letter to Board 
of Trade & d. to L d . Hallifax will I apprehend be time enough 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

2 The date is supplied from the Johnson Calendar. 

536 Sir William Johnson Papers 

when I come up. You know you lately wrote largely to the 
Board, you gave them (by the Packet w ch is not yet sailed) a 
Summary of y r . Onondaga proceed- 5 . & subsequent Treaty, so 
that I conceive there is less hurry necessary for these matters I 
suppose Your Ace*, of first 5000 goes home with y r . next Letter 
upon w ch . I imagine some Observations will be necessary to be 
made to their Lordships. 

I expect in two or three Days to hire me a house & put a House 
keeper in it to get every thing in order against I come down next, 
when (health permitting) I shall certainly commit Matrimony. 
Your Comp ts . are very obliging to the Dear Creature, she is a 
good Girl & I think will never give me Cause to repent. If I had 
been to stay here a little longer, matters wou'd be I believe con- 
cluded on & the irrevocable " / fae thee " be announced but 
all things must give place to my public Duties, in w ch . your voice 
& our Friendship will be always uppermost to me, & this I will 
evince If My Lord Loudoun makes Difficulties about my Salary, 
there shall be none with me whilst you are pleased to think me 
necessary to you. Last nights Post from Boston brings Advices 
in ab*. 7. Weeks from Cadiz that there had been a warm Engage- 
ment between Adm 1 . Bing & La Glasioniere, that the latter had 
been obliged to sail for Toulon & Marsielles to refit & the former 
was got into Port Mahon. 

We are unwilling to believe the London Acc ls . & hope for a 
Confirmation of better. 

Gov r . Morris 1 has met the Delawares &c. at Easton. I think 
if not sent you you should at least insist on a Copy of their Pro- 
ceedings, in my opinion they ought not to presume to call any 

1 Robert Hunter Morris was born in Morrisania, N. Y., about the 
year 1700, and died January 27, 1764, in Shrewsbury, N. J. He was 
chief justice of New Jersey from 1 738 to 1 764, a member of the council 
of New Jersey in 1 738, and from October 3, 1 754, to August 20, I 756, 
he was governor of Pennsylvania. 

Seven Years War 537 

[eeting. I have much to say on these Subjects w^ 1 I shall refer 
II we meet, may it be in Mutual Health. 
I am truly 

Dear Sir William 

Y rs . Sincerely & affectionately 



The preceding letter is followed In the Johnson Calendar, p. 83, by 
letter of August 9th from Oliver De Lancey, at Albany, to Johnson 

on goods for Indians and papers belonging to " Sir Peter's estate.*' 

Destroyed by fire. 

A. Df. S. 2 

Fort Johnson, August the 9 lh . 1756 

1 You are to keep your Party Sober, & in good order & 
prevent their haveing any unnecessary Intercourse with the 
Indians, least any difference might arise between them from too 
much familiarity. 

2 If any difference should arise between them, or the Indians 
use any of Your Party 111, I am to be imediately acquainted 
with it. 

4 You will in the Day time keep one Sentry on the Eminence 
to the Northward of the House, who upon Seeing the Enemy 
advance, is to fire his peice & retreat to the Fort. Another Sentry 
to be posted at the gate of the Fort on the outside who is also to 
enter the Fort on the advanced Sentrys alarming him. 

3 The Serjant to take Care that the Mens Quarters be kept 
verry Clean, and that they Wash well, & freshen their Salt Pro- 

1 Of the 42d regiment, stationed mainly at Schenectady. Turnbull 
with his detachment was evidently to be at Fort Johnson. 

2 In New York Public Library, Emmet Collection, 58. These orders 
are printed in Orderly Book of Sir John Johnson, annotated by William 
L Stone, with an Introduction by J. Watts de Peyster, p. v-vi. 

538 Sir William Johnson Papers 

visions, the neglect of w h . makes them Subject to many Disorders 
fatall to the Troops in this part of the World. 

7 In Case of an attack, the 2 Bastions to be properly manned, 
the Curtains also, there mixing Some of my People w th . Yours. 
The remainder of My People to Man the Dwelling House & 
fight from thence, makeing Use of the four Wall Peices, & 
Musquetoons out of the Window fitted for them. 

6 Whenever an alarm is given by the advanced Sentry, you 
will order three Pattereroes 1 to be imediately fired that being the 
Signall I have given to the Mohawks, & on their approach near 
the Fort when Challenged, they are to Answer George as Dis- 
tinct as they Can, then to be admitted if practicable. 

5 When there are no Indians here the Gates to be Locked at 
8 o Clock in y e . evening and opened at Six In the Morning : first 
looking round about to See that all is Safe & clear the 
advanced Sentry to be posted Everry Day. 

The Mens Arms & Amunition [ 
to be kept in good Order J 

I am S'. 



