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(About 1765 ?) 


Prepared for publication by 
The Division of Archives and History 

Director and State Historian 

1 1 




v 5 




The Johnson Coat of Arms vii 

Facsimiles of important autographs xiii 

The Seven Years' War 1 

Appendix 992 



Sir William Johnson Frontispiece 

From the oil painting in the New York Historical Society, New York City. 
See the prefatory note on the portraits of Sir William in volume 2 of the 
present work. 


Sir William Johnson's Coat of Arms vii 

From a copy of his bookplate in the New York State Library, Albany. 
See prefatory note on the Johnson Coat of Arms in this volume. 

Fort Niagara as it is today 65 

From a photograph by Dr Frank Severance of Buffalo. 

Sir Jeffery Amherst 129 

From a contemporary print in the New York State Library, Albany. 

Marquis de Montcalm 129 

From the painting in the possession of the Marquis de Montcalm. 

Montreal in 1 759 283 

From a print taken from the Royal Magazine. / 

Captain John Johnson 287 

From a miniature in the possession of Miss Jane A. Riggs of Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Volckert P. Douw 325 

From a miniature in wax formerly in the possession of Mr J. Townsend 
Lansing of Albany. 

James Hamilton 39 \ 

From a painting by Benjamin West in the State House, Philadelphia. 

Marquis de Vaudreuill 555 

After a painting in the possession of the Countess de Clermont-Tonnerre. 

Major General Robert Monckton 853 

From the engraving by McArdell of the painting by Hudson. 



Fort Herkimer 23 

From A set of plans and forts in America, reduced from actual surveys, 
1763, published in London by Mary Ann Rocque. 

Fort Stanwix 25 

From A set of plans etc. See above. 

Map of trails, portages and settlements 33 

From the original in the New York State Library, Albany, drawn by 
Professor Louis Mitchell assisted by Dr W. M. Beauchamp. 

Fort Niagara in 1 758 65 

From a print in the New York State Library, Albany. 

Plan of Fort Niagara and vicinity in 1 759 81 

From a map published in 1762, now in the possession of Peter A. Porter 
of Niagara Falls, N. Y. Only the western half of the map is known to be 
in existence. 

Fort George at Lake George 1 09 

From A set of plans etc. See above. 

Royal Block House at Fort Edward Ill 

From A set of plans etc. See above. 

Fort Ontario at Oswego 239 

From A set of plans etc. See above. 

Fort Levi . 267 

From Mante's History of the Late War in North America, London, 1772. 

Fort Frederick at Albany 507 

From A set of plans etc. See above. 

Plan of the City of Albany 515 

From A set of plans etc. See above. 

Plan of Schenectady 631 

From A set of plans etc. See above. 

Plan of the Block House at the east end of Oneida Lake 865 

From A set of plans etc. See above. 

Plan of Fort Brewerton 883 

From A set of plans etc. See above. 


From his bookplate 


Sometime previous to February, 1749/50 Johnson had evi- 
dently taken up with his brother, Warren, the subject of having 
engraved for him the Johnson coat of arms. This is shown by 
a letter from Warren dated: " Dublin, Feb? 24* 1749/50" in 
which he says : "I had our O of Arm's Cut in a very neat 
manner which I was to have Sent you with this but after I had 
got- them from the Outers found that they ware the O'Neal's 
but have Since ordered the Johnson's Arm's to be Cut as soon 
as possible which I Shall Send as soon as finished with the 
Pamphlets &ca." (Sir IVilliam Johnson Papers, 1:266). 

To what Johnson arms Warren was referring we can not 
determine. The Office of Arms at Dublin Castle under date of 
April 12, 1918, informed us that there was no coat of arms 
registered for the Johnson family other than that registered by 
Warren Johnson, February 12, 1774, which was the coat of 
arms of the O'Neills of Tyrone. Inquiry of the College of 
Arms in London brought the reply that the Johnson coat of 
arms was not registered there until 1843, and that it also was 
that of the O'Neills. 

In the Johnson Papers there is no further mention of a coat 
of arms until January 10, 1763. In a letter from William 
Darlington of New York, to Johnson of that date the former 
writes: " Mr Weyman seems not to und[er] stand the directions 
in Regard to the Coat of Arm's & directed [me] to One Debrul's 
Engraver. Inclosed is a letter from him about [it?]" 

The letter from De Bruls is as follows: 


viii Preface 

New York, Jan. 11, 1763 

M r Darlington hath Aquainted me with Your Commands 
Concerning Your Coat of Arms, the Engraving of the Same will 
Cost Four Pound. The Printing and Colouring the Same proper 
will Cost Two Pound p r Hund d or Twenty Pound p r Thousand. 

Your Most Obed' 

Michael De B[ruls] 

In Johnson's reply to this letter, which Johnson addressed not 
to De Bruls but to Darlington, on January 29, 1 763, he objected 
to the price, said he could get the prints of them for less in Lon- 
don and finally commissioned Darlington to offer " 5 ^ M 
for my Coat of Arms only printed & 4 for y e plate w h is to be 

Other letters on the subject have unfortunately been burned, 
but the Calendar of the Sir William Johnson Manuscripts shows 
(p. 160, 169) that Darlington wrote further about them on 
February 21, 1763, and that on May 6, 1763, he mentioned 
sending the copper plate and prints, and denounced De Bruls 
for his charges. 

In some of Johnson's library books which have come down to 
us there are his bookplates bearing his coat of arms, an illustra- 
tion of which appears in this volume. It would seem probable 
that these represent the order for one thousand copies which 
Johnson placed with De Bruls through Darlington. The use of 
his arms on his bookplate would explain the quantity of prints 
ordered. None of these plates which we have seen are in color, 
seeming to indicate that Johnson lived up to his intention of 
refusing to pay a price which he regarded as exorbitant. 

At what time Johnson had drawn the design of his coat of 
arms from which De Bruls made the engraving we have no exact 
information. It may have been previous to the date of his 
brother Warren's letter, but it seems probable that it was between 

Preface ix 

1 755 and 1 762, for in the former year he received his baronetcy, 
giving him the right to have the red hand of Ulster in his coat 
of arms, and in the latter year appeared a plan or map of his 
Niagara campaign on which the same coat of arms appears as 
on the bookplate (Johnson Papers, III: vii, 81). The only 
marked difference between the two is that on the map the red 
hand of Ulster does not appear in the small escutcheon which is 
left blank and the panoply of flags appears on a standard apart 
from the coat of arms. 

This coat of arms, however, was never registered in Dublin 
or in London, as we have seen above. In heraldic terms it was 
described in William Berry's Encyclopedia Heraldica, volume I, 
under " Bar." (published 1828-40) : "Johnson, of New York, 
America, 1755; since of Twickenham, Middlesex, Arms, gu. 
on a chev. betw. three fleurs-de-lis ar. as many escallops of the 
field. Crest, on a wreath, a cubit arm in armour, holding in 
the hand an arrow in bend sinister ppr. point downwards. Sup- 
porters, two North-American Indians ppr. wreathed round the 
waist with leaves vert crowned with fleurs-de-lis" [sic]. In 
volume II, of the same work under Johnson this description is 
given " per pale, az. and gu. on a chev. ar. betw. three fleurs- 
de-lis, as many escallops of the second." No motto is given in 
the index of mottoes which is given on page 225 of volume I. 

In Burke's General Armory, edition of 1884, page 543, the 
following description is given: "Johnson (New York and 
Twickenham, co. Middlesex, bart). Gu. on a chev. betw. 
three fleurs-de-lis ar. three escallops of the field. Crest An 
arm couped at the elbow erect, holding an arrow ppr. Sup- 
porters Two Indians wreathed about the waist with foliage, 
quivers over their left [inner] shoulders, bows in their exterior 
hands, and plumes on their heads all ppr. Motto Deo 
regique debeo." Burke states that this coat of arms was regis- 
tered, but the Office of Arms at Dublin and the College of Arms 
in London say that he is in error. 

x Preface 

In spite of the fact that Johnson never had this coat of arms 
registered he had it put to use on the map and on his bookplate. 
He also had a seal made and used it on sealing wax on his letters. 
Of the latter we have a good example on a letter under date of 
December 22, 1 772, now in the New York Historical Society. 

Johnson himself seemingly made no claim to descent from the 
O'Neills. In the work entitled The Baronetage of England by 
E. Kimber and R. Johnson, published in London in 1771, 
volume III, page 142, it is stated: "Sir William Johnson is 
descended from a good family in the kingdom of Ireland. . . 
Neither the Family Pedigree, or Arms, of Sir William, are yet 
entered in the Herald's office: so that we have no certain infor- 
mation of his marriage issue." On page 1 8 of the plates in the 
back of the same volume the place for the Johnson coat of arms 
is left blank. 

On February 1 2, 1 774, however, Warren Johnson, then of 
Damas[r?]town, County Meath, Ireland, brother of Sir Wil- 
liam, registered his pedigree in the Office of Arms in Dublin, 
and in consequence of his descent from John O'Neill, of Dun- 
gannon (whose son, Thomas M c Shane, was father of William 
Johnson, alias M c Shane) was allowed the arms of the O'Neills 
of Tyrone. 

This coat of arms is described in Burke's General Armory 
(edition of 1884, page 543) as follows: " Ar. two lions 
counter ramp, supporting a dexter hand gu. in chief three 
estoilles of the last, and in base a salmon naiant in water ppr. 
Crest An arm gu. encircled with a ducal crown or, the hand 
grasping a sword ppr. pommel and hilt gold. Motto Nee 
aspera terrent." 

With the exception of the motto and also of the fact that it- 
carries the word " dexter " instead of " sinister " this coat of 
arms is the same as that of the Upper Claneboy branch of the 
O'Neills. The question may well be raised as to whether the 
use of the dexter hand in this O'Neill coat of arms was not a 
change which had crept in over the centuries since the original 

Preface xi 

O'Neill had, according to tradition, cut off his left hand and cast 
it on shore so as to have a part of him touch land first. Both 
coats of arms have the red hand (sinister) of Ulster in the 
upper left hand corner (canton). The motto seems to have 
been added by the Johnsons as no other O'Neill family carries it. 

Sir John Johnson, son of Sir William, who was knighted in 
England, by the king, November 22, 1 765, and succeeded his 
father to the baronetcy in 1 774, subsequently made use of this 
O'Neill coat of arms and the motto as we know from a wax 
seal on a letter written by him from Montreal, December 14, 
1 786, and now in the possession of Mr Willis T. Hanson, Jr, 
of Schenectady, N. Y. This seal, however, does not carry the 
red hand of Ulster in the upper left hand corner as it appears in 
various editions of Burke. Even this coat of arms, as we have 
seen above, was not registered in the College of Arms in London 
until 1843, before which date there was no coat of arms recorded 
to the Johnson family in that office. 

In subsequent works on Baronetage, particularly in those of 
Burke, these two coats of arms, namely that used by Johnson 
himself in his bookplate, but never registered, and that of the 
O'Neills registered by Warren Johnson and used by Sir John, 
became confused, so that in some cases the red hand of Ulster 
was wrongly placed, the mottoes sometimes garbled and both 
of them used in the same coat of arms. 

Stone, on the title page of his Life of Sir William Johnson, 
has the red hand of Ulster placed in an escutcheon in such a 
fashion as to obliterate one of the escallops, thus violating an 
essential principle of heraldry. 

We are safe in assuming that so far as Johnson himself was 
concerned, use was made only of his original unregistered coat 
of arms. Between the time of his brother Warren's registration 
of the O'Neill coat of arms for the Johnson family in February, 
1 774, and Johnson's own death on July 11,1 774, the latter 
may have been made aware of the new coat of arms, but cer- 
tainly too late for him to make much use of it. 

xii Preface 

The coat of arms which Johnson himself used certainly had 
particular significance for his life in the two Indian supporters, 
in the crest of a hand grasping an arrow and in the motto : Deo 
regique debeo. What Johnson had become he owed to his God 
and to his king. Of the significance of the fleurs-de-lis and the 
escallops little can be said. They were common heraldic devices 
used by designers for many patrons for whom and their families 
they had little or no meaning. It was probably the same in 
Johnson's case. 


State Historian 






L. S. 1 

We* York I4 lh Sep* r - 1758 

I had this day the favor of yours of the 10 th instant, giving 
me a fuller account than I had before of the meeting to be held 
at Easton with the Indians. 

I congratulate you on Colonel Bradstreet's success at Cadar- 
aqui. This Event will give weight to M r . Denny's negotiations 
with the Indians and I hope will make the difficult task you have 
long had on your hands, easier for the future, as I think it will 
have great and extensive among the Indians. 

As it is probable the General will make a new attempt, I fancy 
he will choose, you should remain in the Quarter you are I wish 
you well and am 


Your most obedient & most 
humble Servant 


The Honorable 

Sir W M . JOHNSON Bar 1 . 

Df. 1 

Fort Johnson 16 Sep 1 1758 

On the receipt of your favour of the 30 Aug*. I sent a Copy 
of it to Major General Abercromby, to whom as His Majestys 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 A word is omitted in the copy. " Influence " satisfies the sense. 

2 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Commander in chief I referred for my self, whether he judged 
it proper for me to accept your Invitation to the Indian Meeting 
at Easton. 

Yesterday I received his Answer, which is, that as M r . Cro- 
ghan is there to whom I gave general Instructions to be aiding & 
assisting to the utmost of his Influence & abilities, and as my 
presence in this Quarter, where I have not a proper Person to 
leave to supply my absence, will be necessary to his Majesty s 
Service, he dos not think it prudent for me to be absent at this 

Besides these reasons, I could not be at Easton in proper time 
according to the Appointment of this Meeting. 

I hope with M r . Croghans assistance you will be able to render 
this Meeting as advantageous to your Province in particular & 
to the general Interest, as Circumstances will admit of and that 
as my remaining in this Quarter is judged Necessary at this 
Juncture, it may not impede any of those good Effects w ch . are 
expected from this Meeting at Easton. 

I am most respectfully 

Your most obed*. 
humble Servant 

Please to let the inclosed 
Letter for Col. Bouquet 1 
be forwarded to him by 
the first Oppertunity. 

To Gov R . DENNY 

INDORSED: Letter to Gov r . Denny 
7br. 16* 1758 

1 Henry Bouquet, lieutenant-colonel of the 60th regiment ; born in Rolle, 
Switzerland, in 1719, died in Pensacola, Fla., in February 1766. 

Seven Years War 3 

A. L. S. 1 

Easton SepK 27" 7758 

Sence I Wrote you of y e : 1 8 th August, In which I Aquainted 
you thett General Forbiss was Much att a Loss for Intelegence 
from Ohio and Desir d . Me to Send Mesingers there for Intile- 
gence which he wold pay as this province Refuses to pay one 
farthing for Intilegence. 

Agreeable to the Ginerals Desier I Sent out Mesingers & two 
of them are Return 11 and Agree in thire Intilegence that there 
is a Greatt Number of Indians att Fort Duquesne and Say that 
y e . fort is Rain f erst with 3000 Men whome I supose are those 
that was hovering in y e Lake when I Left y r house, Likewise 
they Say that the french has very Strong outt Works, all y c . 
Intilegence I have Received I have Sent to General Forbiss and 
in a few Days I Expect y e Return of two Mesingers who I Sent 
to Fort Duquesne and by whom I Expect a full account of y c 
Strength of y e Enemys Works and y e Number of Indians & 
french which Peice of Intilegence I hope will be of Service to 
General Forbiss. 

Tho by a Letter I Received yesterday from Governor Denny 
itt Dose Nott apear to Me as If Gineral forbiss Could Carry on 
the Campain for Want of Wagons & furidge Sir John St clear 2 
is Come Down & Demands 600 Wagons and Furridge and 
hastly Dams y e Province fer Breaking all thire Contractts with 
M r . Forbiss, So that I See if y e . Expedition fails on any acount, 
the gineral will Sadie itt on y e breach of the Contracts with this 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Sir John Sinclair, quartermaster general. 

4 Sir William Johnson Papers 

yesterday about 300 Indians Came hear with Thomas butt No 
prenseple Men; there is a Greatt Number Expected however, 
I have a bad opinion of this Treaty y e Indians are Much Divided 
and Jelious of Each other. y e Muncys & Mohickenders Dispise 
Teadyuscung as Well as y e Six Nations and y e Quaker party 
hear I faer will Indevour to Supert him if So y e Six Nations will 
be much Displesd with us and Indeed they are unready Jelouss 
of itt I shall take Cair nott to Medle with thire party Rouges 
in No Shape Butt Do Every thing in My Power fer y e . good 
of his Majestys Gineral Indian Interest. 

as Soon as this Treaty is over Gineral Forbiss Expects that 
I will Joyne him with some Trusty Indians as I blive the Cher- 
okes is partly gon and while w th . him has been butt of little 
Service as I have y e . Promis of some Indians I Propose with 
Montour and them to Joyne him unless you Should want Me or 
the Gineral Give up y e . thoughts of attacking Fort Duquesne this 
year which I fear will be y e . Case a party of 2000 men has 
been within 40 Miles of Fort Duquesne 10 Days ago. this is 
y c . advanst party & I Dread Every Day to hear that y e . Enemy 
has giyen them a Trashing * or att Last oblidgd them to Return 
To Rays town which I hear they are Fortifyeing I Supose fer 
Winter quarters fer part of the Troops. 

I wish you Joy of the Success his Majestys Trups has in 
Euerup and Cape Breton with the Distruction of Catereque and 
y e Shipin which Must Weaken y e Enemy on y e Lake I hope 
itt will have a good Effect on y e Minds of y e . Six Nations, tho 
perhaps they may be Jelious of y e English geting To Much 
power fer they Seem to Fair us more then they Do y e . French 
I Supose they Dred our Numbers Cap*. Montour Desiers Me 
to Make his Complements to you he is very Industrouss and 
Dose nott Drink att all Pray make my Complements Except- 

1 September 1 4th, Major James Grant, with a force of 800 men, 
suffered defeat near Fort Duquesne, and the members of his command who 
escaped destruction and capture returned to Loyalhannon. 

Seven Years War 5 

able to Cap 1 . Wrexwell M r . Clause all the Famely and Blive Me 
Honoured Sir with the greatest Esteem and Regard your most 

obeident & most 

Humble Servent 

INDORSED: George Croghans 

Easton 21 Sep'. 1758 
Rec d . 15 Oct' 17 


The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 97, by 
Major General James Abercromby's warrant, drawn at Lake George 
September 26th, on Abraham Mortier for the payment of 2000 sterling 
to Johnson. Destroyed by fire. 


A. L. S. 1 

Albany Octob'. 2*. 1758 

I am favoured with yours, and shall send to the Normans kill 
for Vanderberg the goods are Come. You must depend upon 
Schinectady Waggons, at Albany not one. all taken up in the 
Service, or by Suttlers 

we expect the troops on Wednesday, they are to make no 
Stay here, we hear Gen 1 . Forbes is returned not having Car- 
rages sufficient Sir John Sinclare demanded waggons from the 
Assembly at PhiK who absolutely refused him Good luck 
to you. the King of Prussias good fortune is in y e newspapers, 
which Major vanderheyden took out of the office. 

Sir your most assured humble Serv*. 


Destroyed by fire. 

6 Sir William Johnson Papers 


The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 97, by 
a letter of October 5th to Johnson from Commandant Richard Smith, 
at Fort Herkimer, regarding a message which he sends by an Indian. 
Destroyed by fire. 

Contemporary Copy 1 

Fort Johnson I2 ih . October 1758.- 

Past 4. o'Clock P: M : 

The Information of Zacharias, a Mohawk Chief, who was 
sent by Sir William Johnson thro' the 5. Nations in Order to 
call their Warriors down to join His Majesty's Troops at Lake 

That two Days ago, in his Return, he came to the Oneida 
Castle, where, in a Meeting with the Chief of that Nation he 
was told that the Body of French and Indians, who, not long 
ago, were assembled near the Fish Creek on Lake Ontario, were 
returned to Canada, the French Commanding Officer telling the 
Indians, that he plainly saw he cou'd not execute his Design 
against the Oneida Carrying Place &ca at present, the Season 
being too far advanced. This Account was given by some of 
the 5. Nations, who went on a Deputation to the French at that 
Place; who further say, that the French were actually prepared 
to make an Attempt this Way, but after the Arrival of a Canoe 
from Niagara, all preparations were stopped, and the Army 
decamped; The Reason of which was (as the 5. Nations 
imagine) because the French cou'd not get the Indians they 
expected from the Westward to join them & who were to have 
come to Niagara for that Purpose. 

Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5.50, London, England. Forwarded 
by Burton to Abercromby and inclosed in Abercromby's letter of 
November 25th to William Pitt. See Correspondence of William Pitt, 
Gertrude Selwyn Kimball, editor. 1:401. 

Seven Years' War 7 

That the late Alarm was occasioned by a scalping Party of 
about 30. French Indians, who fired upon three Oneida Sachems, 
that were in the Wood near the Carrying Place getting some 
Bark to make a Hut, one of which, named Vienderunta, was 
killed, one taken, who after many warm Words had passed, was 
released, the Third made his Escape. 

That the Oneida Indians were all of Opinion that the Scalping 
Party was returned to Canada again.- 

A true Copy from the Original Minutes. 

Peter Wraxall Sec'*. P. Ind. Ap. 


Fort Johnson 12*. Oct: 1758. 

5. o Clock P: M:~ 

I have your Favour of this Day, by which I find mine of last 
Night was misdated, it shou'd have been the 1 1 th . Ins 1 . 

Herewith you have a Piece of Intelligence from a Mohawk 
Chief who is just now Returned from a Message I sent by him 
thro' the 5. Nations. As I think I can depend upon him in 
punctually relating what he heard from the Oneida Indians, so 
if it was but a Scalping Party of the Enemy, I concur with them 
in Opinion, they are gone off; But this will probably be more 
fully confirmed by some Express from Brig r . Stanwix, and which 
may, I think be every Minute expected. 

Shou'd you think it unnecessary for the Militia to proceed, 
please to mention it to Col. Glen, that he may discharge them, 
and let me know your Opinion hereon by the Bearer, that I may 
in such Case discharge those up this Way & also the Indians. 

8 Sir William Johnson Papers 

You will please to transmit to General Abercromby a Copy of 
the enclosed Intelligence. 

This Mohawk Indian tells me the Oneida Sachems are Com- 
ing down hither, which I am convinced they wou'd not do if any 
Body of the Enemy was near their Settlement. 

If you continue your March I shall be extreamly glad of the 
Pleasure of seeing you here, and am with great Esteem, 


Your most obedient 
humble Servant 

W m . Johnson 

To COLO BURTON, 1 or the Commanding 
Officer of His Majesty's Troops on 
their March &ca. 



A Letter from S r . W m . Johnson, to 

Col. Burton. 

Oct.- 12*. 1758.- 

in M. G. Abercromby 's (Separate) 

of Nov. 25, 1758 



In the Johnson Calendar, p. 97, is listed Johnson's account current with 
William Kelly, dated October 23. Destroyed by fire. 

1 Lieutenant Colonel Ralph Burton, of the 48th regiment, stationed at 

Seven Years War 9 

L. S. 1 

Albany Octo' 23* 1758 

I rec d y r of 2 1 Instant yesterday by M r . Jacobus Clement, the 
apologie you therein make about not answering my Letter of the 
27 th July Last I believe to be true But am astonished to see you 
therein say that I Doubtless must have heard that the Assembly 
only Allowed Ten Shillings a day for the time I was in Canada 
& that you thought it a very small allowance as I believe Every 
body with you & me must, & if I thought proper Now to settle 
the Acco 1 so, you would be Ready to pay the Ballance Imme- 
diately & with pleasure, I own it would be hard for you to pay 
me out of your own pocket, But I thought you Long ere Now 
would Reimburse what you had agreed to pay me by the 
Governm* & how Could I well think otherwise Since it is 
above Nine Years that I went at your Request & our then Mutual 
Contract to Canada, & have Since often Settled Acc ts with you 
& so now & then had the pleasure of being in your Company, & 
you Never mentioned one Single Word to me About it & you I 
believe still will Remember that I would By no means go on 
the Generosity of the Assembly you then told me you would 
not have me or advise me to go on their marcy and that the 
Assembly had Allowed a Certain sum of money, & that you had 
or was soon to Receive it from Cap* Petrus Douw for that pur- 
pose & that you would agree with me & pay me accordingly, as 
I think you Honourably did for on the 1 3 Sept r 1 750, I not only 
Settled that Acco* with you Sworn to by me I think before John 
Baptist Van Eps, Esq But also your particular Acco* with me, 
& you did that day give me your note of hand of your own 

1 From A Legacy of Historical Cleanings, Catharina V. R. Bonney, 
ed., 1 :24-25. 

10 Sir William Johnson Papers 

accord, on Demand for the Ballance due to me from you & on 
the 1 7 Aug* 1 752 we Settled all Ace 18 Between us again & you 
of your own accord gave me then your note of hand on Demand 
for the then Ballance due to me & in 1 754 May 28 th I Delivered 
you again my Acco* Against you & you sometime after Came 
to my house & paid me of within a Trifell I may say & kept mute 
all that time What you now wrote me & on the 27 July Last I 
Came to send you your Acco* Current as usual to mention Now 
an Affair which has been Settled so Long ago Between us, I 
think Strange as I knew I had nothing to do with the Assembly 
- I Never Intended or did apply to them for my pay & perhaps 
if I had & Acquainted them Rightly of my Journey & Trans- 
actions I believe I am apt to think they would have Allowed me 
more honorably as you write they did But if I had applied to 
them I must own & Confess that I should not have used you 
well & that I have hitherto Endeavoured to do & hope so to 
Continue. I wish you with all yours health & am with Compli- 
ments & much Esteem Hon ble Sir, y r most hum: & most obed 1 
friend & Serv 1 . 

To The Hon ble SIR W M JOHNSON Bar 1 . 


L. S. 1 

Easton Oct r . 24 ih 1758 

I have the pleasure of informing you, that the Treaty of this 
place is happily concluded, tho' we met with many difficulties 
thro' the whole course of the Conferences. M r . Croghan has 
exerted himself on all occasions for the good of His Majesty's 
service, and it required his peculiar address to manage the 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

Seven Years' War 1 1 

Indians, and counteract the designs of a wretched and restless 

faction. The express waits. 

I am, Sir, with sincerity and esteem 
Your most obedient 
and most humble servant 



The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 97, by 
Captain Jelles Fonda's receipt in full, dated Fort Johnson, November 8th, 
for six months' pay (156, 17s) for services as captain in Indian service. 
Destroyed by fire. 


Z)/. 1 
g IR I Albany 10. November 1758. 

I have just now received your favour of the 24 ult. and am 
sincerely rejoiced that the late Treaty has concluded so satis- 
factory to you & that M r . Croghan's Conduct therein meets with 
your Approbation, he writes me that M r . Peters will transmit 
me a Copy of the Proceedings, if you please to desire that 
Gentleman to forward them to the Care of Cap*. Peter Wraxall 
at New York Sec*?, for Indian Affairs as I may possibly be at 
New York at the time they may come there, if not I have given 
M r . Wraxall Directions to forward them from New York to me. 

I am 

with great Esteem 

Your most Obed 1 . 

To The Hon blc . humble Servant 


INDORSED: Sir Williams Letter 

to Gov r . Denny Albany 10 Nov r . 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Exclamation noint in the conv. 

12 Sir William Johnson Papers 


The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 97, by 
an undated invoice of goods shipped on the sloop Elizabeth, Gilian Van 
Ranselaugh master, on account of Sir William Johnson, consigned to 
William Corry, Albany. Destroyed by fire. 

Contemporary Copp. 1 

New York, December I3 ih . 1758- 

To Mr. Atkin 

leave out the The King having been pleased to honor me 

word Sole, & with the Chief Command of all His Forces in 

instead of Northern, North America ; and having directed me to keep 
say up a Correspondence with you, as Sole Agent 

Southern Indians. & Superintendent of the Northern Indians, and 
to assist you in endeavouring to engage the said 
Indians to take Part and act with the King's 
Forces in all such Operations as I shall judge 
most Expedient: I am, in Obedience to those 
Commands to acquaint you with my Arrival 
here, and to signify to you, that as it is my 
Intentions, to begin the Operations of the ensu- 
ing Campaign as early in the next Spring as 
the Season will admitt of; and that it will be 
greatly for His Majesty's Service, to engage 
as many as you can of the Indians within your 
Department, to take Part in those Operations, 
and act with His Majesty's Forces, I am to 
recommend to you to use all your Weight and 
Influence to engage as many of them, as pos- 
sible, for those Purposes; and to desire that 

1 In Public Record Office, C. O. 5.54, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, December 18, 1 758. 

Seven Years' War 13 

you will report to Me, so soon as Conveniently 
you can, the Number you think you shall be 
able to engage; adding thereto such further 
Informations and Intelligences as you shall 
think requisite & necessary to enable me to 
give you the Assistance I am directed.- 

I am, &ca- 
SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON, Colonel, Sole Agent & Superin- 

tendant of the Northern & 

EDMOND ATKIN Esq r .Agent & Superintendent of the South- 
ern Indians." 



A Letter from M. G. Amherst to 
S r . W m . Johnson & M r . Atkin. Agents 
of Indian Affairs 
Decem'. 13* 1758. 
in M: G: Amherst's of Dec e . 18 th . 

Contemporary Copy. 1 

Fort Johnson December 26 th . 1758 

I yesterday received your Excellencys very Obliging favours 
of the 13 th . and 17 th . Instant, and gladly embrace this Oppor- 
tunity of Congratulating you on your late Success in the reduc- 
tion of the important City of Louisbourg, 2 . and it's Dependencies 
- as also on your Appointment to the Chief Command of his 
Majesties Forces in North America, in which Eminent Station, 

*In Public Record Office, C. O. 5.54, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, January 1 8, 1 759. 
2 Louisburg surrendered to General Amherst July 26, 1 758. 

14 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I must heartily wish you all the Success and Honour that a Gen- 
tleman so justly deserving the Esteem of the Publick can desire. 
It gives me inexpressible pleasure to hear the Success of our Arms 
on the Ohio, the Abandoning Fort Du Quesne 1 is an Event 
which must Occasion great Joy every where, and will I expect 
in a great Measure Strenthen, and encrease his Majesty Indian 
Interest in America. 

In Obedience to your Excellencys Commands I Shall lose no 
time in using all my influence to engage as many Indians as pos- 
sible to assist in the Opperations of the ensuing Campaign, and 
will As Soon as I can with certainty transmit you an Account 
of the Numbers may be prevailed upon for that purpose, with 
whatever other informations is Necessary. 

I have heard nothing from Brigadeer Stanwix of those Troops 
Mentioned in yours of the 1 7 th . which were to be Sent to Cona- 
johara when he Applys to me, Shall give him all the Assistance 
in my power. I am certain a Number of Troops quartered in 
this part of the Country will be a great encouragement to all the 
Inhabitants (whereby their Situation are much exposed) Should 
the Enemy Attempt any thing this way. 

It is necessary Sir, to Acquaint you that in Order to enable 
me to furnish the Indians with the requisits for the ensuing Cam- 
paign I Should as Soon as possible be laying in a Stock of all 
necessaries, to do which I shall want About four, or five thousand 
Pounds Sterling, which I Should be glad you would please to 
Order a Warrant for. And as good light Arms Such as Indians 
use, are not to be Met with in these parts, I Should wish to be 
furnished with them from below, or wherever a Quantity can be 
had, being an Article Indispensably Necessary, I think with the 
few I have, four hundred will do be Assured Sir, I Shall do 
everything necessary for promoting the Indian Interest to the 
Advantage of his Majestys Service, and Shall not omitt any 

1 General John Forbes took possession of Fort Duquesne November 

Seven Years' War 15 

Opportunity of Making you Acquainted with every Necessary 
Intelligence as well as of Assuring you that I am with the 
greatest Sincerity and Respect 
Your Excellencys 

Most Obedient, and 

Most Humble Servant 

W m . Johnson 
His Excellency GEN: AMHERST 



A Letter from S r . W m . Johnson 

to M G Amherst 

Dec. 26*. 1758. 

in M. G. Amherst's of Jan?: 18. 

1759 3 

A. L. S. 1 

Albany ij e 27 December 1758 

! have Jointly signed a Letter with Some Gentlemen about the 
Ensuing Election which is to be on the tenth of next month M r 
Livingston talk Great and has wheidled major Van Der Hey den 
into his way of thinking how the major Could forget himself so 
much is a mystery to me I have however the happiness to 
Acquaint you that most of his friends are of a contrary oppinion 
If you Sir assist us now I will have oppertunity of Revenging 
myself on M r Livingston who means nothing but to oppose the 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

16 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Governor and your measures I hope and beg your Interest and 
Believe me 


Your most obedient & most 
Humble Servant 


Contemporary Copp 2 

New York 8 ih . January 1759 

As I find by your Letter of the 26 th . Ultimo that good light 
Arms Such as Indians use are not to be met with in your parts, 
and that you are desireous of being furnished with them from 
hence or wherever a Quantity can be had I Shall give orders for 
Collecting the four hundred which with the few you say you 
have, you think will do. 

As for the Warrant for four or five thousand pounds Sterling 
which you desire of me, to enable you to furnish the Indians with 
the requisites for the ensuing Campaign, I must confess that 
demand is far higher than I had foreseen would have been Neces- 
sary on that account, And indeed beyond what the Military 
Chest can at present Spare. I Shall therefore postpone granting 
that Warrant till I hear further from you when I hope you will 
reduce that demand so low as you can without nevertheless dis- 
continuing to lay in a proper Stock of Necessaries the want of 
which Must by no Means prevent us from the Assistance of as 
many Indians as you can possibly prevail on to engage with us 

1 Mayor of Albany from 1756 to 1761. 

2 In Public Record Office, C. O. 5.54, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt. January 1 8, 1 759. 

Seven Years' War 17 

in the Services of next Campaign, the determinate number of 
which I Shall agreable to your promise, expect to be Acquainted 
with as Soon as possible. The Number of Troops Actually 
posted on the Mohawk River renders in my Opinion, that part 
of the Country so Secure against any Attempts of the Enemy, 
that I do not see the least room for its Inhabitants to be under 
any the least Apprehensions of being Molested, were there even 
a fewer Number of Troops, the Advantagious Situation of Fort 
Stanwix And the Garrison it contains would alone be capable 
of removing any fears, for if the Garrison is any thing alert no 
Small party of the Enemy can Make any inroad into that part 
of the Country, without their being able to interupt them Act 
Offensively Against them and cut them off particularly as Briga- 
deer Stanwix informs me they are well provided with Snow 

I am &c a .- 

A Letter from Gen: Amherst 
toS r . Will: Johnson 
January 8 th . 1 759 

in M. G. Amherst's of Jan'x. 18* 1759 


In Doc. Hist. N. Y., 2:768-69, is a letter of February 2d from 
Johnson to Robert Leake on books lent to Johnson, French preparations, 
change of heart experienced by the Delawares and a meeting with the Six 
Nations to be held. 

18 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Contemporary Copp x 

New York I I th . Feb: 1759. 

Although since my Letter of the 2 d . Instant nothing new has 
occur'd, Yet as M r . Wraxall tells me that he sets out tomorrow 
to Join you, I take that opportunity to acquaint you, that agre- 
able to mine of the 8 th . January, I have given Orders for the 
purchase of the 400, good Light Arms for the use of the Indians, 
and that all Endeavors are using to procure the same; Neverthe- 
less if you find that such of the Indians, as you may be able to 
Engage for the Service of next Campaign, are provided with 
Arms of their own, which they will certainly rather chuse than 
any other, by being so much lighter, you may propose to them, 
to bring them in, and to make them a reasonable allowance for 
the same; I must own I should be glad this plan should take 
place, as it will afford me a greater number of Light Arms, for 
the Light Infantry, a Company of which I have Ordered to be 
Trained up in each Regiment. 

I am sorry I cannot yet have the pleasure of acquainting you 
with the Arrival of the Money Ship, which I should imagine can- 
not be far off; so soon as she comes in, I shall transmit You the 

Warrant I am, 


Copy of a Letter from M. Gen: Amherst 
To SIR W M . JOHNSON, Bar*. 

INDORSED: Copy of a Letter from M. G 1 . Amherst 
To Sir W m . Johnson, Bar*. 
Feb. 11* 1759. 

in M: G. Amherst's of Feb?. 8*: 1759 

Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5.54, London^ England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, February 28, 1 759, probably (not 
February 8th, as stated in the indorsement) . 

Seven Years' War 19 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Fort Johnson Feb: 16*. 1759. 

I am favour'd with Your Excellency's of the 2 d . Instant, and 
am to acquaint You, that the Messengers whom I sent to call the 
Six Nations down, are return'd, and inform me they will soon 
arrive here. 

A Report having spread of the French's making some Prepara- 
tions for an Expedition at Oswegatchi, I sent a Scout thither 1 6 
Days ago, in Order to make what Discovery they cou'd; and as 
they were to return in about 20 Days, I daily expect them. 

I have now here between 70 and 80 Indians who are to pro- 
ceed on a Scout to Ticonderoga in two or three Days, but can 
scarcely furnish them with Arms proper for the Occasion, and 
shall be at a great Loss soon, unless Your Excellency can provide 
me with those I have before mention'd; In Consequence of your 
Excellency's former Letter, I have agreed for what Goods I 
cou'd find hereabouts fitting for Indians, for the Service of the 
next Campaign, but the Quantity being very inconsiderable, will 
require a large Augmentation, which must be procured at York 
or Philadelphia, and for which I shall give Directions.- I hope 
the Result of the ensuing Meeting will be productive of favour- 
able Consequences, and that I shall be able to engage a Large 
Body of Indians, the Number of whom I shall acquaint you 
with, as soon as it can be done with any Certainty or Exactness, 
but I flatter myself, and have some Reason to expect that (as 
Affairs are now Circumstanced) if an Expedition was designed 
against Niagara, or elsewhere, thro' the Country of the Six 
Nations, I shou'd be able to prevail upon the greater Part if not 
the whole of them, to join His Majesty's Arms; This Circum- 

Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5.54, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, February 28, 1 759. 

20 Sir William Johnson Papers 

stance I thought it my Duty to acquaint Your Excellency with, 
in Case such an Expedition was in Agitation. 

I am, &ca 

W m . Johnson 
His Excellency GEN. AMHERST.- 



A Letter from S r . W m . Johnson 

to M. G. Amherst- 

Feb. 16' h . 1759. 

in M: G: Amherst's of Fet>T. 28< h : 1759 



In Doc. Hist. N. y., 2 :769, is a letter of February 1 6th, from William 
Kelly, in New York, about a British expedition in the West Indies. 

Contemporary Copy 1 

New York 2& h . February 1759- 

Your Letter of the 16 th . Instant was delivered to me by Cap 1 . 
Gates,' 2 who Arrived here two days ago. 

I see with pleasure, that the Messengers whom you sent to 
call the Six Nations down are returned, and that they had 
Informed you, those Nations would soon arrive at Fort Johnson, 
in which I hope you have not been disapointed. 

I shall be very glad to have the report of the Scout You Sent 
out, to make what discovery they could of the preparations it was 

Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5.54, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, February 28, 1 759. 

2 Captain Horatio Gates, of the New York regiment ; later, major 
general in the Continental army. 

Seven Years' War 21 

Said the French were making for an Expedition at Oswegatchi, 
altho I do not apprehend there is any foundation for it, Yet as 
we cannot be too Watchfull, nor Such Scouts be Sent too fre- 
quently, I therefore recommend it to you to Send them as often 
as possible. 

I Shall likewise be very glad to learn what discoveries shall 
have been made by the 70 or 80 Indians you then had, and that 
were to proceed in two or three days on a Scout to Ticonderoga, 
which from the largeness of there Numbers I should think cannot 
fail of procuring us Some Intelligence that may be depended 
upon; With regard to Arms for them, I am hopefull that you 
will have been Able to procure a Sufficient Number upon the 
Conditions I proposed to you in my Letter by Cap*. Wraxall, 
to which I wait for an Answer with impatience, as, if that can- 
not take place, I shall immediately forward to you Such of the 
light Arms as I have already Collected, but which do not yet 
Amount near to the Number you desired : if other Arms would 
do, I could Supply you with them upon demand; I hope more 
light ones will come in daily, but for the reasons I gave you in 
my former Letter, I could wish you may have no Occasion for 
them, and Accordingly I Shall wait till I hear from you on that 

At the Same time that our future Operations are carried ort 
elsewhere I Shall not lose Sight of the Expedition you Mention/ 
and the reasons that induce you to desire it, Shall have the great- 
est weight with me at it's proper Season. 

I am &c. 



A Letter from Maj r . Gen. 

Amherst to 

Sir W m . Johnson Bar*. 

Feby. 26* 1759. 

in M: G: Amherst's of Feb*: 28* : 1759 


22 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A. L. & 1 

Fort Stanwix. Feb. 26* 1759 

I hope Captain Butler wrote you last night that we had taken 
up a french Indian (who speaks very good English) on suspicion 
of his being a Spy here for by all his behaviour and Questions 
he Askt he appeared either to be such or come here for a Scalp 
or to carry off a Prisoner with him, I sent him from this last 
night at 12 o'Clock with a detachment of a Sergeant and ten 
Rangers for Fort Herkemer well secur'd with Ropes and I wrote 
the Commanding officer at Fort Herkemer to send him forward 
well escorted and secur'd from post to Post till such time as he 
was deliver'd over to You, I have wrote this to Brig d . General 
Gage at Albany, and I hope Cap*. Butler has been full in report- 
ing this to you, for I must beg leave and make my apology to you 
for my being so short here for the short time I have to write just 
now won't allow me to be long so must beg leave to subscribe 
myself with all respect 


Your most humble and 
most obedient Servant 


INDORSED: on His Majesties Service 

The Hon ble 

Sir William Johnson Baronet 
at Fort Johnson 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Major James Clephane, of the 78th regiment 

round Hi 




South of the present village of Herkimer 


Seven Years' War 23 


Memorandum 29 th . March 1 759 - 

of Sundry articles to take up to Fort Harkemer for the Use 
of the Ind' 8 . of the Six Nations whom I am to meet, & treat with 

there also on my own Stores Viz*. 

Barrels of Pork 

D. of Flower 

Skipples of Ind n . Corn 

D. of Pease 

1 Teirce of Rice 

D. of Biscake 

1 Hogshead of Rum in Cases 

1 Barrel of D. - 

10 gallons of West India Rum 

10 D. of good Madera 

2 loaves of Sugar . 

1-5 of a O. of good Muscavado Sugar 

in a tight Cask marked 

2 Ib. of good Tea 

1 Cas of Butter 

2 Barrels of Milk Biscake, or white D. - 

1 Hundred of good Lemmons 

5 fatt Cattle 

5 good Hamms, or gammons 

1 Dozen of Neats tounges 

1 Dozen of fatt Sheep if to be had - 

10 p r . of Indian Blankets different Sizes 

60 p r . of gartering & gimps for Showd 2 Blankets 
10 pr. of 3-5 garlix ab\ 50 p - 

2 p 8 . of penniston 

10 Dozen of Clasp Knives 

2 Ib. of white thread for y c . garlix 
500 Needles for D. 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Stroud. 

24 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A. L. S. 1 

Albany the 2 April 1759 


I had a Letter Last Night by an Express from New York by 
which am informed that a Packet arrived there the 29 th of Last 
Month. My Corrispondant at New York has favoured me w* 
the Following Extract he has Rec. from Falmouth by the 
Packet, which perhaps may Amuse you a Little Considering 
where you are "Falmouth Feb? 17. 1759 I beg leave to 
acquaint you that all thoughts of Peace for the Present is 
abandnd, Notwithstanding France has offered it on our own 
Terms, giving up Senegal and Goree in Africa, but Rejected 
untill we hear of taking of Martinico or some other Island or 
Place in that Part of the World, and Quebeck to the North of 
you. The first Division of the Fleet for New York under Lord 
Colvil, 2 6 Men War &c Sailed 13 Days before the Packet; the 
Last Ace 1 : from Spain, 8 Days only before the Pacq 1 . Sailed 
the King of Spain then Living 3 the Princess of Orange Dead. 
Adm 1 . Saunders 4 Commands up the River S Lawrence Adm 1 . 
Boscawen Com d . a Fleet of observation on the Coast. This is 
the material News." I have Seen no Letters for you by the 
Express, it is possible some might have Come to the Gen ls . 
Should any thing your way offer worth Communicating I hope 
to hear from you, Especially if any thing good offer, that 1 may 
inform your Friends of it at York Some Letters Express uneasi- 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Alexander Lord Colville, born about 1710, died in 1 770. 

3 Ferdinand 6th died August 10, 1759. 

*Sir Charles Saunders, born about 1713, died in 1775, commanded 
the fleet which aided General Wolfe in the capture of Quebec. ' 


1 1 
fc I 

I I 

^ O 

Seven Years' War 25 

ness at the Long Delay of the Congress, 1 I hope soon to have the 
pleasure of hearing of its happy Determination. 

I am D r S r . 

Y r Sincere friend & Ob d . 

h blc . servant 
In haste H. V. ScHAACK 


The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 98, by 
a letter of April 3d from Captain Jelles Fonda, at Fort Herkimer, to 
Johnson, bringing news of Indians on their way to meet Johnson, and 
giving names of chiefs. Destroyed by fire. 

A. L. S. 2 

[Fort Stamvix] 9 th April 1759 

Saturday last an Oneida Indian was sent here with an. m 3 that 
the four Indians we sent from this place to Swegatia the 28 th 
Jan*?, last was returned to their Castle; and likewise that there 
was a Scalping party out from Swegatia which we might expect 
here in a few days, 

Yesterday a squa from Oneida, told me she was come from 
the Castle all the men being drunk or not at home, to let us 
know, that a french army was at the ossego falls on their way to 
Attack this place, 

The same evening the four Conessarago Indians from Swea- 
getia Arrived here they Confirm that the scalping party is out, 
& may be soon expected ; about fourteen in number, But know 
nothing of the Army further then that there were a number of 

1 Johnson held a conference with the Six Nations at Canajoharie from 
April 4th to the 22d. 

2 Destroyed by fire. 

3 So in the copy; " ace 18 .'* was evidently written. 

26 Sir William Johnson Papers 

French and Indians, assembled at Sweagatia; But has not the 
look of an Army, 

This day a young Indian lad on horsback Came express from 
Oneida; sent by Seonando, tells me that some Onondaga's mett 
with a party of French Indians who told the Onondagas that 
foure days ago the French Army was then crossing over at ossego 
falls, that upon their aproach to this place, they were to Devide 
their light Troops to Cut of the Communication from below: 
while the others attacked the place, this Is all I could learn about 
them The news the scout brings is not Matereall they arc 
to go tomorrow for Sir William Johnsons 

I am 

To Sir & B 1 

Commander in Chief 

Fort Stanwix 

INDORSED: Capt n Butlers Report to Major 
Clephane & a letter from 
Augatchy 2 


The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 98, by three 
papers which were destroyed by fire: an order of April 12th from the 
lords of the committee of council for plantation affairs, at Whitehall, 
referring Benjamin Franklin's petition to the lords of trade (printed in 
Doc. Hist. N. Y., 2:769-70; Q, 2:447); the petition of Benjamin 
Franklin, agent of the assembly of Pennsylvania, to the King in Council, 
asking consideration of matters relating to lands of which the Indians 
charge unjust dispossession by the proprietors of Pennsylvania (printed in 
Doc. Hist. N. Y., 2:770-72; Q, 2:447-48); and a communication, 
dated April 20th, from Joseph Peepe, an Indian at Schoharie, soliciting 
a service from Johnson to a sick Indian scout and a loan of money to 

1 T. B. this should be, evidently. 

2 Swegatchy ? 

Seven Years War 27 

Contemporary Copy 1 

Conojaharie, 27". April 1759. 


I Take the Earliest Opportunity to Acquaint you, that all the 
Material Business at the Meeting here with the Indians is 

Besides the Six Nations, Four Other Nations of Indians their 
Dependants, Assembled here, the Whole Amount, Men, Women 
and Children is about 500. 

It is with great pleasure I can Inform your Excellency, these 
Confederate Nations have, with every Mark of Unfeigned Zeal 
and Sincerity, declared their unanimous Resolutions of Joining 
in the present War against the French, have Accepted & taken 
up the War Hatchet, which I threw down to them in Your 
Name, as His Majesty's Commander in Chief upon this Conti- 
nent. They have assured me they will shew this War Hatchet 
to all their Allies and Dependants, by making known to all 
Indians they have Connections with, the Engagements they have 
Entered into at this Meeting; They also said that those Indians 
of their respective Castles or Towns, who did not attend this 
Meeting, had Engaged themselves to Abide by whatever Deter- 
minations should be here taken. 

The Chenossia Indians, who are a Body of the Seneca Nation, 
a Brave and Powerfull people that live nearest to Niagara, and 
the most remote from Us of any of the Six Nations two nights 
ago, at a War Feast I gave to the whole Body of the Indians 
here, Stood up, and with a Belt of Wampum, said they took 
this public and Solemn Opportunity, to declare their Satisfaction 

1 In Public Record Office, C. O. 5.55, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, June 1 9, 1 759. 

28 Sir William Johnson Papers 

at the Engagements which all the Nations had Entered into at 
this Congress, and that they were Authorized by their people to 
Declare their Resolutions had been fixed, since last Winter, to 
Commence Hostilities against the French and in which they were 
fully determined, and now Acquainted this Assembly, that they 
thought their Joining us in the destruction of Niagara, which was 
Built in their Country, and which they gave up to the English, 
would be the most Efficacous Plaister they could think of, to heal 
the Wounds which I complained We had received from some 
of the Five Nations their Allies & Dependants, during the Course 
of the present War, by the Murder of MacMichy, and Others 
His Majesty's Subjects; And they desired We might push this 
Enterprize with all possible Vigour and Dispatch, as the Success 
of it would greatly depend thereon. 

Not only from the public and general Declarations of the Indians 
at this Meeting, but from private Conferences I have had with 
their Chiefs, and a variety of other concurring Circumstances, I 
think, I have a good foundation to give it as my Opinion to Your 
Excellency, that, not only from Commencement of the present 
War, but for many Years past, His Majesty's Indian Interest, 
hath not Wore so favorable a Face, nor given Us such Encourag- 
ing prospects; And that if a Respectable Body of His Majesty's 
Forces should speedily March towards Lake Ontario, in order 
to Carry on Operations from thence against the Enemy, I would 
Join them with the Main Body of the Five Nations & many of 
their Allies, And that by the Appearance of Our Troops, and 
taking other Corresponding Measures, I could Succeed in pre- 
vailing on those of the Five Nations, who live at La Galette, to 
Abandon the French Interest, as well as many Other Nations of 
Indians to the Northward & Westward, whom the French Expect 
will Join them. 

The Senecas and Onondagas have informed me, that in con- 
sequence of a Belt of Wampum I sent some time ago to the 
Western Indians, (and which was backed by the 5 Nations) 
Deputies from 9 Nations of the said Forreign Indians, are 

Seven Years War 29 

Speedily Expected at Chenossio, from whence they propose to 
Come immediately down, with Deputies from the Six Nations, 
to my House, in order to hold a Meeting there. One of the 
principal Designs of which, as I understand, is to desire a Trade 
may be Established between them and the English, and which 
was formerly Carried on at Oswego. 

Your Excellency will naturally perceive, that the present 
favorable prospects of the Increase and Extention of His 
Majesty's Indian Interest will require, in Order to Cultivate and 
Support them, Additional Expences, and that I Cannot Act my 
part therein, without the necessary Supplies of Money ; I mention 
this to you that you may not be Surprised, if I should Speedily 
make fresh Application to you on that head; you may depend I 
do, and I shall Act with all the Oeconomy which the Nature of 
this Service will admit but such is its Nature, that a Con- 
siderable Expence is absolutely necessary, and I am of Opinion 
& flatter myself, the Good Effects to His Majesty's Service and 
the public Good, will more than Compensate those Expences, 
tho' these good Effects may not all of them be immediately felt. 
-The Indian Trade, Sir, alone, wisely & righteously Con- 
ducted, will be a Source of Vast Advantages, not only to these 
Colonies, but to the Commerce & Manufactures of Our Mother 
Country, and will be the most Solid & lasting Security to the 
Attachment of the Indians. 

Time will not permit me, in my present Situation, to transmit 
you a Copy of my Proceedings at this Congress ; I thought it best 
not to delay giving you the General Result of them; If you 
Chuse to peruse the Whole, a Copy shall be drawn out and Sent 
you as soon as possible, in the mean time M r . Wraxall, who I 
expect will have the honour to deliver you this Letter, may be 
able to Answer any particulars you may want to be informed of. 

I Propose herewith to Send a Letter to M r . Croghan, my 

30 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Deputy, who Writes me he is to remain with General Stanwix, 
and Acquaint him with the General Issue of this Meeting, as it 
will be absolutely necessary to the Success of his Indian Negotia- 
tions, to know the Resolutions of the Six Nations. 
I am, with the greatest Respect, &ca. 

W m . Johnson. 
His Excellency 


INDORSED: Copy Letter from Sir William Johnson, Bar*. 
To Major General Amherst. 
Dat d . Conojaharie April 21 st . 1 759. 
That all the material business at the Congress was 
finished. That besides the 6 Nations, four other 
Nations their dependants had assembled there, to 
the amount of about 500. Men Women & Children.- 
That they had all unanimously resolved to Join 
in the present War against the French. That 
those Indians of their respective Castles or Towns, 
who had not attended at this Meeting, had engaged 
to abide by the determination of the above. That 
the Chenossio Indians, a body of the Senecas, who 
live nearest to Niagara, had likewise resolved 
to Join us, & were of Opinion that an Attack on that 
place, would be the most Effectual to hurt the 
Enemy &ca. Concluding with demanding a fresh 
Supply of Money to set these Indians in Motion, 
in M. G. Amherst's of June 19. 1759. 
NO. 56. 

Seven Years' War 31 

Contemporary Copy 1 

Conojaharie, 22*. April 1759. 

Yesterday soon after M r . Wraxall left this place with my 
Letter to Your Excellency, a Deputation of the Sachims of Each 
of the Nations at this Meeting, came to my Quarters, and made 
a Speech to me, a Copy whereof I herewith transmit you. 

I Find they are all extremely desirous and Urgent that an 
Enterprise should be taken against Niagara, and I am so much 
perswaded of their Sincerity herein, that I think 800 Indians, if 
not more, would Join me therein ; I have promised them to trans- 
mit their Request to Your Excellency immediately, and when I 
receive Your Answer to let them know it. 

The French, by the Intelligence I have Sent to Brig r . Gage, 
have I believe, by this time, Two Armed Vessels upon Lake 
Ontario, and I apprehend they are the only Interruption, of 
Consequence, We should meet with in our Way to Niagara, & 
that the Fort would be no very difficult Conquest, as I Could 
Invest it with Indians to favour the Attack, and with them Cut 
off all Succours from coming to it. 

Your Excellency will permit me to Say, that I am of Opinion 
the Reduction of Niagara will Overset the whole French Indian 
Interest, and Trade, and throw it into Our hands, if this Con- 
quest be properly improved, and that if You should put this Plan 
in Execution, no Time should be lost, as the Transportation to 
Lake Ontario grows more & more difficult as the Summer 

I am, 


W m . Johnson 

Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5.55, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, June 19, 1 759. 

Sir William Johnson Papers 

I Expect this Letter may Overtake M r . Wraxall at my House 
or Albany. 

His Excellency 


INDORSED : Copy Letter from 

Sir William Johnson, Bar 1 . 

To Major General Amherst. 

Dated Conajoharie April 22 d . 1759. 

That after having dispatch'd his of the preceding 

day, a deputation of the Sachims of each of the 

Nations that had assisted at the Congress, came 

to him, & made him a Speech, whereby they were 

all extremely desirous & urgent that an enterprize 

should be taken against Niagara; And that he 

was so persuaded of their Sincerity therein, 

that he thought 800. Indians, if not more, would 

Join him in it At the same time enclosing a 

Copy of the Speech, in M. G. Amherst's of June 

19. 1759 

NO. 54. 


In Doc. Rel. to Col Hist. N. Y. t 7:378-94, is a journal of Johnson's 
proceedings, April 4-22, with the Six Nations and other Indians at 

ff&jSS^ Sketch .showind trip by water 








Seven Years' War 33 

Contemporary Copy 1 

[Philadelphia, April 24, 1759] 

The Honorable William Denny Esquire Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor and Commander in Chief of the Province of 
Pennsylvania and Counties of Newcastle, Kent and 
Sussex on Delaware. 

To Teedyuscung the Delaware Chief, and to all the Indians at 

Brethern, M r . Frederick Post 2 and M r . Isaac Still 3 wait on 
you, to inform you of what has passed at Allegheny, in Conse- 
quence of the Messages sent from Easton, Their proceedings 
have given us great satisfaction, and I hope they will be as agree- 
able to you. I have ordered them to hide nothing from you, 
being desirous you shou'd, both on this and every other Occasion, 
be made acquainted with all the Particulars that are worthy your 
notice. By this String I recommend them to you, and desire 
you will give them a kind reception, and hearken to what they 
say. A String 

Brothers. Isaac Still chose to stay all Winter among the 
Indians, that he might spread far and wide the good tidings of 
the Peace established at Easton 4 between us, and he has been 
very serviceable in doing this good Office. He is but lately 

It has been our great misfortune to lose the late General who 
Commanded the King's Forces in these Provinces, he was Sick 
whilst on the Campaign, and when he came here, he lingered 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Christian Frederick Post, a Moravian, carried a peace message to the 
Indian towns on the Allegheny in the autumn of 1 758. 

8 Isaac Still, an Indian, accompanied Frederick Post on his peace mission. 
4 The treaty of Easton held in October 1 758. 
Vol. Ill 2 

34 Sir William Johnson Papers 

a long time incapable of doing business, so that every thing was 
at a stand till the New appointment of a General, and this has 
been but lately made. 1 I mention Isaac Stills late return, and 
the Generals Indisposition, that you may be satisfied it was not 
owing to any want of respect to you, but to unavoidable accidents 
that you have not heard from me sooner. A String 

Brethern, The Indians living at the heads of the Ohio, at 
Canawago & Boccaloons, hearing of the reduction of Fort 
Duquesne and of the Arrival of the Messengers from Easton in 
the Indian Tovvns on Beaver Creek, sent some of their Chiefs to 
see the English General and those Messengers, in order to be 
informed what the Messages were, and how they were received, 
and likewise what the English intended to do further at the 
opening of this Year, These, tho' they came above two Months 
ago, did not receive their Answers sooner than last Week, owing 
to what has been before mentioned. 

The King's General in Chief, 2 as well as the General who 
Commands under him in these parts, together with myself, and 
the Governors of New York, and New Jersey, took those Depu- 
ties kindly by the Hand, and give them the strongest Assurances 
of our good will and Friendship for them and all the other 
Indians, and likewise of the good reception that all should meet 
with, who would return to their Antient Friendship and alliance 
with us, We further acquainted them that the English intended 
this Campaign to oblige the French to abandon all the Country 
on the Ohio, without any design of settling those Lands them- 
selves, they only propose to Establish a Trade with the Western 
Indians, on a fair and good footing, and as a protection for their 
Traders and such Indians as incline to trade with us, to build 
one or more Magasines for Indians Goods, fortifying the same 
in such a Manner as to prevent any bad designs of the French. 

1 General John Forbes died March 11,1 759. He was succeeded by 
General John Stanwix. 

2 Jeffery Amherst became commander in chief in September 1 758, 
replacing General Abercromby. 

Seven Years' War 35 

Brethern, I now acquaint you that the King intends to con- 
tinue his Forces on the Western Frontiers until the French shall 
have abandoned all their Forts there, if they refuse to go away 
voluntarily, they must be compelled by Force to do it, so that 
the Operations of the next Campaign will depend on the Meas- 
ures which the French shall think proper to take. In the mean- 
time, it is his Majesty's orders, that a place of strenghth be built, 
on or near the Ruins of the late French Fort, in order to protect 
the Indians, and place our good Brethern the Indians as well as 
ourselves, in a safe, & respectable condition. 

Brethern, I have waited with impatience for the answers of 
the Ohio Indians to our Messages, and none being yet come, I 
have sent off a Message to those Indians, to desire they wou'd fix 
the Time of a General Meeting for the final settlement of a 
Peace. I would have done it but when I considered, that any 
Time I cou'd fix, might not suit with the various Tribes of Indians 
who were expected to join in this good work, I thought it best 
to leave it to them, and to desire they would settle it among 
themselves, and the sooner the Meeting was appointed the more 
agreeable it would be to us, who are heartily disposed for a firm 

I expect to hear every day from the Ohio, and as soon as I 
receive any thing from thence, or any other Place, that concerns 
you, I will communicate it to you with all Dispatch. 

Brethren, I have opened my mind to you, I have told you all 
our future designs, The General joins with me in this Message, 
and I give you this Belt to assure you of the Truth thereof. 

A Belt. 

Brother, You are to hear and see for us, Therefore desire to 
be informed of what has passed among the Indians in any Place 
where you, or your young Men, have been or heard from. This 
string is to clear your Throat that you may speak fully and 
clear to me A String. 

36 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Brother Teedyuscung, 

I request you wou*d be so good as to let all the Indians round 
you to the Indians at Ohio collect all their People and Friends, 
and come & Meet us at a great Council in this City to be held 
for the final accommodation of all our Differences, and the con- 
clusion of a firm Peace. I rely much on the continuance of your 
Zeal, and service You know you are the Councellor and 
Agent of this Government, and I chuse you shou'd say for it, 
on this, and all other Occasions what you Judge proper and 
necessary to engage yours and the other Tribes of Indians in the 
Interest of the English 

A Belt 

William Denny 
On margin and back * 

Brriid is along teym det wi hef nod hoerd of ju wi hops det 
evri ting is well Brr if nod wid standing eni bed or rong stori 
schud hef ridgt jer oers I bey des string dier en teck evere ting 
and de we brr onley dies wi led ju no of our lof en gud dis- 
posishen to wards ju. 

brr bey is string I in behalf of de Shennerals, end governors 
ed all schendel pipell hartli salud ju, end all jur pipel in jur 
tawn end hop to feind ju all well bey jur feir 

brr bey dies string I wud open jur eiys in wid de saft feder 
let in a gud ligh jur oeirss det ju me siee hier end understend 
en teck notis to wad de messenjers sey 

brr en if ju schud hef hoerd of eni bed stori end scholloid dawn 
I bey des string clierr jur trots det ju me spick dier from jur 
hard to us. 

br ju er to hier en to sie for us; I derfor er deseirious, to bi in 
formd of ju wad hes bin passd among de indjchens, in enni pies 
wer ju pr jur jung men hef bin or hord from, I bey des string 
de seir to reled to us of wad ju hef hord en sin. 

1 This message, accompanying Governor Denny's, was sent apparently 
by a German agent of the colonial government. 

Seven Years' War 37 


The preceding message is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 98, by 
a letter to Johnson from Daniel Campbell, written at Schenectady, April 
30th, concerning preparations for a funeral. 


Contemporary Copy) * 

Albany 3*. May 1759. At Noon. 

As I did not receive Your Letter of the 22 d . Ultimo, till just 
as I was going to Set out for this place on the 28 th ., I deferr'd 
Answering it 'till my Arrival here, which was about an hour ago, 
and now I lose no time in Sending You Cap*. Prescott, 2 One of 
my Aid de Camps, to beg the favor of you to meet me at 
Schenectady tomorrow morning about ten of the Clock, when I 
propose to be there to Answer the Contents of Your Letter and 
its two Enclosures fully ; Meanwhile I am, with great regard, 


Jeff: Amherst 

INDORSED: Copy Letter from M. Gen: Amherst 
to Sir William Johnson, Bar 1 . 
Dat d . Albany May 3<*. 1759. 
That being on his departure for Albany when he 
received his Letter of the 22 d . April, he deferr'd 
Answering it till his arrival, that being just 
come, he now desird S r . W m . to meet him the 
next morning at Schenectady, when he should 
Con f err with him upon the Contents of his Letter, 
in M. G. Amherst's of June. 19. 1759 
NO. 59. 

Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5.55, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, June 19, 1 759. 
2 Captain Robert Prescott. of the 1 5th reciment. 

38 Sir William Johnson Paper* 



Albany 6*. Ma* 1 758, 


Being very impatient to receive the Report you promised to 
make me, of the Intelligence that you could get from the Indians 
in regard to La Galette, its Environs and Niagara, I cannot defer 
reminding you that I hope, by ^he time this reaches you, you will 
have procured the Same, and be able to Satisfy me on that head ; 
Meanwhile I am continuing to forward, to the Utmost, the 
Preparations for the Lake, without losing Sight of those for the 
plan of the Westward, in case I should think it right to Attempt 
something there; It therefore is necessary, I should be furnished 
with all the Intelligence and Information possible; And I Should 
hope you might by some of Your Indians, be informed how far 
it is practicable taking a Corps of Troops from Presqu' Isle 
to Niagara, in which, I beg you will be as precise and Circum- 
stantial as possible, that if such an Attempt should be practicable, 
nothing may be wanting to Warrant its Success. 

Cap 1 . Prescott is the Bearer of this Letter, by whom I should 
be glad to receive Your Answer. 

I am, 

Jeff: Amherst. 


Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5.55, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, June 19, 1 759. 

Seven Years War 39 

INDORSED: Copy Letter from M. Gen: Amherst 
to Sir William Johnson, Bar*. 
Dart Albany May 6* 1759.- 
Sir W m . in his Conference with the Gen 1 , at 
Schenectady on the 4 th ., having promised to make 
him a report of the Intelligence he should obtain in 
regard to La Galette, its environs & Niagara, 
which the General was Impatient of having, he 
here reminds him of his Promise. 
In M. G. Amherst's of June 19. 1759 
NO. 60. 



Contemporary Copp x 

Fort Johnson, 6*. May 1759. 

Agreable to Your desire, I Send You a Sketch of Niagara, 
taken yesterday from such Senecas now here, as are best 
Acquainted there ; I had three Several Drafts, and all agreed so 
nearly, that I imagine the Enclosed is as Exact as can be got 
from Such People. 

I Have Yesterday Served out the last Ammunition I had, and 
as there are several Indians here Yet, who have had none, and 
Others daily Coming and Expected, I Should be glad your 
Excellency would please to Order some up to Schenectady, as 
soon as May be, such as good Powder, Small Ball, or small 
Bar Lead Good Light Arms will Soon be greatly wanted. 

The Quantity of Goods, &ca, which I had lately purchased 
at York and Philadelphia being only Calculated for such a 
Number of Indians as I Judged would be got to Join Your 
Excellency against Tienderoga, will fall very far Short, should 

Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5.55, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, June 19, 1 759. 

40 Sir William Johnson Papers 

an Expedition be Set on foot against Niagara, as there would 
a much greater Number of Indians Join His Majesty's Arms 
that way than any Other, and as the procuring a necessary Quan- 
tity for such Numbers will require some time, I doubt not your 
Excellency will give me timely Notice. 

I am, 

W m . Johnson. 
His Excellency 


INDORSED : Copy Letter from 

Sir William Johnson, Bar*. 

To Major General Amherst. 

Dat d . Fort Johnson May 6 th . 1 759. 

Accompanying a Sketch of Niagara, and 

desiring the Gen 1 , would order some Ammuni 

tion to Schenectady, for the use of the Indians. 

NB. this Letter crossed the Gen ls . of the same day, 

on the road. 

in M. G. Amherst's of June 19. 1759 

N. 61. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Albany 8*. May 1759.- 

I Am to thank you for the Sketch Enclosed in yours of the 6 th . 
Instant, delivered to me Yesterday, and repeat to you my desire 
of receiving all the Intelligence and Information you can possibly 
procure, agreable to my Enclosed Letter, with which Cap 1 . Pres- 

a ln Public Record Office, C. O. 5.55, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, June 19, 1 759. 

Seven Years' War 41 

cott was yesterday on his Road to you, but returned, pursuant 
to my directions, in Case he should learn any One was Coming 
to me from you. 

Immediately upon the Receipt of Your Letter, I Issued an 
Order to the Comptroller of the Ordnance, to pick out as many 
Light Arms as he Could find in the Stores, with Powder, Small 
Ball or small Bar Lead, Sufficient for Four Hundred Men, and 
to Pack up the Same in order to be forwarded to you, with 
directions that before they were Sent, the Arms should be brought 
to me, that I might be Certain they were fit for the Service they 
are intended; But the Storekeeper informs me, that there are at 
present no more than Four Light Arms in the Stores, which pre- 
vents me from sending those I destined for you, so soon as I 
Could Wish; however as I left Two Hundred at New York, 
which I Expect up daily, I hope soon to be able to Supply you 
with them, which you may be Assured, shall be immediately 
after they are Landed here; Wherefore as you have frequent 
Occasions to Send Your Waggons here, you may Order them 
to Call at HeadQuarters, that if they be Come, by the time they 
return, they may take them to you. 

So soon as I am Certain of going the Way You Mention, I 
shall give you Notice, Meanwhile I am &ca 

Jeff. Amherst. 
SIR W M . JOHNSON, Bar 1 . 

INDORSED: Copy Letter from M. Gen Amherst 
to Sir W m . Johnson, Bar 1 . 
Dat d . Albany May 8*. 1 759. 
Thanking him for the Sketch of Niagara & 
Acquainting him that he had order'd the 
Ammunition, together with 200. light Arms, 
in M. G. Amherst's of June 19. 1759 
NO. 62. 

42 Sir William Johnson Papers 


In the Johnson Calendar, p. 98, are two papers which were destroyed 
by fire: Rob. Mackinlay's letter, written at New York May 16th, 
acknowledging kindness and introducing Doctor McColm, surgeon to the 
Royal Scots ; and a letter, dated Fort Johnson, May 1 7th, to the lords 
of trade, recommending reduction of Fort Niagara, extension of trade 
with Indians and satisfaction of their just complaints, with suggestions as 
to Indian superintendency and a defense of his Indian policy (printed in 
Doc. Hist. N. 7., 2:781-85; Q, 2:453-55, and Doc. Rd. to Col. 
Hist. N. Y. t 7:375-78). 


Contemporary Copy l 
Copy/ Albany I9 ih . May 1759. 


The Assurances You have given me, both by Letters and in 
Conversation, that the Confederate Nations of Indians had, with 
every Mark of unfeigned Zeal and Sincerity, declared their 
Unanimous resolutions of joining in the present War against the 
French; have determined me to pursue the plan I had before 
formed for an Enterprize against Niagara, which I now propose 
to Carry into Execution, with all possible dispatch, with a large 
Corps of Regular & Provincial Troops, the former of which are 
already Garrisoned and Encamped along the Mohawk River, 
and the latter are Ordered to Schenectady, together with Every 
thing Else that may be still wanting, to Carry this Enterprize 
most Effectually into Execution:- And as you have also 
informed me, that the Indians were all extreamly desirous and 
Urgent that the above Enterprize should take place, and that 
you were so perswaded of their Sincerity therein, that you thought 
Eight Hundred of them, if not more, would Join you in it; I 

Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5.55, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, June 19, 1 759. 

Seven Years War 43 

must therefore now desire, that you will immediately set about 
Collecting as many of them, for that purpose, as you can, without 
nevertheless acquainting them, that Niagara is the Object in 
View, lest, thro' inadvertency or Otherwise, they might disclose 
the Same, and the Enemy be Apprized thereof, which might be 
productive of some Delays in the Success of His Majesty's 
Arms :- Wherefore, this is entirely in Confidence to, and for, 
Your Own Self. 

As I have given the Command of this Enterprize to Brig r . 
General Prideaux, an Officer of Rank and Experience, and that 
he is fully provided with Everything requisite to Warrant the 
Success of this Undertaking, I have only to beg, that you will, as 
soon as possible, Join him, with the Number of Indians you shall 
be able to Collect, at Oswego, and there put Yourself and them 
under his Command, and that you will Assist him with Your 
advice, and give him all the Intelligence and Information that 
you have, or may Acquire, from your long residence among, and 
Experience of, the Indians, and your knowledge of this Country .- 
I am. 


Jeff: Amherst. 

INDORSED: Copy. Letter from M: Gen: Amherst 
to Sir William Johnson, Bar 4 . 
DaK Albany May 19*. 1759 
That he had now come to a resolution of making 
an Attempt on Niagara, and had given the Com- 
mand of that Enterprize to Brig r . Gen. Prideaux; 
where fore he desired him, without loss of time, to 
Collect as many Indians as he possibly could get, 
& with them Join Brig r . Prideaux at Oswego, 
giving him all the Aid & Assistance he should 
stand in need of, during this undertaking, for which 
every thing was already in great forwardness, 
in M. G. Amherst's of June 19. 1759 
N. 63. 

44 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Contemporary Copy * 

Copy Albany 23 d . May 1759. 


By my Letter of the 1 9 th . I Acquainted you with the Resolu- 
tion I had come to, immediately to Carry into Execution the 
Attempt I had proposed to myself, and which was likewise hinted 
by you, in some of your Letters, the Command of which, you 
will have seen, I have given to Brig r : General Prideaux, and 
desired of you to give him all the Aid and Assistance therein, 
that you are Capable of, with the Body of Indians which you 
intended to Collect upon that Occasion, and with which it was 
my desire, you should Join Brigadier Prideaux without loss of 
time; All these Matters I must again most earnestly recommend 
to you, And that nothing may retard the immediate Execution 
of this Enterprize, I have picked out Two Hundred of the best 
and lightest Arms (of the Carbine kind) come out from Eng- 
land, which I now Send you for the Use of your Indians, and 
which I dare Say you will Approve of; My reason for Sending 
you these, is because those I Expected from York are not yet 
Come, and may perhaps not be here, so soon as it is absolutely 
necessary to put your Indians in Motion ; Besides, as I Observed 
before, I am Confident these I Send are better than the French 
Arms; I trust therefore that upon Receipt of them, with what I 
have before Sent you, and with those the Indians will bring of 
their own, you will directly be Able to Compleat, and proceed 
with the whole Number of Indians to the Place of Rendezvous, 
that M r . Prideaux may not, for want of them, be retarded in his 
Operations. I Send you this by Cap*. D'Arcy my Aid de 
Camp, and Am, 


Jeff: Amherst. 
SIR W M . JOHNSON, Bar 1 . 

Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5.55, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, June 19, 1 759. 

Seven Years War 45 

INDORSED: Copy. Letter from M: Gen: Amherst 
to Sir William Johnson, Bar*. 
Dat d . Albany May 23 d . 1759. 
repeating his instances of the 19 h . and that 
nothing might retard his Joining the Brig r . with 
the Indians sends him 200 Carbines, 
in M. G. AmherstVof June 19. 1759 
N. 64. 

A. L. S. 1 

Scheneclady Ma\> 23 d . 1759 

Briged r . Gen 1 . Prideaux has directed me to acquaint you that 
he has sent you the Serj. & twelve which you required, into 
whose charge you may give the Indian Prisoner, and in case you 
should think it necessary that he should be tied, you'll give such 
directions as you judge proper. 



Major of Brigade. 


In the Johnson Calendar, p. 98, is a letter from Peter Wraxall, dated 
New York, May 23d, on incidents in Johnson's household, news from 
Johnson's son at school in Philadelphia, capitulation of Guadeloupe, Stan- 
wix's excursion to westward, the Ohio patent and a movement against 
Niagara. Destroyed by fire. (Printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y., 2:785-87; 
Q, 2:456-57.) 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 " Herveys " in the copy; Hervey in Army LisL 

46 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy x 
Copy/ Fort Johnson, 24 ih . May 1759.- 


I Am just now honoured with yours of Yesterday by the hands 
of Cap*. D'Arcy; Upon my Receipt of your Excellency's last, 
I immediately dispatched a Message to all the Indians Living 
at, and about the Susquahana River, with Directions for them 
to meet me immediately at Fort Stanwix, it lying the nearest to 
their Settlements; The Upper Nations are to meet me at Oswego, 
and the Mohawks, with some Others, are to proceed with me 
from hence. 

Your Excellency may be Assured that nothing shall be want- 
ing on my Side, which may Expedite and promote the Success 
which We may hope for, from the present intended Enterprize, 
but that I shall to the utmost of my Ability, Assist Brig r . General 
Prideaux with all the Indians I can possibly Collect, from whom 
I have great Expectations.- 

I Make no doubt but the Carbines will Answer very well, but 
the Indians will Expect payment for those Arms they bring, on 
which Account, as well as for Officers pay, and the Additional 
Quantity of Goods, &ca, which I was Obliged to purchase, when 
last at Albany for the Campaign, as the Service might suffer 
for want of a Sufficiency, I shall require a Warrant for 3000 
Sterling, which I mentioned to Brig r . General Prideaux at Sche- 
nectady, who promised he would Write to your Excellency about 
it, and Some other things very necessary for me to have. I am 


W m Johnson. 
His Excellency 

Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5.55, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, June 19, 1759. 

Seven Years' War 47 

INDORSED: Copy ; Letter from 

Sir William Johnson, Bar*. 
To Major General Amherst. 
Dat d . Fort Johnson May 24 th . 1759. 
That immediately upon the receipt of the Gen 1 ' of 1 9 h 
he had dispatched a Message to all Indians at & 
about the Susquehana River, to meet him at Fort 
Stanwix; those of the upper Nations at Oswego 
& the Mohawks to proceed with him; that he 
should aid & Asst B r .Prideaux, in every thing, 
but desired a fresh Supply of Money of 3000. St*- 
NB a Warrant was sent for said Sum. 
in M. G. Amherst's of June 19. 1759 
NO. 65. 

A. L. S. 1 

Albany May 30*. 1759 

I hear you are Immediately to march therefore heartily wish 
you success, and shall be glad to hear from you as opertunity 
serves and shall let you know how it goes here Guardeloop 
is taken it is said the French Fleet is left Martinico, for the 
River St. Laurance, if so, there may be a warm action 

it is said our Fleet is sailed, but I dont hear a confirmation of 
it- The Inniskillin Reg 1 , is marched for fort Edward this 

The french have taken all the rigging of the Sloop at Lake 
George, also the floating Battery and burnt the stores 
deposited in a vault at Lake George - 

We shall soon begin to expect the opening of the Campaigne 

If it is any way convenient to you please to remember to send 
me a draft on the paymaster for one hundred and ninety pounds 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

48 Sir William Johnson Papers 

in favour of Capt Craughan I believe they want the 
money much who are to receive it 

I forgot to remember you when in town of W Landers bill for 
the Neals 7s. 14 

This Family heartily salute you and wishing you all happiness 
and a safe return, believe me to be Ever Sincerely yours 

at Fort Johnson 


The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 99, by 
three papers which were destroyed, a report of the lords of trade, dated 
Whitehall, June 1st, to the lords of the committee of council for plantation 
affairs on Benjamin Franklin's petition, describing recent negotiations and 
the concessions of the proprietors to the Indians, and sketching the history 
of Indian wrongs (printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y., 2:772-80: Q. 
2:449-53); a letter, New York, June 8th, Peter Wraxall to Johnson 
about correspondence, arrangements for the campaign, European news and 
politics, East India possessions, report to the board of trade, Major Rogers's 
commission ( Doc. Hist. N. Y.. 2:787-89;' Q, 2:457-58) ; and a letter 
dated Mashpee, June 21st, from Gideon Hawley to Elisha Gunn, gun- 
smith at Onohoquage, expressing grief for afflictions of Indians and the 
wish that health permitted him to be a missionary among the Mohawks. 

Copy Onida Lake June 21*. 1759 

After orders the Army to make up the provisions they have 

1 Generallyso called. Schoolcraft (N. Y. Hist. Soc. Proc., 1 :58-64) 
thinks that a John McKenzie was the author. Internal evidence at least 
shows that it was kept by some one in the New York Regiment of Pro- 
vincials on the Niagara expedition. The text here printed was taken from 
a copy acquired by the State Library in 1866, but destroyed by fire in 
1911. It was in page proof before it was discovered that the New York 
Historical Society had the original. A comparison of the two shows that 
the copy varies at times in spelling, punctuation, capitalization and abbre- 
viation. Except in these matters, where the sense is not affected, the 
printed text has been made to conform to the original, including the spell- 
ing of proper names. 

Seven Years War 49 

at present to the 29 th . inclusive. 4 days of which is to be cooked, 
the Q:M: of each Regiment to receive the number of battoes 
appointed for each Regt. tomorrow at 1 0. O'clock. In the boats 
sent up with the Regiments of the 44 th . & 46 th . a small port- 
mantle trunk with an oil cloth with a rope & c . T. Motto marked 
with white nails on it any person having of in his possession, 
will on his sending on it to the Adjutant of the Royal Americans, 
be handsomely rewarded for the same. Masons, Sawyers, Brick- 
layers, Wheel-wrights, Cutlers, Carpenters, house & ship joiners, 
Turners, Black Smiths, Gun Smiths, White smiths, Tent makers, 
Bakers, Brewers & coller makers. The Captain of each company 
to give in a return of all such tradesmen immediately. 

Oneida Lake June 22 nd 1759. 

After general orders the battoes to be appointed on the beach 
and drawn up in 3 separate divisions, leaving an interval between 
each division. The battoes to be No. & marked for each Regi- 
ment, as soon as the proper number is assigned to each. . . . 
Each Regiment is to assign so many boats to each company and 
the Q. M. is to take down the number the boats are marked with, 
which carry each company that he may the better be able to give 
directions . to them in forming into their collumns. An officer 
to be in every boat if possible, if not a good careful Searjent, who 
is to take care that the men work the boats properly, and keep 
the water constantly bailed out and the provisions preserved. 
Each boat to carry 16 men officers included, the officer to report 
the state & condition of his boat, as soon as we arrive at any 
shore to the Commanding officer of the Coar. The Commanding 
officers of Coars to make that report to the General as soon as 
possible y l those boats may be repaired that want it the Army 

50 Sir William Johnson Papers 

to row over the lake in 3 collumns. Front whale boat with y* 
Light infantry & Grenidiers of the 44 th & 46 th Regiments. 

Left Center & Right 

N. York 46 th . & 44 th . 

Battallions Artillery R al . A n . Batt". 


Grenidiers and Royal Americans In Whale Boats. 

When the troops are to Imbarque each coar is to form opposite 
their boats. On the orders given, each Company will form of, 
man by man, the officer of 1 Sej ts . leading them into each boat, 
taking care that the men march in first and take their oars, its 
expected that the officers on all occasions, keep there men silent 
and oblige them to execute all orders with activity and great 
regularity. The boats to form in a Dreap 2 keeping in a line and at 
such distances of each other that they may have the free use of 
their oars, the Distance of 2 boats length to be kept between each 
line of boats, and intervals to be kept between each Collumn suffi- 
cient to form the whole in front. When any order is given on 
the front, its to be passed from boat to boat and Immediately 
executed . . . orders of this Imbarkation . . . On orders to disim- 
barque the field officers of the day is to land with the Granidiers 
and Light Infantry, who are immediately to take post. During 
this time the Collumns are to form into a line abrest the boats, 
taking care to keep clear of each other when orders are given to 
each other to advance the whole is to push on shore and the 
troops to land as soon as possible, the officer taking care that the 
men move out of the boats without confusion and form 2 deep as 
quick as possible, leaving two men in each boat to take care of 
them, who are immediately to make them fast and bail the water 
out of them no baggage boat to be unladed till orders are given 
to the whole and then two men more are to be sent to Each boat 
for that purpose ... the officers to take their baggage in the 

1 Should evidently be " or." 

2 So in the original. 

Seven Years War 51 

boat they go in themselves, excepting where there is powder. 
No officer to remove any stores from one boat to another except 
in cases of accident. No soldier to fire out of the boat. The 
officer to be answerable for the disobedience of these orders. 

June 23 rd . That no officer or soldier fire or flash his piece on 
any account without a particular order for it. If any soldier, 
notwithstand this order presume to fire or flash his piece of, he 
shall receive 100 lashes without the benefit of a court martial, & 
the officers of the several Companies are to be careful to find out 
any such person who shall disobey this order & deliver him to the 
Quarter Guard and report the same Immediately that he may be 
immediately punished, and that no person may plead Ignorance 
of this order the Sergeants of the several Companies are to read 
it to the men. 

Parole Hartford 

Field Officer tomorrow, Lieut Col. Massey 

The army to receive tomorrow the general to beat at 4 O'clock, 
the Assembly i an hour after, and the whole to march down imme- 
diately to the ground opposite their battoes appointed to carry 
e.ach corps, and to be ready to embarque the baggage to be put on 
board J an hour after 4 O'Clock The boats which the Com- 
manding Officers of Coars and belonging to the Sutlers to make 
the rear of the Collumns. An express to go off to morrow morning, 
the officers to send their letters by Retreat beating to the Major of 
Brigade's Tent. When the troops are on board and receive orders 
for forming into collumns, the Collumn on the Right to form 
from the Center and Left Collums on the Right the Q. M. 
Gen 1 , to give in a return as soon as possible to the Major of 
Brigade of the provision of all species now at this post. The 
Regiments to give in returns this afternoon of all the men they 
have that has ever been over the Oswego Falls, and Sir William 
Johnson to return all the white people under his command thats 
ever been over the Falls. 

52 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Camp at 3 Rivers June 23 rd . 1759. 
Parole Leads 

Field Officer Tomorrow Col Farqueher. 1 

The Commissaries to deliver to each Regiment a barrel of 
Rhum for which the Regiment will be accountable on account 
of the Q r Master delivered out to be delivered into the Commis- 
sary the day after tomorrow. The centinals not always to remain 
behind one tree but shift the space of 20. yards, a Captains 
piquet of 50 men of each Regiment to mount immediately with 
the regard to which the same orders to be observed as was given 
out yesterday As there is either Serg 1 . or Corp 1 on board each 
battoe the General expects that orders given out the 20 th . instant, 
relating to silence will be more regularly observed, as he is fully 
determined to avoid repeating of orders by punishing for the 
future the disobedience of them, he hopes this last warning will 
be sufficient The Army tomorrow to be in readiness to Imbarque 
3. O'clock in the morning. The Grenidiers & Light Infantry 
Leaving 4 men in Each battoe to march Immediately tomorrow 
morning at 5 o'Clock and to take post on the Western shore 
of the Reafs ... A Detathment of 500 men and officers in 
proportion of the Line, to march at the same time and to take 
post on this end of the Rifts, the officers to remain on shore 
at the Rifts until all the boats of the several Companies are 
past and to see that they follow each other at their proper 
distance. If any boat by accident shall run on shore, the whole 
is to halt until it is got off. In case of an alarm in Camp, 
the men are immediately to turn out with the greatest silence 
before their tents and there wait for orders, and the second 
pickette is immediately to advance and join that which is 
advanced, and in case of an alarm the whole is to put on shore 
immediately on y* side which the Front boats shall be put to and 
form in the front of the Boats, leaving one man in each boat 

Lieutenant Colonel William Farquhar of the 44th regiment. 

Seven Years' War 53 

to take care of it. by this order the Regiments may see how 
to keep their boats in order which therefore are recommended 
to them. A return of leaky battoes to be given in Immediately 
by the Q r . M r . of each Regiment to the D. Q r . M r . Gen 1 . 

The advanced Piquet and Line Piquet and Quarter Guard to 
march By Land tomorrow. 

Great Falls. June 24 th . 1759 
Parole ....................... ..... Lancaster 

Field Officer Tomorrow. Major Munster. 1 

The Light Infantry to take post at the Still water where the 
boats are to be drawn up together, the Grenadiers to take post 
at the Strong water at the meadoes, the Light Infantry & Grena- 
diers to throw up a small brest work at each of their posts. 
Directions will be given by Captain Sowers. 2 

To parade tomorrow morning at 4. O'clock at the General 
parade at the head of the 44 th Regiment, a working party of 

Sub Sjes Co men 

^ ^ ^^ 

10: 20: 30: 30: 1000: 

his Report to Col Haldemand. One subaltern and 30 men 
to mount tomorrow morning on y e General parade. The Regi- 
ments of the Line to give this guard alternately, the General 
expects on the arrival of a Regiment on their ground, always a 
subaltern officer as soon as the Tents are pitched are to see that 
the men boil their kettles. The Yorkers gives 380 men for 
fatigue tomorrow. 

R. O. It is Col Johnson's orders that the Captains of the 
different companies give in a return immediately of the No of 

1 Major Herbert Munster, of the 60th regiment. 

2 Captain Thomas Sowers, an engineer. 

3 The abbreviations in the line are C=captains, Sub's = subalterns, 
Sjes:= sergeants, Cor=corporals. In the paragraph below R. O. Regi- 
mental Orders. 

54 Sir William Johnson Papers 

boats and the No. each boat is numbered with, specifying the 
number of barrels in each boat, and what they contain. The 
Captain or next commanding officer, to see that the men turn out 
tomorrow morning for the working party. 

Great Falls. June 25*. 1759. 

Parole | Countersign 1 Field Officer Tomorrow! 

Granbee. J Senica J Col. Masay J 

The Grenadiers & Light Infantry to encamp on the opposite 
side of the River, in order to cover the battoes, & to cross the 
river at 1 1 . O'clock. Cap*. McClean 1 to shew the ground. An 
officer of a Regiment and a man for each battoe to go down 
to the Grenadiers Post, the officer to be answerable that the 
men keep constantly bailing out the water. The Royal Americans 
to march down to the Post now occupied by the Grenadiers and 
Light Infantry at. 1 0. O'clock leaving an officer and one man to 
each boat. No person whatsoever to go to the Lower Post with- 
out arms, the General expecting the Indians this day, hopes that his 
orders with regard to Rum will be strictly observed. 

A. Regimental Court Martial to sit immediately at the Presi- 
dents Tent, to try such prisoners as shall be brought before them. 

Capt Swartwout 2 President 

_ f Members 

Lieut Defreast J 1 Lieut Radchft 

Lieut Dunbar "1 Mb f Lieut Lent 

Lieu 1 . Burns to take out of Captain Van Zandt's 3 Company 
40 sailors and to join and continue with the artillery. If any of 
the Serj ts are sailors, to take 2, and Corporals 2, but to reckon 

1 Captain Allen McLean, of the New York regiment. 

2 Captain Jacobus Swartwout, of Dutchess county. 

3 Captain Tobias Vanzandt, of New York City and County. 

Seven Years War 55 

them with the number notwithstanding the orders for detaching 
20 men from Captain Heights company, was given at this Ins*, 
Cap 1 . Height with his officers and whole Company are to con- 
tinue at this place. Likewise L*. Lent with the remainder of 
Cap* Homes Company. 

Camp at Osrvego Falls 26 th . June 1759 

Parole Rutland. 

Field Officer for tomorrow, Major Beckwith. 1 Adj*. D 46 th . 
Regiment. The baggage, except the tents to be Imbarqued this 
afternoon, for which boats will be ordered at. 4. O'clock. No 
Officer of soldier to question any prisoners that shall be brought 
in On the arrival of the Army to Oswego the Kings Commis- 
saries are to receive and give receipts for the provisions of all 
kinds that they shall receive from the Quarter Masters of the 
several Regiments. An officer of a company is to deliver the 
provisions over to the Q r . Master, which was in the boats that 
carried the several companies. The Light Infantry and Grena- 
diers are likewise to deliver over in the same manner to the Com- 
missaries, the provisions which were in their whale boats. 

Oswego June 27 ih , 1759 
Parole Sudderland 

Field Officer for tomorrow Col Farqueher. Adj*. Ditto 60 th . 
Regiment. The 44 th . Regiment will receive Instructions from 
the Qu r . M r . Gen 1 to land the provisions out of the boats 
tomorrow morning at. 4. O'Clock and officers and 60 men for 
that duty, a commussary likewise to attend, who is ordered to give 
a receipt for the provisions brought by each coar, and to report 
the Condition of them to the General. The other Regiments to 
be in readiness to unlade their battoes when y e Q. M. G. gives 
them Notice, the oars belonging to the boats of Each Company 
to be Collected Together and put under the Charge of a Centenell 

1 Major John Beckwith, of the 44th regiment. 

56 Sir William Johnson Papers 

an officer of Each Regiment and a man Eahe battoe to see that 
the water is bailed out and the provisions taken care of. this to 
be a standing order. Whereever the battoes put on shore it is 
recommended to the Officers who are ordered to take care of the 
battoes to appoint a man for each battoe, who shall be responsible 
for the battoe. A Serj and 25 men to assemble tomorrow morn- 
ing at 4. Oclock in the Rere of the Generals Tent to cut grass 
and make Hay for the cattle. They will receive scythes from the 
Q r . M r . G 1 . A Corporal & 5 men to take care of the Cattle, 
who will receive 6/. p r day N. York Currency. It is therefore 
expected they will keep the Cattle from strolling or being lost. 
The Provincials that remain at this post to give these men the 
Bread & Beans pease and rice to be unladed immediately and 
proper guards put over them who are to be answerable for the 
care of them, till they are given over to the Commissary. A 
small pine chest being lost or missing in coming from the falls, 
in which there was a Case for six bottles at Each End with 
sundry shirts, breeches, waistcoats & books, and sundry other 
things, whoever secures the same shall have a handsome reward 
paid by Capt Nathaniel Hobble 1 in the N. York Regiment. 

Oswego. June 28 ih . 1759. 

R. O. Those Companies that were ordered for extraordinarie 
service the 16 th . to get their men encamped together by them- 
selves and the Officers appointed to Join them. The over plus 
o. the men are to be delivered over to those companies with a 
list of their names that stay here as was then ordered. Those 
Companies that cannot furnish their number of able bodied men 
that was to be in each company, are to make a return of the 
deficiency Immediately to Col. Thodey, 2 who will see the num- 
ber completed out of others. It is recommended to the officers to 
take none but what they know to be able bodied men, as they 
will be examined over again. 

1 Hubbell. 

2 Lieutenant Colonel Michael Thodey, muster master. 

Seven Years War 57 

Camp at Osrvego June 28 th . 1759. 
Parole Lemerick 

Field Officer tomorrow, Major Munster. Adj*. D 44 th Reg 
The Piquet to Lye advanced as usual. The officers to be more 
carefull in seeing the battoes fastened in the evening. Necessary 
houses to be immediately made in the rear of every Reg 1 . The 
weekly returns of all the Reg ts . to be given in this afternoon, 
the monthly returns at orderly time tomorrow. Y e General hopes 
his former orders relating to no persons going beyond the cen- 
tinels will be punctually observed. The Carpenters of the dif- 
ferent companies to be paraded in front of the encampment to 
day at 1 1 . Oclock. 

A. O 1 It is Col Johnsons orders that the commanding Officers 
of each Company see that both house and ship Carpenters be 
paraded in the front of the encampment tomorrow morning pre- 
cisely at 3. O'clock. 

S S men Camp June 29 th 1759. 

R O. 1 2 5 of a Company to turn out with their toma- 
hawks and clear the brush from the rear of the Captains Tents 
about 50 yards back, the remainder of the men to clear the streets 
and the front of the encampment, and to work till 9. O.clock, 
and Then Leave of and get themselves Ready with there arms 
and mounting to be reviewed at 1 O'clock a sergeant per Com- 
pany to attend on Lieutenant Colonel Thodey who will give 
them a plan for cutting the mens hats properly. A List of the 
mens names to be given in immediately belonging to each com- 
pany of this detachment here encamped, and the names of those 
that are to be left of the several companies with Colo Le. Roux, 2 
Serj*. Major Bacon, to continue with as S'. Maj. to this detach- 
ment, and Sargeant Major Clark to continue with the detachment 

1 After Orders 

2 Colonel Bartholomew Le Roux. 

58 Sir William Johnson Papers 

left here with Colo Le. Roux. A serjeant of Cap 1 . Homeses * 
Company or potters 2 to Join Captain Van Zandts Company. 

Osrvego June 29 th . 1759 

Parole Dublin 

Field Officer tomorrow Adj'. D 

S S C Rl S S C Rl 

a detachment of 2 1 2 1 50 from the 44 th . & 2. 1. 1. 100 
from the 46 tK . to be on this Side the water at 12. Oclock in 
order to lode their boats & to receive their instructions from Cap 1 . 
McClean. The Q r . M. of the above Regiments to attend. All 
the Reg ts . to compleat their amunition this after noon to 36 
rounds per man and to give in their damaged cartridges at the 
same time. The 44 th . & 46 th . Reg 1 & the battalion of the N York 
Reg*, on this side the water with the detachment of artillery to 
draw 7 days provisions at. 5. O'clock tomorrow morning. The 
Royal Americans to receive at the same time. The battalion of 
Royal Americans and y e Battallion of the N York Reg 1 on the 
other side of the water with the battoemen and Carpenters that 
remain here, to receive but. 4 days provisions. An officer of 
each company to inspect the mens arms this afternoon at 6. 
O'clock and see that they are in order & see that every man has 
a spare flint besides that in his piece, which must be a good one 
and well fixed. The Commanding officers of Coars to meet at. 
5. Oclock this afternoon at. Lieut. Colo Massiess Tent in order to 
regulate the prices of all goods & the Sutlers to attend at the same 
time. The N York Battallion on this side of the water to send 
1 28 men & officers in proportion immediately to the Artillery who 
are to receive their instructions from Cap*. Strechy. This party 
is to be divided into two Releaves, and to pitch their tents with the 

1 Captain James Holmes, of Westchester county. 

2 Captain Gilbert Potter, of Suffolk county. 

Seven Years War 59 

artillery. The Sailors to be of the above number. A return of 
every thing belonging to the Different Departments which is to 
be left at Oswego, to be given in this afternoon at 6 O'clock to 
Colo Haldermand. The men off duty on the other side of the 
water, to clear the hill where the Fort was of all brush. The 
Paymaster to attend the Major of Brigade as soon as possible. 
As the Hospital boats have been robbed at several different times, 
by the New York Regiment, & by Capt Harkermas company in 
particular of a Tea Kittle and Haversack, with a white shirt, a 
pair of stockings a cravat, and a Ten gallon Cagg, if any one 
will discover the persons concerned in it, they shall receive 5 
dollars reward, by applying at the Major of Brigade. 

Ensign Lancey of the 44 th Regiment is to do duty with the 

R. O. 

An officer of a company to attend roll calling morning and 
night, and as all the companies are now completed for this com- 
mand, its expected that the officers will take care and see y* their 
men keep themselves clean and neat and that none are seen 
slovenly with the knees of fiieir breeches open, and see that 
Horses are fixed in a proper manner before the Serj ts Tents, to 
fix the arms of the Companies on. A return of the names of the 
Captains and Lieutenants of this command with the rank they 
now hold to be made out by the adjutant. The S' 1 Major to 
give in a return of all the Sergeants names, and the Companies 
they belong to as soon as possible. A duty roll to be kept by 
each company with the names of the men, by Every one of the 
sergeants, and a copy of the same kept by every one of the 

June 30, 1759. 

R. O. A. R. C. M. to sit immediately at the Presidents 
Tent, to try all prisoners brought before them 

Capt. Swartwout, P*. 

L ! . Yates Members L*. Vandeborow 

L*. Vrooman L*. Waters 

60 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Osnego June 30 ih . 1759. 

Parole Dorset 

Field officer Tomorrow. Maj Beckwith Adjutant D . . . 

The army to hold themselves in readiness to Imbarque at a 
moments warning. The Qu r M r to see immediately that the boats 
belonging to the several Regiments are ranged in proper order for 
the companies going on board, and that they are fresh numbered. 
In those boats where there is neither commissioned, nor non-com- 
missioned officer, there must be one careful man appointed to act 
as Corporalle who is to have the names of his men belonging to 
his boat in writing. No officer or soldier to be shifted from one 
boat to another, but remain in the same boat in which they 
embaique from here a return to be given in immediately of the 
number of sick in the several Regiments, which are to be left 
behind with the Major of Briggade. The 4 days provision 
ordered for the Regiments which Imbarque to be cooked imme- 
diately. The Commanding officer of the N. Y. R battallion 
which Stay at Oswego to give in a return of his battallion as soon 
as possible to Col Haldermand. 

R. O. 6 scoops p r company to be made immediately to bale 
water out of the battoes. A Regimental C. M. to sit immediately 
at the Presidents Tent, to try such prisoners as shall be brought 
before them. 

Cap*. Bloomer Pres't 

Lieut Vrooman Members Lieut Cassady 

Lieut Crawfoot Lieut Denton 

R. O. That the commanding officers of each company 
belonging to this detachment going on the expedition make Imme- 
diate returns of the Tradesmen and what Trades, with there 
names belonging to the respective Companies. 

Seven Years' War 61 

Camp at. Ossenodus. 1 July 1st. 1759 
Parole London) (Countersign Cayige 

Field officer tomorrow Maj Farqueher. Adj*. Ditto 46 th . 
Reg 1 . The General to beat tomorrow morning at 4 Oclock 
the assembly i an hour after, and the whole to be formed upon 
the Lake at 6. O'clock. The army to form in the same order 
the men to be in there boats, the Light Infantry & Grenadiers to 
night except such as came in whale boats who may pitch ther 

Camp at Nidenindequeaf July 2 nd . 1759 
Parole Plimouth 

Field officer tomorrow, Col Maser, Adj*. 44 th . Reg 1 
The General to beat at 4. O'clock tomorrow morning the 
assembly i an hour after, at which time the whole to form upon 
the Lake at. 6. O'clock precisely. The officer on the duty of 
the battoes of each reg 1 . to attend the passage and see that the 
boats goes out of the bay regularly one by one. The Piquet of 
the 44 th . to be advanced on the eminence of the right flank the 
field officers of the day to post it two whale boats of the Light 
Infantry to go with the Q r M r . Gen 1 . An oficer of a company to 
view there mens arms tomorrow. 

Camp at Nidenindequeat 3 rd July 1759 
Parole Weymouth, &c 

Field officer tomorrow Col Farqueher. Adj'. D. 46 th . Reg*. 
The army not to Imbarque till further orders, and to receive 3 
days fresh provisions immediately, which with what they have 
will make up to 7 days, four of which is to be cooked. The 46 th 
Regiment to post their Quarter Guards upon the right flank & to 


* Irondequoit. 

62 Sir William Johnson Papers 

have outward centinals pasted to prevent any peoples strolling 
into the woods. 

R. O. Notwithstanding it has been strongly recommended to 
the officers of the regiment to observe strictly the orders given out 
by the general, the Regimental orders likewise, yet I am sorry I 
must again repeat them. That for the future any officer having 
any boats in charge where there ought to be most care taken and 
any of them drift away will be used in such a manner as he 
wont like, and to be very exact at all times to be on board of there 
boats with their men at the time appointed for march and not to 
neglect on any account leaving two men in each boat to bail y e 
boats when we land as the General is determined to put any officer 
in arrest who does not perform to a title what his orders express 
I would have every officer on going out from this observe, and let 
but one boat go out at a time and on the lake to be more careful to 
keep their lines in order I hope I shall not have occasion to repeat 
this order again. Its desired that the officers would read the 
orders of the 20 th . ultimo, and that every Captain give in to the 
Adjutant a signed Return of the names of the two men appointed 
to take care of the boats, and the number of boats they are in and 
see that those men do not quit the boats on any account whatever 
until releaved which is to be done every 24 hours, and to see this 
order executed themselves and not to trust to other people to see 
it done, as they will answer for their neglect on their Parole. 
The field officers of the Regiments baggage is excepted who have 
no artillery stores in them. 

R. O. A return of the men from the different Regiments who 
have been exercised at the Great Guns. Any officer choosing to 
serve in the Artillery to give in his name to the Major of Brigade. 
Such officer will receive additional pay according to the rank he 
bears in the Army. An officer and 30 men to go out in the woods 
with their arms and tomehawks this after noon in order to get 
barques to cover the Artillery boats. 

Seven Years' War 63 

R. O. All the mens arms and cartouch boxes are to be laid in 
them so convenient as that the men at a moments warning may be 
able to fix them on and handle there arms officers to see to it. 

Prideaux Bay July the 4 ih 1759 

Parole ] 

A Countersign .... Mohawk 

St. Albens J 

Field officer tomorrow Major Beckwith. Adj*. D 44 th . Reg*. 
The commanding officer of Corps to give in Immediately of 
what boats wants repairing. 

Johnson Creek July 5 th . 1759 
Parole Bedford. 

Field officer Tomorrow. L*. Col Mascer. Adj'. D. 46 th Reg 1 
No tents to be pitched till further orders. The General to beat 
tomorrow morning at 3. O'clock, the assembly i and hour after, 
at which time the whole is to form. The army to be victualed 
to the 1 Oth Inclusive. The commissary to deliver out as soon as 
possible Rhum at the rate of 1 gill p r man. 

Camp at Nighera July the 7 th . 1759 

Parole "1 r Countersign"! 

St George J [ Oswego J 

Field officer tomorrow Adjutant. 44 th . Regiment 

Cap Sub Sg Cor RP 

4 3 150 to mount as a guard over the battoes 

and to be relieved every 48 hours. The front of the camp to be 

C S S C 
cleared of all brush for the space of 200 yards 2. 6 8 8 500 

1 The " Rl " used here and elsewhere is probably the current abbrevia- 
tion used for " roll ", " regulars ", " privates " or " rank and file." 

64 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Ra k file to parade at 2. Oclock to make fasheens & gabions 
for which the men will be paid according to the usual custom, 
this party to receive their orders from the Engineer. The Piquets 
to be out advanced, all the Poles & Paddles to be collected 
together and put under the care of a centinell, who is to be 
answerable that none is stole, tis expected that an officer of a 
company see that there men pitch there Tents at every new Camp. 
C S S C Rl 

1 2 3 3 200 to be sent to the Artillery at. 3. O'clock. 
Whosoever has found a prospective glass which draws out in 
4 parts, with brass covers at each end and black and green sliders 
and bring it to the S^ Major of the 44 th Reg*, shall receive a 
dollars reward. 

R. O. That each Captain or Next commanding officer of each 
Company make a return Immediately of their companies. 

Camp before Niagara July 7 th 1759 
Parole King George 

Field officer tomorrow Col Masser. Adj 1 D 44 th Reg*. 


Orderly time to beat at 6. O'clock in the afternoon. 6 12 18 

700 to parade at. 8 O clock at the head of the Artillery, the 
Engineers to attend and regulate the place of breaking ground 
before the fort. The Piquets to be advanced to such a place as 
Cap 1 . Williams shall see fit, one of them to support the Trenches 
In case of a Surge from y e Fort the Piquet to be advanced by 
the eldest Captain, a second Piquet to be accou^ed in there 
Tents, and ready to turn out at a moments warning. 

R. O. No Sergeant for the future to put any man on duty o^ k 
of his tour on penalty of being broke. No soldier to go out of 

4 t . n 



Seven Years War 65 

the Camp without the leave of his officer on pain of being punished 

C S S C Rl 

for disobeying orders. 3. 699 300 to be paraded at 1 2 
O clock in the front of the encampment, the officer commanding 
the party to receive his directions from Engineer Williams. For 
this duty Cap*. Wright, Cap*. Bloomer, Capt. Swartwout, Lieuts. 
Yates Beyow 1 Defreast Middagh, Horton & Hilliard. That no 
officer for the future pretend to keep more than one waiter in a tent 

C S S C 

and those to be of the men most incapable for duty. 1222 

50. to parade at 5 O'clock to receive there directions of Engineer 
Williams, for this duty Captain Vanvaughten 2 & Lieutenant 

Camp before Niagara July 9 ih 1759.. 
Parole London 

Field officer tomorrow Major Beckwith. Adj 1 . 46 th Reg*. 

The detachment ordered to brake ground to assemble at the 
parade of the Trenches at 6. O'clock the parade of the Trenches 
is where the fashenes and gabions lay. Lieutenant Colonel 
Masser field officer for the Trenches. The Piquets to be 
advanced in order to support the trenches, and to assemble at the 
same place and to march off at the same time. A second Piquet 
to be ready to turn out at a moments warning in order to support 
the Trenches. The Captain of each Piquet to send a man to 
inform himself of the ground where the advanced Piquets are 
drawn up that he may take up there ground and be ready to 
support them, the officer for the command of the Trenches to 
receive their orders before they march of. Each officer to be 
acquainted with the work he is to perform, that no confusion may 

1 Lieutenant Henry Bayeux, of Westchester county, 

2 Captain John Van Veghten, of Albany county. 

Vol. Ill 3 

66 Sir William Johnson Papers 

G. O. 400 gabions & 1200 fashenes to be 1 y e troops imme- 

1 Fashens g 

44 th 438 146 

46 th 239 98 

R.A. 109 36 

NY 360 120 

1146 400 

a man of a mess to cook the 
* provisions of there messmate in 
the Trenches and carry it to 
them as soon as possible. 3 days 
provisions to be delivered 

out to the troops Immediately. The Qr. Guards to consist of a 
Serj'. & 14 Men. A detachment of 160 men with noncommis- 
sioned officers in proportion, to be sent from the regular Reg ts to 
Join the train of Artillery as soon as possible. Tents to be sent 
with the detachment, which is to pitch with the Artillery. All 
shots taken up to be carried to the Artillery for which they will 
be paid with Captain Stretchey All officers of duty to remain in 
Camp. An officer of a Company to see that the men cook their 
Kettles regulary every day. 

R. O. That a weekly return be given in immediately by the 
Commanding Officer of each Company. 

G. O. A detachment of 400 men officers in proportion for the 
guard of the trenches to parade at J/2 and hour after 5. o'clock. 
A working party consisting of 500 men officers in proportion to 
parade at the same time an Engineer to attend at the same time 
to conduct the parties to the ground. The officer for the com- 
mand of the working parties to post themselves at a proper dis- 
tance whilst the men carry the fashenes & Gabions that they may 
do it with more expedition. A Shurgeon and 2 mates to attend 
the party and to be posted in with Major Beckwith, within some 
secure place. The Piquet to be avanced in order to support the 
Trenches and to take entranching tools with them in order to 
cover themselves. The Light Infantry and 44 th to be ready to 
march at a moment's warning, and to take 3 days provisions 
with them. 

1 An apparent omission. 

Seven Years War 


G. O. 






44th giv es 






46 " 






R.A " 




NY " 






Niagara July II th 1759 

for Guard for the Trenches 
to night For this duty 
Capt Visher and Lieut 

3. 4. 6. 6. 209 

For working party in the Trenches tonight: 



C S S C 
44* gives 1445 

1 2 3 3 122 

1 2 1 18 

2 4 6 6 159 



5 12 13 15 482 

To this duty Captain 
^Vanvaughten and 
Morss 1 & Lieuts Waters 
Crawford Denton 

To parade immediately, to carry the gabions now made to the 
head of the Trenches & to range them in a row on the side of 
the Trenches two deep 

C S S C Rl 

44 th gives 0021 37 

46 1 1 2 24 

NY" 1111 30 

1244 91 

For this duty Captain 
Swartwout and 
Lieut Willet &c 

1 Captain Ephraim Mors, of Queens county. 


Sir William Johnson Papers 

Camp before Niagara, July 11th 1759 


P. . - L Countersign Oswego 

Field officer tomorrow Lieut Col Mascer Adj 1 . d 44 th 
A detachment of 700 men officers in proportion for the 
Trenches to night. The Piquet to be advanced and Lye within 
the Trenches its Expected that the officers which command the 
working parties constantly attend to see that the men place y e 
gabions properly arid that they are not idle the working parties 
not to retire out of the Trenches in the morning till ordered by the 
field officer. 

Camp at Niagara July 12 th 1759 

The proportions of each Reg 1 of the No of gabions to be made 




73 gabions 


18 " 

60 " 

Total 200 

The Fattigue to be sent to the Artillery ground to receive 
their instructions from Captain Stretchey 

For this duty Cap*. Scuyler 
"L 1 . Visher Middagh 

S S C Rl 

For Fattigue 1 1 2 30 to parade immediately and to 
assemble at the Royal Americans Camp, to carry there arms for 
this duty Lieut Wemple 












Seven Years War 69 

Its the Generals orders that the additional be made up to 100 
men, and that they ground their arms in front of the encampment 
and be ready to turn out at a moments warning In the absence of 
the Brigade Major. 

