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Full text of "The papers of Sir William Johnson"


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THE PAPERS OF 
SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON 



Prepared for publication 

by 

ALMON W. LAUBER Ph.D. 

of 

The Division of Archives and History 



ALEXANDER C. FLICK Ph.D., Litt.D. 

Director and State Historian 



VOLUME IX P ■ 



ALBANY 

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK 

1 939 






V 



CONTENTS 



Volume IX 



PAGE 

List and description of illustrations v 

List and description of plans and maps vu 



Pref 



ace 



IX 



Autographs from volume IX X1 

Period of settlement, 1 738-1 744 ' 

King George's War, 1 744-1 748 3 

Period of peace, 1 749-1 755 37 

Preliminary campaigns, 1 755-1 756 153 

Seven Years' War 446 

[iii] 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Fort Johnson Frontispiece 

Courtesy of W. Pierrepont White, Utica, N. Y. 

PAGE 

Sir Peter Warren 1 

From a portrait in the Abbott Collection, New York State Library, 
Albany, N. Y. 

King Hendrick (Tee-yee-neen-ho-ga-row) 60 

From an engraving by J. Simon in American Antiquarian Society Library, 
after a painting by I. Verelst 

Home of Sir Peter Warren, Fourth and Perry Streets, New York 
City 102 

From Martha J. Lamb's History of the City of New Yor\, 1 :588. 

Tomb of Sir Peter Warren in Westminster Abbey 1 02 

From The American Historical Register (1895), 2:975 

House of Colonel John Butler and his son Captain Walter Butler, 

on Switzer Hill near Fonda, N. Y 1 06 

Photograph by Harry V. Bush of Canajoharie, N. Y. 

The Reverend Richard Peters 154 

From John Russell Young's Memorial History of the City of Philadelphia 
from Its First Settlement to the Year 1895, 1 :238 

King Hendrick 156 

From Schoolcraft's Indian Tribes, 6:220 

Home and Monument of Conrad Weiser, erected about 1 732, in 
Conrad Weiser Memorial Park, near Womelsdorf, Berks county, 
Pennsylvania 1 60 

These two pictures reproduced from C. H. Sipe's The Indian Wars of 
Pennsylvania, p. 100 

Captain Robert Orme 186 

From the painting by Sir Joshua Reynolds in the National Portrait Gallery, 
London, England 

Stephen Hopkins 226 

From Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography. 

Iv] 



vi List of Illustrations 

Goldsbrow Banyar 274 

From a painting by an unknown artist, owned by Mrs Banyar Clarkson 
of New York City 

1 homas Penn 470 

From an engraving by C. Turner owned by Historical Society of Pennsyl- 
vania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Colonel James Montresor 858 

From a painting by an unknown artist in New York Historical Society, 
New York City 

George Augustus, Viscount Howe 950 

From an engraving in The European Magazine, November 1 782 



MAPS AND PLANS 



PAGE 
Battle Fought near Lake George on September 8, 1 755 232 

From Documentary History of New York, 4:259 

Plans of Fort Edward 266 

These two pictures reproduced from Winsor's Narrative and Critical His- 
tory of America, 5:512-13 

The Forts at Oswego 504 

From Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of America, 5:511. 

Plan of the Siege of Forts Oswego and Ontario by Montcalm in 

1756 504 

From William Charles Henry Wood's The Passing of Nerv France, p. 34 

Plan of Work done by the Militia under the Command of Sir 
William Johnson at Burnet's Field in April 1 757 680 

In the Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 

A View and Plan of the Work done by the Militia under the 
Command of Sir William Johnson at Burnet's Field in April 

1757 680 

Plan of Stillwater by Colonel James Montresor 808 

From Collections of Nerv York Historical Society, 1881, p. 17 

Attack on Fort William Henry 816 

From John Knox's Historical Journal, ed. Doughty, 1 :68 

Plan of Fort William Henry and Vicinity at the Time of the Siege. 822 

From Avery's A History of the United States and Its People, 4:142 

Plan of Fort William Henry in 1757 by Colonel James Mon- 
tresor 826 

From Collections of NeTD York Historical Society, 1881, p. 23 

Plan of Fort Ticonderoga, 1 758, by Jefferys 930 

From Avery's A History of the United States and lis People, 4:182 

Fort George (Fort William Henry) and Ticonderoga 936 

From Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of America, 5:588 

Military Routes to Canada, 1 755-63 940 

From Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of America, 5:557 

Plan of Fort Carillon (Fort Ticonderoga) 944 

From John Knox's Historical Journal, ed. Doughty, 1:192 

Map of the French Works at Ticonderoga 962 

From Avery's A History of the United Stales and Its People, 4:181 

Map Illustrating the English Advance against Ticonderoga 962 

From Avery's A History of the United States and Its People, 4:179 

[vii] 



PREFACE 



Volumes I and III of The Sir William Johnson Papers were 
printed in 1921 and Volume II followed in 1922 under the 
direction of the then State Historian, Dr James Sullivan. His 
three predecessors were all concerned with the publication of 
the Johnson papers. Hugh Hastings, the first State Historian, 
began to publish a single volume of selected letters — a project 
which his successor, Victor Hugo Paltsits, postponed in 1907 
on account of errors in the editorial work. The Capitol fire of 
1911 seriously injured the Johnson manuscripts, but the third 
State Historian, James A. Holden, proceeded with the prepa- 
ration of the Johnson materials for publication, the gathering of 
maps and illustrations and the search for supplementary Johnson 
items in other hands. Mr Holden thus initiated the principle 
that the series should include all the Johnson papers in the posses- 
sion of the State and also those that could be found elsewhere. 
He had assembled and edited materials for the printer to about 
1755 when he retired from office in 1916. Doctor Sullivan 
continued to have the Johnson papers from 1 755 to 1 762 edited 
by Dr Richard E. Day, under whose scholarly guidance the 
first three volumes were printed. 

When the present State Historian assumed office in 1923 he 
decided to proceed with the publication of the Johnson papers 
according to plans already formulated. He instituted in the 
depositories of the United States, Canada and Europe a more 
thorough search for Johnson items than had hitherto been made. 
As a result several thousand additional letters and documents 
have been obtained. As this new material came to hand it was 
incorporated chronologically in volumes IV to VIII which cover 
the period from January 1763 to October 30, 1775. Notwith- 
standing this practice there have been accumulated enough 

[ix] 



x Preface 

supplementary Johnson data to expand what promised to be 
one into four additional volumes. 

Consequently this new material in volumes IX to XII has 
been arranged chronologically, thus forming practically a second 
series. Volume IX covers the important period from 1 738 to 
1 758. Its contents have come from private collectors, whose 
names are given in connection with the letters, and from the 
Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Calif.; William L. 
Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. ; the Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; the Canadian Public Archives, 
Ottawa ; the Library of Congress ; and the Public Record Office, 
London. To these individuals and institutions the New York 
State Historian wishes publicly to express his thanks for cordial 
cooperation. 

All known Johnson material has been included in this collec- 
tion. In addition many letters of Daniel Claus, hitherto 
unprinted, appear in this volume. The minutes of numerous 
Indian councils are included and throw further light on John- 
son's masterful relations with the red men. A considerable por- 
tion of this primary material dealing with the aborigines is in 
Johnson's own hand. 

It is a pleasure to commend the painstaking scholarship of 
Dr Almon W. Lauber, Assistant State Archivist, who has 
prepared this volume for the press and insured the freedom of 
the text from errors. 

Alexander C. Flick 
Director, Division of Archives and History 

and State Historian 



Autographs from Volume IX 







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From a portrait in the Abbott Collection, New York State Library, Albany, N. Y. 



SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON PAPERS 



PETER WARREN TO JACOB GLEN 

A. L. S. 1 

Boston Sept* y e 3d 1738 
Sir 

My very good freind Coll°: Wendall going your way gives 
Me This oppertunity which I with great pleasure imbrace to 
thank you for your great civility to My nephew M r Johnson 2 
whose welfare I have much at heart, if he can by any Means 
do well there I will Support him as far as possible, and if I am 
not Much Mistaken in him his diligence and Application will 
put him Soon in a good way, I propose to have him Trade a 
little to which purpose I have wrote to My father 3 to lett me 
know what will be proper for y r country in which if you 
can give Me, and him any light I Shall be Oblidged to you, 
and hope some time to have it in My power in person to Thank 
you and assure you how Much I am 

Sir 

Most humble Serv* 

P. Warren 

ADDRESSED : 

To 

Major Glenn at 
Schenectedee 

by 

CoIl«> Wendall 



1 In collection of Mrs Schuyler Van Rensselaer, New York City. 

2 William Johnson who later became Sir William Johnson. 

3 Probably refers to father-in-law. In 1731 Peter Warren married 
Susan De Lancey, daughter of Stephen De Lancey. 



2 Sir William Johnson Papers 

RECEIPT TO ARIN DALINE 
A. D. S. 1 

[September 18* 1741] 

Rec d . of Arin Daline the Sum of ten Pounds three Shillings 
& Seven pence half penny in full of all Acc tts . As Witness 
my hand this 1 8 th . Day of September 1 74 1 

W M . Johnson 



£ 10. .3. .7 



TO EDWARD COLLINS 

March the 26* 1742 
S*. 

Inclosed I send y u . M r Corrys full Ace". 3 I thought it was 
not of much Consequence to draw out all the Particulars of the 
tenants Acc tts . moreover it would be a tedious peice of Work, 
however if it be requisite, please to let me know, and I will draw 
them all out. at first I had but his bare word and Honour for 
the payment of the tenants Debts, but Since I have had Severall 
Letters from him, and in his absence from his Wife Conscerning 
them, and acknowledging the Debt as his own I am Sorry he 
Urges me to this proceeding, however it being his fault, as I 
will plainly, and to his Shame make appear, I Cannot be blamed, 
nor Censured for Useing him as he deserves, therefore in as 
much as it requires haste, I beg you will use your Utmost for 
the Recovery therof, Your Speedy Compliance and Care, will 

highly Oblidge S r . Y r . Most Humble Serv 1 . 

W M . Johnson 

My best respects to^ 
M rs . Collins \ 

1 In collection of John E. Wyman, Fonda, N. Y. 

2 In collection of Stephen H. P. Pell, Ticonderoga, N. Y. 

3 See letter of Corry to Johnson, June 4, 1 742 in The Papers of Sir 
William Johnson, 1:16-18. 



King Georges War, 1744-1748 3 

A BILL OF SALE 

A. D. S. 1 

[March 8, 1744/5] 

Know all Men by these presents that I William Johnson of 
Mount Johnson In the County of Albany, & Province of 
New York, Merchant, for and in consideration of a Negroe 
Man named Quack to me delivered, at and before the ensail- 
ing & delivery of these presents, by Wessell Vanscoike of the 
Citty of Albany black Smith, the receipt whereof I do herby 
acknowledge, and myself to be therwith fully Satisfied & con- 
tent, and therof & everry part therof, do herby Acquit, and 
discharge the S d . Wessell Vanscoik his Exec rs . Adm rs . & 
Assigns, have granted Bargained & Swaped & by these presents, 
do fully clearly and absolutely, grant, bargain, Swap, & release 
unto the Said Wessell Vanscoik, One Negro Boy called Step- 
ney, To Have & to Hold the S d . Negroe Boy Unto the S d . 
Wessell Vanscoik, his Exec rs . Adm rs . and Assigns forever. And 
I, the S d . W m . Johnson for my self, My Heirs, Exec rs . And 
Adm rs . do Covenant & agree to & with the above named Wessell 
Vanscoik his Exec rs . Adm rs . and Assigns, to Warrant & defend 
the exchange of the above named Negroe Boy against all per- 
sons whatsoever, In Witness wherof I have herunto Set my 
hand & Seal this 8 th . Day of March Anno Domini, One 
thousand Seven hundred & forty four, & five 

Sealed & delivered in 
presence of 

W M . Johnson 

Johan Wohl [ 2 ] 

Daniel Coughlan 

indorsed : 

One bill of seel from 
M r : Willem Johnson 



1 In Van Schaick Papers, Gansevoort-Lansing collection, New York 
Public Library, New York City. 
2 Possibly Traugott. 



4 Sir William Johnson Papers 

TO 

Copy 1 

D R . S R . June 23 d 1746 

I am heartily glad I can send you so good an account of our 
Indians at the Mohawk Castle, yesterday I went there and 
called them all together and told them how forward the expe- 
dition was at Cape Briton and would be so here likewise in a 
short time wherefore told them I hoped they would be as ready 
as well w h . would be the only way of recommending them- 
selves to the favors of y e . Government & all their Brothers here 
and a great deal more too tedious to mention. Their answer 
to me was that they would all as one man join heart and hand 
to fight with us again [ st] the french our Common Enemy when 
ever called upon upon which I returned them my hearty thanks 
and gave them a fine large Bull of 5 years old Bread and Liquor 
equivalent w h . I think they deserved I never saw them behave so 
chearful before upon any occasion they are to meet & receive 
the interpreter all painted feathered & dressed, I am in haste 

S r . Y r . assurred freind & humble Serv 1 . 
excuse haste. 

W M Johnson 

TO GEORGE CLINTON 
Copy 2 

[Mount Johnson, July 24, 1746.] 

[ ] 

[ 3 ] 

[ wh]o came 



1 Copy in New York State Library, Albany, N. Y. 

2 In Colonial Manuscripts, New York State Library, Albany, N. Y. 
The Calendar of Colonial Manuscripts, p. 578 lists this item as follows: 
"Mount Johnson, July 24, 1 746. Letter. William Johnson to Gov. 
Clinton, informing him that he had received news by an Indian from 
Canada that a French army was about to attack Schenectady, &c. 
(extract)" 

3 One or more lines burned off. 



King Georges War, 1744-1748 5 

[ ] the Credit of 

] probable for one of them 

] sent to Canada this sumer, is now 

] ago, & affirm, that as he came 

] away from them, the Army was ready 

to March : He traveled day and Night, and so did the Post who 

came [from the] Mohawks with a Belt or String of Wampum 

[and the] said News; He is now with me at my House; 

[He does] not choose to go down alone, wherefore I send 

[him] with one of my People, as I thought it my [duty to] 

acquaint your Ex^. thereof, and of the dificulty [that] the 

Inhabitants up this River are in, by [Reason] of Harvest & 

most of the Indians out a [Hunting.] 



W M Johnson 



Extracted & Ex d P Jn°. Catherwood 



A RECEIPT 
A. D. S. 1 

[March /, 1746/7] 

Rec d . March the 1 st . 1746/7 from His Excelled the Honb ,e . 
George Clinton, four hundred, & thirty Pounds New York 
Currencey, upon Acc tl . of Subsistance for my Self, & Officers 
Under Me, Appointed by his Excelled to Command a Regm*. 
of Christians, & Indians, As also upon Acc lt . of the White 
Peoples Subsistance under me, for w h . I promise to be Account- 
able 

W M . Johnson 



£430 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. 



6 Sir William Johnson Papers 

INDORSED: 1 

Coll 1 . Johnsons Red. 
for £430 paid M r . 
Cruger for his use 
this 14 March 
1746/7 
on acct of his 
Commanding a 
Regim 1 of Christians 
& Indians 
N° 1 

JOHNSON TO CLINTON 

In Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 6:422—24 is printed an extract from 
a letter of 16th March 1747 from Colonel William Johnson to Governor 
George Clinton concerning an engagement between Mohawk and Coghna- 
wage Indians, the discontent of the Mohawks, the neglect of Colonel 
Schuyler to give orders in connection with the affair, the necessity of 
Clinton's sending men to aid the Indians in case of need lest they become 
cowed and dejected and therefore refuse to assist the English who, they say, 
must wish them destroyed since they sent them out in such small parties 
against superior French forces.. Johnson further adds that unless Clinton 
furnishes the desired aid, the inhabitants will quit that section of the 
country. 

TO JACOB GLEN 
L. S. 2 

May 22th 1747. 
Major Glen. 

Sir: 

As the battoes are some returned from Oswego wh I had of 
you, I have ordered the negroe to deliver them to you with what 
poles and Paddles are yours, and hope you will take care of 
them & send me a receipt for as many as you receive that I 



1 In Clinton's hand. 

2 In collection of John E. Wyman, Fonda, N. Y. 



King Georges War, 1744-1748 7 

may see what are wanting. There are some gone down last 
week, dont know whether they have delivered them or not 
What battoes of mine go along down or are there already, I 
should be much obliged to you if you would have them rid 
up in y r Yard safe. In so doing you will much oblige. Im 
Yr Verry Humble Servt. 

W M . Johnson. 

To Major Jacob Glen at Schenectady. 

A RECEIPT 

A. D. S. 1 

[June /, 1747] 

Rec d . the I st . of June I 747 from His Excellencey the HonrbK 
George Clinton, four Hundred, & thirty Pounds New York 
Currencey, upon Ace", of Subsistance for me, My Officers & 
Men, for w h . I promise to be Acctt ble . for . Witness 

my Hand 

W M . Johnson 



£430 



Witness ANTH: DuANE 



INDORSED: 2 



Coll 1 . Johnsons 
rect for Subsistance 
of Self & Company 
for Expedition 

430:0:0. 
June 1 st 1747 

No 4 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

2 In Clinton's hand. 



8 



Sir William Johnson Papers 



A RECEIPT 
D. S. 1 



July 2*. 1747 



Money paid for Scalps & Prisoners as follows — 

Walter Butler 6 Scalps at 10 £ ^ £60. . 

Canajoharees 2 Scalps , 

d os : 3 Prisoners 1 under age 

Thomas Butler 8 Prisoners 2 of age 

& 6 under age 

Gingegoe 7 Prisioners 4 of age , 

3 under age 

3 Scalps under age 

1 Scalp by Daniel the Ind n : &c 



Rec d . the Contents. 2 



Implements 3 Requisite for those Men who are to 
go upon Service w lh . the Indians, Viz f . 

Axes 

Hangers 

Indian Shoes 



20..— 


, . — 


50..— 


, . — 


40..— 


. — 


60..— 


. — 


80..— 


. . — 


30..—. 


. — 


15..—. 


. — 


10..— 


. — 


£365.. 0..— 


W M . Johnson 


to 


'•„ t 









INDORSED: 4 

Coll Johnsons 
receipt for £365:0:0 
for Scalps & prisoners 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

2 In Johnson's hand. 

3 Entire note and list in Johnson's hand. 

4 In Clinton's hand. 



King Georges War, 1744-1748 





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King Georges War, 1744-1748 11 

Receiv'd the 27 th . day of Febry 1 747 from His Excellency 
The Hon ble George Clinton Two thousand six Hundred thirty 
nine pounds two shillings & seven pence in full of the above 
Account, being For the Subsistence & Pay of the Officers & 
Men under my Command as Colonel of the Six Nations of 
Indians from the time they enter'd into His Majestys Service 
upon the late intended Expedition ag l Canada until the 24 th . of 
November 1 747 as ^ my Certificate thereof delivered this day 
to His Excellency. — 

W M . Johnson 

indorsed: 27 Feb?: 1747 1 

Colonel Johnsons Acco* and 
Receipt for the pay of the Troops that were 
on the Indian Service to the 
24 Nov- 1747. 

£2639.. 2.. 7 
No. (4) 

TO JACOB GLEN 

L. s:- 

Mount Johnson May 20 lh 1748 
S«/ _ 

Being so hurryed at Schenectady to gett away I had Not 
time to Acquaint You that the Governour has sent me up a 
Colonels Commission of the Regiment of the County. Where- 
fore Now acquaint You of it, & desire You would write to all the 
Officers of the Regiment, (Except those up here whom I have 
wrote to already,) to send me immediately returns of their 
Companys, w th . all the Officers Names, the dates of their Com- 
missions, and the Number of Men in Each Company that I 
may be able to make a proper return of the whole Regiment 
to his Excellency, In the Mean time while they are doing of 



1 Should read "1748." 

2 In collection of John E. Wyman, Fonda, N. Y. 



12 Sir William Johnson Papers 

this, if You have got ever a late return of the Regiment, I 
should be glad to see it. I intend as soon as I have the Returns, 
to Divide the Regiment As Equal as possible. Wherefore the 
Sooner they make them the better, at those dangerous times. 
Expecting the Speedy Execution of these Orders, I conclude S r 

Y r Most Humble Serv 1 

W M . Johnson 

You are to See that there be 
always ten brisk Men ready to 
Join the thirty, out of the 
three Companys Now there — 
Whom Capt n . Chew has Orders 
to have always ready — 

ADDRESSED : x 

On His Majesty's Service 



To Jacob Glen Esq r . 
Lieu 1 . Coll°. — 

or in his absence to the) 

r* i„ r\tc r at ochenectady 

next Commands. (Jrhcer ^ 

FROM JACOB GLEN 

A. L. sr- 

Schon^: May 21 th : 1748 
Col l : Johnson 

S r : I Rec d : y": of the 20 th Instant by Brandt the Indian 
Yesterday, as for a List of the officers and men Belonging to 
the Regiment I have not, or Ever had, I Applayed to Co": 
Schuyler for one but Never got it, nor do I know The Names of 
all the Cap ts :, as many as I know I have put their Names in 



1 In Johnson's hand. 

2 In collection of John E. Wyman, Fonda, N. Y. 



King Georges War, 1744-1748 13 

the Inclosed List, I Desire to be Excused to Send orders to 
them, and hope youl be as good and write to his Excellency & 
Desire him to Excuse me, and put another Lieu 1 : Co 11 : In my 
Place or Stead and youl Verry much Obleidge 

S r . Y r friend and most obedient 
Serv 1 



Jacob Glen 



ADDRESSED : 

To 1 

Lieu': Collonel Jacob Glen 
att 
Schenectady 



TO JACOB GLEN 

A. L. S. 2 



Coll°. Glen/ 
Sir/ 



May 23 J 1748 



I am Surprised to hear that you would Incline to lay down 
y r . Commission, att least dureing the Warr, as there is none 
Else there so fitt to have that Command, as Yourself and Can 
thereby be the means of Doing Y r . Country Service, Where- 
fore beg You will lay aside Such thoughts & let us Settle the 
Regiment, as Soon as possible, for the Security of the Country, 
for as it is now without being Settled, We are in a poor way, 
I should be glad to hear from you as Soon as possible & Should 
be much oblidged to You for the loan of the History of the 
five Nations & the late Act of Assembly Conscerning the Regu- 
lateing of the Militia of the County of Albany. Both of w h . 



1 Evidently should read "from." The address then becomes an 
indorsement. 

2 In collection of John E. Wyman, Fonda, N. Y. 



14 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I shall return you again in a Week, or ten days. I am S r Y r 
Real freind 

& Humble Serv 1 . 

W M . Johnson 

ADDRESSED: 

To 

Lieu t . Coll°. Jacob Glen 
att 

Schenectady 

FROM JACOB GLEN 

A. L. S. 1 

Schon^. May 24 th 1748 

S r . I Rec d . Y rs . of the y e 23 d Instant I think it Impossible 
for you me or any body Else to Settle the Business of the 
Regiment well in the way you Now propose to me, the only 
Way I thinck it Can be Settled, is to do it in the way you 
first proposed to me, and if that Cant be done, to Leave it as 
it Was Before otherways it will Create to you & many of your 
Real friends a great Deal of 111 Will amoung the People and 
Strengthen y r Enemyes this S r . is the Sinceer Sentement of 

Y r . Real & True friend & 
Humb 1 Servant 

Jacob Glen 



1 In collection of John E. Wyman, Fonda, N. Y. ; written on back 
of letter from Johnson to Glen, May 23, 1 748. 



King Georges War, 1 744-1 748 



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32 Sir William Johnson Papers 

TO GEORGE CLINTON 

Albany Octob r . 11*. 1748 

May it please your Excellc y ./ 

I am Honoured with both Yours of the 5 th . & 6 th . Ins 1 , and 
shall punctually observe everry thing you are pleased to order 
therein, but I heartily wish Your Excellency had Sent a Gentle- 
man from New York, to go with the french Party to Canada, as 
you are Sensible S r . of the great Difficulty it is to find such a 
one here. Moreover, I am att a loss how to act in relation to 
their pay, not haveing the least word of that mentioned in 
y r . Excellcy 8 . letter which is the principall thing, and what they 
will all be Assured of, Ere they move a foot. And as I fancy 
the Hurry of Business has been the Occasion of your Excel- 
lenceys not mentioning anything of it, I hope what I do 
may be Agreable. As I assure You Sir, I will use my 
utmost Endeavours to manage for the best, therefore hope 
Your Excelled in your next will please to let me know 
how those people are to be payed whom I Send to Canada, as 
I am Oblidged to engage for their pay. — I herewith Send 
Your Excellcy. a pair of black horses, the best I could find in 
those parts, and altho they are not very large I dare answer for 
their doing the Service of the largest if well managed, & taken 
Care of. I am quite ashamed I could not Send you them 
Sooner, but I assure y r . Excellency it is a verry difficult thing 
to get a good large horse here being all picked up, by New 
England, & Philadelphia Jockeys, att Extravigant prices. — I 
should be glad of your Excellcy* Leave to take a trip to New 
York as Soon as I send away the french Party, & ours, having 
some affairs to Settle there. — I have agreable to you Excellcy 8 . 
orders Sent the Provisions, and Releif to Oswego, which as it 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. 



King Georges War, 1744-1748 33 

was Unexpected, put me to a good deal of Difficulty and 
needless Expence. yet should not so much mind that, could I 
but get my money regularly payed, which the Province is Justly 
indebted to me. — I shall take Care to Send your Excellc*. 
again the Kings birthday Some Venison, splitt pease, & the best 
potatoes here, &ca. — & hope (with y r . Excellcy 8 . liberty) to 
be down then my self. — I am heartily Sorry, att Your 
Excellcy*. haveing so obstinate a Sett of people to deal with, 
whom by their proceedings & Management [from first to last] 1 
Seem to aim at nothing, but to distress those New raised Troops, 
as they go the most Effectual way to Work for doing of it, by 
keeping them without Pay, or Provision this good while past, 
they Could not be kept, or Continued this fourthnight past, had 
not the Officers given their own Notes for the payment of what 
provisions they get from the Commissarys, that is Some of the 
officers, viz 1 . Stoddard, Chew, Butler, Sloss, Lawrie & Corry.. 
the rest who are Dutchmen Sayed they would not run any 
risque, so their Men are oblidged to Shift for themselves about, 
& of Consequence under no good Command. Wherefore should 
be verry glad if y r . Excelled thought proper, (if they cannot 
be regularly payed, & maintained for a Certain time,) to dis- 
charge them, as at present they are only a plauge to me, & 
their Officers to endeavour to keep 'em. but, had they their due, 
they could be kept in as good Order as any Men in the world, 
and as long. I know it will be the Means of giveing Our 
Neighbours the Indians, room to think, that we are determined 
not to Stand by them, Should they See all those Compy* break 
up, before things are Settled, and their [prisoners,] 1 people 
restored, for how Can they be perswaded it is a peace As 
long as the French keep their people in fetters, and [u)*'//] 1 not 
restore them & after they had Sent four of the Canadians to 
redeem theirs, yet were refused — therefore I think, if them 



1 Words in italics and inclosed in brackets are crassed out in the 
manuscript. 

2 



34 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Officers whom I mentioned before, & their Companys were 
Continued only Untill Spring, to keep the Indians in temper, 
untill we were Assured of a peace, w h . in all probability must 
be before that time, it would be of great Service, and the only 
best Means of Continueing the two Castles of the Mohawks our 
freinds. I hope y r . Excelled will please to pardon the liberty 
I take, in giveing you my Sentiments so freely, but as it so 
much behoves me to Continue the Indians our freinds, and as 
I take what I've wrote (if complyed with) to be a great Step 
towards it, could not avoid acquainting y r . Excellency thereof. — 
As Your Excelled desires I should assist M r . Erwin, who comes 
here to recruit, I will do it, provided the Forces, or any part of 
them, are disbanded and doubt not of getting Governour Shirley 
a great many Men. Your Excellency I hope will Excuse the 
Many Blunders herein, Occasioned by Hurry. I am w th . the 
greatest Respect Imaginable. — 

Your Excellency*. — 

Most Oblidged, & Most 
Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 

ADDRESSED: 

To 

His Excellencey — 
Governour Clinton 

INDORSED: 1 

Coll Johnson 1 1 Oct r . 

Reed 17* 1748 

To be Copyed to go home 



1 In Clinton's hand. 



King Georges War, 1744-1748 35 

A BILL OF EXCHANGE 
D. S. 1 

Exchange £ 2836 . . 1 3 . . 1 Sterling 

New York the 5 th . day of November 1748 
Sir 

At Sixty — days sight of this my Third of Exchange my 
First and Second of the same Tenor and date not paid please 
to pay unto William Johnson Esq r . or Order the Sum of Two 
thousand Eight hundred & Thirty Six Pounds thirteen Shillings 

and one penny Sterling for Value Received 

of him being upon Account of Sundry Charges incurred in His 
Majesty's Service for Keeping the Six Nations of Indians and 
their Allies Strictly Attached to the King's Interest and Steady 
in their Alliance pursuant to his Majesties Directions Signified 
to Governour Shirley and me by his Grace the Duke of New- 
castle in Letters to us dated the 3 d & 27 th October 1747. for 
that purpose. I am 

Sir 

Your most Humble Servant 

G. Clinton 

To The Right Honourable William Pitt Esq r . 
Pay Master General of His Majesty's Land Forces [» 
or the Pay Master General for the time being 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. 



36 Sir William Johnson Papers 

PURCHASE OF A HOUSE 

D. 1 

[Undated] 

A House and Lot in High Street — City of Albany 2 Stories 
high — Brick Building — good cellers Kitchen B leech Yard 
Stabling & a & a purchased by Sir W m . Johnson in the year 
1748 — Valued at £1500 N. Y. C. 2 
A Water Lot & frame House on it— £500—0—0 



N. Y. C. £2000.. 0..0 

TO GEORGE CLINTON 
Copy 3 

ML Johnson J amy: 22d 1748/9 

May it please y r . Excelley : 

I am honoured w th . yours of the 6th Inst: by the post 
together w th : a Letter to the Govern r . of Canada w h . I shall 
take care to forward by Capt n . Stoddert & give him the properest 
Instructions I am capable of, for the Speedy recovery of our 
People there, & particularly the 4 Ind s . who are now two years 
& Eight Months there, an Age indeed, for such people who 



1 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada. Miscellaneous 
Papers, 1714-1790, Claus Papers, W. Vol. 14. The item is written 
on a scrap of paper. 

See Johnson to Peter Warren, July [22d] 24th., 1 749, where he 
mentions purchasing houses in Albany and Schenectady, and Johnson to 
Peter Middleton, Sept. 16, 1755. 

See also record of Common Council of the City of Albany for Feb. 
1 9, 1 759 which sold Sir William Johnson a parcel of land adjoining his 
property, and a deed by the City of Albany to Sir William Johnson, 
May 31, 1759 of a lot near the waterside bounded on north and east 
by city land. 

2 New York currency. 

3 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. 



Period of Peace, 1 749-1 755 37 

were never used to any Confinement & as nothing but their 
Steadfastness to the Brittish Interest, could have caused the 
French to detain them so long, I think they ought to meet with 
a reception (att their return) adequate to their Merit, w* 1 . I 
am sorry is not in my power to give them, as they will look to 
me & no Body Else for it. As for the Affidavits against 
Collins, I realy had not time to gett them, being much hurryed 
Since I came home w*. moveing into my New House &ca. but 
by the next post shall transmit them to y r . Excelled. I am verry 
glad y r . Excelley. has given orders, to have the Ind n . Children 
returned w h . are kept by the Traders, as pawns or pledges, 
but I cant find that Mrs. Abeel, who has a Seneca child, or 
Vandreisen who has got a Mississagey, are to deliver theirs w h . 
I am apprehensive will cause great disturbance. As to the 
girl Lieut Lindsay bought, or the Boy w h . was made him a 
present, is quite a different thing, as they were prisoners of 
war taken by the Ottawawees from other Nations of the Flatt- 
heads whom they always dispose of at pleasure, & have done 
it everry year since Oswego has been frequented by us, the 
French likewise buy them daily, but those w h : the Traders 
took as pledges, or rather stole from them, (as the parents 
came att the appointed time to redeem them, but they sent them 
away before hand) were Children of our friends, & Allies, & 
if they be not all returned next spring it will confirm w f . the 
French told the Six Nations, Vizt. that we looked upon them 
as our Slaves, or Negroes, w h . affair gave me a great deal of 
trouble att that time to reconcile. I must acquaint y r . Excell^- 
that most of the Ind 8 . of both the Mohawk Castles are deter- 
mined (in a very short time) to go to War against the Cataba's, 
& are to be joined by great Numbers of their Bretheren, as 
also by severall other Nations. I have for this time past, Kept 
them from that Vile practice, notwithstanding the French used 
all their Endeavours to sett them on, but as affairs are circum- 
stanced at present, it is out of my power to attempt it. How- 
ever I must humbly represent to y r . Excelley. that the bringing 
about a peace between y m . & ours, would be a thing of great 



38 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Importance, & the only way in my humble opinion to Effect 
it, would be to get about half a Dozen of the Chiefs of that 
tribe, or nation, to come here, & desire a peace w th . the Six 
Nations, w h . I flatter myself I could persuade them to agree 
to, the best time would be when y r . Excelle?. was here, & have 
it done in y r . Presence. I hope Sir you'l pardon me for making 
free to give you my Sentiments thereon, there is the pay of the 
Smiths who were sent by y r . Excelley s . orders among the five 
Nations, due for two years past, w h : they daily plague me for. 
I hope y r . ExcelR will please to recommend the payment thereof 
to the Assembly when they meet next, as also Interest for the 
time they kept me out of my Money, Disbursed for the Service 
of the Province at the Risque of my life & fortune, & at a time 
when none Else here would dare to undertake it. I think there 
cannot be a juster demand made, moreover they must be all 
sensible that it has been a great loss to me in my way of Business. 
The Oneida Sachems were w th . me last week earnestly desiring 
they might be allowed a Smith among them. I told them I 
would acquaint your Excels, of it & let them know y r . answer 
soon, there is but one Smith this Winter among the five Nations, 
& y*. is at the Seneca's, who pressed very hard for it, I agreed 
w th . him for £ 70 but he writes me last week y l . he was oblidged 
to make presents to the Chiefs to the Value of ab l . £ 1 2 w h . 
he hopes the Assembly will allow, as it has been Usuall. I 
hope y r . Excelled will not forget to have the Militia Act 
revived next meeting of the Assembly, otherwise it is better 
have none, for if they will not make Strict Acts in that Case 
there can be no Command, & I think in this part above any, 
the Militia should be well disciplined, & Regular. Submitting 
the whole to y r . Excell? 8 . Superior Consideration, I conclude 
with the greatest respects Imaginable, Your Excelly*. Most 
Obedient 

Humble Servant 
INDORSED : 

Copy of a Letter to Gov r . Clinton. 



Period of Peace, 1 749-1 7 55 39 

TO GEORGE CLINTON 

Contemporary Copy 1 

Albany, June. 28 th . 1749 — 

May it please your Excell y . 

Upon the Red. of yours Dated June the 7 th - I immediately 
called both the Castles of the Mohawks together, & again 
intreated them earnestly not to Interfere in the Exchange or 
Redemption of their Prisoners, but leave it intirely to you, & 
in order to Enable you to accomplish it, insisted on their Deliver- 
ing up to me all the French still remaining in their hands, which 
at length by much ado they agreed to upon paying them con- 
siderable rewards which I was obliged to do, e'er I could get 
them out of their Hands. Indeed it is more than ever Expected 
that they would part with them all at any rate, they had sev 1 . 
Invitations to go to Canada, & among the rest a very strong 
one from Nichus the Sachim in Goal, & all the rest to come, 
if they had any regard for them, seeing your Excellency's 
Endeavours were to no purpose hitherto, this Message with a 
Belt of Wampum had so great a Weight & touched the five 
Nations in Gen 1 , so much, that they Determined to send so 
many of each Nation to Canada immediately, & among the 
rest sev 1 . of the Chiefs of the Two Castles of the Mohawks, 
with Nichus's Wife & Family, which would have been all the 
French Governour could desire, & what he has this long time 
been Endeavouring to bring about, with all the Policy he was 
Master of; but I can with great Pleasure acquaint your Excelly. 
that I have overset all his Schemes, by preventing them from 
going to him, & by getting all the Prisoners intirely out of their 
hands being 19 in all so that there remains nothing here to be 
done more, wherefore hope & beg your Excelb. will Endeavour 
as soon as possible to get the Indians from theme with the rest, 
otherwise it will intirely overset all that I have done hitherto, & 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. 



40 Sir William Johnson Papers 

make the Indians very ill Tempered, to say no more, as they 
have so long left it to us. 
I am 

your Excelly*. 
most Obed*. hble Serv'. 

W M : Johnson 
To 
His Excels. Gov R . Clinton 

FROM BENJAMIN STODDERT 

A. L. S. 1 

Oswego July y e : 2 d : 1749 
D R Sir/ 

There has been but little Trade since my last therefore cant 
write you on that Head, tho have heard that my french Mer- 
chants are a Trading among the Ottawawa's and presume on 
their return they will call on me with their returns &c &c 

We have various reports here of an Army gone to Ohio 
some making it very Numerous others but a few so that we 
cant tell which to confide in tho' its beyond doubt that therir 
is one of some sort, as it has been told here by several Indians 
both Cocknawagers and others; and by a Sechem from Onan- 
dauga who came here this Day we have the following Ace*. 
w ch . he says he had from some Indians from Canada (Viz) 
That the french had spoke to the Fighters of the Cocknawagers 
with a Belt of Wampon for their assistance, but were refused 
by them, and they then Applyed to the Sechems for their 
Interest with the Young Men but they refused them also and 
told them they had been a great while a fighting for them and 
as it was now a Peace they would not take up the Hatchett 
again &c &c and he says they were also refused in the like 
manner by several Other Indians who they Applyed to for 
Assistance, and that they had in all but Six Indians that Joined 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. 



Period of Peace, 1 749-1 755 41 

them, Three of which are Cocknawagers, & that their Army 
Consisted in all of Three Hundred French & the Six Indians — 
Janquare 1 is gone in the expedition and was to have commanded 
the Indians if they could have prevailed w*. them to have gone. 
This ace 1 , tho' imperfect Seems the most Authentick I have 
heard — 

My Compliments to all freinds and Am 
D r . Sir 

Your most Humble Serv 1 . 

B. Stoddert 
P: S: 

As this is Capt. Lyndseys 
Birth Day we're to celebrate it 
this even g : — 

ADDRESSED : 

To 

Col°: William Johnson 
at 

Mount Johnson 



INDORSED: 2 



Cap 1 . Stoddards letter to Coll Johnson 
2^ July Reed y e 22<* 1 749 
Sent a Copy to Govrn s Shirley 
& Hamelton y e 24 th . 

FROM ARENT STEVENS 
Contemporary Copy 3 

Oswego July 2 d 1749 



S R 



This is to acquaint you that the Caiuga Indians came here 
to Capt Lindesay 4 and I, to let us know that the 5 Nations 



1 Jan Coeur, also called Joncaire. 

2 In Clinton's hand. 

3 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. ; in hand- 
writing of John Ayscough. 

4 Captain John Lindesay (Lindsay). 



42 Sir William Johnson Papers 

were resolved to go to Canada, & they said the Mohawks was 
to go along with them, that they would join the Mohawks to 
get the Indians out of Prison, that they did expect the Mohawks, 
in Short Captain & I answered them with a Belt of Wampum, 
& told them that we did not agree, that one Should go down 
before we had an Answer from your Honour, that we wondred 
that they should offer to go without your Consent, and we 
insisted upon it, that they should not go without your Liberty; 
They answered us they w d not go before we had an Answer 
from your Honour, we told them also to remain at home till 
they saw what would become of the French Army, which is 
past, we did speak with two different Nations since the last 
Letter So no more at present but remain your most Obedient 
Servant 

Arent Stevens 

To 
Coll Johnson 



FROM JOHN LINDSAY 
Contemporary Copy 1 

[Oswego, July 2 J , 1749] 
S R 

Having read the above, 2 I have nothing to add but to intreat, 
if possible, some other method may be taken, to release the 
Indian Prisoners, than that they Should be released by the 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. ; in handwritng 
of John Ayscough — subjoined to letters of Benjamin Stoddert and Arent 
Stevens to Johnson, July 2, 1 749. 

2 The letters of Benjamin Stoddert and Arent Stevens to Johnson, 
July 2, 1 749. 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 43 

Interest of the five Nations, for it will be on hard terms, they 
will obtain this. I am S r . Entirely yours &c 

John Lindesay 
To 
Coll Johnson 

indorsed: 1 

Arent Stevens 

& 
Coll Lydius's Letters 
to Coll Johnson 
2^ July 1 749 

CADWALLADER COLDEN TO WILLIAM SHIRLEY 

Extract 2 

New York July 25* 1749 

The Indian affairs deserve the most serious attention as not 
only a very considerable branch of the Brittish Commerce but 
likewise the Security of the Colonies in North America depends 
upon it They has been exceedingly neglected by the English 
while the French have applied indefatigable industry to pro- 
mote their Interest Seldom any have been employ'd in man- 
ageing publick affairs with the Indians but a low ignorant set 
of mankind who were capable of no other views but that of 
promoting their private profit in Trade & which they have don 
by the most shamefull means so as to become contemptible in 
the eyes of the Indians Your Excellency is so well acquainted 
with these affairs that it is needless to enlarge upon them The 
strongest proof of what may be don appears by what Coll 
Johnson did last War & at this time The GoV of Canada 
has at this time sent out a considerable force with a view it is 



1 In John Ayscough's hand. 

2 Printed in Collections of New York Historical Society, 1 920, Colden 
Papers, 125-27. 



44 Sir William Johnson Papers 

thought to chastise those nations who favour'd us in the late 
War & to obstruct the English commerce to the Westward He 
sent the Caknuaga's among the five Nations to incite them to 
make Wars on the Flatt heads & they would have gon if Coll 
Johnson had not prevented it By the information the Gov r has 
from Oswego The Gov r of Canada has not been able to per- 
swade any one Nation of Indians to join with him no not so 
much as the Caknuagas who live near Montreal & were ingaged 
with him in the last War That only six single Indians are now 
gon with the French party The five Nations at the Conclusion 
of Any former War made Peace Separately with the Gov' 
of Canada & enter'd into Treaties & Negociations prejudicial 
to the Interest of the Crown of Great Brittain The Gov r has 
hitherto stopt their going to Canada they have deliver'd up to 
him all the French prisoners that were in their hands & trust 
to him for obtaining the Liberty of their prisoners who are in 
Canada So that if he be not disabled by the assemblies refusing 
him sufficient supplies for this Service it is hopd this entering 
into treaties between the Gov r of Canada & the Six Nations 
may for the future be prevented 

I am told that S r Peter Waren has advised Coll Johnson 
who is his Nephew no longer to assist Gov r Clinton in the Indian 
affairs & to decline all publick business & to attend only his 
own private affairs It is so much Coll Johnson's interest to 
please his Uncle that it is expected he will submit to his Desire 
which the ingratitude of the Assembly might make him likewise 
incline to do The Faction hereby hopes that the Indian affairs 
will return into the old channel of Comm" at Albany What 
is like to be the consequence of this your Excelb from past 
experience can Judge as well as any man I've heard that Col 1 
Johnson has recommended M r Lydeus to be Secretary for 
Indian affairs but I doubt of his being equal to this task In 
my opinion some person of known prudence should be imploy'd 
to superintend the Indian affairs with a sufficient allowance to 
support him in the execution of his Duty & to reside at Albany 
This officer to be immediately under the Direction of the Gov* 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 45 

of New York but to Correspond with all the neighbouring 
Governors By this Method I think the Indians affairs may be 
soon brought into such a state that the Nation will reap great 
Benefite by it 

FROM GEORGE CLINTON 
Df. S. 1 

August 9 th 1749 
S*. 

enclosed I have sent you my Letter to the Governour of 
Canada, and Instructions to the Person that goes with my 
Deputation [thither for exchange of Prisoners]. You have 
hereby [my leave] full Power to [fill] appoint the Principall 
Person & his Attendants, & to fill up the Blanks in my Letter 
to Gov r of Canada The Instructions, & Pass port; [/ Would 
not have the Number of him & his Attendants exceed six, 
neither would I have you send with them above that Number 
of French Prisoners. As I leave it to you to send which of 
them you think proper, I doubt not but you will fix on those, 
who you think will do us the most justice, in relating the 
humanity used in taking Them from the hands of the Indians, 
& providing for them in the hospitable manner We have since 
in your possession] I would not have you send above 6 of the 
French Prisoners 

In case the Governour of Canada should insist on the seeing 
any one particular Instruction that I give to the Person you 
appoint as principal I would have him draw out a Copy of that 
Instruction & certify it under his hand to be a true Copy & show 
it to him but not to let him see the [whole] whole original of 
them by any means only such particular ones as he shall demand 

[/ must recommend M r Cerrardus Croesbeck to go under 
protection of the Company with the Flag of Truce, he being a 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. ; in handwriting 
of John Ayscough. Words italicized and inclosed in brackets are 
crossed out in the manuscript. 



46 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Relation of the Mayors, & has large debts due to him from 
several Persons in Canada, & therefore has applied to me for 
protection, in going there in the Company, but not to have any 
thing to do in the Negotiation, with the Person you appoint to 
treat with the Cov r of Canada, only I desire the Deputy will 
countenance & protect him in his journey & when there, at his 
own Expence I have gave him a passport for that occasion] 
coll Johnson has Leave to fill up Blanks of French Prisoners 
not to exceed 6 in Number [as retinue to the principal] 
to recommend Gerrardus Groesbeck as one of the Attendants, 
not as servant. 

To Copy out the Article of Instructions to empower to treat 
to show the Gov r of Canada but not to show his other Instruction 

Whereas I have thought fit to send 

to [Canada] Quebeck to treat with M r Le Galissoniere Gov r of 
Canada as my Deputy these are to certify that the said 

has full power & authority to treat with the 

said Governour & transact all manner of business relating to 
prisoners as well Indians and Xtians for me, & in my behalf, 
as if I was there in Person 

G. C. 
memorandum an additional Instruction for Banyar 
If M r Gerrardus Groesbeck has a mind to go to 
Canada under the Convoy I would have you 
insert his name in the Passport but at his 
own Expence 

INDORSED: 1 

36 

Df* Letter to Coll 
Johnson with my 
Letter to Gov r of Canada 
and Instructions 
9 th August 1 749 



1 In Clinton's hand. 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 47 

TO GEORGE CLINTON 

A. L. S 1 

Albany August 19 th . 1749 

May it please Your Excellc y . 

I arrived at Albany, after haveing a passage of 8 days, where 
I mett two Coghnawagees, who told me, that their Cheifs were 
gone to Quebec to meet their New Governour, and Endeavour 
to get the Indians out of Goal, & then come with them Here. — 
After ordering all things to be made ready for sending of Your 
Excellcy 8 . dispatches to Canada; together with the female 
Prisoners I went home the next Day, where I found (to my 
great trouble) above Sixty of the Oneida, & Conajoharee 
Indians, who waited my return Eighteen days. I imediately 
called a Meeting of both the Castles, & the Oneidae's who 
were here together, Wherin I first Satisfied them all, for my 
long Stay, & then told them in what manner Y r . Excellency 
proposed sending the French Prisonners, for the redemption of 
their People, that You would only send Six now, the better 
to secure the release of y e . Indians and our People, they 
approved much of Your Excellencys Sending only a part now. 
they also promised me (y l . not notwithstanding the many Mes- 
sages, & hearty Invitations of the French Govern 1 , and Coghna- 
wagees to them, and more particularly an Extraordinary one 
Sent them now Since I come home, to go Imediately to Canada 
for their Bretheren, prisonners there.) that they would listen to 
their Invitations, nor regard their threats, but leave it intirely to 
Your Excellency's Management, begging most earnestly at 
the Same time, that Your Excellcy. may use Your Utmost 
Endeavours to get their Bretheren home now. Which I assured 
them they might depend upon, it being (to my knowledge) 
Your Excellcys Cheif desire, & Study, att which Assurance 
they were well Contented. After that was Over, I had a 
Seperate meeting w tl \ y e . Oneidae's who told me they were Sent 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. 



48 Sir William Johnson Papers 

down by the five Nations in General to Assure me they had 
seriously considered the Messages I had Sent them this Spring. 
(The Substance of which in Short was this, to desire they would 
endeavour to recover their Senses which Seemed to me they 
almost lost by listening so much to the French as I found they 
had, & that they should once more Unite Strongly together as 
Bretheren, & be One Body, according to the old Agreement 
made between their Forefathers, and Ours. A Belt of 
Wampum — In the Second place Hearing that there was a Preist 
to Settle within twelve miles of Oswego, I insisted in the 
Strongest Manner, that the five Nations should by no means 
allow of it as they were Owners of that land, telling them the 
bad consequences would inevitably follow, and a great deal 
more too tedious now to insert here.) & that they (the five 
Nations) acknowledged] they acted In Some measure as 
Drunken Men, but would now follow my directions by makeing 
a Stronger Union than Ever, with their Brethren, & Remain 
Inseperable. A Belt of Wampum. — 

In the Second place they assure me, they have at my desire 
prevented the Preists Settleing within a hundred Miles of 
Oswego, which I realy find to be so, by the Coghnawagees here 
now. — they gave Another Belt of Wampum upon that. — Now 
to return to the Affair in hand. M r . Robert Saunders Setts of 
in two days for Canada, with Major Vanderheyden, five hands 
to attend them, & Six french Prisonners which makes thirteen in 
all. There is one part of Your Excellcy s . Instructions that M r . 
Saunders made a great difficulty of, & was of Opinion that his 
Journey would be to no purpose, if he must Strictly adhere to 
this part of the Instructions which says, = As it is Suspected 
that y e . Govem r . of Canada may raise difficulties, or make 
Excuses, as to the Imediate liberty of the prisonners in the 
hands of the french Indians, under Severall pretences, If the 
Indians, & Christian Prisonners in his own power be Imediately 
set at liberty With a Conditional promise, that the other 
prisonners in the hands of the French Indians, Shall be sett at 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 49 

liberty at a Certain time. Then You may Agree that all the 
French prisonners Shall be Sett at liberty, on the first Notice I 
have of the liberty of the English, & Indian Prisonners in the 
Governour of Canadas Hands & that the Governour may Send 
proper persons to conduct them Home. He asked my Opinion 
upon it, Whether he could Accept of the Indians who are in 
Goal, & the English prisonners in the Governour of Canadas 
power, if offered, in Case the Govern', of Canada would make 
him no promise of Delivering up those prisonners in the hands 
of the Indians. I told him my opinion before Dow, & Tenyke 
the Members, & Lyddius, that he must in the Strongest manner 
Insist on the liberty of all the Prisonners without Distinction, 
or Ransom, according to the Instructions but Should the Gov r . 
of Canada not agree to deliver up those among the French Ind ns . 
at his own charge, as Expected, I thought it was much better 
to take the Indians, & all those in His own power, than to Come 
away with out them, as I am Sensible the Consequences might 
be worse than I can tell. I hope Your Excellency will be 
so Good to Excuse the freedom I took in giveing my Senti- 
ments to him upon that Article, as he would not otherwise take 
it upon him. I should not have presumed to have Sayed so 
much to him about it, had I not heard y r . Excellency Say that 
that if You Could Gett the Indians & Prisoners in his power, 
that You would not Insist at present positively on the Rest. 
Which in my small Judgement is right, on Acc tl . of getting the 
Indians, and it was the Opinion of the two Members &ca So 
that I hope I have not done amiss in adviseing him so. If I 
have, I must Desire Y r Excellency will be so good as to [ 
for the best. Yet if it should seem otherwise [ 
You will let me know it ^ first sloop, that [ ] 

offers Soon, (which is verry likely by Coghnawf ] 

of Y r . Excellency 8 , further pleasure before he [ 
of Canada. I have on Seriously consider [ [ 

much better there should none of our Ind[ 
the Gov r . of Canada may now See, what an [ 
Your Excellcy. has over the Indians, that e[ ] 



50 Sir William Johnson Papers 

not go to redeem their own flesh, & Blood [ 
Moreover if they were to go now with M r Sau[nders 
it was on their Ace", he Sett them at libe[rty 
Wherefore I have Sent none, & hope Y r . Excellency 
I inclose Y r . Excellc?. a french letter which a[ 
Cheif Engeneer in Canada, and Sent me by a [ 
had it of a Squaw. You'l See thereby the Desig [ 
the Oswego trade, and all Communication, [ 
liveing beyond them Lakes, which would [ 
As to the Change of the Commission of the pe [ 
Excellency have it as soon as this Harry is [ 
I am much oblidged to Your Excellc?. for get[ 
and belive I could recover some part of the [ 
Method You are pleased to Mention, but agai[ 
so long; it will be as good to try what they will [ 
I send your Excellency by Cap 1 . Vanallen, t[ 
Bills, for the Dollars You were so good to le[ 
and it is well I have them, for here are no[ 
Y r . Excellency had thought of Sending up the [ 
would have been of Use to M r . Sanders, her[ 
but a Brother in law of Collin's, and he re[ 
Even to See them, but he would Sell them, [ 
pounds for them. Your Excellcy. may I b[ 
here are. I fear I have trespassed too m [uch 
Patience, So beg leave to Conclude with [ 
Imaginable S r . 

Y r . Excellency [s] 

Most Obledged [ ] 

Humble Servan[ t] 

W[ M . Johnson] 
To Governour Clinton 



indorsed: 1 



Coll 1 . Johnson 19th August 
Reed 6 Septemb r . 1 749 



1 In Clinton's hand. 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 51 

TO GEORGE CLINTON 

Mount Johnson 7K 20 l K 1749 

May it please Your Excellency. 

I am honoured with Yours of the 7 th . Instant 
and am glad to find therby that what I have 
done is agreable to your Excellency. When I 
left Albany last, I gave Beaubasin orders to 
return in 2 or three days, which he proposed 
doing. But Abeel took his Birch Canoe to York 
without his leave, which oblidged him to wait Abeels return, 
who is now gone to Canada with Beaubasin, as I am told, 
to Shew the French the art of makeing Wampum, which 
they never knew any thing of before. I have laid everry thing 
plainly before the Indians as Y r . Excellency desired, and do 
Assure You Sir, it is Incredible how easy, & well tempered 
they are Considering everry thing. I am prepareing the Com- 
mission of the Peace, & Judges as Fast as I can, and Shall 
as Soon as Settled, transmitt them to Y r . Excellency. As there 
depends much on haveing a good Sheriff in this County, I 
could not omit acquainting Y r . Excels, that I heard Hitchen 
Holland was putting in for it, which I could scarce give any 
Credit to, from what I heard Y r . Excellency Say. If H. 
Holland was to have y l . Commission, Collins would be the 
acting Man, as there are none so great as them too. let me 
Assure Y r . Excellency that all the Change proposed to be made 
in the Judges &ca's Commissions would be to little purpose if 
that Should be so: If Y r . Excellency should Incline to make 
a New Sheriff now, and has not promised it, I would make 
bold to recommend a gentleman, Who I dare say from the long 
acquaintance I have had with him would make as good a Sheriff 
as ever was in Albany and as agreable to all People, being 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. 



52 Sir William Johnson Papers 

verry well beloved thorough all the County. I mean Lieu*. 
Miller 1 who lives in York now, whom Y r . Excellency knows 
this long time. I hope Y r . Excellency will be so Good to pardon 
my troubleing You so much ab l . this Affair, which (as there 
depends so much upon it) Induced me to desire that favour of 
Your Excellency. I have since I come home, Settled all affairs 
with my troublesome Neighbour, and purchased all his Estate 
adjoining Mine, which will be a great ease to me. — 
Abraham of Conajoharee, Hendricks Brother, the other day 
together with many more, desired me to acquaint Y r . Excellency 
that he has read prayers for Severall years past to the Indians 
In their Severall Castles, and is much liked by them all, and 
that they are now more desireous than ever of his praying to 
them, w h . If he does, must always be among them, a While 
in one Castle & then in another, which will be of more Service 
than any Minister of ours. He therefore hopes Y r . Excellency 
will be pleased to endeavour to procure him a Small Sallarry, 
w h . may Support him, & his old Wife, in their old Age, as he 
is past Hunting — He is realy an Honest, Sincere, Sensible 
Old Man, and behaved exceeding well this time past. 

I am with the 

Greatest respect Imaginable 

Y r . Excellenceys Most 

Obedient, Humble 
Servant. 

W M . Johnson 
To Governour Clinton 

ADDRESSED : 

To 

His Excellency 

The Honourable George Clinton 
Capt n . Genera 11 ., & Governour In Cheif 
of the Province of New York & c \ &«. &°*. 
In New York 



1 Richard Miller, sheriff of Albany county, October, 1 749 to October, 
1754. 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 53 

INDORSED: 1 

Coll 1 Johnson 20 Sept 
Reed 26 th ab l y e Indians & 
desiring M r Miller to be 
appointed Sheriff of 
Albany. 

Answered by Lieut Miller 
3 d Octob r . 

TO GEORGE CLINTON 

Copy 2 

20 Sep* 1749 

Extract of Coll W" 1 Johnsons Letter 3 

Abraham a Sachim of Conajoharie, Hendrick's Brother, the 
other day, (together with many more) desired me to acquaint 
your Excellency, That he has read Prayers for several Years 
past to the Indians in their several Castles & is much liked by 
them all, and that they are more desirous than ever of his pray- 
ing to them, which if he does, he must be always among them, 
a while in one Castle, & then in another, which will take 
up all his time; he Therefore hopes your Exellency will be 
pleased to endeavour to procure him a small Salary, which may 
support him & his old Wife in their old age, as he is past hunting, 
he is realy a very honest, sincere, sensible old Man, and behaved 
exceeding well this long time past, and has been a vast Service 
to the Welfare & security of these Parts, by doing his utmost 
in keeping the Indians firm in their Friendship & Alliance to us. — 
His Son Petrus Paulus has made it his Study to teach the 



1 In Clinton's hand. 

2 Society for Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. B. 
Series, Vol. 1 7. New England, &c, 1 749. Transcript in Library of 
Congress, Washington, D. C. 

3 Inclosed in letter of George Clinton to John Catherwood, Oct 3, 
1749. 



54 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Mohawk Children to read, and has been of great Service to 
them, and it would be counted a great Favour to both Castles 
if your Excellency could get him a Salary for a Schoolmaster 
among them, & much engage his Uncle Hendrick, who we are 
all Sensible, has been of the most material Service dureing the 
late War, and is the chief leading Sachim among the five 
Nations. 

W M . Johnson 
indorsed : 

Extract of ColR Johnson's 

Letter of 20 th September 
1749 

TO GEORGE CLINTON 
A. Df. S. 1 

October 1749 

May it [please] y r Excellc y . [ ] 

On the receipt of y r . Excelled. 

letter I went to the Mohawk 
[assu]reing them of Castle and Major Glen w th me, 

[y r . Excelly 5 protection. where we had All the Indians 

[against] their first together, and using likewise all 

[enem]y the French — the Arguments we possibly 

[acquainted them of Could to [convince them] 

[ gre] at tenderness and reg d . shew them [that all these 
[y r .] Excellcy. is pleased false Rumours [ daily 

[to ex] press for their have are only artifices of 

]e & Safety — the French [to] convince 

them of the Insignificancy 

of] how y e . French were 
[but an] Insignificant People to the English upon the Continent, 
and how much it would be to their Interest to keep their faith 
Inviolable with us, & that [of all these false 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 55 

rumours, & Alarms are daily spread abroad by them french are 
the only artifices they now] is they must not listen nor be any way- 
dismayed at any of these false Rumours, or Alarms daily spread 
among them by the French, it being the only Artifice they have 
now left to make use of. (as in a Short time they will be sensible 
of) being surrounded & hemmed in on Everry side by the 
English, w h . In a Short time hoped they would be Eye Wit- 
nesses of. they were all verry easy, & well pleased upon our 
Assureing them of all this, but most of all upon y r . Excelled, 
promiseing them Assistance of Men, w h . they Most Earnestly 
entreat may be as Soon as possible, they are daily carrying away 
their best things into the woods for fear of their Castle, Expecting 
their Castle and all the Mohawk River Daily would be cutt of 
Untill I brout them out of that Notion by shewing them that 
I never had moved any of My Effects away [ 

] Value as I hope the whole River [ 
and that because I was sensible they did [ ] make 

any such attempt knowing our strength [ farr to 

Exceed theirs, all this was verry well [ ] and creditted, 

Until last night Aaron the Indian Arrived from Albany who 
brought the news that One Company of the fighters I sent out 
some time ago, were Come back, and affirm that there is an 
Army Comeing from Crown Point, Consisting cheifly of Indians, 
w h . has now put them all in a verry great Surprise again, but I 
shall endeavour (all in my power) this day to Settle them as 
much as possible but I assure y r . Excelled the only best Way 
to Ease their fears, is to Send a good officer and a party of 
Men to Each of the two Castles next for a little time and that 
is what they beged I would immediately acquaint Y r . Excell^. 
of. I shall always esteem it as the greatest pleasure to have 
it in my power of being any way Serviceable to my Country, 
and Assure Y r . Excels. I have not for this long time past, Nor 
shall not while requisite [ ] any labour or reasonable 

Expence to gett the Indians heartily into our Interest, w h . I may 
almost make bold to assure Y r . Excell c >\ [is the case] I've now 



56 Sir William Johnson Papers 

compleated [ ] tho w th . a great deal of difficulty — 

I am w th the greatest respect Y r . 

ExcelK Much Obliged, & Most 

Humble Serv'. 

W. J. 

TO GEORGE CLINTON 

Albany January 6 ih . 
1749/50 
May it please Your Excellency 

After Sealing my letter", Tiddy M c .Ginnis Come to my 
House, and told me of a Verry good tract of Wood Land ab l . 
10 thousand Acres lying at Conajoharee some where, which he 
has a mind to purchase, and Offered me a fourth part thereof, 
which if Your Excellency Inclines to Accept of, it is at your 
Service. I should be much obliged to You Sir for a Licence 
in Tiddy M c .Ginnis Name, that he may purchase Said Tract 
of Land. He will with pleasure pay the Expence of it. please 
to pardon my freedom in troubleing You so Much Sir. I must 
tell Your Excellency that this place has been full this time past of 
Yorkers, who I find came on purpose to Make Interest again [st] 
a New Election, they have been busy all along the way from 
York to this, Working up the People to their tune, it Seems 
they Expect a Dissolution by their proceedings, the Cheifs 
that were here, was Rob 1 . Livingston of the Mannor, James 
Livingston, John Livingston, Nich s . Bayard, Coll°. Gosbeek 
from Esopus, Coll°. Matthews from the High Lands &ca. I 
heartily Wish they may be disapointed in their Expectations. — 

Capt n . Stoddert is to Sett of in three or four Days att the 
farthest from Hence. I rec d . an Express Yesterday from the 
five Nations, that they rec d . Severall Belts of Wampum from the 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

2 Letter of same date, January 6, 1 749/50 which is printed in Doc. 
Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 6:546. 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 57 

French Gov r ., which are to be openned at my House in a 
generall meeting of the Sachems wednsday Next. When I 
have heard the news, shall acquaint Y r . Excellency thereof, 
the French were never so Active among the Indians as at present, 
while we Must lye Still, & Only look on, not haveing power 
to do any thing, which give me leave to Assure Y r . Excellency 
must Hurt, or weaken our Interest prodigiously, as the Indians 
must soon Imagine they are neglected, or rather Slighted by 
us. I am with best Compliments to You, M rs . Clinton &ca Sir 

Your 

Excellencys 

Most Obedient 
Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 
To Governour Clinton 

TO GEORGE CLINTON 

[Albany, January 6 th . 1749/50] 
Sir/ 

Since my arrivall att Albany the Inclosed Affidavit against 
Edward Collins, was given by one Isaak Funda, which I 
thought proper to Send to Y r . Excellency, there are Severall 
Instances of a blacker Dye Can be proved against him, nay 
even upon Record, off the Judges here, had I but an order from 
Your Excellency to try him, and call in Such Evidences, for 
Some people dont care to Inform against him, with out they 
were desired or Summoned by the Judges. As to the Vile 
Expression he made use of, Which was to Drink Damnation to 
Your Excellency in Publick Company, there are two Gentlemen 
who were present, declare they heard him Say it, & See him 
drink it, w h . they will swear before the Judges, or any Magis- 
trate if required by Y r . Excellencys Order. M r . Sybrant G. 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. 



58 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Vanscoike one of the Judges, and Doctor John Roseboom Jun r . 
are two of the Company heard it. M r . Corrys 1 letter to me 
w h . I inclose to Y r . Excellency, will also Shew his Villany. 
but this Is all Short of What can [be] proved against him. if 
Y r . Excellencys Orders to Examine into the Affair were but 
here, I can with pleasure acquaint Y r . Excellency that there 
never was So regular a Court held att Albany as now, Since 
the New Judges, & Sheriff were appointed; w h . all people here 
allow. I am with profound Respect Y r . Excellencys Most 
Sincere Humble Serv*. 

W M . Johnson 

ADDRESSED: 2 

To 

His Excellency 
the Honourable George Clinton 
Cap 1 . Genr". & Commander In Cheif 
of the Province of New York &ca &ca &ca 
In New York 



INDORSED: 3 



Coll Johnson January 6th 

1 749/50 
about a large Tract of Wood 
Lands, Licence to T. Magin 
to purchas 

Six Nations reed severl Accts 
to be opened in full meeting 
at his house, & then to 
acquaint me of y e . News 
An Order to Judges to 
prosecute Collins wanting 
Sufficient proofs 
Yorkers canvassing for 
members 



1 William Corry. 

2 In Johnson's hand. 

3 In Clinton's hand. 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 59 

TO ANTHONY VANSCOIKE 
A. L. S. 1 

Mount Johnson January the 

30*. 1749/50 — 

M R . Vanscoike/ 

Sir 

I had the pleasure of two letters from You, Since Your Cap- 
tivity, by both of which, & by what I heard from others that 
Came from thence, I am proud to find Your Spirits are not 
Cast down by all your Hardships, which is the plainest Demon- 
stration in the world, of Your Loyalty, and I hope one time 
or other it may meet with a Just return. I assure You there's 
none Could have Your Sufferings more at Heart than I, which 
occasioned me, together with the Duty I owe to my Sovereign, 
to take all the pains was in my power to bring about an Exchange 
of Prisonners, which I was in hopes would have been perfected 
long ago, I haveing taken all the French Prisonners without 
Exception, last Spring out of the Hands of the Indians, which 
I thought would make everry thing easy, on Both Sides. I 
have done it out of my own Pocket, nay Cloathed them ever 
Since, and keep them at my own House as if they were my own 
Family, which no Body else would ever have done, nor would 
Attempt it. I am Sorry to hear that Some body told the 
Governour then that it was my fault the Prisonners were not 
Exchanged because I would not let them go Untill I was repaid 
all the money I payed & layed out for them. You May Assure 
His Excellency if ever You have an Opertunity, that what He 
heard on that Account, is False, for Nobody has it more at 
heart than I, to Bring about a good Understanding between 
them, & Us. Otherwise (he, or any thinking Man may Judge), 
I should never have taken so much Pains In that Affair. I am 



1 In collection of James Fenimore Cooper, Albany, N. Y. 



60 Sir William Johnson Papers 

farr from censuieing Mankind, but I cant help Saying, that after 
all we have done, the French are realy in the Fault. The 
Bearer of this Cap 1 . Benjamin Stoddert is Sent by Gov 1 *. Clinton 
in order to take another tryall for the generall exchange of all 
the Prisonners, whom I Expect will Succeed, as there is no 
Obstacle now left. After What the Gov r . Genr 11 . promised 
M r . R Sanders. My kind Regards Attend You, and all freinds 
there in Generall, not forgetting the Indians, whose familys are 
all Well & Expect them Soon. I am D r . Vanscoike Your 
Sincere freind, & Hearty Wellwisher 

My Compliments to M r . Strowds who I hope 
is well, and has received what I send him 
by Mons r . Deslingeris 

W M . Johnson 

ADDRESSED: 

To 

M r . Anthony Vanscoike 
att Quebec 

In Canada 

INDORSED : 

Let r . Mount Johnson Jan?. 30 
1749/50 W m . Johnson Sir — 
to Anthy. V n . Schaick 
Prison 1 . Quebec — 

SPEECH OF HENDRICK 

In Doc. Rel. to Col Hist. N. Y., 6:548-49 is printed a speech of 
Hendrick to Colonel William Johnson delivered at Mt Johnson Feb. 
2, 1 750, at a meeting of the two castles of the Mohawks concerning 
news received from the south and west by representatives of the Five 
Nations at Philadelphia the preceding fall, relating to the attack intended 
by the French commander Celleron on the Indian settlement at Cajuhaga 
on Belle River, his reasons for not making the attack, and the message 
which he sent the Indians inviting them to go to Canada to speak with 
the governor, urging an alleged friendly Indian of Cas, cagh, sa, gey 




KING HENDRICK 
(TEE-YEE-NEEN-HO-GA-ROW) 
From an engraving by J. Simon in American Antiquarian Society 



after 



ill 

painting 



by I. Verelst 



Period of Peace, 1 749-1 755 61 

to bring his family and dwell at Ca, da, ragh, que since the French 
governor was determined in the spring to destroy all the five nations, and 
the disclosure of the conversation by the Indian to the sachems. 



TO GEORGE CLINTON 

A. L. S. 1 

Mount Johnson 

May the 24*. 1750 
May it please Your Excellc y . 

This is only to acquaint you of the loss of three of our best 
Mohawk Indians, Viz 1 . Luykas the Sachim, & Speaker, Jack 
a Sachim, & Cornelius a Young Indian, Who were killed by 
some of the Southeren Indians in their way to the Catawbaas. 
The Indians are all prodigiously conscerned att itt & Indeed they 
have reason, as the forementioned Ind ns . were of their Principall 
Men. I am oblidged to give their freinds black Strowds &ca, to 
perform the usual Cerimonies on Such Occasions, as it is unavoid- 
able, they are So Incensed against them Indians for this Affair, 
that I doubt it will prevent bringing them to a Reconciliation 
at present. Arent Stevens has Importuned me Much to beg y r . 
Excellcy. would give him liberty of going to Osswegoe for a 
Month or Six weeks In order to trade a little, He being verry 
much putt to for Money to Subsist his large family, as he Can 
get none of his Sallary. If Your Excellcy. thought proper to 
Indulge him therin, w h . I think would not be amiss, as he is a 
verry Stedfast freind, it would also be Serviceable in another 
respect, that is to talk with the forreign Nations who Assemble 
there. I assure Y r . Excellcy. His going there last Summer was 
of great Importance as all the Traders allow. If Your Excellcy. 
would Incline to give him that liberty, the Sooner he went the 
better by reason he would then Meet all the Distant Nations 
(Who frequent Osswegoe) and if Y r . Excellcy. was to Come 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. 



62 Sir William Johnson Papers 

to Albany this Summer, he Could bring all the Indians down 
with him. I am as ever 

with all due regard 

Y r . Excellency's 

Most Obedient, 

Humble Serv 1 . 



To Governeur Clinton 



W M . Johnson 



indorsed: 1 



Coll Johnson 24 th 
May Answered 28 d°. 
^ M r Van Antwerp 
1750. 

TO GEORGE CLINTON 

L. S. 2 

August 18 th . 1750 
May it please Your Excellencey 

I am to acquaint You that three Days ago, Nichus the Sachim 
who was so long Prissoner in Canada, came with Hendrick 
Abraham & the Rest of them, to tell me all the News he had 
heard in Canada, and Earnestly begged I would Communicate 
it to Your Excellencey, which I shall as far as is Material. He 
says that Jean Coeur 3 a french Interpreter a noted Man among 
the Indians is sent, with another Officer along with him, to Ohio 
River in Order to bring that Body of Indians, (who are so 
Stedfast in the Brittish Interest) over to the French if Possibly 
he can by any Means, haveing for that purpose a large Quantity 
of Valueable Goods to Distribute among them, and all other 
Nations he goes thorough. If Your Excell ?. will allow me 



1 In Clinton's hand. 

2 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. A portion of 
this letter is printed in Doc. Rel. to Col Hist. N. Y., 6:589-91. 

3 Joncaire. 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 63 

to give you my opinion and that of all the Indians I spoke to on 
that Head, the only way is to send an Account of it Imediately 
to Gov r : Hamilton, who may have time to oversett their Schemes, 
if he will but send proper persons there to talk with said Ind*, 
and tell them they only go as Spies there &ca, it would be most 
requisite at the same time to send them a present, this Ace": 
may be depended on for the Interpreter Arent Stevens who came 
lately from Oswegoe confirms it, haveing seen, & spoke with 
Jean Coeur there, who made no Scruple of telling Severall of 
his Journey thither. If the French should by their Valueable 
presents &ca Oversett our Interest with said Ind s , the five Nations 
must certainly submit also, as them verry Indians are the Cheif and 
trustiest Allies, We, or the five Nations have wherefore I hope 
there may be proper means, & dispatch used to stop an Affair of so 
great Importance. As for my sending them any Message it 
would be too late, as he was so farr ahead ere we could know 
it, they can be there before him yet from Philadelphia, the 
next thing of Consequence w* 1 . he told me, was that he heard 
from Severall Indians when [he was there] that the Gov r . had 
given orders to the Priest 1 who is now Settled below Cada- 
raghque to use all means possible to induce the five Nations to 
Settle there, for which end they have a large Magazine of all 
kind of Cloathing fitting for Indians, as also Arms Ammunition, 
Provision &ca. which they distribute verry liberally. I cant 
omitt acquainting Your Excell^ how insolent Nichus & Hen- 
drick &ca behaved now at my House, they entered it in a great 
passion would not even shake hands with me, or the Interpreter. 
I asked them what they meant by such behaviour. they 
answered they had Sufficient reason, saying Y r . Excels my 
Self &ca were all french, & had endeavoured all in our power 
to bring the French Gov r . into our Plott, which was to fall 
upon all the Ind s . on both Sides, & distroy them, that they were 



1 Rev. Francois Picquet, founder of a settlement at the mouth of the 
Oswegatchie, now Ogdensburg, N. Y. An account of the missionary 
is given in Doc. Hist. N. Y., 1 :280; Q. 1 :428. 



64 Sir William Johnson Papers 

all assured of it, it being told to Nichus by Severall in Canada. 
& further says that the Gov r . of Canada in a full meeting of 
Indians Produced a verry large Belt of Wampum he had from 
Your Excell c y desireing him to Join You in said Scheme, but 
declared he would by no means agree to any such thing haveing 
too great a regard for all Indians whatsoever, this was Corro- 
borated by another Acc ,f : he had in Canada, of what passed 
between Your Excell c - V & Deslingeris, being told him by one of 
the french Indians who attended Deslingeris in this Manner that 
after De [s] lingeris & his party sett of for York the last time, 
that Hendrick & a party of Mohawks came to Albany in order 
to kill them, but, on my acquainting Y r . Excellencey of their 
design, You put a stop to it for that time, after Deslingeris was 
there above 50 Days to no purpose as Your Excellency would 
allow him no Access, A York Gentm n asked him if he did not 
take Notice, of the great concourse of People every day resort- 
ing the Fort, he answer'd he did, & supposed they were about 
settling that affair of the Exchange of Prisonners, no says the 
Yorker, the Governour is Schemeing how to destroy all the 
Indians, in Conjunction with Y r . GoV. & it is agreed upon, & 
Settled, upon which You wrote a Letter to Deslingeris about it. 
which when he rec d . ordered Beaubassin to Interpritt it to his 
Indians then there, which he did with an easy low voice. Des- 
lingeris desired him to read it aloud, for such a vile thing should 
not be kept private, after that he tells the Indians, he would 
take upon him to Answer Y r . Excellencey which was that he 
was so well assured of the Gov r : of Canadas love & regard for 
all his Children, that he would never come into any such thing, 
but would protect them from any Attempts of the kind might 
be made against them, this together with y e . other Story of the 
large Belt of Wampum before mentioned made all the Indians 
Imagine it to be actually Fact, adding they plainly saw there 
was a Coolness Your Side, as You have not spoke to them in 
so long a time, which convinced them You had no love for 



Period of Peace, 1 749-1 755 65 

them, this & a great many other things they said, not worth 
mentioning now. w h . I Assure Your Excellencey gave me 3 
Days hard work to gett the better of. but at last convinced them 
it was French Policy (which they are remarkeable for) to Stirr 
up the Indians, against us, & make a Division among the five 
Nations, w h . could they Accomplish, they would sett one half 
to kill the other, so that at last there would not be one of them 
left, which is what they aim att. The french tock a great 
deal of pains also to hurt my Interest among the Indians by 
telling the Ind n . Prisn rs : &ca it was owing to me that they were 
detained so long in Canada by reason of my hinder? the Indians 
to go there on the Gov rs . Invitation, & assureance of releasing 
them all Imediately, if only one of them would go there in the 
name of the rest, & make proper Submission. I had no great 
difficulty to settle this point with the Ind s : after makeing them 
sensible of the Gov r . of Canadas design in it. which I told 
them was to bring 'em to make Submission, & then lay them 
under such obligations, as would make Slaves or tools of them 
for ever after to him. they answered they were sensible of it, 
& heartily glad I did not Suffer them to go. Give me leave to 
acquaint Your Excellencey of one thing which would be of 
Service, & much commended by everry one who has the least 
spark of Goodness, that is Your Excellenceys recommending 
those poor People to the Assembly, who were so long Captives 
in Canada, & taken when in our Service, I mean M r Vanscoike, 
Christopher M c Grah, W m . Goff, & the four Indians whose 
Loyalty & Stedfastness, (notwithstanding all the temptations 
thrown in their way,) could not be shaken, another thing verry 
requisite to be done, is the Sending Smiths among the five 
Nations, as soon as possible for they every day desire it, forbidd- 
ing them at the same time or any others to bring any Spirituous 
Liquors among any of the five Nations for it is actually the ruin 
of them, the Penalty should be verry great, else they will not 
regard it. (M r . Collins also took a great deal of pains to per- 
3 



66 Sir William Johnson Papers 

suade Nichus that had you SufFer'd him, he would have got 
them all from Canada long ago, but you would not. this I 
had from Nichus Himself.) I yesterday rec d . a piece of News 
from Lindsay, that an Onondaga Indian told him as a Secret 
that the French were endeavouring all they could possibly to 
get liberty to build a Fort att Onondaga, where they promise 
the Indians they shall always be Supplyed with Powder, Lead, 
Cloathing &ca In plenty. If they should Succeed, the Conse- 
quence may be easily Judged. I thought it my duty to acquaint 
Y r . Excell c y. imediately of an affair of so great Importance, & 
shall endeavour to get further Information & try to stop it as 
much as possibly I can. As the managm 1 : of Indian Affairs has 
now for this long time past been quite Neglected by the Crown, 
& Province, Except what I have (purely on Acc ft : of Your 
Excellenceys request) done. & as that has given the French 
so great an advantage over us as not to be easily recovered. I 
should therfore choose with Your Excellenceys Consent, to give 
it up entirely, as Continueing it longer on such a footing, must 
hurt both my fortune & character, which I flatter myself Y r . 
Excell c y. would not desire, wherfore with your approbation, I 
shall make out an Account of all the disbursements made to the 
Indians since the beginning of Novb r . 1 748 Sworn to. which 
when done, hope to be so farr Indulged as to give me my 
quietuse. Waiting your Excell c y s : pleasure thereon, beg leave 
to Subscribe my self Your Excellenceys Most Sincere 

& Most Devoted 
Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 

ADDRESSED r 1 

To 

His Excellencey 

the Honourable George Clinton 



In Johnson's hand. 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 67 

indorsed: 1 

Coll Johnson August 

18* 1750 

reed Sept' 1 st 1750 

About Nichus Hendrick &c 

and a party gone to Ohio 

a Fort building at 

Onondaga 
An Extract sent to Gov r Hamelton 
y e 3 d Sept & Sent another extract 
to y e L s of Trade by Cap 1 . Jeffreys 
Reed in Council 24 Sept. 

TO GEORGE CLINTON 
L. S. 2 
Mount Johnson Septb r . 14, 1759 

May it please Your Excellency 

After acknowledgeing the receipt of Yours of the 16 th . of 
August Wherein Your Excellency Mentions the nature of the 
Mistake which M r . Catherwood 3 was pleased to say was found 
in my Accounts, I must acquaint Your Excellencey that after 
the Strictest examination made by me, & my Clerk of all 
the Accounts from the Beginning between Your Excellencey 
& me, none such could be found. Wherefore I am surprised what 
is Meant by it. Certainly so Considerable a Sum could hardly 
be Overlooked by Us, when so Strictly examined into here at 
the time those Accounts were delivered in. M r . Catherwood in 
a Letter to me lately, does not mention any thing of it. 

The inclosed information I had from Capt n . Thomas Butler 
then at Oswego, but is since come from thence, & by further 
Enquiry find by the said Ind n . Discourse with him, & by severall 



1 In Clinton's hand. 

2 In William I. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

3 John Catherwood, Secretary to Governor Clinton. 



68 Sir William Johnson Papers 

other Accounts that the French Governours are spiriting up the 
Indians against the Settler's of Nova Scotia as much as pos- 
sible, & have Succeeded beyond Expectation, telling them the 
English are Settleing now on their Lands & if allowed will in 
time dispossess them of all their Lands, telling them also that 
they are Men of no Spirit, if they do not likewise revenge the 
Loss of so many of their People Slain by the English in the 
late War. they Supply them with Arms, Ammunition, Cloath- 
ing &ca, for said purpose, this Account is Confirmed by the 
Coghnawagees who told severall of our Mohawks (whom they 
met when Hunting) that the Anagungaes had been at their Castle 
desireing their Assistance in the Pressingest Manner, the Cogh- 
nawagees made answer that it was but lately they had Buryed 
their Ax, & they did not choose to take it up again so soon, 
Understanding there was a Generall Peace. 

I think it my Duty to acquaint Your Excellencey of what I 
heard M r . Kalm 1 the Swedish Gentleman, (who was lately at 
my House in his return from Niagara) Say. He assured me 
He read a Letter from the Lord Intendant of Quebec to the 
Commanding Officer at Niagara dated some time this last Sum- 
mer, wherin he desires him to Supply all Indians (who pass 
there in their way to Oswego) with Goods at such a price, as 
may Induce them to Trade there, to gain which point at this 
time, He the said Lord Intendant in his Letter says he will not 
regard the loss of 20 or 30000 Livres a Year to the Crown. 
He also allowes said Officer to Supply said Indians with what 
quantity of Brandy, or Rum they may want, w h . never was 
allowed before, for their Preists were always against Selling them 
liquor but finding Liquor to be one of the Principall Articles 
they trade for, they are determined to let them have it, as they 
would otherwise go to Oswego for it. I take it their view in 
this, is as much (if not more) for preventing any Communication 
between us, & said Indians, as for engroceing the Trade, & in 
my opinion they could not have fallen upon a better Scheme to 
Accomplish it. Said M r . Kalm told me he heard the Officers 



1 Peter Kalm, Swedish naturalist. 



Period of Peace, 1 749-1 755 69 

at Niagara say that by their Letters from Canada they had an 
Account that Oswego would be given up to them, as an Equiva- 
lent for the Island Tobago. 

I cant help acquainting Your Excellencey of the ill temper 
of the Indians of the Five Nations at Present, Occasioned by 
the Commissioners of the Oswego Dutys threatning to make all 
the Inhabitants Settled to the Westward of Albany, pay Dutys 
for what Rum or Strowds they Sell to the Indians, by which 
means said Indians must pay Considerably more than Usuall for 
said Commodities, this together with their being in some ether 
respects not so much taken Notice of as at this time they expected 
(& as I realy cant help thinking they ought) gives them a great 
deal of Uneasiness, & am afraid may be of verry bad Conse- 
quence if not prevented, they would have me draw up an 
Instrm f . for them by way of Complaint to Your Excellencey 
about it, & would all sign it, but that I told them I would men- 
tion it to Your Excellencey. wherfore heartily wish there may 
be a Stop put to it, as it would also be a great Hardship to all 
the Inhabitants who Carry on a little Trade for a Livelyhood 
in the Country. 

As there is nothing could be done, would give a more generall 
Satisfaction to the Country, Particularly to the People of the 
County of Albany than if Your Excellencey would fall on some 
Effectual way to prevent any Slaves flying to Canada, being 
harboured there, as (otherwise) our bordering on the french 
makes our Slaves a verry precarious property. M r . Sanders 
tells me, that when last Year in Canada discourseing with the 
Present Govern 1 , about some Slaves taken in the War, it lead 
them to talk about Negroes running away from their Masters, 
& protected there, which M r . Sanders said was a verry wrong 
thing, upon that the Gov r . told him if Your Excels, would 
incline to settle that affair, he would willingly come into it. I 
assure Your Excellency it would be a thing of vast Service to 
this part of the Province, & gratefully acknowledged by them 
all. 

The Indians plauge me daily for Smiths to be sent to their 
Castles, & for Powder & lead &ca. which I have been under a 



70 Sir William Johnson Papers 

necessity to give them while mine lasted. — it is high time now 
for the Smiths to go to their Castles, wherfore hope the Assembly 
may make Provision for it, & for all the past Services unpaid, 
the Smiths ought to have about 20 £ for presents to give the 
Indians of each Castle where they are Quartered. — I have not 
as yet seen Your Excellenceys Speech, nor the Council or 
Assemblys Answer, but this Instant had an Acc lt . from Albany. 
that there was a likelyhood of their falling upon Business which 
I heartily wish they may. Docter Ascough wrote me a few 
days ago to mention another man in the room of M r . Petry if 
he did not incline to Continue the Supply of Oswego. He never 
had the least thought of giveing it up as long as Your Excellencey 
thinks proper to Indulge him with it. so farr from that, He has 
some time ago sent up half a Years Supply for the Garrison, 
there is not a fitter man in the Province for it than he is, as he 
lives so Contiguous to it I hope Your Excellencey will not forget 
to have the Militia Act revived, it Cannot be too Strict for 
this part of the World, the People here being verry Stiff necked. 
I am with all respect Imaginable Your Excellenceys 

Most Obedient 
Humble Servant, 

W M . Johnson 

P. S. 1 I flatter my self if proper Steps 

are taken, I could bring the five Nations 
to make a lasting peace w th . the 
Catawbaas. and I make bold to 
Affirm, if it be not done now 
it will hardly ever be done. 
I understand the Mayor 2 of Albany is 
of the other Side, and Says he will not 
be mayor longer if he can help it — 
this I thought proper to let Y r . Excellc 7 . know 
lest you be deceived in the Man, as I realy have been. 



1 Entire postscript in Johnson's hand. 

2 Robert Sanders, mayor of Albany, 1 750-54. 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 71 

M r . Saunders Continues to behave verry well, as does also 
M r . Sybrant Vanscoike the Judge, so that Y r . Excellency 
cannot be at a loss In Case You have an Inclination to 
make a Change. M r . Saunders is the fittest Man in Albany 
for Mayor, as is M r . Vanscoike for Recorder. Pardon 
my freedom in giveing Y r . Excelled my Sentiments. 

I hope the Assembly will Consider the Hardship it has 
been to me to be kept out of so Considerable a Sum of 
Money so long a time and allow me Interest as they may 
Judge reasonable. — M r . Petry, & Harkemar have been 
allowed Interest for Six or Seven Hundred pounds they were 
kept out of Some little time; wherfore I think it would be 
verry cruel, if they did not allow it me also, who have 
advanced So much more, and at So perrilous a time, and part 
of it as Y r . Excellency knows w th . out any Act of Assembly, 
or Certainty than w h . nothing could have induced me to it, 
but the Eminent Danger the Garrison of Oswego was in 
of being deserted, had I not Sent them provisions at the 
time I did, w h . (as I am Convinced is more than all the 
County of Albany would have done on such an Uncer- 
tainty) I think ought to be at least paid with moderate 
Interest, w h . I leave Y r . Excellency to Judge. — 

ADDRESSED: 1 

To 

His Excellency 
Governor Clinton 
INDORSED: 2 

Coll Johnson 14 Sep r 
reed 23 d <P Benthusian 

1750 
an Extract of it laid 
before the Assembly 
26 th Instant 



1 In Johnson's hand. 

2 In Clinton's hand. 



72 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A MEMORIAL 1 
D. S. 2 

[1750 ] 

To his Excellency the Honb le . George Clinton 
Captain General & Governour in Chief of the 
Province of New York and Territories thereon 
Depending in America & Vice Admiral of the same 
and Admiral of the White Squadron of His Majesty's 
Fleet. 

The Memorial of William Johnson humbly sets forth 

That Your Excellencey haveing Communicated to Your 
Memoralist the Advice of His Majesties Council of the 6 th . 
Instant Upon what Your Memoralist represented to Your Excel- 
lencey, and them, he is thankfull to Your Excellencey for the 
promise of Your Endeavours that his Majesty may reimburse to 
him the remainder of his Accounts therin mentioned amounting 
to One thousand Nine Hundred Seventy One pounds Eight 
Shillings & Six pence three Farthings, for which he has no reason 
to hope that the Assembly of this Province will make any Pro- 
vision for the payment of; and that a reasonable Allowance may 
be made by his Majesty for Your Memoralists Personal Services, 
and for the delay of payment of the money he has advanced. 

That Your Memoralist has hereunto annexed Coppies of the 
said Accounts Sworn to by which will appear the said Sum of 
One thousand Nine hundred Seventy One pounds Eight Shillings 
& Six pence three farthings to be unprovided for by the Assem- 
bly, and the dates of the Articles on the D rs . and C rs . sides will 
shew the delay of Payment, and from the Articles themselves 
Your Memoralists personal Services can in part be Judged of — 
That in obedience to Your Excellenceys order to recapitulate 
herein Some of the Principal Services Your Memoralist did in 
the management of the Indian Affairs, for which no Satisfaction 
is made to him he begs leave to set forth 



1 Inclosed in Johnson to Clinton, Sept. 1 4, 1 749. 

2 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. 



Period of Peace, J 749-1 7 55 73 

That in the Year 1 746 after Your Excellenceys Endeavours 
by Means of the then Commissioners of Indian Affairs to bring 
the Indians to Your Excellencey then in Albany, to Engage 
them in the Expedition then proposed against Canada had proved 
unsuccessfull, and after the Declaration of the Commissioners of 
Indian Affairs that the Indians were Inclined to the French and 
were in a verry ill temper towards the English and that they 
knew of no other means than what had been taken to bring the 
Indians down to Your Excellencey for the purpose before ; Your 
Memoralist at Your Excellencys request was prevailed on to use 
his endeavours for that Purpose which proved so Successfull as 
to bring the Indians to Your Excellency at Albany when Your 
Excellency was Enabled not only to break off the Treaty then in 
Agitation between them and the Governour of Canada, but also 
heartily to Engage them in the Warr, and in the then intended 
Expedition against Canada, in all which Your Excellency Knows 
Your Memoralists utmost Endeavours were employed 

That during the Warr Your Excellency and Council had 
Sufficient Information that the Governour of Canada had sent 
an Invitation to the Sachims of the Six Nations to come and speak 
to him in Canada in order to draw them off from the Warr — Your 
Memoralist by order of Your Excellency and Council went to 
Onondaga the place of the General Council of the Six Nations 
and there prevailed with them to reject the Invitation of the 
Governour of Canada and to refuse to goe. 

That after the Disbanding the forces raised for the Expedition 
against Canada Your Memoralist at Your Excellencys request 
and on Your Commission for that purpose undertook the care of 
the posting in the most proper places on the Frontiers the fourteen 
Companies of Foot raised by this Province to guard them, and 
to see that all things necessary were provided for them, which was 
attended with great personal fatigue Hazard and loss of time, 
and with great Expences not charged in his Accounts 

That after the Peace with France Your Excellency having 
Sufficient Information that the Governour of Canada had sent a 



74 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Message to the Six Nations to come to Canada and bring with 
them the french Prisoners they had taken dureing the Warn 
and that on delivery thereof to him, he would deliver to them 
all the Prisoners of the Six Nations taken by the french and their 
Indians dureing the Warr, this being done with a View to attach 
the Indians to the french Interest. Your Memoralist by Your 
Excellencys orders used his utmost Endeavours to Induce the 
Indians to reject the said Message and to rely on Your Excel- 
lency for the release of their Prisoners along with the English 
Prisoners of this Province taken dureing the Warr, which 
endeavours of Your Memoralist proved Effectuall, and the Six 
Nations accordingly rejected the said Message of the Governour 
of Canada, and refused to go to Canada to carry there the french 
that were Prisoners with them. 

That at Your Excellencys request Your Memoralist also pre- 
vailed on the Six Nations to deliver into Your Memoralists 
hands all the french Prisoners they had taken dureing the Warr, 
and by Your Excellencys order after many Messages and 
Endeavours to have the English and Indian Prisoners taken by 
the french dureing the Warr Exchanged for them, that 
Exchange was happily Effected thro' Your Excellencys means. 

These two last advantages were new in their kind for at the 
Conclusion of all former Warrs between the English and French 
the Indians depending on this Province were suffered to go to 
Canada to make Peace separately and to exchange prisoners there 
to the great weakening of their dependance on this Province 

As the severall matters and Services herein set 
forth amongst many others done by Your Excelle? 5 . 
order in the management of the Indian Affairs 
are well known to Your Excellency, Your Memoralist 
with great Confidence relyes on your Excellency's 
promise to represent the same to his Majesty's 
Ministers so that he may obtain reparation for 
the Losses he has Sustained by advanceing money 
for defraying the Expences of the Services he went on 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 75 

with great personal fatigue and hazard, and like- 
wise that he be allowed a proper recompence for 
those Services — 

W M . Johnson 

CONFERENCE WITH SCANAGHTRADEYA 

In Doc. Rel. to Col Hist. N. Y., 6:608-10 is printed the proceed- 
ings of a conference at Mount Johnson, December 4, 1 750, between 
Colonel William Johnson and Scanaghtradeya, a Cayuga sachem, con- 
cerning the lead plates planted by the French along the Ohio and found 
by the Indians, and the visit of Jean Cour 1 to the Senecas when he 
promised to build a trading post at the carrying place between the Ohio 
river and Lake Erie. 



FROM TO 

L. 2 

January 7, 1751 

Delivered to me by a Onendaga Sachim to report to Coll. 
Johnson, viz: 

Brother: 

On our way Back from the Catabaw Nation we met two 
Englishmen (the one is named Cresse) who said they were sent 
on the road to meet the five Nations by the Gov't of South 
Carolina and the Gov r call'd the big Knife they shewed us a 
written Paper marckt with a big seal which they said is sent to us 
by order of our Father the King of England they told us the 
words of ye said paper, was that the Gov 'rs of S. Carolina & 
Virginie had sent Conrad Weizer sometime past to acquaint the 
five Nations that the Catabaws desired to make a peace with us, 
of which they have not rec'd an answer therefore the English 
would know if Weizer has delivered the said message to us, as 
there has been since that time nine of the Catabaws kill'd and a 



1 Joncaire or Jan Coeur. 

2 Printed in The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Jan. 
1911, p. 63-4. 



76 Sir William Johnson Papers 

great many cattle Belonging to the English destroyed, But did 
not know if done by the five Nations or foreign Indians they 
said they were a going with the written Paper to Oheio and 
hope to bring those Indians with them to make a peace with the 
Catabaws w'ere they would make a fire on the road w'here we 
met them at the said fire within the time of eight months tho' it 
were better it could be done in all haste as it hard to restrain the 
Catabaw Warriors from revenging their Brothers Blood which is 
daily Spilt; they told us that it was the Devil which makes all 
the mischief between us & the Catabaws, & keep us from makeing 
a peace with each other they asked us if the English should come 
into our country and kill our cattle whether we would take it so 
patiently & not revenge it. 

After they had said all that was in the written paper they 
showed us a fine lace coat, and said their was many more with a 
great deel of other goods which should be giving us in concluding 
the peace with the Catabaws and the English would acknowledge 
the five Nations to be the Oldest nations and formerly the Owners 
of the land in which the English now lives on. 

TO GEORGE CLINTON 

A. L. S. 1 

Feb*. 21 st - 1750/1 
May it please Y r . Excellencey/ 

I am not att all unmindfull of the Kindness You have done 
me, in lending me that Sum on my bare Note, without Interest. 
Which Nothing but the Injustice done me, could have drove me 
to that necessitty. I assure You Sir it was my Intention when I 
borrowed Said Sum to repay it with thanks, out of the first Money 
I rec d . from the Treasurer, as Y r . Excellencey May Judge by 
my leaveing My Warrants there, but As they have so unex- 
pectedly, & shamefully allowed me so Inconsiderable a Sum for 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. ; draft in New 
York State Library, badly damaged by fire, printed in The Papers of 
Sir William Johnson, 1 : 320-2 1. 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 11 

dischargeing the many debts I've (by Y r . Excelienceys orders) 
contracted on Ace", of the Province, I was under a necessity to 
draw for it, In order to Stop their daily dunning, as Nothing 
Else S r . could have induced me to call for S d . Money out of Your 
hands, I hope Y r . Excellencey will please to Judge of it in a 
more favourable light, than I find You have, and please to accept 
of the Inclosed Order on the Treasurer, w h . I expect he will pay 
on demand it being above two Years, Since it was allowed me. 
but if not, & Y r . Excellencey should still insist on my passing 
my Bond, I shall do it. — I find there is an Act passed for 
effectually preventing any person w l . soever to Sell any Indian 
Merchandize liable to Dutys to any Indian whatsoever, & even 
to any Christian ( Excepting only w f . is requisite for their Familys 
Use) with out entering, and paying Dutys, as well as if sent to 
Oswego, this is what I made bold to acquaint Your Excellency 
of some time ago, and was in hopes (from the Assurances You 
were pleased to give me) it would not pass. I must beg leave to 
Assure Y r . Excellencey, there never was an Actt passed here so 
disagreable to the People of the County in general and much 
more so to the Indians who must Suffer most by it. it is always 
the Indians greatest Complaint that Goods are too dear, but how 
much more it must be so now, I leave Y r . Excellencey to Judge. — 
I am with great respect Your 
Excelienceys Most 

Obed 1 . Humble Serv 1 . 

W M . Johnson 
To Governour Clinton 

INDORSED: 1 

Coll Johnson 2 1 

February 1750/1 

reed 12 March 1750/1 

ColR Johnsons received 

12 March by Cap'. Stoddard 



1 In Clinton's hand. 



78 Sir William Johnson Papers 

TO GEORGE CLINTON 

Mount Johnson March 29 l K 1751 

sv 

I rec d . Your Excellenceys favour of the 20 th Curr tl . by Arent 
Stevens, and am glad to find therby that Your Excellencey's in 
a fair way of being paid that Sum You were pleased to advance 
me, w h . should have been done long ago had I common Justice 
done me. If your Excellencey will but recollect, what you were 
pleased to acquaint me in Yours of the 20 th of Novb r . last con- 
scerning Commissi My giveing up the Indian Affairs will then 
appear reasonable to You. for I am Sure I Judged by what you 
then wrote me that you would Imediately appoint Commis- 
sioners. — By Your Excellencey's laying so much weight, on the 
payment of my Acc lts . w lh . out objection, it seems as if you Sus- 
pected me, which I should be glad to know! I assure You Sir, 
it gives me no Small Satisfaction to hear from Home, that all my 
Acc tls . were allowed of without objection, and Such of Yours 
as were vouched by me; As to endeavour to prevail w th . y e . 
Albany or Other Members to alter that Act so prejudicial As 
Well to the Inhabitants of the County, as to the Indians, as Y r . 
Excellencey advises, I must Say, I dont think it is my business 
at Present, as I have nothing further to do with them, any more 
than I should be extremely glad to See them made easy in that 
point, w h . So Sour their temper as to make them verry uneasy to 
all their Neighbours. If it ends there we may be glad of it. — 
Your Excellencey may (when You receive that Sum) Inclose the 
Note in a Letter, to me if you think proper, & the overplus, please 
to order to be paid to M r . Hennerry Hansen Merch*. there, whose 
receipt Shall be Sufficient for the Same. I have a Considerable 
large Acc lt . against Your Excellencey for the many disbursements 
made on Ace", of the five Nations Since Novb r . the 1 8l . 1 748 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. ; draft partially 
destroyed by fire, is printed in The Papers of Sir William Johnson, 
1 :324-25. 



Period of Peace, 1 749-1 755 79 

together with the Expence of Sending Arent Stevens to Oswego 
with a Cargo of Goods as a present for the forreign Ind ns . in our 
Interest, by Your Excellenceys orders, w h . I expected Should 
have been deducted out of that Sum. otherwise I would have 
delivered in my Acc tl . before, the reason of my not Sending it 
now, is, my Clerk is not att Home, but Shall Send it Soon, and 
hope Your Excellencey will please to pay it to S d . M r . Hansen, 
and as for my time, & trouble these two Years, & four Months 
past, w th . S d . Ind ns . I must leave to Y r . Excellencey, who no 
doubt remembers Your promise & order's to me, which was, to 
Continue the Care of the Indians untill such time as the Affair 
might be Settled att Home w h . you Said was then on the Carpet 
& that I should have my pay as Coll°. continued so long, adding 
further that I should act frugally, and wean the Indians from 
craveing so largely as in the Warr. Which I realy have done, 
as much (& more) than any Man Else could have done, As will 
apear hereafter. The Bearer herof, is a french Young Gentle- 
man, Son of M r . De Quaneay an Eminent Merchant in Canada, 
Who has been for these 1 4 Years past att Mississipi, and Ilenos 
from whence he came last Fall by the Way of Oswego, he 
has lived ever Since at M r . Lyddiu's whose Wife is his Aunt, 
or near Relation. He haveing an inclination to Settle here, 
begged I would write a few lines, to acquaint Y r . Excellencey 
of his resolution, hopeing to have Y r . Excellencey's permission, 
and protection, that thereby he may be enabled to follow 
business. — 

I am w*. all due Regard Y r . Excellenceys 

Most Obedient 

Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 
To Governour Clinton 

INDORSED: 1 

Coll Johnson 29 March 
reed 1 6 April 1 75 1 
^ M r De Quaneay 



1 In John Ayscough's hand. 



80 Sir William Johnson Papers 

REPORT OF JOHN LINDESAY 
Contemporary Copy 1 

[May 24-June 25, 1751] 
Lieut'. Lindesays Report, of Indian News. 

Oswego May 24 th . This day came here the Red Head, and 
Four more Onondagah Sechams in order to go to Canada, they 
told me they were sent by consent of the Five Nations, to the 
Governor of Canada, to forbid the building of those Forts, the 
French have & are building. I used all the Arguments I could 
think of to diswade them from going, but to no purpose. 

May 27 th . This day came from Swegachee, the Young Red- 
head, in order as he said to Trade, but I found his chief Business 
was to carry as many Indians as he could to said Place, and did 
accordingly carry off Four Squaghs. 

May 29 t!l . This day came a Canoe from Wiyahtenhook with 
Ottawawa Indians, who told that Mimnack, with an hundred of 
said Nation, had gone out & taken Six English Traders, as 
formerly mention'd & bro 1 . them to Niagara, and were sent to 
Canada, and that said affair had made great disturbance. 

May 31 st . This day came Kindarundie an Oneyda Sachem, 
in order to go to Canada & join the Red head, and conceiving 
it would be of great consequence to stop him, because one Nation 
cannot speak in the name of the Five, I sent for him, and told 
him, the bad consequence attending the Five Nations going, and 
receiving Presents from the Governor of Canada, for they might 
see by his building of Forts, on parts belonging to them, that he 
look'd on every thing as his own, which was theirs, and conse- 
quently on them as People who had no Property, & his Slaves. 
He seemd to give heed to what I said, and was inform'd by M r . 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. Portions 
of Lindesay's report under the dates Feb. 5, Apr. 3, May 4, May 5, and 
July 10, 1 751 are printed in Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 6:706, 729. 
The portion of the report dated July 15, 1751 is printed in Doc. Hist. 
N. Y., 2:363-64; Q. 2:623-24. 



Period of Peace, J 749-1 7 55 81 

M c .Gin & Visher, & some others that if I would back what I 
said with some Presents, he would go there no more. On which 
I sent for him, and some other Oneyda's, and in yo r . Excellency's 
name, made him a handsome Present, and promis'd to recommend 
him to your favour, and I wish he may be noticed accordingly. 
Mess rs . M c .Gin & Vicher were very Assisting to me in this, and 
did join me in said presents as did also Mess". Stodderd & Butler. 

June 4 th . This day came Three Canoes, in which were some 
of the Five Nations Cocknusgas & Sevenundia Indians who told 
of the taking of the Philadelphians, and said their Nation went 
and spoke to the Commander who had the Prisoners, with Three 
Belts of Wampom, but could not procure them their Liberty, on 
their speaking of the Peace, they said it was not Peace, but they 
were only Smoaking their Pipes. They told that a Trading 
Canoe from Wiyahtenhook, with Five Squaws & Two Indians, 
had come to trade with the Twig Twees, and after leaveing their 
Castle were follow'd by one of said Nation, who having got very 
drunk, fell into the Fire & was burnt to Death, of which accident 
they sent word to the Castle, who follow'd them, & kill'd them 
all. I hope this news is not true, as Canoes have come since 
who say all is well at Wiyahtenhook. 