To Lieu 1 . 

1 Pedreros. " Spanish pedrero . . . The English forms show many 
corruptions of the original, the later ones being apparently influenced by 
Patter. A piece of ordnance originally for discharging stones; formerly 
also used to discharge broken iron, partridge-shot, etc. ; and for firing 
salutes." A Neu> English Dictionary. 

Seven Years' War 539 

Df. S. 1 

August 10* 1756. 

This morning I received yours of the 8 lh Inst. with a Complaint 
ag sl . Harkemer, and his Son in Law for Selling Rum to y e 
Indians and endeavouring to create a Misunderstanding between 
the officers, Soldiers & them. Those are Evils which should be 
prevented by all Means, and in order to put a Stop to them I 
shall send for Harkemer, & his Son in Law. at the Same time 
it will be necessary that you send me all the Proof you Can to 
make good those Allegations against them. 

I am extreamly hurried being Surrounded by above 900 of 
the Copper Colour. So that I have only time to assure you I am 

Y'. Most Humble Serv 1 , 


As the Bearer of this is a verry Clever fellow I should be 
glad you would take a little notice of him, & let him have some 
provisions. My Compliments to all your Corps there. Nothing 
new here. I sent up three days ago a large Package of Letters 
among w h . were Severall for you & the officers there which I 
hoped were delivered by the Indians. 


1 Original destroyed by fire. 

540 * Sir William Johnson Papers 

A. L. S. 1 

Albany 12 August 1756: 7AM 

I inclose you a List I took from S r . Charles's Mouth, which he 
begs you'l procure for him with what other Indian Curiosties you 
can get him. As he is made an Admiral, I expect he'll use his 
Interest immediately to get appointed to some Naval Command, 
and bring us another New Face. Tis only my Conjecture, but 
I dare say as certain almost as if himself had told you so. He 
gave me yesterday the List of persons informed ag*. for selling 
Rum to Indians & ordered me to deliver it to the Recorder with 
Directions to put the Law in Execution against. I gave him a 
Copy, having the Original in your Hand by me I know of no 
News. It looks as if Bing had been worsted If so Minorca is 
gone probably. Keep up your Correspondence with Sir Charles. 

I am 

D^. Sir 

your affectionate 

& obed*. Servant 


I have got your line to S r . Chas. & Acco 1 . and Order for the 
Indian Fort. & will make out a Warrant on my Admiral of 
N York which I dont expect to leave in a Hurry, as I dare say 
I shall decline coming again on a like Occasion. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Seven Years' War 



A. L. S. 1 
Oneida Carrying Place August 13 th 1756 


Major Craven has thought proper to send an Indian down to 
you by M r . Read as we suspect him to be in the Enemies Interest; 
for while our Cattle were feeding about half a mile beyond Fort 
Newport one of the guard which had the care of the Cattle heard 
the Bushes behind him rattle, upon this he look'd and saw this 
Indian coming out of the Bushes he cocked his Piece at him 
the Indian then cryed Johnson Brother and wanted to shake 
hands with the Soldier, the Soldier then asked him where he came 
from, the Indian answered from the Lake, the Soldier [asked] 
what made him come through the Woods, he said he was afraid 
the Soldiers wou'd hurt him, when he came to the Corporal of 
the Guard he asked him where he came from, the Indian said 
from Cadaraqui, and that they had repaired the Fort, that it was 
built of Lime and Stone eight foot thick; the Place where the 
Indian was discovered is the same where one of our Serjeants 
and one private Man were scalped some time ago and one 
Serjeant taken Prisoner; when he came to Fort William he was 
again Interrogated where he came from, he said from Cadaraqui 
and that it was very strong, that last year we might have taken it 
but now the French were twenty times stronger than we, he said 
also that there twelve more with him, & that formerly they had 
rewards for Scalps but now they were to take Prisoners only, 
(on Sunday last one of our Men was missing and has not been 
heard of since he went out a fishing up the River) Corporal Man 
of General Shirley's Reg*, says he knew this Indian in South 
Carolina and that he then went by the Name of Samuel Norris 
and when he was with Colonel Washington at the Great 
Meadows (Corporal Man then belonged to the Carolina Inde- 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

542 Sir William Johnson Papers 

pendant Companies and was then with Cap 1 : Macoy) this same 
Indian & several others to about the Number of fifty went away 
on Pretence to bring down their wives & Families, and went over 
to Fort Duequesne and took the Half King Silver Heels, 
Monekatuca, Cut away lach. Monekatucas Son, and Free 
Robin Prisoners to Fort Dusquesne and delivered them to the 
French three or four days after the above mentioned Indians 
were Prisoners they got leave to walk without the Fort and imme- 
diately came down to Colonel Washington and informed them 
that the French and Indians were coming to attack them and that 
this Sam Norris Delaway George with whom this Indian used 
always to keep Company & great part of the others had joined the 
French and were coming with them to attack us. James Battey 
Soldier in the Carolina Blues was with Colonel Washington at 
the same time and confirms what Corporal Man's says. Corporal 
White of my Company says that he knows this Indian to be a 
Shawanese. I suppose Silver Heels is with you and will be able 
to inform whether what is said against this Indian is true or not 
Major Craven desires his Compliments I am 
Your most Obedient humble Ser 1 . 