Guard for the Trenches Fattigue for the Trenches 


44** 1 3 3 3 73 1 2 5 5 91 

46 1 3 3 2 49 1 3 3 3 61 

R.A 1 18 1 1 1 1 23 

NY 1233 60 1344 75 

3. 8. 9. 9. 200 4. 9. 13. 13. 250 

The working party to be with Arms. The Piquet of the 
Trenches to be augmented to 1 00 each Regiment 

Camp before Niagara 1759 /u/p 

Field officer for the Trenches tomorrow L l Col Thodey 
Major Beckwith Adjutant D. 46 th Regiment 

The proportion of each Regiment for the fashenes gabions 

Fashenes of 9 feet, fashenes of 4? feet Gabions 

44* 146 73 73 

46th 98 49 49 

R.A 36 13 13 

NYork 120 60 60 

For a working party in the Trenches Guard for the Trenches 

csscRl csscRl 

4 6 6 120 1 2 3 3 75 

For this duty Captain Clin- For this duty Capt Schuyler, 

ton L ts Defreast Denton. Cap* Visher. L ts Middagh, 

Visher, Wemple & Milliard 

70 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Parole Monmouth Field officer tomorrow LA Col Farqueher 
Adj*. D 44th Reg'. 

The Piquets of the several Reg ts to mount as a covering party in 
the Trenches this night a detachment of 400 men officers in pro- 
portion to compleat the working party for the trenches this night. 
Lt Killet 1 of the 44th Regiment to act as an assistant to the 
engineer Serg 1 Bradley Serg*. Blaker both of the 44 th Regiment 
to receive their directions from Engineer Dernier 2 

July 13* 1759. 

G. O. M r . Anderson of the 44 th Reg 1 to act as an assistant 
to the Engineer the officer appointed to attend y e fashene making 
to be very careful that they are made higher and better. S^. 
Bradley will attend at the Tale of the Trenches to receive the 
fashenes, and such as the Engineer will reject will not be paid 
for. No officer to apply for Rhum for any party but such as the 
General will think fit and he himself will see the delivering of it. 
4 men to go to assist Engineer Demler those men to be the most 
active men in the Regiment. The Adj*. to see to it and these 
men to continue with the Artillery. 

R. O. That the officers servants give in there arms Imme- 
diately to the Adjutant. 

G. O. Such men as are slightly wounded, yet unfit for duty 
to go into the Trenches, to be sent to the battoe guard as soon as 
possible, and a return given by the Adjutant, of the number sent. 
a mate of the 44th Regiment to remain with the battoe guard 
one Shurgeon or mate to be in the Trenches. Such mean and 
unsoldier Like Schulkers as shall quit the Trenches without leave 
from there officers shall be punished in a most exemplary manner. 
The Commanding officer of the working parties in the Trenches 

1 Lieutenant Roger Kellet. 

2 Ensign George Demler, of the 60th regiment, engineer. 

Seven Years' War 71 

to have the names of there men under their command that they 
may be able to find out the absentees. A detachment of 300 men 
officers in proportion to compose a covering party for the 
Trenches this Night. As the batteries are intended to be erected 
this night for the ready making of which it will require active 
and willing men the General chooses that this work should be 
done by volunteers only, whose names are to be given in to 
Engineer Demler that they may be Rewarded. 300 volunteers 
are wanting for this purpose and from the diligence and activity 
already shown by the Troops for his Majesty's service, the 
General doubts not of the above required number being soon 

For a covering party in the For a working party in the 

trenches to Night trenches to Night 

44< h Gives 110 110 

46* 73 73 

RA " 27 27 

NY " 90 90 

300 300 

A Regimental Court Martial to sit immediately at the Presidents 
Tent, to try all prisoners brought before them. 

Cap 1 . Pawling. Pres't. 

Lieut Yates Lieut Cassady 

Lieut Beyou, Members Lieut Dunbar 

72 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Camp before Niagara July 14 th 1759 

Parole Dublin 

Field Officer tomorrow L*. Co Mascer, Major Vanscaach. 1 
Adjutant D. 46 th Reg' 

After orders July 15 th 1759 

Fashenes of 4i feet Long Fashenes of 9 feet Long 
44th 73 146 

46th 49 98 

R A 18 36 

N Y. 60 120 

The above number of fashenes to be made as soon as possible, 
and in the front of the different Corps, where the brush is to 
brought. The twigs of the fashenes to be smaller and the 
fashenes themselves higher. The officers of duty to attend the 
fashenes to be collected at 1 the center of the Regiment. 

Long Piquets to be made higher as well as shorter the men 
of duty to assemble at M r . Oglesbies to hear divine service. 

All the necesary houses to be filled up, and new ones made, 
which is to be done regularly every three days. 

July I5' h 1759 

Field officer tomorrow L*. Co Thodey & Major Vancaach. 
Adjutant D. 44 th Regiment. 

A detachment of 300 men officers in proportion for a covering 
party this night in the Trenches, and the same number for the 
working party. For this duty of the working party Cap 1 . Schuy- 
ler, Lieut Yates L 1 Dunbar. For Guard Cap*. Morss Lieu 1 . 
Beaux Cassady. 

Major Goose Van Schaick. 

Seven Years War 73 

1 00 Gabions to be made this night 2i feet diameter & 3i feet 

The 44* 37 

46 th 28 To parade immediately at the 
R A 9 Royal Americans encampment 
N Y. 30 of a reinforcement to the Guard 

S S C Rl 

in y e trenches 2. 2. 3. 36. for this 
duty L 1 . Wemple L 1 . Denton. 

July 16*. 
Parole Andover Countersign Senica 

C S S C Rl 

To parade immediately for Guard to the Trenches 1 . 2. 3. 3 72 
for this duty Cap*. Wright, Lieut Willet, L 1 . Visher 
To prepare immediately* for fatigue to receive their instructions 

S S CR1 
from Cap 1 McClean 1 1 1 2 1 for this duty L ! Horton 

For a working party in the Trenches to parade at 5. o'clock 
Precisely , 
For fatigue in the Trenches Guard for the Trenches 

































R A 




R A 










N York 






For this duty Capt Lan- 
For this duty Capt Bloomer Lt Dumond sing L* Harris & Milliard 

S S. C Rl 

3 3 36 to parade at the head of the 44 th Regi- 
ment tomorrow morning at 5. o'clock, to attend Capt Stretchey. 
For this duty L 1 . Yates Lieut Beyou. 


Sir William Johnson Papers 

R. O. July the I7 ih 1759: that the commanding officers of 
each company make a report every morning to the adjutant of 
the killed and wounded in their companies 

Field officer tomorrow Col Farqueher Maj Vanscaach 

Parole Wells 

Guard for the Trenches to Fatigue for the Trenches to 

C S S C Rl 









1. 2. 




46 h 











R A 


















1 3 




3. 9 12 12 318 

For this duty Capt Swartwout 
L*. Yates, Cassady, L l Dunbar 
& Middagh. 

2. 6. 8. 9. 200 

For this duty Capt Visher L 1 . 
Vrooman Vanderburgh & 

R. O. That a weekly return be given in to the S^ 1 Major as 
soon as possible by the commanding officer of each Company. 

G. O. Every man to make one fashene tomorrow morning 
early in the front of the Regiment and the of duty to attend and 
see that the fashenes are made of a proper thickness, and bound 
Tite as possible. They are to be placed at head of the Regi- 
ment, till ordered away. A return to be given in by 12 o'clock 
of the number made by each Regiment, likewise each Company 
to make 4 gabions 3| feet high & 2\ feet diameter, these to be 
made by 1 2. o'clock. For fatigue immediately to parade at the 
head of the 44 th Regiment 

For this duty 
L*. Crawfoot 




























Seven Years' War 75 

July IS"- 

Field Officer Major Beckwith. 
For Fatigue for the Trenches Guard for the Trenches 


N. Y. 1. 3. 4. 4. 72 1. 3. 4. 4. 108 

For this duty Capt Swartwout For this duty Capt Visher L l . 
Lieut's Beaux Harris & Horton Vaughten L r . Yates & Dunbar 

July 19* 1759 

To Parade immediately for a Reinforcement to the working 

S S C Rl 

party in the Trenches 1. 3. 3. 30. for this duty L l . 

G. O. A party of men to parade immediately at the head of 

S S C Rl 

the 44 th regiment 2. 3. 3. *30. for this duty L 1 . 

Cassidy L ! . Dunbar 

R. O. A list of all the mens names at this place now doing 
duty belonging to there companies, with the names of those that 
have joined them and those that are now down at the battoes 
mentioning them in the List to be made out and given in to the 
Adjutant as soon as possible, leaving a column as they do in the 
muster rolls and opposite each mans name if any be wounded or 
killed write it down for instance J. T. wounded badly or J. G. 
wounded slightly. Its desired that this list be made out fair on 
a full sheet of clean paper 

For Fatigue in the Trenches For Guard 

Capt Wright Lieut Visher Capt Bloomer 

Lieut Middagh Lt Willet Lieut Wemple 

76 Sir William Johnson Papers 

C. O. July 20* 1759. 

As the work draws nigh to the Fort, much depends on the 
goodness of the Fashenes & Gabions; the Gen 1 recommends it 
therefore to the men, to make them of small wood & perfectly 

44 th Reg'. 78 Gabions 171 fascenes 

46 " 48 122 

R A 11 27 

N. Y 73 81 

Total 210 Total 401 

Camp before Niagara July 20 th 1759 

Field officer tomorrow night Lt Co. Thodey 

Adj< D 46 th Major Vanscaach 

Shirurgeon to night in the room of Doctor Norton M r . Odel, 
M r . Lacont. No officer nor soldier to presume to send any false 
alarm to camp. In case of a real Shurge from the Fort, the com- 
manding officer of the trenches is to send Notice to the Gen 1 , who 
will order a proper reinforcement. An officer and 200 men always 
to be posted at the Tail of the trenches to prevent any Schulker 
from quitting the trenches without leave from an officer. Nor 
any soldier not on duty, not to go in except Such as carry water or 
refreshments to the Guard or working party. Any schulker who 
shall be taken up is immediately to be sent to the proper guard, and 
will be punished in the most severest & publick manner. The 
officers appointed by each regiment for the inspection of the 
Trenches & gabions is always to send them down to the Tail of 
the Trenches with a Serg 1 . where who is to place them where 
Serg*. English is appointed to receive them who shall direct, &c. 
Take a receipt for the number delivered, which receipt is to be 
given in to the Major of Brigade every evening. The covering 
parties this night to consist of 300 men N. Y. proportion 

Seven Years' War 77 

C S S C Rl 

2. 4. 6. 6. 21 6. For Guard Capt Swartwout L 1 . Waters 

Lieut Dunbar. For Fatigue Capt Visher L ts Cassady L*. 


July 2I*< 1759. 

R. O. That the commanding officers of each company make 
a report Every morning of the killed & wounded in the respective 
companies mentioning there names and whether bad or slightly 
wounded. I hope the loss the Regiments met with in Col 
Johnson * will give every officer and soldier in it, a just resent- 
ment and Ive the pleasure hitherto both to find and hear from 
every body that we have done our part of the duty with the 
greatest exactness and punctuality and with a soldier like 
spirit I hope the same spirit may continue, and tho the little 
wound I have met with will not permit me to head you for the 
present (gentlemen in y e Trenches) you have other officers who 
will lead and direct you, any where Else when I am absent from 
you and for my part as I cannot be where I would wish with 
you I hope nothing will be wanting on your part, and whatever 
I can in camp do you may expect. M 1 . Thodey. 

Camp before Niagara July 21 st , 1759 
Parole Amherst 

Field officer tonight in the room L l Col Thodey, Lieut Col 
Farqueher. L 1 Col Mercer 2 Adj< d 44 th Reg 1 

Shurgeon tomorrow M r . Oblair 

Sir William Johnsons orders, the command of the army 
devolving the death of the late General Prideaux 3 (on me I 
trust) that as I am determined to persevere in the same just and 
vigorous manners, which was carried on by the Deceased Gen- 
eral, that the troops will exert themselves to the utmost and act 

1 Colonel J. Johnston, of the New York regiment. 

2 Massey. 

3 General John Prideaux was killed July 20. 

78 Sir William Johnson Papers 

with the same laudable spirit which they have hitherto shown an of 
which I shall not fail to acquaint his excellency General Amherst 
The business we are upon being nearly finished the completing 
of which will be easily effected by the continuance of the same 
measures and the utmost exertion of our abilities, all orders given 
therefore by the late general to be punctually obeyed. The 
above orders to be read to the men both before and after the 
Trenches are relieved by an officer of a Company 

Fashenes of 9 feet Long Fashenes of 4 ] /2 feet Long 
44th 202 67 

46 128 43 

RA 50 17 

N Y 220 73 

600 200 

Particular care to be taken with regard to making the fashenes 
as such as are not well made will be rather of Disservice than 
of Any Advantage the officers are therefore not only to give the 
proper directions, but see them properly executed. 

A detachment of 300 men officers in proportion to compose a 
covering party for the trenches this night & of 200 men officers 
in proportion for a working party. The officers commanding the 
parties from the different regiments, to have their mens names as 
ordered yesterday. The parties to be paraded at 3. o'clocke 



For Guard 



































A R 
























300 Total 






For this duty Capt Morss For this duty Capt Swartwout 
Lieut. Beaux M r . Harris Lieut Crawfoot Lieut Yates 

Seven Years' War 79 

July 22<* 1759 
For fatigue to parade at the head of the 44 th 

s s c 

regiment immediately. 1 1 1 9 for this duty L l Middagh 
G. O. No soldier to presume to fire his piece in camp on pain 
of being severely punished. 

R. O. A return of the deficiencies of cartridge to complete 
each man 36 rounds to be given in immediately by the command- 
ing officers of companies now present. 

G. O. The General is not a little surprized at the irregular 
firing of the Troops both when they come out of the Trenches and 
in Camp so contrary to the standing orders so often given out, he 
is therefore determined if this order has not its desired effect to 
prevent it by severely punishing the offenders. Whenever it is 
necessary to have y e piece which cannot be drawn fired a report 
should be made to the commanding officer of Corps in Camp who 
will give directions. The orderly officers of corps are allways to 
examine their mens arms after a heavy rain and make the above 
ordered report & whenever the detachment from the Trenches 
return to the Camp the officers commanding the parties of the 
different Corps, are after rainey weather to see that their arms 
are examined before they are dismissed. The miners and sappers 
of the different corps to attend engineer Demler at the Artillery 
Guard at 3. o'clock To parade at 4. o'clock for a covering 
party for the Trenches tonight 





















46 th 











A R 










N Y. 















291 3 





For Guard Capt Schuyler For work Capt Pawling 
1> Willet Dunbar D 8 Visher Lieut Wemple 

Fashenes and Gabions to be made by the N York Regiment 

Fash MI #s 7 1 C 


Sir William Johnson Papers 

G. O. July 23'* 1759 

That 71 Fascenes & 71 . gabions be made by 2. o'clock 
For fatigue to parade at the head of the 44 th Reg 1 . 


























For this fatigue 
LA Middagh 

140 Volunteers wanted immediately to bring 100 Whaleboats 
from the Landing place, each man to have 1 gill of rum as soon 
as they are all brought over. There names to be given in to the 
Major of Briggade as every man shall be credited a dollar, which 
shall be paid to them as soon as the money can be got 

C S S C Rl 

44* gives 0. 2. 1. 1. 46 

46 1 1 1 I 30 

RA 12 

NY 2 I 1 50 

For this duty Lieutenant 
Yates & Milliard 

R. O. Whereas a number of officers are constantly grumbling 
about the duty now done in the Reg 1 , for the future if any officer 
thinks himself wronged let them first do the duty ordered, and 
when relieved they can make appear that they are wronged 
they shall have all the justice done them which is required in 
such cases, but if they should be mistaken they certainly shall be 
looked upon in such Lite as will make them unworthy of the com- 
mission they now hold in the Reg*, and which I shall take care 
they shall not keep long. For gentlemen to be disputing at this time 
about there duty, looks to me and will to the world, very bad, 
and will make them unworthy of the Title their commissions now 
gives them. Even allowing they went once out of their turn of 

Seven Years' War 81 

duty, because a brother officer thinks hes not able. For the time 
to come no officer nor soldier to go from this camp without leave 
unless on duty or to fetch water. 

That a return be made immediately by the commanding 
officer of each company of the men. fit for duty now in camp. 
For fatigue to parade tomorrow by break of day 

S S C Rl 

.For this duty L l . Beyow 
I I 54 j 

For Guard in the Trenches For Fatigue in the Trenches 

to Night tonight 


1 2 3 3 132 1 1 2 2 66 

For this duty Capt Bloomer For this fatigue Capt Visher 

L*. Waters I_A Dumont & Lieut Cassady 

Sir William Johnson returns his thanks 1 to the troops for their 
valiant behavior this day against a superior body of the enemy, 
which at this critticle time has been of the greatest advantage to 
the English nation, and thoroughly Secured us the friendship of 
the Six nations, and will undoubtedly facilitate the reduction of 
Niagara, a post so important to the English nation in North 

Morning Orders. Cflmp ^^ N{agara Jdy 25lh n5g 

Lieut Col Farqueher with the Grenadiers of the Army com- 
pleate to be ready to march at 7. o'clock this morning to take 
possession of the Gates of the Fort. The 44 th Regiment to be 
ready to march as soon as possible to the parade of the Fort, 
with drums beating & colors flying. As soon as the Troops have 
taken possession of the Fort, the Battoes & Whaleboats to be 
moved round to the river under the Fort, the party on the other 
side of the river to come over immediately with the Artillery, 
which they are to march in order to camp No officer or soldier to 
attempt to leave Camp except those on duty to the trenches or in 
the fort. 

44 His thanks "is put in in pencil. 

82 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Niagara July 26 ih 1759 
To Parade immediately for Guard to the Trenches : 

C S S C 

1 1 I 1 46 privates for this duty Captain Schuyler & 
L*. Vandenburgh. For fatigue to parade immediately at the 
head of the 44 th Reg 1 
Sub S C Rl 

1 20. for this duty Lieut Dumond 
Parole Niagara 

C. S. S. C. 
For Guard immediately 1 3 3 3 1 00 privates 

The Light infantry of the Army are to form a corps in camp 
and to do duty together. The different Corps to give in imme- 
diately to the Major of Brigade, a return of their number in the 
form of a weekly return. 
C S S C Rl 

1. 2 2. 2. 100 to parade tomorrow morning at 5. o'clock 
at the head of the 44 th Reg*, and to receive their Directions from 
Engineer Demler. This party to be relieved by the Like number 
at 1 2. o'clock. The like party to parade at the same time at the 
head of the 44 th , and to receive their directions from Capt 
McClean Q r . M r . General. The General parade to be at the 
head of the 44 th Regiment the Regiment to Collect there 
Tools as Soons as possible and Leave them at The Collumns of 
the 44 th Regiment The Guard of the Fort to consist of 
C S S C 

1 2 3 3 1 00 privates which are to be relieved regularly at. 8. 
o'clock. The orderly time to be at 9. o'clock its recommended 
to the officers of the working parties to be very diligent in seeing 
there do there duty that no time may be lost. L l Killet of y e 
44 th & Ensign Lancey to continue as overseers. Serg* English 
& Serg*. Ellis, both of the 44 th Regiment to attend the work and 
take care of the entrenching tools. No soldier to come into the 

Seven Years War 83 

work except on officers business and then to have a Nonte from 
his officer for whom he is employed. 

R. O. For the future the Rolls of the company to be called 
twice a day, an officer to see it done and a report to be given in 
of all the men absent from camp For the future the Quarter 
Guard to be relieved regularly at 8 o'clock. 

The Inlying Piquet as usual a report of the names of the sick 
to be given in to Doct. Norton every morning the orderly 
Serg 1 . will be punished for the future for his neglect of this sort. 

For fatigue immediately to parade at the head of the 44 th 

C S S C Rl 

Regiment 1.0. 1 1. 80 for this fatigue Capt Morss. 
For Quarter Guard Tomorrow L*. Visher. 

Camp at Niagara /u/p 27, 7759. 
Parole Oswego. 

The Guard of the Trenches to be regularly relieved at the same 
time the Fort Guard is, and half of the Guard to be employed 

C S S C Rl 

in levelling the trench works. 1. 2. 3. 3. 100 to parade 
tomorrow morning without arms to be employed in leveling the 
Trenches, this party to work at the end next to the woods, and the 
Guard at the other end the working parties in the fort are to be 
employed in cleaning the fort of all filth. 100 men officers in 
proportion for the working party in the fort To parade tomorrow 
morning at 5. o'clock. All the mens Arms to be cleaned and a 
return to be given to the Major of Brigade by Guard mounting 
tomorrow morning of what is wanting to compleat the mens 
Arms & ammunition to 36 rounds p r . man. 

C S S C Rl 

For the Fort Guard 1 2 2 2 58 

Guard for the Trenches 1 1 2 39 

Forfattigue D 111 45 

Fattigue for the Fort 1 1 1 1 45 


Sir William Johnson Papers 

The Captain of the Fort Guard to detach 30 men for the Guard 
of the battoes, which party is to lay without the Fort. A Cap 1 , 
of the day for the Camp who is to visit the Quarter Guards of the 
Line As the Centinols have been observed to be very remiss in 
their duty ; tis expected that for the future they will be more alert 
and all officers whether on duty or not are desired to take notice 
of such Centenals who are not alert All reports to be made to 
L*. C'o Farqueher no soldier to straggle into the woods as there 
may be small schulking parties of the Enemy round about. The 
working parties to come in at 6 o'clock. All the men off duty to 
be under arms half an hour after 6 o'clock in order to attend the 
funeral of the Late General Prideaux & Col. Johnson. 
C S S C Rl 

2. 4. 6. 6. 200 to be paraded on the right, and the men 
to be furnished with 3 rounds per man of powder. This party 
to be Commanded by Major Beckwith. Minute guns to begin 
to fire as soon as the procession begins. 

For Guard for the Trenches 























For Guard tomorrow 








For this Duty Cap 1 . Bloomer For this duty Cap 1 . Swartwout 

Lieutenant Crawfoot , 
Trench Fatigue 

C S S C Rl 

44* 1 1 1 55 

LI 1 1 1 28 

NY 1 1 2 2 45 

2 3 4 3 128 

Lieutenant Cassady 
Fatigue for the Fort 

C S S C Rl 
44* 1 1 1 1 55 

NY 1 2 2 45 

1 2 3 3 100 

For this Fatigue Captain Pawling L 1 . Harris. 

Seven Years 9 War 85 

R. O. An exact return to be given in and signed by all the 
Captains of the Companies, of all the men whether wounded 
killed or absent from this or any other Casualty and for the 
future no man to join any other company thats now present but 
a report of the same with their names to be given in to the Comd'g 
Officers. Horses to be immediately fixed up in the Front of the 
serg'ts tents to lodge the companies arms on in the day time. This 
last its expected will never be ordered again but that care will be 
taken at all times when we move to have them on the Next 
ground Whatever. Cap 1 . Harkerman to give me in a return of 
the Names of y e men now come to this place with him & Capt 
Vanvaghten to do the same Likewise accounting for the number 
of men he carried from here. 

July 29"' 7759 
Parole Haldermand 

A detachment for the Guard of the Fort and levelling the 
Trenches, for cleaning the first & levelling the latter to consist 
of the same number and to parade at the same time tomorrow 
morning as they did this morning. 

C S S C Rl 

A detachment of 1 2 3 3 100 of the 
Light Infantry with one days provision to parade tomorrow morn- 
ing at 4 o'clock at the head of the the 44 th Reg 1 , a detachment 

C S S C Rl 

of 1 2 2 2 150 to parade at the same time without 
arms to fetch timber in order for building a vessel. Cap*. 
McClean will attend to give directions, another number to parade 
at 9. o'clock to Relieve the first, a third at 2. o'clock to relieve 
the 2 nd . 

For Fattigue Tomorrow For Fatigue for the Fort 


1121 47 J French \ 1 1 2 1 45 

1 2 1 391 DO J 1 1 2 2 45 

86 Sir William Johnson Papers 

S. S. C. 

For fattigue in the woods 1 . 1 . 1 . 68 privates 

July 30* 1759 
Parole London 

G. O. The Quarter Master General to give in a return by 
2. o'clock this afternoon of the number of persons who receive 
provisions specifying their different Trades & Employments 

R. O. A Regimental Court Martial to sit immediately at the 
Presidents Tent to try such prisoners as shall be brought before 

Capt Vanvaughten, Pres't 


L* Vanderburg L l Dumond 

L* Dunbar L* Defreast 

For Guard 

c s 

S C Rl 

July 30"- 




1. 1. 























Trench D. 










0. 1 










1 1 








For Ship Timber D @ 4. o'clock 

S S C 

44* 1 1 2 81 
NY 1 1 2 1 69 

Seven Years War 87 

For Ship Timber at 10. o'clock 
44* 1 2 1 1 81 

NY 2 2 69 

G. O. Camp at Niagara 31 st ]ul\> 1759. 

Parole York The Regiments 

to bring into the Fort the intrenching Tools which they have 
collected and deliver them over to an officer of the Artillery. 
The 44 th Regiment Grenadiers & Light Infantry excepted. A 

C S S C privats 

detachment of 1. 3. 4. 4. 100 of the N. York Regi- 
ment to remain as a garrison at this post under the command of 
Lieut Col Farker. 1 The Grenadiers & Light Infantry of the 44 th 
Regt out of the Batt n this day are to hold themselves in readiness 
for Imbarquation at an hours warning. The 1 00 men of the N. 
York Reg* which are to be left here are to consist of ship build- 
ers, masons and all sorts of artificers, the rest of the troops to be 
in readiness to Irnbarque 

R. O. A return to be given in immediately of all the ship & 
House carpenters, masons and Brickmakers and all other 

G. O. The Light Infantry except a Serg* & 12 men to take 
care of there Camp to be under Arms tomorrow morning at 
3 o'clock with one days provisions, this party to be without there 

The Guard and working party for the Fort and the Trenches 
to consist of the same number tomorrow as they did this morning. 
S S C Rl 

2. 2. 2. 50 to parade ]/2 and hour after 5. o'clock and 
receive their directions from the Quarter Master Gen 1 . A detach- 

S S C Rl 
ment of 1 . 1 . 1 . 30 to parade at the same time in order 

Farker, for Farquhar, was written doubtless. 

Sir William Johnson Papers 

to escort the above party. A corporal and 12. men to parade 
at the same time and receive their directions from Serg 1 English 
of the 44 th Regt. The several corps to deliver to the Kings Com- 
missary all the oil cloths they received at Oswego for covering 
the battoes. The Light Infantry to be taken of all duty as soon 
as possible. 

For Guard tomorrow 

* C S S C Rl 

44 0. 1. 1. 2 67 

NY. 1 1 2 1 56 

Fattigue for the Trenches 
* C S S C Rl 

44 0. 1 1 1 27 
NY. 1 1 23 

For this duty Captain Pawling LA Wemple 

For Fattigue in the Woods Artillery Fattigue 

44 th 1. 1. 27 44 th 0. 1 27 

NY. 0. 0. 1. 1. 23 NY. 101 23 

For this fattegue L'. Yates For this fatigue L'. Vandeburg 

Fattigue for the Q r M r . Gen 1 . 
C S S C Rl 

Fattigue for S^ Ellis 

44 th 1. 1. 0. 39 44 th 0. 0. 0. 0. 5 
N.Y. 1. 1. 2 31 NY. 1 7 

For this fattegue L* Vrooman 

For covering 



R. O. August l si 1759 

John Christopher of Captain Vanvaughtens Company & 
Michael Prier of Capt Lansings Company was tried by a Court 
Martial and sentined by said Court Martial, Christopher 500 
lashes Prier 200 for the crimes they were guilty of. John Mc- 
Kow of Capt Vishers Company was likewise confined by Major 
Harvey for sitting on his post all crimes of the very worst nature 

Seven Years War 89 

a soldier could be guilty of. Col. Thodey therefore as he would 
not have it said that a soldier of his reg'. was punished during 
this Command from Oswego, he forgives all three of them, and 
desires the officers of the Quarter Guard to send them to their 
Companies, and that for the few days we have to stay, that no 
soldier will now nor at any time hereafter, be guilty of the same 
or any thing that will diserve punishment, and he likewise begs 
you all to take notice that no man will again be forgiven for the 
like crimes, these orders to be read to the men at Roll Calling. 

C S S C Rl 
A detachment of 1. 3 4 4 100 to stay of the N Y 

Regiment at this post to be of the following Companies. 


C S S Cvates 

to Stay Capt Bloomer with his men 1 . 0. 1 . 1 . 22 

Gilchrists Company 0. 0. 0. 1 . 15 

Homeses Company 0. 1 . 0. 00 

to stay IJ. Burns with Capt Smith's Co 1 1 1 21 

to stay L l . Waters with " Vanzandts Co 1 1 1 15 

To stay L*. Vandenburg with Tradesmen 1 27 

I. 3. 4. 4. 100 


Sir William Johnson Papers 


Capt Pawling 

Capt Wrights 

Capt Lansings 
Capt Morss C 

Cap* Morss Compy 

Capt Clintons C 
Capt Bloomers 
Capt Gilchrists C 

Capt Swartwouts 
Cap* Vishers 
Cap 1 Homes 
Cap* Hulds 
Cap* Sayers 

Mens Names 

Capt. Bloomer to keep 
7. tents & deliver the 
Rest to IJ. Beyou 
Cap 1 . Pawling & 
Capt Morss. Each 
to give their men a 
Tent & what Tents 
M r . Burns has with 
him will be full suf- 
ficient these men to 
encamp By them- 
selves on the right 
this evening or to- 
morrow morning all 
but the party with 
Lieut Burns. 

August I si 1759 

Parole Boston 
The working party 
for the Artillery & Q r . 
M r . Gen 1 , to consist 
tomorrow of 
S SC Rl 

1 1 1 50 for fattigue 
tomorrow to receive di- 
rections from L* Collet 
a working party of one 
Serg 1 . & 12 men to 
receive their directions from Ensign Lancey, these parties to 
parade at 5 o'clock. Lost a little paper bag with French paper 
money in it which cannot be of any use to any body in Camp 
S r William Johnson desires if any body has found it to give 
it in to the Major of Brigade. The several Regiments to give in 

1 Silas Canfield 

2 Abner Cutler 

3 Francis Mattratt 

4 Egbart Vansile 

5 Wm Wyllys 

6 Jon n Warshburn 

7 Matthew Vorce 

8 Thos Duboys 

9 John Derley 

1 James daugherty 

1 1 John Huff 

12 Jacob Miller 

1 3 Matthew Grasey 

1 4 Aaron Vansickland 

1 5 Samuel Woodruff 

1 6 John Pignor 

1 7 Jacob Comfort 
18Wm Ackard 

1 9 Jacob Butcher 

20 John Jordan 

2 1 Joseph wood 

22 Asa Carpenter 

23 James Smith 

24 Isaac Tratchout 

25 George Saxton 

26 Isaac Emery 

27 Henry Downing 

Seven Years War 91 

a return as soon as possible to Engineer Demler of the number 
of fashenes & gabions made by each, that they may be accounted 
with for them. 3 days fresh provisions to be delivered to the 
Troops tomorrow. The Light Infy to give the covering party 
for the Q'. M'. Gen 1 . S S C Rl 

For Guard 0. 1 . 1 . 49 

For fattigue to the Artillery 1 . 23 

" forQ' M^ Gen 1 1. 1. 0. 23 

Fattigue for L*. Collett 1 23 

Ensign Lancey 1 1 5 

1. 1. 3. 4. 123 

Niagara August 2 nd 1759 

Sir William Johnson is surprized that the orders relating 
delivering up the oil cloths to the Kings Commissary it being not 
complied with but he expects that by 8. o'clock this afternoon 
they will be delivered in to M r . McClean. 

R. O. Every man belonging to the N. York Regiment except 
them mentioned in the orders of yesterday & those Cap 1 . Bloomer 
has a list of is by there officers to be charged not to be out of the 
way, as we cannot tell the exact time when we shall leave this 
and no man to be exchanged on any account. If any officer in 
the Reg*, has any oil cloths, they are to send them to Capt 
McClean immediately. 


Sir William Johnson Papers 


Camp at Niagara Aug { . 2 d 1759 

. Northhamton 

For Guard as usual, the working party for the Q r M r Gen 1 & 
artillery &c Lieut Corlet & Ensign Landcey to consist of the same 
No and to parade at the same time this morning as they did yes- 

S S C Rl 

terday. a working party of 1 . 1 . 1 . 50 to go on the 
other side the water to fetch over palasadoes 

For guard 
Fattigue for the 

for U Collet D 
D over the water 

D Ens Lancey 

D Artillery 











The Battoes 

for the N. 




York Reg 1 . 

will be 



given to us at 

5. o'clock 




this afternoon and the 


5 f Q r M r is to 

see them 


23 marked with 

the com- 

panics names 


and num- 






bered in the 





No of Empty Boats No of Artillery Boats 

Captain Pawling 

No 1 






Capt Wright . , . 










1 .... 




Vanvaughten . 
















15 .... 







00 .... 




Swartwouts , 



20 .... 




Schuylers . . . , 






Vishers . . , , 







Homesses . . . . 






Seven Fears' War 93 

Each artillery boat to have 10 men in them and the remainder 
to be divided in the empty boats. The officers are to be careful 
to put there sick men in the boats carefully and to see that every 
time we land that the shurgeon dress the mens wounds Such men 
as are able to walk where the Shurgeon lands the Sergts are to 
see that they go to them. The whole to take care and keep in 
order on the lake and none to lagg behind. Every company to 
send a man to man a boat to Doct Norton except Capt Vishers 
Company as soon as we have orders for going on board. 

G. O. The battoes to be received from the Q r M r General 
immediately and the separate Corps to take proper Care of 
there own and have there baggage on board early in the morning. 
The whole to be in readiness to embarque at 7. o'clock in the 
morning. When they come into the lake they are to form the 
Light Infantry and whale boats in the front. The New Yorkers 
in the Artillery boats to form a Division in the Rere followed by 
the boats of the General Hospital and the Grenadiers of the 
44 th & Royal Americans with the Generals Company of y e 44 th 
to form the rere of the whole & to take the French prisoners, two 
in each boat. 

Parole Bristol 

The Troops which is to leave this place to receive 2 days pro- 
visions Immediately, which will compleat them to the 9 th 

Parole Philadelphia. 

The Troops not to embarque till sun set, at which time they are 
to go on board there battoes and wait for orders to set of. S r Wil- 
liam Johnson recommends silence to be keept not only during the 
embarkation, but during the voyage likewise and flatters himself 
there will be no necessity of repetition of orders. The Troops to 
receive 6d N Y. Currency for every 1 2 & 9 lb shot which they have 
picked up, and 4d for any others. The troops to collect their 
receipts which they got from the Artillery, who will give to each 

94 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Regiment an order for the sum due, by giving them in to M 1 '. Ray 
Commissary of the Artillery the quarter master to keep all the 
names of the men who give in their receipts, that the money may 
be properly distributed. 

R. O. The Capt or Commanding officers of companies to 
take care and keep there boats together & see that none tarry or 
lagg behind, the Lieut to assist and take care of the same on 
landing always a piquet of 60 men to mount and this to be looked 
into the first thing after landing the officers in Artillery boats to 
see that a man be constantly Left on our Landing in there boats 
to bail and keep her clean of water, and Likewise to be careful of 
all the Kings tools which are in there boats that none be lost at 
any place where we land. Major Hogan to go in the Front & 
Major roseboom to go in the rere. 

August the 6 ih 
Parole Bristol. 

G. O. The General to beat at 10 o'clock at which time the 
Troops are to be embarked and to wait for orders to move off. 
The Artillery boats to be in the front and the New York Regi- 
ment next the Hospital and the generals Company of the 44 th and 
the Grenadiers the same orders as before directed. The Light 
Infantry to be divided on the Left flank of the whole & to see y 1 
no boats proceed out of the lines. Rum to be immediately 
delivered out to the Troops at the rate of one gill per man y e 
soldiers immediately to cook 2 days provisions, no person what- 
soever to presume to fire off his piece without leave from Sir 
William Johnson. 

Camp at Osnego Aug 1 . 6* 1759 
Parole Niagara 

No one to fire off his piece within or about the breast work 
or beyond y e river on any pretense, but when there is pieces which 

Seven Years' War 95 

have been loaded & cannot be drawn they are to apply to the 
Capt of the Piquet who will assemble them between 6. & 7. 
o'clock this evening in order to have the whole discharged. A 

S S C Rl 

command of 2. 2. 2 50 to parade immediately and 
cross the river in order to take care of the French prisoners The 
Captain to wait on y e commanding Officer for orders. 

General Orders. 

The Troops which arrived here this afternoon to have the Q r . 
Guards as usual and will be excused form any men for General 
duty, tomorrow their arms to be put in perfect order Tomorrow 
2 days fresh provisions to be delivered to the General Hospital 
for which a receipt will be given. This is to be divided between 
the Troops which arrived this day. The Surgon to give in a 
return of the number of sick which will be totally unfit for duty 
the rest of the campaign, and of such as are like to recover soon 
that the first may be sent away tomorrow & the latter to remain 
here The Surgeon of the N Y. Regiment the like return this 
evening. As some Indians are expected here soo its recom- 
mended to the Sutlers not to let them have any Rum on any 
account whatsoever, whoever shall presume to disobey this order 
his goods shall be forfeited. A return to be given by the Major 
of Brigade tomorrow at 12. o'clock of the state of the Reg 18 
now encamped here. 

A. G. O. August 8 ih 1759 
Parole Oswego 

Orderly time to beat at 9. o'clock. The Gen 1 Hospital & the N 
York Regiment, to receive from Cap 1 . McClean battoes this 
afternoon for taking down the sick, who are to be ready to set of 
by break of day tomorrow. Each Coar to see that the battoes 
for the sick & wounded are properly prepared this evening for 

96 Sir William Johnson Papers 

their reception. The arms and ammunition of the battoe men 
which go of this afternoon to be reviewed by a Capt of the Line 

C S S C Rl 

exactly at 1 . o'clock. 1 . 1 . 2. 2 40 to be ready to set 
of by 2. o'clock to escort the French prisoners to Fort Stanwix. 
the whole party going down to receive 6 days provisions. The Q r 
M r Gen 1 , to provide a proper number of battoes. A return to be 
given in by the different Regiments to the Major of Brigade, 
tomorrow at 12. o'clock of the state of there ammunition. 
S S C Rl 

1. 1. 1. 20 to go down with the sick tomorrow morning, 
and to be provided with 6 days provisions which party will join 
the Cap 1 . & 40 men the Capt to receive his directions from Col 

R. O. That an officer of each Company go immediately to 
Doctor Biggs 1 & D r . Norton 2 and take the names of there sick 
men belonging to there companies that are going down to Fort 
Stanwix, in order to receive their pay this afternoon. 

August 9 ih 1759 
Parole Chester 

A return to be given in to the Major of Brigade by 5. o'clock of 
what Artillery & artillery stores are at this place specifying with 
what is fit & unfit for duty, also a return of the detachment of 
artillery mentioning the fit and unfit for duty to be given in at y e 
same hour. The Q r M r Gen 1 to give in at 6 o'clock to y e Brigade 
Major a return of what battoes and whale boats was first ordered 
for this service & to specify those rendered entirely useless and 
those which are Repairable, and such as are at present fit for 
service and what are lost and taken away, a state of the pro- 
visions to be likewise given in to the Brigade Major by 6. o'clock. 

1 Dr John Biggs Castriot. 

2 Dr Ralph Norton. 

Seven Years' War 97 

S r . William Johnson being not a little surprized at the shame- 
ful riots and Schandalous Irregularities committed both night and 
day in Camp so unbecoming the character of a soldier, is fully 
determined to prevent them by strictly putting the articles of war 
into force, and that no one plead Ignorance the commanding 
officers of coars are to have this read to there men at such time as 
that every one may hear them. The Granadiers of the Line & 
the Generals company of the 44 th Regiment to encamp and to 
do duty together, and to be under the command of Major Beck- 
with This Coar to give the Guard to the Ridout on the Right and 
to do duty with the Line The Light Infantry to be ready & to 
turn out with their Blankits and provision at the head of there 
Encampment on every alarm. 

A company of the Light Infantry to cover the working party 
leaving their proportion for Quarter Guard. The Light Infantry 
to encamp together on the left of the Grenadiers and be under 
command of the Eldest Cap't. Lost: a french Blankit tied up 
with an Indian Drawband in which were a pair of stockings & 
shoes and indian Girdle & Drawband with letters and wampom 
in it. whoever shall deliver it to the Major of Brigade shall have 
a dollars reward. 

August 10* 1759 

Parole Anapolis 

Field Officer for tomorrow Major Munster Major Roseboom * 
Cap*. D 46 th Reg 1 . 

As the season now advances fast, during which time there can 
be but little work done on account of the unsteadiness of the 
weather without double Labour & fatigue to the Army to what is 

1 Major Myndert Rosefcoom. 

Vol. Ill 4 

98 Sir William Johnson Papers 

required during the present season S r . William Johnson having < 
due regard both to the health and ease of the Troops and Con 
scious as every one must be of the absolute Necessity of this post 
being put in a state of defense before the army can quit the nelc 
he flatters himself that both officers and men will for a Just regarc 
to the service do their utmost towards expediting the necessarj 
works to be completed here for the Readier despatch he order 
that all officers and men of duty be paraded for work at the usua 
time and recommends it to y c commanding officers of coars tha 
there men be punished at the time of parade. Every Departmen 
to give in a return by 6 o'clock precisely to the Major of Brigade 
in wrighting of the number they will require the following day 
A return from y e different Reg 1 , of the No of Calkers in eacl 
company to be given in to the Major of Brigade. 

R. O. That a return of the Calkers in each Co be given ir 
immediately to the Adjutant. 
S S C Rl 

G. O. 1 1 1 12 from the line to mount as a Guard ove: 
the Battoes this afternoon and to parade at 5 o'clock. The Guarc 
from the Grenadiers, which is to be relieved, is to return & join th< 
Redoubt Guard. Capt. Simpsons company to strike there Tent; 
at ]/2 an hour after 4 o'clock and to be provided with 3 day: 
provisions and to encamp at the meadows on the other side of the 
water. Cap*. McClean will conduct them to the ground. The 
1 1 hay makers of the N. Y. Regiment who have been employee 
on y e other side of the water to take their Tents & 3 days pro- 
visions, and go over at the same time with Cap 1 . Simpsons Com- 
pany. The Captain of the Day to send at 6 o'clock this evening 
one of the Piquets to join the Bullock Guard. 

Seven Fears' War 99 

, Aug* If*, 1759 
Parole .............................. Williamsborough 

Field officer tomorrow L*. Col. Mascier Col. Corsa * 
Cap 1 . D 60 th Reg 1 . 

A pair of Canteens has been sent from down Country by mis- 
take to L*. Howin of the Royal Americans whoever will make 
there property appear by giving a Discrption of them may have 

, Aug* 12 th , 1759 
Parole ..................................... Oxford 

Field officer tomorrow Major Beckwith & Vanscaach. 
Cap 1 , for D New York Regiment. 

The axmen which go to the woods are for the future to have 
their arms and ammunition with them. A return to be given to 
the Q r M r Gen 1 , of the number of men each Regiment gives for 
f attigue in order to have their Rum drawn in season so as not to 
wate a moment on the parade more than is requisite. 

Each Regiment to give in a Return this evening to the Com- 
missary in order to draw two days provision tomorrow morning. 

R. O. that a provision return be given immediately to the Q r 
M r by the officer of each Company . . . . A. R. C. M. 
to sit Immediately at the presidents Tent to try such prisoners as 
shall be brought before them. 

Cap*. Wright President 

L l . Yates. Members L* Deryea 

L< Horton. L< Milliard 

1 Colonel Isaac Corsa. 

100 Sir William Johnson Papers 

August 13* 1759 

Field Officer tomorrow Major Minister Major Roseboom 
Cap*. D N. York Regiment. 

No person on any account to take either board or plank with- 
out an order in wrighting from Cap*. Sowers Engineer. All 
sutlers to send in to the Kings stores what rum they have in there 
possessions Immediately. Any one found having any after this 
order, will have it confiscated & themselves severely punished, 
and when any battoes arrive with Rum its immediately to be sent 
to the Kings stores. 

R. O. Whereas the officers of the different companies have 
shamefully neglected their mens corning clean & neat on y e 
parade, Col Le Roux expects for the future they will not be 
guilty of the like but see they appear as a soldier ought. Neces- 
sary houses to be immediately made, and all soldiers when in 
camp to make use of them. Any soldier found to disobey this 
order will be severely punished. 

G. O. 

A Court of Inquiry to sit tomorrow morning at 6. o'clock from 
the line to examine such prisoners as shall be brought before them. 
All evidence against such as are confined for theft or desertion to 

Oswego August 14 lh 1759 
Parole Fort Edward 

Field officer tomorrow Lt. Col. Massey & Corsa 
Capt D 46 th Reg 1 . 

G. O. An Indian was Robbed Last night of two half Johan- 
nisies, and some dollars in which several was concerned of which 
the principal was Drest without a Hat or Coat, his waistcoat 
either blew or black, which could not be distinguished in the 
dark. If any one of the accomplices will discover the principal 
thief, or any of the accomplices, he shall not only be pardoned, 
but receive a Gratuity. 

Seven Yean War 101 

All the Kings tools such as are used by Carpenters employed 
by the Engineer to be brought on the parade at the beat of the 
Long Roll at. 3. o'clock. The Commanding officers of corps to 
give in a return of all their Sawyers, and send them to the 
Engineer that they may be employed by him in which service 
they will be paid at the rate or 4/ for every 100 feet which 
they saw. 

S r . William Johnson being informed that gaming is very much 
practiced amongst the soldiers is fully determined to punish to 
the utmost severity any one found guilty of the same. 

R. O. A man from each Company to attend the directions of 
the Q r . M r . & to do no other duty. Whereas there is a soldier of 
the Grenadiers of the 46 th Regiment confined on suspition of 
being concerned in a Robery they having found silver money 
with him the prisoner says he changed a forty shilling bill with 
one of the Yorkers for which he gave him half a dollars reward 
out of the bill which if can be made appear will much benefit the 
prisoner, and be no detriment to the soldier who changed it. 
Strict inquiry is therefore to be made immediately in every 
Company if any soldier in the N York Regiment, has changed 
the like bill with any regular soldier. 

Tis Col. Le Roux orders that all the soldiers which have not 
received their pay do immediately apply to their Captain or com- 
manding officer that they may receive the same. In order that 
if any names mout have been omitted, that they may be paid off 
before the paymaster goes away this order to be read at the 
head of each Company at Long Roll beating this evening M r . 
Dubois intending to leave Camp on Friday next should be glad 
if any of the officers have any letters or commands to honor him 
with would let him have them by Thursday evening. All letters 
which the soldiers may have to send to Albany are to be delivered 
to y e Serg 1 Major who will deliver them to M r . Dubois. 

102 Sir William Johnson Papers 

o, August I5 lh 1795 
Parole .................................... Litchfield 

Field officer tomorrow Major Beck with & Vanscaach 
Cap*. D 60 th Regiment 

A survey of provisions to be made this afternoon at. 3. o'clock, 

c c 

by 3 Capt. of the Line. The 60 lk Gives 1 . N. Y. 2. 

A Court Martial of the Line to sit tomorrow morning at 6. 
o'clock. The N York Regiment gives 2 Subs for the survey 
Cap*. Swartwout Cap*. Lansing for the Court Martial L*. 
Visher L*. Middagh. 

R. O. All the men except those in confinement that came in 
the Row Gaily to parade at sun set before y e adjutants Tent in 
order to receive there pay. Any soldier having bought a gun of 
Cassady the Gardener to return it to the Adjutant tomorrow by 
8 o'clock or else expect to be treated as Thief The Serg te are 
strictly to examine their men. the gun is brass mounted with as 
silver -sight and bought this morning. 

There will be Battoes affixed to each Corps for fishing, for the 
repairing of which, Oakum, pitch, & Nails will be furnished by 
the Q r M Gen 1 , on application the Corps to send for their 
boats by 7. o'clock tomorrow morning, and no one to presume to 
meddle with any other boat. 

Thursday Aug 1 . 16* 1759. 
Parole .................................... Hallifax 

Field officer tomorrow Major Munster & Roseboom 
Capt. D. N. Y Regiment 

Seven Years' War 103 

Oswego. August 17 th 1759 
Parole Niagara 

Field officer tomorrow Col Mascey Col Corsa 
Cap 1 . D NY. Regiment 

A General Court Martial to sit tomorrow morning at 7. 
o'clock all evidence to attend a list of which is to be given in 
this afternoon before retreat beating to Major Rutherford 
Judge Advocate. The draughts to be victualled to the same day 
with the rest of the Troops. All orders sent by Brigadier 
General Gage through L*. Fenton to be obeyed. 

Major Beck with president of the Gen 1 Court Martial 
the 44 th gives 2 Captains 

" 46 " 6 " 

"60 "4 

R. O. That no sutler for the future trust Lawrence Cassady 
as they shall have no accounts paid after the date of this Any 
soldier catched easing himself near, or in the garden shall receive 
200 Lashes without the benefit of a Court Martial. All officers 
and men off duty to turn .out at 3 o'clock in order to clear the 
ground in the lines where we are to encamp. The Troops 
tomorrow to receive 3 days provision to the 20 th inclusive 

the 44 th at 5 o clock precisely 

" 46 " 6 

" 60 " 4 

" NY." 7 

C S S C Rl 

For Fattigue 44th 1220 70 

46 1 2 2 2 96 

60 2 3 3 127 

N 2 4 4 5 208 

4. 10 11. 10 501 

104 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Tis the Commanding Officers orders as the Regiment is to 
encamp within the Lines its therefore ordered that the respective 
companies with their men properly & first belonging to it pitch 
together & Let all there hats be cut. A return of each Company 
to be given in as soon as possible when they are joined L*. 
Waters to take care of Cap 1 Smith's Company, & Lieut Hor- 
ton to take care of Cap 1 . Herkermans Company and see and 
get an exact return of said Companies as soon as this is done 
and the Regiment together the Companies will be leveled there- 
fore its the duty of every officer now to act for the men of each 
Company that we may not be puzzled in our returns for the future 
with there men. 

The Battallions to Pitch Separate and Leave a Main Street 
Between them. 

Osnego. August. !8 ih 1759 
Parole Dublin 

Field officer for tomorrow Major Beckwith & Major Vanscoik 
Capt for D N. Y. Regt. 

The Regiments w 

to receive their / (this portion of the page is torn off) 

to them the 

order & to c 

Henry Bauntom Gentleman is appointed to do duty as Ensign 
in the 46 th Regiment in y e room of Ensign Gallue Deceased until 
further orders. Whenever any man is confined on suspicion of 
theft the Regiment to which he belongs is immediately to hold 
a Court of Inquiry, and in case sufficient proof can be found 
against y e prisoner he is immediately to be sent to y e provoe 

A Return of Ship Carpenters and boat builders to be given in 
immediately from y e different Regiments to y e Major of Brigade, 
and a return to be given to y e Serg 1 Major of y e present state of 
their Companies not including those returned from Niagara with 
Captain Gilchrist & Serg 1 Lacey, 

Seven Years' War 105 

John Clint of Capt Van Vactons Company to act as Q r . M 
S^ 1 ., and none other else to act as such. 

R. O. C S R:f 

A detachment of 1 4 1 00 of y c N York Regiment to 
go over y e water tomorrow morning at. 6 o'clock to take care of 
y e Cattle Guard for this Command Capt Van Vacton. L l Willet 
L< Visher 

Sunday August \j e 19 th 1759 

Parole York. 

(The orderly book stops here.) 

INDIAN RECORDS, 1757-1759 

Among the Johnson manuscripts destroyed in the fire was a volume of 
Records of the Indian Agency, April 14, 1757 to February 20, 1759. 
Some of these papers such as the proceedings with the Indians from the 
14th to the 23d of April, the 10th to the 20th of June and July 31 to 
September 20, 1 757, are printed in Doc. Rel. to Col Hist., v. 7; Stone's 
Brant, 1 :6; Stone's Johnson, 1 :28, 63, 89. Others which are in London 
archives and in the State Library are included in this publication. Still 
others are doubtless to be found in the Canadian archives at Ottawa and 
have not as yet been published. It is probable that many others were 
irretrievably lost by the fire. These records, the Prideaux and Johnson 
Orderly Book and the Diary of Sir William Johnson, 1759 and 1761 
(the Diary printed in Stone, 2:394477), all of which were destroyed, 
were really a part of the Johnson manuscripts, though distinct from the 
series of 26 volumes of Johnson papers. 

D. S. 1 

Camp near Niagaras July 19 1759 

You are hereby ordered and directed, to issue out provisions 
to the Different Nations of Indians now here and for your 
assistance, it is my positive Orders that you take four of the 
Battoemen to assist in carrying, or serving it out, or for any other 

1 Destroyed bv fire. 

106 Sir William Johnson Papers 

purpose you shall think necessary, these four Battoemen are to 
be releived by four others every two days; also to see that the 
battoes are kept in good Order, well covered & c so as to prevent 
the Goods, provisions & c . from the Inclemency of the weather, 
And in case of their, or any of their refusal or Neglect of the 
above duty, you are imediately to confine him, or them, on the 
Guard at the Landing place, and deliver in a written crime to 
the Officer of their Disobedience of orders, and Neglect of duty. 
You are likewise to assure them if they don't exert themselves 
to the utmost of their Ability; they shall not receive any pay. 
And for so doing you have my sufficient authority. Given under 
my hand before Niagara July 1 9 th . 1 759 



A. L. S. 2 

Camp before Niagara July 20 ih . 1759 

I am Sorry to Inform You that this Evening We had the Mis- 
fortune to loose the General by one of our own Cohorns, and 
Coll . Johnson ab*. 2 hours before, which was also a great loss, 
as he was a verry Active & Good Man, As the Command 
devolves on me, I would have You imediately Join the Army 
here, without Loss of time, and forward that Letter to Genl. 
Amherst by Express. If any Amunition can be spared from 
thence, I would have you order it here imediately, without wait- 
ing for it.- I am 

Y r . Most Obedient 

Humble Servant 

" Comdry "* in copy; " comm ry " probably written. 
2 In British Museum, Additional Manuscripts 21670. fo. 1, London, 

Seven Years War 107 

P. S. if Capt n . Williams 
can be spared, I should be glad to 
have him come with you, as M r . 
Williams was early wounded - 

INDORSED: Chevailler Johnson 
Niagarra le 20 Juilet 

A. L. S. 2 

Camp before Niagara July 2K 1759 

When I wrote you last night, I had not seen General Amhersts 
Orders, or Instructions to the Late Brigd r . Prideaux with regard 
to Your Destination, and as I also find by yours of the 1 7 th Ins*, 
to Brigd r . Prideaux, that your presence there is necessarry, on 
Severall Acc tts , I now Countermand the Orders I sent you last 
night, and will do the best I can here, with the few Feild Officers 
I have left, and wish You may, as I doubt not you will be able 
to keep your ground, ag st . any Number the Enemy may Send that 
way. I am Sorry You are so circumstanced, as I find by Yours 
You are, and wish it were in my power to reinforce You, or 
assist you in any shape, but as Everry thing necessary for such 
an Expedition as this, is so verry deficcient and the place so 
much Stronger than I imagined. It is not in my power to Send 
you any relief, altho my Inclination would readily lead me to it. 
I am in hopes by tomorrow Morning, to have a Battery of 6 
Guns opened within 1 40 yards of the Enemy s Covered Way, by 
w* 1 . I hope to bring them to my Terms, if not, I shall be oblidged 

1 Colonel Haldimand was stationed at Oswego. 

2 In British Museum, Additional Manuscripts 21670. fo. 3, London, 
England . 

108 Sir William Johnson Papers 

to go greater lengths, and attempt an Escalade, as I am deter- 
mined to take the place if possible, Our Amunition I fear will 
fall verry Short, also provisions unless We can have a Supply 
from You, w h . I hope by this time You will be able to Send us. 
I am 


Your Most Obedient 
Humble Servant 


INDORSED: Chev: Johnson 

Niagara 21 Juilet 


L. S. 1 

Niagara July 25>, 1759 


I have the Honour to acquaint you by Lieutenant Moncrieffe 2 
Niagara Surrendered to his Majestys Arms the Twenty fifth 
Instant. A Detachment of Twelve Hundred Men with a Num- 
ber of Indians, under the Command of Mess" Aubry & Delig- 
nery, Collected from Detroit, Venango & Presque Isle, Made 
an attempt to Reinforce the Garrison the Twenty fourth in the 
Morning. But as I had Intelligence of them, I made a Dis- 
position to Intercept them. The Evening before, I ordered the 
Light Infantry & Picquets to take Post on the Road upon our 
Left Leading from Niagara Falls to the Fort; In the Morning, 
I reinforced these with two Companys of Grenadiers and Part 
of the Forty Sixth Regiment. The action Begun about half 
after Nine; But they were so well Receivd by the Troops in 

Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5.56, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, Aug. 5, 1 759. 
2 Thomas Moncriffe, aide-de-camp to Amherst. 



- \ 

Seven Years War 109 

front & the Indians on their Flank, that in an Hours time the 
whole was Compleatly Ruind & all their Officers made Prisoners, 
among whom are, Monsieur Aubry, DeLignery, Mavin, 1 Repen- 
tini to the Number of Seventeen. I cannot ascertain the Number 
of the Killd, they are so dispersd among the Woods, But their 
Loss is Great. As this Happend under the eyes of the Garrison, 
I thought Proper to send my Last Summons to the Commanding 
Officer for his Surrender, which He Listend to. I enclose you 
the Capitulation, 2 M r Moncrieffe will inform you of the state of 
our Ammunition & Provisions; I hope Care will be taken to for- 
ward an Immediate Supply of Both to Oswego. As the Troops 
that were Defeated Yesterday were drawn from those Posts 
which Lye in General Stanwix's Rout, I am in hopes it will be 
of the utmost Consequence to the Success of His Expedition. 
The Publick Stores of the Garrison, that can be savd from the 
Indians, I shall order the Assistant Q r Master General & the 
Clerk of Stores to take an account of, as Soon as Possible. 

As all my attention at present is taken up with the Indians, that 
the Capitulation I have agreed to may be Observed, your Excel- 
lency will excuse me for not being more Particular. 

Permit me to assure you, in the whole Progress of the Siege, 
which was Severe and Painfull, the Officers & Men behavd with 

1 Marin. 

2 In Public Record Office, C. O. 5.56, London, England. A copy 
is printed in Doc. Rel to Col. Hist. N. Y., 10 (Paris Doc.) :990-92. 
The London copy contains the following qualification attached to the 
seventh article of capitulation, which provides for the surrender of vessels 
and boats along with stores and artillery: " L'on peut entendre ceux qui 
sont Actuellement sur le platon les Autres n'etant point a Notre dispo- 
sition." This is understood to mean those (boats) which are actually on 
the platon, the others not being at our disposal. The London copy also 
carries the following: " Le Chirugien qui reste avec les Malades en 
Recommande a Mons r . Le General." The surgeon who remains with the 
sick is commended to the general. " En," though in the London version, 
should manifestly be " est." The Paris document has the signatures of 
Pouchot and Johnson, with the date of the capitulation. 

1 1 Sir William Johnson Papers 

the utmost Chearfullness & Bravery. I have only to Regrett the 
Loss of General Prideaux and Colonel Johnson; I endeavourd 
to Pursue the Late Generals Vigorous Measures; the Good 
effects of Which he deservd to Enjoy. 

With earnest Good wishes for your success, I have the Honour 
to be 

Your Excellencys Most Obedient 

And Most Humble Servant 

INDORSED: Sir W m : Johnson Bar 1 . 

Niagara 25*: July 1759. 

R . .4 th . August 


Jeff Amherst 

in M. Gen 1 . Amherst's 

of Aug. 5. 1759 

x /n Doc. Rel to Col Hist. N. Y. t 7:399, is printed a letter of July 
31st from Lieutenant Governor James DeLancey to the lords of trade, in 
which the behavior of Johnson's Indians at the siege of Niagara is com- 
mended; there is printed, p. 402-3, a letter of July 25th from Captain 
James DeLancey, at Niagara, describing the action which preceded the 
surrender of the fort; and, p. 403, a letter from Sir Jeffery Amherst to the 
lieutenant governor, in which Johnson's success at Niagara is mentioned, 
dated August 5th. In 1 0:976-92, is a journal of the siege of Fort Niagara, 
with a map of the fort, from Captain Pouchot's Memoirs. 

Al'LAXol the 

\\\\\\ liif 1 Knnron.s 
atfOK.TKUV.lHlt . 

Plans laid out by Tames Montresor in 1759 

Seven Years' War 111 


L. S. 1 

Niagara July 25"*. 7759- 

I have the pleasure to inform you that we had the good fortune 
yesterday to beat the French army which came to the Enemys 
assistance, and this morning the Fort surrendered by Capitulation, 
for farther particulars I referr you to M r . Moncrief. 

You'll please to forward the french Garrison, who are on their 
way to New York, with a proper Escort from thence, if con- 
venient, if not this Escort is to proceed with them. 

I am Sir with all Sincerity 

Your Welwisher, & Most 
Humble Servant 


INDORSED: Chev: Johnson 
le 25 m . Juillet 

Contemporary Copp 2 

Camp before Niagara 25 th . July 1759.- 

It is with the highest pleasure I Congratulate you on the happy 
Issue of our Expedition against Niagara. 

We left Oswego the first of July and were favored with Calm 
weather & a Series of other propitious Events, and arrived within 
four miles of the Fort the 6 th . in the Evening.- 

1 In British Museum, Additional Manuscripts 21670. fo. 4, London, 
England; the portion from "New York," including the address, in John- 
son's hand. 

2 In Public Record Office, C. O. 5.56, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, October 22, 1 759. 

1 1 2 Sir William Johnson Papers 

We Invested the place early in the morning of the 7*: but 
from some unexpected Accidents were prevented from breaking 
Ground till the 9 th : at Night, we Carried on our Approaches 
with little or no loss and opened two Battery s the 1 1 th : one of 
which did no great Execution by reason of its great distance, but 
by the 23 d . we opened an Eight Gun Battery within a Hundred 
and Fifty Yards of the Fort which played with considerable 

The 20 th . the Command of this Army devolved on me by the 
Death of our Worthy General, Who was Accidentally killed by 
one of our own Shells, an Event which gave me the most Sensible 
Concern, The same day we lost Colonel Johnson, of the New 
York Regiment who was killed in the Trenches by a musket 

The 24 th . Instant in the morning we were Attacked by a Body 
of French & Indians about 1 200, we Gave them a warm reception 
& entirely Defeated them Killing a very Considerable Number 
as appeared by the Scalps taken by the Indians and taking about 
100 prisoners amongst whom are all their Principal Officers & 
partizans to the Ammount of 1 9. This is an Event that I imagine 
will be of great Consequence to Your Expedition * as they were 
intended to oppose your army had they not been called by Express 
to the relief of this Fort. 

The Fort Surrendred this morning Prisoners of War to be 
Sent to New York and from thence as We shall Judge proper 
to be Sent either to England or France. By the Intelligence I 
have Received from the Indians, I have the pleasure to tell you 
the French Forts your way are in no respectable Situation- At 
Presqu' Isle there are 200 men Two 2 Pounders one four 
Pounder a mortar but no Shells, at the River Le Beuf 50 men, 
at Venango 150, The Forts only Picquetted. 

1 General Stanwix had been ordered to Pittsburgh, where he con- 
structed Fort Pitt. See his letter of November 20, 1 759 to William 
Pitt, Correspondence of William Pitt, Gertrude S. Kimball, eJ., 

Seven Years' War 1 1 3 

I shall Garrison this place agreable to General Amherst's 
Instructions to General Prideaux till the Arrival of Some of your 
Troops who I find are Intended to Garrison this Fort. 

I Sincerely Wish you all Success and hope for their Speedy 
Arrival, as the present Emergency greatly calls for it- 
I am Sir 

with Sentiments of the most Sincere regard 
Your most obedient 

Humble Servant 

W m . Johnson 

P : S : As the Fort is much larger 
than Imagined by us I pro- 
pose leaving a Garrison 
of 500 men at least 

INDORSED: Copy Letter from Sir William 
Johnson Bar 1 . To 
Brig r . Gen 1 . Stanwix Dated 
Camp before Niagara 25 th . July 1 759. 
Enclosed in the Brigadiers To 
Gen 1 . Amherst of 23 d . Aug*. 1 759. 
Acquainting the Brig r : with the 
Surrender of Niagara. 
in M: G: Amherst's of OcF. 22 d : 1759 
NO. 35. 


A diary kept by Johnson at Niagara and Oswego from July 25 to 
October 1 4, 1 759, which belonged to the State Library, was destroyed in 
the fire. It is printed in Stone's Life of Johnson, 2:394-429. 

1 1 4 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A. L. S. 1 

Niagara July 26*. 1759 

Coll . Massey Commands the Escort which takes down the 
French Garrison, taken here, Consisting of 607 privates, & ten 
Officers He is to Escort them to Albany; there are some 
Women, Children, & a Servant Man of Mod m . Villie Who are 
to be sent to the next French Post as soon as You can con- 
veniently do it. 

We are in great Want of Rum for the Troops who are much 
fatiuged. I hope there is a Stock of it there, as I belive I shall 
be oblidged to send for Some Soon as well as provisions, haveing 
not found much provision here for such a Garrison. 
I am Sir 

Your most Obedient 

Humble Servant 


ADDRESSED: On his Majestys Service 

Coll . Haldiman 
at Osswegoe 

INDORSED: Le Chev: Johnson 

Niagarra le 26 Juilet 


In the Johnson Calendar, p. 99, is Thomas Ovell's return of the guard- 
house, dated at Niagara, July 27. Destroyed by fire. 

x ln British Museum, Additional Manuscripts 21670. fo. 5, London, 

Seven Years* War 115 


Contemporary Copy l 

Copy. Niagara /u/p 3/". 7759. 


Since my last I sent out a Party in Three Whale Boats, across 
the Lake to Toronto in order to make discovery whether the 
Enemy were there, that in that Case I might Send a Body of 
Men to take and destroy it; they returned the 4 th . day, and 
reported that they had been at the Place, but found the Houses, 
&ca, just burned and Abandonned ; they brought away with them 
a Chipaweigh Indian, who was found near that Place, whom I 
shall dismiss with a handsome Present, and hope to make use of 
him in Settling an Alliance between Us & them distant Nations, 
the French having, whilst in possession of Niagara, cut off all 
Communication between Us and them.- During the Siege, I 
sent out the Indians to the Fort, 2 and Storehouse, about 8 miles 
off, which the Enemy Abandonning on their Approach, they 
plunder'd and Set fire to; Soon after a large Party of Indians 
went to another Magazine they had above the great Falls, which 
was before their Arrival destroyed, but the Indians having notice 
that the Skins, Furrs, &ca with Goods of different kinds, were 
hid on an Island, they soon discovered the Place, and got a con- 
siderable Booty; By the destruction of these places the Enemy 
have not One Post left near us, and their Loss must be great, as 
I heard One of the French declare that he alone had lost to the 
Amount of 250,000 Livres. 

I Must beg leave to represent to Your Excellency that as the 
Stormy Weather now Approaches it will be Impossible for small 
Craft to keep the Lake, so that this Garrison may fall Short of 
Provisions, unless a larger Number of Carpenters are Employed 

Mn Public Record Office, C O. 5.56, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, October 22, 1 759. 
2 Little Niagara, where Fort Schlosser subsequently stood* 

1 1 6 Sir William Johnson Papers 

in building Vessels with all dispatch, and without We have a 
Superiority of Ships on the Lake it will be impossible for us to 
keep this Post, it being a Place of too much importance to the 
Enemy not to take every Step in their power for its speedy 
recovery; I must add that as the Works are extensive, it will 
require at least 1 000 Men for a Garrison in time of War, whilst 
the French have any footing on the River S l . Lawrence. By 
the enclosed Plan you will see the Strength of this Place, and 
how much We were mistaken in our Opinions. & Intelligence con- 
cerning it. The 28 th . Inst. L l . Col. Haldimand Arrived here, 
in order to take on him the Command, but as I have His Majesty's 
Commission as a Colonel since the year 1 756, I did not Chuse 
to give it up to him ; however We have Settled it in such a manner, 
that no dispute may Arise untill Your Excellency's Opinion is 
known, being both Equally inclined to Carry on the Service 
as far as in our Power. 

Four days ago I Wrote to General Stanwix (not having it in 
my power to send Sooner) and gave him all the Intelligence I 
Could, concerning the State of the Country he was to pass thro', 
where I imagine he will have no great Body of the Enemy to 
Encounter, they having lost all their Officers, and so many of 
their People in the Engagement of the 24 th . 

I Should be glad We had some 12 po". in lieu of the 6 
Pounders, Sent for the Vessels which are to be built, the Enemy's 
Vessels carrying some 1 2 Pounders aboard ; I am now fitting out 
two Small Vessels found here, which will be ready in two or 
three days, when I purpose to Set out for Oswego, leaving a 
Garrison here, Consisting of 600 of the 44 th . and 1 00 Yorkers, 
under the Command of L l . Col. Farquhar.- I Have Sent for 
what Carpenters are at Oswego, as this is the best place for build- 
ing Vessels on Account of the depth of Water, and the quantity 
of Timber fit for the purpose. 

We have in the whole but 1584 Effectives here as you may 
Observe by the enclosed Return, and as the Garrison would not 
be able to draw in the Timber, & repair the Works in a con- 

Seven Fears' War 117 

siderable time, neither would it be safe for them after our depart- 
ure; and as all Indians are gone home with their plunder, I 
have been obliged to Stay hitherto, in order to leave the Troops 
who are to remain as little Work to do as possible. 

On my Arrival at Oswego, I hope to receive your Excellency's 
Orders concerning the next Step to be taken, the Circumstances 
of Affairs being much altered now, from the length of our Siege, 
the Number of the Killed and Wounded, of which I Send you 
a Return, as well as the Number of the Garrison absolutely neces- 
sary to be left here, and the occasion there will be for a good 
Work at Oswego, without which We cannot keep up the Com- 
munication here, and which Col. Haldirnand has not been able 
to do any thing to as yet, having been Employed in fortifying his 
Camp, and building Redoubts ever since his Attack, the Number 
of Men with him being insufficient to Compleat a Fort in any 
reasonable time.- I Send you Cap 1 . Sketchy V Demand of 
Stores &ca, for the Garrison, and as he will not have above 12 
Men to Carry from hence, he says he will want more up as soon 
as possible. 

I am most respectfully, 


Your Excellency's 
Most Obedient & 

Most Humble Servant. 

W m . Johnson 

INDORSED: Copy Letter from Sir W m . Johnson, Bar*, 
to General Amherst. 
Dated Niagara 3 1" : July 1759. 
Containing a further Acco 1 . of the great damage 
done to the Enemy by his Indians burning & 
destroying their Storehouses, &ca; That a 
Chipaweigh Indian had been brought in whom 

1 Captain Strechey, of the artillery. 

1 1 8 Sir William Johnson Papers 

he would dismiss with a handsome present & 
hoped to make use of him in Settling an Alliance 
between us & them distant Nations; that he 
should set out in two or three days for Oswego, 
leaving Six hundred Men of the 44 th . & One hundred 
of the Yorkers under the Command of LA Colonel 
Farquhar to Garrison the Fort, and carry on its 
Repairs ; that he was fitting out two small Vessels 
found there, & should send for the Carpenters 
from Oswego, as Niagara on Account of its depth 
of Water & the quantity of Timber fit for that pur- 
pose, was the best place for building Vessels, &ca. 
in M: G: Amherst's of Oct'. 22* : 1759. 
NO. 43. 


In the Johnson Calendar, p. 99, are noted Johnson's orders to Lieutenant 
Colonel Farquhar, 44th regiment, for repairing fortifications of the 
captured fort and care of garrison and prisoners; to Mr Dimler for 
fortifying; to Captain Walton for care and repair of stores; dated 
Niagara, August 2, 1 759. (All are printed in Stone's /o/mson, 
2:392-93.) Destroyed by fire. 

Contemporary Copp * 

Copy. Camp at Crotn Point 6 th . Aug st . 1759. 


Lieut: Moncrieff arrived here on Saturday Night, and 
delivered me Your most welcome and agreable Letter of the 25 th . 
Ultimo, with the Important News of the Surrender of Niagara 
on the Same day ; An Event too Essential and Interesting not to 
be imparted to His Majesty wtih the Utmost Dispatch, and as 
it could not be more properly Stated than in your own words, 

Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5.56, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, October 22, 1 759. 

Seven Years' War 119 

and that you may reap the Encrease of honor due to you, for 
the great Share you have had in this. Signal Success, I have 
Immediately Sent home Cap 1 . Prescott with your Original Letter, 
and the Capitulation it Accompanied, as also the Return of the 
Ammunition found in the place after its Surrender; and I make 
no Doubt but on his Return, I shall have His Majesty's Com- 
mands to Signify to you his most Gracious pleasure thereupon; 
Mean While I beg You will Accept of my most unfeigned thanks 
& Congratulations. 

The loss we have Sustained upon this Occasion by the 
Melancholy Accident that has befallen poor Brig r . General 
Prideaux is really great, and I Regret him most Sincerely, as well 
as Colonel Johnson ; So Soon as I was Apprised of it, I thought 
it Incumbent on me to Supply his Place with an Officer of Equal 
Rank, & I accordingly Dispatched Brig r . General Gage to take 
upon him the Command of that Army, with Instructions to pur- 
sue the Ulterior operations before directed, He Set out from 
Tienderoga on the 29 lh . at Noon on his way to Oswego, Where 
he will be Arrived before this can reach you, And I must beg 
that you will give him the same aid & Assistance, in Every 
Respect, that agreable to my Desire, you gave poor M r . Prideaux 
whilst alive, in procuring him if possible, with all Convenient 
Speed Such a Body of Indians as you shall be able to Collect, to 
Act in Conjunction with His Majesty's Troops, in Such further 
Attempts upon the Enemy as are Pointed out to Brig r . Gage, in 
which I am Confident the Indians will not only be of great use 
but likewise Ensure Success, the Consequence of which will be 
the Entire Reduction of Canada. 

And as I am Sensible that you have nothing more at heart than 
the Success of His Majesty's arms and the Re-establishing his 
good and faithful Subjects in the quiet and peaceable Enjoyment 
of their possessions and properties, I am Certain that you will 
use all your influence with the Several tribes & Nations of Indians 
under your Command, and that be now gone home as is usual 
among them after any Success, to prevail on them to Join you 

120 bir William Johnson Papers 

again, in order to proceed & Act in Conjunction w*. Brig r . 
General Gage & the Troops in Such further Attempts as he Shall 
agreable to my instructions find practicable to Undertake. I am 
with the greatest Regard &ca.- 

Jeff: Amherst 

INDORSED: Copy Letter from Gen 1 . Amherst 
To Sir WilK Johnson Bar 1 . 
Dated Camp at Crown Point 
6 th . August 1 759 

Acknowledging the Receipt of Sir William's 
of the 25 th . July (gone home by Cap 1 . Prescott) ; 
Acquainting him of Brig r . General Gage 
being set out to Succeed Brig r . Prideaux & 
desiring him, if possible, to procure with all 
Convenient Speed such a Body of Indians as 
he should be able to Collect to Join in the 
Ulterior Operations pointed out to Brig r : Gage, 
in M: G: Amherst's of Oct': 22 d 1759 
N. 47. 

Contemporary Copp l 

Copy Camp at Osnego August 9*. 1759. 


On my Passage from Niagara (which I left the Evening of 
the 4 th . and by rowing day and Night Arrived here the 7 th .) I 
Received Yours of the 28 th Ult. to the late Brig r . Prideaux, 
with the Account of your having got possession of Tienderoga, 
on which I most heartily Congratulate You.- The day after my 
Arrival here I sent away 21 French Officers (who were taken in 

1 In Public Record Office, C. O. 5.56, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, October 22, 1 759. 

Seven Years' War 121 

the Action of the 24 th . at La belle Famille near Niagara) with 
a Guard of 60 Men, the Chevalier De Ligneris, with another 
Officer were left at Niagara, untill the former recovers a little 
of his Wound; At the same time I sent to Fort Stanwix, with 
the returning Batteaus, Such of the Sick and Wounded as the 
Surgeon returned incapable of further Service this Campaign, 
there to remain untill your Pleasure is known, particularly those 
of the Provincials as in your Instructions to Brig r . General 

An Officer of the 46 th . who was with a Party to Escort the 
French Women to the first French Post, was Stopped on an 
Island about a league from Cadaraghui, and not permitted to go 
further; By him I am Informed they have an Army of Observa- 
tion there, from which they Send frequent Scouts to Watch our 
Motions, and I Conjecture on our Approach they would retire 
to their strong Post near La Galette; This Officer Saw two of 
their larger Schooners off an Island, in order I Suppose to dispute 
the Entrance of the River with our Batteaus; I Refer you for 
particulars to his Report which I Enclose; I must beg leave to 
Remind your Excellency of the necessity there will be for a good 
Respectable Work here, as the Supplying of Niagara depends 
entirely on this Post, and should either of our Other Expeditions 
happen to fail, the Enemy will undoubtedly use all Efforts to 
Send an Army for the Reduction of this Place, by which Niagara 
must of Course fall, and they be again in possession of the Lake, 
and Open the Communication to the Westward and Louisiana 
which they have so long had in View.- Capt n . Sowers, Engineer, 
has sent your Excellency a Plan for a Pentagon, which is Judged 
the best for the Ground We intend to Occupy ; We are now busy 
in felling, bringing in Loggs, and Levelling the Ground for the 
foundation untill Your Excellency's Approbation of the Plan is 
known.- An Augmentation of Ship Carpenters is very much 
wanted, and it will be necessary immediately to lay in Provisions 

122 Sir William Johnson Papers 

at Niagara, & here (more particularly so at the former place) 
sufficient to last untill May next, as we shall meet with most 
insufferable difficulties in sending them in Batteaus, as the Stormy 
Weather begins already on this Lake, the Little Schooner & 
Sloop not being able to Cope with the Enemy's Vessels, and it 
will take a Considerable time, I find, for want of a sufficient 
Number of Artificers to build a large One.- Provisions have, 
and Continue to Come up very slowly; I am now taking all the 
Steps in my power for the Expediting them, notwithstanding I 
much fear, these Posts will Suffer for the Want of them.- You 
will See the State of Our Artillery by the enclosed Return, as 
also of our Provisions &ca, the forwarding which to Niagara, 
and the Erecting of a Fort here, will keep the Troops in Constant 
Employ till the Close of the Campaign. As the Indians went 
all home from Niagara, with their Plunder, Prisoners & Scalps, 
I should be glad to know whether your Excellency will think it 
necessary for me to remain here any longer since there is so Active 
& Experienced an Officer as CoK Haldimand to take the Com- 
mand: If I am to Continue I hope to be favoured with your 
Commands, as to what further Steps may be taken for the Security 
of this Post, and that of Niagara.- I am extremely Sorry that 
I am under a necessity of Acquainting you that the Detachment 
of Artillery have not been, nor are they now so Active as they 
should be ; the Remissness of some of them gave great Uneasiness 
to the Late Brig r . General Prideaux, and has since very much 
distressed me ; One Officer is left at Niagara, Cap*. Stratchy, and 
the only Officer Else who is Acquainted with his is now Sick 
here, so that there remains Only One Young Gentleman, who 
is far from being able to discharge the duty of an Artillerv 
Officer. I beg leave, Sir, to mention to you a young Gentleman, 
a Relation of Mine, Named Guy Johnson, who desirous of being 
in the Army, came to America with that View, is now with me, 
and very Serviceable.- If your Excellency will let him have 

Seven Years War 123 

ic of the first Vacancys may happen among the Subalterns I 
lall be extremely Obliged to you.- 
I am, 

with the greatest Respect, 
Your Excellency's 
Most Obedient and 
Most Humble Servant 

W m . Johnson 

P. S. I Cannot in Justice Omit Acquainting your Excellency 
that M r . Mattral, a Voluntier in the 4 th . Battalion of Royal 
Americans, who Came Express to Brig r . General Prideaux was 
of great Service in Carrying on our last parallel and Erecting the 
last Battery. 

As Capt. Lieut. Walton of the Train has Orders to go home 
and Join his Regiment, he expects to be soon Relieved, which I 
promised he would.- 

I Have heard nothing yet of the Newhampshire Regiment, 
your Excellency has Ordered this way, but I Suppose them 
coming Slowly on. 

His Excellency MAJOR GEN L . AMHERST. 

INDORSED: Copy Letter from Sir W m . Johnson, Bar*, 
to General Amherst. 

Dated Camp at Oswego 9 th . Aug st : 1759. 
Acquainting him of his Arrival at Oswego; 
That the Enemy have an Army of Observation 
at Caderaqui from which they send frequent 
Scouts to Watch our Motions, and Conjectures 
that on our Approach they would retire to their 
Strong Post near Lake Galette ; That two of the 
Enemy s larger Schooners were seen off an 
Island, in order, he supposes, to dispute the 
Entrance of the River with our Batteaus &ca ; 
With hints relative to the Importance of the 

124 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Post of Oswego.- 

in M: G: Amherst's of Oct r : 22 d : 1759 

N. 44. 

Contemporary Copp x 

Camp at Cronm Point 14 ih . Aug*. 1759 

I Yesterday had the pleasure to Receive your Favor of the 
31 st . Ultimo, with the further agreable News of the additional 
Dammage done to the Enemy by the Parties of Indians you had 
sent out; The steps you had taken for putting Niagara in a 
proper State of defence & Ensuring the Superiority of the Lake ; 
the latter is what I have all along had in view and from the 
very beginning gave directions about, so that I make no doubt, 
from the preparations that have been made for that purpose, but 
I Shall Soon have accounts of their being followed with Success- 

As you are already Apprised, of my having Appointed Brig r . 
Gen 1 , Gage to Succeed poor Brig r . Prideaux, I need add nothing 
further on that subject, than that I do, by this Conveyance, send 
him Directions relative to what you mention, which makes it 
needless for me to trouble you with them; but I must not omit 
'observing, that I hope you will be able, by means of the Chipa- 
weigh Indian, to bring about and Settle an Alliance between us 
and them distant Nations.- 

I must also, Approve of your having Fitted out the two Small 
Vessells you found at Niagara, which will be very usefull; and 
of your having Informed Brig r . Stanwix of your Success, which 
certainly must Ensure his ; I thank you for the Plan Enclosed in 
yours, and am &c 

Jeff: Amherst 

*In Public Record Office, C. O. 5.56, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, October 22, 1 759. 

Seven Years War 125 

INDORSED: Copy Letter from Gen 1 . Amherst 
To Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 , dated 
Camp at Crown Point 1 4 th . Aug*. 


Acknowledging the Receipt of Sir William's of the 
31 st . July: Approving his having sent for the 
Ship Carpenters from Oswego; And hoping 
that by means of the Chipaweigh Indian, 
he would be able to bring about & Settle an 
Alliance between Us & them distant Nations, 
in M: G: Amherst's of Ocf. 22 d : 1759 
N. 48. 


In the Johnson Calendar, p. 99, is a letter of the 1 8th of August from 
John Visger, at Schenectady, to Colonel Peter Schuyler, of the Jersey 
Blues, asking intercession with General Amherst to the end that he may be 
allowed to trade at Niagara. Destroyed by fire. 


An Act repealing all the Laws of this Colony which restrict 
or prohibit the Native Indians that live within the same, from 
disposing of their Lands. 

Whereas Thomas Ninigret, of Charlestown in the County of 
King's County, and Colony aforesaid, Gentleman, preferred a 
Petition, and represented unto this Assembly, That, having been 
unhappily engaged in several Law-Suits, in Defence of his Right, 
he hath been obliged to advance large Sums of Money; which, 
with other necessary Expences he was put to for Cloathing, 
Board, and so forth, during his Minority, hath greatly involved 
him in Debt: And as the Laws of the Colony now stand, he 

1 Acts and Resolves of Rhode Island, 1 759. A copy in the Library 
Collection (Johnson Calendar, p. 99), was destroyed by fire. 

126 Sir William Johnson Papers 

cannot, in the Apprehension of some, sell or dispose of his Estate 
for the Payment and discharge of his Debts: Wherefore he the 
said Thomas Ninigret prayed, That the Law which relates to 
the purchasing Lands of Indians may be repealed, and he have 
the same Liberty of selling and disposing of his Estate, or any 
Part thereof, as others of His Majesty's Subjects enjoy. 

On Consideration whereof, Be it Enacted by this Ceneral 
Assembly, and by the Authority of the same, It is enacted, That 
all and every of the Laws at any Time made and passed in this 
Colony to restrict or prohibit the Native Indians, that live within 
the same, from selling and disposing of their Estates, be, and 
they hereby are repealed, declared and rendered Null and Void 
to every Intent and Purpose whatsoever. 1 

Contemporary Copy 2 

Camp at Croton Point 21 st . Aug*. 1759. 

As I have had the pleasure of writing to you on the 5 th . and 
14 th . Instant, and that, long eere this reaches you, I am hopefull 
you will have Received those two Letters, and that you will also 
have seen Brigadeer Gen 1 . Gage, I have little else to trouble you 
with at present, than Acknowledging the receipt of your favor 
of the 9 th , and thanking you for the hints it Contains, Relative 
to the importance of the Post of Oswego, and the Necessity of 
Rendring it so respectable, as to put it out of the power of the 
Enemy to repair their late losses; both that, and the obtaining 

Massed at East-Greenwich, R. I., Monday, August 20, 1759. 
2 In Public Record Office, C. O. 5.56, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, October 22, 1 759. 

Seven Years' War 127 

the superiority of the Lakes, have been two of the Principal 
Objects I have all along had in view; early preparations have 
been made for them, and Repeated orders Sent, to Set about 
and Compleat every work requisite for that purpose; but I am 
sorry to Say it, these works are not near so advanced as I 
expected, owing, in a great measure, to Engineers differing in 
opinion, with regard to the form of their works, Which I trust 
are now Settled, and every thing going on as I could wish - 

Your Recommendations, shall at all times have the greatest 
weight with me, and you may be Assured, that I shall, with 
pleasure Embrace the first Occasion that Offers, to provide for 
M r . Johnson your Relation ; as I shall likewise for M r . Mettrail, 
of whose behaviour I had, before, the most favorable Accounts, 
and am very glad to see them corroborated by you. 

I am &c 

Jeff: Amherst 


Letter from Gen 1 Amherst 
to Sir W m . Johnson dated Camp 
in Crown Point 21 st . Aug*. 1759. 
Acknowledging the Receipt of Sir William's 
of the 9 th . Aug 81 . and thanking him for the 
hints Contained in it relative to the 
Importance of the Post of Oswego, &ca. 
in M: G: Amherst's of Oct r : 22 d : 1759 
N. 49. 

128 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A. L. S. 1 

Albany. August 23* 1759 

Your Favor of July the 20 th came to my hands one hour ago 
this morning viz. August 23 rd we were very merry on the success 
& c , and in New York Johnson for Ever our last accounts 
from Quibeck, that Gen 1 Wolfe and the Army were furiously 
Cannonading and bombarding that City and had burnt the one 
half of it the french army intrenched near the walls on the 
other side of the town, we have not heard of one sally they made, 
nor any action between the armys whatsoever we all expect 
Quibeck will fall into our hands 

as to Crown point it was blown up by the French and Evacu- 
ated, and all my letters say the Enemy will dispute the point at 
S* Johns, Gen 1 . Amherst is getting every thing ready to pursue 
them he has also sent Quintin Kenedy and 2 Indians to Quibeck 
2 Gen 1 Wolfe; they are now gone 13 days they expected to 
make the Journey in 20 days Gen 1 Amherst had a Letter 
last week from Montcalm, he says he has always been favourable 
to the English who have fallen into his hands tho contrary to his 
orders, and hopes as the armys are likely to be soon near each 
other, that all acts of Cruelty whatsoever may be avoided, which 
on his part he will be most careful to prevent - 

Gen 1 Amherst is building a fort at Crown point on a better 
situation than the old fort stood he has also Cut a road to 
new England, and has engaged for 200 head of Cattle to be 
delivered at Crown point Col. Murrow the buyer of Cattle 
in New England, says, his house is as near Crown point as 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Supply "to," wanting in the copy. 

Seven Years War 129 

as to home news the good people of Albany has taxed our new 
Merch 18 . smartly, they have only made 4 of them pay a hundred 
pounds the 1 2 th part of the taxes of this City the merch u 
deneyed paying the tax, they distrained their goods, the mere*, 
petitioned the Gen 1 that as followers of the army they were 
oppressed by the Albanians, they have not yet rec d an answer 
the mayor said in the street, he thought to resign his mayor Ship, 
but he would keep it one year to pleague the Irish well said 
M r . Mayor 

I have not seen one news paper for you since you marched, I 
spoke to M r . Van Schaack about it, he tells me he sends your 
papers to you when opertunity offers - 

I twice mentioned your friend Sir Peter Wraxal leaving this 
Globe his place of Secretary for Indian affairs would be of 
Service to me, and be so kind to get it for me you must not 
forget me now, as no man can interfere with you in this Case 
all our Compliments for your 

Success and Safety believe me to be 
D r . Sir your most faithfull 
humble Serv 1 . 


P. S. The Genie", in New York 

talk of presenting you with a medal in 
Gold, worth 500 

Vol. HI 5 

130 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A. L. S. 1 

Fort Hendrick August 23 1759 

Whereas it hath pleased Almighty God to endow you with 
a Victory so great as became the Joy of all the Inhabitants here, 
but more especially of me in particular, because a great Part of 
my Welfare (next to God) depends on your success. There- 
fore wishing and praying continually that this may be an Omen 
of farther success, which God may Grant, I hope that this may 
take place by you as my good Will & Wishes Because the Time 
is Short and M r . Butler inhaste I shall conclude to wish you 
further success which will be the Continuall and constant Prayer 
of him who is in Duty Bound and to the utmost your 

Humble Servant 
to Command 



There are found in the Johnson Calendar, p. 100, orders, of August 
29th, of the King in council, directing the agent of Indian affairs to 
inquire into the complaints of Delawares and report to the lords of trade 
(printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y. % 2:789-90; Q, 2:458). Destroyed by 

Destroyed by fire. 

Seven Years War 131 


Contemporary Copp l 

Copy/ Camp at Ostoego August 30*. 1759. 


I have received Your Excellency's favor of the 21 st ., as also 
those of the 5 th . & 14 th : Ins 1 , and am extremely happy to find 
that the few undigested Hints inserted in my last have been 
honoured with Your Approbation. 

I am extremely oblidged to you for your promise in favor of 
M r . Johnson who I hope will not Escape your recollection when 
an Occasion Offers and flatter myself he will merit the provision 
your Excellency shall make for him.- 

There are now here to the Number of 200 Onondagas & 
Senecas Who Returned on my Message to them, and I daily 
expect a Number of the lower Nations with the Mohawks having 
Sent an Indian Officer on my Arrival here with a message to 
them to Join us with all Expedition Some of the Senecas Who 
arrived here, have brought me advice that Soon after the Reduc- 
tion of Niagara the French burned, & abandoned their Posts at 
Wininga 2 & Presqu 'Isle, 3 and are retired to Fort Detroit. In 
consequence of the message which I sent by the Chipawe Indian 
to the Missassagas & Indians on the other side of Lake Ontario; 
a Number of them Arrived at Niagara, where I left an Indian 
Officer with an Interpreter, I herewith Enclose you the Officers 
Letter to me as also an Extract of L l . Col. Farquhars Which 
contains the particulars of the Conference and proceedings held 
with them Which bears a very favorable aspect, Upon the Whole 
I make no doubt if time permit me after our intended Expedition, 

Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5.56, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, October 22, 1 759. 

2 Venango (Veningo, Weningo), at the mouth of French creek on the 
Allegheny river, Pa. 

3 On Lake Erie, where the city of Erie, Pa., stands. 

132 Sir William Johnson Papers 

by means of a proper present, to bring the Missassagas & their 
Neighbours so much into our Interest as to prevail upon them to 
fall upon, & Distress all the Enemy's Settlements in the Country 

I am, with Great respect 
Sir, your Excellency's 

Most Obed*. & most humble Serv*. 

W m . Johnson. 
His Excellency MAJOR GEN L . AMHERST 

INDORSED: Copy Letter from Sir 
William Johnson Bar 1 . 
To M. Gen 1 . Amherst Dated 
Camp at Oswego 30 th : August 

Informing him of the Number of Indians 
he has with him, & that he daily Expects 
more; that in consequence of the Message 
he had Sent by the Chipaweigh Indian to 
the Missassagas &ca, a Number had 
Arrived at Niagara, & that from the 
Conferences & proceedings held with them 
there, he did not doubt, when time would 
permit, by means of a proper present, to 
bring the Missassagas & their Neighbours 
so much into Our Interest to prevail on 
them to fall upon & distress all the Enemys 
Settlements in the Country Adjacent, 
in M: G: Amherst's of Oct r : 22 d 1759 
N. 45. 

Seven Years War 133 


Osrvego 31. August 1759 

Hennery Young a German born near the Rine came to this 
Country 2 years ago in a Merch 1 . Ship, with 20 of y e . Same 
Corps Colony Troops, He was inlisted by one of Fisher's 
Officers for 3 years ; arrived at Quebec where he rem d . 2 Months, 
from thence he was Sent to M l . Real where he did Duty as a 
Soldier 2 Months, from thence he was ordered to La Gallete 2 
in Compy. w th . 5 Battoes loaded w*. flour & Brandy; they lay 
10 days Wind Bound at a Bay where there Stands a Wind 
Mill, on the North Side, they were a Month by the way to 
La Galete, Some of y e Cayoe s was left at La Gallete, the rest 
Sent to Cadaraghqui, He has been a Sold r . in y c . Fort of 
Swegatchy from that time untill last Spring, the Garrison con- 
sisted of 50 Men, who were generally employed Cutting Timber 
for 2 Store Houses w h . were built within y e Fort and were almost 
finished when he left it. the one was for y e . Commd*. the other 
for the Priests of whom they have three, before the Snow was 
quite gone last Spring, He was Sent to work on the Island, called 
Isle Galiot 4 and 25 of y e . garrison of La Gallete, the Fort of 
La Gallete is a Square w*. 5 good Block houses, and Stock- 
adaed, they intended to have made some add 11 , works round it 
early the last Spring, but had not time. It is commanded by a 
riseing ground w h . is not above 500 paces from y e . Fort, no Can- 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

" The St Lawrence was frequently traversed by French voyagers, 
and a post was established at La Galette (meaning in the French language 
a cae, or muffin), which is supposed to be near the site of Johnstown in 
Canada, a short distance below Prescott, or on Chimney Island." F. B. 
Hough, A History of St Lawrence and Franklin Counties, 41. Ordi- 
narily, as in the above text, La Galette is Oswegatchie. 

" Cayoe " in copy; " cargoe " was evidently written. 
4 He de Gallop. 

134 Sir William Johnson Papers 

non, nor Mortars there, they had 1000 barrels of flower & Pork 
at La Gallete w h . on hearing by y c . IncK of an English army 
designed that way, was carried to Isle Gallot that y e . English 
might not find it, it lay ab l . 3 weeks on y e . Island, was then 
Shipped for 1 in 2 Vessels, the third Vessel not quite 

so large, (wK was designed for Carrying Stores & ca ) was within 
a little of being finished when y e . Carpenters were called to 
Quebec. The Vessels were built at Pt Paris 3 leages from 
La Gallete. He never saw any of y e . Vessels come lower down 
than the Point where built, but heard y e . French say, they could 
come to y e . beginning of y e . 5 Isleands; of which Isle Galot is 
the lower most, the Water begins to be rapid at y e . first Isleand, 
& grows more so downards; the 25 Men of y e . garrison at La 
Galete sent to Isle Galot last Spring, were there a Month then 
Joined by 200 Men from Point Paris, begun to Cut down the 
treas, the Underwood they threw along y e . Banks of y e . Isleand; 
they then dug a Trench of 9 feet Deep, & the same breath, and 
made a Breast work of Logs filled with Earth 12 feet broad, 
mounted thereon 12 Cannon he thinks 12 pd rs . & 2 Small D., 
one of w h . the Informant says he carried ; these Guns are mounted 
so, as to fire upon the Battoes comeing down, which must pass 
within Musquet Shot of the Intrenchment, the River not being 
verry broad there. Battoes may pass any where between the 
Isleand & the Maine. He left Isle Galot ab l . y e . 24 th . of June 
last w^. Chev lr . Lacorn, who was 1 8 days on the Isleand dureing 
w h . time he employed all the Men he brought with him in 
Strengthingig y e . Isleand, drawing Stones from near Swegatchy 
for building Ovens Powder Magazines, and a dwelling House, 
when LaCorn marched for Osswego 2 he left but 100 Men on 
Isle Galot, 3 at Swegatchy, 12 at Point Paris, and a Small 
guard at Frontenack. He marched with 1 500 Men here, & 1 1 5 

1 Illegible. 

2 Pierre de Chapt, Chevalier de la Come, was defeated in an attack 
on Oswcgo, made on the 5th and continued on the 6th of July. 

Seven Years War 135 

Ind 8 ., in his way he halted a Day at Point Paris, where he gave 
the Men some necessary mounting for the March, and Sent to 
Isle Galot for 3 Battoe load of provisions, at Point Paris there 
was a Breast work, but the Cannon were carried down to Isle 
Galot & the few Men left there had orders to level it, as it was 
Judged an Improper Place to make a Stand on Severall Acc tts . 
besides the River is so wide there that Boats may pass unmolested 
the other Side of the River, He says he heard often that when 
the English were going down towards Canada, the Vessels were 
to go to Niagara further the Informant knows not. 

The Informant says further, that he always heard, & under- 
stood that in Case the English should come by the way of La 
Gallete, all the other little Posts on this Side of it, were to retreat 
& Join them at Isle Galot that M r . La Corn when comeing here, 
ordered a quantity of Pitch ready to burn the Vessels then on 
y c . Stocks in case of our comeing that way, they have a guard 
of 12 Men on Isle Cheverews to give the alarm in case of our 
moving that way. the guard was relieved everry 8 Days from 
Frontenack. He also says that M r . Celerons Cook who was here 
w lh . LaCorn told him that they were to return to Quebec, or 
Carilon, after this affair of Oswego was over. 

He says that verry few Swegatchy Ind s . were w th . M r . La 
Corn, and that few of them were Seen at La Gallete Since last 

136 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Contemporary Copp * 

Copy Camp at Crorvn Point I I th : Sept r . 1759. 


I am to Acknowledge the Receipt of Your Letter of the 30 th : 
August, Accompanying the Copy of a Letter wrote you by the 
Indian Officer whom you left at Niagara, in relation to the 
Missassagas & Indians on the other Side of Lake Ontario, that 
had come in there, as also an Extract of Lieut: Col. Farquhar's 
containing the particulars of the Conference & proceedings held 
with them; from the favorable Aspect of Which you make no 
doubt to bring the Missassagas & their Neighbours, so much into 
our Interest as to prevail on them to fall upon & Distress all the 
Enemy's Settlements in the Country adjacent 

I am Glad you have no Doubts of Effecting this Essential 
Service and I cannot too Strongly Recommend to you, the bring- 
ing it to bear as early as possible, for which you Shall not want 
any Assistance I can give you; At the same time I must again 
remind you, that from the little Dependance that can be made on 
Indian promises it is necessary to Caution all those Whom you 
treat with that as I mean not to take anything from them, but 
on the Contrary to Ensure them the free and uninterrupted Enjoy- 
ment of their own I Expect that they Shall behave & Demean 
themselves in every respect as good Neighbours and Allies; that 
whenever they Swerve from these Rules, I Shall look upon & 
treat them as Enemies; And on the other hand that whenever 
they Render themselves of any use or Service to us, they Shall 
most punctually meet with the Reward due to their merit. 

1 In Public Record Office, C. O. 5.56, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, October 22, 1 759. 

Seven Years' War 137 

I am likewise Glad to See that you had 200 Onondagos & 
Senecas with you, and that you were in daily Expectations of a 
number of the Lower Nations & the Mohawks whom I hope will 
have Joined you time enough to Accompany you & Brig r . Gen 1 . 
Gage on the Ulterior Operations which I am willing to believe 
will prove as Successfull as the former, I am with great regard 


Jeff: Amherst 


INDORSED: Copy Letter from Gen 1 . Amherst 
To Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 . 
Dated Camp at Crown Point 1 1 th : Sep r . 

In Answer to Sir Williams of the 30 th . Aug'; 
Recommending it to him to bring it to 
bear as early as possible, for which he 
should not want any Assistance that he 
could give him; Cautioning him at the 
same time how he should treat with those 

in M: G: Amherst's of OcP: 22 d : 1759 
NO. 50. 

Contemporary Copy x 

Copy. Camp at Oswego Sef>i r . I8 ih . 1759. 


Your Excellency's favour of the 1 1 th . Instant, I have received, 
in Answer to Mine of the 30 th . August, wherein I enclosed the 
Proceedings with the Missassaga's &ca, at Niagara, and men- 

Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5.56, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, October 22, 1 759. 

138 Sir William Johnson Papers 

tioned my hopes of persuading them by a Present properly 
Applied, to Act offensively for Us; but as it will be impossible 
to buy and get up Indian Goods for that purpose this Campaign 
before the Rivers freeze, I shall leave a proper Person at Niagara 
for the Winter to transact Affairs with them, and do everything 
necessary for the keeping up of that good Understanding, which 
at present seems to Subsist between Us, untill we have an Oppor- 
tunity of getting up such Necessaries as may Induce them to Act 
offensively against the Enemy. 

The Mohocks are several days arrived, with some Oneidas, as 
also two Officers whom I Sent to the Cayugas, who are now on 
their way to Join us, and may be hourly Expected. About three 
days ago I sent a Party of near 40 Indians, and a few Whites 
to Oswegatchy, and as they were such as I can thoroughly depend 
on, hope they will bring us some Prisoners. 

I have received a Letter from M r . Croghan, my Agent to the 
Ohio, dated at Pittsburgh August the 13 th . who Informs me 
that Indian Affairs bear a very favorable Aspect in that Quarter, 
and that he has taken much pains to Convince the Indians, His 
Majesty does not intend to dispossess them of their Country, 
which seems to be the only Jealousy they Entertain of Us; At 
the Writing of his Letter General Stanwix was still at Bedford; 
The Indians I sent with my Letter to him from Niagara the 28 th . 
July are not returned, neither have I had a Line from Brig r : 
Stanwix during the Campaign. 

It might be thought impertinent to trouble you with the Intel- 
ligence we receive here from Prisoners, &ca, as you doubtless 
are Acquainted with it by Brig r . Gage. 

I am, with the Utmost Respect 

Sir, Your Excellency's most Obed*. 
& most humble Servant, 

W m . Johnson 

His Excellency GENERAL AMHERST. 

Seven Years' War 139 

INDORSED : Copy Letter from Sir W m . 
Johnson Bar 1 , to General 

Dated Camp at Oswego 18^ Sep r : 1759. 
That the Season was too far advanced to 
bring up the Presents he intended for the 
Missassagas, but that he should leave 
a proper Person at Niagara to transact 
matters with them, untill he has an 
opporunity for getting them up. 
That the Mohawks were all Arrived, 
with some Oneidas, and that the Cayugas 
were on their way to Join him. That 
Indian Affairs to the Southward bear 
a very favorable Aspect. 
in M: G: Amherst's of OcP: 22 d : 1759 
N. 46. 

Df. S. 1 

Camp at Osnego Sepr. 28 th . 1759 

I now acknowledge the Receipt of yours of the 22 d March 
and 7 th . of June by the former I find you shipped me some Goods 
and are arrived sometime, as I got my Seal come with said Cargo. 

I dont understand the Arms are yet arrived w ch . you were ship- 
ping on Board the Concord, I have been greatly distressed this 
Campaign wanting good Arms for the Ind ns . I brought into the 
Field who were 945 effective, by having so many on our Side we 
gained Niagara with the weakest Force and most insignificant 
Train of Artillery &c that ever was sent so great a Distance 
against so respectable and regular a Fortification. f I got two little 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

140 Sir William Johnson Papers 

schooners of the Enemys there, w ch . are of very great Service 
now being the only Way we have at presnt of transporting 
Provis 8 . &c to Niagara the Lake being too rough at this Season 
of the year for smaller Craft. 

We are building a Snow at Niagara will carry 1 Six P. but 
for want of Ship Carpenters sufficient I fear she will not be fin- 
ished timely to be of any Service this year. There is a very fine 
Harbour for building vessels of any Size at Niagara under the 
Command of the Fort and the greatest Quantity of the best Oaek 
for that purpose I ever saw in any Part of the World. The 
Enemy have yet two very pretty vessels carrying 10 Guns each, 
so that they keep the Dominion of that Lake untill our Snow 
appears upon it, we must by all Means have and keep the Dom n . 
of this Lake, w ch . will not only gain to our Interest with proper 
Managm nt . all the Nat 8 , of Ind ns . living beyond and around them, 
but secure to us all the Conquests made this Camp n . in this 
Quarter of the Country from whence the Strength and Wealth of 
Canada have chiefly flowed. 

We are building a pretty respectbK Fort here the Figure of 
a Pentagon, will garrison ab l . 500 Men and hope we shall be able 
to make it tenable before we decamp, which must be the latter 
End of October as the Waters generally freeze by that time. 

From the very slender acquaintance with and little Knowledge 
I have of M r . DeVisme, I am surprised he could take the Liberty 
w ch . I find by yours he has. I know nothing of his Circumstances 
or Principle, he is marryd to a gentlewoman of N York named 
Hillwell of a good credible Family, and I have heard his Brother 
in law the late Capt n . Wraxall of the Indep ts . & my secretary for 
Ind n . Affairs give him the Character of an honest Industrious 
Man, and very capable of doing Business 

There is a BalK of thirty five Pounds and nine shil 8 . due to 
me by Messrs Champion and Hayly, w ch . I have ordered them to 
pay you, with in st . and what other Money of mine may be in your 
hands at the time you receive this, you will please to make a 

Seven Years' War 141 

further Purchase for me in the consolidated Bank three Annuities 
and advise me of it as soon as you can. I have not as yet drawn 
my Pay as Colonel of the six United Nations their Allies & 
Dependants the Commission is from His Majesty dated at S l . 
James's the 17 th of February 1756. I propose as soon as the 
Campaign is over to give you a Power of Attorney to act as my 
Agent therein. I shall be glad to hear from you as often as 

As I am with great Esteem 

Your Obe 11 . W M . JOHNSON 

INDORSED: Camp at Oswego 20 th Oct 1 759 
Letter to M r . W m . Baker 
Merch*. in London. 

Contemporary Copy l 

Extract/ Camp at Crown Point 2<*. October 1759. 


On the 30 th . I was favor'd with Yours of the 18 th . Ultimo 
from Oswego, which I take it for granted you have left long 
eere this, since I find by a Letter of the 11 th . of same Month 
from Brig r : General Gage, that he had then already determined 
not to take Post at La Galette; Could I have foreseen that this 
very Essential Operation 2 should not have taken place, I should 
most certainly have desired your Company, with what Number 
of Indians you could Collect, here, where they might have been 
of Service, and have Compensated for the very great Expence 
their Subsistence and fitting out, Creates to the Public, which, 

Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5.56, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, October 22, 1 759. 

2 For Gage's attitude, see Stone's Li/t of Johnson, 2:401, 402, 412, 
Private Manuscript Diary. 

142 Sir William Johnson Papers 

from the above Resolution, is now become entirely needless, and 
therefore I hope, that as soon as you have been Acquainted with 
it, you will have Stopped those that were still to Join you from 
coming forward, & disbanded the Others that were already with 
you, as it is now too late for them to Come in any time, to be of 
Service at present on this Side. 

Since it will be impossible to buy and get up the Indian Goods 
requisite to induce the Missassaga's, &ca, to Act offensively for 
Us this Campaign before the Rivers freeze, I Approve of your 
leaving a proper Person at Niagara for the Winter to transact 
Affairs with them, and do everything necessary for the keeping 
up that good Understanding, which at present seems to Subsist 
between Us, untill we can have an Opportunity of getting up 
such Necessaries as may Induce them to Act offensively against 
the Enemy.- 

I Hope the Party of near Forty Indians, and some Whites, 
which you have Sent to Oswegatchy, will Answer your Expecta- 
tions, and return with some Prisoners, which I shall be glad to 
learn from you, as well as any Other Intelligence that you may 
have to Communicate. 

I am glad to learn that your Accounts from your Deputy to the 
Southward relative to our Indian Affairs in that Quarter, bear so 
favorable an Aspect; And Surprised that you Indians were not 
returned with M r . Stanwix's Answer to your Letter of the 28 th . 
for he has Acknowledged the Receipt of it to me ever since the 
23 d . August, when he was on his departure from Fort Ligonier 
for Pittsburgh, whence he was to Send back the two Indians. 

Jeff: Amherst. 
SIR W M . JOHNSON, Bar 1 . 

Seven Years War 143 

INDORSED : Extract- 
Letter from 
General Amherst to 
Sir William Johnson, Bar 1 . 
Dated Camp at Crown Point 2 d . Oct r . 1759. 
That as it has been determined not to 
take Post at La Galette, he supposed 
Sir William had left Oswego eer this 
had sent home the Indians that were with him 
and Countermanded those 
that were to Join him, as they could 
be of no Use, and must put the Governm*. 
to a very great and needless Expence; 
that could he have foreseen that the 
taking post at La Galette would have 
been laid aside, he should have desired 
Sir William to have Joined him, with 
his Indians on this Side.- Approving 
what Sir William proposes in relation 
to the Missassagas. And that he was 
glad to hear Indian Affairs to the 
Southward bore so favorable an Aspect, 
in M: G: Amherst's of Oct- 22* : 1759. 
NO. 51. 


A. L. S. 1 

Albany October 10* 1759 

Your Honor's favour of the 8 th Aug st . 2 I received the 27 th 
of that month; & that very Day wrote an Answer in such 
Particulars as was therein enjoined; and sent it under Cover to 
J no . B. Van Eps Esq. of Schonetody desiring him to forward it 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Not found. 

144 Sir William Johnson Papers 

as soon as Possible ; But am greatly surprised on the Receipt 
of your Honor's favour of the 28 th September l to find that it 
then had not reach'd you, I hope 'ere this, it will be come to 
Hand and lest that should miscarry; & the Copy is mislaid I 
shall in general give the Contents as they Occur to Mind. I 
Heartily Congratulate your Honor on the Happy Success of His 
Majesty's Arms, as well for the acquisition of Ticonderoga oc 
Crownpoint, as the important Fort of Niagara, which gives me 
far the greatest Pleasure, as that was done under your Honor's 
administration and will certainly Tend to your immortal Honour. 

As the then Current News must certainly have reached you, I 
shall omit that to make Room for some of a much Later date 
which I obtain'd from a Manuscript, as follows, Viz (a Packet 
being arrived at N. York) 

Berlin Aug st . 4. According to the Last advices from Gen 1 . 
Wedel's Army which are of the 3 rd past. Marshal Daun had 
Detach'd the Gen 1 *. Haddick & Laudon with a Body of 30000 
Men Consisting Chiefly of Cavalry to join the Russians that were 
encamp'd between Franckfort & Crossen; Gen 1 . Wedel found 
Means to prevent that Junction, by Marching to Placen Opposite 
Crosson The Gen ls informed of this March, had in the mean 
time Ordered a part of 2 which were under the Com- 

mand of Prince Henry to Advance, and having appointed his 
Royal Highness to the Command of the Army oppos'd to Mar- 
shal Daun, His Majesty had put himself at the Head of the 
above reinforcement, and Marched on the first inst. from 
Christiaenstadt to Sommofeldt, from whence the Corps under 
Gen 1 . Haddick had retired at His Majesty's approach with great 
Precipitation. Our Troops however came up with the Rear 
Guard of the Austrians, which was Attack'd by our Hussars, 
who got from them a considerable Booty. The next Day our 
Cavalry was again engag'd w th . that Rear Guard and made 1 200 
Prisoners; amongst whom were 36 Officers, & likewise took all 

1 Not found. 

2 Omission in copy ; original apparently illegible. 

Seven Years' War 145 

ic Oven of the Enemy & 300 Waggons Loaded with Flour 
>gether with 50 more of Powder On the 3 rd . Gen 1 . Wedel's 
Army was at Crossen & and the King arrived the same Day at 
Biskow several other skirmishes happened that Day, at which 
time the Number of Prisoners made upon Gen 1 . Haddick's Corps 
amounted to 1600 --The 3 rd . instant the Prussians quitted 
Crossen, of which Gen 1 . Wedel is in Possession, and tomorrow 
we shall be in Franckfort 

The Loss of the French in the late action, wherein Prince 
Ferdinand gained the Victory, 1 was by the best acc te . as follows 
viz 4000 Tents, 4004 Powder Waggons, 235 Ammunition 
Waggons, 20,000 rix Dollars in the Military Chest, 190 P. 
Cannon, 2 1 Standards, 1 7 Pr. Colours, 1 1 Kettle Drums, 6000 
Prisoners, including 13 Generals of which 3 are Princes of the 
Blood, 35 Field Officers, 245 Capt 8 , &c., 231 Serj*. 122 Drums 
& 9040 killed in all 16,450. 