June 15 ,h . This day came Fourteen Canoes of Michel- 
mackenock Indians, who told there was like to be Warr betwixt 
the Twigtwees, and Ottawawa Indians, which if not made up, 
would stop the Trade. They said the French at the Fort at 
the carrying place had used all their endeavours to hinder them 
from coming here, but they would not hearken to them, but said 
if some way was not fallen on, to hinder that Fort at the carry- 
ing Place, from being finish'd and have what was done 
demolish'd, the French would put a great many Men into it, & 
entirely Stop their & all other Indians way to this Place. The 
demolishing this Fort is of such consequence that I wish it may 
be done. I am just now getting those Indians to send a Belt 
of Wampom thro' the five Nations, their doing this will 
encourage much our Five Nations, and I have done all that in 
me lies, to shew them the consequence of Allowing the French, 



82 Sir William Johnson Papers 

to keep that Fort, and from building any other, without their 
consent. 

June 18 th . This day came a Canoe from Cataraque, in which 
was Two Indians, and the French Interpreter of said Place, he 
came to see me & said he was going to the Seneca's to see a 
Brother of his. but I am inform'd he goes through all the Five 
Nations, to invite them to Canada. I shall do all I can to stop 
them but as matters are, it's little I can do. I begg leave to 
recommend to your Excellency Chiquaquondie, an Ondogah 
Sechem, who is now in Int'rest & has a great influence over those 
of his Castle, and if he is not taken notice of now, am afraid 
we shall loose him, and the consequence of that would be Loosing 
y e whole Castle. Notwithstanding what the Red Head said, 
he was going to Canada about, I am since inform'd he & some 
other Sachems of Ondagah, & Cayaugah have Sold the Carry- 
ing Place, to the French. I wish the Places of all the Dead 
Sachems may be fill'd up. — 

1 75 1 . Lindesays Report. 

June 25 th . This day came here Three Canoes of Twigtwees, 
who told that their Nation was mostly for the English, & hated 
the French, that 125 Canoes of their Nation were gone to 
Trade w th . the Philadelphians. that they were come to suck 
of our Milk, which was always good, this they meant by buy- 
ing Rum. they told in the Warr they had cut off Seven French 
Houses. That the French liked them not, nor they them, nor 
were not afraid of them. They said as they were English in 
their Hearts they wish'd to carry a Mark of it, (by this they 
meant a Flagg) which I accordingly bought, & made them a 
present of in yo r . Excellency's Name, and gave them also a 
Cagg of Rum w th . Pipes and Tobacco, to Smoak, & drink yo r . 
Health in their Castle. Never were Indians better pleas'd, or 
anything better bestow'd. They being the most daring of the 
far Indians. 

John Lindesay. 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 83 

FROM GEORGE CLINTON 
L. S. 1 

Gr[een]wich the 30 lh June 175[1] 2 
Sir/ 

I have just recived yours of 12 th Ins 1 by [ ]th all the 

things excepting the Martens & black Squarrel [ ] got 

away ] journey to Albany Mrs Clinton is much 

obliged to you for your Intention You may depend [on] every 
one thing I can do for you. I [ ] not only use all my 

endeavours to get y e Money, but [ ] every thing in my 

power to procure you the first [ ]ant Company here and 

will try as soon as my freind [ ] to town to Parliment 

to try when I can to get a Promise [ ] you may depend 

on hearing from me when [ ] taken & how I am 

likely to succeed, and [ ] 

[ ■] 

all friends desire to be very kindly remembered to you [ 
very heartily wish you well and am 

My dear Sir 

Your faithfull friend 
and Servant 

G Clinton 

FROM JOHN AYSCOUGH 4 
A. Df. 5 

Albany 30 lh June [1751] 

s* 

His Exellency arrived here last Thursday [& all the Indians] 
and the Commissioners from Massachusetts Bay and Connecticut 
Fryday, the Commissioner from S Carolina coming the day 



1 In handwriting of Richard Ayscough. 

2 Year uncertain. 

8 Several lines missing. 

4 Sheriff of New York county, 1746-53. Many of the letters from 
Governor Clinton to Johnson are in his hand. 

5 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. 



84 Sir William Johnson Papers 

before [with Six Catawbas & Conradt Wiser arrived] Conradt 
Weiser with Six of the Catawbas & their Interpreter came with 
us. All the Indians are come in this day so that there is nothing 
to hinder his Exellency falling on buisness but the want of the 
Books of Precedents relating to Indian Affairs which he is 
informed you have carryed up with you he therefore desires, 
that you will immediatly send them down Express, or that you 
would come with them yourself, for as you was so good as to 
promise to assist and advise him all in your power minutely you 
need not be any ways seen publick in the Affair. I am certain 
if you could come it would be taken exceeding well by his 
Exellency & much oblige S r 

Coll Johnson 

indorsed: 1 

Dr f Letter 

to Coll Johnson 

from Albany 30 June 

1751 
about the minute Books of 
Indian Affairs 

TO GEORGE CLINTON 
Copy 2 

Mount Johnson 

(Copy) July 27*. 1751. 

May it please Your Excellency 

I inclose Your Excellency an Account 3 of what the French 
are about now at Cadar[a]ghqui, given to Captain Lindesay 4 



1 In John Ayscough's hand. 

2 Transcript in Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. ; printed in 
Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 6:729. 

3 The account follows this letter. Lindesay's letter to Johnson concern- 
ing Attrawaney's account is printed in Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 
6, 729-30. 

4 Captain John Lindesay. 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 85 

by Attrawaney, a Cajuga Sachim, who begged of him to let me 
know it as Soon as possible; I thought proper also to let Your 
Excy know, that there has a Body of French to the Number of 
twelve Flundred French & Two Hundred of Orondacks &c a ; 
passed by Oswego about a fortnight ago with a design to cut off 
(as I understand) some of the Nations of Indians to the West- 
ward, who are Strongly attached to the British Interest, also to 
Stop the Philadelphians building at, or near Ohio, or any where 
else thereabout, having this Account confirmed by a French 
Deserter now at my House, who Saw this Body of Men Set off 
from Cadaraghqui. I immediately, in Your Excys Name, took 
upon me to Send an Express through all the Nations, with a 
large Belt of Wampum, acquainting them of the French's March 
that way and desiring they might be on their Guard, which has 
been So kindly taken by the Five Nations, that it is not to be 
expressed; I am with all due Respect imaginable &c a , 

His Excy Gov R . Clinton 

AN ACCOUNT 1 BY ATTRAWANEY 
Copt/ 2 

Attrawaney's (a Cajuga Sachim) Account of the French build- 
ing a Ship at Cadaraghqui, Sent to Lieuten 1 . Lindesay, at Oswego 
July 1751 

(Copy) 

This 10 th : day of July Attrawaney came here from the Mes- 
sesagas, where he had been Negotiating an Allyance with Said 
Nation, he told all the old Sachims were dead, and Young Ones 
put in their places, who confirmed their old Allyance and 
promised to keep it firm and Strong although they were Solicited 
by the French not to make an Agreement with the Five Nations. 

He told he was at Cadaraghqui, where they were building a 
large Ship, which was to have three Masts, and that some there 



1 Inclosed in Johnson to Clinton, July 27, 1 75 1 . 

2 Transcript in Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 



86 Sir William Johnson Papers 

told him when fitted was designed to come & take this Place. 
That he Saw there Six Cannon, designed for Said purpose, three 
Yards long with a Wide Bore, He brought with him eight 
Messesagas, Young Fighters, who were to 

FROM JOHN AYSCOUGH 

A. Df. S. 1 

January 3 d 1752 

s* 

Your Favour of 25 December inclosed to Mr Hanse, I this 
day received and communicated to his Exellency. — By that 
Letter you seem disappointed that the Writts for the ensuing 
Election were not come up & post, & which you fear will give 
the Albanians time to play off their villainous designs of tamper- 
ing & corrupting the Electors. His Excelly orders me to 
acquaint you that as it would be impolitick to meet the Assembly 
till the beginning of April (he having great reason to expect 
before that time Instructions, from home, in relation to their 
Conduct) This is Mr Alex rs opinion, that calling of them 
together, before it would be proper to meet them, which must 
be in six Weeks from the Publication of the Writts, could be 
of no Service. And as they must be issued by Advice of 
Council, he thinks they should not be out till the latter end of 
Febry. I wrote you word by Capt Ross 25 th Decem br of his 
Excellency's gratefull Sentiments, and Approbation of your 
indefatiguable trouble & pains in Dutchess & Albany Counties, 
when you went up, and make no doubt, but Fortune will favour 
the Brave that you may carry your point in both your Nomina- 
tions for Albany, as I hope Capt Ross will in Dutchess He 
had inclosed your Commission as Surveyor of the Woods, with 
him which I congratulate you on, and make not the least 
Question, but you will make the proper use of for the Good 
of the Cause to which I wish Success, and am not affraid of 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. ; in the George 
Clinton letter book. 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 87 

your carrying your Point, notwithstanding the Albany Grandees, 
whose Soul and Blood are money, and am rather pleased that 
they will have an Inducement now to let out some of it, (tho' 
by drops) between this & the Election. 

I am &c 

J A 
Coll Johnson 
3$ post 

FROM JOHN AYSCOUGH 

A. Df. S. 1 

Febry 2 d 1752 
S R 

Your Favour of 1 5 th Ultimi I reed W post and communicated 
to His Ex I! y who is well pleased that you was so cautious as to 
make Memorandums of what you heard reported of him by his 
Enemies. I am not surprized that Collins 2 flyes you. For 
Villain is wrote in his Face, and I hope his Excellency will have 
sufficient proof to make him, the Example, his Ingratitude 
deserves. 

As yet we have heard Nothing from Albany, Schenectady 
or Dutchess, but are in hourly Expectation. Major Drum, I 
fear will cheat the Devil, once more. 

In the inclosed News Paper is an Answer to that Scurrilous, 
Grubstreet in De Forreests on the Coentjie's Club, and a paper 
on the Indian Affairs. I suppose the Dutch Sachims will charge 
it to the Man who came over with a £40 Cargo, he is not the 
Author. M r Alexander sets out to morrow for the Jersey's, 
that Assembly mett Yesterday was Sen'night. I suppose he may 
stay 3 weeks at furthest, so that his Excellency purposes to meet 
the Assembly the latter end of March at furthest, which I 
imagine will have a short sitting, and you may depend you will 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. ; in the George 
Clinton letter book. 

2 Edward Collins. 



88 Sir William Johnson Papers 

not be kept long down, so as to hinder your affairs in April 
or May. 

A Ship arrived at Boston from England three days after the 
post Sett out, so that we could have no Letters till next Saturday 
Sen-night I hear his Excellency has a large Packet, if any 
Letters for you you may depend on my taking care to forward 
them. &c 



J A 



Coll Johnson 



FROM GEORGE CLINTON 
Df. S. 1 

Febry 15 th J 7 52 
S* 

Your letter of 9 th Ins 1 I reed this morning, and am very Sen- 
sible of your good Services. I immediatly sent the D r to M rs 
Alexander 2 & Smith 3 for their Opinions on a Scrutiny, both 
which you have enclosed, they are both, as the D r tells me, of 
Opinion that the Sheriff should make no return, till he has 
inquired by a Scrutiny, for the moment he makes a return his 
Judiciall power ceases and then the Faction have no remedy 
but by petitioning the Assembly which tho' it should be probable 
of Success yet I believe as they have been at so great Expence 
allready I do not imagine they will proceed further &c 

G. C. 
Coll Johnson 
^ return of Express 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. ; in the George 
Clinton letter book; in handwriting of John Ayscough. 

2 James Alexander, member of Executive Council, 1750-56. 

8 William Smith, appointed attorney general by Governor Clinton, 
August 20, 1 751 ; member of Executive Council, 1 753-67. 



Period of Peace, 1 749-1 7 55 89 

FROM JOHN AYSCOUGH 

A. D/. 1 

21 Febry 1752 

S R 

Your Favour of 10 th Instant with the Account of Collins 2 
and Dowes 3 Villainy I reed yesterday ^ post, and went imme- 
diatly with it to M r Smith for his Opinion on it which is 
inclosed, from M r Smiths I went to M r Alexanders who joins 
fully in opinion with M r Smith, and says there should be no 
delay in taking the proper Afidavits that Process may issue 
immediatly for fear the Evidences might be subverted. 

I am heartily sorry that you could not carry your Nominations, 
and to see that the Sheriff has made his Return in to the Office, 
which had he not done so soon might have been better, for till 
the return was made he would have kept the Judicial Power 
in his hands, as by M r Alexanders & Smiths opinion, sent you 
by the return of the Express you will see, and now the Gentle- 
men have no other Remedy left but by petitioning the Assembly 
on an undue Election, which I fear will have no better Success 
than Coll Morris had in his, (viz) laid on the Table, with the 
Epithet of malicious &c: besides the labouring Oar will now be 
on M r Beekman & Fisher, which had the Sheriff had a Scrutiny, 
and returnd them, the other Party must have been at a very 
great Expence to have had a Scrutiny in the House; which it is 
very probable they would not have had courage to have done. 

His Excellency has prorogued the Assembly to 31 March 
then to meet on Business, and I hope to have your Affidavits 
soon that Collins and Dow may have the Pleasure of seeing 
you here in April Term. 

The Lords of the Admiralty have sent to his Excellency An 
Order to Cap': Cosby to carry him and his family and Bagg e 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. ; in the George 
Clinton letter book. 

2 Edward Collins. 

3 John Dow. 



90 Sir William Johnson Papers 

home when ever his Excellency pleases to embark and to land 
him at what Port he shall desire, so that his Excellency purposes 
to leave the Province the beginning of June next. 

To Coll Johnson 
^ the Care of Judge 
Brinkerhoff. 

FROM JOHN AYSCOUGH 
A. Z)/. 1 

Febry 26 1752 
S* 

Your Favour of 1 8 Febry <P Express with the papers inclosed 
came to hand ; Which when his Excellency had perused, he was 
of Opinion that L* Mills was no ways culpable, but observed 
justly, that had not the Corporal Drum & 8 Centinels been guilty 
they would not have deserted, which plainly proves them so, I 
think Cap* Stodderts Letter takes off even the least Suspicion 
of ill Conduct in L* Mills, and I believe had great influence with 
his Excellency, he has given Directions to Coll Marshall if he 
thinks it necessary to send up an Officer (with the Party that 
are to go up from hence to supply the deficiency [in the Garrison 
of Oswego], as soon as the River is open,) not to relieve, but 
to assist L l Mills, in settling the Quiet of the Garrison of Oswego 

It is M r Alexanders 2 Opinion that M rs Fisher and Beekman 
have the greatest reason on their Sides to petition the Assembly 
for a Scrutiny which he says, they cannot in Justice refuse them, 
so that if they come down 3 they must be prepared with the 
proper Evidences to invalidate the Bad Votes. I from the 
bottom of my heart wish Success to it. M r Alexander says 
there is no paralel between Coll Morris's and their case, & would 
have them proceed by petition to the Assembly for a Scrutiny. 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. ; in the George 
Clinton letter book. 

2 James Alexander, member of the Executive Council, 1750-56. 

3 See Johnson to Richard Ayscough, March 11, 1751/2. 



Period of Peace, 1 749-1 755 91 

As to those Villains Collins 1 and Dow 2 I sent you Mess" 
Smith and Alexander in my last. M r Alexander says you 
have full power in your Commission as Surveyor of the Woods 
to put it in execution, but to observe not to exceed the Bounds 
of the Statutes provided for that purpose. You will find it 
under the head of Ship Timber, & Pine trees in America 

I [have sent you one of D r DoWnings Letters] shall send 
you copies of all the Letters you sent *& next Oppertunity time 
not now permitting, for his Excellency says he can not part with 
the Originals. I must again desire you will not forget the 
Affidavits for M r Smith, relating to the Oswego Commissioners. 

To Coll Johnson 

PS M r Alexander will put Mess rs Beekman & Fisher in the 
Method of their Petition 

FROM JOHN AYSCOUGH 

A. Df. S. 3 

March 14 th 1752 

S R 

His Excellency, having this day prorogued the Assembly to 
Tuesday 28 April on Account of the Small Pox orders me to 
acquaint you of it, in Order to prevent any inconvenience to 
you, by your Attendance here so soon, but hopes that you will 
not fail being down the beginning of April. &c. 

JA 

To D R COLDEN 

W Benthuysen 

the Same to Coll Johnson 

^ D° 



1 Edward Collins. 

2 John Dow. 

3 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. ; in the George 
Clinton letter book. 



92 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM JOHN AYSCOUGH 

A. Df. S. 1 

23 March 1752 

s* 

Yours of the 1 1 ,h Instant I reed yesterday with the Sheet of 
the Votes inclosed and communicated the Contents this Morning 
to M r Smith his Opinion is that the two Candidates must be 
personally here when the Petition is delivered to the House, and 
that they pursue it with the utmost Vigour, for a feint of any 
sort would be of worse Consequence than if they had set tamely 
down with the Injustice done them and be only a bad precedent 
for the Future, for a Scrutiny must be ipso facto before the 
House & no where else. The [way to prove] load of proving 
the bad Voter's qualifications is to lay intirely on the [Can- 
didates] Members Returnd to prove them entitled after Mess rs 
Fisher & Beekman have [protested] objected against them so 
that they have nothing more to do but to remark every dis- 
qualified [Fo/e] Elector As to Depeysters affair M r Smith 
will deferr his opinion till he can talk with you upon it 

Inclosed is the produce of last week worth your reading 
you'll see by the Title what you may expect. His Excellency 
expects Letters Saturday next via Boston 

I am &c 
miss Cass Compliments to the Swan & should be very glad to 
see it 



J. A. 



Coll Johnson 
33 Johny Beekman 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. ; in the George 
Clinton letter book. 



Period of Peace, 1 749-1 755 93 

FROM MARTIN KELLOGG 
Copy 1 

Stockbridge, April 13, 1752 
Sir: 

By a Mohawk from Connajaharie we are informed the 
Tawectawees invited several Tribes to smoak with them at or 
about the beginning of January last past, signified their design 
of making war with the French, and has ordered three French 
to be killed, to say, an Officer and two Soldiers — took another, 
cut off his ears, sent him to Canada to do word to the Governor, 
& ca . 'Tis also said our Six Nations will join with them to war 
against Canada and others of the Tribes. Also that you are 
desired to send Provisions, Powder, Cutlass's, &c, to Oswego, 
where they have promised to meet with you early this Spring. 
Also that you are desired to build a Fort at Chenoontawanie 
for them to retire to in case they need. I have made report to 
Boston Court, and shall very soon make Report to Connecticut 
Court, but, Sir, we have not a word from yourself about all 
this. I should be glad you would send me an Account what you 
suppose true of all the above soon as you can, that I may convey 
the same to our several Governments, that in case any thing 
may be wanted to encourage such a Design it may be had, is 
of very great importance wisely to improve an advantage to the 
best Purpose If truly many of the Tribes are resolutely set, 
and will unite to war against Canada, I am apt to think they 
will soon amaze the French, and vastly interrupt their Peace; 
you, Sir, can have opportunity to exert yourself in doing abund- 
ance for the Crown of Great Britain. I question not your 
willingness and ability herein, and wish you may be directed 
in every thing for the better, from your ready Friend and 

humble Servant, 

Martin Kellogg. 



Printed in Pennsylvania Colonial Records, 5:574. 



94 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM JOHN AYSCOUGH 
A. Df. x 

16 April 1752 
S R 

Yours of 30 th ultimo I reed and as you desired to know what 
was proper to be done, I carryed the Affidavits by his Excel- 
lency's Order to M r Alexander & the Att^ Gen 112 , who both 
allow that it is a most consummate piece of Insolence & impu- 
dence in Collins to make so free with his Excellencys Characters 
but both opinions are that it is not worthy to commence a prose- 
cution on because it will be difficult to prove damages by a 
Jury as things are now and advise his Excellency not to shew 
his teeth till he can bite hand, which I hope you will bring 
materials sufficient to enable him all the Good Family 

send their Compliments as does &c 

PS 

The Dover & Marry 

both expected hourly 

To Coll Johnson 

& Abraham Doue 

FROM JOHN AYSCOUGH 

A. Df. S. 3 

27* May 1752 
S R 

Late last night arrived four Catawbaas w th one Mohawk 
Prisoner from S: Carolina, of which his Excellency being on 
the other Side, sends me over to give you this early Notice, 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. ; in the George 
Clinton letter book. 

2 William Smith, appointed attorney general by Governor Clinton 
August 20, 1751. 

3 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. ; in the George 
Clinton letter book. 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 95 

that you may as soon as possible give a hint of it to the Mohawks 
that they may if possible be well disposed to receive them in 
a friendly manner. The Gov mts of Carolina have displayed their 
Generosity, by sending 100 p cs 8 to defray all their Expences, 
& have sent no Person of Note with them but an Indian, who 
talks English well, and one of the Indians that was last Year 
at Albany, who understands the Onondaga Language & talks 
it perfectly. His Excellency is determined not to advance one 
penny his self or by his Friend's, but purposes to have a Council 
to morrow on Gov Glen's 1 Letter, and to receive the Indians 
at that Board, who have a present of Skins, as an Acknowledge- 
ment of Services done by him to them; after which they will 
be forwarded up by the first Sloop. &c 

J A 
Coll Johnson 
by Hagan 

FROM JOHN AYSCOUGH 

A. Df. S. 2 

July 24 th 1752 

S R 

His Excellency haveing received by the Nebuchadnezar His 
Majesty's Orders to stay some time longer in his Government, 
and as nothing but exercise can be the means of preserving his 
health in this Climat he desires you will buy him a pair of 
Geldings, the Colour indifferent, so they match, as to size there 
is no occasion of 15 hands as they will be chiefly for Sley 
or Charriot, let them be above 14 hands & nimble flippant 
horses, for their work will not require them to be weighty I 
must intreat you to send them down as soon as possible you can, 
for his Excellency is resolved to use as much exercise as possible 
before Winter sets in. I shall write to L* Miller to assist you 



1 Governor James Glen of South Carolina. 

2 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. ; in the George 
Clinton letter book. 



96 Sir William Johnson Papers 

in looking out & to make use of all his Excellency's Friends to 
lend a helping hand for it is a pitty one moment should be lost 
in procureing them &c. 

J A 
Coll Johnson 

PS his Excellency wishes 

L l Miller could match 

the Chair Horse he sent 

last year to y e care of Capt Ross directed to Mr Miller 



FROM JOHN AYSCOUGH 

A. Df. S. 1 

25* August 1752 
S R 

His Exellency orders me to acquaint you that he has been 
told that One M r Lawyer was much displeased at not being 
included in a grant for some Lands in which he was concerned 
as a Petitioner for, with Others, and seem'd to expect from 
the friendship subsisting between him and you, of which his 
Excellency was entirely unacquainted, as not haveing any 
recomme[n]dation from you; If his Excellency can be of any 
Service to him in any future favours you may assure him of 
having the preferrence if you will only mention him to the 
Governour. 

The Assembly is this day prorogued to 1 2 th Octo br by Advice 
of Council C J 2 : present; an acount of the Small pox, and I 
fancy will Meet soon after on Business, On Account of the 
Act for support of Government & the Excise & other Criminel 
Acts expiring. 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. ; in the George 
Clinton letter book. 

2 James De Lancey, chief justice of the N. Y. Supreme Court, 1 733— 61 . 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 97 

Mr. C: J 1 and M r Chambers" have had a meeting with 
Mess rs Richards 3 & Walton 4 [about Repairs] • necessary at 
Oswego, those two Members think it to late in the Year to give 
it a thorough repair now, at least till they could hear from the 
Majority of the House about reimbursing the Money that must 
be advanced by any one that should undertake to do it. 

His Excellency by Advice of Council has orderd a. Letter 
to be wrote to the Mayor and Aldermen of Albany signifying 
that if they can procure any one to put it in a tolerable Condition 
for the present, so as to keep the Goods and Soldiers dry this 
Winter [thai] they shall be paid [by the Treasurer] their dis- 
bursements ; and that he will recommend it strongly to the Assem- 
bly, that that Garrison may be compleatly repaired next Spring, 
which it is the Opinion of the Council they will readily come 
into, for last Session they passed a Vote for repairing it, and 
seemed fully convinced that there was an absolute necessity 
that it should be done.® I am &c 

J A 
To Coll Johnson 
^ Capt Ross. 

©His Excellency read the Paragraph in Council yesterday 
about the distress of the Indians, and the confirmation of the 
Peace with the Catawbas and five Nations which brought on the 
Carpet the Hardships in your last Letter to me but transcribed 
in his Name you suffered in not being paid your Oswego Debt, 
which the C. J 1 said must be a mistake for that he believed 
you was and seem'd to know nothing to the Contrary, on which 
His Excellency proposed to shew the Order in Council of May 
last upon it, but haveing a great deal of Business deferred it 



1 James De Lancey, chief justice of the N. Y. Supreme Court, 

733-61. 

2 John Chambers, member of Executive Council, 1752—63. 

3 Paul Richards, representative from the county of New York. 

4 William Walton, representative from the county of New York. 



98 Sir William Johnson Papers - 

till next Council when he will shew it again and said he could 
not help thinking it [hard] very ungenerous that you should not 
be paid, as Petre was tho' your debt was due long before 
Petre had any demand, and makes no doubt but [that 
he] C. Justice 1 he wrote home that it was thro' him & 
by his Interest only that you was paid, purely to make a merit 
of it to himself w th S r Peter & your other Friends there M r 
Pavy mentioned to me that you had not reed the License to 
purchas in Arent Stevens name a Tract of Land of the Indians, 
I assure you S r I sent it up inclosed to L* Miller about a week 
after M r Pavy went up, and insisted on M r Banyars makeing 
dispatch with it which he did prior to three other Licenses that 
were granted, and as I have not heard from you about it since 
I hope it is come safe to hand His Excellency has hinted to me 
that he should be glad to come in for a Share of that Tract on 
paying an equal dividend of the Charges &c and if it would suit 
you I know an Offer of being a partner in it would be very 
well taken by him, this I impart to you as from my self not with 
his knowledge but should be glad to have your Answer upon 
it as I know it would please him much. 

FROM JOHN AYSCOUGH 

A. Df. S. 2 

28 August 1752 
S R 

His Excellency haveing forgot to mention in his of 25 th Inst 
the appointment of another Sheriff in the room of M r Miller, 3 
he orders me to desier you will recommend some proper person 
that you can confide in to succeed him in that Office, for he 
makes no doubt that if he should nominate him again, that the 



1 James De Lancey, chief justice of the N. Y. Supreme Court, 
1733-61. 

2 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. ; in the George 
Clinton letter book. 

3 Richard Miller served as Sheriff of Albany county from October, 
1 749 to October, 1 754. 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 99 

C J 1 & Murray 2 would object to him as haveing the Kings 
Commission please to send your Answer as soon as possible 
for the Appointment is 29 of Next Month which will soon come 
as the Stile is alterd 

I am &c 

J A 
To Coll Johnson 
to the Care of L 1 Miller 
<P Jacob Ten Eyeck 



A DEED OF LAND 
D. S. 3 



[Jan. 2, 1753] 



This Indenture Made the Second Day of January, In the 
Twenty Seventh Year, of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord 
George the Second by the Grace of God, of Great Brittain, 
France and Ireland King, Defender of the Faith &c — And in 
the Year of our Lord One Thousand Seven hundred & Fifty 
three Between, Captain Thomas Butler of the Mohawks 
Country, in the County of Albany & in the Province of New- 
york of the One Part, And Captain Walter Butler of the 
Mohawks Country in the County & Province aforesaid of the 
other Part; Witnesseth, that the said Thomas Butler, for and 
in Consideration of the Sum of Four Hundred, and Seventy Five 
Pounds, Lawful Money of Newyork, to him in Hand Paid by 
the Said Walter Butler, at or before the Ensealing and Delivery 
to these Presents, the Receipt whereof is hereby Acknowledged, 
And thereof, and therefrom, and of and from every Part, and 
Parcel thereof he the said Thomas Butler Doth hereby exonerate, 
and Discharge the Said Walter Butler, his Executors and 
Administrators, Hath granted bargained and Sold, aliened 



1 Chief Justice James De Lancey, of the N. Y. Supreme Court. 

2 Joseph Murray, member of Executive Council, 1744—58. 

3 In New York State Library, Abbott collection, Albany, N. Y. 



100 Sir William Johnson Papers 

released and Confirmed, and by these Presents Doth fully Freely 
and absolutely, grant Bargain, and Sell, alien release and Con- 
firm, unto the said Walter Butler ( :in his actual Possession now 
being:) and to his Heirs and Assigns, All that Certain Tract 
of Land Situate in the County of Albany/: being Part of a 
Larger Tract of Wood Land, Lying on the North Side of the 
Mohawks River, and on the Back of the Line of John, Margret 
& Edward Collins & a : formerly granted by Letters Patent from 
his Present Majesty to Marian Scot & others; Beginning, at a 
Certain Place in the Northerly Bounds of the Land formerly 
granted to John Margret and Edward Collins, being Twenty 
Six Chains Easterly, as the said Northerly Bounds Run, from 
the most Northerly Corner of the said Land, and running thence 
North Two Degrees West, One Hundred Thirty four Chains, 
then East Seventy Eight Chains, Then South Two Degrees, 
East One Hundred and Tewenty Six Chains to the Northerly 
Bounds of the aforesaid Lands, granted to John, Margret & 
Edward Collins then along their Line North Sixty Two Degrees 
West Eighty Nine Chains, To the Place where the same Tract 
of Land Began, Containing Eleven Hundred and Forty two 
Acres, and Six Sevenths of an Acre, and the Usual Allowance 
for High Ways. Together with all & Singular the Woods 
Under Woods Trees Timbers Feedings, and Pastures Meadows, 
Marshes, Swamps, Ways Waters, Water Courses, Rivers, 
Rivulets, Runs and Streams of Water, Ponds, Pools, Fishing, 
Fowling, Hunting, Hawking Mines and Minerals whatso- 
ever /Except Gold Mines or Silver Mines:/ of in and to the 
same tract of Land or in any Wise appertaining thereto, under 
the Exceptions Provisoes Limitations Conditions Reservations, 
Savings and Restrictions, in the said Letters Patent, whereby 
the Premises were granted, to Marian Scott and others aforesaid. 
And also all the Estate Right Title Interest, Property Claim 
and Demand, whatsoever both in Law and Equity of him the 
said Thomas Butler, of in and to all the Singular the said 
Premises, and of, in and to every part and Parcel thereof. 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 101 

with the Appurtenances, and the Reversion and Reversions, 
Remainder & Remainders, Rents Issues Profits and Services, 
of the said hereby granted Tract of Land and Premises, and 
every Part & Parcel thereof, with the Appurtenances, To Have 
and to hold The said Tract of Land & Premises hereby granted 
and Released or Meant Mentioned and Intended to be hereby 
granted and Released, and every Part and Parcel thereof with 
the Appurtenances, /within and under Exceptions Provisoes, 
and Limitations, Conditions Reservations, Savings & Restric- 
tions, unto the said Walter Butler his Heirs and Assigns, to 
the only Proper Use and Behoof of the said Walter Butler his 
Heirs & Assigns for ever, And the said Thomas Butler for 
himself his Heirs Executors and Administrators, Doth Covenant 
and grant to and with the said Walter Butler his Heirs and 
Assigns, that he hath not done any Matter Act or Thing, 
whereby the above granted and Released Premisses, or Part or 
Parcel thereof, are or may be any Ways changed, charged 
or Incumbred, in Title Estate or otherwise howsoever. And 
also that he the said Thomas Butler, the said Premisses, and 
every Part and Parcel thereof, with the Appurtenances hereby 
granted and Released unto the said Walter Butler his Heirs & 
Assigns against all & every Person or Persons Whatsoever 
Claiming or to Claim any Right Title or Interest, of in or to 
the same of any Part thereof, Shall and will for ever 
Warrant, & Defend by these Presents; In Witness whereof the 
said Thomas Butler to these Presents, hath hereunto Set his 
Hand and Seal, the Day and Year first above Written 

Sealed and Delivered J 
In the Presence of^ 

Tho s : Butler 
Alexander M kanny 
Dan l : Claus: 

indorsed : 

Tho s : Butlers Deed 
To his Father J any: 1 sf : 1753 
For Land 



102 Sir William Johnson Papers 

AN INDIAN CONFERENCE 

Copy 1 

[Jan 9-10, 1753V 
Brother 

Since we have heard of the Death of our Great Frind Sir 
Petter Warren 3 have all ways had Tears in our Eyes and as 
We look upon You to be in the Same Meloncholy Condition 
are Come to Condole with you and Dry up your Tears on this 
melon. occ n . For were you To Remain in this State it woud 
be a General loss to the Countrey but to us in particular we 
now Desire to wipe away your Tears and to open your Mouth 
and ears that you May a Gain See hear & Speak to us your 
Brothers 

Belt 

We are much Gri[e]ved for the loss of our Good Fri[e]nd 
As we are Convinced of the Good Services he has done against 
the Enemy. Nay to him we seemed to owe preservation now 
he is Gone and as its the Lords will We Submit to it but we must 
count our Selves now lost without him, nay we look on our 
Selves as Dead men or men Doom'd Shortly to Die for our 
Great Help is no more 

A Belt 

Brother 

This Sorrow which is on us has Darkend our Eyes that we 
cou'd not Clearly See, the Sun Seemd Dim Darkned with 
Clouds but Now We Clear up that Darkness and the Clouds 
role aside that we Can begin to See the Sun Shine Bright 

A Belt 



1 In Canadian Public Records, Ottawa, Canada. Indian Records, 
Vol 9. 

2 Date taken from the indorsement. 

3 Sir Peter Warren died in Dublin, Ireland, July 29, 1 752. 



■ 




HOME OF SIR PETER WARREN. 

FOURTH AND PERRY STREETS, NEW YORK 

CITY 

From Martha J. Lamb's History of the Citv of 
New York, 1:588 




TOMB OF SIR PETER WARREN IN WESTMINSTER ABBEY 

From The American Historical Register (1895), 2:9/5 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 103 

Brother 

As we are Sensible the Grife with which you are Troubled 
is deep Setteled in Your Body We now with the Clearist water 
rench your inwards to remove the Grife whear buryed there 

a Belt 

Brother 

We Remember the Joyfull Day we first Saw you in our 
Countrey. its now Since about Seventeen Years ever since 
which time we have lived in the Greatist frindship and also dont 
forget you then told us you wou'd live & Die amongst us to our 
Great Satisfaction 

Belt 

Brother 

you have been A Great Good Standing tree amongst us a 
long time. We are now Troubled [to] find it falling, but 
are Detirmend [to] keep [it] up with all our Might. We 
want no other Tree but Such as you are and our Room or 
meeting place we Desire may [ ] 

Belt 

Brother 

We leave here with you a little bag in which is Contained all 
Necessaryes Relateing to News we Desire you to take par- 
ticular Care of it, in it youl find a Candle which you will light 
imeadiately on reciveing any News relateing to your Belts its 
light will bring your News Clear To us Either by Night or Day 

Belt 

Brother 

forget you then told us you wou'd live & Die amongst us to our 
sioners to take Care of us and our News We dont like them 
Nor Wont hear them Speak in any Shape Nay if our Good 
Brother the Gov r . wants to Speak with us through those men 
We the two Castles of the Mohawks Wont heare his News 



104 Sir William Johnson Papers 

We Cant Say how the upper Nations Will behave in this for 
they Speak with lips & not with hearts Which is not our princible 

Belt 
INDORSED : 

Jany. 9*. & 10*. 1753 

TO GEORGE CLINTON 
A. L. S. 1 

May 22* . 1753 — 

May it please Your Excellencey 

Your favour by M r . Ogilvie 2 I received together with 
the Negroe fellow, Whom I shall have as great Care 
taken of as if my own — I received Yesterday a letter 
from Capt n . Stoddert, an Abstract of which I send Your 
Excellencey, as I look upon it worthy Your Excellenceys 
Notice &ca. — I make bold also to inclose a letter I 
received from the Mayor of Albany, purely for Your 
Excellenceys perusal, it shews what they want to have 
done, and indeed could it be obtained, I think it would 
be a great Security to Albany, however I shall say 
nothing on that Head, being of opinion Your Excellencey 
will be addressed by Others more imediately conscerned. 

I have Been so much from Home this time past, that 
my business is quite backward, which will prevent my 
goeing to York, as early as I intended, however shall 
endeavour to be there ab l . the tenth of June. I assure 
You Sir, I am so much pestered now with Traders Indians 
&ca that I can scarce lay pen to paper. So hope Your 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

2 The Rev. John Ogilvie. 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 105 

Excelled will excuse Brevity, & Blunders, and believe me 
with all respect 

Imaginable 

Your Excellenceys 

Most Obedient 

Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 
PS : I thought it proper to let Your 
Excellencey know, that the two 
Castles of y e . Mohawks are resolved to 
go to York verry shortly, (as Some of their Cheifs 
told me yesterday) as I understand to have some 
greivances redressed, what they are, I realy know not as I 
did not choose to Ask. I beg Your Excellency wil let 
no one know, that I gave you the least Notice of it, as it 
would cause a great Jealousy, but I thought it my Duty to 
let y r . Excellency know something of it before they Sett 
of. 

ADDRESSED: 1 

To 

His Excellencey 

the Honourable George Clinton — 
Capt n . Generall, & Governour in Cheif of 
the Province of New York & ca . & ca . & ca . 
att New York 
INDORSED: 2 

Coll Johnson 22 d May 

Reed the 3 H 1753 

with an extract of Capt Stodderds 

from Oswego 

The May [or] of Albanys letter 

of 17 May 

& giving me an acct y l the Indians 

intends to be down at New York. 



1 In Johnson's hand. 
- In Clinton's hand. 



106 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM WALTER BUTLER 
L. S. 1 

fort William June 12 1753 
S R 

these with my Humble Respects to you and to inform you 
that the Indians of this Castle Have this Afternoon met in 
the fort and Having Reci d : a belt of Wampum Has Informd 
me of the Affair as follows two Days ago News Came 

from Anadorgos 2 who has Reci d : this News with the Belt 
of Wampom from the french in this form Children 

I am Now agoing by Oswago and would not have you be any 
ways Desturbd att It as we are all french with out any Indians 
and would have you be still as we have no Desine against any 
Indians my Design is to Ohio and that to warn the Inglesh of 
from my ground We are so favourable to give them in Sivel 
terms Warning to Remove three times of from my ground the 
which if they do not wee shall Drive them by force of armes 
He Likewise Informd us that they under Stood the English 
Intended to Hold fast and keep footing where they was and 
they said they Lik d : it very well and was glad to hear that 
porposal of the English Inhabitants as they the french was able 
to Cut them in peices so this being Immediately Drawn up I 
thought proper to send it forth with that you may take your 
own sentements in the Affair above Deliver* 1 : 

So S r I am Your Most Hum b : 

Servant to Comand — 

Walter Butler 
P S S R 

please to Do me that favour to give 

my Duty to His Excelency and Let — . You 

know I am I thank God in a state of Health 

Walter Butler 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. Inclosed in 
a letter from Johnson to Clinton, and in Clinton to Gov. James Hamilton, 
June 18, 1753. Printed in Pennsylvania Colonial Records, 5:624. 

" Onondaga. 




HOME OF COLONEL IOIIN BUTLER AND HIS SON CAPTAIN WALTER BL'TLEK 
ON' SWITZER HTLT. -NEAR FONDA, N. Y. 



Photograph 



Harry V. Bush of Canajoharie, N. Y. 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 107 

ADDRESSED : 

To 

the Hon ble : W m Johnson Esq r : 
att New York 
INDORSED : 

Lieu 1 Butlers Letter to Coll Johnson 
the 12 June delivered to me the 
18 & laid before y e . Council 1 
the 18th 1753 

FROM ARENT STEVENS 
Copy 2 

Schenectady, 13th June, 1753. 
S R .: 

This Day I received from the Five Nations of Indians a Belt 
of Wampum with a Message that I should forward it to your 
Excellency and Col. Johnson, which I here do with all imagin- 
able Duty. The Wampum the French made a Speech with to 
the Five Nations at Onondaga, which was to assure them that 
the French Governor had no Design to hurt his Children the 
Five Nations, but that his Army was going to take Possession 
of their Lands at Ohio, and hoped that the English would not 
dispute with them but leave the Land on their arrival there, 
otherwise they would take it by Force of Arms ; the Five Nations 
begs to assure your Excellency that they have so great a Regard 
for the English that they send to your Excellency the same Belt 
which they received from the French that you may see they act 
with the greatest Truth, but desire your Excellency will return 
them the Belt again. 

The first Castle of Mohawk Indians are much displeased with 
the Conojohary Indians for going to New York before they 



1 Of Pennsylvania. 

2 Printed in Pennsylvania Colonial Records, 5:624-25. Inclosed in 
Johnson to Gov. George Clinton, and in Gov. George Clinton to Gov. 
James Hamilton, June 18, 1753. 



108 Sir William Johnson Papers 

knew whether it would be agreeable to your Excellency, for 
which reason they have not accompanied thither. 
I am, with the utmost Respect, Sir, 

Your Excellency's most obedient humble Servant, 

Arent Stevens. 

to george clinton 
A. L. S. 1 

July 30 l K 1753 — 
May it please Your Excellency 

I have only time to acquaint Your Excellency that as Soon 
as I got Home, I went to the Mohawks and called them all 
together and told them how their Bretheren of Conajoharee had 
behaved, at N. York, after which I sent Messingers to call the 
Conajoharies to my House where I ordered the Mohawks to 
attend also, the third day they arrived at my House to the 
Number of 250 great & small. They gave me their usual Salute 
w h . is fireing all their Guns, after getting them all quarters, 
they mett, then Hendrick rose up & desired to speak a few Words 
first before I begun, which are as follows. Brother Warra- 
ghiyagey on receipt of your Message (by our Brother y e . 
Mohawks) our Hearts laughed for Joy to hear our only Brother 
was again impowered to treat with the Five Nations, and manage 
their Affairs, we then Agreed unanimously to go down, & hear 
you speak, but had the Governour desired the Commissioners of 
Albany to Invite us down, we would not move a Foot, nor hear 
them at all. as I have not time now to Coppy all that I said to 
them, and their Answers (being hurried with getting them 
away in good order after four days spent at my House) Hope 
it may at present Suffice to acquaint your Excellency that I 
have not only Joined or welded the Chain again and made it 
as Strong & bright as ever, but have also timely prevented the 



1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 109 

warriours of both Castles goeing to Warr against the Catabaws, 
and Stopped above a Dozen Familys goeing to Canada being all 
ready for a March, the reason the latter gave me for their leaving 
this place, was that they must inevitably perish for want if they 
stay'd here, upon w h . I gave them a small matter of provision 
for the present, and promised them more which I hope I may 
be enabled to perform, as a breach of promise in such a Case 
especially at this time must be verry 111 teken. had I known 
their wants (when at York) as well as now should have laid 
out a good part of the Money for provisions as nothing could 
be more acceptable. I have considered the takeing the Ax out 
of their hands at this time would not be proper, and have asked 
their opinion about it, they agreed w th . me and said that were it 
to be done now, as the French are at War with their Brothers 
at Ohio, & Elsewhere, that it would be like tying their Hands, 
while their people were knocked in the Head, & begged it might 
not be done at this Juncture, wherefore I thought it my Duty 
to acquaint Your Excellency of it, and know how I am to act 
in that affair, being part of my Instructions, and also Inserted in 
my Commission. If I may give my opinion, I think it best to be 
done when the Gov r . Meets them at Albany, provided it be 
then peace. It will be verry necessary to make Sachims now 
when I go up in Everry Nation (as there are severall dead) of 
those who are most hearty in our Interest, for which purpose I 
should want at least Eight, or ten Meddalls. which if approved 
of, the Sooner they were Sent up the better, I assure Your 
Excellency that by doeing so, the French have gained a great 
many to their Interest, and must daily more, if we do not the 
Same at least. 

I am v/ith all due respect 
Your Excellencys 
Most Obedient 

Most Humble Serv*. 

Wm. Johnson 



1 1 Sir William Johnson Papers 

P S. there Are Severall Seneca 

Sachims att my house now who have 

waited my return from York above 

twenty Days, also Some Ondaga's 

& Oneidas, by whom I shall Send 

a Belt of Wampum to Morrow to 

acquaint the Five Nations of my 

goeing up to Onondaga soon, and 

that they may be all ready at a Call to mett 

To Gov R . Clinton 

indorsed : 

Coll Johnsons 30 July. 
Recedy e . 13 th . Aug 1 . 1753 
31 st August. Read in Council 

TRANSACTIONS WITH THE SIX NATIONS 
Contemporary Copy 1 

[Sept. 8, 1753] 

September the 8 th : 1 753 Entered the Onondago Castle being 
met by the Sechems a Mile on this side, who said they were 
all ready to Receive me, Soon after I was seated the Red Head 
one of the Chief Sachems of the Castle spoke as follows. 

Brother Warraghiiyagey. 

As you enter Our Meeting Place, with wet Eyes, and sorrow- 
full Hearts, in Conjunction with our Breatheren the Mohawks, 
we do by this String of Wampum wipe away your Tears, and 
asswage your Grief, that you may Speak freely in this Assembly. 

here they gave a String of Wampum 

Now follows the Speech to the General Convention of the 
six Nations at Onondago. 



In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 111 

Bretheren of the 6 Nations. 

The great Concern I am under for the Loss of Our three 
great and beloved Brothers. Caghniagarote, Onughsadego, & 
Gahuskerowano, who in their time made your Assembly compleat, 
makes it incumbent on me, to Condole their Death, and as it is 
a great Loss to Us in general I by these three Belts of Wampum 
dry up your Tears that we may see each other clear your 
Throats, that we may speak together, and wash away their 
Blood out of Our Sight, and Cover their Bones with those 
Strowd Blankets. 

here gave 3 Belts of Wampum & 3 Blankets of Strouds 

Bretheren of the 6 Nations 

I am now to acquaint you, that the Indisposition of the 
Present Governor and the Expectation of the Sudden Arrival 
of a New one has Occasioned the Interview Proposed at Albany 
between you and him this Summer to be deferred, upon which 
I am Commissioned to treat with you, and at the same time to 
Assure you, that the succeding Governor will meet you as soon 
as he conveniently can with Presents as Usual, You will then 
have an Opportunity of Laying before him whatever is amiss, 
which will be redressed you may depend on, without any 
unnecesary Delays till then I hope all of you will live in Perfect 
harmony, with Our Brethren the English. 

A Belt 

Bretheren of the 6 Nations 

It grieves me sorely to find the Road hither so grown up 
with Weeds for want of being used and your Fire almost Expir- 
ing at Onondago where it was agreed by the Wisdom of Our 
Ancestors, that it should never be Extinguished, you know it 
was a saying among them that when the Fire was out here, you 
would be no longer a People. I am now sent by your Brother 
the Governor, to clear the Road and make up the Fire with such 
Wood as will never burn out, & I earnestly desire, you would 



1 \2 Sir William Johnson Papers 

take Care to keep it up so as to be found always the same when 
he shall send among you. 

A Belt 
Bretheren of the 6 Nations. 

I have now renewed the Fire, Swept clean all your Rooms, 
with a New white Wing, and leave it hanging near the Fire 
Place, that you may Use it for cleaning all dust, Durt & a . which 
may have been brought in by Strangers, no Friends to you or 
Us. 

A String 
Bretheren of the 6 Nations 

I am sorry to find in my Arrival among you, that the fine 
Shady Tree, which was Planted by Our Forefathers for your 
Ease, and Shelter, should be now leaning, being almost blown 
down by Northerly Winds, I shall now endeavor to set it 
upright, that it may flourish as formerly, while the Roots spread 
abroad, so that when we sit or stand on them, you will feel them 
shake, should any Storm Blow, then should you be ready to 
secure it. — 

A Belt 
Bretheren of the 6 Nations. 

Your fire now Burns clearly at the old Place, the Tree of 
Shelter and Protection is set and flourishes, I must now insist 
upon your Quenching that Fire made with Brambles at 
Oswegatsy and recall those to their Proper home who have 
deserted thither, I cannot leave dissuading you from going to 
Canada, the French are a delusive People who are endeavouring 
to divide you as much as they can, nor will they let slip any 
opportunity of making advantage of it. This formidable News 
we hear, that the French and some Indians are making a Descent 
upon Ohio, Is it with your Consent or leave, that they Proceed 
in this extraordinary manner endeavouring by force of Arms to 
dispossess your own Native Allies, as well as your Breather'n 
the English and establish themselves. 

A Large Belt 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 113 

Bretheren of Onondago. 

I must remind you of a New Custom lately introduced, very 
inconvenient for our mutual Interest, that is when you receive 
News from the Westward, Southward or any other Quarter, 
you send it from one Castle to another, till it arrives quite altered 
from what it was at first, I therefore require you by this Belt 
of Wampum to follow the Old Custom, and send it as far as 
you intend it should go, directly by some of your own Nation. — 

A Belt 
Bretheren of the Senekas 

As you have allways been looked upon as the Door of the 
six Nations, where all News especially from the Westward and 
Southward must enter, and go out we dont hear this Door open 
as we Used to do formerly, and believe it to be worn out and 
think it Necessary to hang on a New one, of such Wood as 
will never decay, the Noise of which when it opens should 
Alarm the whole Confederacy, I must not desire, that whatever 
your hear of Consequence, you would send it very distinctly to 
the Sachems of Onondago, who will send it directly to your 
Brether'n. I require also as you are Nearest to the Western 
Tribes of Indians that you will endeavor all in your Power to 
draw as many of them into your Interest as Possibly you can, 
by which Means the 6 Nations may continue their Strength and 
Credit. 

A Belt 
Bretheren of Oneida. 

I am now to set up your Stone Strait, and rub off all Moss, 
and Dirt it may have contracted this time past, my best Advice 
is to have your Castles as near together as conveniently you can, 
with the Tuscaroras who belong to you as Children, and the 
Skaniadaradighronos lately come into your Alliance, or 
Famalies, which makes it Necessary for me, to fix a New String 
to the Cradle, v/hich was hung up by your Forefathers, when 
they Received the Tuscarores, as you do now, the 
skaniadaradighronos to feed and protect 

A Belt 



1 1 4 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Bretheren of Cajuga. 

I could heartily wish, that you would not live so Scattered, 
and that you would not listen to the French who are a People 
you never had any Alliance with, or Obligation to it is Agreeable 
News that you are about Strengthening your Castle, by taking 
in the Tedarighronos, and shall according to your Request give 
a Pass to those of that Nation here among you that they and 
the Rest of them may come and join your Castle unmolested. 

here was given a Belt and Pass for the Tedarighronas 

Bretheren of the 6 Nations. 

You must immagine I was much Troubled, when immediately 
after my Appointment to meet you at Onondago, to renew, and 
put in Order, every thing relating to your Affairs, to hear that 
some of your People were returned with Scalps and Prisoners 
from the Catabas, with whom you made so Solemn a Peace last 
Year in my Presence, which pleased all your Broathers the 
English upon this Continent. the King your Father also 
approv'd of it. now what an everlasting shame must it be to the 
6 Nations if this Bloody Affair be not immediately made up, 
if it be possible I expect at least that you return the Prisoners 
if any you have, and Commit no further Hostilities on that 
Nation. 

A Belt 
Bretheren of the 6 Nations. 

As I Proceed to reform everything relative to the Old 
Covenant between you and Us, I must Remind you on your 
Part, to hold fast by that Strong Chain of Friendship made 
by your Forefathers, the Memory of whose Actions you have 
always regarded, you may depend upon the Part in our Hands 
that it shall never Slip. I congratulate you in the Name of 
your Brother the Governor on the two Additional Links to the 
Old Chain, the Skaniadaradighronos & Tedarighronos, who 
without Doubt must increase the Strength of it. 

A Belt 



Period of Peace, / 749-1755 115 

Bretheren of the 6 Nations. 

I take this Opportunity to return you the 3 Belts of Wampum 
sent by you to the Governor, with a Request to hinder the Rum 
from coming among you, he was very glad to gratify you in it, 
and that you had seen the ill consequences of that bewitching 
Liquor, and hopes you will continue in that resolution allways, 
the Proclamation forbidding Rum to be Sold any where among 
you, excepted Osswego, is Published. 

here Returned them their 3 Belts. — 

Bretheren of the 6. Nations. 

I have now only to recommend what I have said to your 
Serious Consideration, and when you are prepared to return an 
Answer, I should be glad to hear it by the Lake, where I am 
encamped, and have a small Present for you and some Pro- 
vision for the Families. 

The Red Head reply'd to this imediately by Order of the 
whole 

Brother Warraghiiyagey. 

You may be Assured we shall take to Heart all your Words 
and deliberate upon every Article, as it requires some time, you 
must not think it long if we dont come down to the Lake where 
you lay as you Expect, to Morrow, it may be the Next day, 
tho' we consider it cant be agreeable to you to live in the Woods, 
We shall make what Dispatch we can. — 

The Answer of the Six Nations at Onondago to the foregoing 
Speech, Given September the 10 th . 1753. 
The Red Head, being appointed Speaker. 

Brother Warraghiiyagey, 

We are oblidgd to you for your Speech, and Act of Con- 
dolance, for the Loss of Our three great Brothers. Cagh- 
niagagota, Onyghsadego, and Gahusqueronano, and we are the 



1 1 6 Sir William Johnson Papers 

more affected, as it was done conformable to Our manner, we 
are too sensible of what consequence they were off in this 
Assembly, to say more would exagerate our concern, which we 
now wish was entirely suppress'd 

A Belt 
Brother Warraghiiyagey. 

We are Sorry to hear our Brother the Governor is Sick, and 
we thank you for giving us Notice of the Sudden Arrival of 
a New one, we shall suspend some matters of Consequence till 
then, some of which, we shall mention in order as we proceed 
to Answer that Part of our Speech relative thereto, all of us will 
chearfully attend when he pleases to call and are unalterable 
in Our Ancient Friendship with our Bretheren the English. — 

A Belt 
Brother Warraghiiyagey. 

We acknowledge with equal concern with you that the Road 
between us has been Obstructed, and almost grown up with 
Weeds, that our Fire is Scattered and almost Extinct, we return 
you Our most hearty Thanks, for Recruiting the Fire with such 
Wood as will Burn clear and not go out and we Promise that 
we shall with utmost care dress and keep it up as we are sensible, 
from what has been said by Our Forefathers, that the Neglect 
of it would be Our Ruin. 

A Belt 
Brother Warraghiiyagey. 

We know very well the Use of the White Wing you recom- 
mended, and are determined to use it, to sweep out whatever 
may hinder the Fire from Burning with a Pure Flame. 

a String 
Brother Warraghiiyagey. 

You may depend upon our Care in defending the Tree which 
you have replanted from the inclemency of the High Winds 
from Canada we are full of Acknowledgment, for your Care 
and Admonition, and be Assured, we shall watch every threatn- 
ing Cloud from thence, that we may be ready, to prop it up. 

A Belt 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 117 

Brother Warraghiiyagey. 

We Rejoyce that we see the Fire burn where it should do, 
the Tree of Shelter look strong and Flourishing, and you may 
depend upon our Quenching that false Fire at Osswegalty, and 
doing all we can to recall Our Brothers too often seduced that 
Way, tho' we did not conceive we had done so much Amiss 
in going thither, when we Observe that you White People 
pray, and we have no nearer Place to learn to Pray, and have 
our Children Baptized, then that, however as you insist upon 
it, we will not go that way, nor be any more divided. I must 
now say, it is not with our Consent, that the French have Com- 
mited any Hostilities at Ohio, we dont know what you 
Christians French, and English together intend we are so hemm'd 
in by both, that we have hardly a Hunting place left, in a little 
while, if we find a Bear in a Tree, there will immediatly Appear 
an Owner for the Land to Challenge the Property, and hinder 
us from killing it which is our livelyhood, we are so Perplexed, 
between both, that we hardly know what to say or to think. 

A Belt 
Brother Warraghiiyagey. 

In behalf of our Brethern of this Castle, of Onondago, I 
must say, that hereafter we shall transmitt our Bretheren the 
English whatever we hear of Consequence invariable and 
directly according to the old Custom. 

A Belt 
Brother Warraghiiyagey. 

The Senekas do know themselves to be the Door of the six 
Nations, and thank you for renewing it, as we are Sensible it 
was much wanted and with such durable Wood as will never 
Rott, we shall be quick to hear when it opens and shall com- 
municate distinctly what News is Passing, to Our Brothers at 
Onondago, in Order to be dispatched to Our Brethern the 
English, and shall be very Sollicitous to invite all Nations to 
enter at that Door and shall endeavour to keep the Roads to 
it clear and open. 



1 18 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Brother Warraghiiyagey. 

We thank you for clearing the Oneida Stone, and setting it 
upright, and shall agreeable to your Advice, collect our People, 
together, also the Tuscaroros, be they scattered where they may, 
and the Skaniadaradighronos we do unite with us, a small 
Party of whom are here Present, to hear you and to take their 
share of Our Brother the Governours Bounty. We also return 
thanks for the new String, fixed to the Cradle, contrived by our 
Forefathers, to receive those new Bretheren, we intend to nourish 
and Provide for. 

A String 
Brother Warraghiiyagey. 

The Cajugas say they have not been more conversant, with 
the French, than the rest of the six Nations, they will endeavour 
to keep themselves as Compact as they can, and thank you for 
this Intuition, being sensible it is for their own good, they also 
return you thanks for the Pass you were Pleased to give to the 
Tedarighronos, to come and unite with them to Strengthen their 
Castle, Three of these are now amongst us to partake in the 
Name of their Nation of the Intended Present. 

A Belt 
Brother Warraghiiyagey. 

We are heartily concerned, with you that some of our People 
went out against the Catabaws and hope you will not take it 
a Miss, if we do not give you a difinitive Answer upon that 
End, at Present we can only desire your Patience, till the 
Fighters are all Home, there being very few here, when we 
shall in each Castle consult them and return an Answer at the 
first Meeting with the Governour. This is in Part what we 
Proposed to suspend till his coming, as I mentioned before I 
returned the second Belt. 

A Belt 
Brother Warraghiiyagey. 

You may depend upon whatever may be Expected on our 
part to bring the Covenant Chain to its former brightness, it was 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 119 

high Time, being almost Eat through with rust, for want of 
proper Care and Inspection we are glad you are Pleased that 
we have connected thereto, the Skaniadaradighronos, and 
Tedarighronos, all of whom we dayly expect among Us. 

A Belt 
Brother Warraghiiyagey. 

We Return you a great many thanks, for Stopping the Rum 
coming to the six Nations, and would be very glad the same 
Prohibition would have Effect at Osswego. 

To the last I replyd (he intended to continue his Speech) 
that could not be at Present, likewise told them, that it would 
do great Pleasure to the French, while we were forbid to Sell 
Rum at Osswego, they Sold what they thought fit at Niagara, 
a Place which was Forceably taken from them, I Expected they 
would first hinder French Selling Spirituous Liquors there, before 
they proposed to stop it at Osswego, especially as it is a Place 
Agreed on by all the six Nations to be in the Hands of the English 
as a general Mart for all their Necessities, as well as for the 
sundry wants of all the Indians to the Westward and Southward. 

They Replyed Immediatly by the same Speaker, they would 
go to Niagara, and forbid the French Selling Rum or any 
Spiritous Liquors, and also said, that they had not given that 
Place to the French, but that they Settled there without the six 
Nations Consent. 

gave a Belt. 
Brother Warraghiiyagey. 

We are Pleased with every thing you have said, and return 
you a great many Thanks for speaking in Our own way, which 
is more Intelligible to us, because conformable to the Custom 
and manner of our forefathers we earnesly beg that if we call 
or send for you or the Mohawks or the Senakas, that you will 
not Neglect coming, we have often Streched out our Necks, 
expecting to see you, but have been disappointed, I hope for 
the future you and they will always appear and Attend the 
meeting, as we Expect a Mutual Correspondence, we shall not 



120 Sir V/illiam Johnson Papers 

omit sending all the News that drives with us, and hope the 
same from you directly. 

After returning thanks for the Present 

Ended 
INDORSED: 

Copy 

Coll William Johnsons 

Diary of his Proceedings 

with the Six Nations 

at Onondago in Sept r 

1753. 

A MEMORANDUM 
A. D. 1 

Memorandum of Such things as I would have done Untill 
I come Home again — January the 2 d . 1 754 — 

To Speak to such People as owe me long, to pay me now 
either in wheat pease or money and if they will bring it to Albany 
that is the Pease, I will allow them Albany prices then in Such 
Case they must Store it at Jacob Van Bentheusen, and let them 
bring a receipt always from him that they have delivered it, 
and how much — 

The Wheat they pay to be left here and give them exact 
Credit for it. Any one I owe to for Roots & ca . let them have 
what Goods they [ ] as payment keeping also an Exact 

Acc tl . of what you pay & to Whom. 

To make the Indians accounts out, and to make them pay 
their Debts not to give them any Credit, except to a good Honest 
paymaster. — 

What Grain You receive to Store it Safe in the bake House 
w h . keep locked always, and let Wolfe put Some Boards for 
lineing in y e . Inside They may Store Wheat in y e . Mill at 
the North End thereof [ ]. 



1 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada. Miscellaneous 
Papers, 1714-1790. Claus Papers, W. Vol. 14. 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 121 

To let the Negroes take Good Care of all the Cattle & feed 
them well also to ride Home all the Hay from the Old Farm, 
the Oats of the Isleand & the Wheat [as fast as possible.] Rest 
of the Negroes to keep Cutting & Clearing the Side of the 
Road at the End of the Stone Wall quite to the next Bridge. 
When it is good rideing after they have done bringing home the 
Hay, Wheat, & Oats, then let them ride Home the Stones from 
below round the Wall here, and also the Stones out of the 
feild, beyond the Bridge for a fence, to be laid Streight — 
trust none of the Neighbours who are poor and cant pay — 

The price of all Skins — Bever 8 s if good 

Wheat 3 s or leave it till I come leather 4/ or 4/6 from 

the Indians if Soft & 

Good 
pease 2/6 or leave it as above Bears from 6-8-10—12- 

to 14 as in goodness 
Corn 1 /6 ft SL— Wolves 3/6 ft Skin — 

[ ] 

as soon as the Skow is finished let the Hands fall ab l . rideing 
Home y e . Wheat as fast as possible, and feed all the Creatures 
plentifully with y e . Straw of it. and to bring home all the 
Turnips, very good care to be taken of the Breeding Mares, 
& the Colts, & Calves & ca . — 

A Shed of Boards to be made for y e . big Mare in y e . Barrack 
Yard, & to have her taken Good Care of. — If any extraordinary 
news comes or happens write me word by y e . next Post very full 
& particular — 

If there should be good rideing you can get up y e . Cyder 
from Albany and the Slays to bring down Pease, & Store it at 
Bentheusens. — 

If any people bring pease here you can agree with them for 
2/9 a Skiple or 3 s the most if fine pease, for Wheat the Same 



122 Sir William Johnson Papers 

To send the p s of Chains that are here to y e . Smiths to get 
them putt together and fastened to the Skow and keep her 
locked on the Isleand only When they want to use her, by no 
means to allow any body to use her but Just for carrying of 
y e . Grain from the Isleand — 

If there should be much rideing yet, you can Store pease 
on y e . loft of the New House, gett y e . trap Door neiled down, 
and Hinges & a Lock on y e . Door at y e . Gable End — 

Franck the Cooper to be makeing Staves & Heads for flower 
Barrels after he has done Shingleing y e . top of y e . New House 
which will be done in a Day or two. — 

To have some Loggs laid under the Bak House 

To secure the Store House in Case of Need 

FRAGMENT OF A DEPOSITION 

D. S. 1 

And further the Deponent saith Not 

Sworn the fifth day of 
March 1754 Before 

Jn° Chambers 

Will Johnson 

indorsed : 

5 March 1 754 



Affidavit of Co. Johnson to 
prove the purchase of Lands 
by Nathan Sewell 



1 In Onondaga Historical Association, Syracuse, N. Y. 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 123 

TO GEORGE CLINTON 

A. L. S. 1 

New York March 
the 12*. 1754 — 
Sir. 

Inclosed with this you have my opinion of some of Our Pub- 
lick affairs. I must now crave the favour to lay before You 
what relates to myself. I am not reimbursed a Shilling by the 
Assembly since your departure, nor have I reason to expect 
anything from them tho they cant help acknowledgeing my 
Services and influence with the Indians, and would be glad I 
would continue it by Joining my Interest with their Commis- 
sioners at Albany, which is impossible we think so differently 
respecting the direction of Indian Affairs, their allowance from 
y e . Province being not more than Sufficient to treat or trade 
with the French Mohawks which they Seem most fond off. My 
residence is among our Indians and what is to be negociated with 
them would fall under my Management, which I might proceed 
in, & be used as You are sencible I have been, while I expected 
a Recompence. If the Ministry or Board of Trade should 
think it necessary from the present critical scituation of the 
Indians to put them upon a more proper & established footing, 
I should think it an Honour to be employed, and you may be 
assured that whatever Part may be allotted for me to act in, 
shall be discharged with integrity not Doubting but his Majesties 
appointment on Such Account will put me above any other 
business but meerly his Service. 

The Command you were pleased to mention would do me 
great Honour, and would Augment my Influence with the 
Indians, for the Management of Whom, A Plan I suppose will 
be formed by the Ministry or Board of Trade, conscerning which 
I should not presume to be more particular than what I have 
hinted in the Inclosed. Tho my own private Opinion is, that 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. 



124 Sir William Johnson Papers 

y e . Six Nations as they are now circumstanced are the best 
Cards we, & y e . French Can play against One another, and I 
belive he that has most in his Hands will be the winner in our 
Land Disputes. — 

I hope Sir You will not forget Our freind Doctor Shuck- 
burgh who is and has been a Sufferer here from his attachment 
to You. It is now more visible than Ever since your departure, 
he has been up with me this Winter in the Mohawks Country, 
and I must Acknowledge myself much oblidged to him from time 
to time for the many Usefull remarks he has furnished me with 
relating to the Indians. If there should be any New Plan 
concerted for the Management of Indian affairs, I Should be 
extremely glad that he had some Appointment in the direction 
so as to be near Me, being thoroughly sensible (from an Intimate 
Acquaintance of many Years) of his Ability, & Integrety, 
besides has a middling Estate in the Government. I fear I have 
tired your patience with my long Scrawl, so desire leave to 
Conclude with my best Respects to You, Your Lady & Family. 

& am 

S r . with y e . Sincerest 

Attachment. Your 

Most Devoted 

Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 

ADDRESSED: 1 

To 

The Honrb !e . George Clinton 

INDORSED : 

12* Nov. 1754. 

Col 1 . W m . Johnson 
to the Honourable 
Adm 1 . Clinton — 



In Johnson's hand. 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 125 

TO GEORGE CLINTON 
A. L. 5.' 

New York 

March the 12*. 1754 — 
Sir 

By this time I hope among the rest of Your Freinds I may 
felicitate Your Arrival in England with Your Lady and Miss. 
My being employed in the Woods laying out Lotts, and Settleing 
Severall Families on my late purchase until December, prevented 
my doeing myself the honour of writeing to You sooner, there 
has been no opertunity but this Since my return. I have not 
been here Since Your departure till now oblidged by my own 
private business, and no sooner in Town but was Summoned to 
attend the Lieut. Governour in Council on Acc n . of an Express 
Just come from y e . Gov r . of Virginia, with a letter also from 
the French Commandant of a Fort lately built at the River 
OBoeuff near Ohio, declareing his intention to Mantain the 
Same against the English, being an Answer to that Government 
by Major Washington who was Sent thither as We conceive 
to warn the French off, or at least to see what they were doeing 
which I belive will be better Understood by the inclosed 
Examination taken by me at my House in the Mohawks 
Country, than from any other Acc tls . yet made Publick, 
especially as it corresponds with a Narrative I had before of 
Said affair by the Indians. I would not wave the first oper- 
tunity of shewing it in Council, as the makeing of it known 
might be of imediate Use to his Majesty's Service in these parts. 
Otherwise as I am little consulted by those who have the man- 
agement of Indian Affairs at Albany, I should have contented 
my Self to have given You only the Information (Agreable to 
Your request before You Embarked) among other matters to 
recommend my continued diligence to the notice of the Ministry. 
The Inclosed Examination discovers the Actual Proceedings of 
the French upon a Plan long since concerted, and the Execution 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. 



126 Sir William Johnson Papers 

of it in great forwardness is now too Visible. You may 
remember Sir Some Years ago, the Indians brought me some 
leaden plates significantly engraved, which had been buried in 
Several places, on, and about the River Ohio by the French 
under pretence of takeing possession there, those I sent to You. 
they now digg up more of the same Sort, one of w h . is nailed 
to the Door or Gate of one of the New Forts to Shew the Indians, 
who are not att all pleased therewith, but afraid of the French 
being unsupported by Us. That the French do extend and will 
continue thair Settlements to the South West is most certain, 
being truly sensible that the Inhospitable Country of Canada to 
the Northward would be never able to furnish them w lri . pro- 
visions to make a Continual discent upon all our Colonies, but 
the Fertile land on the back of us is well known to be capable of 
produceing more than sufficient to Supply our Enenimies were 
they infinitely more numerous, the Settlement of Detroit on the 
North Side of Lake Erie, that village being near as large as 
Schenectady and covered by a Fort is too far from a Market 
to dispose of any produce, but lays verry opertune to Supply 
their Troops passing & repassing. I now beg leave to refer 
You to my letter of the 22 d . of November 1 749 in which are 
some remarks upon Indian Affairs the recital of which may be 
too tedious here In the Meantime without any reflection upon 
present or past Management of the Indians Who are much 
altered from what they were Some Years ago Especially Since 
the French have without interruption for some time Successively 
been treating with them. And most States are Subject or liable 
to Some Accidentall Vicissitudes from some cause or other, 
which it may be loss of time now [to] look into. It may be 
thought best to direct our management according to the present 
Exigency then can it be supposed from the present State of 
the Six Nations, now Eight that the miserable pittance of £ 1 70 
York Currcy. W Annum, with the uncertain donation of Presents 
is Sufficient to retain such a number of People in the Brittish 
Interest, while we are certainly far outbid by the French in 
the purchase of their freindship. A People who from their 



Period of Peace, 1 749-1 755 127 

Scituation are of the Highest Consequence to the preservation of 
all our Colonies on the Continent. The French being under 
the necessity of takeing their Rout thorough their Country in 
their March to the Southward, and the Eyes of all the Western 
and other far Indians are upon the behaviour of the Six Nations 
whose fame of power may in some measure exceed the reality. 
While they only Act a timid & neutral Part, I dont know a 
more practicable way to hinder the incursions of the French, 
and to revive the Spirit of the Indians than by establishing 
garrisons in the most Commodious places among the Six Nations, 
for until such time that their Family's & Corn Lands &ca. are 
protected 'twould be difficult to obtain their Assistance against 
the French on any Emergency. All Nations are at liberty to 
make use of their own lawful Territory. The Six Nations and 
their Country was allowed by Treaty to belong to Us. there- 
fore by Vertue of that, and of the Antient League between us 
& them they may permit us to build Forts in Each of their 
Castles, or Nations where it may be Judged most requisite, 
and it would be highly necessary so to do to Cover us and them 
previous to any more active Measures, which may be with more 
discretion used hereafter, as in case of an Actual rupture. A 
proper Number of Smiths to be provided for, to repair and 
keep in order their Arms and planting Utensils in everry Nation. 
Some Young People of learning, at least Grammar to reside 
among them in order to become good interpreters which are 
verry much wanted, there might be Catachists or Schoolmasters 
among them. A Smith also at Oswegoe to repair the arms &ca 
of the farr Indians who come down to trade there annually, 
and a farther Encouragement would be proper to a more general 
Trade and intercourse with all the Indians at that place, as it 
is a general Mart, and is known to all of them. A great part of 
the Indian trade as it now Stands, is little more than our Goods 
Sold to the French at a moderate Profit, and they on resale to 
the Indians have a considerable advantage, whereby they have 
also an opertunity of a general interview with the Indians everry 
Where, which we dont seem to be sufficiently anxious to inter- 



128 Sir William Johnson Papers 

rupt them in. nor are the Indians so reasonably dealt with as 
if we had carried the Goods up among them ourselves and 
disposed of them imediately at first hand. In this light we may 
look upon the Indian trade as it is carried on by certain Traders, 
or Handlers, & the Cognawagay Indians or French Mohawks, 
who are carriers for the French, and are so prejudiced in favour 
of it that they seem to neglect the general trade with the Indians 
at Oswegoe, and would imply that in that intercourse of Trade 
consisted the whole art of manageing the Indians. You may 
remember Sir it was held as a Maxim among some dureing your 
administration that the French Indians Should be permitted to 
trade even in War time. I cant think either in War or Peace 
it can be good in the general, it may do to Satisfie the imediate 
lucrative views of a few Individuals, but cutts of all communi- 
cation between us, & the Farr Indians. I am convinced the 
French would never admit of this, if it was not an advantage 
to them. I have taken upon me to mention these remarks upon 
the Trade to Canada, as I have now before me my own Explana- 
tion of a Petition from the Handlers of Oswego to Your 
Excellency then in Council, in the Year 1 75 1 which I have 
herewith inclosed a Coppy of, wherein it may be observed that 
Stores are provided for the Indians at Niagara as well as at 
other Tradeing Houses to the Westward, and which are not 
sold only but given occasionally as the Indians Stand in need 
of them, such kind of Encouragement should be provided for 
by an Allowance to the Kings Officer at Oswego who should 
be Comissary to regulate the Trade. This Allowance should be 
expended in some Cloathing for presents, also Arms, & amu- 
nition to be given by the Officer when he treats with the forreign 
Indians, and Stores of provisions which they while there, and 
on their return to their own Country are generally much in 
need of, and cannot be furnished with from the Garrison who 
have only a Competent Allowance, and the Handlers them- 
selves in general scantly provided. A More Strict lookout at 
Oswego might be kept to hinder the French from passing by 
there up the Onondaga River among the Six Nations either to 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 129 

trade with or corrupt them. This and what I have mentioned 
before, I belive might be effe[c]ted without giveing Umbrage 
to the French, & the Sooner the better I think. Here is a 
large Extent of Country, and intirely uncovered in case of War, 
and exposed to y e . Incursions of the Enemy from everry little 
Commanderie, which may be as fatal to the Neighbouring 
Colonies as Crown Point was to us in y e . late War A Fort 
or Two at certain Passes in y e . way from Crown Point to New 
York & New England would be verry necessary, those to be 
built at places fixed upon by these Governments. I wont presume 
to say what may be necessary to be done further by the Neigh- 
bouring Colonies, but believe they by this time have reason to 
think that we are not the only People that must prepare to 
defend themselves against the French and Indians. I am in 
hopes from this that the different Colonies may be more united 
in their Councils than I am afraid they are, especially in Indian 
Affairs. A General encouragement from them all would con- 
vince the Indians of our Union, and be a certain caus of makeing 
them less divided in their Councils than they are at present, in 
a great measure oweing to the Uncertainty of our acting 
vigourously against the French, who with Their Indians are con- 
tinually tampering with them, a late Instance of which, I dis- 
covered a little before I came from Home. One of our 
Mohawks returning from Canada brought a Message from the 
French Mohawks Inviteing both Castles of our Mohawks to 
go to Canada with their Family's, Importing farther that if 
they regarded their own Safety or welfare they would hear to 
their freindly Advice, and Invitation that if any of them were 
naked or bare of Cloaths as they Said they knew they often 
were, that It should be no hinderance for they would be Sup- 
plied with all necessarrys at the South End of Lake S*. Sacra- 
ment where there would also be a Sufficient number of Boats 
to carry them all to Canada, that if they could but Succeed 
in this, as their conscern was for them, whom they looked upon 
as their flesh & Blood, they would not then regard the five 
Nations, nor what the English could do. there was a great 



130 Sir William Johnson Papers 

deal more Said to induce them to go, too tedious to insert here. 
You will excuse Sir my giveing You so long a detail conscerning 
Indian Affairs as in y e . Course of this letter, when I tell You I 
could not comprise the Modern State of the Indians in those 
parts (which I promised to Send You) in less Compass. 

There is yet something material Occurs to me which is this, 
that there should be if possible a Continued Correspondence 
between the Residents in the different Nations of Indians whether 
Military Officers or Others, & that both by Land & Sea quite 
from Georgia thorough the Country of the Indians Inhabitting 
both Carolinas to New York at least, that the different Colonies 
may be constantly Alarmed of the Actions or Designs of the 
French, this might be done in a great measure by the Indians 
from the Senecas Country, as they keep up a Strict Corre- 
spondence with the different Nations inhabiting beyond them, 
and that being our Frontier as well as theirs it would be verry 
necessary to have a Fort there garrisoned by Soldiers as Soon 
as may be. 'twould also be highly requisite that such corre- 
spondence should be regularly Carried on by the Different 
Governments as well as by Indians aforesaid, that all might be 
fully acquainted with each others proceedings with y e . Indians. 
The Post from Virginia should be made more certain. The 
necessity of such a Correspondence has been lately eminent in 
two Cases first when I was required last Summer by this Govern- 
ment to convene the Six Nations at Onondaga, the Pensilvania 
Interpreter was ordered at the same time to negotiate with the 
Indians, till I stopt him at my House by your Orders. Now the 
Liue 1 . Governour here has appointed the 14 th . of next June to 
meet the Six Nations at Albany. M r . Dinwidde of Virginia 
acquainted the Gov r . here that he intended to meet the Six 
Nations next May in his Government, so of Course cannot 
attend the Conferrence at Albany as was expected of him as 
well as of the Other Governments, this shews to the Indians 
how disconcerted we Act, and the less prospect there is of an 
Union among Us, I may venture to Say the Same will be among 
them. However the particular Interest of the Different Prov- 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 131 

inces may Clash, it would I think be absolutely necessary by 
Some high Act to make them more united against the Common 
Enemy. The French Surrounding us continually may make 
all the Colonies advert more to the General Interest but I 
belive they will never think alike in Politicks till all are included 
in one grand Act of the Home Legislature. You will be good 
enough to excuse Sir the freedom & Manner I've used in this 
Account of Indian Affairs, consisting partly of Facts & partly 
of my own opinion, which be pleased to make use of as You 
think proper, besides the pleasure I always take in obeying 
your Commands, I own I had some private Inducement in regard 
to myself that has occasioned me to write, being verry intimately 
Effected as all I have is too Near the French and Indians. So 
hope as You are best acquainted with those Affairs, Your 
Influence with the Ministry may work some Seasonable Altera- 
tion in our Indian Politicks here on the Continent. While I 
am writeing this Young M r . Alexander introduces to me a 
Messenger from Governour Hamilton who Sends him to Con- 
necticut to require the People of that Colony & Massachusets 
not to persist in their Intentions of purchaseing of the Six Nations 
a verry large Tract of Land upon the Borders of Susqua- 
hanah. this Gentleman without any letter from M r . Hamilton to 
such purpose, desires to be Acquainted whether I knew of any 
Steps the Said Governments had taken towards makeing such 
a purchase, and begged I would hinder it if possible, on the 
Other Hand the New England People have applied to me 
for my Influence with the Six Nations to facilitate their Pur- 
chase, who want only a Hundred Miles Square, these are 
Affairs I should not choose to meddle in unless I was properly 
Authorised, tho I am certain others would make a great 
advantage had they the same opertunity. I believe the Indians 
att present will not be easily brought in to allow either of them 
Settleing on their Lands, before I conclude I must acquaint 
You that there is another Express arrived here from Governour 
Dinwidde, with an Account that his Government has raised 
ten thousand Pound for defraying the expence of Six Com- 



132 Sir William Johnson Papers 

panys to be sent forthwith to the River Ohio, there to build a 
Fort to Secure their Frontier &ca. If any part of the Indians 
should be prevailed upon to Join the French in crowding us 
towards the Sea, it would be necessary as Soon as possible to 
take Some measures as I have hinted above to secure the Six 
Nations and their Allies, which I belive is not quite imprac- 
ticable Yet. One thing more I must remark while I am giveing 
my undisguised opinion of the Indians, they have told me that they 
would be unwilling that either the French, or We should Settle 
on Ohio, which is the Cheif Hunting place they have left. So 
that they rather expected we would join them in driveing 
and keeping the French off, than that we should build Forts 
only to restrain the French from comeing down further upon 
Ourselves. I belive had the French been hindered from Settle- 
ing, we could have treated with the Indians for those Lands, as 
they have never refused Us the preemption, which is more 
pleaseing to them being without Hostility than for the French 
to take them as it were by Force, and so treat them as tho they 
were conquered, this being all that occurs at present I beg 
leave to conclude with my best respects to You, Your Lady 
& Family 

Sir 

Your Most Obedient 
Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 

The Honrb le . GEORGE CLINTON 

indorsed: 1 

Collo. Johnsons Opinion 

about North America 

March 1754 

As soon as received I sent 

to M r . Pownell for 

L d Hallifaxes perusal 

received no Answer In return 



1 In Clinton's hand. 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 133 

TO JACOB GLEN 

A. L. S. 1 

Mount Johnson 
April the 2nd 1754 

I am favoured with yours of the 29th ult & express inclosing 
Mr. Hamiltons 2 letter, which I shall take the first opertunity 
after this to answer. It being now impossible haveing a great 
number of the Six Nations now about me, whom I want to dis- 
charge as they waited my return from New York near three 
weeks with impatience. 

I am Sr with kind respects to you & family 
in general your most humble servt. 

W M . Johnson 

TO JAMES HAMILTON 
Copy* 

Mount Johnson 6 th April 1754 
Sir 

I cannot refuse you my friendly Offices not only in regard to 
your desire, which has all the weight with me it ought, but in 
compliance also with my own Inclinations. As my duty and 
Interest both conspire to oblige me to use my utmost endeavour 
to preserve the peace and Tranquility of a Country where my 
Lott is fallen. 

I hear the same distant Fame of you which you are pleased 
to Compliment me with; and shall endeavour to preserve that 
Honour which may recommend me to the Esteem of Men of 
that same Character of which Number I am Convinced You are, 
and for that reason should be proud of Your personal 
Acquaintance. 



1 In collection of John E. Wyman, Fonda, N. Y. 

2 James Hamilton, governor of Pennsylvania. 

3 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 



134 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Doubtless Sir I shall imploy that influence over the Six Nations 
which I have acquired by hard Labour great Patience and 
much Expence, both of Time and Money to Preserve them, 
and Prevent their being imposed upon by any Stratagem, what- 
soever. 

I have had some distant application made to me from Con- 
necticut Government, but none as yet imediate or of Considerable 
importance, when their representatives (for I am informed they 
have Appointed Delegates) come to me I shall give them a 
proper Answer, agreeable to your Proprietarys Rights, which I 
understand extend to the beginning of the Latitude of 43. nay 
more our Interests are the same and involved together, so that 
any encroachment would be equally detrimental to this Govern- 
ment and to yours, and distructive to the poor Indians, who I 
am sure have little reason to love or Choose as Neighbours the 
Crafty Inhabitants of — the N. Jerusalem whose Title to that 
place seems rather derived from the Subtilty of the Serpent, than 
the meekness of the Dove, to which last your Province is uni- 
versally allowed to have a better Claim. 

The weakness of my Bretheren the Indians I am well aware 
of, and doubt not by my Timely Caution, to hinder any sett 
of people (not properly authorized) to purchase any of their 
lands, then they may help to save us from the Invasions of 
our encroaching Neighbours the French, as well as the Sly 
insinuations of the pretended Saints our Friends and Countrymen. 

I am with the utmost respect 
Your Honours most obedient 
Humble Servant 

William Johnson 

Honourable James Hamilton 



Period of Peace, 1 749-1 755 135 

TO ISAAC BOGERT 1 

April 22*. 1754 — 

M R . BOGERT 

please to Send me one of your largest Hogsheads of Rum 
by the Bearer and y e . price of it, and charge it to Ace", of y r . 

Humble Serv*. 

W M . Johnson 

FROM CADWALLADER COLDEN 

A. L. S. 3 

Burnets field May y e 6 th 1754 
Coll Johnson 
Sir 

M r Herchheimer 4 & the others Concern'd in the Purchass 
to be made of the Onnydoes sent for those Indians the Day I 
Came here I have waited for them ever since & this Morning 
three or four of them Came But the Difference subsisting 
between them & those of Cannajohary about their Lands (& 
what Else I know not) seems to threaten puting an entire stop 
to any busyness being done at this time. Wherefore at the 
Request of M r Herchheimer & his Associates I am to beg the 
favour of You to favour them with Your Presence here as soon 
as You can — They have sent for some other heads of the 
Onnydoes & Expect that they & the Cannajoharys will have a 
meeting to Settle their Difference & its thought that You may 
be a great Means of a general Reconciliation as well as of 



1 Of Albany, N. Y. 

2 In collection of John E. Wyman, Fonda, N. Y. 

3 In possession of Harry V. Bush, Canajoharie, N. Y. 

4 Johan Jost (Hanyost) Herchheimer or Herkimer. The Fall River 
tract was granted in 1 752 to Johan Jost Herchheimer and Hendrick 
Herchheimer. See Benton, N. S. : A History of Herkimer County, 
p. 13. 



136 Sir William Johnson Papers 

great Service in obtaining the Purchess in w ch : they Expect 
You will be Concern'd They Desire that You would Please 
to Come if Possible, if not then send Your advice to them & 
Likewise to the Indians by way of a Message 

I am Sir 
Your Most Humble 
Ser»: 

Cad r : Colden: Sur 
Please to Dispatch the 
Messenger as soon as possible 
that we may know what to Expect 
The Indians are acquainted of this & approve thereof 

TO WILLIAM CORRY 

A. L. S. 1 

Mount Johnson August y e . 6 th . 1754 
Sir 

The Bearer hereof Patrick Flood tells me he is verry unjustly 
dealt With, by one Vanalstine Justice of the Peace of Kinder- 
hook, Who, (as Flood Says, and tells me he can prove it,) 
has imposed upon him verry much, by Extorting Unreasonable 
Tax from him Severall times, as well as threatning of him that 
he has not enough yet from him, and Severall more such 
unbecomeing expressions, & threats verry improper, & punish- 
able in a Justice. I have advised him to apply to You, and 
get the Case properly Stated & Sent to the Kings Attorney, 
Who will take Notice of such Mai proceedings in any Magis- 
trate. I Should be glad You would give the poor Man all 
the Assistance, and advice that the nature of the Affair requires, 
or will admit of, not alone for the Mans Sake, but to prevent 
such evil practice for the future, for by w 1 . I understand that 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 137 

Justice does verry Irregular things, Much to the prejudice of 
Severall of his Majesties good Subjects. 

I am 
S r . with Compliments to You 
& Family Your 

Most Humble Servant 

W M Johnson 

W M . CORRY Esq r . — 

TO JACOB GLEN 

L. S. 1 

[September 19, 1754] 

As His Honour the Lieut. Governour, with the advice of his 
Majestys Council of this province has thought fitt to order the 
building a Fort at the Little carrying place above Saratoga, and 
has sent me his orders, to send as many men there out of the 
Regiment of Militia under my command, as may be sufficient 
to cover the work, & protect the workmen while finishing of it. 
Wherefore, in order to comply with His directions, you are 
hereby required on receipt of these orders to detach a hundred 
men out of the first Battallion of the Regiment, together with 
proper officers to command them & when draughted to hold 
themselves in readiness to march thither at a moments notice. — 
Assuring them that his Honour the Lieut. Governour will use 
his utmost endeavours to obtain a reasonable allowance to be 
paid both officers & men, for their service. You are to detach 
said number of men in the most equitable manner so as not to 
distress one part or one company more than another. Let me 
know when this party is draughted & how, also the officers 
names who are to command them & when they may be wanted, 



1 In collection of John E. Wyman, Fonda, N. Y. 



138 Sir William Johnson Papers 

that I may give them proper marching orders, as well as direc- 
tions how to act while there. 

Hereof fail not, Given under my Hand att Mount Johnson 
this 1 9th day of September 1 754. 

Wm Johnson Collo 

To Lieut. Collo Jacob Glen At Schenectady. 

TO JACOB GLEN 
A. L. S. 1 

Mount Johnson Septb r . 19 th . 1754 

Sir/ 

I yesterday received Yours, by M r . Cambell together with the 
list of Officers, to whom I have no Objection provided they 
are promoted, or raised according to Seniority as we spoke of 
& agreed upon. I hope they are all residents there, & there- 
abouts. I see one Harmanus Jacob s . Vanslyke, is it He who 
lives at Conajoharee? if so it would be wrong to make him an 
officer there. I shall in a few days write to the gov r . when I 
shall send for the Commissions. 

I have herwith Sent you Coppy of y e . Gov", letter to me, 
and his Orders to the Coll os . of Ulster & Dutchess Countys. 
Also an Order to raise 100 Men With proper Officers to pro- 
tect the Fort whilst building. 

I am 
S'. 

Your Humble Serv*. 
My Compliments ) W M . Johnson 

to Your Spouse ^ 

ADDRESSED: 2 

To 

Lieu 1 . Collonel Jacob Glen 
att 

Schenectady 



1 In collection of John E. Wyman, Fonda, N. Y. 

2 Not in Johnson's hand. 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 139 

TO JAMES DE LANCEY 

A. L. S. 1 
Mount Johnson, October the J2 lh . 1754 

May it please Your Honour 

Your kind expressions to me at Albany, (for which I was 
extremely oblidged to You) emboldenes me now to take the liberty 
of begging the favour, You would recommend to the Generall 
Assembly the payment of the within Ballance so long, & Justly 
due, as will appear by the Dates of the Acc lt - which I have 
delivered in severall times before, attested, the detention of 
which has been a considerable inconveniency to me. the verry 
Interest of it would now amount to above half the principal, 
add to that, the expence of time & money I have been at 
Sollicitting the payment thereof, wherefore I cant help think- 
ing it will be hard, if the House does not consider my lying out 
of my Money so long, as well as they have Petry, Harkemar, 
&ca a few years ago, in a parrallel case, with this difference 
indeed in my favour, that I supplied Osswego Garrison in time of 
war, when everrything was vastly dear, & oblidged to pay double 
the Hire to men employed in that service, altho the allowance 
was no more, than in time of peace. I moreover supported that 
Garrison a year at my own Risque, as otherwise it must have 
deserted, and fallen into the Hands of our Enemy, for none 
would undertake the supplying it, being then War, the Act 
expired, & I unpaid. 

This makes by farr the greatest part of my ace", the rest was 
money advanced for other Services of the Government, & by 
Orders. Whereby I assure Your Honour (were I imediately 
reimbursed) I had not the least advantage, but the reverse, 
besides my great fatigue, Risque, & loss of time, which I did 
not then regard, as I imagined, and still think, I was serveing 
the Country the only motive which first induced me to plunge 



1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 



140 Sir William Johnson Papers 

myself into the many difficulties, I have so unexpectedly and 
undeservedly since mett with. You will, (I flatter myself) Sir 
forgive my troubling you with so much of this affair, when you 
consider the scituation I have been, and am still, in. — there is 
another account of mine which I take the liberty of desiring M r . 
Watts to deliver to Your Honour, in hopes You will also recom- 
mend the payment thereof to the House, it is Money advanced 
goeing to Onondaga last Year, as the allowance made by the 
General Assembly fell short 

I should not have been so troublesome to Your Honour, could 
I have attended myself, which nothing but the uncertainty of 
the times prevents. I am certain were I to leave the County at 
that time, it would cause great fears, & uneasinesses among the 
People, as well as the Indians, who from the late Insolent 
behaviour & menaceing expressions of the S*. Francis, Oronday, 
& other Eastern Indians, are verry apprehensive of danger, 
which together, with the thoughts of an approaching War led 
them to desire I would draw a Petition to Your Honour, for a 
Fort to be built att Sacondaga for their Safety, it being the 
nearest, and only way the French have to come from Crown 
Point to this part of the Country, and as they can come most 
of the way by Water, they can carry Artillery to demolish any 
Fort we have here. Notwithstanding their earnest desire, I 
would not draw one, (least it might be thought I had a hand 
in it), upon my refusal, they talked of goeing down to Sollicit 
it, and other things, personally. I dissuaded them from that also, 
by telling them I would mention it to y r . Honour by letter, they 
desired me at the same time to remind y r . Honour of your 
promise to them, conscerning the complaints of their Lands, made 
to You at Albany. — 

The Inclosed List of Officers to be made, I had lately from 
Coll°. Glen they are all for Schenectady. I shall write to him, 
and M r . Ranslear (who has not yet let me know whether he 
accepted of the Commission) to make me a return of the 
Vacancys in Albany, and the rest of the Company there- 



Period of Peace, 1 749-1 755 141 

abouts, and desire them to Send me a list of such Men as they 
may Judge fittest to fill up the Vacancys, which when I receive, 
I shall transmit it to your Honour. — the many Vacancies in 
the Companys of the Mohawks River, some of which, are 
large enough to make two good Companys, will require a good 
many Commissions to Compleat them, and oblidge one to trouble 
Your Honour writeing more than may be agreable, Unless you 
thought proper to Send me a parcel of Blanks. If so, You may 
be assured Sir, I shall have no regard to any thing, but the good 
of the Service. 

pardon Sir my prolixity, and give me leave to assure You, I 
am 

with the utmost respect, 
Your Honours 
Most Obedient, 
Humble Servant 

Wm Johnson 

My Compliments attend 
Your Lady, and Family 

GOVERNOUR DE LANCEY 

ADDRESSED: 

To 

The Honourable James De Lancey Esq r . 

INDORSED : 

Oct'. 12 1754 



From Col. Johnson incloss. 
his Account ag l . the Province, 
and signifying the desire of 
the Indians that a Fort 
may be built at Sachindage 
Inclosing Milt? List for 
Schenectady. — 



142 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM ROBERT HUNTER MORRIS 
A. L. S. 1 

Philadelphia 15* November 1754 
Sir, 

M r Peters has communicated to me a Letter 2 which he has 
received from M r Daniel Clause, wherein he informs him that 
M r Lydius 3 of Albany has in a most unbecoming and fraudu- 
lent Manner obtained a Deed for the Lands on the River Sas- 
quehannah in the very Centre of this Province from several 
Indians of the Senecas, Mohocks, Onondagoes, and Oneidoes 
in favour of some People of Connecticut ; and that he is obliged 
to You for this kind Intelligence, which You desired might be 
imparted to this Government in all its Circumstances. 

I would have done myself the Honour of acknowledging your 
Kindness, and of giving You my Sentiments on this untoward 
Affair, and desiring your Assistance before this Time; but I 
have had Two Assemblies on my Hands, and the Lower One 
obliged me to be at Newcastle a Fortnight. Now that I am at 
Liberty to give this Matter a full Consideration, and have con- 
sulted M r Weiser thereupon and laid all before the Council, 
I can see no other Way than to get Hendrick the Mohock 
Chief, who I believe and hope does not countenance this vile 
Transaction, to take a Journey to this City, that I may lay 
before him the dangerous Effects of this dishonourable Sale, 
and consult with him by what means it can be defeated, and 
the Peace of the Inhabitants of this Colony preserved. 

I have read with Pleasure the Letters that have passed 
between You and the late Governor M r Hamilton, 4 as in them 
this Matter is set forth in its true Light, and You kindly offer 



1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., Penn 
Papers, Official Correspondence, 6:235. 

2 Daniel Claus to Richard Peters ; printed in Susquehanna Papers, 
1:130-33. 

8 John Henry Lydius. 

4 James Hamilton, governor of Pennsylvania. 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 143 

the Proprietaries and this Government your best Council and 
Assistance against this unjust Attempt; and by these as well 
as the Knowledge of your Goodness in other Respects, I am 
induced to give You this Trouble. 

You are sensible that at the late Meeting of Commissioners 
at Albany, the Six Nations in open Council mentioned to the Com- 
missioners of Pennsylvania an Application then making to them 
for the Sale of some of the Sasquehannah Lands by Agents from 
Connecticut, and that they had absolutely refused to give any 
Ear to such Proposal, telling the Commiss" they were deter- 
mined those Lands should not be Settled, but reserved for a 
Place of Retreat to such as in this Time of War and Confusion 
between the French and English might be obliged to leave their 
present Habitations, and that there was no Part of their Lands 
that lay so convenient as Wyomink for a Number to live 
together; and therefore they earnestly desired that Pennsylvania 
would not insist on those Lands being comprehended within 
the Purchase then under Consideration. They repeated with 
Warmth, that neither the New England nor Pennsylvania 
People shoud settle them, and if either should attempt it, they 
would oppose them with Force. 

And in order to shew to the Commissioners of Pennsylvania, 
that the Reserve of these Lands was a very deliberate Act of 
their Council, they further declared, that in Council they had 
then thought proper to appoint John Shick Calamy, an Indian 
Chief of the Oneido Nation living in an Indian Town on those 
Lands as their Agent and Representative, giving him Orders 
to take Care of them, and desired he might be considered by 
Pennsylvania as their Agent; charging him, if he should find 
any White People attempting to settle those Lands, to make 
Complaint thereof immediately to the Government and to have 
them removed. 

The Commissioners of Pennsylvania, after shewing the 
Indians that those Lands were in the Centre of their Province, 
conceded to the Indians Request that the Purchase should not 



144 Sir William Johnson Papers 

extend to them, but then they, the Indians, must be explicit 
about their Intentions with respect to any underhand Practices 
in favour of the Connecticut People. 

The Commissioners likewise produced an Instrument under 
the Hands and Seals of the Chiefs of the Six Nations at a 
Treaty in October 1 736, and proved the same to be their 
voluntary Act by One of the Chiefs who had executed it (in 
which Deed they had solemnly agreed to sell no Lands within 
the Limits of this Province to any other Persons than to the 
Proprietaries of Pennsylvania) Whereupon the Chiefs of their 
own Accord, acknowledging that the Signers were well known 
to them to be the principal Men of their respective Nations, 
confirmed that Agreement and bound themselves by a fresh 
Deed to sell no Lands lying within the Limits of Pennsylvania 
to any but the Proprietaries; and all this was done in the most 
open and solemn Manner, and with Intent to put a Stop to the 
further Execution of the Connecticut Project. 

M r Peters when at Albany acquainted M r Woodbridge of 
Stockbridge the Principal Agent of the Connecticut People, with 
this whole Transaction, and Likewise shewed him sundry Indian 
Deeds to the Proprietaries for those Lands; at which he was 
pleased to express much Satisfaction, and to say that Pennsyl- 
vania might depend upon having no further Trouble in this 
Affair. 

Sir, I have mentioned these Particulars, because they will 
all serve to shew, that whenever the Six Nations in their publick 
Councill consider this Deed obtained by Lydius, they will deem 
it a Violation of publick Faith and an arrant Piece of Fraud; 
and will resent it not only as to Lydius, who they know to be 
a French Convert, but as to the People of Connecticut, and 
will not scruple to do them Mischief. The Shick Calamys and 
the Indians who live at Shamokin and on Sasquehannah are 
very numerous and daily encreasing; when they come to see 
the New England People settle these Lands, which they 
assuredly intend to do early in the Spring, will most certainly 



Period of Peace, 1 749-1 755 145 

oppose them, and so a War between the Indians and y e Kings 
Subjects will be brought into the very Bowels of this Province 
by this Connecticut Project, which is undertaken against fair 
Notice and a full Knowledge. 

Now it is thought that if Hendrick can be prevailed on to 
come down, and should hear all these Matters laid properly 
before him, he would find out a method of laying the Whole 
before the Six Nations and Preventing the Settlement of these 
Lands. But then as Indians do not like to blame One another, 
should he be told before hand that this is the Business he is 
sent for he may decline coming. For this Reason it is thought 
better not to mention a Word of this Matter to Hendrick, but 
inasmuch as when he took his Leave of the Pennslyvania Com- 
missioners he made this Government a Tender of his Services, 
and declared in a very solemn manner, that he woud at any 
time come to Philadelphia, whenever the Governor should think 
it necessary to send for him, to write him a general Letter founded 
on this promise, and to leave it to You to give him what Impres- 
sions You please of this Journey, and to persuade him to take it 
immediately. 

The Letter is enclosed in one to M r Clause, who had Direc- 
tions to shew it to you and to consult with you how and when 
to deliver it and what to say to Hendrick. If he should deliver 
it as of himself to Hendrick, then He would probably come 
to consult You, and so you might with greater Advantage give 
your Advice. But if You think otherwise, and that is best for 
You to deliver it, this is left entirely to You. 

I am with perfect Regard Sir 

Your most obedient humble Servant 

Robert Hunter Morris 

The Honourable WlLLIAM JOHNSON 
at Mount Johnson 



146 Sir William Johnson Papers 

TO GEORGE CLINTON 

Mount Johnson 
Decb'. 2 d . 1754 — 
May it please Your Honour 

I had yesterday the Honour of Yours dated the 27 th . of 
August, which gave me unspeakable pleasure. I cannot Suf- 
ficiently express the gratefull sense I have of your Honours 
Goodness, in mentioning me to Your Noble Freinds, whose 
Patronage, or even Countenance I should deem myself highly 
honoured in haveing, which I can never flatter myself with the 
hopes of, but thro' You. Your Honour may be assured of my 
utmost endeavours to merit it, If ever in my power. 

I should be proud if them few undigested remarks 2 concern- 
ing Indian affairs which I sent Your Honour might be thought 
worthy of Notice, they are not speculative as some I have Seen, 
they are partly Facts, and from my own knowledge acquired 
by woefull Experience. I exhibitted something of that kind to 
the Commissioners from the Severall Provinces convened last 
June at Albany, for which I had the thanks of that Board, when 
they were pleased to say, that they never had any tollerable 
Idea of Indian affairs before, this might appear vain in me 
but I assure Your Honour I only advance it to Shew that great 
part of their deliberations at that board corresponded with them 
thoughts of mine which You have, as well as M r . De Lanceys 
letters, & opinion, Home att that time, which If I be not mis- 
taken will corroberate them. — 

I am now Just come from my New Settlement in the Woods 
on the North Side of the Mohawk River, back of all the other 
Pattents where I have been these three Months past Settleing 
severall German Families who will be a good Barrier between 
Us & the French, in a verry few Years, If I can go thro with it. 



1 In William L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

2 Johnson to Clinton, March 12, 1754. 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 147 

but I already meet with a great deal of Opposition from the 
Albany Pattentees of Lands, who altho they dont incline to 
Settle theirs, endeavour all they Can, to hinder me, by telling 
those who are ready to go & live on the Land, as well as them 
already Settled Severall Idle & Villanous things to deter them 
from it. the reason is, they the low Dutch dont like any should 
Inhabit here but themselves and they are the most unfitt Sett 
of Men in the World to live on the Frontiers as they are neither 
laborious, industrious, nor Soldiers, all w* 1 . qualities are indis- 
pensably necessarry for those who Settle on any of those Frontiers 
now. If I could meet with any encouragement, or assistance 
at Home (here I expect none, but the reverse) I would not 
doubt in a short time haveing 500 Familys at the back of Us. 
The only thing I aim at is to have my Lands free of Quitrent, 
which as it lies next to the Enemy, if properly represented I 
have hopes it might not be thought unreasonable, the next 
thing would be to allow a Fort there for their Protection, with- 
out which I fear they will be the first Sufferers, from severall 
late 111 natured expressions of the Governour of Canada, together 
with threats against me, to Severall of Our Indians who were 
there this Fall, cheifly on Acc tl . of attempting so great a Settle- 
ment of Germans, & Irish as he said. If your Honour thought 
there might be a probability of my Succeeding in these two 
Articles, as it would undoubtedly be vastly for the Interest of 
the Crown, & Security of this Province to have the Frontiers 
Covered, I would w th . your approbation draw up a proper 
representation thereof, & send it Home, to those Y r Honour 
would please to advise me. — I cant help mentioning the 
Slaughter is made in this Province of the finest Pines in the 
World for his Majesty's Service, or Fleet, which shortly may 
be wanted & would be verry Useful but as there is no One to 
take Care of them, they will be all distroyed Wherefore if 
His Majesty thought proper to Commissionate me even without 
Sallary, I would take Care of the Wood, as I really think it 
a pitty to See it distroyed so. — Haveing been so long in the 



148 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Woods as I observed before, have had no opertunity of learning 
any Indian News worth Communicateing. altho I have the 
Sachims of both Castles now at my House, on their way to 
Philedelphia on Gov r . Morri's Invitation it is concerning a 
fraudalent purchase made by Lyddius of Albany, of Lands 
within Pensilvania Government for Some People of Connecticut 
who intend vi, et armis to Settle it in the Spring, upon w h . M r . 
Morris & M r . Peters wrote me, verry earnestly entreating my 
assistance therin & that I would Send the Indians thither, with 
old M rs . Hendrick. — when I told them I had a letter from 
Your Honour, they asked verry kindly how You did, and 
desired to be remembered to You, & beged at the Same time I 
would remind You of haveing them two Pattents broke which 
they spoke to Your Honour about when here, Viz 1 , the great 
Pattent of Caniaderosseras alias Queensborrough, Conts. Six 
or Seven Hundred thousand Acres & pays but £4 a year Quit- 
rent, besides it hinders y e . Settlement of this part of the County. 
The other is the Pattent w h . Phillip Livingston took for y c 
Conajoharee Castle & Low Lands whereon the Indians live, 
these two they Earnestly requested You as their Brother would 
lay before his Majesty, whom they hope will redress their 
greivances, which I assure You Sir gives them more Uneasiness 
than People are aware of. they have made the Same Com- 
plaint to M r . DeLancey at Albany last June who promised all 
in his power to have it redressed, but as You were the first 
they mentioned it to, & now being near their Father they hope it 
will be done. — If I might refer You to the Bearer hereof 
Doctor Schuckburgh (whom I am heartily Sorry has been guilty 
of so inadvertent an action, contrary I belive realy to his 
inclination from what I have always heard him express) He 
could give Your Honour the fullest & most to be relied on 
Ace"- of the present State of the Six Nations & their Allies, 
of any Man I may venture to Say in America, He haveing 
been with me at y e generall Council at Onondaga, & in Severall 
Others at my House & Elsewhere this time past, besides he 



Period of Peace, 1 749- J 755 149 

has Seen all my remarks &ca in order to acquaint Y r . Honour 
therewith more fully than I could write, & this Some time ago. — 
As to the Sums of Money which I have so long ago advanced 
for the Service of the Government, and so often applied for 
here, I have not as yet received, & I understand by letters from 
York that they are determined not to pay it. nay they told 
myself so last Year, when I was determined never to ask them 
more, but M r . Delancey at Albany Assured me he would try 
what he could do in it of his own accord, now I hear they will 
not pay either Principal or Interest, altho they have paid Interest 
to others in a parrallel Case, nay with this favourable Circum- 
stance that mine was done by Your Orders & advice of Council 
which they pay no regard to, as will appear by an Acc tl . Sent 
me by the Speaker last Year from the House wherein they 
reject paying, and is here inclosed, the Remainder of the Prin- 
cipal Still due & the Interest of the Severall Sums detained from 
me, Severall years will amount to above two thousand Pounds 
this Currency, w h . is too much for me to loose, together w th . 
what I have been oblidged to expend to the Six Nations ever 
since I demitted the management of them to this day for I can- 
not possibly get rid of them, as they will be here, & to turn 
them away dissatisfied, I am convinced would be of the worst 
Consequence, that Expence tho Considerable I never made a 
Charge of to the Province, as they will not pay my first Ace", 
so often laid before them attested in the time of Your Honours 
Administration. Wherefore haveing no Body Else I can apply 
to, or rely upon but Your Honour, I must beg Your Assistance 
in seeing me reimbursed. It would be cruel if I should loose 
So much Money by their Party feuds. — I can assure Y r . 
Honour I have with y e . greatest patience & Silent Heartscalding 
a long time laboured under the Yoke of Oppression, Envy, & 
Malice here, as You are sensible of. and now all my hopes of 
being relieved is Centred in Your Honour, of whose Goodness 
I have had so many Instances as leaves me no reason to doubt 



150 Sir William Johnson Papers 

of Success with y r . Assistance which will abundantly add to 
the Many favours already Conferred on Me. 