This Suspected Indian told me that he had heared great Can- 
nonading at Oswego & that he immagined the French had 
beseiged it & was going to bring you intelligence of it. he after- 
wards said his Wife lived at the Flatts & he was going to her 
I am 

Your most Obed 1 . Servant 


Seven Years' War 543 

Df. S. 1 

Fort Johnson, 15 Aug st . 1756 

I have engaged the Bearer James Connor 2 as Serjant to serve 
as such in the Company of Rangers some of whom are now 
under your Command. As Such you are to look upon him, & 
order him accordingly. He will be an active usefull person, as 
I have also Sent up Cap*. Funda 3 to Join you, I think you can 
now carry on that Service with ease to your Self & satisfaction to 
the General, which is what I heartily wish for. and from your 
prudence and Zeal what I have no reason to doubt of. pray 
write me by every opportunity what occurs to you. 

I wish you Success 
& am Your Friend 
& Humble Servant 



A. L. S. 4 

Burnets Field Aug 1 . 16*: 1756 

I Rec d . your favour dated Yesterday Wherein I find you have 
Received Intelligence of the Enemys desire to Atack us, and 
that you have wrote the same To Major General Webb. You 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

2 See James Connor's Report, November 8, 1 755. 

4 In New York Historical Society, Miscellaneous Manuscripts. A 
copy of this letter is in the Library of Congress, Force Transcripts, 
Miscellaneous, v. 3. 

544 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

May depend I shall take all the Care imaginable to prevent any 
Surprise. & hope you wont doubt my Courage for I am detir- 
min'd to Venture my life to the Utmost. You Seem to Signifie 
that you will be with us if it Shou'd be So am Sure we Must have 
a Number of Indians More then we Now Shall. I find the 
Tuskaroras will not joyn us as they are dissatisfied yet about 
Jorreys * Death the Onidas this day Waited on the General and 
told how redy they were to Serve him on your acc tt . I have not 
time to mention the perticulars that past at this Meeting the 
Express Jest Going of from Genr 1 . Webb. As you Men- 
tioned Cap*. Fondas joyning Me I Spoke To him as I was 
comeing up and I now find by yours he will be Soon here. I 
think Cap 1 . Fonday a Very Good man though at the Same time, 
Shou'd been Glad to have Seen My Brother in his Stead. As 
he has waited all the summer Your Commands, but hope you 
wont forget him, I expected Some few of the Mohawks here 
this Day but none has arived Gen 1 . Webb arrived here this day 
with the Regm*. all Well. I am Now to acquaint you that 
this afternoon the Kiyogah known by the Name of the Negro 
came here from Ondagah Which place he left yesterday and 
Says the Fort on the East Side of oswego was besig'd by the 
French & ca This News he had from two Onadagas that was 
come from thence and by the Severall Surcumstances he tells I 
belive it To be True, though Several GentK here laughs at 
it the Indian Goes from this to your House to morrow Morning, 
from Whom you'l have the perticulars 

1 William Jere, alias Skowonidous, a Tuscarora killed at Schenectady 
by soldiers. See Doc. Rel Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:177-78. 

Seven Years War 545 

I dont doubt but youl have a letter by this Express from 
Major General Webb concerning it we are like to tarry here 
To morrow 

I am 

Sir Your Most Dutifull 

and Obed': Serv*: 



Sir William Johnson Bar" 

Fort Johnson 

INDORSED: Burnetsfeild August 16 th . 1756 
Capt n . Butlers Letter * 


Df. 2 

Fort Johnson 16 Aug 5t . 1756 

Before I rec' d . yours, or Cap*. DeLanceys favour I dispatched 
an Express to Lord Loudoun, & another to Major General Webb 
with the Intelligence which this Indian you Suspect brought me, 
and which General Webb no doubt will acquaint you with. I 
have on the receipt of both Yours examined M r . Croghan, and 
one John Davis who are acquainted with all the Indians who 
accompanied Coll . Washington two years ago this Davis was 
w*. Washington all the time, and says he never saw this Indian 
there, neither was the Half King, Monacatouth, Silver Heels or 
any of those mentioned by Serj*. Man & the other Soldier ever 
taken prisoners by this Sam, or any other, nor brought to Fort 
Due Quesne there was another Indian called Sam with M r . 