The News Current here is that Gen 1 . Amherst set out a Sun- 
day 2 from Crown Point for S l . John's with 5000 Men, composed 
of the Grenadiers & Light Infantry & ten Pick'd Men of a Com- 

The last accounts from Gen 1 . Wolf is that he has entirely 
destroyed the Island Orleans and that the Army was on Point 
Levee, and that he was bent on the Destruction of all to bring 
the 3 to Terms and that 20 Vessels were up the River 

above the 3 as well as 1 000 Men, who had Destroyed 

their Magazine & Largest Church there. 4 So that we are in 
Dayly Expectation of Hearing of his entire Victory there, this 

1 August 1st Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick, commanding British and 
German troops, defeated the French under Contades at Minden. 

2 General Amherst set out for Isle-aux-Noix October 1 1 th and returned 
to Crown Point October 2 1 st. 

8 Omitted in copy; illegible. 

4 General Murray landed at Deschambault with a considerable force 
August 1 9th, destroyed the baggage of the French army and carried away 
cattle. Doc. Rd. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 10:1033. 

146 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Morning came to Town, and Proceeded imediately to Crown 
Point, a Captain of a Man of Warr who arrived at Boston a 
Sunday, but his Business is not known. 

My famely thro* Devine Mercy, enjoy a Perfect State of 
Health and Sincerely Join me in Wishing that this may find 
your Honor Enjoying the like Blessing, and that the great God 
'of his infinite goodness, will be pleas'd your Honors Pious Zeal 
for his Majesties & our Country's good, to Crown (as hitherto) 
with Success; is the unfeign'd Prayer of 

,Hon d Sir, 
your honor's 

most Obedient & c 
humble Servant 


the state of your Hons * is enclosed 


N. B. M r . Mortier said he had Paid 

to M r . Kelly in N. York 300. & int 

INDORSED: Major Van Derheyden Letter & acc t$ 


D/. 2 

Camp at Osrvego Oct 1759 

I have received your favor of the 24 th . Sept r . 3 and am very 
sorry at being so circumstanced as not to have had it in my power 
to write before now. 

I am glad to find the Snow is on such forwardness as nothing 
can secure our posts so effectually as the dominion of the Lakes 
which it is our own power to gain. 

1 Omitted. "Ace*." can be supplied. 

2 Destroyed by fire. 
8 Not found. 

Seven Years' War 147 

You have by the last Vessells undoubtedly heard of the reduc- 
tion of Quebec 18 th Sept r . which we were informed of by three 
prisoners taken the other day by a party of Ind s . I sent out who 
also brought in 2 Scalps on which intelligence I congratulate with 
you & wish it may be authentic. We have since rec d . the agre- 
able news of Ferdinands Victory 1 M r . Nellus has informed me 
of what past at the meetings you had, & I purpose sending up 
some Ind n . goods as presents for them, but the necessary quantity 
cannot be purchased & sent up before, in the meantime I hope 
the Traders there will be able to supply & content them so as no 
difference may arise which might be of bad consequence since 
nothing can bind them so much to our interests as the fairness of 
our dealings. 

M r . DuCoigne 2 1 have already sent you and have given liberty 
to M r . Nellus to go down for some necessary stores during the 
Winter after which he is to go immediately for your post - 

I purpose to set out from this place on my way home tomorrow 
all Military operations are aside here, heartily wish you may 
find everything agreeable to you in whatever quarters you remain, 
and be assured it will allways give me pleasure to hear from & 
keep up a Correspondence with you being 

D'. Sir 

Your Sincere 
Well Wisher 

humble Serv 1 

INDORSED: Letter to Coll Farquhar dated Oct 

1 See Van Der Heyden to Johnson, October 10, 1759. 
2 Jean Baptiste de Couagne. 

148 Sir William Johnson Papers 


The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 100, by 
four papers, addressed to Johnson, which were destroyed: a letter from 
Philip De Vismes, at New York, about goods received from London, with 
invitation to Johnson to stay at his house when in New York " in lieu " of 
that of the late Peter Wraxall, dated November 22d ; a list of Indian goods, 
dated the 22d; a letter from William Kelly, at New York, about goods 
forwarded in charge of Gulian Ranselaugh and Abraham Van Valken- 
burg, and some sent by mistake to Richard Alsop, Connecticut, a draft 
on Johnson for the balance of an account, the retaking of Dresden by 
the King of Prussia, and British successes on the sea and in the East 
Indies, dated the 28th ; a letter from William Kelly, at New York, rela- 
tive to goods sent in charge of Abraham Cuyler and letters from England, 
forwarded in the keeping of Lucas Van Vaghta, dated December 1st. 

Seven Years' War 



NOV., 1758 TO DEC., 1759 1 
The Crown 

Nov. 11 th 

To Henry I. Wendal p d . for] 
8 Tin Kettles, Supplied | 
the Ind s . with when going 
to Cadaraque with Col. | 
Bradstreet 8/p J 

To Rob 1 . Saunders for Sev-j 
eral p s . of Linnen, had of| 
him and forgot to charge } 
as p r . his Acco*. will Ap-j 

To Jetes de Garmo for Wam- 
pum as p r . D. Acco* 

14 th . To David Vanderheyden's 
for 3 Ind n . Blanketts., 


To Capt. John Lotteridge's 
Acco*. of Ind n . Expences. 
Ind s . at Albany forSundrys 

To Some Onondaga & Seneca \ 

Sled Hire to bring up money 

Ind n . Stores &ca 

15 th : To Daniel Christie &ca for 
bringing a Batteau load of 
Goods &ca 

To Hance Van Epse for 
bringing up 3 Barrels Rum 

To Peter an Oneida Chieftain 
to buy Provision 

To Nixnoxques & two other 
familys of the Oneidas be- 1 
sides Cloaths to buy them}' 
Provisions having none of| 
their own J 

D r . 










4.. I 




17.. I 


Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5.57, London, England, 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, January 9, 1 760. 



Sir William Johnson Papers 


1758 sh 

Nov r . 16 th . To Dan 1 . Campbell's Acco'.) 
as p D. will Appear. ... 3 

To bringing up a Slay lead] 
of Ind n . goods as Strouds}- 

a Box &ca J 

17 th . To a Charge of 27.. 18.. 

1 , in Barent Tenyke the Sil- 

verSmith's Acco'., Which \- 

was forgot to be charged in | 

last Acco' J 

To a Mohawk viz'. Aron( 
with the Curled Hair .... \ 

To Nickus chief Sachem of] 
Conajahare to purchase | 
Ind n . Corn having all his}* 
destroyed While he At- 
tended the meets, at Pen . . 

To Rult a Conajahare Ind n . 
Whose wife was Sick at 
my house 

To W m . Wormwood for two/ 

fat Oxen \ 

18 th . To the Red and his party,] 
the Seneca Chief & hisj 
going home after the tak-|> 
ing of Caderaque besides 

19 To Hance the Witt to buy 

Corn for his family 

20 To Seth of Scohare a Sachem} 

who came on business . . . . } 

To M r . J. Welles Acco'. of] 

Expences on acco'. of the } 

Ind 8 . as p r . . .". J 

To 2 Schoare Young men 
going home with Am n : . . . 
To Lieut. Clause's Acco'. 
of disbursements for the^ 
Ind 8 j 







16.. I 





Seven Fears' War 




Nov. 20 To 2 Acco". of Cap r .( 

Fonda's p d . as p r . d. . . . 
21 To Hance the Witt & another 
for 2 Mohawk's burials . . . 
22 d To an Onondaga Young] 
chief besides Cloathing hisj 
family j 

23 To Clauss De Grass bringing/ 

up a Battoe with goods . . ) 

24 To an Old Mohawk Sachem 
To Abel a River Ind". Chief \ 

to bury his father in law . . \ 

25 To Cap". Tho'. Butler's) 

acco*. of Expences Cloaths. |> 
the Scohares j 

26 To James Jones & Jelles Cor- 1 

noct for 2 Battoes w f . Ind*. } 


To Dan 1 , a Mohawk for 2 

Gunns bo 1 , of him 

To Aria a Mohawk Chief to 

buy Prov 8 . going hunting. 
To M r . Welles's acco*. of 

Ind n . Expences as p D . . . 
To Dan 1 . Campbell's Acco 1 . 

as p D 

27 To 77 Y d '. of Gold Lacej 

bo*, of CoK Glazier atS 

5/6 j 

To Sundry Ind'. to buy Some 


29 lh . To three diff*. Acco". of Ind n . 
Expences p d . Cap f . Butler. \ 
Dec r . 2 d . To an Oneida named Taca-] 
hawasere & family forj> 

prov' J 

To 2 Mohawks for Shoes] 
going ahunting ) 








.. 15.. 



Sir William Johnson Papers 



Dec r . 3 d . 

To Modelena a Mohawk 

Widow ] 

4 To Oneida Hannis for Prov*, 

To Oghquagoe Jacob who] 
was Sick lately to buy}- 
Prov 8 . not being able toj 

Hunt I 

9 To Cap 1 . Jelles Fonda for a] 
parcel of french Lace &[ 
Steel Some of the Plunder 
of Caderaque & for Ind s . . 

To Tayuwasey for necessarys ( 





a Mohawk Sachem ) 

To Arent Lanyne for rids.) 
down to Schenectady to}> 
Stop Some Ind s J 

To D. for bringing a load of [ 
Pork to my house 

To Commiss n$ . for goods bo*, 
for the use of the Ind s . to}- 
this day 10120.. -10i 
at 2i p O 

To 5 Ind 8 . Scouts who I sent 
with the Militia towards 
Crown Point & Tienderoga 
on a report 2 french De-j> 
serters Spread that there 
was 700 men out on this 

To a Number of the Oneidas 
& Tuscaroras to purchase 
prov 5 . who came here in a 
Starving Condition Crops 
have, failed 

To the Tuscarora Chief a 
Silver Laced Hatt 

To one Y d . red shalloon for 
a Flag 







16.. I 

12. I 


16.. - 

6.. _ 

12.. - 


Seven Years' War 



1 758 sh 

Dec'. 13 To Seths. Hance 3 Dollars 
to redeem four Strouds 
he pledged for necessarys 
to bury his wife and 2 

15 To Capt n . Dick for a Gunn. 

16 To Some Onondagas going| 

home for prov 8 ) 

To an Oneida Chief a red( 
flag \ 

18 To an Express from Albany 

with Letters & Treatys 
from the Governors of Pen- 
sylvania & Jersey 

1 9 To a Oghquga Ind n . to Carry 

him home 

To a Cayouga D. . . D. 
. . . besides other things . ) 

20 To a Seneca and a Mohawk . 

21 To the Beth a Seneca Chief,] 

going to Onondaga toj 
Learn what news am* 1 , the } 
upper Nations besides sev 1 . \ 
things on his Journey .... 

24 To Aron of the Hills Acco 1 . 
of Sundry Expences p d . by } 
him I 

26 To an Oneida sent with] 
Letters by Capt*. Butler^ 

& Fonda 

To David of Scohare Cash 
to begin Settlem*. at Avigo 
on the Waters of Susqua- 
hannah in order to bring 
more Ind 8 . there 

27. To Brant a Mohawk Sachem 

for his Sick family 
ToPeter for Prov*., 
















16.. I- 


Sir William Johnson Papers 



Dec r . 28 To Seneca George and a( 
Cay ouga man \ 

29 To the Coffin & burial of) 

Sadagariwat a Mohawk } 
Chief I 

30 To Ryar Wemps Acco 1 . for j 

Riding Indian Goods . . . . \ 


Jan r y. 1 st 

To Abraham a Mohawk ( 

To 2 M Black Wampum 
of M r . Lansing 

To a Mihicander at Albany [ 
to redeem his Gunn \ 

To Sybr*. Vanscoake for 14] 
Guns by Gen 1 . Abercrom-}- 
by's Orders j 

4 To 4 Slays with Ind". Stores^ 

from Albany to my house . \ 

To Symon Veder for 3 Wag-) 

gon load rid to Schenec- }- 

tady j 

5 To Sloopage from York of/ 

Sundrys \ 

To Frederick Garrison for) 

Cartage of goods from thej- 

Sloops I 

8 To M". J. Welles Acco'. of) 

Cash to Sundry Indians . . \ 
To Kennedy & Lisle for 859 

w f . Tobacco @ 5 d p r . . . . 
To W m . Printup Smith for 

work done for Ind s 

9 th : To Senughsis an Oneida 

Chief and Family 

To a party of Conajohares go-) 

ing on the Hunt 










1. . 



















Seven Years' War 












Jan f y- 1 To a Seneca Ind n . to Redeem j 
a Gunn pledged at Sche-j^ 
nectady j 

11 To an Oneida Family to buy 

prov 8 

12 To Aaron a Mohawk to buy 

fodder for his horses. . . . 
To 2 Oneida familys our( 

friends going ahunting. . . \ 
To a Mohawk Squaw to pay] 

for a Coffin for her hus- } 

band J 

13 To Cechcoanas son for fresh [ 

prov 8 . for a Sick Ind n . . . . } 

14 To Cayenguerego by Tage-] 

ghsado for the funeral of}- 

his Sisters j 

To 2 Oneidas & 1 Cayouga) 
for Sundry Necessarys. . 

15 To John Murray for riding 

for Ryar Bowen Smith, 
from 16 th . To Expences attended my] 
to meeting, the Conajahares| 

y e . 22 d . Mohawks and Some Sene- 1 

cas at Conajahare on busi- } I 34 

ness of Consequence with 

regard to the 6 Nat 8 . 6 

days and settling it I 

To Canadakaia a Mohawk/ 


To 3 Ind $ . sent to Invite the 

6 Nat s . to my house. . . , 
To 2 Seneca Chiefs who bro*. ) 

me news to Conajahare. . . \ 
To Hants Ells Acco*. for] 

Sundrys Supplied the In-^ 

dians , 

To Eliz*. Pickett for a fat 

Cow to the Conajahares . 





Sir William Johnson Papers 



from 1 6 th . To Justice Van Epses Acco*.^ 

to of Waggon hire from 29 th . | 

y*22 d . March 1757 to the Ifr^ 

Dec r . 1 758 for rids. prov*. | 

Stores, Amun ta . &ca ..... I 

ToW. Kelly of New York) 

Merch*. for Sundry Ind n .j 

Goods as p r . acco 1 . will}> 

Appear dated Oct r . 7 th :] 

1758 ................ j 

23 To Jacob of Scohare for( 

necessarys ............ \ 

To a Conajahare family for{ 

prov 8 . being very poor . . . . \ 
To the i Kings for a Gun| 

bo*, of him ............ \ 

To Modelena a poor Squaw . 

24 To Peter alias Tageghsata| 

for a Gun 4 Dollars ..... \ 

25 To Peter a Mohawk ...... 

To a Scohare Ind n . & old[ 

Taishare a Mohawk ..... \ 
To Joseph Saynwase a Sa-} 

chim who lost all his family \ 
To Conradh Frank for 2) 

Gall 8 . Rum to an Ind n . as}- 
<P rec* .... .1 

26 th . To Peter Fonda for 200] 

Boards for mak. Ind n . } 

hutts&ridg ........... 

To Peter Senooise a Conaja- 

hare for provender ...... 

28 To a Mohawk Widow for a 

Gun of her deceased hus- 

band ................ 

29 lh . To 9 Conajahares Am n . & 

Cash for prov 8 . being poor. 
To 3 Slays with Stores 

Strouds & frize &ca. 













Seven Years' War 



1759 sh 

Jan 1 *. 29 th . To Hance Knafe for 12 skj 

pease at 4 st . p r } 

To Hannis Rasper for rid.| 
6 load of prov 8 . little falls . \ 

30 To 2 Mohawk familys to buy [ 

prov*. for Sick J 

To Cap". Dick a Sincere { 

friend of the English . . . . 
To John Bowen for 15 sk of 

pease for use Ind s . at 4/ . . \ 
To DO. mak. 10 Jacketts &/ 

riding Express ( 

31 To Johannis a Conajahare 

for Letters bro*. from y e . 

out Posts 

To Aaron to buy provisions { 

for the Sick 

Feby. H To W*. Fox for 25 Sk 

Wheat for Ind s . use at 4/. \ 

2 To Joseph a Mohawk Sachim 

for a poor Widow 

3 To old Noah a poor helpless 

Ind" \ 

To 2 Conajahare Ind s . Sent) 
w'. a Belt to call the 6!> 
Nat* J 

5 To 3 Oghquagoe Familys/ 

having no prov 5 . at all .... \ 

To a Cayouga Sachim for 6| 

p r . Ind n . Shoes for War-j> 

riors 4/ J 

6 To Abraham of Conojahare^ 

going to Albany \ 

To John Cain 22 sk pease [ 
@ 4/. p r 

7 To a Cayouga squaw 3 p r . 

Ind n . Shoes Cash 

To W m . Allan 41 sk; pease 
@ 4/7 p* 








8., I 







Sir William Johnson Papers 



7 To John Pickett Interpret 1 . to| 

y e . min r . at Conajahare. . . \ 
To W m . Vroman for rids. to| 

load Arms &ca to Schenec- } 

tady .......... ....... J 

To Geo: Snell for 75 sk:[ 

Wheat.at4/ p r .. ....... 

To Hendrick's Son for a Gun 

bo 1 , of him ....... ..... 

8 To Some Cayouga Sachim/ 

about business .......... \ 

To a Cayouga Squaw for a| 

skin & 2 p r . Shoes ....... \ 

To John B: V. Epse &] 

Jacobus Vanslyke Esq rs . j* 

Acco*. of riding boards . . . J 
To 3 Scohares for prov 8 .... 
To old Brant of Conajahare J 

& anoy r . family ........ \ 

9 To Some Onondagas going] 

to Schenectady who are}* 
Steady friends ......... J 

9 To old Seth a Mohawk) 
Sachem to buy nourishment f 



1 2 


a Conajahare. . . . 

To Sundry expences attended 
my going to Conajahare to 
prepare a large party of| 
Indians to go to Canada}* 
for a Prisoner for Intel- 1 
ligence by Brig r . General | 
Gage's Order .......... J 

To Nickus Brant's Son for 
prov 8 . for his Sick family. 

To Margaret, Modalena, & 
Mary 3 Mohawk Squaws . 

To Sundry others for prov 8 . . 

















Seven Years* War 



Feb. 13 



To David's Widow of the 
Hill for a p r . Snow Shoes . \ 

To another p r . for Isaac of the| 
Hill going to Tienderoga. 

14 To Hance Hantheis for 30 

sk : pease for the use of the } 

Ind 8 . 4/6 J 

To Aron to buy prov 8 . for his ( 

large Sick family J 

To Tawistawis Nickus's/ 

broy r . for a horse lost .... 3 
To a party of 30 Ind 8 . going | 

to Tienderoga for Sugar } 

for parch'd meat J 

To little Abram a p r . of Snow [ 

Shoes \ 

15 To mak. 2 very large belts | 

6 feet each on particulars 
Occasions J 

1 6 To make. Sundry other Belts | 

& Strings w*. leather and 

17 To 3 Ells red shalloon bo*. 

for 2 Signals J 

To 2 partys from Conojahare] 
& Scohare for Sugar on } 
Scout J 

To a Cargoe of Ind n . Goods) 
bo 1 , of Farral Wade in i 
consequence of Gen 1 . Am-}- 
herst's Letter to lay, in a 
Magazine of Goods 

Commiss 1 ". on D. at 2J p 

To Lieut. Clause Sundrys to 
the Ind s . as ^ Acco* 

18 To J. Clement Interp r . going 1 

to Stoneraby to call the}- 
Ind 8 .J 














Sir William Johnson Papers 



18 To 34 Ind 8 . more who Joined ) 

t'other party for sugar 4/ 


To Snow Shoes purchased 
for those that had none 
who I sent to Tienderoga 
for Prisoners 49 Dollars . . ^ 

To a Parcel of the Oneidas^ 
going home 

To an Onondaga Chief (who 
assisted greatly in the 
reduct n . of Caderaque) & 
his party coming down on| 
business J 

19 To Peter Conin for a Bull] 

as fresh prov 8 . for Ind s . \ 

Assembled j 

To John Bowen for a Hogg/ 

D J 

To the Mohawks for a feast) 

when they marched ij 

To 2 load hay for the Ind n . 

horses &ca 

To Liquor of M rs . Montour 

for a Burial 

To Abraham o'f Conojahare{ 

expences burying his child. \ 
To maks. 8 Coffins for Ind 8 .? 

dying of Yellow Fever. . . 

20 To a poor Widow who lost 

her only Son for prov 8 .... 
To Nickus Hance for a good 

f rench gun 

To Hance and Aron for Sun- 


To Aron for riding Expresses 


To Gardner for an Ox bo*. 

by Clement the Interp r . . . 





12., I 






1.. 4.. I 

Seven Years' War 




1759 sll 

Fet>y. 21 8t : To a squaw for her deceased 

husband's Gun \ 

To J. Clement Interp r . Sun-( 
dry expenses as : $ Acco 1 . . j 

22 To Peter Frederick for 36 sk( 

pease @ 4/6 for Ind s . . . . \ 

23 To 3 Slays carrys. Ind n . Bag-{ 

gage to Schenectady \ 

24 To 60 sk: Ind". Corn to the) 

Senecas & partys going to}* 

Tienderoga J 

To Aron & Dan 1 . Mohawk] 
Chiefs in lieu of the 

27 To Archibald Boyd for 4 

Bullocks for the Ind 8 \ 

28 To John Vansici Gunsmith^ 

as 3P Acco' 

[arch 1 st : To 14 Warr 8 . for necessarys 
for them & their families, 
Slay here &ca 

3 To 2 Sick Ind 5 . turned back 

from a party 

4 To 8 P'. Ind". Shoes of 2 

Onondaga Squaws @ 4/. 

6 To 4 Conajahares Sick at my v 

house \ 

7 To Jacomine old Mohawk{ 

Widow for prov 8 \ 

To Sam 1 . Gardiner for a| 
Bridle lost by an Ind n . . . . \ 

8 To Red head a Chief Onon-] 

dago & family w l . Cloath?. J* 
&ca | 

9 To DO. a Green Silk Gold) 

laced Waistcoat 
Vol. Ill 6 









.Sir William Johnson Papers 








1759 s h 

March 10 th . To Sundry expences attended] 
& my going to Conajahare atj 
1 1 * the request of the Castle on | 
the death of their chief}' 
Sachem the Ceremony of 
Condolence, the burial of 
him & anoy r . chief 

12 To Peter an Oneida Chief to 
..j purchase prov 8 . &ca 

To Cap*. Conin's Acco*. for 
work done for Ind s 

13 To M r . Cormick Express 

from M r . Croghan PhiK . 
To a Chenessea young chief- 
tain to pay me a visit w ! . 

16 To a party of Conajahares 
who returned w*. 5 Pris- 
oners and Six Scalps from 


1 7 th : To a party of Mohawks, Sco- 
hares, Mihicanders, Onei- 

das Senecas j 

To a Onondaga Squaw \ 
Smoaks. dressing 8 skinns . ) 

18 To Some Oneida familys for 

20 To Peter alias Taguainunt 
for D. 

23 To the Burial of Isaac a 

Mohawk Warrior &ca. . . 

To Ta ' ka ' ha ' wei * ser ' a an 

Oneida friend for provisions 

24 To a Conajahare 

25 To a Mohawk who enter- 

tained 3 Sick & wounded 
Ind 8 . of the Detacht Na- 
tions returned from Tien- 
deroga w 1 . Prisoners J 







Seven Years' War 



1 759 sh 

March 26 To three Oghguagoes Sent[ 

by the Sachems \ 

To Peter Cremar Smith's | 
Acco*. mends. Guns axesj* 
&ca J 

29 To Peter Davis riding Some( 

Onandagas to Fort Herk n . J 

30 To Segeohana Sachim 

3 1 To Brant for a Gun 

April 1. To M r . Kelly's Acco*. for 

Sundrys bo*, as 3$ Acco 1 . 

14 th . March 

To an Oneida Ind n . for a 


spare gun 

D Bells family 8/ Dan 1 . 

others 1 6/ 

To 2 Expresses sent to the| 

German Flatts & Schenec-j* 

tady I 

3 To Canadagaia Mohawkj 

chief Sachem for his fam?. \ 

To little Cornelius to buy( 

Shoes \ 

4 To Peter Takuainunt along 

the road 

To Surgeon Bray for attends, 
the Mohawks 3 m 

To Joseph Peppy a Dela- 
ware sent w*. a message to 
the Ohio Ind 5 

To Sundry chiefs going to 

the Gen 1 , meeting 

from To Expences attends, the 
Gen 1 , meets, at Conajahare 
of 1 nat*. which continued \ 
18 days when they all de- 

the ^". 
to the 


in our 


viz 1 
















Sir William Johnson Papers 



April To Brant an IncK Whose) 
house we took up, Waggon } 
horses fire wood, Dresss. j 
Victualls &ca j 

5 Expresses up and down^ 
during the Meeting j 

Stores for the Whole O.) 
Officers Interp rs . &ca who 
accompanied me transpor- 
tation Expences along the 
road up & down for us 
and the Ind s . &ca coming | 

down | 

/22< To about 30 Sachims & Head] 
Warr". of the Sev 1 . Nat 8 .! 
Cash as private presents be- } 
sides y r . share of y e . pub-j 
lick which was 1500 J 

Provisions during the Meeting ] 
& on their way home be- 
sides what I owe the Con 
tractors for which I have 
not at yet Received their 
Acco' J 

To 208 p'. Ind n . Shoes for/ 
the Warriors at 4/ \ 

19 n . Paint bo*, of Ind ns . who) 
got it at Caderaque } 

To Brant for a Gunn 

25 To Rob'. Wilson Who As-1 
sisted during the meeting. \ 

To Hance the wilt chief 
Sachim of the Mohawks 
Who Assisted during the 
meeting & was speaker 

To Dan 1 . Wemham Assist*.] 
the Interp". dur*. the Meet- J- 
ing j 














Seven Years' War 




April 25 To 6 p r . Shoes bo 1 , by MO 
Clause @ 4/ } 

To a River IncK & Squaw j 
rob'd & abused by the|* 
Soldiers J 

To 4 spies sent to Swegatchy | 
& Canada to Discover the| 
Mot 8 , of the Enemy & bro 1 . t 
a deal of Intelligence 1 5 j 
ea J 

To Aron a Mohawk for Sun- 
dry Services 

To wide mouth Hance to 
redeem his gunn 

26 To 1 1 '. of Deers Leather for 

Ind n . Shoes bo 1 , by M r . j> 
Clause J 

27 To a Delaware Ind n . come( 

from Scohare ) 

To an Acco*. of Sundry ex-[ 

pences p d . Lieut. Clause . . \ 
D. to Cap*. Loteridge for an| 

Ind n . party of 70 men . . . . \ 

28 To 6 p r . of Shoes for the/ 

Warriors 3 

To Jonathan a Mohawk to/ 

buy planting Corn \ 

To an Express Sent by Cap*. 

Forbs from F l . Herkimer. . 
To Cadaga Young Ind n . for 

a Silk hankf 

29 To Affarandungas a chief 

Onondaga from Chugnutt. 
To Honey cost Herkimer for( 

a Cow for the Chenesseas . 
To Cor s . Barky dh 3 trips in a 

Battoe to Fort Johnson. 
To Corn 8 . Vanslyke D. - 

& Conajahare \ 













Sir William Johnson Papers 


April 29 To W m . Erikson & John) 

Barky 13 trips to my house \ 

. 30 To Tho'. & Senooisses Bro" 1 

to pay debts of their Bro r . I 

Peter who was killed and j 

for the Burial J 

/To Dan 1 . & other Ind 8 . in| 
lieu of their mounting . . . . \ 
To Peter alias Takuainunt 

for prov s 

May 1". To maks. 600 p'. of Ind". 
Stockings w*. ribb n . to 


To a Cayouga Sachim for 


To Scohare Jacob to buy a) 

french Blankett } 

2 To anoy r . Scohare Ind n . Sent) 

express by Cap*. Ekerson . \ 

To Seneca George to pay his) 

Debts \ 

To Sonooissis Bro*. for a pO| 

leather Stockings j 

3 d . To a Storekeeper of Arms| 
Amunition prov 8 . Cloath^. | 
&ca for Ind ns . from 1 st . 
Nov r . 1758 to the 1 st . Ins*. 

4 To Sundry Cayougas return- 

ing home on their Journey . 
To the head men of the Ten) 

tarighrooneis return?, home. \ 
To Ganaghguaieso chief of) 

Oneida & party going home } 

5 To Red head chief of Onan-] 

daga & party going to Swe- j- 

gatchy j 

To 24 p r . Ind". Shoes of Up-) 
per Nat n \ 














)U. . 










. . 










Seven years' War 



May 5 To a Seneca chief going to 










| 6.. 














6 To Cayenguerego & family 
to plow & fence their Land 
7 To 2 Tuscaroras going to 
Oshsuaca , 

To Farral Wade for a Cargo 
of goods bo*, for Ind 8 . <$ - 
Acco* J 

ToD. as^ Acco* 

To W m . Corry Esq r . for his] 
care & trouble rec^. & for-f 
ward 8 , goods J 

To Nixnoxque & family of 22 j 
for prov 8 . redeem 5 guns|- 
& to buy Rum to get their 1 
Land planted J 

8 To Sundry Ind 8 . from Otsen / 
ingo return 8 , home 

To upwards of 40 Chenesseas 
return*, home for prov 8 . . . 
To Peter Smart of Conaja- 
hare & a Lad for 2 Guns . . 
To Henry Vanschaack of 
Albany for Blank 8 . ^ 
Acco*. J 

Com 118 , for purchasing D. . . 
To 2 Chenessea Ind 8 . in lieu) 
of Guns ) 

9 To Peter Taquainunt 

To 50". Deers leather for 
Ind n . Stores @ 6/. p r . . . 
To 2 p r . Shoes bo*, of a 

To a horse bo*, for the Chief 
Sachim of D 

/9 th : To 3 Chenesseas in lieu of 


Sir William Johnson Papers 



May 10 To Isaac Collier for horse to I 
New England to call the} 

Ind*. J 

To 3 Senecas in lieu of Gunns 

To Tho s . King who assisted) 

at the meeting of Eastonj 

&ca Headed a party ot}- 

Ind s . to Fort Du Quesne) 

w r . Gen 1 . Forbes I 

To Canadagaia 40/ & old] 

Seth Mohawks 16/ ) 

To 2 Senecas in lieu of Guns 
To 3 Cayouga Chiefs carried] 
Messages to the Delawares } 
at Ohio & settled Matters | 
properly besides death*. .J 

1 2 To a Seneca for a Gunn .... 
To W m . Printup as ^ acco*. 
To Peter & a Chenessea Ind n .)' 

for 2 Guns 

To 5 men of a party going to 

Crown Point for a Prisoner 

in lieu of Cloathing 6 

Dollars ea 

To M r . Welles's Acco*. of /j 

Ind n . Expences ) 

To a Seneca Ind n . for a Gunn 
To Oneida Jacob to Redeem \ 

a Stroud \ 

To Peter an Oneida going to j 

Warr, & to his Family . . . } 

13 To Hayman Levy MerchO 

Acco t8 . of New York \ 

Commiss*. at 2-J <P O. on) 

To David Vanderheyden /! 

Acco 1 . of Sundrys for Ind s . \ 

Commiss 8 . purchasing D. 2?) 

O. . A 















16.. I 

8., I 




Seven Years War 



May 13 

To John Widemouth and| 
another ......... ..... \ 

To 4 Ind 8 . Instead of mount- \ 
ing 6 Doll", ea ......... ] 

To Seth of Scohare head of a] 
party in lieu of his laced r 
Cloaths Cash .......... j 

14 To the Wifes & Familys of a] 
Party of Ind 8 . going to 
Consisting of 25 men Cash }- 
to Support y m . in their 
absence .............. 

To Benj: & 



Tho 8 . For- 
sey as ^ AC- 
CO*. of Ind n . 
goods ..... 
To Kennedy & 
Lisle Merch' 8 . 

126.... 7 

195.. 8.. 5 

17.. 4.. 9 

To Cornelius 

Schuyler D. 
To Rob*. Saun- 

ders DO 

To S y m o n 

Veder D. . . 
To Abraham 

Peck for[30. 

Wampum DJ 
To David Van- 1 

derheyden D. ^503. 

for goods. . . 

To - DO. - 


17 ToRob'.Leakel 

Esqr. for 4j> 60. .16 
fatt Oxen bo 1 . | 
for me J 

4.. 1 

13.. 17.. 6 





Sir William Johnson Papers 


May 17 Commiss 8 . for] 

purchase all}- 30. 
the above] 
pays. &ca24.J 

EXPENSES Continued 

4. . 1 

To Grinds. bolt. 

& bak. 207 

Sk: Wheat for 

the meeting. . . 
To d. 246 sk Ind n . corn d 
& others in want 


To Fire wood and horse ( 
pasture ............... j 

19 To a poor Mohawk Widow ( 

in her sickness .......... 

To Cap*. John Welles as 
Acco 1 . for prov 8 . supplied 

20 To John a Mohawk wounded 

at Tienderoga .......... 

Cash for a feast to a party of 
Mohawks going to War. . 

21 To Hanikle Herkimer 4 

Slays w f . Ind s . & Baggage^ 
To 2 Mohawk familys to) 

buy planting Corn ....... } 

To Brant going express to( 

Susquahannah ......... \ 

To Tho 8 . Akerson's Acco^l 

of Ind 8 . expences as <P D . \ 
To Josias Swart d ...... D 

22 d , To 2 Ind 8 . with my Message) 

to call the Warriors of| 

Scohare Oghguaga Chug- }- 

nutt & Otseningo to meet| 

at F^ort Stanwix ........ ) 

To James Campbell living] 

amongst the Oneidas for[- 

Service . 






15. I 





4.. I 

Seven Years War 





1759 sh 

May 23 To Farral Wade for Sundrys( 

to the as <& Acco 1 \ 

27 To Cap 1 . Jelles Fonda Ex- 1 

penses last Winter, on Ser- f 121 

vice at Fort Herkimer &ca| 

to the Ind 8 J 

To Sundry expences attended j 

my going to Conajahare toj 

hold a Meeting with themj 

Ind s . prepare them for the}- 16 

March & send Messages to j 

the 6 Nat 8 , to meet at Fort | 

Stanwix & Oswego 

To Peter Schuyler's acco'. of 

Rum given to Ind s . Sundry j| 


28 To 3 Swegatchy Mess rs . 

Onondagos sent to me w l . 

Strings J 

To W m . Printupp's Acco*. of 
Expences for Ind 8 . as ^ 


To Mark Reeces's Acco 1 . 

of rid. for Ind s . lastj> 

^Winter J 

To make. & Binding 33 / 

Scarlet Blanketts @ 3/p r .ij 
To Ephraim Wemp's acco 1 . 1 

for a hogg & keeps. Ind 8 . } 

horse I 

To John B : V. Epse Justicel 

his Acco 1 . of Waggon &} 160 

Battoe hire to the 26 th : as| 

<P his Acco 1 . will appear . . J 
To lacing 100 Hattsat 1/6. 

29 To a River Indian for Neces-) 

sarys \ I 





Sir William Johnson Papers 



May 29 To Mark Reece for a fall] 
Cow for the Mohawks onj> 
marchs J 

To a German Widow for a| 
hogg killed by Cap* Lot-[ 
teridge's party 

To Barnt Wemp for prov 8 . to( 
Sundry Ind 8 . coming here. 

To David Quack for work 
done for the Ind* 

30 To Rob*. Flint's Acco*. . . . 
To little Cornelius and 2 

others Cash 

To Brant Caweghnagey for 
his Service 

31 To M r . David Vanderhey~ v 

den as ^ Acco* \ 

To Commiss 8 . purchas*. the) 

above \ 

To 3138 Black Wampum of) 

M r . Vanderheyden } 

June K To 54 Mohawks in lieu of 

Cloathing 540 Doll 8 

To D. to Some of the] 

Women & Children in lieu 

of Cloaths 

2 To 2 Oneidas sent down w*. 

a Message & Cloath 

To Sundry Senecas, Oneidas. 

Mihicanders in lieu of 


To Tho s . in lieu of a laced 

Coat & Hatt 

3 To Arent Potman a fat beast) 

for the Ind 8 . feast \ 

4 To Dan 1 . Campbell Merch'.} 

as <i$ Acco*. for Ind 3 \ 

5 To Cash p d . 320 Ind*. in lieu) 

of goods @ 10 Doll: ea..J 













Seven Years' War 



June 6 To maintaining them four 
& days at Conajahare w l . 
7 fresh meat while Assem-j> 
bling and for their War- 
dance as usual J 
















8 To Peter Quack carrying ( 
down a parcel Ind n . Horses) 
9 To Conradh Frank's Acco 1 . 
for Diet & necessary. . . . 
12 To 4 Battoemen extraordi- 
nary to help up the rifts . . . 
1 3 To 4 Onondagas sent to meet 
me at Fort Stanwix 

14 To Sundry Expences 5 days] 
at Fort Stanwix waits, toj 
get all the Artillery pro-j> 
visions &ca over the Carry- j 
in 2 

To mends. I n d n . Arms at D. 
To 5 Acco 18 . Cap*. Tho s ./ 
Butlers at Fort Stanwix . . \ 
18 To 2 Acco*. of Cap 1 . John/ 
Butlers ) 

To His Brother's pay & his] 
own from 29 th . Octo'. 1 758 \ 
1029*. April 1759 j 

To Cap*. Jelles Fonda Acco 1 . / 
of Ind n . Expences \ 

To D' s . pay as Cap 1 , of Ind s .)| 
the aforesaid Dates ] 

To a party of Ind s . who] 
brought in 3 Pris rs . from'f 
C. Point J 

/ To the W. of Oghquaga, 
Oneida, Tuscarora, Onon- 
daga, Cayouga &ca for}- 
prov*. in their husbands ] 
Absence . 1 


Sir William Johnson Papers 


June 18 

[July 'I 

To 6 Oneidas who bro*. | 
Gen 1 . Prideaux a Prisoner | 
from La Galette to Fort^ 
Stanwix which was of great | 
Service J 

To 4 Onondagas sent from] 
F l Stanwix towards La| 
Galette & met us at Os-f 
wego in 1 2 days found that j 
Coast Clear j 

To a party of Chenesseas, 
Onandagas & Senecas for 
tak. a french Officer kills. 
anoy r . & burns, a Maga- 
zine near Niagara 

To a party of Conajahares 
for brings. Gen 1 . Prideaux 
a Pris r . from Niagara the 
day we landed was of great j 
Service J 

To Some Chenesseas for the| 
use of their horses to Carry | 
Artillery &ca at Niagara [ 
by order of Gen 1 . Pri- 

To 296 Ind 8 . in lieu of Arms 
5 DolK each ( 

To the Sev 1 . Nat 8 , giving up) 
their Claim to the french |- 
Officers taken in the Battle] 
of La Belle Famille ) 

To M r . Farral Wade's Acco'.} 
of Ind n . goods bo 1 , of him,\ 

Commiss 8 . for purchasing Said ) 
goods )j 

Cash p r . 2 6 River Ind 8 . forl 
helping in some of the Store } 
Battoes Ji 

Should be "July." 
2 This should be "p d ." 









936.. 119 






Seven Years' War 




June "29 To a Present made to the] 
Chippaway chief come to| 
see me & by whom I sentj- 
sev 1 . Belts of Wampum to| 

the Sorrounck Nat 8 j 

To Dan 1 . & Silver heels for( 
1 7 shirts bo*, of them . . . . ) 
Cash to Sundry Ind s . after 
the Siege to purchase neces- 
sarys of the Soldiers which 

they got as plunder 

To an Ind n . for a Meddall to( 
give the Chippaway Sachim \ 
To W m . opy Smith for mends. 
Ind n . Arms at Niagara ... 
To 4 Onandagas to redeem 
the Arms they had pawned 
To the Chief Sachims of 
the Sev 1 . Nat 8 , as private 
presents for their good Ser- 
vices among their young 


To Hill Mitchel for a fine| 
Gunn for a Chenessea 


To red head and Some of 
their party at Oswego .... 
To Dan 1 . & Silver heels for 
Assisting to bring a Num- 
ber of Whaleboats from 

Irondequot 6 D s . ea 

To 4 Thous d . Wampum & 
100 made into Belts at 


7 To an Onondaga Ind n . who[ 

was wounded in the hand . \ 

Aug*. To Ja 8 . Flood Sutler at Os-] 

wego for 105i n . Tobacco}- 

@ 2/ for Ind 8 





18., I 










11. I 

Should be " July.' 


Sir William Johnson Papers 



Aug st - 14 To an Onondaga Sachim for( 

bringing in 3 Deserters . . . \ 

To 3 prize Guns bo*, of) 

Soldiers for some of the} 

party going out j 

15 To 2 Musketts bo 1 , of Che- 

nesseas Ind n . which he 
at Niagara 
To 3 Seneca Ind 8 . for Shoes ( 
at Oswego 

16 To a party of Ind 8 . sent on( 

business to the 5 Nat 8 . . 

1 8 To a party of Mohawks who 

remained the Whole Com- 


21 To 4 Deer Skins for In*. 

Shoes at Oswego 

26 To Gawehi an Oneida chief 

for necessarys 

29 To Jacob of Conajahare & 

some of his party 

30 To 5 pair of English Shoes 

at 1 2/ at Oswego 

Sept r . 3 d . To 3 Conajahares for helps, 
to drive Cattle to Oswego 

4 To Sundry necessarys for 
fitting out a party of 40 
Ind 8 . sent to La Galette for 

7 To Some Ind 8 . to buy neces- 
sarys for Sick People. . . . ' 
13 To a Butcher for the Offills] 
of Cattle for the Ind 8 . as p r . } 
bill J 

17 To 9 Onondagas in lieu of 

Cloaths. 10 Doll 8 , ea hav- 
ing newly Joined us lately 
come from the Southward . 

19 To 5 Ind 8 . for follow*. 3] 

Deserters of the light In-J* 













12.. I 



2.. I 8.. I 

Seven Years' War 



Sept r . 20 


To a long french gun bo*. for[ 

Kanaghyagey \ 

21 To 2 guns bo', for 2 IncK( 

going to La Galette 

To some Oneidas for neces- 

sarys for their Sick 

23 To Red head and others of 
his party 

25 To the Chenussio chiefs 

return*, home after 6 weeks 

26 To Paint bo 1 , by Mo', de 

Craugne of a soldier for 

In*. .. 

To Ind n . Shoes & leather 

for D J 

28 To Dan 1 . Silver heels & Belt) 
w l . his party coming home 


3 d . To M'. John Welles Acco 
for Sundry necessarys for 

To Clement the Interp r . 

Acco 1 . of Sundrys 

1 To the Leading men of Onon- 
dago to purchase refresh- 

To 3 P r . Ind n . Shoes bo*, for / 

To Ja 8 . Henry Smith' 

To M r . Vanscaack's Acco l .| 

for Sundry 

'/] 2 th To M r . Walter Cumins Acco*. 

To Mess". Solomen & Levys, 
Acco*. as D 

To Joseph Albot Smith i 
Acco 1 . for work done . . . . ' 

To Tho 8 . Barry Acco 1 . for) 


13 To the Onondagas when dis-| 
ch d . them and the Senecas 


























. . 















Sir William Johnson Papers 



Oct r : 1 5 To the Oneidas D 

1 7 To Sundry Ind s . at the three 

Rivers part 8 , for their red 3 . 

To the Party that Escorted 

me home at Fort Stanwix. 

To their Expences at Burnets- 


To Sundry Sick Ind s . at 
Conajahare coming down . 

24 To Hannis Eut Tavern/ 

keeper Ind n . Expences. . . 

25 To old Belt a Seneca on my 

Return to pay debts 

26 To an Oghguaga Chief on 


27 To Cash given to Sundry 

Ind s . Sick at the Mohawks 
where Invited them at my > 
return from Oswego &| 
Settled matters I 

28 To M". W Kelly Merch'.f 

of New York Acco' \ 

To Storeage of Ind n . goods 
prov 8 . &ca at Albany from 
the 3K August 1758 to 

3K Aug'. 1759 

To And w . Mitchell 13 Ind n 
knives at Oswego ....... 

To Cobers Clement 2 Acco ts . 
of Expences 

29 To Some Onandaga Chiefs 

going to Schenectady. . . . 

To Some Tuscaroras going 


30 To Several Oneidas come) 

down to buy Sundrys .... 3 
Nov r . 1 st . To a Storekeeper of Ind n 
goods Ammunition, Arms, 
prov 8 . from the 1 8t . May to 
this Instant . 

ES Co. 

































Seven Years War 


1759 i 

Nov r . I 8t To Cober Clement Interp r .| 
Interp r . Acco*. of ExpencesJ 

To John Keyssar for bak. for 
the Ind .............. 

To Lieut. Dan 1 . Clause p d .) 
2 Acco*. as ^ DO. willj- 
Appear ............... I 

2 To Louin & a Tuscarora] 
Indian who was w*. me the J- 
Summer .............. 

To 6 Conajahares in lieu of 
powder .............. 

3 d . To 4 Onandagas D ..... 

4 th . To John Maesen's Acco*. as 
will Appear ........... 

To the Bunt & other On- 
andagas expences going 
to Albany, Schenectady, 
Waggon hire & Cash for 
necessary ............. 

To John Newkirk one Barrel 
Rum at Fort Stanwix on 
our March to Niagara for 
Ind s . & Battoemen ...... 

To James Perry for working 
a Battoe to Niagara ..... 

6 To 10 Cw l . Small barr lead] 

& 10Cw<. of Shott @ 4/\ 
freight from Albany here . J 

7 To Donald Campbell Sur-] 

geon for attends, the Sick| 
and Wounded Ind s . during j* 
the Seige at Niagara & ' ! 
Exped". 15. G ......... ) 

To Rob 1 . Adams for Ind n .) 
shoes bo 1 , by Lieut. Clause! 

8 To D. 5 Quarts of Rum at) 

Oswego for Ind 8 ........ ) || 















14.. I 4. 




Sir William Johnson Papers 


Nov. 10 To the Chief Sachim of Sco-] 
hare to build his house} 
bemer w*. me I 














To old Brant of Conajahare^ 
to buy Corn ( 

To Sundry Expences at- 
tended bringing up Cloaths. 
&ca for the W. & Child", 
of Conajahare 

To Conradh Frank's Acco*. 
of Ind n . Expences 

To Peter Tierhadaghrio Cash 
To Hannis an Oneida for 
prov 8 . 

To Cap*. Jelles Fonda's 
Acco*. of Expences at Os- 
wego for Ind s 

Total Carried over 




Seven Fears' War 


1759 D r : The Crown 

Total Brought over 





182 Sir William Johnson Papers 

1759 P: C: 1 O: 

Nov. 11 *: 

By a Ballance of an Acco'." 
Delivered into Major Gen- 
eral James Abercrombie of 




March 18 th : 

By a Warrant from Major 
Gen 1 . Amherst for 3000 
Sters. on M r . Mortier is 




May 29 th . 
Dec r . 

By D. in favour of M r . 
Wade on M r . Mortier for 
2000 Sterk is Curry 
By D. dated May 29 th . on 
M r . Mortier in my favour 
for 3000 Sterk is Curry . 
By Ballance due to me of . . . 













INDORSED: Sir Will m : Johnson's 

Acco*. of Indian Expences 
from 11*: NoV. 1 758 To 

!': December 1 759 - Enclosed in Sir William's to 
General Amherst of the 8 th . Dec r . 
in M. G. Amherst's of Ja n y. 9: 1 760. 
NO. 31 


In the Johnson Calendar, p. 100, is a letter, that was destroyed by 
fire, from Lieutenant Colonel Eyre Massey, at Fort Stanwix, advising 
Johnson to go to Albany and meet General Amherst, and mentioning 
comfortable condition at Fort Stanwix, opinion of commanders and engi- 
neers, and court martial to try Captain McLean, dated the 3d. 

1 Per contra. 

Seven Years' War 183 

Contemporary Copy a 

Copy. Fort Johnson, 8 th . Decem r : 1759. 


As your Excellency had not time at Albany to receive my 
Accounts, but desired I would send them to New York, I now 
take this Opportunity of transmitting them to you, and for the 
Ballance of which, being 2214. . 18. . 6% Curr^:, as well as 
my Salary from the 24 th . June 1758, I should be glad Your 
Excellency would please to Order me a Warrant. 

The Several Officers Employed in the Indian Service, have, 
half a Years pay due to them the 29 th . of October last, for the 
payment of which, Battoemen, several Other Acco ts : not as yet 
delivered in, and for Carrying on the Service, I shall at least 
want Two Thousand Pounds, Sterb: which Sum, I hope Your 
Excellency will be pleased to give me a Warrant for; then, I 
think, I shall not trouble you for any more untill the Opening of 
the Campaign. 

M r . Croghan, my Deputy, & Capt. Montour, have been this 
year past, and are still to the Westward with Gen 1 . Stanwix, & 
I have deferred giving them any Orders lately, untill I knew 
whether your Excellency would Choose to Continue them there, 
or not; I hope they have been Serviceable, they are long 
Acquainted with, and much Esteemed by them Nations of 
Indians around that Quarter. 

I Should be Extremely glad to have your Excellency's 
Opinion, concerning my Pay as Col. of the Six Nations, &ca, 
and if entitled to it, your advice how to Apply for it. 

I hope your Excellency will Excuse this freedom, and my 
reminding you of the necessity there is for Settling and Carrying 
on a fair, free, and plentifull Trade with all the Nations of 
Indians, in Alliance with His Brittannick Majesty, and that 

Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5.57, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, January 9, 1 760. 

184 Sir William Johnson Papers 

under proper Regulations, Penalties, and Restrictions, at 
Niagra and Oswego, and wherever Else it may be found neces- 
sary or adviseable; Also some Arms, Ammunition, provisions, & 
Cloathing for Presents to be given occasionally at the above- 
mentioned Places ; It will in my Opinion be very requisite to have 
them Articles there early in the Spring, before the great Number 
of Indians which is Expected to trade there Arrive., 
I am, with the greatest Respect, 
Your Excellency's 

Most Obedient & 
Most Humble Servant. 

W m . Johnson 
His Excellency GEN L . AMHERST. 

INDORSED: Copy - Letter from Sir W m . Johnson, 
Bar*, to General Amherst. 
Dated Fort Johnson, 8 th . Decem r : 1 759. 
Enclosing his Accompt of Indian 
Expenses ; desiring a warrant for the 
Ballance thereof, as well as for his 
Salary; and likewise One for 
2000 SterK to defray Sundry Expenses 
Incurr'd & to be 
Incurr'd for the Indian 
Service, &ca.~ 

in M. G. Amherst's of Jan?. 9: 1760. 
NO. 30. 


In the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 00, is a letter from John Pownall, dated 
the 1 3th, transmitting the king's order to examine the complaints of Indians 
relative to the Proprietors of Pennsylvania, and sending other papers 
(Printed in Doc. Hut. N. 7.. 2:791 ; Q, 2:459). Destroyed by fire. 

Seven Fears' War 185 

Contemporary Copp x 

Copy/. Ner York, I8 ih : December 1759.- 


The last post brought me your Letter of the 8 th : Instant, 
together with your Acco*. of Disbursements for the Services of 
your department from Nov r . 1758, to the 1 st . Ins*, whereby I 
find there is a Ballance due to you of Two Thousand, two 
Hundred Fourteen Pounds Eighteen Shillings and Six pence 
Currency, for which Said Sum agreable to your request, I here 
Enclose you a Warrant on the Dep: Paym r . General, as like- 
wise the two others you apply for viz 4 . One for Two Thousand 
Pounds Sterling, on Account towards defraying Sundry Sums 
Incurred and to be incurred for the Indian Service; And the 
other for Nine hundred Pounds Sterling for your Appointments 
from the 25 th . June 1 758 to the 24 th . Instant, which Appoint- 
ments being particularly Stipulated by your Commission, I do 
not Apprehend, that by virtue thereof, you are Entitled to any 

As Brig r . General Stanwix, has not as yet mentioned anything 
to me relative to the destination of M r . Croghan and M r . Mon- 
tour, I cannot say anything to you on that head with certainty; 
So Soon as I am informed you shall be Acquainted with it, 
meanwhile if you have any orders to give them for the good of 
the Service, that Should not prevent you.- 

I am Sensible of the necessity there is for Settling and Carry- 
ing on, a fair, free, and plentifull Trade with all the Nations 
of Indians in His Majesty's alliance, which I must leave entirely 
to your Judgement and discretion, as I have not received as yet 
any Commands upon the plan which you delivered to me for that 
purpose, and which I transmitted to the ministry ; and I must also 

Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5.57, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, January 9, 1 760. 

186 Sir William Johnson Papers 

rely upon you for laying up in time, the necessary presents, which 
you mention, recommending it to you always to be as frugal and 
Oeconomous of the publick money as possible and the Service 
will admit of.- 

I have also the pleasure to Enclose you M r . Johnson's Com-, 
mission of Lieutenant in His Majesty's New York Independent 
Company, Commanded by Captain M c Leane; And before I 
Close my Letter, I must observe, that as the Dep : pay M r . Gen 1 , 
has represented to me that the military Chest at Albany, Con- 
tains only the Subsistence of the Regiments, it will be necessary 
for you, either to Assign your Warrants over to some of your 
Correspondents here, or to draw upon M r . Mortier for the amount 
of them.- 

I am with great regard, 

Jeff: Amherst 

INDORSED: Copy - Letter from General Amherst 
To Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 . Dated 
New York 18 th . Decem'. 1 759.- 
In Answer to Sir William's of the 8 th . 
Enclosing the Warrants he therein 
desired ; and recommending to him 
to be as frugal and Oeconomous of 
the public money as possible, and y e 
Service will admit of. 
in M. G. Amherst's of Jan?. 9: 1 760 
Mr 32. 


In the Johnson Calendar, p. 100, is General Amherst's warrant of the 
1 8th to Abraham Mortier to pay 1 292, 9d to Johnson. Destroyed by 

Seven Years War 187 


In the Johnson Calendar, p. 100, is a letter of the 25th from Captain 
John Lottridge at Oswego, expressing thankfulness for offer of leave of 
absence, but declaring preference for active duty. Destroyed by fire. 


By the Honourable [Sir William] Johnson Baronet His 
Maj [estys] Sole Agent, & Superintendent of the Affairs of the 
Six United Nations their Allies & Dependants & Coll , of the 

To the Oneidaes & Tuscaroras liveing at & about Oghquago 
Whereas you have on sundry Occasions manifested your Love 
& Fidelity to His Majesty the Great king George and your 
sincere Attachment to all his Subjects Your Bretheren and have 
plighted to me by several Belts of Wampum your solemn assur- 
ances that you are determined to remain Firm & Stedfast Friends 
to the British Interest so long as God will give you Life & will 
promote the same amongst all Indians to the utmost of your Abili- 
ties & Influence. I do give you this Testimony of your Brother- 
hood that all His Majestys Subjects to whom this may be shown 
may receive & treat you the said Oneidaes & Tuscaroras of 
Oghquago as good Friends & Brothers to the English. 

Given under my hand & 
Seal of office at Fort Johnson this 

day of 175 

INDORSED: Form of an 

Indian Testimonial 


The preceding paper is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 101, by 
a letter of January 8, 1 760, described as mutilated, from Captain Jelles 
Fonda, at Canajoharie, to Johnson, on business affairs and Indians. 
Destroyed by fire. 

188 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copp 1 

Fort Johnson I3*-I4 ih Feb'. 1760. 

At a Meeting of the Deputies of the 6 Confederate Nations. 
Isyonostat Speaker 


S r . Will. Johnson, Bar 1 . 
Lieut : Guy Johnson 
Ens n . Price 
M'. Jn. Wells 

R d . Shuckburgh Seer?: for Ind n . Affairs. 

S r . W m . after Condoling the several Losses the 6 Nations had 
Sustained by Sickness and Otherwise, as usual, with a String of 
Wampum. The Speaker, an Onondago, replyed as Customary 
& returned it, then proceeded in his Speech, to Inform S r . W m . 
of what passed between the Confederate Nations and Some 
Delegates from Swegachy, Cagnawago, Conesedago, &ca, being 
deputed by 22 Nations in the French Interest, to treat with the 
6 Nations at Onondago. - Their Speaker Torongoa, One of the 
Squegonoghroonos, 2 Spoke as follows 

" Bretheren of the 6 Nations - 

The English and French having blocked up the Road between 
us and You, by a long War, We Come now to remove Every- 
thing in the way, that might hinder our Mutual Correspondence, 
and Signify our hearty Inclination to make the Road of Peace 
open as before, and to Light up the Council fire here at Onon- 
dago, which has been Neglected and almost burnt out, since the 
Commencement of the War. The part you have done in favor 

Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5.58, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, April 28, 1 760. 
2 Skaghquanoghronos, living at Trois Rivieres. 

Seven Years' War 189 

of the English, We don't look upon as your Fault, being 
prompted and drag'd to it by the English, who took all Measures 
to persuade your young Warriours to Assist them in the Reduc- 
tion of Niagara ; We do now by this Belt, remove Every Uneasi- 
ness, Your Minds may be Affected with, in regard to Us, for 
Acting against Our Friends the French, and by this also, do open 
Your Ears to hear and Observe distinctly, what We are Saying 
at this time ; We are thankfull for the Message Sent by You, and 
Warraghyiagey for Us to keep out of the way, when the English 
Army Approaches, but as -the French have persuaded us to Stay, 
and Embrace their Religion, by which we are to be Saved; it 
would be hard Brothers for you to Expect We should leave them 
altogether, as We are taught by them to pray, and have the same 
Expectations as the White People : tho' the English and French 
are at frequent Variances, let us abide by Our Old Engagement 
of Friendship, and not meddle with their Quarrel otherwise We 
shall be ruined, to Join One or the Other, while both bear hard 
upon Us, who are the Native Owners of the Land they fight 

Gave a Large Belt. 

* We are Brothers and Friends together, therefore as We are 
Attached to, and Love the French, Who Uses us well, You 
ought to Love them also; and hope that the Covenant between 
You and Us might yet be made firm, and by these ten Strings of 
Wampum, We do Renew it, so as to Stand from Age to Age. 

Gave Ten Strings of Wampum 

' We are Deputies from 22 Nations who Come to take you 
by the hand, and Lead you to Cagnawaga, where a Council Fire 
is Lighted, and waits Your Arrival ; Your Friends there, look 
for you very soon over the Ice, and have Stop'd all the Young 
Warriours, till You Come, when they Expect to hear, from your 
own Mouths, how You intend to Act, and Open your Minds, 
not merely from Your Lips, but from the bottom of Your 

Gave a Small Belt. 

190 Sir William Johnson Papers 

The Speaker of Onondago then Addressed himself to Sir 

" Brother Warraghyiagey - 

4 We Came down to Acquaint You with what passed at 
Onondago, between Us of the 6 Nations, and the French Indians, 
and as You have always Induced Us to make as many Friends 
as We Could, We wait Your Advice herein, having made no 
Reply till such time as We had Consulted with you."- 

Fort Johnson 14 th . Febx. 1760. 

S r . William Johnson's Answer to the Ind n . Deputies 
The Same Gentlemen Present as were Yesterday - 

" Bretheren of the Six Nations - 

" I Thank You for Your diligence in bringing the Substance 
of what passed at Onondago, between You and the Deputies 
from Cagnawaga, Conessedago, Swegatchy &ca ; and with these 
Strings of Wampum, Open Your Ears, that You may attend to 
what I am going to Say - 

Gave 3 Strings of Wampum. 
" Brethren 

* Their Proposals for Opening the Road between you and 
them if Sincere, may not be amiss, but You have so many 
Instances of their Treachery, from their strict Attachment to the 
French, which they Avow, that it can hardly be depended upon ; 
An Example of their perfidy, to some of your Confederacy, 
should not be forgot, who, when taken Prisoners, by them at 
Lake George, were put to Death in Cool Blood, not in the fury 
of Battle: their Behaviour to Your Cousins the River Indians, 
in Our Service, when Prisoners at Sundry times since the Com- 
mencement of the War, were Cruelly treated; Besides, lately at 
Niagara, when You and Your Allies were Assembled before 
that Place, they refused a Conference, tho' proposed by them- 

Seven Years' War 191 

selves and agreed to by you, nor did they seem to Pay any 
regard to that Antient Bond of Friendship, they pretend has so 
long Subsisted between you. Their Calling you down to 
Canada, at this time, Carries with it an Air of Superiority, not 
becoming a People in their Circumstances, who seem determined 
to Continue their Attachment to Your and our Enemies, who 
from the Continuance of the War, are become less Qualified to 
protect them, or Oppose You, I think you have not the least 
reason to be Concerned at what they, or the French think of Your 
Joining Us at Niagara, or Elsewhere, being agreable to very old 
Treaties, made by Us, and Your Fore Fathers, and constantly 
renewed; I Expect You will yet Adhere inviolably to those 
Engagements.- Gave the Belt 

'* Brethren 

I Have, before and during this War, You know, Advis'd by 
Sundry Messages, the Cagnawagoes & Swegachy Indians, to 
Quit the French and Return to their Native Country, Last Fall 
at Oswego, they gave me and you Assurances, by Belts and 
Strings of Wampum, that they would Abandon the French; It 
does not a little Surprize me now, to find they stay yet with Your 
Enemies, Especially when they know You have so openly 
declared Yourselves, and Acted with Us I have often told 
You, and now Assure You, that Nothing would give the English 
more pleasure, than to See all the Indians on both Sides, out of 
the Quarrel between Us and the French, We have always been 
Enough for them, but let our Quarrel with them, Commence in 
whatever Quarter of the World, they are sure to Endeavor to 
make all the Indians they can Partizans in the difference: You 
may be Sensible that there has been no disputes merely between 
You & Us, but what have been Easily Conciliated, which You 
may tell them, and that We do not Fight with the French about 
what relates to You. Gave a Belt. 

192 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Brethren of the Six Nations 

" I have already Expressed my Opinion, on what pass'd 
between You & the French Indians at Onondago, & as I am yet 
for Your making as many Friends among the Indians, as You 
can, I think it adviseable, as You have left it to me, that you do 
not go to Canada, but if they are Sincere, they may safely meet 
You at Onondago, or Come here with You, when I shall be 
ready to hear and Counsel You for the best. 

Gave a Belt. 

A True Copy from the Records 
and Examined by 

R D . SHUCKBURGH Secr r y. 

INDORSED: Copy - Conference held at 

Fort Johnson Feb'?. 13 th . & 14 th . 1 760, with Depu- 
ties of the Six Indian Nations. 
Enclosed in Sir W m . Johnson's Letter 
to General Amherst of the 7 th . March 

in Gen 1 . Amherst's di the 
28*. April 1 760 
N. 67. 

L. S. 1 

Nev York 23*. February 1760 

Having received His Majesty's Commands for the Operations 
of the Ensueing Campaign, and being determined not to Leave 
anything undone that can Ensure its being the Last, and decisive, 
One in this Country; I am to beg of You, immediately upon 
Receipt hereof, to use all Your Influence with the Several Tribes 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

Seven Years' War 193 

and Nations of Indians, in Amity with Us, and to bring as many 
into the Field as You can possibly prevail on to Join His 
Majesty's Arms, in so Salutary a Work; and that You will have 
them ready, as Early as possible to Act in Conjunction with His 
Troops in such Enterprise and Attempts as I shall find most 
Conducive to the good of the Public Cause, and which I shall 
hereafter apprise You of: Meanwhile no time should be lost 
in providing the Necessary Presents, and what Else may be 
requisite to Attach those Indians the more heartily and firmly 
to Us, for which I Rely on Your Usual Zeal, and doubt not but 
I shall soon receive a very satisfactory Answer from You. 

I just also recommend it to You, to Exert Yourself to the 
utmost in bringing over to His Majesty's Interests all such, or as 
many as possible, of the Enemy Indians, as still remain Attached 
to them, the advantages of which are too obvious to need add any 
thing further on that Subject. 

I am, with great Regard, 

Your most Obedient 
Humble Servant 

Sir W M . JOHNSON, Bar 1 . 


In Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. 7., 7:434-35, is printed Johnson's 
correspondence with the Canajoharies, of February 25th and 26th, con- 
cerning land claims. 

Vol. Ill 7 

194 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Contemporary Copp 1 

Fort Johnson /'. March 1760- 

His Majesty King George, having in Consequence of What 
passed at the Conferences in July & August 1757 at Easton 
taking into Consideration your Complaint then made) concerning 
Lands, Which you alledge you have been deprived of, without 
your Consent or Satisfaction made you for the Same; & out of 
His great Goodness, Regard to Justice, Which he is remarkable 
for, as well as his Love for His Children the Indians, has, 
Ordered me to Examine thoroughly into the Said Affair, & when 
I have made a full and particular Enquiry into the Circumstances 
of the case, and heard What all parties may have to Offer, to 
transmit to him my Proceedings in this Business.- 2 

In Obedience therefore to His Majesty's Commands I do now 
take the earliest opportunity, by your Son, Who is the Bearer of 
Acquainting You with His Pleasure, & I Desire to know when 
a Meeting with You & Such Delawares, or others as are con- 
cerned in the Affair, may be had for that Purpose as also where 
it may be most convenient for you & them to Meet me, the 
Sooner I know this the better, that I may give Notice to the 
Proprietaries Commissioners to Attend And that it may not 
Interfere with my Military duty the Ensueing Campaign, in 
Which I hope & Expect, You & Your Nation will, in return for 

Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5.58, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, April 28, 1 760. 
2 See Doc. Hist. N. Y. t 2:789-90; Q, 2:458. 

Seven Years War 195 

His Majesty's kind Intentions towards You, be ready to Act a 
Bortherlike part against His Enemies when Called upon.- 

I am, 

Your Wellwisher and 
sincere Brother 

W m . Johnson 
Chief of the Delawares 

INDORSED: Copy Letter from 

Sir Will Johnson Bar*, to 
Tedyescung chief of the Delawares. 
Dated Fort Johnson 1 st March 1 760. 
Enclosed in S r . W m ' s . to Gen 1 . Amherst 
of 7* March 1760- 
Concerning Disputes about 
some Lands in Pensylvania 

in Gen 1 . Amherst's of the 
28 th . April 1 760 
N- 68 

Df. S. 1 

Fort Johnson March 7^ 1760 

As your Excellency was pleased to tell me when I had the 
honour of seeing you at Albany after last Campaign, that you 
would dispense with my writing to you, unless on matters requir- 
ing your imediate cognizance, I defer d troubling you, and gave 
Brig. Gen. Gage what intelligence I received which has not been 
very material. 

1 Destroyed by fire. A copy is in the Public Record Office, London, 

196 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I am now to acquaint you that there have been deputies from 
the Six Nations here lately, to inform me what passed between 
them, and Deputies from the Coghnawagey, Skawendady, Swe- 
gatchys, & other French Ind 8 . Coppy of what passed at said Con- 
ference I herewith send you, there have also been two Swegatchy 
Indians here to assure me that the greatest part of their People 
were determined to leave that settlement and come amongst the 
Six Nations in the Spring. I am far from thinking, that this 
seeming good disposition of theirs proceeds from any real regard 
for us, but from the low circumstances of the Enemy, & their 
own distresses. In my letter of the 8 th of Dec r . last, I appealed 
to your Excellency in regard to my pay, by virtue of my Com- 
mission from his Majesty as Coll of the six Nat 5 , their allies &c 
by your Excellency of the 18 th of said Month I find you are of 
Opinion, I am not entitled to any pay as a Military Officer. 

I cant help observeing to your Excellency, that I made but 
little doubt of it myself as you did not blame my conduct in 
Assumeing my Rank in the Military last campaign at Niagara, 
as well as for many other reasons which I shall not now trouble 
your Excellency with, this, I shall only add, that in the year 
1 746 by virtue of the then Governor of New Yorks Commissn 
to me as Coll of the Six Nations of Ind s . I rec d Coil's Pay at 
Home then I had not quarter the trouble, fatigue, or expense I 
now have and I can assure You Sir that my present pay (which 
I look upon to be only for the Civil appointment) is not adequate 
to the expense I am oblidged to be at in executing even that. 

I rec d last week a Packet from the Board of Trade inclosing 
me an Order from his Majesty in Council * concerning disputes 
about some lands in Pennsilvania Government herewith I send 
your Excellency Copy of said Order, also of my letter to Tedyus- 
cung 2 chief of the Delawar who is the Complainant. 

^ownall to Johnson, December 13, 1759, Doc. Hist. N. Y.,2:79\; 
Q, 2:459. 

2 Johnson to Tedyuscung, March 1 , 1 760, q. v. 

Seven Years' War 197 

I was yesterday honoured with yours of the 23 d Ulto your 
Excellency may depend upon my making use of my utmost 
Influence with all the Nations in amity with us, and will loose no 
time in preparing as many Indians as I can possibly get to Join 
his Majestys Troops in such operations as Your Excellency may 
think fitt, neither shall I neglect continueing to take the properest 
steps for with drawing as many Ind 8 . from the Enemy as I 
possible can. 

My success in both will depend a good deal on circumstances 
and the way they are employed, which they always are very 

pressing to know The Cloathing Arms & other Necessarys 

I shall begin to provide as soon as I can for the Campaign for 
which purpose Your Excellency will please to grant me a War- 
rant for at Least five Thousand Pounds Sterling. The unavoid- 
able expence of supplying great Numbers of Severall Nat 8 , (who 
by the Failure of their Crops of Corn &c are actually in a 
famishing condition) has been and continues very considerable, 
notwithstanding they receive some allowance at the Different 
Posts as all kinds of prov s . are very scarse, and difficult to be got 
here for any price. I am greatly distressed ; wherefore would be 
glad your Excellency would please to order some Pork, Pease 
& flower to be laid in at my House here, for their use, not being 
able to compass it myself, for the want of waggons, Battoes &c 
which, are generally employed or said to be so, in other parts of 
the Service, whenever I have occasion for any. I am &c 

To His Excllency 


198 Sir William Johnson Papers 

L. S. 1 

We* York. 16 th . March 1760 

The last Post brought me Your Favor of the 7 th Inst: with 
its Several Enclosures, One of which is the Conference You held 
at Your House on the 13 th . and 14 th . of last Month, with Depu- 
ties of the Six Nations, by which I See, that the French Indians 
Assume a Superiority, which, from the present low Circumstances 
of their pretended Friends the French, little becomes them, and 
could not have been Expected; but however, since they persist 
in so obstinate & Impolitick an Attachment, they must take the 
Consequences that will Ensue from a Continuance of the War, 
which I am determined to pursue with the utmost Vigour, and I 
have not the least doubt, but it will end in the Entire Reduction 
of Canada; I am therefore hopefull, that such of the Confederat 
Nations of Indians, in the Interest of His Majesty, will not be 
Shaken by any Speeches of their Mistaken Brethern, but firmly 
Adhere to their Anhient Friends and Allies, and in Duty to the 
King, as well as in gratitude for the repeated protection and Sup- 
port they have, and daily do receive from His Bounty, Join 
heartily in the present Cauce, and be Aiding and Assisting in the 
punishment of those, who, under the Cloak of Friendship, do 
them such daily and manifest Injuries. 

Nothing can be more proper than Your Speech to them upon 
this Occasion, and I am hopefull they will Open their Eyes, and 
strictly follow Your Counsel, in not going to Canada, since, if 
the French Indians are Sincere, they may safely meet them at 
Onondaga, And therefore I beg You will continue to Insist upon 
their Compliance with Your Advice. 

1 Destroyed by fire. A copy is in the Public Record Office, London, 

Seven Fears' War 199 

In Order to Contribute, to my utmost, to Your Success, in 
Obtaining as many Indians as possible, to join in the Ensueing 
Operations, and to Withdraw all those You possibly can from 
the Enemy, I Enclose You a Warrant for Five Thousand 
Pounds Sterling, which You Say are requisite for providing 
Cloaths, Arms, and other Necessaries for them; but I must, at 
the same time Inform You, that our Military Chest is again at 
present, so low, that it cannot Discharge that Warrant, Where- 
fore, if You can Obtain Credit, for some time, for these things, 
You will greatly Aid the Service. With regard to Satisfying 
these Indians in relation to where they shall be particularly 
Employed, that is what I cannot yet Myself Determine; When 
I am fixed in that respect, You shall be Informed of it. 

As soon as I get to Albany, I shall fix with there New Con- 
tractors the Several Quantities and Species of Provisions, which 
You are desirous to be Laid in at Your House, for the Use of 
the Needfull Indians. 

Your Letter to Tedyuscung, of which You also Enclosed me 
a Copy, is likewise very proper, and You did well to Guard 
against their Appointing the Meeting during any time of the 
Campaign, when You doubtless be wanted Elsewhere; Nothing 
remains ' therefore now for You to do, than when You are 
Informed of the time the Meeting can take place, to send timely 
Notice to the Proprietaries' Commissioners that they may be 
punctual in their Attendance at it. 

What I mentioned to You in my former Letter upon the Sub- 
ject of Your Appeal to me, in relation to Your Pay as Colonel 
of the Indians, was mere Opinion, & not Decision, which I can- 
not take upon me, and therefore I shall transmit Your present 
Remarks to His Majesty's Ministers, for their Directions therein, 
which I shall be glad may determine this Matter in Your Favor, 
I am, with great Regard, 
Your most Obed*. Humble Serv*. 


200 Sir William Johnson Papers 

The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 1 , by 
Major General Jeffery Amherst's warrant, drawn at New York March 
16th, on Abraham Mortier for the payment of 5000 to Johnson for the 
purchase of campaign goods for Indians. Destroyed by fire. 

Df. S. 1 

Fort Johnson March I7 ih . 1760 

The inclosed are Copies of two Letters and some Intelligence 
I yesterday received from M r . Croghan my Deputy at Pitsbourg, 
and as a great Part of it corresponds with some acco ts . I have had 
before as well as with my own Judgment of the Matter I thought 
it my Duty to transmit them to you without Delay, that Gen 1 
Amherst may be apprised thereof which I should think he would 
already be by Gen Stanwix to whom M r . Croghan has my Orders 

to report every piece of Intelligence he recieves. If the 

French can get supplys of Provisions &c from the Illinois or Mis- 
sissippy which I think they have eer now it is but reasonable to 
expect that they will with what Indians they may be able to 
collect, attempt cutting off our Convoys to Pittsbourg &c which 
I think they may readily do, even if we have tolerable large 
Escorts, unless the Indians in that Part of the Country take upon 
them to keep the Road uninfested, or at least assist our Troops 
therein ; they are able alone to do the former if they are inclined 
so, but I am afraid that the building so reputable a Fort in their 
Country as Pittsbourg being not all all 2 agreeable to any of the 
surrounding Nations, (Tho* they may not now chuse to declare 
their Dislike openly,) will make them very lukewarm in our 
Cause, if that should be the case, there is but one thing to engage 
them heartily in the Service, that is to act generously by them 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 In copy, " all all ;" " at all " was doubtless written. 

Seven Years War 201 

during the War, I am certain if they are then properly managed 
their Service will ballance the Expense. - My best Respects 
to your Lady, and believe me Sir with the greatest Regard 

Your most Obed* h ble Servant 

The Hon ble . BRIG GAGE 


In Doc. Rel. to Col Hist. N. Y., 7 : 435-36, is a report of John- 
son's meeting with Lower Mohawks at Fort Johnson March 20th, when 
they presented a complaint. 

D/. 1 

Fort Johnson March 24*. 1760 

I am this day honoured with Yours of the 1 6 th inclosing me a 
Warrant for 5000, for which I shall not be pressing as my 
own Credit will serve I hope till the Military Chest is replenished. 

The Indians from almost all parts have been comeing in this 
winter to me, and all the Out Posts for Provisions, they and their 
Familys being as I before mentioned in a Starving Condition. 
I have satisfied them as well as I could to this time, as there is 
no prov 5 . to be bought in these parts I should be glad I was 
supplied as soon as possible Numbers of them, being comeing 
daily, & more expected. 

I am highly oblidged to Your Excellency for any Trouble you 
are kind enough to take towards ascertaining iny Pay as Collo. 
of the Confederate Indians. 

M r . Shuckburgh My Secretary who will have the honour to 
deliver you this letter, having finished what was at present to be 
done in his way, has now my liberty to pay his Family a Visit, 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

202 Sir William Johnson Papers 

whom he hath not had an oportunity before of seeing these twelve 
months, and as he has recorded all my Proceedings with the 
Several Nations of Indians Since the opening of the last Cam- 
paign I beg leave to refer Y r . Excellency to him for any particu- 
lars you may choose to be informed of. 

I propose soon sending a present of Cloathing &c to the Com- 
manding Officers of Niagara & Oswego to be by them given 
occasionally to such Indians as have influence in their Nation as 
well as to some who may be in want of Cloathing &c and as 
Amunition is the most necessary Article, and not to be had here, 
it would be necessary your Excellency would Order that Article 
the rest I am providing, and will have ready in a few days, when 
I shall require a Couple of Battoes for the transportation of them 
I wish your Excellency a Continueance of Success the ensueing 
Campaign, and am with the greatest respect Your Excellency 

Most Obedient & Most 
Humble Servant. 
His Excellency 

INDORSED: March 24 th . 1760 

My Letter to Gen 1 . Amherst 
<i$ Doctor Shuckburgh 

L. S. 1 

Albany March 26*. 1760 

Your Favor of the 17*. Inst, with the several Inclosures, 
being Copys of two Letters, & some Indian Intelligence from 
M r . Croghan, arrived safe; & I have transmitted the whole to 
Gen 1 . Amherst, tho' as you observe, it's probable he may already 
be apprized thereof, thr'o Gen 1 . Stanwix. But that there might 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

Seven Years' War 203 

be no Doubt in the Case, I thought it absolutely necessary, that 
He should be immediately informed of the Intelligence, & there- 
fore sent it, that He may have Time to consider of the Measures, 
He thinks right & proper to be taken, in Consequence of it. 
What operations are to be carried on towards the ohio the next 
Campaign, or indeed in any other Parts of the Continent, remains 
as yet as 1 profound secret ; perhaps the arrival of the next Packet 
which is daily expected, may open & disclose, some Parts of the 
new scene, which will soon enable us to guess at the rest, I 
don't believe any Thing is absolutely fixed, or will be, till the 
next Mail arrives from England. Colonel Amherst is expected 
with it, & it's imagined, will bring the final orders. 

Some Onondaga Indians reported a good while ago, that the 
French intended to attack Oswego, when the Waters were open 
& had got large Cannon at Wegatchy for that Purpose; but th^ 
Swegatchy Indians, that passed the W. end of onedga Lake in 
their way to Onondaga, mentioned nothing of it, but said, the 
French, on the Two Islands, were in great Distress, & in no Con- 
dition to undertake any thing. What Condition the Enemy is in 
at Present, in general throughout Canada, we are ignorant of, 
having neither Prisoner, or Deserter, since the Close of the Cam- 
paign. Lieutenant Montresor 2 may have brought Intelligence 
from Quebec, that I am ignorant of; I suppose He had some 
material Business, & did not take that Journey, on Purpose to 
explore the Country. M rs . Gage desires her Compliments, & I 
am with great Truth and esteem, 

Dear Sir, 

Your most obedient 

& most humble Servant 


1 In copy, " as." 

2 John Montresor, lieutenant in the 48th regiment July 4, 1755; from 
1754 to 1778, with an interval of several years, engineer and surveyor 
in America; December 18, 1775 chief engineer. For sketch, see Col" 
lections of the Ner York Historical Society, 1881, p. 4-8. 

204 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A. L. S. 1 

Schenectady 27 ih March 1760 

This is a Verey good young Man whom I beg Leave to 
Recommend to you worthy of Bearing a Commission in our 
Provintial Troops as I ame Verey Certain of his Valour and 
Probity, his neam is Cornelus Vandick The Leat Docter Van- 
dick's Son who Lived in this town he has never ben a Cam- 
pagin But from his other Experience of the World am Certain 
he is Verey well Qualifid for a Subalter officer if you would 
be so Good as to procure Such a Comisson I Sure heel be a 
Credit to his Benif actor & you 1 , for Ever Obledg 

Hon rd . Sir 

Your Most 

Obed'. Hum 1 '. Serv*. 

Extract 2 

New York M h . March 1760 

I come now, Sir, to Your Letter in relation to Indian Affairs, 
and cannot but Commend Your Attention keeping up a friend- 
ship and trade, with all such Indians as Chuse to partake of the 
Blessings of the happy Government we live under and Your 
proposal of sending M r . Post and M r . Still, to Assist at the large 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Destroyed by fire. Inclosed in a letter of Amherst to Johnson, April 
2, 1 760. 

Seven Years War 205 

Convention reported to You by Teedyuscung to be held in the 
Spring at Some of the Indian Towns over the Ohio is, I think 
perfectly right, as it may be productive of Cementing the Alli- 
ance that ought to Subsist between those nations and us ; and as 
I have nothing more at heart than the good and wellfare of the 
whole Community, and that M r . Post thinks it necessary, he 
should Carry them a Talk from His Majesty's Commander in 
Chief, to Assure them, that it is not our Design to make any 
Encroachments on them, but on the Contrary to protect and 
defend their Lives and properties, I will here renew, What I 
promised at a Conference held in April last at Philadelphia, 
between Gov ns . Denny, Bernard, Delancey, B r . Gen 1 . Stanwix 
and myself, the Deputies of Canawaga and Thomas King 1 of 
Which I enclose You a Copy; and I shall further add What I 
have from time to time, wrote to S r . W m . Johnson to Deliver to 
the Indians in his Department on my behalf viz. That His 
Majesty had not sent me to Deprive any of them of their Lands 
& property ; on the Contrary, that so long as they adhered to His 
Interest, and by their behavior gave proofs of the Sincerity of 
their Attachment to His Royal Person & Cause, I should defend 
& maintain them in their Just rights, and give them all the aid 
& Assistance they might be liable to, from the Enemy thro' 
their Attachment to. us. This I firmly mean to adhere to, so 
long as their Conduct shall Deserve it but on the other hand, if 
they do not behave as good and faithfull allies ought to do, and 
Renounce all acts of Hostilities against His Majesty's Subjects 
I shall retaliate upon them, and I have the might so to do ten- 
fold every breach of Treaty they shall be guilty of and every 
outrage they shall Committ, and if any of His Majesty's Subjects 
under my Command, should kill or Injure any of our Indian 
Brethern, they shall, upon due proof thereof, receive equal 
punishment. I mean not neither to take any of their Lands, 

1 Thomas King, Dayagoughderesesh, an Oneida chief living at Oquaga, 
often employed as delegate to Indian conferences. He died at Charleston, 
S. C, September 5, 1 771. W. M. Beauchamp, A History of the Nev> 
Iroquois, p. 340. 

206 Sir William Johnson Papers 

f t except in such Causes, Where the necessity of His Majesty's 
Service, obliges me to take Posts where I must and will build 
Forts; but then the Lands adjoining will still Continue their own 
and be not only equally good for their hunting, but be so much 
the more Secure, against any Interruption the Enemy might offer 
to give theniy' for I know no medium, between us & the French 
if we have 7 not Forts they will. Those that will Join Hi; 
Majesty's Arms, and that will be aiding & Assisting in Subduing 
the Common Enemy, shall be well rewarded and those that may 
not Chuse to act in conjunction with the Forces, shall be equally 
protected, provided they do not Join in any Acts of Hostilities 
with the Enemy, or Carry them Intelligence, Which might prove 
prejudicial to the Public good; Upon these terms they shall find 
me their fast friend, but on a breach of them I shall punish them 
as they Deserve, and I chuse they should know, What they have 
to trust to, Since I intend to be as good as my word. 

Jeff: Amherst 

INDORSED: Extract Letter from Gen 1 . Amherst 
To Governor Hamilton dated 
New York 30<H 760 

L. S. 1 

New York, 2<*. April 1760 

On Monday I was favored with Your Letter of the 24 th . 
Ultimo, by Your Secretary M r . Shuckburgh. I Shall Write to 
Brig r . General Gage, concerning the Provisions You are desirous 
to have for the Indians ; and I shall likewise remember the Article 
of Ammunition. I Approve of the Present of Cloathing, &c 
You propose sending to the Commanding Officers at Niagara & 
Oswego, to be by them given occasionally to Such Indians as 
have Influence in their Nation, as well as to some who may be in 

Destroyed by fire. 

Seven Years' War 207 

want of Cloathing; and I shall direct, that You may have the 
Couple of Batteaus requisite for the transportation of them. 

Brig r . General Gage has transmitted me a Copy of Your 
Letter to him, 1 with the Intelligence from Your Deputy to the 
Southward; great part of which, I can Assure You, is without 
foundation, particularly a part of that concerning the Detroit, 
as Lieut. McDonald of Montgomery's a very Intelligent Young 
Man, who was a considerable time Prisoner there, and is lately 
returned, gives me different Accounts. 

The last Post brought me a Letter from Gov r . Hamilton, 
Acquainting me that Teedyuscung had Informed him, there was 
to be, this Spring, a very large Convention of Indians, in some 
of their Towns on the Ohio, at which he was to Assist, in behalf 
of the Province of Pennsylvania, and desired that M r . Frederick 
Post might Accompany him; that at the Instance of Teedyus- 
cung, the Assembly of Pensylvania had Named said M r . Post, 
and One M r . Still, to Attend this Chief of the Delawares; And 
that M r . Post had represented, that his being the Bearer of a 
Talk from His Majesty's Commander in Chief, to the Several 
Tribes of Indians that should Come to this Meeting, might be 
productive of great good Consequence to His Majesty's Indian 
Interest in those parts: Accordingly I Sent him the Enclosed 
Answer, 2 by which You will See my Invariable Sentiments in 
relation to Indians, in which I Intend ever to persevere. I am, 
with great Regard, 


Your most Obedient 
Humble Servant. 



The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 102, by a 
letter of April 3d from Ferrall Wade, at New York, to Johnson, in 
which he asks an order for 2000 to buy goods in Philadelphia. 

1 Johnson to Gage, March 1 7, 1 760, q. V. 

2 Amherst to Hamilton, March 30, 1 760, q. v. 

208 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Contemporary Copy x 

Fort Pitt, April 6-12, 1760 

Minutes of Conferences &ca.~ 

At a Meeting held at Fort Pitt on the 6 th . April 1 760. 

George Croghan Esquire Deputy Agent to the Hon blc - S r< W 1 

Johnson Bar 1 . 
Alexander M c Kee Assistant to George Croghan Esq r . 


Six Nations Del a wares 

Neroganera 1 . The Beaver 

Sowadereraw j George Chiefs 

Conneyegerada 1 Kikiuskin 

Yougunsera J apt * Grey Eyes 1 

56 Warriors & Sonckhicon J 

22 Women 72 Warriors & 

48 Women 


Keissnauch the 
Missiqui Pallathe 
84 Warriors & 
46 Women 

Twigtwees Mohickons 

Meconock Chief Weithy Peyocka Chief 

Messenock Captain Maulcey Captain 

32 Warriors & 28 Warriors & 

10 Women 14 Women - 

1 In Public Record Office, C. O. 5.58, London, England, inclosed in 
a letter of Amherst to William Pitt of May 19, 1 760. 

Seven Years War 209 

Cap*. Croghan opened the Conference with the following 

Crremonies, Addressing himself to the Indians present of every 


It gives me pleasure to See You the Chiefs & Warriors of the 
Shawnese, come here to Confirm the Peace, & renew Your 
Ancient friendship. 


With this String I wipe the Sweat & dust off Your Bodies 
Pick the bryars out of Your feet, & clear Your eyes that You 
may see Your brethrens faces & look Chearfull Gave a String 


With this String I clear Your hearts & Minds that You may 
speak perfectly free & open to us~~ Gave a String 


With this String I wipe the blood from off the Council Seats, 
that Your Cloaths may not be Stained nor Your Minds dis- 

Gave a String 

As soon as we had done, they performed the same Ceremonies 
on their parts, then the Shawnese King ordered the Calumet of 
peace to be lighted, and after smoaking round, we drank a glass 
& parted."" 


Sir William Johnson Papers 

At a Conference held at Fort Pitt on the 7 th . of April 1760.- 

George Croghan Esquire Deputy Agent to the Hon ble . S r . W m . 

Johnson Bar*. 
Alexander M c Kee Assistant to George Croghan Esq r . 

Six Nations 
Noragamera V 
56 Warriors & 
22 Women 


The Beaver 
Grey Eyes ] 
Sonckickon I 


Meconock Chief 
Messenock Cap 1 . 
32 Warriors & 
10 Women 

72 Warriors & 

48 Men 1 
Keissinauch the ] 
Missiweakiwa j hlefs 
Missiqui Pallathe ] 
Read Hawk - j C * P *' 
84 Warriors & 
46 Women 


Weithy Peyocka Chief 

Maulcey Captain 

28 Warriors & 

14 Women - 

The principal men of the Shawnese Ordered one of his Coun- 
cil to Speak as follows: 
Brethren the English, 

As it has pleased God to bring us both together, this day in 
Council to renew & brighten the Ancient Chain of Friendship 
Which was made between our Ancestors & Yours When first they 
came over the great water to this Country It is our Custom to 
repeat part of what happened in those times, which we desire You 
may give Attention to. 

1 This should be ' ' Women " as on page 208. 

Seven Years' War 211 

Missiweakiwa Speaker Brethren, 

You must know that God Who made all things gave us this 
Country & brought us through this Ground, he gave you a 
Country beyond the Great Water, Our Ancestors in former times 
did not know, that there was White People in the World, till they 
See a Ship coming to Shore, at first they were afraid, not knowing 
what it was, but When they saw the people, they soon discovered 
they were made like themselves but that God had made them 
White, they then received them in their Arms, & tied the ship 
fast that the winds or Water should not Carry her away, & gave 
them Land to Sit down upon and Plant Corn on, then we took 
the English for our Brethren and the English made a Silver Chain 
of friendship for all Nations of Indians to take hold of, Which 
would not Contract any rust, this was the beginning of our friend- 
ship Brethren with the English, Which you must know as God has 
given You knowledge to read & write, Which he has not given 
to Us- Gave four Strings White Wampum 


In those days When first the English Settled in this Country 
Our Ancestors nursed our Brethren the English, as they did their 
own Children, & as more was a coming every Year we made more 
room for them to settle, till at length our Brethren drove us up 
here on the high Land ; then the Indians of All Nations began to 
think, that our Brethren wanted to drive us entirely out of the 
Country, & the French come Amongst Us, and told that was our 
Intentions, then the French & you began to fight in this Country, 
you both said it was for the good of Us Indians that You ffought, 
but we think you both fought for our Country, then our Young 
men got into Confusion, & as the French supplied them, with all 
necessaries they wanted, they helped them to Carry on the War 
against You, this with Some other Abuses that Some of Our 
People received to the Southward, was the occasion of our 
Quarrelling with Our Brethren." 

SU Strings black Wampum 

212 Sir William Johnson Papers 


As God has directed Your Great King, who lives over the great 
water, to order that no Injustice shall be done us by his People, 
he has likewise directed Us, Whom he will acknowledge for his 
Children, as well as You, to throw from Your minds All evil 
thoughts & forget what is past which I do by this String. 

Four Strings 

I now burry the bloody Hatchet in the bottomless pitt and with 
this belt I clear the road of peace to the run * rising, that we may 
travel it as our Forefathers formerly did to visit our Brethren, and 
I stop up the War road that it will not be possible to pass along it. 

Gave a road belt 

With this belt I confirm the peace & renew & brighten the 
Ancient Chain of friendship that Subsisted between our Fore- 
fathers & Yours, in behalf of all my Nation & I Assure you 
Brethren, that you shall see Your flesh & Blood again, to Confirm 
what I say, I give you this belt. Gave a Belt. 


As I have now done speaking, I can Assure you I have spoke 
the sentim 15 . of my People, & that from my heart and I desire you 
will give Attention to What our Grand fathers the Delawares are 
going to Say to You. 

Then the Beaver the Principal man of the Delawares spoke."* 

Brethren the English, 

I have heard with pleasure what our Grand Children the 
Shawnese have said this day in Council, & I hope it is agreable 
to you, I have been present at all the Conferences you have held 
here this last year, with all the Nations living to the Sun Setting, 
& as the Peace is now confirmed and the ancient friendship 
renewed, I hope it will last to our latest Generations, Be strong 
brethren it is in your power to make this a lasting peace 

Gave Six Strings."" 

1 In the original ** run " is written. 

Seven Years War 213 


The Great King of England has Sent you here to renew the 
Ancient friendship Subsisting between the English & us Indians 
you have no done that with the Nations living this way Which I 
desire You will Acquaint the great King of ; Yet I see the bloody 
Hatchet in one of Your hands, we have buried ours, and with 
this Belt I take that Hatchet out of Your Hand, & turn the edge 
of it against Your Common Enemy against them You may Use 
it but I desire You may let us live in peace. A War Belt 

At a Conference held at Fort Pitt on the 9 th : of April 1 760. 


George Croghan Esquire Deputy Agent to the Hon ble . S r . W m . 

Johnson Bar 1 . 
Alexander M c Kee Assistant to George Croghan Esq r . 

The Same Indians 

Brethren The Shawnese, 

I have heard, what You have said to me in Council two days 
ago on these Belts & Strings, & You have wisely thrown away 
from Your remembrance all the Evil of Your hearts & Solicited 
the Deity to direct Your Councils for the future you have buried 
the War hatchet in the bottomless pitt & removed all obstacles 
off the road of peace; You have renewed & brightened the 
Ancient Chain of Friendship with your brethren the English, 
which you may depend on Your Brethren will never Violate; 
and I hope you on your Parts, will take care to Observe it, by 
continually advising both Your Children how to behave towards 
their Brethren The English, You have been made Sensible of 
What has past at the Several Conferences I held at this place with 
the Several Nations living to the Sun Setting. I have Confirmed 
Peace with all these Nations in presence of your Grandfathers 
The Delawares & Six Nations & Some of your own people, but 

214 Sir William Johnson Papers 

there is one Article to be performed yet on your Sides, that we 
may enjoy the blessing we expect from this good work of peace, 
which is the restoring to Us Our Flesh & Blood, that remain yet 
amongst your Several Nations, anJ Which I must insist on your 
Complying with as soon as possible & Brethren by this belt I con- 
firm the peace with you, in behalf of His Majesty & all His Sub- 
jects, and I Assure You of the hearty Inclination there is in Your 
Brethren to Cultivate a lasting friendship with all Nations of 
Indians, as long as You behave so as to deserve it from them."~ 

Gave a Belt 

In order to Prevent any Disputes hereafter between You and 
Your Brethren the English, The King of Great Britain Your 
Father and My Master, has ordered a Line to be run between 
You and his people in this Country, that You may know how 
much of Your Country You have sold to Your Brethren the 
original of which the Six Nations has, and this I deliver to You 
that Your Children hereafter may be acquainted of it, and not 
foolishly enter into debates with your Brethren as you have done 
about triffles As you must now be Sensible Your Brethren the 
English is the most powerfull People in the Country, & not only 
so but best inclined to do you Justice & Supply your Necessitys 
while you behave so as to Deserve their friendship. 

Then I delivered them a Copy of the Partition line Settled at 
the Treaty of Easton between the Proprietors Agents, & the 
Chiefs of the Six Nations. 

Brethren The Delawares, 

I have heard what you said to me the day before yesterday 
And you may depend on it, the Great King shall be made 
Acquainted with every thing, that has been transacted between 
us & You may depend on his giving Proper orders to all his 
people in this Country from time to time, to Cultivate a good 
Understanding between all Nations of Indians & them 

Gave a String 

Seven Years War 215 


You have taken the Hatchet out of my hand, & desired I 
would take fast hold of the Chain of friendship with both my 
Hands; Brethren I will do as You desire, & you may depend 
on my doing every thing in my power to preserve the Chain of 
friendship free from Rust - Gave a Belt 

At a Conference held at Fort Pitt on the 10 th . of April 1 760 


George Croghan Esq r . Deputy Agent to the Hon ble . Sir W m . 

Johnson Baronet. 
Alexander M c Kee Assistant to George Croghan Esq r . 

The Same Indians 

Brethren The English, 

As we have Settled all differences, & renewed the Ancient 
friendship, and opened the road of Peace, we must inform You 
that our People is in great wants of Goods at our Towns We 
return the King of Great Britain our thanks, for those you gave 
us yesterday in his Name, Brother we see the difficulty you have 
in getting provisions up to this place to Supply Your own people, 
much less to give us, & tho' you give us part of What you have, 
We are in a Starving Conditions When we Come here to Trade ; 
to prevent this Inconveniency with us both we have been talking 
with some of the Traders here Who say they are willing to go 
down with us if you and the Commanding Officer be willing ; now 
Brother we desire You will Consult the Commands. Officer on 
this Affair & let these Traders go down with us ; We know that 
you and the French have not made peace, but we will engage to 
take them safe down, and bring them safe up to you again with 
their skins. To confirm the truth of what we say we give you this 
Belt. Gave a Belt. 

216 Sir William Johnson Papers 


You are now settled in our Country, be Strong & do all Na- 
tions of Indians Justice, We are a poor people & be kind to those 
that are not able to support themselves; We expect to have a 
great Council this Summer of all Nations of Indians, when that 
is over, we will let you know what we have done, & what Part 
of our Country You may raise provisions on, that you may not 
have to Carry it from the Settlements. 

Gave a Belt 

Then I informed the Indians, I would Acquaint the Com- 
mands, officer of what they said, and give them an Answer 
tomorrow morning. 

At a Conference held at Fort Pitt on the 12 th . April 1760 

George Croghan Esq r . Deputy Agent to the Hon ble , Sir W m . 

Johnson Bar*. 
Alexander M c Kee Assistant to George Croghan Esq r . 

The Same Indians 

Brethren of the Several Nations here present, give Attention to 
What I am going to say. 

I have Consulted the Commanding Officer of what you said 
to me the day before Yesterday, & tho' we have no Instructions 
about finding Traders to trade in the Indian Country yet but 
to Convince You of the good Inclination Your Brethren the 
English have to Serve you in your necessitys, we have agreed 
to let such Traders as is willing to go with you to your towns; 
you have pledged the faith of your Nations for their safe return 
we make no doubt of it; And as the Prices of all kind of goods 
is here settled, you know what you are to pay them for their 
Goods, So I hope there will be no Complaints hereafter and like- 

Seven Fears' War 217 

wise that all Your People will behave to these traders that risque 
their Lives & Effects to go with you, may return home well pleased 
with your People's Conduct. 

Gave a Belt. 

We return you our hearty thanks for agreing to let these 
Traders go with us, & you may depend on their Safety, as the 
business we came upon is all done to our Satisfaction, we Desire 
you will give us Some rum to drink, as our hearts is glad, let 
us be merry; God has directed You Brethren how to make it, 
they delivered five Strings of Wampum for a Cag to each Nation 
of the five 

Gave five Strings 


The Rum is very Scarce here, & Mischances often happen in 
liquor; Yet I grant Your request, but I desire You may not 
say after you have Quarrelled & hurt each other, that I have 
handed you peace out of one hand & given you liquor out of the 
other to hurt you Gave five Cags 

Fort Pitt April 18*>. 1760.- 
A true Copy from the Original 
by Alexander M c Kee Assistant 
to George Croghan Esquire 


Conferences held 

With Sundry tribes of Indians 

at Fort Pitt 6 th . &ca April 1 760 

Enclosed in Gen 1 . Amherst's 

Letter to S r . W m . Johnson of 

16 th . May 1760. in Gen 1 . Amherst's of the 

19*. May 1760 


218 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Df. S. 1 

Fort Johnson April 8*. 1760 

The IncK of both Mohawk Castles having had their Crops 
of Corn &c destroyed last year by the severall droves of Cattle 
passing thro their fields, applied to me often for payment of the 
Damages they sustained thereby, which I have hitherto waved 
by telling them I could not do it without the GenK Orders, they 
now insist on my mentioning it to you & beg that their loss & 
Labour in planting may be considered. 

They this day came in a body, and assured me they were in 
every 2 miserable Scituation, for want of provisions, and as they 
understood that those of the upper Nat 8 , who were in want had 
been supplied at the Several Posts, they expected the General 
would not be backward* to let them have some at Fort Hunter 
and Fort Hendrick, as he was sensible of their Attachment to y e 
English, they are certainly much distressed, by the loss of their 
Crops as well as by a Habit of Idleness they have contracted 
since the warr. wherefore if you approve of it, I will draw some 
prov s . for them at the aforesaid Post, in such a manner as will 
best satisfie them and be least expensive. 

I expect a quantity of Indian Corn & Sundry Stores for the 
use of the Ind 8 . the ensueing Campaign from New York, & 
Philadelphia, for the Carriage of which I shall want waggons & 
Battoes, and your pass for them, unless you should think proper 
to order the p Master 3 to get it sent up. 

My Best respects to your Lady & believe me 

Dear S r . with the greatest esteem & sincerity &c 

The Honourable 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 This should probably be " a very." 

8 This should evidently be " q Master," for quartermaster. 

-Seven Yean War 219 


In Doc. Rel to Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:436-37, is a letter from Tydes- 
cung, chief sachem of the Delawares, to Johnson regarding the meeting to 
consider his complaint touching lands, dated Berth 01 in Northampton 
county, Pa., April 8th. 


L. S. 1 

Albany April 13*. 1760 

M r . Van Eps delivered me your Favor of 9 th Inst. at Schenec- 
tady; & I settled with Him & M r . Glen every Thing relating 
to the Batteaus & Carnages for the Transportation of the Pro- 
visions & Indian Goods. There is at present little occasion for 
Waggons, which made me tell M r . Van Epps that He might 
send as many as He pleased, & on application to Major Newey 2 , 
a Pass should be given for any Number 

The satisfaction demanded by the Mohawks, for the Damages 
sustained last year by Cattle, which was drove thro their Corn, 
I shall transmit by tomorrow's Post, to Gen 1 . Amherst, who can, 
only have it in his Power, to answer such demands. The 
Mohawks without Dispute are more entitled to our Assistance 
than any Nation on the Continent, I thought the upper Castle 
had been, at Times, supply ed with Provisions from Fort Herk- 
heimer. The Oneydas have been fed the whole Winter at Fort 
Stanwix, & I shall send Directions immediately to Forts Hunter 
& Hendrick, to supply you in the manner you Desire, as far as 
their stock of Provisions will admit of. 

There is a Report of Col. Massey's * Servant being taken by 
three Indians from Fort Stanwix. If so, I think the Oneydas 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 This name should be Hervey. 

3 Lieutenant Colonel Eyre Massey, of the 46th regiment. 

220 Sir William Johnson Papers 

must be privy to it, & the Onondagas have by their own ace 1 , 
such a Number of Hunting Partys, near Swegatchy, that they 
could not be ignorant of it. The onondagas excused themselves 
to Capt. Dunbar for not scouting to Swegatchy for a Prisoner on 
ace 1 , of these Hunting Partys, who would probably be met with 
by the enemy, in Case of a Pursuit. 

Two sub ns . & Three Private of the Inniskilling Reg*, with a 
Cap 1 , & Three Rangers have been lately carried off from Crown 

No News from below, a ship arrived at York, but has been 
six months in her Passage. I am with great regard, 

Dear Sir, 

Your most obedient 

& most humble Servant, 



The foregoing letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 102, by 
Philip Henrick Kleine's recognizance in the sum of 20, taken by Johnson 
at Albany April 14th. Destroyed by fire. 

Contemporary Copy x 

[Fort Ontario] 15 th . April 1760 

To COLONEL HALDIMAND Commanding His Majestys Forces 
at Fort Ontario 


This Day Taschlay, a Cayuga Sachem, arrived here, being 
sent by Degahany & Cadravana, two Chief Sachem of that 
Nation ; acquainting me, that they were informed by an Indian, 
of their Castle, which had been trading, at Fort Ontario, who 
met with an oswegatchy Warrior, formerly belonging to the 

Destroyed by fire. Inclosed in Gage to Johnson, April 22, 1 760. 

Seven Year* War 221 

above Castle; who told Him, that his Castle was still dear to 
Him, for which Reason He could inform Him, of the Designs 
of the French, tho He was earnestly desired & forbid to give any 
Intelligence which was that the French were determined to cut 
off Oswego & attack & destroy all Provisions which might be 
sent to it and likewise to destroy the Five Nations. That they 
were to meet in twenty Days, in order to proceed for this Post, 
this Information, the oswegatchy gave the 6 th Inst. The above 
sachem was sent off directly, to acquaint the Comm^. officer 
of Fort Ontario, that He might be on his Guard, without waiting 
to acquaint their Castles. Jnn. Bightman, an Indian Trader, 
likewise informed me, that He overheard another oswegatchy 
Indian who was in his House, trading, when discoursing with 
two Indians that came in, Viz. A Cayuga & an onondaga, when 
the Cayuga told Him, He heard that the French intended, to 
come & attack oswego, & that He insisted on the oswegatchy 
Indian, to tell Him the Truth. Upon which He told Him, that 
the French intended to come this way in Thirty Days; this 
Indian left swegatchy the 2 d . April. 


John Loteridge, 

Cap*, in the Ind n . Reg 1 . 

Contemporary Copp x 

New York April 16* 1760 

I have received your letter of the 6 th . instant with the acc ts . 
enclosed for which warrants will be made out, with respect to 
the smiths & interpreters at the posts. I have directed the officers 
commanding them to pay them their respective salaries which will 

1 In Library of Congress, Force Transcripts, Miscellaneous, v. I, Cor- 
respondence of Sir Jeffery Amherst. 

222 Sir William Johnson Papers 

save some trouble by avoiding separate draughts from every Fort 
where those officers are stationed. 

The sum you want in advance for the purchase of Indian 
Goods will be advanced to you when you think proper tho' I 
think you will hardly get them till the Autumn if they are not 
already Commissioned. 

Mr. Stewart shall be made acquainted with your answer 
respecting the pipe and the reasons you give why the Cherokees 
concealed a part of their intentions from him & I have dis- 
patched a letter to Fort Pitt to be forwarded to Fort Chartres to 
inform L*. Col. Wilkins of the intelligence you have had con- 
cerning the intentions of the Indians of the Ouabache to attempt 
the reduction of the Ilinois A Comp'y of the 1 8 th Reg*, went 
down the Ohio the 25* of March, & I hope by setting out so early 
they will have passed those nations before they are all assembled 
from their hunting grounds and in a condition to act offensively 
if such are their real designs & I should hope if they are so 
inclined they will find employment enough at home from the 
resolutions taken by the Cherokees, & Six Nations at Onondaga. 

They write from Fort Pitt that they have had frequent meet- 
ings with the Chiefs of the different tribes & what they have 
Learnt from them merely corresponds with the intelligence given 
by Silver Heels some time ago 

I am my dear Sir with great regard 
your most obedient 
humble Servant 

Tho 8 . Gage 

Seven Years War 223 

L. S. 1 

Albany April 22*. 1760 

Late last Night an express arrived from oswego, which brought 
me a Letter from Col. Haldimand of the 1 5 th Inst. to the follow- 
ing Import. * That some Indians from swegatchy had been at 
his Post, & that He had sent for a sachem to sound them con- 
cerning their Intent of coming there. That the sachem would 
not tell him what He had discovered, till after their Departure: 
He then told Him, those Indians had been sent by the Com- 
mandant of swegatchy, to view his Post, that they had given 
skins to be sold there, that his son (the sachenTs) who was an 
Intimate of one of those Indians, heard his Friend say, that the 
French would shortly be masters of that Fort, that they had a 
great many heavy Cannon at La Galette, & that the Good Man 
(meaning L'Abbe Piquet) would soon be there from Montreal, . 
& bring them all sort of Things. That an Indian, had made ' 
Him (Col. Haldimand) take Notice of a Circumstance which 
discovered some sort of Truth in the Report, which was, that 
the skins, were not of the Season, nor dressed in the Indian 
Manner, & that they were certainly taken out of some Magazine. 
That a Cayuga Indian, whatoridge 2 & others reported to be well 
attached to us, had crossed the River the 1 9* 1 * Inst. & desired to 
speak With Him, with much Impatience He delivered a Belt 
desiring his Name might be taken down in writing as also the 
Names of two other Sachems, That S r . W m . Johnson might see 
they had kept the Promise they made Him, in having a watchful 
eye upon that Sort. That the substance of the above Sachem's 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Lottridge. 

8 The 15th instead of the 19th evidently. See Lottridge to Hal- 
dimand, April 15, 1760. 

224 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Intelligence was taken by watoridge & inclosed in his Letter. 
That it was vexatious He had nobody that could procure Him a 
Prisoner; wotoridge and Redhead being both 111. That He had 
tryed some Indians, but could not prevail with them." 

The Intelligence given by the Sachem, mentioned to have been 
taken down by wotoridge, I send inclosed. 1 When you have 
considered the whole of this Report & questioned the Indians, I 
should be glad of your opinion of it. It seems to me highly 
necessary, to send some trusty Indians to swegatchy & such as 
are Intelligent, either to view the Place & see what is going for- 
ward, or to take Prisoners that may give some certain Informa- 
tion of the Truth of this Report. 

I should not think the Enemy in a Situation to attack but that 
it is very probable a Number of men & engineers, should be sent 
to La Galette, or Isle au Galot, to intrench & fortify; which 
would always alarm. However, I would by no means dispise 
the Intelligence ; To attack is some times the best way to defend ; 
and that may be their Case. A Reinforcement is going to 
Oswego under Cap 1 . Parker, & I have given Col. Haldimand 
Directions, if He finds immediate occasion, to draw farther sup- 
plys from Fort Stanwix, which I can easily replace. I have sent 
off an express to Gen 1 . Amherst with Copys of Col. Haldimand's 
& Cap 1 . Lotoridge's Letters. I am with great Regard, 

Dear Sir, 

Your most obedient 

& most humble Servant. 

^ottridge to Haldimand, April 15, 1760, q. v. 

Seven Years War 225 

Df. S. 1 

Castle Cumberland April 22^ 1760 

This Morning I received two letters from oswego, the one 
from Capt". Lotteradge, 2 the other from Lieut. Herring, 3 both 
which I inclose for y r . pusal, tho I suppose Col. Haldiman has 
already wrote you about it. 4 I some time ago wrote gener 1 
Amherst for amunition to send to Niagara, along with a parcel 
of goods I intend to put into the Hands of y c . Comm d Officers 
there, and at oswego to be by them occasionally given to Such 
Ind s . as they & the Ind n . Officer & Interpreter may Judge proper, 
the genr 1 . wrote me he would not forget the amn and that there 
would be a couple of Battoes ordered Me for the tranportation 
of them to said Posts, the sooner I have the bat 5 . & men the 
better, as it will be best have the present there, before y e . Indians 
come. I think we are very long without any news from home. 
I hope when it comes it may be agreable. I most heartily salute 
you & Lady and am with the greatest respect 

Dear Sir your most 
Obedient, and most Humble 

W. J. 

The Honr ble . GEN RL . GAGE. 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Not found. 