Who am with all gratitude, warmest wishes for Y r . Welfare 

& the profoundest Respect 
Your Honours 
Most Devoted 
Most Oblidged 
Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 
My best Respects 
attend Your Lady 
& Family — 

INDORSED: 1 

Coll° Johnson's 2 d December 

1754 
Reed by Shugborough 
Answered by Kit 19 March 
1755 

TO RICHARD PETERS 
A. L. 2 

[Mount] Johnson Dechr. 9th 1754 
Sir 

Your kind favour of the 15th ult° with one from Governour 
morris, 3 was brought to me by Mr. Clause into the woods, where 
I have been these three months past settleing some of my lands, 
upon which I came Home & sent Mr. Claus imediately for their 
Politician Hendrick, to whom I delivered the governours letter 
and advised him to undertake the journey, which at first he 
was unwilling to do, but after talking a good deal on the subject 
to him, and promiseing to join, & back him here among the Six 
Nations, His fears, & uneasiness vanished, so that he agreed to 



1 In Clinton's hand. 

2 In Henry E. Huntingtons Library, San Marino, Cal. 

3 Robert Hunter Morris to Johnson, Nov. 15, 1754. 



Period of Peace, 1749-1755 151 

go, 1 and assured me he would do all in his power for the interest 
of the Proprietarie. 

As none knows the nature & temper of Indians better than you 
do, I have not the least doubt of their returning well satisfied, & 
in good temper which give me great pleasure, as I am certain 
it would be of service to the cause in Hand. 

havs been hurried, & thronged with numbers since my comeing 
Home, as not to allow me time to write, or scarce look about me 
hope you will be kind enough to excuse brevity & this scroul. 

& believe me 
Sincerely 

Your Most Humble Servt. 

Wm. Johnson 

P. S. I have given Mr. Clause 
some hints concerning y e 
Management of y e Indians 
while there, w h may be usefull. 

Richard Peter Esq r 

Compliments ^ 
Mr. Penn. \ 

TO ROBERT HUNTER MORRIS 

Copy 2 
Mount Johnson, Dec br the 9th 1754 

May it please Your Honour: 

I with pleasure embrace this oppertunity of congratulating 
Your Honour on Your Safe Arrival and advancement to that 
Government, over which I sincerely wish You long to Preside. 

I have been honoured with Yours of the 15th ult. by Mr. 
Daniel Clause, whom I immediately sent to call Hendrick to 
my House. Upon his arrival I delivered and interpretted your 
Honour's Letter or Invitation to him, and urged his waiting 



1 Johnson in this letter emphasizes more the opposition shown by 
Hendrick than in his letter to Morris, Nov. 15, \ 754. 

2 Printed in Pennsylvania Colonial Records, 6:268-69. 



152 Sir William Johnson Papers 

upon you immediately, which, when he agreed to, I spoke to 
him concerning the affair as far as I judged necessary; and I 
flatter myself it will have a good Effect, He having faithfully 
promised me to exert himself and use his utmost endeavours 
for the Interest of the Proprietaries against the Connecticut 
Attempt. 

After my expatiating some time on the Injustice of their 
Proceedings, more especially so after what had passed at 
Albany last June in Publick, Hendrick then with such warmth 
disapproved of them, as well as the weakness of those of his 
Brethren who were seduced by Lyddius, and promised to do 
all he could to make them revoke or retract what they had so 
shamefully done, provided I would Assist him and Countenance 
his Proceedings with the Five Nations, which I assured him I 
would with all my Interest; upon that He and his Party sett 
out full of Spirits and in good temper; and I doubt not (from 
the knowledge of Your Honour's great and well-established 
Character) of their returning so; and Mr. Peter's great experi- 
ence and thorough knowledge of Indian affairs as well as of 
Hendrick's temper and Principalis will contribute much to Your 
Honour's Ease in accelerating the Affair with them, Who (to 
those unacquainted with their Ways and tedious forms) must 
be thought very troublesome and Silly. I have had a great 
deal of discourse with Hendrick in private about that affair, 
and also his present Sentiments, which to insert here would make 
my Letter of too great a length for Your Honour to read with 
Patience; wherefore make bold to refer Your Honour to the 
Bearer, Mr. Clause, for some Particulars I have communicated 
to him, as I am convinced of his Sincerity and readiness to Serve 
that Government on all Occasions. 

Nothing could give me more Pleasure than to hear of those 
Indians answering Your Honour's Expectations, as I am, with 
all due regard, 

Your Honour's Most Obedient Humble Servant, 

W M . Johnson 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755—1756 153 

FROM ROBERT HUNTER MORRIS 
Copy 1 

Philadelphia, 23d January, 1755. 
Sir: 

I am favoured with Yours by Hendrick, and heartily thank 
you for the part you have been so good as to take in the Con- 
necticut affair. Hendrick has been very explicit upon the Sub- 
ject and I have entertained him and his Companions in the 
best manner I could, and I believe to their own Satisfaction. 

You will give me leave to refer you to a Letter you will 
receive with this from Mr. Peters, 2 for the particulars that have 
passed here and for the Plan that we have agreed to pursue 
to put an end to this Affair, In which I hope for the Continu- 
ance of your friendly Offices. You will observe we propose 
that the Six Nations should be invited to send Deputy's to your 
House early in the Spring, with full powers to treat and agree 
upon Matters relative to this Purchase of Lydius, and to pre- 
vent the like for the future, where I shall send Commissioners 
to meet them, and it will give me particular pleasure if you will 
permit me to name you in that Commission. 

These Indians Complain of ill Usage from the People of 
Albany on ace 1 , of their Lands, and tell me That a very Large 
Trade is carried on between Albany and Canada by means of 
the French Indians, who for that Purpose are Constantly at 
Albany, and that the French by that means are furnished with 
whatever Goods they want either for their Trade or their Troops. 

Such a Trade must be very prejudicial to the English Interest 
at all times, and more especially so at this Time, and ought to 
be prevented, but whether these Mohocks out of resentment to 
the People of Albany do not represent this Matter in too strong 
a Light you who have frequent Opportunities of observing can 
best tell. 



1 Printed in Pennsylvania Colonial Records, 6:286—87. 

2 Richard Peters to Sir William Johnson, January 23, 1755. 



154 Sir William Johnson Papers 

His Majesty upon being informed of the Steps taken by the 
French upon this Continent, has ordered two Regiments to be 
sent from Ireland and two more to be raised in America, for 
the Defence of his Subjects here, and I am in hourly expectation 
of hearing of the Arrival of the Irish Regiments at Virginia who 
together with the American Regiments are to be under the Com- 
mand of Major General Braddock, who I hear is to have the 
Government of New York, but this last piece of news I believe 
is not much to be depended on. These Preparations seem to 
portend a War between us and France, the Seat of which will be 
Chiefly in America, and I could wish the English Colonys would 
prepare themselves for such an Event, but you will see by 
the Papers that have passed between me and the Assembly that 
this Colony in particular tho' most concerned are resolved to 
do nothing. I heartily wish you a continuance of Health, and 
am, Dear Sir, 

Your most obedient humble Servant, 

Rob t . H. Morris 

FROM RICHARD PETERS 
Copt/ 1 

Philadelphia, 23d January, 1755 
SIR: 

I was on the eight Instant most agreeably surprized with your 
Favour of the ninth of December by Hendrick. Not having 
received a Line from Mr. Claus to intimate to me their kind 
Intention, I had given over all expectations of seeing them this 
Winter, and took the Opportunity of disclosing the Matter to 
Scarrooyady, an Oneida Chief, who succeeds the Half King 
in the Direction of Indian Affairs at Aucquick, and was so good 
as to call upon the Governor for his Commands to the Six 
Nations, to whom he was going at the Instance of Virginia to 
invite them to Winchester, and to give them an Account of 



Printed in Pennsylvania Colonial Records, 6:287—90. 




€^T7 




THE REVEREND RICHARD PETERS 

From luhn Russell Young's Memorial History of the I ity of Philadelphia 

from Its First Settlement to the Year 1895,' 1 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 155 

Indian Affairs on the Ohio. By this Chief, whose family is 
supported among many others by this Government, and who is 
a very hearty Friend of the English, the Governor sent a Mes- 
sage to the great Council at Onondago complaining of a Breach 
of Faith in the Indians in making a Deed to the Connecticut 
People for Lands within this Province. Such a Message was 
become absolutely necessary, for He had received a Belt from 
John Shick Calamy, the Person to whom the Indians in the 
Pennsylvania Treaty at Albany had committed the Care of the 
Wyomink Lands after having declined including them in the 
then Sale. Shick Calamy complained heavily that he was likely 
to be disturbed by some Strangers, meaning the Connecticut 
People, some of whom had been to visit those Lands and told 
him they had bought them of the Six Nations since the Treaty 
at Albany, and intended in the Spring to come and settle them, 
and praying this Government would prevent this Injustice or he 
should be obliged to complain to the Six Nations for Redress. 
I likewise gave Scarrooyady a Letter to You and charged him 
to take your advice in the manner of communicating this affair 
to the Six Nations. He went away on Christmas Day and that 
Day fortnight Hendrick arrived. 

Before I proceed to mention what has passed between Hen- 
drick and the Governor it may not be amiss to inform You of 
the Character of Scarrooyady and his Errand, that You may 
know how to interpose if necessary: He is a Warrior, a brave 
and stout Man, and has an aversion to the French, and wants 
without any good Reason to strike them, and secretly purposes 
to animate the six Nations to take Part in the War. This he 
will do if he can, tho' this is not his publick Errand, yet I verily 
believe it is his Intention, for he has with him an Hatchet Belt 
given to him and a few Warriors by Coll. Washington in his 
March to the French Fort, which they accepted, and did 
actually, tho' imprudently, fall on La Force and his Party at 
the same Time that Col. Washington did, an Account of which 
You have in the Speeches he made here which are copies for 
your Use. 



156 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I have another Reason for suspecting his Intention, as he was 
charged by the Government of Virginia with an Invitation to 
the Six Nations to come to Winchester in the Spring; it was 
thought necessary to give a Belt from this Province and Mary- 
land to enforce that Invitation, and I asked him what sort of a 
Belt should be given, shewing him several, he chose a large 
black Belt of Fourteen Rowas, and tho' I did not approve it 
yet having asked his Advice I suffered him to have his Way, 
and told the Governor in Council that it was an improper Belt 
for a peaceable Invitation, and that the Six Nations wou'd 
intepret it as a Message of War; But the old Man declared he 
would not talk of War with that Belt, but only make Use of it 
to give the Invitation, and that as there was no Hatchet on it 
its being black signified nothing; But suspecting that he may 
make another Use of it, the Governor desired me to mention 
this Matter to You as he has done to Hendrick, that all Mis- 
takes may be prevented and no bad Consequences ensue. 

This makes my Letter long, but I hope You will pardon it. 
Now to proceed to our good Friend Hendrick and his Business. 
He told Us very frankly that You had made him an hearty 
Friend to this Province and would join with and support him 
in any Measures the Governor of Pennsylvania should advise 
to get rid of this Connecticut Deed, and I heartily thank you for 
this singular Kindness and for mentioning the same thing your- 
self in your Letters to the Governor and me. 

In Consequence of this hearty Concurrence of yours and the 
Mohocks, his Honour gave Hendrick a Belt with a String of 
Wampum tied to it. By the Belt he was asked to undertake 
along with You the breaking of the Connecticut Deed, and for 
that Purpose and because there is no other Way in the World 
to get rid of it he was further desired to consider with You what 
will be the best Method to procure the Meeting of a Council 
as soon as possible at your House, to consist of two or three 
Deputies of each Nation and no more, in order to consult together 
of the most effectual Manner how to do it, and by the String 
You are desired to convene such Council. 




KING BENDRICK 
From Schoolcraft' 1 ; Indian Tribes, 6:220 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 157 

We further intimated to Hendrick and now inform you that in 
order to get rid of this Deed We cannot devise any Method 
that will be effectual unless the Six Nations in Council will 
execute a Conveyance to the Proprietaries of all the Lands lying 
within their Grant on such Conditions and in such manner as 
shall be agreed on at your House, and to shew the Indians and 
yourself our just Intentions the Governor proposed to name You 
one of the Commissioners along with Mr. Penn and myself. 

Unless this be done it will always be in the Power of such 
Men as Lydius to disturb the Peace of the Government and to 
breed endless distractions. Nor will the Indians be Sufferers 
by executing such a deed for the whole, since there may be 
Reservations of particular Places made for them in the Grant 
and very good Covenants to secure their Possessions, and as it 
may be an Objection that all the Money received will be con- 
sumed at once and their Children reap no advantage, to obviate 
this it may be stipulated that the Payments shall be made 
annually or every Two Years for a Number of Years to come. 

Hendrick seems to approve much of this Project, and I believe 
the more you think of the Matter the more you will be per- 
suaded that no other Way can do the Thing effectually, and 
therefore if it meets with your Approbation, which I hope it will 
do, the Governor begs the Favour of you to summon a Council 
to your House, and leaves it entirely to You to fix the Time, 
and to take such measures with the Indians previous to the 
Meeting as you and Hendrick shall think proper. 

It is thought that more than Three Deputies need not come 
from any one Nation, but that there should be Three from 
every Nation. I suppose so much Noise has been or will be 
made about this vile Attempt of the Connecticut People among 
the Indians that they will not be able to get more Hands to their 
Deed, tho' it is thought they will try further in the Spring, and 
bribe high, and therefore no Time should be lost to effectuate 
what is proposed to be done on the Part of this Province. 

But if, notwithstanding what has been said, you should not 
see this Proceeding in the same Light We do, be pleased to 



158 Sir William Johnson Papers 

favour the Governor or me with a Letter on this Subject, and 
therein set down your Objections, alter, amend, or plan out 
anew what You think adviseable to be done. We make You 
our Counsellor, and shall be glad to be set right, and either to 
do this or any other Thing that You shall advise. 

You see what a World of Trouble You have drawn on your- 
self by your Tender of your good Offices, but how to help it I 
see not, nor what Compensation can be made to you. It shall, 
however, be my Endeavour to contrive a Method of doing this 
to your Satisfaction. 

Mr. Penn is out of Town or he would have joined with me 
in this Letter, and in his respectful Services to You in Return 
for your kind mention of him. 

The Sasquehannah Lands being a Conquest of the Six 
Nations do not belong to private Indians nor to private Nations 
(but if to any it is to the Cayugas and Oneidas), therefore they 
cannot be sold by private Indians out of Council. But in 
Council they may be sold, and the Deed will be good; and in 
Council the Indians themselves may declare against the fraudu- 
lent Deed that it is made by People who had no Right, and 
if they had a Right it is an Imposition on the Parties and a cheat, 
the Indians having before given up their Right to the Pro- 
prietaries of Pennsylvania, and besides it is a Breach of Faith 
with a Province which has been remarkably true and kind to 
them. 

I wou'd not have You imagine that we cannot with the 
Treaties and deeds already obtained make out a prior Title to 
this fraudulent Deed. No; You know that I produced to You 
at Albany a Deed from the Six Nations, to Governor Dongan, 
and his Deed to Mr. Penn, which comprizes these very Lands, 
and likewise other Deeds from the Sasquehannah Indians con- 
firming that Deed, and added to all these I produce to you two 
Agreements made by all the Six Nations not to sell any Lands 
within Pennsylvania but to the Proprietaries. 

I have sent You the News Papers containing all the Mes- 
sages between Governor and Assembly, and likewise a Copy of 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 159 

Col. Innes' Treaty with the Deputies of Seven Nations of 
Indians deemed to be in the French interest; but if any Credit 
may be given to what themselves say, are as much or more in 
the Interest of the English. 

Tho' in the beginning of this Letter I have spoke so freely of 
Scarrooyady, yet I think him a mighty good Man and worthy 
of all kind of Notice from the Six Nations, and I should be 
glad to know how he is received and what he does. 

Hendrick and his Friends have been kindly entertained and 
go away perfectly pleased ; and I assure You they have behaved 
politely and given universal Satisfaction. 

They have insisted on Governor Morris laying their Com- 
plaints against the Government of New York and People of 
Albany before the King, which he has promised to do after 
having first mentioned the Matters in difference to the Governor 
of New York and requested he wou'd be pleased to give the 
Indians entire Satisfaction. I apprehend it is a delicate affair 
and may give offence, but why it should, or if it does why it 
should be minded, I think there can be no good Reason, as Mr. 
Morris will I am sure observe good manners and Friendliness. 

I am, Sir, Your very humble Servant, 

Richard Peters 



FROM CONRAD WEISER 
Copy 1 
Philadelphia, 23d January, 1755 

Kind Sir: 

I take this Opportunity to trouble you with a few Lines. 
Having read the Secretary's, Mr. Peters, to You, dated either 
the 2 1st or 22d of this Instant, I since thought upon reflecting 
on it that something about the ensuing Treaty with some of the 
Deputies of the Six Nations at Mount Johnson required a little 



Printed in Pennsylvania Colonial Records, 6:291-92. 



160 Sir William Johnson Papers 

more Explanation. Whether I am wrong or right You will be 
best able to judge when You compare mine and Mr. Peters' 
together. 

First. Henry Brandt and Seth undertook to assist in the 
Affair against the Connecticut People in making that Deed, 
obtained by Lydius from the Six or some of the Six Nations, 
void, as it was obtained in a very wicked manner. 

Secondly. That they would secure Things concerning the 
Land in Mr. Penn's Grant so sure to the Proprietaries of 
Pennsylvania as to put it out of any such as Lydius their Power 
to do any more Mischief. 

Thirdly. That in all this they will consult with you about 
everything, and proceed according to your Advice. 

Fourthly. When the Time is fixed that the Treaty shall be 
to give Mr. Peters Notice as soon as possible, so that the Treaty 
be early in the Spring, the Notice is meant to come from your 
Honor. 

In my humble Opinion the more Secret this can be carried on 
the better, let Mr. Claus be sent to Onondago with some one or 
two of Henry's Friends; by what I can learn the Indians are 
sorry for what happened and will be very glad to see the Things 
put upon such a Footing that the Proprietaries of Pennsylvania 
shall have what the King has granted them, and that the Indians 
may come off as blameless as possible, and the wickedness of 
Lydius be exposed. I believe I have no need to trouble You 
with more Words, knowing that Mr. Peters wrote a long Letter 
to You. 

I wish You Health and Happiness, and am, 
Sir, Your most humble Servant, 

Conrad Weiser. 1 



1 Official interpreter of Pennsylvania. 




HOME OF CONRAD WEISER, ERECTED ABOUT 1732, IN CONRAD WEISER 
MEMORIAL PARK. NEAR WOMELSDORF, BERKS COUNTY, PA. 




MONUMENT OF CONRAD WEISER IN 

CONRAD WEISER MEMORIAL PARK, 

NEAR WOMELSDORF, BERKS COUNTY, 

PA. 

These two pictures reproduced from C. H. Sipe*s The Indian Wars of Pennsylvania, 

p. 100 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 161 

DANIEL CLAUS TO RICHARD PETERS 

Copy 1 

Albany, February 10th, 1755 
Honoured Sir: 

Last Saturday Afternoon We arrived in this Town, all well ; 
the Commissioners of Indian's Affairs had a Meeting the same 
Evening, and called Henry in order to have a Conference with 
him and examine him, but he put 'em off with some triffling 
Pieces of News, which they were satisfied with, and afterwards he 
desired of them to let him know what news passed hereabouts 
since his Absence, when they replied that they could not 
acquaint him of any extraordinary, but that some Days ago a 
Caghnawago Indian called Thomas Whiteman brought some 
Letters from the Governor of Canada, one to Governor Shirley, 
one to Governor De Lancey, and another to Governor Din- 
widdie; at the same time they suspected the Indian as a Spy, 
as he was noted to be such the last War. 

On Sunday Evening Col. Johnson came to Town in order to 
go to New York, when immediately I delivered him the Letters; 
next morning he had a Conference with the Indians, and told 
them by way of Introduction that the Six Nations received a 
Call from the Governor of Canada to be there early in the 
Spring, especially the Two Mohock Castles were very strongly 
invited; the French sent a great many Stories among the Indians, 
viz 1 ., the English were upon a Scheme to destroy all the Indians, 
and they received Letters from France that the King of England 
sent a Message to their King to join him in the Undertaking, 
& ca ., therefore they would take them under their Protection, and 
many more Stories not worth mentioning. 



1 Printed in Pennsylvania Colonial Records, 6:292—93. 
6 



162 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Scarrooyady 1 at his Return will relate the particulars of all 
these Things. I understand he was not well satisfied with the 
Commissioners and Cap*. Staats Morris supplied him with so 
much Money as brought him to Col. Johnson's, where he threw 
himself quite in the Care of him, and after concluding everything 
necessary the Colonel sent him in his Slay to the Great Flatts 
in Company with a Mohock Sachem, and he is soon expected 
back again, and Col. Johnson desired me to tell his People to 
entertain him well and bring him to Albany, but how he will be 
helped along there I do not know, as Cap 1 , Morris is gone for 
Boston last Monday. 

Col. Johnson tells me that he will return with all Speed from 
New York and then take that Affair in Hand. One of the 
Cayuga Chiefs passed his House last Week, when he insisted on 
being acquainted of every Piece of News he heard in Albany, 
when after a long Pause he told the Colonel how he had a 
Message from Lydius to bring the Cayuga Chiefs in Twenty- 
Five Days to his House, but the Colonel proposing the shameful 
Act of some of the Six Nations concerning that Affair, the 
Indian dropped it immediately and promised the Colonel as a 
good Friend of his to be as much against it as in his Power. 

I here enclose your Honour a Copy 2 of a Title of a Sasque- 
hannah Share, which Lydius sells as fast as he can. 

I remain with my humble Respects, 

Honoured Sir, Your most humble Servant, 

Daniel Claus. 



1 The Half King. 

2 Printed in Pennsylvania Colonial Records, 6:293. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 7 55- J 756 163 

ACCOUNT WITH DAVID QUACKENBUSH 
A. D. S. 

43.. 5.. ?y 2 

David Quack — 8.. 



D'. £43.. 13.. 7!/ 2 
Per Contra — O. 27.. 4.. 4 



Ball due to me £ 16. . 9. . Wl this 16* Day of 

Febry. 1753 — 
Ballance due to me this 
27* Day of Jam*. 1755 
by David Quackenbush 

W M . Johnson 

INDORSED: 

Davie Quacks 
Last time of 
Ballanceing of 
Accounts with S r 
W m Johnson Bar 1 
Janry 27* 1 755 

TO VOLCKERT P. DOUW 
A. L. S. 1 

New York Thursday Feb r K 20 lh . 1755 — 
Dear Sir 

After five Days passage I got Here, where I found the 
Assembly ready to break up, after haveing allowed Six thousand 
Pounds for Albany Fortifications three thousand Pounds for 
Schenectady, & one thousand for Kinder Hook, £20'000 for 



1 From an autotype facsimile in New York Historical Society, New 
York City. Miscellaneous Manuscripts. Original owned by Mrs Morris 
Patterson Ferris. 



164 Sir William Johnson Papers 

New York, the rest of the Forty five thousand pounds which 
is to be Struck is left in the Treasury for other Services. We 
have no Acc lt . yet here, of the Troops arrivall in Virginia, there 
is a report that Some of the Store Ships arrived. As for raiseing 
Men, or Companys as was talked of I find nothing of it Here. 
If there was be assured I should not be backward in doing what 
I promised 

As I am Your 
Sincere Freind 

& Hearty Welwisher 

W M . Johnson 
the Assembly broke up yesterday 
and Sett of this Day for their 
respective Homes after passing 
3 Bills Viz 1 , one for the £45,000 
another to prevent provisions being 
Sent to Cape Breton or Elsewhere on 
this Continent to the French 
the 3 d . is the Militia Act w h . is 
verry full & Strict — 

Adieu In Haste — 

TO RICHARD PETERS 
A. L. S. 1 

New York March the 17*. 1755 
Sir 

Scarooyady arrived here three Days ago, with a Couple of 
Young Mohawks, & three Oneidaes, who are goeing to See their 
freinds liveing that way. 

The Old Man pressed me much to let You know his desire, 
which is, that M r . Weiser, or Montour, may be there, to interpret 
what he has to Say to Your Government. He allows Davison 
to Understand y e . language as well as any Man, (and I realy 



1 In collection of Horace S. Van Voast, Schenectady, N. Y. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 165 

think he does) but says He is foolish, and unguarded in his 
Cups, which is a pitty, as otherwise He might be a verry usefull 
Man at this time. — 

I find Lyddius has been endeavouring to Currupt, & tempt 
the Old Man, haveing (as he says) offered him 50, or 60 
Dollars if he would sign a Deed w h . he laid before him with 
above 20 Seals to it, He would not agree to it, however took 
1 7 Dollars of Lyddius for travelling expences. — 

M r . DeLancey (on receipt of Gov r . Morris's letter, which 
he had the advice of Council upon) has consented to my con- 
veneing as Many of the Six Nations at my House, as may be 
thought proper. I intend to leave this place in two or three 
days, and as Soon as I get Home, will let you know When the 
Meeting will be. In the mean time, Conclude with all due 
regard, S r . Y r . Most Obedient 

Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 
Excuse the inaccuracy of 
these lines, being in great Haste 

ADDRESSED : 

To 

The Honrb ,e . Richard Peters Esq r . 
att 

Philadelphia 

FROM GEORGE CLINTON 

L. S. 1 

19* March 1755 
S R 

Your Favour of 2 d December I received by M r Shuckburgh. 
I made the proper Use with my Friends of those Remarks con- 
cerning Indian Affairs, which you sent me, and imagine that 
they were approved of here, by a Commission (which if I am 



1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 



166 Sir William Johnson Papers 

rightly informed could not be dissagreeable to you) being sent 
to you by General Braddock, upon which I heartily congratulate 
you, as That must appear a plain Indication of the approbation 
of your Conduct by the Ministry here, and, at the same time, 
be the greatest Chagrin to that meanspirited Set of Rascalls, 
the Faction at New York. 

I am vastly pleased that the villainous endeavours of those 
Albany Scoundrell's are dissapointed by the Settling of several 
German Families on your Patent, on the Mohawks River, and 
heartily wish you a dayly increase, for as such Settlements must 
advance your Property, it must also be a very additional Security 
to the Province as well as the Interest of the Crown, all which I 
shall represent in the best Light I can for your Interest with 
my Friends (among which I can not reckon L d Ha — 1 — f — x, 
for there is at present no manner of connection between him and 
me) but, However, if you will send me a proper Representation 
of your Case, I will make the best Use of it with those Friends 
I have in the Ministry, and in that Representation you may 
make mention of the Destruction of the Pines, which might be 
of so inestimable Value for His Majesty's Fleet, and also the 
Affair of the two great Patents, which gives so great Grievance 
to the Indians, as very probably, at this critical Conjuncture, it 
may be the means to get them dissolved, in order to ingratiate 
the Indians to a firm Alliance with us and the only method to 
preserve the whole Continent from the artfull Designs and 
dareing Encroachments of the French upon His Majestys 
American Dominions, so justly His undoubted Right. 

I am equally sensible with you of the severe Treatment you 
have received from the Assembly, in relation to the large Summs 
you have expended (on their Credit and entirely for the good 
of the Province in general) and should be glad if any Method 
could be found out to reimburse you. 

The Death of M r Pelham, the Choice of a New Parliament, 
the Continued Hurry the Duke of Newcastle has been embar- 
rassed in, and the present prospect of a War has engrossed all 
my Friends time, that in short I have not been able to dispatch 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 167 

my own business; But you may depend S r that I shall always 
take the greatest pleasure, by every Action in my power to 
demonstrate to you how much I have your Interest at heart I 
have been almost pulled to peices with the Gout Since my 
arrival which is not quite off at present just make shift to 
hobble but as the Spring comes on hope to be better M rs 
Clintons Compliments & sends by Kit a Thrush & a Cock & a hen 
Canary bird according to promiss If I can gather up any thing 
between this & Shogboroughs going I shall writte to you & am 

Your faith full friend and 

very humble Ser v 

G Clinton 
M rs Clinton is vastly sorry 
that she is dissapointed in the 
Canary Birds but will do her 
utmost to send them by D r 
Shuckburgh 

ADDRESSED : 
To 

The Hon bie : Col 1 . William Johnson 
at 

Mount Johnson 
INDORSED: 1 

March 19* 1755 



Admirall Clintons letter 



TO WILLIAM SHIRLEY 

Df. 

I ] 

[ 2 ] 

[ ] expecting Convoys for [ 

the Artillery w ch may be dispatch [ed 
You will acquaint 1 st . Charles Hardy [ 



1 In Johnson's hand. 

2 Lines burned off. 



168 



Sir William Johnson Papers 



] this your Appointment, & apply to him [ 
] ein his Interpersition may be necessary 



] 



]11 Officers of any of the Reinforcements [ 

] raised for this Expedition are to supply such 
]ards & Convoys as may be needful for the good 



INDORSED: 



ono 



ble 



] H 
] ohnston 
]rel and 
i]n Cheif 
] Lake 

] 



FROM WILLIAM SHIRLEY" 



A. L. S. 



Hartford Connecticut May 10. 1755 
Sir, 

Upon looking into the Minutes of the Council at Alexandria 3 
since my last to you dated the seventh of May from North 
Harson, w ch . I hope you have reciev'd, I find it expressly 
mention'd that the design of the General's advancing Money to 
you, was that you might have an immediate Supply to purchase 
every thing necessary for ingaging the Indians of the six Nations 
in the present Service, and it is there undertaken by the Gov r . 
that the Colonies will repay it in two or three Months time; 
There can therefore be no possible doubt but that the sole End 
of lodging this Money in your hands, is for a fund to provide 
everything necessary in present for ingaging the Indians, and 



1 Lines 



burned off. 

2 William Shirley, colonial governor of Massachusetts ; commander in 
chief of the forces in British North America at the opening of the French 
war in 1 755. 

3 April 14, 1755; See Die Hist. N. Y., 2:248-51; Q. 2:378-79. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 169 

there is no other use for it, and this was done for fear ready 
Money be wanting, if the Colonies supplying it was to be trusted 
to: You will not therefore make the least hesitation ab*. making 
this use of the Money — If any delay in the Indians engaging 
in the service should happen for want of doing it, it would be 
an irretrievable mischief — Gov r . de Lancey, as I told you before, 
insists that his Brother Oliver hath orders to supply you with 
200011 Stirs, for this purpose; Oliver himself (as I understand 
him) tells me, he hath supply'd you with 1500H of it, and is 
ready to let you have the remainder; and he hath signify'd the 
same to the Governour of Connecticutt, and I am satisfy'd no 
other fund will be provided to defray the Expence of ingaging 
the Indians by the Colonies, whom the several Gov rs . must 
immediately call upon to reimburse the 200011 to the Crown 
in due time; as to whatever the General hath order'd you to 
draw upon me for, you may depend upon your Drafts being 
answer'd, as I told you in my last; and I hope there will be no 
mistake in this, occasion'd by any Scruple in your self to apply 
the Money advanc'd to you by the General for the Service 
herein before mention'd 

This will be deliver'd You by one James Johnson, who was 
taken Captive either the last Year, or the Year before that with 
a Wife and Children by the Indians, and carry'd to Canada 
from whence he was sent to New England last Year to endeavour 
to get Money for the redemption of his Wife and Children: 
This he accordingly did some months ago, and was on his 
Journey to Albany in order to proceed to Canada; but was 
stop'd by the Massachusetts Governm*. on ace 1 , of the several 
motions now in agitation ag l . the French, and for fear they 
should get some intelligence out of him: He now presses me 
hard to give him a line to you, to engage one or two of the 
Indian Mohawks to go to Canada to bring his Wife and 
Children from thence, being persuaded it may be effected, and 
says he will be at the Expence of it: If you think Indians may 
be safely sent to Canada at this Conjuncture upon this Errand, 



1 70 Sir William Johnson Papers 

without the least risque of the French's gaining Intelligence from 
them, of what is doing in New England, I desire you would 
assist him in this Affair; But I would not have the least risque 
run of the French's getting Intelligence thro* the Indians. 

Be pleas'd to let me hear from you in answer to this, by the 
New York post. 

Connecticuts Governm 1 ., I believe, will do everything that I 
shall recommend to them. 

I am, 
Sir, 

Your Faithfull Humble 
Servant, 

W Shirley 

Major General Johnson. 

addressed: 

On His Majesty's Service 

To 

Major General Johnson 
at 

Albany, 
by James Johnson. 

INDORSED: 

Hartford in Connecticut 
May the 1 0*. 1 755 — 



Gov r . Shirleys letter 
Sent Extracts to y e . Genr 1 . 
May 18* 1755 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1756 171 

FROM EDWARD BRADDOCK 
L. S. 1 

Will's Creek May 17*. [1755] 
Sir 

The Bearer Cap 1 Air's 2 is the Person I have named to assist 
you as Engineer. He this day join'd me from an out Detach- 
ment or I would I have sent him sooner and I did not choose to 
send an Officer who had not seen Service I hope he will answer 
my Intentions I wish you all imaginable Success. 

I hope to hear soon the Event of Your Conference. 3 I am 

Sir 

Y r . most obed 1 . Servant. 

E. Braddock 
To Coll. Johnson 

SPEECHES TO INDIANS AND REPLIES 4 
Copy 5 



May 17, [1755] 



FIRST SPEECH 6 



To the Six Nations from General Braddock. 

My brethren and allies of the Six Nations, I have already 
called you several times to treat with you about different affairs, 
which I knew nothing of before I had been with you, and which 
are not yet come to the knowledge of your father the Great 
King of England, of which I shall be careful to inform him, 



1 In possession of Amsterdam University Library, Holland. 

2 William Eyre; later, lieutenant colonel and chief engineer in America. 

3 Conference with Indians, lasting from May 21st to July 4th, 1755. 

4 These speeches were made and delivered to the Indians "by the order 
and under the inspection of Colonel Johnson." 

5 Printed in The Olden Time, 1 :242-48. 

"Though this speech was the first in General Braddock's Register, it 
was probably delivered after the following speech, The Olden Time, 
1 :242. (ed's note.) 



172 Sir William Johnson Papers 

and to offer you by his orders the presents which are here before 
you, and which he gives you as a testimony of his paternal 
affection. 

I have detained you and your wives and children for some 
time, hoping in a few days to see your brethren the Delawares, 1 

but seeing it is uncertain that they have yet arrived, and as I 
know you love to be in action, moreover as the service of the 
King your father requires your speedy assistance, I propose to 
you to take up the hatchet, and that you may the better exercise 
your warlike dispositions, I promise you to send your wives and 
children to Pennsylvania; I have recommended to the Governor 
of that province, in the King's name, to take particular and 
fraternal care of them. 

A fine Belt of Wampum. 

My brethren and allies of the Six Nations, I have a real 
concern to find how much you have suffered by the abuse and 
deceit of your perfidious neighbors the French, as well as by 
some of your brethren the English. The French have insinu- 
ated unto you, that we who are your faithful brothers, had 
designed to drive you out of all your lands of hunting and 
game, and to seize on them for your own proper use. You 
have been much deceived when you assisted the French to execute 
the horrid design with which they have charged us, in putting 
them in the real possession of these very lands which we had 
designed to secure unto you for your use alone and particular 
interest; I declare unto you in the presence of your chiefs and 
warriors here assembled, and according to the instructions I 
have received from the great King your Father, that if you will 
unanimously grant me your assistance, I will put you again in 
possession of your lands, of which you have been dispossessed 
by French deceit and cheating tricks, and secure unto you a 
free open trade in America, from the rising unto the setting of 



1 The Delawares, also called the Wolves, quitted the English side after 
the assassination of M. de Jumonville. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 7 55- J 756 173 

the sun. It is very well known that I have no particular views 
nor design, but that of serving mutually the interests of the King 
of England your father, and of the Six Nations and their Allies, 
and I promise you to be your friend and brother, as long as the 
sun and moon shall last. 

A grand Belt of Wampum. 

I have been told that as upon the foregoing occasions, you 
had some presents from us, some were idle enough to excite your 
young people to drink, and by that means made no account of 
what they gave you. To prevent for the future such like pro- 
ceedings, I have given orders, by threatening with death all 
those that shall be found convicted of that crime; I beg you'll 
send me your complaints against all such as will act in the like 
manner, and as a friend and brothers, I shall render you ample 
justice. 

I have no more to desire, but to see you receive with pleasure 
the presents which are before you, and to see you divide them 
amongst you, according to your custom and natural equity. I 
hope they will be agreeable. You may depend upon great 
rewards from time to time for your services. I have ordered 
arms, powder and shot, to be delivered to such of your warriors 
as want them. 

My brethren, I have been informed of the perfidious conduct 
of the French towards our deceased brother the half King; and 
to convince you how far I am sensible, as well as you, of his 
ill-treatment, in hopes that you would willingly join with me 
to revenge him, I cover his death with this belt. 

My brethren, Delawares and Chauanons, you are to blame for 
following the counsel of the French last autumn, to murder a 
number of your brethren the English in their habitations in 
Caralina. I am very well persuaded that it did not happen from 
an inclination natural to you, but only by the instigation of the 
French; therefore if you acknowledge your fault, and that you 
are openly and voluntarily resolved to join with me, I shall 
freely forget the unhappy transgression, and receive you still 



1 74 Sir William Johnson Papers 

as brethren. This I confirm unto you, in the name, and as the 
deputy of the King your father, with this string of wampum. 

Signed, JOHNSON. 

SECOND SPEECH 

The speech of the Honorable William Johnson, Esq., superin- 
tendent of Indian affairs, to the warriors of the upper and lower 
castle of the Iroquois Indians, in the presence of Lieutenant 
Butler, of Rutherford's company, of Captain Matthew Farral, 
of Lieutenant John Butler, of Messrs. Daniel Clause, Peter 
Wraxall, Secretaries for Indian affairs William Printup, Jacob 
Clement, interpreters. 

My brethren of both castles of the Anies. 

I wipe away all tears from your eyes, and clear your throat, 
that you may hear and speak without constraint. I rejoice to 
see you, and salute you with all my heart. 

Gives a string of wampum. 

I desire you to conform to what I demanded of you, in a letter 
which I wrote to you from New York, as soon as I returned 
from Virginia, wherein I prayed all your chiefs and warriors 
to wait my coming home, to hear news, and be informed of the 
orders which I have received from his Excellency General 
Braddock, (the great warrior) whom the King our common 
father, has sent to this country, with a great number of troops, 
of great guns, and other implements of war, to protect you, as 
well as his subjects upon this continent, and defend you against 
all the usurpations and insults of the French. 

I have been to wait upon this great man, along with the 
Governors of Boston, New York, Pennsylvania and Maryland; 
we had also there, the Governor of Virginia, and another great 
man, who in this part of the world, commands all the men of 
war belonging to the King. 

In the grand council many important affairs have been 
deliberated among which, the interest and safety of our brethren 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 175 

the Six Nations and their allies, were considered with great 
attention. 

My brethren, the tree which you and the rest of the Six 
Nations, have so often and earnestly desired, that it should be 
replanted, is grown by such a mighty hand, that its roots pene- 
trate unto the bottom of the earth, and its branches are a refresh- 
ing shade to cover you and your allies; as I am to acquaint you 
that agreeable to the instructions which the King your father 
has given to General Braddock, I am nominated to be alone 
superintendent over all the affairs that shall concern you and 
your allies in this part of the world; I invite you and your 
brethren the Six United Nations and your allies to assembly 
under this tree, where you may freely open your hearts and heal 
your wounds, and at the same time I transport the shade of that 
fire which was in Albany, and rekindle the fire of council and 
friendship in this place; I shall make it of such wood as shall 
produce the greatest light and greatest heat; I hope it will be 
serviceable and comfortable to all those who shall come to light 
their pipes at it, and that the sparkling and flaming coals thereof, 
will burn all those who are or shall be its enemies. 

I hope that you and all your brethren would be glad to 
increase the lustre and spendor of this fire, in minding and keep- 
ing it always up, applying yourselves to it with that diligence 
and zeal as may derive a blessing from it not only upon you, 
but upon all your posterity. To obtain and ascertain that 
salutary end, it is absolutely necessary that you extinguish all 
the fires kindled by means of deceit and fraud and not natural, 
which light but to deceive and destroy you and yours. 

A belt. 

My brethren, by this belt of wampum, I cleanse the council 
chamber, to the end that there be nothing offensive therein, and 
I hope that you will take care that no evil spirit creep in among 
us, that nothing may interrupt our harmony. 

Gives a string of wampum. 



176 Sir William Johnson Papers 

My brethren I am concerned to see at my return, that many 
of the two villages desire to go to Canada; I should be much 
surprized that you who have been our most faithful friends and 
nearest neighbors would upon any occasion show your desire 
to be deceived by the wicked artifices of the French, who are 
so well known, and of whom you have had such fatal experience, 
especially when that restless and perfidious nation breaks the 
most solemn treaties, and violates all the obligations of honor 
and justice ; this would be the most surprising thing in the world ; 
but I hope, that what I have been told upon that subject, has 
no foundation. I desire and insist that none of you upon any 
pretence whatsoever have any correspondence with the French, 
nor receive any of their emissaries, nor go to Canada without 
my knowledge and approbation. 

Upon this condition I give you a belt. 

I intend immediately to call your other brethren of the Six 
Nations to this present fire, I hope that you'll come here along 
with them, I shall deliver a speech of his excellency General 
Braddock, accompanied with presents for you, which the great 
King your father has sent by that warrior. 

After some moments of consultation between them, Abraham, 
one of the Chiefs of the upper village, got up, and spoke thus 
for the two. 

My brother, you have called us to let us know the tidings you 
have brought with you, and we have understood all that you 
have said, we defer until the Six Nations are all assembled here 
to give an exact account of all affairs. 

Gives a string of wampum. 

My brother, we thank you for being so willing to wipe the 
tears from our eyes and to cleanse our throats and this floor. 
We do as much with this string of wampum. 

Gives a string of wampum. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 177 

My Brother, to comply with your request we have here met 
together, and with great attention heard all you have said we 
thank you for your kind information; we are charm'd to see 
you again once more, and greet you with the String of Wampum. 

They give it. 

My Brother, we have often represented to our father the Great 
King that the tree advanced, we are very glad that our father 
has comply'd with our demand, and thank him for it most sin- 
cerely; we have had the greatest satisfaction to have all that 
you have said concerning that tree, we sincerely wish that it 
may continue such as you described in your speech, and we 
are very sensible of all you said upon the subject. 

My Brother, you have told us that the tree which shaded 
us, is now replanted here, you made it the shade of Albany, 
and you have rekindled here the fire of prudence and friendship, 
which must be made of good everlasting wood, so that it shall 
be always clear, and give comfortable and salutary heat, to all 
that will approach it, as friends, whilst it shall burn and inflame 
against its enemies; our first fathers had kindled this fire first at 
Onontague and carried the small coals of it to rekindle another 
at the habitation of Quider. 1 This fire never burnt clear and 
was almost extinguished; we are very well satisfied to hear 
that you have rekindled it. 

My brother, you have invited us all and our brethren the Six 
United Nations and their Allies to come and sit under that tree 
you spoke of, there to light our pipes at the fire of prudence, 
and that we and they should endeavour to preserve it, we don t 
doubt but that they would be glad to see it, but we must delay 
until all the nations be assembled here in a body for to answer 
that article of your speech. 

My Brother, we thank you for having cleansed this council 
chamber, and for removing all that might be offensive therein, 



1 The Indian name for Peter Schuyler. 



1 78 Sir William Johnson Papers 

you may assure yourself that we will do all we can to answer 
your intention and avoid all that might tend to trouble or dis- 
turb our mutual harmony. 

My Brother, you have told us that you had been informed 
that some of us were going to the French, and you put us in 
mind of their conduct towards our ancestors, whom we remember 
very well, for their bones are false and deceitful, they have 
given us very fine words and their letters were sweet, but their 
hearts were full of poison for us; you know our affairs, my 
brother, as well as we, and that the rest of the Six Nations are 
jealous of us, because we used the hatchet last war against the 
French, shall we be now accounted false and deceitful? no, 
you may be assured, that we will not go to Canada upon any 
request of the French, because we are not so much in their 
friendship; also, my brother, do not believe all the reports that 
may be made to you upon that subject. 

My Brother, we thank you yet once more for all that you 
have told us, we have already said that it was necessary the Six 
Nations were assembled here to give a positive answer, we thank 
you for the invitation you gave us to come here with the rest of 
our brethren, we will not fail to meet them here. 

The Chief Mohowck (Anies) of the upper village having 
required to have a conference with Colonel Johnson, in the 
presence of the secretary for Indian affairs, and the two inter- 
preters, Abraham spoke in the name of the chief, and said : 

My Brother, when you were at New York, you told us that 
our Chiefs and warriors should rest on their mats, and wait there 

until your return; which we have done: and why 

should we not, seeing we have at all times appeared ready to 
oblige you? and we are the more, since you tell us that you are 
a tree replanted, in order to put us under your shade, and we 
don't doubt but that our brethren of the other five Nations are 
all disposed to obey you. 

My Brother, It is very true that we have been always obedient 
and obliging to you and seeing you have told us that you would 



Preliminary Campaigns, J 755-1 756 179 

have us rest in the cabin, our young men being ready to go a 
hunting, being detained by your orders, have nothing to subsist 
upon, they have begged our Chiefs to represent their condition 
to you, they want every thing, not having been a hunting and 
to pray you to give them some powder and shot, to kill some 
game for their subsistance, as it will be some time before the 
arrival of the other five Nations, and all of us receive the presents 
sent us by the King our father; whilst we wait we pray you to 
give us what is purely necessary for us. 

My Brother, as we foresee the hard seasons are approaching, 
we renew the prayers to you we often made to the safety of our 
wives and children, we hope you will actually execute it. 

colonel Johnson's answer 

Brethren, I am perfectly well convinced of your good dis- 
positions for me, and of your complaisance at all times to listen 
to my words, and to do what I demand of you ; it is that which 
has engaged me to take your affairs in my consideration: the 
fresh proofs you give me of your friendship and regard towards 
me, will enable me to serve your interests effectually and to my 
own satisfaction. I am sensible I have done you great hurt, as 
also to your young men, for detaining them at the time upon 
their mats, wherefore I readily grant you what you require of 
me, and will give you powder and bullets. 

Before I left New York, I represented before your brother the 
Governor, the necessity of building a safe retreat for your 
families, and I have the pleasure to acquaint you, that he hath 
given me a full power to do it, and the workmen shall go about 
it as soon as possible. 

Signed, Johnson 



180 Sir William Johnson Papers 

CONCERNING TROOPS FOR CROWN POINT 

D. 

[May 31, 1755Y 

Hints upon drawing off 500 Men from the Troops destined 
for Crown Point 



1. 

The Votes of the Legislature of Massachusetts 
for this measure are under the three following 
Instructions. 

Q. 1. the Concurrence of the other 

have R. IsR New Gov ls . concerned. 

Hampshire & 2. that they be Volunteers. 

Connecticut 3. that y e Crown Point Troops be 

Concurred? not diminished under 3700. — 

The Vote of the Assembly of New York 
confirms the 3 aforesaid Conditions & 
add a 4 th . Viz that Gen: Johnson 
has no Exception to this Measure. 

It is hereupon observed 
That y e Crown Point Troops now rendevouzed 
near Albany are far short of 3700 Men 
and the others are said to be on their way 
here, till they do arive the 3 d . Condition 
stands against any diminution. — 

2. 

In the general Review already made 
numbers appeared to be unfit for the 
Service & when a Review is made by Com- 



1 Undated: listed in Johnson Calendar, p. 33 under date of May 31, 
1755. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 181 

panys of those now here, & the others who 
are expected, tis not to be doubted but 
many will be discharged as unfit for 
the Service. 

N.B. the N. Hampshire Troops 
by the route they have taken cannot 
be received here & tho 500. were voted 
to be raised, yet it may be supposed when 
joined by the main Body they will be 
many short of that number. — 

3. 

Allowances must be made for Desertion, 
discharge, & Deaths in the Present Numbers 
before they arrive at their Grand rende- 
vouz at y e carrying Place. — 

4. 

It is judged that the methods w ch . 
may be taken in the Scheme of drawing 
oif Volunteers from the Force originally 
enlisted upon one Expedition to go upon 
another will will 1 create an Uneasiness 
among the remaining Troops w ch . may be 
of ill consequence, and that it will tend to 
abate that Ardor & Confidence with w ch . 
these Troops are at present Animated. 

5. 

It is judged that several of the French 
Fleet have escaped from the Attack of the 
English landed their Men in the River S l . 
Laurence & hurried them up to Canada, w ch . 
Troops will be in time to march to the 



1 Repetition in the manuscript. 



182 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Reinforcement & relief of Crown Point 
& cannot to that of Niagara & c . therefore 
our Addition rather than any Diminution 
of the Crown Point Forces is necessary. 

6. 

Since the Defeat of the French at Fort Beau 
sejour & c . tis highly probable their Troops 
posted at these Places will march back 
to Canada & be employed against our 
Opperations at Crown point w ch . is 
another reason against diminishing 
the s d . Troops. 

7. 

It is well known that experienced of : 
ficers with few Troops are of greater 
Consequence in Military Enterprizes than a 
Superior Number of Troops with unex- 
perienced officers. It is a certain Truth 
with very few Exceptions that the officers of 
Crown Point Troops do not claim to them- 
serves much regular Military Experience. 
Whereas most of the officers und r . Gen Shirley 
have been regularly bred & many long in 

8. 

the Army. It is apprehended that from the 
best & latest Intelligence, the Enemy 
at Niagara & Cadaraqui are in no con- 
dition to resist a much inferior Force 
& much less formidable Preparations 
than Gen. Shirley already has without 
any draughts from the Crown Point 
Troops. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755— 1756 183 

9. 

That the French from their long pos- 
session of Crown Point Fort do consider 
it as the Key to Canada on this side & 
it realy is so. It must therefore be 
supposed that they will defend it with 
their utmost Force that they have before 
now Intelligence of our Designs that way, 
that they will therefore be able to reinforce 
it with Cannon, with Troops, with works, 
& c . cannot be doubted. 

10. 

The Resolutions of the several Gov ls . 
to reinforce the Crown Point Troops 
if found necessary, is intended to take 
place either after the reduction of 
Crown Point or when the Troops 
may lay before it, & Circumstances 
may call for additional Forces. 

It is reasonable to suppose the 
Enemy will make formidable 
Attacks or an Attack before our Troops 
will reach Crown Point. And it is 
clear from Experience that before 
these resolutions can be effected & 
Reinforcements arive there a great 
deal of time will elapse, besides 
the Resolutions of these Assemblys are 
not designed, tis a replacement of the 
Men proposed to be now drawn of 
& is therefore no fixt Argument in favour of that 
Measure. — 



184 Sir William Johnson Papers 

11. 

For these & various other reasons 
too tedious to mention, It is supposed 
that General Johnson, General 
Lyman & the Majority of all the 
other officers concerned in the 
Crown Point Expedition, are 
against any Diminution of their 
Forces 

12. 

It is on the whole therefore presumed 
that a measure w ch . seems not to be well Supported & 
w ch . affects so many Lives & the Success of 
so considerable a part of the present Gen- 
eral Plan will not or ought not to take 
Effect — 

TO ARENT STEVENS 1 

Copy 2 

[May, 1755V 

According to the instructions given to General Braddock by 
his Majesty, he has been pleased to entrust me with the sole 
direction and management of Indian affairs, to wit, for the Six 
United Nations, and their allies; you are therefore to give atten- 
tion and follow the orders you shall receive from me on that 
head. 

I send you this letter by James Clement, with two Belts of 
Wampum, both for the five upper Nations, which you are to 
give them in my name, and acquaint them that the troops who 
are now on their march, and those who may march hereafter 



1 Indian interpreter for the province of New York. 

2 Printed in The Olden Time, 1 : 248-49. 

3 Letter not dated. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 185 

for Chouaguen, are to reinforce that garrison, and to protect it 
against any act of hostility from the French, who said that it 
belonged neither to us nor to the Six Nations, and that they 
would pull it down. 

At my first arrival I sent a String of Wampum, but lest that 
should not be sufficient, I now send this belt. If you find that 
the Indians are disquieted or alarmed at the march of these 
troops through their country, should it proceed from their 
jealousy, or the deceitful insinuations of French emissaries, you 
shall assure them in my name, that they are destined for the 
safety and advantage of the Six Nations and their allies: you 
shall exhort them to give no heed to any lies which the French 
might tell them on that account, whose aim and desire is to take 
both us and them while we are asleep, to cut us from the face 
of the earth ; that they know very well the only means to obtain 
their said desire, is to trouble and destroy the brotherly love and 
confidence which have so long and so happily subsisted between 
us, you shall make use of arguments to that purpose, as such like 
circumstances will require. 

The other belt which I send you, is to inform them of the 
commission which the King their father has given me, granted 
at their repeated instances; and that in execution of General 
Braddock's order by this belt I invite and call the Six Nations 
to come to me, together with their allies, that I have kindled at 
my house a fire on council and friendship and replanted the 
shady tree, which shall shelter them and all those who will come 
under it; that I have a present to make them from the King 
their father, much good news to tell them, and a council to 
hold concerning several affairs of the greatest consequence, relat- 
ing to their happiness and well being. If you find that any 
French emissary has been tampering with them, in order to dis- 
suade them from coming to me; you shall insist upon their 
obedience, and upon the condescension due from them to us. 
If they say they are planting their corn, and should they come 
now, they would lose their harvest and want provisions; you 
shall assure them that I will take care of them, and will make 



186 Sir William Johnson Papers 

good to them all their loss occasioned thereby: but be sure to 
act with prudence upon that article and promise with precaution. 

I have had a conference at both the Mohawk towns, they 
were satisfied with the two belts, and have promised to join me 
here whenever the other nations come down; wherefore urge 
them to it as much as you can. 

I have sent you some goods by Mr. Clement, make use of 
them as you see cause: and when you have brought the Indians 
to the German flats, you will find provisions at my house, of 
which I desire you to keep account. 

I am yours, &c 

Signed William Johnson 

A true copy of what was done by the honorable William 
Johnson, Esq. ; and Peter Warpall 1 secretary for Indian affairs. 

I the subscriber of the superior council of Quebec, do certify, 
that I have translated, &c. 

ROBERT ORME TO RICHARD PETERS 

A. L. S.- 
June 9* 1755 
My dear Sir 

I am very happy to have an Opportune of commencing a 
Correspondence and confirming an Acquaintance with a Gentle- 
man greatly esteemd and beloved by my aimiabl Friend Go v . 
Morris and whose ability and Integri? make it desirable for every 
Man to call his Friend. I receivd your letter relative to the 
Road and as I saw in many Instances your Regard for the 
publick Service and Knowledge of the Country I cannot think 
any body will contriv more or epedit faster for thet purpose. Be 
assured Sir whatever may happen with us deserving of your 
Knowledge I shall inform you of and I assure you nothing can 
give me more Pleasure then from time to time to be acquainted 



2 Should be "Wraxall." 

- In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 




CAPTAIN ROBERT OR ME 
From the painting by Sir Joshua Reynolds in the National Portrait Gallery, London, England 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 187 

with the Transaction of your Province and the general News 
My dier Friend Shirly is well and desires his Compliments he 
readily excuses your parting with out leave hut [h]is verry 
busyness preventing him from seeing you. 

I am glad an Affair of no less Consequence than our Subsist- 
ance is lodged in the Hands of so good a Subject and well 
wisher as you & I assure the great Apprehensions I should have 
layed under are remov'd by your interesting yourself in cur 
behalf 

The General greatly desired to send an Engineer to direct and 
perfect the Road but our own miserable march and other neces- 
sary Employment for them puts it out of his Power, I am 

My dear Sir 
Y r . most hum bl . & obed 1 Sev 1 

Rob t Orme 
To 
Rich Peters Esq r 

indorsed : 

Robert Orme 9 June 

1755 

FROM EDWARD BRADDOCK 

L. S. 1 

Fort Cumberland 

Wills Creek June 9 ih . 1755 

Sir 

I have receivd you Letter by M r Butler, informing me of the 
present situation of Indian Affairs, by which I discover they 
seem much inclind to the French Interest, I can in some measure 
account for this by the conduct of our Governments, to these 
Nation's for some Years. I am therefore determind as far as> 
in me lies to promote and forward in every respect his Majesty's 



In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 



188 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Service, and as I find the tardyness and absurd Oeconomy of 
many of the Governments, I do empower you to draw upon 
Governor Shirley for such Money as shall be necessary to carry 
on your negotiations in acquiring and preserving them in his 
Majestys Interest. 

I have for this purpose written to Governor Shirley to answer 
your Draughts for such sums as you shall find necessary for 
the Service, in which you are engag'd and in which charge you 
was named by me for your general good Character and influence 
with the Six Nation's, and therefore as I make no doubt by 
your proper and seasonable Oeconomy, you will in every respect 
answer the good opinion I have of you, and shew your regard 
for the Publick Service. — 

You may be persuaded as I have engag'd in the Indian Affairs 
from the advantage they seem to be to his Majesty's Colonies, I 
will support and confirm you in all proceedings consonant to 
your Instructions, and will not suffer you to be injur'd by your 
undertaking this business, and you may also assure the Indians 
they shall not be neglected, in case they engage with us, in the 
manner they have been on former occasion's 

If the Colonies will not equal the Pay of the Indian Officer's 
to the Regimental subsistance of Officer's of the same Rank not 
exceeding that of Captain I will make up the dificiency of their 
Pay and this you may inform them of with my promise for the 
performance I am very sorry the Expedition to Crown Point 
which was begun with the general consent of the Northern 
Colonies shoud flag when it is so near carrying into Execution, I 
have written and recommend the Utility and indeed necessity of 
this attempt, and used my utmost persuations to forward it as 
much as possible and to exert themselves at the present Crisis 
for his Majesty's Service. 

I am Sir 

Y r . most H ble . & Obed' Serv* 

E Braddock 
William Johnson Esq r . 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 189 

I have sent Cap 1 . Ayres 1 an Engineer to join you a Month agoe 



INDORSED: 



June 9*. 1 755 

General Braddocks 
Letter Per Lieu 1 . 
John Butler 



AN INDIAN CONFERENCE 



Copy 3 



r 



The 22. June 1755. 



Colonel Johnson having given Orders to the Interpreters to 
take an Ace 1 & give in a return of the Number of Indians of each 
Nation Men, Women & Children come down to this Meeting 
they this day gave the following Ace 1 . 

Senecas 67 

Cayouges 103 

Oniedas 200 

Tuscarores 64 

Onondagas 1 00 

Tiederigroenes 9 

Schanadarigroenes 19 

DeLawares 101 

Upper & Lower Mohocks 408 



of which there are 
more Men than 
}»were ever before 
known to come 
to any Meeting 



Totall 1071 






1 Captain William Eyre ( Ayre, Ayers) . 

2 In Johnson's hand. 

3 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada. Indian Records, 
Vol. 4. This is part of the proceedings of the conference printed in Doc. 
Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 6:966-989. From the printed proceedings, how- 
ever, this section is omitted. 



190 Sir William Johnson Papers 

INDIAN PROCEEDINGS 
Copy 1 

Mount Johnson 26 June 1755 

One M r Smith acted as an Interpreter & was retained by 
Colonel Johnson for that Purpose in order to let him know what 
Colonel Johnson had said to the Nations pres 1 . 

Since the Ace 1 , of the Number of Indians 
taken the 22 d Inst vide pag 27. amount- 
ing to 1071. have come 

in at Different times 35 . 

Total Amount this day 1 106. Men, Worn" & Chi 

FROM ROBERT ELLISON 
A. L.. S.- 
Albany Saturday two o Clock June 28 th . 1755 
Sir 

Inclosed I send you a Letter from Maj r . General Shirley: as 
Colonel Schyler was a going to Schenectady I take y e Liberty 
to sending it by him ; as I am an intire Stranger in this Country ; 
I must be guided by y r & Col 1 . Schylers advice; & shoud be 
Extreemly obliged to you; if you woud give us a meeting at 
Schenectady; in Order to Consult together y e most properest 
way of Conveying y e Generals Reg*. w th Their Stores to 
Oswego. I shall Certainly be at Schenectady either Monday or 
Tuesday at furthest. I am Sir 

Your most Obed Ser[ ] 

Rob t Ellison 
as I am this moment arriv d 
& Col. Schyler waits for this 
I hope you will Excuse hast. — 



1 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada, Indian Records, Vol. 
4. This extract is part of the proceedings printed in Doc. Rel. to Col. 
Hist. N. V., 6:964-89, but is omitted from the printed record. 

2 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 191 



ADDRESSED : 

To Maj r General Johnson 
at 
Mount Johnson. 
INDORSED: 1 

June 28*. 1 755 — 



Lieu 1 . ColK Ellison's 
Letter from Albany 



TO WILLIAM WILLIAMS 

Contemporary Copy 2 
(Copy) Mount Johnson 

4th July 1755 
SlR x 

I have had a Meeting with the Sachems & leading Men of 
the Oneida Nation, & they have at my Request consented, that 
two Magazins Shoud be built at the Carrying Place. 

But Sir I must earnestly recommend to you that all Persons 
who are under your Command either as Soldiers or Workmen 
behave with Civility & good Humour to the Ind s . And that no 
ill Usage whatsoever be given them, 3 and pray prevent any Rum 
from being Sold to them; 

If these things are observed, Matters may go on Smoothly, 
but if not Confusion may arise, which will not be in my Power 
to remedy, I am 

Y r . Humble Servt 

W: J: 
To Capt Williams 

of Maj r . Gen 1 Pepperils 4 Reg'. 



1 In Johnson's hand. 

2 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. ; in handwriting 
of Peter Wraxall. 

3 See Johnson's letter to the Commanding Officer of Sir William 
Pepperrell's Regiment, June 21, 1755. 

4 Sir William Pepperrell. 



192 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM WILLIAM WILLIAMS 

Onidas Carrying Place July 4. 1755. 
Sir 

I arrived here 7. days ago find these Indians disaffected to 
our tarrying here very long — They want Exceedingly to hear 
from their Bretheren with you whether they consent to our 
tarry or not — I should think an Express by one of their own 
People would be requisite; twas with Difficulty that I obtaind 
Leave of them to clear and mend the Road which by the great 
Travelling of late, wanted it Exceedingly I have for Two Miles 
down the River Moved the Stones & Gravel so as to thro' what 
little water there is more into a Chanel and hope by tomorrow 
night to finish the Road one Half the Way to Canada Creek — 
I lay Still in open camp dare not cut a pickett, nor brake ground 
to intrench for fear of giving umbrage to my Jealous Neigh- 
bours — I exceedingly want to hear what Succeess you have 
met with in your most arduous undertaking — as also to receive 
your farther Commands — My Compliments to Capt n . Raxall 2 
& the Gent n . with You — And beleive me to be with the 
Highest Esteem & respect 

Sir 

Most Obedient 
and 
Most Humble Servant 

W M . Williams 
Gen l . Johnson 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 

2 Captain Peter Wraxall. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 193 

FROM WILLIAM SHIRLEY 

//uJson's raMr /ufy 9* [1755] 
Yl an h°u r a ft e r 12 o'clock. 
Sir, 

I am now within another Tide of Albany, and expect to Land 
there early to morrow Morning. 

As there are several points for us to settle before I leave that 
place, I should be glad if the service and your own conveniency 
would permit you to give me a meeting there as soon, as may 
be, after you shall recieve this; and that you would favour me 
with an Answer by the return of the Express, w ch . carries it. 

I am 
Sir, 

Your Obedient, Humble Servant 

W Shirley 
Major General Johnson. 

indorsed: 2 

July 9 th . 1 755 — 

Gov 1- . Shirleys letter 

DANIEL CLAUS TO RICHARD PETERS 

Copy 3 

Canajoharre, July the 10th, 1755, 
Hond. Sir: 

I hope Jamey Kelley delivered the Letter I sent by him to 
y r . Honour when he left this. A few Days after I went down 
to General Johnston's to be present at the Congress of the 



1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

2 In Johnson's hand. 

3 Printed in Pennsylvania Colonial Records, 6:468-75. 

7 



194 Sir William Johnson Papers 

different Nations of Indians, which indeed was the greatest 
Convention that ever was known. The 7 united Nations with 
the Onehaghquagy Indians, Some of the Diahoga, and a Party 
of Missisagas, made out a Number of almost 1,100; Many of 
the Sachems of the Nations came down that this many years 
past refused to meet the English Governors at Albany. Two 
speeches were prepared for them, the Contents of which I will 
undertake to give your Honour a Brief Detail of, and as I 
have not the English Original I must make it out (as near as 
I can) of my Indian Translations: The first Speech was an 
Introduction to the Treaty, and contained the Journey of 
General Johnson w*. the different Governors to General Brad- 
dock; His being appointed to the sole Management of their 
Affairs; And what Troops and Armaments the King their 
Father had sent to these Parts in Order to recover their Hunt- 
ing Grounds again, which the French their antient Enemies had 
taken from them without their Consent ; Then the Tree of Shelter 
and Friendship for all the United Nations, their Allies and 
Dependants, was raised, to come and seek their Protection under 
its Shadow. The Council Fire was lighted with such Wood 
as never wou'd burn out, and the Embers removed from Albany 
and brought to Mount Johnson to burn there forever; a Con- 
tinual Unity, Concord, and Brotherly friendship, was recom- 
mended to all the united Nations, & ca . To all these Propo- 
sitions they answered very thankfully, and showed a great Joy 
to have General Johnson for the Management of their affairs. 
The second and Chief Speech contained the following Belts: 
Belt 1 st. A General Rehearsal of the first acquaintance with 
the English and the Six Nations, and how the Chain of Friend- 
ship took its Original, now almost an Hundred Years ago. At 
the same time they were reminded of the inveterate Enmities, 
Cruelties, Treacheries, and Deceits of the ffrench comitted 
among their People, and how their fforefathers, seeing themselves 
near such a dangerous Enemy, gave all their Lands under Pro- 
tection of the King of England their Father by a Deed signed 
by all the Sachems then living. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 195 

Belt 2d. They were exhorted sincerely to consider and to 
ask themselves in their Hearts who had been and who were 
yet their truest Brethren, the English or the French? which to 
consider they cou'd not be one Moment in doubt if they were 
the true Posterity of them honest People their Forefathers, And 
as long as they wou'd confess themselves to be such they might 
be sure of the everlasting Brotherhood and Amity of the 
English; wherefore they ought to take this well to Heart and 
make an Open Confession of it to every Body. 

Belt 3d, of Union. They were admonished not to listen to 
any Reports the ffrench might Disperse among them; they were 
commonly false and only intended to make them Enemies with 
the English. It has always been their only Maxim to have 
the upper Hand in these Parts, wherein if they once obtain'd 
their End they the 5 Nations wou'd soon discover their Ruin, 
which at present the French kept hid in their Heart, as every- 
thing they make them believe came only from their Lips. Gen 1 . 
Johnson then by taking the Almighty to his Witness that neither 
He nor any of their Brethren the English had any ill Design 
against them the Six Nations, & promis'd that if they wou'd be 
as true Brethren to the English as their Forefathers had been 
neither wou'd any more keep any underhand Treaties with the 
French to the Detriment of the English. He was now ready 
with this Belt of Wampum to renew and make more strong 
and bright then ever the Chain of Friendship with all the English 
upon this Continent and them the United Nations, their Allies, 
and Dependants. 

War Belt 4. They shou'd not imagine that the English were 
afraid of the French or any of their Enemies, no! But these 
Engagements were only made to them because their Father the 
King had such a Regard for them in remembering their honest 
Forefathers; he was able and willing to defend them from the 
Enmities of the French, and fully resolv'd to drive the French 
to Canada, their own Country, ffor- which Reason all these 
Preparations were made among the English. If they, there- 
fore, wou'd shew that Respect and Love to him their brother 



196 Sir William Johnson Papers 

which they always professed, and Who never deceived them 
yet in any thing, They shou'd listen to His Proposal as it was 
intended for their own Interest, which was that he wou'd hereby 
desire them to assist their Brethren the English at this present 
Occasion, and not to break the Chain of Friendship subsisting 
so many Years between them and the English Nor listen to 
ffrench Boastings and Lies. It was true the English had been 
long asleep, but now they were thoroughly awaken'd. They 
were slow to Spil Blood, But when they once begun to rise they 
were like a furious Wolf, and wou'd drive the ffrench Men afore 
them like Deer; wherefore they ought previously to consider 
how to act. It was tending to their future Happiness and Wel- 
fare. 

N. B. — Here a Speech was inserted w ch . Skaronyade sent 
from Awkwick, wrote by George Croghan, wherein he paid the 
Complim 1 . to Gen 1 . Johnson of his having the sole Management 
of their Affairs, And that He with his People was upon the 
March to join Gen 1 . Braddock, under the Command of Mr. 
Croghan; Also that a great Number of the Western Indians 
were daily expected to join the Army, & ca . 

All this was clearly explained to them, and this Reflection 
made, that if they alone after all these Admonitions were to 
shew themselves cool and inactive on this Occasion and not join 
their Brethren the English, every Body wou'd doubt the good 
Character they ever sustain'd, and they openly must be charg'd 
with breaking the Chain on their Side. 

Gen 1 . Johnson then continued and sayd, That he was in a 
short Time going out against the ffrench with a great Body of 
Men given under his Command, taking along with him Great 
Guns and other Warlike Implements, intending to drive the 
French from the Encroachments on their Hunting Grounds in 
this Province, If, therefore, they had yet any Esteem for the 
King of England their Father, and also were true Brethren to 
him, and at the same time wou'd consider their own Interest, 
They shou'd take up the Hatchet, go along with him, and assist 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 197 

their Brethren against their Enemies the ffrench. Gen 1 Johnson 
added and sayd: Brethren, I know the Caghnawagies are your 
Flesh and Blood, and have lately declared themselves our 
Brethren also. To shew you, therefore, what Regard I have 
for them, and how I have their Safety at Heart, if they will 
hear me (at the same time I expect your Advice), I am going 
to send a Message to them, whereby I will take them by the 
Hand and lead them aside, that their Blood may not be shed. 

He proceeded and sayd, That as many as wou'd join him 
he wou'd treat like Brethren, also take Care of their Families in 
their Absence, And they might already see the King their 
Father's Care in sending so many Troops to Oswego to defend 
them from the Attacks of the French. After all this if they yet 
wou'd be insensible of his sincere Promises, and like blind Men 
wou'd not see their own Interest, He was fully determined to 
drop the Management of their Affairs and leave this Country. 

Sir William threw down the Belt of Wampum. 

After this a Speech of Gen 1 . Braddock's was delivered to 
them written upon Parchment, with the General's Seal fixed 
to it, and directed to the Chief Men and Warriors of the 6 
Nations, And runs thus: 

Belt 1st. That the King their Father was firmly resolved to 
punish the French with the Utmost Severity for invading their 
hunting Grounds in so unjust a Manner; Also, That He did 
intend to punish those Indians who dared to take up the Hatchet 
against the English and join the French. As the King of 
England knew well the French were too treacherous to be con- 
fided in and too weak to support their Indians, Wherefore He 
was sent with a great Body of Men, and also all Sorts of War- 
like Instruments, to recover the Lands the French had taken 
from them the Six Nations, And to drive them from their Hunt- 
ing Grounds ; And that as they knew what Friendship and Love 
ever subsisted between them & the English, and how often the 
French had tried to break that Friendship, he now was resolved 
to renew and brighten the Silver Chain of Friendship in such 



198 Sir William Johnson Papers 

a Manner that its Lustre might endure as long as the Sun and 
Moon shall give Light. 

Belt 2d. That the Amity and Friendship now proposed 
shou'd last as long as Mountains remain and Rivers run. 

War Belt 3d. This Discourse was directed to the Head 
Men & fighters of the 6 Nations, and they were desired to 
remember and take Notice of what he was going to say. That 
he expected they wou'd immediately take up the Hatchet against 
the French and those Indians that shou'd join them, and Assist 
their Brethren the English as their Forefathers had done, which 
wou'd please the King their Father whenever it shou'd come to 
his Ears, And they might be assured he wou'd soon enough be 
inform'd of their Behaviour; And that He for his Part promised 
that as long as he continued in these Parts they might be assured 
of his Protection, Wherefore he expected they wou'd have a 
good Will towards him; And as he was thoroly inform'd of 
their Character He hoped they wou'd not consider long but 
imediately join their old Friends the English in defeating their 
Enemies. 

Belt given. 

The Chiefs Answers upon these Speeches will be seen in the 
following made to them: 

Brethren: 

Belt 1. Yesterday You engaged to assist us in this present 
Difference with our Enemies the French. You have acted like 
Dutiful Children to the King your Father; also, you do like 
your Forefathers have done. I hope you will stand firm to y r . 
Engagements, otherwise you will be detested by all the World. 

Belt 2d. I expect you will acquaint your Friends and Allies 
wherever they may be of this Your Engagement, and desire 
them to do as you have done. 

3. As You requested to go home and settle your Families, 
afore you go out I won't be against it ; at the same Time I desire 
some of you will immediately go to Ohio and join your Brethren 
there with General Braddock. Also, some of You will join 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 199 

General Shirley, who is going to Niagara in order to intercept 
the French from going to Ohio or carrying any Provisions there, 
and to open the Road for the southern Indians that they may 
come and trade at Oswego. I myself shall be ready in a short 
Time to go to Crown Point; I therefore desire that a Party of 
every Nation will follow Me; and in Case I shall want more 
afterwards I expect them that stay at home may be ready at a 
Call. 

Whereupon they answered "That as to Ohio there was some 
of their People gone already to join Skaronyade, And at 
Niagara there wou'd be a sufficient Number to join General 
Shirley, as the Place was near their Habitations. And as for 
him there wou'd be Time enough, as he was a heavy Body that 
cou'd move but slow (meaning the Army) ; and he might be 
assured that all the rest of their People wou'd learn where the 
Tree lean'd (Meaning General Johnson)." 

Then they desired a Letter might be wrote to the Skaniada- 
radighronos, Who engaged them to send 300 of their Men at 
the first Call, w ch . was promised to them. 

They concluded the Treaty with the following Complaints: 
1st. That no Rum shou'd be brought in their Towns as it 

was their total Destruction. 

2d. That no Land shou'd be desired to be bought of them 

any more. 

N. B. — It happen'd Lidyus was present, who is to go with 
General Shirley to command the Indians he is to take with him, 
but there was inclined to go under Lidyus. 

The 3d Complaint the Speaker begun as follows: 

That Gen 1 . Johnson promis'd them in his introductory Speech 
that the Room where the Council Fire was kindled shou'd be 
kept free from any venomous or base Creatures; But they must 
see that one crept in Notwithstanding, which was Lidyus 
(naming him), who like an evil Spirit intended to Steal their 
Lands at the Sasquehannah by an unfair and Cheating manner, 



200 Sir William Johnson Papers 

pulling their people slyly by the Blanket, and by the Witch- 
craft of Dollars got one Nation after the other to sign a Paper 
which several of them hardly knew what it was for; and aj> 
they never intended to sell that land, nor cou'd it be done without 
a full Meeting of the United Nations, they, therefore, must 
break that unlawful Deed and recall their Land. 

The Governm*. of Pennsylvania bought a large Tract of Land 
of them last Year and paid the half of the Consideration Money. 
They also hereby wou'd recall so much as is unpaid yet. This 
is in the Consequence of a Message sent among them by the 
French last Fall, — That they should recall that Land Onas 
bought of them near Ohio. 

But they were answered, 

That as to Rum none shou'd be brought in their Towns. 

The Bu [y] ing of Land shou'd be brought to another Footing, 
and none be desired to be brought without their ffree Consent. 

As for Lidyus, he was not called to the Meeting But came 
of his own accord, and as it was not to be doubted he dealt with 
them according to their Complaint. They might depend upon 
it That he wou'd represent the affair in its proper Light at home, 
and he did not doubt but they wou'd be redressed in their 
Grievances. 

But as for the Proprietaries of Pennsylvania having bought 
that Land last Year, He was satisfied It was done in a solemn 
and public Manner, and as they desired Justice to be done to 
them he expected the same from them, and therefore wou'd advise 
them to take the other half of the Money and resign the Land 
according to the Deed they signed. To which they consented 
and cried out ("etho nujawau") — It shall be so. 

Thus have I bravissimo given your Honour a general Detail 
of what was transacted with the United Nations. I don't doubt 
but if you ask Mr. Wraxall for a true Copy of the Whole, when 
his busy Time is over he will send it. It wou'd make my Epistle 
too long if I was to give you an account of every inconsequential 
Thing. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 201 

People were skalp'd below Albany, and we had twice alarms 
of the French Indians. Some of the 6 Nations went after them 
but did not discover them. 

After the Presents were given and all the Indians were gone, 
the General went to Albany in order to Dispatch a Party of 
his Troops to march towards Crown Point. He told me that 
the Canj e . Indians desired him to send me to their Castle again 
in order to receive his News and Orders, that I might bring 
them down when wanted, and at the same Time acquaint him 
of every thing of Consequence. After my R.elurn here I was 
told that an Onondago Indian was killed by two Oneido's who 
live at Oswegatsy, being sent by the Priest to hear what was 
going on at the Treaty, And the Onondago accusing them of 
their being Spies, and both Parties being something in Liquor, 
they struck him and murdered him miserably. 

All the ffrench Indians except the Cayknawagies are out a 
scalping, and a great Party of them in the County of Albany. 
They've committed already several Murders. General Johnson 
sent out a Party of white People which killed an Anahunko 
Indian and scalped him. 

There is now about 1,000 Men at Oswego, and the Rowe 
Gaily and Sloop finish'd. There was a Report that 3 French 
Sail and a Camp was discovered by the Rowe Gaily on Oswego 
Shore opposite Cataraghque. 

A great many Stores and Armaments are going up this River 
to Oswego, and General Shirley is preparing in Schenectady to 
set off with the rest of his Army. 

I wish to God the Report was true we had from Ohio that 
Gen 1 . Braddock took the ffrench Forts with the Loss of only 
500 Men, and the French lost double the Number. If once 
this will be the Case all the Indians will flock over to the Eng- 
lish, and the rest of the Expeditions won't want of Success. As 
to Niagara, the Indians think it no Difficulty at all about its 
being taken; But Crown Point they say was the strongest Fort 
in Canada. 



202 Sir William Johnson Papers 

My Commission is not given to me yet, but I am told I shall 
get it when I bring the Indians down. 

In my Letter by Skaronyade I mention'd to your Honor about 
some Cloaths he and his Company had out of Gen 1 . Johnson's 
store, they being quite naked, And I don't doubt but they will 
have acquainted You of it, and this Debt being charg'd to me 
I shou'd be glad you wou'd write to Mr. Stevenson to ballance 
the same. It amounts to £4 13. I also enclose a Receipt of 
John Davison for a Shirt and Cash lent to him. 

Hendrick gives his hearty Salutation to the Governor and your 
Honour, and lets you know that he himself is a-going to Crown 
Point. He thinks the upper Nations are in good Humour at 
present with the English, tho' the Certainty of it will be seen 
when they send their Fighters down. He advises your Honour 
to see the half of the Ohio Consideration Money paid as soon 
as possible, as there may be Enemies to the Province of Pennsyl- 
vania who may breed Mischief among the upper Nations. He 
says They were resolv'd to have that false Deed from Lidyus, 
and wou'd have had it now if he had been at home. 

Before I set off for Crown Point shall let your Honour hear 
from Me again, which will be in ab l . a fortnight hence. In the 
Interim I am, with my humble Respects to the Governour, 

Honoured Sir, Your most obedient humble Servant, 

Dan l . Claus. 

To Richard Peters, Esq r ., Secretary for the Province of 
Pennsylvania. 

P. S. — I was just closing up my Letter when a Cayougo 
Indian came down here with a Letter to General Shirley from 
Cap f . Bradstreet to hurry the Troops up, as they were appre- 
hensive of an Attack at Oswego from an Army gather'd at 
Oswegatsy. The Indian in his discourse say'd, That the Priest 
told some of the upper Nations that he expected the English 
early in the Spring, and had been ready for them, but now they 
came drawling on like Turtles, so that at last he fell asleep, 
And in Case they was to disturb him in his Sleep He cou'd 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 203 

in the twinkling of an Eye flye away. At the same time he 
warned the upper Nations not to mix with the Flies for fear he 
might crush them to Death unknown. 

The Indians here observed it was true enough that the English 
had fallen asleep in their Undertakings and Expeditions. 

TO EDWARD BRADDOCK 

Contemporary Copy 1 

Albany 15 July 1755 
Sir 

I am honoured with Your Excellencys favour bearing date y e . 
9 June [the day before my last publick conference with the 
Indians] — 

The Assurancy of your favour & the continuation of your 
Patronage, are extreamly pleasing to me & I return Your 
Excelly. my grateful Acknowledgements for them. I have & I 
always shall endeavour by my Conduct to justifie the Distinction 
you have favoured me with. 

Now I have your Excels. Letter I shall settle it as to the Pay 
of the Indian Officers, to their Satisfaction. — 

Herewith Your Excellency will receive Authentic Copies of 
all my public Transactions with the Confederate Nations from 
first to last at the late Meeting with them. 2 — 

I found all the Nations except the Mohocks extreamly averse 
to takeing any part with us in the present Active Measures against 
the French, this Arose from two Principal Sources; the Most 
prevalent was their Fear of the French, owing to our long 
passiveness & their Activity, & the shameful hand we have 
always made of our former Expeditions. The other was, from 
a real attachment in many of their most leading Men to the 
French Interest, I am morally certain they had entered into 



1 In Harvard College Library, Sparks Mss. XLIX (2), Cambridge, 
Mass. ; in handwriting of Peter Wraxall. 

2 From May 1 5th to July 4th. 



204 Sir William Johnson Papers 

private Engagements with the French & as many of their Rela- 
tions & Friends had realy gone over to & are living amongst the 
French, [and] I am fully persuaded had not this Meeting taken 
place there would very speedily have been a defection of the 
Major part of the Upper Nations. 

Besides the Transactions w ch . I send your Excellency Copies 
of, I had private & seperate Conferences with all there Leading 
Men whom I found most disaffected to our Interest, at w ch . I 
laid before them those Arguments w ch I thought most conducive 
to Change their Judgments & gain them in our favour, I made 
presents & promises to draw their Affections towards us. And 
except in One or Two Instances, I am persuaded my public & 
my private Endeavours have been really successful. And I 
think I can now take upon me to assure your Excellency & the 
Administration at home that all the Confederate Nations who have 
Attended at this meeting are gone away Affectionately disposed 
to the British interest & sincerely wishing that in the present 
Contests the English may get the upper hand of the French. 
And if our Future Conduct towards these Indians be consistent 
with the measures now laid down at this Meeting, And that 
the present Plans of Operation against the French are carried 
into effect with Vigor & Spirit, I Question not but these Nations 
will remain firm & unshaken to the public & united Declarations 
they have made, that the British Interest on the Continent of 
America with regard to the surrounding Indians in general will 
in a very little time greatly over-ballance the French. 

Tho they have evaded sending any Assistance to your Excel- 
lency at present, yet I dispair not if y u stand in need but I 
shall by & by be able to prevail on a number to join you. But 
I must beg leave to inform your Excellency that the Chief 
Indian of those whom I sent to you with M r . Butler returned 
the Day before I received an Answer to that Speech in w ch 
I desired a Party might imediately accompany Cap 1 Stoddert 
to assist & receive your Commands. He informed the rest, that 
you had received them very kindly & that M r Croghan had 
informed them You had ordered a handsome present for them, 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 205 

but when they went to Col. Innes 1 to receive it, he woud give 
only one Indian Gun to them, offered to another a Soldiers 
Muskett w ch . to them is useless, & a Pistol apeice to the other 
Two, & gave them but a single suit of Cloathing apeice whereas 
M r Croghan told them you had ordered each double Cloathing. 
They were greatly disgusted at Col. Innes 5 . behaviour & dis- 
pleased with the whole of his treatment of them. As they were 
not before much inclined to go towards the Ohio, this Indians 
Representation [put it quite out of my power to prevail with 
them] added to their unwillingness. From the Ace 15 . I have 
received, I fear Col. Innes is not well acquainted with the Nature 
of Indians nor much versed in the Arts of Manageing them. 
Without Generosity, patience & a winning Civility of Behaviour 
Nothing can be done with them when Compliances on their side 
are wanted. I think it my Duty to speak out on this Occasion 
to prevent future Disappointments.* 

I dare say they will give Gov r . Shirley as much assistance as 
he will realy stand in need of. He wont I am of Opinion find 
that any great Number will be [immediately] necessary to him — 

The Colonies proposed & [/ believe] have made Provisions 
for 300 for the Crown Point Expedition, and I beleive I shall 
not want of that Number. — 

You will find they expect to have their Settlements secured, 
and it is not without Cause they dread the Indignation of the 
French. I am building Forts for the Two Castles of the 
Mohawks with Money appropriated for that purpose a year ago 
by the Assembly of this province. 2 

I have promised to do the same for the Onondagas, and I must 
perform it. The French have used every Art in their power to 
Obtain this Liberty & would stick at no Expence for it. but the 



1 Col. James Innes, manager of Indian affairs in Virginia. See Doc. 
Rel to Col Hist. N. Y., 7:23. 

2 For opposite assertion, made by Shirley, see Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. 
N. y., 6:998. 



206 Sir William Johnson Papers 

upper Nations have ever been jealous of either their or our doing 
it. I do not know of a more Effectual Method to Secure & 
Strengthen our Interest with them than to have Forts & Garrison 
them in their respective Counties. And I think no one Measure 
will be more Judicious & Advantageous than to [take an 
Advantage of] improve by their present Fears & erect these Forts. 
As they will be only Wooden Ones they will not be very Expen- 
sive. I beg your Excellency will be pleased to give me your 
Opinion & Directions herein as soon as you conveniently can. — 

I have reviewed the Provincial Troops encampt near this City 
raised for the Crown Point Expedition; Officers & Men with 
very few Exceptions are not only Strangers to Military Life but 
show an averseness to Discipline & Regularity w * 1 . gives me no 
small trouble & uneasiness. I have ordered Returns to be made 
me of the Effective Men now here but they are not yet delivered, 
so that I cannot give your Excellency the exact number, if I get 
them before the close it shall be added to my letter. 

I perceived few of the [Companys were] reg ts compleat, & 
except 600 of the New York Reg 1 ., all their Musketts of diff*. 
Bores & sorts. I have ordered also returns of the arms to be 
made, but have not yet got them. None have more than 3 lb of 
powder ^ Man allowed & some but a Pound & a half. [Ammu- 
nition] Powder for the Artillery is also short, but I have applied 
to Gen 1 . Shirley who is now here & he has promised to let me 
have some from his Store w ch is very plentiful. 

Five hundred Men raised by the Province of New Hampshire 
their Gov r . writes me are to march cross the Country & join us 
near Crown Point, a measure w ch . I wrote the Gov r . might be 
fatal to them. However there are Letters in Town w ch . say 
those Troops will not be able to join us, & w ch . I always feared 
would be the Case. Besides they carry Provisions only for their 
March, & how they would be supplied when they join us, I know 
not. I have no Funds to provide for them, & the other Colony 
Troops have none to spare A Strange System of Conduct theirs ! 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 207 

I expect on the whole not more than 3200 Men will rendevous 
at the Carrying Place about 54 miles from hence & about 70 
from Crown Point, which together with the Indians if we meet 
with no considerable Body of Regular Troops, I hope will be 
sufficient to carry our Point. But if any of the French Fleet have 
got up the River S l Laurence with any of their regular Troops we 
may expect they will be sent to relief of Crown Point. 

Cap 1 Ayeres has acted & continues to act as Quarter Master 
General & Adjutant, his Skill & Activity has been very useful 
to the Service, & as the continuance of it will be very necessary 
when his Department as Engineer will permit, I have applied to 
Gen 1 . Shirley & he has given him a Commission for the Post of 
Quarter Master General, the Colonies would provide no Estab- 
lishment for any such officer tho I warmly recommended the 
importance of it. 

M r . Wraxall is my Secretary & Aid de Camp & must be also 
Judge Advocate when Occasion requires, he has offered me his 
Service in these Capacities, tho there is no Establishment for 
either of them & he will give future time Credit for his Reward. 
If constant & cheerful Application in a way pleasing to me & 
necessary to the public Service claims Merit he has it. 

I send y r . Excellency herewith a Copy of some Queries I have 
laid before General Shirley, to w ch . I have not yet his Answer, 
but he promises me I shall, they may serve to give you a more 
particular Light into the present Sittuation of the Military Affairs 
under my Direction both as they relate to the public & myself. 

I hope soon to hear News of your Exceliencys Proceedings. 

I kept the Presents for the Westward Indians for Gov r . Shirley 
to carry with him as he will be there at the proper Season & he 
is very well pleased that I have done so. 

I propose to transmit by the first Ship bound to London such 
a Copy of my Proceedings with regard to the Indians as I now 
send your Excellency. 

Very much do I long to hear news of your Opperations & I 
hope the Event will distinguish Your Excellency in a manner 



208 Sir William Johnson Papers 

equal to your Merit. 1 I beg leave to assure You of my most 
sincere Wishes that every Species of Felicity may Attend you & 
that I am 

Sir 

Your Excellencys 
Most Obliged & Obed 1 

Hum Serv 1 . 

^However In a private Conference I afterwards 
had with some Indians, they have 
told me, their prevailing reasons 
for declining to Attend your Excellency, 
were that as M r . Dinwiddie had many 
Nations of Indians living around his Gov 1 , 
with whom he was in Freindship, they did 
not doubt but his Interest would procure 
as many as you woud know what to do 
with, & as there were some Differences 
subsisting between them & those Indians 
if they met together it might be fatal 
to One another & the common Cause. 

In a day or two I expect Maj r . General Lyman will march 
from hence with ab*. 1 200 Men to clear y e Roads & build 
Magazines at the Carrying place. 

INDORSED: 

Copy of Col. Johnson's Letter 
to Gen 1 . Braddock 
Alby. 1 5 July 1 755 



1 Gen. Braddock died Sunday, July 1 3th, of a wound received on 
the 9th in the battle on the Monongahela. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 7 55-17 56 209 

FROM PHINEAS LYMAN 1 

Stillwater 25*. of July 1755 

S R . yesterday Col 11 Ruggles arrived all in helth but tired with 
ye fateigues of Rowing up the River which is very Low & Rapid 
& Battoes are of but Little Service our men are all orderly & 
Eager for Action I think I have Suppressd every kind of dis- 
order Shall airways endeavour to Keep up the Authority of 
every omcier: I have Sent out Severall Parties to build Bridges 
& Clear Roads they Tell me they have Prepared y e Road 3 
miles South & 2 miles North and Expect by monday next Shall 
be Ready to set out for Saratoga if you would be Pleased to 
order the Troops at y e Flatt to Clear y e Road as far as the half 
moon which will Doubtless be agreable to them & for their helth 
& very much forward the Service for if we must wait here untill 
we send back & Clear to the Flatts we Shall not be Ready for 
ye wagons on their arrival with y e Remaining part of Col 11 Ruggles 
Stores & So must either keep 'em in pay & they Ly Still or dismiss 
'em & then Shall be delaid to wait for 'em again & Since those 
Troops have nothing to do I hope your Hon r . will order them to 
perform that Service & we will Soon have a good magazene at the 
Carrying Place I would Propose to your Hon r . Whether if we 
make a good wagon Road & Clear ab*. 30 feet wide for y e men 
to Travel it will not be Sufficient which may be done with vastly 
more ease than to Cut down all y e Trees & Small bushes which 
if we do we must make Such a Pile or heap of Timber in the 
Thickest Places in y e woods that will be a Compleat fort for 



1 Major General Phineas Lyman served under Sir William Johnson 
at the battle of Lake George, and, after Johnson was disabled, conducted 
the engagement to victory; under Abercrombie in 1 758; with Lord Howe 
when he was killed; at the capture of Crown Point and at the surrender 
of Montreal. 

2 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 



2 1 Sir William Johnson Papers 

y e Indians to Ly behind & fire on the army & by Cutting y e Small 
Low bushes Which grow but ab*. 3 feet high the Troops will 
be more Exposed by the Stubs than by Leaving them Standing 
& if you Should think that y e Preparing the Roads & Bridges So 
that y e wagons may well Pass & y e men march 30 feet in front 
tho' Some Trees & Small bushes pray inform by the wagoner 
& your orders Shall be Complied with you must undoubtedly 
depend on Wagons to Transport your Artilery & Baggage for 
y e water is So Low & Rapid it Kills y e men wade up & work 
So hard as they must To do it 

We have made no discovery of the enemy Except Some paths 
they have made but I endeavour to be as Carefull as if I Knew 
they were Round us we Long for your Arrival with the army 
Time glides So fast we fear we Shall not have Time to perform 
y e business 

I Percieve there is a number of Women Comeing up with y e York 
forces & Rhod Hand which gives a very great uneasiness to y e 
New England Troops and will be if allowd the most Effectural 
Stop to the Raissing more men in New England that Can be 
tho't of which I think would be very impolitick at this Time and 
it would be the Sacrificeing all our Carracter in the Places where 
we Live & Some offtciers Tell me they believe Soldiery will either 
mobb or privately destroy 'em I think they are of so Little use 
in the army or Rather none at all that I cant doubt but you will 
order 'em all to be Left behind I had Rather Two Soldiers 
Should be dismissd with every woman than y e women Should 
go & am in Truth your Hon rs . most obedient Humble Serv 1 

Phin s : Lyman 

We hear there is news from Gen 1 . Braddock 
but Can't hear what it is pray Let me 
hear by the waggoners & am as above 

Lyman 



Preliminary Campaigns, J 755-1 756 211 

ADDRESSED: 

To 

the Hon ble W m Jonson Esq r : 
Maj r : Gen 11 . & commander in chief 
of y e forces for Crown Point 
at 
Allbany 
INDORSED : 

Maj r . Gen 1 . Lyman's Letter 
from Stilwater 

INDIAN PROCEEDINGS 
Copy 1 

Albany 27 July 1755.— 

John, Cornelius & Joe, Three River Indians having applied 
to the Hon ble . William Johnson Esq r . Sole Superintendent of 
Indian Affairs, & laid before him a certain Paper, signed by 
several of their chief Sachems, setting forth that certain Lands 
therein described, do belong to the above named Indians & was 
never sold by true Owners thereof and which they the above 
Indians also Affirmed, and further said, that the greatest part of 
said Lands were in the possession of Colonel John Rentzelaar of 
this City and were taken up & occupied by him & some other 
Persons, without any Deed or payment having been made for the 
same to the right Indian owners thereof. And the said Indians 
did require & insist, that a proper Consideration should be paid 
them in Money by the Persons now in possession of their aforesaid 
Lands when they would assign over to them their right & Title. 

hereupon the Hon ble . William Johnson Esq r . sent to the s d . 
Col. Rentzelaar & desired his Attendance. 



1 These proceedings are part of those of the Indian Conference, the 
proceedings of which are printed in Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 
6:964-89. This section, however, is omitted from the printed record. 



212 Sir William Johnson Papers 

This Day he came & there were present as follows 

The Hon b,e . Will. Johnson Esq r . 
Col. John Rentzelaar 1 
Peter Wraxall Secret, for Indian Affairs 
and The Three above named Indians. 

Colonel Johnson read the Paper above mentioned to Col. 
Rentzelaar, when the said Rentzelaar declared, that no one Foot 
of those Lands were in his Possession of Sundry Persons living 
about Kinderhook & Claveroot. 

The Indians then asked Col. Johnson's Advice, whether if they 
could sell their Title to any white Persons, he would advise them 
to do it. The Colonel told them, that he could not pretend to 
detirmine upon the Justice of their Claim, but that if any Persons 
who would examine into the matter, were willing to purchase 
their said Title, and they were satisfied to dispose of the same, 
he thought they were at liberty to do it, and that white People 
would settle the Dispute better amongst themselves than the 
Indians could do with them. — 

Albany 27. July 1755. 

Pres 1 . 

The Hon ble . William Johnson 

Peter Wraxall 2 Secret. 

William Printup Interp 1 ". 

Carighwage a Tuscarore Sachem, he says, that he came down 
in a Battoe to Schenectady with a white Man, that on His Arrival 
he was dispatched hither to Gen 1 . Johnson with a Letter from 
Arent Steevens Interpreter, he further says that his Grandfather 



1 Lieutenant Colonel John Van Rensselaer of Greenbush and Albany. 

2 On April 15, 1755 (the day preceding the dating of his commission 
as Major General) Johnson wrote Wraxall from Alexandria, Va., asking 
the latter to serve as his secretary. Wraxall was then secretary of the 
Albany commissioners that had charge of Indian affairs. Until his death 
July 1 1, 1759 he served as Johnson's secretary. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 213 

told him to tell the General, that the Promises he made to him at 
Mount Johnson should be faithfully fulfilled. 

The said Indian also says, that when he came to Arent 
Steevens, he asked him the s d Indian how it would now go with 
the Indians as Gov 1 . Shirley was offering them so much money 
to go with him and whether General Johnson was to be left to 
go by himself after all the Promises made him at Mount Johnson, 
he further says, that the white Man who came down with him in 
the Battoe took him immediately on their arrival at Schenectady 
to Arent Stevens & told him if he did not make haste, General 
Shirleys Agents would lay hold of him & tempt him with money 
to go to Oswego, he replied that it was agreed in the Council 
of the 5 Nations, that as he was now appointed Sachem he must 
take care of the News at his Castle & not go to Oswego. 

He asked General Johnson what all this working with the 
Indians meant, for by what he had told them at Mount Johnson 
they looked upon him to have the sole Direction of their Affairs, 
and that these Proceedings had caused great Confusion amongst 
the Indians 

That he met several Indians in his way down in Battoes going 
to Oswego and that if these Methods of giving sumes of Money 
to the Indians were pursued, he was of Opinion they would delude 
all the Indians as they went along 

General Johnson replied 

That these Proceedings were very contrary to his Inclinations 
& Opinion & done without his Consent or Knowledge. That he 
had wrote to Gov r . Shirley about it & hoped it might help to put 
a Stop to them, And that he was sensible these Methods would 
raise great Confusion amongst the Indians, who left Mount John- 
son fully satisfied & well inclined. That he expected the Promises 
made to him at Mount Johnson would be fulfilled & gave him a 
String of Wampum to carry this Message to the Confederate 
Nations. 



2 1 4 Sir William Johnson Papers 

AN INDIAN CONGRESS 

Copy 1 

Albany 29 July 1755. 
Pres*. 
Hon ble . Will m . Johnson Esq r . 
Peter Wraxall Sec r >\ for Indian Affairs 
William Printup Interp r . 

Otrowanaa Chief Cayouge Sachem & Six Sachems and 
Warriors of Oneida Tuscarore & Messasaga 
Otrowana spoke as follows. 

Brother 

When I & the rest of my Bretheren here present came as 
far as where Gov r . Shirley 2 now is at Col. Glens 3 near Schenec- 
tady, the Gov r . Called me to him & said, "You Cayouges w^ 
way are you going. I replyed I was going to Albany to see my 
Brother Gen 1 . Johnson; the Gov. said come turn back again & 
go with me, I am going to Niagara. But I left Gov r . Shirley 
& went over the River to Schenectady. While I & my Company 
were Securing our Canoe, several Persons who I understood were 
employed by Gov r . Shirley, laid hold of the Messasaga Sachem 
who was one of my Company & were ready to pull him to peices 
pressing him in such a manner as if they would force him to go 
to Niagara. I spoke to them & said, dont stop us here, if you 
have any thing to say let us have a Meeting in Town. Then 
several Persons laid hold of them & carried them to Justice 
Fishers 4 & as soon as they got into the House a great many People 
employed by Gov r . Shirley joined the Company. When they 
were all met Col. Lydius 5 came & brought a large Bag with 



1 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada. Indian Records, 
Vol. 4. 

2 Governor William Shirley of Massachusetts. 

3 Lieutenant Colonel Jacob Glen of Schenectady. 

4 The English equivalent of the Dutch name Visscher. 

5 Colonel John Henry Lydius. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 215 

many Belts of Wampum, he & Justice Fisher spread them out 
before them, & told him that the King their Father had employed 
both General Shirley & Gen 1 . Johnson to go out & fight their 
Enemies, that Gen 1 . Shirley was going to Niagara & Gen 1 . 
Johnson to Crown Point, if God spared their Lives. Then 
Lydius spoke to them as follows. 

Bretheren 

hear well what I am going to say, My Heart aked within me 
for the Loss of a great Oneida Sachem called Conochquanie. 
You Oniedas are Elder Brothers to the Cayouges, & the Pain 
will never get out of my Heart, till I have got a Scalp or Prisoner 
to put in the room of that Sachem, upon w ch . he gave us a very 
large Black Belt of Wampum 

Lydius then laid down a much larger Belt of Wampum & 
said to pray inform me how I am to proceed in fulfilling this my 
Intention. Brother I beg you will put me in the right way how 
I shall mannage. 

Upon w ch I told him, the Method he had now taken was the 
same I always followed when I wanted to get People to go out 
a fighting with me. After I had spoke with one large Belt I 
then flung down another, went away & waited to see who would 
follow me, this Method you have made use of & it is Customary 
amongst us. 

Lydius then said, What I have now done I do both for the 
Oneidas & Cayouges because both have lost a great Sachem & 
Warrior & I intend it as much out of regard for y r . Nation as 
for the Oniedas. I hope youl put me in the right way to get 
fighters to follow me, for I am fully detirmined to go afighting 
to Niagara, & some of us will go to one Nation & some to another 
in order to get the Indians to go with us & if we meet any Indians 
on the road we shall take them along. 

I asked Lydius whether his Proceedings were with General 
Johnson's Consent & Approbation. Lydius replyed no. They 
were acting for themselves & going a diff 1 way from General 
Johnson 



2 1 6 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Brother 

After this was all over the Belts of Wampum were put again 
into a very large Bag, then we were pulled & hauled by one & 
another telling us, "Come now you must turn back & go along 
with us" & urged us in so strong a manner that we had much ado 
to get out of their hands. 

Albany the Fourth day of August 1 755. 
The foregoing Proceedings of this 
Record from Page 1 , to page 83 
I Attest 

Peter Wraxall 

Secr r y. for Ind n . Affairs. 



FROM MOSES TITCOMB 1 

L. S. 2 

Albany Aug* 1 . 2nd 1755 — 
S*. 

In obediance to y r Hon rs . orders Rec d . this Day Haveing 
Perrused the Same; Shall Duly observe the Contents Haveing 
Made Inquirey Into the State of the Rigements Detach 1 . My 
Division, & find that I Shall Not be Able to March Untill 
Munday Next by Reason following 

1 st . It Will Take Some time to Inquire and Examin Into the 
State of the fire Arms and Accutrements &c 

2nd 1 ?. The Battos Will Not Be finished untill to Morrow 
after Merid n ., & then Shall have them to Load 

I am Your Hon". Most Humble & ob dt . Serv*. 