1 In Johnson's handwriting. 

2 Original destroyed by fire. 

Vol. II 18 

546 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Washington Davis says, but he never knew this Man there. M r . 
Croghan says that Delaware George always kept with him, but 
never knew this IncK before. He is a Pede, and not a Shawan- 
ese. He has been near four years living at Oneida, never was 
with Washington, nor does he know him, never was at Fort Du 
Quesne, Cadarachqui nor Oswegoe he says, neither does he 
know those Ind s . the Serj*. or Corporal says he kept Company 
with, & assisted to make prisoners as they say He says that he 
met 3 Soldiers by the way between the Forts who gave him Rum 
and made him so merry that when he came into your Fort he lost 
2 Drawbank and a Dollar & a half in Cash, this is what I can 
learn about this Ind n . from himself, M r . Croghan and John Davis. 
As to the Money paid Senuchsis for the Horse, if it can be proved 
that Dennis Madden took him away, I think he ought to pay it, 
and suffer for it besides He has not lived on my Land this long 
time, neither do I know anything of him lately. I am much 
hurried, so have only time to assure you 

I am Sir 

Your Most Hum Serv 1 - 
My Compliments to 
Cap*. DeLancey. 

A. L. S. 1 

Burneis Field Aug*. 18 1 756 

Last Night the two Indians you Sent with a packett to Oswego 
Returned hither Say Near the three Rivers met three Soldiers 
comeing from Oswego with letters, who gave an account that 
the East and west Fort were both besig'd by the Enemy, that 
they made a Shift to Steal out the Garrison along the lake Side 
that the French are very Numerious, and told those Indians they 
had better go back upon which they returned in Compy. with the 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Seven Years' War 547 

three men as far as the rift above the three Rivers where they 
left them with an Ondagah woman. They suppose they may 
have been last night at the Onida Carrying place, as these two 
Indians were Returning were overtaken by an Onida who had 
been at Oswego Gave them a belt wompom he rec d from the 
French there desiring the five Nations to keep out way as were 
besigeing Oswego for they did not desire to Hurt the Indians. 

The Kattle that were driveing to Oswego are Returning. This 
Moment arived the Soldars mentioned above who says Oswego 
That is all the Forts * are taken together with the Vessels. Co 11 . 
Mercer 2 is Killed. 

For the particulars I refer you to Cap*. Richman 8 who is going 
down. As I am Teased with the Indians cant write any more at 
present. The packet shall Send you by Cap*. Richman. I am 
y r . Very Dutifull and obed'. Serv 1 . 


1 It is now certain that no regular operations will be undertaken till 
spring; but when it was determined that the army at Oswego should go 
into winter quarters, they began a new fort upon a hill on the east side of 
the river, about 470 yards from the old one; it is 800 feet in circum- 
ference, and will command the harbour; it is built of logs from 20 to 30 
inches thick ; the wall is 1 4 feet high, and is encompassed by a ditch 1 4 
feet broad, and 10 deep; it is to contain barracks for 300 men, and to 
mount 16 guns. On the other side of the river, west of the old fort, 
another new fort is erecting ; this is 1 70 feet square, the rampart is of earth 
and stone, 20 feet thick and 1 2 feet high, besides the parapet ; this is also 
encompassed with a ditch 1 4 feet broad and 1 feet deep, and is to contain 
barracks for 200 men. This fort will be fortified with the greatest care, 
as there is a good landing, and an easy ascent not far off. An hospital of 
framed work, 150 feet by 30, is already built, which may serve as a 
barrack for 200 men; and another barrack is preparing of 1 50 feet by 24, 
From these preparations, it seems reasonable to conclude that the general 
intends to winter with his army at Oswego, that they may more expedi- 
tiously go into action in the spring. Cenf/eman's Magazine, January, 

2 Colonel James F. Mercer, commandant. 

8 Captain Ezra Richmond, of the New York regiment. 
4 " Jno " in the copy; it should be '* Thos." 

548 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A. L. S. 1 

Albany August 20 th 1756 

As the Sittuation of the Country requires the aid of the 
Mellitia I must Desier you will rais one thousant of them and 
March them to the German Flatts where you will take the 
Command and Corespond and Coopperat with M G Webb who 
is at the Great Carying Place and send me Constant Intelligence 
of all you can learn 

I am 
Your most obedeent 

humble Servant 


When ever you See it Propper to to move the Postes of the 
Regular troops in that Neighbourhood there are hereby Directed 
to obey your order of forwarding them on to M G Webb 


INDORSED: Albany Aug. 20. 1756 
L d . Loudouns Orders 
to March w*. y e . Militia 
to Burnetsfeild 

Mn New York Public Library, Emmet Collection, 

Seven Fears' War 549 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Conojohary Aug 22 d 9 at night. 
[Y LORD - 