3 Lieutenant James Herring, of the 60th regiment. His letter not 

4 See Gage to Johnson, April 22, 1760. 

Vol. Ill 8 

226 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Df. S. 1 

Fort Johnson 25 ih . April 1760 

I was honoured with yours of the 1 3 Inst. some days ago, and 
yesterday with another of the 22 d Cur*. On receipt of the former 
I was very easy (not doubting to have Battoes, & carriages 
sufficient for the transportation of Indian Stores &c so much 
wanted here at present,) as you were pleased to tell me you 
had settled that affair with M r . Van Epse & Glen, but yesterday 
& this day I received letters from Van Epse and Van Derhey- 
den complaining that they can send nothing up, altho the house 
is so full, and another must be hired to store some of the things 
in, the Wagons being pressed, nay some carried back with their 
Loading above Six miles to Albany, by that means, I see that 
I shall not be able to get up such necessarys as are absolutely 
wanted for the use of the Ind s . the ensueing Campaign & without 
which, I cannot ensure their joining His Majestys Forces. The 
good of the Service, & regard for my own Credit oblidge me to 
repeat to you the necessity of having that affair settled, so that 
the service may not be wantonly obstructed by a Set of low lived 
Self Interested, and overbearing Depty Q Masters, most of them, 
if not all, I am convinced would sacrifice the Interest of their 
King & Country, to gratify their resentment, this is notorious. 

You will pardon my warmth on the Occasion, my Honor and 
the Interest of my master being concerned. As I dare say Sir 
it has been done without your cognizance, you will now remedy 
it for the time to come, inclosed you have extract from Van 
Derheyden & Van Epses letters the Servant of Coll . Massey 
supposed to be carried away, is returned I hear, having lost him- 
self looking for Cows. I shall send orders to my Officers at 
the Several Posts to send Partys to swegatchy for Intelligence, 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

Seven Years' War 227 

Prisoners &c, altho it is contrary to the Message, & orders I 
lately sent them, which was to assemble in their several nations 
early this Spring, and be ready at a Call to join in a Body his 
Majestys Forces this Campaign If the French are any way 
able to attack oswego before Our Troops take the Field, I think 
they will and ought to attempt it. 

I think it is wrong to suffer Indians from Canada or Swegatchy 
to trade at Oswego much more to return at this time when their 
Intelligence can be of service to the Enemy My time is just 
now very much taken up by some onondagas, senecas &c from 
whom I have not heard any thing Concerning what was told 
Coll . Haldiman & Lotteridge by the Cayouga 1 altho they say 
it is not unlikely. I can only add that I am with my best respects 
to you & y r . Lady 

Dear Sir Yurs 

w. j. 

The Honourable 


L. S. 2 

Albany April 26*. 1760 

I take the opportunity, by Major Hervey, 3 to thank you for 
your Favor of 22 d . Inst. with the several Inclosures from 
Oswego; The Intelligence contained, as you will know I had 
received from thence, by the Contents of my last Letter. 

The General has said nothing to me of ammunition yet, but 
if you will be so good to acquaint me, of the Quantity you want, 
I will endeavor to supply you, without farther Trouble. I can 

1 See Lottridge to Haldimand, April 15, 1760, and Gage to Johnson, 
April 22d. 

2 Destroyed by fire. 

8 Major William Hervey, of the 44th regiment. 

228 Sir William Johnson Papers 

also supply you with Boats, but there is not at present, a single 
Batteau Man, in the King's service, or any to be raised. I 
understand, the Provincials are to be employed on that Duty, 
& that some are coming up to push up stores & Provisions, on 
all sides. There are some rangers & sailors, that will soon move 
toward Lake Ontario, if you think that a good opportunity, 
they shall be ready to receive your orders. If you can fall upon 
any scheme more agreeable to yourself, & you think will answer 
better, let me know your Pleasure, by Major Hervey, and I will 
endeavor to put it in execution without Delay. I am, with great 
Regard & Esteem, 

Dear Sir, 

your most obedient 

& humble Servant, 


The preceding letter was followed in the Library Collection (See John- 
son Calendar, p. 103) by a letter of April 27th from Johnson to General 
Thomas Gage, inclosing a letter from Captain Butler, at Fort Stanwix, 
mentioning measures for obtaining intelligence and scoring French gasco- 
nade. Destroyed by fire. 

A. L. S. 1 

April 28 [1760] 

I am greatly oblig'd to you for your Indian Trinkets by D r . 
Shockburgh & the two Scalps sent since, but I must insist on 
defraying any Expence you were put to in procuring them. 

A few days ago Col. Amherst 2 arrived here from England. 
Since that the Pacquet: The General has now his ultimate 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 William Amherst, brother of General Jeffery Amherst. 

Seven Years' War 229 

Orders, the want of which will I fear make this a late Campaign. 
Col. Amherst succeeds Col. Townsend l as Adj 1 . General : We 
know nothing of the plan of Operations, only tis whispered that 
the three Regiments at Louisburgh are to proceed up the River 
St Lawrence so tis hence conjectured that the Fortifications there 
are to be demolished. I like the Measure much, as, if true, it 
cannot be doubted that we intend at least to keep Quebec. That 
& Louisiana is worth infinitely more to England than Hanover 
and were there any danger of loosing the latter by the King of 
Prussia's making a separate Peace, a declaration from Our Court 
that we would abandon Hanover, as also all Continental Connec- 
tions, & retain all our Conquests in America, would set them all 
to quarrelling who should have that Sweet Morsell of Germany. 
This Country must in the nature of things afford Great Britain 
a perpetual Vent for all it's Manufactures, Even though she had 
no Other. Hanover is of little or no Use to us in this Light v 

You'l hardly understand me unless I tell you that Some appre- 
hended the King of Prussia would be oblig'd to make a separate 
Peace: But I think we can enable him to keep his Head up 
another Campaign, by a Fleet in the Baltick & a large Succour 
of Troops. The Papers mention Slants Morris 2 to have been 
kill'd in a duel, I hear the account was contradicted, I hope it 
was, he had almost completed the Highland Reg 1 , he was raising. 
General Monkton 3 is to command to the Southward, I cant con- 
ceive the Reasons of carrying our operations on that way: we 
should keep Fort duquesne & Niagara; Beyond this I conceive 
there is no Object for Warr on that side: Detroit will fall of 

1 Colonel Roger Townshend, deputy adjutant general, killed at the 
taking of Ticonderoga in July | 759. 

2 Staats Long Morris, born in 1 728, died in 1800; captain in the New 
York regiment, November 7, 1 75 1 . He was lieutenant colonel of a 
Highland regiment, served in India and in 1 796 rose to the rank of general. 

3 Robert Monckton, colonel commandant of the 60th regiment December 
20, 1 757, colonel of the 1 7th October 24, 1 759, major general February 
20, 1761. 

230 Sir William Johnson Papers 

itself & the easiest way perhaps to attack that is by way of 
Oswego & Niagara 

M rs . Magin 1 has been down here I have settled the affair 
with her : I understand her Account of Expences and Goods &c 
to the Indians for that Purchase amounts to 400 besides the 
180 dollars or 72 yet to be paid, so that this is likely to turn 
out an immense dear Purchase. I beg however you'd do me 
all the Service you can to forward the Survey, and particularly 
that you would, if she wants it, furnish her a Hand or two, in 
order to assist in the Survey, on her paying them wages I wait 
only for your answer to get M r . Golden to send her 2 Brother up 
to survey it. I am obliged to conclude and am 

Sir W m . 

your affectionate & 

obed* humble Serv. 

L. S. 3 

Albany April 28* 1760 

Yesterday Evening, I was favored with your Letter of the 
25 th Inst. with Copys of Extracts, 4 from the Letters, of Mess r . 
Van Epps, & Vanderheyden to you. I could have wished those 
Complaints had been made to me, the moment they happened, 
that every Thing might have been rectifyed, upon the Spot, & no 
Delay occasioned, whether thro willing, or accidental mistakes, 
in the Transportation of your Goods. Your Letter was the first 
Notice I ever had of this, tho' I very particularly desired M r . 

1 Mrs Sarah Magin (McGin), widow of Teady Magin. 

2 In the copy, ** her." The surveyor to be sent was probably David 
Golden, a brother of Alexander Colden, surveyor general. 

3 Destroyed by fire. 

4 Not found. 

Seven Years' War 231 

Van: Epps; If any obstructions should be given, that I might 
be immediately informed of it. I have made what Enquiry Time 
would permit, into the Particular Complaints of the Pass, & the 
waggon seized by Serg 1 . Campbell I thought it behoved me, to 
have respect paid to my own Passes, which upon a former occa- 
sion, I had been obliged to enforce, by sending one of the under- 
lings to the Guard, who had taken too great Freedom with them ; 
& I intended pursuing the same method again, but upon examin- 
ing the matter, I am told by such whom I think I can believe, 
that the Pass, mentioned to have been tore, was in Fact no more 
than a Copy of some very old Pass. The Complaint against 
Serg 1 . Campbell is just, He was only reprimanded, & the 
Waggon returned. He ought to have been punished, & whoever 
is guilty of the like again, shall be punished. 

I told M r . Van: Epps, before Maj r . Browning 1 & M r . Glen, 
that He should have Passes for as many Waggons, & as often, 
as He pleased, that the Q r . M r . Gen 1 , did not at that Time want 
carriages, therefore the more He used, the better, as the work 
would be sooner done ; and to take every Precaution on all sides, 
to prevent any obstruction, I desired Him, to apply to the 
Major, who would on pass any Number of Waggons to Albany, 
& by sending a line to Maj r . Hervey or me, He should procure 
another Pass to return to Schenectady I thought this, th'o a little 
Troublesome, would obviate all Pretentions whatever to Impress- 
ing your Carriages. All Partys agreed to this, & likewise the 
Directions given at the same Time to Glen, not to interrupt Van 
Epps in his Batteaux. I wrote you the Letter, you acknowledge, 
of the 1 3 th from that Time, till the Receipt of your Favor above 
mentioned, I had no Complaint. If any the last 2 Handle or 
Pretence is given; it is surely laid hold of. This Van Epps 
knows, & that He has never been denied a Pass, when demanded, 
& by giving an opening to sending a Copy of an old Pass, was 

1 Major William Browning, of the 46th regiment. 

2 In copy, "last Handle;** "least** was probably written. 

232 Sir William Johnson Papers 

an injudicious Proceeding, if I am told Truth Vanderheyden is 
in Albany, & may apply to me at Pleasure ; & I shall assist Him, 
to serve you. It will be but a small Addition, to my Business, 
with the Department of the Q r . M r . Gen 1 ., which gives me more 
Plague & Trouble, Than all the rest of the Army together. 

I have sent a Letter to Major Hervey, to be delivered Him at 
Schenectady, at his Return from your House, wherein I desire 
Him to enquire again into this Matter, & to fix anew with M r . 
Van Epps, every Thing necessary to be done to prevent future 
abuse & Complaints; and if M r . Van Epps will follow what shall 
be settled, I will be answerable that neither Q r . M r . Gen 1 ., 
Deputy, or underling, shall touch a single Carriage belonging to 
you I propose also going to Schenectady in two or three Days. 

I am entirely of your opinion, not to suffer Indians from 
Canada, to come & Trade; its undoubtedly wrong, & much more 
so to let them return with Intelligence. 

The Packet arrived ; no material News. Staats Morris, killed 
in a Duel, I suppose by some Highland Chieftain, jealous, of his 
raising a Reg*, amongst Them, no Talk of Peace. The French 
still threaten Hanover, & some Jealousies of the King of Prussia, 
an attack is talked of upon the Island of Mauritius, Saunders to 
command the Fleet four Battalions to embark, but the Com- 
mander not named. M rs . Gage sends her Compliments, & I am 
with great Regard & Esteem, 

Dear Sir, 

your most obedient 

& most humble Servant 


Seven Years' War 233 

Df. S. 1 

Fort Johnson 28*. April 1760 

I had yesterday the Pleasure of yours by Maj r . Hervey. 
And as to the Amunition I have been thinking if so much could 
be spared at the Posts it would save the Expense and Trouble 
of Transportation at present; if not it will be necessary to send 
up at least Eight hundred weight of good Gunpowder for 
Niagara and Oswego, and small Bar lead a proportionable 
Quantity or rather Ball fit for Ind n . Pieces if such there be 

Battoe Men are very hard to be got in these Parts at present 
otherwise I should not have troubled you, I will have a further 
Trial made to get some; if I cannot succeed I must then apply 
to you 

About an hour ago an Indian arrived here who was sent express 
by a few Mohawks who were hunting about Sacandaga, to let 
me tnow that they had yesterday discovered a party of the 
Enemy crossing the River of Sacondaga but could not learn 
their Number, as they came away on first discovering them. I 
have ordered two Companies of Militia to assemble here at my 
house immediately to whom I shall join what five Nation Indians 
are now here, and sent them of Quest of said Party, the 
Mohawks being all on the hunt for a few Days. I imagine their 
Design is ag st . my new Settlement, 2 as where they crossed the 
River was the right course that Way. 
. I am 

With the utmost Respect 
Dear Sir 

Your most Obed. & most h ble . Serv 1 . 

The Hon b K 
B R . GEN L . GAGE. 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 The present city of Johnstown. 

234 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A. L. S. 1 

Conajohare May 3 d . 1760 

You will excuse my Silence hitherto haveing had nothing to 
write worthy troubling you with, the long expected Packet is 
now arrived, & by what I can learn, has brought nothing 
material at least it has not yet transpired, for Domestick news 
beg leave to refer You to M r . Cole y e Bearer of this, who came 
lately from New York, and is now going to Niagra in order to 
commence a Trade with the Forreign & other Indians in our 
Alliance; as he is a Gentleman for whom I have a particular 
regard, I shall take as a favour done me, any kindness You may 
shew him, and Justice Van Eps of Schenectady, who is also on 
his way to Niagra, with the same view. excuse this Freedom 
in him, who is truely, 

Dear Sir Your Welwisher 

& most Humble Serv* 

My Compliments to the 
Gentm n . of my Acquaintance 
in your Batt n .- 


INDORSED: Chev: Johnson du 3. May 
Recuele 15 e . d'. 60 

1 In British Museum, Additional Manuscripts 21670. fo. 6., London. 

Seven Years' War 235 


L. S. 1 

Albany May 5*. 7760 

I am to thank you for your Favor of the 27 th . ul mo with a 
Copy of Cap 1 . Butlers Letter inclosed, as also for your Favor 
of the 28 th . ul mo . by Major Hervey. Agreeable to what I men- 
tioned in my last, I went last Thursday to Schenectady, and 
hope that I have fixed all matters with Van Slyck, so as to pre- 
vent any future obstructions, to the Transportation of the Indian 

I gave M r . Wells an order for the Eight Hundred Weight of 
Powder, & a Proportionable Quantity of Lead, which The Com- 
manding officer of Artillery, has reported, that He delivered 
Him. All the Barr Lead in store was given, The Remainder in 
musket Ball there being no Indian-Ball cast. This is not so well, 
but with a little Trouble, by Casting again, will answer. I also 
gave M r . Wells an order on the Q r . M r . Gen 1 , for two small 
Batteaux so I hope you will have every thing you want, with the 
utmost Dispatch. I desire every Person concerned, if there is 
any lett, or Hindrance, to give me immediate Notice, that I may 
rectify any mistake, in Time, & thereby prevent any Delays in 
your Business. 

I have had Letters from Niagara of the 20 th . April, & from 
oswego of the 25 th . D. Three men escaped from Detroit, they 
give very little Intelligence, say the Indians are wavering, & that 
it's not certain, on which side they will act this Summer. I am 
with great Regard & Esteem 

Dear Sir, 

your most obedient 

& most humble Servant, 


1 Destroyed by fire. 

236 Sir William Johnson Papers 

L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson May 12*. 1760 

This covers an Invoice of sundry Articles which I thought 
proper with General Amhersts Approbation to send to your Care, 
and for you to issue to the Indians in such Manner, and at such 
times as will best answer the End proposed in sending them, 
which is to promote his Majestys Ind n . Interest among all the 
Nations who may come with a frindly Intention to your Post, 
either to trade or treat upon Business. My Officer there 2 has 
Directions to give You all the Assistance in his Power with 
Regard to Indian Matters, as well as to let you know if any of 
the Enemy Indians should come there, under a Pretence of 
Trade or otherwise, a friendly Behaviour towards all and a 
small Present well timed, or given on proper Occasions to such 
Indians as have an Influence or lead their Nation will always 
have a good Effect, and tend much to the establishing them more 
firmly in our Interest which I am certain you are so sensible of 
that I need not say more on that Subject As I know you con- 
stantly have all the News stirring here, it would be needless to 
trouble you with a Repetition 

I wish you and your Garrison health and Happiness And am 

Dear Sir 

Your most Obedient 
humble servant 


1 In British Museum, Additional Manuscripts, 21670. fo. 8, London, 

2 Captain John Lottridge, in the Indian service, was at Oswego, where 
Haldimand was in command, at that time. 

Seven Years War 237 

P. S. 1 You will be so good to forward the goods & ca . for 
Niagra by the first opertunity to Coll . Eyre with this letter, 
those for Osswego are marked with y r . Name, so that there can 
be no mistake. 


INDORSED: Cher ler . Johnson du 
12 May 
recue le 23 me . d l . 


There is listed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 03, Captain Jelles Fonda's 
journal, December 1, I 759-May 15, 1 760. 2 Destroyed by fire. 

L. S. 3 

<Alban\> 16*. Map 7760 

Major Tullekens 4 arrived this afternoon, & delivered me the 
Copy of a Conference, held at Fort Pitt on the 6 th . of April 
last, between Your Deputy M r . Croghan & the Western Indians, 
by which, as well as by what the major tells me,lhere seems to 

1 The postscript is in Johnson's hand. 

2 The " Journal of Jelles Fonda 1 760 August 1 Oth at Oswego," is 
preserved in Miscellaneous Manuscripts in the New York Historical 
Society. It opens " Sunday 29th June 1 760 " with orders given to 
Fonda together with Captain John Butler to go to Chennesseia and summon 
the Six Nations to come to Oswego, and the record of their going on the 
30th. Later the journal states that Johnson set off the 10th of August 
from Oswego, and most of the army under Amherst left at the same 
time. There are Indian speeches, and a list of names of Indians who 
accompanied Johnson to Montreal is given. Some of the folios are blank, 
while on others matter is crossed out. 

3 A copy without the second paragraph is in the Public Record Office, 
London, England. 

4 Major John Tullikens, of the 45th regiment. 

238 Sir William Johnson Papers 

be no doubt but every one of those people will readily Join His 
Majesty's arms; indeed from the present Situation of the French, 
who certainly cannot be supp^>osed able to <^ supply those 
savages with the need>full, and the want the latter <must be 
in of amm^>unition &ca, must turn them <^all over to our^> 
Interest, both in those parts as well as in < these, & therefore,^ 
I trust You will have no difficulty in bringing <^ those you^> 
Expected to the Field, at the time You men<tioned to> me. 

The Provincial Troops come in Slow, but as <^fast as]> they 
Arrive they are Set to work, in the transportation > of Provi- 
sions Stores, &ca, for which the little <^rain we^> have had has 
greatly favourd us, as it renders <the> Navigation so much 
easier, and I shall according gly> improve the Opportunity to 
my utmost. 

I am with great regard, 

Your most Obedient 
Humble Servant 

<SlR WlLL M . JOHNSON Baronet. > 

Contemporary Copy 1 

<< Examinations Taken by the order of Colonel Haldimand & 
opinion thereupon at Fort Ontario 1 7 th May 1 760, by the follow- 
ing officers. 

Captain Rutherford 2 Cap 1 . Prevost 4 

Cap 1 . Strechey 3 Cap 1 . Sowers 5 

1 Inclosed in Haldimand to Johnson, May 1 9, 1 760. The letter is 
not found. See Johnson to Haldimand, May 30, 1 760. 

2 Captain Walter Rutherford, of the 60th regiment. 

3 Captain - Strechey, of the artillery. 

4 Captain Marcus Prevost, of the 60th regiment. 

5 Captain Thomas Sowers, engineer. 



Seven Years War 239 

Cap*. Lottridge Informs that he was left at this Post by 
S r . W m . Johnson Bar 1 , with Instructions to receive all Indians 
at this Post, and to Act with them to the best of his Judgment 
for His Majesty 8 . Service. That about the middle of> 
Novem r . last, a principal < Indian of the Oswatchies, arrived 
here> with his family, in Consequence of a Messuage sent to 
that> Place by Sir W m . Johnson, and declared that the <oswe- 
gatchies> had Accepted of the Belt S r . W m . Johnson had sent 
<them, that> for the future they would Committ no further 
Hos Utilities, but> be entirely devoted to our Interest, that for 
the pres<ent they> were gone to their hunting Grounds as they 
could sub<sist]> no where else, and hoped for the future we 
would entertain no unfavorable opinion of them, that they were 
sensible the> French had deceived them, and were determined 
no more <O> Listen to them. That Since the above time 
several Indians from the same place, has come here different 
times by land and Expressed themselves to the Same purpose, 
and since the <^Lake^> has been navigable, Several Canoes 
have Arrived, chi<efly> from their hunting ground to trade; 
that they have all spoke in the warmest Manner, & seem highly 
sensible of the Civilities shown to them, have constantly given, 
What Intelligence they knew, and many Families & Indians 
separately have Actually passed from this to their old Castles. 
That this has given the greatest satisfaction to our friendly 
Indians & have on every Occasion thanked the Commanding 
Officer for the favorable treatment shewn these Indians, and 
Assured him, that he might now depend on their Sincerity, for 
that Otherways they themselves would Act against them. That 
the Brig Messague being drove on Shore near the Oswegatchy 
<^ Hunting Ground, it was recommended to them that no 
Damage might be done to it, Which they strictly Complied 
with. That every party has been told, that so long as they 
behaved conform to the Message they received in the fall, they 
might come & trade here, and be well treated, and that in the 
Spring when S r . W m . arrived, every thing would be settled and 

240 Sir William Johnson Papers 

they have given repeated Assurances that at that time all their 
sachems will be here, When they will Endeavor to make 
amends^> for their past folly, & <Cgive convincing proof s^> of 
their Attachment. That the 16 four <Canoes arrived> from 
Oswegatchie, Canysadgago, 1 the <last of Which brought> an 
English Prisoner; All of them were desirous <of giving what> 
intelligence they knew, Which was exactly < confirmed by 
said^> Prisoner, and particularly Exculpated themselves, <^or 
any of]> their Villages from being in any way concerned in 
<Carrying> off the three Prisoners, but on the contrary 
remon<strated> against it with the french Commandant, and 
<^that the^> Messagues who had Undertaken it Assured them 
<they had> dropt it but afterwards went off in the night from 
<the Island. > That when Col. Haldimand thought proper 
Yesterday <^to]> stop their trading they seemed greatly con- 
cerned, saying <^they^> were come, in consequence of former 
messages and by <Desire> of the six Nations; that they had 
disobliged the french for <^trading^> with us, that two families 
with them, were thus far in their way to settle at Onondago, and 
that if we refused them leave to trade, we were Enemies to our 
own Interest, as it was <what> the french Desired that some 
of the Onondagas & Cayuges who happened to be here were 
extremely concerned at the trade being stopt & remonstrated 
against it. 

M r . Albert Reighman Indian Trader, who has always acted 
, here as Interpreter Confirms the Information of Cap*. Lottridge, 
and further says, that the party now here say, that one of their 
principal motives for sending the Messassagas to take Prisoners 
here, was to make us <^Jealous of them the Oswegatchies, to 

" Canessedage was an Iroquois settlement near Montreal in 1 699, 
called Canassadage, a castle of praying Indians in 1 700." W. M. 
Beauchamp, Aboriginal Place Names of New York, P- 264. "These 
three Nations [Canasadagas, Arundacs and Algonkins] now [1763], 
reside together, at the Lac de deux Montagnes at the mouth of the Ottawa 
River near Montreal." Doc. Rel. to Col Hist. N. Y., 7:582 

Seven Years War 241 

interrupt the good Correspondence now established, and to stop 
the Trade which the french are extremely uneasy about, which 
Cap*. Lottridge also Confirms. 

Christian Shamburn, who was taken Prisoner at Cap 1 . Bur- 
bank's affair, and now brought here & set at liberty by a Cony- 
sadaga Indian, Informs that about two Months ago the French 
Gov r . sent a message to all the Indians, to hold a> Council and 
know their intentions; that <all the Indians went> except the 
Oswegatchys, who paid no regard to <it; that the> Indians 
who brought him here, took the greatest <precaution> to con- 
ceal him as another party, who were bring<jng off an> 
English Prisoner were discovered by the french, & the 
taken from them, & that they had always used him 
now gave him his freedom without reward or 
expect <^ation;^> that he had always heard in Canada both from 
french <&> Indians, that the Oswegatchies had quitted the 
french <Interest> and would no more Act against the English, 
that <^he past^> Oswegatchy in the Evening & was hid in the 
boat; that two <^days^> after, they met a party of far Indians, 
when he was again hid, and they talked in a language he could 
not understand, but when they were past, was told they had 
taken three Prison<ers at> Oswego, but would not show them 
to any of the boats in company that any discourse he has had 
with these Indians, or when he has heard them talking among 
themselves, it has always been in favor of the English. 

The above officers are of opinion that the Oswegatchy Indians 
should be received at this Post, on the former footing, till such 
time as instructions be given on this head, as they have no Leave 
to trade for Warlike Stores & provisions. 

242 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Df. S. 1 

<Fort Johnson Map 78*. 7760 

I am this moment honoured with yours of the 16 th . inclosing 
a Conference held at Fort Pitt the 6 th last> Month with <the 
Indians living about there which > I have also a Copy of <sent 
me by M r Croghan & which ^> I was busy to transcribe for your 
Ex<<cellency pusal.> 

As soon as I receive Your orders for < Mustering the> 
Indians & know the time & place of Rendez<^vous,^> I will 
imediately fall about it, and doubt not, <but I> shall be able 
within the time I mentioned to Your Excellen<^cy^> necessary 
for that purpose to collect a very consid<erable Bo^dy of them 
for the Service of this Campaign I have the Honour to be 
with the 

greatest Respect 

Y r Excellencys Most Ob 1 . 
Most Hum ble Servant 


P. S. as I finished this I received a letter from one of my officers 
posted at Niagra, Coppy of which I herewith send y r . Excel- 

His Excellency 


1 A copy without the postscript is in the Public Record Office, London, 

Seven Years War 243 

Df. S. 

<For* Johnson May 20 ih - 1760 

I take the opertunity of Lieu 1 . Metralls * going down to send 
your Excellency an extract of Capt n . Butlers letter 2 to me, which 
I this instant reed, the Person he mentions who turned the party 
back is an Oneida Indian who> mett them in the <Woods, as I 
understand, I know he was> formerly very much < attached to 
the french, I have> not as yet heard any thing from <the five 
Nations but am> told by Lieu*. Claus (just returned from 
<Conojoharee where > he has been upon business) that there are 
two < Indians coaming down to me with an Account of it and 
<a Belt of> Wampum to confirm it. When I hear further 
about it shall acquaint Y r . Excellency. 

I am most respectf<ully> 
Y r . Excel lencys 
Most Ob*. & c 


P. S. This Moment I reed a letter from Capt n . Lotteridge 2 
posted at Oswego, by M r . Mettrall extract of which I also send 
your Excellency, they differ greatly. 

His Excellency 

1 Lieutenant Lewis de Mestral, of the 60th regiment 

2 Not found. 

244 Sir William Johnson Papers 

L. S. 

<Albany 22*. May 1760 

I Was Yesterday favored with Your Letter of the preceding 
day, Accompanying Extracts of two Letters from Oswego & 
Fort Stanwix, which, as You very justly Observe, differ greatly ; 
that from Captain Lotteridge is true Enough, for from Intelli- 
gence by the> Race Horse Bomb Vessell, < which left Quebec 
the 1 st . of> this Month, the French had Collec<ted all their 
Force, &> Marched against that Place, and Brig r . <General> 
Murray, to frustrate their Designs upon th<at Town,> had 
Marched out to meet them, upon which, <on the 28 th . > of last 
Month, an Action Ensued, 1 in which he <was> somewhat 
Worsted; and I am Apprehensive, <that if> O ur Fleet did 
not soon after Arrive before Que<bec,> M r . Murray may 
have been Obliged to Retre<at to^> the Island of Orleans, 
which was his design in <case> it did not; but all this You see 
must have detain <]ed^> the French, and makes it more than 
Improbable <that> (as Cap 1 . Butler's Indian says) they could 
be so far on their way to Oswego, if their next Designs were 
against that Place: All this however is to Yourself, and must 
go no further. I shall be glad to hear what the two Indians, 
You Expect, will Report to You upon that head, tho' I do not 
think they can know more than what is above, perhaps not so 
much. I am, with the greatest Regard, 


Your most Obedient 
Humble Servant 


At Ste-Foy. 

Seven Years' War 245 

A. Df. S. 

<Forl Johnson Map 23<*. 1760 

I am this moment honoured with yours of yesterday, by w ch . 
I am sorry to find our Situation at Quebec is so very precarious 
Should the Enemy succeed there it would make a great alteration 
in affairs, a word of it shall not escape me. the two Indians 
have been with me and delivered the Belt, but said> nothing 
more than < Butler wrote, which was that> the advanced part 
of y e . Army had ^passed La Gallete, on their March to> 
Oswego, and that the French had retaken ^Quebec last> 
Month, the latter ace", had been rumoured am<^ong the Indians 
some> time ago. I have sent two parti<es of Indians> for 
Prisoners & Intelligence to La Gallet & its Environs. <I expect 
one> of them back in about 10 days, on their return I shall 
<imediately> transmit y r . Excellency what Intelligence they 
may bring, <or Send> the Prisoners should they take any. 
The first Party <marched> from the German Flatts the 1 5 th . 
Ins*, to the last I Joined <three> Ottawawa, or Mississagey 
Indians who came to pay me < Visit. I am certain they 
are well disposed. I have y e . <honour> to be & ca . 


His Excellency 


INDORSED: My letter to Genr 1 . Amherst 
^return of y e . Express 
May 23 d . A. M: 1760. 

246 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Contemporary Copp 1 

May 23^ 1760 
< Extract 

To His Excellency Jeffery Amherst Esquire, Major General 
& Commander in chief of all His Majesty's Forces in North 
America &ca, &ca. 

The Memorial of Major Robert Rogers. 
Humbly Sheweth, 

That he was in His Majesty's Service, with his Company in 
the Year 1 755, and at the close of the Campaign of> the same 
Year, <he was invited by the Commissioners > from the 
Province of the < Massachusetts bay, to remain > with his Com- 
pany at Fort William He<jy, the then> ensueing Winter in 
the service of their Government, and^> was promised by them 
for their so doing, that <Ohey should^ receive the same bounty 
& pay that was or <^ should be^> granted to their other Troops, 
that should tarry <at said Fort> during the said Winter; And 
Your Memorialist <^accepted^> of said Commissioners Pro- 
posals, and did duty at <said Fort> with his Company during 
said Winter; and in <the spring^ following made up his muster 
Roll for their pay < Which > amounted to the sum of 486. 
19. 2 Lawfull mon<ey of> said Province, Which Roll was 
sworn to, & presented by the late Cap 1 . Rich d . Rogers then Lieu- 
tenant of said Company to the Honourable Committee of War 
of said Province in Boston, and by them examined & 
approv<ed;> of, but by reason of some doubt then Arising in 
the said Committees mind, Whether the said Company ought 
not to be paid by the several Provinces jointly, and the Service 
at that time not admitting of the said Lieut. Rogers tarrying at 
Boston, long enough to have the affair determined, the Matter 

1 Inclosed in a letter of Amherst to Johnson, May 24. 1 760. 

Seven Years' War 247 

has rested unsettled ever Since till about two Months ago Your 
Memorialist revived the same, by exhibiting a Memorial to the 
General Assem<bly> of said Province, setting forth therein 
the Whole state of the case, and praying for his pay &ca, but 
the said Assembly rejected his prayer, alledging that they had 
nothing <to do in ^ e affair, and he must apply elsewhere for 
Sir William Johnson is well knowing to the Contract of said 
Commissioners, 1 and Your Memorialist hath a Certificate from 
Col. Bagly 2 (who Commanded at said Fort during said 
Winter) of the numbers of men & time of their service. 

As Your Memorialist hath suff<ered greatly by means of 
his> own pay's being delayed for <so many Years > and by 
his having advanced to his < Company, a great> 'part of their 
Pay himself, and hath also <been at great> Expense in Mak- 
ing his application to <said Assembly > without success, he 
humbly prays that <Your Excellency> would so far interest 
Yourself in his favor as <]to see him^> paid." 

INDORSED: <Extract of Major Rogers Memorial to Gen 1 . 
Amherst 23 d , May 1760> 


L. S. 

<Albany 24*. [May] 1760 

My Express is this moment returned with Your Favor of 
Yesterday, by which I find that the two Indians You Expected 
with the Belt, have delivered the Same to You, but said nothing 
more than Captain Butler had Wrote ; which Intelligence I can- 
not yet Credit; for, as I Ob>served to You in my form<er, 
Quebec was still in Our> hands on the first of this Month, and 

l See Johnson to Amherst, May 25. 1760. 
2 Colonel Jonathan Bagley, of Massachusetts. 

248 Sir William Johnson Papers 

not < likely, if at all,> to be Evacuated under Several Days 
after that <time; and> as the Enemy could not think of 
Attempting <any New> Conquests before they had Secured 
one, it is not < likely > they could be on their March to Oswego, 
or at <^least^> so near it, at the time the Indians mention. 
<^ However ^> Colonel Haldimand has received a Reinforce- 
ment, <and> Writes me word on the 1 1 th : Instant, that it is 
certain, <that> if the Enemy should have made an Attempt on 
his <^Post^> three or four Weeks prior to that, they would have 
Embarrassed him greatly ; but that now it would <be> difficult 
for them, and that, he believes, they do not th<ink> of it. 

It is very probable, that the French, Elated with their Success, 
and desirous. of Improving the Same, have Vaunted their Prowess 
to the Indians, even before there was any Room for it; in order 
to retain into, as well as to bring back to, their Interests, as many 
of those Savages as they could prevail upon to think them in a 
better State than they possibly can be ; but from Your Unwearied 
Zeal for His Majesty, and the good of His Service, I make no 
doubt but You will frustrate their Endeavors, and Counter act 
them in such a manner <^as to prevent all Defection of those 
whom You Expected would Join You for the Operations of this 

I am hopefull that the two Parties of Indians You have sent 
out to La Galette, for Prisoners & Intelligence will prove Success- 
full, and shall wait their Return with Impatience; Small Parties 
kept constantly out will be of great Use in giving Intelligence. > 

Major Rogers has delivered <me a Memorial x of> which, 
as he therein calls upon Your < Testimony, I send^> You an 
Extract, and I should be glad <to learn from> You, what You 
know concerning that < Affair, as I> think, that if he has Stated 
his Case truly, <he ought> to be paid, pursuant to the Com- 
missioners <^Agreement> with him. 

1 Rogers to Amherst, May 23, 1 760, q. v. 

Seven Years' War 249 

When the Troops move forward, I < shall not> think it 
requisite to Leave any Guards in <Forts> Hunter or Hen- 
drick, and I Imagine You will <not> Judge it necessary to 
have any at Fort Johnson. 

I am, with great Regard, 

Your most Obedient 
Humble Servant 


INDORSED: Genr 1 . Amherst Letter, 
May 25*. 1760. 
25 th Express rec d . at 10 A. M. 

Df. S. 

<Fort Johnson 25 ih . Map 7760 

I am this Moment honoured w lh . y. of yesterday I have 
heard nothing since my last, but what Cap 1 . Butler in his Letter 
to me of y e 22 d . inst. 1 mentions Viz*. * The Sachems of Onieda 
sent me word that Six of their Men would> be w th . me in <two 
Days, in order to go to the Salmon Creek > to the Eastward of 
<Oswego, as the ace 1 . fr m . Swegachy> says, the French & 
their <Ind 8 . and to assem'ble them> 2 & if they meet nothing 
there, they <^are to proceed^* to Swegatchy 

The French ever have, & doubtless now <make> all the Use 
they can among the Ind 8 . of any <Suc>cess they may chance 
to have, indeed they often <Gas>conade to them without any 
grounds, in ord<er to re>tain all they can in their Interest, & 
keep <up their> Spirits 

1 Not found. 

2 There is an error here. If " are to assemble there " be substituted for 
" and to assemble them," the mistake made in copying is apparently 

250 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Y r . Excell c y. may be assured of my Continuing to prosecute 
every practicable Measure in my Power to prevent any defection 
among those <Nations> we Look upon as our friends, & 
Endeavour by them, & other Ind n . Emissaries to lessen French 
Influence amo<ng> all the Nations that I am at all acquainted 
w*. in which, by the Acc te . I have from time to time receiv'd from 
the Ind n . officers at the Several Posts, I have been pretty suc- 
cessfull I have order'd them some time ago to send out Small 
Partys for intelligence, which, I shall now Encourage more, & 
on the Return of any, will give y r . Excell ?. the earliest Notice. 

With Regard to Major Roger's affair my Memory does not 
serve me to recollect ^particulars of the Agreement between him 
& the Commissioners, but this I know, that I recommended him, 
that he Serv'd & I think he ought to be paid I must Beg leave 
to Observe to y r . ExcelK as my House &ca is a Magazine & 
having some small pieces of Cannon & c . it may require a> Small 
<^Garrison while I am writing, ^> arriv'd here a ganagh<\sa- 
dago, 1 or French Indian, his> Wife & a Boy, w*. <one of the 
New England^ Rangers taken ab*. a year ago, <Vhom they 
Convey *d> hither. As I would not detain y r . < Express I have 
not had> time to learn any thing of the Ind n . but <will 
Ex>amine him at leisure. I send the Prisoner <off directly 
w th . a> Battoe, He is the same who was brought to <oswego 
a^> few days ago, which I presume Col. Haldiman acquainted 
y r . Excell c y w*. 

I have the Honour to <be> 

with all imaginable respect. 
Y r . Excell ? 8 

most Obedient humble Serv*. 

His ExcelR W M . JOHNSON 


INDORSED: <Letter to Genr 1 . Amherst 
May 25*. > 1760 
<by return ]> of y e . Express 

1 Canassadaga. 

Seven Years' War 251 

L. 5. 

<Alban\), 26 ih . May 1760 

I am to thank You for Your Letter of Yesterday, received 
last Night. Have this afternoon also received one from Colonel 
Haldimand, mentioning the Ranger, whom You Acquaint me 
having sent off in a Batteau for my Examination; I Expect him 
Every ^> moment. 

I Transmit You an Extract of Col<onel Haldimand's> 
Letter, 1 by which You will See that three <men of the Fourth> 
Battalion have been Carried off, and that <altho' the> Onon- 
dagos & Missassagos profess themselves <our fast> Friends, 
yet they let them pass, and Carry off <the> Prisoners, which, 
I must own, is little in their << favor, and^> Convinces me more 
and more, how necessary it <is to> be on our Guard, in our 
Intercourse with all those Savages, but particularly the Oswe- 
gatchies : 

Colo<nel> Haldimand himself seems so sensible of it, that 
<Che> had very near Stoped these, had it not been for <^the> 
Representation of Captain Lotteridge, who Apprehended the 
Five Nations might take Umbrage at it; he however Ordered 
an Examination of them to be taken, by some <^oP> the Officers 
(a Copy of which I Enclose You) and with their Advice, he 
has let them go; Acquainting me, at the same time, that he was 
much perplexed to know how to Act for want of positive Orders 
in that respect, and that he should Write to You in Consequence ; 
As from Your Knowledge & Experience of the Indians, You 
are best able to determine this point, I must beg You <will give 
him such certain Advice, that he may know how to Guide him- 
self for the future; For my part, I cannot help Saying, that I 
think these People ought to determine on which Side they will 
be, and Unless they do so, I do not think it prudent to Suffer 

Not found. 

252 Sir William Johnson Papers 

them at our Posts, since they cannot be Supposed to Come there 
with any other Design, than to Obtain Intelligence for the 
Enemy, to the prejudice of His Majesty 8 . > Service: but in this, 
Os well as all Other> Affairs concerning Your Department, 
shall gladly > Yield to Your Experience, and Your Zeal 
r His> Majesty. 
I Enclose You the Copy of the Report of <the> Ranger as 
it has been transmitted to me. 

I am, with great Regard, 

Your Most Obedient 
Humble Servant. 


Df. S. 

<Fort Johnson May 26 1760 8 A M. 

On receipt of yours this morning I sent for Phillips he is not 
yet come, as he was about eight Miles above this, when he does 
I shall desire him to come down to your Excellency. 

There will be a number of Battoes Battoemen^> & Oil Cloaths 
wan <[ ting to carry y e cloathing Arms & other ^> stores for the 
use of the < Indians whenever they are> wanted to Join the 
Army, without good <^ covering for]> the boats there is no pos- 
sibility of securing <or> preserving their loading, indeed in 
bringing them up even from Schenectady to this place they often 
receive great damage for want of covering some <of> the 

v Indian Corn is quite spoiled by the wett weather. I desired M r . 

^Van Slyke of Schenectady who has the Care of forwarding all 
such things up here to ap<ply> for a parcel of Oil Cloaths but 
dont find he has as yet got any. I some time ago promised to 
send a parcel of Indian Corn, & some Pork to the Seneca's &c* 

Seven Years' War 253 

being greatly distressed by having their last Crops fail, I shall 
want at least three or four large Battoes for that purpose and 
some Pork. Indian Corn I have got already if they receive this 
relief before your Excellency may want them, it will please them 
greatly that their familys may not suffer in their Absence 
I am with the greatest respect &c. 

To His Excellency MAJOR GEN L . AMHERST 1 

[ 2 1 

their express untill I have [the] ho[ 

]ing from you. I am with all imag[ ] 

Fort Johnson May 27 th : 1760 


His Excellency 


INDORSED: May 27 th 1760 

Letter to Gen 1 . Amherst 
w^ 1 . sundry papers 
3$ Charles Marinus 


Fort Johnson Mavi 27 ih . 1760 

I received a Letter yesterday from Col. Haldiman inclosing 
the opinion of some of his Officers 4 on a letter of mine to Cap ta . 
Lotteridge (posted at Oswego) the 7th. 5 Cur*, concerning french 

1 From this point the proof copy is incomplete. What follows is trans- 
cribed from the manuscript. 

2 Several lines are missing. 

3 Destroyed by fire. 

*Haldimand's letter is not found. For the opinion of officers, see 
Examinations Concerning Trade, May 1 7, 1 760. 

Johnson's letter is not found; the date of Haldimand's letter was 
the 19th. 

254 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Indians being allowed to come & trade there, Coppy of which 
Letter & Opinion, I herewith transmit! to your Excellency for 
your Opinion & directions I shall detain their express until I 
have the honour of hearing from you I am with all Imaginable 

His Excellency 

INDORSED: May 27 th . 1760 

Letter to Genr 1 . Amherst <P 

Charles Marinus with sundry papers 

Contemporary Copy x 

Extract of His Excell ?. Gen 1 Amhersts Letter to Sir WilK 
Johnson Dated 28 th . May 1 760 

The Opinion, I transmitted You myself Yesterday, and 
informed You that Colonel Haldimand was desirous of receiving 
ppsitive Instructions, how to Act for the future with the Indians, 
for which I have referred him to You, as being an Affair within 
your department, and on which You woud best know how to 
decide; which I think you have very judiciously done, in your 
Letter to Cap*. Lotteridge whereupon I have only to add, that 
such of the French Indians as chuse to come and live among Us, 
may be received, altho' they might decline joining His Majestys 
Arms; All I require of these, is to remain quiet, and not to go 
to and fro with intelligence, as from the Moment they can do 
this, they can be no longer looked upon as friends, & consequently 
must be treated as Enemies - 

*In British Museum, Additional Manuscripts 21670. fo. 10, London, 

Seven Years War 255 

INDORSED: Extrait d'une Lettre du General 
Amherst au Chev: Johson- 
du 28. May 60 
recue le 4 e . Juin. 1 

Df. S. 

<Fort Johnson 28 ih . May 1760 

7 oClock P M 

I received your Excell ? 8 . favours of the 26 th & 27 th this 
afternoon about 4 o'Clock, by one of the light Infantry of the 
55 th Reg 1 , who said he had been sick by the Way. 

As your> Excell c y. is pleas'd to < desire that I give my 
Opinion &> advice to the Comman^ds. Officer at Oswego 
regarding > the French Ind 8 . who may come < there to Trade, 
I humbly > conceive he should have a discretionary Power in 
<such Case, & be directed to advise with the Indian Officer, 
posted <there, and act> as he finds best for his Majestys 
Service, which ^as he is on> the Spot, He may be a judge 
of As soon as <I heard > of the Swegachys, Caghnewagas 
&c resorting to Os<wego, I wro>te Cap 1 . Lotteridge the 7 th . 
instant my opinion the w^on Copy^> of which, I sent y r . 
Excell c y. in the same Envelope w<ith my> Letter of yesterday, 
together with the Examination, and opinion of some of the 
officers, which I now find was sent to y r Excell c y. also 

The Cloathing, Stores &c for the Use of the Ind 8 ., should have 
not only Boats, but Men destined purely for that service as usual, 
the Charge of & delivering them out to the Ind 8 . being to Con- 
tinue the Campaign, & if the Hands or Battoe Men are to be 
every now & then Chang'd, they may Plunder a vast deal, what- 
ever care may be taken. > It will require for this Service, at least 

Indorsed by Haldimand apparently. 

256 Sir William Johnson Papers 

twelve good large & tight Battoes & oil Cloaths to secure the 
Cloathing &c from the weather, also a dozen good large Tents 
for storing them in when Landed Oswego is the properest 
place to Issue Pork for the use of the Senecas, & Chenussios 
being most contiguous, and as I would be as saving <as possible, 
I shall demand no more than just to Supply their immediate 
want, which with 30 Barrels they may make shift, This and the 
Indian Corn will require four Battoes more with Covering for 
the Corn I have detained Col. Haldimand's Express, expect- 
ing to receive your Excell ?* directions in Consequence of my 
Letter of yesterday, ^> 

I am with & ca 

His Excellency 

INDORSED: <Fort Jo>hnson May 28 th . 1 760 7 P M 
ty a Sold r . 55 th Regm*. 
My Letter to Genr 1 . Amherst 

A. L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson 30 ih . May 1760 


Your favour of the 19 th . Curr'., I received the 26 th . in the 
Evening by one of your Serjants, whom I have been under a 
necessitty of detaining until now. 

I am much oblidged to You for the Civility you were so kind 
to shew the two gentlemen I recommended.- 

The Opinion of some of your Officers on the French Indians 
resorting to Osswego 2 sent to me, together with a transcript of 

Mn British Museum, Additional Manuscripts 21(J70. fo. 11, London 

2 Examinations Concerning Trade, May 1 7, 1 760, a. v. 

Seven Years' W ar 257 

my letters to Capt n . Lotteradge of the 7 th . Ins 1 ., I sent to Genr 1 . 
Amherst, and he has referred it to me, to advise in what manner 
You may best manage, or hold terms w*. those Indians, as you 
will see by an extract of his letter to me dated the 28 th ., which 
I here inclose, & thereupon You will be pleased to conduct your- 
self with all French Indians who may come there, agreable to 
what his Excellency advised, as 3$ inclosed extract. I think your 
own prudence will guide you in any extraordinary exigency.- 
My Indian Officer there, has orders to afford You all assistance 
in his power.- 

The Indian Officer at Fort Hackemer has supplied the 
Ondagoe Indians (with whom M r . Francis is gone) with everry 
thing they required for the Scout, and had my directions to assure 
them, and all others, whom he might send on such Service, of 
my cloathing them verry well on their return, and that I would 
over, and above that give them twenty pound for an intelligent 
Prisoner, which I hope they will be able to bring in soon, and 
thereby clear up all doubts concerning the fate of Quebec, which 
some Impudent People talk verry freely of, without I beleive 
any grounds. 

I heartily wish you all happiness, and am 
with great esteem, and sincerity 

Your most obedient 

Humble Servant 


INDORSED: Chevaillier Johnson 
du 30. May 60. 
recue le 4. Juin 

Vol. Ill 9 

258 Si; William Johnson Papers 



<Fort Johnson June 4 th . 1760 

Agreable to Your Excellencys Letter of the 29 th . Ult . 1 which 
I Yesterday received by M r . Denormandy I wrote to the two 
Indian Officers at Niagara to procure a Couple of good Pilots 
and De Coaugne who is one of the Oficers,> to go with the 
Indians <^and prevent any difference which^> might arise 
between our <pe>ople and <them for want of> understand- 
ing each other. 

I dare say they will be well piloted <to> Prisque Isle as 
De Coagne is acquainted that way, <^as^> well almost as the 
Indians. I gave my Letter <^for^> the Officers, to Denor- 
mandy open; that he may shew <jt to> Coll . Haldiman, 
whereby he will see the Pilots <\are to^> be provided at Niagara. 
The Bearer of this arrived here yesterday and is one of three 
who last February made their escape from Detroit, he seems well 
acquainted there, & with their present situation. 

I rec'd a letter yesterday from M r . De Coagne Interpreter at 
Niagara dated the 27 th . Ult. the following extracts therefrom I 
thought proper to send your Excellency Viz*. 

" By all appearance there will be an Extensive Trade here, as 
the Indians come in fast, we ha<^ve at this Juncture nigh 300 
with 30 Canoes laden with furr, and Peltry they are very well 
satisfied with their treatment here, and have no complaint against 
the traders, they cant raise at Detroit above 1 000 men Inhabitants 
Included, the Fort only stockaded & no Cannon, they have> 
got a supply of ^provisions from the Ilan>ois, they keep 
Scouts about half way <^from that to this> to see if we make 
any motion that way " 

Not found. 

Seven Years War 259 

<He writes me> this in Consequence of the Orders, given to 
them <^last^> year, that they should procure me all the Intelli- 
gence they could from every Quarter. I am &ca &ca &ca 

His Excellency 


INDORSED: June 4 th . 1760 

Letter to Genr 1 . Amherst 


In Doc. Rel to Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:432-34, is a letter of June 5th 
from Johnson to the lords of trade on Indian services to the English the 
preceding year, interference in Pennsylvania with Indian management, 
Mohawk and Mohigan complaints and prospects of new aid from the 
Six Nations. 

Contemporary Copp x 

Scheneciady June 2l si . 1760 

I Have this morning received a Confirmation of the Enemy 
having Raised the Siege of Quebec, and left all their Cannon 
behind, marching off in a very great hurry. 

Mons r . de Vaudreuil has sent me all the Officers and Men 
who were taken Prisoners on the 28 th . of April (Except Col. 
Young) and some others who have been taken at different times, 
to the Number of 723 in the Whole, among which the Eldest 
Captain Jacobs of the Indians is Included. 

Lieut 5 . Goddard & Sherriffe, 2 who left Montreal the 14 th . 
Instant, paint the Distresses and Dispair of the French in the 
Strongest Colours ; that they lost on the 28 th . of April, above an 

Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5.58, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, June 21,1 760. 

2 Captain Lieutenant Henry Goddard and Lieutenant William Sherriff, 
both of the 47th regiment. 

260 Sir William Johnson Papers 

hundred Officers, and Men in proportion, and their Failure in 
the Attempt of the Siege after the Success of that day, which 
cost them such Numbers, with seeing some of their Provision 
Ships taken, and our Fleet at Quebec, which effectually puts a 
stop to any Stores, Ammunition, or Succours, Joining them, has 
thrown the Whole Colony into the utmost Dejection. 

Colonel Haviland sends me some Intelligence which I transmit 
to you; Major Rogers is doing very well on the farther End of 
Lake Champlain, keeps the Enemy in constant Alarm, for the 
more We can force them to Assemble, by which they must Con- 
sume their Provision, is hastening them so much the sooner to 
their Fall. 

I am getting every thing on as fast as the Arrival of the Pro- 
vincial Troops would let me; I should have been glad to be 
Earlier, but I doubt not in the least but We shall have time 
Enough to Compleat the Intended Work of this Campaign. 

I think I shall be able to get forward to Fort Hunter tomorrow, 
and I Intend to Pay Respects to You to Settle the time of the 
Indians our Friends Assembling, who, under Your Direction, 
I am Confident of the greatest Success from their Assistance, 
and I shall be glad to Seize every Occasion that may offer, that 
I may Convince you that I am, with great Truth & Esteem, 

Dear Sir, 

Jeff: Amherst. 

INDORSED: Copy. Letter from General 
Amherst to Sir W m . Johnson 
Dated Schenectady 21 st . June 1760. 
Informing him of the Arrival of 
the English Prisoners at Crown point 
and of the Raising of the Siege of 
Quebec, &ca-in M. G. Amherst' s of 
June 21: 1760 
NO. 64 

Seven Years War 261 


There is listed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 104, Johnson's account 
with the Crown from December 1, 1759, to March 16, 1760, dated 
June 24th. Destroyed by fire. 

Df. S. 

<Fort Johnson 26 th . June 1760 

1 received your Excellencys Message by Lieu 1 . Claus, and 
Extract of Col. Haldimands Letter x mentioning the Swegachy 
Ind n . request to make Peace. 

As I have> frequently < (among other Ind ns . in the French> 
Interest) advised <and in>vited them <to return> to the Six 
Nations, and <as> they have <not committed any Hostili- 
ties Since they assur<ed me last ye>ar (while I was at 
Oswego) they would < abandon the F>rench and come to us, 
I am of Opinion their present Submission should be accept<^ed>- 
and they treated as part of the Confederacy who are our Friends; 
They may be told at the same time that on my Arrival at Oswego 
with <the> six Nations they will be received in Form among 
them. I make no Doubt, I shall then be able not only to make 
them join, but with the six Nations conduct the Army into Canada 
thro that difficult Navigation as they are the best Pilots that way. 
When your Excellency thinks proper to grant a Warrant for 
the Money due to me & my Officers w * 1 . by the Acco*. and paper 
delivered in will appear, it will be necessary for my carrying on 
the Service, to have a further Warrant for a Thousand pounds, 
as there will be many calls for Money during the Campaign 
besides I am now advancing my own Money again, in clearing 
off all acco te . before I march 

Not found. 

262 Sir William Johnson Papers 

wish your Excellency a pleasant time of it and am with 
the greatest Respect 

Your Excel lencys 

Most Obedient most> 
humble <Servant> 


<His> Excellency 

Df. S. 
Fori Johnson June p c 26, 7760 

<Since I wrote to y r . Excell c y. this morning by Cap 1 . Prescot x 
I am honoured w^. y rs . by Cap*. Darcy 2 with Regard to the 
Swegatys Ind s . lately arrived at Oswego w th . their Ensigns of 
Peace. I gave y r Excel \ c y. my opinion agreeable to the Informa- 
tion first given by Col. Haldiman to y r . Excell ?. & afterwards 
to me & think it proper the Col. should first hear what they have 
to say to the onondaga Sachems & afterwards if he & they have 
sufficient reason to suspect them of any ill Intentions then to keep 
them secure till y r . Excell c y Arrives at oswego, & enquire farther 
into it, or untill^> I come up <^w lh . the^> Indians: <^I hope & 
flatter myself that> Col. Haldiman from what little Experience 
<he has had of Ind 8 . lately, > will act a prudent part in this 
affair <^as a good deal may^> depend upon it w ch . he by his 
Letter to me seems ^sensible of> 

I think Rogers has done very well <as he wants y r > 
Excellcy 8 . approbation & hope Lieut Holmes may also <suc- 
ceed>, those Rubs will contribute greatly to sink y e Enemy's 
spirits <&!> also their stock of provisions - As for the Num- 
ber of Ind 8 . appeared at Fort Stanwix Lieu*. Col. Massey 

1 Captain Robert Prescott, of the 15th regiment. 

2 Captain Peter Darcy, of the 47th regiment. 

Seven Years' War 263 

Accounts for it < himself > & I am certain it was only for 
provision they came; the <cause of> their absence for 3 Months 
as he mentions (if it be so long) is <^very^> well known to me; 
as I desired all the Nations the latter End of the Winter to go 
& hunt, in order to save the Government Money there have 
been but 3 Ind 5 . of y e 6 Nations to Canada since <last> year, 
& they were sent by me & the Six Nations to Endeavour to 
withdraw the Swagatyes &c from thence 

I hope to be able to save y r . Excell ?. any trouble with regard 
to Ind 8 . as soon as I have the Honour of joining you at Oswego, 
which shall be by the time appointed, if I am alive & well. 

I have y c Honour to be 
Y r . Excellencys 
Most &c 


INDORSED: Fort Johnson June 26 1 760 
Letter to Genr 1 . Amherst 
^ Capt Darcey 


D. S. 1 
City of Albany 

[Albany, July /, 7760] 
Ls 2 

I Volckert P: Douw Esq r . Recorder of the City of Albany 
Do by these Presents Certifie Declare and Make known to all to 
whom the Same Shall Come or May in any wise Concern that 
at a Court of Record held at the City hall of the said City on 
Tuesday the First Day of July in the Thirty fourth year of the 
Reign of our Sovereign Lord George the Second by the Grace 
of God of Great Brittain France and Ireland King Defender of 
the Faith &cc 

destroyed by fire. 

2O .1 

or in the copy. 

264 ' Sir William Johnson Papers 

Before me the Said Recorder and the Alderman of the said City 
persuant to the Directions of an Act of the Lieutenant Governour 
the Council and the Generall Assembly of this Province made 
and Passed at New York on the Third day of July 1759 
Entitled an act for Naturalizing the Several persons therein 
Mentioned Lucas Vetter being one of the Persons in the said 
Act Mentioned and thereby Naturalized appeared in open Court 
and in due form did take Oaths appointed by Law instead of the 
Oath of Alligance and Supremacy and make repeat Swear to 
and Subscribe the Abjuration Oath In testemony whereof I the 
said Recorder have hereunto Subscribed My name and Caused 
the seal of the said Court to be hereunto Affixed on the day and 
Year first above writtin 




The preceding certificate is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 105, 
by fourteen others of like character which were destroyed; an undated 
memorandum of inquiries and purposes, without name, which was destroyed ; 
the draft of a letter from Johnson to Colonel Frederick Haldimand, dated 
July 4th, which was injured by the fire, and is replaced in this publication 
by a letter in the British Museum. 

L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson July 4 ih . 1760. 

I was favoured with yours of the 21 st . & 28 th . Ult. with an 
Acco 1 . of the Arrival of some Swegatchy Indians, and the Cause 
of their Coming, recieved likewise an Extract of your Letter to 
General Amherst to the same Purport, to which I immediately 

1 In British Museum, Additional Manuscripts 2 1 670. fo. 1 3, London, 

Seven years' War 265 

replyed and thought it might have sufficed, as therein I gave it 
my Opinion, that You and the Onondago Chiefs might have an 
Interview with, and hear what they had to say; I am glad to 
find they have had one, at which I think the Onondagos acted 
a very proper Part, and I am convinced they would be glad to 
have every one of the Swegatchys from thence ; Their Interesting 
themselves for the Enlargement of the Indians detained by you 
is very natural, they being their near Friends and Countrymen.- 
I trust we are now so sufficient, that there is little to be feared 
from any Intelligence they could now pick up, if so inclined. 

As it is my Duty to keep the Six Nations and their Allies in 
so good a Disposition as I can, And I have General Amhersts 
special Orders to bring over to His Majesty s Interest all the 
Enemy Indians in my Power; I have and shall continue to use 
my Endeavours for that End, indeed the Effects of my repeated 
Admonitions to them is obvious, several of them having for some 
time past abandoned the French and are now settled among the 
five Nations, as well from other Quarters as from Swegatchy, 
and I expect many more will, if properly received, besides the 
Consternation they are thrown into as you justly observe by the 
ill Success of their old Friends the French, will greatly contribute 
to it, and be no invalid Security for their good Behaviour. 

From thence I am of Opinion that when such Indians come 
(of whatever Nation), and offer to be friends, they should not 
be refused.- As this may not reach you before his Excellency's 
Arrival at your Post, he will be Judge of the Terms on which 
they may be accepted. 

I am sorry you have had so much Trouble with (these People, 
and hope on my Arrival at Oswego, you will be relieved from 
it; In the mean time, I must say your Prudence as an Officer in 
that Affair with the Swegatchies is very commendable, and I 
believe will be thought so by the General; possibly this Affair 
may be settled before now, and the few Officers I have are upon 
Service except Lieu*. Claus whom, notwithstanding I would send, 
if the Distance of time was not so Small between his getting there 

266 Sir William Johnson Papers 

and mine, as it would be of little Signification, you may depend 
I shall make all the haste I can, or the Nature of the Service I 
am engaged in will admit of, to be at your Post. 
I am with perfect Regard 

Dear Sir 

Your most Obedient 
Humble Servant 


INDORSED: Chev. Johnson Le 
4 Juillet 60 
recue 12 d 1 .- 


In the Johnson Calendar, p. 105, occur the following papers, destroyed 
by fire: Major General Jeffery Amherst's warrant, drawn at Oswego 
July 23d, on Thomas Barrow for the payment of 328 1 Od sterling to 
Johnson; Amherst's warrant, drawn at Oswego the 23d, on Barrow for 
the payment of 1 32 1 , Is, 7d, account annexed ; and a letter of August 
2d from Thomas Flood, at Castle Cumberland, to Johnson at Oswego, 
telling of drouth, haying, harvesting, building, sawing, flogging slaves, 
transactions in flour and wheat, poor prospect for grain. 

A. L. S. 1 

Bristol 15 Sep'. 1760 

Your Favour of 14 th . May last came duly to Hand. I thank 
you for your Condolance on the Death of my dearest Son 
A better or faithfuller Friend, Man never had; & a Loss that 
cannot be made up in this World. You, Sir, was his Friend, 
& on that account I shall allways carry in my Breast, more than 
an Esteem for you, seperate from your Character as a Patriot & 
brave Man 

Destroyed by fire. 


On Chimney Island near Ogdensburg. Johnson participated in its 
taking in 1760. 

Seven Years War 267 

The Manuscript you mention is in the Hands of my Daughter 
here, her Sister at New York has wrote to her for it, & it goes to 
her by this same Conveyance. I should with Pleasure do you 
any Service in my Power, do Wish you all Health & Prosperity 
& am 

Your most obed 1 . & most h ble Serv. 



The preceding letter was followed in the Library Collection (Sec John- 
son Calendar, p. 105) by a letter of October 10th from Gw. Banyar 
to Mrs Sarah Magin about a survey of land; and a letter of the 15th 
from George Croghan, at Fort Pitt, congratulating Johnson on the reduc- 
tion of Canada and the humanity of the Indians under his command and 
introducing Mr Furry in behalf of Major Gates. Destroyed by fire. 

L. S. 1 

Albany October 10 lh 1760 

I have only to let you know that we all arrived here safe in 
Eleven days from Montreal, we had good weather except the 
first Day or two. everything here quiet & still, the Troops 
sailed yesterday for New York who are destined for Halifax. 
this Town is quite empty & dead like. 

I shall this day finish with the Coghnawageys who accom- 
panied me here & behaved extremely well all the time. Our 
Indians have done no harm all along the road. I overtook 
several of them at the Posts all drunk & naked. Silver heels 
yesterday Evening stabbed Moses of Conajohare at the Ferra- 
barrick, 2 of which he instantly died. 

Mn Public Archives of Canada, Claus Papers, v. I. 1716-1777. 
M. 104, p. 7. 
2 Feura Bush? 

268 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I received a letter yesterday from M r . Croghan dated the 
6th of 7 br . from Pitsborough He says the Western Indians have 
been there to a Conference held with them by Genr 1 . Monkton 
at w h . they behaved extremely well, and settled all matters with 
us in the most friendly manner, and delivered up several Prisoners 
at the time. 

The Bearer M r . Wilson * is the gent'man whom my Brother 
&.ca recommended to me some time ago, he is now going to 
Montreal in order to see that Country, and try how the trade 
there is likely to turn out. I shall be glad you would show him 
all the civility you can, and advice concerning Trade with the 
Ind s . &.ca 

I would have you buy me some little curiosities there of no 
great Value & send them by the first opertunity. My Brother 
lies 111 at New York. The Family at Home I hear are all well 
and everything at both places in the best order. 

I propose going home to morrow, when I shall prepare Johnny 
for the Journey if he inclines to it. I have not time to add 
further than that 

I am Y r . Welwisher 
& Sincere Friend 


A. L. S. 2 

Fort Johnson Octob r . 23 J . 1760 

I should not have deferred paying You My Compliments had 
not my time & mind been much taken up with matters relative to 
the Campaign, as well as with the Coghnawagey & other Indians 
who accompanied me hither. And who I have at last despatched 
extremely well satisfied. I do now from our long acquaintance, 

1 Thomas Wilson or Willson. 

2 In New York Historical Society, New York City. 

Seven Fears' War 269 

and the unshaken regard I ever held for You & yours, do myself 
the honour among the rest of your friends & Welwishers to 
congratulate You on your accession to the Supreme Command 
of this Government, & wish You all the benifits of the old 
Patriarchal Blessing, Health & long life to discharge everry 
Function required, and am in great reality 

Dear Sir 

Your most Obedient 
Humble Servant 

The Honr bl . 

Df. S. 

<For* Johnson October 24 th . 1760 

It affords me a sensible pleasure that I can now have the 
honour of congratulating you on the reduction of Canada, a 
Conquest of so much consequence to Great Britain, and to 
which your wise Council, and prudent measures have so greatly 

Having myself had the honour of being appointed to a 
Trouble>some employ during <the coarse of> the War, 
< namely the Command^ & Superintendency of the Indians in 
<the northern district of> America, and affairs being now so 
happi<ly settled here permit^ me Sir to observe that nothing 
but the Du<ty of one to his> Majesty, heightned by a just 
sense of th<ose favours > which he has been pleased to bestow 
so liber < ally on> me together with a sincere regard for y e wel- 
fare <of> my Country, which I had the vanity to think I was 
in some measure able to promote, could by any means have 
induced me to continue in the exercise of an employment so incon- 
ceiviably troublesome, the assiduity necessary towa<>ds a> 

270 Sir William Johnson Papers 

proper discharge of which, can only be conceived by those who 
have had the experience thereof. 

In order therefore to shew how far I have exerted my abilities 
in the execution of my Employment I shall beg leave to trespass 
a few moments on your patience, while I take the Liberty of 
mentioning some circumstance which may make my conduct 
something known to You during the War, in which I shall think 
myself beyond measure happy, if I have the honour to merrit 
your Approbation. 

<In 1755 I was, from the knowledge which was had of the 
acquaintance I had with the Indians of the Six Nations, as well 
as from a Consideration of the part which I bore with the former 
War, pitched upon & appointed by Gen 1 . Braddock to the Sole 
Superintendancy of these People, a Task which however dis- 
agreable in itself, I undertook from a presumption that I should 
be able to do my Country > some service, at a <time when 
Indian Affairs were in a very^> fluctuating condition & when 
we had not> interest <sufficient> to prevail on them to <come 
to a meeting^> with us. The french, weaker in <^ numbers than 
we,> having judged it absolutely necessary to their own Interest 
to <^culti^>vate & Improve the friendship subsisting between 
<Ohem & the> Indians, as the only means to incline them to 
<\act in their fa^>vour, spared neither pains or cost for the 
accomplishing <Cso> great a design, which they at length 

as it will be foreign to my subject to make any remarks <on> 
our Management of Indisn Affairs before that period of <^time^> 
I shall only say that the Campaign of 1 755 tho begun unfortu- 
nately, ended with success, yet altho I had collected as <many>- 
Indians as Circumstances would at that time admit to Join us, 
and was by all the Northern Provinces made Major Gen 1 , of 
their Provincials, I never received y e promised Sallary for either. 
However in the beginning of 1 756 his Majesty was graciously 
pleased to create me a Baronet and send his Royal Commission 
by which I was appointed Sole Agent & Superintendant of the 

Seven Years War 271 

Affairs of the Northern Indians, their Allies &c with a Sallary 
of 600 <$ ann, as also Collonel of the same Nations, for the 
Latter of which I <never yet received any pay, altho I have con- 
stantly taken the Field at an expence equal to the amount of my 
Sallary as Superintendant. The Events of the three following 
Campaigns being well known I shall only observe that duering 
that Space I did all in my power to gain as many Indians as 
possible to act in our favour as well as to bring the more obstinate 
to a neutrality, & the our constant 111 successes prevented me 
from doing as much as I could wish, I nevertheless obtained & 
communicated constant Intelligence of the Enemys <motions> 
sent out <Partys continually > to distress them, prevented many 
from atta<cking out 1 Settlements, and in 1758 bro*. into the 
field above 400 In<dians, a greater ^> number than could 
reasonably have been expe<cted from the> 111 success of the 
two proceeding Years. I may <say safely > that during the 
before mentioned time I did every thing < which mi>ght have 
been hoped for from a man who was willing <to Sacrifice his 
own ease, & business to the public Welfare, <O> which his 
obligation to the best of Kings did not a little contribute. 

In the beginning of 1 759 I acquainted Gen 1 . Amherst with the 
success of my Negociations with the Indians at a gen<eral> 
meeting I called them to at Conajohare, the Proceedings of 
which I sent to the Lords of Trade. I then persuaded the whole 
Confederacy, to agree to Join, and go with us against Niagara 
and assist us in the reduction thereof, an Expedition which I 
earnestly recommended to the General who was pleased to 
approve of it, accordingly an Army was sent under Brigd r . Pre- 
deaux whom I joined at Oswego with 700 fighting Men, which 
number was afterwards augmented to 900 these Indians performed 
their parts so well and kept our Designs so secret, that we had dis- 
embarked all our Artillery, and remained a Night at Niagara 
<before the Enemy had any notice of our Arrival. After 
Brigadier Predeaux's death, the Command devolveing on me, I 

This word should probably be " our." 

272 Sir William Johnson Papers 

did my utmost to employ the Indians in gaining me such Intel- 
ligence as was of the greatest service, having prevented our being 
surprised, the consequence of which was, we defeated their rein- 
forcements the Fort of Niagara Capitulated, & I had the pleasure 
in a few days to hear from the Ind s . of the Enemys having 
abandoned Prisque Isle Venan^>go, and all the Posts ^adja- 
cent, so that G>en ] . Stanwix might proceed without difficulty 
thro a Country, > where before an Army must have fought <at 
a great disadv>antage. <In> short every thing answered 
our < warmest expectations that way, and I had the pleasure 
< shortly afterwards^ of receiving by letter Gen 1 . Amherst's 
appro<bation & th^>anks. Last June I was ordered by Gen 1 . 
Am<]herst to^> collect as Many Indians as I possibly could & 
with <them> join His Army which I imediately sett about, and 
<dis>patched my Officers for that purpose to their severall 
nations, <as> I had previously done in the beginning of the 

The French finding their Indian Interest to decay considerably 
from the Success of the last Campaign had recourse to all kind of 
Artifice to recover it, and among other things industriously 
propogated a report amongst the Ind s . (who are naturally of a 
credulous & Jealous disposition) that the English intended their 
entire exterpation, which was to be put in execution imediately 
after the reduction of Canada which they said must shortly 
happen unless they the Indians gave them Assistance this Intel- 
ligence they pretended to have discovered by means of some 
intercepted Letters, notwithstanding this artifice alarmed many 
of the Indians and occasioned their keeping out of the way I yet 
was able to proceed from Oswego with upwards <^of 600 
Warriors, but as there were nine Severall Nat s . & Tribes of Ind 5 . 
inhabiting y e Country about Montreal consisting of above 800 
fighting men, previous to our departure I judged it highly neces- 
sary to gain them if possible, at least to bring them to a Neu- 
trality, being very sensible of the difficultys which an Army had 
to encounter in their way to Montreal where a few Indians Joined 

Seven Years War 273 


with other troops might act to great advantage. I therefore pro- 
posed> to Gen 1 . Amherst <the sending them offers of peace, 
& protection, > which he agreed to, <and on our> Arrival at 
<Fort Leyi, 1 deputies > came from the before mentioned 
Nations <on my Mes>sage to them from Oswego, who there 
ratified a <^ Treaty with^> us, whereby they agreed to remain 
neuter on condition that we for the fu>ture treated them as 
friends, & forgot all for<mer enmi>ty. After the taking Fort 
Levi many of our In<dians, thro> some disgust left us, but 
there still remained a sufficient <num>ber to answer our pur- 
pose and bring us constant Intel lig<<ence ha>ving none against 
us, and the Peace which I settled with <the> 9 Nations 2 
before mentioned, was productive of such good conseq<uen>ces 
that some of these Indians joined us, & went upon Partys for 
Prisoners &a whilst the rest preserved so strict a neutrality 
<that> we passed all the dangerous Rapids, and the whole 
way without the least opposition, & by that means came so near 
to the other two Armies, that the Enemy could attempt nothing 
further without an imminent risque of the City & inhabitants. 

Thus Sir we became Masters of the last place in the Enemys 
possession in these parts and made those Indians our friends by a 
peace, who might otherwise have given us much trouble. 

It now remains S r . to observe that from the Peace which I 
made last year with the Mississageys Ottawawas & other 
Nations of Indians inhabiting the Country <about Niagara, & 

1 Fort Levis, situated on Isle Royale, known also as Oraconenton, now 
Chimney island. 

2 In the message of the Canada Indians to western Indians, transmitted 

by Johnson to General Amherst August 25, 1 763, the following Canadian 

nations were named: Caughnawageys, Caneghsadarundax, Skaghnanes, 

Swegachies, St Francis, 3 River Indians, and Hurons, near Quebec. In 

the enumeration of Indians within the northern department, November 18, 

1 760, Johnson named the following nations of Canada in alliance with 

the Six Nations: Caghnawagas, Canasadagas, Arundacs, Algonkins, 

jAbenaquis, Skaghquanoghronos and Hurons. Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. 

iN. y,, 7:544 and 582. 

274 Sir William Johnson Papers 

the Lakes to the Northward and Westward thereof together with 
that now made with all those living in, and about Canada, we 
may expect the most salutary consequences hereafter, and in case 
of any future disturbances between the Enemy & us, in America, 
may be pretty sure of their assistance, provided we preserve their 
esteem & cultivate their friendship, by a proper management of 
them, as well as by a fair extensive trade, than> which nothing 
<will attach them more> to our < Interest. > I need not 
S r . <^ enlarge much on the rea^>sons for keeping up a good 
understanding <with all Indians,^ who may be friends, and 
can be troublesome <^ Enemy s You^> being sufficiently 
acquainted with its consequences, <and the ad> vantage may 
result therefrom. Permit <me to add^> that having now dis- 
charged my Duty during the War <to the> utmost of my 
Ability, I should be glad to be freed from the discharge of an 
Office so fatigueing, in wh<^ich I ha^>ve greatly impaired my 
constitution, & neglected my concerns in this Country, which I 
would willingly apply the remainder of my life to retrieve. I 
am the more ready to mention this, as I am conscious to myself 
of having done every thing in my power since I have had the 
employment towards the cultivating a good understanding with, 
& encreasing the number of his Majestys Indian Allies, & making 
them serviceable to the designs of the Brittish Gen 1 , in America. 
and as the Enemy have constantly employed so many persons 
well qualified to transact Indian Affairs, the small number of 
inferior Officers which have been hitherto allowed me will not 
be able to transact all the business to be necessarily expected from 
our present extensive Indian Alliance, there being a necessity for 
employing proper Persons in different places < where the Super- 
intendent cannot be present, if we expect to preserve the friend- 
ship now subsisting between us, so as to make them use full, in 
case we should hereafter have occasion for their assistance, as 
well as prevent their giving any disturbance "to the Settlers in the 

Seven Years War 275 

back parts or to the great numbers who will soon settle the 
Frontiers of this & other Provinces whom they have it in their 
power with all ease to cutt off at pleasure, in Spite of all the 
efforts of our severall Garrisons to the contrary, > should we 
now ^totally neglect that Interest which we^> have hitherto 
been at so much <^pains & expense in im^>proving. 

All this Sir I beg leave to Sub<mitt to your better^ Judge- 
ment & consideration, & hope you will ex<cuse my taking up> 
so much of your time, by imputing it <O tne Nec^>essity I was 
under of representing some Facts. <My zeal for> His 
Majestys service & my earnest desire of seeing <Indian> 
Affairs established here on so permanent a footing <as may> 
procure a lasting peace and tend to the honour and advantage of 
great Brittain. with these sentiments 

I beg leave to subscribe 

myself S r . &a 


To the Right Honr ble . W M . PlTT Esq r . 

INDORSED: Letter to Secretary Pitt 

Contain^, a Summary of Sir 
W m . Johnsons conduct during 
the Whole War. with his desire 
to resign & attend to his private 

276 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A. L. S. 1 

Presque Isle 2 No br . I st . 1760* 

The 20 th . of Last Month I Received y r . orders from Major 
Rogars att Pittsburge to Joyne him and go to Detroat, 4 in pur- 
suance of which I Came hear yesterday and has brought with 
me Such Indians as I thought Necessary to Take with Me a part 
of which I Send by Land with part of the Trupes & Some 

Before I Left Pittsburge I Sent Deputys of y e . Six Nations 
& Dallaways to Detroat to acquaint all Nations of Indians in 
that Country of My going there & y e . Rasons thereof & to 
Sumens Some of y e . Cheefs to Come with y e . Deputys I Sent 
to Meat Me att y e . Mouth of y e . River which I Make No Doubt 
they will Do. 

itt is very Late in y e . Sason to Take Such a Journay Butt y c . 
Bussness we are going on will Make itt agreeable anough you 
May Depend on My Doing My Duty & Setleing Matters with 
all those Nations on as good a footing as I am Capable of for 
y e . Good of his Majestys Gineral Intrest I hope to Return by 
Land to Pittsburge by y e . 20 th of Decem r . and as there will be 
Little to Do this winter in My Department I Propose going to 
Fort Johnson and Make a Report of My Journay to Detroat & 
Proceeding this Last Campain we Sail from hence in two Days 
plase to Make My Complements Exceptable to all y e . Gentle- 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Now Erie, Pa. 

3 In the Collections of the New York Historical Society for 1876, 
Golden Papers, p. 31, is a letter of November 3d from Cadwallader 
Colden to Johnson. 

4 See Journals of Major Robert Rogers, ed. F. B. Hough, p. 1 84-1 97. 

Seven Years 9 War 277 

men with you. I am Hon d . S r . with Greatt Esteem & Regard 
y r . Honours 

Most obeidant & Most 

Humble Servant 

To the Honourable 

The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 105, by 
three warrants drawn at Albany November 8th, from Major General 
Jeffery Amherst on Abraham Mortier, for paying Johnson the respective 
sums, 1378, 16s, lOd, 838, 9s, lid and 507, Is, lOd sterling, the 
last for the pay of bateaumen. Destroyed by fire. 

Contemporary Copp. 1 

Copy. Albany 8 th . November 1760.- 


The Several Accompts, relative to Your Department, Which 
You have this Morning laid before me, I have referred to the 
Proper officers for Examination; When they have passed the 
same, And are Approved of, I shall order the Warrants for the 
payment thereof. - 

I am at the same time to Observe to you, that as the Several 
Sallaries of the Indian Officers, are a heavy Charge to the 
Publick, and that from the Present Circumstances of Affairs, 
their Services can be dispensed with, And Occasion a great Sav- , 
ing: I must Desire, especially as I Make no Doubt, that Capt 8 . 
John Butler, & Jeles Fonda, and Lieut 8 . William Hair & Henry 
Nellus, Part of the aforementioned Indian Officers, have other 

1 In Public Record Office, C. O. 5.60, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, January 7, 1 761. 

278 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Occupations, that you will thank them for their past Services, 
and Strike them off the Lists from the respective times, they are 
now Charged to, in your Accompts.- 

And as a Secretary for Indian Affairs, is now Come over, 
in Whose Absence Doct r . Shuckburgh Acted in that Capacity, 
and that the Service of the latter as Surgeon to the Independent 
Companys is wanted at Fort George, I must likewise Desire you 
to strike him off the List also, and that you will order him, So 
Soon as you can Spare him to repair to Fort George, to Attend 
the two Compy 8 . that are to Winter there, as they have no Sur- 
geon or Mate with them. 

I am &ca 


INDORSED: Copy Letter from Gen 1 . Amherst 
To Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 
Dated Albany 8 th . NoV. 1 760. 
That as from the present 
Circumstances of Affairs, the 
Services of many of the officers, 
Employed in Indian Affairs, 
may be Dispensed with, & their 
Sallaries being a heavy Charge 
to the Publick; he Desires S r . W m . to 
thank them for their past Services 
and Strike them off his Lists, 
from that time.- 

in M. G. Amherst's of Jan?. 7. 1 761. 
N. 34 

Seven Fears' War 279 

Contemporary Translation x 

^Translation of a letter from Pere Roubaud 2 to S r . W m . 
Johnson bearing date at S*. Francis 13 l : November 1760 

1 The French letter destroyed by fire. It was inclosed in a letter of 
Claus to Johnson, January 20, 1 761. 

2 Pierre Joseph Antoine Roubaud S. J. was born at Avignon May 28, 
1 724. Several of his brothers distinguished themselves in literature ; and 
it is noteworthy that one of these was a Jesuit, while another, Pierre Joseph 
Andre, the most celebrated, originally adopted the clerical profession. 
Roubaud entered the Jesuit order September 7, 1 739, in the province of 
Lyons, and was transferred to a mission in Canada in July 1 742. Sent 
to the mission of St Francis de Sales, he accompanied the Abenakis on the 
successful expedition against Fort William Henry; and at St Francis, 
October 21, 1 75 7, he wrote a vivid and affecting narrative of Montcalm's 
campaign, by which he is represented in Letires Edifiantcs et Curieuses. 
He there gives an account of several minor engagements with the English, 
besides portraying incidents attending the siege and capture of the fort. 
The story affords evidence of Pere Roubaud's devotion to the interests of 
the Indians, whose cruelty toward captives he exerted himself at different 
times to abate. After the surrender of Montreal, Pere Roubaud received 
marks of consideration from General Amherst and Sir William Johnson, 
which not only exalted the English character in his eyes, but excited hopes 
of gaining advantage from the conquest of Canada. He obtained the 
appointment of royal missionary and a salary of 200. Having been 
sent to England in 1 764 to furnish information on the state of the colony 
to the government, he renounced his religion and married. For a time he 
was connected with the stage. In February 1781, he addressed to Lord 
North a petition in which he expatiated in extravagant terms on his services 
to humanity during the French war and his labors as an English agent. It 
is evident from this document, entitled " Mr Roubaud's Deplorable Case," 
which has been published, with a prefatory note by J. G. Shea, in the 
Historical Magazine, that he often had political communications with the 
representatives of France and Spain at the English court. He even asserts 
in his petition that he was charged by the French ambassador in the early 
days of the American Revolution with the business of offering England an 
alliance, to include the aid of French troops in subduing the colonies. He 
indulges in charges against the loyalty of eminent British statesmen. His 

280 Sir William Johnson Papers 


The livelyness of my gratitude would Suffer were I to remain 
any longer Silent. Your bounties are to deeply rooted in my 
heart for me not to hasten my thanks to the respectable protector 
to whom they are due. Little satisfied with having heaped on 
me all the Civilities imaginable, you have moreover procured me 
the knowledge & protection of the General Amherst, who alone 
does & can support me under the Circumstances in which I am 
Your kindnesses towards me have gone still farther ;> informed 
of the few shifts <left me in my sorrowfull> fate; you have 
taken pleasure <in giving me proof s> of Generosity, which 
hcive greatly < softened the sad> days that have run for me 
since <your departure, > and which I fear much will run <on 
still longer. ^> All those favors heaped on me with <^so much 
good>ness, have given birth to Sentiments of <Gratitude,> 
respect and Attachment, which can <end but with^> my Life. 
I shall never flatter myself <more than> when I may find the 
Opportunity of marking those> Sentiments publick. It is the 
only Ack<nowledge>ment I am capable of towards a Man 

complaints of ingratitude and bad faith on the part of the British ministry 
bring out the facts, that he appropriated manuscript maps in the Jesuit 
archives, used, in his relations with the government, political and state 
papers which, he said, had belonged to Montcalm, and attempted to open 
a correspondence with his brothers in France in order to supply the British 
government with information. The appeal to Lord North contains a story 
of poverty and suffering, and conveys the request that the petitioner be 
allowed to retire to the Austrian Netherlands, to end his days in a convent, 
as he dared not return to France. According to one authority, Pere 
Roubaud died at St Sulpice, in Paris, after 1781. He was living in 
London as late as April 1787. Consult, for the Roubaud family, 
Biographic Universelle and Nouvelle Biographic Generale. For informa- 
tion touching Pere Roubaud, Jesuit Relations, edited by R. G. Thwaites, 
70:90-203, 311 (note); Historical Magazine, 2d series, 8:282-91; 
Francis Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe, p. 17O-71 ; Doc. Hist. N. Y., 
4:336-39; Q, 4:215-16; Canadian Archives for 1885, p. ix, xiii-xxi, 
cxxxviii-cxlii, and for 1888, p. xvi, also p. 48-51 (Third volume of 
Calendar of Haldimand Collection). 

Seven Fears' War 281 

like < You> ; but a heart that gives all it hath, is <beholden>- 
to no more; besides, having the Hea<jt so well> placed as 
you have, I dare hope that <^you will^> receive and approve 
these Sentiments, <to which > your amiable Qualities 
given < birth in mine.^> 

The Savages have according to custom <dispersed> them- 
selves in the Woods; they are not to me<[et again > here till 
towards next Spring; I must therefo<je beg> of You to be so 
good as to warn the Loups J'<Orange> 1 not to be impatient, 
if they do not receive a Deputation from the Village of S*. 
Francis; <do> not let them take this delay for a refusal. 
<before> their Separation to go a hunting, the Chiefs & 
Cap<tains> decided that in the course of next Winter thr<ee> 
Savages shall be sent to Orange with four Be<lts> and a young 
Savage, to relieve him that was ki<^lled^> last Summer. This 
is the result of the Counci<ll> they have held, & to the per- 
formance of which <they> shall be summoned so soon as they 
meet again. 

Full of Confidence in You whom they look upon <as> their 
Protector & Father, the Savages have charg-<ed me to recom- 
mend to your kindness about Twenty Old Women whose great 
Age would not suffer them to go into the Woods; some Cloaths, 
which they are in great need of, would, at the same time that 
they Love & Cherish the present Government, confirm them more 
& more in the Sentiments of fidelity that annimates them. I 
daily hear on their part nothing but felicitations on the manner 
in which they are treated, but they do not hide that they believe 
they owe this good treatment mostly to You & Your protection. 
And they protest openly that> whatever may be the <fate of 
Canada at the peace, they^> will never fail to be in ^Corre- 
spondence with You, nor to]> obey you as a father who <[has 
assisted them in their> wants; You may well Judge <that I 
shall maintain> them in those dispositions, <and that I shall 
omit> nothing to render them universal thro' the hearts of> 

Stockbridge Indians. 

282 Sir William Johnson Papers 

all the Savages. They wait <with eagerness for one> or two 
Flags which they wish <for ardently. They> likewise desire 
you would name <an interpreter for> them, they have none, 
and in causes where they have> occasion to send a Talk they 
will <;be greatly Embar Brassed. This is the Subject of their 
< requests which > I confidently state to You, convinced <;that 
you will> decide the whole, with that Sagacity & < modera- 
tion^ which compose your Character. As to me, I <^wait 
your> Orders on all these things, I shall conform <myself> 
entirely to your will with an inviolable fidelity ;^> and I can 
assure You I shall never find any difficulties in whatever you 
may desire; It <suffices> that you order, to make all difficulties 
cease; When the heart is willing one finds every thing easy; and 
I may assure that whenever S r . W m . Johnson is in question, or 
any thing that regards him, my heart will of itself be prone to 
yield; With such Sentiments it is that I have the honor to be with 
the most profound respect &ca. 

< Montreal NovK 4 th . 1761 * 

INDORSED: Translation of Pier Roubaud's Letter by General 
Amherst rec d . it but in Feb r y.> 


The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 06, by an 
acknowledgment, dated November 1 3th, by Nicholas Brant and other 
Indians that their fathers sold to Teady Maginis [Magin] a certain tract 
of land between the Canada creeks. Destroyed by fire. 

1 This date is plainly incorrect. November 1 4, 1 760, was probably 
the date when the letter was received by Claus. 

Seven Years War 283 

A. L. S. 1 

Montreal 20 ih . NoV. 1760 

I had the Honour of receiving your Favour of the 10 th . Ult. 
from Albany the day before Yesterday, and that by Accident 
I having been ill with a Cold for ab*. 8 Days, M r . Wilson the 
Bearer thereof could not find me out and was told of my being 
quartered in the Country. This being the first Acco*. I had since 
you left Montreal it gave me the infinite Pleasure to hear of your 
safe arrival at Albany and that the Ind ns . behaved so well and "7 
quiet by the Way; M r . S*. Luc Le Corn returned from York 
some Days ago. he told me that time and Season would not x 
allow him to pay you a Visit, and that he heard you were con- 
fined w th . a Sore Legg in so much that you could not come to a 
Conference with Gen 1 . Amherst, I was sorry to hear it. Since 
the 8 th . ins 1 , the Winter set in here with Snow & Cold & continued 
ever since ; every Body passes the Streets in Slays, I have given 
up the receiving of my Baggage this Season as there will be no 
passing this River until it is froze, the Weather being too severe 
to cross the Water in crafts. 

M r . Wilson desires his Complm 1 * to you and Capt n . Warren, 
He finds his Trip answer very well and intends to remain here 
this Winter, he told me he received upwards of 400 Curr?. the 
first Day he opened Shop & hopes to have his Cargo sold off in 
ab l . a couple Months. I offered him all the Services in my 
Power, but I imagine he will have no Goods to dispose of to the 
Ind ns . after their coming from hunting. I shall endeavour to 
make a Collection of what little Couriosities come in my way 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

284 Sir William Johnson Papers 

tho' I have met but w lh . very few since I am here. We have had 
no further Acco ts . of Maj r . Rodgers since the last Report of his 
being worsted at Detroit. Twelf Indep 1 . Companies w lh . Vaans 
Reg 1 : 1 in all 2000. Welsh Troops are arrived at Quebec as its 
said to complete the Reg ts . there. We have had the good News 
of the King of Prussia's having gained a Victory over Gen. 
Laudhon's 2 army, this will greatly contribute towards an 
Advantageous Peace for us, if he holds out this Campaign. 

All things are quiet and easy here & the People of this Town 
seemingly well pleased with their New Mast", if they only had 
the Argent blanc, the Country People have the Advantage in 
selling their Produce for cash and will sooner oblige the English 
in selling them things cheaper tho the others have sometimes 
Silver to pay, which vexes them greatly. 

I was told in Company that S l . Luc le Corn 3 should have 
said that the Ottawawas offered their Service against the Chero- 
kees. I replied that I knew nothing of it, and believed the 
Ottaw 9 . were not so firmly attached to us as yet, but that they 
could be persuaded to the contrary by the French Emissaries 
among the Cherok 8 . and w ch . would answer a fine political 
Scheme of M r . Le Corns. 

1 Lieutenant Colonel John Vaughan, afterward Major General. 

2 Gideon Ernest Laudon, Baron, was born at Tootzen, Livonia, of an 
old Scotch family, February 2, 1717. In 1732 he entered the Russian 
service; in 1742, the Austrian army; and in 1745 he fought against 
Prussia on the Silesian border. In the Seven Years' war, after several 
notable successes, he distinguished himself .at Rossbach. For his conduct 
at Domstadt he was made a lieutenant field marshal ; and for his behavior 
at Hochkirch, a baron. He was successful, August 12, 1 759 at Kuners- 
dorf in conjunction with the Russians. The next year, August 15, he was 
beaten at Liegnitz, after winning the battle of Landeshut. In 1 778 
Laudon was made field marshal. In 1 788 and 1 789 he fought the Turks 
with great distinction. He died at Neutitschein July 1 4, 1 790. 

3 Luc de Chapt de La Corne St Luc, a French scouting officer, brother 
of Chevalier l^a Corne St Luc. 

Seven Years' War 285 

I have no more to add but remain with my utmost Respects 

Your most Obedient and 

most humble Servant 


Pray Sir offer my best compliments 
to Capt n . Warren, 1 and the Family. 
To the Honourable S R . W M . JOHNSON Bar 1 . 

The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 106, by 
George Croghan's draft, drawn at Fort Detroit December 1 1 th, on John- 
son in favor of Colonel Edward Cole; and Dr Richard Shuckburgh's 
letter of the 15th, written at New York, to Johnson, about news, letters 
and business affairs. Destroyed by fire. 


A. L. S. 2 

New York 15 Dec'. 1760 

I send you inclosed a Captain's Commission to M r . Ferral 
Wade in the room of Captain John Lyne, the Subalterns in this 
Company remain as before I suppose; therefore their Commis- 
sions rec'd 3 not be altered nor new ones issued. I send you 
Commissions for Captain Johnson's Company in the filling up 
of which I supposed you meant to divide Hend Hansen's Com- 
pany into two. When Hansen was appointed in the room of 
Conin this Company was divided into two, So that Company 
which was commanded by Conin is now properly divided into 
three. If I have mistaken your meaning, and you meant to 

1 Warren Johnson. 

2 Destroyed by fire. 

8 " Rec'd " in the copy; " need " was probably written. 

286 Sir William Johnson l j apers 

remove Hendrick Hansen & his three subalterns and to appoint 
Captain John Johnson & his Subalterns in their room, at least 
Captain Johnson's Commission must be returned, the Lieutenant j 
and Ensign's will do as you will observe by the manner in which 
they are filled up. I send you a Copy of the Entries of the 
Commissions of Hansen & Lyne and their officers with a Copy 
of that part of your Letter by which you may observe I was 
puzled to know your meaning, for the Company you say you 
want to divide into two, that is Conin's, was divided into two the 
28 March last by Com 8 , then issued. 1 

I have no Indian Deed among my Papers that I know of rela- 
tive to your Susquehannah Purchase I remember there was a 
deed, but it was not a regular One, that is it was not executed 
before a Majistrate & the Lands Surveyed as the Ordinary 
Method directs. You must if you incline to proceed, put in a 
JPetition for a New Lycence, & the sooner the better. All Peti- 
tions for large Tracts are at a Stand; the Council seem deter- 
mined to grant no more than 20,000 acres in one Patent, so that 
if they come to such a Resolution you must present as many Pet s . 
for 20,000 acres as will include the quantity you mean to take 
up and take out as many Lycences as Petitions. It will be neces- 
sary perhaps too that you at least offer a share to each of the 
Gentlemen of the Council, M r Chambers 2 I think was to be 
concerned originally, as I think I was, but you meant then a very 
great Share for yourself, more perhaps than you'l now want; 
as your attention in point of Settlements, is taken up nearer 
home: The Council too, have obliged me in Magin's Case and 
^will do the like in all other Cases, to settle a Family on every 
500 acres or that number of Families in proportion to the quan- 
tity of the whole Tract, in three years after the Warr, or forfeit 
the Patent. This I am well assured will be impracticable in 
most Cases. The same answer & observations will do as to the 
Tract of 40,000 which you have in View but unless it lies very 

1 See Third Annual Report of the State Historian, p. 768. 

2 John Chambers, member of the provincial council from 1 752 to 1 763. 


(About 1760 ?) 

Seven Years War 287 

remote indeed I dare say, there are Petitions before the Council 
which include it: If you dont incline to communicate this Secret 
to me, I will send if you desire an abstract of the Petition 

No News but what you'l find in your News Paper. So I will 
conclude by wishing you all the Comforts of Life of which you 
can have the fullest measure without yourself a wife. You 
your * so little account that you take no care to perpetuate it. 
Now is your time if you * Intend it, you must, let me See, be 
now pretty farr advanced towards fifty. I should be sorry my 
Friend should defer it to his \ which I am apprehensive of from 
your close attachment to your dirty Acres which after toiling 
away all your Life will produce only the Prospect of advantage 
to those who come after you. Pray present my Compliments to 
your Brother, who I hope has entirely establish'd his Health. 
1 sometimes think this Place must appear as disagreeable to you 
as Albany, for nothing it seems can prevail on you, gratify the 
great Inclination your Friends have to See you here./ I am with 
great Sincerity 

D r S r . W m . 

your affectionate 

humble Serv. 

Extract Sir W m . Johnsons Letter to G. B. 22 d . October 

Ifhere is another Company in the said Batalion which is too 
large being 160 Men and I want to divide it for the better 
Disciplining of them wherefore would want the following Com- 
missions Viz 1 . 

John Johnson Cap 1 . 
1 st Leiu*. John Welles 
2 d Ditto John Johnston 
Ensign William Johnston 

This is the Company which 
Cap tn . Conin lately had and 
Commanded now by Cap 1 
Hendrick Hansen 

1 Omission in copying. 


Sir William Johnson Papers 

Entries of Com 8 , issued dated 28 March 1 760 

Hendrick Hansen Cap m 
John Wemp 1 st Lieut 

Jeremiah Quack 2 d Leiut 
Samuel Gardineer Ensign 

John Lyne Cap ta 

Goosie M Vanalstyn 1 st Leiu 1 
Robert Flint Jun r . 2 d Lieu 1 
Christian Garlock Ensign 

Of the Comp"? 
of Militia Foot 
in D Batalion 
lately Command- 
ed by & in the .j- 28 March 
room of Cap* 
Peter Conin in 
the Regiment & c 
as above 

Of a New Com- ^ 
pany to be form- 
ed out of the 
Company of Mil- 
itia foot Com- 
manded by Hen- 
drick Hansen 
Esq r . (now di- 
vided into two 
Companies) in 
the Schenectady 
Battalion in the 
Regiment & c . 



As to M rs . Magin's additional Purchase. She agreed, or 
rather he did, for the Lands at or about the time he agreed for 
the purchase of what was lately surveyed, but it was not within 
the description of any Lycence that he had at that time, at least 
I dont know that he had any Lycence which included it : when 
she was up in October last she agreed with the Indian in the 
presence of the Surveyor for I think 6 miles Square West- 
ward of what she surveyed, and which lies as I understand back 

Seven Years War 289 

of Glin's Purchase. I think in her Letter to me which I have 
not now by me she mentions you and M r Ogilvie were to have a 
Share. 1 Besides which there is M r A Colden and my self. 
Klock in 1 755 obtained a Lycence to purchase Lands including 
this 6 miles; he did not proceed, he has now applyed to renew 
his Lycence, taking in M r . O DeLancey and M r . Peter DuBois. 
I wrote the latter M r . Du Bois I believed M rs . Magin would 
have no Objection to his having a Share, but that I imagined she 
would have nothing to say with Klock: M r . Colden and my 
self were concerned in the Lycence of Klock. All proceedings 
or Petitions not presented within one year to a patent are by an 
old Order of Council made by Gov. Clinton void: I am there- 
fore at a Loss what to say or to advise M rs . Magin to do in this 
Case. A new Lycence must be taken out but the question is by 
whom M r . Philip Livingston and M r . Stevenson of Albany, 
formerly made some agreement with the Indians about these 
Lands whither this was the same with Magin's I know not, but 
they expect a Share. I make it a Rule to be concerned where 
I can, because I look Upon this to be the principal advantage 
arising from the Office I sustain; 

A. L. S. 2 

Nerv York 22*. Dec'. 1760 

I wrote you a Letter last week in some hurry the Post being 
just going away & forgot to inclose M". Wraxall's Ace 1 . & 
Receipt which I now do herewith also Parker's Paper 3 of the 
1 1 *. instant wherein you will find a Paragraph with an ace*. 

1 See Calendar of Council Minutes, p. 401, 402, and Calendar of 
Land Papers, p. 292. Also Johnson to Wendell, March 10, 1761. 

2 Destroyed by fire. 

3 New York Gazette and Weekly Post Bo$. 

Vol. Ill 10 

290 Sir William Johnson Papers 

of the death of Cap*. Tyrrel: 1 Your Letter to that Gentleman 
I reserve till the next Pacquet goes away unless you advise me 
otherwise: some People believe the Acc ! . & some do not 
especially as coming from the West Indies, from where I had 
seen myself frequent Acc te . of his coming there w*. a fleet which 
was not true as this may be too. 

I have rec d . from the Stocking Weaver Seven pair of Stockings 
& some yarn over : Be pleas'd to acquaint me how I shall forward 
them to you & I shall do it with Dispatch 

I have Rec d . my Money f m . M r . Mortier and M r . Marsh' 
has lately Rec d . another half years Salary from M r . Kenneday 
the Receiver Gen 1 , which will be the last he will receive f m . that 
Office till he Obtains a Warrant from the LA of the Treasury 
for that Purpose the same which Cap*. Wraxall had: which I 
am apt to believe he will not get, as I am almost sure y r . Letter 
to the L ds . of Trade in favour of me came to their hands by 
Bolderson, who is Returned; that being the Master of y e Pacquet 
which M r . Kelly tells me he gave y* Pacquet to, directed to the 
Lords of Trade, but he did not Sail, till the beginning of Aug st . 
last, for England & when arriv'd did not tarry long there - 
the key of the Box in which are the Indian Records I gave to 
M r . J no . Wells. I am in some Suspence till you have an answer 
from the Board of Trade; but I am far from giving up the 
thoughts of Attending you with the Records as long as you con- 
tinue in the Station you are in. 

I took my leave of Maj r . M P. this Day who is 

to imbark directly, with ab l . 1 500 Soldiers & four Months full 
Provisions, for South Carolina, the Indians as far as I hear 
continue w tl \ Cap*. Kenneday who told me he believed W m . 
Amherst will soon go home, I have heard so f m . others but how 

1 Captain Richard Tyrrel. 

2 The royal commission to Witham Marsh to be town clerk, clerk of 
the peace and of the common pleas at Albany, also secretary or agent of 
Indian affairs, was read in the council, and he was sworn in, July 21, 
1 760. Calendar of Council Minutes, p. 448. 

Seven Years War 291 

they should know it from a Person so reserved as he is makes 

it a Question - Gen 1 . Monkton & Maj r . Gates not yet 

come from Philadelphia, every thing quiet there as far as I hear: 
tis Reported here that M r . Lacorn S l . Luke when he was here 
should say he woud dispetch from Montreal Eight Sleds this 
winter & some of our New York Gentry talk of making an 
Excursion that way^ 

I saw a Lady since my arrival who has been some time where 
the General was, & says that he often mentions you with great 

commendation. you'll Excuse this tittle tattle report f. 

me. it was uppermost as it gave me pleasure & I could not avoid 

repeating it = you'll repeat my Compliments to y r . Broth*. 

& family. 

I am y r . most oblig'd 

& very humble Serv*. 


A. L. S. 1 

Montreal 27 Dec'. 1760. 

I would not omit paying my Respects to you by a Post going 
from hence altho I have nothing remarkable or worth reporting 
the Ind ns .. being not returned from hunting yet, nevertheless I 
am frequently plagued with idle Visits by the Sachems who 
stayd at home, The sickness still continues and I am told some 
Ind ns .. upon the hunt were taken by it. I shall transmit a Copy 
of my Journal by that Canajoree Ind n . who came last spring 
from Caghnawage he was left here sick & intends to set out for 
home as soon as the Ice sets which to all the Inh te .. amasement 
has not been yet. If it was not for the Papers 2 that perhaps 

Mn Public Archives of Canada, Claus Papers, v. I. 1716-1777. 
M. 104, p. 16. 

"Capers" in the copy. 

292 Sir William Johnson Papers 

every three or four weeks are brought from Albany this Place 
would be a melancholly one as there is not the least News else 
stirring from any other Part-^7 

/Capt n . Lottridge has been gone from hence these 2 Months 
past & I hear was seen at Tiyondaroga Gen 1 . Gage dont like 
the Canadiens being with hin> 

I flatter myself my last letter of the 22 d . Ult. has come to 
your hands since w * 1 .. Nothing occurred material with regard to 
Ind n . Matters. I find there will be a Necessity of employing an 
Interpreter for the foreign Nations when they come here in spring, 
but this 

I am with the utmost Respect 

Your m. o. & m. h. s*. 

D. C. 

To the HonbK. 
S R . W M . JOHNSON Bart. 


L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson Dec 1 '. 29**. 1760 

It is with pleasure I embrace this opertunity of renewing a 
Correspondence with you, and heartily wish a continuance of it, 
without any interruption. 

The Two Mohawk Castles have of late been Severall times 
with me in a Body, desireing in the most pressing manner, i 
would let them know their Bounds, or what Lands they are still 
Masters, or owners of in these parts, I told them I would do all 
in my power to inform them but that it was impossible before I 
had a Survey of this part of the Country from you. which they 
begged I would get as soon as possible as they cant dispose of 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

Seven Years' War 293 

any more Lands, with the least degree of certainty, before they 
are informed what is yet unsold, wherefore, in order to gratifie 
them, & remove their present uneasiness with regard to their 
Lands, I should be verry glad and willingly pay for (on account 
of the Crown) an Exact & full Survey of all the Patents, & 
Lands taken up on both Sides of the Mohawk River, from 
Schenectady to Fort Stanwix. by which Means, I shall be able 
to let them know what they so much desire, and which will pre- 
vent disputes ariseing between them & the Inhabitants & ca ., which 
is his Majestys Intention, & desire Signified to Me several times 
by letters from y e . Lords of Trade, therefore, my Duty, to do all 
in my power to keep up a good understanding between them, to 
do which, nothing can at present more contribute than my have- 
ing such a full, and exact Survey as above mentioned, be so good 
Sir, to let me know whether, & when such a Survey can be had, 
& what the Expence would be. the sooner I could know it the 
better, as they are daily teasing me about it. 

I heartily wish you y c compliments of the Season, and am with 
best Respects to the good Family in general 
Dear Sir y r . 

Sincere Friend, & Humble Servant 


A. L. S. 1 

New York Dec'. 29'*. 7760 

I finish'd my last Letter the day after Xmas Day, 2 by Pat. 
McGhee since which Gen 1 . Monkton & Maj r . Gates are arrived 
the latter informs that M r . Croghan is not returned as yet f m . a 
Conference he is holding with the Ohio Ind 8 . & says that the 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Not found. 

294 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Shawanese Indians are not gone over to the Southern Ind 8 . our 
Enemies, that Maj r . Rogers was not return'd from Detroit, but 
had met with no Opposition f m . the French or Ind 8 . in that 
Quarter, he believes it may be too late for him Maj r . Rogers 
to proceed to Missilamakinac : there is above a hundred thousand 
Pounds worth of Furrs, french Property at Detroit, which it is 
suppos'd among other things is articled for in the Capitulation. 
I din'd two days ago in Company with Gov r . Ellis * f m . Georgia 
who on his way hither spent some time att Philadelphia, he is a 
sensible distinct 2 Person & Says both there & here, he finds the 
generality have too low an Opinion of the Ind 8 . he is bound to 
England as Fm-inforni'd, his Acc ts . there concerning them pos- 
sibly may differ f m . some which may go from these Parts. The 
Proprietaries of Pennsylvania have gain'd every thing in England 
against the People of that Province who were contending with 
them M rs . Lutwgche has Received a Letter f m . her Husband 
Master of the Pacquet, & says, she Expects him every Day I'm 
in hopes you will have an Answer from the Board relating to my 
Affair, which if favorable, & I little doubt of its being so, shall 
wait on you as soon as you think consistent. I saw M r . Marsh 
yesterday for the first time since my arrival, who ask'd how you 
did, & whether I had heard f m . you since I come to Town : Cap 1 . 
Gahs 3 gives me great incouragement, thinking that the Board of 
Trade will by no means oppose y r . inclination if they provid< 
for M r . Marsh in another way. This is the third Letter I hav< 
wrote to you since I got home but am not as yet favoun 
with one 4 You. I had the Pleasure of being inform'd, by M 1 
Wallace (who din'd with me at the same Table with Gov r . 
Ellis) that you & y r . Brother were well f m . whom he w; 
favoured with a Letter. Be pleas'd to make my Compliment 

1 Henry Ellis, governor from 1757 to 1760. 

2 "Discreet"? 

3 Gates? 

4 " From " does not appear in the copy. 

Seven Years' War 295 

acceptable to him & all of y r . Househould. wishing them health 
to go thro the Jollity of the Season & a Happy New Year 
I am with sincere Regard Sir 

y r . most oblig* 1 . & most humble 

P. S. 

Be pleas'd to inform me whether I shall send the Letter 
directed to Cap*. Tyrrel by y e next Pacquet bound home 
I sent by Patt. McGhee the Stockings from the Weaver 


The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 106-7, 
by two papers which were destroyed by fire: a letter of December 30th 
from John Bradstreet, at Albany, on money advanced in 1 756 for the 
public service; and an undated letter from Johnson to several provincial 
governments (draft of an intended letter), asking reimbursement for 
expenses incurred in the war. 

A. L. S. 1 

[New York, Dec. 2 7760] 

This Letter inclosed was put under Cover with one from 
Governor Pownall to Me: We have no other News than what 
I suppose will have heard a Victory obtained by the King of 
Prussia over Marshal Daun the 3 d November last 3 : No particu- 
lars were arrived but as it was a general Battle between the 
King's & the whole Austrian Army there is no doubt it was 
considerable, & must be great in its Consequences. 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Date conjectural. 

8 At Torgau in Saxony. 

296 Sir William Johnson Papers 

New writs for electing a General assembly will be issued this 
Week, returnable in forty days after the Test: It is necessary 
you think of doing something in your Susquehana affairs M r . 
Smith has put in two Petitions for Lands to border on the Penn- 
silvania Line on that side, and if the Purchase you made or 
agreed for be not located & known here, they may interfere. I 
have not rec d the two Petitions. I hope you received my letter 
with the Commissions. 

I am D< S'. W-. 
your obedient 

h ble Servant 

A. Df. S. 1 

Castle Cumberland Janr*. 2<*. 2 1761 

! received your favour of the 1 5 th . Ult. with the Commissions, 
which are right, as it is that Company which was Conins formerly, 
that I have now divided, and that w h . was Nich s . Hansens, now 
Vromans was divided last year, & not Conins as you imagine. 

The Indians of Conojohare in full Council Sent me a Mes- 
sage some time ago, & desired I would come up to their Castle, 
haveing something of Moment to communicate to me, on my 
Arrival the whole Castle mett in form, and let me know that 
they had unanimously resolved to make me a present of a con- 
siderable Tract of Land, & desired a Deed of gift might be 

Mn New York Public Library, Emmet Collection, 8053. This letter 
is substituted for the copy of a draft in the Library Collection, dated 
January 6th, as exhibiting corrections made in the interest of precision. 
In that draft, which was destroyed, Johnson mentions the refusal of the 
Indians to sell the land to Ury Klock ; and in postscript speaks of the death 
of George II. 