Moses Titcomb 



1 Colonel Moses Titcomb; major at the capture of Loiisburg, 1745, 
where he was of great service; killed in the battle of Lake George, Sept. 
8, 1755. 

2 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Preliminary Campaigns, J 755-1 756 217 

P:S I this Day Rec d . a Letter from 

M r Eyer the Indionear Desireing Me 

to Send him one Hund d . Men for order 

to Lode the Large Artilary Boats With 

Store Which I find is Not advisable 

for by the Best acc ts . I have the Water is 

So Lowe that it is almost Impracticable 

for the Large Boats to Pass Even Quite Lite 

yet Leaveing it to y r Hon rs . Discretion 

M.T — 
ADDRESSED : 

To 

Maj r . Gen 11 . Johnson 

INDORSED : 

Col. Titcombs Letter & reasons 
for not being ready to march. 

JOURNAL OF INDIAN AFFAIRS 
Copy 1 

Albany 8 August 1755 — 

Three Warriors of the lower Mohock Castle were sent to 
General Johnson by the Sachems & Warriors of said Castle 
with the following Memorandum of Canadagayea the Chief 
Sachem of said Castle & also to inform Gen 1 . Johnson of the 
proceedings of General Shirley & his Agents. 

"Memorandum taken from Canadagayea who desired that 

Deposition should immediately be sent to Warraghiyagy, which 

was the following, and concerned Yohahoaane, (Gen 1 Shirley) 

he spoke in the presence of several of the Lower Mohock Castle 

at Mount Johnson Aug 1 . 6 1755. and said. 



1 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada. Indian Records, 
Vol. 4. 



2 1 8 Sir William Johnson Papers 

"That when Gov r . Shirley came to the Castle he applied to 
him to be his Speaker to w ch . he hardly would agree & told 
Lydius who spoke to him for it, that he would serve him that 
day but not the next. 

Gov r . Shirley then with a Belt of Wampum condoled the 
Losses of their People & passed some other Ceremonies accord- 
ing to Custom 

then gave the Belt. 

Then with another large Belt, he told them that when he 
parted [from] General Johnson he asked him how many Indians 
of the lower Mohock Castle was to join him, when he answered, 
that 20 Men were to set off with him immediately. 

laid down the Belt 

Whereupon the Mohocks said they knew nothing about it, 
after which he took a Paper out of his Pocket & told them 
that these doings of General Johnson seemed very Strange to 
him, as it was him raised Gen Johnson to the Post he was in now. 

Then Governor Shirley further asked them, whether General 
Johnson did not allow them 10/ a day for going upon the out 
scout, and also if he had not told them that those Indians who 
would serve the Crown in this Expedition were to have £5 
apeice after their return if Successful, and that it should not 
be lossed upon them that might happen to be killed as their 
Family was to receive the said Sum. 

The Indians said it had not been told them — (when John 
Fisher & the rest looked at one another & smiled) 

Then Gov r . Shirley further accquainted the Indians that he 
lodged now £5000 Ster^. in General Johnson hands for the 
use of the Indians. 

At parting he told them that he must take the People along 
that was working on the Fort, as he wanted hands in the Battoes 
as they were in his Employ. 

Canadagaye also said that they heard Gov r . Shirley stopped 
all the Waggons that was pressed for General Johnson upon 
the River. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 219 

All these doings he said appeared strange to them & should 
be very glad to have their Brother Warraghiyagys answer to 
it, especially concerning the Fort as no Body was working at 
the Fort & they soon leaving their Families. 

Deposed in the presence of 

Arent Stevens 

General Johnson's Answer to the Three Warriors 
who brought the foregoing Memorandum 

Pres 1 
Peter Wraxall secr r y 
Arent Stevens Intr r . 

Bretheren 

I told Gov r . Shirley according to what you agreed on when 
I saw you last at my House — that there were Six of your 
People who were ready to Attend him — I promised him no 
more — I wrote no such Letter to him as I am informed he 
showed you, nor sent any Belt of Wampum by him. 

Bretheren 

It was not Gov r . Shirley who raised me up, it was as I told 
you at our Public Meeting, by the King your Fathers directions 
to General Braddock. Gov r . Shirley has lodged no Money in 
my hands — the Money I received for mannaging your Affairs, 
was put into my hands by General Braddock, he having a 
Power from the King your Father for so doing. If Gov r . 
Shirley told you I had orders to Allow you 1 Shillings & day 
or to give you £5. ^ Man after your return, he imposed on 
you, for I never had any such Orders 

All my Promises I will faithfully fulfill to You, as I have 
always done, and you may depend upon it, that those who 
remain true to their Engagements & go with me, I will always 
remember & do everything for them in my power and I am sorry 
to hear that the Workmen were taken away from building your 



220 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Fort, 1 I will write to Justice Fry 2 to press Men to finish it as 
soon as possible? 

JOURNAL OF INDIAN AFFAIRS 
Copy z 

Head Quarters Camp at the Great Carrying Place 

21 Augt. 1755.— 

Four Mohock Indians sent some time ago by General Johnson 
with a Message to the Cagnawaga Indians in Canada & a Belt 
of Wampum in order to prevail on them at least to stand Neuter 
between the French & us. returned & joined Gen 1 Johnson this 
day at the Camp. They reported the following Answer of the 
Cagnawagas to them & to General Johnson's Message. — 

Bretheren 

Last Year we opened a Road for you & us to trade to Albany, 
but find the Annogongues have Stopped it up by Killing the 
English. We sent to their Sachems & expressed our uneasiness 
at it. We sit still & do no harm, however our said Road is 
now shut, & we leave it to you to find another 

gave a Belt. 
Bretheren 

the French Priests by throwing Water upon our Heads, sub- 
ject us to the Will of the Governor of Canada — but as you 
are a free People be careful of your safety & do not engage 
Your selves in the Quarrels between the English & French. 

a Belt. 



1 This Fort was building by Directions of the Lieut. Govr. of New York 
(upon Genr. Johnson's Application) with a Fund raised by the Gov. of 
New York. [Note in the manuscript] 

2 Hendrick Frey, justice of the peace. 

3 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada. Indian Records, 
Vol. 4. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 221 

Brother Warragheyagy 

We have received your Message desiring us to stand out of 
your way lest you should tread upon us. Bro r . we return you 
thanks for your warning, but it is not in our power to comply 
with it, for the French & we are one Blood, & where they are 
to dye we must dye also. We are linked together in each others 
Arms & where the French go we must go also. 

Gave a Belt for General 
Johnson & returned that he 
sent to them. 

Vide pag 90. the Conferrence there 
recorded should have followd, but 
by Mistake the following 
they were entered from the rough 
Minutes in these Records before the 
Error was discovered 

P. Wraxall, secr r y. 

WILLIAM EYRE'S LIST OF ARTILLERY STORES 

D. 
[Lake George, Aug. 26, 1755] 1 
Train & Stores for y e . Second Division 

Shot Guns 

400 2 32 p d ^ 

500 2 18 p d « 

400 2 10 p d »f 

400 4 6 pJ»J 



200 Barrels of Powder 



two Lieut 3 , of Artillery with 28 Men, the 
Deputy Commsserry of Stores & 30 Carpenters 
with their Tools 



1 Date supplied from Johnson Calendar, p. 47. 



222 Sir William Johnson Papers 

1 Smiths Forge compleat 

100 Shovels 

30 Terpaulin 

50 Wood Axis 

1 Cask of Species 

106 Handles for Ditto 

36 Bags for Grape Shott 

4 Casks for Wadding 

3 Whip Saws 

12 Sheep Shirs 

1 Gyn with compleat furniture 

2 Coyl of White rope 
Lead for aprons 

indorsed: 1 

Cap 1 Eyre's List of 
Artillery & Stores 
for 2 d . Division 

AN INDIAN CONFERENCE 
Copy 2 

Camp at Lake George 4 Sep r . J 755 A. M. 
Pres 1 . 
General Johnson 
Maj r . General Lyman 
Lieu 1 . Col. Whiting 
Colonel Ruggles 
Lieu 1 . Col. Pitkin 

Peter Wraxall sec r >\ for Indian Affairs & c . 
Cap* Butler ) 
Lieu'. Claesse ^-Int rs . 
W m . Printup J 

Sachems of the several Nations of Indians at this Camp 
Hendrik Speaker 



1 In Peter Wraxall's hand. 

2 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada. Indian Records, 
Vol. 4. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 223 

Brother Warraghijagy Sole Superintendent of our Affairs. 

When you went from the carrying Place you left a Message 
to accquaint the 5 Nations that you were proceeding to this Lake, 
& desired we would join you with all possible speed. We 
received this Message & have accordingly joined you here, & 
are exerting ourselves to assist you in all matters within our 
power. 

You know a Message was sent to the Cagnawagas to keep 
out of your way with which they would not comply. We are 
now resolved to send once more & our Messengers are here 
present ready to set off and we now return you your Belt 1 

And now Brother you will wait till they return when you 
shall know what Answer we receive 

Brother 

It is our way upon these Occasions that the head Man we 
send, takes the People he goes to meet by the hand & desires 
they will come along with him to their fire place, but as it is 
not now a peceable time, we imagine they will appoint some 
other place where you & some of your chief Men may meet 
with them & us in Council. 

Brother 

As our People are always out on the Scout & their Eyes & 
Ears always open they heard Yesterday 3 Guns fire at the place 
where we expect to meet the Cagnawagas & we are pretty 
certain they are now waiting for us there, as no Guns have been 
heard at any other place. 

Brother 

this is all we have to say now, we choose to be short as we 
are in haste to dispatch our Deputies 



1 A Belt Genl. Johnson left at the Great Carrying Place for the Indians 
to join him at Lake George. [Note in the manuscript 1 



224 Sir William Johnson Papers 

When the foregoing Speech was ended Hendrick desired the 
General and the rest of the Company would sit a little longer; 
because they had something to say upon another Subject 

he then spoke as follows 1 



FROM JOSEPH BLANCHARD 2 
A. L. S. 3 

At the Fort at the Carrying place 
Sep 1 . 5, 1755. 
May it please Your Honour 

I arrived here the 3 d . Instant at night. Yesterday & today 
made up the number of about 350 of my Troops. The 
remainder by order left to guard up about one hundred 
Waggons, the Comissarys informed me they expected Yesterday 
to load at Albany; Expect them tomorrow night or next day 
here. 

The Occasion of my Troubling You with this Express is the 
Attempts of the Waggoners to pass us (who having no written 
orders I stopped) and the Complaints of others who pretended 
they only Came with the Carriages for the Artillery, had no 
Waggons & their Horses worn out, & Solicited their Liberty, 
who I informed I had recieved no orders that left it within my 
Province — Many of the Artillery Horses are Yet in good 
plight, which may recruit Waggons & be usefull. Shall delay 
them till Your further orders. — we are fitting the Waggons, 
& loading the Battoes with all possible dispatch — 

& As I am but just arrived, & a Stranger to the business here, 
if it be Your pleasure, request that Col. Bagley may be Con- 



1 The speech that follows is printed in Doc. Rel. to Colonial Hist. N. Y., 
6:998-99. 

2 Colonel Joseph Blanchard, 1705-1758; judge of the Supreme Court 
of New Hampshire; received commission in a New Hampshire regiment 
in 1755. 

3 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Preliminary Campaigns, J 755-1 756 225 

tinued here for the present, till I obtain Your favour to Join 
You, which is the Constant application of my Regiment. 

I am 

Your Hon". 
Most Obedient 
Humble Servant 
at Command 

Joseph Blanchard 
addressed : 

On his Majesties Service 
To 

The Hon b,e 
Major General Johnson 
at 

Lake George 
Express. ^ 
Adam Froman 

INDORSED: 

Sept'. 5. 1755 
Col. Blanchard Letter 

TO JOSEPH BLANCHARD 

Sunday afternoon 4 aClock [7 br . 7 th . 1755] 
Sir 

a Quarter an hour ago I sent you an Express a horse back 
to acquaint you that I have just now Intelligence that a con- 
siderable party of the Enemy how many we cannot learn but 
the Indian Scouts discovered 3 great bands a little beyond South 
Bay & they are of opinion the enemy design an Attack at the 
Great carrying Place & that at furthest they will be upon you 
this Night. You will if the Enemy have not already attacked 



1 In collection of Norman B. Nash, Cambridge, Mass. 
8 



226 Sir William Johnson Papers 

you make the necessary Dispositions to defend the Troops under 
your Command & preserve (?) the Provisions & Stores. You 
will all retire into the Fort w h I hope you will be able to main- 
tain & I make no doubt but you the Officers & Men will acquit 
Yourselves properly. 

I am Sir Y rs . 

Wm. Johnson 

If you discover the Enemy before they are upon you send off 
a brisk runner with the news hither or at any rate as soon as 
you can 

ADDRESSED: 

to Colonel Blanchard 1 

INDORSED : 

Letter to Coll Blanchard 
7K 7*. 1 755 — 
with Intelligence 

FROM STEPHEN HOPKINS 2 
A. L. S. 3 

Providence Sept. 8. 1755 
Sir 

I am now to acknowledge your Favors of the 15 th . 20 th . and 
24 th . of August. The Weakness of the English Army, and the 
Numbers, with which it is likely to be opposed occasions a Con- 
cern, visible in the Countenance of every Man of Consideration 
in New England. They look on the present Time, as that 
remarkable and long expected Crisis, when one important Blow 
must determin the Rivalship of the English and French, for the 
Empire of North America. 



1 Col. Joseph Blanchard, commander at Fort Edward. 

2 Colonial governor of Rhode Island from 1755 until 1764, with the 
exception of two years. 

3 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 




From Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 227 

As the Honor of conducting this decisive Enterprize is con- 
ferred on you, I doubt not but your Vigor, Caution, and 
Prudence in carrying it into Execution, will justify the Wisdom 
of those, by whom you were appointed, and set your own 
Accomplishments in an amiable Light, among all, who know 
any Thing of America. And altho I dare not advise, yet 
permit me to say, since so much depends on the Success of this 
Undertaking, it may be best not to put the main Point to Tryal, 
before you have such a Number of Men, that the Strongest 
Probability of carrying it, may be on our Side: For I think 
the Colonies convened are determined to make you Strong 
Enough, to bring that Probability in your Favor; even tho 
France should think fit to employ all the Forces they have, 
and can possibly muster in America, to oppose you. 

The Colonies convened seem determined to push their whole 
Force, if it should be wanted, and will not on this Occasion 
measure what they do by their Abilities, but rather proportion 
their Assistance, by the Value they set on their Religious and 
Civil Liberties, and the Freedom of themselves and their pos- 
terity. 

The Colony of Rhode Island have raised 150 Men, who 
will come to you with Col : Harris. Provisions and other Stores 
for them, and as many Cloaths of various Kinds, as Col : Harris 
thinks will be wanted in our Regiment, are sent. The Assembly 
here will meet on Monday next, when, I make no Doubt they 
will order more men to be raised, and will continue to raise from 
Time to Time as many Men in Proportion to the Numbers we 
have in the Colony, as any one of the Provinces concerned. 

When the Several Colonies have raised all the Men they 
Design for this Service, if you still find yourself over-matched 
by Numbers; it may be adviseable to let it be known as soon 
as possible; for Should that be the Case, You would find your- 
self very Soon recruited by a Large Number of Men of another 
Sort who will enter into the Service Voluntarily; and at their 
own Expence, will chearfully assist their Brethren to defend 
their native Country. 



228 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Whatever may be necessary for the Men in the Service of this 
Colony, to make them Comfortable to themselves and usefull to 
their Country; Be kind enough to Signify to me, and due Care 
Shall be taken to Supply them 

I hope the Necessity of Affairs may not constrain Me to 
make you a Visit in your Camp, yet should such a Step become 
needfull, no one could undertake it with more Zeal and Chear- 
fulness than will. Sir 

Your most Obedient 

and most Humble Servant. 

Step Hopkins 
indorsed: 

Govern 1 . Hopkins Letter 
dated 8 Sep'. 1 755 
rec d . 5 Oct r . 
Ans d . 1 Nov r . 

TO WILLIAM SHIRLEY 
Contemporary Copy 1 

Camp at Lake George 9 th . Sep r . 1755 
Sir, 

Sunday Evening the 7 th . Inst. I received Intelligence from 
some Indians Scouts, I had sent out, that they had discovered 
Three large roads about the South Bay, and were Confident 
a very Considerable Number of the Enemy were Marched or 
on their March Toowards our Encampment at the Carrying 
Place, where were Posted about 250 of the New Hampshire 
Troops, and five Companies of the New York Regiment: I got 
One Adams a Waggoner, who Voluntarily and Bravely Con- 
sented to Ride Express with my Orders to Colonel Blanchard 
of the New Hampshire Regiment, Commanding Officer there; 
I Acquainted him with my Intelligence, and directed him to 
withdraw all the Troops there within the Works thrown up. 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 229 

about half an hour, or near an hour after this, I got Two Indians 
and Two Soldiers to go on foot with Another Letter to the Same 
Purpose. 

About 12 OClock that night the Indians And Soldiers 
returned with a Waggoner who had Stole from the Camp with 
about 80 others their Waggons and horses without orders; this 
Waggoner says he heard and saw the Enemy about 4 miles 
from this side the Carrying Place; they heard a Gun fire, and 
a man Call upon Heaven for Mercy, which he Judged to be 
Adams; the next morning I called a Council of War, who 
gave it as their opinion, and in wch the Indians were Extreamly 
Urgent, That 1000 men should be detached, and a Number 
of their People would go with them in order to Catch the Enemy 
in their Retreat from the other Camp, either as Victors or 
defeated in their Designs. The 1 000 men were detached under 
the Command of Col°. Williams of one of the Boston Regiments 
with Upwards of 200 Indians. They Marched between 8 & 9 
OClock in about an Hour And a half afterwards we heard a 
heavy firing, and all the Marks of a Warm Engagement, wch 
we Judged was about 3 or 4 Miles from us : We beat to Arms, 
and got our men all in readiness; the fire Approached nearer, 
upon wch I judged our People were Retreating, and Detached 
Lieu*. Col°. Cole with about 300 men to Cover their Retreat: 
About 10 OClock some of our men in the rear, and some 
Indians of Said Party came running into Camp, And Acquainted 
us that our men were retreating, that the Enemy were to Strong 
for them; The Whole Party that escalped returned to us in 
large Bodies. As we had thrown up a Breast Work of Trees 
round our Encampment, and Planted Feild Peices to defend 
the Same, We Immediately hawled Some heavy Cannon up 
there to Strengthen our Front, Took possession of some Emi- 
nences on our left Flank and got one feild peice there in a very 
Advantegious Scituation; the Breast work was manned through- 
out by our People, and the best Disposition made thro' our 
whole Encampment wch time and Circumstances would permit; 
about half an hour after 1 1 the Enemy appeared in Sight, And 



230 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Marched along the road in very regular order, directly upon 
our Center; they made a Small halt about 150 Yards from our 
breast work, when the regular Troops (whom we Judged to 
be such by their bright and fix't Bayonets) made the Grand 
and Center Attack; The Canadeans and Indians Squatted, and 
Dispersed on our Flancks; The Enemy's fire we received first 
from their regulars in Platoons, but it did no great Execution 
being at too great a Distance, and our men defended by the 
Breast Work; Our Artillery then began to Play on them, and 
was Served Under the direction of Cap 1 . Eyre during the Whole 
Engagement in a manner very Advantegeous to his Character, 
And those Concerned in the Management of it: The Engagem*. 
now became General on both Sides: The French regulars kept 
their ground and Order for Some time with great resolution and 
good Conduct; but the Warm and Constant fire from our 
Artillery and Troops Put them into Disorder. — their fire became 
more Scattered and Unequal; and the Enemy's fire on our Left 
grew very faint; they moved then to the right of Our Encamp- 
ment, and Attacked Col°. Ruggles, Col°. Williams And Col°. 
Titcomb's Regiments, where they Maintained a very Warm fire 
for near an hour, Still keeping up their fire in the other Parts 
of our Line, tho not very Strong. The three reg ts . on the Right 
Supported the Attack very resolutely, and kept a Constant and 
Strong fire upon the Enemy: This Attack failing, and the 
Artillery Still Playing along the line, we found their fire very 
weak, with Several Intervals. This was about 4 OClock, when 
our men and the Indians Jump'd over the breast Work, Pursued 
the Enemy, Slaughtered numbers, and took Several Prisoners, 
Amongst whom is the Baron De Dieskau, the french General of 
all the Regular forces lately Arrived from Europe, who was 
brought to my Tent about 6 OClock, Just as a Wound I had 
received was Dressed; The Whole Engagement and Pursuit 
ended about Seven O'Clock. — I don't know whether I can get 
the returns of the Slain and Wounded on our Side to transmit 
herewith, but more of that by And by; The greatest loss, we 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755— 1756 231 

have Sustained, was in the Party Commanded by Col°. Williams 
in the morning, who was Attacked And the men gave way 
before Col°. Whiting, who brought up the rear, Cou'd come to 
his Assistance; The Enemy, who were more Numerous, 
Endeavoured to Surround them; Upon wch the Officers found 
they had no way to Save the Troops, but by retreating; wch 
they did as fast as they Could: In this Engagem 1 . we Suffered 
Our greatest Loss; Col°. Williams, Major Ashely, Cap'. Inger- 
sol and Cap 1 . Puter of the Same Regim 1 ., Cap 1 . Farrell, a 
Brother in Law to the General, who Commanded a Party of 
Indians, Cap*. Stoddart, Cap 1 . Magin, Cap 1 . Stevens, all Indian 
Officers, and, the Indians Say, near 40 of their People, who 
fought like Lyons, were all Slain. Old Hendrick, the great 
Mohawk Sachim, we fear is kill'd. 

We have abundant reason to think we killed a great Number 
of the Enemy, Amongst whom is Mons r . S l . Pierre, who Com- 
anded All the Indians; the Exact number on either Side I 
cannot Obtain; for tho': I sent a Party to Bury our Dead this 
afternoon, it being a running Scattered Engagement we can 
neither find all our dead nor give an Exact Account; As fast 
as these Troops Joined us, they formed with the rest in the Main 
Battle of the Day, so that the Killed and Wounded in both 
Engagements, Officers Excepted, must Stand upon One return. 

About 8 O'Clock last night a Party of 120 of the New 
Hampshire Regiment, and 90 of the New York Regim'., who 
were Detached to our Assistance under the Command of Cap 1 . 
Maginnes from the Camp of the Carrying Place to reinforce 
us, were Attacked by a Party of Indians and Canadians at the 
Place where Col°. Williams was Attacked in the morning; 
their Engagement began between 4 & 5 OClock; this Party, 
who, our People say, were between 3 & 400, had fled from the 
Engagem 1 . here, and gone to Scalp our People killed in the 
Morning; Our Brave men fought them for near 2 Hours, and 
made a Considerable Slaughter amongest them; of this Party 2 
are Killed, 1 1 Wounded, and 5 Missing; Captain Maginnes, 



232 Sir William Johnson Papers 

who behaved with the Utmost Calmness & Resolution, was 
brought on a Horse here, and I fear his Wounds will Prove 
Mortal; Ensign Falsam, of the New Hampshire Regiment, 
Wounded thro the Shoulder. 

I this Morning Called a Council of War, a Copy of the 
Minutes of which I send you herewith. 

Mons r . Le Baron De Dieskau, the french General is badly 
Wounded in the Leg and thro': both his Hipps, and the Sur- 
geon very much fears his Life; He is an Elderly Gentleman, 
an Experienced Officer, and a man of high Consideration in 
France; from his Papers I find he brought under his Command 
to Canada in the men of War lately Arrived at Quebeck 3171 
Regular Troops, who are partly in Garrison at Crown Point, 
and Encamped At Ticonderogo, and other Advantageous 
Passes between this and Crown Point; he tells me he had with 
him Yesterday morning — 200 Grenadiers, 800 Canadeans, 
and 700 Indians of Different Nations. His Aid De Camp 
Says (they being Seperately Asked) their Whole Force was 
about 2000; Several of the Prisoners say about 2300. — 
The Baron Says his Major General was killed, And his 
Aid De Camp Says the greatest Part of their Cheif 
Officers; also he thinks by the Morning and afternoon Actions 
they have lost near 1 000 men, but I can get no regular Accounts ; 
most of our People think from 5 to 500. We have about 30 
Prisoners most of them badly Wounded; The Indians Scalped 
of their Dead already near 70, — And Were Employed after, 
the last night, and all this Morning, in bringing in Scalps; and 
great numbers of French & Indians yet left Unscalped; they 
Carried off numbers of their Dead and Secreted them: Our 
men have Suffered so much Fatigue for 3 Days Past, and are 
Constantly Standing upon their Arms by Day, half the Whole 
upon Guard every Night, and the rest Lay down Armed and 
Accoutered, that both Officers and men Are Almost wore out; 
The Enemy may rally, and we Judge they have Considerable 
reinforcements near at Hand, so that I think it Necessary we 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1756 233 

be upon our Guard, and be Watchfull to Maintain the 
Advantage, we have gained; for these reasons Don't think it 
Either prudent or Safe to be sending out parties in Search of the 
Dead. 

I don't hear of any Officer kill'd at our Camp, but Col°. 
Titcomb, and none wounded but myself and Major Nicoles of 
Col°. Titcomb's; I cannot yet get a Certain return of our dead 
And wounded; but from the best Accounts, I can Obtain, we 
have lost about 130 who are Kill'd, about 60 Wounded, & 
Several Missing from the morning and Afternoon's Engagements. 

I think we may Expect very Shortly another, and More 
Formidable Attack, And that the Enemy will then Come With 
Artilliry; The late Col°. Williams had the Ground Cleared 
for Building a Stockaded Fort; our men are so harras'd, And 
Obliged to be so Constantly on Watchfull Duty, That I think 
it wou'd be both Unreasonable, and, I fear in Vain, to Set them 
at Work upon the Design'd Fort. 

I Design to order the New Hampshire Regiment up here to 
reinforce Us, and I hope some of the Designed reinforcem ts . 
will be with us in a few Days, When those fresh Troops Arrive 
I Shall Immediately set About Building a Fort — 

My Wound wch is in my Thigh is very Painfull, the Ball 
is lodg'd and Cannot be got out. by which means I am to my 
Mortification Confined to my Tent. 

10 th . This letter was begun and Should have been Dis- 
patched Yesterday, but we have had Two Alarms and Neither 
time nor Prudence would permit it. I hope Your Excellency 
will Place the Incorrectness hereof to the Account of our 
Situation 

I am Most respectfully &c. 

A true Copy Ex a . by 

W M : Alexander Secy. 
His Excy. Gen l . Shirley 



234 



Sir William Johnson Papers 



INDORSED : 



Copy of a Letter from Major 
General Johnson to Major 
General Shirley 
dated Sep'. 9 th : 1755. 

No. 1 

Dup e . 
in M. G. Shirley's Letter 
of Oct'. 5. 1 755 



RETURN OF KILLED, WOUNDED AND MISSING IN BATTLE OF 

LAKE GEORGE 

A. D. S. 1 

Return of the Killed, Wounded & Missing in the Provincial 
Troops under the Command of Major Gen 1 . Johnson after the 
Engagements of the Morning & the subsequent Attack on the 
Camp the 8 Sep r 1 755 between the said Troops & the French 
Regulars, the Canadians & Indians, under the Command of 
Mons r . Le Baron Dieskau General & Commander in Chief of 
the French Kings Troops in Canada 

Return of the Killed, Missing & Wounded from the Several 
Reg ts . at this Camp after the Engagements of the 8 Sep r 1 755. 

Col. Tim° Ruggles' Reg', of Massachusetts 





Commiss 11 . 
officers 


Non 
Comiss 11 . 


Private 


Total 
Killed & 
missing 


Total 
Wounded 


Killed or missing. . . . 


5 


13 


15. 


33 




Wounded 


1 


1 


13. 




15. 



















1 In Williams College Library. This return somewhat condensed, and 
in slightly different form, is printed in Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 
6:1006-7, under date of Sept. 11, 1755. 



Preliminary Campaigns, J 755-1 756 235 

Col. Titcombs Reg*. Massachusetts 

Killed Missing 2 Serg ts 3 Corp 8 . 1 ' 

'0 



The Colonel 

1 Lieu'. 1.^9 

1 Serg 1 . & 9 privates 1 . J 



Drum r & 19 privates 





Wounded 


Major Nicholls . 


I. 




2 


Ensign 


1. 



Major General Johnson 
wounded in the hip 



r 



is 



25. 



Returns of the Killed, 
Wounded & Missing after the 
Engagement in the Morning & 
the Subsequent Attack on the 
Camp between the Provincial 
Troops under the Command of 
Major General Johnson & the 
French Regulars, Canadians & 
Indians under the Command 
the Baron Le Dieskau Com- 
mand r . in Chief of the French 
Kings Troops in Canada 



1 . Col Massachusetts Reg*. 

Commanded by Col. Tim°. Ruggles 

Cap 1 . Solomon Keyes 
Lieut Nathan Gilbert 
Lieu 1 . Joshua Williams ► 
Ensign John Fitzdale 
Ensign Joseph Brentnal 



Killed | Wound d . [ Misag. 



Lieu 1 . Thompson 1 

1 3 Non Commiss 11 . Officers ^ 
& 1 5 private Men . . . . ( 



1 To this point the contents of the manuscript are crossed out. 



236 



Sir William Johnson Papers 



2. Massachusetts Reg*. Commanded by 
Col. Moses Titcomb. 



Killed Wound*. MissS 



Col. Moses Titcomb . . 
Lieut 

1 Serg*. & 6 Privates. . 
Major Nicholls 

2 Lieuts & 1 Ensign. . 
Privates 

2 Serg". 3 Corp 8 . 1 
Drum r . & 19 Private 



1 
1 

7, 



I. 

3. 
23. 



25 



3. Massachusetts Reg*. Command 11 , by 
Col. Eph m . Williams 



Col. Eph Williams . . . 

Major Noah Ashly . . . 

Cap 1 . Moses Porter. . . 

Cap*. Ingersol 

Lieu 1 . Dan 1 . Pomroy. . 

Lieut Nath 1 . Burt 

Ensign John Stratten. 

Ensign Reuben Wait. 

Serg te Corp*. & Pri- 
vates 

Cap 48 . Simon Davis & 
Elisha Hawley. . . . 

Ensign Josiah Williams 

Serg to . Corp 8 . & Pri 

vate 

Missing 



Killed Wound. Missing 



32 



41 



2 
1 

23 



26 



Killed Wound*. Miss*. 



9. 



41 



55 



11 



26, 



54 



25 



56 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 



237 



1 . Connecticut Reg 1 Commanded by Maj r 
Gen 1 Lyman 


Killed 

9. 
29. 

20. 
7. 


Wound d . 

3. 
16. 

6. 
1. 


Mi ssi ng 




Killed 


Wound d . 


Miss*. 




Lieut. James Jones. . . 

Serg* 8 Corp". Drum & 

Privat 


1. 

8. 


3. 


2 




Serg* 8 & private .... 
Private 


2- 






2 d . Reg*, do Commanded by Col. Goodrich 






Killed 


Wounded 


MissS. 




Lieu* Tho". Barnham . 

Serg* 8 . Corp 8 . Drums & 

Private 


1. 

28. 


1. 

15. 






Lieut Ruggles 

Privats 











29 


16 






Rhode Island Reg*. 








Killed. 


wound d . 


MissK. 




4 Serg* 8 . 2 Corp 8 . & 1 4 
privats 


20 


6 


1 




Privates 




Missing 


1- 








20 


6 


1 




3. Connecticut Comp y \ of I s 


Jew York Reg*. 






Killed 


Wound. 


MissB. 






7 


1 


3 




« • 




• 


3 






Toi 


tall 


120 


801 


62 



238 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Of the British Allied Indians Killed & Missing among w ch . 
is Hendrik the Great Mohock Sachem & another great 
Sachim of the said Castle, Killed in all 32 — Wounded 1 2. 
The upper Mohock Castle sustained the Greatest Loss, 
many chief Warriors were Killed & others wounded. Cap 1 . 
Farrel 1 — 

In the Engagement toward the Evening between the Detachm 1 
of the New Hampshire & New York Reg ts from the Camp at 
the Great Carrying Place & the Canadians & Indians from the 
best Accounts yet obtained 2 Killed 1 1 wounded & 5 Missing 
The Brave Capt Maginnis who Commanded this Party died 
Two days after of his Wounds in this Camp. 

The French General the Baron de Dieskau taken Prisoner & 
very badly wounded. His Aid de Camp surrendered himself 
the same night. The Baron says his Major Gen 1 , was killed as 
was Mons r . S'. Pierre 2 who Commanded the Indians, many 
other of the Enemies Chief Officers reported by the [ 
to be either Killed or Wounded. 

P. W. 3 

A. D. Camp to 

Gen Johnson 

Capt Stoddart. 4 Capt Magin 5 & Capt Stevens 6 Indian officers 
all Killed in the Morning Engagement. 

INDORSED : 

Return of the Killed, Wounded 
& Missing of the Troops in 
camp at Lake George 
after the Actions on the 
8 Sep*. 1 755 — 



1 Captain Matthew Ferrall (Farrell). 

2 Legardeur de St Pierre. 

3 Peter Wraxall. 

4 Captain Benjamin Stoddert. 

5 Captain William McGinnis (Maginnis, Magin). 

6 Captain Jonathan Stevens (Stephens). 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 239 

FROM THOMAS POWNALL 
A. L. S. 1 

NYork Sepr. 13. 55. 
My Dear Sir. 

We have heard Strang an Imperfect Acc ls . but all to your 
Honor & to y e Honor of y r Officers & Men of y e Affair of y e 9 ,h 
Instant. Every Bodies heart is with you. The Gov r is coming up 
to Albany to morrow. y e L l Gov r goes with him. Cap* Ruther- 
ford goes too: — All is right in Your favor. — The Governor 
has receiv'd from Your freinds all y e Impressions in Your Favor 
That Your Virtue Deserves. There are two things upon which 
every Man must rest his Merits, one his own Right Conduct 
y e other the Reality of his Freinds. y e First is in your own 
Breast & You will command it. — The Other give me leave to 
assure You off, Your Interest in this latter is & shall be secured. 
I have receivd such Acc ,s from England as will putt it into 
my Power to be of Service to You. if I go home I can more 
particularly, if I stay here I shall have Instructions to appear 
at y e next Congress as a Principal for y e Gov r of NJersey. 
to which it has pleasd His Majesty to appoint me L* Gov r . with 
a Destination (at y e same time) to y e Gov r . on a Vacancy. 
Do not Lett Your personal Courage carry You beyond what 
is y e Duty of a General, tell Cap 1 Ayres, He Shall find & will 
find good freinds. My Service to Cap 1 Wraxal. — I beleive 
if You have Success I shall carry y e Acct of it with me to 
England, do therefore write Yourself by me, & referr to me 
for further Information it will give an Opportunity of saying & 
doing for You what I wish to do 

Your's most Sincerely 

Affectionately T PowNALL 



1 In New York Public Library, New York City. 



240 Sir William Johnson Papers 

STRENGTH OF FRENCH ARMY 

Copy 
Copy 

[ ] Milices [ ] 

[Cann]oniers [ 

[R] eserve 362 

Sauvages 659 

Canoetiers & 2 Domestiques 67 

Officiers & Cadets des Sauvages 

[ ] 

Interprete et Aumonier 

Nos Domestiques 

Chirurgiens 



Recapitulation 1 

2 Battaillons 

Milices 

Troupe de la Colonie 

Cannoniers 

Officers & Cadets de Sauvages 
Sauvages 



Copied from a Paper of the French General 



4 


8 


6 


18 


3099 


3117 


774 


1393 


192 


67 


14 


659 



3099 



1 The portion of the document from this point is inclosed in a letter 
from John Rutherford to William Shirley; printed in The Papers of Sir 
William Johnson, 2:7 \— 72. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 241 

INDORSED : 

[ ] 

[ pa] per of the 

[French] Generals 

FROM BENNING WENTWORTH 

Portsmouth Septem r 25 th 1755 

Sir 

Coll° Peter Gilman the bearer hereof has my orders to Joyn 
your Army, with a Small regiment of three hundred men, as a 
reinforcement to the Provincial forces under your Command, & 
altho h from our distant Situation he may be the last, that may 
Arrive at your Camp, yet I am hopeing it will be made up in 
their usefullness in the Army, — I have taken great care in Levy- 
ing the men, & if they prove as usefull, & Equal to the Forces 
from the other Governments, my intentions For the good of the 
Service will be fully answered. 

The urgent Necessity of this reinforcement, the measures I 
have taken; that the regiment should Speedily Joyn your Army, 
together with the Route assigned For their March to Effect it, 
will not admit of Subsistance & all Necessary Stores being Sent 
with the regiment, or being ready at Albany by the time I expect 
the forces will be there, I shall therefore rely on your orders 
for Subsisting them, both officers & men, out of the General 
Stock, which shall be replaced out of the New Hampshire Stores, 
when they Arrive, which cannot Exceed ten days after our 
forces Arrive at Hoosuck, & if the winds prove Favourable it 



1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 



242 Sir William Johnson Papers 

will be earlier, wishing you Further Success, & a Speedy 
recovery, I am 

With great Respect & Esteem 
Sir 

Your most Obedient 
Hum le Servant 

B Wentworth 1 
Major General Johnson 

indorsed: 

Gov r - Wentworth's Letter 
Portsmouth. 25 Sep 1 . 
Reed 30 Octo r 

Ans d . 4 Nov. — 



FROM TIMOTHY RUGGLES 

Fort Edward 29 th . Sept' J 755 
S R . 

the works here are going on as fast as our Numbers & tools will 
permit the Carpenters are now Imploy'd in getting timber for 
Barracks & y e 2 Saws are Cutting boards we have Sixty men 
gone on y e Road to Saratoga & a number getting up y e battooes 
which is Slow work maj r . Fitch's men are 193 & mine 194 
fit for Duty & if you Should think it best to augment y e Numbers 
with a hundred new Recruits till y e works are got forward I 
Should be glad of it as I apprehend y e Sooner y e barracks &c. 
are done the better for y e mens health I would beg leave to 
Recomend it that y e waggoners be order'd upon their Return 
from y e Lake Every day to take upon y e Road about five Mile 
from here a moderate Load of Stone which are very good & 
would be very Serviceable in y e works for Chimneys & if it be 



1 Benning Wentworth, colonial governor of N. H., 1 734-67. 

2 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 243 

agreeable to you I hope you will be pleased to order an officer 
that will See y e order Executed 
I am 

Y r . Most Ob'. & Humble Serv* 

Tim Ruggles 1 
addressed: 

To the Hon b,e 
William Johnson Esq r 
Maj r . General & Corhander in Chief 
of y e Forces Against Crown Point 
At Lake George 

INDORSED: 

Col. Ruggles' Report 
Fort Edwd. 29 Sep*. 

ALBANY COUNCIL TO CHARLES HARDY 

L. S. 

[Albany, October I, J 755] 

] and Stores for which he says he [ 
] Excellency to take such Care of those [ 
] near necessary not only to do the [ 
]ere the Forts and Magazines [ 
untijll his Majesty's Pleasure be known 
]dered of the same, and are h[ 
]t your Excellency may signiffy 
]t he may have the four [ 
] ordered for that S[ 
]are already [ 

only reflected 



1 Timothy Ruggles, brigadier general in the French and Indian War ; 
delegate to the Stamp Act Congress. 

2 Lines burned off. 



244 



Sir William Johnson Papers 



]ing the Ground maintained by [ 

] Enemy, and be a lasting B[ 
]duct and Courage. And there [ 
Jon that a Strong Fort upon M[ 

] about and finished as soon 
pr]esent posture of Affairs, and 
] on in America, we have [ 
] soon be declared. In [ 
] tenable Fort at the [ 
] towards the F[ 

] Canada [ 
c]oncerted this W[int]er, an[d 
], practicable and without grea[t 
] , may interfere with the present Design | 
]nch this Season, which we would by no 
rjetarded, and there may not be time to 
] less we think should be taken as early as | 

] 

] which is nevertheless humbly Submitted 
By your Excellency's most obedient [ 
Servants 

James De L[ancey] 
Daniel Horsmanden 



FROM GOLDSBROW BANYAR 
A. L. S. 



I 

be tryed, and [ 

the best must be [ 
1 Lines burned off. 



[Albany October 2, 1755] 






x ] 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 245 



To tell you the Tru[th 

Account is an Impor[ 

correspond with the ge[ 

the Army rather than to promo [te 

of the Service. This [ 

were all returned, & [ 

have done so too h[ 

that the Party Rogers [ 

commited only [ 

omit which [ 

asked this Mor[ning 



] sent to you by S r . Charles — 

] that he belonged to a Party 

]ted at Tionderoga from whence a 

] about 70 were sent once in three 

] themselves at the Carrying Place 

] little of the Battle, or the less of 

] on their numbers before or after the 

] what is most to my purpose 

] is the practicability of taking 

] Post at Tionderoga where the 

] Mans Account is true, hence 

]ment but have no 

set off so as to [ ] in 

] Night or just before 

french Men will no 



You will [ 

the Conseq [ 

these I think — We may [ 

[ 

next Spring before will pos [ 



Lines burned off. 



246 



Sir William Johnson Papers 



any great numbers [ 

Fort will be encouraged to [ 

may be so easily effected & [ 

it will give you an opportunity 

too whether it be proper [ 

Not. and it will tend to [ 

where you are ag l . whi[ch 

French may [ 

have only a mile or [ 

& we can co[ 



] thing may be [ 

] Field officer were how 

]ing to wait on the Gov r . & express'd 

]phize that such numbers 

]red from the Army, they want to go 

possible, and I fear that the Back 

]of the Men may be [ ] in 

] arrive to the like Temper in 

]ers. If the Examination is sent 

the same Information I 

] make use of it in 

] rouse up both officers & M [en] 

] know any disposition 

'] 

] this will shew a disposition to go [ ] 

] he'l be treated as a Spy, if he's not [ 

] 

Yrs 

Gw Banyar 



1 Lines burned off. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 247 

TO BENNING WENTWORTH 
L. S. 1 

Camp at Lake George 6 Octb r . 1755 

Sir 

As Col. Blanchard 2 is now obliged to return with his Regi- 
ment, I take this Opportunity to inform Your Excellency of 
his and their good Services done us, as he and they have ever 
since they joined the rest of the Troops been verry alert and 
Actove in every Respect, Particularly in Scouting which greatly 
contributed to our safety, and as good Intelligence will still be 
of the utmost Consequence to the Security of our Camp, I pro- 
posed that Col. Symes and Cap'. Rogers with a few of their 
Men should continue here, which they agree to. I hope your 
Excellency and the Government will approve of their staying 
as they will be of a good deal of Service to us in the Scouting 
Way. 

I dispatched Capt n . Wraxall my Secretary and Aid de Camp 
a few days ago with all the Papers Shewing the Scituation and 
State of the Army and other things necessary to be known to 
the Governments conserned, which I doubt not will be brought 
to You by him, or transmitted by S r . Charles Hardy before this 
falls into Your Excellencys hand, which makes it needless to 
say anything now, and more so as Col. Blanchard can Satisfie 
Your Excellency in most things relative to the Army. 



1 In Collection of Stephen H. P. Pell, New York City; facsimile in 
Avery's A History of the United Slates and Its People, 4:90; draft in 
New York State Library destroyed by fire. 

2 Joseph Blanchard, colonel of a New Hampshire regiment. 



248 Sir William Johnson Papers 

We are going on with a Fort here which I hope will answer 
the Intentions proposed 

I am 

Most Respectfully 

Your Excellencys 

Most Obed*. Hum 1 Serv 1 

Wm. Johnson 
To His Excellency 

GOVERNOUR WENTWORTH 

INDORSED: 

[ ] 

6 Octo' 1 755 
Gen 1 . Johnsons Letter 

PETER WRAXALL TO ROBERT RODGERS 
L. S. 
[Camp at Lake George October 7, 1755] 

i '] 

] Islands in this Lake tow[ard] 

] & then send our 3 or 4 proper Persons 

]tre the Enemy thereabouts & make what 

]t they can, you are [ ] birch canoe as a Bait 

for the Enemy & to remain with the [ ] 

Party in order to Succor & assist them [ ] 

around or to circumvent the Enemy for w ch purpose 

] to be in constant readiness with your 
[ ba]ttoes & keep a good lookout. — 

By the General Com[ ] 

Peter Wraxall 
[ Ro]dgers 2 — A. D. [ ] 

INDORSED: 

[ ] 

[ ] Scouting Orders [ ] 

Rodgers. 7. Oct[ ] 



1 Lines burned off. 

2 Robert Rogers. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 249 

PETER WRAXALL TO COMMANDING OFFICERS OF CONNECTICUT 

REINFORCEMENT 

/.. S. 
[Camp at Lake George October 7, 1755] 

commanded by Major General Jo[ 
] to order 2 Cap*. 6 Sub 8 & 200 Men [ 
] cements posted at or near Albany to repair [ 
] said City to Seraghtoga. You will please to go [ 

] Commanding officer of the party, that he [ 
| this work performed as compleatly & as cap [ably 
| possible, tis not only intended for the Benefit of [ 
| but for the 4. Eighteen pounders w h are at Albany [ 
ma]de as good as possible & y e Bridge very Strong, apply to 
] Gov r . of New York now at Albany & he will [ 
| who is well acquainted with the road to [ 
Business particularly in finding & m[aking 
]th aCross the River at Saraghtoga [ 

Peter W[raxall] 

peter wraxall to timothy ruggles 
A. L. S. 
[Camp at Lake George, October 7, 1755] 

■] 

] agreable to yo[ 

your request of makeing a [ ] 

B]oston, he would wish you to give it [ 

w]riting with your reasons for it, when [he] 
will] give you his Detirminate Answer. 

I am 
Sir 

Your most Obed 1 . [ 

Peter Wraxall 

[TJimo. Ruggles 

A.[D.C] 



Lines burned off. 



250 Sir William Johnson Papers 

The General desires you will keep an [ 
[ ] at the Pass near Fort Edward [ 

[ ] & examine all Soldiers [ 

[ ] be discharged from hence [ 

[ 

PETER WRAXALL TO ROBERT ROGERS 

Copy 1 

Camp at Lake George, 
7 Oct'r, J 755. 

You are to embark with the party under your command, and 
land with them on one of the nearest and most convenient islands 
in the lake toward the carrying place and Ticonderoga and then 
send out three or four proper persons to reconnoitre the enemy 
thereabouts and make what discoverys they can: you are then 
to send out the Birch Canoe as a bait for the enemy, and to 
remain with the rest of the party, in order to succor and assist 
them if pursued, or to circumvent the enemy, for which purpose 
you are to be in constant readiness with your Men and Battoes. 
and keep a good lookout. 

By the General's Command, 

Peter Wraxall, 

A.D. Camp. 

FROM GOLDSBROW BANYAR 

A. L. S. 

[Albany October 7, 1755} 

[ 1 

[ ] with yfour 

[ ] in the Concern your pr[ ] 

| hour suspected it since a few days [ 



1 Printed in Journals of Major Robert Rogers, ed. Hough, p. 30; 
draft in New York State Library destroyed by fire. 

2 Lines burned off. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 251 

] know it was irremediable. But | 

] not think this adds much to the merit of 
] W-r and the Army, who seem to me to have 
] no inclination to proceed since the Battle — 
]ways they would have finish'd their Scons 
pr]epared every thing else for a March in Case 
provisions had arrived Which they could not be 
] certain would fail them. Instead of this what ha[ve] 
they done. Your Scons and Fort at the Lake too might have 
been finished by this time, had your New England Men been 
actuated by that noble Spirit they had so amused the world 
with so long. I may be in an Error but dont believe [a] 
single Syllable of Rogers Explanation. The Liv[es] 
of the deserters are in our Power, who might [ 

[ '] 

[ ] Tionderoga at three miles [ 

[ ha]ve done every thing in your Power [ 

in your Inclination & Reputation will [ ] 

to persevere on that disposition to the last [ [ 

leaving Garisons in the two forts which I supp[ 

think of doing whether the Regulars be ordered [ 

] they are ordered, a few of your best & active [ 
]ton should be left as Rangers. Your Credit [ 
] much interested in securing the Footing your [ 
]on see the opinion of the Council about dismissing so [ 
of your Troops, It is a measure I see You'l quickly [ 

] to, and I hope when done, that it may not 

] courage the rest who may be left behind. Cant 

| spur on those wretches By representing to them [the] 

danger they are in of loosing the Credit [of] their Victory as 

well as of that Name they sustain in the World, unless they 

secure their Conquest [ ] 

t ■] 



1 Lines burned off. 



252 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM SOLOMON PAGE 

[Camp at Lake George October 9, 1755] 

t 

[ v]ery willing I shou[ld 

[ ] and now that y r . health [ 

[ honor] able life lengthned out in [ 

[ ] and to our whole Land is and [ 

[pra]yer of y r Hon rs . hum le . & obedient Se[rv l ] 

Solomon Page 
addressed: 

To 
The Honour 1 William Johnson Esq r 
Maj r . General of the Troops 
Encamped by Lake George 

FROM THE LORDS OF TRADE 

In Doc. Hist. N. Y., 2:700-2; Q. 2:408-9 is a letter from the Lords 
of Trade to Johnson written at Whitehall, October 9th, 1755, express- 
ing their pleasure at Johnson's appointment by General Braddock to the 
sole superintendency and management of the affairs of the Six Nations, 
their allies and dependents as recommended by the Lords of Trade, 
expressing surprise at the recent Indian congress at Mount Johnson, 
remarking on the transactions at Albany relative to the difficulties con- 
nected with the Kayoderasseras and Conojoharry patents, the redressing 
of Indian complaints, the regulation of Indian affairs in general and the 
increase of salary of Peter Wraxall 2 by General Shirley. 



1 Lines burned off. 

2 On April 15, 1755, the day preceding the dating of his commission 
as major general, and immediately after receiving his commission to 
superintend and manage the affairs of the Six Nations and their allies, 
Johnson wrote Wraxall from Alexandria, Va., asking him to serve as 
his secretary. Wraxall at that time was secretary of the Albany com- 
mission that had charge of Indian affairs. He served as Johnson's 
secretary until his death in the summer of 1 759. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 253 

TO MOSES EMERSON ET AL. 
Df. S. 1 

[Camp at Lake George Oct. 10, J 755] 

] the 100 Broadaxes tha[t 
]g that you purchase & sent [ 
] of the best Heart & Club Steel. In case [ 
] be had, then to send only half a hundred [ 
] aid Steel a Hogshead of Sea Coal. 
You will please to take the proper notice hereof. 

I am 

Gentlemen 

Your very humble 

W. J. 
[ ] Moses Emerson 

[ ot]her Provincial 

Commisaries at 

Albany — 



COURT MARTIAL PROCEEDINGS 
Contemporary Copy 

[Camp at Lake George Oct. 10, 1755] 

2 ] 
conversation with the Prisoners] 
] Col° Gridley — 
] ter Noon — 

that conversation — 

Prisoner call'd to me and desired me to grind up 

]et, and said he had been confin'd Nine days, and 

n]o Stomack to his Victuals, and said he would have, 

desjired nothing more, than so many drops of Blood 



1 Signature not in Johnson's hand. 

2 Lines burned off. 



254 Sir William Johnson Papers 

] the Ruler of this Fort : and also said that he Shou'd 
[not] be Ruler of this Fort much longer. 

Examined and Sworn before the Commanding officer of the 
Fort in presence of L l . Col°. Gilbert, L l . Col°. Thw[ 
& Cap 1 . Richmond; the Prisoners Acknowledg'd the truth of 
the above; except the last Paragraf (Viz 1 , that he sh[ould] 
not be Ruler of this Fort Much longer; which the Prisoner 
[ ]ly disowned 

Attest Eben r Dyar 

MEMORANDUM OF LIEUTENANT SAWYER'S DESERTION 

D. 

[Camp at Lake George Oct. 10, 1755] 

[ ] Lymans Reg 1 & Cap 1 Savages Com[panys] 

camp last Thursday, without leave from Y[our] honor or 
General Lyman, & is deserted. 



TO BENNING WENTWORTH 

Df. 

[Camp at Lake George October JO, 1755] 

I 

] & under the [ 
] of New York, who if he [ 
] convey them to you would [ 
] readily do it. 
A few Days ago I sent a Deserter [ 
the French Camp at Tionderogo, the [ 
one we have had from them, down [ 
Albany, he said, [ 
enemy at Crown Point he fers their [ 

Tionderoga consisted of about 6000 [ 



' 



1 Lines burned off. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1756 255 

] on the return of the remainder of 
] w* 1 attacked our Camp, the w[ 
] moved to Crown Point 
] Tionderoga 70 as [ 

] Scouting at the Na[ 

i 

] Sergt. [ 

] reinforcements arriving [ 
the fit for Duty ab*. 3000 [ com 

missaries returns & a calculation 
thereon last night at the Coun[cil 
we had not above 10 or 12 days [ 

By a violent Inflamation in the [ 
Head & Ear, I have been for some days [ 
mostly confined to my Bed wholly [ 

Tent. I therefore summoned a Coun[cil of] War to meet 
Yesterday After noon [ 
a letter to General Lyman to lay [ 

] and to refer to them before the Co[uncil 

] that Letter & the Minutes of [ 

enc]lose you herewith, also [ 

i 

in camp it will be [ 

]ance here, that you at least [ 
considerable Degree put into immediate [ 
yo]ur Scheme of speedily providing a [gainst 

]ad & w ch . was promised at the Counci 
] to be recommended to you by the Com- 
mandijng Officer from your Gov 1 . 

I would have sent you a [ 
[co]py of the Minutes of the Council of War for [y]our 
perusal & transmitting to your Gov 1 . [bu]t as that must have 
delayed my Letter [I t] nought it most advisable in our present 



1 Lines burned off. 

2 Words crossed out. 



256 Sir William Johnson Papers 

[c] ircumstances, to send one to S r . Charles Har[dy 
you to take a Copy, and as I also send one [to Ge]neral 
Shirley who I expect by my advi[ses wi]ll be at Albany by 
the time this [ reaches] you. 

I am respectfully 
Sir 

Yo[ur 1 

[ ] be dispatched 

[ ]ite Gov 1- . Phipps 

[ ] to Seal & 

[ *] 

PHILIP JOHN SCHUYLER TO PETER WRAXALL 

A. L. S.- 
Camp at Lake George II th . Octo r . [1755] 

i 

[ knowle]dge that [ 

[ ] fell in the Ditch which did [ 

him, that then I pull'd three times at [ 

before he woke, he then Disputed his [ 

Me, which I took from him, and Carry [ 

him a Prisoner to the Guard 

S r Your Hu Serv< 

Phil l . Jn° Schuy[ler] 

Peter Wraxall Esq r A. D. Camp 

FROM JOHN DEPEYSTER 
A. L. S.- 
Albany y*. II Ocf. 1755. 

SV 

Yours of the 7 th . Instant, directed to the Commiss". of the 
Severall Goverm ts . have Rec d . And According to your Direc- 



1 Lines burned off. 

2 In New York Historical Society, New York City. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 257 

tions I now Send you by the Wagenor Sam" Gardinier 17 
Broad axes, in A Cask Mark d N. Y. I am With due resp 1 S r . 

Your Most Humb Sarv 1 

Jn° DePeyster 
addressed: 
To 

General W m . Johnson 
att 

Lake George 
By Sam 1 Gardinier — 

INDORSED : 

Commissary De 
Peysters Letter with 
Broad Axes. 

MINUTES OF COURT OF INQUIRY 

Contemporary Copy 

[Camp at Lake George October If— 15, 1755] 

*] 

] a Number of officers [ ] 

] thing done to Lessen their Authority [ 
] Ayers & Glasiers) that they woud Leave the Camp 
] the Tent away & Left Capt Francis there 
] ask'd Cap 1 Sam 1 . Angel if he ever heard Capt Peirce 
offer [ ] aspeirce the Characters of Capt Ayres or 

M r . Glasiers — The Answer was this. Nothing more than 
what he had before [ ] Capt Abra. Francis who being 

Sworn Says 

Last monday Cap 1 Peirce was at my [ 
Corny, with Capt Angell and Capt Babcock, and that he was 
Glad to see [ ] the Rhode Island Officers there, that he 

woud Invite us to a Meeting they 



1 Lines burned off. 
9 



258 Sir William Johnson Papers 

that Afternoon of ab f . forty or forty five Commission'd Officers 

belonging to the Boston Regm ts : I asked him on what Occasion 

he Answered it was [ ] that Ayres & Cap 1 Glasier 

might be Remov'd from the Stations they [ 

] I told preemtorially that I woud not, that it was enough 
] and not to pretend to Govern Gen ls . in their ways or 

Maners [ ] what objections he had Against 

these Gent n (meaning Capt Ayres [ 

] Intended by the Government to which he [ 
] ond have any Command over 'em or words to th [at 

[ ] that the S d Capt Glasier was a Murd [ ] 

[ '] 

] ask'd Capt Babcock what [ 
fellow — 
Answerd — that he was an Ignoramus and [ 
And further That if Capt Ayres or Capt Glasiers [ ] 

This winter, that rather than any of his men Should S[ 
rather see 'em Dead that unless they where remov'd from [ 
they then held, in the Army, y e . Camp Shoud be too hott for 
them [ ] Saturday Night and that he woud 

march off with this own men [ ] and if he 

coud not go himself he wou'd Hyer Somebody to Carry all 
that those Gent n . was to make to the Gen 11 . Assembly of Con- 
necticut [ ] Proceedings of Capt Ayres and Capt Glasier — 
Capt Peirce ask'd Capt Babcock whether he did not Remember 
that he had taken advice from his ColR and that the Bigest 
| of the Officers belongs, to Connecticut & Boston 
was [ ] Proceeding of these Gent n . and that our 
meeting was [ ] Petition or prayer to his Honour y e 
Gen 11 , to Lay on [ ] him in order to be eased from 
the Burden we [ ] 

Babcock Yes But that he did not under 

was uneasy But that he advised them to 
Proceed | | if they was [ 



1 Lines burned off. 



Preliminary Campaigns, J 755-1 756 259 



] that Capt Esekial Peirce [ 
] to his Charge of being a Prom[ 
and Speaking Disrespectively of his Superior [ 

W M : COCKCROFT 

REPORT OF OFFICERS OF THE GUARD AND DAY 

D. S. 

[Ca]mp Lake George 
Octo]ber 12*. 1755 

a] re unfit for [ 
] who must soon Inevitably [ 
inca]pable of Duty thro' want of Proper [ 
]ding Watch Coats, other Necessaries against [the 
nclemency of the Weather, to which they are [ 
Exposed, in Camp Duty; in Building the [ 
Mending the Rodes, Advanced & Scouting [Parties 
in all which Different Services they cannot [ 
use of Fire 

As to the Grand and important poin[t 
Provisions it is Notorius, from Returns of [ 
Several Commissarries, from Time to Time [ 
in; The army in Gen 1 , has never at any [ 
Since their Encampment at Lake George [ 
possessed of two Weeks Provisions Ad[ 
particle of meat) Notwithstanding [ 

[ 

[ ] to proceed, the [ 

while it wou'd be morally [ 
the Rigger of the Weather — 



Lines burned off. 



260 Sir William Johnson Papers 

The Above Consideration [ 
is humbly Submitted to the Hon b . Members [of] 
the Council of Warr, 

By their 

Most Obedient humble 

w m : cockcroft 
Eliph t Dyer 
Jonathan Ba[gley] 
Chris Cham[plin] 



REPORT OF JOHN LINSCOM 
D. S. (?) 

Report of the Artilery Guard 

[Camp at Lake George October 12, 1755] 

[Thi]s Morning Going to Examin the Cannon [I 
ound the brass Six pounder in [ 

]t of the Camp Drav/n With the Shott [ 
] of the Powder Laying under the [ 
] Ground and I Believe there Was [ 
]hes of Powder Left in the Cannon [ 
]edately Blowed Her off and Loa[ded 
Camp at Lake George 

[ ] 



AN INDORSEMENT 1 
L. 

[Camp at Lake George October 14, 1755] 

Capt. Syms' report 
sent off by Express 
from his Command 
reed 14 Octo r . ab l . 9 a 



1 Only the indorsement is contained in the Sir William Johnson papers 
in New York State Library. The report is missing. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755— J 756 261 



Clock in y e Morns, 
upon w ch . Two Parties 
sent out as soon as possible 
One by Water & One 
to him by Land. 



ORDERS TO OFFICERS 

£>. 



I ] 

Expedition 

Crown Point. 



Camp at Lake George 

14 October 1755 

r 

As the Quantity of Bread at this time in Store here is found 
to be no more than barely a sufficient qu[antity for] 8 or 9 
days for the Troops at this Encampment & a speedy and 
sufficient] Supplys from Albany by reason of bad Roads & 
the present bad Weather is very precarious, I do by [the] 
advice of a Council of War, hereby order & direct [that n]one 
of the Reinforcements leave Albany [ ] further Orders 

except such Guards & Convoys [as are abso]utely necessary, 
w ch are to be [ ] nee will permit & by p [ 

]m the Massac [husetts 

[ - '] 

INDORSED: 

[Orders] to the Commands. 
[Officers of Provincial] Reinforcem ls . 

[ 'i 



ines buine 



d off. 



262 Sir William Johnson Papers 

PETER WRAXALL TO TIMOTHY RUGGLES 

A. L. S. 
[Camp at Lake George October 14, J 755] 

i ■] 

[ ] and not more [ ] 

[ ] repair by the great rainy [ ] 

[ ] Waggons will be retarded in bringing 

[ ]ent, the Commissaries are to deliver no 

[ ] than a bare Sufficiency, strict orders given 

]ed that there be no Waste. Constant parties 
]t to mind the Roads & c . and as strong as Your 
[ ] will furnish. 

The General gives his Consent for your going [to Bos] ton 
and with this Letter Col. Pitkin will give You [ ] 

Gov Phipps, which if You cannot carry with the [ 
[ ] dispatch You are to send forward by Express. 

The [ ] referred Gov Phipps to you for such 

particulars n]ot conveniently be conveyed by 

Letter, and for [ ] general, 

[the Genera ]1 sends You his best Wishes as do 

Sir 
Your [ ] 

[ ] 



1 Lines burned off. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 



263 



DEFICIENCY OF MILITARY SUPPLIES 

D. 

[Camp at Lake George. October 14, 1755] 

[Accoun]t of the Deficiency of Arms 

[and A]mmunition in ColR Elihu Chaunceys Regiment 



1 


Arms 


Powder 


Led 


Flints 








12 lb . 


17 


30 








24 lb . 












20 lb . 


46 


111 






1 Gun 


15 lb . 


50 lb . 


36 






























12 lb . 


12 lb . 


36 






1 Gun 


20 lb . 


50 lb . 


60 





103 lb . 



1 75 lb . 



273 



FROM CHARLES HARDY" 

A. L. S. 3 

Albany Octo r . 15 1755 
Sir 

I have just time to own the Reciept of your Letter with the 
Resolves of the Council of War, by which I observe they have 



1 Words in this column destroyed by fire. 

2 Sir Charles Hardy, colonial governor of New York, 1755-1757; 
vice admiral; second in command at the capture of Louisburg in 1758; 
took part in Hawke's victory of Belle Isle in 1 759. 

3 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 



264 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Recomended the Flatt Bottom Boats to be lay'd aside, & the 
whole Number of Carpenters to be Imploy'd on the Fort — 

In my last to you which will be deliver'd by the same hand 
as this I have Accquainted you with the Meeting I held with the 
Collonels of the new Levy, come from the Massachusetts, by 
which you will find they have great Numbers of Carpenters 
among them, & I hope Sufficient as to be Imploy'd on the Flatt 
Bottom Boats, as well as the Fort, a Matter I must Recomend 
to your Consideration 1 

This day I have had a very troublesome meeting with some 
Indians, who I fear have been brought here by some busy 
people, as they sent me word they would not Come to me if I 
judged it Inconvenient. They requested of me that I would 
Order Captain Peter Canine with his party to remove from the 
Kings Fort, into the Block houses v/ithin their Stockades. I 
told them I would Recomend it to you and as they seem to 
think it will be a greater Security to their Familys, I must 
recomend your Complying with their Request 

I am Sir your most 
hum Serv 1 . 
Cha s . Hardy 

I inclose you Some Letters the Baron Deskiau sent me, with 
one for yourself, desiring you will if possible find means to 
forward them, if you can find a proper person to go it may 
furnish you some good Intelligence, But I would Recomend 
your sending a very good & Carefull Man, with a Letter 
demanding a proper Escort for his safe return, & at the same 
time to demand the Commissions of the General and his Aid de 
Camp. That we may have better assurances of their Rank in 
the Armys of France; you must use your discretion in this 
Bussiness. Coll Dunbar Arrived here last Night, and most of 
his Troops are got here. 

Your very humbl Serv*. 
Cha s : Hardy 

1 At this point is the following note in Johnson's hand: "this I would 
have mentioned in Council as from myself W. J." 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 265 

I would have you mention 
to the Council my desire of 
haveing Carpenters fall to 
Work on the Flatt Bottom 
Boats imediately, as there 
are a considerable Number 
Now among those Troops 
last come from Massachusets 1 

W M . Johnson 

INDORSED: 2 

Sir Charles Hardys 
Letter Albany 1 5 Octo r . 
Rec d 1 7 d°. 
1755 
Ans d . 22 d° 

MINUTES OF COUNCIL 
Contemporary Copy 

[Albany October 16, 1755] 

3 ] 
] their [ ] 

] possessed of two Weeks [ 
] except in the Article of Meat ; and [ 

]ed when the Army is joined by [the] 
reinforcements it will be impossible to supply it at this Season 
with a Sufficient quantity of Provisions even for their Subsistence. 
On which considerations the Council of War had judged it proper 
that Copies of the Minutes should be sent to the Several 
Governments concerned, in order [that] they might give Orders 
as to future Proceedings. 



1 This note and signature in Johnson's hand. 

2 In Johnson's hand. 

3 Lines burned off. 



266 Sir William Johnson Papers 

His Excellency then desired the opinion of the Council — 
Upon which the Council observed that as his Excellency had 
taken and is still ta[king] all the Measures in his Power for 
the sending [of] Provisions to the Army and had recommended 
sending Flour instead of Bread, as a m[uch] greater weight of 
Flour could be stowed [ ] and not so 

liable to be d[amaged ] 

[ •] 

PETER WRAXALL TO THOMAS GILBERT 
L. S. 
[Camp at Lake George October 16, 1755] 



] insisted on my [ 
co]mmanded by the General to [ 
] ting characters w ch were given in [ 

] stating to the officers in Col. [ 
] no longer to take place, & that as to the Feild 
Officers [ ] Reg 1 , they are all upon their former footing, & 

consequently You as Lieu 1 Colonel to Col. Ruggles's Reg', 
are to take the Command of the Garrisons at Fort Edward. 

Cap 1 Eyre goes this day to Fort Edward to give Directions 
about what remains to compleat [ ] The Gen 1 expects 

that every thing relating thereto w h . depends upon you to do, be 
done. As also that his Orders of Yesterday about the roads be 
put into Execution. 

Col. Ruggles was to let the Gen 1 know [ 

] ank Commissions would be necessary to [ 
] he has not done, & left the Garrison with [ 
] Line, w h . the General [ 

]lar & disrespectful. The General dir[ects 
] to me the Names of the [ 
]ed to the vacancies 



1 Lines burned off. 







.Beferenues 

AJtarra&t .: .. . . < j C. ScvtmfS&ot&Avltres 

~&JbjitLBlock/u>use.\~BJbnton£n.fye.. ... 

Engraved ibr 



PLAN OF FORT EDWARD AND ITS ENVIRONS 



w 

M 




PL AST 

ORTEDWABD. 



PI AN OF FORT EDWARD 

These tun pictures reproduced from Winsor's Narrative ami i riticai 
History of America, 5:512 13 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 267 

FROM BENJAMIN FRANKLIN 

Copy 1 

Philad* Oct. 16. J 755. 
Mr Johnston 
Sir 
I have settled Col. Hunters Acct. and find a Ballance in my 
Hands of £835. .0. .3 J/2 Pensilv a . Currency, which shall be 
paid to your Orders, if you find it necessary to draw on me. 

I enclose you a Copy of a Letter I have just received from 
General Shirley, with a Copy of his Warrant to you for the 
Payment of such Sums to me as the Waggon Affair may require. 
Col. Hunter is expected here in a few Days, I suppose on his 
Way to meet you at New York according to his Appointment. 
This will delay my Journey down till he comes, as I want to see 
him, & fear I might miss him on the Way, not knowing on which 
Side of the Bay he purposes to travel. I hope when you meet, 
some Method will be found of transferring the Cash, for Pay- 
ment of these poor People without much Trouble or Risque to 
him or you. 

I am with much Respect, Sir, 

Yours most hum Serv 1 . 
B Franklin 

WILLIAM EYRE'S PLAN 2 AND DIRECTIONS FOR 
COMPLETING FORT EDWARD 

A. D. S. 

[Camp at Lake George October 17, 1755] 

The Eastern Pile of Barracks should be [ ] 1 60 feet long 

divided into eight Rooms, that on the West 110, or as much as 
the Place will allow and they are to be carried up so as to make 
One story above the ground floor, the Breadth to be 18 feet in 



1 Printed in Smyth, A. H. : The Writings of Benjamin Franklin, 
3:289; original draft in Franklin's hand is in the American Philosophical 
Society, Philadelphia, Pa. 

2 Plan destroyed by fire. 



268 Sir William Johnson Papers 

the Clear at least, And to have the Chimnys in the Corners of 
the Room According to the Plan, the other building to be done 
after the Same Method, the height of y e ground floor to be 
6 feet 1 inches & y e . Second 6 feet 6 inches 

William Eyre Engineer 

Directions for [ 
The Ditch to be deepened [ 
6 or 7, opposite to the Bastions [ 
before the Curtains on the Same Side. The [ 
the Water, the Banks [ 
Sloped of from the [ 
Edge, and the Earth [ 
of the Parapet to [ 
As Well as the [ 
this Side is not [ 
or thereabouts [ 
raised about [ 
Ramp [art 
the [ 
[ 

INDORSED: 2 

Cap 1 . Eyre's Directions for 

Compleating Fort Edw d . 1 7 Octo r . 

PETER WRAXALL TO THOMAS GILBERT 
A. L. S. 

Camp al Lake George 
18 Oct' 1755. 

The General rec d y r Letter of the [ ] and 

directed me to fill up the Commissions [accojrding to the List 
therein sent & w ch you [ ] herewith 



1 Lines burned off. 

2 In Johnson's hand. 



Preliminary Campaigns, I 755-1 756 269 

If the French Deserters are not [ ]wn 

you are to send them by the first [ ]ad 

that goes 

I am 
Sr 

& c . 

[ ] 

TO SAMUEL HOWE 
Df. S. 
[Camp at Lake George October 18, J 755] 

■] 

] place you are to open mend [ 
b]ye ways & Bridges where they ma[ 

every other kind of repair which may 
be necessary] to make the Road between this Camp [ 
safe & good for Waggons as also for [ ] which are 

expected from Albany. You are [ ] out 4 whole 

clays upon this Duty unless [ ] finished in less & see 

that these Orders be executed as you will answer for the same 

W. J. 2 

INDORSED: 3 

Road Orders to 
Cap 1 . How 

FROM SYBRANT G. V. SCHAICK 

A. L. S. 

Albany, the 18 l K October 1755. 

[ ] Whether You have [ ] 

| the Ten pounders to be sent up [ 



1 Lines burned off. 

2 Initials not in Johnson's hand. 



In Johnson's hand. 



270 Sir William Johnson Papers 

[ ] and the Governor desires You will j 

] commanding officer here know if You [ 
] Eighteen pounders sho'd be sent up. And | 
[ ] shall be ready Immediately, 

I am 

Your Honour's 

Very humble Servant 
Sybrant G. V. Schaick 

FROM THOMAS WILLIAMS 
A. L. S. 
[Camp at Lake George October 18 1755] 

[ ■] 

[ obsti]nate Cough [ 

of Medicines [ ] wearing off,) it Seems 

[ at] tended with Something of a [ ] 

his Breast, which I fear [ ] is running into a 

Consumption [ ] be in the Use of proper means 

[ ] believe y l . y e . Saddle would be 

] another means of making y e . Medicines more 
[efficajcious & indeed without riding, fear Medicines [will] 
avail little or nothing, which is all 

y l is needful from Your Hon rs . Most 

Obed f . & Very Humb 1 Serv 1 . 
Tho s . Williams 
Gen l . Johnson Esq r . 

PROCEEDINGS OF COURT OF INQUIRY 
Contemporary Copy 
[Camp at Lake George October 18, J 755] 

[ '] 

[ ]swered N°. [ ] 

But 



1 Lines burned off. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 271 

Benj m . Squires Sworn 

Agrees with the foregoing [ ] 

that he did not hear the Lieu 1 . Say that he would bear the [ 

That Should follow him to the Camp Neither did he 

hear [ ] Say they would follow him 

David Hag Sworn 

Says that he heard Lieu 1 . Davis ask [ 
To go on a Scout, And Said he would be back about 
D [ ] tain Replyed that then It would be too late 

to Remove [ ] as they had fires they might be 

Discovered by the [ ] Added That If It Stormed 

he must Back in [ ] to Return to the 

Camp 

[ '] 

Joseph Davis [ 
] when Ordered on a [ 
] the Adj f . General on Complaint [ 

] dsen 

The Court being Sworn, Proceeded to Examine the [ 
Sam 1 . Hobbell being Asked, wether he Confess'd the 
Accusation Answered, Yes. But begged Leave of the 
Court [ ] 

] Sundry Articles in Justification thereof 
Leave was Granted Accordingly 

Joseph Davis being Asked whether he Confessed the Accusation 

Answered. Not 
[ ] Sworn 

Says that in the Night of the Day on [ 
[ ] that the Next Morn[ing ] 

[ '] 

[ ] Davis Says [ 

[ ] that It was so bad in the Rain [ ] 

] he would, 
| the Question being put whether or no Lieu'. [ 



1 Lines burned off. 



272 Sir William Johnson Papers 

] of Returning from a Scout Contrary to Ord[ers 
Agreed in the Negative — 
Joseph Sheldon Confin'd on Complaint of Adjutant 
Richardson who being Sworn Says that he ordered [the] 
Serg 1 . Major to take two men from the Company of [ 
Hitchcock to Mount Guard, the one of which Came 
The other Said he would Come Soon, that then Ensign 
Sheldon Came and ordered him out of the Ranks, Until [it] 
was his Choice to Mount Guard, upon which the o[ne] 
Fell out of the Rank, But the other Never Came 
Ensign Sheldon said that whilst he bore a coman[d] 
[in] the Regiment he Should not mount Guard un[til] 

[he had tw]o or three Nights In Bed 

Agree that the man was put [ 

] Sheldon Came then and [ ] 

[ '] 

INDORSED: 2 

Proceedings of Court of 
Enquiry on Cap 1 Horace 
Lieut Davis & Ensign Sheldon 

AARON HITCHCOCK TO EBENEZER NICHOLS 

A. D. S. 

Camp at Lake George Octo r . 1 8 th . J 755 

Reports of the Gard at the Head of General [Lyman's] 
Rigment for the Last 24 Hours Said Gard Consisted of a Cap 1 
three [ ]ens thre Sarg 1 . two Corporiels Eightten thre 

Senti 1 , [ ] belevies By Day & two by Night the Rounds 

from S d . [ acc]ording to the Orders the other Roundes 

Excepting [ ] Round at the Time as usal. Connectticutt 

the Prisonars Commited to the Said Goods Christofar | 



1 Lines burned off. 

2 In Johnson's hand. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 273 

Fiering of His Gun at Night In the Campe [ Poter 

for not teling Cornall Cole When Asked who [ of 

Con". Harries Ridgment; Joel Bradley of [ Comp — 

Corn 11 Gudrielles Ridgment & Elihu etwater for sleeping When 

upon Senterrey 

[ ] of the Gard in the Night Contararey to orders James 

Cros: both of Cor 11 . Harrises Ridgment [ 
Comp. Henerey Van : of Cap*. Fails Comp 6c Cor 11 . [ 
W m . Smith: of Cap 1 Whipels Comp. [ ] Adg 1 . George 

Bliss Cap f . Gardnors Comp & [ regi]ment Edward Luis 

Elixander Petigrue [ ] & Cor 11 . Gudriches Ridg- 

ment — [ ] Homar of Cap 1 . Leuis Comp. & Cor 11 . 

[ ] Seth Grigerey of [ ] 



INDORSED: 




[ 


] 


[ 


] Guard 


[ 


] Octo r . 



FROM PETER GILMAN" 
A. L. S. 3 

Albany Octob' 18*. 1755 

May It Please YOUR Hon r . 

I am Inst arived at The flats with a Regiment of Newhamp c . 
Troops Consisting of Near three hundred ; Excepting Two Com- 
panys which I expect In to morrow, Our Stores are not yet Come 
To Albany. But I Expect them Every Moment ; We not have- 
ing any Stores at Lake George I tho 1 It my Duty to Acquaint 
your Hon r . of my being arived. and am Ready To Pursue Such 



1 Lines burned off. 

2 Colonel Peter Gilman, Councillor of New Hampshire; colonel of a 
New Hampshire regiment in French and Indian War. 

3 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 



274 Sir William Johnson Papers 

orders as I Shall Receive from your Hon r ; from Time to Time & 
am with Most Dutifull Regard, your Hon". 

Most Obedient 

Most HumbK Serv' 
Maj r . Gen ll . Johnson Peter Gilman 

addressed : 

On his Maj tls Sarvice To 

The Hon ble . William Johnson Esqr 
Maj r Generall and Comander 
In Chief of the Provinciall 
Forces — at Lake George 
at The Camp 

INDORSED: 1 

Col. Gilmans Letter 
Albany 18 Octo r . 
Rec d 20 d°. 
1 755 Ans d . 23 d° 

TO CAPTAIN DOOLITTLE 

Df. 

[Camp at Lake George October 20, 1755] 
Cap t Dolittle 

You are to proceed from this Camp [in] order to discover 
the Posture of the Enemy [reconnoitre] on this side the Carry- 
ing Place & take the best & fullest View of them you prudently 
& [ ]bly can & to put down in writing the particulars 

[of you]r Discovery. You are then to proceed to [Tionde]roga 
& reconnoitre them there, taking the [ ] tine of the Ground & 

Sittuation of their [ ] ment you possibly can committing your 

[report] here as soon as you have an Opportunity in wr]iting, 
for all other particulars [ ] your Discreet & good 

Management] 

[ 2 ] 



1 In Johnson's hand. 

2 Conclusion burned off. 




GOLDSBROW BANYAR 

From a painting by an unknown artist, owned by Mrs Banyar Garkson 

of New York City 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 275 

CERTIFICATE OF PELETIAH BLISS & AMOS PUTNAM 

D. S. 

[Camp at Lake George 21 October, 1755] 

[ ] subscribers certifie that Col° Seth Pomeroy 
[has b]een sick more than a month, was first exercised with a 
] cold, & inveterate cough, which continuing & 
increasing [ ] a Violent pain in his breath, which 
Continues, with Considerable] Fever, & if not removed speedily, 
will be likely to [ ] Consumption; the most probable 
method to remove [ ]tion we Judge is riding, & con- 
veyances not possa[ble] here 

Pel h . Bliss 
Amos Putnam 

from goldsbrow banyar 
A. L. S. 

Albany October 21, 1755 



] permit [ 
Judge has sent an Express to [ 
] already desired I beg you'd fo[ 
] account of what Indians have [ 
] will give me great pleasure to [ 
their being so employed that they [ ] the 

French Settlements to the very [ ] the River S l . Lawrence, 

and I wish they had a Reward promised them equal [to the] 
Merit of Such a Service. When we [ ] leave this 

Place is as uncertain as the future Operations of the Army under 
your Command. It may serve to keep up their Spirits during 
the cold weather to tell them the Regulars are encamped, & 
will continue so till Gen Shirley's Arrival. It was the 6 p [ 
were sent away 'tother day. Coll. Ellison who [was] thought 



1 Lines burned off. 



276 Sir William Johnson Papers 

to be at the Point of death is n[ow] better. If I do not hear 
soon from [ ] conclude it's your Indisposition pre [vents] 

[ ] will be a sensible Con [elusion] 

[ x ] 

TO OLIVER PARTRIDGE 

Df. 

[Camp at Lake George 22 October, 1755] 

] Inst l l a id [ ] 

] a Council of War the Copy of [which] 

I trans] mit you herewith. A few days ago [ ] 

] surrendered themselves to a Guard of our [ ] 

] Fort Edward. I sent for the most Intelligent] 

] examined him. he said they were of the Adva[nced] 

] 6 Miles on this side the Carrying Place, that [ 

] 70 & 80 men were kept there, & between 4 & 5 O [mcers] 

Ti]onderogo. the rest of the Army at Crown Point. [ 

] strangly contradicts the repeated Acc ts from ou[r] 
ow]n Scouts, that the Council of War purposed giving [no] 
opinion on my Proposal till we got further [intelligence. Cap 1 
Rodger s & 2 other officers with a Scout were then a[t] Crown 
Point. I sent the next Morning a Cap*. a[nd pjicked 

Men with written Instructions to ta[ke the b]est & most exact 
View they possibly could of the [ ] of the Enemy 

at Tionderogo & their advanced [ when] they 

return I shall probably renew my [ ] Council of 

War. The Battoes are burned [ 
Caulking. 

[I] inclose your Honour the M[ ] 

] I summoned the [ ] 

[ *] 



Lines burned off. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755— 1756 277 

[ ] er Sick & [ 

] & wet w ch I am Aff raid w [ 
we have not more than 4 days Br[ead 
Camp. The Roads almost impassible, the [ 
I have ordered Parties to mend the Road [ 
Albany hither, but I fear the nature of [ 
as will elude that if much rain con[ 
Consequence & our Fort goes on Slowly. — 

I am 

Sir 



Your Honours 
Most Obed' [ 



[I] inclose this Open to 
[Co]l. Partridge to Seal 
& forward. 



CERTIFICATE OF PELATIAH BLISS & TIMOTHY WARNER WITH 

GENERAL LYMAN'S PERMIT 

D. S. 

[Lake George October] 23 d . 1755 

[This certifies that Leu f . James 
[Tracy of Captain] Peirce's Comp. 
[is unfit] for Douty — Prob'ly 

[ ] So 

Pel". Bliss 
Timo th . Warner 

[ ]ing L*. Tracey should 

ho] me 

P Lyman 1 



1 Permit and signature in Lyman's hand. 



278 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM JAMES BROWN 

A. L. S. 
[Bridge Hampton, L. L, Oct. 23, 1755] 

I '] 

I ] of the [ ] 

[ ] your Hearty F[ 

[ ] others who have as a Testimony [of their] 

Regards to you and the Army [under your] Command: Sent 
you by the Bearer A Small [present] of about Twelve Cattle: 
together [with] others in this and the neibouring Tow[ns] 
[The] number we Hope will be Increased [by] other Towns 
in the western part of [the] County: we wish that Divine Provi- 
dence may so order it that the Cattle may sa[fely] arrive to you: 
and be a Benefit to you [and] the Army: and Desire to Bless 
God f [or] the late victory Granted to you in the terrible Engage- 
ment at Lake George: and [ ] that God would Direct 
and prosper you and Crown all your further Attempts with 
Success and Victory over the Enemies of Great Briton: we 
Humbly Desire that if you think proper, to Signify our Hearty 
Respects to the young Moohawk prince the Surviving Son of 
Henrick : and let Him and His people Share in our Small present 
— The Business of s[ecuring] the Cattle Has been managed 
with the [m]ost Confusion and Interruption: but [as] Some 
False Reports about th[ ] Supposed 
to arise [ x ] 
[ ] I have erred [ ] in not giving you 
y r . proper [ ] please to impute it to my [ 

[ 1 



1 Lines and signature burned off. 



Preliminary Campaigns, J 755-1 756 279 

RECEIPT OF THOMAS GILBERT 

D. S. 

Fort Ed[ward October 24, 1755] 

Cannon of a Number of Wagg[ons] 
[for the us]e of this Garioson With thair Cariadges. 

Tho s . Gilbert 
certificate of thomas williams 

A. D. S. 
[Camp at Lake George] Ocf. 25 l K 1755 

This certifies that] Ebenezer Moulton, Oliver [Cole and 
Sergeant Hill of] Col°. Pomeroys Regiment [ ] 

are in a bad state of [ ] likely to be of 

any Service in [ ] 

Att*. Tho s . Williams Surg n . 



COURT MARTIAL PROCEEDINGS 

Contemporary Copy 

Lake George, October 26, 1755 

] the proseedings of a [ 

of prisoniers s d Court was Caflled] 

x ] was Called to Answer the above Enditement 

and Colonel Gilbert Came and took the prisoner 

| it was the order of Colonel Gridly that he Should 

Court proseeded no farther 
A True Copey of the proseedings Test 

STREETHALL president 



1 Abraham Loucket. 



280 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM JELLES FONDA AND PHILIP LANSING 

D. S. 

[Camp at Lake George] October 27, 1755 

Return of the Battoes now 
] here 85 in all amoung which their 
[ ] fitt for Service 

Jelles Fonda 
Philip Lansing 

[ ] None 

MINUTES OF COURT OF INQUIRY 

Contemporary Copy 

[Camp at Lake George 27 Oct\ 1755] 

[ ] Lieu'. Wells 

[ ] Lieu 1 . Linscomb 

[ ] Lieu'. Vanscoike 

[ ]rrish Lieu'. Isacks 

The Court being duly Sworn proceeded to the [trial of the] 
said Asa Noble upon a Complaint Exhibited [ as 

fojllows Viz 

That the said Noble has conducted himself in a Mutinoufs] 
]nd and further charges the said Noble of converting 
Plunder to his own use in a private manner which was delivered 
into his care and charge by Col. Pomroy 

The Court ask'd the said Noble whether he was guilty of 
the above Complaint. To which said Noble pleaded not 
guilty 

The Evidence of L'. Simeon Davis being duly sworn Testifies 
and says the above mentioned Asa Noble has gone directly con- 
trary to the order of his superior Officers in [ ]ering a 
Soldier upon Guard contrary to the order of his [ ] 
at two several times. 



Preliminary Campaigns, J 7 55-1 7 56 281 

Jacob Hines a Serjeant testifies to the above Evidence and 
further says that there was three Guns committed to his charge 
by Col. Pomroy and that there is one of them missing. 

The Evidence of Joseph Lyman a private soldier being duly 
[sworn] Testifies that the above S d Noble declared that the gun 
[was car] ried home by Insighn Pickslee 

The Evidence of W m . Wheeler being duly Sworn Testifies & 
Says [that the a]bove S d . Asa Noble ordered the above S d . 

Wheeler off of [ con]trary to the order of L l . Davis 

] David Gibbs being duly Sworn Testifies [& says 

] Private Soldier upon Gaurd Con[ 

i 

tha]t there was a man [ 
] ordered L l . Asa Noble to Comple[ 
ord]ered Benjamin Chapin upon Gaurd up [ 
| M r . Adjutant ordered him to confine him and [ 
] in his place — 
The Court upon hearing the Evidences are of opinion that 
Asa Noble is Guilty of the Facts alledged against him by Cap*. 
House 

Eben r . Nichols Pres dt . 

a true Copy from the Original 

Examined by me 
Peter Wraxall 

A. D. Camp 

INDORSED: 

Proceedings of [a Court of] 
Enquiry upon [Lieu 1 .] 
Asa Noble 



1 Line burned off. 



282 Sir William Johnson Papers 

MINUTES OF COURT OF INQUIRY 

[Fort Edward October 27, 1755] 

[ ] [ ] 

[ ] Demock [ ] 

[Complaijnt Exhib ld . against Joseph Gilbert 

[ ] Reg f ., and in Company under [ 

[for] Discharging his Gun, Oct r y e 3 d Ins 1 [and] 

[having] killed, and Wounded Sundry Persons, Viz: 

] lips, Ruben Davis, Henry Chip, Killed — David Ca [ 

[ ] Caleb Wright Wounded 

The Court met according to order, but not having [ 
time to go thro' the Examination of the Evidence [ 

Adjourn to 9 °.Clock tomorrow morning. 

Oct r . 28 th . the Court met according to Adjurn[ment.] 
The Prisoner Viz: Joseph Gilbert being Sent for and asked 
whether guilty or not guilty — Replyed [ ] 

] to manner of Indictment, — but Pleads the gun [wen]t 
off unpremeditated without design or Intention [and] that he 
had no Mallice at hart — 

Whereupon the Court Proceeded to Tryall [ ] 

[ ] — (Evidences) [ 

[ ] 11 Barns Phil [ ] 

certificate of amos putnam and john calef 

D. S. 
[Camp at Lake George 27 Ocf 1755] 

[We certifie] that Leu 1 . Eph m . hail has been indisposed with a 

fever about three weeks: which Renders 
him unfitt for Duty [ ] att Present & unlikly to Recover, 

unless he Can be Removed [where] he Can have more Comfort- 
able Lodgeing, & tendance than he [can] posably have here 

Amos Putnam) c 

_ \ Surg n . 

John Calef \ 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 283 

FROM THOMAS POWNALL 1 

Albany 27. [Octo r 17]55.— 
My Dear Sir. 

I arrived to day at noon at this place I was in hopes to have 
found S r Charles Hardy, accompany ed or escorted by a Detach- 
ment from y e Regulars, preparing to go to You, with whom, I 

came here on purpose, to go But since my arrival here I 

have seen y e Difficulties that arise to y e Minds of Your Council 
of War in the shape of Reasons; the true Spirit of Courage is 
saied to be, Possunt quia posse videntur, the Reverse of this 
maxim was thro' all of Reasoning of the Council of War And 
so y e Lord have mercy upon us for there is none other that fighteth 
for but only Thee & God. & thus we are brought to our last 
prayers. 

I then proposed had any party of Men, for I find there is 
scalping by y e Way, being going up to You to have come up to 
You myself, For there are many matters relative to Indian 
Affairs & y e manner of Your Establishment over them which I 
want greatly to talk with You upon I have already sent You & 
plagued with many Questions (I know how troublesome I am) 
but by getting answers to them & y e reasoning that such answers 
will lead me to, I mean to Serve You & y e Common Cause in 
You. 

Give me leave to add one more to y e many — You see y e 
Confusion that y e Virginian Politics in joining y e Catawbas 
against y e Kenunetions, make, is it impossible to manage matters 
so as to Gett an Alliance formd & the Catawbas taken into y e 
Alliance, on Equall Terms, with y e Three Elder Nations, of y e 
Kenunetions so as to form a Sixth Principal Nation? 

As to Your Establishment over Indian Affairs it shoud be I 
think twofold. The Civil as to y e Administration of Council 



1 Thomas Pownall, colonial lieutenant governor of New Jersey in 
1755; governor of Massachusetts, 1757-1760; governor of South 
Carolina, 1760-1761. 

2 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 



284 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Matters. The Military as to y e Command in all War matters, 
& in this Second Light I shoud imagine you shoud be appointed 
Col of an Indian Reg 1 , with Colonel's Rank, I have talked with 
some officers of Rank in the Army & it wou'd not be disagreable 

to them which is no small point. I cou'd wish for y e sake of 

Address & that nothing might be misunderstood by y e Lords of 
Trade, that Your Letter had been more explicit (nay I coud 
even wish for an explanation) on that Point, where You say it is 
necessary that in y e Administration of Indian Affairs You shoud 
be intirely Independent of all Governors. There is a great deal 
of difference betwixt being Independent & Uncontroleable & 
having a Department of Buisness intirely within itself so as not 
to be interfered with. If You have leisure bestow a thought 
on this. 

If I can possibly contrive it, I will come up to You If I cannot, 
as I must be at NYork y e Tenth of Next Month to give my 
Attendance on y e Part of NJersey at a Congress to be held then, 
I will still hope either to see You here before I go down, or will 
depend on Your being down at NYork, which is (I give it You 
as my Opinion as a Friend) absolutely necessary You shou'd be 
as soon as You return if You can possibly be down I will propose 
that You be at y e Congress. If no Letters or Orders from 
England prevent my going to England I shall go as soon as y e 
Determinations of y e Congresses can be known so as to be sent 
home. If I may not hope to see You & am disappointed of that 
pleasure. Lett me hear from You by Letter or by such Hints 
Recommends and Minutes as any of Your Freinds can write from 

your word of mouth 

I am Dear Sir 
yours most truely 
& affectionately T PoWNALL 
I beg my Service to Cap 1 
Eyres & all Freinds 

P :S : I receiv'd a Letter Oct' 1 3. 1 755 from M r W m Franklin 
acquainting me of Vote of y e Assembly of Pensylvania for 
Cloathing & Provisions for Your Army, y e Vote was founded 



Preliminary Campaigns, J 7 55— 1756 285 

on a Letter of M r Hutchinson's & y e Abstract of y e Council of 
War which I sent y e speaker, they have in consequence of that 
Vote raised £2,000 & are raising y e Rest but at a loss to know in 
what manner the Money can "be best Applyed after it is raised, 
for if (say they) we shoud send them Blanketts, Flannel Jackets, 
Milld Stockings, & Other things suitable for a Winters Cam- 
paigne, & they shoud not stay y e Winter, it woud be so much 
thrown away" 
Now I do not know what answer to make to this. 

ADDRESSED: 

General Johnson. — 

INDORSED: 1 

M r . Pownalls Letter 

Albany 27 Octo r — 
Reed 30 d° 
1755 

Ans d . 

PETER WRAXALL TO MOSES EMERSON 

A. D. S. 

Camp at [Lake George] 
28 Ociob[er t 1755] 

I am instructed by the General to desire [you] to send by the 
first Opportunity [ ] of this Service One Cask of 1 Od Nails. 

I am Gentlemen 

Your very hum servant 
Peter Wraxall 
[To Mos]es Emerson A. D. Camp 

[and other] Provincial 
Commissaries at Albany — 

INDORSED : 

Order to Commissaries 
at Albany for Nails — 
28 Octo'. 1 755 

1 In Johnson's hand. 



286 Sir William Johnson Papers 

MINUTES OF COURT OF INQUIRY 
Contemporary Copy 

[Camp at Lake George 28 Oct r , 1755] 

i i 

Cap 1 . Schuyler 
Cap 1 . Gage 
Cap*. Gerrish 

[ ] being duly Sworn proceeded to the Trial 

[of Doc] tor Middleton upon a Complaint Exhibited [by] 

[Eliphalet] Dyar Viz as follows 

[Ebenezer] Nickols President of a Court of Inquiry held at Lake 
[George on] the Complaint of Eliphalet Dyer Sheweth That 
whereas [ ] Midnight on the night following The 

26 th day of Instant [ ] he being desired by Sundry 

Soldiers of the Guard to go to the [ house to 

Suppress a Tumult & Disorder then there being and 
] pon went to S d Gaurd house where he found present 
Cap 1 . [B]abcock Cap', of the Gaurd L f . Vanschaack L l . Hunter 
officers of the Gaurd Doctor Middleton & others and Applying 
to the Cap*. & other officers of the Gaurd to know the meaning 
of S d . Tumult noise & [disorder & of a Certain Abuse Said to 
be offered to one Clerk in Imposing Strong Liquor upon him. 
Indeavouring to make him drunk &c. Upon which the Said 
Doctor Middleton it was Said by [ ] Informer were a 

pack of Dam'd Liers Challenged me to produce them. Upon 
Calling on one & another Standers by to Speak what they knew 
upon their Speaking D r . Middleton Sundry times 
repeated by God you [ ] upon which I desiring he would 

use me with no 111 Language [ ] treat me 111, nor use such 

vile Language when I was Inquiring [about] the Disorder; the 
Doct r . replied it was none of my Business [ ] 

would Swear I informed him the Same was against the [ 

] but he said he cared not for that. I undertaking 
Sundry [ ] the Cap 1 , of the Gaurd & others to 

prevent an[ ] Doc 1 - Middleton 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 287 

would at all times [ ] Cursing & 

Darning the Sold[iers 

[ 

[ ] Soldiers Sundry [ 

[ ] him &c together with others in [ 

] many other Enormities Contrary to Law [ 
The Court askt D r . Middleton wether he [ 

] the Accusation Exhibited by Coll Dyer — 

To which he pleaded Guilty 

Eben r . Nichols 
indorsed: 

Proceedings of Court 
of Enquiry upon D r . 
Middleton 

28 Octo r . 
1755. 

REPORT OF NATHAN WHITING 

A. D. S. 

[Camp at Lake George] 28 Oct r 1755 

Report of the State of the Regiment under my Com[mand.] 

Want of powder for forty Men, fourteen of Whom [have] 

[suffer] ed a Loss by the burning their Barrack two Nights 

[ago. They] lost at the Same time Seven Guns four Swords, 

four [ ] horn & 1 drum — there is in the Connecticut Stores 

[ ba]rrels of lead in Small bars. I am 

S' 
Your most Humble Servant 

Nathan Whiting 
[Genera] l Johnson Esq r . 

INDORSED : 

Col. Whitings Return 
of Ammunition 
28 Octo r . 



Lines burned off. 



288 Sir William Johnson Papers 

TO ROBERT ROGERS 

Camp at Lake George 29 Octo r . 1755. 

[To Cap 7 .] Rodgers — 

[You are to emb]ark in the Battoes with the party [under] 
[your com]mand & make the best of your way [down the 
lake] to within about 6 Miles of the Advanced [guard of the 
Enemy, & make the best Disposition w c K [circums]tances will 
permit to intercept any Scouting [parti] es of the Enemy who 
may be sent on this Lake [for] Discovery & take as many 
Pris rs as you possibly [ca]n. 

INDORSED : 

Generals [orders to] 
Cap 1 . Rodgers 
1755. 29 Octo'. 

FROM PETER MIDDLETON 

[Camp at Lake George OcV 29, 1755] 

When I was called upon to answer [the accu]sation of Coll: 
Dyer against me to the [Court of] Enquiry, I desired that my 
Vindication [should] be taken down in writing as I delivered 
[it as] by comparing it with the Complaints [made] against me, 
you might be better [able to] form a proper judgment of our 
Dispute. [The president refused to grant this by saying [none 
of] the Members could remember the [ ]it. 

I must therefore beg that either I may [be permitted to give 
in my Defence in writing [ ] or that the Affair may 



1 Missing sections supplied from a copy printed in Journals of Major 
Robert Rogers, ed. Hough, p. 33. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 289 

again be [brought before] the Court and their Report made 
[with Im] partiality. 

I am Sir 

Your most obed 1 . Servant 

[Peter Middleton] 

from peter middleton 

[Camp at Lake George 30 Ocf. 1755] 

] I refused to answer to a [ 
] d, unless to what passed betwixt [ 
] this I can prove by several [ 
| Examination. I indeed told the President 
] the whole Affair more fully, & to him [ 
G]entlemans Name being called in Question [ 
] Complaint, I would give them an Account [ 
f]rom the first Sentence in the Accusation to [ 
] which accordingly I did. These Gentlemen [ 

] take the Advantage of what I [ 
] a further Satisfaction to them, to represent [ 
] a Crime which ever Col: Dyer's utmost [ 
| prove the least Shaddow off, when called upon [ 
] to the Court what he saw us doing when he [ 
] among us, which looked like Tumult, Riot, [ 
] ities &c, As to what passed while Col : Dyer [ 
] have owned, nor do I yet refuse. I must own [ 
]our of these Gentlemen has greatly inter [ 
jesting my Cause to their Judgement. I the [ 
ma]y be again heard before such as will [ 
more Impartiality. I am 
] Sir " 

Your [ ] 

[Peter Middleton] 



1 Lines burned off. 
10 



290 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM PETER MIDDLETON 

A. L. 5. 
[Camp at Lake George 30 Octo r . 1755] 

i ] 

Having applied to Col. Nicholls [President] of the Court 
of Inquiry for a Copy of my [ ] , he told me that he had 

given it into [ ] he had none other. I beg youll order 

a [copy] sent to me & of the Proceedings & Report [ ], 

that I may be satisfied how far these [ ] have represented 

a true State of the [ ] I am respectfully 

Sir 

Your very h bIe Serv 1 
[ ]day forenoon PETER MlDDLETON 

ORDERS TO COMMANDING OFFICERS AT ALBANY 

Df. 





[Camp at Lake George October 31 , 1755] 


1 


■] 


[ 


] Pownall Esq r His Majestys officers at [ 


I 


] should come to Fort Edward [ 


[ 


] please to order a proper Guard [ ] 


I 


] this Camp 




I am 




Sir 




Y' &« 




[ 1 


I 


] 


{ 


] of 


I 


] Fort Edward 



1 Lines burned off. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 291 

TO SAMUEL ANGELL 

Df. 

Camp at Lake George 

31 October 1755.— 
To Cap t . Angel — 

You are to endeavour with the reconnoitring [par]ty under 
your Command to make the nearest & most [disjunct Discovery 
you can of the Posture & Number of the [En]emys advanced 
Guard on this side the Carrying Place [and] make Memo- 
randums of the Sittuation of the Land thereabouts the Lake 
near where they are posted, particulars I must leave to your 
Good Conduct & Discretion. I would have as many of the 
Party as Prudence will permit to join in the [ ] you take. 

INDORSED : 

Orders to Cap 1 . Angel 
31. Octo' — 1755 

TO RICHARD GRIDLEY 

Df. 

[Camp at Lake George] 

[Octor. 31 1755] 
[To Col . Gridley] 

You are to Order a Cap 1 . Two Subs & 50 Men of the 
[reinforcements under your Command to march &c [ ]et 

themselves at Seraghtoga on the West side [of] the River 
at the House of Hans Heerhard [w]here the ferry Boat is 
making in order to [m]eet & expedite such Waggons Horses 
or other [carriages w ch . may be dispatched from Albany 
]ter. The Officer is to keep out small Scouting 
[parti] es every day for a Mile or two round, & take 
[care to] keep a proper Guard & number of Sentinels 

| his Command from any Surprise or insults 



292 Sir William Johnson Papers 

[ ] at the same time that he [ 

[ ] Is not unnecessarily [ 

t *] 

INDORSED : 

Generals orders to 
Commanding Officer 
of Massachusetts 
Reinforcements 
at Albany 3 1 Octo r . 

CADWALLADER COLDEN TO PETER COLLINSON 

Extract 2 

[October, 1755] 

The last favour I have from you is of the 5th of June by 
Garritsone in which you seem to be under some concern for me 
and my family at this time while this part of the Country is 
in the scene of War. You may be as well informed as I am 
of what has happened in the other Provinces How every thing 
has succeeded in Nova Scotia & no doubt you have heard of 
the Shamefull defeat near the Ohio Col Dunbar with the 
remains of those forces is now lately come to Albany No 
doubt you have likewise heard of the Success the Army of 
irregulars under M r Johnson have had near Lake Sacrament. 
There was no great inequality in the number of men in either 
side M r Johnson it seems probable had the greater number 
but then they were no way disciplined & ill armed perhaps 
there was not one man in his Army that had ever been in Action 
before. Where as the French were commanded by experienced 
officers & one third of them consisted of the best troops in 
France & the Canadiens were all picked men the choice of 
all their Militia After our men retired within their works they 



1 Lines burned off. 

2 Printed in Collections of New York Historical Society, 1 92 1 , Colden 
Papers, 35-36; copy unaddressed and undated. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 293 

had the advantage of a Breast Work & their artillery did 
great execution The French had no artillery. It is not certainly 
known what number of the French are killed but there loss 
must be great by their retreating in such confusion as to leave 
their general in the field wounded. A French Capt n of Militia 
taken prisoner says that most of their officers were killed before 
they retreated The wounded men taken prisoners have the same 
care taken of them that is taken of our own wounded tho it 
be said that all the wounded left in the field at Ohio were 
murdered by the French or their Indians The Baron de Dieskau 
was attended to Albany & at Albany by the Principal Physician 
& Surgeon of our Army but it is thought his wound is such that 
he cannot recover tho' he may live for some time. This Action 
at Lake Sacrament clearly demonstrated the different spirit of 
the Northern Colonies & the Southern When our men about 
eleven before noon on the Munday were beat into their works 
M r Johnson sent an express to Albany to inform them of his 
state. From thence it was continued by Messengers to the 
nearest parts of the Province Connecticut & Massachusets Bay 
so that the account of it reached my house early on Weddensday 
morning By Friday Morning I am confident 20,000 men at 
least were on their March from their several provinces towards 
Albany for its defence in case M r Johnsons Army had been 
defeated. By Saturday Albany was so full of men that it 
became necessary to send to stop those who were on their march 

FROM ABRAHAM LANSING 

-Ti. . L-09 O. 

Fori Edward Nov [1, 1755] 

I ] 

[I ha]ve w*. some Difficulty obtain d : the within [ 
[proceedings of the Court martial, held concerning my M [ 
] for and hope I shall be able to prove the Con [ 
by some of the Gentlemen of said Court, and at length 
have some Satisfaction for the scandalous Treatment 



294 Sir William Johnson Papers 

w lh : I have been used — Shall intirely depend upon y r : 
Hon rs : Partiality, 

I am S r : Y r : sincere Friend & 

hum e : Serv 1 : 

Abraham Lansing 

from george muirson 

A. L. S. 

[New York, 2 Nor., JJ55] 

] 

] Your Officers and Soldiers; Joy[ 
] happy for You; and happy for Us — 
] of Suffolk County (A County) on Long Island 
] You and Your Army; A present of Sixty [fat] 
Cattle] three of which got away from the drivers [ 
one Yoke of good Oxen may be given in [ ] As A 

present to (the late famous) Handrik s [ ] his Indian 

Adherents. 