I wrote your Lordship this morning just as I was setting out. 
lis moment I mett an Onondaga Indian who says he came 
limning to me from Oswego with y e Following Account Viz. 
lat 9 Daies ago y e Fort on the east side of y e River after an 
Attack of two daies had surrended that the old Fort held out 
rhen he came away which was last Wednesday So that by 
lis Account they must have been engaged four daies & were 
till in possession of the Fort. Our People sallied out he says 
& fought bravely, there were two French Vessels laying before 
y e Fort & playd briskly against it Five Officers & about 20 of 
our Men he heard were killd when He left the place & Several 
of the Enimy He & another Onondaga were all y e Indians on 
our Side. The other he says was killd, & he himself wounded in 
the Arm & shot thorough y e Shirt in several Places which I 
have seen- I hope to be at the German Flatts by 12 o'clock 
to morrow when I shall be able I hope to muster a Considerable 
Number of Indians & if I find that the French are still there f 
shoud be glad (if Your Lordship approves of it) to join Maj r 
Gen 1 Webb & go with him to Oswego. I shall send your Lord- 
ship all y c Intelligence I can gett & as early as Possible 

I am My Lord &c 

W m Johnson 

1 In Public Record Office, C. O. 5. 47, London, England. Inclosed 
doubtless in a letter from Loudoun to Henry Fox. 

550 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

Pi S 

As I am not well acquainted with this Indians Character I 
cannot say much about his Intelligence. He seems sincere 
& tells it with an air of Honesty .- 
His Excellency. The R*. Hon bl y e EARL OF LoUDOUN &c 

INDORSED: Copy of a Letter from S r . William 
Johnson to the E. of Loudoun 
Conojohary 22 d . August 1 756. 
in the E. of Loudoun' s Letter 
of Aug'. 23*: 1756. 


Albany 23*. August 1756 

Contemporary Copp * 

I have just received your Letter of the 22 d . and must approve 
of your proposal of going on to M. G. Webb, and if your 
Intelligence is such as you can depend upon, and that you find 
your numbers are such that you can have a chance of releiving 
the place or retaking it, that you should both proceed with all 
Expedition ; this is all I can say on the Subject, but that I shall 
strengthen the post you leave. 

I have heard nothing of Captain Bradstreet which prevents 
my being able to forward the provisions from 

Schenechtady ; And he is hereby directed to Obey you in all 
such orders as he shall receive from you for carrying on the 
Service in consequence of directions to you. 

INDORSED: Copy of a Letter from the E of Loudoun 
to Sir William Johnson. 
Albany 23* August 1756.- 
in the E. of Loudoun's Letter 
of Aug'. 23< 1 756 
m 4 

1 In Public Record Office, C. O. 5. 47, London, England. 
" Proceed " crossed out is in the original. 

Seven Years' War 551 


L. S. 

Albany 26 th August 1756 

Late last Night, I had the Pleasure of yours of the <24 lh >* 
which gives me great Pleasure, to find your People have been so 
allert in getting up; I have enquired about the Powder; there 
were ten Barrils and two thousand Weight of Lead sent from 
hence, and delivered to the Person you directed it to, whose 
Receipt we have for it, And I have sent off Major Dobbs, this 
day, to follow it out, and see where it has been stopt, and forward 
it on to you; the embezling of Seventeen hundred out of two 
thousand, is to much, and I shall convince whoever did it, it is 
wrong, if I can find him out. 

Your Mohawk Castle shall be supplied. 

I have writ fully to M r . Webb, and I must beg of you, to meet 
with him, and Cooperate together; I was promised five hundred 
more Men to send you, but they are not arrived; the Batteaus 
not coming down, distress me prodigiously in supplying you; 
but nothing shall be left undone in my Power; in the mean time, 
I ever am most faithfully, 


Your most Obedient 

Humble Servant. 



Not found. 

552 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Great Carrying Place 27 th . Aug si . 1756 

A. L. 1 

This Morning I Sent you an Account of the Fate of Oswego 
p r Jacob the Onida Since which Connor Murrey & the indian 
arrived whom I acquainted you had Sent to Oswego I gave 
them an indian Letter to Niclas desireing him To Give them all 
the assistance he could on their March which they say he did, 
but advised them not to proceed at least further then Ondaga. 
however they resolv'd to Go on upon which he furnished them 
with an indian. he asured them Oswego was all in ashes On 
their March between Tuskarora and Onadago they met with 
Onadago Indians who told them to turn back, that Oswego was 
destroy 'd & that they cou'd not pass Ondago. they themselves 
had Seen the place all in Ruins had likewise Spoke the French, 
who told them they had now fought two battles with the English, 
and Should Very Soon fight the third which wou'd Make Every 
thing between them & us Easey. That they Saw the French and 
Indians Set of from Oswego. these report that the prisioners were 
Chiefly officers, that Vast numbers lay Slauter'd round about 
Oswego So that the Staunch may be Smelt at a Great distance 
from thence 