2 See the indorsement for a different date. 

Seven Years War 297 

drawn for that purpose. I thanked them for their good Will 
shown towards me, and told them I could not draw one then, 
but would consider of it. in a few days after, ab l . fifteen of 
them deputised by the rest came to my House, and executed a 
Deed of gift for a Tract of Land on the North Side of the 
Mohawk River l w h . they desired I would Send up to their 
Castle that the rest might Sign it w h . I accordingly did. this 
Grant includes all the Lands as yet unpattented between the 
Creeks called Takahyuharonwe, & Tinghtoghraron, the former 
falls into y e . Mohawk River opposite almost to Fort Hendrick, 
the latter at Burnets feild, from the Mohawk River as it Runs, 
to a line, w h . is to be Run from the North Westerly Corner of 
the Rear line of a Tract of Land (last Autumn) laid out or 
surveyed for M rs . M c Gin & ca . to the Canada Kill or Creek at 
Burnets feild, w h . Rear line is to be the Same Course of S d . M rs . 
M c .Gins Rear Line, & will make the length from the Mohawk 
River to S d . Line ab*. 13 Miles, containing ab*. 40 thousand 
Acres. for w h . I would willingly get out a Pattent as Soon as 
I could, and for that End, I would be glad You would take, 
or direct the proper Steps. I should also be oblidged to You for 
Abstracts of the Severall Petitions for Lands now lying before 
y e . Council. I have no other view in desireing this than to be 
able to See, or have Common Justice done to y c . Ind s . who in 
the most earnest manner begged, I would take care that they 
were not imposed on for the future in the Sale of such Lands as 
they still were Owners of, & further, that I would let them know 
what Lands were Pattented, so as to prevent any disputes, think- 
ing their request reasonable I wrote M r . Alexander Colden 2 
lately for an exact Survey of all the Lands Pattented from 
Albany or Schenectady to Fort Stanwix on Both Sides of the 
Mohawk River, vA I shall readily pay him for, as it will be the 

1 See Calendar of Land Papers, p. 302, and Calendar of Council 
Minutes, p. 404. 

2 Johnson to Colden, December 29, 1 760. 

298 Sir William Johnson Papers 

best means of removeing y e . doubts they have concerning severall 
Tracts, and w h . they have been many years very uneasy about. 
I should be oblidged to You for y r . opinion in an Affair often 
complained of to me, & vA I think a verry Villainous one, it 
is this, The Troop at Albany formerly employed one Martin 
Garretson their then Capt n ., and gave him money to take out 
a Patient for a Pasture near Albany for the use of the Said 
Troop, so that their Horses might be always ready on any emer- 
gency. He the Said Garretson went to York & took out a 
Pattent in his own name and kept the Land ever since, and also 
the Money as I understand, would it not be proper to give this 
Affair to the Kings Attorney? or if not, how is it to be prose- 
cuted? I wrote you twice lately to wK I impatiently expect an 
Answer, as also to this. I am now a good deal hurried, so can- 
not write as full as I could wish to do and am Sir 

Y r . Sincere freind 

& Humble Servant 


INDORSED BY JOHNSON : Letter to Golds Borrow 


Janry. 6* 1761. 


In the Johnson Calendar, p. 107, occur a letter of January 4, 1761, 
from Francis Wade, at Philadelphia, explaining an account presented by 
the writer and apologizing for recommending Mr Fury for employment; 
and Francis Wade's account current with Johnson, dated Philadelphia, 
January 4th. 

Seven Years War 299 

A. L. S. 1 

Albany 5* ]<nt* 1761 

Your favours of the 12 th . Ultimo I rec'd this Day near two 
of the Clock in the Afternoon I hope you will find out how it 
was with the Bond If you have paid it It wou'd be very hard to 
pay it again, If it is not paid it is Just that it should be paid. 

There is a Lott of Land lying this Side of Anthony's nose 
belonging to the Heirs of late Gov r . Burnett Several People 
have applied to purchase it. I wrote to William Brown Esq r . of 
Salem in N England His Son is now the Surviving Heir, He 
wrote to me that Several Years ago, Andrew Besinger had affer'd 
500 : for it, and was to have it But the Reason at that time was 
that Gov r . Burnet's Son was alive, and they wanted then to make 
a Division of the whole Estate But M r . Burnett is since Dead 
and the whole Devolves on M r . Brown's Son, So that they Do 
not Choose to sell now Unless they gett a Greater Price for it 
I do not know the Quantity of Land in the Lott Adam Staren- 
berghs has it in possession at least the Low Land of it, and pays 
Rent to M r . Brown 

John Depeyster is Surrogate here for granting Administration 
But as you wou'd Administer as principal Creditor it will be 
necessary for you to Inform the Surrogate whether there be any 
Relations If there be none you will gett Administration of 
Course. If there be they must Relinquish their Right in Your 
favour. Had you informed me who the person was I should 
spoke to the Surrogate not to grant Administration to another till 
he hear'd You 

It will be necessary for you to come before the Surrogate your 
Self For The Law prescribes an Oath which the Surrogate is to 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

300 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Administer to the Person or Persons that Administer I wish 
You the Compliments of the Season and am with great Respect 


Your most Obedient 

and most humble Serv*. 



Copp 1 


Copy. Fort Pitt Jarf*: 12* 1761. 

Return of the Several Men imployed in the Department 
of Indian Affairs to the Westward 

A/I T-L iv >i i A At 12/6 p r day each 

M r 1 homas M c : kee Assistant . ' 

Me- , , , V7 , ^ Jrensylvania Currency 

r Edward Ward D , , . 

\n AI i \n i r^ r have been doing duty at 

M r Alexander M c : kee D w T n , - , . 

MT^, f i i r^ Venango Le beufr & rns- 

r Thomas Hutchms D T , 

que Isle 

John Owins Gunsmith at 7/6 p r day 
Thomas Garrish his Assistant at 3/9 p r day 

At Detroit 

M r Martin Interpreter at 7/6 p r Day 
Doctor Antoney at 5 Sterling p r Day 
A French Smith at 7/6 p r day 

At Miamis 
A French Man Interpreter at 7/6 p r Diem 

George Croghan 
Dep l y. Agent 

Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5.61, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, February 27, 1 761. A copy in 
the State Library was destroyed by fire. 

Seven Years War 301 

INDORSED: Copy Return of People 

Employed in the Western Indian 
Enclosed in S r . W m . Johnson's to 
Gen 1 . Amherst of 12*. Feb?. 1761. 
in M. G. Amherst's of Feb?; 27: 1761 
N. 21. 


In the Johnson Calendar, p. 107, is a letter from George Croghan, 
reporting success in opening communication with Indian villages and 
obtaining permission to build a trading house at Little Carrying Place of 
Sandusky; dated the 13th. 

A. L. S. 1 

Fort Pitt Jan*. 13*. 1761 

Some Days ago I Return* 1 , from Detroit, Inclos d . I Send yu 
My Journal on pruseal of w h . you will See what has been Trans- 
actted with y. Indians Since I joyn d . his Majestys Trupes under 
y. Comm d . of Major Rogers by y r . honours orders, Likewise I 
Inclose you a Piece of Intilegence I gott with Respect to y. warr 
Carrying on by y. Cherokes against y. Southern Colnys. 

Majer Rogers Sett of for Missinilmnack y. 8 th of De br . with 
whome I Sent Cap 1 . Montour & Some Indians whome I fitted 
out for thire Journay, the Same Day Lef 1 . Button of y. Rangers 
Sett of for y. Mamies to Rileve that part 2 and if posable to 
Remain there till Spring, as itt Lays on y. Carrying place 3 which 
opens the Comunication to y. Elinoes Cuntrey M r . Mchee one 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

" Post " this word should probably be. 

8 Fort Miami, on the Maumee river. See Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y. 

302 Sir William Johnson Papers 

of My assistants I have Sent with a french officer to bring up y. 
french from y. Lower Shannes and One Body a french Treeder 
& great Partisan I have Sint to y. uper Shannas to bring up y. 
french from thence with those three partys I have Sent Inter- 
preters & Indians and Expect them hear in about 8 Days* y e . 
Expence of this Journey will be Much More then I Expected 
I shall Send My acounts & vochers to General Monckton Greatt 
part of w * 1 . is Certify d . by Majer Rogers & Cap 1 . Campble * who 
ordered Me to purchase y. Goods & see them Delivered. I shall 
Likewise Send y r . honour Copeys of y e . whole as Soon as I Can 
Make them up I have been oblidg d . to Draw on you in favor of 
Coll. Cole 2 for 586:10;6 which I will Desier Major Gates to 
Remitt you if Gineral Monckton will pay y. accounts. 
'\ Need Nott Truble you with an account of the Maners of y. 
pople tho I think them Compliant to a fault Butt y. Cuntrey is 
fertill & level & Capable of being Made as fine a Settlement as 
any I have Seen in America from thence you have a Comunica- 
tion to all parts by Water with Some few Short Carrying Places 
a fine River or Streats between Laeke hurran & Eora about 40 
Leaugs in Lenth full of fine Hands & 24 foot Water Neer a Mile 
over in some places they had the finest Militia there I Ever See 
for y. Number About 800 & y. best Stockoade which Inclos d . 
about 80 houses itt is an old Setlement & y. pople Seem to be a 
Sett of able farmers they all Talk Some Indian Languge Men 
Women & Children they have been Much Distrest by y e . Warr 
Provisions is very Scarce a pistole for 2 fouls & as Much for 3 
p d . of Indian Sugar Wine or Sperits there is None butt what y. 
Indians bring from Nigero about 8 miles below y. town is an 
Island about 10 Miles Long & about three Miles wide in y. 
midle Lays high well Timbred y. finest Island I Ever See itt 
was ofer d . Me by y. Indians Butt I Did Nott Chuse to Except itt 
as pople Might Say I went a Land Jobing when I Should have 
Done My Duty Butt if on a paice that Cuntrey Should be 

1 Captain Donald Campbell, governor of Detroit. 

2 Colonel Edward Cole. 

Seven Years' War 303 

Ceaded to Grcatt Britain itt will be worth having if y r . honour 
Chusis to have a Smale Estate in that Cuntrey I will gett itt for 
you .* 

There is to be a greatt Meeting of all y c . Westren Nations att 
Detroit Next Spring by there own apointment to w h . y e . Six 
Nations are Invited & I think they Should attend, as I blive 
Many things will be Disgusted 1 there Reletiff to what has past 
Sence y e . Warr and fixing on Some plan for thire futer Conductt, 

I had 42 of y e . English prisners Deliverd up at Detroit; y e . 
Rest will be Deliverd up att that Meeting to who Ever attends, 
there to Represent you 

there is Now a prospect of a good Treade with y e . Indians 
Butt unless you Regulate itt on a plan to which y e . Treaders from 
y e . Several governments Must be bound I feer itt will Come to 
Nothing as we Shall over Trade our Selves an Interfear with one 
a Nother, I Must Beg pardon for Menshoning this to you Butt 
as I have herd Some General oficers Say itt was you that Should 
Regulate y e . Indian Treade I thought I wold Menshon itt as itt 
Certienly Requires to be putt on som footing Imeadetly this way 
for if we Run into Irregularitys in Treade his Majestys Indian 
Intrest in Gineral will Suffer by itt 

This Last fall I gott Gineral Monckton to prohibett the Sale of 
Spirrits to y e . Indians in Such Large quantitys as has been Sold 
Sence that y e . Government of Pennsylvaine who Carry on a 
greatt Treade heer has Sent out a Large quantity to Sell to y. 
Indians tho they have been this 50 years past Makeing Laws to 
prohibett y e . kings Subjects who formerly Carry d . on y c . Treade 
& Sence y e . present Warr wold Insinuate to y. World that y. 
Debauching y e . Indians with Spirrits was a Mains of alinating 
thire affections from the British Intrest, itt wold be well Done to 
Expose them in y. New York Gisette, 

1 Discussed. *' Disgusted " in the copy. 

304 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Gineral Monckton p d . of my assistants till the 1 st . of No br . 
Last butt there is more pople Sense Imploy I Inclose 

you a List of them & where they are Stacioned and hope you 
will Setle itt with Gineral Amhurst whether they are to be Con- 
tinued, and how p d . & plese to Lett know whether y r . honour 
Intends to keep Me heer Till I grow Gray Plese to Make My 
Complements Exceeptable to all the family & gentlemen with 
you I am Sir with Greatt Esteem & Regard 

Y r . Honours Most obed 1 . 

& most Humble Ser 1 . 

The Honourable 

A. Df. S. 2 
<Forl Johnson 18 ih . ]an r *. 1761 


I am honoured with yours of the 1 st . Inst. 3 containing^ the 
melancholly <news of the death of our late King. I> sincerely 
condole <Vith your Excellency on y e occasion > and hope God 
will enable his <present Majesty to finish >> with Honour the 
work in Hand, and grant <him a> long and happy Reign. 

I am extremely glad to find y r . <dispatches> from Montreal 
had reached his late Maj<esty,> as the news of so great a 
Conquest, made by his <Arms,> under your Excellencys Com- 
mand, must deser<vedly> have mett his Majestys most gracious 

1 Words omitted in copying. 

2 There is another copy in the Public Record Office, C. O. 5.61, Lon- 
don, England; inclosed in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, February 
27, 1761. The underscored matter which in the draft closes the last 
paragraph but one does not appear in that copy. 

8 Not found. 

Seven Years War 305 

approba<^tion,^> and also greatly contributed to make the close 
of <his> Day Happy. 

The Notice his Majesty was plea<^sed^> to take of my small 
Service, (as Signified to you by <M r .> Pitt) 1 does me great 
Honour, and at the same time that <jC> demands my most 
gratefull acknowledgements, it lays me under the greatest obliga- 
tions to your Excellency, from whose favourable representations 
it must proceed, of which, I shall ever retain a due Sense. 

When the Indians return from Hunting I shall take the first 
opertunity of letting them know the purport of your Order of the 
1 st . Ins'., w h . I am certain <Vill give them much Satisfaction, 
and your Excellency may be assured that as long as I continue the 
Management of Indian Affairs, I shall exert all my Influence & 
abilities to keep those already in Alliance with his Majesty, firm 
in their zeal for his Person, & government, as well as endeavour 
to bring over all Nations (with whom^> I can have <C^ny Corre- 
spondence or with whom, the Indians und^>er my Care have 
<any Connections) to the same way of thinking, > and I do 
not <^doubt of succeeding in, if^> I am properly <^ supported.^ 

I have this time past flattered my<self w th . the> hopes of 
your Excellencys receiving before <^now a favourable An]>swer 
to what you were pleased to tell me you would <^write Home^> 
last June concerning my Affair, or Military Com<mission, 
whi^>ch you were then of opinion would be Settled to my 
^Satisfaction^ and indeed having the Honour of y r . approba- 
tion & Interest I could make <no doubt of it> Should it con- 
trary to my expectation, & the opinion of all who have Seen my 
Commission and know that I acted in a Millitary Capacity since 
I had the Honour of bearing it, turn out Otherwise, 2 I can only 
<say,> I must rest a verry considerable Sufferer both in Interest 
& constitution, and endeavour for the time to come to repair both 
in another n>cry. 

1 Amherst to Pitt, August 26, 1760, September 8th, and Pitt to 
Amherst, October 24, 1 760, Correspondence of William Pitt with 
Colonial Governors etc., ed. Gertrude Selwyn Kimball, Macmillan. 

2 The words, " turn out Otherwise," are supplied from the London copy. 

306 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I beg your Excellency will excuse my giveing you so much 
trouble ab l . this Affair of mine w h . I should by no means have 
done, were I not encouraged thereto by your verry friendly, & 
never to be forgotten offers of Service to me, at Montreal & else- 
where which I shall always endeavour to merit a continuance of. 
I have the honour to be with the 
utmost respect y r . Excellencys 
most obedient & most Humble Serv*. 


His Excellency 

A. L. S. 1 

New York /an*. 78. 7767 

It gives me great Satisfaction to find you are pleased to renew 
a Correspondence which has been so long Droped & that you 
are desirous it may be Continued without any further Interruption. 
I will indeavour it shall not fail on my Side & shall be proud to 
hear often from you. 

I am very desirous of doing every thing in my power to Comply 
with the Request of the two Mohawk Castles which you have 
Signified to me in y. of the 29th Ult & prevent any Disputes 
arising between the Indians & Inhabitants & in regard to their 
Lands : But as what you desire will be a work that must take up 
a good deal of time & make me lay aside other buissness & will 
be attended with many difficulties, I cant undertake it for Less 
then 100 Sterling or l 50 Currency & even for that Sum I cant 
do it with that Exactitude I could wish for want of some Regular 
Surveys: However if you think Proper to Engage to pay me 
the above Sum I will Set about makeing out the best Draft I can 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

Seven Years War 307 

of all the Lands Granted according to your desire & finish it by 
April next, which will be before the Season will admit of any 
Lands to be Surveyed; but then I must receive your imediate 
answer that no time may be lost. 

There is now great q't'ys of Lands Petitioned for in the 
Mohawks & Oniedos Country & Licences of purchases ordered 
to be made out. I shall take Due Care that none of these lands 
prayed for be Survey'd without a regular Notification being first 
given to the Castles & Deputies appointed by them to See the 
Survey performed. 

The Albany Surveyrs having frequently deceived both the 
Surveyor Gen 1 & Indians, I am determined to Employ none as 
my Deputies but such men in whom I can confide & who will not 
be tempted either to Deceive us or the Indians & as I fear it 
would be a difficult matter to find such a one at Albany I have 
Determined not to employ one there but on all Surveys to Send 
Deputies from hence. I hope the Indians have been pleased with 
those I have Sent up as also with my Instructions to my Deputies 
which as far as relates to the Indians I always order'd to be 
Interpreted to them. 

George Klock has Obtained a Lycence to purchase a small 
peice of Land described in these Words. On the North Side of 
the Mohawks River to the South of a Creel? called Canada Creek 
or Cajohairie. Bounded Easterly by Lands granted to Petrus 
Vandrissen & Northwardly by Lands granted to William Nellis 
& others Containing 800 Acres* This Land Petitioned for I 
suspect to be the very Tract the Indians reserved to themselves 
and would not dispose of in the year 1 755 when my Br Cad- 
wallader Surveyed a Tract for Timberman & Snell 2 & are Lands 
part of which I imagine the Indians improve. I know not wether 
I am right in my Conjectures or not. If I am then I fear some 
unfair means has been used to gain their Consent for the Sale 
thereof & should be glad to be informed wether the whole Castle 

1 Calendar of Land Papers, p. 296, 297. 

2 Calendar of Land Papers, p. 276, 262, 287, 

308 Sir William Johnson Papers 

unanimously Consents that such a purchase be made or not, that 
I may Govern my Self accordingly. 

I am humbly of Opinion all possible care should be taken to 
prevent the Indians from disposing of Lands they Occupy & that 
some method should be taken to Secure those Lands to them for 
their use & prevent their being aplied to any other. However 
I submit to your better Judgment & must leave you to act therein 
as you shall think most proper. 

As the Indians may be deceived by persons pretending to have 
orders from me for Surveying I should be glad they would not 
Suffer any to Survey but such as shall produce to them a regular 
Deputation under my hand which I always give to my Deputys 
with Orders to have them Interpreted to them 

I need not mention the News we have as M r . Banyar has wrote 
to you & no doubt given you a better Ac ct . of it then I could 

I heartily wish you the Succession of many happy years & am 


y r Most Obed 1 & 
humble Ser 1 . 
Hon ble S R W M JOHNSON 

A. Df. S. 1 

Montreal 19 th .. Jan*. 1761. 


A Post being unexpectedly sent off for Albany I found the 
time too short and weather too cold to copy my Journal and 
therefore made free to send you the Original w ch .. I should be 
glad to have returned ag n . at a convenient Time. 

Mn Public Archives of Canada, Claus Papers, v. I. 1716-1777. 
M. 1 04, p. 1 8. The letter in the Library Collection dated January 20th 
was destroyed by fire. 

Seven Years War 309 

I have nothing in the least remarkable to comunicate from 
any Quarter we can have intelligence of in Canada Whites as 
well as Ind ns .. living in the utmost Tranqility & the profondest 
time ef Peace. The inclosed is a Letter from the Priest of St 
Francis * I had one from him also wherein gives me to consider 
the Distress of the Ind ns .. as well his own, I could not answer 
him upon it as I had not heard from you ab*. the last request he 

I could wish to know in what the Curiosities should consist you 
would chuse to have I cant see anything worth while buying 
here of little value as you mention the Things I could get & would 
suit are all valuable viz. Silver Plate, Gold & Silver Snuff Boxes, 
Rings, Tapestry for Rooms, Picturs, Silk Paterns of embroidered 
Waistcoats which are now put to Sale at an extravagant Price, 
but in the Spring if the Country should remain ours or even not 
there will be families going to Fr. & quantities of such things be 
sold at Vendues when they may be had more reasonable. 

A Gen 1 court Martial is sitting ab l a Challenge that happen 
between Cap*. Cha. Osborne & Liut. Gambel of the 44 w ch .. 
after this Dispute being amicably settled after w ch a Court 
2 ensue ab* some ungentlemanlike Expressions w ch dropt 
between Maj r . Beckwith & s d . Capt n . Osborne 3 no Sentence is 
passt yet: 

It is now since the 1st of Dec r . we had no acc te .. from Albany 
w ch .. makes every Body very eager to hear some News, there are 
likewise no Acc b .. yet from Detroit. 

I could have sent you a french Copy of the Capitulation by 
the first Post from this if I did not think you had one from Gen 1 . 
Amherst as many of the french had copies sent them by the french 
Officers from Quebec before they embarked for France. 

1 From Pierre Roubaud, November 13, 1 760, q. v. 

2 Omitted being illegible. 

3 Major John Beckwith, Captain Charles Osborne and Lieutenant 
Thomas Gamble were of the 44th regiment. 

3 1 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I beg to be remembered to Capt n . Warren 1 and am with my 
greatest Respect 

Yours &c. 

D. C. 
To the Hon ble . 

S R . W M . JOHNSON Bart. 

A. L. S. 2 

NeTV York 19 th . /an*. 7767 


The Halifax Racquet Cap 1 . Bolderson saild this Morning 
your Letter to Cap 1 . Tyrrel remains yet with Me as you have not 
informed to the contrary since I wrote to you, with a News Paper 
inclosd, wherein was inserted an Ac ct . of that Gentlemans Death : 
I shall be well pleas'd at any time when you do me the honour 
to answer any of my Letters, but I am in pain what to do with 
this Letter to Captain Tyrrel. 

Besides what you may read in the Prints: I hear we are to 
have a New Assembly. that there has been a Requisition from 
England to the different Governors for Provincial Troops for this 
years Service & that M r . Croghan hearing, that M r . Belletre ' 
at Deroit with the Wyandot & Towas, had pretended to doubt 
on the Occasion of his & Major Rogers being sent thither there- 
upon sent some Ind 8 . forward to Satisfy those Indians, from 
thence had no trouble in obliging M r . Belletre to submit who is 
now in Carlisle in his way to Philadelph where thirty five English 
Prisoners are arrived from that Fort which they found more 
Respectable than they cou'd Imagine: Gen 1 . Amherst cou'd 

1 Captain Warren Johnson, Sir William's brother. 

2 Destroyed by fire. 

3 Captain Picote de Belletre, or Beletre, in command at Fort Detroit. 

Seven Years' War 3 1 1 

hardly believe Mon sr . Vaudreuilee could have made such a 
Capitulation. I am with proper Compliments to y r . Brother & 
family Sir 

Y r . most obt. humble Serv 1 . 


P : S : if you have any thing f m . England relating to me wou'd 
be glad you wou'd favor me w*. a Line. 


The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 108, by 
two from Lieutenant Daniel Claus, at Montreal, to Johnson, which were 
destroyed. The first, dated January 20th, corresponds to the Claus letter 
of the 1 9th in the Canadian Archives, here printed. In the second, dated 
the 22d, the writer expressed his fear that, under a recent regulation made 
by General Amherst, he would be engaged in duty entailing an expense in 
excess of his pay. 


There is found on page 108 of the Johnson Calendar a letter of 
January 26, 1761, from Dr Richard Shuckburgh, at New York, to 
Johnson, conveying intelligence that Captain Richard Tyrrel is alive and 
will soon be an admiral and information about the market for " ginzeng," 
medals for Indians who accompanied the English to Montreal and the 
high rate of exchange. Destroyed by fire. 

Df. S. 1 

Fort Johnson 28 th . Jarf*. 1761 

Your kind favour of the 18 th . Ins*, came this Day to hand, 
wher'by I am extremely glad to find that a renewal of that corre- 
spondence which has been interrupted for some time (by means 
of the War) will be agreable to you, as there is no Family in 
the Country (without any dissimulation) with whom I would 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

312 Sir William Johnson Papers 

sooner wish to correspond. As My Scituation is such, that I 
cannot always be verry punctual, being often from home, you 
will not attribute it to any thing else, should I miss a letter now 
& then. 

The method I proposed, being most effectual one I can think 
of, to Satisfie y e . Ind 8 . with regard to what Lands they have yet 
left, & prevent their being imposed upon in the Sale of them 
& ca . I should therefore be glad you would fall about it as soon 
as possible and do it with all the correctness exactness in your 
power, otherwise twill be productive of disputes, let it be done 
in the plainest & most intelligible manner you can, so as Everry 
Pattent or Tract between Albany & Fort Stanwix on both sides 
y e . Mohawk River Scohare Stoneraby & Cherry Valley with y e . 
Pattentees Names, y e . quantity of Each & year pattented may 
be easily known, by which means, what is yet unpattened & 
belongs to the Indians may plainly appear, let it be on proper 
Paper, or parchment, and finished compleatly before April if 
possible, and I will pay you 150 New York Currency; but I 
expect you will not let any other Person have a Coppy thereof. 
- I have understood some time ago y [ . there were several 
Petitions given in to y e . Gov r . & Council & Lycences obtained 
thereon for purchaseing great quantitys of Land in these parts 
but I believe the Indians from w*. I heard them say in full 
Council (will not incline to dispose of much more yet a while.) 

As for Ury Klock, I can assure you, that the Ind 5 . of Cana- 
johare lately in a full Meeting declared their dislike to him, and 
verry warmly remonstrated on the Villany of his proceedings, 
to obtain a Deed for y*. Land as described in y r . letter, and a 
great deal more adjoining it, by Virtue of an old Lycence granted 
in 1 755 * or some years ago, to obtain which, he Worked under- 
hand with two or three Indians & a Woman or two whom he 
bribed & made drunk to sign S d . Deed, w h . when sober they dis- 

1 Calendar of Council Minutes, p. 394, 397, 399, and Calendar of 
Land Papers, p. 286, 287. 

Seven Years War 313 

claimed & knew not w l . they signed this has given so much dis- 
satisfaction to all the rest of the Ind 8 . that they went so far as to 
expel these Indians out of their Councils, w h . indeed was seldom 
troubled with them, as they have for several years past left the 
Castle, and wander ab*. among the Country People killing their 
Cattle & living on them. these are the People he applied to 
for a Title of the Land he wants to have, upon this, the Ind 8 . 
all mett together last Month at their Castle, at Canajohare and 
determined to send for me, which they did by one of their Chiefs 
Nicku's Eldest Son, when I came there, they all told me w l . I 
have above mentioned concerning Klock, & a great deal more of 
his villany too tedious to trouble you with, after w* 1 . they 
acquainted me that they had all unanimously agreed to make me 
a gift of a Tract of Land on the North Side of the Mohawks 
River the Bounds of which I have described to M r . Banyar in 
my last letter 1 to him, which he can shew you, I have at the 
same time desired M r . Banyar to take the proper steps towards 
my getting a Pattent for Said Tract, haveing a Deed of gift for 
it, signed by all the Castle, in y e . presence of a Justice & Inter- 
preter & ca . who has certified it - your opinion of y e . Albany 
& Some others Surveyors heretofore clandestinely employed is 
verry Just, and will everry day appear Clearer, wherefore w l . 
you propose is verry right and cant fail of giveing general satis- 
faction to the Parties concerned. 

Surely M r Klocks Villainous proceeding will not be allowed 
of. as I am certain it will be productive of much trouble, and 
prevent the Indians disposeing of any Lands in haste, for all the 
Castle declare they would as Soon die as he shall have a foot of 
Land from them. The verry Persons whom (when drunk) he 
got to sign a Deed without even a proper Lycence, when Sober, 
declared to me they knew not what they signed their names to, 
and did with the rest of the Castle quite over execute a Deed of 
gift to me for all the Lands within the Bounds described to 

Johnson to Banyar, January 2, 1 761. 

314 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Banyar. I shall be glad to hear from you what Ury Klock is 
gone down about, and what steps are necessary for me to take 
in order to get out a Pattent for my self and my associates for 
Said Tract of Land. 

I am with kind respects to you & Family 
Dear Sir 

Your most obedient 

Humble Servant 



INDORSED: Jan r y 28 th 1761 

Letter to Alex dr Golden Esq r . 
concerning Lands & ca . 

Df. S. 1 

Fort Johnson Jarf*. 28 th . 1761 

Your verry friendly letter of y e . 1 st . Nov br . 2 last I am Just 
favoured with The Friendship you have always expressed and 
now in a more particular manner signified for me, lays me under 
the greatest obligations and be assured my Dear Sir I shall ever 
retain a due sense of it. your mentioning my Name for the gov- 
ernment of New York, 3 was doing me great Honour, and a most 
convinceing proof of your regard, for which I am extremely 
obliged to you. but as I am sensible of my inability for the execu- 
tion of so important a Trust, and the Settleing of my Lands 
requireing my Presence and daily encouragement in these parts, 
it would not at all answer for me. besides as I have hitherto had 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Not found. 

3 Pownall's letter was evidently written from England. "On 3 June 
1 760 he quitted America. ... On his arrival in London he 
resigned his colonial governorship." Dictionary of National Biography. 

Seven Fears' War 315 

the most fatiuging and disagreeable Service I now propose to 
retire and spend the rem dr . of my Days more tranquile, w h . I am 
convinced in that Station I never could. wherefore would not 
by any means choose such a Station, altho a greater honor than I 
could expect. I wish you all happiness 

and am My Dear Sir with . 
the greatest respect 

Your most Obedient 

& most humble Servant 


His Excellency 



There are found in the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 08, two letters which 
were destroyed by fire: a letter of February 1st from Thomas Wilson, at 
Montreal, to Johnson, expressing friendship, mentioning a journey from 
New York, by way of the Sorel and St Lawrence, after a cruise of six 
weeks and three days from England, also prospects of trade in Montreal, 
and expressing grief for loss of the late King " of glorious memory " ; and 
a letter of the 1 st from Mrs Sarah Magin, asking Johnson's attention to her 
land claim and warning him of Clock's trespasses against their common 


Contemporary Copp. 1 
Copy. New York I st - February 1761.- 


Captain Brewer of the Rangers, Arrived here Yesterday by 
way of Niagara, from Major Rogers with Sundry Letters for 
me; wherein he Acquaints me, that upon his arrival at the 
Detroit, Monsieur Beletre 2 the Commanding Officer, imme- 

Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5.61, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, February 27, 1761. 
2 Picote de Belletrc. 

316 Sir William Johnson Papers 

diately delivered him possession of the Fort; that the Inhabitants 
to the Number of 500 had taken the Oath of Allegiance, & had 
laid down their Arms, amounting to upwards of 400, which the 
Major had Secured. That Mons r . Beletre & his Garrison were 
set out, by the way of Pittsburgh for this place, where I Expect 
them soon, & whence I shall Send them to France; that the 
Indians had Come in & behaved Extremely well; that M r . 
Croghan Your Deputy (whose Zeal & Vigilance the Major 
greatly Commends) had had a Conference with them, a Copy 
of Which goes Enclosed. That the Detroit abounded in furrs, 
of which there were Incredible Quantities, owing to the few that 
had been Exported from thence, since the Reduction of Niagara, 
to which place only they had sent any since that great & happy 
Event. That he, the Major, had sent an Officer & Some Rangers 
to Miamis, another to S l . Joseph to take possession of those posts ; 
and that he himself with Thirty five Rangers, five or Six 
Inhabitants and as many Indians, accompanied by M r . Montour 
were setting out (on the 25 th . December) for Michillimakinah * 
which place he hoped he should be able to reach; if not that he 
must Deferr it till Spring; but that if he Succeeded he Expected 
to return Sometime in the month of February: he likewise adds 
that he had Sent an Officer to the hither Shawanese Towns, to 
bring away from thence the few french Troops that might still 
be among them. 

When all this is Effected, and the Indians Continue in the good 
Disposition they Seemed to be in (which as it is for their Interest, 
I am willing to believe they will) Our Intercourse must be free 
& Safe ; to make it still more so, and to improve all the Advantage 
that must of Necessity result from the possession of so valuable 
a Country, I propose, so soon as the Season will admit of it, not 
only to Garrison these Several posts properly but I propose to 
appoint a Person of knowledge, & probity to be Governor at 

1 For different dates consult Croghan to Johnson, January 13, 1761, 
and Journals of Major Robert Rogers, p. 1 98. 

Seven Years War 317 

the Detroit, with Directions to open a free and fair Trade 
between the Subjects & the Indians, giving to each such Advan- 
tages, as Shall make it their respective Interests to deal fairly 
& honestly by each Other, and at the same time to reap reason- 
able profits ; I should therefore be much Obliged to you for Such 
hints, as may Enable me to Establish this Trade upon a lasting 
& good foundation, by Acquainting me with what Commodities 
it will be most proper to Send among those Indians ; their value, 
and what profit, the Trader should have to Enable him to keep 
it up with a reasonable Gain, & without Imposing on the Indians, 
who, so long as they behave well, must not be Imposed upon, 
but receive a Just Equivalent for their furrs; any Other hints & 
Observations, that You will be pleased to add to these for the 
Government of the Indians, and the maintenance of this great & 
important post of the Detroit and its Natural Commerce with the 
Subject, I shall receive with pleasure, and give a due Considera- 

I must now own the receipt of Your Letter of the 1 8 th . Ultimo, 
and repeat to you the Confidence I am in that so long as the 
Management of Indian Affairs Continues in You, there is not 
the least room to doubt but you will Exert all your Influence & 
Abilities to keep those already in Alliance with His Majesty 
firm in their Zeal for his Person & Government, as well as 
Endeavor to bring over all Nations of Indians (with whom you 
have any Correspondence, or with whom those Indians under 
your Care have any Connections) to the same way of thinking, in 
which you may rely on being Supported to the Extent of my 

As an Encouragement to Such as behaved well during the 
last Campaign, I have, as I mentioned to You, I would, Ordered 
a Number of Silver Medals to be Struck, representing the City 
of Montreal with a blank Reverse, On Each of which is to be 
Engraven the Name of One of those Indians, who, by wearing 
the same as a badge of Distinction, will, by Virtue thereof have 
free Egress & Regress to any of His Majesty's Forts, Posts, & 

318 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Garrisons, so long as they Continue true to his Interests : they are 
not quite finished Yet, when they are, I shall send them to you, 
to make a Distribution of them. 

I Cannot Close this Letter without renewing to you my Assur- 
ances, that I Shall ever take the greatest pleasure in Contributing 
towards every thing that can give You Satisfaction; that my 
Representations shall not be wanting to Obtain the Same; and 
that I most Sincerely wish they may be attended with all the 
Success that you yourself can Desire. 

I am, with great Regard, 

Jeff: Amherst. 

INDORSED: Copy Letter from Gen 1 . Amherst 
To Sir WilK Johnson Bar 1 . 
Fort Johnson 

New York 1 st . February 1761. 
Acquainting him with Maj r . Roger's 
having taken possession of Detroit & ct 
and of the good Disposition of the 
Indians there, who had Come in, & 
behaved Extremely well; Informs 
Sir William of his Intentions of 
appointing a proper Person to be 
Governor of Detroit, with Directions 
to open a free and fair trade between 
the Subjects and the Indians; and 
therefore Desiring he would furnish 
him with Such hints as might 
Enable him to Establish this Trade 
on a Lasting & good foundation; and 
that he had ordered a Number of 
Silver medals to be Struck, to be 

Seven years' War 319 

Distributed among such Indians 

as had behaved well during the 

last Campaign.- 

in M. G. Amherst's of Feb*. 27:1761 

NO. 17. 

A. L. S. 1 

New York 2 February 1761 

I have the favour of yours of the 6 th of January last, I cannot 
possibly as yet send you extracts of the Petitions before the 
Council. I have subjoined two, which include the Land you 
acquaint me the Indians have lately given you a Deed for. The 
Parties concerned had notice of this Deed just before I received 
your letter. Those with whom I have conversed on the Subject 
seem disposed to accommodate the matter by Agreement with 
you, and they were to have delivered me their Terms to have 
transmitted to you. Unless you and they agree I forsee neither 
the one or the other will get a Grant of the Land. The Council 
are so far from encouraging private Purchases from the Indians, 
that it seems to me they would apply the argument to the Dis- 
advantage of the Persons interested, as by countenancing such 
applications to the Indians, they must not only introduce confusion 
(as it has already apparently done in some Instances) but in 
some Measure preclude themselves from that Right which they 
have of a voice in the Disposition of the Crown Lands, for such 
they most certainly are, notwithstanding the Government from a 
well judg'd Policy, have always made an Indian Purchase the 
Basis or Foundation of all Grants. This however cannot be con- 
strued to imply or give a Right to the Indians to convey their 
Lands to Whom they please without a Lycense or independent 
of the Authority of the Government.,, 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

320 Sir William Johnson Papers 

This is the Light in which I have always received the Right of 
the Crown and of the Indians to the vacant Lands in this 
Province, and I have never yet heard the Contrary insisted On. I 
therefore hope you will give up any advantage you proposed by 
this Purchase, beyond that of an equal share with those who have 
been before hand with you in their application to the Government 
among whom too, there are several of your Friends; and in 
general I may venture to assert, that the Majority of the whole 
Number will not give up the Point without a Determination of 
the Council against them. By the next Post I hope to send you 
the Names of the Parties & their Proposals, in the meantime, I 
do not think it proper to do anything in the matter in consequence 
of your Letter or until I hear further from you, nor will it be any 
prejudice to your Interest if these Petitions should pass and 
Lycenses issue, for without your Concurrence any Application to 
the Indians upon the Lycenses must be fruitless and I dare say 
will not be thought of. 

We have no Publick News. A Report prevails that the 
officers, Serjeants Corporals & Drums of some Regiments will be 
sent home : Time must determine the truth of it, however it seems 
probable. I am D r S r . W m . 

Your affectionate humble Servant 


P. S. As to the affair of Mark Gerritson It will be attended 
with much Difficulty as it will be difficult to prove who paid the 
money ; if this can be done, they or their Representatives may file 
a Bill in Chancery and if the Facts turn out on Proof as you 
State the Case, the Court will decree either Repayment of the 
money with Interest, or the Land to be reconveyed for the use it 
was originally intended. But you may observe it is rather a pri- 
vate than a Publick affair, and therefore the Alt?. General may 
decline the matter if he pleases as not falling with in the Bounds 
of his Duty. 

Seven Years War 321 

Petition of Johan Joost Petrie & associates for Lycense to 
purchase 50,000 acres of Land in the County of Albany on the 
North side of the Mohawks River between two certain Creeks 
the one called Caioharie or Canada Creek opposite to Fort 
Hendrick and the other called Canada Creek at Burnets Field 
also 500 acres for a church or Glebe: Refers to a Lycense to 
purchase the same Lands dated 26 April 1 755. 1 

On a Presumption that no more than 25000 acres of Land 
would be granted on this Petition: The following was given in, 
by the mayor to the President. 

Petition of Abraham Dowe and his associates to the Number 
of 25 Persons: Praying for a Lycense to purchase 25000 acres 
of the same Lands. 2 

A. L. S.* 

Montreal 2 J . Feb*. 1761. 

1 have since my last enquired for the Pan? Ind n . that made his 
Escape, but could not hear of him as yet; perhaps he was sent 
out of the way. 

M r . Chev r . la Come and another GentK have promised to 
assist me in getting a Match for your horse the former told me 
that perhaps he could make an Exchange that way for a couple 
of good large Milk Cows from thence w ch . he should be very glad 
to have. M r . Pitcher intends if any way practicable to go to 
Albany in a Slay w ch . would be a good Opportunity to send the 
horse. I have likewise spoke to proper Persons to find out a 

^ee Calendar of Council Minutes, p. 399, 402, and Calendar of 
Land Papers, p. 287, 295. 

2 See Calendar of Council Minutes, p. 402, 403, and Calendar of 
Land Papers, p. 299. 

3 Destroyed by fire. 

Vol. Ill 11 

Sir William Johnson Papers 

little Pany * girl, and if to be had shall certainly get it cheap, tho 
w cl \ I am told is not the case except they come newly from the 
Nations that sell them and w^. has not yet happened since I am 
here nor perhaps mayn't in the Spring as the People here think 
the Traders wont care to bring any because the Country was in 
our Possession. 

As to Indian Curiosities to be got among the Ind ns . here they 
are not to be compared to those of the 6 Nations and even the 
French give them the Preference for the like. The Shoes M r . 
Du Musseaux made you a present of are the handsomest I have 
seen in Town. However I shall endeavour to pick up something 
before Capt n . Warren's Departure. 

The Canadiens that were upon the Hunt with Cap tn . Lott- 
ridge are returned and reported Gen 1 . Gage of his being gone 
to Albany at w cl \ he expressed his Displeasure to me saying 
that if he reced pay it was not at all well done, at the same time 
I cant see what service he could since been of here nor for the 
future if there are no parties wanted to be sent any where. 

We have no News here of any kind, different conjectures are 
made ab l . the Destination of the Troops here for the Next Cam- 
paign if the war continues in Europe w ch . in all probability it 
will for an other year; in that case its thought most of the Reg ts . 
will be sent home. 

The Indians that were upon the hunt about Ticondoque. are 
not yet returned. 

His late Majestys thanks to his faithful Ind n . allies were given 
out here in Gen 1 . Orders, with his particular Pleasure in having 
had such good order kept among them that no Blood stained 
the British Arms in the Reduction of this Country. 

I beg my compliments to Cap tn . Warren and am with pro- 
foundest Respect Sir Your most obedient and most humble 

To the Hon ble . S R . W M . JOHNSON Bar*. 

1 See A. J. Northrup, Slavery in New York, p. 306-7. 

Seven Years War 323 


A. L. S. 1 

New York 2 Feb*. 1761. 

Since my last there are Letters in town f m . Cap 1 - Donald 
Campbell of y e R. A. Reg 1 , now Gov r . of Detroit, to whom 
Mons. Belletre gave quiet Possession of that Town & fortress, 
which are very Respectable having 7. or 809 well disciplined 
Militia, & near there dwells 1500 Indians, the same number of 
Ind ns . are likewise at Missilimackinac ab l . 200 Miles farther, it 
is said that the Illinois & all the Ind s . about there are ready to 
join us against the Southern Ind s . when you please to order them : 
in the mean time will send out small Parties in their own way 
against those Ind s . as soon as they are furnish'd with Ammunition 
& c proper for such Excursions. M r . Croghan is at Pitsbourg & 
I presume as Gen 1 . Monkton Cap*. Gates &c have intelligence f m . 
thence you will too f m . M r . Croghan possibly by this Conveyance : 
I inquired at the Post office for Letters addressed to you, was 
told by the Clerk that M r . Golden constantly forwarded them. 
I hear Cap*. Prescot is soon to go for Quebec by the way of 
Crown Point. The Edward Cap 1 : Davis for London sails the 
latter end of this week or beginning of next on board of whom I 
was much inclined to embark but believe shall wait till the next 
Pacquet arrives which is now daily expected, but this entre nous 
As to N. York news. It is said Lewis Morris Jun r . opposes Col. 
Phillipse 2 in Westchester. That some of the people on Staten 
Island are inclined to put up Harry Holland 3 who has lately 
purchased there & that there may be some difficulty in getting the 
new Member in for this City. Your letter to Cap 1 . Tyrrel shall 
put aboard of Cap*. Davis. Cap*. Tyrrel's Picture in Metzitinto 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

^Frederick Philipse was returned from Westchester to the Colonial 
Assembly in 1761. 

3 Henry Holland represented Richmond County in the Colonial 
Assembly in 1761. 

324 Sir William Johnson Papers 

is to be sold here in town but so like you that most People imagine 
it was done for you. The Town have been so favourable to your 
friend M r . Banyar to report that he is ab l . to be married to Miss 
Suky Alexander & sometimes to Miss Katy l the two 

greatest fortunes in this Place. He asks 10s/ an acre for the 
Land He & I are concern'd in & is so Topping as to say at the 
same time it is hardly worth his while to set his hand to a Con- 
veyance for such a trifle. I am with proper Compliments to your 
good Brother & family Sir 

Y r . most ob l ; & humble Serv*. 


INDORSED: To the Hon ble . Sir Will m . Johnson Baronet. 

A. L. S. 2 

Albany 3 ih February 1761. 


As the General Assembly of this Collony are dissolved, we 
heare writs are issued for a new Election, and as the gentlemen 
here in town prepose to Set us up for Representatev's for the 
Citty and County of Albany, and if it's agreeable to you we beg 
your Interest in w ch . you'l very much oblige us, we remain 
Respectfully Sir Your Most Ob 1 . Serv 1 . 

N. B. the Sherit has appointed) 
the 9th Instant for the) 
Election. ) 

SIR W M . JOHNSON & ca - 

1 Manuscript torn. 

2 Destroyed by fire. 



Seven Years' War 325 

A. L. S. 1 

Alto: Fefer*. 3<* 7767. 

I make no doubt but that you are before this ti^ne acquainted 
with the dissolution of the Assembly; and as there is to be an 
Election here on Monday the 9 th : Ins': I have with the advice of 
some Friends thought proper to acquaint you that the old Candi- 
dates 2 purpose to advertise themselves this day, without the 
advice of any one of the Citysens, and as many of them have 
proposed M r . Abram Yates, the late (Sheriff, who is a very good 
man) we have reason to believe that he will have a pretty strong 
Interest; but, nevertheless we shoud be glad to know your 
Inclinations, as we are certain they would be supported by both 
the Manners of Rensler & of Livingston. I am Sir 

Y'. most Obed'. Serv 1 . 



The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 09, by 
Ferrall Wade's bill and receipt to David Quack, dated February 6th. 
Destroyed by fire. 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 The "old candidates" Jacob H. Ten Eyck and Volkert P. Douw, 
were elected to the twenty-ninth colonial assembly, which convened March 
10, 1761. 

326 Sir William Johnson Papers 

0/. 1 

Fort Johnson 10 ih : Fete: 1761. 

This is my fourth letter since I had the pleasure of receiving 
any from you, altho I impatiently waited these three weeks past 
an answer to severall matters wrote you upon. I hope mine 
have not miscarried, if not, I am at a loss to account for your 
silence on an affair interesting to me & of advantage to your office, 
in my first unanswered I desired to know the charges of y e Pat- 
tent taken out by Harkemer and others on the South side of the 
Mohawks River near to the German Flatts, 2 for which M r . Dies 
advanced some money in order that the Pattentees might settle 
their share of charges and divide the Land. 

In another Letter of the 6 th Jan?. 3 I acquainted you of the 
Conajohare Indians having made me a present of a Tract of 
Land on y e North side of the Mohawks River, including all the 
unpattented Lands between the two Creeks Takayuharonwe & 
Twightaghraron the former falls into the Mohawk River about 
200 Yds below Fort Hendrick, the latter at Burnetsfields, the 
Mohawk River to be the Front Line, and the rear line to begin 
at the Westerly Corner of the Rear line of a Tract of Land (last 
Autumn) laid out and surveyed for M rs . McGinn & others, & to 
run from s d N Westerly Corner which is on the Bank of the Creek 
called Takayuharonwe a Northwesterly course to the Creek or 
river called by the Indians Twighttaghraron by the Christians 
Canada Kill at Burnets Field; which will make it about 12 or 
1 3 Miles in depth, or into the woods from the Mohawk River to 
said Rear line, and may contain about forty thousand Acres, for 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 See Calendar of Council Minutes, p. 397, 398, and Calendar of 
Land Papers, p. 285. 

3 See indorsement of Johnson to Banyar, Jan. 2, 1761, for date. 

Seven Years' War 327 

which I desired then you would be so good as to take the proper 
Steps for my getting a pattent. I now repeat my desire of pre- 
ferring a Petition, and every other step necessary, there are forty 
of the Inhabitants of these parts concerned, & have a very ample 
Deed for it, from the whole Castle Men & Women, executed in 
the presence of a justice & Interpreter, notwithstanding, I know 
it may be objected to by those, who may from their own interest 
in view alledge it is not agreable to his Majesty's Instructions to 
his Governours, but I think it is according to the 93 d Article as 
to its not being surveyed, if such objection should be made (which 
I hope not) it is easily removed, there having been severall 
instances of the kind. I am certain it will be to no purpose to 
endeavour to put us off, as I am convinced the Indians will not 
for any consideration whatever, recede from what they have so 
unanimously & voluntarily granted their right off; the Council 
&c may retard it if they are so determined, but I can hardly think 
they will for so small an error in y e method of proceeding, 
especially as it is not unprecedented. What will avail giveing 
License to others for Lands when the native Proprietors will not 
dispose of it otherwise than they have done. 

M r . Smith you say has Licenses for purchasing Lands along 
the Susquehanna some where which you imagine may take in 
mine. I am very easy as to that well knowing the Indian who 
sold them to me, will not sell them again to another, so that I can 
take them up at more leisure another time, or I can sell my interest 
in them verry well whenever I please. I inquired of all the 
Indians at Conajohare whether M rs . McGinn had as she wrote 
you made a further purchase of Six Miles Square to the West- 
ward of what was surveyed last Fall, 1 they one and all declared 
it to be an absolute falsehood, as does M r . Tillibag of Stoneraby 
Justice who says he was present all the time, but never heard a 
word mentioned of her buying any Land from them more than 
what he had surveyed. I know when I came there, they were 

Banyar to Johnson, December 15, 1760. 

328 Sir William Johnson Papers 

all very angry with her odd behaviour and complained much of 
it to me, so that it is very unlikely she should be able to prevail 
on them to make her a further sale of Land and especially of 
that they intended for me and my Associates. 

Ury Klock has been taking some very unlawfull Villainous 
Steps towards the getting a Deed from the Indians for some 
Lands lately, which alarmed the Indians greatly of y e Castle, as 
well as the Mohawks & Oneidas who were made acquainted with 
it by the former. I am surprized how so ignorant and bad a man 
as Klock is well known to be, can impose on men of sense, so far 
as to employ or intrust him in matters of the least consequence, 
he is known here to be so designing letigious a Rogue, that there 
is not a man in the Country would chose to have a penny dealings 
with him. He is also hated by the Indians and for very sufficient 
reasons to tedious to mention so that there could not be found 
in y e whole Country a more unfit Person than He, for the Service 
I find he has been & is employed in by the Gentlemen of N York, 
which they may find out before they have done with him. Please 
to let me know whether & when there will be a new Commission 
of the Peace. I hope there may be one, and with it a change 
for the better. We have such a sett of Dutch Majistrates, that 
in short there is no justice or law to be had for any Englishman, 
I could give you a thousand instances of their Partiality : but let 
a few suffice at present 1 A man of mine some years 

ago walking the street at Albany in y e evening was knocked down 
dead on the Spot in the presence of many of the Dutch who were 
accomplices in this there never was any thing done since. 

Last Month at Schenectady y e Dutch Brigade as they call 
themselves attacked & killed a harmless Man for which they were 
fine 7 a Man and at Albany were heard in Tavern (after the 
fine was settled w h . they were each to pay) to drink success to 
the Dutch & Confusion to all others, if there is no notice taken 
of those Murthers & attrocious crimes by the Law, what English 
are here among them must have recourse to something else there 

Matter omitted in copying. 

Seven Years War 329 

are Several English Merch 18 . & others settled at Albany & 
Schenectady better qualified for Majistrates than any of the 
Dutch in my opinion. I shall be glad to hear your sentiments 
hereon as also concerning the former part of my Letter. I am & ca . 



A. L. S. 1 

Fort Pitt Feb* 10*. 1761. 

Since I wrote you last I have had no Intelegance worth 
Menshoning, Butt an A Count of a hundred Cristane Indians 
being gone by y e Elonies Country w h . a french officer to Joyne 
y e . Cherokees. 

In my Last I sent you a Return of y c persons Imploy'd here 
in y e Indian Department by y e Ginerals verbial orders & I hope 
y r honour will Lett me know whether they are to be Continued 
or Discarg d . and how to be pay d . for y e futer as I never could 
obtain a Writen order from any Gineral for my acting in this 
Department here Gineral Mounckton has p d . them up to y e 
first of No br . Last butt wold nott Discarge them as he thought 
them Wanting. I am Now at a Loss what to do as itts posable 
No Gineral officer will Come this way again. I have sent my 
account & vouchers Down to y e Gineral a Copy of w h . I Inclose 
your Honour for y r . pruseal and I have ordered M r . David 
Franks who is to receive the Money when p d . to Remitt you y e 
Money for M r . Coles acount which I was oblig d . 2 on y r honour 

This day Cap*. Montour Setts of for Fort Johnson. Last year 
he Drew on you for 140 part of his pay w h . I advanst him a 
Copy of his Draft I sent y r . honour w h . he says he p d . you & 

1 Destroyed by fire. 
" To draw " should be supplied, though wanting in the copy. 

330 Sir William Johnson Papers 

this year I have advanst him 230 on a Draft w* 1 . I inclose y r . 
honour with a copy of his acount which I hope you will Slope 
for me out of his pay. 

Sir Last fall I askt Gineral Mounckton for Leve to go to See 
you Butt he toulde me I must aply to y r . honour I beg y e faver 
you will give me Leve to go onst to Fort Johnson that I may have 
the Plesher of Seeing you onst there at y r . Country Sete in y r 
Woods. I am Hon d . Sir with Great Esteem & Regard y r . 
Honours Most obedient & humble Serv*. 


To the Honourable SlR WlLLIAM JOHNSON Bar*. 


Contemporary Copp 1 

Copy. Fort Johnson, 12 th . Feb$. 1761 . 


Yours of the 1 sl . Instant I was not honoured with Untill Yes- 
terday. I am glad to find every thing has gone on so smoothly 
with Major Rogers, and that my Deputy M r . Croghan has been 
Serviceable to him; I Judged his accompanying the Major that 
way would be necessary, as he is well acquainted with most of 
the Nations thereabouts & much liked by them, and all others to 
whom he is known; by his Journal & Conference with the 
. Different Nations (Copy of which he has sent me also) I find 
they seem to be pleased with the Change; the keeping them and 
all other Indians firm in An attachment to His Majesty's Interest, 
will greatly Depend on a Steady, Uniform, and friendly Con- 
duct, and behavior towards them, and that will be in a great 
measure, if not Entirely in the power of the Commanding officers 
of the Several Forts & Posts in their Country to keep up. Next 

a ln Public Record Office, C. O. 5.61., London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, February 27, 1761. 

Seven Years War 33 T 

to that there's nothing can more Effectually Establish & preserve 
a good Understanding between us and them than a free and open 
Trade to be Carried on with them under proper Regulations & 
Restrictions, by a Law to be passed for that purpose, which Law 
should be put in Execution by proper officers or Intendants 
against all Delinquents. I did formerly at Lord Loudoun's 
Desire make out in the best manner I could a plan for the Indian 
Trade ; but as I kept no Copy of it, and cannot recollect it now, 
I must beg leave to referr your Excellency thereto, it being with- 
out doubt in Your Secretary's Office, as I believe His Lordship 
never made that Use of it he intended, there having been no 
Opportunity in his time for promoting, or Carrying on such a 
Trade. Inclosed is a List of Such Goods as are usually wanted 
& bought by the Indians, and on which the Trade Should at least 
at Oswego have 50 1$ Cent profit, the Expences & risque of bring- 
ing them there being great, and so in proportion at Niagara 
Detroit &ca. I am certain at that rate the Indians will think 
themselves fairly dealt by. it has always been Customary; it 
is very necessary, and will always be Expected by the Indians 
that the Commanding Officer of Every Post have it in his power 
to supply them in Case of Necessity with a Little Cloathing, 
Some arms & ammunition to hunt with; also some provisions on 
their Journey homewards, as well as a smith to repair their arms 
& working utencils &ca. Ministers & schoolmasters amongst them 
would tend greatly to the Civilizing even the worst of them, after 
which they could be the Easier managed.- 

M r . Croghan writes me he has been obliged to give the Indians 
a great Deal of Goods by way of presents for their good behavior, 
and to others for Service done by them since he Joined Major 
Rogers, and has drawn on me for a part of it in favor of one M r . 
Cole 586:10:6 Currency I shall be glad to know Your Excel- 
lency's pleasure therein As you know, Sir, I have no money in 
hands of the Crowns you having given me Warrants last fall only 
for the pay of the Officers then due Battoemen &ca. And 
Desired I would advance what was necessary, which 'should be 

332 Sir William Johnson Papers 

paid me ; that I have done, and shall Continue to do in the most 
frugal manner that the nature of the Service will admit but such 
a sum as that & what other drafts may be given on me, soon 
would distress me without Money in hand, or Warrants for it; 
wherefore Should be glad your Excellency would give me a 
Warrant for at least 1000 Sterling, and let me know whether 
you chuse M r . Croghan shall remain any longer at Fort Pitt; 
he says there is not much for him to do there at present, and as 
there is a very great meeting of almost all Nations now in friend- 
ship with Us to be held in the Neighbourhood of Detroit next 
Spring; I conceive it would be very necessary and proper to send 
him thither from hence with what Instructions You may please 
to Charge him with, when he shall also receive from me such as 
may be necessary on that Occasion.- 

I herewith Transmit Your Excellency a Return of the 
Assistants whom M r . Croghan has been obliged to Employ for 
some time past, and the pay promised them by him; it will be 
necessary for me to know whether they are to be Continued, if 
they are, how to be paid; You have also herewith some Intel- 
ligence sent me by him, which he had from Ilianois, by an Ottowa 

I had two days ago Letters from Lieut. Clause, who Acts as 
my Deputy in Canada, by which & a Letter from Piere Roubaud 
Priest to the Abenakis, I find that Nation is in great distress ; but 
as M r . Claus referrs me to the Priest's Letter, 1 which is so bad 
a hand that I cannot read it. I am At a loss to know for what ; 
I have therefore taken the Liberty to send his Letter, and Should 
wish M r . Appy to send me a Translation of it that I may know 
their Complaint, and be able to Answer him The Cagnawageys 
& others in them parts behave very well as he writes me; they 
often apply to him for what their wants Oblige them, and as 
Brig r . Gage will not advance any thing for that service he is 
Obliged to make Use of his own Credit, which I am well assured 

1 From Pierre Roubaud, November 1 3, 1 760, q. v. 

Seven Years War 333 

he will not do unnecessarily, knowing him to be a very frugal 
and prudent man 

When I receive the medals, shall make a Just Distribution of 
them Among the Indians, for whom they are Designed. At the 
same time I can't help Expressing it as my opinion that preventing 
the Indians now to Come to the posts in and about their Country 
will Occasion a great Jealousy thro* the whole, and be looked 
upon by them as breaking that alliance & friendship so long kept 
up between Us & them, they cannot trade, if debarred Coming 
to the Posts where Goods are vended.- 

I am Extremely Obliged to Your Excellency for the renewal 
of Your Assurances for my Interest; I shall rest contented there- 
with being fully Convinced that Your Recommendation or repre- 
sentation of my Affair, will Obtain my Ends, which if I did 
not think reasonable and Just. I should by no means Sollicit, 
or trouble you about it. I have the honour to be 


W m . Johnson 

INDORSED: Copy Letter from Sir William 

Johnson to Gen 1 . Amherst - Dated 
Fort Johnson 12 th . Febry. 1761 - 
In answer to the Gen ls . of 1 st . Febry.; 
That nothing could more Effectually 
Establish & preserve, a good Under 
standing between us & the Indians 
than a free and open Trade; and 
Enclosing a List of such goods, as are 
usually wanted by the Indians, and 
giving him some farther hints for 
the better Regulation of the same - 
in M. G. Amherst's of Feby. 27:1761 
N. 19. 

334 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy * 

A List of Such Merchandise as is Usually sold to the 
Indians - the prices differs with the times - 

Deep blue Strowds with a narrow White Cord ...... 9 - 

Plain blue Strowds 

Black Strowds 

Scarlet or Aurora D 

Garterings & bindings for Strouds of different Sorts 

French Blankets, or twilled Lettered white] in great Demand 

Blankets L being better than 

Purple & white french Rateen for Stockings J ours 
English white Blankets of 20-24-&30 to a piece ] 

With black or Deep blue Stripes J 

Walsh Cottons, or Pennistons for Stockings ...... 

Green Knapt Frize for D : & also for Blankets : 

Red, Yellow, Green & blue half thicks 

Flowered Serges, lively Colours, or gay 

Calicoes, Calimancoes for Gowns &ca 

Ribbons, of all Sorts, especially deep red, yellow 1 

blue, & Green J 

Linnens & ready made Shirts, of all Sizes 

Light Coloured & white threads 

Needles Sorted 

Awl blades for making Indian Shoes 

Scalping & Clasp knives 

Vermillion & Verdigrease 

Jews Harps small & large 

Stone & plain rings 

Hawks bells different Sizes 

1 In Public Record Office, C. O. 5.61, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, February 27, 1761. 

Seven Years' War 335 

Small white Beeds, & other Coloured D Small 

Horn Combs different kinds 

Brass Wire different Sizes 

Scizars & Razors 

Looking Glasses Different Sorts 

Brass & tinn Kettles large & Small 

Women & Childrens Worsted & Yarn Hose with Clocks 

Roll of Paper Tobacco. Also Leaf D 

Pipes long & Short 

Red Leather trunks in Nests 

Black & white Wampum in great demand 

Silver Works or toys, which the Indians wear"] 

of different kinds J 

Tomahawks or small hatchets well made 

Also Pipe Hatchets 

Tobacco, & Snuff boxes 

Pewter Spoons 

Gilt Gill Cups & half gill D 

Good Gunpowder, large grain 


Small bar lead of H Ib each 

Goose, Duck, & Pidgeon Shot 

Light & Good fowling pieces 

Beaver & Fox Traps 

Iron Spears or giggs for striking fish with 6V| 

Beaver with J 

New England, or York rum in runlets or Caggs] 
of & 4 Gall"* each J 

I have put the Article of rum last, as it is the last thing they 
should have, with all these things nothing more Necessary than 
Honesty & good Conscience, but, as that is not the Charecter- 
istick of the People of this part of the Country, there should be 

336 Sir William Johnson Papers 

a law to Check them. Otherwise there never will be a fair trade 
carried on.-/ 


INDORSED: Copy -List of Goods as are 
Usually wanted and bought by 
the Indians.- 

Enclosed in S r . W m . Johnson's to 
Gen 1 . Amherst of 12 th . Febry. 1761. 
in M. G. Amherst's of Feb. 27:1761 
N. 20. 

Contemporary Copp 1 

By a Thaway Indian who lives at Detroit; & return'd 
from the Illanois Canery the 10 th of Dec br : I have the 
following Intelligence - 

That above 40 days ago the Commandant at the Illanois, 
called a Council of all the Indian Nations thereabout, & told 
them by several belts of Wampum, that the Cherokees had Com- 
plained to the Governour of Missisipi of the ill Usage they had 
received from the English, for several Years past; and told him 
that they had made War on the English, and desired his help; 
then with a Very large War belt told them that the Governour 
of Missisipi had agreed to help the Cherokees, and that the 
Chactaws a great Nation had Promised to send 2000 Men, Early 
in the Spring, to help the Cherokees to drive the English into the 
great Water, and then desired them to prepare themselves to Join 
the Chactaws for which they should be well paid in goods, as 
he would have a great Quantity next Spring, The several Nations 
gave him for Answer, That they had been kept several years at 
War against the English, by him meaning the Commandant, 

1 In Public Record Office, C. O. 5.61, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, February 27, 1761. 

Seven Years War 337 

And lost their Hunting, that now they had made peace with the 
English, and was determined to go no more to War against them, 
but return to their Antient Employment of Hunting, And would 
take no part with the Cherokees, That the Cherokees was their 
Enemies, And formerly you used to send us to War against them, 
you say you will have a great many goods in the Spring, We don't 
know how you will get them, you have told us so this two Years 
past; but we never see any that Came, You always said the 
English was Old Women and Could not fight, but we now know 
better, they have beat you every where, and are your Masters; 
So Father we Will think for ourselves, & listen no more to any 
thing You say to us. here they Returned the War belt, & broke 
up the Council without saying a Word more, or Waiting to hear 
any thing the Commandant would say to them; And in a few 
days the Indians all set off a Hunting 

This Indian Informed that he see the Indians I sent from 
Pittsburgh, to Acquaint the Mameis that their Bretheren the 
English was going to take the French out of their Country ; and 
to settle there themselves, which he says pleased the Indians 
much; as they said then they were sure the English would send 
traders to their Countrys. 

How far the above Intelligence may be depended on I cant 
pretend to say. But I am of Opinion as the Cherokees, are 
Natural Enemies of the Western Indians that the French will 
not get any Nation that lives on the Ohio; or the Lakes; from 
the Illanois Upwards, to Join the Cherokees; not even the 
Shawaneis, whom I take to be the worst people this way at 

Geo: Croghan 

Deputy Agent 

INDORSED: Copy -Indian Intelligence 

Enclosed in S r . W m . Johnson's to 
Gen 1 . Amherst of 12 th . Febr*. 1761. 
in M. G. Amherst's of Feb?. 27:1761 
N-. 22. 

338 Sir William Johnson Papers 


There are to be found listed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 109-10, 
four papers which were destroyed by fire: a letter of February 13th from 
William Corry, at Albany, to Johnson, giving results of election, a rumor 
as to movements of regiments from Montreal to the Mississippi, and seeking 
instruction as to legal process against several persons, an account inclosed; 
Ferrall Wade's receipt to David Quack for 6, 5s, 8d, dated February 
1 3th ; a letter of the 1 3th from William Corry to Johnson, an account cur- 
rent and a request for information on which to issue execution against 
Joseph Cannock; and a letter of February 19th from B. Eisenlord, a 
schoolmaster in distress at Canajoharie, beseeching Johnson's aid in obtain- 
ing goods deposited with acquaintances in Canada. 

A. L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson 20'*. Febr*. 1761 

Your verry friendly letter received some time ago, for which 
I am extremely oblidged to You, encourages me to trouble you 
now with an affair which I am oblidged to take notice of, and 
see Justice done to the Indians in, it is concerning the Sale of their 
Lands; I know that his Majestys Instructions to his Governour 
relative thereto (Coppy of which, as far as relates to the Indians, 
was transmitted to me by the Lords of Trade some time ago) 
are very full & explicit, and I doubt not in the least of their being 
adhered to by You, but as there has been & still are abuses & 
unfair means used with them for obtaining Deeds for their Lands, 
which may not, indeed cannot be well cognisable to a Governour, 
I think it my Duty to give you a hint of it, and endeavour all in 
my power to prevent their being defrauded, as I am fully sensible 
that nothing can tend more to alienate their affection & attach- 
ment from his Majestys Interest, than the pressing them to dis- 

In New York Historical Society. 

Seven Years War 339 

pose of their Lands, & that often by verry unwarrantable means, 
when at their Castle three days ago, they all expressed their con- 
cern, and great uneasiness on that Account, and desired I would 
write to You, and entreat You not to pass Pattents for any 
Lands, that were not given, or sold with the consent of their 
whole Castle, as they say that their Bretheren the white People, 
often make a few of their foolish People drunk, then get them 
to sign Deeds, while the rest, and those, even whose property it 
is, know nothing at all of the affair. this I am certain, is con- 
trary to his Majestys Intentions as well as to the regulations made 
in y c . Year 1 736 on y r . Memorials. 1 - - there are many recent 
Instances to prove their Assertions, but I shall only trouble you 
with two, viz*, that of Ury Klock, & one Eve Pickard a Mullatto 
Woman liveing on the Flatts of Conajoharie. the former, about 
two Months ago, haveing no Lycence that I can learn, did bribe, 
and make drunk a few Indians, and perswaded them to sign a 
Deed, which they knew not the purport of, without a Magistrate 
or Interpreter present, and when the said three or four Indians 
got sober, and were told of it, they were ready to hang them- 
selves, and exclaimed greatly against Klock, this and many other 
base things has he done in that way, w h . I shall now not trouble 
you with, but come to the latter, who showed me a Deed of gift 
for part of the Indian Flatts, or Lowlands & ca . signed but three 
days ago by three Indians dead drunk, it is dated notwithstanding 
last September, the three Indians whom she got to sign it, are 
the drunkenest Rascals in y e . whole Castle, and were carried 
away from a Horse race on the Ice, by Eve Pickards Children 
to their House w h . is a Tavern there made drunk for the above 
purpose, I spoke to the three Indians next day, who were sur- 
prised, and declared they knew nothing of it. I do assure You 
Sir, that all the Indians of the two Mohawk Castles are more 
alarmed, & uneasy of late, than ever I knew them to be before 
occasioned greatly by some bad People telling them things they 
know nothing of, and w h . I believe has never been thought of. 

'See Doc. Rd. to Col. Hist. N. Y. t 6:67-69. 

340 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I am endeavouring to find out the Persons. I did last Summer 
punish two Dutch men for spreading wicked reports among the 
Indians, and cost me much trouble to convince them of the falseity 
of them, the dread of haveing their Lands snatched from them, 
as they call it, without the consent & knowledge of the whole, is, 
by what I can see, the greatest trouble, and uneasiness they labour 
under. & that, I took a great deal of pains four days ago at their 
Village, to convince them would not be allowed by the King, 

nor his Governour. but Ury Klocks reporting among his 

Neighbours, that he had bought of the Livingston Family, that 
Pattent, which includes their Castle, and planting Lands, and 
which occasioned so much disturbance this time past, added new 
fuel to the fire, in all my life I never saw People so enraged as 
they were at it, when they came to inform me of it at my Quarters, 
and to know whether I knew anything of it. on my telling them 
I had heard something of it, & had reason to think it was so, 
they said, it was such treatment as they could not expect, as a 
return for the tenderness, & severall Services they had from the 
first Settlement of the Country by White People shown & done 
them, and for their firm Attachment to his Majestys Interest, by 
which they had lost the most & best of their Men, and were ready 
to Sacrifice the remainder in his cause, had it been necessary, & 
concluded it was better for them all to dye at once, than to live in 
misery, & at last starve, which they foresaw was to be their 

fate. I desired they would be patient until I enquired into 

the affair fully, and told them likewise that I expected soon to 
hear from Home, about that, and other Matters, in consequence 
of what was sent by them to his Majesty some time ago, wherein, 
I did not doubt there would be proper steps taken, this quieted 
them a little, but I fear if they are not. done Justice to soon, and 
their greiviances redressed, it may turn out a more serious affair 
than we are apprehensive of. I shall do what I can to reconcile 
them, and see Justice done, but will want your Assistance ; in y e . 
first place, I would be glad to know from You the true state of 
that affair, or Pattent of Livingston, and y r . opinion how I may 
act most properly therein. when anything new concerning 

Seven Years 9 War 341 

these Matters occurs, I shall take the liberty to trouble You with 

If there be a new Commission of the Peace & ca . to be made 
out in consequence of the Kings Death, I must beg leave to 
observe, that there are Severall Europeans in Albany, Schenec- 
tady and other parts of this County, verry well qualified everry 
way for Commis 8 ., & I do assure you Sir there never was any- 
thing more wanted than a change as there is no Justice to be 
expected by any Englishman in this County, nor never will, whilst 
the Bench of Judges & Justices is composed entirely of Dutch, 
who pride themselves in the appellation, which alone, in my 
opinion should render them odious to everry Britton. I could 
give You Sir, numberless Instances, supported by incontestable 
Facts, of the partiality, cruelty and oppression of those in 
authority here, who call themselves Dutch, but as their Characters 
must be well known to You, from so long a Residence in the 
Country, I will not intrude on your patience with a detail of them, 
but conclude with desireing your excuse for takeing up already 
so much of y r . time, and allow me to assure You, that I am most 
sincerely & respectfully 

Dear Sir 

Your most Obedient 
& most Humble Servant 



L. S. 

<Carmajoharie Feb r . 20* 1761. 

This is tho Certify what I have told your Honour Some> 

Days <ago, the Subscribers testify to have b>en at New York 

\with Master Philipp Livings>ton, about the <Land where 

they live upon at> present & Livingston <told them: they 

might> have the Land but he would not <have War> with 

342 Sir William Johnson Papers 

the Indians, they could with a trifle Satisfy <;the> Indians & 
moreover, Livingston's wife told <them,> that the Land could 
never ben Divided So long <an> Indian was a life in the 
Castle, the following <is> a True Copy from the Original: 

New York the 15. October 17<54.> 

The patent in Compagnie with David Schuyler & others Con- 
tains 8000. acres. 1 the Share of Philipp Liv<jng^>stons heirs 
is 2/5 which is 3200 Acres Any person Inclined to Buy the 
whole may apply to the Subscriber who will sell the same at Ten 
Shelling per acre rady Mony. 

Philipp Livingston 

Our most humble Desire is, that your Honour may grant us 
your Most Valiant Grace and Protection Against any Furder 
invasion & Disturbance in our quiet Possession we Dye 

Your Honours most Faith. & Dutyfull Servants. 


In the presence of 

V.D.M. 2 

INDORSED: FebT. 20 th 1761 

Certificate from Severall 
concerning Livingstons Land 
near Conajohare 

^ee Calendar of Council Minutes, p. 296, 300, 305, 307, 309, and 
Calendar of Land Papers, p. 176, 180, 188, 190, 193. 
2 Verb'i Dei Minister, Minister of the Word of God. 

Seven Years War 343 


[P.] S.' 

[ ] Herckemer has last Lords Day told the Inhabitants 
after Sermon to put themself in a way of Readiness because he 
had News that the Five Nations would destroy the River with 
Bow and Arrow. Adam Hellmer Sen r . & Lorenz Hurters Wife 
told me So, on the burring Day of Jurry Wendeker in the 
presence of manny others. 

I fear this may raise the Blood of the Sauvages, if it Should 
come out by one of the other. 

ADDRESSED: The Honorable Sir William 
Johnson Baronet. 

INDORSED: Feb r y. 20 th . 1761. Letter 

and advertisement from Sevr 1 . 
Germans liveing on disputed lands 
between y e Ind 8 . & Livingston 
Some things Material 


Contemporary Copy 2 

Copy. Netv York 22 d . February 1761 '. 


By Yesterday's Albany Post, I am favored with Your Letter 
of the 1 2 th . Instant, in answer to mine of the 1 8t . of said month, 
acquainting you that upon Major Rogers's taking possession of 
the Detroit, the Indians in those parts, had declared themselves 
attached to His Majesty's Interest; that in Order to keep them 
to that Attachment, I proposed to Establish a free and open 
Trade between them and the King's Subjects; that to prevent all 

1 Postscript attached to a mutilated copy of the foregoing original letter. 

2 Public Record Office, C. O. 5.61, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, February 27, 1761. 

344 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Imposition on the Indians, I Intended to appoint for Governor 
of the Detroit, not only a Person of sagacity but Strict probity 
who should see that Trade Carried on, under such Regulations 
& restrictions as Should be found necessary for the Mutual & 
Equal Benefit of the Indians & Traders; for which purpose I 
desired you would be pleased to Inform me what Commodities 
would be Chiefly wanted ; the profit the Traders should be reason- 
ably Entitled to, upon them and to furnish me with such further 
Remarks, as should Occurr to you requisite for the better Carry- 
ing on of said Trade, as well as Management of those Indians. 

Agreable to this request, You have been so good as to furnish 
me with a List of such Goods as you say are usually wanted and 
bought by the Indians ; and on which you Observe, the Traders 
should, at least, at Oswego have 50 ^ O profit, the Expence & 
risque of bringing them there being great; And that You were 
Certain at that rate, the Indians will think themselves fairly dealt 
by: As from Your Known Zeal for promoting His Majesty's 
Indian Interest, I am Confident these Informations are the Result 
of your wise and long Experience in these matters, they shall be 
my Guides in the Establishment of the Trade in Question: and 
what further Regulations & Restrictions may be Necessary to 
prevent any Abuses in the same, I shall likewise Attend to, in 
my Instructions to the Officers, whom I shall Entrust with the 
Command of such Forts & Posts, where that Trade may be to 
be Carried on. 

But with regard to the Causing these Regulations and restric- 
tions to be passed into a Law, that is what I cannot take upon 
me to do; as it is to be presumed that the plan of Trade You 
mention to have formerly Delivered to the Earl of Loudoun, & 
which doubtless His Lordship transmitted to the King's Minister, 
will be taken into Consideration, and Orders be sent out in Con- 
sequence thereof; And as these Orders might Clash with those 
Issued here, it will be prudent to wait for Directions from home 
on that head. 

Seven Years' War 345 

Meanwhile no Inconvenience can for the present Arise for 
the want of such a Law, as our Officers who are not permitted 
to Trade, will (as it shall be a part of their Duty) certainly 
make it their business, to see that the Traders Vend or Truck 
their Goods with the Indians at the Stipulated prices, and in 
default thereof upon due proof the Delinquent will forfeit his 

Moreover so long as I am honored with the Command, these 
Officers Shall be Instructed to keep up a Steady, Uniform, and 
friendly Conduct & behavior towards the Indians; with regard 
to furnishing the latter, with a little Cloathing, some arms & 
ammunition to hunt with, that is all very well in Cases of Neces- 
sity; but as, when the Intended Trade is once Established they 
will be able to supply themselves with these, from the Traders, 
for their furrs, I do not see why the Crown should be put to that 
Expence.- I am not neither for giving them any Provisions; 
when they find they can get it on Asking for, they will grow 
remiss in their hunting, which Should Industriously be avoided; 
for so long as their minds are Intent on business they will not 
have leisure to hatch mischief j- As to a Smith for repairing their 
arms I have no Objection to; and I approve much of having 
ministers & Schoolmasters among them.- 

You are the best Judge whether M r . Croghan's Charge for 
the presents he says he has been obliged to give some Indians for 
their good behavior, and Others for Services done, is a proper one 
or not ; I must own it Appears to me he has been bery bountiful!.^ 
Services must be rewarded; it has ever been a maxim with me; 
but as to purchasing the good behavior either of Indians, or any 
Others, is what I do not understand; when men of what race 
soever behave ill, they must be punished but not bribed ; you will 
therefore Examine his Acco te . and if you think it right Discharge 
his draft; to Enable you to do so, and to defray the other 
Expences you mention I Enclose you a Warr 1 . on M r . Mortier 
for the 1000 Sterling which you request. 

346 Sir William Johnson Papers 

There certainly cannot now be any business at Fort Pitt of 
moment sufficient to detain M r . Croghan there; wherefore you 
will do right to Order him to attend the great meeting which 
you say is to be in the Neighbourhood of the Detroit this Ensue- 
ing Spring furnishing him with such Instructions as you shall 
Judge to be proper on the occasion.- 

His List of Assistants, Seems to me to be many more than he 
can now stand in need of; I have however Consulted Brig r . Gen 1 . 
Monckton upon it, and as he is of Opinion that there may be 
Occasion for all of them except Doctor Antoney & the french 
Smith, who he knows Nothing of, you will please to Continue 
them in pay, and if even you think the Other two Use full, you 
will do with them, as you Judge best for the Service 

I thank you for the Intelligence Enclosed in Yours I am glad 
to find that the Indians about the Illinois understand their own 
Interest so well as to Decline Joining the Cherokees; these last 
will, I dare say, soon repent their rashness.- 

I am hopefull that Lieut. Claus does not in Canada enter into 
any other Expences than what are absolutely necessary for the 
Indians in those parts; some small triffles out of Charity I would 
not refuse them, but I should be Sorry to Swell that Expence. 
by Pere Roubaud's Letter to you, which I return with a Transla- 
tion, I do not see that the Abenaquis are in any Distress; all he 
requests is some Covering for about twenty old Women, and a 
Couple of Flaggs. This Priest, I find, is not much to be 
Depended on; his veracity has been Detected, and I am afraid 
his head is not very sound.- 

I have not the least remembrance of Kass the German ; if you 
can give me some, other tokens, by Which I may recollect him, 
I shall be able to Judge if he is Entitled to any reward or pay.- 

I have no doubt but you will make a Just Distribution of the 
medals among the Indians for whom they are designed, that they 
may have the free Egress & Regress to the Posts which they 
are Entitled to, from their Accompanying Us; those that shame- 
fully went off I must remain of opinion should not Enjoy that 

Seven Years War 347 

priviledge; On the Contrary they Ought, as they should, if I 
had met with them at the time have been punished ; but as I have 
forgiven them I shall think no more on't, and only rest Satisfied 
with Depriving them from Enjoying the same favors as those that 
behaved well.- 

I am with great regard, 

Jeff: Amherst 

INDORSED: Copy Letter from Gen 1 . Amherst 
To Sir W m . Johnson Bar*. 
Fort Johnson 

New York, 22 d . Febr. 1761. 
Thanking Sir W m . for the hints 
Contained in his of 1 2 th . Febr?. 
with some further Remarks & 
Resolves thereupon 
in M. G. Amherst's of Feb>- : 27 : 1 761 
N. 23. 

There are entered in the Johnson Calendar, p. 110, Major General 
Jeffery Amherst's warrant, drawn at New York February 22d, for pay- 
ment by Abraham Mortier of 1000 to Johnson; a letter of the 23d, 
described as mutilated, from Gw. Banyar, at New York, to Johnson, 
warning of controversy over land claims and expressing willingness to 
renounce his own in Johnson's favor; and a letter of the 24th from Dr 
Richard Shuckburgh, at New York, to Johnson, mentioning army promo- 
tions and discussing reductions in the service, including his own removal 
from Johnson's suite by General Amherst. Destroyed by fire. 

348 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A. L. S. 1 

Montreal 26 th Feb**. 1761. 

Since my last by M r . Maltrum I could not hear any thing 
of the Pany. IncK that run away I shall try whether I cannot 
intimidate the Owner some how to tell the Truth. The People 
here ask no less than 50 or 60 for young Pany Girls, 2 which I 
thought too extravagant a Prize to give. The horse w ch . M r . La 
Corn intended to buy 2 is not to be sold but I got a Gentleman 
well esteemed all ab l . the Country to write to several of his 
acquaintances for such a one as will match yours, and if possible 
shall send him by a safe hand to Albany while the Slaying lasts 
which at present is excellent over Lake Champlain. 

M r . McKay will deliver you a Beaver coat, Mittins D. & a 
Calumet w ch . I since bought the former I paid 20. Dollars for 
w ch . is rekoned cheap here. 

M r . Kennedy Merch*. arrived here yesterday from Albany 
and told me that there was a Letter from you at his house for me 
few days before he came away and he was not sure whether it 
was sent to the Post office or no. I wished he did not mention it 
for it made me very uneasy thinking it to be lost. 

The Indians are now chiefly returned from hunting, and I have 
them every Thursday & Fryday being Market Days, they are 
to go again in a few days upon Spring Hunt & wont return till 
the latter End of May. 

Gen. Gage is an entire stranger to the Transactions and 
Engagements the Ind n . of Canada have entered into with you 
last Fall, and I think if he had a Copy shewd him he might 
perhaps be not so strict with them but treat them more friend like, 
besides I want a copy of s d : Proceedings to remind the Ind ns . here 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Claus to Johnson, February 2, 1761. 

Seven Years War 349 

of what was transacted, and if any foreigners come to acquaint 
them of the mutual Engagements entered into. Maj r . Christi l 
is an inveterate Enemy to the Indians and I believe undermines 
the Gen 1 , at the same time I believe he disposes of the Silver work 
& Wamp m . left in the Magazine as I heard some of officers of 
the Reg 1 , in Town offer some to Sale. 

I cant hear of any disputes that happened during the hunting 
season between the diff 1 . Garrisons & Ind ns . On contraire they 
have been of mutual Service to each other in exchanging fresh 
Venison for Salt, w ch . the Gen 1 , is conscious of and acknowledgt 
it to me. At the same time the 44th who are quartered near 
them dont use them well, but beat them very often when they 
meet them on the Road if the Ind ns . wont turn out for them w^. 
horse & Slay and they afoot. 

Last Night we had a Phoenomenon of a North light w ch . at 
first spread a red like fire over the Sky and several hours after, it 
was as Clear as Moon Light in the Streets, and every one beheld 
it with Admiration. 

I beg my compliments to Capt n . Warren and am with the 
utmost Respect Sir Your most obedient and most humble Servant 


To the Honourable S R . W M . JOHNSON Bar'. 

1 Gabriel Christie, commissioned lieutenant colonel of the 60th regiment 
December 24, 1 768. 

350 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Extract 1 

Copy New York 27 ih February 1761. 


Sir William Johnson has renewed his application to me, in 
regard to his pay as Colonel of the confederate Indians, a claim 
he has made for some time past, as you will have been informed 
by Copies of Letters I have transmitted to you, in particular one 
of the 7 th March, his Appointments are particularly stipulated 
by his Commission, but he imagines that pay could not be intended 
to defray him the Expences of taking the Field, which he tells me, 
costs him more than his Appointments, and he hopes to be con- 
sidered accordingly. 


There are several additional letters entered in the Johnson Calendar, 
p. 1 10, which were destroyed by fire: a letter of March 1st from Johnson 
to Pere Roubaud at St Francis about settlement of trouble between Abe- 
nakis and Loups d' Orange, his direction to Lieutenant Claus, at Montreal, 
to advance 1 for Pere Roubaud's use and his own good feeling toward 
St Francis Indians (printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y., 4:303-4; Q, 4:196) ; 
a letter of the 2d from Dr Richard Shuckburgh, at New York, to Johnson, 
on current reports as to licenses for engaging in Indian trade, delay of 
European arrivals and mails, and preparations for military undertakings 
in the South, Philadelphia newspapers inclosed; a letter of the 2d, described 
when calendared as mutilated, from H. Van Schaack, at Albany, to 
Johnson, about the anxiety of country people over the impressing of their 
horses and sleighs, with a request that Johnson will intervene to stop abuses 
and mention of the election ; and a letter of the 4th from Johnson to Richard 
Peters on the disposition of the western Indians, Indian meetings at Detroit 
and Philadelphia, the coming examination of Tedyescung's complaint 
against the Proprietaries, General Amherst's discharge of Johnson's suite 
and the Connecticut settlement in Pennsylvania. 

Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5.61, London, England. 

Seven Years' War 351 

A. L. S. 1 

Claverak March 6 ih 1761 

Whereas I am informed by Miss Peggy van Rensselaer, that 
she had seen some time ago a Servant-girl at your House, whom 
your Honour had bought of the Indians; & whereas my Brother 
in Law at Menissink Manuel Gunsales has lost a daughter, 
named Elizabeth, about 7 years of age, when she was carried 
off captive by the Indians about something more than 3 yean 
ago ; I therefore humbly entreat your Honour, to enquire whether 
your Servant-girl might not be the same, which your Honour 
can discover by the following Circumstances (if the Girl has yet 
remembrance of them) viz: That her Father had a very good 
Fort round his House; had a grist-mill, that the Barn was some- 
ways off from the Fort, between which she was taken Prisoner: 
Now if she might be the same, I beg the favour, that your Honour 
will inform Me by a Line or two, upon what Conditions her 
Father might get her again : & if she be not the same, that your 
Honour might be pleased to ransom her from the Shawanese 
Indians, among whom, we are informed, she is or has been, & 
who, they say, will not deliver up their Prisoner, because not 
having made yet Peace with the English, & I assure your Honour 
to repay the Ransom & all other Costs to your Satisfaction. 

Pray, Sir, pardon the Presumption of a stranger, but to whom 
your Honour is very well known by the wide spreading fame of 
your glorious & successful Exploits since the beginning of this 
War ; & favour him with an answer who with most fervent wishes, 
that Divine Providence might continue to crown all your Enter- 
prizes for the good of our Country with glorious Successes, sub- 
scribes himself Sir, Your Honours Most obedient & most Humble 


In Claverak. 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

352 Sir William Johnson Papers 


In the Collections of the New York Historical Society for 1876, 
p. 707 1 , is a letter of March 7th from Cadwallader Golden, at Fort 
George, to Johnson, relating to the land affairs of Ury Clock, Eve Pickard 
and Rev. J. C. Hartwick. 


In the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 1 1 , is a letter of March 9th from J. Steven- 
son, at Albany, to Johnson on a payment of money and various land trans- 
actions, containing a report that General Monckton is governor of New 
York. Destroyed by fire. 

Z)/. 1 

Castle Cumberland March 10 th 1761. 

Yours of the 20 th & 22 d . of Jan r y. I received sometime ago, 
and I should have answered them sooner but that I waited for 
an answer on some points from Gen rl . Amherst, w h . I but yes- 
terday received. I told M r . Welles to write you soon after y e . 
receipt of yours, & to let you know I would not let you suffer, or 
serve for nothing, be M r . Amhersts intentions w*. they will. He 
tells me he has done so, and I hope with it, you have been easier 
in y r . Mind, than by y rs . I find you have been this time past. 
Y r . journal shall keep safe for you. I am glad to find all is 
peace and quietness there. I did not mean you should apply to 
Gen rl . Gage for y r . Sallary as my Agent, or to anybody else but 
to myself. What I meant was, that you should call on him as 
Gov r . there, for what you might absolutely want for carrying on 
that Service for w h . you were stationed there w h . if not allowed I 
dont see your being there can be of any service, rather y e . con- 
trary. However, as it is my resolution, as long as I have y c 

1 Destroyed by fire. See p. 358 for note on Castle Cumberland. 

-Seven Years War 353 

direction of that branch of his Majestys Service, not to neglect 
his Interest, nor let it suffer for a small matter, should it even come 
out of my own pocket, I will support you while there, & enable 
you to do some like service to such of them Indians as you realy 
think deserve, & want it, but would recommend to you the best 
economy & frugality in y r . power, as that is w*. Gen rl . Amherst 
desires & expects of you, as you will see by the following Para- 
graph of his Letter to me : "I am hopefull that Lieut. Claus 
does not, in Canada enter into any other expences than what are 
absolutely necessary for the Ind 8 . in those parts ; some small trifle 
out of charity I would not refuse them, but I should be sorry to 
swell y*. expence. By Pere Roubaud's letter to you w h . I return 
with a translation, 3 I do not see that the Abnakis are in any dis- 
tress, all he requests is some covering for about twenty old 
Women, & a Couple of flags. This priest I find is not much to 
be depended on ; his veracity has been detected, and I afraid his 
head is not verry sound/* 

I cant help differing with the Gen rl . in opinion concerning Pere 
Roubaud, I take him to be a sensible man, & I believe sincere 
in what he says : I should wish he could be assisted & enabled to 
do some service with the Abanakis, for, if they are steady, all 
the other eastern tribes may be easily managed, I would have 
you give the Abanakis two small Flaggs, tho I think one might 
do it is only to use comeing to Albany with the Prisoner they 
intend to give in lieu of the Stockbridge Ind n . they killed, w h . 
is expected will be done this Spring or early in y e . Summer. 
I have kept the Stockbridge & others from being uneasy on that 
ace", since my arrival, as I asured them there would be satis- 
faction made in y e spring, w h . I hope will be done. If any 
demands are made on you by Caghnawageys or others, w ch . you 
judge reasonable, I would have you apply to Brig dr . Gage, if he 
will not allow it, then make use of your own Credit or mine as 
far as a hundred Pound, or two will go, and let the Ind s . know, 

Roubaud to Johnson, November 1 3, 1 760. 

Vol. Ill 12 

354 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Gen rl . Amherst does not understand being at an expence now for 
Ind n . Management in that part, but that they purchase w l . they 
want for Skins & furrs. These are his Sentiments. Inter nos, 
he is not at all a friend of Ind s . w* 1 . I am afraid may have bad 
consequences one time or other, especially so, if ever that Country 
be given back. 

I inclose you a letter from a poor unhappy man of y r . Country, 
who lives verry miserable here near Conajohary, I shall be glad 
if you can serve or help him to get his money from that French- 
man who lives there, and let me know it at first oportunity. 

M r . Timothy Connor of Albany Tavernkeeper has a Debt of 
600 Due to him, on a Bond with Judgment by one John Sul- 
livan now at Montreal, if you can do him any service towards 
the getting it, or by adviseing him how he may recover it, I shall 
be very glad of it, as it will be a charity to help a man with so 
large a Family. As this will go by Capt n . Lotteradge, I need 
not write you the little News of the Country, but refer you to him. 

Affairs to y e . Westward, viz 1 . Pitts Borrough, Detroit & 
thereab 18 . seem to be in a good way, if we will but keep them so, 
w h . I am certain is in our power, by keeping up a friendly cor- 
respondence with the Severall Nations, & a fair plentifull Trade. 
I am going to write to Morrow for Croghan & Montour to come 
here that I may send them to attend a General meeting of all y e . 
Western Ind 8 . w h . is to be held at Detroit next Spring sometime, 
where the Six Nations are also desired to attend, as the General 
thinks there is nothing for them to do where they now are, viz 1 . 
Fort Pitt. Pensilvania is going to war with the Connecticuts 
who Settle on Land they claim. 1 M r . Hamilton also writes, that 
Tedyescung threatens the Ind 8 . will remove the Connecticuts from 
Chiesatonk I think they call it, if he will not. Peters 2 writes me 
verry pressingly for you to assist them at a great Meeting they 
expect to hold with all Nations in Philadelphia next Summer, in 

1 See Hamilton to Johnson, March 19, 1754, and Fitch and Others 
to Johnson, April 2, 1754. 

2 Rev. Richard Peters, secretary of Pennsylvania council. 

Seven Years War 355 

y e stead of Conradt Weiser deceased. I wrote him you were 
otherwise engaged and did not know when you would be recalled. 
I forsee a great deal of trouble comeing on in that Government, 
also here on account of Lands. There are severall Merch* 8 . there 
who were considerably indebted to y e . late Capt n . Stoddert, for 
goods w h . were mine, and never paid for. I wish you would 
enquire into it, and if you can recover any You shall have half. 

Have you heard nothing of my Pawny he is certainly gone 
that way? If you can get and send me some Seeds w* 1 . we have 
not of the kind here, I shall be obliged to you, also some grape 
Vines if they can be sent safe. If you can get one such a horse 
as the one I have from Chevalier La Corn, to match in draft, pray 
buy him & send him by safe hand. I cannot pay for him in 
Milk Cows as you mentioned, as it would be so difficult to trans- 
port them thither. Buy him for money or anything else there to 
be had. If you cannot get the little curiosities I wanted it is no 
Matter, if you can get a bargain of any good piece of Household 
Plate, and fashionable, I would have y u . buy it to the amount of 
One Hundred Pounds, but not unless it is good and cheap. As 
Robert Adems owes me money some years, I wish you could get 
some from him there, & give a draft on me for the amount. I 
know not how I shall get it otherwise. 

I keep mostly here since I came home, & my Brother who 
desires to be remembered to you, we are all well thank God, and 
will be glad to hear you are so. Y r . Friend Brants Thomas dyed 
lately, as did the Seneca Drunkard, & many Indians of y r . 
acquaintance. This improvement goes on verry well. You 
would scarce know it now. Pray make my compliments to 
Doctor Ogilvie and Family, and ask him whether he has any 
prayer Books left for y e Indians, as they now want them much. 
If he has, how can they be got. Be so good to send me an Ind n . 
Almanack that I may get some for our Ind*. I understand S*. 
Luke La Corn brought several of them from New York, dont 
fail sending me some. I shall long to hear how you & all friends 
there do after so severe a winter. We have had a verry hard & 

356 Sir William Johnson Papers 

tedious one here, as has been known for many years, Snow being 
yet near two foot in y e . Woods Ice verry Strong. 

Give my Compliments to all enquiring Friends there, and 
believe me Dear Claus 

Your Sincere Welwisher & Humble Servant 


P. S. I have had a Meeting w* 1 . held 3 days with the Six 
Nation Deputies. They are in great want of ammunition. I 
have supplied them with a little. They have been full of their 
old fears again, that the English would fall upon & destroy them. 
Great preparations are making against the Cherokees, who it 
seems are likely to get the Creeks to join them, w h . may make 
it a more troublesome affair than I imagined. I am certain the 
breach could have been made up between us, if proper measures 
were taken. How it may now end God knows, it will certainly 
occasion great Suspicion and Jealousy thro all Nations. 

I would have you give Pere Roubaud on my acc tt . ten pounds 
this Currency, to relieve the Poor Man, who I believe to be 
greatly distressed. If you can any way relieve y e real wants of 
the few old People of y e . Abanakis Nation whom he writes 
about, I would have you do it, and tell him if I had not a verry 
strict hand over me, I should willingly relieve the distresses of y e 
Abanakis or any other Indians in alliance or friendship with us. 

Ury Klock & Capt n . Fonda have lately at York bought the 
Pattent whereon the Switzers live, who paid Rent to y e Ind 8 . and 
takes in the whole Canajoharie Castle their planting Lands & ca 
w* 1 . causes a verry great uneasiness among y e whole, how it will 
end I know not, but am certain it is a verry unjustifiable affair. 


Seven Fears' War 357 

D. S. 1 

March 10, 1761 

To the Honourable, the Representatives of the Colony of 
New York, this Humble Petition is addressed. 

We the undernamed, now Inhabitants of the County of 
Albany, and Province of New York, being by Education & 
profession Protestants, but of forreign Birth, are desirious of 
becomeing his Majesty's Leige Subjects in this Colony, wherefore 
humbly pray we may have the Benefit of an Act for our Naturali- 
zation, and your Petitioners as in Duty bound will ever pray. 

Peter Servis John Albrant 

Christopher Servis John Walter 

Conradt Smith John Winkel 

John Knafe John Everhart Koghnot 

Jacob Knafe Jun r . John Everhart Koghnot J r 

Hance Kitts Augustus Eikler 

Jacob Kitts. Bastian Steenmier 

Honnis Apple Abraham Ecker 

Honnis Rice George Ecker 

Hendrick Bussard Jacob Seiver 

Phillip Frederick Phillip Baam. 

Paul Reiter 

Adolph Young 

John Alt 

Christopher Lening 

INDORSED: Petition for an Act to Naturalize y e within men- 
tioned 26 Persons, March 10, 1761. 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

358 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Castle Cumberland 2 March 10 lh 1761 

I received yours of the 25 th Ult . 3 some days Ago incloseing 
a Licence granted by Gov r . Clinton to M r . McGin 4 the 8 th . Day 
of May 1 752, for Purchasing 8 Thousand Acres of Land with 
very odd Boundaries as thereby appears there is a Rule of 
Council making Void all licences unless the lands are purchasd, 
Survey d & pattented within a Year after Granting the Licence 
so that this Licence could Signify nothing now. I have also 
received Coppy of a kind of Instrument drawn by some Unex- 
perienced Person in such affairs last NovK, and Signed by some 
Indians without the knowledge or Consent of the rest, who all 
now Disavow the thing, if your Mother-in-law had acted a 
proper & prudent part in that affair, she would not now be so 
Perplexed besides I cant help saying it is ungenerous to write me 
as she did by you Desireing me to stand her friend against U. 
Clock when she knew I had got a deed of it from the whole 
Castle 5 but would not seem to know it and at the same time 
working another way at N York which I have an account of; 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Castle Cumberland was built by Johnson previous to his journey to 
Detroit a handsome summer villa on the northwestern edge of the great 
vlaie in the present town of Broadalbin, named out of compliment to the 
Duke who vanquished the Pretender. About the same time he constructed 
a rustic lodge on the south bank of the Sacandaga four miles west of 
Castle Cumberland, which was subsequently called " the Fish House " 
because of his using it for recreation and fishing in the latter days of his 
life. W. L. Stone, Life and Times of Sir William Johnson, 2 : 1 63-64. 

3 Not found. 
*Teady Magin. 

5 See Johnson to Banyar, January 2, 1761. 
'See Banyar to Johnson, December 15, 1760. 

Seven Years War 359 

this is Carrying two strings to her bow. there is nothing will go 
farther or Succeed better than an upright Conduct this I assure 
you Sir is & ever has been a maxim with me & I wrote her by 
you that if it appeared she had a right to any part of the Land in 
Question she would always find me the man who would do w*. 
is just or right after such a Declaration to take other Steps & 
methods plainly Shewed her Distrust of me & what I wrote w h . 
was not useing me very well however I am with kind regards to 
you & her & to both Familys 


your verry 

humble Servant 


In Doc. Rel to Col Hist. N. Y., 7:458-59, is Johnson's commission 
from George III to be agent and superintendent of the Six Nations and 
their confederates, dated St James, March 1 1th. 


In the Johnson Calendar, p. Ill, occur four letters which were 
destroyed by fire: a letter of March 1 1th from John Dies, at New York, 
to Johnson, on St Patrick celebrations, General Monckton and land buying 
on Oneida lake and elsewhere ; a letter of the 1 4th from Witham Marsh, 
at New York, on the interruption of law proceedings by the King's death, 
theft of plate and coins by Marylanders or Pennsylvanians, a medal in 
commemoration of victories of 1 759, which he presents, the battle of 
Torgau, and speculations as to the provincial governorship; a letter of thf 
16th from Dr Richard Shuckburgh, at New York, on St Patrick's day 
at Fort Johnson, a medal for the Indians, success of French privateers, 
the Cherokee war and Colonel Grant, and the governorship; and a letter 
of the 1 7th from Johnson to Lieutenant Daniel Claus touching the affair 
between Abenakis at St Francis and Loups J' Orange at Stockbridge, 
personal matters and General Amherst's attitude toward Indian expenses, 
a deputy's warrant for Indian service and proceedings of the Detroit con- 
ference being inclosed. The last-named is printed below^ 

360 Sir William Johnson Papers 

L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson March 17 th .. 1761. 

Altho I wrote you a few days ago, and intended my letter 
should have gone by Capt n . Lotteradge immediately, I now find 
by him there is no passing the lakes, as he says the ice is broke, 
w h . may detain him some time, he came here last night and is to 
go for Albany to Morrow Morning, from thence to take the first 
opertunity he can of joining you. Inclosed I send you a Warrant 
for acting as my Deputy, for vA you shall be paid, also a Coppy 
of a conferrence held by M r . Croghan at Detroit last Decb r ., 
whereby you will see the good disposition the Indians in them 
parts are in which, if we take proper measures to continue, will 
be much for our interest. I hear Capt". Jacob of Stock bridge 
is not inclined to make up that affair with the Abanakis, as he 
told Moses of the Mohawks who lately came from hence w h . 
gives the Mohawks a good deal of concern. I propose sending 
for Capt n . Jacob soon, & know his mind concerning it, w h . when 
known I shall acquaint you; in the mean time I think it best 
y l . the Abanakis postpone their coming to Albany, until you hear 
from me on y*. head. I received yours, and one for M r . Welles 
yesterday, he is much concerned at a letter of his miscarrying 
w 1 *. he gave to Kennedy & Lisle to forward, I would not have 
you buy me a Pawney as I find they are much dearer than I 
expected. I have rec d . y e . Bever Coat mittens & pipe, vA I am 
obliged to you for bying. 

I am glad to hear there has been a good agreement between 
the troops in y e . severall Garrisons & Indians this time past. If 
you cannot readily get a horse to match the one I have, and that 
reasonable, I would have you not mind it, especially as the oper- 

x ln Public Archives of Canada, Claus Papers, v. I. 1716-1777. 
M. 104, p. 30. 

Seven Years 9 War 361 

tunity of getting him by Ice is now over. Do not give the 
Coghnawageys, or any other Ind s . encouragement to come to me 
on business, as I believe I shall be from home all the spring, & 
part of y e . summer, on business to Pensilvania & other places, 
besides General Amherst is not for my being any ways free, or 
generous to any station of Indians, vA should they come, they 
would expect. My Brother desires his Compliments to you. 
I am 


Your Welwisher, & 

Humble Servant 

A. L. S. 1 

Montreal 19* March 1761 

I have at last found out the Pany Ind n . that run away from 
our Ind ns . last Fall, and obtained Gen. Gages order to demand 
him of his old Masster with whom he was, and who after some 
words promised me to deliver him up when I called for him 
accordingly I intented to send him down by this opportunity but 
yesterday Evening Gen. Gage sent for me and told me that the 
old Fellow told him a long Story that his Pany only came out 
of Town to fetch Water and so was taken. I assured him of the 
contrary, and told him that Genl. Amherst would not hear the 
old frenchman and let the Ind ns . keep him. He replied that my 
fellow was afraid of the Ind ins . hurting him for running away, 
I should find it difficult to bring him down now without escaping. 
And as Gen. Amherst would be here early in the Spring he 
might settle the matter when he could to be sent safer by water. 
Its said Gen. Amsh sl . has leave to go home and is to set off for 
England from Quebec. We also hear that Gen. Murray has 

J In Newberry Library, Chicago, 111. 

362 Sir William Johnson Papers 

made a Representation to Genl. Amsh st . ab l . the art 6 , of CapitK 
by which the French South Sea Compy. are allowed the free 
Transportation of their Peltry, 1 and proves that the french King 
is at the head of P Compy. which renders that Art 6 , null Gen 1 . 
Murray has stopt most all the Peltry last fall at Quebec and 
there are vast Quantities in the Ind n . Countries belongs, to Y 
Compy. this would be a fine hawl if obtained. 

The Caghnawages & Caneghsadagey Indians have lately been 
with me and renewed their Engagements entered into with you 
last Fall, and added that they had since considered and thought 
upon that the English by their Behaviour toward them might not 
cake them to be sincere in what they promised, they therefore had 
firmly & unanimously resolved upon in public council, and a large 
white Belt of Wamp m . assured me that let Times & Events be 
as they would they never again would take up the Hatchet for 
the French ag st the English, but always remain stedfast Friends 
to the latter and diligently mind their hunting, and begged this 
might be recorded for the Memory of our & their Posterity. 

I also had the Chief of the Nipisins with me whom I reminded 
as near as I could of what was transacted last Fall and desired 
him to see every English Pris n . left among his people to be 
delivered up, as without which no real Friendship could subsist 
between them & us. He assured me that it was intented last Fall 
but the Families who had them were then gone upon the hunt 
when the others were delivered up, but as soon as they returned 
which would be the latter End of May he would convince the 

General of the Sincerity of his Promise. 

Gen. Gage told me that Captain Balfour 2 of L*. Infry. who 
commands near those Indians mentioned to him that he heard 
they were apprehensive we would revenge their former conduct. 
I spoke to this chief upon it and assured him of our sincere Friend- 
ship in case they behaved accordingly. The Gen el . ordered him 
some Amunition for his People and 1 3 set off well contented. 

^ee Doc. Rel to Col. Hist. N. Y. t 10:1 113. 

2 Captain Henry Balfour, of the 80th regiment. 

3 This word should no doubt be ** he." 

Seven years' War 363 

The Indians of this Govern mt : are going upon the Beaver hunt 
till the latter End of May, and their women begin to make sugar. 
Mrs. DuMusseaux died lately of vomiting Blood, The old 
Gent n & his two daughters presents their Compl ts . 

Mr. Wells mentioned to me of your intending to have some 
Ind n . prayer Books reprinted, I beg leave to observe that it would 
be necessary to have them corrected first as there are many Errors 
in the Printing of the old ones which I think I could correct if I 
had a Book, there are likewise several Manuscripts of Catechims 
& ca . among the Mohawks which would be a pity to be lost and 
might be of great service towards promoting Religion among the 
Ind' ns . in having them printed like primars & ca . 

I hope you have received by Cornl 8 : M'Kay the Beaver Coat 
& Mittens since which I picked up a pair of shoes made by the 
Sioux Ind in . to the Westward. 

By a hint Col. Haldiman gave me this morning I find Gen 1 . 
Amherst has mentioned to him by yesterdays Post that he would 
give me leave to purchase, and the former asked me ab l . it, I told 
him how you were kind enough to offer me your assistance in it 
last Fall and he said that he should be glad to know your Inten- 
tion as Capt n Rutherfurd was going to sell out & Gen 1 . Amherst 
would be satisfied of my purchasing, should it be agreable to you 
to advance the money I will engage my self to make repayment 
in as short a Time as I possibly will be able and acknowledge it 
allways as a piece of your Patronage. 

I have no more to add and remain with highest Respect. 

Your most Obedient & most 

humble servant 

I beg to be remembered DAN L CLAUS. 

to Capt n . Warren and all 
the Family. 

Ps'. The Company will sell ab. 1 100. Sterling 

and my Lieutenancy 300. D 

& therefore will stand 800. 

364 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A. L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson 19*. March 1761 

Your kind favour of the 7 th . Curr*. I had Yesterday the 
pleasure of receiveing, and am extremely glad to find thereby that 
you are resolved to allow of no purchases of Land, but such as 
are openly & fairly made of the Indians ; there certainly is nothing 
will continue them firmer in their attachment to the Brittish 
Interest, or make them live in stricter friendship with their 
Neighbours the White People than that, and I shall take the first 
opertunity of acquainting all the Indians of both Mohawk Castles, 
Scohare, & Oneida (as they are the People who generally sell 
Land) of your resolution to see Justice done them, and redress 
any injuries they may have suff erred with regard to Land. You 
may be assured Sir they shall not trouble You with any com- 
plaints (while I have the care of them) that are not well founded. 

M r . Livingstons giveing Klock only a Quit claim, carries with 
it a bad look, and shews he did not think his Title good. I am 
almost certain it is not, from what I have heard old David 
Schyler 2 say about it, who is one of the Partners, and many more 
who know a good deal of the affair. the People liveing on said 
Land, have for these several years past, paid their Rent to the 
Indians uninterruptedly, and they say they will pay it to no other, 
until it appears to them clearly that the Indians have no right to 
it, & indeed I cant see they are to blame. Should it come to a 
Law suit, I think the Crown would defray the expence, but I 
should rather imagine that the affair from a proper representation, 
ought to be determined at Home. 1 am much oblidged to You 
Sir, for the regard You are so good to say You will pay to my 
recommendation in the choice of proper officers, should a new 

1 In New York Historical Society, New York City. 

2 See Deposition of David Schuyler, January 23, 1762. 

Seven Years' War 365 

Commission Issue dureing your administration ; let me assure You 
that nothing would give me greater pleasure than a continuation 
of it in your hands, or induce me to trouble You, or myself in 
the choice of Civil officers, but the great necessitty there is for it 
in this part of y e . Country, where realy an Englishman, stands not 
the least chance of haveing Justice done him, should his opponent 
be a Dutchman, which is generally the case, this is so notorious 
that (were it requisite) numberless Instances could be given to 
prove what I say. I need not tell You, that I have no connec- 
tions here, and I dare say no Man could ever charge me with 
doing a wrong thing out of Nationality, wherefore I flatter myself 
you will attribute my desire of a change (whenever it may 
happen) to the cause already given, as well as to y e . Superior 
qualifications of some People now liveing in this part of y e . 

As to M r . Hartwicks affair, or purchase of Land (it being 
severall years ago) I realy do not remember the particulars, but 
I know I stood his freind at the time with the Indians, and I think 
made a bargain with them for him, for one Tract, at which time 
he passed a Bond or note to them for a Sum of Money, which 
lyes yet (if I be not mistaken) among my Papers, but for how 
much I know not, whenever he has a mind to finish that affair, 
with the Indians, I will assist him, and see that they do what is 

I had a letter some days ago from M r . Lappius Minister to 
a Number of People liveing on the south side of the Mohawk 
River near to Conajohare, also a Petition from his Congregation 
begging I would write to You for liberty for them to build a 
Church, being for these several years past oblidged to meet in 
Barns & ca ., they are in Number ab ! . 600 Souls Old and Young, 
it is realy shocking to see no Churches in so great an extent of 
Country, where People who profess Christianity Inhabit, if you 
approve of it, I shall be glad to have it in my power to acquaint 
them of it, as it is so earnestly requested. 

The Mohawks of the lower Castle all met at my House last 
Sunday, and made a verry long Haraunge on the want of a 

366 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Minister, & murmured greatly at the former Ministers leaveing 
them after acquireing enough of their language to read the 
Service to them, they then in the most earnest manner begged I 
would write Home their request, of haveing a Minister allowed 
intirely for them & the Conajohares, they at the same time pressed 
me greatly to acquaint you of their desire that M r . Barclay might 
be allowed the expences he was at, building a House on the Land 
they gave him formerly, so as it may ever remain a glebe for the 
use of a Minister who serves them. I beleive M r . Barclay did 
formerly offer, and I dare say would now give up his right to 
s d . Land for so good a purpose, on that cond n . I heartily wish 
Sir, it could be settled so, as it would make the Indians verry 
Happy in their mind, & be the means of civilizeing fhem. 