Write to M r Oliver Delancey and the Commissary 

]any to desire their favour and care that the Cattle 

] be got to you in the best Adjudged manner 

I] have given A particular Charge to Our drivers that 

] and drive Slow; that you may get them in 

the] best Order So great A length of driving Will Admitt 

the people of South Hold An Eastern town of Our 

intend to Send You Some Sheep Acrost the 

] d to be drove through New England the Wommen 

Knitting Some Stockins And Mittens to be sent 

] the porer Soldiers of your Army (Soon) I Wish you 

] and All Your Officers ; All the Honours and Success that 

] Attend A Soldier; In A Just War pray give My 

re]gards to M r Wraxall with whom I have the pleasure 

to be] Acquainted; I am S r Your very Well Wisher 

and very Humb le Serv 1 

Geo. Muirson 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 295 

WARRANT FOR REHEARING THE CASE OF PETER MIDDLETON 

D. 

[Camp at Lake George 4 NoV, 1755] 

] they were sent [ ] from him, 

in w ch . he de [ ] guilty, related to any p [ 

laid in the Charge against him, con[ ] Altercation 

between him & Col. Dyer [ ] the Court Misunderstood 

his said ] Clerk Whereupon he de[ 

me for a rehearing. 

As the Accusations in the Said Proceedings, contain [ 
exceedingly prejudicial to said D r . Middletons [ ]ter, 

and also affects sundry officers in this Army [ ] as 

to Injuries received, & a Violation of Discipline [& orde]r. 
I being desirious to have all Matters relating [to] this Affair 
& the Conduct of all the Persons therein [con]cerned set in so 
clear a Light that I may be able [to] do Justice to the best of 
my Judgment, & make use [of] the Authority devolved upon me 
for the good of this Service. I think [it ne]edful for these 
Purposes, that the said Court of [Inquir]y do sit again, summon 
the Parties before them, [hear] all Evidences upon Oath, & 
appoint a Sworn [ ]ry not being a Member of the said 

Court to take [the mo]st exact & distinct Minutes possible of 
their [proceed] ings, & that the said D r . Middletons Defence 
] ess any, be a part of the said [ ] and that an 

Exact & Authentic Report of the [ ] me Signed by 

the President [ ] the Members of the said 

] Secretary. 

MINUTES OF COUNCIL OF WAR 

Df. 

[Camp at Lake George 4 Nov'., 1755] 

Peter Wraxall Secr r >\ 

The General laid before this Council of War, the [ ] 

of Cap 1 . Rodgers Cap 1 . Putnam & Ensign Grant [with] regard 



296 Sir William Johnson Papers 

to their Party Sent by him to intercept some [of the] Enemy's 
Advanced Guard on this side the Carrying [pla]ce, and as 
we are not likely soon to have any more [distijnct Intelligence 
of the Enemy at that Post & Ticonderoga ([Cap 1 .] Angel 
whom the Gen 1 , sent to gain Intelligence having made no 
Discoveries) — he now desires this Council of War woud give 
him their Opinion & Advice upon the Article formerly proposed 
in the Minutes of a Council of War held the [18] & 19 Ult°. 
and afterwards renewed in the Council of War [of] the 30 d°- 
[The] General also laid before the Council of War his 
] to M r Emerson & the other Commissaries at 
Alban]y sent by Express the 2 d . Ins 1 and desires they 
woud take the Quantity of Bread & Bread kind now 
] Camp under their serious Consideration & give him 
] Advice what further Measures he can [ 
] our present Circumstances w h . may be [ 
] best & advisable in this Affair for the [ 
] Interest & the good of this Service. 
[The] General also laid before [ ] 

[ '] 

FROM PETER MIDDLETON 

[Camp at Lake Ceorge 5'K] Nov'. 1755 

[ ] 

The Court being met by your Order [to exam]ine my 

Accusation, it was moved by [the] Members that the Evidences 

should be [examined separately. Col: Dyer opposed it. 

Whereupon [it was] put to the Vote whether the Evidences 

should [be exa] mined separately or all together, & carried 

[that] they should be all examined together. I then [thin] king 

this Resolution highly prejudicial to [me] protested against the 

Proceedings of y e Court [&] therefore begs you'll please to 



1 Lines burned off. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 297 

call a New [Cour]t before whom the Affair may be enquired 
[in] to. I am Sir with all Respect 

Your most obed 1 Serv* 

Peter Middleton 

report of ichabod phelps 

A. D. S. 

[Camp at Lake] gorge November y e 6 th 1755 — 

Sir, yester Day thar was Cometed to my [ ] gard 

one William Woleck for Desarting [ ] Belonges to 

[Carll Hares of Rodiland his Regement [ ] of Cap 1 

Ramon also y e Rowenes 1 Went acorder [ ] 

Ichabod Phelps Cap 1 

REPORT OF CHRISTOPHER CHAMPLIN 

A. D. S. 

Report of the Camp Guards Near Lake George 

Novem r : 6 lh : 1755 — 
Parole 

Blenham — 
Main Guard 

Report herewith Inclosed as I cannot 
Read it — 
[Fr]om the other Guards all's Well, Rounds passed 
[as] Usual — 

[ ] Johnson Esq r 

P r . Chris Champlin 
indorsed : 

Maj r . Champlins 
Report — 



1 Spelling doubtful. 



298 Sir William Johnson Papers 



] 



TO RICHARD GRIDLEY 

Df. 
[Camp at Lake George, 7 Nov, 1755] 



1 
Lieut] Col. Gilbert 2 [ ] 

] untill further Orders. 
] express w h . delivers you this must not 
delay] longer than to bait his Horse, during [ 
desire you will transmit to General [ ] Albany 

a General Return of the Garrison u[nder your] Command, 
also of the Provisions & Mili[tary store] s. if it cant be done 
very exactly you [mu]st make an Apology to him & send more 
[com] pleat ones by the very first Oppertunity. 

I hope your Health is mended & that you are able to walk 
out & see how matters go on, the speedy completion of the 
Fort is a matter of the utmost Consequence. Ours goes on here 
pretty briskly. I have named it William Henry after two of 
the Royal Family. 

I am Sir 

Your very hum 
Serv*. 
[ ] Gridley 

to thomas pownall 

A. L. S. 3 

Camp at Lake George Novbr. 7th 1755 
Dear Sir 

Your kind favour of the Second I had the Pleasure of receiv- 
ing last night by Express together with a Packet from Generl. 



1 Lines burned off. 

2 Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Gilbert. 

3 In Henry E # Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 299 

Shirley, who I find has debarred me the pleasure of Seeing you 
here, as also of writing you so fully as otherwise I should had 
I not his Orders (wh. were pritty peremptory) to Observe & 
fulfill. I got an Indian who I have here to draw a sort of 
Sketch of the Country, & Rivers between this, & the Mohawks, 
Imperfect as it is, it may Give you a better Idea of it, than 
Evan's 1 Map, from the Mohawks to Sacondaga River, I know 
is right, haveing been there myself Severall times, from thence, 
to Where that River falls into the Hudson River is verry good 
navigation for Boats, Some of my Indian Officers came that 
way lately wth. a Canoe & tell me So. then for 8 Miles down 
Said River is also Navigable, then you meet wth. Falls from 
whence or above them they tell me is a good Road to be made, 
to that leading from Fort Edward to Fort William Hennery 
there, (wh. name I called it, in Honour to the Duke & his 
Nephew Prince Wm. Hennery.) and will be much nearer & 
easier to Either Fort, than from Albany, besides the Grain pur- 
chased for the use of Both Garrisons in that part of the Country, 
(vizt. the Mohawks) will be much Cheaper there than at Albany 
as it Saves ye Farmers so much Carriage, then the building a 
tollerable Fort at Sacondaga would contribute much to the 
Settlement of that great extent of good Land lying to the North- 
ward of Us. and greatly ease the fears of the Mohawks our 
best friends who always (for their attachment to Us) dread the 
French v/th. their Indians will give them a Blow from that 
Quarter. I could give many Reasons to shew the usefulness of 
a garrison there if time would permit, but the Want of that, 
must apolgize now for not being as full in this or other points 
as I could wish. Oh! that I could now have the happiness of 
Seeing You here, and giving You any intelligence my small 
share of knowledge Could allow, for be assured my Dr. Sir 
None can, or ever will be readier to Serve You at all times, than 
Your most Sincere welwisher, & Humble Servt. 

Wm. Johnson 



1 Evan's map of America. 



300 Sir William Johnson Papers 

P. S. if I should not be so lucky to See You at York before 
You embark, be assured I shall as Soon as may be write You 
fully on what You desire to know, or anything else that may 
be of any Service to You. I must confess I look upon Sir Charles 
Hardy's 1 generous friendship to me (who have not the honour 
of his Acquaintance) in a verry kind light. 

In our Hurry after the Action, and indeed to Save their Lives 
I sent down Severall french prisonners to Albany, whom I now 
wish to have again, in order to give them in the Room of those 
Indians killed, as it is much expected by them, and will ease 
their Minds a good deal, they gave our People whom they took 
no Quarter, I find. I should be glad you would mention this 
to Sr. Charles Hardy, & that they were Sent up to Albany as 
Soon as possible. I would not have Mr. Shirley know anything 
of it, at least he might overset it, as he has tryed to do Severall 
other measures of mine relative to Indn. affairs. I would not 
give you this trouble had I time or matter to write Sr. Charles, 
the few Indians I have here know verry little about the Lakes, 
or back Country I asked them what the word Scaniihaderady 
Signified they told me it Meant the other Side of any Lake. 
Lake Ontario they call Oswego Lake. Sometimes Cararaghqui 
& Lake Erie, Niagara Lake. I am certain those fellows here 
knowing nothing of their former, or proper Names, but I shall 
enquire (if I live to return) of some of the oldest & Wisest 
Indians, what they are properly called. I should be glad you 
would (if time will admit of it) let me know a little of the 
Poloticks passing there now with You, for I am much in the 
Dark here, & expect to be kept so By Genrl. Shirley & some 
others. 

I am Yrs. Sincerely 

Wm. Johnson 
excuse Blunders & Inaccuracy, 
the Post waits wth impatience 

Honrble. Thomas Pownal Esqr. 



1 See The Papers of Sir William Johnson, 2:37. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 301 

MINUTES OF COUNCIL OF WAR 
D. 
[Camp at Lake George 8 Nov, 1755] 
[Peter Wraxall ] Seer?.— 

[The Gene]ral laid before this Council of War a Let[ter 
fro]m Gov r . Fitch of Conecticut with the Resolution of the 
Legislature of that Colony relative to their Tr[oops] 
in this Service, & desired the Opinion of this 
[Council of War] thereupon & their Advice as to his future 
Proceedings [in the] Affair, As also what Measures they 
would adv[ise] in regard to the New Hampshire Troops at 
Aflbany.] 

The General laid before this Council of War [ 

]ors Information who went with a reconoitring Party 
[to] discover the posture & Motions of the Enemy s & advanced 
G[ ]ty side the last Narrows on this Lake, Desires they 

will take into Consideration the Subject of an 

Attempt of [ ] Advanced Guard formerly proposed 

to them & give him [ ] Opinion & Advice thereon. 

The General laid before this Council of War the 
Retur[ns of the Provisions in this Camp made him Yesterday 
by [the Sev]eral Commissaries, & desires their Advice what 
fu[rther Measu]res he can pursue, than those already taken, to 
p[revent fatal Scarcity & the Consequences of 

absolute Wan[t ]nt speedy Supplies must be the Case 

both [ Fo]rt Edward. 

the first Article, the Question was put wh[ 
[provincial Troops at Albany should be dismissed 
[ ] the Negative. 

[ '] 

INDORSED : 

Minutes of Council of 
War 8 Nov. 1 755 



1 Lines burned off. 



302 Sir William Johnson Papers 

REPORT OF PHILIP LANSINGH 

A. D. S. 

[Camp at] Lake George, 9 Nov. [1755] 

[Report] of the Generals Guard 

Parole Blaney 
All Well 

George Rainer, Confined By order of the General 
for Sleeping on his post. — 
Adam M c Gloghlen, Confined By order of the 
General for being Drunk on Guard — 

To Co L . WlLL M . COCKROFT^ 
field Officer of the day^ 

Philip Lansingh 

to moses emerson 

Df. 

[Camp at Lake George, 10 Nov., 1755] 

I received Yours of [ 
[ ]ant of the Massachusetts Troops 

par] ticularly pointed out in my [Letter 
] the Complain of want for those Tr[oops 
[ w]ere particularly reported to me. As [ 

]hat lendings have been between the [Co]mmissaries 
here is a matter not within my [c]ognisance. 

Eleven large Padklocks are wanted for the use of the Fort 
here with Staples & Furniture. Two of them for the Gates are 
to be larger & Stronger than the rest. You will please to 
acquaint the other Commissaries with this & let care be taken 
that they are sent as soon as possible 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 303 

I expect all the Commissaries will [continue their Attention 
to] supply us even with bread. New York has no Meat but a 
few barrels w ch I understand are not eatable 

I am 
Sir 
&c 
Commissary EMERSON 
at Albany 

TO COMMANDERS AT ALBANY 

Df. 

[Camp at Lake George II TVoV., 1755] 

'] 
} 
] 

j 



[ 
[ 
[ 
[ 


] to bring with [ 
] Speedily march with [ 
dispjatch possible hereof you [ 




I am 

Gentlemen 

Y r & c . 


[ 
[ 
[ 


] mmanding 
] Provincial 
ents] at Albany 




FROM CHARLES HARDY 




A. L. S.- 



Albany Nov. II: 1755. 
Sir./ 

M r . Van Schaik Recorder of this City, has by my directions 
taken the Examination of one Jacob, an Cayuaga Indian, who 
has had severel Conversation with one of the Onondagas, who 



1 Lines burned off. 

2 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 



304 Sir William Johnson Papers 

is lately Come from Canada, as it Contains Information neces- 
sary for your Knowledge; I have judged it proper to send you 
the Accounts this Man gives by Express, that you may be pre- 
pared against any attempts of the Enemys. the Inclos'd is a 
Copy of the Accounts this Man gives. I have Ordered some 
Muskett Bals and Flints to be sent you, which you will take 
Care to have Accounted for, by those you may Supply. 

I have wrote to Collonel Gridley to send me a particular State 
of Fort Edward & when the Barracks, Magazine, & Stores will 
be in readiness, to receive their Garrisson, with provissions & 
Stores for them. I desire you will hasten this Report to me, & 
I must likewise desire you will transmitt to me the like Ace 1 , 
of the Fort at Lake George. I am Sir 

Your most Obed*. 

humble Servant 

Cha s . Hardy 
Major Gen. Johnson 

indorsed : 

S r . Charles Hardy 

Albany 11 Nov r . 
Reed 15 d° 
Ans d . 16 d° 

PROCEEDINGS OF COUNCIL OF WAR 
D. S. 
[Camp at Lake George 13 Nov r ., 1755] 

Peter Wraxall Sec r J\ 
[The General del sired tne Advice of this Council [of ] 

]ired advice in consequence of our [ intelligence 

concerning the Enemy. [The questio]n was put whether an 



Section containing list of names of those present destroyed by fire. 



Preliminary Campaigns, J 755-1 756 305 

Entrenchment [should be ma]de round Fort William Henry. 
[It was reso]lved Unanimously in the Affirmative. 

[The qu]estion was put whether a number of Men [shoul]d 

go to work upon the said Entrench*, immediately [to] morrow 

Morning at Four aClock. 

Voted at 4 aClock tomorrow Morning. 
[It] is the Unanimous Opinion of this Council of War 
[tha]t the General send off as soon as possible an Express 
[to] Albany to Gen 1 Shirley with an Ace' of this After noon 

Intelligence & to notify the same to the Commanding Officer of 

the Reinforcements. 

Peter Wraxall 

Sec r y. 

TO WILLIAM SHIRLEY 

Df. 

[Camp] at Lake George 

13 Now. 1755. 

/] 

with Battoe down the Lake upon receive the Indian 
returned [ ]st now our usual Scout towards [ 

]urned, they say they went 25 Miles w[ 

] Lake & made no kind of Discovery. 
]ter a Party whom I dispatched Yesterday [ 
tw]o Battoes are returned, they say, They [ 
fl]ag hoisted at Sunrise this Morning abou[t 
] ine from them on a point of Land on the East [ 
L] ake about 1 6 or 17 Miles from hence, & also saw a 
| oak rise beyond said Point of Land. Immediately 
]nd Two Battoes with several Officers & some of the 
Party to make the most distinct Discovery they p[ossibly] 
[can.] I have sent out Scouts every way by Land. 



1 Lines burned off. 



306 Sir William Johnson Papers 

By advice of a Council of War I dispatch your h[onor] 
[an] Express who waiting permits me to add no [more] 

than that I am 
Sir 
Your Excellent cys] 

Most Obed*. [ ] 

] Beef & Bread & unless a 
] once we shall have none left. 

]ment is still suspended notwithstanding 
the above Intelligence. — 

[ ] Shirley & c . 

orders of johnson to reinforcements 

Df. 

Camp at Lake George 
13 Nov. 1755. 

Thursday M[orning] 

We have further Intelligence this [morning of] the Enemy's 
Approach and I am desir[ous of] a Council of War to hasten 
you with [ ] Troops up hither, I therefore desire that 

you will make all possible Dispatch [to joi]n us 

I am Gentlemen 

Your very hum serv 1 . 

[To the] Commanding Officer 
[of] the Provincial 
[Reinforcements 
[on] their March — 

INDORSED : 

[ 1 

to hasten the [ ] 

13 Nov 1755 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 307 

FROM RICHARD GRIDLEY 

A. L. S. 1 

Fort Edward Novem r . 13. 1755. 
Sir 

I am favourd with Yours of Tuesday night & yesterday and 
Observe the Contents. — I have not had an opportunity to send 
the Weekly returns till this opportunity indeed there were some 
horsemen that arriv'd here last evening but they did not let me 
know their intention was for the Lake last night so I miss'd that 
opportunity, I now send the returns of the Troops and Pro- 
visions, by which you will Observe our poor Supply, I have 
wrote in the most pressing terms to Comissary Emerson for a 
Supply especially Rum which is quite necessary for carrying 
on the Barracks & the groundsills of which were not laid when 
I arrived & the first Story is now up, Yesterday being a fine day 
I had a Review of the Forces to examine them, their Arms, & 
ammunition & prepare 'em for Action & they made a better 
figure than I expected I was out all day myself & find no dis- 
advantage from it Yet, I find it quite necessary to be with 'em to 
forward the works & I hope in a few days to let you know how 
Strong we are, I judge the security of this Garrison is of the 
utmost Consequence & I intend if I have my health spar'd, to 
give it my utmost attention, I forgot to acquaint you Sir that I 
thought it quite convenient to fire a morning Gun with the 
damag'd powder we have, & shall continue to do it unless I have 
Your orders to the Contrary I do not care to write the reasons 
for doing it I think you will not be at a Loss for the reasons, 
nor the propriety of it, tho'. I am informd Cap 1 . Eyre told you 
it was a very improper thing; I believe that Gentleman had not 
consider'd it. — I rec d . with yours of y e 11 lh . Novemb r . a Letter 
sign'd by one J : C : Maine a fellow that thinks himself a know- 
ing fellow he is inlisted Clerk in Cap 1 . Johnson's Company in 



1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 



308 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Col. Plaisteds Regim 1 . by the name of Whitmore no person 
here can give any Account of him, & from his changing his 
name & from his Impudent behaviour I suspect his Loyalty, I 
have sent the proceedings of a Court of inquiry upon him for 
Your directions upon it: I do not like his behaviour nor any 
of the Company he is in & shoud be glad they may be shifted 
from this Garrison & be under the inspection of their proper 
Colonel which is Col°. Plaisted & as I mov'd for my companys 
w^. are at the Lake that they might be joind with the rest of 
my Regiment at this Garrison; the Objection then was, that 
the officers had considerable Baggage which cou'd not be trans- 
ported to the Lake, but with great inconvenience; the Fact is 
they, the two Companys of Col°. Plaisteds & three Companys 
of Col°. Browns have little more than a Gun & Blanket to Trans- 
port I think my three companys now at the Lake might be 
shifted without any prejudice or inconvenience to the Service & 
they woud be much better pleas'd with their own officers as 
they call it; what makes me press it the more is because the 
companys or Cap ts . wa[nt] to have their station in the Regiment 
settled. — I forwarded Your pacquet to Gen 1 . Shirley in a few 
minutes after I rec d . it by L l . Bradford on horseback an Active 
man. — I am Sir w*. Respect 

Your Most Obed*. Humb 1 . Serv*. 

Rich . Gridley 1 
Sir 

You'l excuse me for sending the 

duplicate of yours of tuesday night 

instead of Copying of it. — 



1 Major General Richard Gridley, chief engineer in the reduction of 
Louisburg in 1 745 ; colonel, under Winslow at Crown Point, and with 
Wolfe at Quebec; wounded at Bunker Hill; commissioned Major General 
by the Massachusetts provincial Congress, Sept., 1775; commissioned in 
the continental artillery; superseded by Knox in Nov. 1775. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 309 

ADDRESSED : 

On His Majestys Service 
To Major General Johnson 
at the Camp 

at 
Lake George 
INDORSED: 1 

Col. Gridleys Letter 
Fort Edw d 13 Nov r . 

Reed d°. 
with Proceedings of 
Court of Enquiry — 

FROM ROBERT HUNTER MORRIS 
Copy 2 

Phila., 15th November, 1755. 
Sir 

I have the Honour to Congratulate you on the Success of his 
Majesty's Arms, under your Command. I take part in the 
Glory you have acquired, and now the Campaign is brought to 
a close I hope you will enjoy Ease & Leisure enough to give 
you an Opportunity of perfectly re-establishing Your health. 

The unhappy defeat of Gen 1 . Braddock has brought an 
Indian War upon this and the neighbouring Provinces, and from 
a Quarter where it was least expected, I mean the Delawares 
and Shawanese, from whom we thought there was no danger, 
as they had the very last Year given us assurances of their con- 
tinuing Quiet and taking part with us when we should ask them 
to do so; and they made the same promise to the Six Nations, so 
that we depended on them not only to remain neuter but to 
prevent other Indians from joining the French. But to our 



1 In Johnson's hand. 

2 Printed in Pennsylvania Colonial Records, 6:700—1 



310 Sir William Johnson Papers 

great suprize they have in breach of their Treaties & in Defiance 
of the Six Nations, to whom they are subjects, fallen upon our 
back Inhabitants and exercised on their persons the most shock- 
ing Barbarities, killing their Cattle and burning their Houses, 
and destroying all before them. You cannot conceive what a 
vast Tract of Country has been depopulated by these merciless 
Savages. I assure you that all the Families from Augusta 
County in Virginia to the River Delaware have been obliged to 
quit their Plantations on the North side of that Chain of Hills 
which is called the endless Mountains, that take their Rise in 
New England, and that the Indians are expected to Continue 
their Ravages into the Governments of New York and New 
Jersey. 

As I know not the State of the Six Nations, nor where an 
Application can be best made to them, I must take the Freedom 
to desire on the part of this Government that you would be 
pleased to send a Message to the Six Nations to inform them 
of this Defection of the Delawares and Shawonese both from us 
& them, with all its horrid Circumstances, and assure them that 
it is without the least Provocation from us, but that as they say 
themselves it is to shew the Six Nations that they are no longer 
Women, by which they mean no longer under their Subjection; 
they have the further Imprudence to say they will come & attack 
such of the Six Nations as have taken up the Hatchet against 
the French. It will, therefore, be right to warn the Six Nations 
in your Message not only against any attempts that may be made 
on their Castles, but to require them to send Messengers to all 
the Indians under their Dependance not to assist or join the 
French or their Indians, but to take up the Hatchet & assist the 
English, and to let them know that if they go out a fighting 
against the English the Six Nations will consider them as Enemies 
& treat them as such. 

You will see by the enclosed Papers that these French 
Shawonese and Delawares have offered the French Hatchet to 
the Sasquehannah Indians but they have refused to take it, and 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 311 

have sent a Message to this Government that they have done so, 
& will fight with us if we will support them, and they shall be 
ordered to do so by the Six Nations. Be pleased, therefore, in 
your Message to inform the Six Nations of this, and desire they 
will send a particular Message to these Sasquehannah Indians, 
commanding them to assist the English against the French. 

I intend to build a Fort at Shamokin this Winter, of which 
be pleased likewise to acquaint the Six Nations, & I doubt not 
they will approve this measure as absolutely necessary to protect 
the Indians for the common Security of them and us. 

I have enclosed you the minutes of Council containing what 
passed between this Government & Scarrooyady, & likewise some 
secret Intelligence, which you will make your own use of, con- 
cealing the name of the Author. 

I am, Sir, Your most obedient humble Servant, 

Robert H. Morris. 
To Gen l . Johnson. 

FROM JAMES MINOT ET AL. 

L. S. 1 

Albany 16 Nov. 1755 
Sir 

We are Authorized as Commissioners from the Government 
of the Massachusetts Bay among other things to enquire into the 
State of the sick in the Army Under your Command belonging 
to S d Government, in order that we may do every thing Neces- 
sary for their Comfortable Accomodation, And for our better 
direction we Apprehend it Necessary that we be Informed & we 
desire your Hon r will as soon as may be inform us, of the Names 
of those persons that are Sick the Towns they came from, and 
those whose Circumstances are such that they are not likely to 
be of future Service in the Army to be specially Noted; and 
such of them as may be Conveniently Sent down to Albany 



1 In New York State Library, Albany, N. Y. 



312 



•Sir William Johnson Papers 



we desire may be sent from time to time as the Waggons are 
returning. 

We are Sir your Most Humble James MlNOT 

Servants John Choate 
Ol r , Partridge 
Samuel Livermore 
Maj r . Gen l . Johnson 

addressed: 

On his Majs Service 
To 

The Hon b,e William Johnson Esq r . 
Major General of the Forces 
at 

Lake George 

INDORSED : 

Letter from the Massachusetts Commis rs at Albany 
16 Nov r 
Rec d . 20 d° 
1 755 Ans d . 



[ 



FROM WILLIAM ALEXANDER 

A. L. S. 

[Albany, Nov. 17, J755] 1 



] 



Commissioners from 
the Province of the 
Massachusetts Bay 



Daniel Horsmanden 
James Minot 
[John C]hoat Esq r . 
[Oliver] Partridge Esq r . 
] Severedge Esq r . 

Benjamin Hall Esq r . ^ Commissioners from 

] Hubbard Esq r . { the Colony of Connecticut 

That it be recommended as the Opinion and Advice of the 
Members of the Meeting, that the [ the Command 



1 Date supplied from Johnson Calendar, p. 67. 

2 Lines burned off. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 313 

of Major Gen 1 . Johnson, do advance [ ] Enemy, and 

Attempt to remove them from their [ ]s as far as they 

are able at this Season. 

[A] true Copy from the Minutes 

W M Alexander Secy. 

i i 

], and to acquaint the [ 
[ ]ation hereupon, and the rea[ ] 

[ ed] I am 

Sir 

Your Most Humble Serv[ant] 

W M : Alexander 
Gen l . Johnson 

from richard gridley 

Fort Edward Novem r . 17. 1755 
Monday Morn 
Sir 

I am favourd with Yours (as I suppose, it not being sign'd) 
of Yesterday afternoon; the post being Fatigu'd for want of 
Sleep coud not go till this morning ; I have orderd a Guard with 
him, to Saraghtoga & given Your Orders to the Commanding 
Officer there, to send a Guard with him from thence. I have 
constantly sent out partys of 12 men to range from the place or 
near it you now direct, to the road to y e . Lake & shall order an 
Augmentation according to Order & shall take all proper pre- 
caution so as not to Fatigue the men too much for what with 
Constant partys of Guard up & down, Guards & Workmen of 
the Garrison & Constant scouts we are Considerably imploy'd. 
I had like to have forgot your favour of Saturday; I sent a 
party to Guard the dispatches immediately to Saraghtoga, I 
observe your Scout discovering a Track of 4 coming this way, & 



In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 



314 Sir William Johnson Papers 

have forwarded the intelligence to Saraghtoga, & believe our 
Scouts have discoverd the Track of the same, One of the scouts 
thought they saw two of the enemy, our Forces seem to be greatly 
animated, & I hope ere long to get some Game. CoR, Ruggles's 
regiment though small have a Considerable number of 
officers & considerable Baggage, Doctors Chest &c that it will 
be difficult to get 'em up to the Lake but I wou'd not direct if 
it is your Orders, I shall obey I shoud be glad to know if I 
must send up Col : Gilbert (who is still in Confinem 1 .) with 
the regim ts . I have Cap 1 . Dakin of Col Browns regim 1 . With 
his Comp s . except about 9 Sick men which must remain here till 
they are better 

I am Sir with Respect 

Your Most Humb. Serv 1 . 

R. Gridley 

ADDRESSED : 

On His Majestys Service 

To 

Major General Johnson 
at 

Lake George 
INDORSED : 

Col. Gridley Fort 
Edward 1 7 Nov r . 
Rec d d° 

TO INHABITANTS OF SUFFOLK COUNTY 

Df* 

[Camp at Lake George] 

18 [Nov. 1755] 
Gentlemen : 

Last night came to this Camp 47 of the 60 head of Cattle ( 1 
being stopped by the Commandant of Fort Edward as the 



1 A portion of this letter is printed in The New York Mercury, Dec. 
29, 1755. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 315 

Proportion of that Garrison 3 being lost by the Way) and 16 
Oxen which in lieu of the Sheep were sent by the Inhabitants of 
your County for the Army under my Command. 

This Morning I summoned a Council of War [to sug- 
gest M]easures for an equitable Division of the sa[me] 
Copy of the Minutes whereof I herewith [ 

Your Generous Present arrived at a period of [the 
distress, for many days past this Army hath [ ] t 

allowance of Meat & Bread & were reduced to their [ 
Your well timed humanity hath revived us; may [the Blessi]ngs 
of the hungry be upon you & yours & all [that you have] and 
may the Smiles of Heaven accompany [the Applause] of Men. 

Major General Lyman joins me, in gratefully acknowledging 
the Letter wrote us by the Reverend [James Brown] 1 of your 
County; both we & the whole Army are extreamly obliged 
to them for their pious Sentiments & good wishes [ 
this Letter to George Muirson 2 [ ] County & I 

have desired him [ ] the same — 

[ 8 i 

] to myself in particular [ 
]al are gratefully acknowledged [ ] 

| begs you to accept of his thanks for [ ] 

remembrance to him. 

I am respectfully 

Sir &c 

INDORSED: 

Generals Letter to the 
Inhabitants of Suffolk 
County & Geor Muirson. 
18 Nov. — 



1 See letter of James Brown to Johnson, October 23, 1755. 

2 See letter of George Muirson to Johnson, November 2, 1755. 

3 Lines burned off. 



316 Sir William Johnson Papers 

TO ROGER BILLINGS 

Df. S. 

Camp at Lake George 
18 Nov 1755 
[Captain Bill]ings 

[ t]ake under Convoy with this [ 

]mand the returned Waggons [ 
[ ] & carefully guard the same to Aflbany] 

You are to keep your Men from scattering out 

proper flank Guards & march w[ith ca]ution against 

any attempts or Insulfts] of the Enemy. 

On your Arrival at Albany you [are] to apply to the Com- 
missaries & if a Guard [ w] anted for waggons or 
Horses hither to supply [the] same without delay or with further 
orders. 

W. J. 

TO CHARLES HARDY 

Df. 
Camp at Lake George 18 Nov r . 1755 

i ] 

I wrote your Excellency this Morning & have n[ow] 
] to inclose you a Copy of the Minutes of [a] 
[Council of W]ar I called this day & refer you to [ 
] Whitcomb by whom I send this. 

[ ]y 

INDORSED : 

Generals Letter to Sir 
Charles Hardy 17 Nov r . 
1755 ' 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 317 

FROM J. CLAUDIUS MAINE 

/\ . Lt. vJ. 

[Fort Edward 18 Nov.] 
[1755] 

[ ] 

It is with the greatest Submission [that I] presume to address 

you w ,h . this, most hufmbly] entreating you, Entirely relying 
on your gen[erous] humane Character, to Pardon me all my 
fofrmer] Errors, occasion'd by a too unhappy hasty temp[er.] 
Yet I do assure your honour no real bad intention in the Main. 
If a Sincere repentance w th . a Strict care of my future Conduct 
can make an Attonement to a generous breast, I herein promise 
your honour to perform the same, so that I once more beg your 
honour to overlook w th . an Eye of Compassion what I have 
unguarded [been] guilty of and not acquaint his Excellency 

and remain honour'd Sir w th . the 
[most prof]ound respect — 

your honour's most humble 

Obedient Servant. 

J. Clau ds . Maine 

TO RICHARD GRIDLEY 

Df. 

[Camp at Lake George] 
[18 Now. 1755] 



yesterday. We seem now to have [ 
] Enemy near us, so that I think you [ 
]ose only from that Alarm, all those G[uards 
nece]ssary. I doubt not you will keep up [ 



1 Lines burned off. 



318 Sir William Johnson Papers 

]ng Col. Ruggles 8 . Officers & his Apolog[y 
Jin with You. Major Hoare was to lay hi [s 
SJhirley, and give him an Account of Col. G[ilbert 
ref ] erred M r . Shirley to the Major & expect I shall | 
] that head till when I expect Col. Gilbert rem[ains 
under arrjest 

TO GEORGE MUIRSON 
Copy 1 

Camp at Lake George, J 8th November 1755. 
Sir, 

Your Favour of the 2d Instant I received last Night, with the 
Present of Cattle from the Inhabitants of Suffolk County, to the 
Army under my Command. 

I desire you will communicate in the most extensive Manner 
possible, the Minutes of a Council of War herewith and my 
Letter to our generous Benefactors. 

Your kind Wishes to myself in particular, and to the Army in 
general, are gratefully acknowledged by us. 

I am respectfully, Sir, 

Your most humble Servant, 

Wm. Johnson. 
To 
George Muirson, Esq; 

FROM JAMES MINOT 

A. L. S. 

Albany 19 th Nov 1755 

I ] 

[ ] apprehend it absolutely Necessary you Send [ ] 

to Albany a Sufficient guard for the [wagons] going up. 



1 Printed in The New York Mercury, Dec. 29, 1 755. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1756 319 

otherways they will be greatly [ ] upon y e Gov ,s 

Expense In Hast 

[In] the Name of the Mass Corhissioners 
Y r Most Humble Ser 1 . 

James Minot 
indorsed : 

Letter from Ja s Minot 
Albany 19 Nov r . 

Rec d 21 d° 
1755. Ans< 

MINUTES OF A COUNCIL OF WAR 

Copy 1 

Camp at Lake George, 1 9th November, 1755. A.M. 

At a Council of War held by General Johnson, 

Present, 
The General, Col. Bagly, 

Major General Lyman, Col. Browne, 
Col. Harris, Lieut. Col. Whiting, 

Col. Cockroft, Col. Plaisted, 

Col. Dyer, Col. Thatcher, 

Peter Wraxall, Secretary. 

The General laid before this Council of War, a Letter 
directed to him from George Muirson, Esq ; High Sheriff of the 
County of Suffolk, on Long-Island, and Letters from several 
Reverend Gentlemen, Ministers of the Gospel, in the aforesaid 
County, with a Present of Oxen and Sheep from the Inhabitants 
of said County: Also a Letter from Oliver De Lancey, Esq; 
from Albany, wherein he writes the General, that the Drivers 
of the Sheep acquainted him it was impossible to drive them 



Printed in The New York Mercury, Dec. 29, 1755; draft in the 
New York State Library badly damaged by fire. 



320 Sir William Johnson Papers 

up to the Camp; that he had therefore sold them for 14 Oxen, 
the Sheep being reduced in their Numbers by the Carlessness 
of the Drivers. 

The General desired the Opinion of this Council of War, 
relating to the Division of the Cattle. 

It is the Opinion that a Field Officer from each Regiment, be 
appointed to make a Division of the Cattle, in Proportion to 
the Numbers of their respective Troops. 

The General is desired to write a Letter to the Inhabitants 
of Suffolk County, on Long Island, with the grateful 
Acknowledgments of this Army, for their generous Present. 

PETER WRAXALL, Secretary. 



TO PHINEAS LYMAN 

Df. S. 1 
[Camp at Lake George 21 Nov. 1755] 

i ] 

As what I have to propose to the [Co]uncil of War is I 
apprehend not only of great Consequence to the present Service 
but necessary for me to have the Opinion of this Council of 
War relative to it with all possible Dispatch, I must request 
your Attendance unless there is any unavoidable Impediment 
against it 

I am Sir 

Y r very humble [ ] 

W. J. 

The Council of War are 
met & wait 

To Ma j R Gen l Lyman 



In handwriting of Wraxall. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 321 

FROM GOLDSBROW BANYAR 
A. D. S. 

Albany 22 d November 1755. 

His Excellency Sir Charles Hardy being [about] to embark 
for New York hath directed me to recom[mend] in his Name 
that you would give the necessary orders to collect together and 
secure all the Battoes belonging to the army that can be found, 
and to preserve them for Service against the next Season. 

I am also to Signify his desire to see you in New York as 
soon as possible after you have met and conversed with the 
principal Sachems and leading men of the six Nations, or such 
of them as you judge necessary to inform you of their present 
Temper and Disposition, that you may be able to give him full 
information on this head and of such Facts as he shall think 
proper to lay before his Majesty's Ministers to this end that 
you bring with you all Papers that may give any Light into 
Indian Affairs. 

I am Sir 

your most obedient 
humble Servant 

G w Banyar 

[ ]m the^ 

[ ] 

I If 

[ U 

11 



322 Sir William Johnson Papers 



TO RICHARD GRIDLEY 
Df. 

[Camp at Lake George 22 Nov. 1755.] 

] were sent [ 
] public or Provincial [ 
]ted were not to deliver them [ 
] they are accounted for. If you will 
] give a Receipt in behalf of your Pra[ 

] what you may want for the use of your 
Reg 1 . I will send the Quantity you desire [ 
for the other Troops in y r Garrison w ch . May [ 

As to Mayne if you judge putting him in Irons necessary for 
securing him I would have it done, for I suspect him capable 
of going over to the Enemy. I propose to have him sent a 
Prisoner to New York but can not give the necessary Orders at 
present 

The Sentence upon the other Prisoners I think full Mild, 
however there is no help for it. if not inflicted pray let it 
be done. — 

Please to dispatch a Cap 1 . 2 Subs [ ] men with 

orders of the Tenor inclosed. 

] to the Cap 1 , the Letter herewith w[ 

his Arrival at Albany immediately 
] to General Shirley. In case [ 

] Waggons [ ] 

want a Guard 



1 



Colonel Gridley 

indorsed : 

Generals letter to Col. 
Gridley 22 Nov. 1 755 



Lines burned off. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 323 



OLIVER PARTRIDGE TO 

[Camp at Lake George, 22 Nov r 1755] 

] of the Several Guard 
] you would furnish th[ 
] 25 men at the least if you cannot furnish 
] a Guard to go thro to Fort Edward you must [ 

] this Night Send a Man or two up to Col Gridley 
] Send a Strong Guard to meet us tomorrow There 
is not only the [Comjmissioners but a Number of Wagons 
going up 

In the Name of the Commiss rs 

I am your Ser 1 . 

Ol, Partridge 



SAMUEL NICHOLAS NELSON TO 



[Undated] 1 
Sir 

the Reason of my not Sending a gard with those Gentlemen 
Is my haveing So few Men and Sum of them are Sick and Y e . 
Rest upon Duty Night and Day which obliges me to Begg 
for your asistance. 

Sir 

I am yours to Sarve 

Sam el . Nichls Nelson 



1 Inclosed in letter of Oliver Partridge, Nov. 22, 1755. 



324 



Sir William Johnson Papers 



FROM JONATHAN BAGLEY 

Fori W m Henry Nov 27 lh 1755 
S R 

After you Left the Camp I Musterd the forces Left to 
Garrison fort W m . Henry and Could Muster But 1 1 6 Left of 
the Massachusetts of Which 



Coll. Plastard 
Col 1 . Brown 
Col 1 . Thacher 
Colo. Gredley 
Col 1 . Whitcomb 
Col 1 . Pomeroy 
Ruggells 
Col 1 . Bagley 



Left. 
Left. 

Left. 
Left. 
Left. 
Left. 
Left. 
Left. 



26 his Propotion . 
28 his D° 



33 

33 
his D° 32 



— his D°. 
23 his D°. 
29 his D°. 

— his D°. 
10 his D° 



50 
23 
42 
10 
10 



116 

Deduct 

Remains Wanting 



233 
116 

TT7 



Left! 



of Col 1 . Gillmans Regt 
Listed by Cap 1 . Rogers out of 
other Reg ,s 



>32 his propotion. 95 

32 



of Col 1 . Harris Reg 1 . 



Remains 63 

Left 60 his Propotion 76 



63 
16 



Remains Wanting 196 
in the Whole 



S r . by the Scrall above you Will See that the fort is Left 1 96 
Men Short of What was appropriated Which was 402 A 
Great Number to be Wanting at this Critical Junture Which I 
Begg You Will order to be Drafted out to Morrow Morning at 
fort Edward & Sent here under Proper officers, for if the forces 



In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 325 

Get on there March in the Morning or not Drafted & Sent 
from there before you March I fear I Shall be Left here With So 
Small a Number that the fortress may become an Easy Conquest 
to the Enemy Should they attempt to attack us — Maj r . 
Glasure joyns his Comp ,s . to you Cap'. Eyre and Cap'. 
Wraxsell.— and Am S r Your Most Humble S*. 

Jonathan Bagly 
I hope you will Consider and 

Excuse Blots Paches and Erasem ,s 

if Cap 1 . Nixson of Col 1 Ruggells Reg*. Should be there you 
Will oblige Me to Send him up With one of the Comp 8 — 
I also Desire Col 1 . Gredly to Send up a Good Drumer of 
Which I Will make a Drum Maj r & 2 Drummer More if to be 
had 

ADDRESSED: 

To Gen 11 . Johnson at fort 
Edward 
INDORSED: 1 

Fort Will m Henry 

Col: Bagleys Letter 

Nov. 27*. 1755. 

ORDER FOR REINFORCEMENTS AT FORT WILLIAM HENRY 

Df. 2 

Fort Edward Fry day 28 NoV. 1755 

It is the Generals Orders that Colonel Gridley give or draught 
out of the Reg', under his Command for the Garrison at Fort 
William Henry 50 Men inclusive of Officers, And Lieu 1 Col. 
Gilbert out of Colonel Ruggles' Reg*. 10 Men. That Col 
Plaisted give or draught out of his Detachment 7 Men more, 
Colonel Thatcher 1 1 Men Officers included, D r . Williams out 



1 In Johnson's hand. 

2 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 



326 Sir William Johnson Papers 

of Col Pomroys Detachment 13 Men more Col. Harvy out 
of his Detachment 16 Men more These being the proportions 
or the deficiency of the Proportion of these several Reg fs . for 
the Garrison of Fort William Henry 



PETER WRAXALL TO WILLIAM COCKCROFT 

A. Df. S. 1 

Fort Edward Fry day 28 Nov r . 1755 

To Colonel William Cockcroft 

It is The Generals Orders that You give or draft out of the 
Reg 1 , under your Command 154 Men officers Included for the 
Garrison at this Fort 

P. W. 2 

A. D. C. 

FROM MYNDERT WYMPEL 
A. L. 5. 
[Senecas Land 5th Dec r . 1755.] 



]aept nae haer [ 
]ten een toen gave[n 

]n sloegen daer 3 Vaen d[oot 
| genomen een deer est oep [ 
] noemmende gagnawage [ 
Dee Droenkkert een sieck del[ 
] syn oefgehalt [5] 4 4 syn Weer tuy[s] 



1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. , draft 
written on back of Bagley's letter of Nov. 27, 1755. 

2 Peter Wraxall, aide-de-camp. 

3 Lines burned off. 

4 Crossed out in manuscript. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 327 

] seey heebeen myn Veersoekt oem [u] 
te sch[r]yuen hyeer yes gen nus meer oem [te] 
[schryve]n als Voor yaan aabel dat hy 
[de] batoes met roem gekregen hebt [daer] 
[do] or syn aelle dagen droncken yes 
hier heel Slym 

[Niet] meer aels yck Weens uE geluk een 

] yen ael uE Voernemen 
[ ] or gots genaden noch gesont 

[ N]iet meer aels 

Myndyert Wym[pel] 

TRANSLATION 

[Seneca's Land 5th Dec r . 1755.] 

] to them [ 
] and then they gave [ 

] killed three of them [ 
and took them with them [ 
] and there is one calling himself Caghnawaga [ 
The drunkard and sick [ 
are carry ed away [5] 4 are home again. 
They have asked me to 

write to you. Here there is no further news to write 
except to say for Yaan Aabel that he has 
received the battoes with rum. 
Consequently they are drunk every day. It is 
very bad here. 

No more, except that I wish your honor luck 
and prosperity in all your undertakings. 
Through God's grace I am still well. 
No more than 

Myndyert Wem[pel] 



328 Sir William Johnson Papers 

AN INDIAN CONFERENCE 1 
Copy 2 
Fort Johnson, Decemh. 7. J 755. 

The Speech of the honourable major-general Johnson at a 
meeting of the Mohawks, Oneidas, Tuscaroras and 
Senecas. 

Arent Stevens, interpreter. 
Brethren of the Mohawks, Senecas, Oneidas, and Tuscaroras, 

I Am glad to see you here at the meeting-place of all the 
nations, after the dangers and fatigues of the campaign. The 
reason of my sending for you immediately on my return is very 
pressing. 

Your brother the governor of New-York wrote me a letter, 
dated nine days ago, which overtook me at Skenactady, acquaint- 
ing me, that the Shawanese, Delawares, and River-indians were 
committing hostilities in the southern parts of this province, as 
well as in the Jersies and Pennsylvania; that they had burnt 
several out-settlements in those provinces, and killed many of 
our people who never offended them : as those Indians are looked 
upon by us as allies and dependants of you the six nations, and 
living within the limits of your country, I must desire you will, 
without loss of time, reprimand them for what they have already 
done, prevent their doing any more mischief, and insist on their 
turning their arms with us against the French and their Indians; 
both your and our common enemy, and that without loss of time. 
This is what you engaged to do at the general meeting last June 
at my house: I am surprized you have not done it before, and 
I expect you will now do it without loss of time; if not, we will 
endeavour to put a stop to their barbarities, and do ourselves 
that justice the law of nature allows. 

A belt. 



1 At Fort Johnson. 

2 Printed in: An Account of Conferences held and Treaties made 
Between Major-General Sir William Johnson, Bart, and the chief Sachems 
and W amours . . ., 3—5. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 329 

Brethren of the confederate nations, 

I desire you will send me, from time to time, what news you 
receive from your allies to the southward and westward, as 
at all times it is very necessary for me to know it, and more 
particularly so at this time: in return, you may depend on my 
giving you all the news among us, which may be useful to you. 

A large Belt. 

Their answer. 
Brother, 

We are obliged to you for the welcome you give us, and 
assure you we are equally rejoiced to meet you here at our fire, 
after your great fatigue and danger; and congratulate you on 
your success over our common enemy. 

It gives us the greatest concern, to hear of the barbarities 
of our cousins the Delawares, to our brethren the English; and 
we assure you we shall, without loss of time, forward your 
message through all the nations, and use all arguments in our 
power for their exerting themselves on this important occasion. 

A belt. 
Brother, 

We will also recommend it to them to keep up a constant 
correspondence with you, as we are sensible it is of the utmost 
consequence at all times, but more so at present. 

A belt. 

FROM JOHN WATTS 

[New York, Dec 9, 1755] 

I } 

[ ]on, was got safe [ 

] proving an agreable Companion, my hearty Comp ,s - 

] imagine stay all the Winter so far North 

You have inclosd Gilbert Marseillis Receipt for £1936: 

] was afraid to Venture the whole Sum in one hand, 

'tis a confounded ], the next Conveyance whether 



330 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Skipper or private, shall carry the Balla: [ pr]opose 

charging 2.3$ O. Com 5 , for the transaction, which still shall 
stand the 1 [ ] of [ ] approbation, if you choose 

it less or nothing I am perfectly satisfy'd if it in the 
serves you — You have inclosd a Letter from Wraxall, he has 
not yet been [adjmitted to the presence of the Grand Seignior 1 , 
I reckon he'll meet with a dusky [countenance — 

As soon as he is at leisure I shall be glad of an hour or two's 
Chat, [to] have the particulars of your campaign, there must 
be a great Variety in it I dont [dou]bt, & such a Variety as 
has been productive of no small tryal of your patience, [ 
perseverence wins the World — 

I hope the Sons of old Oliver 2 as they call themselves [wo]nt 
shamefully quit their posts to the Enemy, twill be such a lasting 
Disgrace, as [no] thing will wipe off — but whats that to us 
youl Say if the French gets possession, [ | sorry Comfort 

I heartily congratulate you on your return to sweet peace 
[and hope that], at least for a Season, may your enjoyment 
prove equal to your own desire [ ] of your best 

friends — I airways am & c . 

Y r Affectionate 

Humb. Serv 1 — 

Jn°. [Watts] 

to william shirley 

Copy 3 

Fort Johnson, Dec. 16, 1755. 
Sir, 

Your Excellency's Paquet I received this instant together with 
a Commission or Warrant from you for the Management of 



1 William Shirley, commander-in-chief of the forces in British North 
America. 

2 Possibly the New Englanders. 

3 New York papers in the Library of Congress. Printed in Doc. Rel. 
to Col. Hist, N. Y., 6:1027, and Correspendence of William Shirley, 
ed. Lincoln, 2:342-43. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 331 

Indian Affairs, also a Letter 1 and other Papers from GoV. 
Morris of Philadelphia concerning the Hostilities committed and 
still committing by the Indians on the Frontiers of that and the 
Neighbouring Provinces, desiring I would use my utmost 
endeavors to put a stop to it. 

On my return from Lake George I received an account of 
the cruel proceedings of the Indians in them parts of an express 
from Sir Charles Hardy and as soon as I got home, despatched 
Messages to all the six Nations, and also to the Susquehanna 
Indians, Delawares and Shawanese acquainting the former of 
the Behavior of those Indians and insisted on their immediate 
Interposition. To the latter who are the people concerned, I 
sent a very smart reprimand for their unnatural and unjustifiable 
Behaviour to their Brethren and Neighbours the English; giving 
them a strong and warm Invitation to join us, and turn their 
arms this way against the French and their allies. What effect 
it will now have upon them I can't pretend to say with any 
certainty, but this much I make bold to say, that if I had not 
been so much employed otherwise this Time past and for some 
other Reasons I shall defer mentioning now Indian affairs would 
be in a much more favorable and prosperous way, and this 
perhaps not have happened. 

I have this long time been told there was a Commission from 
His Majesty for me, and that it was sent by the late General 
Braddock, but I never received any, nor pay for the one I had 
of him, alltho' I have neglected all my own business, on account 
of it and suffered much thereby. I shall soon write your Excel- 
lency more fully and let you know my inclinations regarding the 
Commission. 

I proposed ere I received yours to have a meeting of all the 
Nations I could assemble at this Season of the year, in order to 
settle matters with them in the best manner possible, and prepare 
them for service in the Spring. It will take some time to get them 



-See Robert Hunter Morris to Johnson, Nov. 15, 1755. 



332 Sir William Johnson Papers 

together, so that I may go to New York for a Fortnight and 
settle affairs, and be back ere they are assembled. 

I am Your Excellencys 
Most obedient and most humble Servant 

Wm Johnson 

an indian conference 1 

Copy 2 

At a meeting of the Mohawks, Oneidas, and 
Tuscaroras, December 26. J 755. 

Sequareefere, a chief of Tuscarora, spoke. 

Brother Warraghiyage, 3 

We return you our hearty thanks for the care you take of us 
in supplying us with ammunition, large guns and paint; as we 
do not know how soon the enemy will come upon us: we have 
been speaking to our eldest brothers these four years, about 
having a place of defence made against the French, but could 
never bring them to a conclusion until now, having promised to 
join and assist our brothers the English against any attempts 
which the French shall make upon them. 

A string of wampum. 

Canaghquayeson spoke. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We join with our brothers, the Tuscaroras, in returning you 
our hearty thanks for advising us to be upon our guard against 
the malicious designs of the French, and that you would supply 
us with ammunition, large guns, paint, &c. 

A belt. 



1 At Fort Johnson. 

2 Printed in An Account of Conferences held and Treaties made 
Between Major-Ceneral Sir William Johnson, Bart, and the chief Sachems 
and Warriours . . ., 5-7. 

3 The name given by the Mohawks to Johnson. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 333 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We own we have been lost or drunk these several years past, 
in not listening to you and our youngest brothers in joining the 
two castles together; but we have now opened our ears which 
have been stopped, and are determined to live and die with you. 

A belt. 
Brother Warraghiyagey, 

You acquainted us some time ago, of the designs of the French 
in encroaching upon our hunting-grounds, and advised us to 
be on our guard against them, or otherwise they would 
come and dispossess and destroy us all; it seems to us now 
that they had blinded our eyes, and it is plain to us as the sun 
that rises in the morning, that they had it in view. 

No doubt but you have heard that the French had invited 
us to meet them at Swegatsy; but we have taken a firm reso- 
lution never to listen to any but yourself: we don't speak this 
from our lips only, but it comes from the bottom of our hearts. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

You blame us for not taking care of our allies to the south- 
ward, but we assure you we have some time ago sent four large 
belts to them, desiring they would not join with any but whom 
the five nations joined; and since we are imformed [sic] that the 
belts and messages we sent were directly made known to the 
French. Now, brother, we have sent another message, desiring 
that they would come and speak with us; and be assured we 
will do our utmost endeavours to put a stop to any more blood- 
shed that way; and we hope, that you will desire the governors 
to do their utmost in bringing them over to us, as we are sure 
there is nothing draws them from us but the large presents which 
the French makes them. 

A belt. 
Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We have sent to the River-indians and Shawanese to come 
to our castle, to hear from their own mouths what they have to 



334 Sir William Johnson Papers 

say for their killing so many of our brothers; and if they should 
not come upon our message, we the Oneidas, and Tuscaroras 
Sachems, are determined to go to them and know the reason of it. 
Governor Shirley promised to have a fort built for us, and 
men to garrison it; and not hearing any thing about it since, we 
think he will defer it until spring; so hope that you will have a 
fort built immediately, and men to garrison it, as we are certain 
the French only wait a favourable opportunity to fall upon us. 

A string. 

FROM GIDEON HAWLEY 

Copy 1 

Copy of a letter of the Rev. Mr. Hawley at One- 
hughquagey, to the honourable William Johnson, 
dated Onehughquagey, December 27. 1755. 

Very honoured Sir, 

The Sachems who went from hence with your message to the 
Delawares, just now returned from Tiaogo, and desire me to pen 
the following letter to your honour; in which you have a brief 
account how the quarrel between the English and Delawares 
began, and what has happened since, according to the account 
which we have from Tiaogo. In which also your honour has 
the answer of the Delawares to the message you sent them by the 
bearer hereof, and a short speech which those Indians desired 
me to pen relative to the affairs. Your honour will pardon me 
if I am not so particular in my narration as the Indians are in 
telling a story. The letter which I am desired to write, except 
abbreviations, is as follows: 

Brother Johnson, 

We have been to Tiaogo upon your affairs. In the first place 
we relate what news we hear; the Indians there inform us that 



1 Printed in An Account of Conferences held, and Treaties made, 
Bettceen Major-Ceneral Sir William Johnson, Bart, and the chief Sachems 
and Warriours . . ., 10—14. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 335 

about two months ago, there was a party of English at 
Tsineanke, alias Shamokin, upon a scouting design; and that 
while they were there, news came that there was a party of 
French and Indians from Ohio about there; and Skaronyade 
advised the English party to return back, and by all means to 
keep on the east-side of the river: they took his advice, 'tis said, 
and returned, but went the west-side of the river, and that before 
they had gone far a French party came upon them, fired, and 
drove them into the river, where four of the English were 
drowned. Not long after this, that an Englishman came to 
Skahandow-ane alias Wayoming, and as he used to trade upon 
this river, the Indians asked him whether he brought any goods 
with him; he said no, but I have brought my body, my flesh, 
and you may do what you please with me: 'tis you, said he, 
and the six nations, who killed our people the other day, I was 
there, I know your language, it was certainly you that did the 
mischief; and now, said he, you and the English will fight; may 
be you think that you and your uncle the six nations are able to 
stand the English: I tell you, said he, that we can pinch you 
between our fingers; I don't cheat you, and act in the dark and 
underhanded, as you do, but tell you plainly that the English 
are going to fight you: in six days more the English will set out 
from all points against you. The Englishman returned to the 
white people, and informed them that a great multitude of 
Indians of all nations were gathered at Wayoming, &c. Then 
the English that way made it their business to take as many of 
the Delawares who lived among, or near the white people, and 
made them prisoners, as they could lay hands on; the number 
they took, 'tis said, is 232 in all; one old man they took, who 
heard the account which the Englishman brought from Wayom- 
ing, made his escape with much difficulty, and carried the news 
back to Wayoming, and gave an account of the English taking 
the Delawares who lived near the white people, &c. &c. 

The Indians of Wayoming, 'tis said, were much concern'd 
after the Englishman had been there, and kept scouts out to see 
if any English were coming against them; at last they saw a 



336 Sir William Johnson Papers 

single man coming, the Indians went to the white man, and 
asked him whether he was alone; he told them, that three more, 
who were gentlemen, were coming to have a treaty with them: 
they soon arrived, and called the Indians together, and informed 
them that they were sent to treat with them about building a 
fort there, that their squas and children might be protected from 
the French. The Indians desired to see their commission, they 
produced a certificate of it in writing; the Indians objected 
against their not having wampum; with that they produced 
another paper. Now the old man, who had been taken by the 
English, and made his escape, said to the Indians, don't you 
believe these men, they only mean to deceive you, and make 
you prisoners, or put you to the sword. 

At that the Indians took their hatchets, and knocked them 
all on the head, except the Indian trader, who came there before, 
and was now with these gentlemen that made his escape. 

Thus, brother Johnson, we have given you an account how 
the quarrel began between the English and Delawares, and 
what has happened since; and if they have told us a pack of 
lyes, we cannot help it. 

Now, my brother, we give you the answer of the Delawares 
to the message you sent by the bearer; this is the answer our 
nephew gives. 

Brother Johnson, 

We desire to know what is the reason of the quarrel between 
us and our brethren the English; you say you are ignorant of it, 
so are we; we don't know the cause of this quarrel. 

'Tis true, brother, as you say, we are not at our own com- 
mand, but under the direction of the six nations; we are women, 
our uncle must say what we must do; he has the hatchet, and 
we must do as he says. 'Tis true, brother, we have not the 
hatchet, we are poor women, and out of temper: we are much 
obliged to you, brother, that you tell us to stop, and leave off 
that which we have begun to do; we hear you, we stop and 
repent. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 337 

But, brother Johnson, some of our young men, a few days 
ago, went out against the English; we can't help it, though we 
have sent after them as soon as we heard from you, brother, to 
stop them, and call them back. Now, brother, you must take 
care of your side too; many of our people are now captives 
among the English, we must see every one of them return again, 
or else it will not be well. We shall wait two months to see 
whether our captives are given up, and if we don't see them 
then, we don't know what we shall do; when we see our people 
again, then we shall contrive to make up the matter, and settle 
affairs, and not till then. 

Thus, brother Johnson, you have the answer of my nephew 
to your message. 

Now, brother, we that are young ones here would say a few 
words; by and by you shall hear from our heads; we ask leave 
for once, according to the English custom, to use paper instead 
of wampum. 

Brother Johnson 

Be strong, do all you can on your part, and we will do all 
we can on ours: let us, both of us, be engaged to pursue to the 
things that make for peace and harmony; you'll not doubt, 
brother, but that the six nations will make it their business to 
set things to right again, and make up the unhappy quarrel 
between our brethren the English and the Delawares our 
nephews. . 

Be strong, brother, be engaged and we will assist you, and 
we need not doubt but we shall gain the point. 

We would inform you, brother, that the Delawares tell us 
that two companies of their men set out not long ago against 
the English; but they have now sent after them to bring them 
back. They say that there were 80 in one and 40 in the other 
company; and that a number are set out from Ohio lately 
against the English frontiers. 

Thus, honoured Sir, I have wrote all that the Indians desired, 
I have wrote in haste, and not correct as I might, had I had 



338 Sir William Johnson Papers 

leisure; the Indians from Tiaogo arrived just at sun-set, and 
the bearer designing to set out early in the morning, I must send 
this rough account just as it is, I rely on your honour's candour. 
If I can serve your honour in any thing in your public affairs, 
I am yours at command, 

GlDN. Hawley. 

P.S. I propose to your honour's consideration, whether it would 
be well for the English to build a fort and keep a garrison. I 
don't at all think that the Delawares design to be peaceable; 
a fort here perhaps will be necessary to keep the rest of the 
Indians on the river in good order. 

To the honourable WlLLIAM JOHNSON. 

FROM NATHAN WHITING 

[Fort Edward, Dec, I755] 2 
Sir, 

By The assistance of the Carpenters & Wagons from Albany 
with those I employed out of the forces here, I have got the 
Barracks in Some Considerable forwardness, Shall have them 
Covered And two Stacks of Chimneys out this Day, have a few 
floors Laid, & hope in a few days more if the weather holds good 
to have the other Chimneys & Several rooms floored fit to Live in, 
And As Soon As possible to get all the Men under Comfort- 
able circumstances, they at present Suffer much from their 
uncomfortable circumstances with respect to their Laying in tents, 
Which gives them bad Colds, & makes many unfit for Duty, 
though there is not many very Sick & two only have died That 
belong to the Garison; the things were in a bad Situation, I 
hope they will grow better. 



1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

2 The letter is not dated. But a comparison with Whiting's letter to 
Johnson, Jan. 8, 1756, shows it to have been written shortly before. 



Preliminary Campaigns, J 755-1 756 339 

I have not the most Agreable time of it; Shall be very glad 

of a Little respit & beg the favour you will grant it me if in 
your power, & flatter my Self from my knowledge of you & 

your former favours done me, you will use your Influence with 
Those In Who's department it may be, if not in your's, to pro- 
cure me a Little relaxation from my present fatigue, I Could use 
An Argument that I am Sure would Appear to be a moving 
one, Which is that I have a fine Charming Girl that I have been 
Long absent from & you know Sir that Cap 1 . Wraxwell & I, 
would have Nothing to do with Variety for the World. Another 
favour I must Ask Which is Should my pay be Setled by the 
Commissioners, you would do me What Service you can in 
getting it in Some measure equal to the trouble And expence. — 
Col Bagley & Maj r Mathews are now about going Home, the 
Col Lives at Such a distance that I doubt it will be Long before 
he returns, the Maj r is near, I must tell you he has Always 
treated me Like a Gentle". & his Company have always been 
quiet & ready to do Duty as I desire & no manner of Conten- 
tion between them And the other Troops but a Good Harmony, 
as there has as yet been Among all The Garison — I have 
already informed you of our deficiencys in Number, the State 
of the Garison you well knew, & how I was furnished with a 
Train or rather that I was not furnished with Any. I have 
According to your orders, Acquainted General Shirley & S r 
Charles Hardy with that As Well As the Whole State of the 
Garison. 

Col Bagley told me you were so Soon hurried Away from 
Albany you had not time to make out the Commissions but would 
Soon do it And forward them to me — I have constantly Sent 
out Small Scouts toward the Wood Crick And South Bay, but 
they have made no discovery, not even the Track of a Small 
party — I have rec d your orders forwarded from Albany, Which 
I Shall be carefull to observe A»s far As is in my power, As I 
ever Shall be Any you will please to give, While I have the 



340 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Honour to Serve under you. In Assurance of Which I Sub- 
scribe with due Esteem 

Sir 

your most Obedient 
humble Servant 

N Whiting 1 
Maj r General Johnson 

addressed : 
To 

The Hon ble Maj r General Johnson 

Att 

Mount Johnson 

INDORSED : 

Col: Whitings letter 



DIRECTIONS' FOR HOUSEHOLD AFFAIRS 

L. 

Fori Edward 3 

*] 

] be done at Supper [ ] 

] always clean, with Candles fitted [ 
] Chamber maid to make all the beds [ 
] lighted up in the Bedchambers at Supper time [ 
] with Water & a Towel be placed in each lodging [ 
Slippers & a Chamber utensil — 



1 Nathan Whiting, lieutenant colonel of the 2nd Connecticut regiment 
in the expedition against Crown Point in 1755; succceeded in command 
Colonel Ephraim Williams killed in the engagement near Lake George; 
made colonel in 1 756; served at Ticonderoga and in Amherst's campaigns. 

2 The Johnson Calendar states that these directions were not intended 
for the camp. 

3 Listed in Johnson Calendar, p. 71, at close of year 1 755. 

4 Lines burned off. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 341 

The H. to be washed Twice a Week beginning at Daylight [ ] 
parlours, & proceeds to the Bed Cham rs after the Family [ 
The Laundry Maid beside the Family Linnen is to see that | 
in readiness, a proper set of Table Linnen, Towels [ 
&ca 

COUNCIL MINUTES 
Copy 1 

At a Council held at the City of Annapolis on 
Saturday the 10 th day of January in the fifth year of his 
Lordships Dominion Annoque Domini 1 756. 
Present as Yesterday 

His Excellency is Pleased to lay before this Board the fol- 
lowing Extract 

Extract from the Record of the Proceedings of the Honourable 
William Johnson Esq r with the Confederate Nations of Indians 
at the publick Meeting at Mount Johnson in June and July T755. 

Brother 

We have taken into Our Confederacy our Children the 
Schanadarighroones and they are desirous you will look upon 
them as your Brethren, there are many of them who at Present 
live in Maryland and want to come and live near to Us, that 
both our Strength and theirs may be increased. We have Sent 
for them by Belts of Wampum, but they are not effectual, for 
there are three Colonels in Maryland near whose houses they 
live who in conjunction with three Chief Men amongst those 
Indians who will not let them Ccme away. We desire you 
will interpose & write to those Persons to let them come away 

Give a String 

They named the three Colonels Viz 1 Col Scarborough Col 
Henry and Col Hooper the three Chiefs they also Named Viz 1 



1 Printed in Archives of Maryland, 31 : 100-1 01 



342 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Jemikakonick in Locust Neck Lame Sam in D° and Geeko in 
Pocomoke 

A True Copy from the original Records Extracted by me 

Peter Wraxall SeC? &c for Ind n Affairs 

FROM JOHN VAN SICE 
Copy 1 

Onondago, 23d of Jan*., 1756. 
Sir: 

This is to acquaint you of the News 2 that the Indians brought 

here a Belt of Wampum which is come from Niagara, and 

desires our Indians that they should stand aside, that they would 

go to Oswego to take it within 10 or 12 Days; the French is 

to set out from Niagara to-day or to-morrow, as the Indians 

told me, and they desire me to write it to your Honour to 

acquaint you with all Speed. The Indians are to go from here 

within 4 days; so no more at present, but remain 

Your humble Servant, 

John Van Sice. 

To The Hon ble . Major Gen l . Johnson. 

FROM ROBERT ADAMS 
Copy 3 
Fort Johnson, J art- 28th, 1756. 

Sir: 

Just now came here Two Oneidas Express from the Senecas, 
and brought with them a large Belt of Black Wampum, 14 
Rows broad and 2|/2 Foot long, who made the following 
Speech. 4 



1 Printed in Pennsylvania Colonial Records, 7:43-4. 

2 See Robert Adams to Johnson, with inclosure, Jan. 28, 1756. 

3 Printed in Pennsylvania Colonial Records, 7:42—3. 

4 This speech is contained in "Extract of Indian Proceedings" that 



follows this letter. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 343 

There is about 20 of the Oghquagy and Tuscororas here 
these eight days past, and about 30 more expected; the Express 
says there will be a vast Number of the Five Nations down; 
this goes by Express, which the Indians insisted on. I am, 
Sir, your most obedient humble Servant, 

Robert Adams, 
extract from indian proceedings 

Contemporary Copy 1 

Extract from the Records of S r William Johnsons 
Indian Proceedings. 

Last January whilst S r William was on his Way home from 
Newyork, the Senecas Sent an Express to him with a Belt of 
black Wampum, with the following Intelligence which was 
brought to Fort Johnson by two Oneida Indians, and forwarded 
by the Deputy Secretary to S r William. It met him at Albany 
the 20. or 29 of January, when he immediately dispatched 
Copies of it by Express to Gen 1 . Shirley and S r Charles Hardy. 

The Seneca Message 
Brother Warraghiyagey 

About 3 Weeks ago, came a large Vessell to Niagara, with 
a french Officer on Board, who enquired where his Childeren 
were who allways kept there, for that he could not see any of 
them. 

The French Officers Speech 
to the 6. Nations 
Childeren 

The English have been threatening us all last Summer about 
taking Niagara and Cadaraghqui Forts, which I dreaded very 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. ; in handwriting 
of Peter Wraxall. 



344 Sir William Johnson Papers 

much, especially Niagara which is to be compared to nothing 
else than a decayed Tree, which if a Small Blast of Wind came 
would blow it down. 

Children. I have been at the defeating of the English at Ohio, 
and hearing of General Johnsons coming to Crown Point, I 
immediately set off to meet him. When I first met his People, 
the smoak of my Guns made such a Darkness before my Eyes, 
that I could not see my Childeren, but in Marching a little 
further discovered Numbers of them laying dead in the Road 
which made my heart bleed, as I heard Gen 1 . Johnson had said 
he did not want his Brothers to fight, but to look on and See 
him fight. 

Children 

I now tell you that I am going to steal Oswego from the 
English, and my Army thats coming is very numerous and makes 
a great Noise. 

I dont intend to listen any more to my Children who are 
about my Ears, for I will do now as I please, and Children you 
have never heard me promise anything, but what I allways 
fulfilled and I desire you Children to keep from that Place 
called Oswego" 

Brother Warraghiyagey 

We the Sachems of the 5 Nations now assembled at Onon- 
daga, do let you know that we See Death before our Eyes, and 
that we Send this Post, to desire that there may be Men ready 
to Send to the Relief of Oswego, for you may assure yourself, 
the above is nothing but the Truth. 

N : B ; a Copy of this Intelligence was transmitted 
by S r . William Johnson from Albany 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 345 

by Express to Gen 1 . Shirley and S r Charles 
Hardy the 20 or 29. January 1 756. 1 

A true Extract from the 
Records Exam d . by 

Peter Wraxall 

Sect 1 *. 
indorsed: 

Extract from Indian Records 
of Indian Intelligence 
about Oswego 

TO WILLIAM SHIRLEY 
A. Df. 2 

Albany J amy. 29 th, 1756 
Sir 

On my Arrival here the 27th, after a tedious and fatigeing 
Journy, I reed, a Message from the Sachims of the Six Nations 
by Express, that the French are determined to attack Oswego 
verry Soon, I refer You to what they sayed at my House about 
it, which I inclose to You, also a Coppy of a Letter from John 
Van Seice.° much to the same purpose, but more incorrect. I 
also Send You Coppy of a letter I reed, yesterday from Collo. 
Whiting 4 who Commands at Fort Edward. 

I think if the French design attacking Oswego, they will not 
come from Niagara to do it as by the way of Cadarachqui would 
be much nearer & more convenient even at any Season of the 
Year. I propose Setting of to Morrow Morning for my House, 
Where I understand there are a good Many Indians from 



1 This note is crossed out in the manuscript. A copy of the intelligence 
was sent by Hardy to Gov. Morris of Pennsylvania. 

2 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 

3 Van Sice to Johnson, Jan. 23, 1756. 

4 Nathan Whiting. 



346 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Susquahana Mett, the Five Nations are not yet arrived, they 
are verry much alarmed at the Menaces of the French, and 
I expect will be asking great things to be done for them. As 
Men Arms Amunition &ca I should be glad to have Y r . Excel- 
lencys directions should that be the Case, also how to Act with 
regard to the Indian Officers whether they are to be disbanded, 
or continued, and how I am to pay them, as they are daily 
demanding their pay, and indeed want it most of them, as we 
have lost Severall of the best of them in the late action should 
be glad to know whether I may Give Your Commissions to 
Such as I think worthy of them. I am much hurried, So hope 
You will excuse My inaccuracy, 

I am Sr. &ca 
General Shirley 

from william shirley 
L. S. 1 

Boston 5 ih . Feb*. J 756 
Sir 

I have received your favour of the 29 th . January with Copys 
of the Message from the Sachems of the Six Nations and a 
Letter from John Van Sise 2 containing an Account of the 
Threats of a French Officer in relation to Oswego. 

I intirely join with you in Opinion that if the French design 
to attack Oswego, they will not come from Niagara to do it, 
therefore must Conclude that those Menaces of the French are 
made with a design to induce the Indians of the Six Nations to 
remain neutar and to prevent their making any Engagements 
against them, at their next Meeting at your House. 

I am glad to find that you are like to have so General a 
Meeting of the Indians. — You may Assure them that I shall 
the next Campaigne employ a great Army in the defence of 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 

2 John Van Seice (Van Sice) to Johnson, Jan. 23, 1756. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 347 

their Country and recovering such parts of it as have been 
encroached upon by the French and that in the mean time his 
Majesty's Troops in the Province of New York shall be held 
in readiness to defend them against any Attempts of the French 
before the Opening of the Campaigne, And I hope you will 
prevail on them to have a Number of their Warriors in readiness 
to fall on the French in any March they shall Attempt to make. 
As to Arms and Ammunition &c I leave it to your prudence to 
supply them with such Quantities as you shall judge necessary. 
As to the Indian Officers I also leave it to your prudence to 
disband or continue such of them as you think proper And to 
pay them according to the Settlements sent you by General 
Braddock. 

I am with great truth 

Sir, 

Your most Humble 
Servant, 

W Shirley 
Major General Johnson 

an indian conference 1 

Copy 2 

[February 2-16, 1756.] 

February 2, 1 756. 

At a meeting of the Oneidas, Tuscaroras, Skaniadaradigh- 
ronos, Chugnuts, and Mahickanders, I made an answer to 
their Speech in the presence of, 

The Rev. Mr. Hawley, Mr. Daniel Clause, 

Lieutenant Miller, Arent Stevens, 

Mr. Reed, William Printup, 

Three Interpreters, 



1 At Fort Johnson. 

2 Printed in An account of Conferences held, and Treaties made, 
Between Major-General Sir William Johnson, Bart, and the Chief 
Sachems and Warriours . . . , p. 16-22. 



348 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Canadagaye a Mohawk chief, my speaker, stood up and 
answered to their speech as follows, viz. 

Brethren of the Oneidas, Tuscaroras, Skaniadaradighronos, 
Mahickanders, Chugnuts, and Shawanese. 

I approve much of your openness of heart to me on this 
occasion, and as that is the surest way of having your grievances 
redressed, I would advise you (as I have often your brethren of 
the six nations) always to follow that method, and you may be 
assured I will endeavour to ease your minds, and do every 
thing in my power to contribute to your happiness. As for the 
idle surmises of, or reports spread by any ill minded silly people, 
who know nothing of your sentiments, or the state of your or our 
affairs, I must desire you will not give ear to, nor be in the 
least uneasy at them, for their words are like wind and not to 
be noticed. If at any time your minds are disturbed, or that 
you labour under any difficulties, let me know it immediately, 
you may depend upon relief. The strong assurances you now, 
and always have given me of your attachment to your brethren 
the English, and of your gathering together, gives me the greatest 
pleasure, and will animate me to take more care of you, which 
you may depend upon as long as you continue stedfast friends to 
the English, which you will ever find it your interest to do. 

A belt. 

Brethren of the several before-mentioned nations. 

Your case I have considered, and agree with you in opinion, 
that your present situation is far from being safe, having so 
dangerous and deceitful an enemy, as the French are notoriously 
known to be on the one side, and their blindfolded, rash Indians 
(who know not their own interest) on the other. Wherefore, 
agreeable to your request, I shall immediately have a fort built 
for the safety of your old people, children, and friends, living 
round about there ; I will also supply you with arms, ammunition, 
&c. to defend the said fort, against any attempts the French, or 
their Indians, may make upon you : keep a good look out, and if 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 349 

at any time you find a design against you, let me know it, and 
I will come immediately to your assistance. This I confirm by 
this belt of wampum. 

A belt. 

February 2, 1 756. 

The answer of the Aughquageys, Tuscaroras, Ska- 
niadaradighronos, Mahickanders, Chugnuts, and 
Shawanese. 

Adam, Speaker. 
Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We the several nations of Indians living at and about Sus- 
quehanna river and its branches, here present, return you our 
most hearty thanks for your kind compliance to our requests, 
as well as for the great regard you shew for our safety, by 
promising to come in person to our assistance, should there be 
occasion at any time for it: this convincing proof of your love 
for us, at this critical time, lays us under the greatest obligations ; 
and be assured we and ours shall never forget it as long as the 
waters of Susquehanna run. 

A belt, and finished, giving six shouts of approbation. 

Friday 6th, I sent an Indian express, with a belt of wampum, 
to know the reason of the six nations delay. 

Monday 9th, Not hearing from them yet, and all the other 
nations waiting here impatiently, dispatched Jacobus Clemont, 
one of the interpreters, to bring them down speedily. 

Wednesday 1 1 th, Three Onondaga warriors arrived at my 
house, with three strings of Wampum from the Sachems, acquaint- 
ing me that their nations Cayougas, and Senecas, were making 
all the haste possible, and would be here tomorrow in a body : in 
the afternoon the Onondagas and Cayougas arrived, and told 
me that fifty Senecas would be here to-morrow. 

The Mohawk Sachems came to me with an express from their 
brethren the Canajoharees, acquainting them and me, that the 



350 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Oneidas and Tuscaroras, were to be on Friday at their castle, 
in order to condole the death of the great Hendrick, and the 
other chiefs of that castle, who were slain at Lake George, and 
desired theirs and my attendance at the ceremony; I gave them 
the proper belts of wampum on that occasion, and desired they 
would act for me, as I could not possible attend, there being 
so many Indians at my house, which they readily agreed to, 
and set off. 

Thursday 12th, The Senecas arrived and told me, that the 
Oneidas and Tuscaroras would not be here until Saturday or 
Sunday, for the above-mentioned reason. 

Friday 13th, Some more of the Senecas arrived, when I per- 
formed the necessary ceremony on that occasion. 

Saturday 1 4th, I had an express sent me by the Canajoharees, 
that a great number of the Oneidas, Tuscaroras and Mohawks, 
were met there, and would finish their condolence that day, and 
set off the next; which they accordingly did; and on 

Monday 16th, The Oneidas and Tuscaroras arrived here, 
when I received them, and performed the usual ceremony on 
that occasion. 

After that Canaghquayeson, an Oneida Sachem, stood up 
and spake: 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We doubt not but you have been uneasy at our staying so 
long after our brethren of the other nation; the reason is this, 
we have been clearing up the road of our fore-fathers, as is 
customary among us (meaning the condoling of the loss of several 
of their people, who died and were killed since they travelled 
that road before) particularly at Canajoharee, where we have 
lost two great men, in whose stead or room we have appointed 
others. Our brethren of the other nations have passed by and 
neglected this, which we think wrong. Now we are here com- 
pleat, and beg you will be easy in your mind. 

A belt. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 351 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

Hoping we have now quieted your mind, we beg you will 
think and speak coolly, otherwise it may be of ill consequence 
to us, as our welfare depends greatly on your cool deliberations. 

A belt. 
Brother Warraghiyagey, 

As this is the council room, where all the affairs of the six 
nations are transacted; and as you told me you would keep a 
white wing hanging in it to sweep it clean with, we now take 
this fan down, and sweep all dust and dirt out of it, so as nothing 
may interrupt us in our councils and deliberations. 

Three strings of wampum. 

February 16th, 1756. 
My answer to the Oneidas and Tuscaroras Speech. 
Brethren, 

On your arrival yesterday you expressed your concern, lest 

I might be uneasy at your staying so much longer than the rest 
of your brethren, and than the time appointed. The reasons 

you have given for it are a sufficient apology ; I am very glad you 

have done every thing necessary on your part, agreeable to your 

customs, and the rules laid down to you by your wise ancestors. 

So many of you appearing here now at this council, and at so 

bad a season of the year, gives me great pleasure, as it plainly 

demonstrates your regard to my invitation 

A belt. 
Brethren, 

I thank you for the prudent and kind steps you have taken 
to quiet my mind at this time; I assure you it is quite settled, 
and my thoughts fixed upon nothing so much, as what may tend 
to your welfare, and that of all your brethren in general. 

A belt. 
Brethren, 

I have had this council room (on my inviting you and the 
rest of the nations to it) well cleansed; but as you imagined it 



352 Sir William Johnson Papers 

might have (by your staying so much longer than the time 
appointed for meeting) gathered some dust; I am glad you have 
taken down the fan, and swept it, so that nothing might in the 
least impede our consultations. 

Three strings of wampum. 
Ended this affair. 

AN INDIAN CONFERENCE 1 
Copy 2 
My answer made February 17, 1756. 
Arent Stevens, interpreter. 

Brethern [sic] of Tuscarora, 

I received the friendly speech 3 which you made at my house 
when I was at New-York, together with your acknowledgments 
for the arms, ammunition, &c. I gave your nation ; I heartily wish 
they may answer the end they were designed for, which was to 
enable you to secure yourselves against any attempts of the 
French, or any other enemy. I highly approve of your wisdom 
and timely advice to your elder brothers the Oneidas, and am 
extremely glad that you and they have at last agreed to build 
a place of defence, and to join your brethren the English against 
any attempts of your and our common enemy the French. 

A belt. 
Brethren of Oneida. 

It highly pleases me to find you so grateful for the advice I 
have given you, and the assistance I promised you should have, 
as well as your brethren the Tuscaroras; and I expect you and 
they, together with the Skaniadaradighronos, will live so com- 



1 At Fort Johnson. 

2 Printed in An Account of Conferences held, and Treaties made, 
Between Major-Ceneral Sir William Johnson, Bart, and the chief Sachems 
and Warriours . . . , p. 7-10. 

3 See Robert Adams to Johnson, Jan. 28, 1756 and speech that 
follows. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 353 

pact, and have your castle fortified in such a manner, as may 
enable you to make a bold defence, should any attempts be 
made against you. 

If you do this, and have a good officer with a party of men 
there, nothing can hurt you. 

A belt. 
Brethren, 

Nothing can give me greater satisfaction, than to find you have 
at last come to your senses, and to the use of your hearing, 
of which you have acknowledged to have been bereft some time. 

As I have a great regard for you, I most sincerely wish you 
may continue in your senses, that you may follow the wholesome 
advice which your brother the Tuscarora, although younger, ha$ 
given you, and that which I shall from time to time give you. 

Brethren, 

Had you been in your right senses, and your eyes open when 
I timely acquainted you with the designs of the French encroach- 
ing on your hunting-grounds, and destroying you, and had fol- 
lowed my advice, the French would not have been now in 
possession of the best part of your country, and bid you defiance 
as they now do. 

Shake away then that infatuation, which has so long had the 
better of you, and exert yourselves now in conjunction with your 
Father the King's troops, and you may still recover your lands 
and be a happy people, which is the sincere wish of your Father 
and all your brethren. 

Your not complying with the governor of Canada's invitation 
to meet him at Swegatsy, was quite right; and I am glad you 
have taken so firm a resolution of adhering to your engage- 
ments: had you acted otherwise, it would have been a breach 
of the many solemn promises you have made to me on that head. 

A belt. 
Brethren of Oneida and Tuscarora, 

I am heartily pleased to hear from you, that you have not 
been so remiss as I imagined, with regard to the Delawares 
12 



354 Sir William Johnson Papers 

and Shawanese; and that you are determined to have a con- 
ference with them. I must press you in the most strenuous 
manner to exert your authority at said meeting, and let me know 
the result thereof as soon as possible. 

A belt. 
Brethren, 

I heard general Shirley say, that he had ordered a fort to 
be built for you some time ago: why his orders have not been 
complied with I cannot say; but this I may venture to affirm, it 
was not his fault: however, as you now desire it may be built, 
I will order proper persons to go about it as soon as possible. 

A belt. 
Ended. 

AN INDIAN CONFERENCE 1 
Copy 2 
At a private meeting of the upper Mohawk castle, 

Wednesday the 1 8th. [February, 1756] 
Present all the sachems and warriors, 
Abraham, Hendrick's brother, stood up and spoke. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We return you our hearty thanks, for the care you have taken 
in fortifying our castle last summer, agreeable to our desire, 
and also of garrisoning it in our absence, for the security of our 
old people and children. And as we look upon it as necessary 
now as ever (from the many reports we daily have, of the 
French's intentions of attacking us for our attachment to you) 
we earnestly desire there may be an officer, and a proper number 
of men, posted there, as soon as possible for our defence. 

A belt. 



1 At Fort Johnson. 

2 Printed in An Account of Conferences held, and Treaties made, 
Between Major-General Sir William Johnson, Bart, and the chief Sachems 
and Warriours . . . , p. 22. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 355 

Brethren of Canajoharee, 

As I am fully convinced of your sincerity and attachment to 
his Majesty's interest, I readily comply with your request, not 
doubting it will be very agreeable to your Father the great king, 
who has nothing more at heart than the safety and welfare of 
you his faithful children; as an assurance of what I say, and 
now promise to you, I give you this belt of wampum. 

A belt. 
So this meeting ended. 

AN INDIAN CONFERENCE 

Copy 1 

[Fort Johnson, Feb. 18-19, 1756] 

At a meeting of five hundred and eighty-six of the 
Six nations and their allies, at Fort Johnson, Feb- 
ruary the 1 8th 1 756. 

Present, 

The honourable William John- Lieut. Pottinger, 

son, sole superintendant of Lieut. Mills, 3 

their Affairs, Lieut. Lottridge, 

The Rev. Dr. Ogilvie, 2 Capt. Butler 4 , and other Indian 

The Rev. Mr. Hawley, officers, 

Capt. Beckwith, Several gentlemen, 

Lieut. Miller, The deputy secretary, 

Lieut. Dunbar, And four interpreters, 



1 Printed in An Account of Conferences held, and Treaties made 
Between Major-Ceneral Sir William Johnson, Bart, and the chief Sachems 
and Warriours . . . , p. 23—25. 

2 "Missionary, stationed among the Mohawks." [Ed's note.] 

3 "A brave English-man, Lieutenant of the independant companies in 
the province of New-york." [Ed's note.] 

4 "An Irish gentleman, in the same rank with Mills, and has resided 
among the Mohawks above 20 years." [Ed's note.] 



356 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I, (viz. Gen. Johnson) spoke as follows: 

Brethren of the six united nations, 

I have heard with great concern that a war-party of the 
Senecas, the most remote nation of the confederacy, have had a 
considerable misunderstanding with their brethren the English 
to the southward, which has been fatal to some of that nation. I 
am extremely unable to express my concern for that unhappy 
affair; and as the hatchet remains fixed in your heads, I do with 
the greatest affection and tenderness remove it thence. 

A belt. 
Brethren, 

With this belt I cleanse and purify the beds of those who 
fell in that unfortunate affair, from the defilement they "have 
contracted. 

A belt. 
Brethren, 

I am informed that upon that unhappy occasion you have lost 
three of your principal warriors; I do with this belt cover their 
dead bodies, that they may not offend our fight any more, and 
bury the whole affair in eternal oblivion. 

A belt. 
Brethren, 

I have now agreeable to your antient customs scattered those 
clouds that looked with so dark and threatning an aspect; the 
sun now shines bright again, therefore let us under its enlightn- 
ing and cherishing influences, proceed upon our important 
business with our usual chearfulness and unanimity. 

A belt. 

The remaining part of the ceremony of condolence, jointly 
in the name of General Johnson and Governor Morris, whom 
Skaronyade the half king, and Mr. Montour, represented. 

Brethren of the Cayougas and Toderighronos, 

By constant experience we discover, that the life of man is 
as the flower of the field; in this transitory scene, therefore, 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 7 55-1 7 56 357 

resignation becomes us under the loss of our nearest and dearest 
friends: comfort yourselves, therefore, under the losses you have 
sustained, as becomes reasonable creatures. With this belt 
I cover all your dead, that they may no more offend your fight. 

A belt. 

Brethren of the Onondagas, Oneidas, Tuscaroras, Skaniadaradi- 
ghronos, Aughquaygeys, and the Mohawks of both castles, 

I perform the same ceremony to you. After the ceremony, 
six French prisoners, some of those who were taken at the late 
battle, near Lake George, were delivered with great ceremony to 
the Indians, in order to replace the following Indians, who were 
killed in that battle, viz. Tayanoga, alias Hendrick Tarraghi- 
yoris; Waniacoone of Canajoharee; Skahyowio Onienkoto of 
the Mohawks; Nica-anawa Skaronyade's son; and Cayadanora, 
a Tuscarora. 

They received the prisoners with the greatest marks of grati- 
tude and satisfaction; every nation giving the shout of appro- 
bation, and then carried off the prisoners to their respective 
families. 

Thus ended the ceremony necessary on those occasions, agree- 
able to their customs. 

The answer of the Six nations and their allies, 

February 1 9th 1 756. 

Red Head, speaker, 

Present, 

The hono. William Johnson, Lieut. Dunbar, 

The Rev. Dr. Ogilvie, Capt. Butler, and other Indian 

The Rev. Mr. Hawley, officers, 

Lieut. Miller, Three interpreters. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We the sachems and warriors of the Seneca nation, return 
you our sincere and hearty thanks, for the great affection in 



358 Sir William Johnson Papers 

drying our tears, and driving sorrow from our hearts ; and we in 
return perform the same ceremony to you with the like hearty 
affection. 

A string of wampum. 
Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We are sensible of your goodness, expressed to us in removing 
the cause of our grief, and tenderly taking the ax out of our 
heads. A belt. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We are thankful to you for cleaning the blood out of our fight, 
agreeable to the antient custom of our forefathers. 

A belt. 
Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We are thankful likewise for covering the graves of those who 
were slain in that unhappy [sic] affair. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We acknowledge your goodness in thus settling our minds, 
which were so much discomposed, and that you have so season- 
ably reminded us of that harmony, that has always subsisted 
between our fore-fathers and our brethren the English, an 
account of which has been handed down, to us by tradition, 
from father to son. We promise due attention to your advice, 
which we are convinced tends to our welfare; and assure you, 
that we bury that unfortunate affair in eternal oblivion. 

A belt. 

The Cayougas and Toderighronos, return their hearty thanks 
to the General, for his affectionate and public condolence, with a 
belt. 

A belt. 

The Onondagas acknowledge the same with a belt. 

A Belt. 
The Oneidas do the same. 

A belt. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755—1756 359 

The Tuscaroras and Skaniadaradighronos the same. 

A belt. 
The two castles of the Mohawks the same. 

A belt. 
Brother Warraghiyagey, 

The six united nations, as one body, do with the greatest thank- 
fulness acknowledge your brotherly affection, in thus effectually 
cleansing and purifying all our habitations from all the blood and 
defilement, which they had contracted by the death of so many 
of our principal men. 

A belt. 

The speaker then took up a large belt, which the general gave, 
with an emblem of the six nations joined hand in hand with us, 
and spoke as follows: 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

Look with attention on this belt, and remember the solemn 
and mutual engagements we entered into, when you first took 
upon you the management of our affairs; be assured, we look 
upon them as sacred, and shall, on our parts, punctually perform 
them as long as we are a people. 

A prodigious large belt! 

The speaker then took up another very large belt, which was 
given them by the governor of New York some years ago. 

He then repeated the solemn promises, that were then made 
them by the representatives of all the governments then present, 
and said, 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We hope our brethren the English will seriously remember 
the promises made by us by this belt, and exactly perform them; 
and we promise to do the same, though we have no records but 
our memories. 

A very large belt. 



360 Sir V/illiam Johnson Papers 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

As you, and the governor of Philadelphia, have asked us, 
what reason we can possibly assign for the barbarous behaviour 
of our nephews the Delawares; all we can say at present is, 
that they are deluded by the craft and subtilty of our old and 
perfidious enemy the French; but we promise on our part, we 
will try all means to stop their proceeding further in their hos- 
tilities, and beg you will do the same. 

Three strings of wampum. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We earnestly entreat, that you will immediately acquaint all 
the governors concerned, that we the six nations have not been 
inattentive to this important affair, but have already sent some 
of our people to take the hatchet out of the hands of our nephews 
the Delawares; and we should be glad that you would draw 
your troops from the frontiers; then we will endeavour to bring 
our nephews the Delawares to deliver up all the prisoners they 
have taken from their brethren the English, and to make the 
best acknowledgment in their power for their base and treacherous 
behaviour. 

A belt. 
Brethren of the six nations, 

I am extremely pleased with your kind and friendly acknowl- 
edgements of my public condolence yesterday. And as all 
causes of uneasiness to either of us are now removed, I propose 
tomorrow to deliver you a speech relative to our present circum- 
stances, which I hope you will be properly prepared to hear. 

Ended. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 361 

AN INDIAN CONFERENCE 1 

Copy 2 

February 19. 1756. 

At a meeting of Several principal warriors, from the most 
remote parts of the Seneca's country, who never came down 
before to any meeting, the chief man named Kayandagaron, 
alias Kendorondy, Spoke as follows: 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

I, with my party of warriors from Canuskako, the door of 
the six nations, embrace this first opportunity of shaking you by 
the hand, and of assuring you, that nothing but my regard for you, 
and my desire of hearing your sentiments from your own mouth, 
could have induced me, and my young men, to take such a 
journey at this time of the year, as we had several of our 
sachems attending at the meeting. We are now here at the fire- 
place of all the nations, and assure you we are heartily glad to 
see you. 

Brethren of Canuskako. 

As I have nothing more at heart than the welfare of the six 
nations, and their allies, it always gives me the most sensible 
pleasure to see, or even to hear from any of them, and more 
especially you, whom I never saw before, as it affords me an 
opportunity of commencing that acquaintance and friendship 
with you, which is natural among brethren, and which my inclina- 
tion will always lead me to improve, especially with so brave 
a people as your nation has always been deemed. 

Here I ended. 



1 At Fort Johnson. 

2 Printed in An Account of Conferences held, and Treaties made, 
Between Major-General Sir William Johnson, Bart, and the chief 
Sachems and Warriours . . . , p. 29. 



362 Sir William Johnson Papers 

AN INDIAN CONFERENCE 1 
Copy 2 

[Feb. 20-24, 1756] 
February 20. 1756. 
Present at the following public speech 

The hon. William Johnson, Lieut. Pottinger, 

sole superintendant of their Lieut. Lee, 

affairs, Lieut. Kennedy, 

The Rev. Dr. Ogilvie, Lieut. Mills, 

The Rev. Mr. Hawley, Ensign Penington, 

Capt. Beckwith, Several Indian officers, and 

Lieut. Miller, other gentlemen, 

Lieut. Dunbar, Three interpreters. 

Brethren of the six united nations, your allies and dependants, 

It always gives me the most solid pleasure to meet you here, 
that we may felicitate ourselves in the cherishing warmth and 
light of that lire, kindled here for our mutual good; may it ever 
burn bright as the sun that illuminates and guides the day, that 
you and your posterity, to the latest generations, may rejoice 
in its benevolent influence! 

A belt. 
Brethren, 

It gives me a particular satisfaction to meet you here at this 
time, for two important reasons. The first is, that it affords us 
an opportunity of a friendly interview under the shade of that 
tree, which was lately so solemnly and judiciously planted; and 
of calmly consulting and maturely deliberating matters of the 
utmost consequence, and which nearly concerns our mutual 
safety, welfare and honour. 

A belt. 



1 At Fort Johnson. 

2 Printed in An Account of Conferences held, and Treaties made, 
Between Major-General Sir William Johnson, Bart, and the chief 
Sachems and Warriours . . . , p. 30-50. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 363 

The second is, that it gives me an opportunity of shaking you 
by the hand with a brotherly affection, and in the name of the 
great King your Father, congratulating you upon our late happy 
success, which I make no doubt must give you the most sensible 
pleasure; and I flatter myself from your late repeated protesta- 
tions of fidelity to your brethren the English, it will prove a 
means of animating you, and all your faithful allies, to stand 
forth with your usual bravery upon all future occasions. 

A belt. 

How much greater might our success have been! how much 
more sensibly would it have been felt by our treacherous and 
common enemy, had more of your warriors appeared in the field 
on that important day, had all our force been united? If the 
bubbling or drops of our war-kettle did so much, how great 
would have been the consequence, had it boiled with its usual 
fury ! It would, like a mighty torrent, have carried all before it ; 
and it would have sounded the fame of our victorious arms far 
and near, and spread universal terror all around us ! 

I, now, in the name of the great King your Father, in this 
public manner return you thanks for joining our arms last sum- 
mer, and for your gallant behaviour in that Action. This gives 
him reason to expect the like fidelity and courageous conduct 
from you all for the future, and greatly endears you to him, 
and to all his loving subjects your affectionate brethren. 

A belt. 

This animates me with fresh pleasure and affection at this 
important conjuncture of affairs, to brighten and strengthen 
the covenant-chain, that has so long linked us together, 
in mutual friendship and mutual affection, which, I hope, will 
continue inviolable and sacred, as long as the sun shines, or 
the rivers continue to water the earth, notwithstanding all the 
intrigues of our old and perfidious enemies, who have left no 
means unessayed, and especially at this time, to weaken and 



364 Sir William Johnson Papers 

divide us, that so they may in the event root out the remembrance 
of your name and nations from the face of the earth. 

A large covenant-belt. 
Brethren, 

On my arrival from lake George last December, I had from 
.your brother the governor of New York, and since from the 
governor of Pennsylvania, the shocking news of (your nephews) 
the Delawares and Shawanese falling upon your brethren of 
Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia in the most cruel and 
treacherous manner, killing and barbarously butchering the inno- 
cent defenceless people, who lived on the frontiers of the said 
governments; burning and destroying all they had, and that 
without any just cause or reason, as I understand. This I 
communicated to you by one of your own people, a Seneca, 
with a belt of wampum, desiring you would, without loss of 
time, put a stop to your nephews spilling any more of your 
brethrens blood; and that you would enquire into, and let me 
know the reason of such their wicked and unparalleled behaviour 
to the King's subjects, your brethren and friends. I now repeat 
the same, and expect to hear what you have done in consequence 
of said message and desire. 

Brethren, I tell you with concern that I plainly foresee, 
unless you, the six nations, who have always maintained a 
superiority over the Indians, will now exert yourselves in this 
case, you will not only lose that authority which they hitherto 
acknowledged, but will have them your enemies. 

A large black belt. 
Brethren, 

I told you before the governor of Pennsylvania had 
acquainted me with the base behaviour of your nephews the 
Shawanese and Delawares, and has also sent your friend 
Skaronyade, and Andrew Montour to you with his message, 
and to know your sentiments thereon: I desire and expect you 
will pay a just regard to his message, and afford him all the 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 365 

assistance you can, in bringing that unhappy affair to as good 
an issue as possible. 

A belt. 
Brethren, 

I am now to acquaint you, that the great King of England, 
your Father, on the death of the late general Braddock, has 
committed the command of all his forces raised, and to be raised 
upon the continent of North America, to general Shirley; and 
has in a particular manner commanded him to protect your 
country, and the lands which your forefathers have conquered, 
and are of right your territories, against all violence and attempts 
of the French our common enemy; and to cultivate a strict 
friendship between him and you; he takes the first opportunity 
of communicating this to you by me, and of assuring you of his 
intentions, fully to follow his majesty's instructions herein. 

A belt of black wampum. 
Brethren, 

General Shirley also desires me to acquaint you, that he is 
to have a great army this ensuing spring for the defence of your 
country, and the recovery of such parts of it as have been 
encroached upon by the French; and that in the meantime his 
majesty's troops in the province of New York, shall be held in 
readiness to defend you against any attempts the French may 
make before the opening of the campaign. 

A belt. 
Brethren, 

On my return from New York, I received your kind message 
and information of the design of the French attacking his 
majesty's garrison at Oswego: I am extremely obliged to you 
for your friendly notice, which I immediately acquainted general 
Shirley and governor Hardy with, by express from Albany, who 
by their answers to me, are also greatly pleased with you, for the 
concern you shew for our mutual safety; and I expect you will 
not only continue your vigilence, but will also be ready (like 
unalterable friends and s brethren) to use the ax which I gave 
you last summer, in conjunction with his majesty's troops, when- 



366 Sir William Johnson Papers 

ever called upon, either at Oswego, or any where else they may 
be employed, to the utmost of your power, as it is his majesty's 
intention to stand by you, and protect you, as well as his own 
subjects, against the insults or attempts of any enemy whatever. 
Believe me, Brethren, this is the proper time to convince your 
Father, the great King of England, and your Brethren, of your 
sincerity and attachment to their interest, by your acting vigor- 
ously with his troops, which I most heartily advise you to do, as 
it is of the utmost consequence to our mutual interest. 

A large belt. 
Brethren, 

I must now acquaint you, that I propose meeting you at 
Oswego next spring, and desire you will join with me in the 
invitation I shall send to your friends and allies, far and near, 
to come to said meeting; when and v/here you and they shall 
receive a handsome present from your Father the great King of 
England, who is very desirous of bringing all nations worthy of 
his and your alliance, into the covenant-chain at that meeting. 
I hope, we shall then be able to make such an alliance, and 
settle matters in such a manner, and so much to our mutual 
advantage, as will give reason to all concerned, and their pos- 
terity, to bless that happy day we met together. 

A belt. 

The answer of the Six nations, the 21st 
of February 1 756. 

Red Head, Speaker. 

Present 

The hon. Will. Johnson, Lieut. Miller, 

The Rev. Dr. Ogilvie, Lieut. Dunbar, 

Capt. Buckworth, Three Interpreters. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We meet you with the greatest pleasure at this fire-place, 
and heartily join you in your wishes, that it may burn bright 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 367 

to the latest posterity; let us mutually endeavour to collect such 
materials for the use of this our fire, as may tend to support it 
in its full strength, as long as the sun and moon endureth. 

A belt. 
Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We acknowledge that this tree was solemnly and judiciously 
planted for our mutual welfare, its roots reach to the remotest 
habitations of the confederacy, and its branches afford a friendly 
retreat to us and all our allies and dependants. Brother, take 
a tender care of it, see that it be fed plentifully by friendly 
streams, that it may increase and spread its branches so far, that 
it may be a sufficient shade, not only for us, but also for all other 
nations, which may hereafter come into our alliance. 

A belt. 
Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We heartily rejoice with you upon our late success, and 
assure you it gives us a solid pleasure. 

A belt. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We are extremely well pleased, that our late conduct was so 
highly acceptable to the great King our Father. 

A belt. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We assure you, that we, on our parts, do with equal pleasure 
and friendship join with you at this time of public commotion, in 
brightening and strengthening the covenant-chain, that has so 
long united us together. Let us mutually and steadfastly adhere 
to our engagements, notwithstanding the crafty intrigues of our 
perfidious and blood-thirsty enemies. Let us vigorously 
endeavour to frustrate all their treacherous designs, that so we 
may reap the good effects of this our union, which has long 
been the object of their envy. With this belt we do most 
solemnly renew the engagements of the antient covenant-chain. 

A belt. 



368 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We always look'd upon the Delawares as the more immediate 
care of Onas, 1 that they were within the circle of his arms; we 
therefor are of opinion, that he has not taken that friendly care of 
them as he ought to do, and therefore our common enemy hath 
taken the advantage of his neglect; for we can't but think, that 
if there had been proper measures taken, they would have still 
continued faithful friends to the English Interest. 

A belt. 
Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We are sensible of the care of the great King's appointing 
general Shirley to succeed general Braddock; and we are 
extremely thankful for the particular instructions he has given 
him, to cultivate a strict friendship between us and him, and to 
protect our lands, and recover those encroached upon by our 
common enemy: we hope and expect, that he will strictly adhere 
to his majesty's incursions of our treacherous enemies, and use 
his utmost endeavours to recover those lands which they have 
clandestinely wrested out of our hands. 

A belt. 
Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We are very thankful for the assurance he gives us, that 
the soldiers posted in this province are to hold themselves in 
readiness to defend us upon any sudden emergency; for we 
assure you, we are apprehensive, that as the French find, that 
all their delusive and wheedling arts have not had their desired 
effect, they may throw off their disguise, and rush in upon us 
with a voracious fury, like the wolves of the wilderness. 

A belt. 
Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We are pleased that the information we give, with respect of the 
designs of the French against Oswego, has been acceptable to you, 



1 "by Onas, they, here, mean governor Morris." [Ed's note.] 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 369 

and our Brethren the English ; and we promise, for the future, to 
keep up a strict vigilance. The ax has been frequently put into 
the hands of our forefathers, by our brethren the English, and 
they always used it with the utmost vigour, till it was taken out 
of their hands. We assure you, that we intend, punctually, to 
conform to the bright and brave examples they set us; and we 
hope, this will be a sufficient proof of our sincerity and fidelity 
to the great King our Father. 