I Send inclosed the Strings Wompom bro* here by the High 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Seven Years' War 


Onida Carrying Place 29*. Aug*<: 1756 
A. L. S. 1 


When I came to the German Flatts found there Several the 
Uper Nations. To whom I spoke and found twenty Eight 
Onidas, who promised to Go with me. Eleven Sinakass one 
Onadago. Seven Mohawks of the lower Castle and Ten of Cono- 
johary Makeing in all fifty Six which I thought a Sufficient 
Number with Those I understood were To joyn me on the road 
to Oswego But unhapily at the flatts We got the News of Oswego 
being attacked. Major Gen 1 . Webb Gave orders for the Regm*. 
&c. with him to decamp and March To the Onida Carrying 
place, Upon which I went Emeadiatly To all The Indians whom 
had ingaged and told them the Necessity of the Armys Marching 
direcktly, for fear the Enemy Shou'd be at the Carrying place 
before us. they made Several objections Saying it was too late 
in the day, and they wou'd eaisily overtake us the next Morning 
however the Cinakas promised To follow that Evning. I 
acquainted the Indians that as Gen 1 . Webb had no Guide Must 
Go with him with as Many indians as wou'd then incline To Go 
I left M r . Fonda &c. to bring up The remainder. M r . Fonda 
can inform you what Trouble he had To Get them To Move at 
all. but after Some time they overtook Us here, when I talkt or 
Mententioned to the Indians of Going a Scouting they askt for 
pay in C. for the Same besides their dayley wages which I was 
obliged To do To Some, there Seems no Such thing as Sattis- 
fieing the Indians and allways Casting Reflections As To pro- 
visions They have not wanted, Ten pound foureteen Shillings M r . 
Fonda layed out at the German Flatts in lether the most of which 
they have had besides Near fifeteen pounds here Yet they have 
allmost all left me. 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

554 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

A party with Silivers Heals, it was Some time before I could 
find out where they were bound, after I knew was pressing them 
To Go on and last night prevailed on five who with Connor and 
Tho s . Harris left here Eairly this Morning for Oswego I hertily 
wish those may Succeed. 

The most of the Gent m . here looks on Indians as Trifles & of 
little Use and talk in Such manner that if the Indians Shou'd 
hear Must Certainly Make a Rupture between them and us. 
Cap*. Bradstreet Seems the only man here with the Gen n . I hope 
things May not run the Same Channel they did last year I shall 
tell you More when I have the pleasure of Seeing You. M r . 
Fonda was packt up this Morning in order To Go home, but 
I reciveing a letter from M r . Crogan that he wu'd be here this 
Evning he resolv'd to Stay till he comes. Were not on your 
Acc ls : Shou'd Go away myself. I am very Sorrey To x you 
are so unwell, but wish you a Speedy recovery Which are the 
Herty prayers of 

Y'. Most Dutifull Ser': 


ADDESSED: to Sir William Johnson at Burnets Field* 

L. S. 

Albany 2 d September 1756 

By a Letter I had this morning from Major General Webb, 
I <find he> has found it necessary, to make the Stand at the 
German Flatts, rather than at the Carrying Place, and for that 
purpose is coming there, and have desired him to consult with 
you, whether it will be necessary to keep the w<hole> Militia, 

1 Word omitted in copy. 

2 Address omitted in copy; supplied from the Johnson Calendar. 

Seven Years' War 555 

>r what part of them, that are now with you; and this must 
lepend, on the Intelligence you receive from the Indians, you 
lave sent out, or that you may be able to get in any other way. 

Before that resolution was taken, foreseeing your people would 
not be kept long, in that Situation, I had this morning wrote to 
Sir Charles Hardy, to desire he would send me up, some of the 
Militia from the Lower Country, 1 in order to support you; and 
must now leave that affair, as it now stands, till I hear from M r . 
Webb and you, after you have had a Meeting. 
I am most Affectionately, 
Dear Sir, 

Your most Obedient 
Humble Servant. 




A. L. S. 

Philadelphia 3 Sepf 1756 

Governor Denny did himselfe the honour of writing a long 
Letter to you by Capt n Newcastle wherein he gave you an 
Account of all the Transactions between this Government and the 
Susquehannah Indians in consequence of the good dispositions 
they were put into by the joint Interposition of your good Offices 

1 In a letter of September 6th to Johnson, Governor Hardy said, after 
ordering that the detachment of Albany militia at German Flats be strength- 
ened by a fresh detachment from the same battalion of militia: "And in 
case a still greater Force shall be required from the Militia to protect that 
part of the Country. You are to give orders for the marching of such 
greater Force and even to march yourself with the whole Batalion if neces- 
sary on any Emergency. In which case you are to require Such aid from 
the Commanding officers of Ulster and Dutches as you shall judge proper 
to march for the security of the City of Albany." Doc. Hist. N. Y. 9 
2:732; Q, 2:426. 