By this post, I have wrote to M r . Banyear, 1 and desired him 
to present You a Petition in behalf of my self & thirty Nine 
Inhabitants of the Mohawks Country, for a Lycence for a Tract 
of Land near Conajohare, on the North Side of the Mohawks 
River, the Indians of that Castle did last December send for 
me, and in a full meeting of all their People Old & Young, & 
in the presence of a Justice & Interpreter make me and my 
Associates (for certain considerations) a gift of said Tract, and 
executed a proper Deed of gift for the same with unanimous 
consent, & likeing. I am sensible it is not agreable to the present 
method of purchaseing Lands, yet, as I before observed, as it 
was the unanimous Act of the whole, (w h . I look upon to be the 
cheif thing intended by his Majestys Instructions in y e . purchase 
of Lands) I hope it will be allowed, and a Lycence granted me 
& Company, so that I may have it Surveyed as soon in the Spring 
as possible, it appeared extremely odd to ms, when I heard, that 
after it was known, that the Indians had made me such a Deed 
of gift, that some gentlemen at New York did notwithstanding, 
petition for Lycence to purchase y e . same Tract, this, I must 
say was not acting generous, however, I am certain the Indians 
will never be got to Sell it to others for any consideration after 

1 Johnson to Banyar, March 20, 1 76 1 , q. v. 

Seven Fears' War 367 

giveing it to Us in so Solemn, & formal a Manner as never was 
before known in any case. & I flatter myself, that, for a mistake 
in the form or manner of our proceeding in this Affair (as long 
as the Indians are all Satisfied, & well contented) You and the 
Gentlemen of the Council will not make any difficulty in granting 
our Petition especially as we are determined to Settle a Number 
of People on the Land directly. I hope you will be good enough 
to excuse my trespassing so much on your patience, and beleive 
me with the greatest respect, 

Dear Sir 

Your most Obedient 
& most Humble Servant 


The Honr ble . CADWALLADER CoLDEN Esq r . 

INDORSED: S r W m Johnson March 19 th 1761 

Df. S. 1 

Castle Cumberland March 20 ih 1761. 

After waiting some time in vain for an answer to several things 
wrote you about, I come now to acknowledge the receipt of your 
answer 2 to part of my letter of the 6 th Jan r y. 3 also your very short 
letter of the 23 d Ult . 1 by which I am greatly surprised to hear 
that there are any Gentlemen, who (after hearing I had a Deed 
for Land) should think of interfering, by taking out Ly cense to 
purchase the same Tract, and as you say will allow me 6000 
Acres, or an equal share with them. I can't help saying it is a 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Banyar to Johnson, February 2, 1761. 

3 Also dated January 2d- 

368 Sir William Johnson Papers 

very extraordinary proposal to a man, who already has a very 
full, & formal Deed for the Whole, and that, from those, who 
have not as yet the least pretensions to the land, but a Lycense 
lately granted to treat with the Indians about it, which, you your- 
self observe will not avail, in these words " nor will it be any 
prejudice to your Interest, if these Petitions should pass, and 
Lycenses issue, for without your Concurrence any application to 
the Indians upon the Lycenses must be fruitless, and I dare say 
will not be thought of," this allowed, and being realy the case, 
must it not appear then very extraordinary to any man, that my 
associates and I, shall be limitted to such a Share as these Gentle- 
men shall think proper to allow, who have not as yet any Title 
from the Indian Proprietors, nor never will, or can for said Tract 
during the lives of the Indians now concerned, or Mine. 

I must own, I do not at all understand y r . making Mention 
in several Letters of M rs . McGins purchase of said Land, and 
desire of sending up in the Spring Surveyors to lay it out, by 
virtue of what I have seen & found out what she & others here 
have been very Clandestinely carrying on, 1 for which, in my 
opinion, she should be taken proper notice of, being quite contrary 
to the Form, or Method prescribed by his Majesty's Instructions 
for the purchase of Lands, it surely therefore cannot appear 
to you (from the Objections made to Mine) that what she has 
been endeavoring to do, is at all right, or agreable to the Method, 
which indeed I find is not always strictly adhered to. I am very 
sorry to meet with any opposition in an affair so Openly & fairly 
agreed to, by all those who had the least right in the Disposition 
of said Land, & hope there may be no more of it, as I hate, and 
ever have avoided (in all my dealings) having any contention 
with Mankind. I now send you inclosed the Names of those 
Concerned, 2 and if you do not incline (which I can see no reason 
for) to make out, & prefer a Petition for us, I must desire the 

^See Johnson to Wendell, March 10, 1761. 

2 See Calendar of Land Papers, p. 302, and Calendar of Council 
Minutes, p. 404. 

Seven Fears' War 369 

favor of you, to get it done by some one else & let the thing go 
on, as it should, so as we may have a Pattent for it. I wish you 
would please to let me know what the charges of Harkemer & 
Compy*. Pattent near Burnetsfield come to, as I desired in a 
former letter, the Pattentees expect it with great impatience, that 
they may settle it between them. If it is possible to be had, I 
should be much obliged to you, for the lists or Coppys of them, 
sent by the several officers of the Militia along the Mohawk River 
& Stoneraby to the Gov r . by which they were paid sums of money 
for paying their Men who were on service during the war by my 
orders, & with me, for several of them have been to complain to 
me of their CapP 8 . not having done them justice. The Clerk of 
the Assembly can easily make them out, for which I will readily 
allow him what is reasonable. If I have Capt n . Nicks Hansen, 
Capt n . Peter Waggonnor, Capt n . William Wormwood, & Capt n . 
Peter Connins it will be sufficient. I only desire this in order 
to have Justice done to some of the poor People who I believe 
are not fairly dealt by. I am afraid I have already been too 
troublesome, so shall only add that I am as ever, 

Your Sincere Welwisher & very humble Servant, 

P. S. 

The inclosed is an old Lycense to one Jacob Miller 1 by Virtue 
of which he had the Land surveyed by Hend k . Fry and the 
survey sent down, but would not be allowed by M r . Golden, as 
Fry was not deputised by him. This is a great loss to the poor 
man, wherefore to help him, I wish, if it is necessary you would 
please to procure him a new Lycense, so that he may get a Pattent 
for it this next Summer, or, as it is but a small piece whether it 
would not be included in y*. of mine, to save him expence as he 
is a poor Man. This I leave to you. 

1 Calendar of Land Papers, p. 271, and Calendar of Council Minutes, 
p. 386. 

370 Sir William Johnson Papers 

When I hear from you I shall let you know more of my mind 
concerning the Pattent I am now about near to Conajohare; in 
the meantime, I hope you will do everything that is necessary for 
forwarding it, haveing herewith y e Boundary & names of those 
concerned, So that I may have it surveyed this Spring before I 
leave Home. 

The Militia Company of Stoneraby Commanded by Capt n . 
Sufferinus Tyger, is, I find by the last Return made me large 
enough for two Companys wherefore would willingly divide it, 
as they can be better disciplined. In such case I would want y e 
Comrniss" 8 . viz 1 : One for Hendrick Fry Jun r . to be Capt n . 

I Peter Grimes 1 8t . Lieut. 

John Fry , 2 d . Lieut. 

Isack Barries * Ensign 

Capt n . Tyger & his officers to remain as they are, He haveing a 
Sufficient Company of the other Half. 

W. J. 


The preceding letter was followed in the Library Collection (See John- 
son Calendar, p. 112) by three to Johnson, destroyed by fire: a letter 
of March 23d from Abraham Mortier, in New York, about a draft on 
Mr Dow and money remitted by Ferrell Wade; a letter of the 23d from 
Dr Richard Shuckburgh, in New York, mentioning letters, printing of 
prayer books in the Indian tongue, stamped paper, his desire to be John- 
son's secretary, English criticism of the retention of so many troops in 
Canada, and Indian trade; and a letter of the 25th from William Wey- 
man, in New York, agreeing to print Indian prayer books at a reasonable 
price, blank bonds, a mathematical series and Johnson's account with 
Weyman and Parker being inclosed. 

1 Isaac Paris, Third Annual Report of the State Historian, p. 882. 

Seven Years War 371 


A. L. S. 1 

Montreal 26 ih . March 1761. 

Since my last of the 18 th . Inst. Colonel Haldiman assured me 
that I had Gen 1 . Amherst's Permission to purchase a Company, 
and at the same time desired me to acquaint you therewith by 
this Post, which made me guess You had wrote Gen 1 . Amherst 
on my behalf. 

As this is an offer and Opportunity which I may not have so 
soon again, and w ch . would secure to me a genteel^ Cejttainty for 
Life even if our Reg 1 , was to be broke, which at the same time is 
in general not believed, I should take it as a piece of the highest 
Patronage, if you thought it proper and agreable to assist me in 
advancing the Money, with Regard to the Repayment of w ch . I 
will engage myself to make it by living as saving as in my Power 
without any will full Delay and as soon as possibly I can. After 
all if I could not reimburse you when required or I could wish 
for, I only could get Permission to sell out again, which I might 
obtain the easier as the Company was purchased, and thereby 
would nevertheless have gained Rank & ca . 

However I leave everything to your Pleasure, and beg Leave 
to observe that should you approve off and assist me in the Matter 
above ment: I would be glad to have it settled in such a Manner 
as to be ordered to continue in the Service under your Manage- 
ment as I always hoped for, and wished to have the Pleasure of 
making one of your Family ; to be more open in my Sentiments I 
beg leave to mention to you that I always had and ever shall have 
a Sincere Regard and Esteem for Miss Nancy your elder 
Daughter, who likewise was kind enough as not to discourage me 
therein, wherefore I should before now have asked your Consent 
and Approbation to marry her, had it not been for the trouble- 
some times we hitherto sustained, but that Period being at last 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

372 Sir William Johnson Papers 

come I embraced this opportunity of doing it now, and from your 
natural Goodness flatter myself a favourable Answer. 

I dont see but what I might (when Lake Champlain opens) 
get Leave to take a Journey to Fort Johnson for a Month or so 
till the Ind ns . return from hunting. Colo. Haldiman also told 
me that Capt. Rutherford whose Compy. was to be sold, waited 
now for an Answer and the sooner he had it the better, but as I 
cannot give that positively I beg you will let him know your 
Intention by a few Lines that he may direct himself accordingly. 
Young Haldiman * is to purchase the Lieutenancy to the Compy. 
at 300 Sterl. then the Compy. stands in 800. If you have any 
GentK to recommend for an Ensign in our Reg 1 . Colo. Hald n . 
will obtain his Leave to purchase. 

Colo. Eyre who is quartered in this Town desires his Compl ts . 
to you, he has orders to go to New York as soon as possibly 
he can; Maj r . Beckwth 2 enquires of you as often he sees me, 
being in quarters at la Preieri over the River begs also to be 
remembered, none of the Troops here know their Destination 
for next Summer as yet 

I remain with the highest Respects, and Compliments to 
Capt n . Warren & family Sir 

Your most obedient and most humble Servant 

P. S. 

If Capt n . Warren intends to go to England soon I think his 
Way by passing Canada & embarking at Quebec would be the 
shortest & pleasantest. 
To the Honourable S R . W M . JOHNSON Baronet. 

1 Frederick Haldimand. His commission as lieutenant in the 60th 
regiment bears date, December 8, 1 760. 

2 Major John Beckwith, of the 44th regiment 

Seven Years War 373 

In N. S. Benton's History of Herfyimer County, p. 47981 are printed 
the petition of Johnson and 39 others, presented March 27 to Cadwallader 
Golden, for the Canajoharie patent, from Land Papers, 16:45, and the 
reference of the petition to the council on July 8, from Council Minutes, 


Claus's letter of the 26th is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 112, 
by four destroyed by fire: a letter of March 27th from Rev. T. Brown, 
at Albany, to Johnson, explaining his inability to meet the Indians at Fort 
Hunter on Sunday (printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y., 4:304; Q, 4:196); 
a letter of March 27th from Lieutenant George Pennington, of the 44th, 
at La Prairie, to M. Du Musseaux, recounting his exploit in clubbing 
Indians [translated from the French] ; a letter of April 4th, from Kennedy 
and Lyle, at Albany, to Johnson, about an Indian trader and business 
orders; and a letter of the 5th from Hugh Cosgriff, applying to Johnson 
for relief from imprisonment for debt. 

A. L. S. 1 

Nev> York 6 April 1761. 

I have your long Letter of the 20 March. I, sometime ago, 
gave an account of the Fees of the Patent you want, to some of 
the Parties of which I kept no Copy, but will make out another 
and send it to you with the Commissions by the next Post: If 
it should differ from the first I shall abide by the first with respect 
to the Fees of this office. M r . Dies paid the Surveyor and gave 
his Bond for the Sum, so that In", will be charged on this. I shall 
draw your Pet n . and give it to the President so as to be presented 
the first Council day when Land matters come before them which 
is very seldom. 

Two Gentlemen at the Board will I imagine oppose it: It's 
Fate I cannot even guess, but I find the President inclines to have 
it passed but would rather have the Matter accommodated. M r . 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

374 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Du Bois who will or has waited on you will make the Proposals 
to you. I think M r . Klock if he is so very obnoxious should be 
left out and if the other Parties concerned would be as willing as 
I am, to take a part of what we proposed, the affair might be 
agreed to the Satisfaction of both sides. M r . Golden and my self 
were originally that is in 1 755 in petitioning for these Lands. 
We are both of this conciliatory opinion. The other Gentlemen 
became interested, about the time you thought of the Matter, I 
believe a little before the Indians gave you a Deed. The Spott 
of Jacob Miller is included within the description you give and 
may go with the Rest. If you can reconcile to yourself letting 
M rs . Magin have part of the Land, I should think it right, as I 
am told She actually agreed with the Indians, and tho this gives 
her no absolute Right, yet she has I think a better Pretence than 
M r . Klock who was the means of taking from her and her asso- 
ciates the best Land back of that where Klock lives, and leaving 
the worst behind for her, which I am told is scarce worth 

Major Rogers has put in a Petition for a Tract of Land near 
Lake George. 1 

The five Nations lay no claim to the Lands on the East" side 
of Hudsons River. Those are properly within the same reason- 
ing. I should be glad to know your opinion whether this Spott 
ought to be purchased of the five Nations, and of which of the 
Nations. I will apply to the Clerk of the Assembly : I am much 
hurried with Business, you will therefore excuse me if I do 
not answer or comply with your Letters with that Expedition it 
would give me Pleasure to do it. No News but our Assembly's 
voting 1 787 Men, but the Act is without a Detachment Clause 
so they'l not be raised I fear. I am D r . S r . William 

Your affectionate humble Serv*. 


ADDRESSED: To Sir William Johnson Baronet at Fort Johnson 

1 Calendar of Land Papers, p. 30 1 , and Calendar of Council Minu 
p. 403. 


Seven Fears' War 375 


The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 12, by 
a letter of April 6th from Dr Richard Shuckburgh, at New York, to 
Johnson, mentioning medicines and expressing again a desire to be rein- 
stated by General Amherst as Indian secretary. Destroyed by fire. 

A. L. S. 1 

Montreal 9* April 1761. 

I have a few days ago found out and bought a horse which 
by the Acc ls . of People that knew the one Mons r . S*. Luc de la 
Corne made you a present of, is the only one in the Environs of 
Montreal that will nearest match him ; he is a Stone horse entirely 
black, five french feet high, and will be six Year old in May, 
his owner was offered 100. Doll rs . for him in the beginning of 
the Winter, but being now in want of cash, I got him for 60 D lrs . 
Mons r . S'. Luc paid his Bro r . Twenty French Guineas for yours 
which the Chev r . la Corne told me himself & which surprised me 
having for a long time thought the latter made you the Present. 

If I can get a care full hand here, I shall send him down as 
soon as the Vessells upon Lake Champ n . are going, w ch . wont be 
before a fort nl . or 3 Weeks, and as this goes by Colo. Eyre (who 
goes to Gen 1 . Amherst with all Expedition) it may come time 
enough, so that I can have your Directions, how safest to get him 
down or whether yourself will send a carefull Person to bring 

We rece d . two days ago the first Acc b . within these 6 Weeks 
from below; w ch . however contain nothing ab'. the Destination 
of the Troops in Canada as I can hear. All the Reg te . in 
America except Gen 1 . Gages are to be reduced, viz*: lOOOds. to 
700. and 700. to 500. not touching the officers; its supposed this 

1 Destroyed By fire. 

376 Sir William Johnson Papers 

was done because they in general wanted to be compleated, & it 
was not thought proper to fill them up with Recruits got here. 

Some Caghnawagey have applied to me to go to Albany and 
I obtained Gen 1 . Gages Pass for them; since w cl \ others having 
asked again it seems the Gen 1 , is prepossessed of letting any more 
go, and says he wont suffer that Counterband Trade to be carried 
on as heretofore between the Albany People & Caghnaw? Ind ns . 
w c \ was their only Scheme of going down I told the Ind ns . 
of it in as smooth a Manner I could, that if Gen 1 . Amherst came 
up Gen 1 . Gage would consult with him thereupon they were 
surprized that the Road of Peace opened & shown to them last 
Fall should be barred up again, I have told Gen 1 . Gage ab*. it 
and he is fixed in his Resolution so cannot do any more & there- 
fore must refer it to you. 

M r . Pennington * of the 44 th . would hire some Caghnawagey 
Ind ns . to go w*. an Officer of s d . Reg 1 , that was cashier'd to 
Crownpoint before the Communication was opened and when 
they came to his Quarters at la Preierie he got into Dispute w ll \ 
them ab l . the hire & w lh . a large club fell beating them till he 
was tired, ordering at the same time a parcell of Soldiers to keep 
at the Door while he was belabring them within, and at their 
telling him they expected no such Treatment by Virtue of the 
Treaty you held with them last Fall, he answered them in a 
despisefull, unbecoming Manner, that he did not pay any Regard 
to that and oblidged them to carry a Letter to their Priest wherein 
he desired him to send immediately three Ind ns . to go to Cr. point 
as he could not agree with these, and been oblidged to chastise 
them for their Insolence. The Priest then wrote the above Aff r . 
to Gen 1 . Gage, who sent for me and told me of it and at the same 
time delivered me an Answer to the Priests Letter, and said he 
had wrote to Maj r . Beckwith to enquire into the thing. 

I am going to Caghnawagey to Day to see whether any thing 
has been done in it, and report it to Gen 1 . Gage accordingly. 

Lieutenant George Pennington. 

Seven years* War 377 

A New England man, who has been these 4 years past among 
the S*. Francis Ind ns . and gone several times to war with them 
when he committed the most horrid Cruelties of his own Accord, 
has been taken up at Swegachy where M r . Meredith was posted 
last Winter, and brought down to be tried here, and after 
sufficient evidence & self Confession was condemned & hanged 
two days ago. Gen 1 . Gage has given orders, and is resolved to 
take up all white Men of ours living w th . Ind ns . wherever they 
can be got, and intends to send them on board the first Man of 
War that arrives at Quebec. M r James Hamilton is in Prison 
& destined for the same. 

I have taken the Liberty to draw upon you for 50 Curr?. in 
fav r . of Mess rs . Kennedy & Lyle, for w ch . I shall be acco tble . 

I am glad to hear by the last Post that Capt n . Lottridge is in 
his way coming here, as I long to hear from below having not 
heard from you since the last Favour of the 10 th Dec r . last. 

I am with highest Respects & Compliments to Capt n . Warren 
& y r Family Sir 

Your most Obedient and most humble Servant 

To the Hon ble . S R . W M . JOHNSON Bar*. 


The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 1 3, by five 
which were destroyed by fire: a letter of April 9th from William Corry, 
at Albany, discussing Albany politics and trouble over church- pasture 
claimed by " old Bogardus " and informing of payment of a note by 
William Cuningham; a letter of tHe 13th from Dr Richard Shuckburgh, 
at New York, about shipment of medicines, passes for Indian trade, Indian 
opposition to Connecticut settlement in Pennsylvania, General Monckton's 
dogs, and marine affairs; a letter of the 14th from Kennedy & Lyle, at 
Albany, inquiring as to George Croghan's draft, presented by Major 
Robert Rogers, and announcing arrival of gunpowder; a letter of the 15th 
from Daniel Jaqueri, at Albany, conveying information as to powder, shot 
and pistol balls in store, subject to Johnson's order ; and a letter of the 1 8th 
from John B. Van Eps, regarding ammunition sent in care of Jacobus 
Johannes Van Norst and Cornelis Barhuyt. 

378 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Contemporary Copy 1 

New York '7 th . April 1761. 


I send you by Cap 1 . Minnett 182 Silver medals for that 
Number of Indians who were under your Command On Our 
Arrival at Montreal. Each medal has a Name Inscribed on 
it, taken Exactly from the List which you gave me in Canada, 
according to the Enclosed Copy.- 

The Names of the Ashquesashna Indians were left blank, but, 
I imagine, it will not be difficult to find a person to add the 
Names to them, which I must beg the favor of you to have 
Inscribed on the medals, And that you will please to Deliver 
the whole, as a mark of the King's approbation of their faithfull 
Services, which they are to wear, as a proof of His Majesty's 
satisfaction of their Zeal and Bravery; And that they may be 
distinguished by this Token, whenever they shall Come to any 
of the Forts or Posts, from those unworthy Indians, who so 
shamefully abandoned the army after we left Oswego.- 

Amongst these medals, there is One for Silverheels who is at 
present at Carolina, and I don't know but there may be more 
Indians there, who are Included in the List. 

I Enclose One of these medals in Gold, which I beg your 
Acceptance of; and that you will permit me to say, no one has 
so good a right to it as yourself; for I am convinced those Indians 
that did Accompany the Army were Induced to it from the 
proper Care, and good Conduct you shewed towards them. 

I am, with great Regard, 


. , v . T Jeff: Amherst. 

Sir W M . JOHNSON Bar 1 . 

Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5.61, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, May 4, I 761. 

Seven Years War 379 

INDORSED: Copy Letter from Gen 1 . Amherst 
To Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 . Dated 
New York 17*. April 1761.- 
Accompanying 182 Silver Medals, 
which the General desires 
may be delivered to that Number 
of Indians which Accompanyed 
the Army to Montreal, at the 
Reduction of Canada, to be wore 
by them as a mark of the King*s 
Approbation of their Faithfull 
Services, &ca. 

in M. G. Amherst's of May 4:1761' 
NO. 67. 

A. L. S. 1 

Montreal 21 st Apr 1 . 1761 

Capt n . Lottridge arrived here the 1 5th Inst. and delivered me 
your Dispatches for which I am highly oblidged to you; I shall 
endeavour to the utmost of my Abilities to execute the Trust you 
pleased to repose in me thereby. Doubtless you have reced. my 
Letters of the 26th Ul to . & 9 th Inst. since w ch . Colo. Haldiman 
told me that he had strongly recommended me to Gen 1 . Amherst 
for that Company I mentioned to you in the former, but that he 
wrote to the Gen 1 , he expected I would quit the Ind n . Service 
and join the Regt. In such a Case I think I would rather chuse 
to remain in the way I am in at present if I could be sure of being 
continued in it, and therefore as no one but yourself can better 
judge herein, I humbly beg leave to throw myself upon you for 
your advice, whereby I shall content myself let the -event be as 
it will, but as Cap tn . Rutherford expects an answer I must beg 
you will let him hear from you in a couple Lines. 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

380 Sir William Johnson Papers 

All the articles you required of me in the 3 Letters you 
honoured me with I shall endeavour to execute as well & as soon 
as in my Power. . , 

As to Jacob Miller I shall send him down by the first good 
Opportunity the Priest being apprised of it and unavoidably 
satisfied to let him go. The French Man M r . Eisenlord wrote 
to ab l . the Contents of his Certificates is gone last Fall to France, 
and in case he was here I am told he could not answer the 
Demand as no public money had been paid yet by the Crown 
of France by w ch . most all the Inhabitants here were great 

I shall by the first Opportunity send the Continuation of my 
Journal; In the interim I remain with utmost Respects, & my 
Complim ts . to Capt n . Warren & the Family Sir 

Your most Obedient and most humble Servant 


P. S. 

I am sorry to have bought the horse since you have counter- 
manded it by your last but I am convinced you will have the 
best & strongest pair in the country in S l . Luc's & him. I should 
not have ventured to send him by Ice as it was not strong enough 
in some Places on the Lake all Winter. One M r . Chinn an 
Eng sh . Merch 1 . has promised me to bring him down safe as soon 
as the Vessels go. 

To the Hon ble . S R . W M . JOHNSON Bar 1 . 


The above letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 1 3, by a 
letter of May 1st to Johnson from Captain John Lottridge, at Montreal, 
concerning a draft on Johnson for 35 New York currency in favor of 
Captain Abraham Douw, a borrowed horse for the loss of which he must 
pay, and abuse of the Caghnawagas by men of the 44th with Majof 
Beckwith's countenance. Destroyed by fire. 

Seven Years War 381 


Castle Cumberland May I st 1761. 


I come now to answer Yours of the 26 th March, & 9 th of 
April. Your haveing permission to purchase, I flatter myself is 
owing to some mention made of you last Winter to the General 
in several of my letters. I wish you may Succeed ; in one of my 
last letters, I told you I would assist you as far* as to compleat y e 
purchase, with what you could get for y r . Lieutenancy w h . you 
then imagined would be 300 Sterling. I understand Companys 
are but a thousand or Eleven Hundred Pounds now. I wrote 
Major Rutherford ab l . it last Week & desired him to let me know 
his intention, which if inclineable to sell, & he would let me know 
his Terms, I would settle the Affair with him, when I have his 
answer shall let you know. In the meantime you should push it 
yourself & Collo. Haldimand, or any other friend you have, to 
assist you. 

If you cannot get the horse you bought easily Carried hither, 
I would have you dispose of him, as I would not be willing to 
have much trouble about getting him here, altho I want him to 
match the one I have. 

I am surprised Gener 1 . Gage will not suffer the Caghnawageys 
& other Ind 8 . inhabitting there to come to Albany after makeing 
it one of y e articles at the Treaty last Summer at Caghnawagey. 
I think it is not good Policy to keep them so much under at this 
time. I wrote Genr 1 . Amherst ab ! . it. I have answered y r . draft 
to Kennedy & Lisle. 

Your proposal of marriage 2 surprises me a good deal, having 
never had the least hint of the kind dropped or mentioned to me 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Claus to Johnson, March 26, 1761. 

382 Sir William Johnson Papers 

before ; so that it seems to me verry extraordinary, and precipitate, 
besides it is giving me a bad impression of my Daughters regard & 
duty towards me, whom she should consult in a case, w h . con- 
cerns her happiness so nearly. It shall ever be a Maxim with me, 
to give a Child as great liberty in the choice of a Husband, or 
Wife as is consistent with the Duty they owe to a Parent, in 
whose power it certainly should be to have a voice, & indeed a 
decisive one, as from them must generally come, what will make 
them easy in the world with their own industry afterwards. If 
they exceed that, & will act independant (which seems now to 
be the case as y*ou say) then I think all expectations from a 
Parent are forfeited. I have always had a regard for you, and 
shewed it by the Notice I have taken of you, which alone should 
have weighed with you, and prevented your carrying on any 
Intrigue of the kind privately in my Family. Had you moved 
the thing to me before to others, it would have been more in 
Character, & friendlier. I shall talk to her upon it, and when I 
know her Sentiments, will be able to say more to you on the Sub- 
ject. In the mean time am Sir 

Yours as usual 
INDORSED: Letter to Lieut. Claus. 

A. L. S. 1 

Montreal 2 d . May 1761. 

I was honoured with yours of the 7 th . Ult . 2 and accordingly 
have been with Gen 1 . Gage ab l . the Pany. He told me that by 
the Character he had of him no Body would be able to keep 
him as he would run away if even brought down to the Seacoast. 
However, if the Mohawks he belonged to would come and fetch 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Not found. 

Seven Years War 383 

him from hence he would order to deliver him up. I have also 
spoke to the old Frenchman ab*. giving a little Boy or Girl in 
Exchange of him, but he excuses himself of not being able of 
getting any in Town, 1 and offers to deliver up his Pany when 
ordered by Gen 1 . Gage, which indicates of his having some hopes 
of keeping him, I think Gen 1 . Gage has lost a good deal of his 
Lenity since he has this Government. 

I was this week at Caghnawagey where I heard nothing but 
Complaints ag sl . the 44 th Reg*, officers as well as soldiers, how- 
ever more so of the Latter. I presented them to Gen 1 . Gage in 
writing, and he was surprised to hear it, telling me he had given 
repeated orders to Maj r . Beckwith to keep up a good Under- 
standing between the Ind ns . and the Regim 1 . but I find the Maj r . 
dont countenance the Indians in the least by several proofs I 
have myself. The Night before I came to Caghnawagey the 
Ind ns . were so much alarmed at some strange Behaviour of his 
too tedious to mention, that they were up the whole Night and 
upon their Guard. I have given a hint of it to the Gen 1 , and 
observed that the Ind ns . were now in Fear of us & perhaps might 
put up with some 111 usage, yet if that Fear was pushed too far, 
it might have such consequences as to bring a General Ind n War 
upon us, all Nations being already jealous of our Success and 
would easjly engage in it. He told me he would renew his orders 
to Maj r . B. W: He granted them some powder and I have 
procured them some Shot but not out of the Magazeen those 
being given out to the Troops, it will please them as the Pigeons 
fly & they are scarce of Amn & Prov. I endeavor all in my po^^r 
to keep them as easy as possible, they were extreamly glad to 
see me the last time telling me that my coming put them out of 
all Fears and begged I would stay longer the next time w^. I 
intend to ask the Gen 1 , for. 

I acknowledge with the highest gratitude the Singular Mark 
of your Favour in giving me Leave to draw upon you towards the 

1 See Claus to Johnson, February 2, and February 26, 1761. 

384 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Purchase I mentioned, but as by my 2 Letters of the 26 th March 
and 21 8t of Apr 1 , your advice might make some Alteration, I 
have not yet, nor shall divulge it to Mankind untill I have your 
Answer. M r . Ogilvie presents his Respects & says there are 
a few Ind n . Prayerbooks in a Chest at Isaac Colliers the key of 
w ch . he has not here, the one M r . Welles is to bring here shall be 
corrected with all speed. 1 

M r . Adams keeps with the 46 th at Sorelle. If I could have the 
least Trace of Capt n . Stodderts Debts here I would try to find 
out the People it seems to me he had some Dealings with the 
Merch*. at Caneghsadago if I am sure I would attack him ab l . it. 

I am sorry of having not had the Pleasure of seeing Capt n . 
Warren. Remain with the highest Respect and Compliments to 
the family Sir 

Your most Obedient and most humble Servant 


All the Satisfaction the Ind ns . got for being so ill used by M r . 
Pennington, was that they might bring away their Arms, Pack 
& Canoe w cl \ they were oblidged to Leave when beat so much. 
The Gen 1 , says he heard they exaggerated their Story, but M r . 
Penningtons own Confession in his letter to Mons r . Du Musseaux 
w ch . he made the Ind ns . carry in the Bargain and whereof I 
hereby transmit you a verbal Translation, proves 111 Treatment 
& Presumption enough. 

To the Hon ble . SlR WlLLIAM JOHNSON Baronet 

1 Rev. John Ogilvie was at this time chaplain of the 60th regiment, 
stationed in Canada. 

Seven Years' War 365 


A. L. S. 1 
SIR Albany May 2<*. 1761. 

Our Sherif M r . Van Schaick declines, it would be best 
to be prepared, I know the other side will have this profitable 
place if they can, for M r . Yates 2 the lawyer. You can oppose 
him, by letting the Precident know that upon the Request of 
Gen 1 . Amherst M r . Yates was turned out of that office, as the 
Gen 1 , said for stiring up division between the people and the 

A Jersey man this morning got a warrant from M r . Liddeas. 
He went to the houses of three Constables to serve it, they were 
all deneyed being at home at 7 aClock this morning, The Jersey 
man could not tell what to make of it. Let an Albany man com- 
plain, how soon a troop of Constables would appear. How hard 
it is? 

I can't but admire the Question to shew cause why a capable 
Subject should be put in office. The question would be much 
better stated, in my opinion, to shew cause why any of the old 
should be kept in, who have neither ability nor inclination to 
perform and fulfill the office they undertake. 

When my Albany friends turned me out of the last commis- 
sion, a street of little huts were built near my house up to the 
hospital, there was not one Justice in Albany would hear a 
complaint relating to them, at length they grew so outragious 
that Lord Rollo was oblidged to pull them all to the ground, 
whereas had there been but one Justice in Albany able to do his 
duty he could with one finger have restrained the whole to order 
and Decency. I shall send you a list as soon as possible. Sir y r 

Serv*. to Comm d . 


To SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON Bart at Fort Johnson 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Abram Yates. See Van Der Heyden to Johnson, February 3, 1 761. 

Vol. Ill 13 

386 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Extract * 

NenYork^h May 1761 

I have sent one hundred and Eighty two medals to S r W m 
Johnson, to be delivered to as many Indians, who accornpanyed 
the Army to Montreal, it will please the Indians much, and I 
trust will have a good Effect, the Expence is not great, the 
whole amounting to 74 6 = 4 Sterling 


A. L. S. 2 

Wen; York, May the 5* 7767. 

In the month of March, I had the pleasure of acquainting you 
that, as the major part of my Baggage was arriv'd, I shou'd send 
a medal by M r . Jaqueri (elk of Stores to the Train) which I 
accordingly did, & directed it to the care of Col Vandsrheyden 
at Albany, to whom it was delivered, & hope you've received it, 
of which I hope you'll favour me with an account when y r . 
Leisure will permit. As I hear your Brother, Capt. Johnson, 
is in Town, I omit sending you what little News is current, as I 
presume He'll transmit you everything worth knowing, besides 
what is in the Prints of yesterday. 

The Pacquet being expected very soon, has detained me longer 
here than I intended, for as I expect some orders, and a new 
Commission in her, I imagin'd it wou'd be prudent to wait for 

1 Postscript of letter from General Amherst to William Pitt. In Public 
Record Office, C. O. 5.61, London, England. 

2 Destroyed by fire. 

Seven Fears' War 387 

her, to avoid the necessity of returning soon after her arrival 
from Albany County ; but if you have any Commands for me to 
Execute before she may arrive, I beg you'll order me to attend 
you on receipt of this, or whenever you please. With this, I 
take leave to send (address'd to Col. Vanderhey den's care) an 
engrav'd Glass and cover, with 3 of Gen 1 . Amherst's victories 
mention'd on it, w cl \ I hope you'll accept: another w ch . I caus'd 
to be made at Home, in honour of y r . Success at Lake George, & 
Niagara, I have given to my good friend M r . Com Gen 1 . Leake. 
I am, Sir, y r . mo. obed 1 . & oblig'd Sert 

Hon ble . SIR W M . JOHNSON Bar'. 


L. S. 

<New York, 7 th May 1761. 

Your Brother delivered me the Favour of Your Letter of the 
23 d April, 1 by which I see you know Nothing of what M r . Denny 
wrote to me about: M r . Croghan; when you see him, I^> 
imagine, <will be able to Clear up that affair. > 

I shall mention <what you say to me. Lieut: Claus has> 
Wrote, to General Gage, <^who,^> I am certain <[will do 
what> may be right for the Indians; and You may < Assure 
them,^> whatever promises have been made, they shall be 
< strictly > Adhered to, and so long as they behave well, they 
<shall have> full Liberty for a free and open Trade. 

I Send You a Copy of a Permit, I have given to 
Rutherfurd, & Several other Gentlemen, for Settling 
Niagara; They are to Buy the Soil of the Indians, <if> neces- 
sary; As my Permit mentions the Reasons for Granting this, I 
need Say no more about it 

Not found. 

388 Sir William Johnson Papers 

The Indians at Detroit must certainly be in want of many 
things: I have given Copies of the List You trans <^mitted^> to 
me, leaving out the folowing Articles, Viz*. Scalping 
Clasp Knives; Razors; Tomahawks; Gun powder; 
pieces ; & Rum. The more Goods therefore sent up to <that> 
place, I think, the better, that it may Attach the Indians to His 
Majesty's Interest. 

I hope soon to be at Albany, and that I Shall have the pleasure 
of Seeing You. 

I am, with great Truth, 
- Sir, 

Your most Obedient Humble Servant. 



A. L. S. 1 

Nen York U ih Ma], 1761 

I take this opportunity of inclosing a Letter your Brother left 
w*. me the Morning he went on board Capt Lewis bound to 

General Amherst is gone into the Jerseys. M r . O. DeLancey 
and Banyar I hear intend to make you a visit in about 3 weeks. 
The Pacquet may be expected every hour if not taken. The 
Man of War, under whose Convoy y r . Brother went, was at the 
Dock yesterday. 

I hear by Capt. Johnson that you have lately receiv'd a Letter 
f" 1 M r . Pownall. I dont hear he is confirm'd by his present 
Majesty in his government of Carolina. 2 I believe he would like 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Thomas Pownall was appointed governor of South Carolina in 1 759, 
but never occupied the office. 

Seven Years War 389 

to be here & Gov r . Boon l of y e Jerseys would join his interest in 
that point as he is desirous of being Governor of South Carolina 
having a large estate there; if I was on y e same eminence with 
you I shou'd be cautious how I answer'd any of his relative to 
Governments. Tis the opinion of most here that you might have 
whatever you pleas'd to Signifie to y c Ministry & that the Gen 1 , 
would admit me to act on y r . application. He is expected soon 
to go to Albany in his way to Crown Point where it is said there 
is to be an Encampment as also at Oswego. I am y r . ever oblig'd 

att Fort Johnson Albany. 

L. S. 2 

Fort Johnson May I2 ih . 1761 

It gives me great satisfaction to hear by my Brothers letter that 
you have recovered from your late indisposition.- I therefore 
could not omit the first opportunity of congratulating you thereon, 
and wishing you a continuance of health and prosperity ~ 

Your kind offer in a former letter of favouring my recom- 
mendation in case of any civil vacancy in this Province, I shall 
allways esteem as a proof of the sincerest friendship, and, at 
present encourages me to represent to you, that as the vacancy of 
a Sheriff for the City, & County of Albany must shortly happen, 
from the languishing state of M r . Van Schaack, I beg leave, (if 
that place is not allready promised) to recommend the bearer 
Cap 1 . Ferrall to your consideration, a Man of a good character, 

1 Thomas Boone became governor of New Jersey in 1 760, and in 
1 762 governor of South Carolina, succeeding William Bull. 

2 In New York Historical Society, Colden Mss. 

390 Sir William Johnson Papers 

and estimating in Albany, and in whose integrity you may safely 
confide, for a faithful! and upright discharge of his duty in that 
station. If he Has the good fortune to be approved, of and 
succeed to that employment, I shall esteem it as a particular 
favour done me 

I troubled you some time since with a Letter concerning 
some Land which I was about taking up, & which I presume your 
late indisposition prevented you from answering, but as you are 
now so happily recovered I hope shortly to be favoured with your 
thoughts thereon 

I am with the greatest respect, & sincerity 

Your most obedient 
& most Humble Servant 


The Honourable CADWALLADER CoLDEN Esq. 1 

INDORSED: S r William Johnsons letter 
May 12* 1761 

L. S. 

^Philadelphia, Mai; 12 1761. 

I am to acknowledge <the receipt of yours of the 4 th of 
March, 2 > in answer to mine relating to the <Settlement of the 
Connecticut^ people in this province; and to return you my 
< hearty thanks^> for your kind promise of communicating to 
me, any <thing> that should occur to you, which it may be 
necessary for me to <^know.^> 

With regard to Teedyuscuncks complaint agai<nst the> 
proprietors about Lands, you may please to be assured, I <have 

1 The address is in Johnson's writing. 

2 Not found. 

Governor of Pennsylvania 

Seven Years War 391 

not> the least desire to interfere in it, nor have ever used any 
me<ans to> divert him from appointing a time and place for the 
hearing of it, agreable to his Majesty's order. On the contrary 
whenever you shall please to give me notice that those prelimi- 
naries are agreed on, I shall readily appoint Com'issioners to 
attend and explain to you the Justice of the Proprietors conduct 
in that respect; being perfectly satisfied with his Majesty's wis- 
dom in having referred this matter to be heard by You. 

Upon perusing your letter of the same date to M r . Peters, 1 I 
was concern'd to find that you had been inform'd, that the Six 
Nation Indians had received three Belts of invitation to Philad a 
since the winter. I hope upon inquiry you will find this intelli- 
gence not to have been well founded; since, with regard to 
myself, I do very sincerely assure you, I have never since my 
arrival sent the least < message or Belt of invitation to those 
people for any purpose whatsoever, nor have I the least expecta- 
tion of a visit either of Friendship or Business from them. 

If any other> persons of the province <have presumed to 
send Messa>ges to them, it is quite unknown to me, <^and I 
should be glad]> to be made acquainted with their names, <^that 
they may be> dealt with according to their deserts. 

I am sorry to acquaint you that the Connec<Oicut> Settle- 
ment on Delaware still goes on; and that another is inte<]nded 
to> be made at Wyomink, 2 the very place appointed by the Six 
Na<tions for> the residence of the DelaWares and other Tribes 
who <^were]> obliged to remove from the inward parts of the 
province on account of the great increase of our people which 
spoilt their hunting, and that the Indians living there are so much 
alar<^med^> at this proceeding, that Teedyuscunck and Six or 
seven others came lately down to acquaint me, that Several had 
already deserted their habitations, and that he himself should 

1 Johnson's draft destroyed by fire. 

2 See Hamilton to Johnson, March 19, 1754, and Fitch and Others 
to Johnson, April 2, 1754; also Narrative and Critical History of 
America, 5:180. 

Sir William Johnson Papers 

soon be obliged to go to the westward, unless a stop could be put 
to the Connecticuts people coming thither. 

I have been, and still am so much afraid that this manner of 
proceeding will occasion a fresh rupture with the Indians that I 
have wrote to General Amherst upon it, and pray'd his interpo- 
sition; in addition to which I now also beg the favour of yours 
in such manner as you shall judge most proper; and unless by 
these means a stop can be put to this Enterprize, I despair of its 
being done at all. 

<I must also beg the favour that You will acquaint me 
whether the Six^> Nations are appriz<^ed of those proceedings 
and what their opinion is> respecting them? Since noth<ing is 
more certain than that the Lands do^> yet belong to those 
nations; having, <never that I have> heard of, been fairly and 
openly purchased from them, <^nor can^> the people of any 
other province have a right to purchase < Lands in> the very 
center of Pennsylv a . all such purchases being <^declared^> 
null and void by an ancient and standing Law of this 
< Govern >ment. 

Nothing but my concern for preserving the peace <^so 
hap]>pily establishd between his Majesty's subjects and our 
Indian allies, after the late terrible scene of murder and desola- 
tion; and the dangerous light in which this wanton and unjust 
proceeding of the Connecticut Men appears to me, could have 
induced me to trespass so much upon your time on which account 
I hope you will not only excuse it, but believe me to be with the 
greatest Respect 


Your Most Obedient & 

Most humble Servant 

S R . W M . JOHNSON Bar 1 . 

INDORSED: May 12 th . 1761 

Gov r . Hamiltons Letter 

Seven Years' War 393 

A. L. S. 1 

Montreal 24 th Mai? 7767 

I had the honour of yours of the 1 sl today and thereby found 
what Pains you have taken in assisting me towards my future 
wellbeing, and altho (as I now find) it had not its wished for 
Effect, yet I always shall gratefully acknowledge your kind 

I have at present contentedly resigned myself to whatever Steps 
Providence will take towards my Temporal Existance. The only 
real uneasiness I now have is your taking the Paragraph ab' my 
Marriage in so different a Light, and thereby calling Miss Nancys 
Regard for, & Duty towards you in question, if I have repre- 
sented her as acting independent of you, it is entirely owing to 
the Imperfection in the English. Language, for as long as I had 
the Pleasure of being acquainted with her, I always discovered in 
her a profond Love & Duty to her Parents, wherefore could not 
think of or presume to move such a Thing to her, and if my having 
a great Regard & Esteem for, & her being kind enough to retaliate 
it with Complaisance & Civility, may be called carrying on 
private Intrigues in your Family, I only must submit to your 
interpretation, for I assure you sincerely that I never intended it 
thereby ; As to my having made my Inclinations known to others, 
I am in my conscience convinced of the contrary, knowing of no 
Person of so much Intimacy w*. me in America, as to confide 
things of such a Nature to & if any such came to your Ears they 
are mere Surmises. That I have sounded Miss Nancys Dispo- 
sition towards me before I asked your consent, I dont deny, and 
if that may be deemed dishonorable it was not done with any dis- 
respectfull Design, and hope you will attribute it to my Inexperi- 
ence in those Cases and forgive me, all I meant in my Letter by 
meeting with no Discouragement on her side was that I flattered 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

394 Sir William Johnson Papers 

myself not to be disagreeable, and perhaps would not meet with a 
Refusal from her after obtaining your consent, for I assure you 
Sir with Truth that I never had nor expected any positive answer 
from her on that head, w ch . you will find when you speak to her, 
The Difficulties & Troubles of the Times hitherto, made it unsea- 
sonable for me to move the Affair sooner to you, wherefore I 
deferred it till now, and if the busy World has spread Reports of 
that Purpose they are upon my conscience only conjectures, for 
as you justly observe it would be much beneath the Character of 
any Gentleman to spread things especially of such a kind without 
Foundation or certainty. I flatter myself these Instances will 
represent to you that Paragraph in a better Light, and bring on 
your favourable Decision upon the affair. 

You will have received mine of the 2 d Ins 1 , by w ch . I gave you 
an account of several Uneasinesses the Caglinawages laboured 
under, but I find now things go better, General Gage having spoke 
himself with Maj r . Beckwith, and made them a friendly answer 
upon their addresses granting them at the same time some Powd r . 
w ch . removed many Jealousies and they tell me now they live 
quiet and easy w ch . I wish may continue. The Swegachies have 
sent down for their Priest, and the General has allowed him to 
return, I never heard Ind ns . express themselves stronger for having 
Religion continued among them. The little Judgment I have of 
Ind ns . indicates to me that introducing Religion among them 
would be the only politic Scheme of securing the Interest of any 
Nation * as, if they once take to it they are very zealous and can 
be brought to any thing, it was by what I find the strongest motive 
that engaged them so hearty in the war. 

The Arundax 2 & Anakunkos 3 have been on their Return from 
Hunting, but hearing by the way that a dangerous sickness had 
carried off many of their People did not proceed to Canegh- 

1 See Johnson to the lords of trade, March 6, 1 756. 

2 Adirondacks. 

3 Onnagongues, or Onongunges. 

Seven Years War 395 

sadago 1 but halted ab l . 20 Miles above it near the River, and 
the Sickness now being entirely over & they not yet returned, I 
have after proposing it to Gen 1 . Gage sent them a Message to 
proceed to their habitations in order to prevent Irregularities w * 1 . 
might ensue with the Traders going up that Riv r . they may for 
ought I know under the pretext of keeping out of the Way of the 
Sickness have Fears & Jealousies of us but I have in the Message 
endeavoured to remove them. We hear from Mishilimakinac 
that our People are in the quiet Possession of that Country & the 
Ind ns . easy, there are some Ottawawas that were hereab 18 . since 
last Fall going up there in a few days. They are of 4 diff 1 . 
Nat 8 , and I intend to send a Message by them to the Indians in 
those parts, reminding them of the Treaty of Friendship, you 
made last Fall, and assuring of our Sincerity in keeping it, of 
w ch . they saw one part fulfilled by us viz ! . a plentifull Trade, & 
exhorting them to endeavour to preserve that amity & ca . 

Tiaogeara, the Caghnawago Sach m . Brants wifes Uncle is 
coming in a short time to see his Relations, there are some more 
Chiefs of Caghny. & Caneghs, going to Albany and now, I shall 
endeavour to get a Pass for them if I cant succeed they are 
resolved to go at any Rate. 

Inclosed I send you a Letter from M r . Roubaud. 2 I have paid 
him the 1 on y r . account. He is reconed by his own People & 
others that are a while acquainted with him, a little flighty, I 
have also sent my acc ts . public & private. Capt n . Lottridge pre- 
sents his respects, He told me when you settled with him in the 
Winter you could not recollect ab*. an Ind n . Ace*, he gave in at 
Oswego in 1759 and asked me ab*. it, all I can remember is, 
when he gave in the Ace*, you were just setting off for your house, 
and had no time to settle it, so desired me to give an order upon 
Comins to the Amount of the Ace*, then when Commins brought 
in his Bill I showed you the Ace 1 , and as far I can recollect you 

1 Canassadaga, near Montreal. Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 

2 Not found. 

396 Sir William Johnson Papers 

told me you could not settle it till Capt n . Lottridge was present 
himself, but whether I left the Ace 1 , with you or put it with my 
Papers I don't remember, if I have it, it may be found in my 
Chest in a little Trunk. Mess". Wade & Welles arrived here 
today. Their Cargo is safe on the other side, they came over 
Lake Champlain with the first Trip the Vessels made this Spring. 

I shall now endeavour to send the horse by a safe hand, also 
some Vines, as they will be now constantly going back & for- 
wards. I have with great Satisfaction & Surprise heard from s d . 
GentK what fine & great Improvements you made at Kings- 
borough since last year, and I am convinced it will be a new 
Place to me whenever I have the Pleasure to see it. I am like- 
wise told you are taking up another Tract of Land near Cana- 
joharee, should you choose to take in any Partners, M r . Ogilvie 
(who begs to be remembered to you) and me, recommend our- 
selves if agreeable to you. 

I have no more to add but am with the greatest Respects & 
Compliments to the Family, Sir, Your most Obedient and most 
humble Servant 


P, S. Time would not permit me to copy the Accounts. The 
Ind n . Ace*, amounts to 50 -13 -and the private 44. 16- 

To the Hon ble . S R . W M . JOHNSON Bar*. 

A. L S. 1 

[Nev York] May 28, 1761 

I find by M r . Golden that there is a Letter from you to me in 
the Hands of some Persons here. They have yet neglected to 
bring it to me, & I am not willing to let slip the opportunity of 
writing a Line or two to you by a private Express going to 

Destroyed by fire. 

Seven Years' War 397 

Albany. Two men are here from the Persons concerned in the 
Patent back of the German Flatts, and tomorrow I shall 
endeavour to do what I can towards a settlement. M r . Dies 
neglected giving me an account of his demand so that I could not 
send you the whole charges here. I must however settle it as well 
as I can. I expected to have heard further from you concerning 
your Cannajoharie Purchase. Two Petitions each for part of the 
same Lands were granted the 4 February. 1 The Lycenses have 
not been issued. The President was of opinion on hearing the 
affair that the Parties should endeavour to agree together. I 
have waited hitherto in Expectation of hearing from you whether 
any agreement was likely to take Place, for to what purpose can 
it be now or could it have been to present your Petition when two 
for the same Lands were already granted, and two Gentlemen of 
the Council interested in the two Petitions. This being the case 
judge what can be done. Suppose your Petition drawn & 
Offered, if any Gentleman at the Board was to urge it was for the 
Lands included in a former Petition, it would be enough to pre- 
vent any further Procedure on it: The only Remedy then you 
have left is either to enter a Caveat against any farther Proceed- 
ings on those Petitions and bring the Matter to a Hearing when 
you will have an opportunity or urging what you can in behalf of 
your Pretentions, or to let the thing lye till the Parties, seeing the 
Impossibility of getting the Indians to sell the Lands, may be thus 
forced Either to drop it or to accept of the Terms you may be 
willing to offer them. Do not I beg of you imagine I am any 
obstacle to your designs for tho' I am certain that so far as the 
Government can give a Right, which I shall frankly own to you 
is preferable in my opinion to a private agreement with the 
Indians, I may Carry my Pretentions back to 1 754 or 1 755 I 
forget which, when there was a Lycense issued by Governor 
de Lancey and a Warrant of Survey, I say notwithstanding this, 

1 J. J. Petrie et al. Calendar of Land Papers, p. 295, and Calendar 
of Council Minutes, p. 402 ; A. Dowe et al., Calendar of Land Papers. 
p. 299, and Calendar of Council Minutes, p. 403. 

398 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I would waive it with the utmost Pleasure, if it could be of the 
least advantage to you, for it is only being a little industrious or 
rather more attentive to my own interest, and I have opportunities 
of being interested as often as I could wish in Petitions for Lands. 
I have not forgot your Commissions, but as they are not fill'd 
up, the Express cannot wait for them. Governor Monkton 1 I 
hear expects a commission over the next Packet or Man of War. 
I doubt its coming quite so soon. Pray let me hear from you : It 
will take up much time to collect the Several Petitions that have 
been granted. In general there are 4 Each for 25000 acres back 
of Cosby's & Oriskany & about the carrying Place; The two of 
25000 Each Westward of Schoharie; those will hardly find so 
much Land. One for 25000 Beginning at East End of Oneid 
Lake & stretching Southward & Westward. Two Dies has 
informed you of I suppose 8000 acres each on both sides the 
West End of Wood Creek; and three Major Rogers has 
informed you of. I am D r . S r . William your affectionate & 
Obed*. Servant 


2 of 25000 acres near Susquehanah; there are others with the 
President but not likely to be presented soon if at all. 


The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 114, by 
a letter of May 29th from Dr Richard Shuckburgh, at Scotia, to Johnson 
on circumstances which detain him at Colonel Glen's, and his desire to 
be reengaged as Indian secretary. Destroyed by fire. 

1 Robert Monckton was governor of New York from October 26 to 
November 18, 1761, and from June 14, 1762 to June 28, 1763. 

Seven Years War 399 


Df. S. 1 

Castle Cumberland 5 th . June 1761 * 

I am at length favoured with a few lines from you the 28 th 
Ult. There was not the least occasion or necessity for the 2 Men 
you mention, nor for those who were down before on the same 
errand, to have gone to y e trouble & expence of Journeying to 
New York, had you been so kind as to let me have known what 
y c expence of that Pattent came to, as I repeatedly requested, 
the Pattentees who depended on knowing the am*, of it from me, 
now imagine I trifle with them, w h . is w*. I have never done to 
Mankind, and they are I find a good deal dissatisfied at my dis- 
apointing them, which was really y r . fault, and as to M r . Dies 
ace". I think he was long enough there to have given it in. 

I am surprised to find so much trifling, & little low means used 
by some People in order to retard my getting a Pattent for that 
Tract of Land, w h . y e . Conajoharees Voluntarily, and unani- 
mously gave me a deed of gift for, w*. will it avail then to con- 
tend for a thing w h . is the Voluntary Act & Deed of the whole? 
as I mentioned before, and done in so solemn a manner, that they 
never will rece4e from it. I am certain the main end & design of 
his Majestys Instructions to his Gov rs . relative to y c purchasing 
Ind n . Lands by his Subjects, was to prevent their being 
defrauded, and to have 'em satisfied, this I look upon to have 
been his Majestys Intention, and that, is answered in this case 
of mine, all to the less material part, that of first taking out a 
Lycense, w* 1 . could not well have been sooner applyed for, if y l . 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 In the Collections of the New York Historical Society for 1876, 
Golden Papers, p. 87-88, is a letter of June 2d from Cadwallader 
Golden, at New York, to Johnson on the Albany shrievalty and the 
Canajoharie land grant. 

400 Sir William Johnson Papers 

is the reason why I am stopped and my request for a Lycensc 
refused, I shall think myself not well treated, and that there is 
some other Motive more weighty and prevailing than that of y e 
want of Form, as mine would not be y e first instance of y e kind. 

I am sorry to hear that the Gentlemen who are my oponents in 
this Affair have been pleased to say, that I have, and am engross- 
ing too much Land in these parts, the Lands w h . I possess were 
pattented by others, and afterwards purchased by me, except one 
Tract which you know adjoining that w h . you were concerned 
in, but supposing I had made great purchases in these parts, with 
the consent of the proprietors, & to their satisfaction, I cant see 
the least reason why they, or any others should envy me, as my 
motive is the Settling the Country, w h . I have been promoting 
all the War at a very considerable expence, and risque, and as I 
never spared any pains to do all I possibly could for the pro- 
tection of the Inhabitants (who were it not for me would not have 
remained on their Lands either this, or the last War) I think I 
have at least as good a right to purchase and add to what I 
already have perilously acquired, & maintained in these parts, 
as any man in it. 

I am ashamed to say so much about it, but am vexed to think 
I should be envyed of a thing so fairly & freely given to me. I 
shall add nothing more, until I learn from you, whether a Lycense 
will be granted me for that Tract at Conajoharie or not, w h . I 
shall be impatient to hear, in the meantime am D r . Banyar Y rs . 
& ca W. J. 

P. S. As to y e Lycense w h . you say the gentlemen have got, for 
y l . Tract of Land, let them try to purchase it thereby and if 
the Ind s . will not agree to let them have it, what more have 
they to say or pretend to. 


Seven Years War 401 


Castle Cumberland 6 th June 1761 

When I had the pleasure of seeing you In Albany the other 
day I entirely forgot to ask you for the bonds which were taken 
of me by the late S r . Peter Warren. The accounts which were 
between us haveing by the consent of both parties been Settled 
some time ago and a ballance made by them Gentlemen in my 
favour I think the bonds should be Delivered to me. I believe 
I wrote you before on this Head. Should be glad now you 
would let me have the bonds Also a Deed from one Phillip 
Phillips to me for a Tract of Land in these parts Called Teu- 
thendocta, which Deed, M r . Warren I beleive tooke from me 
by ~ of Security which I could not have Suspected at that time. 

Be so good likewise to let me know When it will suit you to 
let me have a lease for the two Lotts No. 3 and 4 in that Land 
w h . was Milns & let me know the terms or if you will lease me 
the whole which is 571 acres or 5 Lotts as now laid out it will 
be less trouble to you in which case the man who lives on a lott 
of it shall continue thereon on the same footing or lay as you 
Intended he should which will be the same to him. 

Honr blc . OLIVER DELANCEY Esq r . 

I heartily wish you well & am with Sincerity & Esteem Dear Sir 

Your most Obedient Humble Servant 


The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 114, by 
Johnson's letter of June 8th to Governor Hamilton of Pennsylvania 
touching the obstinacy of Connecticut settlers and Tedyescung's charge 
against the proprietors. Destroyed by fire. 

destroyed by fire. 

2 An evident omission in the original. Doubtless ** way " should be 

402 Sir William Johnson Papers 


A. L. S. 1 

Montreal 10 th June 1761. 

I hope my last of the 28 th came to hand, since which I had a 
Deputation from the Abinaquis, concerning Capt n . Jacobs's 
affair, notwithstanding my acquainting M r . Roubaud from you, 
that said Indians need not proceed for Albany untill they reed 
further Notice, and which he acknowledges to have reced. but 
makes the Deputation a Matter of such Importance, as not easily 
to be sloped, and therefore tells me in his Letter he would not 
mention it to the Indians. After I acquainted those Deputies 
with what you mentioned to me in a former Letter concerning 
their coming to Albany, they made a long Discourse upon the 
Subject, relating to me the Circumstances, and which I think 
heard Capt n . Jacobs tell myself, viz*, that the Indian killed 2 was 
one of their own People, married & settled in their Town, and 
when taken Pris r . left to his own choice, either to remain or be 
pardoned or receive the Punishment which a Deserter from his 
Country in Time of War deserved, and he persisting in his 
Obstinacy was condemned by the Sentence of a Party that 
claimed him to be under their Jurisdiction, which Party since last 
Fall left S*. Francis and established themselves among the Swe- 
gachies wherefore they living now at S l . Francis could 3 be looked 
upon as Accessors or guilty of s d . Murder. At the same time 
they begged I would recommend these Circumstances to your 
Consideration, & hoped you would use your Influence with the 
Stockbridge Indians, and bring the affair to an amicable Issue, to 
contribute to it the more (altho' they were not the aggressors) 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 See Roubaud to Johnson, November 1 3, 1 760 and Johnson to Rou- 
baud, March 1, 1761. 

" Not " has apparently been omitted in the copy. 

Seven Fears' War 403 

they had purchased a grown up Pany Indian of ab*. 18 years, 
to replace the Indian killed, whom they were ready either to 
bring themselves, or deliver him up to whoever desired, with the 
Speeches & Belts requisite on such occasions, and which they 
hoped Capt n . Jacobs would be satisfied with, and drop the affair 
into oblivion. 

They at the same time asked to have a Smith and Interpreter 
allowed them, but I put them off as well as I could, knowing Gen. 
Gage would not come into it, besides they belonging to Tree 
Riv r . Governm*. I promised them to report their Deputation to 
you by the first opportunity and told them they might rest secured 
of your doing your Endeavours towards bringing about the affair. 
I gave them some Pipes Tobacco & ca . and a little Money to buy 
bread, and they sat off contented last Monday. I have nothing 
remarkable to mention with regard to the Indians in this 
Governm*. they are quiet and most all come home from hunting 
and had good success, they are selling their Furrs mostly in 
Town to my Troublej I dont hear them complain of Dearness; 
and Goods grow cheaper every Day several London Vessels 
being arrived at Quebec, where every thing is now cheaper than 
at New York, there are near fifty Crafts at and in Sight of that 
Place, Salt is sold at 1 8 d. per Bushel. The best Commodity 
for Canada is Provis. such as Flour & ca . as many of the Inhabit 8 , 
had no bread all Winter and have but little hopes of a good crop, 
this Summers Wheat being mostly burnt in the Ground for want 
of sufficient rain. 

'All Reg b . are ordered to Crownpoint from hence except five 
which are imagined will remain in Canada viz 1 , the 44 th , 46 th 
Colo. Frasers, 1 the 2 d & 4 th Batt n . Roy 1 . Am n . w ch . latter Gar- 
risons Montreal, and I suppose will bring me to do Duty with 
them besides the dayly Trouble of Ind ns . but according to the 
Ideas of the army Ind n . Business are looked upon as no dutyx 

Jacob Fisher is I hope before now arrived with his Mother 
having left this before I sent my last wherein I forgot to mention 

ir The 78th regiment. 

404 Sir William Johnson Papers 

him, there are likewise a Boy & Girl belonging to the Flatts 
gone down some days ago. I had them from Caghnawago where 
there is not a single Pris r . more left. The Children left with y e 
Arundax will be delivered up as soon as they come home. 

Capt n . Wait with his Rangers has before now relieved Michi- 
limakinac, we long to hear how he was received. M r . Mere- 
dith * of Gen 1 . Gage's was drowned th' other day in long Falls 
coming from F l . W m . Aug s . 2 to this place. 

Its said Capt n . John Campbell, alias handsome Jack, is to be 
married to S l . Luc laCorn's Daughter. Ens n . Robinson of 1 st 
Batt n . 42 Reg*, married a rich French officer's widow, & she goes 
with him to Crownpoint. 

I have no more to add but am with my highest Respects to you 
& Complim ts . to the Family, & M r . Johnson if with you Sir 
Your most Obedient and most humble Servant 

To the Hon bl *. S R . W M . JOHNSON Bar 4 . . 


The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 114, by 
a letter of June 1 7th from H. Van Schaack, at Albany, to Johnson about 
a remonstrance of the common council against the conduct of Bradstreet: 
and a letter of the same date from H. Van Schaack on the mayor's 
avoidance of duty, Bradstreet's influence in the county and recommendation 
of Harmanus Schuyler for sheriff, and war movements on the continent. 
Destroyed by fire. 

1 Hugh Meredith was a lieutenant in the 80th (Thomas Gage's) regi- 
ment. He was commissioned July 16, 1758. 
"Near Oswegatchie. 

Seven years' War 405 

Contemporary Copy l 

Detroit, June 77, 7767 

<^Copy of a Letter from Capt. Campbell Commanding at 
Detroit to Major Walters Commanding at Niagara. Dated 
Detroit June 17 th , 1761, two o'Clock in the morning. 

Sir; I had the favor of yours with General Amherst's Dis- 

I have sent You <an Express with a very Important > piece 
of Intelligence I have had the good < fortune to> discover; I 
have been lately alarmed with < reports of> the bad Designs 
of the Indian Nations against <this> place and the English in 
General; I can now Inform You for certain it Comes from the 
Six Nations; <and> that they have sent Belts of Wampum & 
Deputys <^to]> all the Nations from Nova Scotia to the Illinois 
<^to^> take up the Hatchet against the English, and have 
Employed the Messagues to send Belts of Wampum to the 
Northern Nations; there are now two Chiefs of the Senecas in 
the Wyandot Town privately to invite the Nations here to a 
Council at the Little Lake, or Sandoskey ; I had a Just Informa- 
tion of all their desig<ns> before they had time to hold a 
Council with the Nations and have prevented it so far, that I 
Called the Nations to a Council this day, and told of the bad 
Intention of the Seneca Nation against us which I hope will have 
a good Effect, as they promised to have no Concern with them; 
their project is as follows; the Six Nations, at least the Senecas 
are to Assemble at the head of French Creek, within five and 
twenty Leagues of Presqu' Isle, part of the Six Nations, the 
Delawares & Shanees are to Assemble on the Ohio, and all at 
the same time about the latter End of this Month to surprise 
Niagara, & Fort Pitt, and Cutt off the Communication Every 

1 Inclosed in Amherst to Johnson, July 8, 1 76 1 , q. v. 

406 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Where ; I hope this will Come time Enough to put You on Your 
Guard, and to send to <Oswego, and all the posts on that Com- 
munication; they expect to be Joyned by the Nations that are 
Come from the North by Toronto. 

You have certainly a great many of them, at present at 
Niagara; You cannot use too much precaution against them; I 
hope when they find the whole plot is Discovered, they> will 
desist from < their Attempt; I> have sent an Express to Fort 
Pitt by <^Presqu' Isle; it^ would be proper you send one 
like <^ wise in case any^> Accident should have happened to 
<my Express; I have> put my Fort in the best posture of 
Defen<ce I can, and> shall take all methods to prevent a Sur- 
prise; <^I have^> a good many Indian Nations here at present; 
<but> hope there is nothing to fear from them. I <have 
sent> Enclosed a Letter to General Amherst, 1 which 
will^> be pleased to forward with the greatest Diligence. 


Your most obedient 

Humble Servant 
Donald Campbell 

If you think it is proper that S r . W m . Johnson should know of 
it ; You may Communicate this Intelligence to him, but I hope he 
knows it before this time. 


1 Campbell to Amherst, June 17, 1761, in Niagara and Detroit Pro- 
ceedings, July-September, 1761. 

Seven Years' War 407 


Burnets field June 17 th 1761 


Two or three days ago, there Came down from Oneida a 
party of Indians about Twenty or Thirty, to have their Children 
Christened & Likewise to have Some of them Married, and as 
they went away to day, and got up as far as Franks's they Shot 
one of Stephen Franks's Hogs just by his House; So Franks's 
Son Justice Went to the Indian, and asked the Indian for What 
he had killed his hog; then the Indian immediately offered to 
Shoot him, and so Justice Frank & one Etigh got hold of his 
Gun, then he Draw'd his knife to Stab him ; but at last the Indian 
got away from them and Shot Justice Frank through his throat 
Dead, and the Indian went off. 

So we thought Proper to Acquaint Sir William of it, to know 
What to do in this Affair. We have no More to add at present, 
but we remain Sir, Your Humble serv u . at Command - 

Hans Joost Herchheimer Justice 

Conrad Frank 

In New York Historical Society. 

408 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Fort Johnson 18 th June 1761 

I am honoured with yours of the 2 Inst. 2 by Captain Ferrall, 8 
whom I am sorry my recommendation could not serve, as I am 
certain it would be more for the good of the Service, and that of 
the Inhabitants of the County than either of the two you mention. 
He is an Honest man, he is an Englishman, and one who would 
act very impartially, which was my only motive for recommend- 
ing him, but as it is we must submit to those of greater conse- 
quence & Interest, and have things go on in the old Dutch 
Channel, which I flattered myself would not have been the case 

now. 4 

I cant realy see why that affair of mine concerning the Land 
which I have a Deed of gift for from the whole Castle of Cona- 
johare Men & Women, 5 could be attended with so much Diffi- 
culty in Council as you are pleased to observe, that you and M r . 
Banyar were of opinion, it would, there is no fraud in it, it 
was the unanimous & voluntary Act of them all which I beleive 
fulfils His Majestys Intentions, all to the want of a Lycense, 
which I applied for as soon as the Indians made known their 
resolution I dont think that any person having a Lycense for 
said Tract, got, or obtained when it was known I had a Deed for 

1 Destroyed by fire. In the New York Historical Society this letter, 
in Johnson's hand, is preserved in a form exhibiting a number of differences, 
mostly in capitalization and punctuation, when compared with the draft. 
Such differences as are important are indicated in notes which follow. 

2 Printed in the Collections of the Nerv York Historical Society, for 
1876, Golden Papers, p. 87-88. 

2 " Farrel ." in the New York Historical Society letter. 
4 Cadwallader Golden, as president of the council, was the acting 
governor at this time. On August 8th he became lieutenant governor. 
5 See Johnson to Banyar, January 2, 1761. 

Seven Years War 409 

it, as the Indians are Determined never to sell it to any one, after 
executing so formal & firm a deed to me, this being the case, 
I dont see what it will avail them Gentlemen to contend, unless 
they do it to give me trouble, which I believe will be more their 
Interest to let alone. 

A Gentleman employed by Major Rogers & associates to 
attend the Survey of some Lands proposed to be Set out for them 
ab*. Lake George, came to me the 1 6 th Inst. -and showed me a 
couple of Lycenses granted to Capt n . J s . Rogers & Hazzens l for 
purchasing Lands above Fort Edward on the West side of Hud- 
sons River, on which I sent for the Chiefs of the Mohawks to 
come to my house in order that I might assist this Gentleman 
who is unacquainted with such affairs. They all came the next 
day, and after letting them know that a Number of Gentlemen 
wanted to purchase such Tracts, they made answer that untill 
they had justice done them with regard to some Lands they 
alledge & have for a long time complained to have been defrauded 
of, they were unanimously resolved not to dispose of any more 
of their Lands, that what they had left was rather too Little for 
their Hunting or Livlihood and as for the other Tract, for which 
there is a Warrant of Survey, they one and all protested against 
it and desired that Nothing rash might be done in it at least 
until you were acquainted with what they now say, which is that 
all the Lands on the West side of Hudsons River Lake George, 
& Lake Champlain, as far as to a Rock there called by them 
Rojioghne 2 belongs to them except what was sold, that it was so 
settled between their Forefathers & the Indians Inhabiting the 
Country of Canada, w h . never was disputed by their Brethren or 
others before, that within them limits are their best Hunting 
Grounds, which they say they cannot apprehend his Majesty 
would (after the many assurances given them from time to time 

1 See Calendar of Land Papers, p. 300, 30 1 , and Calendar of Council 
Minutes, p. 403. 

2 Regioghne. W. M. Beauchamp, Aboriginal Place Names of 
York, P. 73. 

410 Sir William Johnson Papers 

of his resolution to protect them and their Lands) encourage or 
at any Rate allow, their Lands to be now taken from them with- 
out their consent, that if such was permitted (meaning the Survey 
at Lake George) or such they could then have no further depend- 
ance on any thing has been promised heretofore, and must look 
upon themselves from that time, in danger of being made slaves, 
and haveing their taken from them at pltasurt, which they 
added, would confirm what the French have often told the 
Six Nations, and should our Brethren begin with us in that 
manner, who have at the risque of everything joined them in 
defending their & our Country, and now thought to set down 
in peace, what must our friends the Six Nations say or 
think, they certainly cannot expect more favours, if so much 
as we, therefore must be in a verry uneasy scituation, when they 
come to hear it. This and a great deal more too tedious now to 
trouble you with was spoke by them yesterday at my House in 
presence of the before mentioned Gentleman, who asked my 
opinion, what was best to be done, I told him I thought it best 
to prevent the surveyor going on the ground as he intended, untill 
he had acquainted the Gentlemen concerned with what had 
passed, & received their answer. He was also of the same 
opinion, and told me he would imeadiately write them. 

I cannot Sir consistent with the duty I owe his Majesty and 
the good of the Service I am by him employed in avoid acquaint- 
ing you, I am verry apprehensive that pressing the Indians so 
much to dispose of their Lands & that in such great Quantitys 
contrary to their Inclinations at present, will give them great 
umbrage and alarm all the Nations, and probably produce conse- 
quences wch. may be verry prejudicial to his Majestys Interest, 
and stop the settling of the Country, both which are now in a 
prosperous 2 and may, by a proper conduct towards them, be 

1 Omission in the copy; "lands" in the letter in the New York His- 
torical Society. 

2 Omission in the copy; "way" in the letter in the New York His- 
torical Society. 

Seven Years War 411 

continued so, but should it unhappily fall out otherwise, I am 
certain it will not be in my power or in that of any other (with- 
out violent measures which I beleive any man of reason would 
be avoiding if possible) to bring them back to so good a state. 
This Sir I submit to you, in whose power it is to prevent it, 
and doubt not in the Least your doing every thing which may 
tend to his Majestys and the Publick good. I must beg leave 
to refer you to a letter I did myself the honor of writing you 
the 19 th of March last, as there are two Articles of said 
Letter (one for building 1 a Church at Conajoharie, the other a 
request of the Mohawks, concerning the Lands w ch . M r . Barclay 
has & w ch . they would be glad to have made a Glebe or pasture 2 ) 
I should be glad of an answer to. I am & ca . 8 


The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 15, by a 
letter of June 20th from Oliver De Lancey, in New York, promising 
Johnson to return bonds as soon as Lady Warren's consent is gained, abo 
deed, and proposing joint purchase of Mrs Cosby's lands (printed in 
Doc. Hist. N. 7., 2:794; Q, 2:461 ). Destroyed by fire. 

1 In the New York Historical Society letter, " liberty to build." 

" Parsonage " in the other form of the letter. 
8 The letter in its other form has " Sir, with perfect Esteem 

Your most Obedient 
& most Humble Servant 

Wm. Johnson" 

It also has the following address: " The Honrble. 

Cadwallader Colden Esqr." 

and this indorsement in Colden's (?) hand: "Sr Wm Johnson's 

of June 1761." 

412 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Contemporary Cop); 1 

Albany, 22*. June 1761 

Copy of a Letter from the Reverend Father Dujaunay, 
a Jesuit, to Father S f . Pe, at Montreal - Dated at 
S*. Ignace, 7 th . May 1761. 


Nous sommes actuellement icy tous trois, Le Pere le Grave 
doit retourner demain au fort, ou on attend de Jour en Jour Mes- 
sieurs Les Anglois du Detroit; II y a quelque Opposition de la 
part de quelques Saulteurs Seulement: Nous tenons assez la bride 
a Ceux qui sont a Notre portes ; main ~ Nous Craignons quelque 
facheux Evenement sur la Route: Ce que Je puis assurer de 
Science certaine, c'est que ni M r . Langlade, ni aucun francois 
n'y ont aucune part outre 1'obeissance qu'on doit a ce qui 
a ete regie entre les Deux Generaux, les besoms sont trop grands 
pour qu'on puisse desormais se passer de la presence, ou du moins 
de 1'assistance de Nos Vainqueurs, ce n'est que ce printemps 
que ces Etincelles Sauvages ont eclatees, tout I'hiver tout a 
ete fort tranquille autour de Nous, Et J'apprends que les Chefs 
Outawas de de la Grande Riviere, qui ne sont 

point encore arrivez, n'ont que des Idees Pacifiques. 

M r . De Beaujeu partit du Fort vers la fin d'octobre dernier 
avec le pere Luc, les Officiers et les Soldats, il prit sa Route par 
la Baye; son Dessein etoit de se rendre aux Ilinois par Chicagou: 
Nous aprenons qu'il a tante Ensuite de la prendre par le 
Ouisconsin, les Glaces Tont Obliges d'abandonner ses Voitures, 
et une Partie de Son Monde, Et de chez les Puants, qui se sont 

Mn Public Record Office C. O. 5.61, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to Johnson, June 24, 1761, and in Amherst to 
William Pitt, August 13, 1761. 

2 This word should evidently be " mais.'* 

Seven Years W ar 413 

faits ses Guides; II a pris sa Route a travers les Terres; Nous 
n'en S^avons pas d'avantage. On Nous assure que le Mississippi 
Va avoir le meme Sort que le fleuve S l . Laurent. Depuis le 
depart de M r . Picquet d'icy, Je n'ay pu en avoir aucune Nou- 

Dumay Gendre de Madame Chevalier, a ete tue au Detroit, 
par un fils de tous les Sauvages en sont Indignez, 

et M r . Campbell, Commandant au Detroit, n'oublie rien pour 
Joindre ce Meurtrier, et en faire Justice. M r . De Beletre, et 
les Officiers, qui raccompagnoient en qualite de Prisonniers de 
Guerre ont ete tues au petit fort de Niagara, Nous disent les 
Sauvages. Nous ne pouvons Croire cette facheuse Nouvelle, a 
laquelle Nous ne Comprenons rien. Ceux qui ont poursuivis 
leur Route a la Grande Riviere s'en reviennent pleins de vie 
avec les Outaouas; Ceux de meme qui son demeures au fort 
n'ont eu que leur part a la misere Commune: Jugez en par ce 
trait, il falloit deffaire des Emballages pour en tirer de rats, J'ai 
vu de cette manufacture dans presque toutes les maisons du fort.- 

Nos peres du Detroit partirent cette Automne pour se rendre 
aux Ilinois, ou deja le pere de la morinie s'etoit rendu: On 
m'assure qu'ils ont hivernes a S ! . Joseph, ou les Hurons sont 
Venus pour les ramener au Detroit ayant etes Exhortes a cette 
Demarche par M r . Le Commandant du Detroit/" 

L'Affreux Beauregard, qu'on avoit deforge, fort mal a pro- 
pos (Mess rs : Les Anglois en eussent sans doute egalement fait 
Justice) a ete tue a coups de Haches par les Sauvages avec 
qui il remontoit- 

Le Cher frere a Nourri icy un temps trois Anglois qui ont 
passes Thyver au fort; Un vient de partir pour les Ilinois avec 
une famille qui s'y retire; les deux autres ont pris parti avec les 
Sauvages; Nous avons de meme etes Surcharges de Bouches 
affamees revenants de 1'Ouest, en Sorte que 1'abondante recolte 
Nous Suffira a peine pour Joindre la Nouvelle. 

General Gage sent me the foregoing Intelligence on the 1 5 th . 
Instant, which Confirms the Report of Mo r . De Beaujeu having 

414 Sir William Johnson Papers 

gone off to the Illinois; a Conduct very Scandalous & Unwar- 
rantable, as Major Gladwin may perceive by the Copy of the 
Orders Sent to Mo r . De Beaujeu, by the M is - de Vaudreiiil, 
which are very full and Explicit.- / 

The Report Spread by the Indians of Mo r . De Beletre, and 
the Officiers that Accompanied him, being murdered near 
Niagara, is a New proof of their Villainous Dispositions in 
progagating Falsehoods.- Major Gladwin will Use all means 
to Contradict such infamous Reports, and Convince the Indians, 
that Britons are not Capable of such Behaviour ~~ 

Who Beauregard, mentioned in the foregoing, is, I know not; 
but I Suppose the other three English must be Deserters; and 
Major Gladwin, if he finds them, or any Other Deserters, will 
Secure them, & treat them accordingly. 

Jeff: Amherst 
Albany, 22< June 1761. 



Referred to in General Amherst's 

Instructions to Sir W m . Johnson. 

Enclosure No . 56.- 

rn M. G. Amherst's of Aug*. 13: 1761 

NO. 58. 



We are at present here, all three. Father Le Grave is to 
return tomorrow to the fort, where they are awaiting from day to 
day the English from Detroit. There is some opposition, but 
only on the part of some Sauteurs. 1 We keep a pretty tight rein 
on those who are within reach; but we fear some unhappy occur- 
rence on the way. What I can assure you of, from certain 

1 Chippewas. 

Seven years' War 415 

knowledge, is that neither M. Langlade 1 nor any other French- 
man has any intention except the obedience due to that which has 
been arranged between the two generals. Our needs are too 
great for us to be able hereafter to dispense with the presence, or 
at least the assistance, of our conquerors. It is only this spring 
that these savage sparks have burst forth; all winter everything 
has been very tranquil around us, and I learn that the Ottawa 
chiefs of 2 from the Grand river, who have not yet arrived, have 
none but peaceful intentions. 

M. De Beaujeu left the fort toward the end of last October 
with Father Luc, the officers and the soldiers; he took his route 
by La Baye, 3 his design being to proceed to the Illinois Indians 
by way of Chicago. We learn that he tried afterward to take 
it by way of the Wisconsin river, but the ice compelled him to 
abandon his boats and a part of his company, and from the ter- 
ritory of the Puans, 4 who acted as his guides he took his way 
across the country. We know nothing more about it. They tell 
us that the Mississippi is to have the same fate as the river St 
Lawrence. Since the departure of M. Picquet 5 from this place I 
have been unable to obtain any news of him./ 

Dumay, son-in-law of Madame Chevalier, was killed at 
Detroit by a son of All the Indians are indignant over it, 
and M. Campbell, commandant at Detroit, leaves nothing 
undone to overtake this murderer and punish him. M. De 
Beletre and the officers who accompanied him as prisoners of war 
were killed at the little fort of Niagara, the Indians tell us. We 
cannot believe this distressing news, which we fail to understand. 
Those who pursued their journey to the Grand river, are 
returning full of life with the Ottawas. Those likewise who 

1 Charles Langlade, trader and partisan, living at Green Bay. 

2 An omission in the French. 
8 Green Bay, Wis. 

4 Puans, a nation living near La Baye, Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 
7:583; 9:889. 

5 Doc. Hist. N. Y., 1 :286, for Abbe Picquet's last movements. 
'An omission in the French. 

416 Sir William Johnson l j aper& 

remained at the fort have had only their share in the common 
wretchedness. Judge of it by this circumstance. It was neces- 
sary to unpack the bales to get rats out of them. I have seen this 
process in almost all the houses of the fort. 

Our fathers at Detroit departed last autumn in order to go to 
the Illinois Indians, where Father de la Morinie had already 
gone. I am assured that they wintered at St Joseph, where the 
Hurons have come to conduct them back to Detroit, having been 
exhorted to take this step by the commandant of Detroit. 

The terrible Beauregard, who was released at a very inoppor- 
tune time, (the English would also without doubt have brought 
him to justice) was killed with hatchet blows by the Indians 
with whom he was going up., 

The dear brother was feeding here at one time three English- 
men who passed the winter at the fort. One has just left for the 
Illinois with a family which is withdrawing there ; the two others 
have thrown in their lot with the Indians. We have in the same 
way been overburdened with famished mouths returning from the 
West, so that the abundant harvest will hardly carry us over to 
the next. y 

A. L. S. 1 

NCTV York 22* June 1761 

The Business crouded upon me for some time, had made me 
almost forget the Commissions you so long ago wrote for. I now 
inclose them hoping no Inconvenience has happened from the 
delay. In my last I wrote you that the Germans from the Back 
of the German Flatts were with me. I settled the affair of that 
Patent and desired them to call on you and shew you the amount. 
I have kept a copy of what I gave them, which you may have at 
any time, in case you should want it. I then wrote you the Diffi- 

Destroyed by fire. 

Seven Years War 417 

culties that would prevent the passing your Petition for the Lands 
back of Glen's Purchase. You have sent me no answer. If you 
persist in having a Petiticn preferred and intend to use the Pur- 
chase you made or the Deed the Indians gave you for those 
Lands, as an argument, it should be lodg'd here for the purpose, 
first getting it recorded at Albany to prevent accidents. In one 
of your Letters you mention that M". Magin had 40 of you 
when she went on the Survey last Fall. She has undertaken to 
pay this sum to you. I should be glad to know if she has paid 
it, that I may write to her if she has not, or take some method 
to send it you my self. That Purchase has cost those concerned 
as much as any two Purchases I have ever heard of. The 
accounts amounted to within a small matter of 700 119 was 
cut off for charges for Trouble & ca the sum allowed is 571 and 
by the best accounts I can obtain the Land is hardly worth 
patenting. M r . Klock and the Germans his Neighbors having got 
all that may be called good Land between the two Creeks 
between which these Lands lie. 

We have no News. Governor Hardy (appointed for New 
Jersey *) expected to leave London in May or June, when Gen 1 . 
Monkton and the other Governors' Commissions are expected 
over. I am with great Sincerity D r . S r . W m . your affectionate 
humble Servant 


1 Josiah Hardy, brother of Sir Charles Hardy, was governor of New 
Jersey from 1761 to 1763. 

Vol. Ill 14 

418 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A. L. S. 1 

Wen; York June 22* 1761 

Last night I rec d y of the 1 7 th Inst 2 wherein you forbid my 
Sending you the Draft which you had desired and which I shall 
observe. Give me leave to assure you, you have been misin- 
formed, for not a person living has even seen that part of the 
Draft which I have plotted, nor have I near compleated the 
Draft you desired, so it was impossible for me to shew it. 

As soon as I rec d y r letter of the 28 th Jan r y in answer to mine 
of the 18 th of the same Month I set about p^ting the Several 
Pattents & began at Oriskany laying down the Several Pattents 
on both sides of the Mohawks River ; But by the time I had laid 
down those as far as Canajohary & at Cherry Valley My Father 
was taken dangerously ill & for three weeks I never left him Night 
or Day & could not do any kind of business. After he recovered 
so far that I could be from him I had such a run of business 
came upon me (& which I could not possibly lay aside) that I 
could not Set about Compleating the Draft and it lies now Just 
as I have mentioned above so that no one could reap any 
advantage from it had they seen it. 

Nothing but my desire to oblidge you and the Indians made me 
undertake it. I find it a more difficult piece of work & a work of 
more time then I first imagined & therefore am not displeased I 
have your orders not to proceed upon it as the time it would have 
taken me up I now can employ to much more advantage to my 
self and familly. Had you desired drafts of any Particular part 
of the Mohawks River, I could have easily sent you those which 
perhaps might have answered y r purpose as Well as a Map of 
every Patent between Albany and Fort Stanwix which as I said 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Not found. 

Seven Years' War 419 

before will be a work of much time, for I must not only lose a 
good deal of time in plotting the Several Grants but also a great 
deal of time would have been taken up in Searching the records 
for the boundaries of the Old Grants. 

I would not trouble you with saying so much on this head were 
it not that I am desirous of removing the Diffidence you seem to 
have entertained that I would not do all in my power to oblige 
you, than which no man can be more desirous then your humble 

Perhaps you are displeased I never mentioned to you any 
thing in regard to y r Petition which you wrote to me about May 
21 st . 1 M r . Banyar knew much more of that affair then I possibly 
Could & I Supposed had or would inform you fully how it 
Stood therefore it was needless for me to do it. 

On what you mentioned to me of Clocks behaviour with regard 
to obtaining a Deed from the Indians in a fraudulent Manner, I 
del ay 'd Endorsing and sending up his Ly cense for the 800 acres 
Mentioned in mine to you of the 18* of January: But Clock 
came down about a fortnight since and Insisted on having the 
purchase Surveyed pursuant to his Lycense of Purchase which I 
could not justly refuse & therefore the 14 th Inst I endorsed it to 
and sent it under Cover to my Deputy M r . Isaac Vrooman with 
instructions for him to go in person to the Conajohary Castle & 
inform the Sachems of his having Such a Lycense and where the 
Lands lay before he offer'd to make a Survey for Clock. This 
Step I knew I could Justify & if the Indians had not sold nor 
would not sell those Lands to Clock then he could not get them 
Surveyed as my Gen 1 orders to all my Deputies are that they 
shall not Survey any unpatented Lands without the Consent of 
the Castle nearest the lands to be Surveyed & sending three 
Deputies one of each tribe to see the same performed. 

I have had no returns of any Purchases made this Spring on 
the Mohawks River or west side of Hudsons River Nor has any 

Not found. 

420 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Grants passed except those old affairs of M r . Hartwicks * and 
that of Tedy Magines between Cajoharan or Cannada Creek & 
Garoge Survey 'd last fall by my Deputies Morgen & Campbell. 
Never was so much Care taken that the Indians should not be 
deceived in the Sale of their Lands and that no Private Surveys 
should be made, as I have for some time past, as will plainly 
appear from my Instructions to all my Deputies & which I have on 
all occasions order'd Should be Interpreted to the Indians. I was 
flattering my Self my whole Conduct in Regard to Lands would 
have been pleasing to you and the Indians 'tho I now fear from 
your last you have taken some disgust which I am sorry for ; 
however I have this Satisfaction, that I have done nothing will- 
fully to give any reason for your displeasure; on the contrary I 
should esteem it a happiness to have it in my Power to do you 
any Service and to testify how Sincerely I am Sir Your Most 
Obed* humble Ser 1 


P. S. 

Since I wrote whats above M r . Banyar informs me he has 
mentioned to you that tho he was originally concerned in that 
affair of Clocks which interferes with you, back of Glens Pur- 
chase, rather than give you any uneasiness he would give up all 
his pretensions intirely. 3 I assure you I will do the same tho I was 
to have been greatly Interested in that Purchase. What the other 
Parties will do I cannot take upon me to say. I fear they will 
not be so Compliant in giving up their Interests. 


1 See Calendar of Land Papers, p. 280, 302, and Calendar of Council 
Minutes, p. 399. 

2 Alexander, the son of Cadwallader Golden, was surveyor general of 
the Province of New York, 1 762-74. 

3 Banyar to Johnson, May 28, 1761. 

Seven Years War 421 

Contemporary Copp l 

Extract. Albany, 24 lh . June 1761. 

When I had the pleasure of Seeing you here, I Acquainted 
You I should Order Three Hundred Men of Gage's, under the 
Command of Major Glad win to Explore the Upper Lakes, & to 
Assist Captain Campbell in the Relief of the out posts, in Case 
the Latter part is not already Effected. These Orders are sent 
to Major Gladwin, & I Enclose You paragraphs of them, that 
you may be fully Informed of what I have done thereon. 

I Have Ordered the 300 Weight of powder, with the Horse- 
men's Tents You desired, to be Delivered to Mess": Kennedy 
& Lyle, that they might forward them to you, and as I find it is 
Likely you will be ready the Latter End of this Week, I send 
Orders to Capt: Waters, who was Directed to take some Artil- 
lery to Oswego, to Quit that Service, and to be ready to Attend 
You ; a Copy of the Orders to him is Enclosed. 

When You Arrive at Oswego, You will be pleased to Con- 
tinue him, with his Detachment, with You, or to take any others, 
in his room as you shall Judge proper, for which I Enclose You a 
Letter for Major Duncan. 

I am Sorry to find, that you are Apprehensive, that the Indians 
are Brewing something privately amongst them; If it is Mischief, 
it will fall on their own Heads, with a Powerfull and Heavy 
Hand ; and I am hopefull they are not so Blind, as not to See the 
Protection they Enjoy from the King; that they are sure of being 
Used well, as long as they behave well; and I trust You will 
take Every necessary Measure for Convincing them of this; and 
of Setting anything right, wherein they may have been misin- 
formed, that they may not Contrive their own Ruin. 

x ln Public Record Office, C. O. 5.61, London, England. Inclosed 
in a letter of Amherst to William Pitt, August 13, 1761. 

422 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I Enclose you a Copy of a Paper I have received from Gen- 
eral Gage, 1 by which you will see the Unwarrantable & Scan- 
dalous Behavior of Monsieur De Beaujeu; for Michillimafyinac, 
as well as Detroit, and Every post depending on those places, 
are Included in the Capitulation of Canada; and Monsieur De 
VaudreihTs Letter to Mons r . de Beaujeu, was very Explicit on 
that head. 

I Also Enclose you a Copy of part of the Orders, which were 
given to Major Rogers, and paragraphs of Letters I have Wrote 
to Captain Campbell, with all such Other Papers, as I Judge can 
give You any Usefull Intelligence; that You may be Informed 
of the full State of Every thing that has been done regarding 
those posts. It is likewise necessary that you should be fur- 
nished with a Letter to the Commanding Officer at Niagara, 
wl>ich is also Enclosed. 2 

I Shall not Attempt to point out to You the Measure that you 
will take with the Several Indian Nations; the thorough Knowl- 
edge that You have of them, with the Zeal, Judgement, & 
Abilities, which You have so often Exerted for His Majesty's 
Service, will now best Guide You, in doing Everything that may 
be Conducive thereto; And you will please to give to Captain 
Campbell, the Officer Commanding at the Detroit, all such 
Orders & Instructions, as You Judge necessary for permitting 
and Continuing an Open and free Trade, with the Indian 
Nations; for tho' these posts were, when in the hands of the 
French, the King's posts, and Trade was Carried on in the King's 
Name (Exclusively of all Others) the Commerce is now Open, 
and will Continue so, untill His Majesty's pleasure is known 
thereon. -. 

I must likewise desire You will give Capt Campbell such 
Orders as You shall Judge necessary for Ensuring Quiet Pos- 
session of the Detroit, Michillimakinac, & all the Out PoSvS, 
which are for the Defence & protection of the Indians, as well as 

1 5ee Amherst to Johnson, June 22, 1761. 
2 Not found. 

Seven Years' War 423 

for keeping the Whole Country in a proper Subjection to the 

I Have Nothing further to Add, but to Wish you a pleasant 
& Successfull Tour to the Detroit; I shall be glad to hear from 
you, when any Occasion may offer; and when You have Effected 
the Service You go on, You will please to Return, when You 
Judge proper. 

SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON, Bar*. JeffrAmherst 

INDORSED: Extract. 

General Amherst's 


To Sir William Johnson ; 

on his going to call together the 

Several Indian Nations at the 

Detroit, &ca. 

Albany, 24* June 1761 

in M. G. Amherst's of Aug'. 1 3 : 1 761 

N. 56. 


A. L. S. 

[June 24, 176J] 

[ 1 

Gentlemen of the Cou[ ] could be done in it. The 

Council gran[ ] acres in one Patent in any Case 

which [ ] before them for a Lycense to purchase 

Land I [ ] if your Petition passes, they will observe 

the [ ] grant you no more. Another Petition may 

[go?] in for the Remainder. I can say nothing as [ 1 

Fate it will meet with but the President I can as [sure] You 
would be very glad to forward it. At the same time your deed 
will be look'd on as a private Purch [ ] and if your Interest 

1 Several lines are missing- 

424 Sir William Johnson Papers 

does not carry the Point, the deed will not avail, but if it would 
I have it not to produce, nor have I mentioned it in your Petition 
[for] that Reason, tho it is a Fact not at all doubted if therefore 
the Knowledge of the Fact will have all [the] Effect perhaps 
that the producing of it would have but I could not consistent with 
Method recite it in the Petition & have it not to produce. I was 
in hopes to have found you in a disposition to compromise the 
Matter, but I dont observe the least tendency that way in any of 
your Letters. I shall give you a Detail of the Facts attending 
this Affair, all which, so far as I shall not speak doubtfully of, 
you may depend on, saving some little variation perhaps in Point 
of Time as I have not the Papers before me. 

In 1754 G. Klock came to New York (I am told Petrie was 
with him but dont remember) and applyed to me to draw a 
Petition for 50000 acres (I believe the Q^. was) between the 
two Canada Creeks back of Glen. A Petition was drawn pre- 
sented and [ 1 ] 
Name and he thinking [ ] I take [ ] 
for granted the other Names con[ ] I had forgot this 
declaration till reminded [ ] Colden. I suppose the 
Troubles of the Times pre [vented] Klock from making the 
Purchase. In the Fall of 1 7 [ ] Du Bois as I understand the 
Matter got acquainted with] this Matter, and Klock without 
consulting any [ ] takes him in, & Du Bois writes 
to me to prefer a Petit [ion to] renew the Lycense. M rs . Magin 
had pretention [ ] part of this Tract under a Lycense, 
she informs me [ ] by Governor Clinton which I 
have never seen that I remember. I theref [ore] declined doing 
any thing in the Matter till Du Bois [came] to Town, when 
Du Bois drew up a Petition to renew the [ ] Lycense 
for 50000 acres, and finding that would not [ ] for 
more than 25000, took in some Gentlemen here [with] him & 
presented a Petition for the other 25000: after these Petitions 
had been read in Council and referred. I received your Letter 

1 Several lines are missing. 

Seven years' War 425 

first hinting your design, and desiring a Petition might [be] pre- 
sented, but no name mentioned nor a particular description] I 
believe. Before your Letter in March which inclosed the 40 
Names & description came, the Petitions were passed for 
Lycenses to purchase on each 25000 a. The President then 
stopp'd the Lycenses and warmly recommended an agrem*. 
between the Parties. I wrote you on the subject and M r . 
Du Bois I understood was to have treated with you on the sub- 
ject. All this has produced Nothing yet. I am informed M r . 
Du Bois has said that in the Fall before you obtained your deed 
& before he came down hither as above he made you acquainted 
with his Design and offered that you might be a Partner, that you 
declined it & absolutely refused being concerned in it. 


[ ] owed it would raise such [ ] Setts of People 

applying to the [ ] have a very bad Tendency. 

Nobody can deny [that] you deserve the Favour of the Gov- 
ernment even [ ] to others, but is it right that they 
should break through [ ] Rules to give this Prefer- 
ence. How much Reason then have the Parties interested to 
expect in you [ ] Disposition to compromize a 
matter, where the Ba[ lance] of Equity is so Clearly against you. 
For it is deny[ed] flatly, that you or any one else have a Right 
to pur [chase] Lands without Ly cense from the Government 
[ ] that there is the least essential difference between 
a Deed of Purchase and a Deed of G[ift] Besides if we admit 
a Right in the Indians to give their Lands to whom they please, 
what becomes of the Right of the Crown or its Representatives 
to dispense the Crown Bounty. Let the Gentlemen on the other 
side then try to make their Purchase and if they cannot do it have 
they any further Pretentions? This naturally [lea]ds to an 
Enquiry into the Indian Right to dispose of their Lands inde- 
pendent of the Government or to force the Government to give 
the Lands to whom they please Would it not be better then to 

1 Several lines are missing. 

426 Sir William Johnson Papers 

listen to Conciliating Measures, you do not approve of the Pro- 
posals made to you from hence, Propose your own, I dare venture 
to say, so much would not be given Up by the Parties to any 
one as yourself. 

I have wrote with that Freedom as I would do to one from 
whom I would conceal Nothing, and without any view to my 
own Interest, for from the Moment I found it would be a Bone 
of Contention, I determined to sacrifice my own Interest, if it 
could put an End to the Dispute. 

[ M 

[ ] Issue to this Matter [ 

] pass unnoticed any Censure 

that [ ] as to your [ ] to Engross too 

much Lands in your [ ] my utmost 

to remove these or any other Prejudices. [ 
the Mohawk Indians refuse selling any more Lands till their 
[Complaint ] King is answered and that for 

this Reason have obstructed the [survey?] after the Partners 
have been to the Expence of sending up a [surveyor. This?] 
may appear a sufficient Reason to them. But it cannot [ 

] weight with others who have not the least design or 
Intension to] impose on them. Nor can it appear that they by 
persisting [ ] Resolution will hasten the satisfaction 

they look for in [regard?] to old affairs. They were undoubt- 
edly imposed on as to their [ ] in the Case of Kayoderos- 
seras they never meant I believe [ ] much as the 
Patent includes. People here will undoubtedly] suppose other 
Reasons why this Obstruction is given. There [ ] other 
Persons concerned in Rogers's affair, but the Persons named 
[ ] Lycenses [ ] M r . Cunningham, 
young M r . Jacob Wa [ ] M r . Henry [ ] 
of mine & the two former [ ] dep. secretaries, M r . 
Colden M r . John Dies and my self. No Body has yet [ ] 
or I believe thought of taking up those Lands; and our views 

1 Several lines are missing. 

Seven Fears' War 427 

are [ ] with them immediatly. Even by an Importation 

from Ireland it cannot be done immediately by other Methods: 
and we shall give away to settlers one half on paying their pro- 
portion of the Costs and charges we are put to in obtaining the 
Patents. As to the Mohawk Claim as far as the Rock Rogeo l 
in Lake Champlain, the only Evidence of that Claim is the Patent 
to Godfrey Dellius, 2 who purchased the Lands of the Indians, 
whose Patent was vacated [by an] Act [of] assembly and the 
Lands vested in the Crown, of which [this?] tract near Fort 
William is a part: and though it is [ ] the Indians have 

no Right to sell that Tract, yet we are willing to submit to pay 
them any thing Reasonable for it. And Rogers himself told me 
(or I understood him so) that you would assist him in the Pur- 
chase of what he had in view, and this was the Reason why we 
were confident of meeting with no Obstruction and sent up a 
surveyor. Orders are sent however to stop the survey, & c unless 
[j;ou 3 ] the Indians can be brought speedily to change their 
Minds the Parties here think they shall never obtain the Lands 
for the time to Come. I did not desire your Friendship in this 
Case, not only because I thought it unnecessary from your Engag- 
ing to assist Major Rogers, but because I would not nor do desire 
you to take any step on my Account in these Matters that you 
would otherwise think improper. The Parties concerned with 
Rogers are not nor would be known as it can answer no Purpose 
that [ ] in confidence that I mention them to 

you. I have lodg'd a Petition to secure to [ ] 

the 400 acres he had in view : He being dead I am told. I am 
very seriously [ ] to the Tendency 

D r S* W*. 

Your affectionate humble servant 


*W. M. Beauchamp, Aboriginal Place Names of New York, p. 73. 
2 See Ecclesiastical Records of the State of New York, P- 1245, 2721, 
and map in Doc. Hist. N. Y. t v. 1, opp. p. 368. 
8 Erased in the original. 

428 Sir William Johnson Papers 


The preceding letter is followed by two to Johnson in the Johnson 
Calendar, p. 115, which were destroyed by fire: a letter of June 29th 
from Mattheus Ernest, at New York, about Coenradt Critzenberger's 
passage money, German immigration to the Mohawk country and Euro- 
pean goods kept in store by his son; and a letter of the 30th from Peter 
du Bois, at Albany, in relation to a deed of trust to be executed in his 
favor by Johannis Hendrickse Vrooman and a purchase of madeira which 
will be made for Johnson. 


Contemporary Copp l 

Minutes of the Proceedings of Sir William Johnson Bart 
with the Indians on his Way to, and at the Detroit in 
1761 whither he went by his Excellency Sir Jeff. 
Amhersts Orders to Establish peace, & settle all affairs 
between the English, and the several Nations of Northern 
and Western Indians - 

July 1" 

Previous to Sir William Johnson's departure for the Detroit 
he assembled the Mohocks at Fort Johnson and after acquainting 
them with the cause of his Journey he in the Strongest terms 
recommended to them to preserve a friendly behavior towards 
their Brethren the English, and upon all occasions to manifest 
their Love for his Majestys subjects during his absence to be 
industrious, and follow their Hunting as formerly, by all which 

x ln Public Record Office, C. O. 5.1276, p. 357, London, England. 
Inclosed in a letter of Johnson to the lords of trade, August 20, 1 762. 
A diary, kept by Johnson, of his journey to and from Detroit in 1 761 was 
destroyed by fire. It is printed in Stone's Life and Times of Johnson, 

Seven Years War 429 

they would recommend themselves to his Majestys favour and 

To which they answered that they were much pleased with Sir 
William's acquainting them with the Cause of so long a journey 
and wished him all imaginable success, but, could not avoid 
expressing their uneasiness for his safety, as he must pas thorough 
and meet with several Nations of Indians, as yet much attached 
to the French, and that there were likewise some of the Six 
Nations who could not be much Confided in, However, for their' 
parts he might be convinced of their intentions to pay an implicit 
obedience to his advice, by their earnest endeavours to prevent 
any irregularities between themselves and the English and by 
their firm resolutions to live with them as Brethren and Allies - 
They then entreated that a stop might be put to any farther 
encroachments of ours upon them, as they sayed we had now 
hemmed them in on every side, and yet were still solliciting for 
more Land, which they begged we would not Continue to do, 
they having scarcely sufficient left for to hunt upon - 

Sir William assured them that no more Land should be taken 
from them without being fairly purchased, his Majesty having 
expressly ordered the Several Governors to prevent any persons 
from settling on their Lands, without first obtaining the Indians 
consent, and legally purchasing it from them- At which the 
Mohocks expressed great satisfaction, and took their leaves. 

July 5* 

Sir William Johnson left Fort Johnson in order to proceed 
for the Detroit. 1 On his arrival at Conajoharee he assembled the 
Indians of that Village, and acquainted them with the cause of 
his journey as he had done the Mohocks, to which he received 
an answer to the same purport as the former, they greatly enlarg- 

*A letter from General Amherst to Cadwallader Golden, dated July 
2d, states that Johnson is already on his way to Detroit. It is in the New 
York Historical Society. 

430 Sir William Johnson Papers 

ing upon our encroachments upon their Lands, to which having 
received a satisfactory Answer, they concluded with telling Sir 
William they purposed to send some Sachems and others to 
represent their Nation and speak in their names to the Western 
Indians at the intended Meeting, which Sir William highly 
approved of and took his leave of them, After which he pro- 
ceeded to the German flatts where he found above thirty Chiefs of 
Oneida, and Tuscarora who were on their way to Fort Johnson 
in order to make up a Murder committed by an Oneida Indian 
about a Month before on one of the German Inhabitants of that 
Neighborhood, 1 but upon Sir William's arrival they requested to 
have a Meeting with him thereon. 

At a Meeting held at Burnetsfield July 7 th 


The Honble Sir William Johnson Bart. 
The Revd Parson Occum 
John Johnson Esq r . 

Lieut. Smith of his Majestys Independ*. Co*. 
Justice Herkemer and several of the principal Inhabitants 
Lieut. Guy Johnson of his Majesty's Independ*. Compy* 
as Secretary 

Upwards of 30 Sachems &ca of Oneida & Tuscarora - 
Conoghquieson Speaker, asked if Sir William was ready to 

hear what he had to say, on being answered in the Affirmative he 

proceeded - 

Brother Warraghiyagey 

We are come hither to wipe away your tears, clear your 
speech, and condole with you for your late loss, & therefore, 
with this string, we clear the darkness from your Eyes, that you 
may see clearly, and look upon us as Brethren - 

Gave three Strings of Wampum 

1 See From Conrad Frank, June 17, 1 761. 

Seven Years War 431 


We are now assembled together to condole with you accord- 
ing to the antient Agreement between us, that whenever a like 
mischance should befall either of us, the other should condole 
with them on their loss, take the Axe out of their Heads, and 
Cover the deceased's grave so as to bury every thing in an 
Amicable manner, all which we now perform, and hope it may 
be understood as we mean it 

Gave a belt of 9 Rows of Wampum 


We acknowledge ourselves extreamly concerned at the late 
Murder committed by one of our Nation; wherefore we now 
dig up that great Tree which reaches to the Clouds, beneath 
whose root runs a stream in which we will bury the late accident, 
so as it may never more be remembered, & hope that when you 
recollect that two of our Nation were some time ago murdered 
by one of your people, for which we never received any redress, 
you will be the readier induced tc bury it in oblivion - A belt 
of 9 Rows 


By taking these measures we keep up the Antient Custom sub- 
sisting between you and the five Nations of imediately condoling 
with each other on any mischance, whereby we preserve the 
Covenant Chain bright and lasting; but we are sorry to observe 
you look so coolly on us, and are very uneasy least should the 
Covenant chain not be preserved in like manner on your parts, 
it might prove of fatal Consequence, and end in the destruction 
of one of us- Therefore, with this belt we wipe away all your 
tears, and renew and strengthen the Covenant Chain of friend- 
ship which shall not be broken by us, and we therefore hope you 
will forget what hath passed and not let slip the Covenant Chain - 

Gave a black belt of 7 Rows 

432 Sir William Johnson Papers 


We the Sachems of the Oneidas & Tuscaroras frequently 
cautioned our Young Men against Committing any Violence on 
any of the Inhabitants, or their property, but unfortunately for 
us, we are not (more than you) exempt from bad people, who 
will not hearken to advice, but get frequently in liquor which 
your people furnish them with, and as that was the cause of the 
late Murder we beg you will think more favourably of it- 

A belt of 6 Rows 


Having finished what I had to say relative to that Melancholy 
affair, I shall now begin on another subject 

Brother - 

This land which was given us by the Divine Being, we love 
as our lives, and therefore hope you will secure the possession of 
it to us, which has been ours from the beginning by preventing 
any more of your people from settling higher in the Country 
agreable to the desire of all these Nations, least, should we give 
the German Inhabitants who reside here a kick, we should drive 
them into the Sea, and should you on the Contrary kick us in 
return, we know not whither we should be driven, therefore, & to 
prevent any such ill consequences, we beg you'll secure our prop- 
erty to us by complying with our request 

A belt of 6 Rows 


At the commencement of this War, great promises were made 
us, that we should have a reasonable extensive trade, and that at 
the End thereof, you would demolish all your outposts & fortifica- 
tions erected in our Country, but as it seems the War is not yet 
ended, & that many of the Commanding Officers at the several 
Posts, have used us very unfriendly, & not as heretofore, we 
request that whilst you keep up these Forts, you will post Officers 
at them who may behave in a brotherlike manner towards us, as 

Seven Years War 433 

we shall do to them And as to the advantagious trade promised 
us, We are sorry to observe that instead thereof every thing is 
dearer than formerly, neither can our Young Men procure powder 
for hunting as we find it is prevented from being sold to them 


In consequence of your request to us we have sent Messengers 
amongst the most distant Nations to engage them to enter into a 
peace between us, and you, which we are glad to inform you 
has had the desired effect.- 

A belt of Seven rows 

Here is a paper which was sent to the Council at Onondaga 
and as we are illiterate, we beg you will explain to us the pur- 
port thereof 

Delivered a printed proclamation from the Governor of 


The Speaker having finished, Sir William informed him he 

would consider on an answer to what he had sayed, which he 

would deliver them in the afternoon - 

P. M. Sir William Johnson having sent to inform the Indians 

he was ready to answer them, they accordingly met 

Present as before 
Whereupon Sir William addressed them as follows 

Brethren of Oneida and Tuscarora 

Your coming down at this time carries with it a good appear- 
ance and also prevents my sending for you to meet me at the 
Oneida Lake as I purposed to do - 

You have now (agreable to your custom) condoled the loss 
of the poor man who was lately murdered by one of your people 
near this place, and as I know it to be your custom, & imagine 
(from your behavior) that all of you present are a good deal 
concerned thereat, I therefore thank you for this part of the 
condolence - Gave three Strings of Wampum 

434 Sir William Johnson Papers 


'In the next place you say you are come to take the hatchet 
out of our heads which you lately struck into it, and to cover the 
grave of the deceased, so as it never may be seen or remem- 
bered- I am very sensible this has been your manner of acting 
on like occasions heretofore, but I am now to let you know that 
the General and Commander in Chief in America (who does not 
understand one Man's murdering another without suffering death 
for the same or without being delivered up to justice for a trial 
of his offence) expects and insists upon your delivering up the 
Murderer, and I as your friend recommend a speedy Compliance 
with his demand that it may shew how disagreable his crime 
appears to the Nation to whom he belonged, I therefore again 
desire you will comply therewith by this belt of Wampum - 


I take it well of you that you are desirous to take all measures 
whereby we may forget the late accident, but I must Observe 
that what you mention concerning two of your peoples being 
murdered some time ago by one of ours can be no mitigation of 
the present Offenders guilt, the case having been apparently 
different, as those persons of whom you speak were found 
plundering the House, and destroying the property of the person 
who killed them, which behavior would have justified his pro- 
ceedings even by the equitable Laws of Great Britain and the 
many murders since that time committed by your people, should 
in my opinion have sufficiently cautioned you against so frivolous 
a palliation of the Crime - A belt 


I am glad to hear it is your intention to preserve the Covenant 
Chain bright and lasting, and I hope you will consider it as your 
interest to adhere to your present promise, for be assured should 
anything hereafter occasion a breach therein it must prove fatal 
to you, as well as disagreable to us if necessitated to act contrary 
to our present friendly intentions towards you - A belt 

Seven Years War 435 


You are all sensible that the imputing the late Murder to 
drunkenness can be no extenuation of the Offenders crime, A 
precedent which tolerates murder should never be admitted of, 
neither is it for your advantage more than for ours, I therefore 
insist on your immediate compliance with the Generals demand 
of delivering up the offender to justice - A belt 


With regard to what you have desired concerning your Lands, 
which you chuse not to part with, I am to inform You that agre- 
able to a former remonstrance made on that head to the Court 
of London, his late Majesty was graciously pleased to send orders 
to his several Governors in America, whereby they are positively 
restricted from granting lands to any person whatsoever without 
your permission, and a legal purchase from you as Proprietors, 
for that you must blame yourselves should any farther grants be 
made contrary (as you say) to your inclinations, & that of the 
six Nations - A belt 


We have taken all measures in our power to render the Indian 
trade as extensive, and as advantagious as possible for you, and 
I am surprized you have not already felt the Effects of our 
endeavours from the number of Traders, well furnished with 
goods who daily resort to your Country, for the promoting of 
which Trade, and the preservation of goods & Merchandice, as 
well as for our mutual security and protection, those posts which 
you seem to wish destroyed are so essential that I am astonished 
you should wish their demolition; and if any misunderstang 
should have happened at any time to arise between the Officers 
at any of those posts, and you, it must either have been caused 
from Your ignorance of each others Language, and Customs, or 
from the imprudent behavior of some of your people who when 
in liquor take the most Extravagant libertys, to prevent which 

436 Sir William Johnson Papers 

for the future I earnestly recommend it to the Sachems to exert 
themselves upon all occasions by putting a stop thereto 

Being now on my way thro' the Country, in case I discover 
any extortion or frauds committed by traders, the Offenders shall 
be severely punished, (tho* I imagine from the number of Traders 
now amongst you, that goods can neither be scarce, or Extrava- 
gant) and shall not fail to transmit your requests concerning 
powder to the General - 

I am glad to hear you have sent Messengers to procure a peace 
with the distant Indians, as I have always had your welfare at 
heart, & have considered your union as so Essential thereto that 
I am pleased you have embraced my repeated advice on that 
head A belt 


The printed paper which you desire to have explained con- 
tains a proclamation from the Governor of Pensilvania setting 
forth, that several persons from the neighbouring Colonies had 
taken possession of some Lands near Cushietunk, and in the upper 
parts of Northampton County against which Teedyuscung Had 
remonstrated, declaring, that if they were not removed, the 
Indians would do it by force themselves ; The Governor therefore 
issued the proclamation ordering them off, & forbidding any per- 
sons from settling thereon, or on any lands not yet purchased from 
the Indians, on pain of being prosecuted for the same 

Sir William Johnson having answered the several points con- 
tained in the Speech of the Indians- The Speaker desired to 
withdraw having something to deliberate upon which he would 
communicate in a few minutes, whereupon he withdrew On his 
return he addressed Sir William Johnson as follows - 


It gives us great concern that we have it not at present in our 
power to comply with the Generals desire of delivering the 
Offender up to justice, he having made his escape to some distant 
part immediately after perpetrating the Crime, but we are deter- 

Seven Years* War 437 

mined whenever we can apprehend him to give him up imme- 
diately, and in the mean time we hope that this Crime Committed 
by an individual may not prove the occasion of our forfeiting 
your friendship or be deemed a National Act. And we could 
heartily wish that this accident might be made up in an amicable 
manner, without an infringement of that antient Agreement by 
which our Ancestors and Yours, were mutually engaged to settle 
such mischances without farther bloodshed - 

The Conference being ended, Sir William Johnson called in 
the Chiefs of the Indians to his Quarters, and there introduced 
the Revd M r . Occum l to them inform, as a person sent to them 
for their instruction in the principles & practise of the Christian 
Religion, earnestly recommending it to them to treat him with 
the respect due to one of his Sacred function which they sincerely 
promised to do, returning hearty thanks for this proof which the 
English gave of their regard for their future happiness- After 
which the meeting dissolved. 