A belt. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

Your proposal of taking a few embers from the fire at Onon- 
dago, to kindle a fire at Oswego, and meeting us there this spring, 
is highly acceptable to us, as we have good reason to think that 
the light and warmth of that fire, will invite many nations to 
meet us there; and, we make no doubt that the things you will 
propose to their consideration, will carry such light and con- 
viction with them, as will be sufficient to engage them to join 
in our confederacy ; and we promise, to use the utmost endeavours 
to accomplish that great event; and we doubt not, but that our 
childrens children will have reason to remember that happy day. 

Brother, we very chear fully concur with this your proposal, 
as we are convinced you will propose nothing but what is for our 
mutual interest. 

A belt. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We have now opened our minds with freedom and sincerity, 
and we understand each other clearly ; let us mutually remember 
our engagements, which we have again so solemnly renewed ; and 
if at any time, our enemy should attack us, prove, by your 
readiness to support and assist us, that you really love us ; and we 
assure you, we shall not be wanting on our parts, to give proofs 
of the fidelity and friendship. 

A belt. 



370 Sir William Johnson Papers 

At a meeting of the Six nations, February 
the 23 d . 1756. 

Present 

The hon. Will. Johnson, Capt. Butler, and other Indian 

The Rev. Dr. Ogilvie, officers, 

The Rev. Mr. Hawley, Three interpreters. 

Brethren, 

As it was very cold and late when I delivered you my speech 
on Friday night, I told you, I would then postpone some things 
I had further to say; I now take this opportunity of communi- 
cating them to you. 

In the first place I must recommend to you, in the strongest 
manner, as his majesty's troops will be passing and repassing 
to Oswego next spring, that you endeavour all in your power 
to keep open the road thither, and not suffer any obstructions or 
stoppages to be thrown in the way by the enemy, as there is the 
greatest necessity, for our keeping that road clear and open, it 
being for our mutual interest and safety. 

A belt. 
Brethren, 

Now is your time, to have forts or trading-houses built in 
your countries, while your Father the great King of England 
has your interest so much at heart: if at any time you incline 
to have such built in any of your castles, only let me know it, 
and it shall be done. 

A belt. 

Brethren, 

Governor Hardy desired me to acquaint you, that he had a 
present from your Father the King for you, which he intends to 
deliver to you here, as soon as possibly he can, and expects your 
attendance. 

Three strings. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755—1756 371 

Brethren, 

The one great end proposed in calling you here, at this season 
of the year, was, to have that affair of the Delawares and 
Shawanese settled; but I am sorry to find you are not so hearty 
in the affair, as I expected you would, or as, at this important 
time, you ought to be; I must therefore urge you, most 
strenuously, to fall upon and settle this affair, before you leave 
this place, as there is no time to be lost; besides, your brethren 
of the several governments, with impatience, wait the result of 
this meeting, on which, let me tell you, much depends. 

A large belt. 
Brethren, 

It is my kind concern for }^our welfare, that leads me to 
propose the following advice to you. I have your happiness 
very much at heart, and most zealously wish your prosperity; 
therefore I conjure you, to observe and follow the friendly 
hints, I am now going to give you. 

1st. Endeavour to bring as many nations of Indians into 
your alliance as possibly you can; and try all means, without 
loss of time, to settle the minds of all such as are wavering, 
and those who are now ready to rebel against you. If you can 
accomplish this, let your study be, ever after, to keep up that 
correspondence faith and friendship with them, which is abso- 
lutely necessary between friends and allies, and without which, 
neither friendship or alliance can long subsist. 

2dly. I would have you to adhere, inviolably, to all the 
engagements you have, or shall enter into, with your brethren the 
English; who have always been your steady friends, and are 
determined ever to continue such: besides, they are the ablest, 
and will be the readiest to protect and defend you against any 
attempt of an enemy; and moreover, can, and will supply you, 
and all your allies, with the necessaries of life at a cheaper rate, 
than the French can. 

3dly. Be not any longer wheedled, blindfolded, and imposed 
on, by the artful speeches of the French; for their tongues are 



372 Sir William Johnson Papers 

full of deceit; do not imagine the fine cloaths, &c. they give 
you, are given out of love or regard to you; no! they are only 
as baits to catch fish; they mean to enslave you thereby, and 
entail that curse upon your children, after you, who will have 
reason to repent the day you begot them; be assured they are 
your inveterate, implacable enemies, and only wish, for a differ- 
ence to arise between you and us, that they may put you out 
of their way, by cutting you off the face of the earth. 

4thly. Fall upon a method of collecting each nation into a 
compact body: where you have good land, and a good situation, 
there fortify your castle in such a manner, as you may be able 
to defend yourselves, against any number with small arms : above 
all things, be unanimous in your councils, and also in the field. 

5thly. If at any time your brethren the English, or any of 
your Indian allies, are injured or threatened from any quarter, 
the whole body of the confederacy should rise, and endeavour 
to bring about an honourable accommodation; but if your enemy 
should not hearken to reason, but still persist in acting unjustly, 
then the whole body should, as one man, join their arms against 
the enemy; by which means, you will always be able to bring 
them to what terms may be thought proper: you will, in that 
state, be a terror to the French, who now, well knowing your 
unsettled, divided disposition, at every turn of the wind, use 
threats and menaces against you. Be not afraid of them; cleave 
to your brethren the English, and they cannot hurt you. 

6thly. If you duly observe these wholesome admonitions, 
you will again become numerous, and retrieve your pristine fame. 
Then, the very name of the six nations, and their allies, will 
be a terror to their enemies! and their arms will carry conquest 
with them, as heretofore. 

7thly. But, brethren and friends, if you continue any longer 
in your past, lethargic and supine state, and neglect this my 
friendly advice, and earnest desire, I greatly fear you will, 
sooner or later, have cause to repent it, and wish too late you 
had followed it. Let all your youngest people hear what I 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 373 

say, and your men and women seriously consider it; and let 
your and their memory witness for me, that I have given you 
all this timely and wholesome advice. 

Take this pipe to your great council-chamber at Onondago, 
let it hang there in view; and should you be wavering in your 
minds at any time, take and smoke out of it, and think of my 
advice given with it, and you will recover and think properly. 

Gave the largest pipe in America, made on purpose. 

As it is now late, I shall deliver you the present I have got, 
made on purpose for you, to-morrow morning; by which time, 
I hope to have your definitive answer, to the points I now spoke 
to you upon. 

Ended here. 

The answer of the Six nations, February 24th, 1 756. 
Red Head, speaker. 

Present, 

The hon. William Johnson, Capt. Butler, and other Indian 

The Rev. Dr. Ogilvie, officers, 

The Rev. Mr. Hawley, Three interpreters. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

You have very seasonably put us in mind of that superiority 
which we, by a series of conquests, have obtained over the 
Delawares, Shawanese and other; we are sensible of it, and 
therefore, no sooner did you send us the shocking tidings of 
their treacherous and barbarous behaviour, but we looked upon 
oui selves nearly concerned to interpose; we immediately 
dispatched a message to them, to enquire into the cause of this 
their unparelleled conduct ; we backed this with a second message, 
with equal warmth; both proving abortive, we obtained an inter- 
view by the means of our brethren of Oneida. At this meeting, 
we reminded them of their subordination, we shook them by the 



374 Sir William Johnson Papers 

hand and demanded the reasons of their conduct; we put them 
in mind how contrary this behaviour was to the covenant sub- 
sisting between the confederacy and the English; we told them, 
that our latest posterity would have reason to curse their action, 
and that it would give our brethren reason to suspect us all of 
treachery, while we so basely abuse the confidence they repose 
in us; we again and again desired they would immediately 
change their behaviour, at least, that they would suspend hos- 
tilities, 'till they heard from us at our return from this meeting: 
they seemed sensible of their fault, and promised they would 
cease committing any further hostilities. 

A string of wampum. 
Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We look upon you as one of our own body, and, therefore, as 
you have out of sincere regard to our common welfare, pressed 
upon us to put an effectual stop to the ravages and devastations 
made by our nephews the Delawares and Shawanese; we 
solemnly promise in the name of the sachems and warriors of 
the five nations, that we will use our utmost endeavour, to put a 
speedy and effectual stop to those unhappy proceedings; and it 
is the firm resolution of the whole confederacy, to conform them- 
selves entirely to your reasonable request in this important point; 
but, as the Mohawks are the head of our confederacy, we leave 
the management of that affair entirely to them. We sincerely 
wish, that the great Spirit, who governs all things, may succeed 
them in this important undertaking, as it will greatly contribute 
to our mutual happiness and strength. 

This confirmed with a large belt. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

The Missisagas acknowledge a message sent them by General 
Shirley last year, giving them an invitation to meet him at 
Oswego: they answer, that the season of the year was too far 
advanced to admit of a meeting then; but that, they promise to 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 375 

come early in the spring, and be attentive to what their brethren 
the English have to say. 

They desired that this string might be kept at Onondago, lest 
it might be intercepted by the French; for, should they be 
acquainted with their design of meeting the English, they feared 
they would fall upon and destroy them. 

A string of wampum. 
Brother Warraghiyagey, 

Be attentive to what I now propose, they are the real 
sentiments of the five nations, not meerly the sounds of their 
breath, but the genuine resolutions of their hearts. Look upon 
this belt 1 as a pledge of our inviolable attachment to you, and 
of our unshaken resolution, of joining you in all your measures: 
our determinations are founded upon clear conviction, as clear 
as that sun that now shines in the firmament. We shall send 
this belt to the Senecas, that from thence it may be conveyed 
to the remotest nations, as an emblem of the happiness we enjoy 
by our union; at the same time kindly inviting them to come in 
and join our covenant chain. 

Brother, you may depend upon this as our resolutions, which 
we will put into immediate execution. 

What you have said, in regard to the trade, we look upon 
as a convincing proof of your love and affection to us, and it 
gives us pleasure that it now becomes a matter of serious con- 
sideration with you; we are sensible of your ability to supply 
us with all the necessaries of life cheaper and better than the 
French can possibly do: indeed, brother, there is nothing you 
should more seriously attend to, as it would greatly tend to 
cement that friendship that subsists between us, and would be 



1 "This belt was the largest ever given! upon it was wrought the sun, 
by way of the emblem of light, and some figures representing the six 
nations; it was intended to signify, that they now saw objects in their 
proper light, and that they were fully convinced of the truth of every 
thing proposed." [Ed's note.] 



376 Sir William Johnson Papers 

the most likely means of bringing in the most remote nations to 
an acquaintance and union with us. 

A prodigious large belt! 

The general had frequently insisted upon knowing their reso- 
lutions, with respect to the ravages committed by the Delawares 
&c. This paragraph is intended as an apology, for their not 
making their answer sooner. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

You have most earnestly and frequently pressed us to accom- 
modate that unhappy breach, between the Delawares and our 
brethren the English; our delay did not proceed from any back- 
wardness on our part, but from the great sense we had of its 
importance: we hope you have received satisfaction upon that 
head, by the great belt we just now delivered with so much 
solemnity and sincerity. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

You have acquainted us, that the great King, our Father, is 
firmly resolved to defend our country, and recover such parts of 
it, as the French have encroached upon; also, to protect us to 
the utmost of his power, by erecting forts for cur safety and 
defence ; we are grateful for this insistance of his goodness ; 
but have not yet concluded any thing with regard to the latter. 

Brother \\ arraghiyagey, 

You have informed us, that the governor of New York has a 
present for us, from the great king, our Father, we are thankful 
for it; but are afraid, that as it comes so soon upon the back 
of this meeting, it will be inconvenient for our aged people to 
attend; but our warriors shall come upon that occasion. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

As you have given us a large pipe, to be a constant memorial 
of the important advice you have given us, when you are dead 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 377 

and gone, and to smoke out of it, at our public meeting-place, 
when we jointly and maturely reflect upon our engagements; we 
assure you, we shall hang it up in our council-chamber, and make 
proper use of it upon all occasions; we likewise beg, that you 
on your part, will likewise seriously consider your engagements, 
and faithfully perform them. 

The general concluded with the following words: 

Brethren, 

I do not think you have been so explicit, with regard to what 
I proposed to you, concerning your keeping open a clear road to 
Oswego, as I could wish. 

They made the following apology: 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

With respect to the article relative to the keeping open the 
road to Oswego, we imagined our answer was contained in our 
general reply, wherein we assured you, we would support and 
assist each other, upon all occasions; but as you did not look 
upon that sufficient, we now assure you, that we shall punctually 
conform to your desire, herein. 

The General added: 

The present waits your acceptance. As I here has been fre- 
quent complaints, with respect to the division of the presents 
given at these public meetings, it is my earnest desire, that they 
may be so divided, as to prevent all jealousy and complaints. 

He then delivered them a very handsome publick present; 
which, together with the private gifts, to the several chiefs and 
sachems, amounted to, 

York currency *£ 1 085 9 Wl- 



1 "Upwards of £620 sterling." [Ed's note.] 



378 Sir William Johnson Papers 

AN INDIAN CONFERENCE 1 

Copy 2 

At a private meeting of the Oneidas nation, 

February 25th, 1756 
Canaghquaeson their speaker, spoke as follows: 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We, some time ago, applied to General Shirley, to have a 
fort built, for the security of our castle; we now acquaint you 
with our unanimous resolution of having one, and should be 
glad it could be accomplished as soon as possible, and that you 
will be particularly careful, in the choice of those you employ 
in that work; and to charge them strictly, by no means, to bring 
any spiritous liquor among our people, as they are very ungovern- 
able and turbulent when intoxicated by liquor. 

A string of wampum. 

Brethren, 

As I have general orders to build forts, for the safety and pro- 
tection of any of our brethren of the six nations; I do, with the 
greatest chearfulness comply with your request, and shall imme- 
diately employ proper persons to that purpose: I am convinced 
it must be the fault of those people, whom General Shirley 
employed, that it was not done sooner, for he had given orders 
for that purpose so long ago as last October. 

Then the Tuscarora chief spoke, 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We have some time since set up stockadoes for the defence 
of our castle, as we were, and are still, apprehensive of the 



1 At Fort Johnson. 

2 Printed in An Account of Conferences held, and Treaties made, 
Between Major-General Sir William Johnson, Bart, and the chief 
Sachems and Warriours . . . , p. 50-52. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 379 

French acting against us in a hostile manner; we as yet want 
some blockhouses, to make it the more defensible, and some 
soldiers to garrison it, which we hope will be readily granted 
us we acknowledge the receipt of the swivels and ammunition, 
you so seasonable sent us; for which, we return you our hearty 
thanks. 

Brethren, 

I shall represent your case to General Shirley, who, I doubt 
not, will readily grant you a sufficient number of men to garrison 
your fort; and as to the blockhouses you desire, when I go to 
Oswego, I shall point out a proper situation for them, and then 
order them to be built. 



AN INDIAN CONFERENCE 1 
Copy" 

[Feb. 25-26, 1756] 

At a meeting of the Kanuskago-Indians, February 25th, 1 756. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We the warriors of the Kanuskago, upon our arrival, informed 
you, we were come down merely to see you, and hear your words 
at this publick meeting ; as we are young and unexperienced, ana 
have never been at any meeting with the governor, we hope you 
will make a kind allowance, for our want of ability in speaking; 
and we beg leave to assure you, that the reason of our never 
attending the meetings before, was not the want of affection to 
the English, but was entirely owing to our remote situation, which 
prevented a timely and proper notice. 



1 At Fort Johnson. 

2 Printed in An Account of Conferences held, and Treaties made, 
Between Major-General Sir William Johnson, Bart, and the chief 
Sachems and Warriours . . ., p. 52-55. 



380 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

As goods are vastly dear and ordinary in our parts, upon 
our determination to come to this meeting, we thought proper 
to bring some skins and furs with us, in order to purchase some 
necessaries for ourselves and families; and we beg you will, 
as a brother, direct us where we may be supplied with the best, 
and upon the most reasonable terms. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We beg leave to assure you, nothing can give us more satis- 
faction than the speech we heard you deliver to the six nations, 
on our arrival; as it contained nothing but what is quite right, 
and has a direct tendency to our welfare, we think our time well 
spent in coming down; for, if we had not, probably we should 
not have heard all you have said, for we are convinced, from 
what we now heard you say, that our sachems heretofore, have 
smothered the greatest part of your former advices ; and we assure 
you, we shall now spread your advice among all our people, 
who are considerably numerous. 

Threw down a pack of skins. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

As we are warriors, we are not acquainted with the cere- 
monials of publick meetings, and, therefore, express what we 
have to say, in a narrow compass; we have no more to offer at 
present, and hope, you will excuse the trouble we have given you 
on this occasion. 

And so ended. 
Brethren, 

I have given attention to your words, and shall seriously con- 
sider your desire ; but cannot give you an answer until to-morrow ; 
I chuse to deliberate maturely upon every thing that I say, 
because my word once given, is as binding as cement to a stone. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We return you thanks, for your kind promises, of consider- 
ing our desire, and as we see you are crowded, and full of 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 381 

business, of more importance, we shall with patience wait your 
leisure. 

February 26th, 1 756. 
Brethren, 

I told you last night, that I paid due attention to what you 
had said, and would consider your request, and give you answer 
this day. In the first place, I assure you, it gives me no small 
pleasure to hear, that my speech was so agreeable to you, and 
that you would acquaint all your nation with the contents of it. 
I beg you will not fail in this particular, as it points out, what 
will make you a happy people, if duly attended to; which, 
from your unanimity and zeal at this conference, I have no 
reason to doubt. I am sorry you have not been duly invited 
to former meetings, agreeable to my orders, and promise that 
for the future you shall have proper notice; and I hope you 
will be always ready to assist us, both in the council and the 
field, with all the chiefs and warriors of that castle, who shall 
be treated as friends and brethren. 

Brethren, 

In the next place, as I have no goods to sell myself, I will 
take all possible care that you are not imposed upon in your 
trade, at Schenectady. I shall give directions to Mr. Stevens, 
the interpreter, to assist you, and see that justice be done you, 
in every respect, for I have a great regard for your castle, and 
as a proof of it I present you with these goods. 

Giving them at the same time a handsome present, 
and three silver gorgets to three of their principal 
warriors, viz. Tarrawariax, Tahononsaronwe, 
and Kindarundy, who was the chief. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We return you our hearty thanks, for all your kind expres- 
sions of affection, and love shewn to us at this time; and we 
in return assure you, that you may depend on our sincerity and 



382 Sir William Johnson Papers 

readiness to serve you, whenever you call upon us ; and you know 
very well, that whatever warriors promise is sacred. 

Brethren, 

I return you thanks for your sincere professions of friendship. 

And so parted. 

AN INDIAN CONFERENCE 
Copy 1 
At a meeting of the Six Nations, February 

26th, 1756. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

It was yesterday agreed upon by us, that our eldest brother, 
the Mohawk, should take upon him, to settle that unhappy affair, 
between the Delawares and our brethren the English; but, on 
more mature deliberation, having the thing so much at heart, we 
have now, unanimously agreed, that the several delegates, from 
the six nations, should use their utmost endeavours to accommo- 
date that difference; and, depend upon it, we shall lose no time, 
for we shall immediately dispatch a messenger to them by the 
Skaniadaradighronos and Oneidas, and desire them, to meet us 
at Otsineange, where the council is to be held. 

A belt. 
Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We have, agreeable to your repeated desire, kept a good 
look out, and daily watch the motions of the French; we must 
acquaint you, that they have lately sent a message to our brethren, 
the Cayougas, to let them know their resolution, of attacking 
Oswego, and desiring their opinion upon it: hereupon, three of 
their sachems, and seven of their young men, are gone to Niagara, 
with a design to forbid the French attacking Oswego, of any 



1 Printed in An Account of Conferences held, and Treaties made, 
Between Major-General Sir William Johnson, Bart, and the chief Sachems 
and JVarriours . . ., p. 52. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 383 

Indians, they may see, joining them; we daily expect their return, 
when you shall immediately hear what they have done. 

A belt. 
Brethren of the six nations, 

I greatly approve of the alteration you have made, in the 
method of accommodating that unhappy breach between the 
Delawares and your brethren the English, as it must certainly 
have greater weight now, as it is the act of the whole body, 
and the more likely to succeed; I look upon this, as a very con- 
siderable proof of the unanimity and zeal, that you have 
expressed at this present meeting. 

A belt. 

Brethren, 

I must repeat to you, that I am extremely pleased at, and 
much obliged to you for the kind intelligence, you have given 
me, of the designs of the French attacking Oswego, and desire 
you will continue that vigilance, and let me have every informa- 
tion you can, relative to the proceedings and motions of the 
French; as nothing can contribute more to the defeating all their 
designs, than our having constant and good intelligence. I wish 
your brethren of Cayouga, may succeed in their intensions, of 
indeavouring to prevent any Indians, they may see, joining the 
French; but as they can do nothing without their assistance, I 
doubt of their success; however, it is good to try what can be 
done in that case; but be that as it will, we do not fear what 
the French can do, neither should you, after the strong and 
many assurances, we have given you, of his Majesty's protection 
and friendship. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We are now ready to return home, as all affairs, for which we 
came here, are settled to our satisfaction, and we hope to yours; 
we shall finish, with assuring you, we will strictly act up to 
every thing agreed upon at this meeting, and hope you will do 

the same. 

So ended the congress. 



384 Sir William Johnson Papers 

AN INDIAN CONFERENCE 1 

Copy 2 

February 27. J 756. 

At a meeting of the Onondagas. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We, the Onondagas, very readily embrace this opportunity 
offered us, of having a fort built for the protection of our castle ; 
and upon our return home, shall chuse a proper situation for it; 
as soon as the season of the year will permit, we beg you will 
not delay to send proper workmen to build it. As we have for 
some time past had an acquaintance with lieut. Mills, we should 
be glad to have him as our officer. And as William Printup 
understands the Indian language well, it would be agreeable to 
us to have him reside with us, as a smith, and at the same time 
to serve as an interpreter between the officer and us. 

Brethren, 

I shall acquaint general Shirley with your desire, and make 
no doubt he will comply with it. The fort shall be built with 
all possible expedition; and whatever officer is posted in it, will 
no doubt have particular orders, to be careful of your safety, 
and to treat you with all the marks of affection and friendship. 

Ended. 



1 At Fort Johnson. 

2 Printed in An Account of Conferences held, and Treaties made, 
Between Major-General Sir William Johnson, Bart, and the chief 
Sachems and Warriours . . ., p. 55. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 385 

FROM GEORGE CLINTON 

L. S. 1 

London Hill Street 27* Feb'*. [1756] 
Dear Sir 

The last letter I had from you was by Doct Shugborough, 2 
which I answered, and have from time to time Since continued 
my repeated recommendations of you to the Ministry. In con- 
sequences of which you obtaind your appointment by Gen 1 . 
Braddock, from my representing that No Man in North America 
was equal to your power and abilities to make the Indians hearty 
in the cause of the Crown, and I am Extreamly glad to find 
that my Endeavours for your Service have Succeeded So well, 
and that the Ministry have not rested them, But as a reward 
for your late conquests at Lake George, have not only Compli- 
mented you with Honours, but have in the most publick manner 
granted you £5000 by way of compensation for that, and former 
Services among the Indians, from my informing them you had 
Expended a very considerable Sum on that ace 1 , for which the 
Assembly of New York woud make you no kind of Satisfaction 
tho' it was justly their Debt. 

I have also the Satisfaction to hear, that the Governm 1 . have 
granted you £600 a Year as Superintendant and Commissary of 
the Indians and that you are to have a Commiss". as Col°. of 
those Nations, which altogether must make you perfectly Easie, 
and gives me great pleasure as it does in Some measure make 
amends for your Uncles Severe treatment. 

I cannot pass over unobserved the close connexion I see you 
have had with Wraxal; who has been the worst and most 
ungrateful of all Men to me, and I thought you had known 
enough of his base conduct not to Employ him upon any 



1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

2 Dr Richard Shuckburgh. 

13 



386 Sir William Johnson Papers 

occasion, for it made me Stare when I Saw his Name Sub- 
scribed to a Letter as your Secretary and Aid de Camp, and I 
hear he has taken to himself almost all the honour & Merit of 
y e Victory which Still Showes him that Sort of Man, and the 
worst of Men, and I find he is Still playing me off with your 
General by reporting Roseboom mad and unfit for Duty, in 
order to make me refund what he gave for his Commiss 11 . but 
the pitifull fellow will be disapointed in all his malicious attacks 
upon me. 

I hear M r DeLancy has lately become one of your partisans 
against Shirly, and tho' I have no Sort of regard for Shirly, yet 
I woud have you cautious of the others Scincerity from what has 
already past between you, as I know him to be of a very unfor- 
giving temper, and Nurses resentment in his heart. But I hope 
your Character is So well established now, that neither he or 
any other in the province can hurt you, from y e proofs of your 
conduct and bravery at Lake George, which has given you also 
Such a Character here, that your Name is up on every occasion 
in the House of Commons, and I am as ready to give it a Sanc- 
tion whenever I am referred to for an account which is pretty 
often and therefore I hope your health will enable you to con- 
tinue your pursuit in the Cause of the Crown, and the Honour 
of your Country, Indeed from things I have been asked about 
and very often repeated to me which is the Number Indian Con- 
cubines you had and as many Children they had fixed upon 
you as the late Emperor of Merocco Muli Ishmale which I 
think was 700, and one Swoar he knew you in the Emperors 
Service and under his Command, and Severall other most obsurd 
ridiculas Stories that had no fundation, and has been cleared up 
in all Comp ,s . by myself, Harry, & Catherwood, that I think 
now every prejudice is removed from Envy and Malice against 
you, and we all joyn in wishing you further Success, and if you 
have any thing that you think I can be of further Service tho I 
have no manner of Connexion with L d Hallifax nor indeed do I 
concern my Self about him as he has behaved himself to me out 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 387 

of Character as a Gentleman, but will mention any thing to 
others that may have as good an Effect as if to him, as I remain 
your Scincere friend 

and very humble Servant 

G Clinton 
S R Will m Johnson Bart. 

ADDRESSED : 

To 

S r William Johnson Bart. 

INDORSED : 

London Hill Street 27 Feb?. 
1756 — 



Gov r . Clintons Letter 

Forwarded By Sir Your Huble Servant 1 

A. Kennedy 



AN INDIAN CONFERENCE 2 



Copy 3 

February 27. 1756. 

At a meeting of the Senecas. 

Takeaghsado, speaker. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

Our brother, the governor of New York, was so good the last 
year, as to promise us a smith to mend our arms and tools, and 
that he should reside among us until the corn was a foot high; 
but he labouring under the misfortune of a sore leg, was obliged 



1 This note and the letter are in the same handwriting. 

2 At Fort Johnson. 

3 Printed in An Account of Conferences held, and Treaties made, 
Between Major-General Sir William Johnson, Bart, and the chief Sachems 
and Warriours . . ., p. 56. 



388 Sir William Johnson Papers 

to leave us some time sooner. We acknowledge, you sent us a 
smith last summer, with whom we are well pleased, and beg you 
will continue him with us till the corn is a foot high; then he 
may come down for the necessaries he may have occasion for, 
and then we hope, he will soon return to us. 

Brethren, 

I was present when the governor of New York last year, 
promised to send you a smith, which he accordingly did, and 
one agreeable to you; if he did not stay there the time appointed 
the governor was not culpable, as he could not be supposed to 
know any thing of his coming away. I am very glad, you are 
pleased with the smith I sent you last year; and, as you are 
desirous he should remain there, until your corn is such a length, 
I very readily agree to it, and shall order him accordingly, to 
stay that time. 

Ended. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We, the warriors of this castle, look on ourselves as under 
obligation, always to be ready at a call, upon any emergency; 
and therefore, as we cannot at present fall upon any means of 
retrieving our loss, we look to you for support: our fences 
have also suffered much, in our absence; we beg your assistance 
in repairing them. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

As soon as you informed us, that you were ready for war, 
we gave you a sufficient proof of our regard for you, in our 
readiness to attend you; we have also, at your request, stopp'd 
all our warriors, for some years past, from making any excursions 
against the Flatheads, 1 and turned our weapons against our 
common enemy, agreeable to your desire: in short, we hope we 



1 "Who live several hundred miles from the six nations, and with whom 
they have been at war time immemorial." [Ed's note.] 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 389 

have, upon all occasions, given you reason to think, that we have 
a sincere regard for you. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

Our spirits are now pretty much sunk, at the loss of so many 
of our principal sachems and warriors, who fell at Lake George; 
we look to you, to raise them up agreeable to our customs. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

At the request of the upper nations, without our consent, the 
selling of strong liquor is entirely forbid; we have no design to 
contradict any thing they do, but only request, that we may have 
leave to procure a little for our comfort. 

Three strings of wampum. 
Brethren, 

It gives me great concern, with you, that the person who had 
the care of your fort and castle, had, in your absence, neglected 
the charge I gave him of both; but as he was your own choice, 
there is the less to be said; however, I shall reprimand him 
for it, severely. As I am fully convinced of your loyalty to 
his Majesty, and readiness at all times to follow my direction, 
you shall not want any assistance in my power, to supply your 
wants, and to contribute to your happiness ; as a proof of which, 
I shall now order you three hundred skipples of corn, for your 
support; and should that fall short, let me know it, and you 
shall have a further supply, until you are able to raise your 
own grain. I shall also give orders, that your fences be imme- 
diately repaired; and as for your warriors, I shall send you a 
present by the first opportunity, worthy the singular services you 
have done your country, with me last campaign. 

Three strings of wampum. 
Brethren, 

As I have nothing more at heart, than the welfare and 
happiness of the people of your castle, who have always been 
our steady friends, I am sensibly affected, and sincerely sym- 
pathize with you, upon the great loss you have sustained, by 



390 Sir William Johnson Papers 

the death of two of your principal sachems, and likewise some of 
your young men at Lake George; we should comfort ourselves 
with the thoughts, that those friends of ours, who dropped that 
day, died bravely in their country's cause, and that their memory 
will be honoured to the end of time. 

As it is necessary for us to supply as well, and as soon as 
we can, the place of the two great sachems lost that day, I 
hope you have considered of proper persons for that important 
trust; if you have, I should be glad you would produce them, 
that I may give them the proper marks of distinction, and enter 
their names among the rest of the sachems. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We, the sachems and warriors of the Canajoharee-castle, are 
much obliged to you, for your friendly and good opinion of us; 
we assure you, we shall daily endeavour to merit it more and 
more, by convincing proofs of our loyalty on any occasion. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We, the sachems and warriors, return you our most hearty 
thanks, for your kind and well-timed supply of corn, and promise 
of a further supply, if necessary; the repairing of our fences, 
will be likewise of the greatest service to us, as without them, 
we can raise no grain for the ensuing year. This care of us, 
in our distress, adds greatly to the many obligations we already 
lie under, and can never be forgot. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We, the warriors of Canajoharee, are extremely pleased with 
the favourable opinion you have of our behaviour in the late 
action at Lake George, which alone animates us much, and 
greatly elevates our minds, notwithstanding they were so much 
depress'd: we are extremely obligated to you, for the present 
you intended us, and shall receive it with the greatest gratitude. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We take your anxiety, for supplying the place of the two 
great sachems lost, who chiefly managed our affairs, as a singular 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1756 391 

mark of your regard for our welfare: we present you one of our 
most capable men to succeed our deceased brother, Tarraghioris, 
of the tribe of the Turtle, and hope, our choice may meet your 
approbation. We have not as yet fixed upon one to succeed 
the great Hendrick ; when we do, we shall immediately acquaint 
you. 

Three strings of wampum. 
Brethren, 

As a proof of my regard for your choice, I now in the 
presence of your whole castle, invest him with all the powers of 
a sachem, and put on him those marks of distinction, which I 
wish him long life to wear. 

Ended. 

The Oghquagoe Indians, before they parted, made the fol- 
lowing Speech. 

Adams, speaker. 
Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We are now ready to return, having heard all you had to 
say; which, we assure you, has made so deep an impression on 
our minds as not to be forgot. We would only beg leave to 
desire one favour of you, before we go ; that is to have a trading- 
house built in our country, and a constant supply of goods ; which 
would not only add greatly to our happiness, but would also 
increase our numbers, as it would draw Indians from all parts 
within 100 miles of us, to settle among us; if you will gratify 
us in this, you will greatly add to the many favours already 
received. 

A belt. 
Brethren of Oghquagoe, 

I have so good an opinion, and so many convincing proofs, 
of your loyalty to the great King your Father, and affection to 
your brethren the English, that I have not the least reason to 
doubt your sincerity, nor the least objection to building you a 
trading-house, as soon as that unhappy affair is settled, between 



392 Sir William Johnson Papers 

the Indians of the lower settlements on your river and your 
brethren the English, which I hope will be very soon. 
They returned their hearty thanks, and so parted. 

AN INDIAN CONFERENCE 1 

Copy 2 

February 27. 1756. 

At a private meeting of the Sachems and warriors 
of the Canajoharee-castle. 

Abraham, the great Hendrick's brother, speaker. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We, the sachems and warriors of Canajoharee, take this oppor- 
tunity, to say something to you, relative to our own affairs; as 
your great trouble is now mostly over. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

When first we were alarmed with these public commotions, 
you was so kind, at our request, to promise us a fort for the 
protection of our castle. We acknowledge you have punctually 
performed your promise, so that, at the time when the con- 
federacy was coming down last summer, it was completely 
finished. Mr. Fry, on hearing of our application for men to 
garrison it, applied to you on behalf his son, that he might be 
the commander thereof; you answered, that you would consult 
the Indians, whether he was agreeable or no, which you did. 
In answer to which, we declared, he was agreeable to us, and, 
that it would be more acceptable to have those, with whom we 
were acquainted, than strangers. 



1 At Fort Johnson. 

2 Printed in An Account of Conferences held, and Treaties made, 
Between Major-General Sir William Johnson, Bart, and the chief Sachems 
and Warriours . . . , p. 57—62. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 393 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We were mistaken in our choice; for alto' he made us the 
fairest promises, that he would, during our absence, take care 
of our lands and the crops then in the field, he was altogether 
deficient in the performance, by which neglect, we entirely lost 
our crops! In this melancholy situation, we make our appli- 
cation to you, assuring you, that without your assistance, in this 
article, we must greatly suffer. 

AN INDIAN CONFERENCE 1 
Copy 2 
Fort Johnson, February 29, 1756. 

At a meeting of the Aughquagey's, Tuscaroras, Skaniadaradi- 
ghronos, Chughnuts, Mahickanders and Shawanese, Thomas 
their Speaker Stood up and went through the ceremony of 
condolance for the loss of my Sister and brother-in-law, 3 and 
then proceeded as follows: 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We will now open our hearts to you, and throw off the burthen 
which lays so heavy upon us; it grieved us much to hear it was 
suggested, that all the nations living upon the banks of Susque- 
hanna, even as far as Aughquagey had joined the French. We 
assure you it is a false report, and we appeal to you, brother, 
whether we have not (since your acquaintance with us) always 



1 At Fort Johnson. 

2 Printed in An Account of Conferences held, and Treaties made. 
Between Major-Ceneral Sir William Johnson, Bart, and the chief Sachems 
and Warriours . . ., p. 15—16. 

3 Captain Matthew Ferrall, Johnson's sister's husband, killed in the 
battle at Lake George, September 8, 1 755. See Johnson's letter in 
London Gazette, 28 October, 1755; and The Calendar of Sir William 
Johnson Manuscripts, p. 48. 



394 Sir William Johnson Papers 

proved true brethren to the English, and strictly adhered to the 
agreements made so long ago between them and our fore-fathers; 
and depend upon it we ever shall, notwithstanding all the tempta- 
tions of the French. What we now say comes not from our 
lips only, but from the very bottom of our hearts. 

Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We speak now in behalf of the Oneidas, Tuscaroras, Skania- 
daradighronos and Chugnuts; and we may say we speak also in 
behalf of the Shawanese, who are now upon their way to 
Chugnut, where they are to settle and live under our protection; 
also the Delaware-indians, who live upon the east branch of that 
river near the head of it, have given us the strongest assurances, 
that they will live and die with us, and in consequence of that 
will keep up the same friendship and alliance with the English, 
which now subsists between us and them ; and this belt we hereby 
deliver to you as a testimony thereof. 

Gave the belt. 
Brother Warraghiyagey, 

We beg leave to lay our immediate danger and distress before 
you; we are now entirely exposed to the merciless power of the 
French and their Indians, our and your common enemy; their 
hatchet is ready to fall upon our heads, their Indians who live 
not far from us, threaten us for our attachment to you, for they 
call and look upon us as English, as we truly are. Now, brother, 
our earnest request is, that you would build us a small place of 
defence, wherein our old men, women, and children may have 
shelter in this time of danger; and that you would also supply 
us with arms, ammunition, &c. wherewith to defend ourselves 
from any attempts the enemy may make upon us. 

Gave a belt. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-/756 395 

FROM WILLIAM WILLIAMS 

Contemporary Copy 1 

Fort Williams, March 6, 1756. 
Sir William 

The Indian that brought the Inclosed came in such a hurry, 
with all the tokens of Distress, and having no Interpreter, or 
next a Kin to none I ventured to open it, and am heartily sorry 
for the Misfortune, and miserable circumstances of ColR 
Mercer. Every thing I can do I will with the Utmost Chearfull- 
ness for his relief and if you Sir can any ways be assisting in 
forwarding provisions to their place, as soon as the Lake is open, 
I will crowd them along to him if the french will let me. I 
fancy Nuso has Arrived at Fort Johnson I should rejoice to 
hear it for we are starveing, for want. 

I am Sir 
With high respect and Esteem 

Your Most Hum. b,e serv 1 . 

Will m . Williams. 
To S R Wm. Johnson. 

INDORSED : 

March 6th 1 756 
Captn. Wm. Williams. 
Letter 
Coppy. 

FROM WILLIAM WILLIAMS 

A. L. S. 1 

Fort Williams, March 7th, 1756. 
Sir 

At Two O'clock Conneetolis an Onyda from their upper 
Castle came in here & informs; that after the Express came off 



In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



396 Sir William Johnson Papers 

from their Castle an Ace 1 , was brot them that the nine Onon- 
dagas that went with the carpenters were returned — and say 
they all got safe there — That as they were returning within 
Twelve miles of Oswego they saw a large sloop or schooner 
under sail — That a Number are gone from their Castle to 
discover if they can whether any of the Enemy make their 
Rout this Way — And as they will be in here sometime on 
Tuesday think not to seal this till they return. 

One thing I would mention, as it relates to an Indian, and is 
indeed his Desire, viz'. A man that calld himself your Tenant 
or servant was one that came up here with the last Drove of 
Cattle in the Fall upon his return he took an old White Horse 
about a Mile below, George Cost of the upper settlement was 
with him among others and askd him why he did so, he replyed 
a Dutchman desired him to take him down to Connojohara, and 
showing an Halter says and gave me this to take him along — 
But it so happens it was an Horse that cost Senussias 1 9 Dollars 
(as he says) and he insists upon having the money or the Horse 
directly as riding Time is near at Hand. And seems not to 
relish it very well; The man of whom the Indian bot the Horse 
saw your servant upon Him knew the Horse, and was the Indians 
first informer. 

March 9th 

Sir according to my Expectation the 4. Indians that went 
on a scout towards Oswegochea returned this day at 4. o'clock 
p. m. who say they make no discovery of any sign of the 
Enemy — They inform me that I may Expect in two days to 
have a scout in that sot out the same Day they Did & were to 
go round the West end of Onyda Lake and return here on the 
Canada side. That they purpose to maintain a constant scout. 

They likewise (for ought I know) arrogate to themselves, I 
mean the Onyda Tribe, our safety from the party that did the 
mischief in the last capture at Oswego — They say that they 
heard they were designed this way and by an Indian belonging 
to Oswegochea they sent them word, that if they came this way 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 397 

should meet them — which (they say) was the reason they 
alterd their Rout — I hope I have not so many, They says, 
that you cannot understand what I say — But to me tis as bad 
as to draw a Tooth to read it — Youl pardon my not Delay- 
ing the Express, for a Transcript. 

And with Defference Sir William, let me Once more beg you 
to set forward provisions for Oswego and not loose Ontario for 
want thereof — I am Sir 

With profound Respect 
Your Most Obedient 
Humble Servant 

W M . Williams. 

P. S. Sir I have not wrote Genl. Shirley his secretary nor 
Aid D Camp since you promisd to remit to him what intelligance 
you had from 

Your Humble Servt. 

W M . Williams 

INDORSED : 

Fort Williams, March 7th & 9th, 1 756. 
Letter from Captn. Williams. 

TO WILLIAM SHIRLEY 

A. L. S. 1 

Monday night 9 a Clock 
March ye. 8th, 1756 
Sir 

Just as I finished all the papers which I had to Send You, 
there arrived two Indians Express from Ondaga with the inclosed 
acctt. from John Vanseice, and the other from Capt. Williams 2 
which I thought proper to Send You immediately, also Coppys 
of two letters reed, per Express from Schenectady Magistrates, 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 

2 William Williams, commander at Fort Williams. 



398 Sir William Johnson Papers 

concerning John Abeel 1 that incorrigible Villian. I have in 
Consequence thereof Sent an Express to the Commanding Officer 
at Burnets feild to Seize him, & his goods as he passes by 
there. I hope He may be taken good care of, if taken, and made 
an Example of. — I fear if there is not Some provisions imediately 
Sent to Oswego, they will Suffer greatly. — 

I am Yr. 
Excellencys 
Most Humble Servt. 

Wm. Johnson 
Genrl. Shirley 

indorsed: 2 

My Letter to 
Genrl. Shirley 
March 8th, 1 756 

JOHNSON TO THE LORDS OF TRADE 

In Doc. Rel. to Col Hist N. Y., 1 -A\-A3 is printed a letter of 
Johnson to the Lords of Trade written at Fort Johnson March 8th, 1 756, 
relating to a meeting of Johnson with the sachems and warriors of the 
Five Nations and their allies at which the Indians expressed their loyalty, 
the enlargement of the Indian confederacy to include western tribes, the 
intended congress at Oswego, the desire of various tribes to have the 
English erect forts and establish garrisons in their respective countries, the 
advisability of placing a minister of the Gospel in each castle in order to 
counteract French influence obtained through their priests. Johnson further 
advises the increase of the salary of the Rev. Ogilvie, missionary to the 
Mohawk Indians, and points out the danger of losing Oswego unless 
measures are taken to send relief. 



1 John Abeel (O'Beal) of Albany, father of the noted chief Corn- 
planter. 

2 In Johnson's hand. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 399 

FROM THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 

London II th . March 1756 
Major Gen: l S: r Will m . Johnson 
Sir, 

Before I proceed to the Business I am to trouble You upon, 
I must Congratulate You, which I do most Sincerely, on the 
Commission H. M. has been pleased to give You, as a Reward 
for the Signal Services you have done Your Country. As you 
have now the Sole Command & Superintendance of the Northern 
Indians, And as I propose to move with the Troops, as soon as 
possible after my Arrival in America, You will use Your utmost 
endeavours, to procure as large a body as can be got, to Act 
in Conjunction with His Majesty's Forces, against the Common 
Enemy. 

I send this Letter by Col 1 . Webb, who is going to take the 
Command in North America, till Major General Abercrombie 
or I can relieve him; You will therefore, if the Situation of 
Indian Affairs will permit You, Repair to New York or Albany, 
whichever he may be at, to receive his Orders; Or if that cant 
be, You will Correspond with, and follow such Orders & direc- 
tions as You shall receive from either of these Gentlemen, during 
their respective Commands; And they will give You any Assist- 
ance, for the good of the Service, You may require, which you 
will likewise find me ready to do on all occasions, and to take 
every Opportunity of Assuring You of the Regard &ca. 

P.S. I am to bring out Presents for the Indians, and shall 
consult you in the distribution of them. 

INDORSED: 

Draught 

to Major General Johnson 

Whitehall 1 1 * March 1 756 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



400 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM CHARLES HARDY 

A. L. S. 1 
Fort George New York I2 l M ch . 1756. 

Sir 

I have just heard the disagreable Account by Express from 
Oswego, that the Garison there are in great want of Provisions, 
and must from the return sent be reduced to the greatest 
Necessity if not timely releived, the Importance of maintaining 
that Post requires the utmost dispatch in forcing up a Supply 
by Land if the Waters are shut by Frost, I can see no other 
method than by pressing all the Horses that can be got, and 
loading them with the Species of Provisions wanting in Sacks, 
I have for this purpose sent Impress Warrants, and Inclose you 
One, and must desire you will give them all the Assistance in 
your Power; there is a Magazine at the great Carrying place, 2 
as that is the nearest Post to Oswego, it will be most adviseable 
to load the Cattle there, You will consult the Commanding 
Officers at the Head Quarters, and the different posts in the 
Mohawks Country, for their Escorting the necessary Convoys, 
and as you are well acquainted with the Country, your advice 
to them will be usefull. 

I am impatiently waiting the Result of your Meeting with the 
Six Nations, if the Papers require time to Copy, I must desire 
you will send me immediate advice of the general disposition of 
the Indians, and particularly what they propose doing with the 
Delawares &ca, and if they propose chastiseing them, it will be 
proper we join them with Forces which we shall be under the 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 

2 The Oneida carrying place. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 401 

necessity of Raising for the defence of our Western Frontier, 
you may consult them for their uniting with us in this Service. 

I am 
Sir ' 

Your most Obedient 
Humble Servant 

Cha\ Hardy 
Sir William Johnson Barr 1 , 

indorsed : 

New York March 12 lh 1756 
S r . Charles Hardys letter 
concerning Osswegoe 

FROM JOHN ST CLAIR 

A. L. S. 1 

New York March 12 th - 1756 
Sir 

We have this Day received Accounts from Oswego that the 
Garrison is in great want of Provisions; Sir Cha\ Hardy with 
the field Officers have agreed to try every expedient for the 
relief of it: and we have come to a Resolution of sending Lieu 1 . 
Dunbar to see if it is practicable to send them 1 00 Horse Load 
of flower and 50 to carry Oats. I must entreat you to give L l . 
Dunbar all the Assistance in Your power and your best advice, 
It was impossible for me to limit him to Orders, his power is 
discretionary so that he must act for the best, I have given him 
£320 for carrying this Service into Execution, and if more is 
required I shall be at Schenectady the 25 th . to supply it. 

The distress is so great at Oswego for provisions that it 
would be of great Service if the Indians which are nearest to 
them would be prevailed on to carry them loads of Indian Corn, 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



402 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Meal, pease, or beans which M r . Dunbar will pay ready money 
for, and I shall give them as much of each sort into the Bargain 
at the great Carrying place in May. But if you do not think 
you can effect this, the experement woud be dangerous least it 
might draw the french on our Backs at Oswego. Shou'd any 
thing occur to you for the relief of our friends I am sure you 
will put it in Execution. I am with the greatest Regard 

To Sir William Johnson Bar 1 . 

Sir 
Your most obedient and 
most humble Servant 

John S t .clair 
indorsed : 

New York March 1 2* 1 756 
S r John S l . Clairs letter 
ab l . Osswego 

TO JACOB GLEN 
L. 1 

[Fort Johnson, March 12, 1756] 
Sir: 

You have been some time ago required to make me a return 
of the number of men in the Battallion whereof you are Lieut. 
Coll., but have not complied with my order. Wherefore you are 
hereby required to make me an exact and regular Roll, or return 
of the number of men, and their names, together with the officers 
names and the dates of their commissions before the 1st of April 
without fail. 

You are to have the Battalion whereof you are Lieut. Coll. 
in arms at Albany the thirteenth day of April next, and with 
their arms & accoutrements in good order, then and there to be 
reviewed. 



1 In collection of John E. Wyman, Fonda, N. Y. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 403 

You are to consult with the Major and Captns of the 
Battallion about proper persons to fill up the vacancys and 
return me a list of them, and where the companys consist of 
above 100 men, you are to divide them and give me a list of 
proper officers to command them, always paying regard to 
seniority and merit. 

Given under my hand at Fort Johnson March 12, 1756. 

To Jacob Glen Lieut. Coll. of the 1st Battallion of 
the Regiment of the county of Albany. 

FROM WILLIAM WILLIAMS 

A. L. S. 1 

Fort Williams, 

March 13, 1756. 
Sir William, 

Goahee who arrived here last night in his return from you, 
informs me that your Honour proposed to meet the Six Nations 
at Oswego as soon as the Onyda Lake was Open; Immagining 
it may be satisfactory to know its open is the Occasion of my 
present Writing, my scout that came in from thence last Wed- 
nesday brot me an Acct. that it was intirely clear of ice as also 
Wood Creek. And Yesterday I sent off for the releaf of poor 
Oswego 12. Battaeux loaded with provisions had I had any 
more should gladly sent them. Mr. Reade to satisfy his curiosity 
is gone in one of them, I wish them all a safe pass and return — 
and that his enterprizing genius may not be overlookd. 

If you Sir could spare me so much time as to give me your 
sentiments, whether or not its probable I shall be continued Here 
I should be obliged; For I would lay myself out in Building & 
Gardening &c. At present I live like a pig in a stye of Poles, 
and my fare differs but little from such. — I should not have the 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



404 Sir William Johnson Papers 

least inclination to tarry, could I perceive these Indians had the 
least Dislike to Me. 

And by the conduct of some I have observed I am apt to 
think there would not have been so good understanding sub- 
sisting as there is at present had they been posted here — If 
from what you may have heard of my behaviour, I am worthy 
this Trust, or on the other hand I ought to be removed — The 
knowledge of it would be Beneficial; as by the one I might be 
providing for my comfort; or on the other save the Expence. 

You will pardon this peice of Freedom in Him who is with 
great Esteem 

Sir 

Your Most Obedient 

Most Humble Servant 

W M . Williams. 

P.S. The mans Name that stole Senussia's Horse is Dennis 
Maltin and proof Enough. 

March 14. 1756. 

This morn at 10 O'clock I have an Express from the Onyda 
Castle, which I did not design to have given you the Trouble of 
reading as I rec d : it — But Goahee says the young man that is 
gone with a Belt to your Hon r . is a Boy & is very desierous of 
have me give the acct. which is as follows; That on Fryday an 
Onondaga Indian came, from Oswegochea to that Castle in as 
strait a course and as fast as he could & Brings this Intelligence. 
That Just as he sett out (after finding their destination) an army 
of Indians near 300. under 5. principal Officers arrivd there who 
gave out that they were coming against the Onydas — And that 
a large army was on their March for Oswego, That the reason 
of their coming against This Tribe was bee: they had killed 
some of their Bretheren when with Your Hon r . — The army 
that is forming for Oswego is from Canada & Niagara. 

I wish Mr Reed & Company may not fall into their hands. 
The last I heard of him was that he was up to his Waste in 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 405 

Water in Wood Creek which is Low and he happend to hang 
on a Log. 

With profound Respect 
I am sir, 

Your Devoted Servt. 

Wm. Williams. 
I have proposed to Goahee & several 
others here that if they are affraid they 
might bring their wives & children into this 
Fort & build Hutts which seems to 
please them — in a most hast. 

INDORSED : 

Carrying place March 

13. 1756. 

Letter from Capt. Williams. 

FROM WILLIAM WILLIAMS 

A. L. S. 1 

Fort Williams, March 14, 1756. 
Sir 

At 6. o'clock p. m. another Express came in from Onyda, 
which brings this Farther News — That an Onondaga who was 
out on his Hunt Towards Oswegochea was surprised by the 
approch of an army of French and Indians that were in the 
road or stearing this way. That he looked till they passed by 
and then took to his heals & ran. That the Indians led the 
Van and that both together made a large army. He ran so fast 
to his castle that he has spoild himself an[d] they think the 
Indian that came from Onondaga to Onyda has also. Sir now 
but 3. sleeps since he first saw them; Goahee and several others 
are here and Determine they may be with us to Tomorrow or 
Next Day at farthest — The Indians are in great confusion 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



406 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Make some reflections that their fort is not built — Complain 
for want of ammunition & army, and expect your Hon r . supplys 
them & protect them forthwith]. This I write by [ 
desire. 

I am sir William 
Constantly Yours 

Wm. Williams. 

from william williams 

A. L. S. 1 

Fort Williams March 18 l K 1756 
Sir William 

Yours of this Morn I rec d . at 6 oClock P. M. am both sorry 
& glad that you are arrived at Burnetsfield sorry for the fatigue 
you have been at, as well as somewhat so for some few others. 
I am glad that so many Men can so soon be raised & have 
given such Evidence to the Indians in Alliance of their Willing- 
ness to assist them in time of need. 

M r . John Van Sice who came in here this Morning verry 
much Staggered me as to the reports from time to time brought 
me from the Oneidas w h . I observed always came by the Onon- 
dagas as they said; his hearing nothing of it caused many per- 
plexing conjectures to arise in my Mind — he had not been 
gone half an Hour before Six of the Sachems and Warriors 
of this Castle came in, & Just upon their heels your Express — 
I let them by Clement know your Letter, & added as to your 
fatigue as I thought proper, & the great Expence & loss of time, 
& the like & let them know that if such uncertain Intelligence 
are brought in by them in a short time we should get hardened 
against them & take but little notice of any of them, which they 
seemed quite ready to beleive, & gave me to understand that 
they beleived they were imposed upon by the Tuscaroras. as 
they have Scouts out constantly & made no discoveries at all. 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-/756 407 

they further say that they now have a scout out that design to 
go to the very Spot that it was reported the Army was dis- 
covered, and talk about a N. of Canoes they say was frozen 
up last Winter in a Lake or opening on the River, that leads 
from Cadarachqui to Moreal between Oswegaetchee and the 
first mentioned. I then told them that the Indians that saw the 
Army must be quite mistaken as to their Course, that if they 
were going to take charge of them it no ways pointed towards 
us, which they likewise allowed, and in short these that are here 
seem quite to think that they are imposed upon as to this Account 
but belive that we shall by and by be attacked. 

They appear well pleased that you are procuring Men to 
Build them a Fort, & Suck'd in every paragraph of your Letter. 
I must refer you to Ensign Marshall & Van Sice concerning the 
Fate of my Battoes, poor Reede if his Arms had not been longer 
than his Body was wide, would have lost his Life twice, were 
that possible, by falling thro' the Ice. 

Upon Van Sices information I intended to have sent Horses 
tomorrow & drawn them round the Shore: But Marshall has 
revived me in telling me when he came along Yesterday they 
had not more than two Battoes length to cut thro' the Ice. 

Sir, Youl pardon this miserable piece, my paper and Ink, 
& I am much alike Sussceptable of verry little, and liable tc 
blotts. 

I am 
Sir 

Your Most Obedient 
Most Hum Servant 

W M . Williams 
indorsed: 1 

Carrying place March 18 

1756 
Capt n . Williams Letter & 
return of my Express 
from y e . German Flatts 



1 In Johnson's hand. 



408 Sir William Johnson Papers 

TO ALBERT VAN SLYKE 

A. D. S. 1 

[Fort Johnson, March 23 d , 1756.] 

Instructions to M r . Albert Van Slyke 
going to the Six Nations — 

You are to proceed imediately to the Castle of the Cajugas, 
and tell them You are come according to their [Jes/re] request 
with Goods. Which you are to Supply them with, as reasonable 
as You Can. So that they may have no cause of Complaint — 

You are to make the Strictest enquiry possible when there, 
v/hat News is among them and Send me the Same by Express 
if of any Moment. 

You are to encourage them to keep the Road open to Oswego, 
that his Majesty's Troops, & Provisions may pass & repass 
unmolested, if any Attempts should be made by the Enemy 
to Stop Said Communication or any Mischief done at Oswego, 

2 ] thereabouts. You are to tell them [ 
that they must rise up and revenge it. ] they will 

break their engagements entr[ed into] at the last Treaty held 
at my House. And if you can spare time to take a S [ 
with a Number of them on Such Occasion 111 will pay you 
for the Same Eight Shillings <P Day. but you must keep an 
Exact Account of the Number of Days you may be on P. Serv- 
ice So as you may Justly Swear to it. 

You are also to employ some trusty Indian of that Nation 
to go as a Spy to Cadaraghqui, and Swegatchy to see what the 
French and their Indians are about, for which you are to pay 
them, and I will make you an Allowance for the Same. 

Lastly You are to Send Intelligence of any designs You find 
the French May have against Oswego, imediately to the Com- 



1 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada. Indian Records, 
Vol. 10. Sir William Johnson Correspondence, 1756-1772. 

2 Mss. torn away. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 755-1 756 409 

manding Officer there, also to me — and to endeavour to pre- 
vail on S d . Nation to have a Fort in their Country Setting forth 
the Great advantage it will be to them. 

You may for the Good of the 
Service, advance Ten Pounds 
to Such Sachims or others 



as You find deserving, and I 
will repay You. 



To 

M R . Albert Vanslyke 



Given Under My hand 
>at Fort Johnson this 23 d . 
Day of March 1 756 



W M . Johnson 



FROM WILLIAM WILLIAMS 

Fort Williams 
March 26. 1756 
10. oclock a.m. 

Sir 

This morn an Express from Onondaga came in with the Belt 
that accompanys this And inform that three days ago three of 
their Indians upon their Hunt between Onida Lake and Lake 
Ontario Discovered a French Army about half a Days March 
this side Codaroque Encamped along the Lake. Fearing their 
Indians they dare not approch so near as to make their Number 
but by the extent of their Fires they guesd they were numerous 
That three other of their Tribe that came in the same Day 
from the West End of Onyda Lake inform that the Day before 
they Discoverd Moginson Tracks which they took to be a scout 
of the Enemys And when night came on being apprehensive 
they were about keept awake except one that was not well ; late 
in the night they heard the sticks crack, and waking their sleeper 
they crawled from the Fire half a Mile in the morning they 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



410 Sir William Johnson Papers 

came to their first bed and found tracks from where the crackling 
was to the fire & round it, upon which they made the Best of 
their way to y r castle. 

They insist the Belt goes to Gen Shirley, and be returned with 
his Ans r . immediately; and that He send Schaneau (as they call 
Col°. Bradstreet) to have the care & oversight of Building 
their Fort. They also Desire that Oswego may be directly 
reinforced and that the Battoes may go in a Body, as they 
think the Enemy will indeavour to intercept them — Seem some 
what surprized that when you had got so far as you did not 
come along to their Castle; and hope it will not be long before 
you kindle your Fire at Oswego. This was deliverd with the 
Belt, by a very sensible Fellow who was sent by their Cheifs. 

I am Sir William 
Your Most Obedt. 
Humble servant 

Wm. Williams 

to william shirley 

Sunday Morning five aClock 
March 28th. 1756 
Sir 

This Moment I reed, the inclosed Letter from Capt. Williams, 
with this Belt of Wampum, which comes from the Onondagas. 
Who (he says) desire it may be shown to You immediately, in 
hopes Your Excellency will send up reinforcements to Oswego. 
We had lately such News come from the same Quarter upon 
which I went up immediately with above a 1000 of the Militia 
and some Indians to the German Flatts, in order to proceed 
further if necessary, but on my receiving a Letter from Capt. 
Williams that there was nothing in it. and only a false report 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 41 1 

I return'd the third day. It gave the Oneidas so great Satis- 
faction to find I was so ready to go to their Assistance, that 
they returned me their hearty thanks for it. I inclose You Capt. 
Williams answer to a Letter I sent express when I arrived at 
the German Flatts, to know whether he had any further Intel- 
ligence of the Enemys approach. I have agreed with a Man at 
the German Flatts to build a Fort immediately for the Oneidas, 
he was to Sett out for that place last Wednsday. I am now 
endeavouring to get People to undertake Building Forts for the 
Onondagas and Senecas, which I believe will be pretty difficult, 
however will try all I can as I have it as much at heart as they 
themselves well knowing the great Service they will be of on 
severall Accounts. I reed. Your Excellencys Letter with a 
Draft on the Deputy Paymaster, out of which I shall pay the 
Indian Officers who had Your Commission 

I am your Excellencys 

Most Humbl Servt. 
His Excelly. General Shirley 

P. S. 1 I send Yr. Excellency also 

Capt. Faulkners letter 2 whereby You 

Will see the great Scarcity of Horses & Sleds 

at the Carrying place, Occasioned as Fry 3 & Harkemar 4 

told me yesterday by their not being paid for last Years 

rideing Yet. 



INDORSED: 5 



My Letter to Genrl. 
Shirley wrote Sunday 
Morning March 28th, 1 756 
five in the Morning. 



1 In Johnson's hand. 

2 Thomas Falconer. 

3 Hendrick Frey. 

4 John Nicholas Herchheimer. 

5 In Johnson's hand. 



412 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM WILLIAM WILLIAMS 

A. L. S. 1 

March 1756. 
Sir. 

On the 28th of last month Thirty Three sawyers & carpenters, 
with some dutch, serj 1 . Grey & fourteen men of my company sett 
off Through the Castles for Oswego with one Ileas an Indian of 
this tribe for a Pilott, on the Third day they arrived at Onon- 
dauga, where they found the River clear and the Horses 
were discharged — And nine Indians for a Guard pilots & 
Battooe men Hired by serjt. Grey & John Vancise to go to 
Oswego with the provisions & Workmen. 

While there; Serjt. Grey, from Vancise, and Ileas from three 
Onondagas that have pluckd up stakes at Oswegochea, who were 
just come in; obtained the following acc f . vizt. That 100 of the 
Cagnawagas had died this Winter of the small pox, that as 
many more of the Connasaudagas & Oroondocks had died of 
the same Desease That there was but 30 men at Codarogue 
& 50 at Niagara, that multitudes had died at the last mentioned 
place and all were starving at both. That in a Few days 10 
Oroondocks & 10. from Oswegochea were to take their 
departure from the last mentioned place, to give the carrying 
place, a visit, upon the scalping design ; Grey has it from Vancise 
that they design to lay along this River. 

You will pardon me Sir if I give you my sentiments upon the 
foregoing narrative — I always have observed when our Neigh- 
bours make their boast of anything great they Design to Atcheive, 
they then are in Miserable circumstances — If ever they make 
known their misery mischief is at the Door, and such I guess is 
the case at the present day — And if they find themselves 
incapable of attacking Oswego (which I much Question) they 
will at all adventures attempt to stop the communication. 



In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 413 

Col°. Mercer in his of the 23 d of last month writes me "How- 
ever improbable the French Attacking this place may appear 
I am affraid to lessen our numbers, and would rather suffer by 
Famine than risque the Loss of the place Vessels & Artillery 
All the Indians that have yet been here, do agree, that they will 
attempt it; That they design to coast along the South side of 
the Lake having collected a Number of large birch cannooes, 
capable of carrying 30. men, each, with a large Vessel or Two 
to carry their Artillery and provision." 

But I need not mention this or any more as he by the same 
Express wrote you & Gen Shirley. 

But I am in duty bound to acquaint you of the necessity of 
having the Deserters, that the Indians have adopted, delivered 
up, as they are mostly Roman Catholicks, and all the Vilest of 
mortals, Sir they that have prompted the Indians to kill the 
Cattle as passing thro their Castles nay even brot them to them 
from Oswego, and when the carpenters went along the other 
Day made the Indians seize the Baggage Horses and not let 
them pass untill they had Rum, These creatures, that now, I 
guess, are twenty in Number, will by & by become dictators, 
and you will be more plagued with two or three of them than 
with an whole Tribe, and I have been misinformed if they have 
not said things unrespectfull of you already. 

The article of provision that I am obliged to hand out to 
the Indians as they pass and repass amounts to a considerable 
value and I should be extreem glad of receiving directions how 
to conduct in that affair, and that Mr. Reed the assistant com- 
missary may have directions to deliver me according to your 
pleasure. 

The article I mention, for no other Reason than that the 
whole of Indian Affairs are committed to you, as you have been 
pleased to inform me. 

I should at this time write Genl. Shirley had you not informd 
me that you would from Time to Time communicate what intelli- 
gence you reed, from me; If this contains anything worthy of 
communicating you will be pleased to act accordingly. 



414 Sir William Johnson Papers 

There are two things I forgot to mention, one is that these 
three Indians inform that all the Onondagas that have removed 
the Oswegochea are upon their Return to their Castles. 

The other is that one of these Divilish Deserters forged an 
order or Request in Serjt. Greys name for two Galons of Rum 
for certain services done by the Indians, which I refused to 
Deliver them but offerd them 10/ for 8/ in Gimp or anything 
I had which they would not Take, Serjt. Grey coming in upon 
them they destroyed the note, and lookd like themselves. I am 

Sir William 

Your Most Obedient 
Most Humble Servant 

Wm. Williams 
indorsed : 

Carrying place March 1 756. 
Letter from Capt. Williams. 

TO WILLIAM SHIRLEY 

A. L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson April the 3 d . 1756 — 
Sir/ 

As Soon as I finished my letter to You of y e . 28 th . Ult°. with 
the Acc tf . I received from Capt n . Williams, 2 I sett of instantly 
for the Carrying place, where I arrived with about five Hun- 
dred Militia, & Indians of Both Mohawk Castles Tuesday 
Evening. I found the Enemy withdrawn So Went over with 
my Party, and above 100 Oneidaes, & Tuscarora's Who Met 
me there ; to the Fort 3 which the Enemy had distroyed. I found 
within the Fort twenty three Soldiers, two Women, and one 
Battoe Man, Some burnt almost to Ashes, others most In- 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 

2 Captain William Williams. 

3 Called "Fort Wood Creek" in Shirley to Johnson, April 10, 1756. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 415 

humanly Butchered, and all Scalped, without the Fort, I found 
three Soldiers Scalped, who I think were blown over by the 
powder which was in the Magazine, as they were verry much 
Scorched, about 200 Yards from the Fort, One of my Party 
(a German) found an Indian in the Woods dead, whose Scalp 
he brought me, He was well Known to our Indians, they say 
he was a Messissagey who married an Onondaga Squaw & lived 
at Swegatchey, a Man of considerable Interest among them. I 
gave the Scalp to the Oneidaes who seemed to receive it with 
much pleasure. M r . Bulls Party could make no great defence 
as there was not one Port hole to fire thorough in all the Fort, 
nor a Flanker, or Bastion of any kind, w h . the Enemy well 
Seeing, fired in between the Pickets at our People, they Cutt 
a Hole in y e gate for Said purpose, then Cutt the Wooden 
Hinges by which the gate hung and threw it down, so rushed 
in I imagine, the Whole Number killed, & missing is 62 thirty 
of which I found and buried, they distroyed everry thing in 
the Fort, and about it. also 20 Battoe load of Provisions which, 
had been carried over for Osswego, Cutt what Battoes were 
there to peices, also Sleds Harness & ca . and took almost 
all the Horses they had there, the Indians are of Opinion, 
that the French intend building a Fort somewhere to the North- 
ward of the Carrying place, in order, from thence, to Send out 
partys continually to harrass the Carrying place. I have given 
the Oneidaes charge to find it out as Soon as possible, and bring 
Capt n . Williams an Acc u . Had there been Horses, or Car- 
riages to carry over a parcel of Battoes, and provisions over 
the Carrying place I should have guarded them quite to 
Osswego. I shall refer Your Excellency to Capt n . William's 
letter wherein he wrote You everry thing more particular than 
I have now time to do, haveing the Indians and Militia about 
me whom I am Just going to discharge. 

I am told by the Indians that there is a great meeting at 
Niagara now of Cheundadeys, Ottawawas, Mississageys & ca . if 
so, I am afraid it will much obstruct our Proposed Meeting at 
Osswego, and that the French will prevail on them to go ag st . 



416 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Osswego, or, many other Services. So many Indians Joining 
the French, must Stagger the Six Nations a Good deal, they 
are very pressing to have the Forts built in their Countrys, and 
Strongly Garrisoned, which would be an excellent thing, but I 
cannot as yet get Hands to undertake any, but that of Oneida, 
which would have been begun before now, & near finished had 
it not been for those Alarms, which freightend the Undertakers 
so much, that they were afraid to go, but they promised me 
they would begin this next Week. & finish it as Soon as possible, 
the Conajoharees Some time ago applied for Men to Garrison 
their Fort, I sent an Officer & twenty five Men there the 10 th . 
of March at the same allowance they had last year, gave them 
Amunition & 2 brass pattareroes 1 of my own until the Swivels 
come, they now are verry pressing to have more Men in it, 
what to do I cant tell, it will be a great Expence, the Mohawks 
expect the Same, as Soon as the regulars are withdrawn from 
there, the Indians of Scohare (altho but few) have also begged 
to have a place of Safety, which I promised them, and this Day 
they asked for Men to Garrison it. I should be glad to have 
y r . Excellencys directions in this Case, there are Men to be had, 
but it will amount to a considerable Sum of Money. I wish 
Y r . Excellency could get a Number of good light Guns for 
the Indians, there is no such thing to be had here, nor lace for 
Hatts, or Coats which are Articles at this time verry necessarry. 
I hear that at the meeting at Otseningo about 300 Warriours of 
the Delawares, &ca appeared, and told the Delegates Sent by 
the Six Nations to Settle that affair, that they would lay down 
the Hatchet if their Cheif Men were willing. I have not heard 
their resolution as yet. 

I am 

Your Excellencys 
Most Obedient 
Humble Servant 

Wm. Johnson 



1 Pedreros, or patereros, a piece of ordnance, See The Papers of Sir 
William Johnson, 2:538. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755—1756 417 

P.S. as I was writeing this 
a party of War Hours returned 
from Tiendaroga with a Serjants 
Scalp whom they killed verry near 
the Fort, they tell me there is a 
considerable Indian Encampment 
near the Fort, and that they saw the 
tracks of Severall partys comeing 
towards these parts. — there were 
some about my house in my absence 

His Excellency GENR L . SHIRLEY 

FROM WILLIAM SHIRLEY 

Boston April 4 th . 1756 
8 oClock PM 
Sir 

Yesterday I received your favour of the 28 th . March & this 
moment have a Copy of a Letter from Capt. Williams for- 
warded by your directions by Cap 1 . Falconer to me. by w h . I 
find they have been attacked at the Great Carrying place by 
a Party of ffrench & Indians, & by your said Letter you were 
setting out with all the Militia you could raise for the Oneidas. 
Your alacrity on this occasion I esteem of Great use to his 
Majestys Service, and all I have [at] present to urge is, that 
you would use your best endeavours with the Indians to keep 
good strong Scouting Parties out between Fort Williams & 
Oswego that the way thither may be open, as they have promised, 
& you may assure them that I shall do all in my power to rein- 
force Oswego, defend their Castles & annoy the French, & 
you may make them such other Assurances as you think proper 
on this occasion. 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 
14 



418 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I am in hopes the Alarms at the Oneida Carrying Place, has 
not be attended with all the bad Consequences that has been 
represented, but whatever they are, we must endeavour to repair 
them as soon as possible. 

I am 
Sir 

Your most humble Servant 

W. Shirley 
Sir William Johnson Baronet 

P :S : The keeping out Vigilant 
Scouts on the way to Oswego will be 
of the last importance 

FROM JAMES MERCER 

A. L. S. 1 

Oswego April 6 th . 1756 
Sir 

I had yesterday intelligence by some Indians of above 500 
French and their Indians, haveing made a Lodgment Upon a 
small Lake having a Communication with the great one about 
12 Miles to the Eastward of this place, about 500 more came 
by the same road, and by the directions & Assistance of Omadore 
alias Twanege an Oneiyut for the present residing at Swegatchy 
proceeded to Attack the Carrying place, they have surrounded 
themselves with Pickets, and have their Canoes and Battoes on 
the Small Lake, waiting for a signal from the Westward to 
Attack this Place at one, and the same time, with 500 More 
on the March from Niagara. I have this Moment advise by 
Oterwana, & two other Cayougas who on their way from this 
to their own Castle, about 12 Miles to the Westward, one of 
them who was ab*. a Mile a head of the Others, was taken 
Prisoner by three foreign Indians, who he says threatened to 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 419 

kill him, but on his protesting he was no friend to Us they only 
kept him Prisoner, telling him there was upwards of 500, just 
behind coming to Attack Oswego, in Conjunction with 500 
More, who for that purpose waited a little to the Eastward, 
two of these Indians Loitering a little behind, he took an 
Oppertunity, of Darting himself through the wood and Making 
his escape from the other, he Lukily reincountered, the other 
two, who returned to us with that Intelligence, it were Idle to 
express my doubts or fears for the fate of the Carrying Place, 
or the Neglect of not reinforcing us, or supplying the Garrison 
in time, I hope it is in your power you will send us an immediate 
releif or if that is impossible, the best information you can of 
the scituation of Affairs below, that we may be enabled to Act 
prudently as I hope we always shall bravely, Your Quick 
dispatch in this may be of great Consequence to the Publick 
and will Extremely Oblige. 

Your Most Obedient Humble 

Servant 

James Mercer 

To Capt n . Will ms . or Sir Will m . Johnson 

indorsed: 

Oswego April 6 th . 1 756 
Letter from Coll°. Mercer 
to all in Authority 



FROM THOMAS FALCONER 

Hirkmers Wedv. 
7th. April 1756. 
Sir 

This morning wee were strongly alarmed by an Indian that 
came hither & told that 3 tracks of a large Body of Indians & 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



420 Sir William Johnson Papers 

French had been seen above the Flatts, and that wee should 
be better inform'd by Nicholas within an hour — He is just now 
come in and informs as follows. 

Nicholas y e Onogada — declares that the damage done at 
Bulls, was occasioned by two of their Ind n \ who knew of the 
Enemy's comeing, not discovering it & that some of y e . Onoyadas 
were concerned in it. that previous to that the French sent 
some Emissarys with a Belt and Exhorted them to take up y e 
Hatchet ag l us — that they had many words on that head, & 
that some refused it, but that there was difference among 
them, and that some had joind y e Enemy. That at present 
they are holding a grand meeting, to consult on a determination, 
what to do, whether to shake of all affection to the French or 
not 

That after the French had destroyed Bulls Fort 1 , they told y e . 
Onogadas, that ab f . 2 days, journey from the carrying place, 
was their place of rendezvouse & that they would return much 
stronger and take the carrying place & build a strong fort there, 
and keep it themselves; that they will try them (Onogadas) 
and if they stick by the English, they will destroy the whole 5 
Nations; and in spite of them at all events stop up the passage 
to Oswego. That all the fear is Genl. Johnson, who has beat 
them once, and were they quitt of him once, they fear none Else. 

This he says are the French Ind ns . own words — That yes- 
terday they sent some scouts, towards Oswego and some round 
ab l . the carrying place, and as some come in; others go out, & 
will continue so to do — That affairs are made up with the Sus- 
quehannocks & delawares, who will do no more damage to us, 
& by what he can Judge of their council, they seem firmly bent 



1 Fort Bull, on Wood Creek, at the Oneida Carrying Place, was taken 
and destroyed on March 27, 1756, by a force of French and Indians 
under Lieutenant de Lery. The fort was located at the west end of the 
Great or Oneida carrying place, on Wood creek, two and one-half miles 
from the site of Fort Stanwix. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 421 

to the English, and that the Enemy will not be able to prevail 
with any more to join them. 

You will have his discourse at large, this is what he came 
hither he says to tell us — I am sorry to hear our Battoes are 
so dilatory on the river none having arrived yet, and is oweing 
I am informed to their cowardly apprehensions of being catched 
by the Enemys schulking parties. Am also told there are a 
number of generall Shirleys and Pepperalls recruits straggling 
up and down the roads from the former Mohoc of fear. This 
is by a messenger to me with a letter, but whether he says true 
or false, I can't tell, however he says the Battoes won't be up 
here till Saturday next. W ch . have now been out above 10 
days these delays must be dangerous. 

I hope you got well home, and without catching cold, w ch . 
is the wishes of all y c . gentlem 11 . here Especially of S r . Your 

Very Obed f . hble servt. 

Tho s . Falconer. 

P. S. Wee are much obliged and return] 

Thanks for the favour, of y r . Pamphlet. [> 

I fear our People want spurring on J 

LA Mill's last night wrote me a line w h . you desired a copy 

of Cap. Williams letter, directed to all in authority, I shall 

send you an exact one f r . first hand w h . comes down. 

To Sir Wm. Johnson Barron 1 , 
at Fort Johnson. 

INDORSED : 

Captn. Falconers 
letter dated April 
the 7th. 1 756. 



422 Sir William Johnson Papers 

JAMES F. MERCER TO WILLIAM WILLIAMS 

Oswego April 7 th, 1756. 
Sir 

I this moment received your malancholy Letter of the 27th 
March to the 3 d of April, and I am sure you wont doubt of my 
sorrow for the Contents. Youl see by a Letter I wrote yester- 
day directed for you or Sir Wm. Johnson how we are threatned 
on both sides, but as yet not attacked, by the report of the 
pieces fired around us but especially round Fort Ontario I am 
of Opinion that there are great number of scouting Indians. We 
have lost four men from that Fort, two we suppose taken 
prisoners, another we suppose killed, and one scalped within a 
100 yards of the Fort, at 10 Oclock in the morning, it were 
Idle and uncharitable to trouble you with our wants as I am 
concious you ever have and will continue to forward us all 
the relief in your power, had the party of the Train accom- 
panied your Express, it would have been of great consolation 
to us, as we have Artillery but no men to use it. the 22 Battoes 
came safe to hand, and we have Provisions till towards the 
latter end of this Month, by which time I shall hope for General 
Shirleys directions or at least your good advice for my conduct 
our vessels lie idle, they are neither victualled, nor manned, 
while the french as the Indians inform me have been passing 
and repassing all the Winter, if I can prevail with the Indians 
to carry the Letters you shall from time, to time, hear from 
me, for the rest, I must refer you to Davis the Battoe man, 
who has been here this week past. I pray God to protect you, 
and am with the most sincere Esteem. 

Dear Sir 

Your Much Oblidged 

& Most Obedient Humble Servant 
James F. Mercer 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755—1756 423 

I have paid the Inds. twelve 
Dollars a piece. I have no time to write 
General Shirley but beg you will inclose or 
forward this by the first oppertunity. 

INDORSED: 

Oswego April 7th, 1 756. 
Collo. Mercers letter to 
Captn. Williams or Sir 
Wm. Johnson. 



FROM JOHN BRADSTREET 

Fort Hunter 9*. April 1756 
Sir, 

Whereas the direction of the transportation to and from 
Oswego and Command of Battoe Men is in me under his 
Excellency General Shirly and as I am now on my way there 
with a large number of Boats & a great quantity of provisions 
it becomes necessary for his Majestys Service I should be made 
acquainted with the motions of the enemy as much as possible 
and inasmuch as you have undoubtedly constant intelligence on 
this head from the Six Nations it becomes necessary for me to 
acquaint you therewith and to desire you will please to inform 
me now if there is any thing material as well as that You will 
let me know hereafter. 

and as You are sensible nothing can be more conducive to 
our safty than timely notice of the enemys being near, you are 
likewise sensible there are not any kind of People so fit to give 
that information as Indians, I am therefore to desire you will 
provide me with some and I will with great pleasure pay them 
what ever you shall think proper a day or otherwise — fifty at 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



424 Sir William Johnson Papers 

least I should be glad to have and as many of them Mohawks 
as possible. I shall stay at this house for Your answer, and am 

Sir 

Your Most humble 
Servant 

Jn°. Bradstreet 
Sir William Johnson B f . 

indorsed: 

Fort Hunter April 9 lh . 1 756 
Broadstreets letter 
Desiring Indians 

TO WILLIAM SHIRLEY 

A. L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson April 9th, 1756 
Sr. 

Just now two Indians who are verry great friends of mine, 
and can depend upon them came from Oneida, and tell me 
that one of that Nation named Tarvins, who was on the 
Hunt, mett that Body of French, & Indians who distroyed 
Bulls Fort &ca, The Commanding Officer had a great deal of 
talk with him, and among other things told him, He was deter- 
mined at all Events to Stop the Road to Osswego, by keeping 
five hundd. Men along the River, to intercept the provisions, 
that he would make Another visit to the Carrying place with a 
greater party, and build a Strong Fort there, that he would 
also destroy the Magazine at the German Flatts, and all this 
part of the Country so well Stocked with provisions, in order 
to make an easier Acquisition, adding that if the Five Nations 
would Interpose they of Oswego would cutt them all off the 
face of ye earth these Indians also tell me that the Delegates 
I sent to the Delawares are returned and bring the agreeable 
news of their haveing settled that unhappy Affair, between them, 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 425 

& us, that they, after acknowledging their fault, promised to 
Join the Six Nations with Us agst. the French, I expect the 
Sachims here in two or three Days when I shall have the full 
State of their proceedings at Sd. Meeting, The Mohawks of 
the lower Castle are this day goeing to bring up, if they can all 
the River Indians liveing in, and about Esopus, and Settle 
them among them at this Castle, they are above 1 00 Men, I am 
told, this will Make the Mohawks a pritty formidable Body. 
I send one of my interpreters with them In order to Take Care 
of them by the Way. 

This I thought my Duty to let you know as Soon as possible. 
There are scouts out Constantly towards Osswego, and the 
Roads from Canada to the Carrying place, &ca, by wh. means 
we may expect having intelligence of any body of the enemy s 
approach, but Unless there are a Sufficient Number of Men 
to oppose them, and more regard paid to the Indians Acctts. 
than there has been lately, It may be attended with 111 
consequences. 

I am Yr. Excellency's 
Most Obedt. 

Humble ServL 

Wm. Johnson 
P. S. as it is so difficult to get 
Men here to build Forts for the Six 
Nations, who are verry pressing for them, 
I think it would be best to have Men from 
Some other govrt. to work at them, oterwise 
they will not be finished in time and tunill 1 

they have Forts Garrisouned in their Countrys, it cannot be 
expected they will Join us with all their Force as (I am con- 
vinced) they then Would, their allowing Forts in their Country 
is a Strong indication of their Intentions to abide by Us. I must 
say I dread the Consequence of that Meeting at Niagara, of 
so Many nations of Indians. 

Genrl. Shirley 



1 Evidently "until". 



426 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM WILLIAM SHIRLEY 

A. L. S. 1 

Boston, April I Oth, 1756. 
Sir 

I have received your letter of the 3 th . inst'. from Fort Johnson 
were I find you was just returned from Fort Williams; Your 
vigilance & activity in your march upon that occasion was very 
seasonable, but as there was then at the carrying place such a 
Body of men as with the 500 you marched up could not have 
been less than 800. I was in hopes you might have prevailed 
on a sufficient number to have tracked & followed the Enemy 
at least so far as to have been assured that they were gone off, 
which at present there is some doubt of; but I dare say you 
must have sufficient reasons for not following them; I am sur- 
prized at what you say as to the state of Fort Wood Creek, 
that it had neither a Port Hole or Flanker. In my way from 
Oswego, I stayed myself at the Great Carrying Place to see 
Fort Williams marked out, & on Capt. Williams's undertaking 
to lay out the other at Wood Creek, I delivered him a Plan for 
that purpose, as well Flanked as a Fort of that kind could be, 
& it is the greatest degree of stupidity that ever I hear of, to 
build a Fort of that kind without loop Holes. 

I had before receiving the Account of the Alarm at the 
Carrying Place order'd all the Recruits which are some Hun- 
dreds of the 50th & 51st. Regiments & the whole of Col. 
Schuyler's Regiment being 500 to proceed to Oswego & am in 
hopes that before this time they are set out from Schenectady 
with Col. Bradstreet, and at least 1200 Battoemen armed: and 
when they arrive at Oswego I can't but think that place suf- 
ficiently secure against any attempts of the Enemy, provided 
the communication can be kept open, & the only effectual way 
of doing that, is by keeping numbers of large Parties of Indians 
scouting on the Northside of the Mohawk's River, at the Great 
Carrying place, & on the Northside of the Oneida Lake & of 
the Onondago River to Oswego. But especially at the Great 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 ATI 

Carrying Place, & such others as it may be necessary for us 
to erect Forts at, which I have ordered to be done, at the 
Entrance into the Oneida Lake & the Great Falls near Oswego 
for the protection of our Battoes in their Passage between the 
Wood Creek & that place; this I must desire you will use your 
utmost endeavours to prevail on the Indians of the Six Nations 
forthwith to do. 

As it is necessary for his Majesty's service at this conjuncture, 
and I can't but think it will be very hard, if the Indians can't 
be prevailed on to afford us this service, upon being paid for it 
at least, since it is likewise necessary for the protection of their 
country — part of which they call Oswego itself ; as indeed the 
country round it is: They are in dread of being cutt off by 
the French & their Indians require us to build Forts, secure all 
their Castles & furnish them with men to Garrison them, & 
call upon us to send a large Army to Oswego to defend it 
against the French; and I should think after this they might 
be induced to join with us in securing our Passage thro their 
own country for that purpose. The French do much more 
with their Indians: they send them into the country of the five 
nations to commit all mannor of hostilities against us: You 
engag'd 300 of the Indians of the Six Nations last year to go 
with you to Crown Point to fight against the French & their 
Indians, some follow'd me to Oswego upon the service under 
my command; and they promised both of us to join us in larger 
Bodies against the French this spring: I can't therefore but hope, 
you will be able to effect this essential point for his Majesty's 
service: & immediately to employ your attention in it: The 
mannor of doing this I must leave to yourself: I should think 
if the Indians were kept in constant Pay, they might be made 
as cheap soldiers in the way of service proper for them to act in, 
as any the King hath; if you judge that the best method, you 
have already power from me to appoint such officers for them 
as you shall think most proper for the service. 

When I saw you at New York, I propos'd to you the joining 
to your present commission for the management of Indian affairs 
a military command of them; I have since been thinking, that 



428 Sir William Johnson Papers 

one of the same nature with that which Mons r . St. Pierre had 
over the Indians in alliance with the French will be necessary 
to make the Indians under your care more useful & strengthen 
your authority over them; if you are of the same opinion, I 
will when I come to Albany give you such a commission for 
that purpose as will be agreeable to you, in the mean while I 
must desire you will act in your direction of the Indians as if 
you already had it. 

I approve of the Garrison you have put into the Connajoharie 
Castle, & if you think it necessary to increase the number of them 
you will do it. I approve likewise of your engaging a proper 
garrison for the Fort at the Mohawk's Castle to go into it 
when the Regulars go out, some of these men I should imagine 
might be made further useful by joining Parties of Indians from 
time to time in scouting, on the Northside the Mohawk's River, 
& in assisting the Battoemen at the Rifts near those Castles, 
which should be made part of this duty, these Garrison's cer- 
tainly will be Expensive, but as their necessary we must have 
them, & make them as useful as possible. I shall order Inquiry 
to be made for light Guns &c Lace for the Indians, both here 
& at New York, if any are to be had they shall be immediately 
sent you. 

I am glad to hear the Party of Indians you sent to Tinon- 
deroge have brought off a sergeants scalp. You will engage at 
least an hundred of the six Nations to stand ready to go against 
Crown Point this spring; and to appoint a proper person to 
head them; I hope to get the Provincial Forces assembled at 
Lake George, by the first week in May at furthest. 

I am, Sir 

Your most Humble Servant 

W. Shirley. 
Sir William Johnson Baronet. 

indorsed : 

Boston April 10th, 1756. 

Genrl. Shirleys 

letter 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 429 

TO WILLIAM SHIRLEY 

For/ Johnson April the 12th. 1756 
8 a Clock P M: 
Sr. 

This Inst, received the Inclosed letter from Captn. Williams, 
which I thought proper to forward imediately by Express, I 
sent Collo. Burton 2 also a Copy of it. and desired he would 
forward this to your Excellency with all Speed. I sent Captn. 
Butler 3 off Yesterday with Orders to Muster as many of the 
Mohawks, 6c other Indians as possibly He could in so short a 
time, & to proceed wth. them to the Carrying place, from thence 
to Osswego as a Guard to the Battoes, & Whale Boats, the 
Battoe Men go wth. great reluctance for the Want of Sufficient 
Guards, there are a few Men going up, but with out Arms. 
Many of the Battoe, & Whale Boat Men have no Arms, which 
makes the Indians think verry 111 of Us at this time. Severall 
Onondagas, Oneidas, & Tuscaroras arrived there this Day, 
also many Mohawks, they are all vastly uneasy that there are 
so few men at Osswego, & the Carrying place, as they are verry 
apprehensive that the French will try all means to Stop the 
Expedition to the Westward, by distroying the provisions, or 
takeing Oswego, which without More Men at both places & 
Cannon at the Carrying place, and provisions at Osswego they 
may easily do. 

The Delegates which went to the Delewares are returned, 
Some of Whom, are come here now in order to let me know 
what passed at yt. Meeting. I have only time now to tell Yr. 
Excellency that they have made up that unhappy affair between 
them, & Us. & that they will Join our Arms agst. the French, 
they desire that if we have any Prisonners of theirs, that they be 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 

2 Ralph Burton, made commander at Montreal in 1 763. 

" Thomas Butler. See Butler to Johnson, April 26, 1 756. 



430 Sir William Johnson Papers 

delivered up to them as Soon as possible, and then they will 
deliver up all they have of Ours. 

I must repeat the necessitty there is of having Workmen from 
Some other parts to build Forts for the Severall Nations, as 
Men cannot be got here to Work at them, and they are now 
verry pressing to have them built which I wish could be done 
Soon. 

I am 

Your Excellencys 

Most Obedt. Humble Servt. 

Wm Johnson 
I am sorry to tell Yr. Excellency, 
that some of ye. Battoe Men &ca use 
the Indians verry 111, wh. I am afraid 
will be of bad Consequence. Some of them 
tyed Daniel with a Halter, & brought him to me Prisoner 

Genrl. Shirley 

from john bradstreet 

jTX. Li. lj.~ 

Burnetsfidd 14 l K April 1756 
Sir 

It is with concern I am obliged to mention the Battoe Men are 
so intimidated with what has happen'd at the Carrying place 
that they desert the Service every day and declair they will not 
proceed any further than this place without a Guard exclusive 
of their own Regim*. and to acquaint You the second time that 
your sending me Indians would be of extreme great consequence 
to the Kings Service. In two days I hope to be gone from 
hence. I am 

Sir 

Your humble Servant 

Jn°. Bradstreet 
Sir W m . Johnson 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 431 

INDORSED: 1 

Bumets feild April 

the 14 th . 1756 

Letter from Bradstreet 

w ,h . a packet w h . I forwarded 

& Express the 15 th . 

FROM JOHN BRADSTREET 
A. L. S.- 
April the 14* 7 AM 1756 
Sir 

1 his moment is arrived two Indians of the Onondagas to give 
Notice that Oswego was surrounded four days since by a very 
considerable number of French & Indians from the Cadaraque & 
Niagara, and that they certainly heard the Cannon of Oswego 
for half a day after they left their Castle; and further say the 
enemys General place of meeting was about twelve Miles from 
Oswego as the Indians inform'd them and were sent for that 
purpose by Col. Mercer. 

Now, Sir, You will alow me to say nothing can be more con- 
ducive to the safty of that place, or to its recovery if gone, than 
the interposition of the five Nations, and that it appears to me 
Your immediate presence among them on this head absolutely 
necessary and would be of the greatest consequence; and that 
as Oswego is esteem'd with in the province of New York the 
Militia now at hand should joine me ; provisions I have sufficient, 
and no time have I, nor shall I lose in proceeding; however, Sir, 
this I submit to Your judgement and am Your most hum S f . 

J N °. Bradstreet 
Sir W m . Johnson 

indorsed : 

Coll°. Bradstreets Letter 

reed, this letter friday 

April the 1 6* 7 AM 1 756 



1 In Johnson's hand. 

- In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



432 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM JAMES MERCER 

Oswego, ^pn7 /6" 1 . 1756 
Sir 

This three Weeks past we have been much infested with 
Scouting Parties of Indians, by whome we have lost five Men, 
four of them Carried off Prisoners, and the fifth scalp'd under 
the Guns of Fort Ontario at 10 O'Clock in the Morning, our 
late loss of a Serjeant & Eight Men with their Arms, being (sur- 
rounded and Carried off) makes me Cautious of sending out 
Parties after them; I suspect the frequent reports we hear of 
their fire arms, are only to decoy us, there have been a few of 
the five Nations here since, but none of them could be prevailed 
upon, to go on the Scout to bring us intelligence, they seem 
fearful and endeavor to render us so by Magnifying the Number 
and Strength of our Enemy, as the ways are now Pattent I 
hope for a reinforcement, if Cap*. Bradley and y e . Sailors, had 
come here with the first Batteau's, I believe we might have 
intercepted, the Drunken Rable did the Mischief at the Carry- 
ing Place as I hear'd they pass'd the east end of this Lake, I 
have the honor to be with the most Perfect Regard, Sir 

Your Oblig'd 

& Most Obedient 
Humble Servant 

James Mercer 
S R . Willm. Johnson 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 433 

FROM JOHN BRADSTREET 

Harkeimans 17 th . April 1756 
Sir, 

It ma}' be proper to let you know that two Indians are arrived 
here who Say they came from the Onondaga Castle but three 
days since and that at that time there was no Account of Oswego 
being attacked whether these or those who gave the first account 
is to be believ'd I cannot say but hope soon to be well informed 
in this matter as Capt. Williams has sent to Oswego five Days 
ago on purpose for intelligence & two Young Mohaks Set out 
yesterday for the same purpose. 

Captain Schuyler is just come to me and says the people are 
so discontented on moneys being due to them last Year that 
they will not go to the carrying place with their Horses & Slays, 
or at least but a few, which will be of fatal consequence as the 
flatts cannot furnish above fifty — I therefor hope You will 
endeavour in Your way, or by sending to them, to engage them 
to com; I have brought money to pay them, which is all I have 
to say to the matter of last year. 

I am 
Sir 

Your humble Serv 1 . 

J N0 BRADSTREET 

Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 . 

P.S. I beg the favour You will write 
the General what I now mention as 
to the account brought by the two last 
Indians, and that I expect an account 
from Oswego every hour. 

INDORSED : 

Harkemars April 1 7 th . 1 756 
Letter from Bradstreet 



In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



434 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM WILLIAM SHIRLEY 

A. L. S. 1 

Boston 17 th April 1756 
Sir. 

I am favoured with your Letters of the 9th & 13th inst f . by 
Express & have ordered the Party at Herkermans to be rein- 
forc'd to 500 men and that at the Great Carrying Place to 400 
men under proper officers. Besides the Party of 60 men now 
posted at the little carrying Place, and two others which I have 
ordered to the end of Wood Creek at the Entrance into the 
Oneida Lake and at Oswego Falls ; and the Garrison of Oswego 
will I hope soon consist of 15 or 1600 men; But no number of 
Regulars without Indians which are good Woodsmen will prevent 
the continual Mischief done by the Enemy & their Indians; I 
must therefore beg leave to observe again that in order to keep 
the Communication with Oswego open, there is an absolute 
necessity that strong Parties of Indians of the five Nations should 
be kept continually scouting: and in particular it is an essential 
point for the preservation of Oswego that the Parties of Whale 
boats and Battoes under the Command of Colonel Bradstreet 
should be safeguarded by Indians in their Route to & from 
Oswego: But after my Letter of the 18th. Inst 1 , to you, Sir, 
upon the necessity of the Indians assisting in keeping their 
Country clear of the Enemy, & bringing us constant intelligence 
of their approaches I need not mention any thing further. 

If any of the Battoemen want arms it must be the fault of 
those who levied them; all that went from this Province were 
arm'd except the last 23, who were ordered to buy arms for 
themselves: 1200 stands of arms were sent to Albany as soon 
as they arriv'd from England to compleat the four Regiments: 
and as to Cannon for the Great Carrying Place that must be 
taken care of when we take the Field; the main point now is 
to get our Provisions safe to Oswego: Whatever number of 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 435 

workmen is necessary to finish the Indian Forts in time must 
be had as soon as possible: and I must desire you to send orders 
for procuring them from Albany, New York, Connecticut or 
the Massachusetts Bay as you shall find necessary. 

I am glad to hear of the good success of the Delegates you 
sent to the Delawares; 6c that the Mohawks are strengthening 
themselves with all the River Indians living in & near Esopus; 
and I hope that a sufficient Party of the Mohawks will be pro- 
cured to Guard the Whaleboats & Battoes to Oswego; and 
that the scouting Parties you keep out for intelligence will pre- 
vent all surprize. 

I shall give Colonel Bradstreet strict orders to take the utmost 
care for keeping the Battoemen from offering the least ill usuage 
to the Indians: I am extremely sorry in particular to hear to 
their abusing Daniel. 

I am, 
Sir, 

Your most Humble servant, 

W Shirley 
Sir William Johnson Baronet. 

INDORSED : 

Boston, April 1 7th, 1 756. 
General. Shirleys Letter. 

FROM WILLIAM SHIRLEY 
A. L. S. 1 

Sudbury April 2K 1756 
Sir 

I have just now receiv'd an Express from Albany with two 
Letters from Lieut. Col°. Bradstreet dated the 14 th . of this Inst, 
giving me an Account that Oswego has been besieg'd four days 
and that he hath given you an account of it as appears by an 
Enclos'd Extract of his Letter to you, which I now send you. 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



436 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I have upon this occasion sent Orders to Lieut. Col°. Gage 
to march 500 of the 44 th and 48 th . Regiments and Col°. 
Schuylers whole Regiment to cover the provisions going to 
Oswego under Lieut. Col°. Bradstreet and to repossess them- 
selves of it if taken in Case that should be practicable. 

It is needless Sir for me observe to you how necessary it is for 
his Majesty's Service that you should Collect with the Utmost 
Expedition all the Indians you possibly can upon this Emergency 
and together with the Militia you have at hand go with them 
in person and join the party under the Command of Lieut. Col°. 
Gage either for the preservation of Oswego or recovery of it, 
if taken by the Enemy. 

I hope you'l be able upon this occasion to exert your Influence 
with the Six Nations if they can't be now prevailed upon to join 
with us in saving their Country from the French. I can't see 
what Dependance his Majesty can have upon their Friendship 
or promises. I must press you to exert your best Endeavours 
at this Conjuncture apparently nothing but the most speedy 
Succour of the Indians can save the place and that Sir must 
depend upon your Vigilance and Activity. 

I have upon this Occasion wrote to Sir Charles Hardy and 
desired him to send after you as strong a party of the Militia 
as he can with the utmost Dispatch 

Sir W m . Johnson Bart. 

I am 
Sir 

Your most humble 
Servant 

W Shirley 
indorsed : 

Sudbury April 21 st . 

1756 
Gen rl Shirleys letter 

Extract of Col°. Bradstreet's Letter to Sir William Johnson 

"Now Sir you'l allow me to say nothing can be more Con- 
ducive to the Safety of that place or it's recovery if gone, than 



Preliminary Campaigns, J 755-1 756 437 

the Interposition of the five Nations, and that it appears to me 
your immediate presence among them on this head absolutely 
necessary and would be of the greatest Consequence; and that 
as Oswego is esteem'd within the province of New York the 
Militia now at hand should join me provisions I have sufficient, 
and no time have I, nor shall I loose in proceeding however Sir 
this I submit to your Judgement And am 

Your most hum b,e Serv 1 ." 

TO WILLIAM SHIRLEY 
D/. 1 

Fort Johnson 22 April 1756. 
Sir 

I have the honour of Your Excellencys three Letters of the 
10. 15 & 17. Inst. 

As to my not pursuing the Enemy, it was four days after the 
Mischief was done when I arrived at the Carrying place & all 
Circumstances and Opinions concurred to render it highly prob- 
able the Enemy were returned to Sweegachie — besides the 
Militia were so ill provided & so harrassed with Fatigue & 
extreme cold and Weather that they were in a manner incapable 
of proceeding further, the Indians said it was in vain to think 
of pursuing their Route to any good purpose. I left some Indians 
with Capt. Williams who promised to Scout round those parts 
and a party of 20 to guard 3 or 4 Battoes of provisions wch. 
I pressed him to send to Osswego and wch he promised but I 
believe did not. 

I agree with your Excellency in Opinion of the necessity 
there is that Scouting parties should range those passes & places 
you mention in order to secure the Communication to Osswego, 
and I have applied to the Cayouge the Onondaga Onieda & 
Mohawk Indians on that head they promissed & they assure me 
they have & will kept constant Scouts out. It is true the French 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



438 Sir William Johnson Papers 

do more with their Indians than we can do with ours, and Many 
Reasons might be assigned for it. besides that they have many 
more Indians than we have — in most of their Scalping Parties 
there are more French than Indians wch. makes their Indians more 
willing & ready to go out, ours are left to themselves, & Indians 
are not so well pleased when they act as Auxiliaries as they 
now look upon themselves to be, When this fatiguing & 
Dangerous Duty is left to them only. 

There are a number of Indians & an Indian Officer with Col. 
Broadstreet 1 at the Flatts, another party are gone thru the Woods 
with the Cattle to Osswego. I shall appoint more Indian Officers 
and make use of my utmost Influence & abilities to render 
the Indians as extensively useful to His Majestys Service as is 
in my power, tho this will be Attended with a great Expence 
yet I hope also with Consequences worthy of it. 

I have agreed with a person to build a Fort for the Oniedas 
& I expect it will be soon put in hand. I am about agreeing 
with another Person for one for the Onondagas, the Senecas, 
the Aughqugas & Schohare Indians who have all applied to 
me for Forts. These Forts as Your Excellency observes with 
their Garrisons will be a great Expence to the Crown, but I 
think with you they are a necessity & will be found I doubt not 
a very useful Measure. 

I shall use my utmost Endeavours to engage 100 Indians for 
the Crown Point Expedition but I fear it will be a difficult Matter 
to bring about. 

Your favour of the 15 April incloses me the Extract from 
Capt. Williams Letter. 

There was an Oneida Indian who I understand did not behave 
with the Zeal & Fidelity he ought to have done, but this was 
resented by the rest of the Oneida Nation & they treated him 
with indignation & Contempt for his Behaviour. I found all 
the Oneida Indians very ready & zealous to join me & to go 
upon any Service they were directed & to the best of my knowl- 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 439 

edge & judgment there is no just Foundation to suspect the 
sincerity of their professions towards us, among them as amongst 
all other people there may be particular persons of bad Character. 

I found when I was at the Carrying place that there was no 
good Understanding between the Indians & Capt. Williams, 1 
they reproached him with disbeleiving their Intelligence & 
making light of their warnings to his Face, I told him of it & 
he did not deny their Charge, I am affraid he is not disposed 
to, or not skilled in that kind of Behaviour wch. is necessary to 
gain the Confidence & good will of the Indians without which 
their good Service will either not be obtained or in a great 
Measure defeated. Their Misunderstandings have gone so far 
that they told me they wanted him to be moved, but I 
endeavoured to reconcile Matters & thought I had suceeded for 
I left the Indians to all Appearance heartily disposed either to 
go on the Scout or as guards to the Provisions to Osswego & 
how they came to behave in the manner Capt. Williams sets 
forth is a mystery to me. I well know they are a people apt to 
be capricious & it often requires Temper & Skill to manage 
them without wch. we may complain but it will not avail. I 
would be far from justifying these Peoples Faults, but I realy 
suspect Capt. Williams is blamable on his side. Your Excel- 
lency is certainly right that Regular Troops are not calculated 
either to prevent or repel the Attacks to wch. they are exposed 
from the Enemy & their Indians in marching thro the Woods in 
these parts & the only way to secure & cover their March is by 
Indians or experienced Rangers. 

I reassure Your Excellency that I will use my best Endeavours 
& I am daily doing it, to procure and Animate our Indians to 
secure the passage & Road to Osswego as far as they are able 
from the Insults & Attempts of the Enemy & their Indians. 

Herewith I transmit Your Excellency a Copy of the Con- 
ference I had with a Deputation of the Onondagas — You will 
perceive they have suceded with the Deleware & Shawanese 



1 See The Papers of Sir William Johnson, 2:524. 



440 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Indians — that there is to be a great meeting of the Six Nations 
at Onondaga at wch. the Shawanese & Delewares will be 
present, that they have earnestly requested I would come there 
& wch. I have promised them to do — I look upon the Meeting 
to be a very important one & that a right improvement of it 
will be of the utmost Consequence to His Majestys Service & 
the general Interest. Your Excellency will see how pressing 
they are for Arms & Amunition in particular & it is with pleasure 
that I can acquaint you that Sr. Charles Hardy has given me 
an Order for about 275 Guns & some Amunition out of His 
Majestys present wch Sr. Charles was to make to the 6 Nations 
and he desires I will dispose thereof in his Name at this Meeting, 
no Articles were more essential or wch. I am more distressed 
about than these, however I shall be short of Guns unless Your 
Excellency should be able to get some more procured for me 
they might be light & good ones, I beg to remind you of this 
Article. As the proposed Meeting at Oswego must speedily 
follow this would Your Excellency think it proper for some 
of the presents designed for that to be taken off & given at this 
in order to save Expence, please to let me know your pleasure 
herein. Not only in point of Security but to strengthen my 
Consequence at this Onondaga Meeting, I must desire Your 
Excellency will order me a Guard of an Officer 3 Subalturns 
& 1 00 Men. 

I transmit also to Your Excellency the Amount I received 
this Evening from the Mohawk Delagates of their Embassy 
to the River Indians, the incorporation of whom amongst the 
Mohawks will strengthen our Indians Interest, & render a people 
before useless servicable to the common Cause. 

I am 

most respectfully 

Sir 

Your Excellencys 

Most Obedt. & humble 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-1756 441 

P S. 1 there are Severall 

Oneidaes here now, they expect 

to have a Number of Irregulars to 

Garrison their Forts when finished, 

as does all the rest, except the Onondagas, 

who desire to have Lieut. Mills posted there. 

I should be glad to have Yr. Excellencys Orders or directions 

how to act therein. 