556 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

and those of the Six Nations. In the Close of his Letter he men- 
tiond some Information he had reced of Teedyuscung the Chief 
of the Delaware Indians at Diahogo, as if he was not the man he 
pretended to be at some late Conferences held with the Indians 
at Easton at which Newcastle was present, and upon this Informa- 
tion Newcastle grew uneasy & proposd to take a journy to you 
in order to enquire into the Reality of Teedyuscungs Professions 
and Authority as he had frequently said he had received it from 
the Six Nations. 

Now, Sir, since writing that Letter a special Messenger has 
been sent to Teedyuscung, a Man of Understanding who is 
Major of the Provincial Forces and he is now returnd & says 
positively that the former Accounts in prejudice to Teedyuscung, 
ought not to gain credit, for he has well accounted for his stay, 
has left his Wife and two Children among us as a Security for 
his honesty & did at going away declare he would use all his 
Interest with the Indians & bring with him in two Months a large 
number of'Delawares & other Tribes of Indians who shou'd 
renew their former Treaties & enter into a strict Bond of Amity 
with the English. I am commanded by y e Gov r . to communicate 
this to you & to desire it may be imparted to Capt n . Newcastle to 
prevent any unjust Jealousies they might conceive ag l . Teedyus- 

I have the honor to be 


your most obedient 
humble Servant 

INDORSED: RkM Peter' 8 . Letter 

Philadelphia 3 Sept. j 755 


In Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:123-25, is a letter of September 5, 
from Sir Charles Hardy to the lords of trade, in which Johnson's 
activities at the time of the loss of Oswego are described. In Doc. Hist. 
N. Y., 2:732, is an order of September 6 from Sir Charles Hardy to 
Johnson for reinforcing the detachment ordered to German Flats. 

Seven Years' War 557 


There is found in the Johnson Calendar, p. 84, a letter, of September 
I Oth, from Johnson to the lords of trade, mentioning the effect on the 
Indians of Oswego's fall, his call of an Indian meeting, scalping parties, 
discussing Indian presents, French cunning in Indian matters, the Pennsyl- 
vania land grant, and promising an early account of disbursements (printed 
in Doc. Hist. N. 7., 2:733-37; Q. 2:426-29 and Doc Rel. to Col 
Hist. N.Y. t 7:\2 7-30) . Destroyed by fire. 


Albany 10*. Sept 1756. 

Last night I had the pleasure of yours of the 8*. I am very 
glad to hear that you grow better but should be very far from 
desiring you to make any journey you are not fit to undertake; 
and the more so, that a great part of the business I wanted to 
talk with you about is answered in this letter - 

The first part of which was to regulate my letter to Gov*. 
Denny in the first scrawl of which I had writ a very strong para- 
graph forbidding the people of Pennsylvania from negotiating 
or meddling with the Indians, but through you whom the King 
had thought proper to appoint for that purpose But, when 
the fate of Oswego came to be known, I then doubted whether 
at this instant, it might be in your power to manage those Indians 
that lye at such a distance, and in that situation, it might not be 
reasonable if they could settle with the Indians in their neighbor- 
hood for their own preservation for the present, under certain 
restrictions from you, without giving them any permanent right 
to intermeddle in Indian affairs 

In this, I did not choose to take any steps till I knew your 
opinion, & now shall write to Gov. Denny and show him the 

1 In Library of Congress, Force Transcripts, Miscellaneous, v. 3. 

558 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

real situation of the whole Indian affairs, of your having the 
King's commission, as sole agent & manager of the Six Nations 
& their allies under my direction; and that I am commanded 
by His Majesty to send & appoint a proper person to be sole 
agent for the southern Indians; so that whoever intermeddes in 
Indian affairs does it in direct contradiction of the King's orders 
and interferes with the office he has by his commission given 
to you and the Commander in Chief of his Forces for the time 

As to the Indian presents, the destination you have made is 
very different from that made at London, by the government; 
but that alteration I will venture to take upon me, so far as we 
shall concert; I have got them here so that you can be supplied 

I must now inform you of a piece of intelligence I have just 
received from M. G. Lyman; that Jacob the Stockbridge Indian 
has been opposite to Tienderoga and taken two scalps, that from 
there he viewed the French Camp, which he reported a fort- 
night ago to be twice as large as that at Fort Edward and is now 
positive it is not above half as large as the Fort Edward Camp. 