Sir William Johnson being as far as Canada Creek* on his 
Journey was overtaken by Coll Eyre who delivered him a Letter 
from his Excell?. General Amherst enclosing the following letter 
of intelligence from Capt. Campbell Commanding at Detroit 

Detroit 17 th . June 1761 - 

" I had the honour to receive your Excellencys Letter of 1 2*. 
April the 8 th . instant - 

It gives me the greatest satisfaction that you approve of my 
endeavors for the service 

I wrote you fully by the Officer that went to Niagara with 
the batteaus the 22 d May, whom I daily expect with provisions - 
I send this express to Niagara that you may be informed of a 

*A Creek which empty's itself into the Wood Creek, about 8. Miles 
from Fort Stanwix (Johnson's own note.) 

1 See Johnson to William Smith and Others, December 9, 1761. 

438 Sir William Johnson Papers 

very important piece of intelligence which I have learned I have 
had several reports of the bad intentions of the Indians against 
this place and the English in General and have been at all pains 
to find out from whence it proceeded, and can now inform your 
Excellency for certain that it comes from the Six Nations who 
have sent Deputies and belts of Wampum to all the Nations from 
the Bay of Gaspe, to the Illinois, inviting them to take up the 
Hatchet against the English, two of their Deputys (leading Men 
of the Senecas) are in the Wiandot Town just now, who have 
communicated their intentions to several of the Chiefs, and 
demanded a Council with the different Nations of which I was 
informed by the Wiandot Interpreter to whom the Senecas told 
their business in confidence, he immediately informed me of the 
whole affair, upon which I thought it was of the greatest 
importance to call a Council of the different Nations, which I 
did today, before some of them knew what these Indians came 
about, I told them we were already informed of the bad designs 
of the six Nations particularly the Senecas, and that I knew 
there were Deputys from them to endeavor to involve the 
Nations here in a War which would certainly be their ruin 
The Wiandots owned in Council that the Deputies were in their 
Town, and that they believed they came upon no good inten- 
tion, they all promised they would by no means be concerned 
with them. ^By the repeated intelligence I have had from 
People who are much in our interest, the scheme is, That the 
Chiefs of the Nations here, should go to a Council at Sandousky, 
where they would meet with several Chiefs of the Six Nations, 
Delawares, and Shawanese, who are principally concerned, & 
that the six Nations had fixed upon a certain time to assemble 
at the head of french Creek about 25 Leagues from 
Presqu'Isle, and expected to be joyned by a great many of the 
Nations who are gone to Niagara by Toronto; and at the same 
time the Delawares, & Shawanese are to assemble upon the Ohio, 
& both commence hostilities at the same time by cutting off the 
communications, and endeavouring to surprize the Forts every 

Seven Years War 439 

where and if the Nations here, could be prevailed upon, they 
were to endeavor to surprize this place; the time fixed upon for 
beginning is about the end of this Month As there was sev- 
eral traders from Pensilvania with considerable quantitys of 
Indian goods and ammunition at Sandousky, and which I under- 
stood they intended to seize upon, I sent last Night a party of 
traders servants consisting of 50 Men armed to bring the goods 
here, which will be a great disappointment to them/ 

I have put the Fort in the best posture of defence I could, & 
taken every method to prevent a Surprize I sent an express 
last Night to Col 1 . Bouquet at Fort Pitt to advise him of this 
intelligence, and wrote to the Commanding Officer at Presqu' 
Isle* to communicate it to the different posts upon that Quarter 
I hope as this plot is discovered, they will not be able to do 
much mischief ; but it is certain their intentions are bad - 

There has been more Indians here this Year than ever was 
known to be, in one Season ; a great many of them go to Niagara, 
as I allow no rum to be sold here 

There are a good many Traders here from Niagara, who have 
brought little else but Rum ; the only supplys of Indian goods has 
been from Fort Pitt 

I have the honour to be &ca " 

Immediately after Sir William Johnson had received the fore- 
going intelligence, he was overtaken by three Mohocks from 
Conajoharee, (which place they had left in the Morning) with 
a belt of Wampum, and message from their Nation to inform 
him that one of their people who had lived for several years at a 
Village beyond Chenussio, had been told in Confidence by one 
of the people where he resided that the Indians intended imedi- 
ately to fall upon all our back settlements, & even to destroy the 
two Mohock Castles as looking upon them to be entirely in the 
English interest, upon receiving which intelligence he fled away 

* Presqu' Isle, scituate on Lake Erie, from which there is a road to 
Fort Pitt (Johnson's own note.) 

440 Sir William Johnson Papers 

in order to give the Mohocks notice thereof The Conajoharees 
therefore by A belt of Wampum begged Sir William rather to 
return from prosecuting his journey than to expose himself to the 
dangers he must meet with in passing through a Country of 
Indians, Enemys to the English, and whose faith could not be 
relied on. To which Sir William By another belt returned them 
for answer, That he took it kindly of them to give him the before 
mentioned information, but hoped the Western Indians would 
consider well the consequence thereof, before they engaged in a 
design which must end in their ruin That at any event he was 
determined to obey his orders by prosecuting his journey, & hoped 
by his timely arrival, to be able to put a stop to, or frustrate their 
designs Upon which the Messengers were dismissed 

Sir William Johnson being at Fort Brewerton at the West end 
of the Oneida Lake, had an interview with Sequaresera Chief 
Sachem of Ganaghsaragey who informed him that there had 
been deputys sent by the Senecas to the Nations about Detroit, 
to perform the ceremony of Condolance on behalf of the Six 
Nations for the Indians who were killed in the Battle near 
Niagara in 1 759, after which ceremony they were to strengthen 
and renew the old alliance subsisting between them, that the 
Cayugas were to perform the same ceremony, with the Northern 
Indians &ca at Cadarachqui & that on the return of the Deputys 
a Meeting would be called at Onondaga, at which the result of 
both embassys would be made publick to all the Indians of the 
Confederacy. Sir William then acquainted him with the Intel- 
ligence he had received concerning the Indians designs, the Mad- 
ness & folly of which he represented to him, with advise to use 
his influence in frustrating any such attempt. On hearing of 
which the Indian seemed greatly surprized, declaring solemnly 
that no such design had ever been agreed to by the Six Nations, 
nor any such message sent by them to the Detroit, or 

Seven Years War 441 

Cadarachqui Meetings that if any such thing was in Agitation 
it must Come from the Senecas alone, & Concluded with prom- 
ising he would use all his interest on his return home to enquire 
into the particulars thereof, and prevent its ill effects - 

Sir William sent a String of Wampum by an Indian, to desire 
the Bunt & other Chiefs of Onondaga to meet him at Oswego to 
talk over some business as also to deliver might deliver them the 
Medals sent by General Amherst to all those of that Nation who 
accompanied the Army last year to Montreal, .but on mentioning 
some particular Chiefs he was informed by the Tuscarora 
Sachem that they were gone on the Governor of Pensilvania's 
invitation to attend a Meeting in that Province, adding that his 
Nation, and the Oneidas had refused sending any Deputy s 

Sir William Johnson arrived at Oswego 


Several Misisagaes, and other Indians came to his Tent, whom 
he informed of the Cause of his journey to Detroit, at which they 
seemed well pleased promising to acquaint their Nation there- 
with on their return home asked the reason of so many Men, 
& so much Artillery passing by, he informed them that some 
of the troops were sent to finish the Forts not yet compleated, 
and the rest for garrisoning the outposts surrendered to his 
Britannick Majesty by the Capitulation of Canada, which, from 
the lateness of the season could not be effected the last Campaign 
And that the Cannon were for these Forts, and for the Vessells 
on the Lakes 

Sir William sent a String of Wampum by a Chenussio Indian 
to desire the attendance of a few Sachems of his Nation at 
Niagara, within five, or Six days at farthest - 

Two Onondagas arrived, & acquainted him that several of 
their Nation would attend him next Morning 

442 Sir William Johnson Papers 

At a Meeting held at Oswego July 21 st . with several Sachems 
and Warriors of Onondaga 


Sir William Johnson Bart 
Major Duncan 1 

Capt Grey, & several > 55 th Regiment 
Officers of the 

Lieut Guy Johnson as Secretary for Ind n . Affairs 
With Interpreters 

Upwards of 40, Sachems & Warriors of Onondaga 
Sir William opened the Conference by wellcoming them to 
Oswego, & after proceeding thro' the usual ceremony of Con- 
dolance acquainted them with the reasons for his not calling them 
to a general Meeting since his return from Canada Informed 
them of the Cause of his journey to the Detroit, of his discovery 
of the Indians evil intentions, and proceedings there which 
he cautioned them against having any hand in and that he 
expected the five Nations would have attended the Meeting 
which he was going to call Advised them to mind their hunt- 
ing and Trade, and to behave friendly towards the English 
during his absence, and by no means to pay regard to any idle 
reports which might be circulated about the Country tending to 
create a misunderstanding between the English and Indians 
Gave a belt of wampum 
Then proceeded as follows 


His Excellency General Amherst being desirous to shew his 
regard to merit, having taken notice of the behavior of all those 
Indians who, as became faithfull Allies continued with the Army 
after the reduction of Fort Levis & proceeded with them to 
Montreal, has thought proper to have Medals struck in Com- 
memoration thereof, to be by me distributed amongst them as an 

Seven Years' War 443 

honourable mark of his approbation of their Conduct, & which 
will intitle the Wearer to some provisions, & good treatment at 
all the posts It is with pleasure I now present you with those 
ordered for your Nation, and I flatter myself that you will on all 
occasions manifest the same zeal and attachment to his Majesty's 
service which hath intitled you to this publick mark of 

Then delivered out the Medals for the Indians of that Nation 
- after which they withdrew to consider on an Answer with 
which they returned in about an hour, Whereupon the 
Speaker stood up and after returning many thanks for what 
Sir William had sayed to them, he went thro* the usual cere- 
mony of condolance 

Gave three Strings of wampum 

Then pulling out a large belt which had been given them 
by Sir William, when they were called to go against Niagara, 
he proceeded - 

Brother Warraghiyagey 

On your setting out with the Army to the Siege of Niagara, 
you then promised us in a Meeting with our Nation, that after 
the reduction thereof, and of the rest of the Country, you would 
be enabled to regulate trade so as to reduce the exorbitant prices 
of goods, and likewise promised us good treatment for ever should 
we exert ourselves in conjunction with the Army against the 
Enemy, which we chearfully agreed to, and accordingly con- 
ducted you to Niagara, and assisted you in taking it, as a salve 
for the Wounds which you have received Nothwithstanding 
which we find ourselves very much wronged and illtreated by 
your People in trade, as well as frequently ill-used without Cause 
at the several posts - - This proceeding so contrary to your prom- 
ises & our expectations has greatly alarmed us, and been the 
Cause of much uneasiness, we therefore entreat you that we may 
meet with better usage from the English for the future, otherwise, 

444 Sir William Johnson Papers 

we shall be induced to believe what the French so often told us 
would be the consequence of your reducing them 

Gave a large belt 

We are surprized to find you are going to call a Council at 
Detroit, as you know that the Chief, and the only Council fire 
burns at your house, excepting that which we have at Onondaga, 
besides the Western Indians as agressors ought rather to have 
attended on you You recommended it to us to mind our hunt- 
ing & trade, and to live on good terms with our Brethren at the 
several posts, than which nothing would be more agreable to our 
inclinations, but we are sorry to observe that our Brethren don't 
seem desirous of living on any good terms with us, from their 
frequent acts of violence offered as well to us, as to our Women ; 
as also from their hindering us from fishing, or hunting about the 
posts altho' in our own Country, & frequently taking from us 
what we have killed or taken, contrary to promise, & to the 
friendship subsisting between us and you, We therefore beg 
Brother that you will interpose, and see Justice done us that we 
may have a free & reasonable trade with powder allowed us, 
and that there may be also Interpreters fixed at the several posts 
who may prevent any future misunderstandings which otherwise 
may happen thro' our not understanding the Language of each 


With regard to what you spoke to us concerning the intel- 
ligence sent from Detroit, and to your kind cautions to us on that 
head, whereby you advised us to avoid entering into any such 
idel project, we can truly answer that we know nothing of any 
such plot, neither are we, nor shall we get drunk, & suffer our 
heads to grow giddy, being determined to hold fast the Covenant 
Chain, and hope you will do the same on your parts so that we 
may live together to be grey This belt which you have deliv- 
ered us, shall be sent to the several Nations, our Allies, to 

Seven Years' War 445 

acquaint them with what you say, & with our resolutions thereon 
which we hope will be a precedent for them to follow, and when 
they are all acquainted therewith you will receive a belt in 


We esteem it a great favour that the General hath thought 
proper to remember those Indians who attended him last year to 
Montreal, by rewarding them with Medals, and we return you 
thanks for delivering them to us, assuring you that you may 
always depend on our remaining true Allies to the English ; and 
altho' (through a misunderstanding which arose at that time) 
several of ours, and of the other Nations returned back after the 
taking of Fort Levis, you may with great truth acquaint the 
General that it was in no wise owing to their Want of zeal, and 
inclination to serve the English, as you must know that several of 
them have particularly distinguished themselves in your Cause 
during all the rest of the War 

Gave a belt 

Here is one of our People present named Kanadacta who had 
his hunting house near this place plundered (during the spring 
whilst he was absent hunting) of thirty buck skins, two Kettles, 
Gun, Axes and other things by some of the English then going 
to Fort William Augustus, he therefore hopes you'll get him 
Some redress, being greatly reduced thereby, and not having 
wherewithal to purchase Cloathing &c 

Gave a String 

I now speak at the request of the Warriors who came here to 
see, and wish you a good journey and safe return, And I am in 
their names to let you know how much they are distressed for 
want of powder (which renders them unable to procure skins for 
trade & for the maintenance of their families) not being able to 
procure it even for their money, they therefore by this bunch of 

446 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Wampum entreat you to consider their Wants by letting them 
have a Couple of Casks of powder, with a proportion of ball, 
until your return which they shall look upon as a favour never 
to be forgotten Gave a large bunch of Wampum - 

The Speaker having ended, Sir William Johnson addressed 
them as follows 

Brethren of the Onondagas 

The belt which you just now laid before me with design to 
remind me of my former promises to you, I look upon as need- 
less, since I have it on Record, as well as all your promises & 
Conduct which can never be forgotten The behavior of many 
of your people last year in returning home & leaving the General, 
& me at Isle Royale after the reduction thereof, has set you 
before us in so bad a light that neither the General nor myself 
can think of serving you after such an Unbrotherlike Step, which, 
as well as some other parts of your Conduct, has occasioned our 
not intirely fullfilling all the promises made to you, However, if 
the promises you now make of preserving entire the Covenant 
Chain for the future be sincere (which will be your own interest) 
you may in that Case expect we shall treat you as friends, indulge 
You with a plentiful! trade, and not permit any of our people to 
molest, or illtreat you undeservedly without meeting with pun- 
ishment; The General being determined to act with the utmost 
partiality, and not permit either the English, or you to commit 
Crimes with impunity Gave a belt 


Our Conquests in this Country being at present very consider- 
able our trade and alliances must of course be more extensive 
than heretofore, It will therefore be necessary to have other 
Meetings & places of trade than my House & Onondaga, neither 
can you be in the least surprized, when you observe that we have 
Agents for the management of Indian affairs in several Quarters, 
namely Pittsburgh & Montreal the better to keep up a good 
understanding with, and Strengthen the Extensive Alliance which 

Seven Fears' War 447 

continues to encrease by the acquisition of Nations, who are daily 
coming into, and uniting themselves with us, which they are 
induced to from our clemency as well as from a Consideration 
how much it is their interest so to do, I therefore recommend it 
to you to live on the best terms with all such Indians with 
regard to any illtreatment which your people may receive at any 
of the posts, I am induced to think it must be chiefly owing to 
their own ill behavior when in Liquor, for which reason, I now 
recommend it to you to lay aside the immoderate use thereof, 
which, if you do, I am certain you will meet with no ill treatment 
undeservedly I would likewise advise you not to trifle away too 
much of your time about the posts, which you can so much better 
employ in hunting for the maintenance of your familys, and on 
my return I shall provide Interpreters to reside at the Principal 
Forts, who I hope may be a means of preventing Any further 
disputes arising between the English & you, from the want of 
understanding each others meaning 


I am very glad to hear you profess yourselves strangers, & 
Enemys to the plot we lately discovered, if you act wisely you will 
continue in that disposition, nor readily engage in an Affair which 
must prove your ruin, & I make no doubt but on your communi- 
cating your resolutions to the other Nations of holding fast the 
Covenant Chain, and living in friendship with us, they will readily 
follow so laudable an Example, which will be the only way of 
living to be greyheaded and which I heartily wish you may do 


If the person who robbed Kanadacta's Hunting House could 
be found, or was known he should be punished in such manner 
as the Nature of the Crime deserved, and proper satisfaction 
made to the Sufferer, but until he be discovered, he can have no 
satisfaction therein I shall however, on my return Consider 
his losses by giving him some Cloathing. 

Gave a String 

448 Sir William Johnson Papers 


As I am pleased with your professions of friendship, & 
behavior at this meeting, & being sensible of your distresses, I 
shall speak to the Commanding Officer of this Garrison to let 
you have two Casks of powder for your familys support, and 
hope you'll shew yourselves deserving of that, or of any other 
favours which may be conferred on you, & which your Conduct 
alone must intitle you to hope for - 

Gave a large bunch of Wampum 

Sir William Johnson then informed them that soon after His 
return home, he purposed to call a Meeting of the Six Nations 
in order to strengthen the Covenant Chain & settle all matters on 
the best footing, after which he took leave, & the Conference 
ended - 

P. M. Sir William Johnson, Coll Eyre, John Johnson Esq r . & 
Lieut Guy Johnson embarked on board a Schooner for Niagara 
where they arrived on the 24 th on Sir William's landing, the 
Commanding Officer Major Walters delivered him the following 
Letter, 1 & Minutes of a Conference 2 from Cap 1 . Campbell 
Command, at Detroit 

Detroit 8 th July 1761 

I take the liberty to send you a Copy of a Council held with 
the Indian Nations of Detroit at the desire of two Seneca Deputys 
from the Six Nations, by which you will Easily see that the Six 
Nations have for sometime past had very bad designs against the 
English they came here about three Weeks ago, and invited 
the Nations to a Council at Sandosky, with the Delawares, 
Shawanese, and other Nations, but as I had been informed before 

1 The same as Campbell to Johnson, July 8, 1761, in the Johnson 
Calendar, p. 115, which was destroyed by fire. 

2 The same as Campbell to Amherst [Johnson], July 8, 1761, in the 
Johnson Calendar, p. 1 15, a document injured by fire. 

Seven Years' War 449 

of their designs, I prevented the Nations here from going there, 
upon their resusing l to go with them, they went back to San- 
dousky, where they met with the other Nations, who refused to 
take up the hatchet without the Consent of the Nations here, 
upon which they returned & held the Council, the Copy of which 
will inform you fully of every particular of the affair Before 
I had this information, I was frequently alarmed with the reports 
that the Six Nations spread amongst the Nations here, who were 
at Niagara by telling them that they were soon to strike the 
English, and in general giving them a bad opinion of the English 
- If there is any merit in the discovery, I owe it entirely to the 
Wiandot, and Ottawa Interpreters who I beg leave to recom- 
mend to you for their behaviour in this affair After all we 
could do there was a strong party amongst the Wiandots whom 
you know leads the other Nations here - 

I am hopefull this discovery will disconcert their project I have 
been at all pains to satisfy the Indians, but beg leave to mention 
to you, that without our being at some Considerable expence with 
them, till matters are a little more settled, it will be impossible to 
keep them in our interest, As they have been in use to be entirely 
supported by the French. Several partys have gone to War 
against the Cherokees, but I am told have been stopped by the 
Shawanese and sent home without doing any thing The 
Senecas tell me there are Deputys from the Cherokees, & other 
southern Indians in their Country, who wait for their return to 
know the Sentiments of the Natives here When we took pos- 
session of this Country M r . Croghan at the desire of the Indians 
employed the Smiths here to mend their Arms & Hatchets, which, 
as we had immense numbers of Indians here will amount to a 
larger sum than we expected, but at same time it would be of bad 
consequence to retrench that Expence in our present critical 

1 Transcript reads *' s. 1 
Vol. Ill 15 

450 Sir William Johnson Papers 

The great quantitys of Rum brought to Niagara, & here i>y 
the Albany traders is of the most pernicious consequence I 
allow none to be sold here, which obliges the Indians to go for 
it to Niagara from whence they bring it in great quantitys which 
makes them troublesome & ill to manage 

As I am certain this abuse is without your knowledge I thought 
it my duty to let you know of it, & notwithstanding of the Num- 
ber of Traders from Albany we should have little Else but Rum 
had it not been for the Traders from Pensilvania & M r . Sterling 
from New York, who are the only people that have brought any 
Considerable quantitys of goods for the Indians " 

I am &ca 

Copy of the Conference sent by Capt. Campble At a 
Council held at the Wiandot Town near Fort Detroit 3 d . 
July 1761 by the Deputy's of the six Nations with the 
Ottawas, Wiandots, Chipeweighs, & Powtewatamis 

Tahaiadoris, & Kayashoton, Senecas, & Deputys from the 
Six Nations delivered twenty Strings, & three belts of Wampum 
to the above Nations, with several speeches tending to accomo- 
date all differences between them, & particularly that the Action 
between them at Niagara (in which they say many Warriors 
were slain on both sides) might be entirely forgotten, they then 
delivered four strings of Wampum with the following speech - 

When the English took possession of Detroit, they willingly 
permitted your young men to go to War against their Antient 
Enemy s the Cherokees, but we now desire & request that they 
may not go to War against them but remain at home for some- 
time: we have now finished all we had to say with respect to 
affairs between you and us 

They then produced a large red belt, by them termed the War 
hatchet, and addressing themselves particularly to the Wiandots, 
made the following Speech. 

As you are the leading Nation here, you have only to say the 
Word, & the others will follow your example ; we invite you by 

Seven Years War 451 

this belt to cut off the English at Fort Detroit, to which if you 
agree, it will give us the greatest Joy and pleasure, with Chear- 
fullness we will return home to our Nation, & endeavor to do the 
same with the Garrisons at Niagara & Fort Pitt The English 
treat us with much disrespect, & we have the greatest reason to 
believe by their behavior they intend to cut us off entirely; they 
have possessed themselves of our Country, it is now in our power 
to dispossess them & recover it, if we will embrace the opportunity 
before they have time to assemble together, & fortify themselves 
there, there is no time to be lost, let us Strike imediately, our 
Warriors are all ready prepared and impatiently wait till they 
hear from you 

The Nations declined giving them a direct Answer, but came 
with them the following Day being the 4 th . inst to Fort Detroit 
and in open Council in presence of Capt Campbell Commandant 
& several other Gentlemen declared the whole of the Conference 
that had passed between them the preceding day, & delivered up 
to him the War belt in presence of the Deputys of the Six Nations 
to their great astonishment Tahaiadoris, one of the Deputys 
on seeing the belt given up, stood up, & in great fervour expressed 
himself in the following manner. 

Being it is thus far discovered I myself will declare the whole 
affair from the beginning, & accordingly after relating what had 
passed in Council between them the day before, continued repeat- 
ing farther grievances agst. the English, & sayed that the belt 
which he had delivered to the Wiandots &ca and they had now 
given up, was not the real War hatchet, but a Copy of the true 
original one which was left with the Onondagas - 

Capt Campble then addressed himself to the Wiandots & other 
Nations with them in the following manner 

My Friends & Brethren 

I return you my hearty and sincere thanks for the important 
discovery you have made of the bad designs of the six Nations 
against the English; your prudently rejecting their proposals of 
War, & the means you have used to put a stop to it, yields me 

452 Sir William Johnson Papers 

the greatest Satisfaction, I shall imediately acquaint his Excel- 
lency General Amherst of your good behaviour, & friendship to 
the English, & shall take particular care that you be constantly 
treated as friends, & allies, which I hope you will Always 
continue to be 

He then delivered a belt of Wampum to the Deputys of the 
six Nations with the following Speech 

I am very much Surprized at this Extraordinary behavior of 
the Six Nations, who have been always hitherto esteemed our 
greatest friends, and are now not only threatning to become our 
Enemys, but inviting other Nations to take up the Hatchet against 
us You see your Designs are discovered, & will be discon- 
certed every where; by this belt of Wampum I advise you with 
all my heart, & in the most friendly manner to return home, and 
ardently recommend it to your Chiefs, & those of other Nations 
in concert with you to quit their bad intentions, & live in peace, 
for, if they proceed in their designs against the English, it will 
terminate in their utter ruin and destruction 

The Council was then dissolved for that day. 

On the 5 th . they assembled again, when each of the several 
Nations delivered four strings & a belt of Wampum to the 
Deputys of the six Nations, and addressed themselves in this 

We return you thanks for the agreable proposals of friendship 
you offered us, & forgetting the grievances that have happened 
between us, but by no means approve of your proposing to go 
to War against the English, we desire you will desist from your 
design as it is contrary to our Inclinations that there should be 
any disturbances, we now think ourselves happy being in peace 
and quiet, but if you go on to engage in Conjunction with other 
Nations ag st . the English we shall look upon you as disturbers of 
the publick tranquillity, & will be obliged to interpose to put a 
stop to your proceedings, & restore peace and quiet again in the 

Seven Years War 453 

Tahaiadoris answered and thanked them for the friendly 
advice they had given him, said, notwithstanding the Six Nations 
had good reason to be angry with the English, that peace was 
best, that the Nations, & the English had now opened his Eyes, 
that he would bury all bad thoughts and forget the injuries done 
against them by the English, that he would return home and 
acquaint the Chiefs of the Six Nations, and all others in Con- 
junction with them, of the desire, and intentions of the Nations 
at Detroit & would recommend it to them in the most Ardent 
manner to lay aside all thoughts of war and live in peace He 
then addressed himself in particular to Capt Campbell, told him 
that if he had the good fortune to get home before any hostilities 
were committed he would endeavour to put a stop to their bad 
intentions, would recommend it to the Chiefs to go and assemble 
at Sir W m . Johnson's in order to hold a Council with him, & make 
up all differences, and after it was finished would willingly return 
to Detroit, to acquaint Capt Campbell, & the Nations here, with 
whatever should pass between them and Sir W m . Johnson at the 
Council - 

The above is a true Copy of the Council, 
as it is explained to me by the Interpreters - 

Donald Campbell 
Capt R. A. Reg'.- 


Some Indians Complained to Sir William Johnson of their 
having been robbed of 4 Horses, by the Garrison of Niagara, 
& that one of their people was shot in the breast & arm, by a 
Soldier of little Niagara - Sir William thereupon made them a 
present in order to satisfy them- 

Another Indian complained of his brothers having been killed 
by some of the Garrison at Venango without any Cause, which 
occasioned the rest of the people of that Settlement to break up 
and go to Chenussio very much discontented- 

454 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Sir William sent a Letter to apprise Capt Campbell at Detroit 
of Troops being on their way to take possession of the out posts, 
that the Indians might not be alarmed at their approach 

At a Meeting held at Niagara July 28 th * 


Sir William Johnson Bart 
Coll 1 Eyre of the 44 th . Regimt 
Major Walters 

John Johnson Esq r . Lieut Guy Johnson, as Sec 1 "?. 
Du Coagne Interpreter 

Wabbicommicot, Chief of the Chipeweighs, with 

several others of that Nation 

Sir William addressed them as follows 


I take this occasion of calling you here to Wellcome & shake 
you by the hand, as also to return you thanks for your good 
behavior & friendly inclination towards the English, of all which 
I have been informed since my arrival at this place, I therefore 
now give you this publick testimony of nfiy satisfaction at your 
behavior Gave a string 


The many belts of Wampum and Calumets of peace which 
hang in this Room * convince me of your, and of the Neighbour- 
ing Nations good intentions, and the just sense which you all 
entertain of the blessings arising from peace, & our friendship - 
continue still firm in these sentiments so Essential to your own 

*The Command 1 " 8 Room in the Forts where conferences are held, & 
where all the belts which the Indians deliver are hung up (Johnson's 

1 An account of the proceedings of July 28th in the Johnson Calendar, 
p. 116, was destroyed by fire. A copy in the State Historian's office 
shows that it is virtually the same as the following. 

Seven Years War 455 

happiness, keep up a good correspondence with this Garrison, & 
behave yourselves, soberly, & peaceably whilst here, or at any 
other place where you may meet with your Brethren the English, 
by which means you may be always assured of their favour & 

Gave a belt of wampum 

As I am now on my way to Detroit where I hope at a Meet- 
ing of the several Nations there, to establish a firm & lasting 
peace, and put all matters on the most permanent footing I shall 
be glad to have some Sachems present from your Nation in 
order that they might Communicate to your people the business 
which may be transacted at that Conference, & the mutual 

engagements there entred into between the Indians and us- 
After this General Meeting I shall to the best of my Judgment 
regulate the Trade there and elsewhere to the satisfaction of 
both Indians, & Traders, and I make no doubt but your future 
good conduct will sufficiently testify the sense which you have 
of our friendship, & the assistance which we afford to render you 
a flourishing people 

Sir William having finished what he had to say - Wabbi- 
commicot returned him hearty thanks for the Speech which he 
had delivered to them, which he saved they would always have at 
heart and take particular notice of He then produced their 
Pipe, or Calumet of peace, which he presented to Sir William 
and all present to smoke out of it, saying, that the smoke arising 
therefrom, would reach the Clouds and be seen by the most 
distant Nations - 

He then begged Sir William would look at his appearance 
that the dress then on him, & which was his best would scarcely 
cover him - & hoped he would not be surprized that they were 
not able to cloath themselves by reason of their being debarred 
the liberty of purchasing ammunition to kill game for their carry- 
ing on of trade, and concluded by requesting Sir Will" 1 would 
take their Case into Consideration and also order them some 

456 Sir William Johnson Papers 

provisions of which they stood in the greatest need; 1 & that as 
soon as they had considered on a proper answer to what he had 
sayed, they would attend him therewith 

The Conference ended 

An Onondaga Indian Just arrived from Detroit who had been 
present at the meeting held there between the two Seneca Deputys 
& the Western Indians, informed Sir William that what had 
passed thereat was chiefly spoke in Chabert loncair's name, who 
before he was made prisoner recommended it to the Senecas that 
in case the french should be conquered, they were to propose to 
the other Nations to unite & fall upon the English - The Indian 
was of opinion that many of the Ottawas were not yet well 
inclined towards us, but that the Wiandots seemed to be entirely 
our friends- That they asked him whether his Nation was con- 
cerned in the affair with the Senecas and on his declaring they 
were not, the Wiandots seemed vastly pleased 


Wabbicommicot sent to acquaint Sir William Johnson that 
he was ready to give his answer in behalf of that Nation Where- 
upon the Indians all assembled 

Present as before 
Wabbicommicot Speaker 


It gives us great satisfaction to find that our Conduct has 
merited the approbation of the person who has the management 
of our Affairs, and you may rest assured that we are of one heart 
and mind with you- You desire we should send some of our 
people to be present at the meeting at the Detroit, I shall there- 
fore readily accompany you thither, together with another Sachem 

1 The copy mentioned above has: "After drinking some punch their 
speaker arose & said they would withdraw . 

Seven Fears' War 457 

here present, but as our Wives must be in great need during our 
absence, I hope you will consider their Case, & allow them some 


Your upright dealing towards us, has convinced us of the 
esteem you have for our people, who are determined to shew 
by their future behaviour that they are very sensible of your 
strict adherence to what you first sayed to them, on the reduction 
of this place - 


I hope you'll excuse our appearing in this dress, as our poverty 
prevents us from coming before you in a better ; You may observe" 
the Days are now clear, & the Sun burns bright, therefore, I 
should be very glad to wear a hat to defend me from its heat - 


I have tryed several times with my Hands to catch fish for 
my living but found it would not answer, therefore I should be 
glad to have a Spear to kill them with; I am likewise prevented, 
from hunting by reason of my Guns being broke - 


I have discovered a fine Tree which I should be desirous to 
cut down for firing, but for want of an Axe I am necessitated to 
make a fire at its root in order to burn it down 

The Speaker having ended, Sir William thanked them for 
their intention of sending the Sachems to Detroit, and desired 
they would be ready to set out when he did - told them he was 
pleased to find what he had said to their Nation on the reduction 
of Niagara had produced the desired effect, recommended to 
them to continue their good behaviour, & to cherish the friendship 
of the English, who were now become the only powerfull people 
on this continent- He told them, that altho' he had some Boats 
containing presents to be given at the General Meeting, they 
were not yet arrived, however he should consider their wants, & 
give them some Cloathing the next day, as also order some pro- 

458 Sir William Johnson Papers 

visions for the Women in the absence of their Husbands, & give 
those who returned home some Ammunition to Enable them to 
hunt on the road - And on his return from the Gen 1 Meeting, 
should consider the state of their Arms &ca & send them a Smith 
to reside at Niagara in order to repair them from time to time, 
and concluded with hoping that this favour towards them would 
meet with a gratefull return, and so far convince them of our 
friendship as to prevent their being led away to act as imprudently 
as some Indians had lately done, and thereby justly incense that 
people whose favour & friendship they were bound both by grati- 
tude and interest to improve - 


Sir William delivered a small present to them for which they 
seemed very ithankfull, and made the fairest promises of living 
in friendship for ever with the English - Adding that on their 
return home, their Nation on seeing the friendly usage they had 
met with, would be more & more convinced of our regard for 
them & that it would prove a means of securing them firmly to 
our interest 

August 1 st 
At a Meeting with several Wiandot Indians at Niagara 


Sir William Johnson Bart 
John Johnson Esq r . 
Lieut Guy Johnson as Seer? 

The Indians being all Assembled, Sir William spoke to them 
as follows - 


I desire by this belt you'll give your Nation notice of my being 
on my way to Detroit, & that I request they will imediately sum- 
mon all the surrounding Nations to the intended Meeting, that 
I may be enabled to return before the bad season of the year 
sets in - 

Seven Years War 459 


As Major Gladwin, an English Officer is now on his way 
with a body of men in order to explore the Lakes, & take posses- 
sion of the French posts, evacuated to us by the surrender of 
Canada, I judged it necessary to inform you thereof that you 
might not be alarmed at their approach - 

As a proof of my friendship for you, I now present you with 
some Cloathing & Trinkets with some Cash to buy bread for 
your journey home, & expect you will continue by your Conduct 
to merit the favour of your brethren the English 

Gave a belt of seven rows 

To which Speech their Chief returned the following answer 


It gives us great pleasure to see & speak with you of whom 
we have so often heard, we therefore now shake you by the 
hand, as our friend, returning you many thanks for this mark 
of your friendship, and you may be assured if the wind will 
permit us, we shall be home in a few days when we shall faith- 
fully deliver your message to the Chief Men of our Castle, who 
will doubtless dispatch runners to call the other Nations in order 
to meet you- 

The Speaker having finished what he had to say, they took 
their leaves - 


A Seneca Indian (who during the siege of Niagara came out 
of the Fort with thirty of his people to Sir William,) this day 
waited on him, on the Indians being asked how the Senecas came 
to send the Message they did to the Western Indians at, and 
about Detroit, he answered that it must have been set on foot 
by some Indians living on the Ohio, who had one of their people 
killed at, or near Fort Pitt last spring, others much abused by 
the English- That lately five Delawares were killed near 
Shamokin, & a Seneca by the Garrison of Venango; all which, 
together with the illtreatment they generally met with at the 
Posts, induced them to imagine the English proposed to fall 

460 Sir William Johnson Papers 

upon & destroy them, and was probably the cause of their send- 
ing the belt amongst the western Indians That Tahaiadoris one 
of their Messengers was Son to Chabert Joncair- 

Sonajoana a Seneca Chief with several others arrived, and 
acquainted Sir William that he expected the rest as tomorrow 

The Senecas came to inform Sir William that three young 
Indians sent from the Sachems were arrived to tell him that the 
Sachems & Chiefs of that Nation who were on their way to 
Niagara agreable to his summons, had returned back on account 
of one of their Chief Men named Karaghianaghquas falling sick 
which prevented their proceeding,* but that they would be very 
glad Sir William would deliver what he had to say, to the Senecas 
then at Niagara, being thirty in number with their Chief Sona- 
joana who was impowered to hear, and acquaint the rest thereof 
Sir William expressed his surprize at their not punctually obey- 
ing his summons, having something to say to them on which their 
interest & welfare greatly depended, however, that he should 
deliver what he had to say to those present in the Afternoon - 
P. M. Monsieur Gamelin (newly arrived from Detroit) informed 
Sir William that an Ottawa Indian had cautioned him to take 
care of himself as Niagara, & Detroit would be destroyed in a 
few days 

Sir William sent to acquaint the Indians that he was ready 
to deliver what he had to say to them - whereupon they assembled 

Sir William Johnson Bart 

Major Walters-] D i A 

. Koy 1 Americans 

Capt hthermgtonj 

John Johnson Esq r . 
Lieut Guy Johnson as Secry 
Du Coagne Interpreter 
Sonajoana, & about thirty Senecas 

* It is customary for Inch, to return home on any of their Chiefs falling 
sick. (Johnson's note.) 

Seven Years War 461 

Being all seated Sir William spoke to them as follows 


My sending for you at this time was to acquaint you that I 
am sent by the General & Commander in Chief of his Britannick 
Majesty's forces in America, to the Detroit in order to call a 
Council and assemble all the surrounding Nations, & to establish 
all matters on the best, & most permanent footing in that quarter; 
to assure them of his Majestys protection so long as they continue 
to behave as Friends 'to the English, as also to regulate the Trade 
& at every other place where a trade is carried on between us 
and the Indians, thereby to convince them of our upright inten- 
tions, and resolution to see them done all manner of Justice 
whilst they deserve our favour and protection 

Gave a Belt. 

In the prosecution of my journey hither I had frequent Inter- 
views with several of the Six Nations, but how great was my 
surprize when I was given to understand from a good Authority 
that you, the people in whom I had always reposed so much con- 
fidence, whose happiness and true interest it has been my constant 
study to promote, should without any reasonable motive for so 
doing attempt to disturb the harmony subsisting between the 
Indians and us, by sending Messengers with a War belt to 
Detroit in order to prevail on the several Nations of Indians 
inhabiting that Country to take up the hatchet, and joyn with 
you against the English,- Your Brethren, Your Friends and 
your Allies as you have always termed them, ties, which your 
perfidiousness hath now falsified 

However astonishing this your extraordinary Conduct may 
appear to the English in General, it cannot but affect me in a 
more particular & Sensible manner in consideration of the place 
which I hold under his Majesty which appoints me to the Super- 
intendency of your, & the Six Nations affairs, A people on whom 
I have so often bestowed his Majestys bounty, Who must all 

462 Sir William Johnson Papers 

be convinced of my constant & indefatigable labour in promoting 
a good understanding between the English and you, and in point- 
ing out to you the only means of enjoying peace & prosperity 

So unjustifiable are your late proceedings as not only to sur- 
prize us, but to astonish those very Indians, so lately our avowed 
Enemys, who must look upon it as the highest perfidy in you, the 
long feigned friends of the English - suddenly to throw off the 
Mask at a time when all the Surrounding Nations had just began 
to taste the Sweets of peace, & to reap the advantages resulting 
from our friendly indulgences towards them, then, in violation 
of the most Solemn treatys to lay a scheme which must deprive 
them of the blessings of peace and commerce by endeavouring to 
engage those hitherto well disposed people in an unnatural and 
rebellious War which (if undertaken) must have unavoidably 
terminated in the ruin of the whole Indian Confederacy - But 
the Conduct of these wise people, hath convinced you, as well 
as us of their just estimate of the happiness which they enjoy, & 
the advantages resulting from our friendship, by. their con- 
temptuously rejecting your pernicious proposals, tending to a 
breach of the publick tranquillity If then your Conduct has 
astonished those Nations as yet Strangers to us, in what light 
must you appear to the English, who have always hitherto 
esteemed and treated you as friends, and that at a Considerable 
Expence, and what measures can you take to extenuate your 
guilt, after your evil tho weak endeavors to promote an unjust 

Let me add as an addition to your Crime, that on my way 
hither, every other Nation of the Confederacy with whom I had 
any conference utterly disclaimed their being in any wise privy 
thereto and in the warmest terms disapproved of your proceed- 
ings - 

I now therefore address & require you present who represent 
the Seneca Nation, peremptorily to acquaint me, whether the two 
Seneca Messengers sent with a belt to incite the Nations about 
the Detroit to a War against the English were authorized for 

Seven Years' War 463 

that purpose by your Nation or not, If so, what were the motives 
inducing you thereto, and what are your present resolutions 
thereon that I may be enabled to acquaint the Commander in 
Chief imediately therewith 

Concluded with severely chiding them for their stealing horses 
from about Fort Pitt &ca 

To all which they promised to prepare an answer against the 
next Day 


Sir William Johnson drew up Regulations for the Indian trade 
at Niagara, & Oswego, Stipulating the Quality & Quantity of 
goods to be given in exchange for the Indians Peltry - The Regu- 
lation for the former post he delivered Major Walters, & dis- 
patched that for the latter to Major Duncan Comds. Officer that 
the Traders might be compelled to govern themselves thereby, 
& the Regulations properly enforced - 

The Indians assembled at Sir William's Quarters to answer 
what he had sayed to them the day before 

Present as before 
Sonajoana Speaker 

Brother Warraghiyagey 

What you declared to us yesterday has given us much uneasi- 
ness especially, as we are not only innocent, but entirely ignorant 
of the whole charge against us, No such Message having been 
ever to our knowledge sent by our Nation, It having been 
always our intention to live in strict friendship with the English; 
but we are of opinion that as those Messengers live near Fort 
Pitt they must have been dispatched by some Indians from that 

We cannot deny but that some of our imprudent young Men 
have stolen some horses in the Neighbourhood of Pittsburgh 
without our consent or approbation, but we shall use all our 
endeavours to put a Stop thereto for the future, as well as to 

464 Sir William Johnson Papers 

any other cause of complaint, & hope thereby as well as by the 
rest of our conduct to shew our good intentions to regain your 
confidence & Esteem - 

gave a bunch of Wampum 

I now speak on the behalf of the Warriors & principal Women, 
begging you would consider their poverty, & allow the former 
some ammunition to kill game for their support, as also to have 
pity on our Women who have scarcely cloathing to cover their 
nakedness, & be assured that any favours which they may now 
receive from you shall be remembred in the most gratefull & 
friendly manner by the whole Nation 

gave a bunch of Wampum 

Having finished what he had to say Sir William spoke 
to them as follows 

Brethren of the Seneca Nation 

I have attended with the utmost surprize to your Feigned 
Declarations of ignorance & innocence with regard to the late 
message sent to the Detroit, nor can your frivolous excuses that 
the Messengers lived Detached from you, have any Weight with 
me, being thoroughly convinced that they, or any other Tribes 
of your Nation (tho* ever so remote) would not presume to 
undertake so dangerous an affair without your Concurrence & 
approbation, as you must be sensible I well know your custom of 
consulting each other on affairs of much less moment, nay, 
matters of the smallest importance are never agreed to without 
the consent of you all - 

This affair so villainous & treacherous in its Nature, has been 
fortunately brought to light partly thro the friendship and fidelity 
of the Western Indians, who have made publick your whole 
proceedings. I therefore now tell you plainly that I look upon 
whatever you may say, as an extinuation thereof, to be evasive, 
& Calculated with design farther to amuse and deceive a people 
who have too long credited your false protestations, of friendship, 

Seven Years' War 465 

nor will all the Excuses you can frame with all the Rethorick 
you may be masters of, In any wise satisfy the General or con- 
vince me of your innocence, unless a Deputation of your Chiefs 
attend the Meeting which I am now going to call at the Detroit, 
& there publickly in the name of your people, & in the presence 
of all the Nations declare your entire innocence & disapprobation 
of any thing proposed by those Messengers last Month tending 
to excite a War against us and this I propose as the onlv 
step which you can take to satisfy your Injured Brethren the 
English, and to acquit yourselves to the Indians of any concern 
in what was then transacted - 

returned them their own Wampum to shew he 
paid no regard to what they had said, which 
greatly confounded them. 

After some time spent in Consultation together, the Chiefs 
rose up, and addressed Sir William 

Brother Warraghiyagey 

We are all much concerned to find you are so severe upon us, 
after the honest declaration of innocence which we made to you, 
However, as it has not given you sufficient Satisfaction we shall 
send your belt off tomorrow morning to our Nation together with 
what you have sayed thereon, & make no doubt but some of our 
Chief Men will be imediately appointed to attend, or follow 
you to the Detroit, and there (agreable to your request) publickly 
satisfy you, & the World of our innocence of what we are 
accused - 

Upon which Sir William desired they would lose no time in 
so doing least the Meeting might be thereby retarded, promised 
he would give them a little cloathing the next Day, & as to 
ammunition he told them that their want of it, & the little notice 
taken of them was entirely owing to their own ill behaviour last 
year in abandoning his Majestys troops after the Surrender of 
Isle Royale, neither could they with the least Justice expect that 

466 Sir William Johnson Papers 

we should put ammunition into the hands of a people who 
endeavoured to form a Confederacy against us, However, that 
on their solemn declarations of innocence, and in expectation that 
they might hereafter behave themselves as became faithfull Allies, 
he should so far consider their demand, as to allow those of their 
Nation present, as much as should serve them to kill game on 
their way home 

After which they parted 
This Day Sir Williams boats arrived with the Indian present. 


Nickas of Conajoharee with the Mohocks, & some Oneidas 


The Mohocks being desirous to speak with the Senecas upon 
the before mentioned affair, on behalf of their Nation they 
accordingly called them to the following Meeting, at which they 
requested Sir William to be present. 

At a Meeting of the Mohocks & Oneidas with the Senecas at 
Niagara July 1 1 thl 


Sir William Johnson Bart Lieut Guy Johnson as Seer? 
Nickas Sachem of Conajoharee 
& other Mohocks & Oneidas 
The Senecas as before 

Nickas addressed them 

Brethren of the Seneca Nation 

The late imprudent steps which we are informed you have 
taken, has given our Nation much uneasiness, & cannot fail of 

"This should be August 1 1th. July 11th Johnson was at Fort 


Sever? Years' War 467 

disobliging the whole Confederacy, particularly as it hath been 
without cause & contrary to our inclinations, And I am to assure 
you in the Name of my Nation, that they, the head of the Six 
Nations are greatly disgusted thereat, & expect that by your 
Sorrow for what you have done, & your future good behaviour 
you will make some attonement to the English & to us whom 
you have so greatly injured, in that we are a part of the Con- 
federacy I therefore exhort you to consider well what I have 
sayed as coming from the mouths of all our Nations, & likewise 
to lay aside that mean practise of stealing your Brethren's horses, 
& imediately to return all those which are in your possession, as 
also to send some of your Sachems to the Detroit with directions 
to declare your sentiments in publick, & thereby clear yourselves 
(if possible) to your brethren the English as well as to all the 
Western Indians of the plot with which you are charged 


Unless you agree to what is proposed, & laying aside Thieving, 
Drunkenness & Quarrells live for the future on the most friendly 
terms with the English you may be assured that a publick rupture 
must ensue, on which occasion you must Expect no favour from 
us. as we are determined to look upon no Indians as our friends, 
who are Enemys to them 

Gave three Strings of Wampum 

The Senecas thereupon after again denying their knowledge 
of, or concern in the plot, returned them thanks for their advice, 
which they promised to report to their Nation with whom they 
made no doubt it would have the desired effect, as it must be of 
great weight with them- 

Then the Meeting dissolved 

An old Seneca Chief called the belt, waited on Sir William 
he professed himself entirely ignorant of the Indians designs 

468 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Sir William went to the Landing place, or La Platon, from 
which time to the 1 7 th was spent in getting the Indian presents 
&ca over the Carrying place to little Niagara, the Weather being 
very wet 

On the 1 7 th Sir William left La Platon & proceeded to Little 
Niagara where he made preparations for proceeding thro' Lake 
Erie to Detroit - 

19 th Sir William embarked for Detroit having with him 
a Detachment of the Royal Americans, & some Provincials, 
Indians &ca making in all 140, on board of 13 Battoes, & 
Canoes - 

September 3 d 

Sir William arrived at the Detroit 1 


A. M - The principal Sachems & Warriors of the Delawares, 
Shawanese, Mohiccons, Wiandots & Six Nations, residing over 
the Lakes, or on the Ohio, & its several branches waited on Sir 
William Johnson & acquainted him that agreable to his message 
delivered by George Croghan Esq r Depy Agent, they came 
thither and had waited his arrival in order to attend the Con- 
ference to which they had been summoned; Assuring him that 
his safe arrival gave them infinite Satisfaction - Whereupon Sir 
William after after thanking them for their punctuality in obeying 
his Summons, ordered some pipes & Tobacco to be distributed 
amongst them, & after giving each of them a dram they retired - 

Then the principal Sachems & Warriors of the Wiandot 
Castle opposite Detroit waited on & addressed him in the follow- 
ing manner 

1 The following is the same essentially as Johnson's account, in the 
Johnson Calendar, p. 118, of preliminary meetings with Indians at Detroit, 
September 3-4, 1 761 , a document which was burned but of which a copy 
is preserved. 

Seven Years War 469 


By this String of wampum we heartily and sincerely wellcome 
you to our Country, & wipe the Sweat from off your Eyes, that 
you may see and distinguish clearly your Brethren of all Nations 
who have with pleasure assembled themselves here, to attend the 
Conference agreable to your desire. 

Gave a String 

With this String we clear the passage to your heart and remove 
from your remembrance any ill news which you may have heard 
on your way hither, so that you may freely speak your mind, & 
declare your sentiments, as well to your Brethren the Indians 
of the several Nations residing in & about this Country, as on 
the Ohio, and its branches, who are all Assembled here in 
obedience to your Summons 

A string 

With this string we open your ears that you may likewise hear 
& attend to what your brethren of the several Nations here 
assembled shall have to say at the ensuing Conference 

gave a String 

The Speaker having ended, Sir William Johnson returned 
them thanks for the friendly manner in which they had wellcomed 
him to the Detroit, expressed his great satisfaction at their readi- 
ness in obeying his summons and desired to know whether all 
the Indians who were to attend the Meeting, were yet arrived, 
to which they answered that there were some Indian Chiefs of 
each of the Nations in the Neighbourhood who were yet behind, 
but that they were expected within a few days. After which 
each of them received pipes, Tobacco & a Dram and then 
departed - 

Then the Chiefs & Warriors of the Powtewatamis, Ottawas, 
and Chipeweighs, successively waited on him, & after going 
through the usual cememonys practised at Meetings on these 

470 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Occasions, were treated and dismissed by Sir William in the 
same manner & form as was used with the Wiandots 

M r . Croghan delivered Sir William The following Minutes 
of a Conference held by the Del a wares with the other Nations 
at Detroit, August 20 th with their Answers - 

The Delawares called the other Nations to a Council and 
Condoled with them, & went thro' all the usual Ceremonys on 
these occasions - Then told the Indians to meet the next day, 
that they had something to say to them before Sir W m Johnson's 

On the 21 st . When the Indians were all assembled the Dela- 
wares sent for Capt Campble, & M r . Croghan to be present, & 
proceeded as follows, first addressing the Wiandots - 

Uncles the Wiandots 

As we are come with our Brethren the English to your Council 
fire, we have something to say to you from all the Tribes of the 
Delawares & other Nations to the sunsetting, & we desire you 

will hear it- ^ u u 

Gave a belt 

You sent us word sometime ago that you were determined to 
live at peace with all Nations, we are glad to hear it, and as we 
have now travelled the road you have made, & seen your Council 
fire we find your road good & believe you are sincerely desirous 
of propagating a lasting peace which we are glad to see 

Gave a belt 

When we heard what you had done we set off to help you to 
make this road of peace, and as far as we have come we have 
thrown such Logs as you did not see off it, so that it is now smooth 
and pleasant to travel, and by this belt we desire it may be made 
clear & pleasant to the very place where the Sun goes down, 
thro' all Nations that we & our Brethren the English may travel 
it in peace to visit our Brethren, & they us, that our Children 
unborn may enjoy the good of this peace 

Gave a belt 

Seven Years War 471 

By this belt I Clean out your Council House, and throw every 
thing that is evil from your thoughts, that you may for the future 
believe no false reports from any Nation, that will disturb the 
peace which is now to be made between us, & our Brethren 

Gave a belt 

We have brought with us a junk of the first Council fire which 
was kindled at the Sun rising, which was a fire of peace, we now 
kindle it in your Council house, that all Nations to the Sun- 
setting may see that it is a fire of peace, and come to it to confirm 
the peace with us, & our Brethren the English - 

Gave a belt 
Uncles the Wiandots 

Every thing is now done on our part to strengthen the peace, 
we desire you to be strong on your part, and not to listen to any 
idle reports, we tell you, we are determined to hold fast by it & 
our Brethren, we desire you to do the same & all other Nations 
to the Sunsetting, that our Children may enjoy the blessing of 
this peace Gave a belt 

They then repeated the same to the Ottawas, & gave them as 
many belts, and also to the Chipeweighs & Powtewatamis in 
like manner 

On the 25 th the Wiandots had a meeting with the Delawares 
When they repeated all that had been said to them, & assured 
them, they were well pleased with what they had said ; and would 
make it their study to preserve the peace, & returned a belt for 
every one which they had received as did the other Nations 

P. M. Sir William Johnson settled with Major Gladwin the 
Number of posts to be taken possession of & the strength of each 
Garrison &c 

5 th The Huron Women waited on Sir William to wellcome him 
to the Detroit, & presented him with some Indian Corn, the 

472 Sir William Johnson Papers 

produce of their Lands, in return he ordered a Beef for their 
Nation --The Priest, & all the principal Inhabitants likewise 
waited on him 


The Ottawas made a Speech to Sir William by Mons r . Le 
Bute Interpreter begging he would consider their wants & Neces- 
sitys which were very great (particularly their Want of powder) 
and that he would likewise consider the French Interpreters, and 
other kept in Office about them, & Continue them in their several 
Employments gave a belt of Wampum 

Sir William answered them 

That he should in due time consider the Wants which they 
had represented and hoped they would for the future by their 
hunting and by an Industrious way of life be enabled to Support 
their f amilys without any other assistance - 

That he should likewise consider all those Interpreters, or 
others who had behaved themselves well, and as he saw occasion 
continue such of them as were judged the best qualified 

Gave a belt in return 
7 th 

Sir William had all the Chiefs of the Delawares, Shawanese 
& the rest of the Nations living on the South side of Lake Erie 
&ca with him this Day, when he informed them that he would 
open the Conference by making a Speech to all the Nations on 
Wednesday next, at which time he desired that they, & all the 
rest of the Nations would be ready to attend the same, and after 
giving to each of them pipes, Tobacco, and Rum, they took 
their Leaves promising to be ready at the appointed time 

8 h 

Sir William prepared, & Explained his Speech to the Inter- 
preters he likewise prepared the following Instructions for the 
Officers going to the several Posts 

Seven Years' War 473 

Detroit Sept'. 8* 1761 

Instructions for the Officers Commands at Michilimac- 
kinack, S l Joseph &ca relative to their conduct with 
the Indians 

The Officer to keep up a good understanding with all the 
Indians who live near his post, & with those who may resort 
thither on business & to see that no injustice is done to them in 
trade or otherwise 

To prevent his Garrison from having much Intercourse with 
the Indians, or rambling abroad amongst them, as that often 
creates disputes & Quarrels between a soldier, & Indian for want 
of understanding each other 

As it will be necessary to have an Interpreter at each of the 
posts, the Officer will (after he arrives at a knowledge of the 
French Inhabitants) choose one of the honestest & best Qualified 
of them to serve as Interpreter when called upon, & not other- 
wise, who will be paid yearly what the Officer agrees with him 
for, which cannot be much, as it will not prevent him following 
his other business 

To keep up a Correspondence as well as possible with the 
Officers of the next posts, as also with the Command 1 , of Detroit, 
which will enable him and them to act uniformly, and have good 
intelligence and knowledge of the dispositions of those Nations 
of Indians in whose Neighbourhood they are posted In order 
to prevent as much as possible abuses in trade, the Officer is to 
see that all Traders strictly adhere to the regulation made for 
that purpose, on pain of being banished, & no person is to be 
allowed trading with, or carrying goods to any Nation or place 
to the Northward, or Westward of the Detroit, except where 
there is a Garrison & an Officer Commanding, who is at every 
such post to see that such Trader shall before he is permitted to 
trade, produce his passport for that purpose from Sir W m . John- 
son his Majestys Sole Agent and Superintendant of Indian affairs, 
or his Deputy, and sealed with his seal at Arms 

474 Sir William Johnson Papers 

On the Officers arrival at his Post, if the Indians make appli- 
cation to have their Arms &ca mended, and that he judged it 
necessary to comply therewith, He is to order any Smith residing 
there, to repair the same, agreeing on the most reasonable terms 
with him, which Smith is annually to present an attested Accompt 
to the Commanding Officer, of the Work done by him, in order 
to its being transmitted to Sir William Johnson, who will dis- 
charge the same- 

These Instructions Sir William delivered Captain Campbell 
that the Officers might have Copies thereof 


The Indians all Assembled, it being the Day appointed for 
opening the Conference 

Proceedings at a Treaty held at D'etroit by Sir Will. Johnson 
Bart with the Sachems, & Warriors of the several Nations of 
Indians there assembled 


Sir W m . Johnson Bart 

George Croghan Esq r . D. Ag l . for Ind n . affairs 

Capt. Campbell Commands at Detroit 


Lieuts R Americans 

M c Donnell J 

Williamoz ^ 

} Gages 

r? King ^ 

Ensigns r n f Gages 

Horsetail J 

with several other Gentlemen & 
Lieut Guy Johnson as Secretary 

iMons r . Le Bute 1 
L for 
Mons r . S*. Martin J 

Seven Years War 475 

The Sachems, & Warriors of the following several Nations 
Wiandots, Saguenays, Ottawas, Chipeweighs, Powte- 
watamis, Kickapous, Twightwees, Delawares, Sha- 
wanese, Mohicons, Mohocks, Oneidas & Senecas 

Sir William opened the Conference with the following 

Brethren of the several Nations here assembled, Sachems, 
Chieftains & Warriors 

It gives me great pleasure to meet so many Nations assembled 
here on my summons, and as I am come A long journey to see, 
and talk with you, on matters relative to your interest, in order to 
prepare you to hear the same I do agreable to the Custom of our 
Ancestors, wipe away those Tears from your Eyes which were 
shed for the losses you sustained during the War in which you 
were imprudently engaged against the English, that you may 
clearly discern your present interest & look with a Chearfull and 
friendly countenance when you speak with, or are spoke to by 
your brethen the English * 

Gave three Strings of Wampum 

Having cleared your Sight, I do in the next place open the 
passage to your heart that you may at this Meeting speak honestly 
& brotherlike, & not from the Lips as some unthinking and evil 
minded Nations have lately done 

Gave three Strings 

Several of our people being killed in the War in which you 
were engaged against us. I now therefore wipe away the blood 
which was shed that the sight thereof may no more offend or 
grieve you 

Gave three Strings 

* N. B. These Ceremonys of condolance &ca are always performed 
at the opening of a Meeting. (Johnson's own note.) 

476 Sir William Johnson Papers 


I do also pluck out of your heads the Hatchet with which we 
were obliged to strike you, & apply a healing salve to the Wound. 

Gave a belt of 7 Rows 

As the bones of those people which you have lost, do now 
require interrment, I do with this belt of Wampum gather them 
alltogether, bury them deep, & level the graves with the ground 
so that they may no more be seen 

Gave a black Belt of 15 Rows 

The great King George my Master being graciously pleased 
some years ago to appoint me to the Sole management & Care 
of all his Indian Allies in the Northern parts of North America 
directed me to light up a large Council fire at my House in the 
Mohocks Country for all Nations of Indians in amity with his 
Subjects, or who were inclined to put themselves under his Royal 
protection to come thereto, and receive the benefit thereof. This 
fire yields such a friendly warmth that many Nations have since 
assembled thereto, and daily partake of its influence I have 
therefore now brought a brand thereof with me to the place with 
which I here kindle up a large Council fire made of such Wood 
as shall burn bright & be unextinguishable, whose kindly Warmth 
shall be felt in, and shall extend to the most remote Nations, and 
shall induce all Indians, even from the setting of the Sun to come 
hither and partake thereof 

Gave a belt of nine Rows 

With this belt I clean out and purge your Council Chamber 
from all rubbish in order to prepare it for our future reception 
so that we may meet and deliberate therein for the time to come 
without any manner of impediment 

Gave a belt of six Rows 

Seven Years' War 477 


With Satisfaction I inform you that his Excellency General 
Amherst is well pleased to hear of your friendly behaviour 
towards his Majestys Forces, at their taking possession of this 
place last Year, as well as of the promises you made us of becom- 
ing our friends and Allies, & of renewing the old Covenant Chain 
at the Meeting then held here in presence of M r . Croghan my 
Deputy, as also of your late Wisdom in Rejecting the belt sent 
you by some Indians with intent to stir you up against your 
Brethren the English, which had you agreed to must have not 
only terminated in your destruction but that of all those con- 
cerned And I have the pleasure to observe that all the Indian 
Nations through which I passed on my way hither were so well 
convinced of its consequences that they publickly disavowed 
their knowledge or approbation thereof, I thereof take this oppor- 
tunity of addressing each Nation here assembled desiring to be 
informed, who were the people who sent that Belt hither, & what 
were the motives alledged to induce them to so unjustifiable a 

Gave a belt of twelve Rows 

With this belt In the name of his Britannick Majesty I 
strengthen and renew the antient Covenant Chain formerly sub- 
sisting between us, that it may remain bright & lasting to the 
latest Ages, earnestly recommending it to you, to do the same, 
and to hold fast thereby as the only means by which you may 
expect to become a happy & flourishing people. 

Gave a belt of the Covenant Chain 
containing 20 Rows of Wampum 

The Just War which his Britannick Majesty undertook for 
the defence of his lawfull Claims, & the territories which he was 
bound to protect for his Indian Allies in America being well 
known to all here present, it will therefore be judged needless to 

478 Sir William Johnson Papers 

recapitulate the same at this period, or to acquaint you with the 
great success with which his Arms hath been blessed by the entire 
reduction of Canada and all its Dependencies - 

The happy period being now arrived which has freed you 
from the Calamitys of War & enabled you to enjoy your long 
desired tranquillity, His Majesty allways attentive to the Wel- 
fare of his Subjects and Allies is now resolved to shew you the 
mild use which he purposes to make of his Victorys by Culti- 
vating the arts of peace, repairing the ruins and devastation 
usually attendant on War, & establishing harmony and concord 
throughout all his dominions For these purposes am I sent by 
the General & Commander in Chief to renew in his Majesty's 
Name the friendship formerly subsisting between you and us, to 
give assurances of his clemency and favour to all such Nations 
of Indians as are desirous to come under his Royal protection, 
as well as to acquaint you that his Majesty will promote to the 
utmost an extensive plentifull commerce on the most Equitable 
terms between his Subjects & all Indians who are willing to 
entitle themselves thereto, & to partake of his Royal Clemency 
by entring into an offensive and Defensive Alliance with the 
British Crown Gave a belt of 1 5 Rows 


I can with confidence assure you that it is not at present, 
neither hath it been his Majestys intentions to deprive any Nation 
of Indians of their Just property by taking possess", of any Lands 
to which they have a lawfull Claim, farther than for the better 
promoting of an extensive Commerce, for the security and pro- 
tection of which (and for the occupying of such posts as have 
been surrendered to us by the Capitulation of Canada) Troops 
are now on their way; I therefore expect that you will consider 
and treat them as Brethren, and continue to live on terms of the 
strictest Friendship with them and as I now declare these his 
Majestys favourable intentions to do you justice, I expect in 
return that nothing shall on your parts be wanting to testify the 

Seven Years War 479 

just Sense which you all conceive of his Majesty's favour, and 
of your earnest desire to live with the British Subjects on the 
terms of friendship and alliance 

Gave a belt of 7 Rows 

I have heard with great satisfaction from M r . Croghan that 
agreable to my desire made to the several Nations two years 
Ago, of delivering up what English prisoners remained amongst 
you, or were still in your possession, you have in Consequence 
thereof given up a Considerable number, and as we are now to 
be unted by Alliance & become one people, I expect you will 
likewise discharge any who yet remain with you Agreable to 
the promises then made Gave a belt of 7 Rows 


It gives me great concern to hear daily complaints from your 
Brethren the English against you on account of your stealing his 
Majesty s Horses, & those of the Traders who bring goods to 
dispose of amongst you; As a behaviour of this kind so unlike 
that of Brethren may, if not imediately discontinued be pro- 
ductive of very fatal Consequences I therefore by this belt 
recommend it to you all to desist for the future from a practise so 
mean, & scandalous & unbecoming the Character of Men who 
claim the title of Brethren and British Allies, and I hope that 
what I have now been obliged to say on that head will suffi- 
ciently put a Stop thereto & prefent me from being obliged to 
consider you as a people incapable of relishing the benefit of 
friendly admonition or advice 

Gave a belt of 8 Rows 
Brethren of the Delawares 

The sensible and friendly manner in which you delivered 
your sentiments on several interesting points at the Conference 
held between you and the Nations inhabiting these parts before 
my arrival here (as appears by the Minutes of that Conference 

480 Sir William Johnson Papers 

now before me) gives me the highest idea of, your wisdom, as 
well as of your friendship for us, and cannot fail of producing 
the most salutary ends, When attended to and seconded by the 
rest of the Nations of the Confederacy, and therefore as a proof 
of my Intention to promote so necessary a work, I do by this belt 
of Wampum offer my assistance to make the road of peace even, 
broad, and easy for travelling as far as the Setting of the Sun 
Assuring you that whenever it may happen to be any ways 
obstructed, or out of order I shall use all my endeavors towards 
the repairing of the same, and thereby keep open a friendly 
intercourse with our Allies to the latest Ages 

Gave a belt of 9 Rows 

Brethren of the several Nations here assembled 

Altho' the management of your Affairs is the Province allotted 
to me by his Majesty, I am no less bound by inclination than by 
duty to serve you, & so long as you shall pay a strict adherence 
to every part of the present treaty, I shall esteem all your Nations 
as our true and natural Allies, treat with you independent of any 
other Nation, or Nations of Indians whatsoever, & use the utmost 
exertion of my abilities in the promoting of your interest & 

Let me then recommend to you, unanimity in preserving 
inviolably, & without the least infringement every part thereof 
to the latest posterity Let me exhort you to remember that 
you are now furnished with the means of becoming a great and 
flourishing people, and to consider the due observance of the 
present union as the basis on which your freedom and happiness 
must for ever depend Gave a belt of 7 Rows 

Sir William having ended his Speech The Mohocks & 
Oneidas addressed the other Indians in manner following 

Seven Years War 481 

Nickas Sachem of Conajoharee Speaker 
Brethren of the Huron & Ottawa Confederacy 

I am now on the part of my Nation to wipe your Eyes that 
you may see us clearly, and discover us to be your brethren, and 
I now likewise clear your births from any rubbish which may be 

Gave three Strings of Wampum 

With this belt I level the graves of all those Indians of your 
Nations who were slain during the War, so that the sight thereof 
may no more grieve you, or give offence to those yet unborn 

A Belt 


I now clear away, and dispel those dark Clouds which Your 
late Father the French threw over the Earth by plucking the Sun 
out of the firmament, so that all your Nations were in darkness 
& consequently could not see your friends the English, and us, 
neither could you attend to your own interest, therefore with this 
belt I now clear away and remove the Clouds, and put the Sun 
in its proper place, so that you may again behold your Brethren, 
and Friends, & be enabled to pay attention to your own interest 

A Belt 

I am sent hither by my Natibn to acquaint you all of our 
disposition & resolutions to remain steadfast friends & brethren 
to the English, (as we always have been) & we earnestly recom- 
mend it to you to follow our Example so essential to your own 
interest As our Brother is now come to settle all matters on 
the most amicable footing & renew the Covenant Chain of friend- 
ship, we hope you will embrace this favourable opportunity and 
hold each other fast by the Arm, so firm that nothing may ever 
seperate us till our deaths A belt 

Vol. Ill 16 

482 Sir William Johnson Papers 


We are the Door of the six Nations, as we live next to our 
Brethren the English we must therefore of Course be first 
acquainted with whatever News may be stirring, I must therefore 
beg and request you will not listen, or pay the least regard to any 
evil reports which may happen to be brought to you by, or from 
any of the other Nations (Such as that from the Senecas the 
other day) since if any thing ill is intended against us, you may 
depend on seeing the Mohocks here A belt 


You now see your Friend and Brother who is come into your 
Country for your benefit, and that of all Indians whatsoever, 
he has made the Lakes hither smooth, & the roads even and 
good, so that they may be passed without any interruption, I 
have accompanied him & contributed my small assistance towards 
the completion of so good a Work, I now therefore beg to recom- 
mend the same to you, & that you may strictly attend towards 
the same for the future so that our intercourse may for ever be 
free & uninterrupted A belt 


Your Brother having taken so much pains to establish tran- 
quillity, as a means for preserving the same I must recommend 
it to you Sachems to put an imediate stop to your young men's 
practise of stealing Horses either belonging to the King of Eng- 
land, to the Traders, or any other persons who are your Brethren, 
as a Continuance in so doing must not only prove to your preju- 
dice in preventing the Traders from Coming amongst you, but 
must, as your Brother has already observed be inevitably produc- 
tive of a quarrel, as well as overset the good work of peace which 
your Brother has been at so much pains to establish 

A belt. 

Having finished his Speech, the Conference broke 
up for this day, the Indians retiring to consider 
on, & prepare an Answer 

Seven Years War 483 

P. M. The Indians all assembled to deliver in their Answer 

Present as Yesterday 
Anaiasa, Chief of the Hurons, addressed Sir W m . as follows 

Brother Warraghiyagey 

By this Belt we return you our Sincerest acknowledgments for 
your compliance with the Customs of our forefathers in drying 
up those tears which were shed for our losses in the War which 
we were imprudently led into against the English, as also for 
clearing our sight so that we may now see our interest 


We return you hearty thanks for your goodness in clearing 
and opening the passage to our hearts, so as to enable us to 
speak our Mind freely together, and we are greatly rejoyced 
and return thanks to the great being above, for preserving and 
conducting you hither for so good a purpose which we are certain 
must afford great satisfaction to all Indians whatsoever 

A belt 

We are likewise very sensible of your goodness in wiping 
away the blood which was shed, so that the sight thereof might 
not give any farther Cause of grief A belt 


Your taking the hatchet out of our heads with which you were 
obliged to strike us, and your applying a remedy to our Wounds 
claims also our most gratefull Acknowledgm* A belt 


Your goodness in collecting the bones of our slain which 
required interrment, & in burying them, & levelling the graves 
so that they may no more be seen, we heartily return you thanks 
for, as we do likewise for your clearing the Sky, and dispelling 
the darkness under which we have lived by bringing us peace. 

A belt 

484 Sir William Johnson Papers 


The Choice which the Great King of England made of you 
for the Superintendency of our Affairs, affords us all much 
satisfaction, we already feel the good effects of your Council 
fire in that you bring us the agreable news of peace, we likewise 
heartily thank you for the Council fire which you have kindled 
at this place and which it shall be our constant study to renew 
and keep it continually up, so that we may always partake 

A belt 

The care you have shewn in Cleansing out our Council 
Chamber so that nothing may prevent our proceeding on business 
We take very kindly, and shall for the time to come keep it in 
such good order that it may always be prepared for our mutual 
reception- A belf 


We are very happy in finding that our behaviour last year on 
the taking possession of this place by the English has meritted 
the Generals and your approbation, and we hope that all the 
steps which we have since taken will be considered as so many 
proofs of our firm intentions to keep the Covenant Chain bright 
and lasting and so to hand it down to posterity 

We are now to answer your demand concerning the belt sent 
to us, the motives for their so doing who were the cause thereof 
we know not but here is the Man * now present who was one 
of the Messengers, he best can inform you, and we hope our 
proceedings thereon with which you are well acquainted, will 
convince you of our disapprobation thereof 

A belt 

* Pointing to Kayashoto one of the Seneca Messengers then present 
(Johnson's own note.) 

Seven Years' War 485 


We thank you for renewing the old Covenant Chain subsisting 
between our Ancestors, & you, and we on our parts heartily con- 
curr with you therein, and with this belt we now renew & 
strengthen it, and shall hold fast by it for ever 

A belt 

We are heartily obliged to the great King for his good inten- 
tions towards us, & to the General for sending you to us to pro- 
mote the good work of peace, and to heal our Wounds which 
were still running, and it is with pleasure we tell you that we 
now begin to see with our own Eyes, & can perceive the pains 
you have taken to dispell the darkness which so long hung over 
us, and to make the way smooth between our Brethren and us; 
We therefore with pleasure embrace This union, and we joyn 
ourselves together with our Brethren with a strong Chain which 
can never be broken, and we hope that on your parts you will 
do the same, and that you will never forget the Words which 
you have now made use of, but that you will send us a plenty 
of goods, & that at a Cheaper rate than we have hitherto been 
able to procure them A belt 

Brother . 

It gives us great satisfaction to hear that the King has no 
intentions to deprive us of our Lands (of which we were once 
very apprehensive) and as to the Troops who are now going 
to the distant posts, we are well pleased therewith, and hope 
they will look upon and treat us as Brethren, in which light they 
shall always be Esteemed by us as we are determined to live 
on the best terms with them A belt 


We are greatly concerned to find you have had any occasion 
to speak to us concerning the stealing of horses, which, be assured 
has never been done with either our approbation or Consent, but 
has proceeded from some of our idle young Men who you know 

486 Sir William Johnson Papers 

are very difficult to restrain, however, we shall for the future 
exert ourselves & do all in our power to put a stop to that, or 
any thing else which may give you uneasiness, and we believe 
that what you have sayed thereon at this Meeting will make 
them ashamed, & prevent their so doing for the future 

A belt 

You have spoke to us concerning the English prisoners 
which we delivered up, & desired if any remained yet amongst us 
that we might imediately set them free It is now two years 
since we were spoke to on that head at Fort Du Quesne, by our 
Brethren, who desired that we might dismiss all such prisoners 
as were amongst us who were willing to return home, all which 
we have complied with, but we must observe that they are no 
Slaves with us, being at their free liberty to go anywhere, or 
act as they please, neither is it our Custom to Exercise any 
Authority over them, they having the same priviledges with our- 
selves We beg you will not suppose that we ever illtreated 
any, or detained them a moment longer than they chose to stay, 
and now assure you that we have not one remaining amongst us, 
having delivered over Six, which were the last we had, to M r . 
Croghan some days ago 


Many of our people having been frequently illused as well by 
the Soldiers, as Inhabitants of this place, we therefore entreat 
you to take the same into your consideration & prevent them 
from so doing for the future 

There is but one thing more which we have to say to you 
before we Make an end, that is, to remind you of your promises 
concerning trade, of which, and of the dearness of goods, and 
Scarcity of ammunition we could say a great deal, The traders 
selling their Goods so dear that we are scarcely able to purchase 
them, besides, many articles are very scarce & in particular 

Seven Years War 487 

powder is sold so sparingly & is so hard to be got that we are 
all apprehensive we must shortly be obliged to leave off hunting 
entiiely, as our Young Men cannot procure sufficient to cloath 
themselves or provide for their Wives & Children; all which 
Brother we beg you will seriously consider on & let us have our 
goods cheaper & a sufficiency of powder for our hunting so that 
we may be enabled to trade as formerly. 

A belt 

The Speaker having ended Macatepilesis - Speaker for the 
Ottawas arose, & after going through all the ceremony of Con- 
dolance as the Hurons had done he proceeded 

Brother Warraghiyagey 

Hearken to your Brethren the Ottawas, and all that Con- 
federacy here present 

Brother, We were called to Fort Du Quesne at the time of 
the War between you and the French, we imediately attended 
your summons where we found M r . Croghan who spoke to us 
by order of the General, that we might acquaint the Nations of 
his intentions to live at peace with them, & to require them to do 
the same, & act as Friends & Allies to the English; since which 
time we have begun to look upon you as Friends, and not in the 
light in which you had been represented to us by the French 

A belt 

I speak on the part of all our Confederacy here present who 
are charmed with the speech which you made to them Yesterday, 
& determined to act for the future agreable thereto, & to make 
all Nations of Indians acquainted therewith, even to the setting 
of the Sun, & with the great Work which you have now executed, 
whereby you have established tranquillity throughout the Land, 
& made the Roads & the Waters of our Lakes, smooth & passa- 
ble which were before rough and dangerous. 

A belt 

488 Sir William Johnson Papers 


You have wisely recommended to us to pay no regard for 
the future to any evil reports which may be spread, & you desire 
to know the people who sent the bad Bird lately Amongst us, 
to stir us up against our Brethren It is certain such bad Birds 
have been amongst us, but we should look upon ourselves as a 
very unhappy people if we payed any attention to such disturbers 
of peace whom we shall always despise for attempting to put 
such evil thoughts into our ears, who are all determined as one 
Man to hold fast by the Covenant Chain for ever But if 
you would know who this bird is, Cast your Eyes to Kayashota 
& you will see him A belt 

Having finished what he had to say on behalf of that 
Confederacy Anaiasa, Speaker for the Hurons &ca stood 
up, and after performing the ceremony of Condolance 
addressed the Mohocks as follows 

Brethren of the Mohocks 

We return you many thanks for your good work in assisting 
your Brother to clear the Sky, and dispel the Clouds which hung 
over us, and we in return now clear away your Cabins from 
any rubbish, so that your Chiefs may meet & deliberate therein, 
and also renew your fire making it of such Wood as shall burn 
for ever bright. Three strings 


It is with much pleasure we now see you here employed in 
so good a Work, and we are very sensible of your Nations 
Wisdom in sending you here, for which we return them thanks. 
& you may assure them that we are unanimously resolved to keep 
the Covenant Chain bright and to hold each other so fast by the 
Arm that nothing can seperate us, & we beg you will consider 
that this Alliance which you have made is not an inconsiderable 
one, being made with all the Nations of the North and West 

A belt 

Seven Years' War 489 


We are Extremely obliged to you for your friendly admoni- 
tion concerning any evil reports which may be spread amongst 
us, You may be assured we will do as you have recommended, & 
should any bad news come amongst us, or amongst any of the 
Nations, we shall imediately rise, and come to you, & our Eyes 
shall be upon you, & Ears open to hear News from you only 

A belt 

We return you many thanks for your goodness in assisting our 
Brother to make the roads even, & to smooth the Lakes hither; 
we shall with pleasure give all the Assistance in our power 
towards finishing them & keeping them in good order for ever, 
even to the setting of the Sun A belt 


We have listned attentively to your good advice, and Cautions 
to us, not to steal any of our Brethren's Horses for the future, 
but to deliver all those up which we have - We are very sorry 
that some of our Young people have given occasion to complain, 
but we shall for the future prevent it, & comply entirely with 
your desire being convinced that we should do wrong to our 
Brethren, & injury to ourselves if we persisted in such a 
practise. A belt 

The Huron Confederacy having finished, The Ottawas &ca 
after performing the Ceremony of Condolance with a White 
belt, proceeded as follows. 

Macatepilesis Speaker 

Brethren of the Mohocks 

We are well pleased and approve much of what you have 
sayed to us, and be assured we are now so united that we will 
not permit any Nation to hurt you, but that we will give you, 
and our Brethren the English our Friendly Arm should any 
Nation rise up against you 

490 Sir William Johnson Papers 


We are all unanimously resolved to abide by, & follow what- 
ever has been, or shall be proposed at this Meeting, and no person 
shall be able to change our resolutions 


You now see that we have linked ourselves with a Chain of 
Iron to our Brethren the English and to you, and we hope that 
no person shall be able to break that Chain, or dissolve our 

We observe the Conduct of our Brethren the English who 
have already began to spread peace amongst us, & hope there- 
fore that you who are so nearly allied to us will not be wanting 
in aiding and promoting the same, & that you will not forget what 
now has been sayed On our parts here, we most solemnly 
assure you that we shall always remember, & abide by the 
same We are now Brethren all together & united, and have 
nothing more to do but to offer our hands to each other whenever 
we shall meet on the Lakes, Rivers, or in the Woods, with either 
the English, French, or Indians - 

Gave a bunch of black & white Wampum 

Then the Speaker of the Hurons addressed them 

Brethren of the Mohocks 

We have it not in our power to make a Silver Chain, it is you 
that can make such, therefore, we beg you may make it so 
strong that nothing can break it, & you may be assured we will 
hold fast thereby to the latest Ages, and this we desire you will 
make known to all the Nations your way, as we shall do in these 
parts, that from the rising to the Setting of the Sun, the good 
work of peace and union here now made & settled may be for 
ever known & observed A belt 6 Rows 

After which Wabbicommicott Chief of the Chipeweighs 
addressed them on behalf of the Ottawa Confederacy 

Seven Years' War 491 

Brethren of the Mohocks 

Although we are a Numerous Nation, we are but an ignorant 
People, so that we shall not say much at present, but hope we 
shall within a short time meet and say a good deal to our Brother 
Warraghiyagey who has now brought peace to our Country 
which was in a treamor, & has fixed our hearts in their proper 
places which before his arrival were fluttering & knew not where 
to settle We now take him by the hand, as all the Nations 
have done, with a Certainty that nothing can seperate us, we 
give him now this bunch of Green Wampum which has a power 
to dispel all darkness by Night or by Day, and will lead him 
through any part of our Country without stumbling or hurting 
his feet; and this pipe which is known by all the Nations here 
I give to you Brethren of the Mohocks, to smoak out of it in 
your Councils with your Brother Warraghiyagey, the smoak of 
which shall be seen, and shall reach to the most remote Nations 

Delivered a bunch of Green Wampum to Sir William, 
& a Calumet of peace to the Mohocks - 

On Wabbicommicotts ending his Speech, Kayashota the 
Seneca Messenger (who had accompanied the Messengers Who 
came with the War axe to the Hurons) stood up, and made use 
of many words to Exculpate himself from the imputation laid to 
his charge, observing with Vehemence that he being as far as 
Chenussio on his way to Fort Johnson was met by Tahaiadoris 
the other Messenger, who earnestly requested he would accom- 
pany him to the Detroit, which he was at length persuaded to do, 
and on his arrival there was greatly astonished at hearing the 
proposals made by his Companion to the Wiandots of which he 
before had not received the least intimation 

Sir William then rose up & addressing Kayashota told him 
he should be very glad to find he was able to clear himself of 
bearing any part in so treacherous an affair, but as it was of 
much consequence, he should the first opportunity insist upon his 
Nations giving him all the particulars thereof, when he hoped 

492 Sir William Johnson Papers 

that he might appear as innocent as he then pretended Then 
turning to the rest he told them that the next Day he purposed 
to deliver out the presents to them, & dissolved the Meeting 

The presents having early this morning been divided into 
parcells for each Nation The Indians to the Number of 500 
assembled about noon, when the Delawares and Shawanese spoke 
to Sir William in the following manner 

Brother Warraghiyagey 

We return you thanks for the friendly sentiments you Expressed 
at the Meeting in favour of our late proceedings, & as we hope 
that every thing on your parts will be strictly adhered to, you 
may rest assured that nothing shall be wanting on our's to shew 
the sense which we have thereof, & the satisfaction which an 
Union with you affords us 

Sir William then spoke to all the Nations 

Brethren of the several Nations here assembled 

I return you thanks for the manner in which you received my 
Speech, and the approbation & acceptance which all my pro- 
posals met with I earnestly recommend it to you to continue 
in, and to cherish your present sentiments, the good effects of 
which, yourselves will every day be sensible of 

It gives me concern to hear that you should have met with 
any illusage from either the Soldiers, or Inhabitants of this place, 
who I am apt to think must have been provoked thereto from 
the behavior of some of your people when in liquor, however, 
I have spoke to Capt Campbell thereon who seems very well 
disposed towards you all, & will pay a due attention to any 
reasonable complaint made to him, as well as prevent such ill 
treatment, & see justice done you for the future 


I am much pleased with your free and Candid Declaration 
of the partys concerned in sending the Belt lately amongst you, 

Seven Years War 493 

and hope that you will consider them, or any people who may 
attempt the like for the future, as Enemys to your Country, Dis- 
turbers of the publick tranquillity, and violators of the solemn 
union entred into between the English and you 

Gave a belt 

Having brought you some Cloathing Ammunition &c of which 
I judged you might stand in need, I desire you will make an 
equal distribution thereof amongst you, and consider it as a proof 
of his Majestys bounty, & esteem for his Indian allies, and I 
earnestly recommend it to you to shew by your future conduct 
your just sense of such favours, & of the blessings which you 
enjoy from his Royal Clemency & protection 

Then the presents being in parcells for the Number of 
Nations present were by them divided amongst one another, 
after which Sir William Johnson ordered an Ox to be 
roasted as a Feast for them 

Sir William sent for an Indian called the White Mingo al s 
Kanaghoragait 1 & the Seneca (who accompanied Tahaiadoris 
to the Detroit) named Kayashota to whom he spoke much con- 
cerning the Message laid to his charge, and after Expatiating on 
the folly of undertaking any enterprize against so powerfull a 
people as the English, represented to them that without giving 
ourselves much trouble we might easily have persuaded many 
of the Western and other Nations to fall upon them, & revenge 
our quarrel, they being easily inflamed against the Senecas, very 
little affecting that Nation, and entirely disapproving of their late 
scheme That on his return home he would call a Meeting of 
the Six Nations when the whole affair should be thoroughly can- 
vassed, and if they seemed heartily sorry for their Attempt, he 

1 Alias John Cook, a Seneca chief. See Journals of the Military 
Expedition of Major General John Sullivan, p. 129 (footnote). 

494 Sir William Johnson Papers 

hoped he might be still able to make up the breach between the 
English & them 

Then Sir William condoled the death of a Young Seneca 
killed at Venango, by covering his grave (after the Indian 
custom) with a black stroud &ca after which they Departed 

A. M. Sir William had a Meeting with several Chipeweighs, 
the chief of whom addressed him as follows, 

Brother - 

We take this opportunity of repeating to you our assurances 
of living hereafter on the most friendly terms with the English, 
and of observing punctually every thing recommended by your 
Speech which gives us great satisfaction, as does your friendly 
treatment which has convinced all the Nations here of your 
Esteem for them. Your presence has made the Sky, and Sun 
bright, & Clear, the Earth smooth, & level, The roads even & 
pleasant, & the Lakes gentle and safe; we beg you will continue 
in the same friendly disposition towards us, & we shall look upon 
ourselves as a happy people, & that you will let us have a plenti- 
full & fair trade on reasonable terms 

Gave two large bunches of Wampum - 

Sir William thanked them for what they had sayed, and 
begged they would always continue in those Sentiments, as they 
might be assured of our adherence to whatever we had promised 
them so long as they remained our friends 


Sir William had the three Huron Chiefs with him, when he 
thanked them for their conduct in the affair of the War belt 
Which was sent to them, strongly recommended to them a steady 
& uniform adherence to all the advice he had given them, and 
that as he looked upon them as the head of the Ottawa Con- 
federacy for which reason he had lighted up a Council fire at 
the Detroit, he therefore desired they would take care to keep 

Seven Years' War 495 

it in good order, and not to neglect their friends, and Allies, as 
other Nations had done, notwithstanding his repeated admoni- 
tions cautioned them against attending to evil Minded People, 
or their Wicked Schemes, & laid before them the danger of 
quarrelling with the English 

They returned him many thanks for his advice, which they 
promised to pay the strictest attention to, & informed him that 
they had discovered that the Senecas had given another belt to 
the Shawanese, who answered them thereon that they would act 
as the Hurons did 

Sir William then dismissed them with a Private present 

This Day Sir William drew up & Delivered to Captain Camp- 
bell Regulations for the Indian Trade at the Detroit, Michili- 
mackinack, Miamis, & Sandousky as also for Fort Pitt, & the 
River Susquehanna to M r Croghan Deputy Agent for Indian 
affairs in that quarter 


Every thing being in readiness for Sir William Johnson's 
Departure from the Detroit he embarked in his boat in the after- 
noon & proceeded to the Huron Village, near Detroit where he 
was to remain that Night having a good deal to say to the Indians 
there On his arrival he proceeded to the Huron Council House 
where he found the Indians all Assembled 

At a Meeting held at the Huron Village near D'etroit 


Sir William Johnson Bart 
George Croghan Esq r . Dep? Agent 
John Johnson Esq r . 
Lieut Guy Johnson as Sec*?. 

Mons r . S l . Martin Interpreter 

The Chiefs and Warriors of the Hurons, Powtewatamis 

496 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Anaiasa, Speaker for the Hurons addressed Sir W m 

Brother Warraghiyagey 

All the Nations living about the Detroit have attended with 
great satisfaction to what you have sayed to them & will with 
pleasure observe whatever you have recommended, and I am 
now in their names to speak to you on an Article of the utmost 
consequence to us, namely that of Trade, and of the exchanging 
of our furrs for Merchandice, which is not at present on the best 
terms for us, & which Capt Campbell always told us you would 
regulate on your arrival here 

Gave seven strings of Wampum 

We were always told before the reduction of this Country 
that whenever you became Masters of it we should be very well 
used, find the same treatment which we had met with from the 
French, and get from you such necessarys as we wanted, for 
which reason we now beg you will allow us a Credit when the 
Autumn comes in for what we shall want, as the French were 
used to do formerly, and all the Nations in these parts hope you 
will agree thereto 


You know that the greater part of our Warriors agreable to 
the request made to them last year by M r . Croghan are gone 
to War against the Cherokees for which reason we beg you 
will have pity on them, as when they return home they will be 
quite naked, we likewise pray that you will not omit any thing 
for our service & that the Great Man who governs all, will not 
forget us, that you will order our Guns & Hatchets to be mended 
for us as also procure us some Hoes for our Corn of which we 
stand in as much need as of any thing else This is the earnest 
request of all the Nations hereabouts, and we beg that as we 
shall for the future deserve it, we may meet with the same 

Seven Years' War 497 

favours & indulgences as those Nations of Indians do, who live 
in your Neighbourhood, to whose good usage we are not 
Strangers Gave six Strings 


These three belts which we now deliver you, are in return 
for three belts which you delivered us when you sent to recom- 
mend peace to all our Nations, whereby you exhorted us to be 
always well disposed towards the English; We have given one 
of these belts to our Brethren the Sharvanese to desire that they 
may likewise remain friends, and well disposed as you have 
recommended to us, which we shall always observe. 

Gave three Belts 

All the Nations inhabiting about the Detroit are charmed with 
your discourse to them, in which they could not find the least 
cause of Exception, they beg therefore that all the English may 
be informed of the good work now made, & of our good inten- 
tions towards them as we shall make all our Young people 
Acquainted therewith We likewise return General Amherst 
many thanks for his care of us in sending you hither, and accom- 
panying such agreable news with a handsome present, and you 
may assure him that all we have sayed is the Truth & from our 
hearts; We entreat you will on your part consider what hath 
passed, and live peaceably with us, & recommend tranquillity 
to both the Troops and Inhabitants of this place, whereby we 
shall look upon them as true Brethren, & form one heart and 
one body together, & that when any trifling crime may be com- 
mitted contrary to the present Agreement, by any ignorant, ill- 
disposed and Ungovernable person, we beg you not to look upon 
it either as an Act authorised, or approved of by any of our 
Nations, or as a thing agreable to us in General, but that we may 
together enjoy the blessings of the present peace and union with- 
out any differences or interruption whatsoever - 

Gave a large belt 

498 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Having finished what he had to say, Sir William 
addressed them 

Brethren of the Hurons &ca 

I was unwilling to let slip the opportunity of visiting you at 
your Castle before I left this Country, especially as I was 
desirous to bid you farewell, & hear & answer whatever you 
might have farther to say to me 

The resolutions which you have made of abiding by what 
I have recommended to you gives me great satisfaction and you 
may all be assured of every things being inviolably Preserved 
on our sides, whilst you act as Friends and Allies towards us, 
and pay a due attention to the solemn alliance into which you 
have now entred 

In order to satisfy you on the Subject of trade, and to con- 
vince you of our desire to let you have all Indulgences which we 
can reasonably afford you, I have made & left a Regulation for 
the Trade at the Detroit, Michilimackinack & other posts, and 
have fixed the prices therein so low that I am apprehensive the 
Traders will scarcely be enabled to afford trading with you, or 
bringing goods amongst you on such reasonable terms 

Gave a belt 

With regard to the Credit which you desire of the Traders 
it is absolutely out of my power to satisfy you, as all English 
Subjects are free, & cannot be compelled to sell their goods 
without receiving Value for the same unless they themselves chuse 
it, so that it must entirely depend on their inclinations. 

I am pleased to hear that many of your people are gone to 
War against the Cherokees your antient Enemys which I never 
pretended to solicit you to, as knowing you to be Principals 
therein, and I heartily wish they may return with good Success, 
which is a Warriors sufficient recompence, and at the same time 
I hope you will consider our distance, & the difficultys of com- 

Seven Years' War 499 

plying with, or assisting you in your demands, & as to the having 
your arms repaired I shall give orders to M r . Croghan to send a 
Smith from Pittsburgh for that purpose, and shall send you some 
Hoes in the Spring Gave a Belt 


I return you thanks for your sending one of the Belts which 
you received to the Shawanese, & for your Exortation thereon to 
them, as well as to the other Nations, and for recommending it 
to them to make their young Men acquainted with all that had 
passed at the Meeting Your assurances of remaining our firm 
friends, & your approbation of this Visit, & of the present which 
I delivered you are very agreable to me & I shall on my return 
home acquaint his Majesty and the General therewith, and with 
all that hath been transacted in Council between us, with which 
I apprehend they will be well satisfied 

As I have recommended it to the Commanding Officer at the 
Detroit to prevent any of the Soldiers or Inhabitants from using 
you ill, I expect in return you will endeavour all you can to 
prevent any differences on the parts of your Young Men who are 
frequently very imprudent in their Conduct, & Guilty of many 


I give you thanks for all the Assurances you have made of 
remaining firm in your resolutions of abiding by the present 
Treaty, and promising to communicate your intentions to all the 
other Nations, as also for your presenting the Calumet of peace, 
& the bunch of Green Wampum, as proofs of the truth of what 
you had sayed, and I sincerely wish that the Chain of friendship 
together with these your resolutions may remain entire & unbroken 
for ever on your parts, which I am confident It must whilst you 
regard your own peace & welfare and the friendship of the 
English, so long therefore as you pay a strict attention thereto, 

500 Sir William Johnson Papers 

you may depend on our preserving the Chain entire, bright, and 
unsullied, and that we shall afford you all the Protection, friend- 
ship, and reasonable indulgences to which your conduct shall 
intitle you 

The Conference then ended 

A M. The Hurons &ca waited on Sir William and after 
repeating what he had said to them the last Night, returned 
their hearty thanks for the same & gave a bunch of Wampum 
Then told him they were very glad to hear he would represent 
what had passed and been said by them to his Majesty and to 
the General, & hoped their conduct would be pleasing to the 
King and Him, as they were determined to remain his Friends 
& Allies, and to live in strict amity with the Mohocks and with 
all his Subjects in America by preserving the Covenant Chain 
for ever entire, Thanked Sir William for having spent a Night 
at their Castle and wished him a pleasant Journey and safe 
arrival at home. 

Then Sir William Delivered the following Instructions to M r . 
Croghan his Deputy 

Detroit Sept'. 18*. 1761. 

You are required imediately to proceed to Sandousky 
(together with Cap 1 Montour whom you are to dispose of as 
you shall judge best for the service) and from thence to the Ohio, 
where you will collect all the English Prisoners who may yet 
be found amongst the Indians, or in their Towns, and send them 
forthwith to their respective former places of abode - 

After having effected this service you will return to Fort Pitt 
and there agree with a Smith on the most reasonable terms, who 
is to repair to D'etroit there to remain for one year in order to 
mend the Arms &ca of any Indians in amity with the English, 
who may apply to him for that purpose by order of the Com- 
mands Officer 

Seven Years' War 501 

As I have promised to the Nations living in the Neighbour- 
hood of Detroit a parcel of Hoes for weeding their Corn-fields, 
you will order a Couple of hundred of the middling sort to be 
imediately made and sent thither by the first conveyance with 
directions for the distribution of them as equal as possible. 

You are next to proceed to Philadelphia, & wait on General 
Monchkton before whom you are to lay the accompts relative to 
the Indian Expences which have lately accrued, And Lastly 
You are to give me notice of the success which you have had in 
getting the prisoners out of the Indians hands, as also to inform 
me of any other matters relative to the department of Indian 
affairs I am &c 

Sir William Johnson having taken his leave of the Indians, 
proceeded to his Boat and embarked in order to return to Fort 
Johnson, where he arrived on the 3 1 8l of October 

The foregoing is a true Copy of Sir W m . Johnson's proceed- 
ings with the Indians on his way to, & at the Detroit. 
Exam d . with the Records of Indian affairs 

GUY JOHNSON Lieut of his Majestys 
Indep*. Company, as Secretary 

Sir William received the following Answers to some Ques- 
tions proposed by him to the Interpreters & some Intelligent 
Persons residing at D'etroit 

Answer to the 1 st . Question concern^, the Ind s . Numbers in 

that part 

The Hurons are 200. & upwards, The Ottawas 220. The 
Powtewatamis 160, & those called les Sauteurs du Detroit are 
200. The Savages of Saguinant, & of Yachetanont * are 400 
makeing in all 1 1 80. Fighting Men who live about the D'etroit. 


502 Sir William Johnson Papers 

They are all connected together, & in an offensive & defensive 
Alliance with the Delawares, 'Shawanese, Miamis, Wawiagh- 
tonos, Maskoutins, Quicapous, & all the Nations of the North 

To the 2 d Article 

In the time of the French the Garrison of D'etroit consisted 
but of 20 Men, that of the Miamis 1 or 12. Wawiaghta and 
S* Joseph the same The Ind s . never shewed any dislike to 
such Garrisons, but frequently desired the General not to aug- 
ment their number, but that the more Traders were amongst 
them the better 

The Ind 8 . did not like their new establishments, the building 
of new Forts giving them great cause of Suspicion 

To the 3 d . Article 

The French had a Vessell on Lake Superior, & another on 
Lake Huron but they never answered their purpose. Lake 
Superior is the most practicable for Navigation, by reason of its 
many little Harbours, and places of Shelter against Storms 
The Navigation thereof begins about the 10 th . or 15 th . of June 
& ends about the end of September Lake Huron is more 
Difficult for Navigation Lake Michigan & Lake Erie are very 

The Navigation of Lakes Michigan & Huron commences 
about the 20 th . or 25 th . of May, & ends about the end of 

The Navigation of Lake Erie begins about the 15 th . or end 
of April and ends about the End of November. 

The most Considerable posts or places for Trade are Le Baye * 
Le pointe de Chagoiiamigon, 2 Le Nipigon 3 & Kamanistygouyo 4 

1 Green Bay, Wis. 

2 In Northwestern Wisconsin on Chaquamegon. 
8 Lake Nepigon in Ontario, Can. 

4 Fort William, near Thunder Bay, Lake Superior. 

Seven Years' War 503 

INDORSED : Pensylvanis. 

of the Proceedings of 
Sir WilK Johnson Bart &ca 
with the Indians on his way 
to, and at the Detroit in 1761. 
X. 25. 


5 Men a hundred Days @ 3/ ^ Day Each. . . 75: 0: 

20 thousand Wompum @ 60/ ty 60: 0: 

5 hundred Tobaco @ 7 : 1 ty hundred ... 37:10: 

6 Casks powder 400 Weight only for yO OQ. Q. Q 

Distant posts @ 20 ; J 

6 O Lead @ I/ W P<* 30: 0: 

1000 flents @ 5/ $ hundred. . . 02: 10: 

20 p< of Vermilian @ 20/ 20: 0: 

305: 0: 

INDORSED: M r . Croghan's Calculation 
of Expences attending 
the visit of the Western 
Indian Nations 

Mn British Museum, Additional Manuscripts 21655. fo. 287, London, 

504 Sir William Johnson Paper* 


In the Collections of the New York Historical Society for 1876, 
Golden Papers, p. 96-97, is a letter of July 2d from Cadwallader Golden, 
at New York, to Johnson on the Canajoharie land grant and a grant on 
the east side of the Hudson. 

Extract x 

German Flatts 7 th July 1761. 

Extract of a Letter from Sir William Johnson to General 
Amherst; Bearing Date, at the German Flatts 7 th . July 176 1. 

On my Arrival here, I met with about Thirty of the Chief 
men of Oneida & Tuscarora, who were on their Way to my 
House, in order to Settle Matters relative to the Late murder. 
I Immediately Assembled them together, and after the Cere- 
mony of Condolance was gone thro', they Expressed their great 
Concern for that Unhappy Accident ; and Informed me that not- 
withstanding they had constantly Cautioned their Young men 
not to offer the least Insult to any of the Inhabitants, or their 
Property, unfortunately One of them being Drunk, Committed it 
without their Knowledge, and immediately fled; Neither have 
they as yet been able to Learn which way he is gone; when 
they do, and can get him, they will readily Conform to Your 
Demand of Delivering him up. They then added that as two 
of their People were some time ago Murdered by One Smith 
near this Place, for which they never met with any Redress, they 
hoped it would be a means of Inducing Us to forget the late 
Accident, which was Committed so contrary to their Inclinations 
or Intentions. 

1 In New York Historical Society, New York City. 

Seven Years War 505 

L. S. 1 

Albany. 8* July 1761. 

I enclose You a Copy of a Letter I have received this moment 
from Captain Campbell at the Detroit 2 with also one from him 
to Major Walters ; 3 and one from Major Walters 4 to me ; I Doubt 
not in the least but you Will have received Intelligence of a part 
of this, which I look on has proceeded from what You acquainted 
me some time ago, was Brewing amongst the Indians but as there 
is something more particular in regard to the Six Nations, in what 
Captain Campbell writes me, than in what he has mentioned in 
his Intelligence to the Commanding officer at Niagara; I there- 
fore transmit you a Copy of his Letter, that you may 5 Such 
measures as You Judge proper for totally suppressing Every 
part of the Indians Intentions; which seem to me to be so very 
wild, that I cannot give credit to them. 

I am, with great Regard, Sir, Your most obedient Humble 

servant ' JEFF: AMHERST. 

SIR W M . JOHNSON, Baronet. 


There is found in the Johnson Calendar, p. 11 6, a letter of June 6, 
1757, from George Croghan to Governor Denny and the provincial com- 
missioners on Indian presents, with an order to pay Paull Peirce, 1 1 9, 
8s, 6d for goods; and this was accompanied by a letter of August 29, 
1 758, from Denny to the Commissioners on Peirce's account and a legal 
protest against Croghan in Peirce's behalf based on the commissioners' 
refusal to pay the bill; copies attested by William Peters, notary public 
at Philadelphia July 11, 1761. Destroyed by fire. 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Campbell to Amherst, June 17, 1761, in Niagara and Detroit Pro- 
ceedings, July September, 1761. 

3 Campbell to Walters, June 17, 1761. 

4 Not found. 

6 Omission \u the copy. 

506 Sir William Johnson Papers 

L. S. 1 

Albany, II*: July 1761. 

I Have this morning Received the favor of Your Letter of 
the 7 th . Instant, from the German Flatts, where I See You have 
met the Chief Men of the Oneida & Tuscarora Nations, who 
were on their way to your House, to Settle matters relative to 
the Murder lately Committed by an Indian: There Excuse of 
not knowing where the Murderer is gone, I take it, is a Made 
one, to avoid giving him up, which I must persist in, as far as 
Depends on me, that he may be brought to Justice, and that the 
Civil power may bring its Jurisdiction in Force. 

As to what they say of two of their People being heretofore 
murdered for which they have met with no Redress, there seems 
to have been a Neglect in that; but that is no reason why the 
present Murderer, is not to be brought to Justice ; at that way of 
going on there will be no End to these Mischiefs. 

The Indians may be Assured I will protect them in their 
Lands ; Whether they dispose of them or not, is entirely at their 
own option, I shall never force them to dispose of any, but will 
Secure them in what they have; and no otherwise Interfere with 
their Lands, than by taking such Posts as I may think necessary, 
for ensuring the protection of this Country for the King; This 
I will always do as far as I shall Judge proper; and the Indians 
may be assured I shall always use them as they Deserve ; Reward 
them as far as is in my power, if they merit it, & punish them if 
they Deserve it. 

Their Complaints of the Dearness of Indian Goods, must be 
greatly owing to an Abuse in the Traders, which I am glad to 

1 Destroyed by fire. In the New York Historical Society is an extract 
comprising the first two paragraphs, which exhibits some variations from 
this text in capitalization and punctuation. 

Seven Years War 507 

find you intend to Regulate in the best manner You can; I fear 
the people to whom you give passes Misuse the Liberty You give 
them of Carrying off small Quantities of Rum, and that they 
take Nothing Else; if this was better Regulated, I should think 
it would greatly help to Supplying the Indians with things that 
are proper for them. 

You will see by a Letter I sent you from Capt n . Campbell that 
he complains that the Traders from Niagara, which of Course, 
go from Oswego, Carry nothing with them but Rum. 

I Do not Doubt but all the Nations will Complain of not 
having powder sufficient; but I am for giving it to them with as 
sparing a hand as possible. 

General Monckton writes me word that he has sent orders, for 
forwarding Cattle from Pittsburgh to the Detroit for You; that 
M r . Croghan Set out from New York, on the 4 th for Pensyl- 
vania; I hope he will meet you in time and that you will be 
Supplied with as Much fresh provisions as You will want. 

There is a Report in New York, that Lord Rollo 1 has taken 
S*. Dominique which probably may be true. 

The Lowness of the Waters must certainly render Your 
Journey tedious; but I am in hopes You will be able to get all 
Your Batteaus on, without Damaging Your presents, and I sin- 
cerely wish You a Successfull and pleasant Journey. I am with 
great Regard, Sir, Your most obedient Humble Servant, 

SlR W M . JOHNSON, Baronet. 

1 Andrew, fifth Lord Rollo. "In June 1761 he was sent in command 
of twenty-six thousand troops to the West Indies, and, landing in Dominica 
under fire of the men-of-war, he drove the French from their entrench- 
ments, and in two days reduced the island to submission." Dictionary of 
National Biography. 

508 Sir William Johnson Papers 


[Land*. 15 July 1761] 

Your Brother [ ] your Letter the 6th Instant 

dated 13th Apr 1 [ ] 

I am glad to find that you had Received my [ ] 

Account Currant made up to the end of the last Ye [ 
you had found it agree with your Books. 

You desire my Opinion whether [ ]ly to Rise or 

not, In Answer thereto, There is no doubt [that] Peace will 
bring the three <P Cent Annuities above Par, th[ ] above 
1 00, which are now about 86. In November last you have seen 
they were at 8P/4. In January they were at 74J/2 and since 
that at 89. The fall was Occationed by the vast Sum borrowed 
by the Publick in December & by the inability of those who had 
undertaken to Lend. And the Rise was instantly upon the 
knowledge of an approaching Congress, every day as appear- 
ances alter towards a speedy accommodation, they vary One or 
two <i$ Cent, these alterations you may be assured are assisted 
by the designs of the dealers who are Interested in such fluctua- 
tions, but the Stability of the funds is as certain as that of this 
Government and the market prices must most certainly be at or 
above Par the moment that Parliament have done borrowing, 
and that will be so soon as they have discharged the Arrears of 
their Expences, and in a [ 

] with your Brother 

on the [ ] to write to you on the head ; he went a 

few d[ays ago to Ire?] land, the Result of our thoughts were 
that you [ ] memorial to his Majesty setting forth 

your Military service attended with Success, which had not been 
if a great [ ] your own fortune had not attended 

'Not found. 

Seven Years' War 509 

the Service, that your [ ]ve you Rank but no pay 

which undoubtedly was intended [ ] your Military 

Capacity, which is entirely distinct from that of [ ] 

Agency among the Indians, and to pray that you may have the 
[ ] pay as others of the like Rank from the time you 

took the Field first as a Military Officer. 

I dont know what Success you will have in such an appli- 
cation, but as the War draws near an end perhaps you may have 
the better chance, when Peace is settled the surest way will be 
to come here and solicite for yourself, People are ashamed to 
deny Justice to the face of the Injured, which they don't scruple 
Refusing their friends or attorneys Sollicking for them. 

Your Letter was sent to M r . Pitt, 1 but he is a Gentleman who 
is not to be seen even about the most Urgent business, nor ever 
Answers any Letters but what his Office obliges him, this is most 
true though it may seem incredible, as I know by experience in 
various cases. 

M r . Charles Townsend 2 is now become secretary at War, 
pray write your case to him, I have no interest there you 

[ ] 

tters Military [ ] Memorandum 

of [ ] And your Tenants Letters shall be 

forwf ] a proper means of doing it. 

I am 


Lond. 6 August 1761 

I confirm what proceeds. Your letters for the [ ] 

I have sent to Holland, having a son [ ] pondence is 

much in those pa [its? ] their respective directions in 

[ divjidend has put me in a [ ] in the 

Johnson to Pitt, October 24, 1 760. 

Charles Townshend, secretary of war from 1761 to 1 763. 