By the Copy of my Proceedings at the late Meeting Your 
Excellency may have observed that agreable to your Instruc- 
tions I promised that Goods should be plenty & cheap this year 
at Osswego in order to encourage the Western Indians to come 
there. The Indians discovered the utmost Satisfaction on hear- 
ing this & said no Method could be so Effectual to gain over 
the Western Indians to our Alliance, they will depend upon 
this promise being fulfilled & a Disappointment will be of very 
bad Consequence. I hope therefore your Excellency will bear 
this Matter in mind & fall on Measures to fulfill our Engage- 
ment herein. 

To His Excellency General Shirley &c &c. 



.3 



INDORSED :' 

My letter to Genrl. Shirley 
Fort Johnson April 22d. 1 756 

FROM ISRAEL PEMBERTON 
L. S. 4 

Philadelphia 25 A : 4 mo: 1756 
Esteemed Friend 

The generous Concern thou hast manifested for the honour of 
our King & safety and Prosperity of our Country are so well 



1 Postscript in Johnson's hand. 

2 John Mills. 

3 In Johnson's hand. 

4 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



442 Sir William Johnson Papers 

known to many of us, who have not had the pleasure of a 
personal Acquaintance with thee, that I believe it will in this 
critical Juncture be pleasing to thee to be informed the Substance 
of some Conferences I with Some of my Friends have had with 
Scarroydy and the other Indians, who have now just left us, 
& whom I expect thou wilt Soon have an Opportunity of 
Seeing. 

The Frankness & Sincerity of their Expressions & Conduct 
leave no room to doubt of their being heartily pleased with 
meeting some of their old Friends here in whom they can repose 
Confidence, and I hope this disposition may be improved to our 
mutual lasting Advantage. Thou art so well acquainted with 
these People & the manner in which our Affairs with them have 
been transacted some Years past, that I need not make any 
Observations thereon. The necessity of attending more Steadily 
to cultivating our Friendship with them and removing the 
Occasions of the present Animosity some of them have enter- 
tained are obvious, and I hope it is not too late to Attempt the 
doing it: if this be neglected and the Mistaken Views of Extir- 
pating them should prevail I fear the desolation of the finest 
part of the English Dominions will be the Consequence of so 
injudicious and Wicked an Intention. 

Those Conferences have been held by the Permission of our 
Governor, but the Circumstances of our Affairs are such that 
this seems to be the first Step taken here towards the Restora- 
tion of Peace with any prospect of Success — it is the Act of 
private Persons, who are engaged in it on a religious Principle, 
& have both Inclination and Ability's Sufficient to bear the 
Expence and will chearfully go thro' with it, if divine Providence 
favours our Design & we have no unsurmountable Obstructions 
from such here, who ought to promote it. Our principal Reliance 
for Assistance therein is on thee, the Interest thou hast both 
with your Governor and with the Indians will enable thee to 
do more than any or even many others can, and without the 
Interposition and Concurrence of some, in whom the Indians can 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1755-/756 443 

confide there's no room to expect a permanent Peace will be 
made. 

If our Endeavours Succeed we have no doubt of the Expence 
being repaid to us, if not, our fervent Concern for our bleeding 
Country and the honest discharge of our duty will be a Sufficient 
Reward to us. This being my sole Motive for engaging therein 
and taking this Liberty with thee, I hope for thy Approbation, 
and as I have desired Daniel Claus the Bearer of this to inform 
thee of many particulars not mentioned in our Minutes, I shall 
only add that I am with much Respect, Thy real Friend 

ISR: PEMBERTON 

FROM ISRAEL PEMBERTON 
L. S. 1 

Philadelphia 26*: 4 mo: 1756 
Esteemed Friend, 

Considering that Daniel Clause may be detained long on the 
Way home, and that the pressing Circumstances of our Affairs 
with the Indians demand the most speedy & vigorous Endeavours 
to Retrieve them from their present unhappy State, I send the 
Bearer on purpose to deliver thee a Duplicate of the Minutes 
of our Conference with the Indians & to request thy immediate 
friendly Prosecution of thy Endeavours for the publick Interest, 
which will be a Work truly Worthy of the most exalted Mind, 
& lay a particular Obligation on the People of this Province, 
and for my Friends in particular I can answer that they will 
Acknowledge it in the most respectful & grateful manner. 

I am with much respect 

Thy Assured Friend 

ISR: PEMBERTON 

S R . W M : Johnson 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



444 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM THOMAS BUTLER 

A. L. S. 1 

Great Carrying Place, 26th Apr 11 , 1756. 
Sir 

I arrived here the 23 d Instant where found all well. The 
boats &c. got all safe to this place. Though had their been any 
Enemy on the Coast they must undoubtedly have destroy'd 
more or less of our people as they were scatter'd all along the 
River, & no where any considerable body together, it was 
impossible for me to gaurd the whole, as to any gaurd of soldars 
by land was none their was a number of new Recruits but all 
in battoes & without arms. The 23 d : being a very Rainy day 
coud send out no scouting party, but the 25 th , sent out two & 
with each a white man. They discovr'd nothing in particular, 
but douted whether they had not seen two fresh tracks. 
26th. sent out a scout at their return reported saw nothing. The 
two Conajoharys sent Express to Oswego from the Great Flatts 
Returnd hither last night in company with two Annidass that 
were sent their from this & by letters brot by them all is well 
at Oswego. A few horses were brot here last night but no riders 
with them, here is but five or six slays. Though the carpenters 
are busey this day makeing more. As more horses are Expected, 
yet I believe it will be ten days at least before all is over. I 
understand the workmen are to open the Wood Kreek as far 
as the Morass which if can be done in a few days will forward 
us Greatly. 

The two Conajoharys from Oswego speaks very slitty of the 
Six Nations, they could hear comeing through their castles 
that they were chiefly inclined to the French. That soon wou'd 
be a grand meeting of all nations of Indians at Nigra where 
some of each of the Six Nations likewise wou'd go. 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Preliminary Campaigns, 1 7 55-1 7 56 445 

The French has told the Indians there that had the Inglish 
came to that place last year they woud easily have taken it. 
but that its now strong and they bid them defiance that they are 
now prepar'd both by land and water & long to meet the English. 

I lem the French Vessels are constantly going back & forward 
the lake. Whilst ours lye still — These two Conajoharys tells me 
they heard among the Indians that you carryed with you to 
Lake George sickness &c. which you sent among the French & 
Indians, by which many of them Died, and that your presents 
this year to be given the Six Nations will all be poysond so 
that by wearing or puting any thing on they shall receive of 
you they will Emeadietly die. I find this is a again French 
policey but hope it will have no effect. I have here ten annondas 
with the Mohawks. The want for nothing. I propose taking 
them all & scout along the Wood Creek tomorrow, but by what 
I can lern there will mach such another Penn be built at the 
Morass as the former very soon. 

I am 
Sir 

With all Respect your 

Most Dutifull & Obed 1 . Serv 1 . 

Tho. Butler. 
P.S. They have alter'd their 
minds in regard to the Fort to 
be built on the other side, its now likely 
to become a good one. 

To Sir William Johnson. 

INDORSED : 

Carrying place April 26, 1 756. 
Thos. Butlers Letter. 



446 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM THOMAS BUTLER 

A. L. S. 1 

Great Carrying Place 3 d . May 1756 
Sir 

Yesterday afternoon came in here three Onnidass, who were 
Sent by Cap*. Williams as Spies Towards Oswegatia. They 
were gone a day before I arriv'd at this place. They Report 
the 1 st . Instant they Saw & Spoke with Ten Kanessadogos or 
French Indians between thirty and forty Miles from this. Who 
told them they had been twenty in Company, but That Ten 
were gone Towards the Flatts to take Either Prisioners or 
Scalps & That they Waited there for their Return. I hear 
their is a family taken at the German Flatts which I suppose to 
be done by them. Nickass Y r . Frind Come here last night from 
the Castle with Some of his Nation & those of Tuscarorah. 
About 20 of them & our Mohawks are Now on a Scout, I can 
See the Indians will not fight against one another. Some of the 
Annondas are Expected here every Minute Who are Going to 
Oswegatia to forbid the French & Indians doing any Mischief 
hereabouts, Several of the Mohawks of both Castles are gone 
Home and have paid them their four Shillings per day. I 
belive the ocation of the Mohawks leving this war was oweing 
to their haveing to much Drink which Ocationed ill blood 
between them as they often quarreled in their cups. I for My 
part have taken all possible care to use Them so as They Should 
want for Nothing of Necessarys. its impossible where their is 
such a number of people to keep them sobar, Yet I have allways 
had enough so to do the Duty requird of them. Capt. Delencey 
just now arrivd with his company. This is to go by the first 
oppertunity, 

I am 
Sir 

Your most Dutifull & 
Obedt. Servt. 

Tho s . Butler 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Seven Years' War 447 

FROM HENRY I. WENDELL 
A. L. S. 1 

Onyde Carrying Place May 3th. 1756 
Dear Sir 

I hope this may find you In good health as I am att Present 
Inclosed I send you the Proposition of the Onyda Chiefs Whom 
where sent to me by the whole Cassell, when they arrived at 
the Carrying Place they waited upon Capt: Williams told him 
their message, he said nothing, they immediately sent two young 
Indians for me, I told them that I could not come without an 
order, which vexed them. Vastly upon which they returned, 
in the mean while Capt. Williams took care to sell the Indians 
out of the Kings store five gallongs of Rum and received the 
money for it, as Mr. Read tells me he delivered it, This was 
the only scheme Williams had to make them Drunk in order 
that they should not speak to me, the next morning Capt. Butler 
told Bradstreet and Williams that they hurted the kings service 
vastly in not sending for me, then Broadstreet ordered Williams 
to write me the inclosed note, upon which I came down found 
the Indians all drunk upon which I returned to Wood Creek 
this morning Eight young Indians where sent for me in order 
to guard me over upon which they made me this speech, Williams 
behaviour to me is unexpressible and no gentlemens satisfaction 
to be had, he first begd Bradstreet privately to order me over to 
Wood Creek with no command from our own company — 
Secondly he absolutely dus a great deale of hurt in regard to 
the Onydas, verry seldom will beleive any thing they say, but 
thinks himself verry knowing Indian affairs which he absolutely 
knows knothing about, he is capable of doing any low lifed 
new England tricks, he has used Mr. Reed in a verry scandelouse 
manner by turning him out of doors and ordring Liewis Clement 
to lick him, and every gentlemen upon the command speaks 
shamefully of his behaviour towards him, and me, I hope as you 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



448 Sir William Johnson Papers 

have always been my good friend you will do me all the service 
in your power to wards my preferment and please to favour me 
with your answer which will infinitely oblidge. 

Sir: 

Your most obed' Servant 

Henry I. Wendell. 

P.S. The Onydes have seen ten French Indians upon this cost 
and say three of them was prisoners two days with them, they 
have likewise taken Stovel hilts and his family upon the Great 
Flats. H I W 

FROM THOMAS BUTLER 

A. L. S. 1 

Great Carrying Place 4th May J 756. 
Sir 

I lern by Nickass that the Belt Wompom you gave Goweaha 
at the German Flatts was three Days before it got to Onnida r 
Goweaha being drunk imploy'd a young Indian to carry the 
same who told the Indians as you desired requesting them to 
assist in Escorting provisions &c. to Oswego but it seems he 
aded you threton'd them very severably in case of their refussal 
&c. I find they have been Greatly alarm'd at it, and none wou'd 
have come here had not Nickass and a Tuskarora told them the 
right news. Nickass further tells me when he came to the 
Castle he found severall going to Oswegatia who said it was 
your desire. To forbid the French & Indians comeing to do 
any more mischief at this place. The Tuskaroras were desir'd 
by the Onnidas to go with them but they intirely refused saying 
they wou'd have no talk with the French. 

Some of the Mohawks are going away tomorrow in short they 
begin to be of little service as their is no such thing of hindering 
their geting rum. I have spoke so often to the officers on that 
head. That am now detirmend to say no more, it appears to 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Seven Years War 449 

me their is a desine in it, as some here are not your very good 
frinds. I have this day consulted Coll. Broadstreet told him 
if he wanted more Indians coud get them from Onnida Tucka- 
rora &c. by sending for them, But he said here were enough. 
That the expense wou'd be too great. I acquainted him how 
redy the Indians were to serve formerly without money but the 
expedition last year to Oswego spolt them by giving them great 
wages. So that they now all expect to have the same. 

I am 
Sir 

Your most Dutifull 
and obedt. Servt. 

Tho: Butler 
to william shirley 

Copy 1 

Fort Johnston, I Oth May, 1756. 
Sir: 

I met the Express between Albany & Schenedady with 
Captain Falkner's 2 Letter, advising that a Large Body of French 
& Indians were Marching to cut off the German Flatts. I sent 
the Express forward to Colonel Burton, 3 who I doubt not Com- 
municated the Intelligence to your Excellency without loss of 
time; at Schenedady I dispatched Orders to the Militia to join 
me the Hither End of the German Flats, for which place I 
set Out with all possible Dispatch, and as I thought no time 
ought to be lost It was too much to write to your Excellency 
at that juncture; upon a Muster at the Flatts I found I had 
with me above 1,400 Militia & Indians; the Albany Detach- 



1 Printed in Pennsylvania Colonial Records, 7:127-28. An extract 
is printed in The Papers of Sir William Johnson, 2:472. 

2 Captain Thomas Falkner [Falconer] of the 44th regiment. 

3 Lieutenant Colonel Ralph Burton of the 48th regiment. 



450 Sir William Johnson Papers 

ment did not Come Up. I dispatched Scouting parties all round 
the German Flatts for several Miles, but made no Discovery 
of any Enemy; I have some Scouts still out whom I desired to 
take a larger Circuit, & I sent some Indians to reconitre the 
Enemy, who are to Go as far as Onegochi if they can do it 
Safely. 

I find the Indians, the Onondagas Expected, 1 are very warmly 
against my Going to the Meeting at Onondaga. Deputies from 
the two Mohawk Castles are to meet me here to-morrow, also 
the Half King 2 & Several Seneca Chiefs, who are here with 
him now, when they say they will Give me their Reasons; 
besides I am informed the Southern Indians who proposed this 
Meeting have Changed their pacific Measures & are gone over 
to the French on the Ohio, but as I expect to-morrow's Meeting 
will throw some new lights upon this Affair I will defer saying 
any thing more upon it till that is Over, when I shall transmit 
your Excellency what passes, & at the same time Answer your 
Favour of the Twenty-ninth Ult°. from New York. 

Our Militia here are Quite wore out with the Repeated 
Fatigues they have lately suffered. 

I wish the Companies of Rangers your Excellency Mentions 
were ready to go upon duty, when I would hope to be able to join 
Indians with them, & unless this method takes place I despair 
of the Communication to Oswego being secured. 

Captain Butler 3 writes me that Colonel Bradstreet 4 says he 
has as many Indians with him as he Wants ; he might have more 
if he thought them Necessary. 

I am your Excellency's most Obedient Humble Servant, 

William Johnson. 



1 Intended for "excepted." 

2 Scarouady. 

3 Captain Thomas Butler. 

4 Colonel John Bradstreet. 



Seven Years' War 451 

FROM WILLIAM SHIRLEY 

,4/fcany, May /6*/i /756. 
Sir, 

At the request of Sir Charles Hardy I send you the inclos'd 
copy of a Letter from Mr. Peters to him dated 8th Instant, and 
an Extract of a Letter from Gov r . Dinwiddie to Gov r Morris 
dated 30th April, which Sir Charles sent me two Days ago; by 
which you will perceive the Delawares & Shawonesse Indians, 
notwithstanding the Account you sent me in your Letter of the 
22d April concerning their having been prevail'd on by Delegates 
from the Onondago's to lay down the Hatchet against the 
English, & to promise to join the Six nations against the French, 
still continue their Ravages upon His Majesty's subjects in the 
Western Colonies with as great Fury as ever. 

Last night I receiv'd your Letter dated at Fort Johnson the 
14th Instant, wherein you mention, that in a conference, you 
was then holding with a "number of 
"Indians from the two Mohawks Castles & some of every 
"other nation except the Onondago's upon the subject of 
"your going to Onondago, they were extremely averse to 
"it; — that you had form'd to yourself the pleasing 
"Expectation of some beneficial advantages at the meeting 
"at Onondago relating to the unhappy state of our 
"Affairs with the Delaware & Shawanesse Indians," but that some 
of the Indians then with you told you "they 
"were perswaded those Indians would not attend at Onondago 
"according to their proposal; That if they should not, your 
"going up there at this time would bring a great charge 
"on the Crown without the prospect of equivalent advantages, 
"as the meeting at Oswego will, you suppose, soon take 
place. 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



452 Sir William Johnson Papers 

As I know not yet the Reasons upon which the Mohawks & 
other Indians now with you are averse to your going to Onon- 
dago, you must, Sir, be a better judge upon the whole than I 
can be at present, whether it is adviseable for you to go there or 
not: For my own part, I can't but have some apprehensions that 
your not going may disgust the Onondago Indians, who you 
inform'd me in your Letter of the 22d. of April earnestly desir'd 
you would be present at that council, w ch . you promis'd to be. 

If that should be the case; might it not be attended with ill 
consequences, as those Indians have a great Influence, not only 
over the Cayuga's & Seneca's, (the two most wavering Castles 
with regard to the English Interest) but the Indians settled at 
Oswegochi too who are chiefly descended from the Onondago's, 
and we had conceiv'd hopes might be drawn over to us by their 
Interest; as also among the Delaware & Shawanesse Indians 
themselves. 

It seems likewise to me, that this failure of the Delaware 
Indians to come to the council at Onondago (as they promis'd 
to do) & their continuing their Hostilities against us, notwith- 
standing the late Interposition of the six Nations to prevent it, 
and the Expectation they gave those nations of laying down the 
Hatchet against the English & joining against the French might 
upon your going to that Council according to the desire of the 
Onondago's and your own appointment, furnish you w f h strong 
arguments for prevailing upon the Indians of the Six Nations to 
take up the Hatchet against the Delawares & Shawanesse, & 
chastize them for their Disobedience: I should likewise think 
that your being present at this council might be of consequence 
in preparing the six nations for the propos'd meeting at Oswego 
with the Messasagaes, Chippowee's, Outouaies & other Indians 
expected there, very much conduce to make that most important 
Meeting have the desired Effect. 

What I have now said, Sir, I offer to you only as my senti- 
ments, which I desire you will consider of, & must leave it to you 
to act therein according to your best judgment. 



Seven Years' War 453 

I shall hasten the compleating & marching of the three com- 
panies of Rangers to the Indian Country, according to your 
Desire, as soon as may be: and as I hope the Indians may be 
then induced to go out with them, & by that means be kept 
constantly out in scouting & Ranging parties, they will not only 
then be of service in clearing their country of the French Indians, 
& keeping open the communications between schenectada & 
Oswego, but likewise in making Incursions into the Enemy's 
country, & turning the war upon them in their own way. 

I should be glad of your opinion, whether it might not be 
for his Majesty's service to have eight or ten such companies 
to be employ'd jointly with the Indians in such service. 

You will consider that these companies will be a considerable 
charge to the Crown. 

I transmitted to Sir Charles Hardy a copy of your Letter to me 
of the 14th Instant, according to your Desire. 

I should be extremely glad to hear by the Return of this 
Express, the Result of your conference with the Indians at Fort 
Johnson. 

I am 

Sir, 

Your most Humble Servant. 

W Shirley. 
Sir William Johnson Baronett. 

indorsed: 

Albany 1 6 May 1 756. 
General Shirleys letter 
Promises 3 comp^. of Rangers 
to Join y e Ind s . in scouting 
but never sent one — 



454 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM JAMES F. MERCER 1 

A. L. S. 2 

Oswego May 20 th 1756 
S*. 

My hopes of seeing you here soon prevented me writing to 
you before, we have been much Infested Lately by the Enemy 
Indians, and our's seem to Neglect us, scarce any of them com- 
ing near us. some of them pretend fear of the Enemy, whilst 
Others entertain a jealousy of our having a desighn to cut them 
off. which must be Infused into them by some Emmisary from 
Canada, whatever may be the cause of their present Coldness 
I have the Satisfaction to Assure you That None of them met 
with the Least Offence during the Course of this Winter from 
any of the Troops here I still hope for the honour of your Com- 
pany, I am with the most perfect Regard. 

S*. 

Your Oblidged 
& most Obedient 
humb le . Serv f 

James F. Mercer 
S R . Will m . Johnson. Bar 1 . 



the 100 Men for Crown Point 
the Road through the five Nations 

ab f . the Delawares 

to deliver the Arms & amunition in S r . Charles Hardys name 3 



1 Colonel James F. Mercer, English commandant at Oswego ; killed 
at the capture of this fort by the French, under Montcalm, in 1 756. 

2 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

3 These four lines of memorandum in Johnson's hand. 



Seven Years' War 455 

ADDRESSED: 

To 

Sir William Johnson Bar 1 
att 

Fort Johnson 
INDORSED: 

Oswego May 20, 1756 
ColR Mercers Letter 

JOURNAL OF INDIAN AFFAIRS 

Contemporary Copy 1 

Fort Johnson 20 th . May 1756 

Canaghquayeson, a Chief Sachem of Oneida, with two Young 
Indians One an Oneida, the other a Tuscarora, arrived this after- 
noon, & Canaghquayeson spoke as follows. 

M r Claus Interp r . 
Radt a Tuscorora Chief also present. 

Brother Warraghiyagey 

At the meeting you held with the Six Nations this last Winter, 
you pressed us so warmly, to take into consideration the hos- 
tilities corhitted against our Brethren the English, by the Dela- 
wares and Shawonese Indians and to interpose our Influence and 
Authority over those Indians. To prevent any more Blood from 
being shed, that we could not avoid taking that matter upon us, 
and accordingly a Deputation from the six Nations was 
appointed to hold a Council with those Indians at Otsinenke, 
I was one who went there, and those Indians were so much con- 
vinced by the Arguments which we made use of that they 



1 In Maryland Historical Society, Gdlmor Papers, Vol. 2, Division 2, 
No. 8, Baltimore, Md. 



456 Sir William Johnson Papers 

repented what they had done, and solemnly promised, that they 
would not again hurt the hair of the Head of any Englishman, 
they told us they were thankfull the five Nations had put them 
in mind of their former Engagements, and that they woud now 
throw every thing that was evil behind their Backs, that they 
had been in Darkness, but now their Eyes were opened, and 
their minds made easy. The Indians who spoke to us in the 
foregoing manner, were Shawonese, Chickasaw's and Mohick- 
anders, who further told us that they had at several times sent 
Belts of Wampum to the Delawares who live at Tiahogo with 
Messages to forward to the Six Nations, which they neglected 
to do, that for the future they were determined to address them- 
selves to the Six Nations directly, and would attend any meet- 
ing, which their Brother Warraghiyagey woud call them to, and 
woud be glad to take him by the Hand. 

Brother, 

One of the Skaniyadaradighrono's who live near the aforesaid 
Indians came to Oneida about 10 days ago, and told us, 
that the aforesaid Indians had applied to the Delawares, who 
live at Tiahogo to accompany them to the proposed Meeting at 
Onondaga, which they refused to do, saying that one Thomas 
McKee, who lives upon the Susquahannah, and is Married to 
a Shawonese Squa had told them, that in 1 days time an Army 
of the English woud come and destroy them, and said to them 
further, 'You cant think that as you have Murdered the 
English, from Canastoga to Esopus, that they will put up with 
it Quietly. And Warraghiyagey may pretend to make up peace 
with you, but that is not in his Power, the Governor of Pennsyl- 
vania is Master this way who will not listen to Peace." The 
Tiahoga Indians said they woud not therefore leave home but 
prepare to defend themselves against the hostile Intentions of 
the English, and that they had sent out ten Men as Scouts to 
observe the motions of the English. 



Seven Years War 457 

Brother./ 

When we received this Intelligence at Oneida, we imediatly 
sent a Message to the Delawares at Tiahoga, insisting upon their 
attending the Meeting at Onondago. 

A true Extract from the Records 
Examined by me. 

Peter Wraxall Secy, 
a true Copy examined by me 
Benj a : Barons 
Secretary. 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR CLAAS DE GRAEF 
Copy 1 
[Fort Johnson, May 20, 1756] 

Instructions for M r . Claas de Graaf head Carpenter going to the 
Seneca Country to build a Fort for those Indians. 

You are to repair with your best Diligence with the Men 
under your Direction to the Senecas Country & there to consult 
with the Indians of that Nation on a proper Spot to build a 
Fort. Unless they unanimously agree upon another, I would 
have it built on the Lake side on a clear Spot of Ground w ch 
M r . Wemp who goes with you as Interpreter had described to 
me. This Fort is to be one hundred & fifty feet Square — the 
Logs to be either of Pine or Oak, Sixteen feet long, four feet 
of which to be set in the Ground well rammed & pounded; 
two sides of each Log to be squared so as they may stand close 
to each other, proper loop Holes to be cut at four feet distance, 
the heights from the ground to be left to the Indians. Two good 
block Houses to be built at either of the opposite Corners, each 
block House to be twenty four feet square below, the upper 
part above the Beams to project a Foot so as men may fire 
down upon the Enemy. 



1 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada, Indian Records, 
Vol. 4. 



458 Sir William Johnson Papers 

You are to floor the Block Houses, Shingle the roofs & build 
a good Sentry Box on the Top of each House & two strong 
Gates of Oak Plank of 3 Inches thick to be set up in the properest 
places with strong Iron hinges. You are to keep an exact 
Account of the Number of days each Man works & of the 
Horses also & see that they work faithfully. You are to take 
care that none of your party quarrel with or use any of the 
Indians ill or sell them any Liquor at their Peril. 

I send along with you 100 Schippels of Indian Corn in two 
Battoes which you are with the assistance of M r . Wemp to see 
equitably divided amongst the aforesaid Indians. 

If there should be any news of Consequence amongst the 
Seneca Indians M r . Wemp is to dispatch it to me by an Indian 
Express whom I will pay for his trouble & if it should be neces- 
sary he must also send an Express with it to the Commanding 
officer of His Majestys Garrison at Oswego. 

Given under my hand at Fort Johnson 
this 20 day of May 1 756. 

W M . Johnson 

TO WILLIAM SHIRLEY 
Df. 1 

Fort Johnson 23 May 1756 

10 aClock at night. 
Sir 

I have just now received Intelligence by the Expresses who 
are returned from Onondaga that a vast number of the Enemys 
tracks have been discovered between Sweegahie & the Carrying 
Place & I find the Indians are in general very apprehensive that 
an Attack will speedily be made back against the great Carry- 
ing Place or the German flatts or perhaps both. 

I thought it my Duty to give y r . Excellency an Account of 
this report as I have received it, and I send this Letter by Lieut. 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Seven Years' War 459 

Mills who is to set off early to morrow Morning. And I shall 
send an Express with this Acct. to the Commanding Officer 
at the German Flatts that he may forward it to the Great Carry- 
ing place. 

I am preparing some Papers to send yr. Excellency wch. I 
hope will be ready some time to morrow. 

I am 
Sir 

Yr. Excellencys 
Most Obet. 
To His Excellency 

Genl Shirley 

indorsed : 

May 23d. 1 756 
Letter to Genrl. Shirley 

& Lieut. Mills 
Material 

TO WILLIAM SHIRLEY 
Df. 1 

Fort Johnson 2 [5] May 1756. 
Sir 

I have your Excellencys favour of Yesterday. I sent my 
Clerk down to Albany four days ago to buy some things I 
wanted for the Indians if to be got, some Blanketts were among 
the rest, if he has missed when there was such a plenty as Your 
Excellency Mentions I shall be vexed with him, had I thought 
such an Article would have come within your Excellencys 
knowledge I should have taken the Liberty to have mentioned 
it to you. 

As I expect to find the Workmen at Onondaga I will give 
Mr. Montrosory 2 additional Directions mentioned by Your Excel- 
lency to them & have them executed. 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 

2 Colonel James Montresor, chief engineer. 



460 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I do not recollect that my Request to Your Excellency about 
the 160 Coats you mention to me, but I beg the favour Yr. 
Excellency will order Mr. Stephenson 1 to send them to Schenec- 
tady without delay to be sent by my Battoes wch are to come 
from thence. 

By mine of Yesterday Your Excellency will see my Journey 
to Onondaga is fixt I am preparing & wait only for the Battoes 
& goods to come up. I beg therefore You will please to order 
me the Guard & give strict Orders to the Commanding Officer 
to take care that his Men behave well towards the Indians, do 
not give them drink or drink with them & best to have nothing 
to say to them. 

I must beg the favour of your Excellency in case I should 
fall short of Provisions or Rum for the Ind. when I am at 
Onondaga to send me an Order to recruit at the nearest place 
where they can be spared. 

Just now some Mohawk Indians who came from Osswego 
heard in their way thro Oneida that some Indians of that Nation 
who lately went to Sweegachie are returned & bring an Account 
that there is the greatest Meeting of Indians of all Nations at 
said place that has been known, and that they learnt there 
that as soon as said Meeting was over, it was determined to 
Attack with a Considerable Body the Oneida Carrying Place 
wch they said they did not doubt they should become Masters 
of, & that they would fortifie it & cut off the Communication 
to Oswego that they would afterwards cut off the German Flatts 
& then destroy my house. 

I have lately had several Intimations from the Indians that 
they expected the French would soon strike some considerable 
blow in order to cut off the Communication to Osswego, & I 
am apprehensive from all these corresponding Accounts that the 
Enemy will soon make some considerable Attack. 

I am 

most respectfully 

To His Excellency Genl. SHIRLEY 



James Stevenson of Albany. 



Seven Years War 461 

Just as I was doing this Letter Abraham the Coanojohary 
Sachem arrived with an Acct. wch came to their Castle this 
day about 12 aClock, that 3 days ago 10 Men & 1 Squa 
Oneidas & Onondagas who live at Swegatche came to the Oneida 
Castle with each a large Pack of Goods, acquainting them that 
the Govr. of Canada desired the Six Nations would immediately 
come to Canada to speak with him, and that at least two of 
each Nation would without fail come there. I can hardly think 
any of them will comply with this Invitation however I shall 
take the proper Steps in my power to prevent it. 

INDORSED : 

May 25th. 1 756 
Letter to Genrl Shirley 
Material. 

TO WILLIAM SHIRLEY 

Df. 1 

Fort Johnson 26 May 1756 

Sir 

Herewith I send Yr. Excellency copy of a Speech made to 
me by sundry Indians this Evening & my answer to the same. 
The Connojohary & Mohawk Indians are averse to having Red 
Coats as they call 'em put in their Forts & how to supply them at 
so short a warning is a distressing Point. The (Connojohary 
& Mohawk Indians) appear so uncommonly earnest in their 
Request for having their Wives & Family that I think not to 
comply will give them the utmost Dissatisfaction wch as they 
are realy faithful friends should in my humble opinion be most 
carefully avoided. I can think of no and therefore I hope yr. 
Excellency will order the reinforcements expedient but to try to 
hire for the time as many people as can be they desire & give 
strict orders to the Commanding Officer that got at Albany & 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal 



462 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Schenectady & some few in this neighbourhood for the their 
men behave well towards the Indians & neither give or sell lower 
Castle, and to order the officer at Cannojohary Fort to employ 
them any Rum & have as little intercourse with them as possible. 
persons to recruit his Garrison which if your Excellency approves 
& // would be impracticable & I think not prudent at this 
Juncture should not be able to fall on a better Expedt. I will do. 
to have these Reinforcements from this part of the Country. 1 

As to what they have said about my carrying up a large 
Number of Men, it is I find a very serious Matter with them, 
the Mohawks of both Castles appear now to be very suspicious 
of the Upper Nations whom they say talk very contemptibly of 
our Military Strength & Operations & in a high strain of the 
Enemy, & they think those upper Nations from a dread of the 
French and the old Leaven which is still in them are very cold 
to our Interest & disposed to Trim between both parties. The 
Mohawks say they are determined to share our Fate be it what 
it will, but I find they and all the Indians in general are fully 
persuaded of an impending blow from the French, that it will 
be considerable & speedy, & the most sensible & faithful Indians 
of all sorts that I meet with are of this Opinion & speak of it 
with very visible Concern. 

I have several Indian Families in My House & Fort who 
came with the half King & a Tuscarore Family who are to 
remain here, & I judge Your Excellency will think it proper 
that during our Absence at least a Guard of 30 Men be posted 
here. 

You will see Sir that I have deferred a particular Answer 
to the Indians till I hear from Your Excellency. I send this by 
Express & as my speedy Departure is necessary I have ordered 
him to wait for Your Excellencys Answer. 

I am 

most respectfully 
Sir 

Yr. Excellencys 



1 Portions in italics are underlined in the manuscript 



Seven Years' War 463 

My Clerk who was at Albany 
tells me he could not get a 
Battoe or Man from the Justices at 

Schenectady to whom he applied, the provisions & Severail 
Articles of Indian Goods for ye. present lye there for want of 
Battoes. Wherefore I should be glad Yr. Excellency would 
order the Justices there to supply me wth. what Battoes & 
Hands I may Want, also Covers for them. 

INDORSED: 1 

May 26th 1 756 
My letter to Genrl. Shirley 
abt. Onondaga Meeting 
and a Party of Men 
Some things Material. 

AN INDIAN CONGRESS 

Copy 2 

Fort Johnson 28 May 1756. P. M 

At a Meeting of several Sachims & Warriors of the lower 
Mohack Castle & some other Indians of the Six Nations with a 
Party of River Indians who formerly lived on the Frontiers 
between this Province & New Jersy & enlisted themselves in 
the Battoe Service. 

M r . Montour Interp r . 

Canadagai the chief Sachem of the Mohock Castle addressed 
himself to the River Indians & spoke as follows 

Nephews. 

When you were going up to Oswego some time ago, you 
made a Speech with a Belt of Wampum w ch now lies before us 
to some of our People, but they were not a suff 1 . Body to give 



1 In Johnson's hand. 

2 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada, Indian Records, 
Vol. 4. 



464 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Answer upon Matters of consequence. We are now a proper 
Number of the 6 Nations present at this our fire Place, and we 
desire you will therefore take y r . said Belt & let us know what 
you have to say. 

Then one of the Cheifs of the River Indians took up the Belt 
& spoke as follows. 

Uncles 

You must excuse our Inexperience in public Conferences; 
since you conquered us we have lived like a lost scattered 
People, & the Rum we get from the English hath drowned the 
Memory of all anteint Customs & the Method of treating on 
public affairs. 

Uncles 

We have here a Child of yours (pointing to an Indian present) 
his Mother was a Seneca Woman & we hope you will receive 
him as one of the Six Nations & whenever you think proper to 
fix him we shall be willing to be placed with our Wives & 
Families. We are desirous of being under your immediate pro- 
tection & hope you will take care of us. 

Uncles 

The English in our way up to Oswego where we went to 
earn a penny to support our Wives & Children who are in a 
distressed Condition, abused & threatened us for Murdering their 
People on the Frontiers of Pensilvania, New Jersey & NeW 
York; we are entirely innocent of any such thing, and these 
Accusations very much alarmed us as we are an unsettled & 
defenceless People ; we were dubious in what manner to behave, 
but we hope now you will interpose & prevent any ill effects of 
those Accusations by taking Notice of us as your Nephews. 

Gave a Belt 

To this Speech Canadagai answered 

Nephews. 

We are sensible that the little Correspondance we have had 
together for a great Number of years, must naturally put you 



Set;en Years War Ad c J 

under some difficulties with regard to the usual Ceremonies on 
public Meetings. 

Nephews. 

We are very willing & desirous that you should come & live 1 
near us & we will grant you our assistance & protection, and 
our Brother Warraghyjagey here told us that he will contribute 
to the support of you & your Families till you become a little 
settled. 

Nephews 

We would have you come this way with your Families as 
soon as possible that we may be able to accquaint your Brethren 
the Delawares of it & that you are under our protection w ch may 
tend to make them easy on your Account & convince them that 
the Report of your being taken Prisoners & made Slaves of by 
the English is groundless & Malicious, which we hope will tend 
to compose those Disturbances that the Delaware & Shawanese 
Indians have occasioned to the Southward. 

Gave a Belt. 

hereupon the River Indians replyed 

Uncles 

You have made our Hearts light by y r freindly Notice of & 
Promises to us & all our late Uneasiness is now removed. 

Uncles 

We are light & can soon Move, but we have engaged our 
selves to the English in the Battoe Service for a time & it is not 
yet expired, however as we have now put ourselves under your 
protection & Guidance we will be ruled by you. 

Canadagai answered 

Nephews 

As to your Engagements in the Battoe Service we refer that 
matter to our Bro r . Warraghyjagey & what he advises you to do 



1 See Johnson to the magistrates of Fishkills, May 28, 1756. 



466 Sir William Johnson Papers 

therein we would have you conform to & it will be satisfactory 
to us. 

S r . William Johnson then spoke to the River Indians as 
follows. 

Children 

I am pleased that you have so prudently applied to your 
Uncles the 6 Nations & put yourselves under their protection 
& that they have so kindly & readily opened their Arms to 
receive you. As to your Engagement with the Battoes I think 
two of you will be suff 1 to go & bring up your Women & Chil- 
dren & I will give you Letters to the People in Authority where 
your Families are that you may meet with no Molestation or 
hindrance in the bringing them away, and when you come up I 
will take care of you & supply your wants till you are able to 
do for yourselves, and I join with your Uncles in Opinion that 
the sooner you come up the better 

gave 3 Strings Wampum 

To which they replyed, that they were very thankfull for S r . 
Williams Promises to them & had fixt on two of their People 
to go down, but desired a White Man might be sent with them 
to prevent any Misunderstanding & facilate the removal of their 
Families. 

S r . William told them he would send an Interpreter with them 
& accordingly wrote the following Letter to Jacobus Clement 
Intrep r . at Albany. 

You are to accompany these River Indians to the Fish Kilns 
& speak to the Magestrates & People in power there to give 
them no Molestation or hindrance but forward them on their 
Journey up here, as their coming to live among the Mohocks 
will be of great Service to the public ; you are to take great care 
that they do not get in Liquor nor have any conversation with 
the Soldiers at Albany or by the Way. When they arrive at 
Albany you are to come up with them directly in the Cheapest 



Sei;en Years War 467 

manner you can. inclosed is £10 to defray the Expences, use 
frugality & Discretion 

Yours 

Will. Johnson 

journal of indian affairs 

Copy 1 

[May 30-June /, 1756] 

Fort Johnson 30 May 1 756. 

P. M. 

The chief Sachems & Warriors of the lower Mohock Castle 
came hither & desired to say something to S r . William Johnson, 
being seated Canadagai the cheif Sachem spoke as follows 

M r . Montour Interp r . 

An Oneida Warrior present. 

Brother Warraghyjagey 

The daily Accounts we receive of the Designs of the French 
in general & their threatenings of you in particular, occasions 
our comeing to you this time about your going to Onondaga. 

Brother 

We are extreamely alarmed & uneasy about it & are 
absolutely against your venturing up thither, if harm should 
happen to you We are a lost & ruined people — you are the 
principal Tie that keeps the 6 Nations together. We cannot 
comprehend why the Onondagas are so very urgent for your 
going up when the road is so dangerous the Governor of 
Canada never goes into the Indians Country to meet them but 
they come to meet him. 



1 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada, Indian Records, 
Vol. 4. 



468 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Brother 

We have agreed to make two Proposals to you & we entreat 
you to give them a serious Consideration & that you will embrace 
one of them. Either send for the 6 Nations down to you or 
let some other Person go up to them in your room, we back 
these Proposals with this Belt. 

Gave a Belt 

S r . Williams Answer 

Brethren 

Everything is now ready for my setting out, & there is a neces- 
sity that I begin my Journey. When we come to the German 
Flatts I propose to consult with you & our Bretheren of Canno- 
johary upon the proper steps which may then appear necessary 
to be taken. I shall depend upon the assistance of the upper 
Nations to secure & keep the Road open. I will take every 
possible & prudent precaution, but where His Majestys Service 
requires my Attendance it is my Duty to go & in that Cause I 
shall be always ready to venture my Life. As to my sending 
any other Persons under my Direction, I know none that is 
proper to go upon so important an Occasion. 

gave a Belt. 

Young Abraham a Cheif Sachem & Warrior spoke as follows. 

Brother 

You tell us that Gen 1 . Shirley thinks the 70 Men who are now 
posted at Fort Hunter are sufficient for the defence of our 
Families during our absence. Brother we do not think so. We 
are determined to live & die with our Bretheren the English, and 
therefore as we think there is reason to fear the Enemy may 
come this Way, we think the safety of our Wives & Children 
ought to be of sufR Consequence to have our Request for more 
Men complied with as we only want them while we are away 



Seven Years' War 469 

Fort Johnson 1 June 1 756 

A. M. 

S r . William Johnson sent the following Message with 4 
Strings of black Wampum by two Onieda Warriors to the 
Sachems & Warriors of their Castle 

Brethren 

Tomorrow I begin my Journey to Onondaga & I desire that 
your Young Men will meet me at the German Flatts. As our 
Enemy the French have lately so frequently & so warmly threat- 
ened not only to prevent my going to Onondaga but that they 
will attack the Battoes w ch . carry the Provisions, Arms & ca . w ch 
I am bringing in the King Your Fathers Name for the 6 Nations 
at this Meeting, I desire you will immediately send off an Express 
to Onondaga to accquaint those Indians that I am on my Journey 
& will make all possible dispatch to get there & that I expect 
they will send down a sufR Number of their Young Men to 
join yours at the Onieda Carrying Place & guard the Battoes 
from thence to Onondaga & protect them from any of those 
attempts from the French or their Indians w ch . you have by so 
many frequent Messages warned me of. 

This is not a Meeting w ch . I have called but one to which I 
have been called by the 6 Nations, it is therefore incumbent 
upon them to take care that those things w^. the King their 
Father sends for the use of the 6 Nations be protected & 
guarded by them. 

As for those Threats which the French & their Indians have 
published against me, I will guard against them in the best manner 
I am able, but as these Threats have been uttered by some of 
the French Indians before some of you Oniedas & some of the 
Onondagas, I think if you & they had behaved as true & faithful 
Brothers ought to have done, these Indians should at least have 
been secured and I desire you will tell the Onondagas what I 
now say. and that if I had called the 6 Nations down here to 
a Meeting & any French Man had dared in my presence to 



470 Sir William Johnson Papers 

have threatened their safety, I would have drove my ax into his 
head. 

Fort Johnson 1 June 1 756. 

P.M. 

S r . William Johnson having sent for the River Indians who 
lived lately ab l Esopus in this Province & are now incorporated 
with the lower Mohock Castle, 1 7 of them came whom he fully 
cloathed, Armed & gave them Amunition with Pipes & Tobacco, 
he then gave them a glass of Rum round to drink His Majestys 
Health & exhorted them to behave like Dutiful Children to the 
King their Father & to be ready at all times to use the Arms he 
had now given them, against all His Majestys Enemies. 

They appeared to be greatly pleased & promised their Fidelity 
to His Majesty & that they would live & die with their Bretheren 
the English. 

N. B. There are about 10 or 12 more Men who did not 
come this afternoon who are to be Cloathed, Armed & ca . in the 
same manner with these. 

APPOINTMENT OF GEORGE CROGHAN 

Copy 1 

Fort Johnson, June /, 1756. 

By the Honorable Sir William Johnson Baronet His 
Majestys sole Agent & Superintendent of the Affairs 
of the Six Nations & other Indians of the Northern 
District 

To George Croghan Esq r . 

By Virtue of the Power & Authority to be given by His 
Majesty & reposing especial Trust & Confidence in your Loyalty, 
Abilities & Integrity, I do hereby constitute & appoint You the 



1 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada, Indian Records, 
Vol. 5. 




THOMAS PENN 

From an engraving by C. Turner owned by Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Seven Years' War 471 

said George Croghan Esq r . to act as a Deputy Agent under me 
in the Aforesaid Department, and you are accordingly hereby 
empowered to hold Conference, send Messages & treat with the 
Indians for the good of His Majestys Service and the extention 
of the British Indian Interest agreable to such Instructions & 
Directions as you shall from time to time receive from me, and 
you are to exercise this Deputation with Fidelity, Dilligence & 
to the best of your Abilities, and for so doing this will be to you 
a sufficient Warrant. 

Given under my hand & 
Seal of Office at Fort Johnson 
this first day of June in the 
Year of our Lord One Thousand 
Seven hundred & fifty Six 

W M . Johnson 

FROM THOMAS PENN 
Copy 1 

London June /2 th 1756 
Sir: 

I have been long debating within myself whether I should 
give you the trouble of a Letter to return you my thanks as the 
head of one of the Colonys for the signal Service you did your 
Country in general and the Colonys in particular, in the Action 
at Lake George, or whether being, as a private man, an entire 
stranger to you it would be an improper interruption to a Person 
whose time is so fully employed for the service of the publick; 
I have at last determined for the first, and desire you will accept 
of my best thanks for that as well as for the services you have 
rendered Pennsylvania in particular, in Indian Affairs, of which 
the Governor and M r Peters have given me full accounts, and 



1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., Penn 
Papers, Official Correspondence, VIII, 83. 



472 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I desire you will be assured I am extreamly sensible of youi 
Friendship therein, and that whenever I can be of Service to you 
or your Interests I shall always think myself most agreably 
employed in Receiving & executing your Commands. 

FROM BEAMSLEY GLASIER 

A. L. S. 1 

Albany 15* June 1756 
Dear Sir William 

I was Relived 8 days agoe by Collo. Bagly — I have had 
letter s of thanks from Gen 1 Shirly & the Committies of War. In 
spite of Envy they are obligd to own my Services merits there 
thanks — I am opinted L l Coll°. of the NYork Reg 1 ., I did 
not Intend to have Servd under any of those Gentry from new 
England but I could not Refuse Sir Cha: Hardy when he wrote 
to me, as it was a thing I did not Expect from that Quarter, and 
I knew at thee Same time it was you that Recommended me, 
the whole Duty of the Reg*, must lay on me, I hear this Moment 
you are Sent for I hope to go on the Expedition I was Just 
mounted to visset you when the news Arievd you was Gone 
upon a Forlorn hope for I call it So. God Send you Safe 
Back — we all kept a Day of Rejoiceing at the good news of 
the Government 5 Giving you £600 a year thank god for all 
things Capt Eyre a Majority Wrexaell a Company poor pell 
garlick nothing — your friend M r Pownell Menticnd me in his 
letter to Major Eyre that he hopt Some thing would be Done, 
but it Seems they apoint all the Cap ts for battalliens to be raisd 
in america at home, General Weeb takes the Command, Gen 1 
Shirly goes to England, Lord Louden Dayly Expected, Some 
folks Banckt in their Scheams, may be I Shall See you before 
we proceed if you come to albany I'll Come Down I am 



1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

2 From this point the letter is in Glasier's hand. 



Seven Years War 473 

very unhappy in missing seeing you at the time when I made so 
much dependence upon it. I am very unesey in my Present 
situia 11 and dont like the Expedition for many reasons, and 
shoud be glad to be Quitt of the provincial Service which I 
know will be atended with so much confusition. I want to tell 
you all my greevenies 5 . but wont trouble you any more at this time, 
your Indians that came last to the Fort Behavd very well they 
went a Scouting with my people and in the Skirmish we had 
near the Fort were very active, all the news youl have by the 
Bearer. Everything seems to be preplected, orders, & Counter 
orders, almost Every hour what the Intention of things are 
everybody seem to be at a loss about, when you return I shall 
be Extreemly glad of a line from you. please to make my Com- 
pleme* to my Good Friend Cap 1 Wrexewall. I give him joy — 
you cant think Sir how I am Fatagued here with getting stores and 
aquipting the Regiment. My Colo, gone to the half moon 1 not 
one officer hardly that knows anything of the Service. I was 
obligd to beg Miss Miller to Copie part of this letter I want 
to Say a thousand things but will have done 

I am Sir With Unfaigned Esteem 
and Sincerity 

Your Most obliged 
Hum bl . Servant 

B. Glasier. 
Mrs Miller & Miss sends Complements 

INDORSED June 15 th . 1756: 2 



Coll° Glasiers Letter 



1 Half way between Saratoga and Albany. 

2 In Johnson's hand. 



474 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM PETER WRAXALL 

A. L. S. 1 

Wensday Morn*. [June J 7 56] 
My Dear Sir William 

I desired M r . Miller to accquaint You with the deplorable 
Condition I had been in when the last Express went to you, & 
tho I had then a Prospect of Life I was incapable of writing 
my self, he wrote & I am surprized you had not recieved his 
Letter when you wrote me Sunday last, the Express must have 
delayed. 

Since M r . Millers Letter went I have heard of no Oppor- 
tunity to write you & indeed Peter van driesen told me we might 
expect you in two or three days, w cl1 made me put off removing 
to your House, for w ch . I have been impatient, you may judge 
what a Sittuation this is for a sick Man. 

I am on the recovery but extreamly Weak & my evary Con- 
stitution hath receved such a Shock, that much time Skill & 
Care will be necessary to repair the Tennement, I long to get 
under Magras 2 Direction & as soon as your Proceedings are 
recorded I prepare for New York. 

God Almighty send you safe home & I hope you will neglect 
no prudent Precaution. Your Life is dear to me as a Man I 
unfeignedly love & esteem, but to the public at this Conjuncture 
it is of the utmost Importance. Make all the prudent haste you 
can for I am ready to leave & with the Variety of Matters w ch . 
I want to talk over with you. 

There are a number of Letters I have left with Cap 1 . Rich- 
mond for you, Farrel Wade bro*. 'em up Yesterday he says 
he can meet with very little Stock to buy, so if you can employ 
any Agents as you go along to buy for you, it may be neces- 
sary. You must learn to love Venison & if Your Mohocks 



1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. Library 
of Congress, Force transcripts, Washington, D. C, contains a copy of 
this letter. 

2 Dr Redmond Magra. 



Seven Years' War 475 

wont go out a fighting, make 'em hunt for y r . Table. Farrel 
Wade tells me they are all Drunk every day & that Ceggs of 
Rum are in the highest plenty amongst 'em. 

I propose to set off this Noon in a Battoe & reach P. Schuylers 
in the Evening. Once more may God send you safe to us, 
Adieu I am truly 

My Dear Sir 

Your real & Affec te 
Freind 

Peter Wraxall 
indorsed: 1 

Capt n . Wraxalls letters 



June 1756 

INDIAN PROCEEDINGS AND TREATY 
Df. 2 

[Fort Johnson, July 10, 1756] 

The Proceedings and Treaty 
with 
The Shawanese and Delaware Indians 
living on and near The Susquehanna 
River. 
Negotiated at Fort Johnson 3 in the County 
of Albany in The Province of New York 

By 

The Hon ble . Sir William Johnson Baronet, 
His Majestys sole Superintendent 
of the Affairs of the Six Confederate 



1 In Johnson's hand. 

2 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 

3 See Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:130-61. 



476 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Nations of Indians, their Allies and 
Dependants 



Published by Authority, from the 
Original Records. 



With a Preface, explaining the rise 
and Progress of the said Treaty 



By 

Peter Wraxall Secretary for 

Indian Affairs 



PREFACE 

Towards the latter end of the Year 1 755. The French & 
Indians made an Irruption upon the Frontiers of Virginia, Mary- 
land, Pensilvania, New Jersey & New York, murdering & 
carrying off the Inhabitants, burning & destroying their Houses, 
Settlements & Cattle. The Shawanese & Delaware Indians 
who are settled on & near the Susquahanna River, were reported 
to be concerned in those Barbarities & Depredations. These 
Indians by virtue of several Treaties, by a long uninterupted 
Intercourse of Trade, and a friendly Communication subsisting 
between them & the back-Inhabitants of the aforesaid Colonies, 
together with Their being in firm Alliance with, and in Depend- 
ance upon the Six United Nations, 1 were esteemed to be firm 
Friends to the British Interest, and therefore their Committing 
Hostilities, being less suspected, was the more Alarming. 

In a Meeting Sir William Johnson held at Fort Johnson last 
February, with the Deputies of the Six Nations and other 
Indians, he represented to them, the Treachery & Ingratitude 



1 The 6 Nations call the Shawanese Brethren & the Delawares 
Nephews, the former denoting an Equality, the latter a Dependance. 
[Note in the manuscript.] 



Seven Years' War All 

of the Shawanese & Delaware Indians, in thus violating their 
public Faith and falling upon their antient Friends & Neigh- 
bours. He told the Six Nations, that as the Shawanese Indians 
were their Allies and the Delawares dependant upon them, he 
expected They as our Allies & Bretheren, would without Delay 
interpose their Influence & Authority with the said Indians, and 
require from them their Reasons for joining in these Hostilities, 
and insist upon their immediately laying down their Arms & 
returning to their former Peaceable & friendly Behavior. 

The Six Nations agreed to Sir William's Remonstrances, told 
him they would immediately dispatch Deputies to the said 
Indians, And proposed that he should also send a Belt of 
Wampum & a Message to them by their said Deputies. This 
Sir William agreed to. 

In April last the Deputys of the Six Nations returned from 
their Embassy, and reported to Sir William Johnson, That those 
Indians had acknowledged, some of their Young Men had been 
won over by the Artifices of the French & the Indians in their 
Interest, to join in Hostilities upon their Bretheren the English, 
but that they now repented their Folly & rashness, and that the 
Shawanese & Delaware Indians on the Susquahanna were 
determined not to break the Antient Covenant Chain of Peace 
& Friendship with their Bretheren the English, and that they 
would act in Conjunction with their Bretheren & Uncles of the 
Six Nations, upon whom they would fix their Eyes & by whose 
Conduct they would regulate their own. 

The Deputies further reported to Sir William, That the 
Shawanese & Delawares had promised to send his Belt and 
what had passed at this Meeting, to the Shawanese settled on 
the Ohio, and to the Delawares who now lived in the Neighbour- 
hood of Fort du Quesne, and use their utmost Endeavours to 
prevail on these Indians to unite in the Measures they had now 
agreed upon. To confirm these Promises of the Shawanese & 
Delaware Indians, the Deputies of the Six Nations delivered 
Sir William a Belt of Wampum which they sent in return for 
his. And also another Belt by which the said Indians earnestly 



478 Sir William Johnson Papers 

entreated Sir William to meet them at Onondaga where they 
had agreed to hold a Congress with the Six Nations: that his 
Compliance herewith would be a convincing Proof to them, of 
his Goodwill & friendly Intentions towards them; and that at 
this Meeting at Onondaga, all the late Mis-understandings 
might be rectified and a perfect Harmony be re-established 
between them & their Bretheren the English. 

Sir William told the Deputies of the Six Nations who 
enforced the request of the Shawanese & Delawares, that tho 
his relation to the Public made it very Inconvenient at that 
Juncture, to take so long a Journey, yet as he looked upon the 
restoration of the Antient Peace & Friendship between the said 
Shawanese & Delaware Indians & their Bretheren the English, 
to be a Point of very great Importance, he thought his Duty 
to His Majestys Service called upon him for a Compliance with 
their earnest Request & Invitation, and he would therefore Meet 
them at the Congress at Onondaga by the latter end of May 
or the beginning of June. Upon which the said Deputies of the 
Six Nations promised to send an Express to accquaint the 
Shawanese & Delawares with Sir Williams Compliance to their 
Request. 

In the begining of June Sir William Johnson set out for 
Onondaga, and the 13 th of said Month he arrived at the Town 
of the Oneida Indians, and upon Enquiry heard the Deputys 
from the Shawanese and Delawares were not yet come to Onon- 
daga; he thereupon dispatched Two Indians Express to the 
Susquahanna to hasten them, and proceeded to Onondaga to 
meet & do Buisness with the Six Nations there assembled. 

The Shawanese King or Cheif, with several other Indians of 
that Nation & only two Delaware Warriors, first arrived at 
Onondaga, to whom Sir William made a Speech & received an 
Answer.^ 

The 2 d . of July when the Congress was broke up, The Dela- 
ware King or Chief with some of his People arrived at Onon- 



=7^= vide pages of the following sheets. [Note in the manuscript.] 



Seven Years' War 479 

dago, and as several Circumstances rendered it improper & incon- 
venient to enter upon Buisness with the Shawanese oc Delawares 
at Onondaga, Sir William invited the Two Chiefs & their 
People with a Deputation of the Six Nations down to his House 
to Discuss all Matters there. This was accepted,0 and the 
Treaty was accordingly adjourned to Fort Johnson. 

Whether instead of the Words 

in the title Page 

Published by Authority 

the following Form would not be 
more proper to point out the Supreme 
& subordinate Direction of this Depart- 
ment of His Majestys Service 
in North America. 

Published by Order of His Excellency 
The Right Honourable The Earl 
of Loudoun & c . & c . & c .? 

As the Public is not apprized 
of the Steps which brought about 
this Treaty, and as Sir William's 
two Speeches & the Answer to them 
proposed to be published herewith, 
bear an immediate Connection 
with the said Treaty, the Publi: 
: cation without some Introduction, 
would not, it is conceived stand in 
so intelligible a light. The Pre: 
:face is therefore proposed to 
obviate those Objections. 

How many Copies His Lordship 
would have receied for His own 
Use & Disposal. And if a Printed Copy should 
be transmitted by the Seer?, to each 
Gov r . of the Neighbouring Provinces. 



p" vide pages of the following sheets. [ Note in the manuscript. ] 



480 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM ELEAZAR WHEELOCK 
Contemporary Copy 1 

Lebanon in Connecticut In 
New England July 12 lh : AD 1756 
Sir, 

Your publick Character, as a Gentleman of a publick and 
generous Spirit, the Honours and Bounty of the Crown con- 
ferr'd upon you and your Situation among, & Concern for y e 
Indian Natives of this Land all invite me tho' unknown to you, 
to assume the Freedom, to represent to Your Honour a Design 
of a Charity School, form'd in Favour of those Savages; and 
to act the Part of a Beggar on their Behalf. Convinc'd of the 
criminal Neglect of this Land in using so few and feble 
Endeavours to Polish and Christianize them, and also persuaded 
that the Education of some of their Sons in the liberal Arts and 
Sciences, as well as in the Knowledge and Practise of the 
Protestant christian Religion, and fitting some for Missionaries 
among their respective Tribes, Might have a happy Effect to 
guard them against y e Influence of Jesuits, cure them of their 
Idolitrous and Savage Practises, attach them in the English 
Interest, and induce them to a cordial Subjection to the Crown 
of [greate Britian] England, and it may be to y e . King of Sion, 
I Say convinc'd & persuaded of these things, three Years ago 
last May I Sent to the Rev d . M r . John Brainerd, to Send me 
two as likely Boys as he could [get] obtain of the Delawares, 
with a View to their being fitted for the Gospel Ministry, among 
the Indians if God Should mercifully Smile upon the Design. 
After much Pains taken he Sent me two, 2 who came to me last 
December was 12. Months ago. They are prety Boys, the one 
is now 15. the other 12. Years old. They can read & write 
well the inclosed is a Specimen of the Writing of y e Eldest of 



1 In Dartmouth College Library. 

2 In 1 754 John Pumshire and Jacob Woolley, Delaware Indians, 
entered Wheelock's school (Moor's Charity School). 



Seven Years War 481 

them. They make good Proficiency in the lattin Tongue, and 
behave themselves decently; and are likely to answer the Design 
So far as we can yet Know or Judge of them. Soon after I sent 
for these Boys I invited M r . Joshua More 1 of Mansfield to give 
a Small Tenement in y e Center of the Place, for the Foundation 
Use and Support of a Charity School for ever for the Educa- 
tion of Indians, Which accordingly he gave a Deed of to Col: 
Elisha Williams Esq r . of Wethersfield, The Rev d . Mess rss . 
Samuel Mosely of Windham & Benjamin Pomroy of Hebron 
and my Self. And we covenanted with him and his Heirs to 
improve that and all other Donations made to S d . School for 
S d . Purpose and we have got Subscription for about £500. prov. 
Money toward a fund for the Support of a Master for ever, 
but upon advice of The Hon le . William Smith Esq r . of New 
York, and others that S d Covenant would not answer the 
[Purpose] Design, and that a Charter from the Crov/n is 
expedient we have Sent home for that Purpose, and if we are 
Successfull in our Suit we aprehend large Donations may be 
obtained. And we hope that the Affair will appear to you[r] 
Hon r . as it does to us, worthy the Encouragement of all greate 
and good Men, and that you will acco 1 . it not the least of your 
Honours to be a Friend and Patron to it. When I sent for 
the Boys, tho' my family v/as large and my outward Circum- 
stances Straitned, yet I had Such Prospects of Assistance from 
the Charity of People as I thought were Sufnceint to justify the 
Undertaking, which Assistance I have been in a greate Measure 
Prevented by the Reports continually of late new [s] . amongst 
[us] of the Ravages made and cruelties Used by the Natives 
on our Fronteirs. For Such Reports, as your Hon r . will easily 
beleive has raised a Temper [among] many very contrary to' 
Charity. By which Means I have been left under a Weight 
of Charges disproportionate to my Ability to Sustain long, with 
the Necessary Charges of My Family. And yet I am unwilling 



1 In his honor the school was called "Moor's Charity School." 
16 



482 Sir William Johnson Papers 

to give up the Design with respect to those Boys which I have, 
however, we Succed in our Endeavours for a Charter. 

We have tho't it best to Set up the School and Supply what 
is wanting in the Fund for the Masters Support by taking in 
English Scholars, and accordingly we began it the Begining of 
last May, hoping in the Providence of God for sufficient Aids 
to keep it up in pursuance of the Grand Design. But our 
Means are yet Small. Nor have I any Favourable & charitable 
Consideration of the Case of these Boys. And Education will 
be to proper Objects of Christian Charity, and an Offering 
acceptable to Jesus Christ. And I Assure you that whatever 
you Shall See [fit] good to bestow upon them Shall be improved 
according to the best of my Ability for thier Education. And 
I hope in the Issue Your Hon r . will have Comfort in the Reflec- 
tion that you have open'd your Hands, for the furtherance of 
Such a Design. And If you Shall See good to bestow Learn- 
ing upon Any promissing Boys under your Care, Influence, or 
Direction, and will Send them here, I will indeavour to obey 
your Orders concerning them. They may be taught in the 
School the Languages or any of the Arts and Sciences. I would 
Send your Hon r . a full Account of our Proceedings in y e . 
Affair. But [that] they are to much for me at present to write 
or for you amid 1 , your greate Affairs to read, however if your 
Hon r . will intimate Your Design of it I will endeavour it Shall 
be done. 

Please S r to accept most hearty Salutations [from] and let 
the Nature and Design of this Letter be esteemed a Sufficient 
excuse for the Freedom & Boldness therein us'd by 

Your Hon rs . unknown 
But assured Friend & 
very Humble Servant 

Eleazar Wheelock 

P:S: If your Hon r . shall See fit to honour me with a Line, or 
if you please to transmit any thing else, it may be as Safe as any 
way to do it by Some of the Chaplains of the Army viz. The 
Rev d . Mess". Williams Jewitt Lee, Graham Jun r . with each of 



Seven Years War 483 

[which] whome I have personal & Intimate Acquaintance, and 
they are Friendly to the Design & will be glad to Serve your 
Hon r . therein. 

I am Sir 

Yours &c E Wheelock. 

INDORSED : 

A Letter to S r . William 
Johnson from Rev d . E Wheelock 

A COUNCIL OF WAR 

Copy 1 

At a Council of War, held at Albany July 1 6 th . 1 756. 

Present. 

Major General James Abercrombie, Commander in Chief & ca . 
His Excellency Sir Charles Hardy Knight 

Captain General and Governor in Chief of the province of 
New York 

Colonel Daniel Webb. 

Sir William Johnson Baronet. 

Lieu 1 . Colonel George Munroe. 

Lieu*. Colonel Thomas Gage. 

The Hon ble . James Delancy Deputy Governor of the province 
of New York. 

Lieu*. Colonel Ralph Burton. 

Lieu*. Colonel Francis Grant. 

Lieu 1 . Colonel Sir John S*. Clair Dep Q M'. Gen 1 . 

James Montresor. Chief Engineer. 

Major General Abercrombie's Commission being read by 
which His Majesty appoints him, Commander of all, and 
Singular His Forces Employed in North America, untill the 
arrival of the Earl of Loudoun. 



1 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada. C. O. 5. — Vol. 
47-1. 



484 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Major General Abercrombie Acquainted the Council that a 
Considerable Body of Provincials under the Command of 
General Winslow 1 were on their March to Fort Edward and 
Fort W m . Henry in order to proceed upon an Expedition against 
Ticonderoga and Crown Point, Major General Abercrombie 
Further informed the Council, that from several Conferences 
with General Winslow that he had the Strongest reason to 
believe the provincials would not act in Conjunction with His 
Majestys Troops, upon which the Council desired that General 
Winslow Might be called in, and he being asked what Effects 
he apprehended from the Junction of His Majesty's Regular 
Troops with the provincials, on their intended Expedition against 
Crown Point 

General Winslow replied that he looked upon himself to be 
under the Command of His Majesty's Commander in Chief, and 
that he would be very well satisfied a Junction would be accom- 
plished, but that he apprehended that if His Majesty's Troops 
were ordered to Join it would almcst Occasion an universal 
desertion amongst the Provincials because they were raised to 
serve solely under the Command of their own Officers, whose 
Commissions (particularly those from the province of the Massa- 
chusetts Bay) are worded in the following Manner. Constituting 
and appointing such a One, to be a Colonel, Major, Captain & ca . 
of a Regiment or Company to be Employed upon an Expedition 
against Crown Point whereof John Winslow Esq r . is Com- 
mander in Chief. 

General Winslow further informed the Council that it was 
the Opinion of the officers under his Command that they had a 
Sufficient Force for the Reduction of Crown Point, but that if a 
further Force should be necessary, he had reason to Expect a 
Reinforcement; whereas if His Majesty's Regular Forces were 
to Join them, he apprehends they could get no further Supply 
of Men; particularly from the Four New England provinces; 
General Winslow then acquainted the Council that he would 



1 General John Winslow, commander of provincial troops. 



Seven Years War --; 

repair to his Camp, and there Call a Council of the principal 
nmnn of tbe Provincials to know their Opinions upon this point, 
and Transmit the same to the Commander in Chief. 

In Conseq u ence of this declaration of General Winslow's and 
upon a S uppositi on that the principal Officers amongst the Pro- 
vincials will be against a Junction; in that Event Major General 
Abercrombie desired the opinion of the Council whether it would 
:.* i'j-.v.*;:..* ::: : ::. \ L;-.-v ; : ;.v ~: *:=:.v^-j *-. :..:;. :.;• H.:. 
Majesty's Commission by making a Junction of the Regular 

mand of the whole. 

Tbe Council is unanimously of Opinion (that under the present 
Circumstances) the Attempting and forcing a Junction of His 
Regular Troops with the provincials is Extremely 

* -.:■: ::..;■: :„* c :V,<:. r .-.::.■--'. .--.: '/-. '.', ::.<: y~:...'.t 



-. - 



Major General Abercrombie desired to know the Opinion of 
the Council in what mi— n it was almost adviseable to Employ 
His Majesty's Regular Troops 

The Council is of opinion that a Regiment should March to 
Fort Edward upon the provincials Evacuating the same, leaving 
a drfarhmmt of 150 Men at Saratoga to guard the Magazine 
there and Escort the provisions to Fort Edward and that one 
of the Regiments lately arrived from Britain should take post at 
the half Moon and Still Water upon Hudson's River; at which 
post they can be under Cover unuH their Tents and Camp 
^T^fTT arrive, and that in tbe mrd i ilimr a Sufficient Number 
of the Troops, be Employed in Completing the Works at Fort 
Edward, General Winslow having Fngagrd to Garrison and 
keep a Sufficient Number of Men at Work in perfecting the 

•tmcations at Fort William Henry, which will be the Chief 
Magazine of the Provincials. 

Major General Abercrombie laid before the Council Engineer 

'.!>'.**..%.-'•. 7-.y.\ '.': ':.*. 7 --.-..v-iv-.v. c: Ovv.^-, -.:' -jV.* *.:.* 

May last, together with a plan of said works, as also 

K Colonel Mercer's Letter of the 2 d . July to Major General 



486 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Shirley, with regard to the State of that Garrison under his 
Command — He also informed the Council of the Intelligence 
he had Received of the Enemy's designs of interrupting and 
cutting off the Communication between Albany and Oswego, 
of which the Attack upon Captain Bradstreet the 3 d . Instant 
near the Oswego Falls was a strong proof, upon which point, 
the advice of the Council being asked. 

It is the opinion of the Council, that in Consideration of the 
great importance of Oswego and the defenceless Situation of the 
place at Present, and the necessity of building a small Fort at 
the Oswego Falls to keep the Communications open; that for 
these Services a Regiment should forthwith march to Reinforce 
that Garrison, and put the works in a posture of defence, and 
that considering the interruption's Convoys by water are liable 
to, and the impossibility of Transporting Stores, and provisions 
during a Frost (which is often of many months continuance) 
they are also of opinion, a Road between the German Flatts and 
Oswego shou'd be cut. 

Captain Bradley's Letter of the 28 th . June and 2 d . July last 
being read, representing the present Force of the French on the 
Lake and likewise the preparations they are making at Cadaraqui, 
the General desired the Opinion of the Council what was neces- 
sary to be done to gain a Superiority on the Lake. 

It is the Opinion of the Council that a Vessel of as large a 
Size and Force as the port will admit off, be built, as also a 
small one to Replace the one that was lately lost, somewhat in 
the Nature of a Quarter Galley, that can both sail and Row. 

And lastly Major General Abercrombie having represented 
to the Council that the Scheme for raising two Companies of 
Rangers Recommended by the Council of War held at Albany 
May 25 th . 1 756 is quite failed. 

It is the opinion of the Council that Major General Aber- 
crombie should immediately give Directions to Sir William John- 
son to raise such a Number of Rangers, as he shall Judge neces- 
sary to Join them with Indians in harrassing and annoying the 
Enemy in Canada, the Council also Recommended it to the 



Seven Years' War 487 

General to raise another Company of Rangers for the Publick 
Service. 

After several Adjournments this Council of War was closed 
and Signed at Albany, the 20 th . day of July 1 756. 

James Abercrombie. Maj r . Tho s . Gage. Lieut Col°. 

Gen 1 . R. Burton. Lieu 1 . Col°. 

Cha s . Hardy Francis Grant. Lieu 1 . Col°. 

Daniel Webb. Colonel Sir John S t . Clair. L*. Col°. 

Sir William Johnson D. Q. M. G. 

James Delancey James Montresor. Chief 

Geo: Monroe. Lieu'. Col. Eng r . 

A True Copy 

James Abercrombie 
Aid de Camp as Secretary 
INDORSED: 

Copy of a Council of War 

held at Albany July the 16 th . 1756. 

in the E. of Loudouns Letter of Aug*. 1 9 th . 1 756. 

TO THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 

L. S. 1 

Albany J 8 July 1756. 
My Lord 

I was honoured with Your Lordships most esteemed Favour 
of the 1 1 March by Colo. Webb, 2 and for which notice of me I 
return Your Lordship my verry gratefull Acknowledgements. 

Capt. Wraxall 3 Secretary for Indian Affairs will have the 
honour to deliver this to Your Lordship whom I beg leave to 
introduce to You as a Man of whose Integrity and Capacity in 
that Department of His Majestys Service I have had long and 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 

2 Daniel Webb. 

3 Peter Wraxall. 



488 Sir William Johnson Papers 

ample Experience. By him I would have transmitted to Your 
Lordship Copies of the late Proceedings at the Onondaga Meet- 
ing and at the subsequent Treaty with the Shawanese and Dele- 
ware Indians at my house but they could not possibly be got 
ready in time. Capt. Wraxall will acquaint your Lordship with 
all the Capital Points which occurred at the said Meetings. If 
His Majesties Service in my Department would have permitted, 
I would have come down to New York to have waited your 
Arrival which I hope will be verry speedy, and that You may 
Land and continue in perfect Health, which with every Species 
of real Felicity I most Sincerely wish to You. 

I have the honour to be 
My Lord 

Your Lordships 
To His Excellency Most Obedient, and 

The Right Honourable Most humble Servant 

The Earl of Loudoun Wm Johnson. 

&c. &c. &c. 

INDORSED : 

Sir William Johnson 
Abany July 1 8th 1 756. 

AN INDIAN SPEECH 

D. S. 1 

Tuesday 28 July 1756 

At a Meeting of a Number of the Mohawk 
Warriors Aron one of their Chiefs spoke as 
follows, in presence of M r . Croghan. 

M r . Clement Interpreter 
Brother Warraghijagey 

As we understand You are displeased with us for our late 
Conduct in taking some Albany People to go to War with us. 

1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Seven Years' War 489 

We beg leave to acquaint you how we were brought into it, this 
Young Man (pointing to one called Anias) was in Albany 
while you were at Onondaga, and passing by the Tavern was 
called to by Lyddius Son out of a Window. After he put up 
his Horse, he came to the room where this Son of Lyddius, called 
Canaghguasse was with severall other young Men in Company. 
After making him drink severall Glasses of Wine, Lyddius Son 
told him he inclined to go ascalping to Canada and asked 
whether he or any of the Mohawks would Join him. the Indian 
answered he could not tell, upon which Lyddius Son desired 
he would acquaint the Mohawks of his resolution, and that he 
would come up to their Castle the next day. He arrived there 
the second day, and called a Meeting of the Warriors when he 
told them his resolution of going to Canada, and by three 
thousand of Wampum which he gave them, desired they would 
Accompany him thither. Severall of them being in Liquor 
accepted of it, and promised to go with him, but Aron and 
some more of them being verry Drunk and not remembering 
what had passed the Night before called a second Meeting In 
which it was agreed that they would keep the Wampum untill 
those of their People who were with me at Onondaga returned 
and that then they would give him a determinate Answer. On 
the return of those from Onondaga they were called to Albany 
by said Lyddius and his Associates when they were treated by 
said Party very generously, and offered them Money which they 
refused except a young Lad who received a Dollar from young 
Lyddius, and Anias some small Matter from some of the rest; 
they also say they were much pressed to go to Albany, and take 
their Departure from thence, which they refused. This, Says 
Aron is what passed, and what you may depend upon for 
truth, if we have done wrong it is inadvertantly, and hope you 
will think favourable of us, and let us know your pleasure. 

Geo: Croghan 

So Ended 

Jacobus Clement 



490 Sir William Johnson Papers 

MEMORANDUM 

A. D. 1 

Albany August 2d. 1756 

Some Articles for Lord Loudouns consideration. Vizt. 

A Sallary for a Deputy Agent to assist me in Indian Affairs. — 
Mr. George Croghan a proper Person — 

Sallary for a Secretary, and two Clerks — also for Inter- 
preters, Smiths, &ca. 

Commissions for Officers to Command Indian Parties 
Doctor Ogilvie 2 a verry usefull Person among the Indians, 
would be more so, 3 if enabled by 

The Senecas Complaint against Captn. Wm. Williams 

the Mohawks Complaint against Lyddius, Son of John 
Lyddius 4 of Albany 

It would be of great Service, Was there a Standing Order 
against Officers, or Soldiers giveing Indians Rum or any other 
liquor att any of the out Posts, or elsewhere, or having any 
unnecessary Intercourse with them. 

Whether it would not be adviseable for me to 'Send to London 
for Such Goods, & Arms, &ca. as the Indians may want next 
Year, as it is not only verry difficult to get Such here, but verry 
extravigant also & not so good. 

An Order to the Commissary for provisions when I call for 
them for the Use of the Indians, & also Battoes & Men to carry 
them up to my House, or Elsewhere 

Whether Lord Loudoun has any Arms, Amunition, or Cloath- 
ing for the Indians now, as they are much wanted. 

Whether to engage any more Stockbridge Indians on the Same 
day, and how they are to be paid. 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 

2 "Doctor Ogilvie" scratched out by the writer. 

3 "More so" scratched out by the writer. 

4 John Henry Lydius. 



Seven Years' War 49) 

I being perfectly acquainted with the expence Doctor Ogilvie 
has been, & must be at in even supporting common Hospitality 
to the Indians, specially at this time, & that only upon an 
allowance of £93 Sterling per Annum. I think it would con- 
tribute to his Majestys Service, that his appointment be Aug- 
mented, Mr. Ogilvie has for Six Years past done all the 
Occasional Dutys of two of his Majestys Independant Com- 
panys, without any Allowance either from his Majesty, or the 
present Chaplain who is now in England, & verry far advanced 
in Years. I would beg leave therefore to recommend him to 
Your Lordship's favour, to Succeed to this Commission When 
it becomes Vacant, either by the Death, or resignation of the 
present Chaplain. 

FROM DANIEL CLAUS 

A. L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson 3. August 
3 oClock P.M. 1756. 
Sir. 

I thought it necessary to dispatch this Express to your Honour 
in Order to acquaint you that after I sent my Letter this Morn- 
ing the Said George Derroder (who gave me the Account of 
the Delaware King:) came and told me, that Since last Night 
23. of the River & other Indians dropt of from this with their 
Bundles, and that there was Enemy Seen last Night among the 
Indians who tis thought pursuaded them to go off. — Said George 
Says that by what he could Learn by the Discourse of those 
Indians that came from Susquehanna that there was a Party 
of 300. Indians in the French Interest came with them as far 
as the Inhabitants above Burnetsfield and there left them, and 
made toward the Great Carrying Place, he understood that there 
was a Scheme among them to cut off your honours House, and 
that there was 3000 french to join them immediately afterwards 
and destroy all the Settlements upon this River. 



In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



492 Sir William Johnson Papers 

By all the Behaviour of these Stranger Indians we can plainly 
See that they are not our friends They are plaguing us con- 
tinually for Liquor &c a . with Such an Imperiousness as if they 
could command Us any thing they desired to have, and in a 
Manner threaten us, Some of them were Speaking to one another 
lately and said that it would be nothing at all to Scale the Walls 
of this house and Kill every Body in it without firing a Gun; 
I think we are realy in a dangerous Situation without any 
Garrison among those Savages and as it were live upon their 
Mercy here; M r Leonard is one of the worst and Speaks more 
treacherous than any of the rest; I leave all this to your honours 
Consideration And Am with due Respect Sir 

Your Honours 

Most Obedient hble Serv*. 

Dan Claus 
addressed : 

To 

The honourable 
Sir William Johnson Bar 1 . 
Albany 
INDORSED : 

M r Daniel Claus 
For 1 Johnson August 3 d 1 756 
To Sir William Johnson 
Indeon Intellegeence 

TO THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 

A. L. S. 1 

Albany August 3d. 1756 
My Lord 

Upon looking over the agreement with the Stockbridge Indians, 
I find their pay commences the 27th. of May last, and that they 
have all reed. 1 Dollars advance, & the Captn. & Lieut. Some- 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Seven Years' War 493 

thing more, So that if one Months Pay be kept back, the Private 
Men will only have 10 Shillings 1 to receive, A Sum which they 
tell me will not answer their present Exigencies. I would there- 
fore beg Your Lordships directions whether to pay them to the 
27th. of last Month. 

I am 

My Lord 

Your Lordships 

Most Obedient & 

Most Humble Servant. 

Wm. Johnson 
Right Hon. The Earl of Loudoun 

INDORSED: 

Sr. Wm. Johnson. — 
Albany 3d. August 1 756 
Answd. same day. 

CONCERNING INDIAN ALLIANCES 
A. D. 2 

[Albany, [Aug.] 4, 1756] 

The Five Nations are the Mohawks, Oneidaes, Tuscaroras, 
Onondagaes, Cayugo's, & Senecas, 

their allies to the Northward are Mississageys Chenundadeys, 
Twightees, Shawanese Delewares. & Nanticokes Saponeys & 
Monseys. Southern Indians properly so called are the Chicka- 
saws Cherokess, Creeks, & Chacta's Catabaws. 

INDORSED: 

Note of Indian Aliance & 

from Sir William - 
Johnson Albany [Aug.] 4' 1756 



1 See Loudoun to Johnson, August 3, 1756, in The Papers of Sir 
William Johnson, 2:528. 

2 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



494 Sir William Johnson Papers 

TO THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 
L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson 5 August 1756 
My Lord 

Att my return I found an encrease of severall Onondagas 
who arrived in my Absence, they are chiefly come down for 
Provisions and Cloathing &ca. Yesterday arrived here fifteen 
Men of the Seneca Nation who I find are well Inclined, and 
doubt not I shall be able to prevail with them to go a Scalping, 
there is one of them who tells me he has above 100 Warriors 
ready to join him as soon as he gets Home. 

Yesterday I sent off the Party of Indians whom Lieut. 
Kennedy 2 Joins, it Consists of Forty four Men. To Morrow I 
hope to sett off Capt. Montours 3 Party consisting chiefly of 
Delewares, Shawanese, Onondagas, Nanticokes, Tuscaroras, 
and Six Rangers I lately Inlisted by Major General Aber- 
crombies Order, they will be about Fifty in the whole. 

I have an Account that there are Forty Oneidas going to 
War from their Castle, by means of a Belt of Wampum I sent 
them lately, which is a great point carried, as that Nation has 
been very backward of late, in short the Young Men are all 
growing very warm, and promise extremely well. If nothing 
prevents I dare say they will harrass the Enemy greatly in their 
own way. 

I had an Answer from the two Justices whom I told Your 
Lordship I wrote to some time ago, about the Road to Oswego, 
they write me that they cannot possibly leave home at this time, 
neither can they find any of the People about them willing to 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 

2 Quinton Kennedy. 

3 Henry (alias Andrew) Montour. 



Seven Years' War 495 

undertake it. I shall try others immediately and let your Lord- 
ship know what Success I have therein. 

I am 

My Lord 

Your Lordships 
His Excellency Most Obedient 

The Honourable & Most Humble Servant 

John Earl of Loudoun Wm. Johnson 

indorsed: 

Sir William Johnson. 

Fort Johnson 5th. August 1756 



FROM THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 

Df. 1 

Albany 5< August 1756 
Sir 

I was extremely concerned, at an Account I have this moment 
received from Colonel Gage at Skenactady, of the Murder of 
an Indian; and also at the Circumstances that attend it: I have 
by the Messenger who proceeds with this to You, sent strict 
Orders to make enquiry into it, and if it should prove to be done 
by our People, to confine every one against whom shall arise 
the least cause of suspicion, And the better to apprehend the 
Persons concerned, I have offered a Reward of £20. I under- 
stand the Indian to be one Jerry, I am vastly sorry that this 
Man came down amongst our People. I own I cannot but dread 
the ill Effects of this Matter, but hope from Your Prudence 
and Address, that you will apply whatever Remedies are in 
your Power; I shall on my part (& I beg the Indians may 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



496 Sir William Johnson Papers 

understand so) do everything to satisfy & do Justice to the 
Indians. 

I have the honor to be &ca. 

To S R . W M . Johnson Bar 1 . 

Sole Agent & Superintendent for Indian Affairs 

at Fort Johnson 
Express by Hamilton at 3. in the afternoon. 

ADDRESSED : 

To S r . W m . Johnson at Fort Johnson 
Albany 5 f . August 1 756 
by Express. 

TO THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 
L. S. 1 
Fort Johnson August 6th. J 756 

My Lord 

Since my Letter of Yesterday to Your Lordship, I received 
an Account of one of the Six Nations being pursued, and killed 
by some of the 44th Regiment about four miles this side of 
Schenectady the day before Yesterday. As soon as the News 
came to the Indian Camp before my House, they all gathered 
immediately to hear it. I assure Your Lordship I never observed 
so sudden, or Violent a passion as they were worked into, on 
hearing the Circumstances related by some of their own People, 
who were there, and had seen his Head stuck upon a Pole in 
the Camp, they foamed, and Gnashed their Teeth as is common 
with them when in a passion, and One of them went round their 
Camp, desiring the Warriors to be all on their Guard, and 
Armed, nay some of them wanted to go to Schenectady and 
Revenge it immediately. Others were for going away in a Body, 
after all great Numbers of them went into the Woods and 
stayed there until this Morning. Upon which I sent the 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Seven Years' War 497 

Interpreter to call the Chiefs immediately to me, when I 
endeavoured by making use of severall Arguments to pacify 
them, and desired they would speke to their Young Men 
(severall of whom were then Drunk with liquor they got at 
Schenectady) and tell them it must certainly be done by some 
Drunken People who did not know what they were about, or 
that they possibly took him for an Enemy. 

It is a very unhappy Affair at present, and will I fear (not- 
withstanding the early and necessary Steps I have taken to settle 
it) greatly embarass, and retard the Measures I am so success- 
fully pursuing, and make them very unwilling to Join, or even 
go along with the Regiment now to Oswego. 

Your Lordship may depend on my leaving no measures 
unessayed to settle this unhappy Affair, but at the same time 
must assure Your Lordship it is my Opinion that if any such 
thing happens again, it will require a Person of greater Capacity, 
and more Influence to settle it. from the temper they were in 
this Morning (before I gave that Nation all the Satisfaction 
they could expect, vizt. Scalps, Belts of Wampum Goods &ca) 
I thought it adviseable to send an Express to stop the Officer and 
Party coming here. I have since wrote the Officer to proceed, 
and am apprehensive of no ill Consequence now, unless they 
get in Liquor, which from the Plenty they daily bring from 
Albany, and Schenectady is almost unavoidable. 

I have the honour to be 

My Lord 

Your Lordships 
Most Obedient 
His Excellency & Most Humble Servant 

The Right Honourable Wm. JOHNSON 

John Earl of Loudoun 

indorsed : 

Sir William Johnson 

Fort Johnson 6t. August 1 756. 



498 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM MOHAWK INDIANS 
L. S. 1 

Fort Hunter the 6 th . August 1756 
Sir 

Whereas the greatest Part of our Young Men are dispersed in 
different Parties to annoy the Enemy, by which means our Castle 
is left exposed to Danger in case of any sudden Attack, being in 
a manner, defenceless, and as Lieutenant Williams who Com- 
mands in Fort Hunter, has but a small Command, scarce suf- 
ficient to Defend himself, so that he cannot be able to send us 
any Relief on any Exigency. We therefore request You will 
be Pleased to Desire My Lord Loudoun to Reinforce the Fort 
with a Junior Officer ck such a Number of Men as he or You 
may Judge Proper, to Continue under M r . William's Command, 
til such time our Parties Return, which will not only be (in our 
Opinions) greatly Conducive to the Service, but will be a great 
Protection to Us and our Families who are left unguarded, and 
We hope You will think it necessary that this our Request be 
Complied with, with the utmost Dispatch. 

The Mark of Seth Senior 

The Mark of JOHN NATAGOYA 

The Mark of ABRAHAM 

The Mark of JOHN SujAHOWANA 

The Mark of Isaac 

To Major Gen 1 . SlR WlLLIAM JOHNSON 

INDORSED : 

A letter from the 
Mohawks desireing 
Men for their Fort. 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



5et;en Years' War 499 

FROM THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 
Contemporary Copy 1 

Albany [8 ih :]August 1756 
Sir 

I have this moment Receved your two letters of the 5 th and 
6 th As to the Indean that was Supposed to be killed by the 44 th 
Regt I hope you have before this Receved ye letter which I 
writ to Show you the Resentments I had against the Authors 
from the Moment I heard if it and the Stepes I had taken to 
Discover them and bring them to Punishment which oppinion I 
still remain fixed in 

But I can not help thinking considering who the Man was 
and what Villinous Murders he had Committed on the Com- 
panions of that Regt no latter than last year Summer it was Rash 
to bring him amongst them and still more to leave him there 
espetialy after the Long vist he had held in this town as I was 
informed before he left it owning all the People he had Mur- 
derd belonging to them and braging no Man Dared to tutche 
him for it. 

[No Man can be less Ready to forgive a Crime of this Sort 
than I am for I know if We leave the Execution of Crimenals to 
a mob, no body in the Sosiety can be safe but I must oWen I 
think the Indeans have no Reason to Aledge they have any Just 
Pretence to take Offence from a Man Meeting with an Accident 
from Men whoes Commerads he has Murderd when he Was 
attending them as a friend and this every Indean who Pretendes 
to be so offended provs to be a truth and if they put there 
Inactive friendshipe on this footing I think We shall not loose 
much by it 



1 In Public Record Office, W.O., 34, vol. 38, London, England. 
The draft of this letter is in the Henry E. Huntington Library, San 
Marino, Cal. It bears the indorsement: To Sr. Wm. Johnson at Fort 
Johnson Albany 8th. August 1756. by express enclosed to Colo. Gage. 



500 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Notwithstanding all this I will Prossecut this Affair as is right 
And bring the Guilty to the Punishment the Crime Deserves] 1 

This Affair is extremly unlucke but I can not helpe saying 
that if after our doing all we can to bring the Crirnenal to Justice 
they make a Quarel with or about this Man Newly Adopted by 
them whilst he was besmered with the Blood of our fellow Sub- 
jects Murdered by him whilst he was serving with them under 
the Spetious Pretence of friendshipe there was little to be hoped 
from them before. 

I see you have taken a different Method of Sattisfieing those 
People you ought to be the best Judge from your long 
experien[c]e among them But I should have chose to have put 
it on what seems to me to be the true State of the Case To have 
Sade this man ought to have been made a Publick Example 
and you ought not to have Receved him among you But as the 
Authors of his Death you had no right to be his executioners 
they shall suffer for thir Crimes likewise. For I have never yet 
seen Man of any lowly or any Rank but who know what Justice 
is and Rever it. And the Sacred Boond of friendshipe is to 
Show we will do Justice to them but that we expect it from them 
I have not now got to the Bottom of this Affair but I will get 
to it and shall aquaint you with the Situation of it and the Stepes 
I take in it 

To Sir William Johnson Bar 

indorsed : 

S r : W m : Johnson — 
8 th : August 1756./. 



1 Words italicized and inclosed in brackets are crossed out in the 
manuscript. 



Seven Years' War 501 

TO THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 

L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson 8th August 1756 
My Lord 

This Moment a German, Son of Justice Harkeman 2 of Bur- 
netsfield arrived here, and tells me that the Firing which was 
heard at the Great Carrying Place, and supposed to be an 
Attack on that Fort, was only the fire of our Guns at the New 
Fort which they were Scaling, this Account came by some 
Battoemen who came from the Carrying place the day after the 
firing was heard. As I would not delay giving Your Lordship 
the earliest Notice, I thought it best to send Harkeman 3 with 
this Letter, to whom I beg leave to refer Your Lordship for 
particulars. 

I am 

My Lord 

Your Lordships 
Most Obedient 
His Excellency & Most Humble Servant 

The Right Honourable Wm. JOHNSON 

John Earl of Loudoun 



indorsed: 4 



Sir William Johnson 

Fort Johnson August 8t 1 756 

About the report of the Attack 
at the Carrying 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 

2 Johan Jost Herchheimer (Herkimer). 

3 Johan Nicholas Herchheimer, son of Johan Jost Herchheimer. 

4 In Loudoun's hand. ' 



502 Sir William Johnson Papers 

TO THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 
L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson 8th August 1756 
1 1 at night 
My Lord 

I am honoured with Yours of this Instant. 

I Shewed Your Lordships Letter to the Indians, which, 
together with the Steps I took, (and which I then thought most 
proper) I settled that unlucky Affair intirely. 

My Lord I knew nothing of the fellows design of going to 
Albany when I left him at my House. I went by Water, and 
he by Land, with severall more of that Nation as I have since 
heard, before I sett off from Albany I ordered a Sachim to 
tell all the Indians to go before me, which they did. I did 
not see him at Schenectady but understood that He, and two 
or three old Mohawks were gone before me homewards, which 
I find was true. 

I must say I never heard him say an ill word to Mankind 
since I first saw him, which was last Winter. If I had I should 
be very ready to reprimand him for it. What he may have 
said to others, or what he has done when with the late General 
Braddock I know not, but very probable he has behaved ill, 
otherwise I am far from thinking that any Body would have 
carried a Resentment so far. 

As these are Facts My Lord, and all that I know of the 
Affair, I hope Your Lordship will not condemn the Method I 
have taken. If it is wrong, I am sorry for it. 

I am 

My Lord 

Your Lordships 
Most Obedient 
His Excellency & Most Humble Servant 

The Right Honourable Wm. JOHNSON 

John Earl of Loudoun 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Seven Years' War 503 

INDORSED: 1 

Sir William Johnson 

Fort Johnson August 8t 1 756 

TO THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 

L. sr- 

Fort Johnson 15 August 1756 
My Lord 

This moment one Sam a Carolina Indian who lives at Oneida 
Lake came here with an Oneida Indian along with him from 
the German Flatts, and says that three days ago between Fort 
Bull and Fort Williams as he was Walking towards the Fort, 
he was laid hold of by a French Indian, who took him aside 
about fifty yards from the foot Road and asked him where he 
was going, upon this Indians telling him he was going to Fort 
Williams, he said the Indians had no business mixing with the 
English, and further desired him to tell the Indians to keep 
out of the way, for there was a great Body of French and Indians 
coming after him, that He left the French Camp two days 
before, that they were to destroy one, or Both of said Forts, 
and if they could not succeed therein, they would then cutt off 
the Battoes with provisions going to Oswego, this Indian says 
that as soon as he came to Fort Williams in order to tell them 
the News, he was asked by the interpreter there where he came 
from, on answering he came from Oneida Lake, said Interpreter 
told him he believed he was a French Indian, for that he did 
not know him, and that he beleived he was come as a Spy, 
that he looked upon all the Oneida Indians as Traytors, this 
prevented His telling the News as He intended, least they should 
lay hold of Him, He says he was nevertheless confined the day 
before Yesterday, which prevented his coming sooner. He says 
that Numbers of the Oneida, and other Indians whom He met 



1 In Loudoun's hand. 

2 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



504 Sir William Johnson Papers 

at the German Flatts &ca, Run up to the Carrying place as 
fast as they could. He says he told the Officer at the German 
Flatts of it, who said he need not write, as He the Indian was 
coming here 

I sent of a Party of above 50 Indians from here Yesterday 
bound for the French Encampment near Lake Ontario, by the 
River Le Planche, who I hope will be up time enough to meet 
this Party of the French, as they are to take the Woods at the 
Carrying Place 

I thought it my Duty to send Your Lordship this Intelligence 
by Express, I propose sending General Webb the same, as it 
will reach him before He getts to the German Flatts 

I hope I shall be able to do myself the honour of waiting on 
Your Lordship in two, or three Days. 

I am 

My Lord 

Your Lordships 
Most Obedient 
His Excellency The Right and Most Humble Servt. 

Honourable JOHN EARL OF LOUDOUN. Wm. JOHNSON. 

P. S. Just as I finished my letter, an 

Oneida Indian who arrived here abt. an 

hour ago wth. severall more from ye West 

Branch of Susquahana, Says that he mett 

with a Cajuga Indian Just come from Niagara 

who told him that when he left Sd. place abt. 

13 Days ago a Considerable Body of French Indians were 

prepareing to march towards Osswego, in order as he heard to 

revenge the Death of Some of their Nation who were killed in 

that Skirmish wth. Bradstreet. This Indian told my Informant 

that he did not know what was to be proposed, or done at the 

Niagara Meeting, as he & severall more fled on Acct. of the 

Small Pox beginning to rage verry much amot. French & Indians. 







THE FORTS AT OSWEGO 
From Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of America, 5:511 



PLAN of the SIEGE of FORTS 
OSWEGO and ONTARIO 1756 

1 Sca/e f/~ Yards , i 

ioo 200 3oo ' 3oo 




iAJT£ 



N T A R I O 



Bartholomew. Frfitt' 

HI. AN OF THE SIEGE OF FORTS OSWEGO AND ONTARIO BY MONTCA] \ 

IN 1756 
From William Charles Henry W )'- rite Passing of New France, \>. 3-1 



Seven Years' War 505 

FROM WILLIAM DENNY 
Contemporary Copy 1 

Philadelphia 21. August, 1756. 
Sir 

The Proprietors having done me the Honour, with the Kings 
approbation to appoint me the Governour" of this Province I 
take this oppertunity to Inform you of my having published 
their Commission and taken upon me the administration. 

I shall be extremely glad to embrace all occasions of promot- 
ing His Magisties Service and the general interest of the Indian 
Nations, and as without an Union of Councils and a good 
Correspondence between you and me little good is to be effected. 
I shall take the liberty to communicate to you from time to time 
whatever Indian Intelligence I shall receive as well as the several 
steps I shall take with them for the public service upon which 
I shall be oblidged to you to give me your sentiments which will 
always have a great weight with me. 

I hope I shall be enabled to act with spirit at this important 
juncture in which nothing less than the Preservation of this 
Province in particular and that of the Colonies in general is so 
nearly Concerned. 

It will give me a sensible pleasure if in the Course of my 
Administration I shall have it in my power to render you any 
service. 

I beg the favour of you to notify to the Six Nations my suc- 
ceeding Mr. Morris in the Government of this Province and to 
acquaint them in order to prevent mistakes that this change is 
at his own importunate request and not on account of any dis- 
pleasure of his Majesty or the Proprietors. 

Indian business has increased so much of late that the secre- 
tary tells me he has no Wampum which oblidges me to request 
of you to furnish the Belts and Strings necessary to lay this 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 

2 Deputy Governor of Pa. from August, 1 756 till October, 1 759. 



506 Sir William Johnson Papers 

notification, as well as the other business I have in a seperate 
letter took the freedom to commit to your care, before the Indians, 
and this government will be glad to pay your draught for it. 
The secretary tells me we are already largely in your debt, but I 
hope all will be honourably discharged when the amount thereof 
is known. I have the Honour to be. 

Sir 

Your Most Obedient 
Humble Servant 

William Denny. 
Sir William Johnson. 

indorsed: 

Copy Governor Denny's letter 
to Sir William Johnson 
Philadelphia, August 21st, 1756. 

TO THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 
L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson 22. August 1756 
My Lord 

Since my Arrival have not heard a word more about the Fate 
of Oswego which I am surprised at, and cannot account for. 

This Minute an Indian whom I sent with a Letter to Major 
General Webb 2 the Day I went to Albany (which was last 
Wednsday) arrived, and says that there are a great number of 
the Six Nations now at the German Flatts Expecting me there, 
also Capt. Montour the Half King 3 and their Party consisting 
above Fifty. I hope to be with them this Night, with 500 Men 
from these parts, the 500 from Albany are not yet come up, 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 

2 Daniel Webb. 

3 Scarouady. 



5ei;en Years War 507 

neither have I heard from them, this Indian says he heard 
that the Old Fort was not yet taken. If I find that to be the 
Case on my Arrival at Burnetsfield, I hope your Lordship will 
not disaprove of my making the best of my Way to Oswego 
with what Indians, and Militia I can Muster. the Ammunition 
which Your Lordship ordered for me is not yet arrived, which 
is a great disapointment. 

I hope Your lordship will order a Sufficient Quantity of 
Arms and Ammunition &ca, up here for the use of the Six 
Nations as soon as it arrives from York, this being the time they 
should be well supplied with every necessary. 

The Sachims of both Mohawk Castles were with me Yes- 
terday, to know when Your Lordship will Garrison their two 
Castles, the sooner it is done the better, and they beg that they 
may be good quiet sober Man. I have the honour to be 

My Lord 

Your Lordships 
Most Obedient 

and Most Humble Servant 

Wm. Johnson 
° as I could get there with them 
sooner than the Troops, I shall 
wait yr. Lordships pleasure. 

The Right Honourable 
John Earl of Loudoun 

indorsed : 

Sir William Johnson 

Fort Johnson August 22d 1 756 

Powder 

Arms for Indians 

No further Account of Oswego 

Proposal 



508 Sir William Johnson Papers 

TO THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 
L. S. 1 

German Flatts August ye 23d. 12 oClock 
My Lord 

On my Arrival here I find by a soldier who came from 
Oswego, that the French were in possession of every thing we 
had there last Saturday was Seven Night, and as they carried 
the Garrison over prisoners to the East side he made his escape. 
He tells me that last Thursday he met Major General Webb, 
About ten miles from here on his way to the Carrying place, and 
gave him a full Acct. of all he knew, he says their numbers 
were very Considerable as well Indians as French. 

I shall Acquaint Mr. Webb of my Arrival here Immediately, 
and Cooperate with him in every thing may tend to the preser- 
vation of this part of the Country, Or the Retaking Oswego if it 
should be thought practicable. In the mean time shall guard 
against any Attempts the Enemy may make upon this place. 

I found it very Difficult to get the Militia to move at this 
time, there are not above four hundred of them as yet Arrived, 
I expect many more tomorrow, but doubt of the Numbers coming 
I Ordered; as also of their willingness to stay here any time. 

There are Several Indians about here with whom I could not 
speak as yet, but by what I can see they are vastly Dejected, I 
propose speaking to them as soon as I have dispatched this, and 
the Express to Major General Webb. I have the Honour to 
be my Lord. 

Your Lordships most 

Obedient, & Most Humble Servant 
His Excellency Wm. Johnson 

The Earl of Loudoun 

indorsed : 

Sir William Johnson 
German Flatts August 23d 1 756 
Believes Oswego taken 
R August 24th 1 756 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Seven Years' War 509 

TO THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 
L. S. 1 
German Flatts August 24th, 1756. 

My Lord 

I was honoured this Morning with Your Lordships of the 23d. 
together with an Indian Letter which I can make nothing of, as 
Mr. Clause who reads Indian, is left Sick at my House. 

I have no further Acct. from Osswego Since I wrote Your 
Lordship Yesterday. I expect the return of the Express I sent 
Major Generl. Webb Yesterday, Some time this Day. 

I am prepareing about a Dozen Indians to send of imediately 
to Osswego for certain Intelligence and to bring me a Prisonner 
if possible. 

In case (on future Intelligence) it should appear a prudent & 
Eligible measure to proceed to Osswego, Your Lordship may 
depend I shall first acquaint You, & Mr. Webb of my Design, 
as the Whole of my Conduct shall be governed by Yr. Lord- 
ships pleasure, and his Commands. 

The lower Mohawk Castle expect 100 Men in the whole, 
that is Seventy In their Castle as they call it, besides the thirty 
Lieut. Williams has in the Kings Fort. I believe fifty Good 
Men may Suffice with what are already there, and as many as 
Can have good Quarters. There is an Officer, and twenty five 
Men of the Militia posted at Fort Hendrick at Conajohare 
Whom I have paid out of the money in my Hands for Indian 
Affairs the Officer at 8 Curry, per Day, & the Men at 2/2 
finding themselves, which is a considerable Expence. as this 
Fort Hendrick is 30 Miles above the Mohawks, and a kind of 
Barrier to that part of the Country, and the Indians living there 
Inviolably attached to the British Interest, as well as the lower 
Mohawks, I am humbly of opinion it would not only give great 
Satisfaction but encourage them to continue their alertness, and 
assistance to Us, Was Your Lordship pleased to allow a 
Garrison of 1 00, or 70 Men there. As to the rest of the Nations 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



5 1 Sir William Johnson Papers 

who have had Forts lately built in their Countrys, I can say 
nothing yet, haveing had no Conversation with them Since this 
unlucky affair of Osswego. 

Lieut. Holland 1 who commanded here being in a verry bad 
State of Health, and no Help at hand, desired Liberty to go 
to Albany, which I granted and hope Yr. Lordship will not 
take it amiss, as he realy Suffered greatly here, and could be of 
no Service. 

The powder arrived at my House Just as I was Setting of 
for this place, with only abt. 300 lb. of lead. I forwarded it 
imediately wth. Battoes, but is not yet come up here. I must 
think there was more lead Sent from Albany, & left in Schenec- 
tady through the neglect of those who have the care, or inspec- 
tion of the Battoes there, whom I have severall times to my 
great disapointment found verry remiss. 

I am 

My Lord 

most respectfully 
Your Lordships 
Most Obedient, & 
Most Humble Servt. 

W M . Johnson 
His Excellency the Earl OF Loudoun 

I herewith transmit Your 
Lordship a Return of the 
Detachments of his Majesty's Troops 
left here, also the Comissarys return 
of provisions. 

INDORSED : 

Sir William Johnson 

German Flatts August 24t. 1 756. 



1 Hitchen Holland. 



Seven Years' War 5 1 1 

TO THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 
L. S. 1 

German Flatts 27. Augt. 1756 
My Lord 

My last to Your Lordship was the 24 Inst, I am since 
honoured with yours of ye 23d. 

I have had no further Intelligence relating to Oswego, but 
what has come from the Carrying Place & Consequently com- 
municated to Your Lordship by Genl. Webb, the loss of that 
place is I fear beyond the least Doubt. 

Genl. Webb wrote me to discharge such Men from the Militia 
as were engaged in the Battoe Service. I did so, but the 
remainder of our Battoes are all at the Oneida Carrying Place 
there are none here and Justice van Slyck informs me there are 
none at Schenectady, with which I have acquainted M. Webb. 

Two large Parties of Indians whom I had fitted out for War 
& were going to Canada are now here (except a part of them 
whom I sent for Intelligence to Oswego as I mentioned in my 
last to your Lordship) I thought it best in the present Sittuation 
of our Affairs that they should proceed to the Carrying Place 
& there assist the Service in such manner as Mr. Webb may 
judge Expedient. They have consented to go thither & are 
to set off to Morrow Morning with a considerable Number of 
Sachems & Warriors (some of each of the 6 Nations) along 
with Mr. Croghan. General Webb desired & I proposed to 
have gone thither myself, but I am in so Weak a Condition as to 
be disabled from Travelling. I was seized with the Bloody 
Flux on my arrival here wch. continued very violent & painful 
so that I am not able to sit up. I shall give Mr. Croghan 
Instructions with regard to the Indians & as he is a person very 



In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



512 Sir William Johnson Papers 

acceptable to them & well acquainted with their Customs and 
Manners I hope the Service will not suffer by my Incapacity of 
proceeding with them. 