It behoves us to find out where they are gone to strike their 
stroke; whether they have crossed over to come down the branch 
of Hudson's River that falls into the Seondago Creek 1 and 
so to come down on your house & endeavor to cut off Mr. Webbs 
retreat: or if they are come round by the East side of Wood 
Creek either to attack Fort Edward or fall in on the Eastern of 
Hudson's River ; and I must beg that you will take all possible 
pains to find it out & give Mr. Webb & me intelligence from 
time to time as I shall to you of whatever I discover 

I imagine Mr. Webb has three different roads by which he 

1 Sacondaga creek, the relation of which to Hudson river Loudoun 

Seven Years War 559 

can retreat, in case he is overpowered by numbers Your will 
be so good as to inform of them 

I am, with the greatest truth & esteem, 

Your most obedient 

humble servant, 


P.S. I have since rec'd yours of the 1 th . 1 
I shall regulate my letter to Gov. Denny 
according to y r directions. I shall immediate- 
ly garrison the Mohawk castles and 
forward you the Indian presents. 

D/ 2 

Fort Johnson II Sep 1 . 1756. 

M r . Pownall hath made me extreamly happy by informing 
me, That I have been honoured with Your Lordships Patronage, 
& that You condescended to interest Your self in my favour with 
a friendly & active Zeal ; in consequence of which I beg permission 
to assure Your Lordship, that I have the most respectful & grate- 
ful Sense of so honourable a Distinction, and that I am animated 
with the sincerest Resolutions of manifesting my Duty to His 
Most Gracious Majesty & of serving my Country, in the Depart- 
ment wherein He hath been pleased to place me, in the most 
faithful & best manner I am able. Your Lordship I am sensible 
has an undoubted right to expect this Conduct from me, and I 
am equally convinced, that I shall thereby fulfill Your Lordships 
Intentions & Wishes. 

My Lord I will never wilfully give you reason to repent or 
Cause to Blush, that You have honoured me with Your Patron- 

x Not found. 

2 Original destroyed by fire. 

560 , Sir William Johnson Papers 

age & conferred Your Favours upon me, and it shall ever be my 
study to demonstrate that 

I am 

My Lord 

Your Lordships 
Most Grateful 

Obedient & Devoted 

I think it proper to inclose Your Lordship the Extract herewith 
from the Records w * 1 . being minuted upon a peice of Paper in 
my absence, occasioned it not being recorded in the order of time 
according to its date & was not therefore transmitted with the 
Copy of my Proceedings last Winter 

To the Right Honourable 

The EARL OF HALIFAX &c. &c. 

L.S. 1 

Albany 16 th : September 1756. 

I had between twelve and one this morning, the pleasure of 
yours of the 1 5 th :, for which I am very much obliged to You; 
On this Intelligence, I have made an entire new disposition of 
the Troops, on your side the Country ; I have ordered down here, 
M. G. Webb, with the 44th Regiment; I have left all the other 
Troops there; and in place of building a Fort at the German 
Flatts, I leave 220 Men, to defend the Fort at Herkermers, and 
his House against flying Posts : 

And I leave Major Dobbs people, at the little Carrying Place; 
the Militia and Captain Richmonds Company, at Canajahora ; 
Gates Company at Fort Hunter; Cap*: Wraxals' Company at 

1 Original destroyed by fire. 

Seven Years' War 561 

your House; and the remains of Col: Schuyler's Regiment at 

I bring down the Artillery, as being useless there; and except 
it is Scalping parties, I hope they will have no trouble on this 
side, if their Intelligence holds true, of their making their push 
from Crown Point, to which place I am pushing up, all the Force 
I can Muster, and shall I hope, in a few days, get up about 300 
Men; and propose to be at Fort Edward myself, which I think 
the most liable to an Attack, and by that shall be able to reinforce 
Fort William Henry. 

On this occasion it will be necessary, to Muster all the Indians 
You can, to attend Us both, and to get us Intelligence, and pre- 
vent our being hemmed in by the Enemy's Indians; they will have 
the assistance of our Ranging Companys. 

The Indian Presents shall be sent You directly, but I have not 
had time today, to give orders about them. 

I ever am most faithfully, 

Your Most Obedient 

Humble Servant. 




In Doc. Rel to Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:171-200, is printed a journal 
of Johnson's proceedings with different Indian nations at Fort Johnson 
and German Flats from July 2 1 st to September 1 7th. 

562 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

L.S. 1 

Albany 19*: September 1756. 

In my Letter to you, of the 16 th ., I forgot to mention M r . 
Crogan, who has been with me some days, with a proposal of 
raising Recruits; I should have been glad, to have had a Letter 
from you along with him, recommending him to me, as it cannot 
be supposed, I can know his character so well as You do; and 
you may remember, what passed between us on that Subject, at 
a former Meeting; His Proposal goes further, than I doubt I 
dare go; I imagine it will be better for him, to be employed in 
Indian affairs, which I imagine, will not be difficult to bring about, 
with your Concurrence, and which we shall settle, when I have 
the Pleasure of seeing you. I have sent M r . Crogan, about