510 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Consolidated Bank An [ ] name as at foot which 

1761. July 29. Paid for 30 [ ] 

28th Inst. of [ ] 

into the [ ] 
Brokerage [ 

D/. 1 

Niagara July 24^ 1761 


I have been honoured with yours of the 8 th inst by the hands 
of Coll. Eyre containing the intelligence from Cap 1 . Campbell 
at Detroit 2 corroborating what I had formerly suggested to your 
Excelly. The same day being then at Canada Creek I was 
overtaken by 3 Indians sent express from Conajoharee which 
they left in the morning of that day to inform me of the intelli- 
gence they had received from a Mohock of their Castle (who 
had long resided amongst the most distant Senecas) relative to 
the intended ruptures between us, upon discovery of which, as 
well as on hearing that they purposed to attack the Mohocks 
from their attachm 1 . to us, he left their Nation in order to give 
timely notice of their designs. The Conajoharees therefore by 
a belt of Wampum intreated me to return from so hazardous an 
Expedition as that on which I was proceeding. I returned them 
thanks for their intelligence telling them that I was determined 
to continue my Journey, & hoped that my timely arrival at 
Detroit might put a Stop to their Evil intentions. 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Campbell to Walters, June 17, 1761, and Campbell to Amherst, 
June 17, 1761, in Niagara and Detroit Proceedings, q- v. 

Seven Years War 511 

The lowness of the Water at this very dry season occasioned 
my taking a small battoe on board of which I came to Oswego, 
when I was favoured with yours of the 1 1 th Inst. 

On passing Fort Brewerton I was met by the Chief of the 
Tuscaroras with a few other Indians, with whom I had a short 
conference, & to whom I gave some admonitions relative to their 
Conduct, Representing the fatal consequences which must follow 
so unwarrantable a proceeding. They assured me that they were 
utter Strangers to the before mentioned intelligence, and that the 
Journey of the Seneca Dep? 8 . & ca . to the Wiandots was with no 
other design as they were informed than to renew the ancient 
Covenant Chain, & condole with them for their losses sustained 
at Niagara in 1 759, where they, the Wiandots, & Ottawawas 
lost a good many men, & this they found it unnecessary * to settle 
on hearing that those Nations were a good deal out of temper with 
them on that account, and indeed from the proceedings at the 
conference at Detroit, that will appear to have been part of their 

At Oswego the Onondagas likewise in a meeting declared 
their entire ignorance of any thing tending toward a Rupture 
amongst the Indians, and endeavoured by all the Rhethorick they 
could make use of to convince me of their invariable attachment 
to us, from which behaviour & declaration being satisfied that 
they were not parties to any such plot I was induced at their 
earnest entreaty to give them an Order for some powder, & Lead 
of which they stood in great Need. 

Being unwilling to halt any length of time before I came to 
this post I proceeded in one of the Vessells then ready to sail 
leaving my boats to follow. 

On my arrival here I received a letter from Cap 1 . Campbell ^ 
at Detroit enclosing a Copy of the proceedings of a meeting held 

a So in the proof; the word should manifestly be "necessary." 
2 Campbell to Johnson, July 8, 1761, in Niagara and Detroit Pro- 
ceedings, July-September, 1761. 

512 Sir William Johnson Papers 

at the Wiandot Town near Detroit with the two Dep? 8 . of the 
Six Nations 1 & ca . confirming the acc t8 . of their former inten- 
tions, to which proceedings, I refer your Excell?. for particulars, 
as I understand he has likewise sent you a Copy thereof, together 
with the belt of Wampum, on which they spoke, a thing necessary 
to me to produce at a gen 1 , meeting with them, as well as here- 
after, as a proof of the discovery of their proceedings & malicious 
intent", towards us for which reasons I should be glad it was 
forwarded after me by the first opportunity. 

I sent a belt of Wampum from Oswego to assemble some of 
the Chiefs of the Senecas to meet me here with whom I shall have 
a conference relative to their conduct & the above discovery w * 1 . 
I expect will have a good effect, as I intend to have likewise 
tomorrow with the Chief of the Mississagaes of which Nation 
there are sev 1 . now here, and 'tis with satisfact n . I learn that they, 
& the western Ind ns . act very well, & seem to bear no part in, nor 
Do they encourage or approve of the present intended step pro- 
posed by the Rest. 

I am informed one of the Vessells builds, by M r . Dyce will be 
launched in about 1 days. Maj r . Gladwin with the L l . Infantry 
left Oswego the same day on which I did for this place, but the 
contrary winds have as yet I believe prevented his arrival. 

By some deserters from Illinois now here I am informed of 
the low state of the inhabitants in that quarter, who have not 
received any European supplys for this considerable time past. 
That the Indians in those parts, from the long residence, & con- 
nexion of the French with them, are entirely in their interest, & 
would certainly take up arms in their favour if the French had it 
in their power to supply them with Ammunition, & ca . As they 
are shortly to go down, Your Excell?. may receive a more full 
information from themselves. My boats not being yet come 
hither, I am detained until their arrival, when I shall proceed on 

of the Conference . . . near Fort Detroit 3d July, in 
Niagara and Detroit Proceedings, July-September, 1761. 

Seven Years' War 513 

my journey with*, delay and take all possible measures towards 
preventing the Indians designs from being put in execution, by 
pointing out to them their true interest, and thereby preserving 
to the utmost of my power the peace and Tranquility of this 

I am with & ca . 

P. S. I beg leave to assure your Excel 1?. there is an absolute 
necessity for putting into the hands of the Com d 8. Off r . or rather 
allowing him to give the dist. Nations & others who resort here 
Ammunition & a little prov ns . on their return if we want to con- 
tinue their friendship. They must suffer greatly without such 
assistance. The officers and others have assured me that several 
of the dist 1 . Ind ns . who were coming here this Summer to trade, 
perished by the way for want of ammunition to kill Game for 
their Subsistence. 

INDORSED: Niagara July 24, 1761 

Letter to General Amherst on the intended rupture 
of the Indians. 


There is found in the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 1 6, a letter of July 29th 
from Johnson, at Niagara, to Amherst, relative to proceedings with Chipe- 
weighs and Mississagees, encroachments on Indian territory, and reinforce- 
ments despatched to Detroit. It was destroyed by fire, but the letter is 
printed in Stone's Life and Times of Sir William Johnson, 2 : 1 45-47. 

Vol. Ill 17 

514 Sir William Johnson Papers 


L. S. 1 

Albany, 9* August 1761. 

I see, with pleasure, by Your Letter of the 29 th Ult. from 
Niagara, that You had got so far on your way and that from 
your Conference with Several Chiefs of the Chippaway Nation, 
& some Missisageys, as well as from the very good character 
given you by the Commanding officer and every one Else there 
of the behavior of those Indians You are convinced they are not 
Concerned in any Schemes against us. 

You will find the upper Nations equally remote from any 
Such bad Intentions; they seem sensible, and indeed they cannot 
well be otherwise, of the advantages they may reap from His 
Majesty's protection, and the trade proposed to be settled for 
them; There has been a Meeting at the Detroit between those 
Indians, & Deputies from the Six Nations, which has Ended, as 
I Expected, in the descovery of the disaffected, & the overthrow 
of their Machinations, which never gave me a moment's Concern, 
as I know their Incapacity of attempting anything Serious, and 
that if they were rash enough to venture upon any ill Designs, I 
had it in my power not only to frustrate them, but to punish the 
delinquents with Entire Destruction, which I am firmly resolved 
on, whenever any of them give me Cause; but I am hopefull they 
never will. 

On the other hand, as I am desirous to take the proper notice 
of those, that behave peaceably and quietly, and strictly adhere 
to His Majesty's Interest, I must Desire that You will be pleased 
in Your Conference at the Detroit, not only to repeat what you 
said to the Chippaways & Mississageys at Niagara, but, that you 

Destroyed by fire. 

'/, S5 

x- . _^ 




Seven Years War 

will Express to the Ottowas, Wyandots, Chippaways, and 
Poutowatamis, the sense I have of their Prudence and proper 
behavior at the Council!, to which they were called by the Depu- 
ties of the Six Nations, 1 a Copy of the proceedings whereof, I 
have directed Captain Campbell to Lay before You. 

You are sensible how averse I am, to purchasing the good 
behavior of Indians, by presents, the more they get the more they 
ask, and yet are never satisfied; wherefore as a Trade is now 
opened for them, and that you will put it under such Regulations 
as to prevent their being imposed upon, I think it much better to 
avoid all presents in future, since that will oblige them to Supply 
themselves by barter, & of course keep them more Constantly 
Employed by means of which they will have less time to concert, 
or Carry into Execution any Schemes prejudicial to His Majestys 
Interests; and to abolish entirely every kind of apprehension on 
that account, the keeping them scarce of Ammunition, is not less 
to be Recommended; since nothing can be so impolitick as to 
furnish them with the means of accomplishing the Evil which is 
so much Dreaded. 

The Indians need be under no apprehensions of Losing their 
Lands, it never was my Design to take an Inch from them, unless 
where the necessity of the service obliges me to it, and that they 
have been warned of, so that they need not take any umbrage 
at the Settlements on the Carrying Place, where People, Horses, 
Carriages & ca . are absolutely necessary to keep up the Commu- 
nication with the upper posts and those that are now there for 
that purpose, have no grants of those Lands, but are only upon 
Sufferance till His Majestys pleasure is known, and untill that is 
known they must not be removed. 

With regard to their objection against our Erecting a Block- 
house at Sandusky, that has no manner of weight with me; a 

1 Copy of the Conference . . . near Fort Detroit 3 d . July 1761, 
Niagara and Detroit Proceedings. 

516 Sir William Johnson Papers 

post at that place is absolutely necessary, not only for the above 
purposes of keeping up the Communication, but also to keep the 
Canadians in proper Subjection; I must and will therefore, say 
what they will, have one at that place. 

You were perfectly in the right to advise an immediate Rein- 
forcement for Captain Campbell and I am much obliged to you 
for it, as it will gain a great deal of time; I cannot neither but 
approve the Caution You have given Cap*. Campbell to apprise 
the Indians of the Troops intended to be sent that way, for as 
they are not proposed by way of hurt or Detriment to them, it 
is very proper to avoid giving them any unnecessary alarm. 

I am, with great Regard, Sir, Your most obedient Humble 



L. S. 1 

Albany, 11 ih August 1761. 

The Packett which has been so long Expected, & had almost 
been given over for taken, or Lost, is at last Arrived, and by her 
I yesterday received Letters, with the Confirmation of the Success 
of his Majestry's Arms against the Citadel of Palais on the 
Island of Belleisle, 2 which Surrendered by Capitulation the 7 th 
of June last, and as this happy Event will, I am Certain, be par- 
ticularly agreeable to You, I would not fail communicating it 
to you by the Earliest opportunity, and for your further Satis- 
faction I herewith transmit a Copy of the London Gazette of the 
14 th June, Containing the Articles of Capitulation, and the Let- 
ters Introducing the same to His Majesty's ministers. 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Belle-Isle-en-Mer, France. 

Seven Years' War 517 

As I did not doubt you would, via Philadelphia, be Informed 
of the Chastizement the Cherokees have met with from the King's 
Troops, under the Command of Colonel Grant, in Carolina, 1 I 
did not mention them in my last Letter to You of the 9 th Instant ; 
but lest I should prove mistaken, I have the pleasure to Acquaint 
You, that from what has been done in those parts, there is the 
greatest room to Expect, that those Indians have, e're this, 
Eagerly Seized upon, & Accepted the offers that have been made 
to them, by way of preventing their Entire Destruction, which 
certainly cannot fail, if they continue obstinate & persist in their 
Error, since Colonel Grant has not only destroyed Fifteen of 
their Towns (of the Names of which you have a List Enclosed) 
but also 1 400 Acres of Corn, pease, & Beans, & has driven near 
5000 Men, Women, & Children, into the Woods, where, if they 
do not make a proper Submission, they cannot fail of starving in 
the Winter. 

From this Example the Indians may be Convinced that We 
have it in our power to Reduce them to Reason, and You will 
accordingly make use of this last, as well as first piece of Intelli- 
gence, among those You are to Treat with, in such a manner as 
You Shall see most for His Majesty's Interest. 

I am, with great Regard, Sir, Your most Obedient Humble 



1 Lieutenant Colonel James Grant, of the 40th regiment defeated the 
Cherokees in an action at Etchoe June 10, 1761. 

518 Sir William Johnson Papers 


At a Meeting with The Belt & other Senecas at Niagara 
Aug'. 1 1 * 1 761 . Pres*. S r . W m . & c *. 

The Belt Speaker 


We are very sorry to find you are under a necessity of taking 
so long a journey as that on which you are now proceeding, 
especially as we are certain you have many difficultys to 
encounter in your way & that your person is not secure, nor 
your life safe from your enemies. But our uneasiness on your 
account meets with a great addition from reflecting that this 
journey in which you are so much exposed is generously under- 
taken with the design to promote our interest & Wellfare. 
Accept therefore of our most ardent wishes for your Success 
therein & be assured of our earnest desires & prayers for your 
safe return from discharging a Business so essential to our 
happiness. A Belt 7 Rows. 

Then representing that his prov n . was out begged for a Little 
supply, together with some Ammunition to carry him home. 

A String. 

That as a proof of the treatment which he met with he might 
have a Cag of Rum to take back which he would open before 
the Sachems in a meeting at his Castle where he should acquaint 
them with all that passed between S r . W m . & himself. A String 


The preceding is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 11718, by 
proceedings of the Easton conference, held August 3-12, by Lieutenant 
Governor James Hamilton, of Pennsylvania, Richard Peters and Benjamin 
Chew of the Council, Joseph Fox, provincial commissioner, and others with 
deputies of the Onondagoes, Cayugas, Oneidas, Nanticockes, Mohickons, 
Delawares, Tuteloes and Conogs; Samuel Weiser, James Sherlock, Joseph 
Pepy, Isaac Stille and David Seisberger, interpreters (printed in Pa. Col. 
Rec., 8:630-54). Destroyed by fire. 

Destroyed by fire. 

Seven Years War 519 

L. S. 1 

SlR Albany, 18 th . August 1761. 

In my Answer to Your favor of the 29 th . Ultimo, I forgot to 
Acquaint You, that the One You mentioned having wrote to me 
the 24 th of Said Month, by Captain Buttler, was not Come to my 
hands, nor is it Yet, Unless that of the 25 th July, received last 
Night, Should be it, Which I am apt to believe. 

My above Mentioned Answer bearing date the 9 th Inst is so 
very full, Upon the same Subject Matter of Your Letter now 
before Me, that I can have little Else to trouble You with than 
Repetitions, Which however, I had rather be guilty of than not 
to take the Proper Notice of the Intelligence You are pleased 
to furnish me with, And for Which, I am obliged to You. 

Nothing can do more honor to the Mohawks, than the Cause 
Assigned for the Motive of the Senecas Quarrelling with that 
Nation ; I hope, for their own Sakes that they will Continue firm 
in their Attachment to Us. 

The Endeavors of the Conajoharees to prevent Your Journey 
to the Detroit, is Just of a piece with those of the Little Carpenter 
to delay the Progress of Colonel Grant's Operations against the 
Cherokees, Calculated with no other View than to gain time 
for brewing, and afterwards Attempting Mischief; but they cer- 
tainly Must have known very little of You, if they could Con- 
ceive that Such Insignificant Reports were Capable of retarding, 
or putting a Stop to Your Progress; I am sure it would rather 
hasten it, as Your Determination thereupon, and Answer to them, 
has plainly proved. 

Your Admonitions to the Tuscaroras, & Others are most 
Judicious, and I am very glad to hear that they disavow being 
Privy to any bad Designs; a Proof if they were concerned in 
Any, ttat they are Sensible of their Incapacity to bring them to 
bear, Which alone is Sufficient to keep them within due Bounds. 

1 In New York Public Library, Emmet Collection. 

520 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I am very glad that Captain Campbell Sent You a Copy of 
the Conference held at the Wiandott Town near to Detroit, since 
it would Earlier, and better Prepare You for Your Meeting with 
the Indians; And tho' I am afraid the Belt You desire cannot 
get to You in time, Yet I send it herewith that it may take its 

By the Proceedings of that Conference You will, not only have 
Seen the Disappointment the Six Nations have met with, but also 
the Resolutions of the Upper Indians to adhere firmly to His 
, Majesty's Interest; And I Doubt not but they are, by this time, 
one and all, Perfectly Convinced of the necessity of their being 
So ; if they are not, I must desire You to let them know from Me, 
that upon the first Hostilities they May be Guilty of, they Must 
not only Expect the Severest Retaliation, but an Entire Destruc- 
tion of all their Nations, for I am firmly Resolved, Whenever 
they give me an Occasion, to Extirpate them Root & branch, but 
I am hopefull they will not force me to that cruel Necessity. 

I have repeatedly given You My Reasons for being Sparing 
in Our bounties of Ammunition, Yet I cannot refrain from 
Recommending it to You anew, More Particularly So, as I am 
well Convinced of the Truth of Your Intelligence from the 
Illinois, Where I am certain they must be deficient in that Article, 
as well as in all other European Supplies, Unless they have been 
furnished with them by those Who Call themselves, His 
Majesty's Faith full American Subjects Which I am but too much 
afraid is the Case; And therefore it is the more Necessary not 
to give Any to the Indians, lest they Should Encrease their Stock 
from Our Bounty. 

One of the Deserters You Mention, is Come here, and I have 
Examined him; he Seems a very Intelligent Man, and Confirms 
to me the inability of the Enemy to Undertake Anything Serious 
against Our Settlements, or Inhabitants. 
I am, with great Regard, 

Your most Obedient 

Humble Servant. 


Seven Years' War 521 


Little Niagara Aug 1 . 19, 1761. 

I did myself the honour in m last of the 29 th ult to acquaint 
your Excelly. of my conference with the Chipeweighs & Missis- 
sagees After which they agreed to my desire that some of their 
Sachems sho d . attend me to the Meeting at Detroit, who are 
now with me in consequence thereof as are also some Mohocks 
Senecas & Oneidaes. My boats which had so long detained me, 
arrived at Niagara the 13 th inst upon which I made all possible 
dispatch to get them & the goods & ca . over the Carrying place, 
which, with difficulty (by reason of the Cattle being much 
fatigued) I yesterday effected. And shall set off from hence if 
possible this day. 

Major Gladwin, & his Detachm 1 . left this on the 14 th but the 
High Winds has much delayed him as he was only entering the 
Lake the 1 7 th , & yesterday's storm must have prevented his mov- 
ing. I was yesterday on the Island where the Vessell is building, 
which is in great forwardness, & will be launched in three, or four 
days, after which she will proceed to Detroit. 

The Senecas have absolutely denyed their knowledge or 
approbation of the late plot ag l . us 2 attributing the whole to a 
Castle of Seneca & other Ind ns . near the Ohio, who they say had 
some young men killed & others abused by us, and as a proof of 
their inocence thereof have agreed to send Deputys to attend the 
Meeting at Detroit there publickly to disavow w*. the 2. Mes- 
sengers had done last month in y c name of the Six Nations. I 
have left a Regulation for the Ind n . trade at Niagara, and sent 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 See Campbell to Johnson. July 8, 1 761, in Niagara and Detroit Pro- 
ceedings, July September, 1761. 

522 Sir William Johnson Papers 

another to Maj r . Duncan at Oswego, which if punctually 
observed, will I hope produce the desired effect. 

Your Excell ? 8 . Letter of the 1 4 th Ult . 1 I received a few days 
ago, and shall endeavour all in my power to procure those things 
which you desire, if they are to be had ab l . Detroit, As nothing 
could afford me greater pleasure than the executing any of your 
Comnyk. to your Satisfaction, being with y e great 5 *. Sincerity 
& respect Sir y r . Excell ? 8 . 

INDORSED: Letter to Gen 1 . Amherst 


The foregoing letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar by three papers 
p, 118, destroyed by fire: an agreement, drawn at Ston Rabi August 19th, 
between Johannes Van Derwerken and Jorg Schenck, witnessed by 
Christian Dillenbach and Wilhelmus Dillenbach, by which Van Der- 
werken binds himself, in 100 New York currency, to give title to 59 
acres, and Schenck obliges himself, in the sum of 100, to pay 50 in 
instalments of 20, 15 and 15 for the land [In German] ; a letter of 
the 31st from Lieutenant Governor Hamilton, at Philadelphia, to General 
Amherst, transmitting proceedings of the Easton conference and mentioning 
Indian complaint against Johnson (extract) ; and an account of Johnson's 
reception at Detroit and preliminary meetings with Indians, September 3-4 
(See Niagara and Detroit Proceedings, from original in Public Record 
Office). A copy of the last paper is preserved. 

Not found. 

Seven Years' War 523 


Detroit 7*"- 6*. 7767. 

To learn from Mons" La Bute 2 & S l . German z the names of 
y e several Nations of Indians in this Country, their numbers of 
men, places of residence, their connections, disposition, and 


2 d . How many Posts the French had in the Ind n . Country, the 
number of men in each, how maintained, from whom they 
received their orders, how often relieved, how liked by the 
Ind 8 . on what footing Trade was carried on w*. the Indians 
in all their parts, & how far the bounds of Canada extends, 
and that of Mississippi. 

3 d . Whether the French had any shipping on the Lakes Huron, 
Michigan or Superior, whether & w* 1 . of them is reckoned 
the best Navigation, how late & early they can be used in y e 

4 th . Which Post or place was always looked upon as the best for 
trade, what prices the French generally paid for Bever firrs 
& ca . 

5 th . What Posts & Settlements from Mississippi to the Illinois 
Country and what number of Inhabitants, Soldiers & Slaves. 



The preceding paper is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 1 8, by a 
letter of September 6th from General Amherst, at Staten Island, to Lieu- 
tenant Governor Hamilton, expressing hope that a copy of proceedings at 
Easton has been sent to Johnson at Detroit. Destroyed by fire. 

1 Memoranda of information to be gained at Detroit. Destroyed by 
fire. For the information see close of Niagara and Detroit Proceedings, 
July-September, 1761. 

2 La Butte, an interpreter at Detroit. 
3 St Germain, an interpreter. 

524 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Detroit Sept r . I0 lh 1761 


After a tedious passage of 1 5 days on Lake Erie I arrived 
here the 3 d inst. The weather has been so bad that I apprehend 
one of my boats with my Interpreter is lost he not having, yet 
been heard of. M r . Croghan was here before me w*. the 
Shawanese, Delewares & 5 Nations living ab*. the Ohio, but no 
Cattle, there being none at Pittsburgh which has greatly dis- 
appointed me. On my arrival I imediately made preparation for 
the Gen ! . Meeting with the Indians, which I yesterday opened 
by delivering them a Speech, the particulars of which I have not 
now leisure to transmit to your Excell ?. It was received with 
great Satisfaction, and this day they have appointed to give me 
their answer thereto. From their behaviour I draw the most 
favourable conclusions, and hope in my next to be enabled to 
acquaint your Excell ?. with the result thereof. 

Major Gladwin lyes here very ill of a fever, & yesterday Cap*. 
Balfour set out with 1 20, of that Reg*, in execut n . of your orders, 
Cap*. McCloud 2 returns to Niagra for prov ns . of which there 
is great want here. Cap*. Campbell will acq*. you by this oppor- 
tunity with the reasons which induced us to make those alter- 
ations in the former dispositions, however, notwithstanding the 
lateness of the Season, the loss of provisions, & ammunit n . on the 
way hither, with other accidents, I am in great hopes we shall 
still be enabled to relieve causes & garrison the posts, & effect 
the other ends required agreeable to your Excellencys instruc- 

I am with all imaginable sincerity & respect S r . y r . Excell ? 8 . 

His Excell c y GEN L AMHERST 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Major Henry Gladwin, Captain Henry Balfour and Captain Norman 
McLeod were attached to the 80th, General Thomas Gage's, regiment. 

Seven Years War 525 


D/. 1 

Detroit Sepr. 10 th 1761. 

I take the opportunity of Cap*. McCloud's return to Niagra 
to acquaint you that the lateness of the Season & the necessity 
we were under (from the want of prov 5 . here) to make up the 
compl mts . wanted for the posts out of what came in the boats wth 
Gages Reg 1 , hath induced me (Maj r . Gladwin being very ill of 
fever) to send Cap 1 . Balfour, with 120 of Gages, as far as 
they can proceed with any possibility of return, & Cap*. McCloud 
is with the rem r . sent for a fresh supply to your Garrison. Cap*. 
Campbell tho* in great want of Ammunit". as he tells me, has 
sent what he could possibly spare with the officers to their posts, 
& will therefore want a Supply of 2 Barrels of powder, with a 
proportion of ball, mostly small Ammunit n . being a verry 
material article here. For want of officers, we are obliged to 
leave an officer of Gages with 10 men at the Miamis. 2 M r . 
Holmes being very ill, in case Cap 1 . McCloud returns with a 
Supply of provisions for this post, there will be an officer, Serj*. 
& 1 men wanted to Garrison Wawiaghta; 3 if otherwise we shall 
not be able to relieve it, & in that case an officer & Serj*. only 
will be required. Cap 1 . McCloud will acquaint you with any 
farther particulars relative to the above disposition & c . 

I expect to be enabled to set out from here in a few days and 
with Compliments to the Gentlemen of your Garrison, I remain 

Lastly for Missillimacinac Gorrel La Bay Slosser S*. Joseph 
Newland, Miamis, Holmes if well, Wawiaghtanock. 3 

INDORSED: Letter to Maj r . Walters comd. at Niagara. 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Fort Miami, on the Maumee river. 

3 Fort Ouatanon, on the Wabash river. 

526 Sir IVilliam Johnson Papers 

The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 1 9, by a 
letter of September 1 3th from Lieutenant Governor Hamilton, at Philadel- 
phia, to General Amherst, suggesting in what ways Johnson may be made 
acquainted with the Easton proceedings. Destroyed by fire. 



Contemporary Copy * 

Nerv York, 16* Sep'. 7767 

I Have communicated your letter to the Gentlemen of the 
Council, & by their Advice, You, together with Coll: Harden- 
burgh, & Coll: Ellison, the Members of Assembly for your 
County, & such others of the Principal Inhabitants of the Same, 
as You shall Call to Your Assistance, are to meet the Indians at 
the time they shall Come, as they have Requested, to Renew 
Amity & Friendship with His Majesty's Subjects. 

On their Expressing their Sorrow for what is passed, & freely 
delivering up all our people who are detained among them; and 
their promising to live peaceably & friendly with all His 
Majesty's Subjects, for the future, You may assure them of the 
protection of this Government. 

They must not be permitted to Demand any Gratuity or Sum 
of Money, for the Delivery of any of His Majesty's Subjects, as 
such Demand is inconsistent with that Friendship & Submission 
which they profess & must be looked on as an Indignity offered 
to His Majesty's Authority, 

As it is usual for the Indians to make presents at these Meet- 
ings, it will be proper for you to Return presents to them, as an 
Assurance that you will pass over & forget the Injuries they have 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

Seven Years' War 527 

done, on their duly performing the Assurances they shall give 
You of their future good behaviour. At the same time you are 
to advise the Indians not to Approach near any of the Houses on 
our Frontiers, without first giving Notice to the Inhabitants, and 
having their Liberty & Consent to come near them. 

M r . Bruyn, One of your Representatives can Inform You, in 
what manner you may expect to have the necessary Expence upon 
this occasion paid. 

You are to keep regular Minutes of all Your Proceedings in 
this Affair; and of everything Material which shall pass, in Your 
Conferences with the Indians; and you are to transmit a full and 
perfect account of all your proceedings herein to me, or to the 
Commander in Chief of the Province for the time being. 

I am, Gentlemen, & ca . 

BRUYN Esq r . 

D/. 2 
Fort Detroit 16 SepP. 1761. 

Instructions to the Officers at the difK Posts among the North; 
ern & Western Ind n . Nat 5 , at Missilim k . & ca . 

The officer to keep up a good understanding with all Ind 8 . who 
live near his Post, and w*. those who may resort thither on 
Business, and see that no Injustice is done them in Trade or 
otherwise; to prevent his Garrison having much intercourse w lh . 
the Ind 5 . or rambling abroad among them, as that often creates 

1 Abraham Haasbrook and Jacobus Bruyn represented Ulster county 
in the Assembly of 1761-68. 

2 Destroyed by fire. 

528 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Disputes & Quarrels between soldier & IncK for want of under- 
standing each other. 

As it will be necessary to have an Interpreter at each of the 
Posts the officer will after he arrives at a knowledge of the French 
Inhabit 5 , choose one of the honestest and best qualified of them 
to serve as Interp r . when called upon & not otherwise, who will 
be paid yearly what y e officer agrees with him for, w * 1 . cannot 
be much as it will not Prevent him from following his other Buss. 

To keep up a Correspondence as well as possible w th . the off". 
of y e next Posts, also w*. the Command r . at Detroit, w h . will 
enable him & them to act uniformly and have good Intelligence & 
knowledge of the Dispositions of those Nations of Ind ns . in whose 
Neighbourhood they are posted. 

In order to prevent as much as possible Abuse in Trade, the 
officer is to see that all Traders strictly adhere to the Regulations 
made for that Purpose, and no Person to be allowed trading with 
or carrying Goods to any Nation or place to the Niward or 
Wrward of Detroit, except where there is a Garrison, & an officer 
commas, who is at every such Post to see that such Trader shall 
before he is permitted to trade, produce his Passport for that Pur- 
pose from S r . W m . Johnson, His Maj s . Agent and Superintend*, 
of Ind n . Aff rs . or his deputy, and sealed with his Seal of Arms. 

On the Off". Arriv 1 . at his Post if y e Ind s . make application 
to have their Arms & ca . mended, & that he judges necessary to 
comply therewith, he is to order any Smith residing there to 
repair the same, agreeing on the most reasonable Terms w*. him, 
w ch . Smith is annually to present an Attested accP*. to the Com- 
m d s. Off r . of the Work done by him in order to its being trans- 
mitted to S r . W m . Johnson who will discharge the same. 

Seven Years War 529 

L. S. 1 

Detroit Sept'. I8 ih . 1761 

The many complaints made to me by the Indians of the dear- 
ness of goods, & extortion of the Traders, hath induced me, with 
General Amhersts approbation to make the enclosed Regulation 
for the Trade at your Garrison, as I have likewise done for 
Oswego, Niagara, Detroit &c a . and hope it will be a means of 
putting an end to the general Clamour amongst the Indians on 
that head & that by a strict adherence thereto they may be con- 
vinced of our upright dealing in trade, and intentions to live on 
terms of Friendship with them 

M r . Croghan by whom I now write will inform you of my pro- 
ceedings, & of the success of the meeting at this place with the 
several Indian Nations. 

I heartily wish you an Agreable season at Fort Pitt And 
remain with sincerity 


Your most Obed 1 . 

most humble Serv*. 


INDORSED: Letter from Sir 
William Johnson 
Detroit 18 th Sept r . 
Received by M r . Croghan 
the2 d . Oct'. 1761 

1 In British Museum, Additional Manuscripts 21655. fo. 170. London. 

530 Sir William Johnson Papers 


1 Stroud 19/ 0.. 19.. 

1 Pair Halfthicks Stockings 0: 3: 9 

Gartering to wab the Stroud : 7 : 6 

1 Plain Shirt 0: 8: 

1 Rufled Shirt 0: 15: 

500 Wampum 1 : 2: 6 

1 Arm Band ) 

1 Wrist Band J fSllver 1: 

1 dozen Broches 0: 10: 

2 Powder 0: 4: 6; 

4 Lead 0: 2: 

4 Knives @ lO* 1 0: 3: 4 

% Vermillion. 0: 3: 9 

4 yds Ribbon @ 10 d 0: 3: 4 

6 yds Callicoe @ 4/ 1 : 4: 

1 Plain Shirt for the Wife 0: 8: 

1 Matchcoat 0: 10: 

small things of several kinds 0: 10: 

8: 19: 8 

D. 2 

By the Honourable S r . W m . Johnson Baronet His Majestys 
Sole Agent Superintendant & ColK of the Six United Nations, 
their Allies &ca, &ca, 

Mn British Museum, Additional Manuscripts 21655. fo. 282, London, 
England. Inclosed apparently in a letter of Johnson to Bouquet, Septem- 
ber 18, 1761. 

2 In British Museum, Additional Manuscripts 21655. fo. 283-84, 
London, England. Inclosed apparently in a letter of Johnson to Bouquet, 
September 1 8, 1 76 1 * A copy of the order without the regulations is in 
the New York Historical Society, Miscellaneous Manuscript, 

Seven Years' War 


As Nothing can contribute more to the Strengthening and 
extending his Majestys Indian Interest in this Country, then a 
free open Trade on the fairest and most reasonable terms with 
the Indian Inhabitants thereof, I have, with the approbation of 
his Excellency General Amherst, Judged it adviseable for the 
preventing of any extorsion or abuses therein, to make the fol- 
lowing Regulations with Regard to the prices of Indians Goods, 
Hereby ordering all Traders &c, strictly to adhere to the same 
on pain of being banished from the Post at which they Trade 
by the Commanding Officer thereof, their Lycence to be taken 
from them and they rendered incapable to trade at any of his 
Majestys Garrisons, or Posts for the future and Each of the 
Comm d s. Officers of his Majestys Garrisons, are required not to 
allow any Person or Persons whatsoever to carry on any Trade 
with the Indians, who do not first produce him their Pass Signed 
& Sealed by S r W m : Johnson or George Croghon Esq r his 

Regulations for the Trade at Fort Pitt 

Indian Goods 

To be Sold for 

A Stroud of two y ds : Long 
Penniston Stockings of 1 1/ y df : 
Mens Plain Shirts 
Mens Ruffeld Ditto 
Childrens Shirts 
Mens Large Blankets 
Mens Single Stript Ditto 

30 in a pice for Children Ditto 
Mens Penniston Coats bound 
Boyes Ditto Ditto of 1 6 Years 

Womens Wosted Stocks ty: 

P r : 

2 Good Beaver or three Bucks 
1 Medlin Beaver or Buckskin 

1 Beaver or Buck & a Doe 

2 Beavers or 3 Buck Skins 

1 small Beaver or Doe Skin, 

2 Good Beavers or 3 Bucks 
2 Medlin Beavers or 2 Buck 


1 Medlin Beaver or 1 Buck 

2 Beaver or three Bucks 

1 Good Beaver or Buck & 

1 Buck Skin 


Sir William Johnson Papers 

Indian Goods 

To be Sold for 

Womens Yarn Ditto 

Child 5 : Ditto 

Black Wampum & Hundred 

White D. Ditto 

Gun Powder 3$ pound 

4 bars Lead 

12 flents 

one fathem Calico 

one Ditto Calamanco 
Large Silk Handk 8 . 
Vermillion lP r p d : 
Cutteau Knives 
Small Ditto 

1 pice of Role Gartring 

2 fathem of Ribbon 

1 Brass Kettle by Weight 
Tin Kettles of a Gallon 
Large Silver arm Bands 
Small Ditto Ditto 
Wrist Bands 
Womens Hair Plates 
Silver Brochess 
Large Croses 

Ear Bobs 

1 Doe Skin 

1 Racoon 

1 Buck 

1 Racoons. 

1 Buck Skin 

4 Buck 

1 Racoon 

1 Buck & a Doe or Good 

Beav r : 
1 Buck 

1 Buck & a Doe 

2 Good Beavers or 3 Bucks 
2 Racoons 

1 Racoon 
1 Buck 
1 Buck 

1 lb one pound of Beav r : 

2 Bucks 

4 Beaver or 5 Bucks 

3 Beaver or 4 Bucks 

2 Bucks 

3 Beaver or 4 Bucks 
1 Racoon 

1 Small Beaver or Medlin 

1 Doe 

INDORSED: Sir William Johnson 
His Regulation for 
Indian Trade 

Seven Years War 



By the Honourable S r . William Johnson Baronet His 
Majesty's Sole Agent, Superintendant and Coll: of the Six 
United Nations & c : & c : & c : 2 

Regulations for the Trade at Sanduskey 

Indian Goods to be Sold for Indian Goods 

Four Racoons 
One Buckskin 
One Buck 
One Racoon 

INDORSED: Regulations for Trade 
att Sanduskey 

1 Brass Kettle 
by Weight 1 Ib 

to be Sold for 

One Pound of 


By the Honourable S r : William Johnson Baronet His 
Majesty's Sole Agent, Superintendant and Coll: of the Six 
United Nations, & c . & c . & c . 

As nothing can contribute more to the Strengthening and 
Extending His Majesty's Indian Interest in this Country, then 
a free Open Trade on the fairest and most Reasonable Terms 
with the Indian Inhabitants thereof. I have with the Aprobation 

1 In British Museum, Additional Manuscripts 22655. fo. 285, London, 

2 Matter which is the same in the Fort Pitt and the Sandusky regulations 
is omitted here. 

3 In British Museum. Additional Manuscripts 21655. fo. 288, London, 


Sir William Johnson Papers 

of his Excellency General Amherst, Judged it Advisable for the 
Preventing of any Extortions or abuses therein, to make the fol- 
lowing Regulations with Regard to the Prices of Indian Goods, 
Hereby Ordering all Traders & c : strictly to adhere to the same 
on pain of being banished from the Post at which they Trade by 
the Commanding Officer thereof their Licence to be taken from 
them and they rendered incapable to Trade at any of his 
Majesty's Garrisons, or Posts for the future. And each of the 
Commanding Officers, of his Majesty's Garrisons are Required, 
not to allow any Person or Persons whatsoever to carry on any 
Trade with the Indians, who do not first produce him their Pass 
Signed and Sealed by S r : William Johnson or George Croghan 
Esq r his Deputy 

Regulations for the Trade at Miamies 

Indian Goods 

to be Sold for 

A Stroud of two Yards long 

Penniston Stocks 8 , of 1 Y d . 

Mens Plain Shirts 

Mens Ruffled D. 
Childrens Shirts 
Mens large Blankets 

Mens Single Strip'd D. 

30 in a Piece for Children D. 

Mens Penniston Coats bound 

Boys D. DO. of 16 Years 
Old DO. 

Three Beavers or four Buck- 

A Midlin Beaver or Buckskin 

A Beaver or One Buck & a 


two Beavers or three Buckskins 
A small Beaver or Doeskin 
three Beavers or four Buck- 

two Beavers or three Buck- 

One Beaver or One Buck & 

three Beaver or four Buck- 

two Midlin Beaver or two 


Seven Years War 


Indian Goods 

To be Sold for 

Womens Worsted Stock*. $'. 


Womens Yarn D. 
Childerns D. 
Black Wampum, good, ^ r . 


White D. DO. 
Gun Powder 3$ r . Pound 

Four Barrs of Lead 
Twelve Flints 

One Fathom Callicoe 

Ditto Callimancoe 

large Silk Handkerchiefs 
Vermilion 3$ T . Pound 
Cuttoe Knives 
Small Knives 

1 Piece of Role Gartering 

2 Fathom of Ribbon 

1 Brass Kettle by Weight 1 Ib. 
Tin Kettles of a Gallon 

large Silver Arm Bands 
Small DO. 

Wrist Bands 
Womens Hair Plates 
Silver Broaches 
large Crosses 
Ear Bobbs 

A Beaver or Good Buckskin 

A Martin or Doe skin 

One Racoon or two Muskrats 

One Beaver or Good Buck 

four Racoons or two Martins 
One Beaver or Good Buck- 

One Beaver or Good Buck 
One Racoon or two Musk- 

two Midlin Beaver or two 


One Beaver or three Doe skins 
two Midlin Beaver or 2 Bucks 
three Beavers or 4 Buck skins 
One Doe or two Racoons 
One Racoon or 2 Muskratts 
One Beaver or One Buck 
One Beaver or good Buckskin 
One Pound of Beaver 
two Midlin Beavers or 2 


four Beavers or 5 Bucks 
three Beavers or 4 Bucks 
Two Beavers 
three Beavers or 4 Bucks 
One Racoon 

One Buck or Midlin Beaver 
One Doe or small Beaver 

INDORSED: Regulations for Trade 
att Miamies 

536 Sir William Johnson Papers 

L. S. 1 

Slaaten Island, 23 d . Septem r . 1761. 

This will probably meet You on your Return from the Detroit, 
where I am hopefull you will have Settled Every thing to Your 

As Captain Etherington 2 is Setting out for Niagara, I take the 
occasion of Sending this by him, and to Return You my thanks 
for the favor of Your Letter of the 1 9 th Ult. from that place. 

The Regulations You have been pleased to send to the Com- 
manding officer at Oswego, which you acquaint me you have also 
left with the Commanding officer at Niagara, for the Indian 
Trade, I am confident will be punctually observed by the officers 
of both places; and I trust will have the desired good effect. 

I had some time since a Letter from L l . Gov r . Hamilton in 
regard to his having met the Indians at Easton, and Enclosing me 
a Copy of the said Treaty : I imagined he had sent you a Copy 
of those Conferences; but as he Acquainted me since, that he 
was sorry he had omitted Sending You a Copy, I now Enclose 
you One, 3 with paragraphs of his Lettres to me, & mine in Answer 

On the 19 th Instant, I received some Letters from Europe, by 
the packett, that left England on the 1 8 th July ; and I had the 
pleasure of being Informed from M r . Secretary Pitt, by a Letter 
of the 8 th of that Month, of His Majesty having that day 
Declared to His Council, His Resolution of Demanding in 
Marriage the Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburgh Strelitz, 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Captain George Etherington, of the 60th regiment. 

3 This copy was burned. But the proceedings of the conference with 
deputies of " the Onondagoes, Cayugas, Oneidas, Nanticockes, Mohickons, 
Delawares, Tuteloes and Conogs " are printed in Pennsylvania Colonial 
Records, 8:630-54. 

Seven Years War 537 

which, I am certain, will give the greatest Joy & Satisfaction to 
all His Majestys Faithfull Subjects, and I most sincerely con- 
gratulate you thereon; I herewith Enclose you a Copy of the 
Extraordinary Gazette. The Coronation was fixed for the 22 d 
of this Month; and, by private letters, I am told Lord Harcourt 
was to fetch over the Queen, & was to be her Master of the 
Horse; Duke of Manchester Lord Chamberlain; and the 
Dutchess of Portland her Groom of the Stole, There are no 
other material News from England : Nothing decisive as to peace 
or War ; preparations for the Latter of Course, were Carrying on 
with great Vigor. 

I am much obliged to you for your kind Intentions of procuring 
me some things, which I imagined might be got about the Detroit. 

I am, with great Truth & Regard, Sir, Your most Obedient 
Humble Servant, 

SIR W M . JOHNSON, Bar 1 . 


Speech delivered to the Indians of the Nations living in the 
Environs of Michillimackinack, at said Fort the 29 th September 

Brethren the Great Chiefs of the Villages and principal war- 
riors of the Sauteurs 2 and Ottawas 

It is with pleasure that I see you assembled here on my arrival 
in your Nation, as I have nothing but good things to say to you 
and which greatly concerns you, For which reason I beg you will 
pay due attention to my words, and to the end that nothing might 
hinder you from listn'g thereto, I by this String open your eyes 
and Ears that you may see, and attend clearly to all which I have 

1 The original in French destroyed by fire; likewise, Guy Johnson's 
translation, of which the following is a copy. 

2 Sauteurs, Saulteurs, Sauteaux, Sauteux, Indians living about Sault 
Ste Marie; Chippewas, Ojibwas. 

538 Sir William Johnson Papers 

to say at present, and what your Brethren the English may here- 
after say to you. 

My Brethren, As you have without doubt lost of your people 
in the War in which you were imprudently engaged with the 
French ag l . your brethren the English, and whereby you drew 
our Just wrath upon you, we would willingly forget and pardon 
all that hath passed, and for my part I am well pleased to have 
this occasion to condole with you for the losses you have sustained 
in this unjust War, and at the same time to efface all the blood 
which was spill'd, and with this String I bury the bones of your 
Brethren yet dispersed on the Earth, to the end that the sight of 
their blood and bones may give you no more pain, and that you 
may shed no more tears on that Subject, as we would not will- 
ingly have anything but joy. I likewise open by this String the 
passage of your heart, to the end that you may always speak 
sincerely, and I banish from you everything which is bad, to the 
end that (like your Brethren the English) you may think on 
nothing but good. I also light up here a fire of peace, friendship, 
& Concord, which shall communicate an heat of gentleness and 
agreement for all those who shall approach it. It is kindled for 
all those Nations of Indians who would receive the benefit of its 
influence, and under its auspices live in peace & good friendship 
with the English, and that nothing may impede their approach, I 
clear the road from the sun rising to its setting of everything which 
may make it difficult, to the End that all the Nations may travel 
Easily and without any danger. 5 Strings of Wampum. 

My Brethren. As you cannot be ignorant that the arms of our 
Great King George has conquered, and are become entirely 
Masters of the Dominions of the King of France in Canada as 
well as with the most Just reasons which occasioned his taking up 
arms & making this Conquest, I shall say nothing more on that 
Subject, but that in consequence of the Capitulation made last 
year by which all Canada and its dependencies are surrendered 
to his Majesty King George my Master, and your Father, I have 
been sent by his General to take possession of, and leave Gar- 

Seven Years' War 539 

risons in the Posts which heretofore were Garrisoned by the 
French. The intention of the King my Master in sending these 
Garrisons here, is to preserve good order and to have the most 
strict Justice done to his Subjects as well as to protect all Indian 
Nations who will render themselves worthy his Royal Goodness, 
by their good conduct towards him, and his Subjects in this Coun- 
try. He has done still more, & has recommended to all his people 
to come amongst you, and bring you necessaries, so that you may 
avoid to go any distance to fetch them; and as in Consequence 
of these orders, a Number of Merchants are come here, as well 
as amongst the other Nations, by which means you can want for 
nothing I hope and I expect that Sensible of the attention which 
we have for you, you will give us proofs of your acknowledgm*. 
by your good conduct in general, but particularly with the 
Traders who are amongst you, & the Comde. Officer of this Post 
and his Garrison who are here only to protect, and succour you 
if you merit it. You will find in the Command 1 , who I shall 
leave amongst you, a Father, who will take pleasure in rendering 
the most Exact Justice, and who will support you with all his 
power when you merit it. In a word, as by this belt I renew and 
confirm all the Treatys of peace and alliance which formerly 
subsisted between your Ancestors and ours, and which have been 
lately renewed by your Chiefs, or their Deputys at Detroit, and 
at Niagara, I expect that you will adhere strongly thereto, and 
follow the same because thereby you will hold by your promises 
& your interests, and you will always be in a State to give us 
proofs of your friendship, & good intentions, which I hope will 
always be sincere, and from which you will never derogate. 

A belt of Alliance, of 1 2 Rows. 

My Brethren Since, in consequence of the present treaty, we 
form ourselves & become as one people, I expect that according 
to your promises, you will deliver up to us all the prisoners who 
may be amongst you, and also by this String, I beg & desire you 
will send speedily to the Commandant of this post, all those who 

540 Sir William Johnson Papers 

may be yet with you as it will be very improper for you to detain 
any person belonging to your Brethren & Friends, nor that we 
should be long separated from those who form a part of our body 

Gave 3 Strings of Wampum. 

Brethren, I recommend it to you likewise to pay due attention 
to, and think often of what I am come to tell you, as on your 
good conduct, and friendship with the English depends entirely 
your present happiness, and what is to come, by your friendship 
with them you may remain forever an happy people, who will 
enjoy all the advantages of a peace of which they have been so 
long deprived ; on the contrary by a different conduct you'll only 
draw inevitable ruin, on you, & your families, and we shall be 
obliged to consider you, & treat you as a people without senti- 
ment, without sense, & without Sincerity, that know not their own 
interest, and merit not the regard which we have for them, and 
will oblige us to treat them as Brutes, and not as Men, as in that 
case you can expect nothing else. 

To which Quinonchaming Principal Chief of the Ottawas, 

Brother, I beg you will listen to me & hearken to the Chief of 
the Ottawas, who is charmed at seeing you. Brother I am 
greatly charmed that having come hither to buy some Mer- 
chandice, with some of my young people to go ahunting, I was 
informed of your coming, and attended to hear what you sayed 
to us in which I learned several good things, which afforded me 
sensible pleasure, and for which I thank you. 

Brother, I cannot sufficiently thank you, neither have I under- 
standing sufficient to answer you, and pay you my acknowledg- 
ments for the good things which you have sayed to us. Brother, 
I shall not cease to thank you for what we have not meritted from 
you. You are come hither to bring us peace, and give us good 
tidings. Brother, I most sincerely thank you in that you are 
come to tranquillize our old people, our women, and Children. 

Seven Years War 541 

who could not expect so much goodness. Brother, I beg you will 
believe that I have none but Sentiments of peace & friendship, 
and as you are willing to call us Brethren I return you infinite 
thanks for your favour and shall regard you always as such. 
Brother Tis only by accident that I am here, and I have none 
others with me but people without authority, almost all the other 
Chiefs and Warriors are gone ahunting, for which reason I cannot 
answer you positively, but I make no doubt of their thinking like 
me, & of their thanking you, and accepting the Belt which you 
have given. I shall take the strings with me for to show them, to 
tell them of and confirm the good things which you have sayed 
to us. I shall leave the Belt of Alliance with the Sauteurs for 
them to keep, and in the Spring, we shall come, and give you an 
answer. Brother, I also thank you, for myself & my children, 
the Ottawas, for that you are come in good friendship amongst 
us, and have told us that you have pity for us. I am very Sen- 
sible of that goodness and shall study in the end to render myself 
worthy of your friendship. 

The 30 th . The Sauteurs desired to be heard, & to give answer, 
which was agreed to, & Kipimisaming a Delaware Inhabiting 
amongst them, spoke in their names, 

Brother, I beg you will hearken to me, me, who speaks in the 
Name of the Sauteurs, people with 1 , understands, but having good 

Brother, I give you thanks for having come to us, to bring us 
peace and tranquility. Brother, I thank you for all the good 
things which you have sayed to us, they are true and full of 
friendship and tenderness, and I shall never make an end of tell- 
ing you, how much we thank you for your goodness in pardoning 
us, & forgetting what is past, and for treating us as Brethren & 
Friends. Brother, we return you thanks for the new fire which 
you came to kindle amongst us, for the fine Road which you have 
made from the Sun rising to its setting, for the fine Sun which you 
caused to beam upon us, and for the Tranquility which you have 

542 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Caused our wives & children te enjoy, and of which they stood 
in great need. How shall I be enabled to thank you agreable 
to our Sentiments thereof. You are not only willing to forget 
what is past, but also you, yourself, efface the blood which we 
have so foolishly lost, and you yourself interr the bones of our 
brethren which were dispersed throughout the Land. Oh how 
great is your goodness, & how much we thank you. Brother, my 
thanks are long, and I often repeat the same thing, which if I do, 
it is to the end that I may be the better understood. As we have 
not sufficient understanding to enable us to speak like you, and 
as we have nobody in our Nation who speaks well, or hath under- 
standing, We have had Great Chiefs & fine Speakers, but they 
are all dead, and there only remains the Sons of those great Men, 
who have not understanding like their Fathers. 

9 Strings of Wampum. 

Brother, we return you thanks for the fine Belt of peace and 
alliance which you have given to us, and we shall hold the same, 
for our Ancestors have always told us that the English were 
formerly our Brethren and Friends and that we had treaty s of 
alliance together, but there halh been so thick a fog, that we were 
entirely blinded for a great while, in such a manner that we could 
not see, nor know what we were doing, some charm having gotten 
possession of our hearts, which rendered us fools, and occasioned 
us to act against our Sentiments and interest, in a Word we con- 
trary to the Councils & Custom of our ancestors, forget our 
ancient treaties, and like Thieves made War against our brethren 
and our Friends, but in the end you have well opened our eyes, 
our ears, and the passage to our heart in such a manner that we 
are sensible of our faults, and beg of you to pardon us, as we 
knew not what we did. Brother, what you have sayed to us is all 
true, we know that those of our Nation, as well as our Brethren 
the Ottawas who were at Detroit, and at Niagara, have given up 
their arms, have submitted themselves to you, and have demanded 
peace & tranquility. There are none of us, who do not ask, & 

Seven Fears' War 543 

ardently desire the same thing, therefore we accept it with joy, 
and thank you fo.- the Belt which you gave us. We shall keep 
it with care, and we shall hold strongly thereby to the end that we 
may be enabled to observe, and have always before our eyes 
your Goodness, and the engagements we have made this day with 
you. Brother, we were formerly an happy people, and a power- 
ful Nation, we had Great Chiefs, who governed us very well, 
and who kept our young people curbed. Warriors who were 
redoubtable by their Enemies, but who never made any but Just 
wars. The Chiefs who by their example inspired our Youth with 
fine Sentiments are all dead, as are our Great Warriors, and 
there only remains the Children and Grand children of those 
Chiefs, People without understanding and without authority. 
Our Nation is full of Villians who know not what they do, they 
have eyes and ears, but they can neither see nor hear. They 
understand well at present all the good things which have been 
said on the one side and the other; but they are such fools that 
they forget them soon after and as there is nobody who hath 
understanding sufficient to Govern them, they may perhaps com- 
mit some follys, and strike you; pardon them therefore, for they 
are a people without understanding, and who know not how to 
conduct themselves, and I am certain they will be sorry for it 
themselves in the end. I have already said, and I repeat it we 
have not one Chief of understanding to govern them, and conse- 
quently to answer for them, therefore, I beg of you not to impute 
to the Chiefs the bad actions of the young people. 

] 1 Strings of Wampum. 

Brother, I am charmed to see a Day so fine, so clear and 
without any Clouds; but I greatly fear that we cannot enjoy it 
long without you take pity on us, that this fine day may not 
change to Dark Night. We are so poor that I have great fear 
our old people, our Women and Children will perish with hunger. 
We are destitute of every thing, having neither powder, nor lead 
for hunting to support ourselves during the winter. We have 

544 Sir William Johnson Papers 

nothing to cover us as well as our Wives and Children from the 
Cold, and if you have not Compassion for us, our ruin must be 
inevitable, and the next Winter will prove our last. You have 
told us that you are our Brother, can you then see your blood 
perish so miserably, and will you not Succour them under their 
pressing necessity*. , , ^^ ^ Wampum 

To which I made the following Answer. 

My Brethren of the Sauteurs. I am charmed that you have in 
the end opened your eyes, and begin to know your interests, and 
that you repent of your having engaged yourselves so impru- 
dently as you did; I am not more affected than surprised to 
understand that you are so miserable; Your Nation I am certain 
have been, and can always be rich, & furnished with all the 
Necessaries of life. You had plenty of pelletry last spring ; what 
is become thereof. It was more than sufficient to purchase what 
you wanted. How then can you complain, & have recourse to 
us to furnish with that which we cannot think you are in any want 
of. I well know it is not by misfortune you have become miser- 
able. When you were at Niagara you sold your pelltry for 
Rum, without even buying powder, Lead, or any other Things; 
you are continually drunk, and then you behave yourselves not 
as Men, but as Beasts. You say that you have not understand- 
ing, but will that excuse your follys? Who will be sufficient 
dupes after you are impoverished thro' your own fault, to furnish 
you with the means of continuing your debauches? I have con- 
sidered you hitherto as Men, but I believe you merit not that 
title, because you prefer a little Rum to your old people, your 
Wives and your Children. You foolishly expend what you have, 
without ever considering that those who remain in your Villages 
are perishing with hunger. You beg of us to have pity on them. 
How can you expect that people who are strangers amongst you 
should have more consideration for them, than yourselves. Con- 
sider yourselves & become Wiser for the time to come. For the 

Seven Years' War 545 

rest Tho* you do not Merit, we will not let you perish this 
Winter. The Commd 1 . will therefore give you tomorrow what 
we can, and the Traders at my request are willing to give you 
credit for what you want. Behave yourselves towards them as 
honest people, and pay them for what you take, when you return 
from hunting. The French have given a bad character of you 
saying that you will not pay. Let them see the contrary, and in 
the end they will take pleasure in advancing you necessaries, and 
bringing to your Villages all that you can desire; on the contrary 
if you deceive them, they will abandon you, and support you no 
more. Brethren, give good attention to what I say to you, that 
your young people may learn to behave as Men, and be no longer 
Children. We know they can behave themselves well when they 
chuse it, therefore let them take good care not to Commit irregu- 
larities, nor derogate from their friendship with us. We shall be 
sorry to be obliged to punish you but if they will continue to 
commit crimes, what can they else expect. Therefore I exhort 
you to take care of your future conduct, because thereon depends 
all your happiness to come; we look upon you at present as our 
Brethren, and our allies, but any traitor or man without faith has 
no right to that title from the English; if your conduct is good 
they will cherish you, and treat you as their children; but other- 
wise they will be obliged to consider you as Brutes, unworthy 
their friendship, who no longer merit their regard, and who should 
be treated as wild Beasts. 

Translated from the French by Lieut G. Johnson acts, as Sec- 
retary for Indian affairs. 

INDORSED : Translation of Capt. Balf our's Speech 
to the Indians at Michilimack. and 
their answer thereto in 1761. 

Vol. Ill 18 

546 Sir William Johnson Papers 


A. L. S. 1 

Montreal 30 th Sept r 1761. 

I had the honor of receiving yours by Mons. Des Onie the 
24 th Ult. whereby I found what Delay you met with on your 
Journey by being oblidged to wait so many Days for your Battoes 
by Reason of the Shallowness of the Rivers; and afterwards I 
had farther Information of your Proceedings by two Ind ns . who 
went from hence to Albany and returned by the way of Oswego 
where they told me they saw the Battoes unloading in order to 
dry every thing w ch . got wet. I could easily guess thereby what 
Impatience & Vexation you went thro; however I hope all this 
ended well, and wish these may meet you on your safe Return 
& after having settled all Matters to your Satisfaction and the 
good of his Maj s . Interest. 

I acquainted the Ind ns . here with the Contents of your Letter 
ab ! . the bad Disposition of the Chenusios they were surprised. 

I have nothing in particular to communicate you from hence 
all being well w th . Regard to Ind n . Matters, I had a good many 
Visits from all the different Nations this Summer, and they are 
seemingly well contented & satisfied, I acquainted them all of 
your Journey and the purport thereof and that you were going 
to establish an universal & everlasting Peace with all Ind n . 
Nations in your way that were suing for it & would behave 

Mess". La Corne, Chab 1 . Joncaire and all the French officers 
left here last Fall, sailed last Saturday for France which I am 
glad of, being persuaded of their not having instilled Principles 
of Regard towards us into the Minds of the Ind ns . 

The Swegachies have been with me to ask for ammunition in 
the Name of their Nation, I told them how they could not expect 

Destroyed by fire. 

Seven Years War 547 

any by reason of not being interrupted going hunting, at the same 
time after a good deal of arguing with Gen. Gage I obtained 
some for them /he told me that Comm d 8. officer at Fort W m . 
Aug 1 . 1 had sent him complaints of John Davis's trading there w lh . 
the Ind ns . in a most cruel & unfair Manner, that he accordingly 
had sent for him down, punished & ordered him out of the Gov- 
ernm*. by way of Crown Point. He said Davis produced a pass 
to Trade from you. I told him he must have got it in a Clandes- 
tine Manner as his character was well known with you, 

Gen 1 . Gage is resolved not to give a Crain more of Ammu- 
nition to the Indians, saying they could well afford to buy it, if 
industrious, w ch . I dont think him much amiss in; however there 
are some cases where it is unavoidable to refuse a pound or so to 
Strangers or others that deserve it, and I was obliged to buy some 
by the Merch ts . here w tl \ whom it is scarce & dear. I think a 
couple 100 Ib. would bring me thro the year. 

The Oneidas, Cayougas, Tuscaroras, Skaniada". 2 and Tode- 
righrs, 3 have in Conjunction invited the seven Nations in Canada 
to enter into a Treaty of Alliance & Friendship with them, the 
latter have in a Meeting acquainted me with the Contents they 
contain five Belts it's to be settled early in the Spring, I dare 
say you will know the Rise of it. We are in a manner starved 
here for News from Europe, and General Amherst its said waits 
for Orders ab l . the Exped tn . w ch . are to come by a Man of War, 
He is now encamped w ll \ his army at Long Island, some report 
was spread lately of his going to England with some Regim ts . I 
hope it may prove true. 

I shall as soon as I learn your arrival at Fort Johnson, send or 
bring myself my Acco 1 . of Ind n . Expences & ca . together with the 

1 Near Ogdensburg. 

2 Nanticokes. W. M. Beauchamp, The New York Iroquois, p. 139. 

3 Toderichroone, Todirighroones, a tribe of the Catawbas, living at the 
head of Cayuga lake. W. M. Beauchamp, The New York Iroquois, 
p. 265, 290, and Doc. Hist. N. Y. t v. 4, opp. p. 1090, Q, v. 4, opp. 
p. 660. (Guy Johnson's map.) 

548 Sir WilVam Johnson Papers 

Continuation of my Journal, since after the Ind 05 . are on the hunt 
there wont be much to do. In the mean while I have the honour 
to be with the greatest Respect Sir Your most Obedient & most 
humble Servant 


I beg you will give my Compliments to the Gentlemen in Com- 
pany with you. 

P. S. 

I acknowledge with the highest Gratitude your Assistance 
which procured me the Compy. I now have. All the Disad- 
vantage I at the same time laboured under, was that the Pur- 
chase came so unexpected upon me, and I had no Purchaser 
ready for the Lieut ?. & in Consequence for the Shortness of 
time was obliged to sell it as well as I could, w ch . fell much short 
of the 300. but Cap 1 . Prevost our Paymast r . Draft 
for what I fell short, w ch . I am to discount w th . him hereafter. 
I accordingly settled w th . O. Will 02 . 1 and delivered him your 
Draft of 800. and the Rem dr . I paid him here at the Rate of 
4/8 y e . Doll r . After he arrived at Albany, he seemingly was 
advised by his friends Col. Roberts Mess rs . Appyx& Mortier 
to insist upon my buying Bills of Exch e . w * 1 . going swet down 
w*. M r . Will 02 . He did not tell them that I settled w th . him at 
4/8 y e . Doll, and paid him 300. in part upon it & in that manner 
worried M r . Wade to give it, notwithstanding there being several 
Instances of Gen 1 . Amhersts having ordered the like Money to 
be paid at the Rate above ment d . and I am sure if the affair came 
before him, he could not have contradicted his Orders. 

As soon as I heard of it, I immediately wrote the whole man- 
ner of Settlement to Col. Roberts and insisted upon O. Will 07 , 
refunding me what was paid by M r . Wade above par, also 
advised M r . Wade to do all in his power to recall his bills if 
given; Likewise laid the affair before Col. Amherst, and asked 


Seven Years War 549 

for having it adjusted before a Court of officers, who I am per- 
suaded would have given their Sentence in my fav r . as every one 
here looked upon it as a gross Imposition. I have since rec d . an 
answer from Colo. Roberts wherein he tells me y*. O. Will 02 , 
was gone to N. York, where he was to go likewise w ch . was the 
1 5 th of Aug 1 . and that he would endeavour to get the Excess of 
Exch e . back from O. W oz . w^. is all I heard since of y e affair. 

M r . Wade might have settled it at oncet by telling Capt n . 
Will 02 , and his friends that he had 800. to deliver from you in 
my behalf at the Rate of 4/8 per DolK and if there was any- 
thing else in Question they must get further Directions from me, 
haveing no farther to do with it. 

I am & ca 



The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 119, by 
a receipt of October 6th from David Schuyler Jun' r , at Schenectady, to 
John GUn for 97, 10s for one trip to Fort Stanwix with 15 men and 
one to the Little Falls with 1 7 men ; witnessed by John Fry. Destroyed 
by fire. 

A. L. S. 1 

Fort Pitt Od'. 12* 7767. 

Inclos d . I Send you a Return of y e number of people Necessary 
to be Imploy d . in y r . Honours Department of Indian affairs for 
y e Western Division & Less in My opinion will Nott be able to 
Do the Duty as itt Shold be Done. 

I have Since my Arivel hear purchas d . y e 200 Hoes for the 
four Nations att Detroit & sent them to Cap*. Campbell as you 
ordered for them. 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

550 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A Gunsmith I have sent for to y e Inhabitance which I will 
send to Cap 1 . Campble as Soon as posable as itt will save Ex- 
pence the French Smiths Charging So high for there Work. 

With y e prisoners Delivered up att y e Conferance & Since 
my Return & those I gott on My Way hear there has been 46 
given up by the Indians of Diferant Nations & they are bringing 
them in Every Day Butt many refuse to Return home & Chuse 
to stay with y e Indians. On perrusing My Journall from my 
Arrival hear in June 1759 To this Day I find y e Number of 
prisoners Delivered up hear to be three Hundred & thurty Eight 
by y e several Westren Nations. 

I hear send y r honour an account for goods purchas d . for 
presents to y e Cherrokes to Make up a present promist them by 
y e Goverment of Pennsylvanie in 1 757. I purchas d . those goods 
by an order from Coll. John Stanwix to y e amount of l 19: 8:6 
y e other goods for w h . I past my Note was for presents given to 
another party of Indians in his own presents all w h . he promist 
me he wold gett y e Goverment of Pensylvaine to pay Butt by 
y e purtested bill that accompanys the account y r honour will 
Sea they wold Do Nothing in itt. I aply d . to General Amherst 
this Sumer on this affair & he advised me to send you the account 
& purtested bill for y r prusal & Tould me he wold Write you to 
pay itt if you thought itt Just as he said there was No Reason I 
Should pay itt My Self as the Goods were purchast for a publick 
use, I make no doubt butt y e Gineral has Wrote y r honour on 
this Head which I Submitt to you on prusing y e papers. 

In a few Days I will send y r . honour in a box to y e Care of 
M r . Francis Wade all y e Seeds & other things I have been able 
to procure hear. Plese to Make my Compliments Exceptable to 
all the family & Bleve me with greatt Esteem & Regard y r 
Honours Most humble Servant 


Seven Fears' War 551 

P. S. 

I hope you had a pleasant Journey home & make no Doubt 
butt Cap 1 Johnson 1 by this time has a good Relish for parchmale 
& Wild Ducks & Despises Rest- Beeff. 

To the Hon ble . SlR WlLL: JOHNSON Barr*. 

A. D. S. 2 

Fort Pitt Oct*. 12* 1761 

A return of People to be Imploy d . in the Westrene Division of 
y e Indian Department 3 under the Direction of the Honourable 
Sir William Johnson Barr*. in order To See Strict Justus Don y e 
Several Nations of Indians in their Trade & Commerce with his 
Majestys Subjects as Well as to Transact! publick Busness with 
those Nations & that those people May Make themselves well 
acquainted with the Indians Custom, Maners & policys that plots 
may Nott be Conserted by any 111 Dispos d . Indians without those 
people being acquainted thereof whos busness itt will be To give 
Imeidett Intilegance to Sir William Johnson by which Mains if 
Diligent Cair be taken the present Aliance and frendship Inter d . 
into att Detroit May be preserv d . & the Trade & Commerce of 
his Majestys Subjects flurish in this part of America. 

Two Asistant agents att Fort Pitt one of them by Turns to 
Travel throu y e Indian Settlements where Traders go amongst y e 
Dallaways Shawnes & to y e Miamies & Sandusky and to Return 
to Fort Pitt then y e other to take his Turn. 

A gunsmith att Fort Pitt & his Man as One Can Nott Do the 

1 John Johnson, commissioned November 15, 1760, captain in the 
second battalion of Albany County militia* 

2 Destroyed by fire. 

3 Inclosed in Croghan to Johnson, October 12, 1761. 

552 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A Man to attend y e Indians & Asist in Wauing their Skins. 

An asistant Agent att Detroit. 

And two Interpreters as there Can Nott be own found which 
spokes all y e Indian Langudgess- Spoke there. 

A gunsmith at Detroit and his man. 

An asistant Agent att Misslamackina with an Interpreter whos 
Duty will be to Visett y e Post att y e Bay 1 and that att S l . 
Josephs ~ twist a year att least. 

And if y e post att Wayona 3 be Retir d . as itt is so Near the 
Elinois Cuntry there should be an agent and Interpreters there & 
to visett y e Miamies fort. 


Deputy Agent. 


A. L. S* 

Montreal 27 lh Oct r . 1761. 

I hope mine of 29 th UIt. in answer to your Favour from 
Niagara is come to hand, and that this may find you well & safe 
returned from your long & fatiguing Journey, since w ch . nothing 
occurred in Ind n . Matters worth of Remark, The Ind ns . being 
now all on the Hunt, & most part of them are ab l . Cr n . point, 
Tyondarogo and Lake George. Capt n . Lottridge is gone to be 
thereabouts in order to be at hand if wanted by the Comd. 
officers; I have desired him to make his report to you. 

By M r . Math w . Wade I have sent you my original Journals 
continued from that of January last, after you have perused 
them, and made what Extracts you judge proper I would beg 
the favour of you to lay them by for me, begging of you at y e 

1 La Baye. Bay des Puans, Green Bay, Wis. 
2 St Joseph, on Lake Michigan. 
3 Ouatanon, on the Wabash. 
4 Destroyed by fire. 

Seven Years War 553 

same time to pardon its incorrectness in every Respect. Inclosed 
you have likewise my Acco 1 . of Ind n . Expences, whereby you'll 
find I have followed your orders as well as Gen 1 . Amhersts in not 
being too extravagant, not going farther than Charity required, 
and what I could not avoid, which however in rny humble opinion 
cant be continued so if the Country remains ours, and his Majestys 
Indn 5 . Interest is to be promoted among the Indians in Canada, 
and which after our continued signal Successes must undoubtedly 
be the Case, One great Inconvenience for Instance is, that when 
the Ind ns . come to me upon Business in my Quarters, I cannot 
give -them Lodging if at Midnight having only a Small room for 
myself and therefore must send them away when they are 
oblidged to ask submissively for Shelter from the Canadians, who 
being jealous of our having the Management of them now seldom 
let them come into their houses, & if they do, naturally influence 
them with falsehoods opposite to our Interest w ch . then oversets 
every thing. Gen 1 . Gage I believe has it not in his Power to pro- 
cure a house for them without paying Rent, and w ch . he cant do 
without Gen 1 . Amherst's orders. However I am persuaded these 
Matters will be duly considered when the Fate of the Country 
is known. I also Inclosed hereby a Memorial to Gen 1 . Amherst 
setting forth the veritable manner of Settlement between me & 
Cap*. Willyam 2 1 and as I have framed it without the advice of 
any one here I would submitt it to to your Revisal and opinion 
whether it might not be taken better to represent it by Word of 
Mouth to the General, as I find he was a friend of O. Will 2 , on 
M rs . Will 2 , acco*. & might perhaps misinterpret it, altho I have 
all Justice on my Side. 

I should think myself happy to pay you a Visit this Winter 
and intended to get leave from Gen 1 . Gage & Colo. Haldim d . but 
finding that officers who have leave from hence are not received 
with a wellcome Eye from Gen 1 . Amherst (who I hear is to be at 
Albany soon) and are generally oblidged to return soon with 

1 See Claus to Johnson, September 30, 1761. 

554 Sir William Johnson Papers 

some of his usual Arrants; I should therefore be extreamly glad 
you would procure me his Leave that I need not be under the 
apprehension above mentioned & w ch . I dare say you may effect 
with the least hint, especially as the Indians wont return from 
Hunting till the latter End of May next. 

I have the honour to be with Compliments to the Family 
Honoured Sir Your most Obedient and most Dutifull Servant 

P. S. 

The Ind ns . here continually enquire after your Return & long 
to hear the Result of your Journey 

To the Hon ble . S R . WlLLIAM JOHNSON Bar 1 . 


S< Francis 30* Oct'. 1761 

It is not long ago since I had the honour to inform you of the 
State of the Village S*. Francois and the Ind ns . remaining there. 2 
I am now going to make you two important Discoveries, which 
demand my giving you an Acco*. thereof. The first regards a 
Silver mine which is in Acadia, and w ch . the French towards the 
Beginning of the War kept very secret, in so much that the 
Secret transpired no farther than M r . Vaudreuil by the carefull- 
ness of M r . Montcalm, according the Instructions w * 1 . I had the 
honour to give to M r . Amherst. A chance occasioned my dis- 
covering the whole Mystery. The Reports of a Peace and the 
Cessation of Canada to England untied the Tongue of the Indian 
who knows the whole, he asked me in great Confidence if the 
Riches w^. the River of Accadia contained (and w ch . it was 
recommended to him to keep it as a great Secret) were lost to 

1 The original destroyed by fire; likewise the manuscript in French of 
which this document is a translation made by Daniel Claus. 
2 Roubaud to Johnson, November 1 3, 1 760. 


Governor of Canada 

Seven Years War 555 

him. On my asking him w^. was the Quality of said Riches 
he answered me they were no less than a Silver Mine upon the 
Bane of a River in Accadia, which need not to be worked any 
farther than by taking a blackish sort of a Stone w^. was found 
there, and dissolving it in the fire w cl \ would give the half of its 
weight in Silver, the Trial having been made. This Sort of 
Stones is found scattered upon the surface of the ground. The 
Indian who discovers this, and who offers himself to justify it, is 
an Acadian of more than 60 years old, he is called Jacques or 
Jacque, & his Warrior Name is Ouasesesis, him only and his 2 
children know the secret. I have enjoined him not to go far out 
of the way, he therefore has limited his hunting in the environs 
here and is to be back with the first ice. As I never was in 
Acadia, and the Names by w h . he calls the different Places lead- 
ing to the Mine are Ind n . Names I find it needless to mention 
them to you as they could not give you any light into the Matter. 
This Discovery will doubtless require my going to Acadia with 
that party of Ind ns . who wont move without a Missionary. Upon 
this & thousand other points I could wish ardently to confer with 
you this winter, I dare flatter myself that you will procure me 
this Honour, as the Service as well as my Interest seem to require 

The second Discovery is no less interesting. 

The Abinaquis have hardly shown themselves at S l . Francis 
this Summer, they did not delay to go to Caghnawago, where 
in concert with the Iroquois they have held frequent Councills. 
The Subject of those Councils was upon Speeches brought to 
them from the Ohio by some Ottawawas & even by the Cherokees 
from Carolina. These Speeches are to reunite all the Indians in 
the same Sentiment & to prevail on them to live nearer to them 
so that even the most part of the Abinaquis are gone hunting 
upon the Ottawawa River, in short to be the readier at hand in 
the Spring to decide what is to be done, which is another Reason 
to make me wish of having an Interview with you as nothing 

556 Sir William Johnson Papers 

is more prejudicial to the Service as such Journeys of Ind ns . to 
strange Nations. Good Policy should mistrust such Assemblies 
or Meetings. That w ch . would make the Abinaquis a faithfull 
People is to draw them to their native Country, some to Acadia 
& others to Albany where they came from, nothing would be 
more easier than to persuade them to that. 

I hope I may during the Winter treat with you upon all those 
points. This Acco*. w ch . I have the honour to give you is a 
proof of my Acknowledgment to you, happy could I be to con- 
vince you how far my Sentiments extend; you would find that 
nothing could be added to my Regard, Esteem and Respect for 
you. I dare flatter myself that upon this Condition you will con- 
serve me your protection, and continue to give me the proofs 
thereof, I dare say I deserve it, if it may be deserved by the 
Sentiments of Veneration with which I have the honour to be 
Sir Your most humble & most Obedient Servant, 

R. Jest. 
INDORSED: Pierre Robauds Letter. 


A. L. S. 1 
Lebanon in Connecticut 2 d . Nov r . 1761 


The Lads your Hon r . sent me, have behaved Well, and so 
far as I see, are likely to answer the Design proposed. I shall 
be able to know, and judge better as they grow more able to dis- 
course with me. (Joseph) 2 appears to be a considerate, Modest, 
and manly spirited youth. I am much pleasd with him. If his 
Disposition, and Ability, upon further Trial, shall appear as 
inviting as they seem to be at present, there shall nothing be want- 

1 In Library of Congress. 
f2 Joseph Brant. 

Seven Years' War 557 

ing, within my Power, to his being fitted, in the best Manner for 

(M r . Sam 1 . Kirtland) who waits on Your Hon r . With this, 
is a Charity Schollar, Whom I have been fitting for College ; And 
is designed to continue With me several Years, in order to learn 
the Mohawke Language &ca With a View to a Mission, if God 
pleases. He is son to the (Rev d . M r . Kirtland) of Norwich a 
worthy Minister of the Gospel, who has been, for Many Years, 
taken off from his publick Labour, by bodily Disorders, and 
reduced to needy Circumstances. 

I have Sent him to accompany Joseph home; and with such 
Hopes, as Yours of July, 7. 1 encouraged, that you have by this 
Time obtained, and that he may accompany back, four more 
likely Boys, in Addition to these two which You have sent, 
Whom I also expect will return with him. 

Your Hon r . well Understands, that this Support of the Design 
has, and dos, depend upon the Charity of such whose Hearts are 
disposed to contribute to it, and I hope the Success, & good Fruit 
of our Endeavours may More, & More invite Gentlemen of 
Ability to lend a helping Hand. And that your Honour may 
not think it unworthy Your Encouragement. 

I should be glad, they might return as soon as may be con- 
venient, as it is near Winter, and also, as I am loth they should 
loose More Time then Necessity requires. And if they can 
return without Horses, I had Much rather, and With a View to 
continue here 'till next fall before they make another visit Home, 
because Horsekeeping is very Scarce in these parts, by reason of 
the Extream Drought last Summer, and Journeying very Expen- 
sive, however I submitt the Matter wholly to your Discretion. 

I was very Sorry for the Jealosies which the Schollars con- 
ceived concerning the Nature of Centers Disorder, While I was 
gone to Boston, and, that there Was, that said, on 2 done, Which 

1 Not found. 

2 In the original " on " appears; " or " was doubtless the word in mind. 

558 Sir William Johnson Papers 

gave him a Disgust. I hope the Case will be so considered, as 
that it will prove of no real Diservice to the Cause. 

We have heard nothing, Yet, of the Success of your Late long 
Journey. I hope your Hon r . enjoys a good state of Health not- 
withstanding such a long Fatigue. I am With most sincere 
Respect, Honor'd Sir. 

Your Honours 

most Obedient 

Humble Servant 


P. S. The (Rev d . Matt w . Graves) an Episcopal Mission, at 
New London, (about 30 miles from hence) sends me Word, 
which just now comes to me, by 1 Mr. Whitaker of Norwich, 
that if I will procure him a likely Indian Lad he will, at 
his own Expense, Undertake and go thro', with his Education. 
And as the Offer is kind and generous, and Worthy to be 
imbraced with Thankfulness, perhaps, your Hon r . may find one 
Willing to accept it, notwithstanding the disagreable Circum- 
stance of living so far from the Society of any of his own Nation. 

The Hon le . SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON Esq r . 


There can be found in the Johnson Calendar, p. 120, Johnson's 
letter of November 5th to General Amherst on proceedings with western 
Indians, Johnson's reports, Captain Campbell's account of expenses, the 
complaints made against Johnson at Easton, and his measures for relieving 
the Indians complaining; a letter of the 5th from Johnson to Gw. Banyar, 
conveying regrets for trouble caused by Canajoharies' gift to Johnson, 
acknowledging the generosity of Banyar and Alexander Colden, offering 
to admit them to an advantageous purchase in the Mohawk country, asking 
that a caveat may be entered against Klock's land transactions and rallying 

1 Illegible. 

Seven Yean War 559 

Banyar on love affairs; and a copy of a letter of the 5th from General 
Amherst to Lieutenant Richard Smith, of the Independents, acknowledging 
memorials regarding a grant of land at Fort Schuyler and referring Smith 
to other authority. Destroyed by fire. An extract from the first follows 


Contemporary Copp 1 

Fort Johnson, Novem r . 5 th : 1761 . 

" I Have the Honour to Acquaint you, that I Arrived here 
from the Detroit on Saturday last, after a tedious Journey of 
Six Weeks, having left that place on the 18 th . of September 

It it with great Satisfaction I now Inform your Excellency, 
that I have left the Western Indians Extremely well Disposed 
towards the English; and I am of Opinion that matters are 
Settled on so stable a foundation there, that unless greatly Irri- 
tated thereto they will never break the Peace Established with 
them; And there now only remains to Compleat Every thing by 
Calling down the Six Nations to a meeting, and Settling all 
matters with them, which I doubt not being readily able to do, and 
will immediately set about it, if your Excellency Approves of it. 

The particulars of my proceedings Since leaving home, and 
of the Several Conferences which I had on my Journey; as also 
that of the General meeting with the Western Confederacy &ca. 
at Detroit, being very long, I cannot be able to transmit them for 
Some time; I should therefore be glad to know whether your 
Excellency would Chuse those at the meeting at the Detroit 
alone, before the rest are made up. 

As Soon as all the proceedings, or Such part as your Excel- 
lency may chuse can be made ready for your perusal, they shall 
be immediately transmitted to you; and I flatter myself that on 

Mn Public Record Office, C Q. 5-61, London, England, 

560 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Inspection, they will appear to your Excellency's Satisfaction, 
than which nothing will give me greater pleasure. 

I Should be glad your Excellency would give me an order for 
Some ammunition, and Provision, as I have not an Ounce of 
either in Store." 

Wm. Johnson 
His Excellency SlR JEFFERY AMHERST. 

INDORSED: Extract. 

Letter from Sir W m : 

Johnson to General Amherst; 

Dated Fort Johnson, 5 th : Novem r . 


Acquainting the General of his 

Return from the Detroit, and of the 

good Disposition he had left the 

Western Indians in; and that he 

Should as soon as possible, transmit 

the General the whole of his proceedings, 


in S r . J : Amherst's of Nov r . 27 : 1 761 

NO. 21. 


Fort Johnson Nov r . 6 th 1761 

After a tedious Journey of 6 Weeks I arrived from the Detroit 
a few days ago, 2 & am now to acknowledge the receipt of your 
favour of the 2 d of last July, 3 which I was then prevented from 
answering by reason of my being on my Journey. 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 October 30th. See W. L. Stone, Life and Times of Sir William 
Johnson, 2:477 (Diary on Journey to and from Detroit). 

3 In Collections of the New York Historical Society, 1876, Colden 
Papers, p. 96-97. 

Seven Years War 561 

With regard to the Lands I beg leave to refer you to M r . 
Banyar, to whom I have wrote by this opportunity, & made him 
such proposals as I imagine will be acceptable. N I must confess 
I was a good deal out of humour when I wrote you last, 1 as I 
judged myself in a great measure trifled with by some people, 
especially as I had the Ind n Deed of Gift, prior to any other pre- 
tensions, 2 & when it is notorious that I am the only person in these 
parts who (far from preventing) takes every measure for Setling 
the Lands which I purchase by the encourag mt . of industrious 
people to whom I grant Lotts on the most reasonable terms At 
the same that I was a good deal disgusted at the delays which I 
met with I still flattered myself that the friendship subsisting 
between us, would secure me your interest therein and I should be 
heartily glad that the affair might be Setled during your adminis- 

I sho d . be glad to hear from you what M r . Barclay has wrote 
you concerning this land in the Mohocks Country, as well as 
upon the Subject at present in question. 

The Western Confederacy of Ind ns . seem entirely disposed to 
favour the English & will not in my opinion unless provoked be 
ever persuaded to break the peace w * 1 . I have made with them, 
and in order to finish all matters & put them on a proper footing 
I purpose w*. Gen 1 . Amherst's approbation to call down the 6 
Nations to a Meeting where I hope every thing will be adjusted 
to the public Satisfaction. 

As I am busied at present in preparing and making up the 
Ind 11 . Proceedings for Gen 1 . Amherst's perusal I hope youl excuse 
my present brevity w * 1 . I shall make up for in my next for altho' 
a good deal interrupted at present I was unwilling to let slip the 
acknowledgment of your last, as well as the opportunity of assur- 
ing you how much I am &<*. 

Hon ble . M R . CoLDEN. 

Johnson to Golden, June 18, 1761. 

2 For a contrary view, see Banyar to Johnson, February 2, April 6, 
May 28 and June 24, 1761. 

562 Sir William Johnson Papers 


I judge it necessary to inform you that one Urie Klock resick 
at Conajoharee, has during my absence deported himself in so 
extraordinary a manner towards the Inhabit 8 . & Ind 8 . there that 
he has given universal discontent particularly concerning the land 
purchased of M r . Livingston 1 (which you know included the 
Indian Castle) by warning & turning 2 sev 1 . people off who have 
resided thereon, & payed rent to the Indians for the same these 
sev 1 . years past, with other unwarrantable steps. I should there- 
fore be glad to have your opinion thereon & to have a stop put 
thereto at least until I shall hear from Europe havs. wrote home 
on that Subject, otherwise the Ind 8 . may attempt to right them- 
selves, which may be productive of bad consequences & which it 
may not be in my power to prevent. 


The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 20, by a 
letter of November 7th from James Peters, at Fort Stanwix, to Johnson, 
mentioning need of medicines at the post for Indians. Destroyed by fire. 

A. L. S. 3 

[Albany. Nov. [9P], 7767] 


Inclos'd You will Receive a Letter Commited to my Care by 
M r . Shuckburgh at New York which I Left the 6 th Instant. On 
my arrival this morning I was very happy to hear you were again 

1 See Johnson to Amherst, February 5, 1762. 

' 2 A letter in the New York Historical Society, of which this is a draft, 
has " threatening to turn." 
3 Destroyed by fire. 

Seven Years War 563 

Safe at your Estate in the Mohocks Country; I heartily Con- 
gratulate You on your Return and Rejoyce to hear you are in 
Health after Your long Dangerous & Fateagueing Journey. 

The Wines I were to Deliver you per agreement, I purchased 
when at N York In the Summer from M r . Phil Livingston, and 
shipd them Immed'y. for this place where they have been in your 
Cellar untill a few Days past waiting any directions M r . Stringer x 
Might Receive Concerning them As I did not know to Whose 
Care to send them during Your absence. I hope & dont doubt 
But they will meet with your approbation as they were the oldest 
& Best To Be had in New York. M r . Livingston assured me 
they had been three Years in his Cellar and I took the opinion of 
several Tasters In the Choice of them. 

I am very sorry to observe that the Concernd in the Lands 
purchased from the Conajoharies last Summer have Not Yet 
Obtained the patents for them; from some Defects in the 
Boundaries of The adjoining Patents, w ch . M r . Golden Trans- 
mited To His Deputy, M r . Vrooman has Included 1 4,000 acres 
of Land in the Survey he Made which was already Patented, so 
that we shall fall short that Quantity of what we actually pur- 
chased and paid for. As the Indians were fully Satisfied and 
Realy Intended to Convey to us the quantity Contained in M r . 
Vroomans Survey, I hope and Dont doubt But we May Yet Be 
able to get it from them; and I Rely from the Equity & Justice 
of the thing, upon your good offices, which I flatter myself your 
Goodness will Not Withhold, when we treat with them on the 

Whether our friend Shuckburgh has Communicated you the 
News Received the Evening before I left N York I Cannot Say. 
Least he Sho d . not, Give me leave to acquaint you ; That a Ship 
arrived in 24 days from the Orkneys, by which we Learn, that 
The Czarina was Dead ; that she had Bequeathed the Empire to 

Dr Samuel Stringer, of Albany, 

564 Sir William Johnson Papers 

the Duke of Holstine; 1 that one of The Russian Princes, by the 
Name of Alexowitz, had put in a Claim to the Imperial Diadem, 
which was likely to occasion Great Commotions in Russia, Not 
less than a Rebellion; & The Troops of that Empire it was 
thought, wou d . Be recal'd from the Eastern Parts of Germany, 
which will leave the Prussians to act only against the Austrians. 
The King was Married & Crown'd. 2 We had Taken another 
74 Gun ship from the French. Adm 1 . Hawke was ready to Sail 
with twenty Ships of the line & twelve regiments their Destina- 
tion private. Several of the Plenipotentiaries withdrawn from 
Augsburg & no prospect of a sudden Peace. 

This Sir was what had Transpired before my leaving New- 
york. By the Post we may have farther Matters in the Prints. 
If a Conveyance offers shall forward you the papers. In the 
Meanwhile after Beging your Excuse for the Hurry I must write 
this I Subscribe myself Sir Your Most Obed 1 . & very Humble 

PETER Du Bois 
INDORSED: Nov r . 1761 

Peter Du Bois's Letter to Sir W m . Johnson 

D/. 3 

Fort Johnson TVovK 14* 7767 

I have now bare time to acknowledge the receipt of Several 
of Yours since I left home also y r . last of the 30 th of Sept r . As 
Guy Johnson I presume has wrote you concerning y e . Tour we 

1 Duke Peter of Holstein-Gottorp. 

2 George III was married on September 8th, crowned on September 
22, 1761. 

3 Destroyed by fire. 

Seven Years War 565 

tooke I need say nothing concerning it more than that I can in 
general! tell you that I settled all Matters to my Satisfaction w*. 
all y e Western Nations and left Regulations for trade at all the 
Posts that way which I hope will have a good effect. 

I believe I shall call a meeting of the Six Nations soon that 
is of some Sachems of every Nation in Order to feel their Pulse 
now, w h . I believe is pretty low & flatter myself I can bring 
them to any reasonable terms, at the same time I am sorry to Say 
their late ill behaviour is occasioned in a great measure by our 
111 treatment of them in severall respects. I hope the Coghna- 
wageys & ca will act a more prudent part than the Chenussio's 
have, that is, that they will not Alter from the engagements they 
entered into with me but Steadily Observe them, & not let their 
Hearts turn to their own Ruin. The 111 Success w h . ye Chenus- 
sios mett with, in their endeavours to stirr up a Villanous Con- 
spiracy, or unnaturall Plot against the English, will I hope be an 
example to them, & all our Allies. You may drop Hints of this 
to them from me by a belt of Wampum & conclude with my 
Recommending to them a friendly behaviour towards the English 
which is the Determination of all the Nations I have Spoke with 
this Summer. You may also tell them I have received from 
M r . Croghan their Belts which I shall take a proper Opportunity 
of Answering. I should be glad to have the remainder of your 
Journal or proceedings to this time, as soon as may be, that I 
may from that & the rest of my proceedings be able to form a 
judgment of the true State of the whole Confederacy, so as to 
represent it home, in order to have the Management Settled on 
some one Certain Plan, or footing, as the precarious manner it 
now Stands will never answer the End Designed, w h . is y e Good 
of his Majestys Service, & Extension of his Indian Alliance. 
Let me also have your Acc tls . which you need not Shew to any 
one else, or let them know anything about them. If you can 
come yourself it will be better on Severall Accounts. Pray bring 

566 Sir William Johnson Papers 

me some Seeds of every kind worth Sowing. Also some field 
Pease & Summer wheat for a Trial, as I am going to Com- 
mence a Husband man. 

Pray let me know how far M r . Gage looks upon his Govern- 
ment to Extend, & how far his tradeing Passes reaches. I am 
certain by my Commission, it is a perquisite of mine, if I am 
to manage the affairs of all them Indians, w h . is General 
Amhursts orders to me. 

Expecting to see you soon I shall defer adding further than 
that I am y r . Welwisher & Humble Servant 

P. S. Remember me kindly to Squire Welles & M r . Wade, altho 
I never heard a word from either of them since they left this w h . I 
take unkind. 


The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 2 1 , by two 
destroyed by fire ; one of November 1 4th from Johnson to David Franks, 
informing that he has drawn on him for 586 in favor of Francis Wade, 
of Philadelphia; the other, of the 15th, from William Darlington, at New 
York, to Johnson about goods sent on Abraham Cuyler's sloop. 

Contemporary Copp 1 

Kingston, November 16-17, 1761 

Pursuant to an order of His Honour Cadwallader Colden 
Esq r . Lieut. Governor, & Commander in Chief of the Province 
of New York Directed to Cornelius Hoornbeck, Levi Pawling, 
Jacob Hoornbeck, Colo. Johannis Hardenburgh, Collo. Tho 5 , 
Ellison, Colonel Abraham Haasbrook and Jacobus Bryn, to 

Destroyed by fire. 

Seven Years War 567 

meet with some of the Delaware Indians, as they had requested 
to Renew amity & friendship, with His Majesty's Subjects. 

Accordingly they were mett in Kingston in Ulster County, the 
16 th of November 1761. 

Cornelius Hoornbeck Esq r . Moses Depue Esq r 
Levi Pawling Esq r . Lawrence Salisbury Esq r . 

Capt. Jacob Hoornbeck Lewis Bevier Esq r . 
Colo. Joh 8 . Hardenburgh Stephen Nottingham Esq r . 
{ Colo. Abraham Haasbrook Abraham Low Esq r . High Sheriff 

{ P.Edmundus Elmendorph Clerk 

with several other principal Inhabitants of said County Gerrit 
Broadhead Interpreter. 

Michtagh \ r ,. -,. t 
. . , r Indian Cmers 

Malonap J 

By Major Pawling the Indians were spoke to, with saying to 

We look upon You as Brethren, and we bid you welcome 
here. You told us about ten weeks ago when we met you at 
Rochester, that you was earnestly desirous to live peaceably with 
us (the English) and that you Desired that we would dry up 
our tears, & wipe our eyes & Cleanse our hearts, and that you 
would Deliver up all our People detained among You at this 
meeting. According to Your Desire we have dried up our Tears, 
& wiped our Eyes open, so that we See clear out of our Eyes, 
but cannot see any of his Majesty's Subjects who have been 
captivated by some of Your People; and which you have prom- 
ised to Deliver at this Meeting. We now Demand the Reasons 
why You have not brought them 

568 Sir William Johnson Papers 

The Indians Answer. 

Say'd their uncles the Six Nations had promised the Gov- 
ernor of Pensylvania, that all the Prisoners should be delivered 
next Spring, & further said there was a grand treaty to be Held 
either in Easton, or Philadelphia where Sir W m . Johnson, the 
Governor of New Jersey, & the Governor of New York was to 
be ; and all the Prisoners was to be delivered at said Treaty ; and 
therefore they was not admitted by their Uncles to bring any of 
them to this Meeting. 

The Indians were told that we had Communicated to His 
Honour our Governor all what they had requested, & what they 
had promised at Rochester and that the Governor had sent his 
orders now, and in what manner we should treat with them ; The 
Governor's orders were read to them, & the same Interpreted 
by M r . Broadhead, & told them further that we had no more to 
say to them; and they were asked whether they had any more 
to say to us; they answered they had something to say that was 
good but as they had not brought in the Prisoners, as they had 
promised, they would not be Believed. They were told we 
would hear them. They answered they could not speak till the 
next day. 

Adjourned till ten o'Clock next day. 

Mett according to Adjournment. Present as before. 

Monolap, one of the Indian Chiefs, said, that he was some 
time ago sent by Cornelius Hoornbeck Esq r - and Colo. Johannis 
Hardenburgh from Mamacating to Onoquague, to know 
whether there was any Evil Design among the Indians. When I 
came there I found all well & Peaceable, & no Evil intended. 

Gave a String of Wampum. 

Many years agoe there was a Treaty made between the Gov- 
ernor of New York, & our Ancestors, and we was Settled at 
Minising, and there was fire kindled for us, and the smoke of 
that fire was to ascend strait up into the air; it was not to be 

Seven Years War 569 

driven by the wind, neither one way nor the other ; it is our desire 
now to live according to our former Covenant, as long as Sun & 
Moon Shines. Gave a Belt of Wampum. 

They were told; we know there was a Covenant Chain made 
between the Governor of New York, and Your Ancestors, and 
that chain was broke by You & not by us and now you Declared 
you are Desirous to have that Chain linked together again, and 
live in peace with the English. We assure you that when You 
have Delivered up our People that are detained among you, 
according to your former promise, we shall look upon you as our 
Brethren, and live with you as such. 

INDORSED: Proceedings of Corn 8 . Hoornbeck and others with 
some of the Delaware Indians att Kingston in 
Ulster County, 16 th Novem r . 1761. 


The preceding paper is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 121, by 
an undated letter from Colonel Abraham Haasbrouck to Lieutenant 
Governor Colden, an account of duplicity practised by the Delawares at 
the Kingston conference ; a letter of November 1 7th from Johnson to Rev. 
Eleazar Wheelock, regarding a school for instruction of Indian youth, 
which he promises to encourage still further, and Samuel Kirtland's inten- 
tion of learning the Mohawk language (printed in Doc. Hist. N. V., 
4:305-7; Q, 4:197-98) ; and a letter from Lieutenant Richard Smith, 
dated the 21st, acknowledging Johnson's liberality and General Amherst's 
condescension. Destroyed by fire. 

570 Sir William Johnson Papers 

L. S. 1 

New York, 22 d . November 

I Deferr'd Acknowledging the Receipt of, & thanking You 
for Your Letter of the 1 Oth Sept r . from the Detroit, untill your 
arrival at Fort Johnson, as I heard you was on your way thither; 
and I have a particular pleasure in Learning by Yours of the 5 th 
Instant, received last Night, that you are Returned in Health. 

The Disposition you left the Western Indians in leaves me no 
doubt, but that everything in those parts will remain quiet, as 
there can be no fear of their being Irritated, or provoked by any 
of His Majesty's Subjects, but on the contrary those Indians will 
always find protection from the King's officers, while they con- 
tinue to Act like true & faithful Allies to his Majesty, which I 
am persuaded will appear to be so much for their own Interest, 
that they will be carefull of Deviating therefrom. 

You are certainly the best Judge how necessary a meeting with 
the Six Nations will be at this time : To me it appears to be very 
requisite, in order that these Nations may be made acquainted 
with your Transactions amongst their Western Brethren, and 
thereby be Convinced of the Strong Chain of Friendship that 
now Subsists between the King's Subjects, and the Several Indian 
Nations in His Majesty's Dominions; And the sooner this meet- 
ing is Called, I think the better. 

I Doubt not but the Regulations you have made, and left at 
the several posts, for fixing the Prices of Goods & Cloathing, will 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 In the Collections of the New York Historical Society for 1876, 
Co Wen Papers, p. 1 30-32, is a letter of November 22d from Cadwal- 
lader Golden to Johnson on the Canajoharie grant, Rev. Henry Barclay's 
grant and Ury Clock's behavior. 

Seven Years' War 571 

Effectually put a stop to the Complaints made by the Indians, in 
regard to the Dearness of those Commodities. 

I shall be very glad to have the particulars of Your proceed- 
ings with the several Conferences which You had on your Jour- 
ney, as well as those at the General meeting at the Detroit; but 
You will please to do whichever is most Convenient for Yourself, 
by transmitting them to me separately, or when the whole are 

You will please to acquaint me of the Quantity of Provisions 
& Ammunition you think absolutely necessary to have at this 
time; I imagine it can be but little, and I will give Directions for 
your being Supplied accordingly. 

Altho' I have ordered all absent officers to their posts, yet as 
L*. Johnson is usefull to you, and that I shall on all occasions be 
glad to oblige you, he may remain with you, untill he settles Your 
Records & ca . after which, if you can spare him, it will be right 
that he joins his Company. 

I Have the pleasure to acquaint you that the Troops under the 
Command of Major General Monckton, 1 all in good health, 
sailed from the hook, on the 1 9 th Instant, with a fair Wind, and 
fine Weather; The whole Consisting of Seventy one Sail. 

I am with great Truth & Regard Sir, Your most obedient 
Humble Servant JEFF. AMHERST. 

P. S. I have not had time as yet to Examine into the Accompts 
You have transmitted me from Capt. Campbell; I imagine you 
have still more accounts of his and I would Settle the whole 
together; I am hopefull all the occonomy that could be used has 
been observed tho' I must own, even these Expences I have seen 
appear to be high. 


In the expedition against Martinique. 

572 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A. L. S. 1 

New York 23 d Nov. 1761. 

I am favoured with yours of the 5 th by yesterday's post. M r . 
Du Bois who is concerned not only for himself but I imagine 
acts for several other Persons interested therein living now at 
Albany, you will consider whether a Line from you to him may 
not be proper on this occasion if the thing can be amicably setled 
it must be most agreeable to all Parties. I will observe to you 
that besides the disadvantage of going so much further from the 
River, they will probably object to paying you 300 for the 
Indian Purchase of 10,000 acres of Land, a Sum altogether I 
believe unprecedented, and they will be lead to inquire whether 
that is the proportion of what you have expended on the 40,000, 
for notwithstanding it is a Real Gift to you, yet it is known that 
presents are always made on those occasions, and whether in 
equity they ought to pay more than their proportion of these and 
other necessary Expences relative to the Indian Claim, You will 
consider as they must pay the purchase of the Additional 20000 
acres. If you don't incline to treat with any Body else about it, 
let rne know whether you are inclinable to abate anything of the 
Rigour this Demand of 300 seems at least to carry with it and 
I will when I know your Sentiments let the Parties on the Spott 
here know them, and acquaint you with their Resolutions. If I 
have any share in it it will be rather with a View to conciliate 
matters than any interested one as to myself ; for I believe if they 
were to pay 300 or even 200 for the whole 30000, after you 
have that quantity next the River, it will be but a bad Bargain. 
I imagine you'l not think it proper to urge the Report on your 
Petition till you know whether the Parties will accept of your 

Destroyed by fire. 

Seven Years' War 573 

offer, and I do not think it proper till your answer to this, to lay 
your proposals before them. We have no particular News but 
what's in the Papers. Your presence here which I wish for from 
every Motive of Friendship will greatly I am certain facilitate 
this knotty piece of Business. 

I am D r . Sir William very sincerely your affectionate & 
obedient Servant 


Klock has a Lycense to purchase a small Tract of about 6 or 700 
acres on the N side the Mohawks River near the Vandrissens 
and the Tract he him self lives on. I see no difficulty in 
excluding him from any Share, if your proposal takes Effect. 



The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 121, by 
a letter of November 26th from William Kelly, at New York, to Johnson, 
about a negro who has fled from Johnson to Connecticut, investments in 
land, the Cosby tract and another. Destroyed by fire. 

D/. 1 

Fort Johnson Nov br . 30 th 1761. 

Yours of the 1 2th Ult. I received a few days ago together 
with y e other Papers it inclosed. I have wrote to General 
Amherst concerning y e Ace". & Protest and shall acquaint you 
with his Answer. I am glad you have sent the 200 Hooes to 
Capt. Campbel, and wish you had been able to have sent the 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

574 Sir William Johnson Papers 

smith also, as he is verry much wanted at Detroit. I beg you will 
send a good one thither as soon as possible, that I may not break 
my word with them Indians. I am much pleased at your getting 
so many of our People out of the hands of the Indians, and hope 
you will soon be able to get all that are yet among them. The 
number you have already got is very considerable, and shews the 
Indians good intentions which, from their late conduct at Detroit, 
I have but little reason to doubt of. 

The regulation you have made, for y e proper Management of 
Indian affairs to y e Westward & ca * is not amiss ; and ought to be 
allowed, if Indian Alliances, or Trade with them be considered 
Worthy our attention, if not it will be thought extravigant & 
unnecessary, however let that be judged of by those, whose 
Province it is. I am obliged to you for the Seeds & ca . You are 
so good to say you will send me to the care of M r . Wade at 
Philadelphia. I assure you I shall take y e greatest care to prop- 
agate them at my new place, & hope they will afford you & me 
pleasure to see them thrive. We all got home safe about y e latter 
end of Octob r . I suffered greatly after I left you by the Ball w ch . 
is lodged in my thigh. It is now somewhat easier. Capt. John- 
son is here yet, & desires his Compliments to Yo. as does all the 
Family. He says nothing can prevent his likeing & Eating Roast 
Beef & ca . or oblige him to exchange it for Indian Meal, . . . 

I wish you well, & am Sincerely your Welwisher & Humble 


P. S- Gov r . Hamilton had a very extraordinary meeting in 
our absence w th . some of the wandering Susquahana Ind 8 . 
Tediescung & a few others whom he declares he never called or 

x Croghan to Johnson, October 12, 1761, q. V. 

Seven Years' War 575 


A. L. S. 1 

Montreal 3<*. Dec'. 1761 

I was yesterday honoured with yours of the 14 th Ult. and 
thereby learn'd your safe arrival at Fort Johnson which gave me 
infinite Pleasure. 

Doubtless you have since received the Packet I sent by M r . 
Matth w . Wade, whereby you'll find the Continuation of my 
Journal and Acco b . of Ind n . Expences agreable to your Desire. 

As to the Caghnawagey & other Indians of Canada I must say 
they in general behave beyond Expectation, notwithstanding the 
indifferent & dispiteful Eye they are looked upon here by the 
People in Power, and the many ill Usages and Robberies they 
meet with from the Soldiery & ca . As to the former I hush it up 
as well as I can by telling them they were Strangers to the Man- 
agement of their affairs, and as to the Latter, I convinced them 
that they will be redressed & get Satisfaction if they have a just 
Cause and the Persons can be found out, and even got Soldiers 
once or twice severely punished on their Acco te . but sometimes in 
drunken affairs they themselves are culpable, and w ch . I repre- 
sented to them very often not to get drunk among a parcel 1 of 
Soldiers who were glad on such occasions to impose upon them. 
There is no Meeting or conference but I give them to consider 
that if any Accident should happen between 2 & the Soldiers 
it would chiefly be their own Fault, having been forwa'rned 
to avoid them as much as possible. I likewise enjoin them 
frequently that if they keep firmly the Engagm*. of Friend- 
ship entered into with you, & would mind diligently their Hunt- 
ing & Planting there would not be a happier People than they, 

1 Destroyed by fire. 

2 Omission in the copy. 

576 Sir William Johnson Papers 

assuring them at the same time in the strongest Terms of the Con- 
tinuation of our Friendship on the former condition. They are 
sensible of it and the Sachems pleased to tell me several times 
that if it was not for my clearing up now & then some Points to 
them they should be uneasy & suspect their New Friends of 
intending to break their Promises. 

I may without Vanity say, that were there not great Precau- 
tions used in these Counter actions, Ind n . Matters would already 
have occasioned Disputes. When I told Gen 1 . Gage of the 
Ind ns . having rec d . News from the upper Nations, that the Eng- 
lish intended to cut off the praying Ind ns . of Canada & ca ., Maj r . 
Hervey replied I should have told them that the English had it 
in their Power whenever they pleased, I thought it not proper to 
give an Answ r . upon it, finding there is great caution to be used 
on both sides, for I can assure you Sir that there is no Discurse 
started here of Ind ns . but they may be dealt with as we please 
and we are so intoxicated with providential Success that we will 
presently stumple over the whole Universe, if no Block should 
happen to lay in our way. 

I pleased myself all summer long with the hopes of making a 
Tour to Fort Johnson in y e Fall but 3 CapF 5 . of our Batt n . being 
gone to New York (2 of w h . were called to EngK) made the 
Duty so unintermitting that I could not expect leave, besides an 
order afterwards from Gen 1 . Amherst commanding all officers to 
join & keep with their respective Corps put it out of the Power 
of the Commanders here to give me Leave. These are Incon- 
veniences not suitable as well to the Business I am employed in 
under you as my own private affairs, & I partly forsaw them 
when ordered to remain here, for from the Beginning I was 
ordered to do Bus 8 , for the Reg*, when in Cantonements and 
after it came to Town was given to understand by the Colo, that 
I could not avoid doing regular duty, so that my Purchasing was 
of many advantages to me such as not doing duty as Subaltern, 
& having now Rank & a much better Right to sell out than 
before, and w c}l . I now did not care how soon it could be brought 

Seven Years' War 577 

about, it will however require a palpable Excuse, such as my 
military Station interfering too much with the other Service & ca . 
as such a speedy change would w*. out it appear some how odd 
to the World. Should the Regiment be broke (which however 
several impartial Politicians have laid wagers that it would not) 
that my half pay would be a sure & high Interest for Life for the 
Money laid out, should it be soon known that it would stand I 
would by selling out gain a couple hundred Guineas. Notwith- 
standing all this had I a clever Opportunity to sell out now I 
would embrace it with Pleasure. 

These and other interesting Points regarding me, made me 
wish ardently to have an Interview with you, but I have already 
mentioned Sir it is not in my Power to effect it here, and the only 
means to obtain Leave is to apply immediately to Gen 1 . Amherst 
as I hinted in my last & w^. I flatter myself had its desired effect 
& I look out for said Permission by the first Slays coming from 
below w ch . must be soon as all the Waters here are passable now 
& with more Surity than last year tho' almost a Month sooner. 

I begun this letter as you found imediately after the Receipt 
of your favor, as it was thought there would be a Post sent off 
before the Winter sat in, but a few days after the weather 
changed so sudden that we have now near 4 feet Snow and the 
cold so severe that notwithstanding the amazing Rapidity of S*. 
Lawrence it spread a Bridge of Ice over it stronger than ever 
since the 20 th Inst & this being the 29 th the Post to set off 

Inclosed I send you a Letter from M r . Roubaud * w^. I tran- 
scribed in English as you desired. That poor man I believe is 
very uneasy & his chief aim perhaps is to get out of this Country, 
as the Jesuits here have detected his Deportment towards us, and 
their Superior was going to send him off but Gen 1 . Burton 2 would 

1 Roubaud to Johnson, October 30, 1761. 

2 Brigadier General Ralph Burton, colonel of the 95th regiment. 

Vol. Ill 19 

578 Sir William Johnson Papers 

not permit it, at the same time he is not a favorite of Colo. Bur- 
tons, as he is constantly plaguing him w th . his schemes & Dis- 
coveries so much that he is looked upon as a little crackd brain ; 
at the same time I could wish he was out of the reach of the 
Jesuits, for if the Country should happen to be given back he 
would certainly be in a bad Box. 

I deferr more particulars to my Arrival at Fort Johns", in the 
interim remain with my utmost Respect, and Compliments to the 
Family Sir Your most Dutyfull humble Servant 

To the Hon ble . SIR W M . JOHNSON Bar 1 . 


Fort Johnson 4 ih Decb r . 1761 

I have been last Summer (by order of General Amherst) as 
far as the Detroit, where, and at the severall Posts in my way 
thither, I have with His approbation, settled (in the most equi- 
table manner I possibly could) the prices of such goods as our 
Traders generally carry to vend among the Severall Indian 
Nations; but the exorbitant hire of the Battoemen, as well as 
that of Carriages at the severall Portages, which I have had an 
opertunity of Seeing enhances the Value of the goods, they carry 
up so much, that it is impossible for the Trader, or Sutler to 
supply either the Troops or Indians at a reasonable rate, this of 
course, must cause a generall uneasiness, as also the latter an 
unfavourable opinion of our veracity, haveing been repeatedly 
assured by the severall Generals, and myself that the English 
could, and would supply all their allies w th . Goods at a cheaper 
rate than the French did, or could do. From these promises they 
flattered themselves & other distant Nations with the hopes of an 

Destroyed by fire. 

Seven Fears' War 579 

extensive, fair and plantifull Trade. It is very evident we can 
perform our promises, and furnish them w th . goods much cheaper 
from this government than the French could, nay even than any 
of y e Southern Gover mts . can do, provided the Battoemen & 
Waggoners hire or wages is regulated by the Legislature. I 
dare venture to affirm, if that is done, the good effect there of will 
soon be felt, as the Trader & Sutlers will thereby be enabled to 
dispose of their goods & stores much cheaper than heretofore, to 
the great Satisfaction & benefit of y e garrisons & Indians, than 
w h . nothing will more contribute towards keeping all the Indians 
now in our alliance firm in their present good dispositions towards 
us, & increase y l . Interest as well as Trade with them. I have 
been an Eye witness to the extravigant rate things were sold for 
at y e severall garrisons, as well as to the Ind s . occasioned chiefly 
by the high wages of the servants employed by y e Traders. I 
looked upon it incumbent on me to represent it to yu the Repre- 
sentatives of this County, and cannot doubt of your zeal & readi- 
ness in endeavouring to remedy an evil so prejudicial in its 
consequences to his Majestys Ind n . Interest, and that of his 
Troops in the severall distant Forts & Posts, who can have no 
refreshment but from the Suttlers & Traders. 

I shall finish with reminding you of a Letter I took the liberty 
of writing you last Summer l before I left home, which I hope you 
received, as I therein observed to you, that the High Ways were 
much neglected & out of repair, owing to the lowness of the Fine 
on such Delinquents as refuse to work at y e Roads, Many choos- 
ing to stay at home, & pay their Fine, w h . is not sufficient now to 
hire others in their stead, as the Law directs. I therefore hope 
you will enlarge the Fines, 2 otherwise I do assure you the Road 
(which should be good thro such a Country as this is and w h . 
would be one of y e greatest inducements to the further settling of 

1 Not f