Mr. Webb writes me that the Indians with him, appear back- 
ward in going upon Service It is natural & probable that the 
success of the French at Oswego will have, particularly at first, 
such an influence, but as the Indians now here have unanimously 
given me (and that without any Application on my side) the 
warmest Assurances of their Determination to continue stedfast 
to their Allience with us, I am in hopes when They & Mr. 
Croghan arrive, Genl. Webbs Complaint v/ill be removed but 
of this future time & their Behaviour can only give us Certainty. 
Unless strict care be taken to prevent their getting Rum, they 
will be very troublesome & no ways Serviceable, this I shall 
mention to Genl. Webb & give in charge to Mr. Croghan if all 
that are now here do according to their Promise accompany Mr. 
Croghan, there will be upwards of 1 50 Sachems & Warriors. 

As the Harvest in these parts is but just beginning with some 
& at the height with others, any long continuance of the Militia 
here will be almost ruinous to some & extremely prejudicial to 
Most. The Detachment from the Albany Battalion is not yet 
arrived whilst the other has been here 6. 5. & 4 days. 

I am now dispatching another Party for Intelligence to Oswego 
& to get a prisoner if they can, It consists of white Men (Volun- 
tiers from the Militia) & Indians. Another Party are gone to 
Scout thro the Woods on the East side of the River & are to 
come out at the Oneida Carrying place. 

I am preparing a Belt of Wampum to send thro the Six 
Nations, to Summon a Delegation of the Chiefs of each Nation 
to meet me without Delay at my House. If they comply the 
Result of that Meeting will probably enable us to form a 
Determinate opinion relative to our Indian Interest. This 
Measure appears to me the best and most important with regard 



Seven Years War 513 

to Indian Affairs at this Conjuncture & I hope it will meet with 
Your Lordships Approbation. 

To the Right Honourable 

The Earl of Loudoun 

&c. &c 

I am 

with the greatest Esteem 

and Respect 

My Lord 

Your Lordships 

Most Obedient and 

faithful Servant 
INDORSED: - v . t 

. , Y/ .„. T , W M . Johnson 

oir William Johnson 

German Flatts August 27t 1 756 

TO THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 

L. S. 1 

German Flatts 27 Augt. 
«- » 3 aClock p. m. J 756. 

I have just received a Letter by two Indians Express from the 

Carrying Place from Capt. Butler, 2 a Copy of which I thought 

it necessary to send Your Lordship without further delay. 

I have not yet heard from Major General Webb 

I am 

My Lord 

Your Lordships 

To His Excellency Most Obedt. hum 

The Earl of Loudoun Servant 

&c. &c. W M . Johnson 

indorsed : 

Sir William Johnson 

German Flatts August 27t 1 756 

with Indian Intelligence about Oswego 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 

2 Thomas Butler. 

17 



5 1 4 Sir William Johnson Papers 

TO THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 
L. S. 1 

German Flatts 28 Augt. 1756. 
My Lord 

I here with transmit You the Copy of another Letter I have 
just received by Genl. Webbs Express, from Capt. Butler. 2 

I apprehend the Motive for the Onondaga Indians preventing 
our People from going to Oswego was, that they thought it too 
dangerous an Enterprize, as probably some Party of the French 
& their Indians still remain there & that our People might fall 
into their hands. 

The difference between the Indian Intelligence & what we had 
from those who say they escaped from Oswego is very striking, 
and on which side the real Truth lyes, is not I conceive at 
present easy to determine, but as I have ordered the Party I 
sent to Oswego to go thro the Woods & avoid any of the Indian 
Castles, I hope their return may enable us to judge what is the 
real Fate & true State of Affairs at Oswego. 

Genl. Webb is still earnest for my coming to him as soon as 
I recover enough to undertake the Journey, I am as yet incap- 
able of doing it, if Mr. Webb continues his Desire of seeing 
me I will Attend him when I am able to travel. 

I have the honour to be 
My Lord 

Your Lordships 

Most Obedient & most 
humble Servant. 

W M . Johnson 

To His Excellency 
The Earl of Loudoun 

&c. &c 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 

2 Thomas Butler. 



Seven Years' War 5 1 5 

INDORSED : 

Sir William Johnson 

German Flatts August 28t 1 756 

with Indian Intelligence 

TO THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 

L. S. 1 

German Flatts 28 Augt. 1756 
My Lord 

This Afternoon an elderly Indian who has always been very 
faithful & on whose Integrity I think I may depend came to me 
& told me, that he had Intelligence the French would certainly 
before long make their Attack upon the Oneida Carrying Place, 
and said he hoped we were so well fortified & so strong there as 
not to meet with the fate of Oswego. This Indian seemed 
fully persuaded of the truth of his Intelligence & told it me with 
all the marks of unaffected Concern. I thought it proper to 
communicate this Matter to Your Lordship. Tis true the fate 
of Oswego has I fear involved in it the Attachment of some of 
our Indians, shaken that of others & alarmed most of them. Yet 
I think we have some on whom we may depend. I suspect 
most of the Onondagas & Oneidas are disaffected to us from 
some fresh Accounts I have this day received. 

I have sent an Express to Mr. Webb with the above Intelli- 
gence. 

The Albany Militia arrived Yesterday afternoon & by Col. 
Rentzellaers return to me this Morning there are but 250 of 
them & those without Blanketts. My orders were 500. 

I am 

My Lord 

Your Lordships 
Most Obedient 
To His Excellency & faithful Servant 

The Earl of Loudoun W m - Johnson 

&c. &c. 



In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



5 1 6 Sir William Johnson Papers 

INDORSED: 

Sir William Johnson 

German Flatts August 28t 1 756 

Account from an Old Indian of the 
Enemy Meaning to attack us from Oswego 

TO THE BOARD OF TRADE 
Extract 1 

[28 Aug. 1756] 

The Onnondagas and Oneidas are in the neighborhood of 
Swegatchie a French settlement on the River St Lawrence, 
whither numbers of those two Nations have of late years been 
debauched and gone to live. Tho' our Indians do not now 
resort to those places as frequently and familiarly as they form- 
erly did, yet some among them do occasionally visit there, when 
the French and the Indians in their interest poison the minds of 
ours with stories not only to the disadvantage of our good inten- 
tions towards them, but endeavour to frighten them with pompous 
accounts of the superior prowess and martial abilities of the 
French. 

FROM THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 
D/. 2 

Albany August 3I 3i . 1756 
Sir 

I had the pleasure of your Letter of the 28 th . but am very 
sorry to find you have been so bad, by a Letter from M r . 
Catherwood 3 I see you are better which I sincerely hope will 
Continue, I can easily believe the French breaking any Treaty 
and Murdering the People afterwards, But it is most essential 
to us to know whether they remain at Oswego, and their Number, 



Printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y.. 1:427-28; Q. 1:279-80. 
2 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 
8 John Catherwood, secretary to Gov. Clinton. 



Seven Years War 5 1 7 

both that we may be able to Judge, how far we can deal with 
them if they make us a Visit, and what preparations to make 
against them if they come by Crown Point, and you are the 
only one can get us this Intelligence, so I beg you will spare no 
pains, 

I am told several People of Considerable Interest in this 
Countey have sent you no men, I Beg to have a return of your 
People, and from whom they come, that we may know whom 
we may trust to hearafter, your People shall not be detained 
no longer than is Absolutely Necessary, 

I have this day sent up 250 of the Highland Regiment, and 
50 of Young Roger's Ranging Company with some People of 
the Artilary, Part of the Highland's will serve to Garrison the 
Mohawk Fortes when the Fate of the Carrying place is Deter- 
mined, I ever am most Faithfully. 

INDORSED : 

To Sir W m . Johnson 
August 3 1 st . 1756 

EXTRACTS FROM INDIAN PAPERS 
D. 

[August, 1 756] 1 
\ To prove the [ 
^our Encroachments [ 

Part of a Message received from the Onondagas 23 May, 
[ 1 756] to be found in the Remarks on proprietor of Pensilvanias 
observation 

"We are informed the English are builds. a Fort 2 at Shamokin 
we cant comprehend the method of making war which is made 
use of, by our Breth n . the English; When we go to War, our 
manner is to destroy a Nation & theres an end of it. But the 
English Chiefly regard building Forts, which Looks as if their 
only Scheme was to take possession of the Lands." 



1 Date supplied from the Johnson Calendar. 

2 Fort Augusta at Shamokin, Pa. 



5 1 8 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Extract from the Representation from the Board of Trade to his 
Majesty dated Dec r . 1 1 th . 1 755 upon M r . Penns proposal of 
Granting Lands in Pensilvania to such Officers & Soldiers, as 
sho d . engage in his Majestys Service — 

To prove the caution w th . w ch . the L ds . of Trade chose to act 
concerning Ind n . Claims 1 

See Letter from L ds . of Trade 
March 5* 1 756 



INDORSED: 2 



Some Extracts from 
Indian Papers — 
To Shew their Jealousy of 
our Encroachments, & Opinions 
of the Kings Ministers thereon 
1756 

AN INDIAN MEETING 
Extract 3 

German Flails 3 Sep r . 1756. 
At a Meeting of the Onondagas, Oneidas & Tuscarores. 

Pres*. 

S r . Wm Johnson 

Mr. Geo. Croghan. Jacobus Clement Interp r . 

Aguiotta an Oneida Sachem Speaker. 

Brother Warraghyjagey 

We told you yesterday evening that we had something yet 
left in our hearts which we wanted to lay before you ere we part 



1 The complete letter from the Board of Trade to his Majesty, Dec. 
II. 1755, is printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y., 2:704-7; Q, 2:410-12. 
Therefore this extract is not printed here. 

2 The first five words in Johnson's hand. 

3 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Seven Years' War 519 

from one another; We are now met & must tell you in the name 
of all the Six Nations that we are quite surprised to find our 
selves deceived in our opinion of the English — We took them 
to be a more steady People, but we see that this defeat at Oswego 
discourages them entirely and that you seem as it were to give 
up all hopes. 

Brother 

We entreat you not to be dispirited, go on in your measures & 
try again. You have often boasted of the numbers of the 
English, that they were like an inexhaustable stream — do your 
best call all your People from the seaside (meaning our Cities 
& Towns) and bring them to Lake George, as our common 
enemy will now attack you there. Pray go on vigourously & 
you may still overcome. Gave a Belt. 

To which Sr. William replyed 

Bretheren 

You are mistaken in your opinion of the English, if you think 
the loss of Oswego has affected them in any such degree as will 
deter them from making war upon the common enemy with a 
firmness & resolution equal to the provocations they have 
received. At the same time that we are not insensible to what 
we have suffered by the loss of this place. We think the security 
& welfare of the 6 nations to be more essentially affected by it 
than our own. 

Bretheren 

The great King your Father hath sent over the Earl of 
Loudoun to command all his warriors in North America & to 
order & direct all warlike measures upon this continent, to him 
I shall communicate what you have now said; he is an Experi- 
enced warrior & you may be assured will take every measure 
becoming a brave & prudent Chief. Gave a Belt of Wampum. 

A true Extract from the original minutes. 

Peter Wraxall 

Secr'y. 



520 Sir William Johnson Papers 

INDORSED : 

Extract of Indians 

Speech to Sr. William Johnson at 

German Flatts & his answer. 

TO THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 

L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson 7 Septhr. 1756 
My Lord 

I met the Express who carried Your Lordships favour to me 
of the 2d. Instant on the Road, he had left it at my House where 
I found it on my Arrival. 

Major General Webb when he came to the German Flatts was 
of opinion the Militia might be discharged in which I concurred 
with Him and did it accordingly. 

Agreeable to my promise to the Indians I herewith transmit 
Your Lordship a Speech they made me on my Departure from 
the German Flatts with my Answer to it. 

They seem universally persuaded the Enemy will make a verry 
strong Attack at Lake George or that way and manifest a more 
than ordinary, anxiety for the Event. If they do and should 
meet with a defeat, it will I doubt not have a very happy Effect 
upon our Indian Interest, if we suffer that way also, I dread the 
Consequence. 

I did verry earnestly recommend it to the Indians to keep out 
constant Scouting Parties every way round the Carrying Place 
towards the Enemy and upon my Discoveries to bring Mr. Webb 
the most speedy notice, which they promised me they would 
faithfully do, and I have left an Indian Officer with General 
Webb to serve as an Interpreter. 

I sent two Trusty Indians from the German Flatts to Oswego 
for intelligence, I heard this day by an Indian that they are 
returned to that place but were too weary to proceed imme- 



In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Seven Years' War 521 

diately hither. I expect them every Moment, the Intelligence 

they bring shall be punctually transmitted to Your Lordship. 

In my next I shall give Your Lordship my Answer upon the 

specification of the Indian Presents You sent me by Mr. 

Wraxall, by whom I am sorry to hear Your Lordship hath been 

indisposed, I hope You are perfectly recovered and I most 

heartily wish You the continuance of health and every good 

thing. I am still weak but I think on the Recovery. 

I am truely 

My Lord 
To His Excellency Your Lordships 

The Earl of Loudoun Most Qbedient 

and most faithful 
Servant 

W M . Johnson 

INDORSED : 

Sir William Johnson 
Fort Johnson Septr. 7th 
1756 

TO THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 

L. S. 1 

Fori Johnson 8 Septr. J 7 56 
My Lord 

I have the honour of Mr. Pownall's Letter of Yesterday 
and am extreamly obliged to Your Lordship for your kind 
Concern for my health, tho better I am not at present in a 
Condition that will admit my waiting on Your Lordship, besides 
I am surrounded by Indians and their Affairs press upon me 
too much to permit my being prudently absent at this Juncture, 
if Your Lordship should find it necessary for me to Attend You 
before the proposed Meeting takes place, I will undoubtedly 
if my strength permits pay my Duty to You, and if my Weak- 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



522 Sir William Johnson Papers 

ness should require, I will embrace Your Lordships polite offer 
of Your Post Chariot. 

The two Indians I sent to Oswego are not yet come hither 
from the German Flatts, I am surprized at their Delay, as soon 
as ever they Arrive and I get their Intelligence I shall imme- 
diately transmit it to Your Lordship. 

I have received two Letters from Governor Denny One 
notifieing to me his Appointment desiring I will signifie the same 
to the Six Nations. The other gives me a Relation of the 
Causes of the Late Meeting at Easton, a general Account of 
what past there, some, tho not verry clear Reasons for an Indian 
they call Capt. Newcastle coming this way. 

I take the Liberty here to transmit Your Lordship My 
Answer to these Letters of Governour Denny which if You 
approve I beg You will order to be sealed and forwarded. 

I find Your Lordship waits my Sentiments upon the Subject 
of Pensilvanias Indian Management before You send off Your 
Dispatches to the Govr. of Pensilvania. 

My Lord. In my last Letter to the Board of Trade I gave 
their Lordships a Summary Account of the Treaty at my House 
with the Deleware and Shawanese Indians. At the same time 
I took the Liberty to communicate to them my Apprehensions 
of the Chief Causes which had induced some of the Indians 
living on the Susquehanna to be concerned in those hostilities 
which that Government in particular and the Neighboring 
Governments in general had suffered last Spring. I also laid 
before their Lordships a general View of the late Indian Man- 
agement of the Pensilvania and did express my disapprobation 
of Governour Morris' Conduct therein, as I had done before 
verry plainly to Sir Charles Hardy and which he communicated 
to Mr. Morris. 

I have not the least doubt of Governour Dennys perfect good 
Intentions for His Majesties Service and the general Welfare 
with regard to Indian Affairs, but my Lord I am apprehensive 
that as Governour Denny cannot yet be supposed fully possessed 
of the Real State of those Affairs and able to form that compitent 



Seven Years' War 523 

Judgment upon The Subject for which some Experience and 
time are absolutely necessary, he may be liable to be misled by 
some about him, upon whose opinion he may naturally be apt 
to make a Dependance, and who I am inclined to believe either 
think themselves more Masters of the Subject than they realy 
are, and have possibly some favorite Schemes in View, neither 
reconciled to sound Policy nor those disinterested Principles 
which ought to regulate Indian Management at this Delicate 
Conjuncture, however if Mr. Denny is persuaded that he can 
fall upon such Measures as will compose these Unhappy Breaches 
or Misunderstandings which have taken place between the 
Shawanese and Delaware Indians and the Southern Provinces, 
and secure their future Tranquility, I am far from wishing much 
less endeavouring to deprive him of such honourable, and 
important Negotiations, and especially as 'tis more than I can 
take upon me to give any certain assurances of at this critical 
Juncture. One thing I must beg leave to Mention to Your Lord- 
ship and I hope for Your Interposition therein, which is, that 
the Governour of Pensilvania do not give any call for a Meet- 
ing of the Six Nations, or enter into any Negociations with them, 
as such a Proceeding will not only be I humbly conceive, con- 
trary to the Intention and Tener of His Majesties Commission 
to me, but tend to throw the British Indian Interest into a state 
of fatal Confusion and may defeat every Measure which I am 
forming or may project for its Stability and good Consequences, 
herein Your Lordship will I am persuaded Allow me to be 
somewhat possitive, and will exert Your Authority in supporting 
that Department with which His Majesty, under your Direc- 
tion only, hath honoured me and in which Appointment I have 
been so happy as to meet with Your Lordships Approbation. 

I beg Pardon for taking up so much of Your Lordships time 
upon this Subject, I may be mistaken, but I suspect there are 
some busy intriguing Spirits now at Philadelphia, who are form- 
ing Schemes unknown to Mr. Denny, which induced me to be, 
thus explicit with Your Lordship, besides other Circumstances 
I am led into this Opinion by the Spirit and Stile of one of Mr. 



524 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Denny's Letters to me of which I take the Liberty to send Your 
Lordship a Copy. 

I am fitting out three different Parties of Indians of Severall 
Nations to go out against the Enemy, I propose they shall call 
at Lake George in their way and offer their Service and to write 
General Winslow by them. 

I have spoke to Mr. Clause about the Commission Your 
Lordship was pleased to offer him and the terms upon which 
You will allow him to be, and he consents with Gratitude to 
Your Lordship. 

I have examined the Specification of His Majesties Present 
for the Indians, and in my humble Opinion 2/3 of the severall 
Articles for the Northern Confederacy and 1 /3 for the Southern 
will be a Division most conducive to His Majesties Indian 
Interest in general and I believe the Southern proportion is 
greater than they ever before recieved. I would propose to Your 
Lordship that the Share for the Northern Indians may be given 
out at such times as it will be most acceptable and to such Per- 
sons as may most Merit it by their actual Services and not as 
hath been Customary in an undistinguishing manner at a general 
Meeting, which in War time and now in particular I apprehend 
would by no means be so advisable or advantageous to His 
Majesties Indian Service. 

I have the honour 
to be My Lord 
Your Lordships 
Most Obedient, & 
Most Humble Servt. 

W M . Johnson 
To His Excellency 

The Earl of Loudoun 
herewith I transmit Yr. Lordship 
the plan I propose for Ye. Division 
of the Indian Present. 1 



Postscript in Johnson's hand. 



Seven Years' War 525 

TO WILLIAM DENNY 
Copt/ 1 

Fort Johnson, 8 September, 1756. 
Sir: 

I am honoured with your two Letters bearing date the 21 of 
last Month. 

I most sincerely congratulate you on your safe Arrival in 
your Government, and taking upon you the Administration of 
the same; May Health, Success, and Honour attend you. It 
shall be my ambition to shew myself worthy of your favour, 
Confidence, and Correspondence, relative to that Department 
of his Majesty's Service which he hath been pleased to entrust 
to my Management. I shall receive all Intelligence from you 
with Gratitude, and take care punctually to communicate to 
you whatever I apprehend may be consequential to your Govern- 
ment ; and I shall at all times receive your Sentiments and Advice 
upon Indian Affairs with that respect which is due to your publick 
Station and the Merits of your private Character. 

The present critical situation of the Province of Pennsylvania 
as well indeed all the Neighbouring Ones, call for a Spiritted 
conduct in their Governors, and I hope and doubt not, Sir, but 
you will feel yourself equal to the Trial. 

Please, Sir, to accept of my very gratefull acknowledgements 
for your obliging Offers in my favour, and permit me to hope 
the honour of your Commands, whenever it may be in my power 
to contribute to your satisfaction. 

I expect soon to have a Meeting here of Delegates from each 
of the Six Nations, when I will not forget to Notify to them 
your succeeding Mr. Morris in the Government of Pennsylvania 
in the manner you mention, and I shall supply the Belts and 
Strings necessary on the Occasion. 

I have at all times with Fidelity and pleasure, considered 
and promoted the real Interest of Pennsylvania in my Trans- 



Printed in Pennsylvania Colonial Records, 7:278-79. 



526 Sir William Johnson Papers 

actions with the Indians to the utmost of my Abilities and Judge- 
ment, and I shall continue so to do whilst the Power of doing it 
remains with me. 

Your Letter by Cashiowayah, the Indian, I have perused with 
the attention due to the Importance of it. He has not yet opened 
himself fully to me, so that I cannot give you a particular Answer 
with relation to him and his Business, by 1 you may depend I 
shall Assist and Advise him in the best manner I am able for 
his Majesty's Indian Interest in general, and that of your 
Province in particular. 

I am, Sir, Most respectively, 

Your most Obedient and most humble Servant, 

W M . Johnson. 
William Denny, Esqr., &ca. 

TO THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 

L. S. 2 

Fort Johnson 10 Sep 1 1756 
My Lord 

Since mine of Yesterday One Harris who went with James 
Connor and some Indians from the Carrying Place to make 
Discoveries at Oswegoe came hither and I inclosed Your Lord- 
ship his Account of what they saw and send this Letter by him 
that Your Lordship may have the Opportunity if You please 
of examining him Your self. I also herewith transmit Your 
Lordship, The Relation of the two Oneida Indians whom I 
sent to Oswegoe from the German Flatts, I look upon them 
to be faithful intelligent People. 

I also inclose for Your Lordships perusal a Letter from Mr. 
Peters Secretary for Pensilvania to Mr. Clause, as I think it 
confirms those suspicions which I hinted to Your Lordship in mine 
of Yesterday. I find the Indian they call Capt. Newcastle (tho 



1 Evidently intended for "but." 

2 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Seven Years War 527 

he has not told me so) was sent to draw off from hence Mr. 
Montour and the Half King 1 and to invite sundry other Indians of 
the Six Nations to Philadelphia, tho I am verry much disgust'd 
at this disingenuous Method of Proceeding and think myself ill 
used by it. I dont pursue this Subject with a View to Interest 
Your Lordships Authority in my private Resentment, but at the 
Opinion these interfering Measures and seperate Schemes if per- 
mitted, will greatly injure His Majesties Indian Interest and 
cause such Convulsions in the Management of that Service, as 
would at any time be attended with verry pernicious Conse- 
quences and fatally so at this critical and delicate Juncture. 

The Mohawk and Conajoharee Indians are impatient for the 
Garrisons Your Lordship promised them. 

If our Lordship approves my proposed Division of His 
Majesties Indian Presents and the manner of giving them which 
I mentioned, it will be necessary that I have them as soon as 
possible as I am in want of them 

I am 

My Lord 

with the highest Esteem 
Your Lordships 
Most Obedient 

& Most Humble Servt. 

W M . Johnson 
To His Excellency 
The Earl of Loudoun 

Mr. Clause wishes to Stand in 
a fair light with regard to this 
letter of Mr. Peters to him 
and your Lordship will please to 
return the Letter 

INDORSED : 

Sir William Johnson 

Fort Johnson Sept 10* 1756 

1 Scarouady. 



528 Sir William Johnson Papers 

TO THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 

L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson 15 Sept r . 1756. 
My Lord 

Yesterday I was honoured with your Lordships of the 10. 
Inst. 2 

If the last Intelligence from the Stockbridge Indian is realy 
to be depended on, and, so considerable a part of the Enemys 
forces are marched from Ticonderoga, and that Jacob recon- 
noitered, and did not discover them between that Post and Fort 
Will™. Heny., I am rather inclined to beleive, they are moving 
towards Fort Edward or that way, than towards this part of 
the Mohawks River. All my Indian Intelligence, and which 
comes from the French Indians to ours, conspires in fixing the 
present Designs of the Enemy towards Fort William Henery, 
and that Route; the Indians in General are quite positive, that 
a very formidable Attack is impending that Way. The two 
Mohawk Castles who remain stedfast and determined to share 
our Fate be it what it will, and the ablest Persons amongst them, 
are so fully persuaded, that the French are on the point of 
making a grand Attack upon one or other of the said Forts that 
they speak of it to me with great Concern, and Anxiety, and 
say their Fate as well as ours depends upon the Issue, and that 
they fear, we shall not have Men enough to stand against them, 
and that we ought on this important Occasion, to draw all our 
people from the adjacent Country together, not only to oppose, 
but to surround and cut off their Retreat. Such are the Senti- 
ments of our most faithful and experienced Indians, and such 
as they are My Lord, I thought it my Duty to communicate 
them to your Lordship. 

Thus far I beg leave to lay my Sentiments before your Lord- 
ship; that I imagine the French will very speedily, with their 
whole force make an Attack upon Fort William Henry, or 
upon Fort Edward; That they will employ on this Design a 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 

2 See The Papers of Sir William Johnson, 2:557. 



Seven Years' War 529 

large Body of Troops, and a very considerable Number of 
Indians, and I am Suspicious the provincial Troops at our two 
Forts will not be an equal Match for the Enemy, and that they 
will take Measures to distress our marching a Relief in time to 
them, if that Relief is to be put in Motion after the Enemy have 
invested one or both those Forts. 

Inclosed I transmit your Lordship the Intelligence I have just 
received from Moses, a brave and faithful Mohawk, who left 
Ticonderoga 1 1 . Days ago. Two Days ago, I sent out a Party 
of 23. Indians Chiefly Mohawks, 18 of which are to go to 
Canada a Scalping, and take the Road by Fort Edward, the 
other 5 are to take their Route by way of Lake George. 

If they make any important Discoveries of the Enemys 
Motions, they are to dispatch Messengers to Fort William Henry 
and Fort Edward. Yesterday I also sent off 4 white Men, and 
2 Indians across the Country to Ticonderoga, who are likewise 
upon making any Discoveries, to carry the Account to Fort 
William Henry. 

I expect another Scalping Party of Oneidas, Tuscaroras, 
Senecas and Delewares, will set off for Canada in a Day or 
two. 

I do not know any other Route Mr. Webb can or will take 
to make his Retreat in case of Necessity but down this River. 

I am glad Your Lordship will order the Indian Presents to 
be sent me immediately as I am now quite out of most Articles, 
necessary for present Service. 

Your Lordship may be assured I will without any Delay 
transmit any Intelligance I may receive to Gen Webb, which 
may concern his Command. 

I have the Honour to 
be My Lord 
Your Lordships 
Most Obedient 

& Most Humble Servt. 
indorsed: W m . Johnson 

Sir William Johnson 
Fort Johnson Sept 15 l 1756 



530 Sir William Johnson Papers 

TO THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 
L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson 17. Sept r . 1756 
My Lord 

Your Lordships most esteemed favour of yesterday came this 
Morning to my hands, and immediately upon the Receipt of it 
I sent for the head Sachems of the Mohawk Castle, with old 
Abraham, the great Hendricks Brother, head Sachem of the 
Canajoharee Castle who was on his Way home; on their arrival 
I informed them in General of the Measures your Lordship was 
taking to oppose the Enemy towards Lake George, at which 
they expressed their satisfaction. I then summoned jointly with 
them all the Indians who are at my house and made the same 
known to them, and that I should immediately send an Express 
with a Belt of Wampum thro the upper Nations, and an other 
Belt to the Aughguaga and Southern Indians, to summon them 
to come without Delay, and join His Majesty's Arms, according 
to the promise and Engagements made me at the late Meeting 
at Onondaga. At the same time I told them, that I proposed 
to march myself thro' the Woods to Fort Edward, as soon as I 
could get a Party of Indians together, and that all the Rest 
should join me there as fast as they could come; I proposed to 
the Party of the Six Nations who were designed to go out a 
Scalping to Canada, and which I mentioned in my last to your 
Lordship, to set off for Albany under the Care and Direction of 
Capt Wraxall, in order to attend your Lordship in your March 
up to Fort Edward, and that I should send an Express after the 
Mohawk Party who marcht the 1 4 Inst : upon a Scalping Design 
to Canada, to go to Fort Edward and from thence upon the 
Scout for Intelligence, and to make that Fort their Rendezvous 
till your Lordships further Orders. All which was approved 
of by the whole Meeting, and the Party for Albany said they 
would be ready to march to morrow, and I expect will be with 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Seven Years War 531 

your Lordship the Day after. Upon this Occasion I must beg 
Leave to put your Lordship in Mind of the prevailing Love of 
spiritous Liquors which obtains universally amongst the Indians, 
that where it is to be had, they will try every Art and Method 
to get it, that though sober they are a manageable people, they, 
are perfect Brutes when drunk, and incapable of all service, I 
must therefore entreat your Lordship will issue the strictest Orders 
when the Indians shall Join the Army, that no person whatsoever 
presume to sell or give them any Rum upon such pains and 
penalties as to your Lordship will seem meet. And as to the 
Party in Particular which I am sending to Albany to attend 
your Lordship I must beg you will give public orders to the 
Troops, and in particular to take such authoritive Measures 
with the Town people, as will appear most effectual to prevent 
the Indians being debauched by Rum, Your Lordships Orders 
herein published by the public Cryer may probably have the 
best effect on the Townpeople, who have been accustomed to 
buy their Arms or Cloathing for Rum when the Indians had 
not money to pay for it. 

Unless the Indians are kept sober, this party which may be 
usefull to your Lordship will turn out a plague and perplexity to 
you. Mr. Wraxall will receive all your Lordships Orders, and 
take Care to see them put into Execution relative to the Indians 
who are to attend your Lordship under his Care, and he will 
also acquaint your Lordship, with everything necessary for you 
to know from them, and apply to you on their Behalf when 
needfull. 

The Indians My Lord are a people extreamly fond of show 
and Parade, and as the humouring them a little in this particular 
at the present will have a good Effect, I make no Doubt but 
your Lordship will condescend to show yourself to Mr. Wraxalls 
Party on their Arrival at Albany, and if you please to give them 
a glass of Wine round to drink your Lordships health upon this 
their first Interview, and Capt Wraxall will halt the party before 
he comes in Town, and wait on your Lordship to know your 
Pleasure concerning them. These Matters are points of some 



532 Sir IVilliam Johnson Papers 

Consequence with the Indians, and therefore I hope your Lord- 
ship will excuse my troubling you with them. 

I yesterday sent Orders to the several Officers of the Militia 
of this part of the Country to keep constant Scouts out on the 
North side of this River, from the German Flatts to within a few 
Miles of Schonactady and that the Towns of Schonactady and 
Albany should likewise keep a constant scout out from thence; 
If from the Newengland Blockhouse N°: 4 and from Fort 
Dummer they will keep Out scouts with the Indians now on 
Service, the whole Country will be so covered on every side, that 
if the Duty be faithfuly done, we must have Notice from every 
part of the Approach of any considerable Body of the Enemy. 
I am in the utmost Distress for necessaries to fitt out the Indians 
with, and therefore I beg your Lordship will give Orders if not 
allready done, to have the Goods forwarded by Waggons to 
Schonactady, and in Battoes from thence with all possible speed 
as I can not move before they come. 

I am My Lord 
with the utmost respect 

Your Lordships 
Most Obedient 

& Most Humble Servt. 

W M . Johnson 
To His Excellency 
The Earl of Loudoun 

INDORSED : 

Sir William Johnson 

Fort Johnson Sept 1 7 l 1 756 

FROM THOMAS BUTLER 

A. L. S. 1 

Burnets Field, Sept' 18 th 1756 
Sir 

I am told by some Indians resideing here abouts that there is 
a great meeting of French & Indians at Nigra and Cedaracquee, 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Seven Years' War 533 

but the greatest part Indians and some of these here are of 
opinion they intend for this place and the river. That a 
Messauge is sent from the French Indians to ours desireing them 
to withdraw and not to be in the way when they come. And 
that You have sent word to some of the Six Nations not to meet 
you as he heard they were about to do at ycur house for the 
French with their Indians intended soon to be there, Here is 
an Indian woman who says she was at Oswego dureing the whole 
siege which lasted about foure days and half, in which our 
people behaved well. That they made a salley from the west or 
old Fort upon the French killed many of them and put the rest 
to flight, but unluckily persued them to the woods. Where 
the French took a circle and brought our people where lay a 
large body of Indians who being all fresh attacked our men and 
defeated them killing many & forceing the others to the Fort, 
the enemy came close under the walls in perticular the Aroon- 
dacks and Annogongas amongst whom our people flung granadas 
which killed and wounded several of them She saw Coll Mercer 
after he was killed who she says was shott by a cannon ball. She 
saw another officer a lusty man killed by the fall of a stone from 
Oswego House. Mr. Montgarrett a Lieu 1 : brought in dead 
but not scalped. Coll Schuyler was well but a prisoner. That 
a large French Vesoll came near Oswego upon which the Fort 
fired six shott some of which hitt hir and made hir shear of 
round the eastern point. 

This woman says she is lately from Nigra where she saw six 
Engilish officers prisioners who were taken at Oswego. She says 
there was great confuseon among the Indians at Nigra when she 
left it. Ocationed by a chief Sachem of the Attowawa Nation 
being found dead with his head cutt of and placed on his breast 
and his scalp taken away. The Aroondacks and Annogongas 
indeavourd to proswade the Atawawas that it was done by seme 
of the Mohawks, but they wou'd not belive it saying it was done 
by them the Aroondacks or Annogongas. That some of the 
Attowawas was for giveing up the French hatchett and going 
home. The three Conajohary indians I wrote you of returnd 



534 Sir William Johnson Papers 

from their scout they have been a considerable way on Oswegatia 
road but made no descovery. I was oblidged to borrow a three 
pound three p. Gold of Gen 1 . Webb to pay them. 

Just now rec d : your orders & M r . Abeel to go through the Six 
Nations. To call them down to warr. Lowrance with the Bolt 
is not arived. I expect him not till tomorrow as soon as he 
comes shall set of. and make all the dispatch I can and hope to 
be soon with you. It will depend intirely on the indians rediness 
to come. This must be attened with expence & have no cash 
with me. 

I said nothing to you when I saw you last about my commission, 
but as you told me some time before I should have one with the 
same pay I had the last year. Make my self very well sattisfied 
till I have the Honour of seeing you again. By what I can lern 
here of indians there must very soon be an ingagm 1 . at Lake 
George, and that the French will be very numerious. 

Gen r . Webb sets of from this tomorrow with the regm 1 . for 
Albany &c. 

I am 
Sir 

Your Dutifull Ser*. 

Tho s . Butler. 

from pauly peters et al. 

L. S. 1 

fort hendrik 
September the IS 1756 
Sir 

We have heard from the Scouting Party which has Been out 
from our Castle, that they bring the News from Casses that they 
have Been A talking with the onyde Indians and the onyde 
Indians said that the french was Comming from Yagara And 
the french Said our Indians Should All go out of the way for 
they whould Come down and Distroy the flats and All the 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Seven Years' War 535 

River and the Indians Upon this News they are All gone from 
the flats this Makes Us to Belive the news is true Now Brother 
therefore we Beg You to take Care of us now And if You do 
not take Care of us now we will run all away in the woods for 
the Uper Indians Are All run away Already therefore brother 
Let us have Men Enough to Assist us Because You Say we 
have Men Enough now Brother we Desire You to take Care 
of our fort where Pieter D Schuyler is in We hope you will 
Aquaint the Lord Louden of it that May Assist us with one 
hondred Men or More But not of the Regulars we want of our 
brothers of this Country which is good Men And if we do not 
get them then wee will all Go into the woods out of the way 
therefore wee Send this String of womping Sir 

from Your Beloved fathers 

And Brothers 

old Brand his Marck 

old Niches his Marck 



Pauly Peters 



To Sir willeam Johnson Bernet 



TO JACOB GLEN 

L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson Septbr 19th 1756 
Sir: 

As the enemy are so numerous at Tiondaroga it is probable 
they intend an attack against Fort William Henry or Fort 
Edward, and perhaps to favour their design send a body of their 
Indians this way to prevent our assisting those at the aforesaid 
posts; which they may well do, as their Indians can be of no 
great service to them in making an attack against them forts. 

I would therefore have you by all means keep out good brisk 
scouting parties from Schonactady and Albany as I do, and shall 



1 In collection of John E. Wyman, Fonda, N. Y. 



536 Sir William Johnson Papers 

continue from this part, by which means we shall be able to 
prevent a surprise. 

Issue out orders immediately to the first Battallion that they 
provide themselves with a proper Quantity of ammunition and 
provisions for eight or ten days, also that their arms be in good 
order, and hold themselves in readiness to march at an hours 
warning 

I spoke to Mr. Arent Stevens the Interpreter to get a couple 
of Indians to go with each party and I will pay the Indians. 
Order the scouts to go as far as will take the enemy two or 
three days march here. 

I am Sir 

Your humble Servant 

Wm. Johnson 

To Lieut. Colo Jacob Glen at Schenectady. 



TO THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 

L. S. 1 
Fort Johnson, 1 9th Sep r . 1756 

My Lord 

I received the inclosed letter from Capt Butler 2 this instant, 
which I thought necessary to send your Lordship, as well as that 
from the Conajoharees. I have made the latter Easy with regard 
to their Castle by leting them know your Lordship had ordered 
a Company for them who I did not doubt would be there this 
Day. I also shewed them an Order to one of the Captains of 
the Militia living near to them in Case of need to reinforce them 
with Fifty Men of his Company. This pleased them much. 

The French are I find trying all means to prevent the Six 
Nations Joining our Arms, or Meeting att my House, but I hope 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 

2 Thomas Butler. 



Seven Years' War 537 

they will not be able to succeed so far, notwithstanding what has 
happened. 

I am My Lord 

With the utmost respect 
Your Lordships 
Most Obedient 

& Most Humble servant 

W M . Johnson 
His Excellency 

The Right Honourable 

The Earl of Loudoun 

INDORSED: 

Sir William Johnson 

Fort Johnson, Septr. 1 9th, 1 756. 

With Captn Butlers letter and one from 

the Indians with Intelligence 



TO THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 

L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson 20 lh Sept* 1756 
My Lord 

This Morning I was honoured with Your Lordships of 
Yesterday. 

When Mr. Croghan left this, I did not know his design of 
making Your Lordship a proposal of raising Recruits, I thought 
he went about his own private Affairs, otherwise I shoud have 
done myself the Honour of writing to Your Lordship by Him. 
I have often heard him say he could Raise Four or Five hundred 
good Woodmen in Pensilvania Government sooner than any 
Man, as he was well acquainted, and known to all the Men who 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



538 Sir William Johnson Papers 

used to drive pack Horses for the Indian Traders in that province 
(of whom he was the Chief) who now have no Employ that 
way. Capt. Wraxall can I believe give Your Lordship his 
Character better than I can, He having known him and heard 
of him in that Government. I believe Him an Honest Man, but 
a little indiscreet. 

On Your Lordships Consenting I should Employ Him in 
Indian Affairs, I told him he should have Two Hundred a Year, 
for acting as Deputy Agent under Me, which He told me He 
was satisfied with, and would Act as such, but if Your Lord- 
ship thinks He can be of any Service in the Recruiting way, 
I can do without Him for a While. 

I am glad Your Lordship has ordered the Division of the 
Goods to be made, and some of them forwarded to me, as I 
want them verry much. If Mr. Croghan has but taken Care 
to send some of every kind, and a sufficient quantity of those 
Articles wanting now to fitt out those Indians who may Join Us, it 
will do If not I shall be obliged to send for what may be want- 
ing. And I hope Your Lordship will lodge an Order with Mr 
Stevenson to deliver them as I may want. 

I have the honour to be 

My Lord 
Your Lordships 

Most Obedient 
& Most Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 

His Excellency 

The Right Honourable 
John Earl of Loudoun 

indorsed: 

Sir William Johnson 

Fort Johnson Sept 20* 1 756 



Seven Years' War 539 

INDIAN INTELLIGENCE 
Contemporary Copy 1 

Fort Johnson 24 SepV. 

1756. p. m. 7 o'clock. 
Present 
Mr. Croghan 
Daniel Claus 
Arent. Stevens Interpr r . 

The following intelligence was sent from Dyaderowane a 
Cayouga Chief, by Asarunguas a Cayouga Warrior who arrived 
this evening in 6. days from Cayouga with several more of that 
Nation, the said Messenger came on horseback for Dispatch, as 
the above mentioned chief was lame and could not come so fast, 
he is to return to morrow morning with a horse and saddle in 
order to meet the above chief, who is on his way here with a 
number of his Nation. 

That while the Deputies (who were sent some time ago by 
the 6. Nations) were in Canada, they saw a great Number of 
Western Indians there who joined the French Army; They 
called them to a meeting and there spoke to them with a Belt 
of Wampum to the following purpose; 

That their joining the French in this war, seemed to them too 
precipitate as they could not know yet how matters might turn 
out, besides the English had never committed the least hostilities 
against them, but always used them like friends, and traded with 
them upon easy terms ; for which reason they could by that Belt 
of Wampum propose to them to desist from their hostile design, 
and return to their respective towns; upon which many of them 
agreed to it, and returned, promising to keep neuter. 

That the French when they saw so many of their Indians leave 
them, and hearing that the Deputies of the 6. Nations were the 
Occasion thereof, they reprimanded them severely for it, and 
desired them no more to meddle with their Indians. 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. ; inclosed in 
Johnson to Loudoun, Sept. 25, 1756. 



540 Sir William Johnson Papers 

That the French told said Deputies, that they now intended 
to attack the English at Lake George towards the latter end of 
this month, and at the same time, they would send out a con- 
siderable body of French and Indians to destroy Sir William 
Johnsons house. That the Deputies saw the French draw all 
their Forces together that day which gave them reason to believe 
what they had told them was true. Wherefore the above men- 
tioned Chief dispatched this messenger as he could not come 
speedy enough himself, to give Sr. William notice and desire 
he would be upon his guard, to prevent a surprize. 

This messenger further said that Hayendisere a Cayouga 
Sachem was at Fort du Quesne 2 months ago, and while there, 
the commanding officer spoke to him and presented him with a 
large War Belt of black Wampum, telling him that by that Belt 
he gave him a very big ax which would kill and destroy every 
thing it touched or came near, and never would fail of success, 
wherefore he should deliver it to his bretheren the 6 Nations that 
they might use it against the English. Upon which the said 
Cayouga Chief, after the French officer threw the belt before him, 
kick't it away from him, saying he should not think to charge him 
with such a message, as that as he would never carry it to the 6 
Nations. 

That at that time the Garrison of Fort du Quesne consisted 
only of 30 French, and there were no more but 7. Twightwees, 
6 Tawas, and 5. Chipways with the French, except the Dela- 
ware and Shawanes Indians who lived there abouts. That the 
rest of the Garrison was sent to Niagara early in the Spring, 
and lately from thence to Canada together with what Indians 
lived about Niagara. 

That not long ago the 6 Nations had sent a message to the 
Delaware Indians living near fort du Quesne, desiring them 
earnestly to desist from committing further hostilities against the 
English; On which the Delawares sent the 6 Nat s : a message 
with 3 strings of Wampum back again acquainting them that 
they were divided in their opinion, and the one half of their 
people accepted their message, when the other half still declared 



Seven Years War 541 

themselves enemies to the English; wherefore they would beg 
of the 6. Nations to use all the means in their power to prevail 
upon the other part to bring them into their measures, otherwise 
they dreaded that this division might breed a civil war amongst 
them; so ended. 

A true copy by me 

Dan Claus. 

Depy. Secry. 

+ Ottawany one of the leadingest men in Cajuga. 
TO THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 

STL* L^lm O. 

Fort Johnson, Septr. 25ih, 1756, 
My Lord 

I this Moment received the inclosed Intelligence from a 
Cajuga Indian who was sent Express with it, by a great freind 
of Mine of the same Nation. I must own I cannot think the 
French will make any considerable attempt this way, notwith- 
standing the many accounts we have that they intend it. I am 
of opinion it is only to keep us at Home here, while they are 
executing their Plan the other Way, by all Accounts their whole 
strength is now bent towards Lake George or ther way. 

I have reason to hope there will come a great Number of the 
Six Nations on my Call from what this Man tells me, the reason 
they give why they did not come down on my first call after 
Oswego was destroyed is this, that they daily expected those 
of their People who were sent to Canada some time ago, & 
When they returned they would be better able to form a Judge- 
ment of what was most necessary to be done and bring me all 
the news they learned in Canada, they are now arrived, & 
Captn. Butler who I sent through all their Nations with a good 
trusty Mohawk and a large Belt of Invitation will I doubt not 
bring down a verry considerable Number of them, but I fear 



In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



542 Sir William Johnson Papers 

it will be too late. I have Cloathed and Armed these two Days 
past near fifty River Indians, and some of the Six Nations who 
happened to be here, and promised to Join our Arms. I think 
to send them to morrow with Mr. Croghan to Join Yr. Lordship. 
I had thoughts of going with the first of those, but I find my 
going before the Indians from Oghguago, &ca arrive (whom I 
expect in four or five Days) would not be att all agreable, but 
a great discouragement, so propose going with them, & the 
Mohawks (who are verry sickly) unless Your Lordship thinks 
proper I sett of before them. I wish Your Lordship all the 
Honour & Success 

Imaginable, and am My Lord 
Your Lordships 
Most Obedient 
& Most Humble Serv*. 

W M . Johnson 
His Excellency 
the Earl of Loudoun. 

indorsed: 

Sir William Johnson 

Fort Johnson, Septr. 25th 1 756. 

with Information from a Cajuga 

Indeon. 

FROM THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 

Albany September 27 th . 1756 

Sir, 

I had the favour of yours 2 last night by M r Claas, with the 
Account of the Cajuga Indians Intelligence; and this night, I 
received your other Account, with Fresh Intelligence; for both 
which, I am very much Oblig'd. to You. 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 

2 Johnson to Loudoun, Sept. 25, 1756. 



Seven Years' War 543 

I am moving forward, to Fort William Henry, most of the 
provincial Troops, to Strengthen that Post; and I have now at 
Fort Edward M. G. Webbs Regiment, and the Highland Regi- 
ment Compleat; and the day after tomorrow, M. G. Aber- 
crombie's Regiment will be there. 

General Abercrombie Commands at Fort Edward now; and 
tomorrow part of the American Regiment, marches for that 
Place; and in two or three days, the Remainder of them, goes 
with me there; As both the Encampments, are fortified, and 
Covered by Forts, with plenty of Cannon; I imagine, they must 
find it a very difficult Affair, to Force us ; and I think if they try 
it; they will repent it. I am very glad to find, you expect so 
many Indians; they will make us certain, of the Enemy's 
Motions; And as their Indians have been so long Collected; I 
imagine many of them will go home again; so that, I hope, 
their Superiority in those Parts, will not be so great in the Field ; 
as it may appear in the Intelligence. I wish You good Success 
at Your Congress; and shall be glad to have all the Intelligence 
You Receive. 

I ever am most faithfully &ca. 

Sir William Johnson Bar 1 . 

INDORSED : 

To Sir William Johnson Bar f . 
Albany 27 th . September 1756. 

TO THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 

L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson 7br. 27th. 1756 
My Lord 

Since I did myself the Honour to write Your Lordship last, 
An Onondaga Indian their Cheif Warrior arrived at my House, 
and gave me the inclosed Acct. which I thought My Duty to 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



544 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Send Your Lordship immediately. & more so, as I belive it may 
be depended upon. 

I am of Opinion The French are Sending all the Force they 
can towards Lake George, and intend to Strike a Blow, which 
may put an end to this Campaign. 

If they attack Fort William Hennery first, it will certainly be 
with the Regulars, and I imagine, the Irregulars, & Indians who 
will be verry numerous, and expert in ye. Woods will be employed 
to Cutt of the Communication between the two Forts, and per- 
haps between Albany & Fort Edward. Your Lordship will 
pardon the freedom I take in Giveing my opinion so freely, 
and believe me My Lord 

with the greatest respect 
Your Lordships 
Most Obedient & 
Most Humble Servt. 

W M - Johnson 
His Excellency 
the Earl of Loudoun 

indorsed: 

Sir William Johnson 

Fort Johnson Sept 27th 1 756 

TO THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 

L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson 7br. 27th 1756 
My Lord 

About an Hour after I sent of the Express to Your Lordship 
with the Onondagaes Intelligence, four Canajohare Indians 
arrived here, and Made a Complaint against the Officer and Men 
Posted at their Castle, which I inclose to Your Lordship together 
with their request. 



In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Seven Years War 545 

They seem so much prejudiced ags f . that Party posted there, 
that I dont know any way of makeing them easy, hut by my 
ordering the Militia Officer there, to recruit as many more of 
the Country People as they may think Sufficient, which if Your 
Lordship approves of, shall be done. It will be some expence, 
but as there may not be Occasion for so Many after We return, 
I think it the best method can be taken, this unlucky Difference 
between them, retards their Joining Us as Soon as otherwise 
they would. On my first hearing there was not a good under- 
standing between them I sent Mr. Croghan there in order to 
Settle it, and Hurry down their Young Men to go with Me, 
which he thought he had done to their Satisfaction, but this 
fresh, & I believe foolish behaviour to them, has altered their 
temper a good deal, however I hope by the Message I am 
going to Send them, to Settle their Minds, but all this time it 
prevents their coming down, and also the Mohawks, as they 
always join on those Occasions. I believe My Lord it would 
be best to withdraw that Company from Canajohare. and, as 
Soon as possible. 

I am my Lord 
Your Lordships 
Most Obedient 

Most Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 

His Excellency 
the Earl of Loudoun 

P. S. notwithstanding all the Care has 
been taken to prevent the Selling 
Rum to Indians, here is as great 
plenty as ever. I am told it was brought 
from Albany by the Squaws who went down 
with that Party of Capt n . Montour. It is 
inconceivable what plague and trouble it 
gives me, Expence to the Crown, & delay to 

18 



546 Sir William Johnson Papers 

the Service Expected of those People. In short 
it is enough to overset everry thing I am about. 

INDORSED : 

Sir William Johnson 

Fort Johnson Sept 27* 1 756 

Indian Intelligence 

COMPLAINT OF THE CANAJOHARIE INDIANS 

Contemporary Copy 1 

Fort Johnson Sep 1 . 27 ih . 1756 

This Day Came hear four Indians from Conjohare with the 
following Complaint from the Sechems of that Castle 

Brother Waraughiacgae 

We Return you thanks for the Cair you tuck of our first 
Complaint to you, of the Differance then a Riseing between us, 
and our Brethern the Soldiers, that is Lately Come to Live with 
us, in Sending A Mesinger up as Soon as you hard itt and Indeed 
we was in hopes that Every thing was Setled then to boath our 
Satisfaction, Butt Scence that our Brethrens Beheavor has been 
So Towards us that we are oblidge d . to truble you with this 
further Complaint 

Brother 

one of our Men Name d . Poulous has airways Live d . in this 
fort and in his house he had a Cagg of Rum, and one Day as 
S d . Poulous hapen d . to be A broad the Commanding offiser 
Came to his house and Tuck S d . Cagg Rum away to his own 
Apartment and order d . the Centrey To Suffer No Indian to 
Come into the fort for itt, that if any Indian A Tempted to 
Come in, to Shute him, for itt was the Kings fort, and No 
Indian Should Come into itt 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. ; inclosed in 
Johnson to Loudoun, Sept. 27, 1756. 



Seven Years' War 547 

Then y e . offiser hapen d . to Take A Walk in the filds and while 
he was out Poulous Came home and Missing his Cagg of Rum 
Inquier d . what was become of itt but Could Not hear So going 
to y e . offisers home he there See his Cagg and Tuck itt home 
with him the offiser Coming in Miss d . the Cagg and asked the 
Centery what was become of itt y e . Centrey answerd that y e . 
Indian to whome itt belong d . had Taken itt home on which y e . 
offiser Said itt Cant be So Did Nott I order you to Shute any 
Indian that Should Come for itt and I See No Indian you have 
Shott on which he ordred the Centreys to be Confin d . one of 
them he Scence whiept Sevearly y e . other Remains in Confine- 
ment and we are Afread he will be Shott 

He tells us that his Captian will Soon be up and when he Comes 
you will See that he wont Suffer one Indian to Enter y e . fort as 
itt is A kings Garrison and Nott belonging to y e . Indians 

And when we Complain d . to him of his Soldiers Stailing our 
Corn which our Weomen wear A Drying for our Winter Pro- 
visions and the Damidge his fatt Catle had Don us airways 
Runing and Pastureing in our Corn filds and Desiering he wold 
Consider and Make us Some Recompence as y e . Damidge we 
had Sustain d . wold Distress us Very Much, and Leave us in A 
Starveing Condition unless our Brother Waraughiacgae wold 
pity us & Suply us with Provisions in the Winter, his answer 
was that he had No orders for that Nor wold he pay us any 
thing 

Brother 

When we Received this Answer we Tould him we Wold 
Complain to you and Did Nott Doubt butt you would See 
Justuss Done us, he tould us he was Very Indifferent A bout 
that, we Might Complain if we plese d . for you had Nothing 
to Do with itt. that the fort was the kings, and the king was his 
Master that you had Nothing to Do in itt Now Brother he 
has Slept hear as we May Say butt one Night and we are 
Affread if he Sleepss hear A Scecond Night we Shall be all 
Distroy d . So Brother we Desier you will order those Soldiers 



548 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A way and order A Number of the Country pople Such as we 
are Aquainted with to garrison this Fort 

Brother 

We have Considered your Mesedge to us where you tould 
us you wold Sett of in three or four Days, and we are of 
opinion that you Should Nott Sett of till y e . Six Nations Comes 
Down which we Expect will be in four or five Days att farthest 
by which Time We hope the Differance Subsisting hear between 
us and our Brethern will be Made up by you and then we will 
go Down with y c . Six Nations and Joyne you 

Taken by Me 

Geo: Croghan 

Dep«y. Agent 
for Indian Affairs 



INDIAN INTELLIGENCE 
A. D. 1 



[Sept. 1756] 



The Information of a Party 

of Indians who brought in Two 
French Scalps. 

That they killed the Two French Men between the Enemys 
advanced Post & the first Fort, w ch is at the hither end of the 
Carrying Place. They say the advanced Post is entrencht round 
& about 200 yeards distance from the first Fort. 

That the Fort at the farther end of the Carrying Place is 
about two English Miles distant from the hither Fort; they think 
there were upwards of 100. Battaux at the hither end of the 
Carrying Place, and they saw about 20 Men caulking & mend- 
ing them, but there were no Casks or Provisions on the Shoar, 
they dont therefore imagine propose any sudden Embarkation. 

That Tionderogo is about Two Miles from the Carrying 
Place but they could not come near enough to discover what 
Numbers were there or any Motions of the Enemy. 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Seven Years War 549 

They think there were as many Men at both Ends of the 
Carrying place at the advanced Post as there are at Fort Edward 
& Fort W m . Henry. They saw no Waggons at the advanced 
Post nor any where about the Carrying-place. 

They think there are a great many Indians at the Carrying 
Place by the noise they made after the Two Men were Scalped. 

They were pursued by near 50 Indians for about a Quarter 
of a Mile & no further. 

That they Scouted quite round Tionderogo & the Advanced 
Party & could discover no Tracks neither on the East or west 
side further than at about Two Miles distance from the enemy s 
Encampment & therefore are of Opinion that they send out no 
Scouts at any further distance. 

INDORSED : 

Indian Information concern^, 
the Enemy at Advanced Posts & 
Tionderoga. 

TO THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 

L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson October /, 1756. 
My Lord: 

The Report which was brought here of the Enemys marching 
this way, came I find by two Mohawk Indians of Cap 1 . Wrax- 
alls Party from Saraghtoga. By whom He wrote Me, that a 
scout which had been out on the West Side of Lake George, had 
discovered the Tracks of a considerable Body of the Enemy 
moveing this way, but that another Party was sent out to 
reconoitre the same who returned without makeing any Discovery, 
so that they were of opinion, there was nothing in it. However 
the Indians who were with Him hearing the News, and ever 
over anxious of their Peoples safety sent away two Indians with 
the news to their Castle. Which alarmed them, and the country 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



550 Sir William Johnson Papers 

People in these Parts so much, that they were very uneasy and 
not thinking Capt n Gates Company who are Posted in the Fort 
any protection to their Castle, which is separate from the Fort. 
I sent Orders yesterday to Scohare for two officers With Sixty 
Men of the Militia there to come directly, and take Post in 
their Town for a few Days untill their apprehensions of Danger 
were over. I have also ordered fifty Men of the Militia liveing 
around Conajohare Castle to reinforce those already there in 
case of Need, this disposition has given them both great satis- 
faction. 

I have the Militia in those parts all in readiness to move at a 
Moments Notice should the Enemy make a Desent this way. 
I have kept Partys of the Militia scouting ever since the Regi- 
ment moved from the German Flatts, and intend to have that 
service constantly kept on, untill it may be found unnecessary. 
I have ordered the Militia of Schenectady to do the same, by 
w h . means I hope we shall be able to prevent their stealing a 
March upon us. I propose sending up an Interpreter this Day 
to Conajohare, in order to settle Matters with regard to that 
Company. I sent Mr. Croghan and Capt. n Funda one of the 
Indians officers two officers two Days ago from here with a Party 
of near Eighty Men Consisting of near fifty Delawares, the rest 
Six Nations, and five Rangers. He is to March with them 
directly to Fort Edward through the Woods from Schenectady, 
there join the Rest, and receive Major Genr 1 . Abercrombies 
Commands. I impatiently wait the arrival of the Six Nations, 
& Oghguagoes, I have sent four severall Expresses to hurry them 
down, but I imagine that the Sachims, Who are comeing on my 
call from the German Flatts to a council proposed to be held here 
(as I informed Your Lordship of at the time) and those who 
are Just arrived from Canada may detain them something, as 
yet they have lost no time considering the great Distance, as 
soon as they arrive, and are fitted out with what is necessary for 
their March, I shall sett out, and make all the Expedition pos- 
sible to Join Your Lordship, but should Your Lordship think 



Seven Years War 551 

it necessary that I sett of with what Mohawks, and others I can 

Muster, before the Six Nations arrive, & are ready. 

I will loose no time. — 

I have the Honour 
to be My Lord 
Your Lordships 
Most obedient 
Most Faithfull 
Humble Servant, 

W M . Johnson 

His Excellency 

the Earl of Loudoun. 

INDORSED : 

Sir William Johnson, 

Fort Johnson, Ocf 1 st, 1 756. 

TO THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 

L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson, October 2d J 756. 
My Lord 

I am this moment honoured with Your Lordships of yesterday, 
inclosing one from Sr Charles Hardy with a Resolve of his 
Assembly, to allow one shilling & three pence Currc^ p Day for 
Each Man of the Militia who may be at any time in actual 
Service in aid of the Forces on the Northern Frontiers of this 
Colony, also a Reasonable Allowance for the Officers for the 
time they shall be in the said service. 

Since mine of Yesterday to Y r Lordship Nothing has Occurred 
worthy Your Lordships Notice, when ever any thing does, I 
shall imediately acquaint Your Lordship with it. 

I beg leave to trouble your Lordship for an order for some 
small Match, and a few round of grape shott for some swivels I 



In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



552 Sir William Johnson Papers 

have here. I hope Your Lordship will excuse the liberty I take. 

I wish your Lordship a pleasant 
March, and all Success Imaginable. 

I am My Lord 
with the greates respect 

Your Lordships 
Most obedient 
& Most Humble Serv 1 . 

W M . Johnson 
His Excellency 
the Rig 1 . Honble. 
the Earl of Loudoun. 

INDORSED : 

Sir Willeam Johnson, 
Fort Johnson Oct 2 d 1 756 
want Matches and Grape for 
Swivels. 

FROM THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 1 

Fori Edward Oct/ 10 th . 1756 

Sir 

Cap 1 Wraxal has Just showed me your letter of the 8 th I 
meant by my former letters to have aquanted you that I was to 
have Sett out from Albany last Monday but I did not get away 
till Tuesday I lay that night at Saratoga and dined hear next 
day where I have been ever since and in a day or two propose 
going to Fort William Henry By the Information of L l 
Kennedys Prisoneer and a Sargeant of Rogers ranging Company 
who was taken Prisoner in April last and who made his Escape 



1 John Campbell, Earl of Loudoun, 1705-1782; colonial governor 
of Virginia; commander in chief of the British forces in America, 1 756- 
1757. 

2 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Seven Years' IV ar 553 

from Montreal along with the dutch man that was taken near 
Schenectady they have there whole Regular Force at Ticon- 
deroga with all the men they can raise in Canada they likewise 
say that Moss Vilue 1 who Commands the Canadeans is Col- 
lecting 600 Men of those Sent to endeavour to cutt off our Con- 
voyes below this but we do not hitherto find that any consider- 
able partes of Men have marched tho we have constant Scouting 
partys out to all border 

The Indeans that came with Cap* Wraxal are greatly 
demineshed M r Croghan lives constan [t] ly with those that came 
with him the provincial troopes on the Island made them drunk 
two days ago and so got there Venneson from them but I 
believe that is over and they will not trie it again I shall trie 
to do the Same at Fort William Henry, but when I return from 
there I will not be Possitive that my orders will be So well 
abayed as where I am Present but I shall spair no pains to save 
this pernitious Custom of Making the Indeans drunk and then 
robing them 

I am hear with three Batalion of the Regular Troops the 
new york regt and most of the New Hampshire Men and I 
have an other Battalion at Saratoga the Fort is not Finished 
but the Cannon are mounted and I hope to have all done that 
is necessary hear before winter 

In this Situation with all the other Provincials at Fort William 
Henry and Continual Scouting Partyes out I should imagine 
the Enemy will consider very Seriously before they sett out to 
attack us in Fortified Camps under the Guns of Forts 

They may trie to cut of our Convoys of Provisions but that 
will be a bold Stroak and they may find difficulty in getting home 
Again a band of Indians would be very uesful on that Occasion 
both for Intelligence and picking up there Straglers but it is So 
Matterial a Point to keep the Six Nations right at present that 
it does not occure to me that it would be right for you to leave 
them as long as you have any hopes of there comming here 



Spelling uncertain. 



554 Sir William Johnson Papers 

you who know them better than I do must in this case Judge for 
yourself I ever am most faithfully 

Sir 
Your most Obedient 
humble Servant 

Loudoun 
addressed: 
To 

Sir William Johnson Bar 
INDORSED: 1 

Fort Edward Octob'. 10 th . 1756 



Lord Loudouns Letter 



RECEIPT OF FERRALL WADE 

D. S. 2 

Fort Johnson Octb r . 31 th . 1756 

Then Rec d . of Mr. Daniel Ware Asst. Commissary 40 Bar- 
rels of Pork 5 tierces of D°. 7 Barrels of rum & 30 bags of pease 
for the Use of the Indians As Witness My Hand. 

Ferrall Wade 

requisition for indian provisions 

D. S. 3 

The following Articles & Quantity still Wanting Viz 1 . 
20 Tierces of bread 
20 Casks of flour 
100 Bushels of Indian Corn 
6 Barrels of Rum 

W M . Johnson 



1 In Johnson's hand. 

2 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 

3 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. ; inclosed with 

Ferrall Wade's receipt. 



Seven Years' War 555 

INDORSED: 

Sir William Johnson 

Return of provisions Received 

in his letter of Novr 20 f 

TO THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 
L. S. 1 

Albany Novbrs 14th. 1756. 
My Lord 

Some of the Indian officers to whom your Lordship has been 
pleased to give Commissions bearing Date the 29th of October 
last, were by Orders from Genrl. Shirley put into the service & 
have continued in it in the Rank they now bear prior to the 
Dates of your Lordships Commissions to them. The exact Dates 
of their past services I cannot now give to your Lordship as I 
have not those papers with me. I would beg to have your 
Lordships orders w th . regard to paying the said Officers for their 
time of service prior to the Date of Y r Lordships Commissions 
to them. 

I am most respectfully 

My Lord 
Your Lordships 
Most obedient, Humble Serv f . 

W M . Johnson 
His Excellency 
the Rig 1 . Honr b,e . the Earl of Loudoun. 

indorsed : 

Sir William Johnson 
Albany, Novr. 13th 1756 
Relation to the Indian Officers 
being imployed long before 
the dates of these commissions. 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



556 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM JEAN BAPTISTE DE COUAGNE 
L. S. 1 

Le 1 5 nouanbre 1756 
Monsieur 

Vous nous auee ReCommandee Si au Caque ille Suruenai 
queille que nouelle de vous anvoiee vn Souage, ille les ariue Cette 
nuite deux Coliez de la par des francois le premie averti les Six 
nation que ille venai vne arme du Cote de fille la delfi qui disai 
que ille allai Ce Batre Contre les fransais Et quille pasai par 
Ces village Et qui ne Conaisai poin de frere ni ami, voilla le 
premie ille averti toute les Six nation Comme ille leu[r] a promi 
le Cegon vien de la par de m Gontiere qui auerti les Six nation 
de naitre poin Surpri que Si ille andandes dire que les fransais 
veunan Ce Batre alan Toure des village putaitre au portage 
putaitre Chez arque mane a la maison piere Et que Si ille 
Lantandais le Cou de fusi de naitre poin Curieux poure allee 
voire parCe que Si ille Gagnais la vitoire ille Cerai Bien faChez 
Si ille voiais de Ces anfan, de Tuee mais ille panCerai que Ce 
Cerai des Jean qui Cerai Mariez par la ille priee bien les famme 
de ConSeille de prandre Bien garde a Cela vne autre novelle 
que ille laitais parti deux Souage de niagara qui Etai veunu 
poure nous tue la forge Et moy ille ne mon point Troue on 
Blese aBelle dun Cou de pistolais quille reSu dedans le Cotai 
ille Bien mallade on donne vn Coudefusi de dans la mais de 
son negre les gen de Siniquise nous on fai dire de restee isite Jeus- 
que le Chef Soit arive les nontaigais an voiee les Colie Chez les 
anoiote Et les de mande de venire isite poure parle tout anSanble, 
ille Sont presque Tous alez a moreaelle les nontagais les 
Gouiogoin les onoiote 

faite au nontagais 

De Couagne 

nous auon promi au Souage que vous lui donnere quatre Couerte 
de drap mais ille Espere auoire davantage nous lui auon di 
que vous Ceriee le maitre 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Seven Years War 557 

TRANSLATION 

The 15lh of November 1756 
Sir 

You have recommended to us that in case any news should 
arrive we should send you an Indian. This evening there came 
two belts sent by the French. The first informed the Six Nations 
that a force came from the direction of Philadelphia which said 
that they were going to fight against the French, that they were 
going to pass through this village, and that they would recognize 
neither brother nor friend. So much for the first belt. They 
warned the Six Nations as they had promised they would do. 
The second comes from Mr. Gontiere who warns the Six Nations 
not to be surprised if they hear it said that the French came to 
fight around the village, perhaps at the portage, perhaps at the 
stone house of Arquemane, and that if they heard gun shots not 
to be curious to go and investigate for if they should win the 
victory he would be very sorry if he saw any of his children 
killed. But they should think that a wedding was going on 
there. He begged the women of the council to be very careful 
in the matter. Another bit of news is that two Indians had 
come from Niagara to kill La Forge and me. They did not 
find me but wounded Abelle in the side with a pistol shot. He 
is very sick. They fired a shot in the house [?] of his negro. 
The people of Siniquise sent us word to remain here until the 
chief arrives. The Nontaigais sent the belts to the Anoiotes and 
asked them to come here in order that they might all confer 
together. Nearly all of them have gone to Montreal. The 
Nontagais, the Gouiogoins, and the Onoiotes. 

done at the Nontagais 

the 15th of November 1756 

De Couagne 

we have promised the Indian that you would give him four 
blankets, but he hopes to receive more. We told him that you 
were the person to decide. 



558 Sir William Johnson Papers 

TO THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 
L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson 20. Nov, 1756. 
My Lord 

Just now two Onondaga Indians sent express from that Castle, 
brought me the inclosed Letter from Mr. De Couagne, who with 
an other Frenchman and one Abeel of Albany went up, some 
time ago to trade with The Seneca Indians. These Indians 
bring me the following Intelligence. 

That Jean Ceur the French Interpreter, who is at the farthest 
Seneca Castle has sent Belts and Strings of Wampum to Onon- 
daga to advise the Six Nations to keep very near their Castles, 
and not go above a Days hunt from home, as Danger hangs over 
their heads — next that a considerable Army with a great Num- 
ber of the Southern Indians are speedily to march against the 
French, that they are to pass thro the Country of the Six Nations, 
and will regard neither Friend nor Foe but tread all under their 
Feet — lastly that the Six Nations must not be surprized if 
they hear firing of Guns at the German Flatts, and advises them 
not to come and interpose lest some of them might be killed. 

The Onondaga Indians have hereupon summoned a Meeting 
of the upper Nations immediately at Onondaga. I shall talk 
to the Indians now here, and endeavour to convince them of the 
Falsehood of these Alarms with which the French endeavour to 
disturb them and try to convince Us and the Southern Indians, 
and to prevent them by these false Alarms from acting as our 
Friends and Allies. 

I am most respectfully 
My Lord 

Your Lordships, 

Most Obedient humble 
Servant 
To His Excellency W M . JOHNSON 

The Earl of Loudoun. 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



Seven Years' War 559 



INDORSED : 

Sir William Johnson, 

Fort Johnson Novr 20th 1 756. 

An Account of the alarm the French 

have sent through the Six Nations. 



TO THE EARL OF LOUDOUN 
L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson 22 d . Nov. 1756 
My Lord 

I have the honour to inclose Your Lordship, the Information 
of Two Prisoners of ours who made their escape from Canada & 
arrived at my house Yesterday, and this Letter I send by Them. 

I found the Indians Assembled here had not a sufficient 
number of their Chiefs & leading Men amongst them to give 
me a determinate Answer upon the Speech I showed to Your 
Lordship. They were embarrassed, tho they did make me a sort 
of Answer but not a satisfactory one; so I advised them to 
call a general Council of their whole Confederacy at Onondaga 
as soon as possible, and there deliberate upon the Subjects I had 
laid before them, and let me know without Delay the positive 
Determinations of the Six Nations. They eagerly embraced 
this Expedient and have promised to act accordingly. 

I beg leave to put Your Lordship in mind of Issuing some 
Proclamation or Publication, to prohibit any. set of People, or 
Person from holding Meetings with the Indians, or interfering in 
the Management of Indian Affairs without having proper Author- 
ity for so doing. I humbly conceive some such notification may 
prevent many prejudicial Irregularities in this Department of His 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



560 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Majestys Service, and as it was Your Lordships Opinion, I take 
the Liberty to remind you of it. 

I have the honour to be with 
the highest Esteem 

My Lord Your Lordships 

Most Obedient & faithful Servant 

W M . Johnson 
To His Excellency 
The Earl of Loudoun 

&ca. &ca. 

indorsed: 

Sir William Johnson 

Fort Johnson Nov r 22 d 1756 

INDIAN PROCEEDINGS 
Copy 1 

Fort Johnson 23 Nov r . 1756. 

As M r . Atkhr was now present Sir William thought it proper 
for the Six Nations to explain themselves in a particular manner, 
What Nations of Indians to the Southward were their Allies & 
Confederates in order to prevent future Doubts or Confusion, 
and having applied to them. They gave the following Answer. 

Brother Warraghyjagey 

As you told us you did not rightly understand what was 
said the other Day at the Public Meeting regarding the 
Southern Indians. We are come to tell you who we look 
upon as our friends & Dependants. 
1 . The Toaterighroenes or Sapones belong to us some of 
whom are living amongst us. the rest we sent for to come 



1 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada. Indian Records, 
Vol. 4. This record is part of the Indian proceedings, but omitted from 
the account printed in Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:232-44. 

2 Edmund Atkin, superintendent of Indian affairs in the southern 
colonies. , 



Seven Years' War 561 

& settle with their Bretheren amongst us, but we heard 
they were in Debt to the English who told them to hunt 
first & pay their Debts then they might go. 

2. There are two Castles of the Tuscarores belonging also 
to us they are pretty numerous in North Carolina 

3. The Cattawbas are also our Bretheren 

4. The Chararoones very numerous 

5. The Seven Towns of the Cherokees living on the North 
side of the Mountains are also our Friends — the lowest 
three Towns are in the French Interest — they live about 
half a days running distance from the lowest of the Seven 
Towns of the Cherokees who are in our Interest 

6. The Chactarighroewes are very numerous and our Friends 
as are the Creeks 

7. The Erickroones are very numerous & are our old Friends 

8. The Chickasaws are our firm Friends 

MEMORANDUM OF INDIAN GOODS 

A. D. 1 
Memorandum of Sundry Articles necessary for the Indians 

Blew Strowds with white Cord 

Black D°. 

Red D°. 

Aurora 

Garterings & Gimps Suitable 

Blankets of different Sizes, Kersey Whale 

Walsh Cottons 

Yellow half thicks, or plads 

Purple Colour Rateen yard Wide or thereabouts 

Common Indian Blankets of 20-24- & 30 in a peice 



x In Public Record Office, W.O. 34, vol. 39, London, England. 
Evidently prepared by Johnson in November, 1 756. See The Papers of 
Sir William Johnson, 2:898-900 for a similar list prepared probably in 
November, 1 756. 



562 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Red Striped D°. q'y. 15 in a peice 

Yard Wide Garlix 

34 Do. 

White & Coloured threads 

Women & Childrens yarn Hoose different Colours & Clocks 

D os Worsted Hoose Clock 1 — Scarlet, deep blew & green 

Castor Hatts different Sizes laced w th broad Scalloped, & 
some plain Cheap lace. 

100 blew Cloath Coats with red lineing, & mettall Buttons, 
laced well with Cheap lace. 

2 Dozen of Jacks, or small Colours for the Indians 

10 Dozen of hair Cocades large 

Guns, & Pistolls made by Wilson, or any other good Maker 
to Sample but more Substantial 

Cutlashes 

Knives 

Axes to pattern 

Pipe Hatchets also to pattern & Neat 

Indian awl blades 

Brass Wyre of different Sizes, none verry Small 

Good Gun powder 

Small bar lead 

Shott both Duck, & Goose 

Good flints 

Spears or Launcets to pattern 

1 00 neat brass Gorgets Gilt w ,h . y e . Kings Arms 

Vermillion 

Verdigrace whole, or in lumps 

Small Jews Harps of brass 

Buckleing Combs 

Small Scizars 

Needles 

Hawks Bells different Sizes 

Ribbonds of different kinds 

Looking glasses of different kinds 

Pipes for Smoaking 



Seven Years War 563 

Common Razors 

Tinsell lace, Broad, & Narrow, White, & Yellow 

Some Broad Scalloped Gold & Silver lace 

Coarse flowered Lawn 

Striped Muslin 

Calicoes 

Calimancoes 

Yard wide Checks w ,h . red Stripes 

White small Beeds 

Common Steels to Strike fire with 

INDORSED: 1 

A List of Goods prop[osed] 
for the Six Nations 

PROPOSED DIVISION OF PRESENTS FOR INDIANS 

IN oo I?] I756[?]] 

24 Pes. Strowds for the Northern, & 1 2 Do. for the Southrn Ind s . 

1 6 Do. flowerd Serge for Do. & 8 Do. for Do. 

30 Do. Duffils for Do. & 15 Do. for. . . '. Do. 

100 Brass Kittles for Do. & 50 Do. for Do. 

38 Doz. Stockings for Do. & 19 Do. for Do. 

40 Groce Gartering . ... for Do. & 20 Do. for Do. 

160 Doz. Knives for Do. & 80 Do. for Do. 

8 Do. Jews Harps .... for Do. & 4 Do. for Do. 

1 1 8 Pipe Hatchets .... for Do. & 6 Doz Helved for . . Do. 

4 Doz. Worn 5 . Scissars for Do. & 2 Do. for Do. 

4 Do. Tobacco Boxes for Do. & 2 Do. for Do. 

4 Do. Gun Hammers . . for Do. & 2 Do. for Do. 

40 Stilliards for Do. & 20 Do. for Do. 

16 Doz. Rings for Do. & 8 Do. for Do. 

1 2 Doz. Combs for Do. & 6 Do. for Do. 



1 In Johnson's hand. 

2 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



564 Sir William Johnson Papers 

64 Looking Glasses ... .for Do. & 32 Do. for Do. 

30 Doz. Shirts for Do. & 15 Do. for Do. 

168 Halts for Do. & 84 Do. for Do. 

1 24 Groce Pipes for Do. & 62 Do. for Do. 

100 w Virmillion for Do. & 50 w - Do. for Do. 

40 Oz other Colours . . for Do. & 20 oz. Do. for Do. 

667 w Tobacco for Do. & 333 w Do. for Do. 

14 O. Lead in bars. . .for Do. & 6 O. Do. for Do. 

2 thirds of the Bullets for Do. & 1 third for Do. 

267 Guns for Do. & 233 Do. for Do. 

8 M Gun Flints for Do. & 4 M Do for Do. 

2 thirds of the Powder for Do. & 1 third for Do. 

INDORSED : 

S r . William Johnson's 
proposed Division of the 
Presents for Indians. 

FROM WILLIAM DENNY 
Contemporary Copy 1 

Philadelphia 6 th : December J 756. 
Copy 

Sir 

I now set down to acknowlege your obliging favour of the 
8 th . September and to acquaint you that I have to my great 
Mortification been obliged to go to one of the Frontier Counties 
and there hold Conferences with the Delaware Chief Teedy- 
uscung, which I wou'd have been very glad to have been excused 
from, especially after receiving from Lord Loudon a Letter, 
informing me of his Majesties Appointment of you to be sole 
Agent of Indian Affairs in this part of North America, and 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. ; inclosed in 
Johnson to the Earl of Loudoun, Dec. 23, 1 756. 



Seven Years' War 565 

prohibiting me on that account from all further Treaty or Con- 
ference with Indians: But on advising with the Council and 
Assembly before whom I laid that Letter, It appeared plain 
to me that it was absolutly necessary for his Majesties Service 
to go and receive these Indians, as they came in Consequence 
of a former Treaty. You will See by the Minutes of both Con- 
ferences which are here inclosed, That what has passed between 
this Government and them is for the General Service, and 
entirely referred to you and the Six Nations before whom we 
both promised to lay the Proceedings for your Consideration 
and Approbation, And I am in hopes you will be able on the 
Foundation of Peace already laid to fix these Indians in his 
Majesties Interest, and by proper Encouragments engage them 
to bring over others. I look upon Teedyuscung as the Chief 
of the Susquahannah Delawares, and one who is regarded by 
the Indians now settled at Diahogo, who are a Collection of 
Delawares, Shawonese, Mohiccons, and some of the fugitive Six 
Nations who were formerly on the Ohio, and removed to the 
head Branches of Susquahannah on the French intimidating and 
corrupting the Ohio Indians after the unfortunate Defeat of 
General Braddock. 

One thing gives me Concern, that as the Chief proposed 
another Meeting in the Spring, the Acceptance of his Proposall 
cou'd not well be avoided, especially as some Grievances in the 
Transactions of the Proprietaries with them about Purchases of 
Indian Lands had been mentioned, and it was proper in order 
to remove all Causes of Uneasiness to give them an early Opper- 
tunity of laying before us their Complaints, and if made Good, 
of receiving Satisfaction. But tho it may be necessary they 
shou'd come into this Province on this Occasion. Yet I desire you 
will take upon you to fix the time with these Indians, That it may 
not interfeie with the Commands of Lord Loudon — When they 
can best be spared I shou'd be glad to see them and not before. I 
have appointed a Committee of the Council to search into the 
Affair particularly complained of, and their Report shall be 
Transmitted to You, on which I shall request your Observations 



566 Sir William Johnson Papers 

& Advice in what manner to proceed so as to effect an entire 
Reconciliation. 

You will, I imagine, be very much surprized to find these 
Indians complaining of Injustice against the Proprietaries and 
making it the Cause why the Blow came quicker and heavier 
upon this Province, As you have at several times expressly called 
upon them to lett you know, if they had received from this 
Province any just Cause of Offence, and they have as often 
declared they were seduced by the Artifices and Power of the 
French; but whether it came from them, or was put into their 
Heads, after they had thought proper to mention it as the Com- 
missioners had brought a large Quantity of Goods with them, 
too many to give to the small Number present, they thought it 
best to make a quick End of the Complaint, and to offer them 
an immediate Present, and their Advice weighed with me to 
take that measure, tho' I was then and am still of Oppinion, when 
the Matter comes to be enquired into, the Proprietors will be 
found to have done them no Injury. 

I am Sir, 

Your most Obedient 
Sir William Johnson humble Servant 

William Denny 

P. S. You know so well how Indians dispose of the Prisoners 
they take in War, by selling them, or giving them, to private 
People, or adopting them into their own Family's, That I must 
desire you will sollicit the Six Nations on the part of this Govern- 
ment, to interpose their Authority with the Delawares, and to 
insist that the English Prisoners still remaining with them, be 
immediately returned to their Family's, for they must certainly 
be in a miserable Condition for want of Cloaths & other Neces- 
saries in so severe a Season 

I must likewise begg the Favour of you to perform the Cere- 
monies of Condolence on the Death of Cap 1 . New Castle to 
Scarroyady, Montour, and other's of his intimate Acquaintance, 
and as many more of the Six Nations as you think proper — 



Seven Years' War 567 

INDORSED : 

Copy of a Letter from Gov. Denny 
to S r . William Johnson 

Philadelphia 6': December 1756. 
Enclosed in that to L d Loudoun of 23 d . December 



TO THE STOCKBRIDGE INDIANS 
Copy 1 
Fort Johnson 8 Dec r . 1756. — 

The following Message was sent by Sir William Johnson 
to the Stockbridge Indians by Emham & Jeremiah Two 
Mohikander Indians 

Bretheren of Stockbridge 

It gave me great Concern a few days ago when at Albany 
to hear of some of your People having killed one of His Majestys 
Subjects near Claverak with whom they had no Quarrel nor 
indeed any Buisness. It is very wrong of your People to interfere 
or take part in any Matters or Disputes between the White 
People, for they have good & wholesome Laws for settling all 
Disputes & Differences w ch may arise or happen amongst them- 
selves. You see the White People never buisy themselves with 
your Quarrels, well knowing you have among you wise & head 
Men whose Buisness it is to settle & make them up. 

What added greatly to my Concern was to hear that a Son 
of the old Man who is in Goal foolishly threatened to get a 
number of your People & burn Livingstons House at the 
Mannor. I hope the Report was false & that none of your 
People would be so foolish & rash to think of doing any such 
thing as you know the Consequence must be very bad in many 
respects & particularly so to his Father & Brother in Jail, who 



1 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada. Indian Records, 
Vol. 4. 



568 Sir William Johnson Papers 

will have more favour shown to them by your People behaving 
well on the Occasion then otherwise. 

Wherefore by this Belt I recommend it to you all to act the 
prudent part and not quarrel with your Bretheren 

a large Belt. — 

I send this by two of your Nation & friends by whom I expect 
your Answer 

INDIAN PROCEEDINGS 

Copy 1 

Fort Johnson 8 Dec. 1756. — 

Cap 1 . John Wells 2 of Cherry Valley whom Sir William 
Johnson employed to build a Fort at Aughquaga returned 
after finishing the same & brought Sir William the follow- 
ing Speech from the Indians living there. 

Brother Warraghyjagey 

We are sensible of the regard You have for us, when we in 
our distressed Condition made Application to you for a Fort in 
order to be a Shelter to our Wives & Children here amidst our 
Enemies. At our Request you have sent our Brother with a 
number of Men who has finished the Fort to our great Satis- 
faction, and we are very glad & thankful that God has kept 
our Brother & his Men who were with him from the hands of 
our Enemies on the Road coming to us, which we had some 
Fears about, but if they had made the least Attempt to hunt 
our Brother, we would immediately have rose up to his Assistance 

And now Brother as the Oswego House is gone and last 
Fall we could not go out a hunting for Fear of the Enemy, our 
Children are almost naked and as we have good Houses now we 



1 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada. Indian Records, 
Vol. 4. 

2 John Wells of Cherry Valley, captain in the second battalion of 
Albany county militia. 



5ei;en Years War 569 

would be glad you would soon send down a Trader with goods, 
so that we might be supplied. We hope you will send a good 
honest Man & we will take care of him. send him as soon as 
you can & see that he brings nothing here but what is good. 

We are very glad that God has preserved Your Life & 
brought you again to your own House in safety. We all join 
in our kind respects to You and we are all going out a hunting 
& as soon as we return you shall see our Faces again. 

Fort Johnson 10 December 1756. 

Sir William sent a Message with Two Strings of Wampum 
by Solishowana a Mohock Sachem to forbid any of their People 
going to hunt any where to the Northward of Albany on either 
side of the River lest any of them should be hurt or killed by 
the Ranging Companys who are constantly reconnoitring the 
Woods that way. And Sir William further desired him to call 
immediately a Meeting & accquaint all the Indians at home 
therewith 

KERLEREC TO THE FRENCH MINISTRY 
Contemporary Copy 1 

New Orleans 13 l Xher 1756./. 

Mo r : Kerlerec, 2 Governor of Louisiana, by His Letter of the 
13 th . December 1756, (which Letter was Intercepted) Acquaints 
the french Ministry; 

That the Cherokee Nations, composed of 3500 Armed Men, 
had long since desired to enter into Peace & Alliance with 
the french; which desire they have particularly renew'd within 
these three Years. — of which (says he) I have given you an 



*In Public Record Office, W.O. 34, vol. 38, London, England; 
inclosed in Loudoun to Johnson, July 1, 1757. 

2 Louis Billouart de Kerlerec, governor of Louisiana from 1 752 to 
1764. 



570 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Account in my two several Letters of April & July; both which 
Letters demonstrate, of what Consequence it would be for Us, 
to Unite Interests with that Nation, and how prejudicial such 
an Alliance would be to the English, especially to Carolina & 
it's Territories. 

But as these Steps of the Cherokees, were taken during the 
trouble subsisting between Canada & the provinces of New 
England, and that His Britannick Majesty seem'd (tho' without 
any foundation) to tax France with usurping His Dominions; 
I have constantly temper'd, and thought it my duty to Use all 
that moderation which you have ever prescribed me on the behalf 
of his Majesty, to avoid every Subject of disunion between the 
now Belligerent Rivers; for these reasons I have long Studied, 
whether I should seriously Answer the demand of the Cherokee 
Nation for a Peace; especially, as the greatest part of the 
Villages of that Nation, are in the Mountains, deemed to serve 
as Limits between France & England: Nay three of these Vil- 
lages are even Settled beyond those Mountains. 

This mature Consideration on my part, had no other view 
than to avoid all manner of discussion between Monarchs Sin- 
cerely animated with the desire of Peace, and not to furnish any 
Obstacles to the Negotiations with which you have done me the 
honor to Acquaint me, by Your Letter of the 1 7 th . February 
1 755. But these Considerations becoming void, by the King 
of England's declaration of War against France, I thought I 
might avail myself of the good will of the Cherokees, who for 
near a twelve month past have redoubled their eagerness for 
the Peace. It is true that I have managed this good Will by 
all the means & measures I thought the most proper to maintain 
them in these Sentiments, thro' the intermission of some Trusty 
Savages of the Chauanons, who have at last brought me hither 
(on the 15 th . of last Month) five Deputies of the Cherokees, 
who came to Ask for Peace and Alliance. These Deputies are 
from the Nine principal Villages of the Nation, settled on this 
side the Apalachian Mountains, and all the others are commonly 



Seven Years War 571 

brought over by them ; Yet I began by telling these deputies that 
I should not hearken to their Speech, unless it was on the behalf 
of the whole Nation; whereupon they assured me it was. 

I shall not here repeat at length, their Speeches; which one & 
all Express a great Sense of the Affection they bear the f rench ; 
which however I believe, we owe in a great measure, to the divers 
Successes we met with in Canada, and the reunion of all the 
Northern Nations in our behalf. 

In Consequence therefore of their determined desire to give 
themselves up to Us, and to Stop the Execution of the projects 
of the English, I have favorably hearkened to them, without 
however deciding definitively on the Ratification of the Peace they 
Ask, untill four of their Chiefs, and as many of their Consider- 
able Men have been to Canada to carry the same words to Mo r : 
de Vaudreuil, for which purpose I have given them a Letter, 
setting forth the whole Affair, together with a Copy of the 
Preliminary Articles of Peace, which we had Agreed to between 
Us; with this Provisoe nevertheless, that the said Peace shall 
not take place, unless the Interests of the french to the North- 
ward and those of all the Nations of the same Continent, may 
be Conciliated with those in these parts ; which I have Submitted 
to the decision of Mo r . de Vaudreuil. a Precaution of right, 
and the less to be dispensed with, as that General, by his Letter 
of the 27 th . February 1 755, tells me, to defer making any 
Answer to the Sollicitations of the Cherokees untill his arrival in 
Canada, where he will be able to Judge, if the Interests of the 
North Agree with these Proposals of Peace. 

But two Years are now almost elapsed since he has wrote to 
me on that Subject. 

They readily conceived the necessity of this Arrangement, and 
have consented to it ; but they likewise required of me, to promise 
them, that at their return here from Canada, which will be 
towards the latter end of July 1757. (if this Peace should take 
place, as there is all reason to hope it will) I should send them 



572 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Traders, with all kinds of Goods necessary to supply their Wants. 
This demand of theirs appeared the more Equitable to me, as by 
their abandonning the English & giving themselves up to Us, it 
was just, that they should be assured of our furnishing them with 
the things they had of the English, and without which they cannot 
do. 

They further desired, that I should promise to furnish them with 
the Ammunition they should stand in need of untill such time as 
the Ratification arrived ; but in this I Acquiesced no further, than 
untill I should have certain Assurances of their being at Open 
War with the English, and not till after they had made some 
Coup d'Etai & of note upon them, by which I might be con- 
vinced that they Acted faithfully; and that their present Step 
was Sincere. 

This is my present Situation with the Cherokee Nation, but I 
have the honor to forewarn You, that I make no dependence 
upon Indians but from deeds, and I always fear, that at the 
return of these Deputies into their Villages, they will find some 
revolution of Different parties Excited by the English, who upon 
the departure of these deputies for this, will not have failed 
Acquainting the Governor of Carolina with it, and he doubtless 
will have set in motion all the Springs he could invent, to make 
the project of Peace miscarry; as such a Peace cannot but put 
Carolina within an Ace of its ruin. 

Such is the present State of things, and what I think of the 
red Men, of whom one can never be certain, unless one be able 
to supply their wants abundantly. 

However, if this Negotiation can be determined, as I have 
reason to hope it may, you must indispensably be pleased to give 
your Orders, to send Us the things necessary for this Nation, over 
& above the usual Quantity, (which are not sent Us) but if every 
thing Succeeds, there is no time to lose, for I may as I have men- 
tioned above find myself obliged to fullfill the promises I have 
made them, by the Month of July 1 757. And if I should not be 



Seven Years' War 573 

able to keep my word, there is no doubt but the English, to whom 
this Nation would be forced to return, would avail themselves of 
a Circumstance so detrimental to Us, to make the Cherokees 
Sensible of the poverty of the French, and that we have no 
Goods but those we draw from them. This is the Language 
held Commonly to the Savages, who in such Circumstances would 
be forced to give Credit to it. 

New England being deprived of the Cherokees, their Situation 
will be as Critical, as ours will be advantagous; and I dare 
believe, the latter will even force the Chickasaws to side with 
them; they have even given me to understand as much. They 
have likewise Harangued the Kouitas, Talapouches, Chactas, 
Abekas, (Nations comprised under the denomination of Alibamon 
Talapouches,) in order to make them take up the same Hatchet, 
and I am inclined to believe, that the Alibamons, will yield to 
Sollicitations perhaps a little forced, and Sacrifice the Neutrality 
they have hitherto observed between Us and the English; And 
in that case, I foresee a great part of New England, within an 
Ace of its ruin. 

I have now set forth the Position I am in with the Cherokees; 
I should have a great detail, of the utmost Consequence, to give 
you on that Subject, which it is not possible for me to put into 
Cifre, by reason of my having dispatched that Nation only 
yesterday, and the Vessel that carries these dispatches setting 
out the day after tomorrow ; but Mo r : Duplessis, a late & one of 
the best Lieutenants of this Colony, who will present you this 
Letter, will tell you by word of Mouth, what I ought not to trust 
to paper. — I beg Your kindness & protection for that officer. 

Enclosed You have the Preliminary Articles of Peace proposed 
between Us & the Cherokees. I am with the most profound 
Respect &ca. 

Kerlerec. 



574 



Sir William Johnson Papers 



PRELIMINARY ARTICLES OF 

PEACE BETWEEN KERLEREC AND 

THE CHEROKEES 

Copy 1 

Preliminary Articles of Peace between the French & the 
Cherokee Nation mentioned in Mo r : de Kerlerec's (Gov- 
ernor of Louisiana) Letter to the french Ministry, bearing 
date at New Orleans the 13 f . December 1 756. 



The Cherokee Deputies, have 
promised, in the name of their 
whole Nation, to conform 
themselves only to this Article. 



The deputies have promised to 
bring back the Prisoners, which 
they say are Soldiers & desert- 
er? from the Illinois, upon Con- 
dition that no harm shall befall 
them; And as they persisted in 
this demand, Mo r . de Kerlerec 
has granted them a Pardon, 
he insisting at the same time, 
that they, for the future Would 
Stop, & deliver up all those that 
should fall in their hands at 
discretion, without any Con- 
ditions, which they have ex- 
pressly promised. 



Article 1 st : 
The Cherokees are to prom- 
ise faithfully to bury their 
Hatchet, and to hinder any 
of their Warriors from Joining 
any party of the Enemy against 
the French. 

2. 

PvIo r : de Kerlerec, Grand 
Chief of the French, to the 
Southward, & Common father 
of the red Men of the same 
Continent, demands the restitu- 
tion of the french Prisoners 
that are in the Cherokees, to 
wit one girl & 4 Soldiers; two 
of which ought to be return'd 
from Virginia; with this Pro- 
visoe, that if the Grand Chief 
of the North should raise any 
difficulties with regard to the 
Peace (which he does not fore- 
see) the said Prisoners shall be 
Treated fairly, and a ransom 
paid for them upon the footing 
of Prisoners of War. 



1 In Public Record Office, W.O. 34, vol. 38, London, England; 
inclosed in Loudoun to Johnson, July 1, 1757. 



Seven Years' War 



575 



3< 
Answered, that they were sent That this Peace shall not 

to Ask it in the name and on take place, unless it be with the 
the behalf of the whole Nation, whole Nation in general. 



Have promised to conform 
to the Contents of this article, 
and to send Deputies to Mo r : 
de Vaudreuil Grand Chief of 
the North, as soon as they shall 
have got back to their Nation; 
And Mo r : de Kerlerec, in 
Consequence thereof, delivered 
unto them, the day of their de- 
parture, a Letter for that 
General 



The deputies represented, 
that they thought the Chika- 
saws would Join them against 
the English, in which Case they 
would not make War upon 
them; but that if they refused 
to take up the Hatchet against 
the fair Men, who want to 
possess themselves of their Ter- 
ritories, they were Men, and 
knew what they had to do. 



That 4 of the most notable 
Chiefs & as many of the Con- 
siderable Men of the Cherokee 
Nation, shall immediately upon 
the return of the deputies here 
present, to their Villages, set 
out for Montreal or Quebec, at 
either of which they will find 
Mo r . de Vaudreuil, to whom 
they will carry the same re- 
quest of Peace, they have 
made to the Chief Warrior of 
the french at the Allibamons, 
& to Mo r . de Kerlerec Gov- 
ernor of Louisiana, who will 
give them a Letter to Mo r . de 
Vaudreuil, in good words, Ex- 
plaining the steps taken by the 
Cherokees to obtain the Peace 
they desire. 

5. 

That the Cherokees shall 
make War upon the Chika- 
saws, who have ever been evil 
minded, and had at all times 
been declared Enemies of the 
french, & the red Men, friends 
& Allies of the french. 



576 



Sir William Johnson Papers 



Answered that the English 
had bad hearts, and that look- 
ing upon them as Enemies to 
them & the french, they would 
fall on them, and drive them 
beyond the Mountains. 



6. 
The English having declared 
War against the french for no 
other reason than that the 
french want to protect & de- 
fend the red Men their Chil- 
dren brethren & Allies, Che- 
rokees ought to look upon the 
English as their Enemies; the 
more so as they themselves have 
all to fear from the English, 
who propose to build forts on 
the Territories with no other 
view than to make themselves 
Masters of them more easily, 
and to make Slaves of them, 
their Women & Children as 
well as their Old Men. 



Have answered & Promised, 
that upon their return home, 
they will force all the English 
that may be there, to withdraw 
from off their Lands, and will 
destroy the House of Force 
they have already built there; 
and will never suffer them to 
build Forts nor Batteaus to 
Spoil their River. 



That the Cherokees, shall at 
the return of their deputies now 
present and bearers of these, 
destroy & pillage the horred 
Magazines which the English 
have lately erected among 
them, In which are lodged the 
Artillery, Ammunition, Iron 
Work & Tools, which they 
sent thither for the building of 
Forts & Batteaus : That as to 
the 19 Soldiers & English Ser- 
jeant who Garrison that Fort, 
and Guard that Store, The 
Cherokees are & shall be holden 
to Summon them to depart the 



Seven Years' War 



577 



Answered, That now they 
were Children of the french, 
they would never permit the 
English to come & Spoil their 
Lands nor their River, nor 
Suffer them to hurt the french 
their present brethren & Allies, 
& that immediately upon their 
return to their Village, they 
would go to War & strike upon 
the English. 



The Cherokee deputies 
answered, that they were satis- 
fied with the good reception 
they had met with from Mo r : 

19 



Nation, and if they do not 
Acquiesce by fair means, they 
must compel them to it by force 
after which the Cherokes shall 
not suffer any Attempts upon 
their Territories, and much less 
the Erection of any Fort, but 
shall repulse, by striking on the 
English, all those they might 
design against the french. 

8. 
After this declaration of the 
Cherokees to the English, the 
Cherokees are immediately to 
look upon the English as their 
Enemies, and are to repulse by 
the Hatchet & the Tomy hawk 
the least design they might 
attempt against their Nation, 
either by sending Troops 
thither or otherwise; And in 
order to give the french proofs 
of their Attachm 1 . the Cher- 
okees are to form & send out 
frequent parties against the 
English, and befall upon them, 
as they have sworn the destruc- 
tion of the red Men, and that 
of the french their friends and 
allies. 

9. 

Mo r : de Kerlerec, Grand 
Chief of New Orleans, Com- 
mon father of the red Men of 
the same Continent, promises 



578 



Sir William Johnson Papers 



de Kerlerec their father, as like- 
wise with the promises he made 
them by this article, to procure 
them the necessary Goods they 
their Wives & Children should 
Stand in need of; And added, 
that they hoped they should 
not know the want of them 
when once the Grand Chief of 
the North had Joined his word 
to his 



Answered Mo r . de Kerlerec, 
that they saw very well, by the 
promise he made them of send- 
ing them (during the return of 
the Answer of the Grand Chief 
of Canada) at the Posts of the 
Alibamons, the Warlike Stores 
they should stand in need of, 
that he was a good father ; and 
promised to make great uses of 
them against his & their 
Enemies, the English. 



to the Cherokees, that if the 
Peace is Concluded as he 
hopes it will, to take the most 
convenient measures to Supply 
the Trade of that Nation as 
abundantly as possible ; but the 
Cherokees are to observe, that 
being now become the Chil- 
dren of the french, they are to 
encrease their numbers. And 
that as an encrease of Children, 
required likewise an Aug- 
mentation of Goods, which 
Consequently will take us some 
time to furnish, they must wait 
with patience till their Common 
father be able to send for those 
they may want from beyond 
the great Lake. 

10. 

That untill the return of the 
Answer of Mo r : de Vaudreiul, 
Grand Chief of the North, and 
his Consent to the Peace, M r . 
Kerlerec shall however take 
care, to send to the posts of the 
Alibamons, Powder, Ball, 
Hatchets, felling knives, Flints 
& Vermillion, to recompense 
the valour of the Cherokee 
Wariors, and the Attachment 
that Nation shall prove to have 
for the french; but this shall 
not be, till such times as he 
shall be informed of their hav- 



Seven Years War 



579 



Have promised that when a 
Trade shall be established 
among them, they will hinder 
every insult or wrong that 
might be offer'd to the french 
Traders, and to cause the Con- 
voy of Goods to be Escorted 
by good Warriors, whenever 
they shall be requested so to do. 



The deputies Answered 
Mo r : de Kerlerec, that it will 
be right for him, to Acquaint 
(as he has promised them) all 
the red Men in friendship with 
the french, that the Cherokees 
have recover'd their Senses, 
and were like them, become 
the Children & Allies of the 
French; and they added that 
they were going to set out to 
declare War against the Eng- 
lish, and avenge by their hands 
the death of their brethren 
killed by them. And the same 
time beg'd of Mo r : de Ker- 



ing driven away all the English 
from among them, and that 
they have declared War 
against them by some Action 
of valour & Note. 

11. 

When the Peace between 
the Cherokees & the french 
shall be Concluded, the Che- 
rokees Promise & Engage to 
Accompany & Escort the 
french who shall carry them 
Goods, by a proper number of 
good Warriors, if it should be 
required of them, and that at 
the price the Nation shall have 
unanimously agreed upon with 
the french traders. 

12. 
That as to the different Na- 
tions of Red Men of this Con- 
tinent, Allies Children & 
friends of the french, particu- 
larly their Old friends the 
Chactas & Alibamons, Mo r : 
de Kerlerec their Grand Chief, 
promises to do all he can to 
induce them to hearken to the 
Word he is going to send 
them, which shall be, to have 
one & the same Hatchet to 
Strike the English with, the 
same Tommy hawk, & the 
same Micone [ | as the Che- 
rokees. Mo r : de Kerlerec their 



580 



Sir William Johnson Papers 



lerec, their father, to write 
strongly to Mo r : de Vaudreuil, 
that the Word they are going 
to carry him may not fall to the 
ground, And that he may like 
him forget their Errors, because 
they desire ever to be linked to 
the french who are good 
People and have a good heart. 



common father of the red Men 
to the Southward, does further 
promise the Cherokees, to write 
in favor of them to Mo r : de 
Vaudreuil Grand Chief of the 
North And in order that this 
Grand Chief may hearken the 
more favorably the word they 
are to send him, and that he do 
ratify the Peace they Ask; he 
will tell him that the Cherokees 
Nation has always treated the 
French Prisoners well. 

All the twelve Preliminary Articles of Peace above set forth, 
& proposed by Mo r : de Kerlerec, Governor of Louisiana, have 
been fully Explained & duly Interpreted to the Cherokees who 
have highly Acquiesced to them; shall nevertheless be referr'd 
to the decision of Mo r : de Vaudreuil Governor General of New 
France, that he may add to, or diminish from them, as he shall 
think proper for the good of the Kings Service. The said 
Articles are not to take place unless he thinks that the Interests 
of those of the Northern division of New France and those in 
these Quarters, may be conciliated for the Ratification of the 
proposed Peace. 

Done & Agreed upon, by Us Governor for the King, in our 
Hotel of Government, at New Orleans the 23 d : of November 
1 756. signed Kerlerec. And have likewise Signed as Witnesses 
they having been Commanded to be present at the Meetings held 
for that purpose. Belille Major Dernevill Duverge Volant Gas- 
mond Lavergne Raguel Le Bretton, Baudouin Jesuite, Dorville, 
Dutillet, Chabert Grand Maison, Che.' Makart Neyon, Trudo, 
Marquis, S r Martin Duplessis, Vaugine et Maison. 

I do Certify to have Interpreted in Clear & Intelligible Terms 
the above twelve Preliminary Articles of Peace proposed by 
Mo r : de Kerlerec, Governor, to the Cherokee Deputies; And 



Seven Years' War 581 

likewise, that I have faithfully delivered the Answers made by 
the said Deputies, and that those wrote, next to the said Articles 
are really such as they made them In Witness whereof I have 

signed these presents at New Orleans the 23 d of November 
1 756. Signed Can. 

FROM BENJAMIN, SACHEM 
Copt/ 1 

The following is the Answer to the Letter w cl \ Sir William 
Johnson sent the 8 Inst to the Stockbridge Indians with a Belt 
of Wampum which they exchanged and sent it back by Emham 
& Jeremiah Sir Williams Messengers. 

Stockbridge 16 Dec r . 1756. 
Good Brother 

We received your word of advice & the Belt yesterday & 
kindly thank you for it; We are very sorry for the unhappy 
Affair of one of our Tribes killing one of the Kings Subjects & 
that you had occasion to expostulate with us on so unhappy a 
Circumstance. 

We neither think it our Concern nor have we a disposition to 
intermeddle with the Controversies of white People. 

What threatening Speeches have been given out by Van 
Gueldens 2 Son we know not, but Brother you may assure your- 
self that we at this place have given out no Threatenings against 
M r . Livingston 3 or any other Person nor made the least Motion 
of entering into a Quarrel. 

However as we hear the matter, we dont understand that the 
old Man or his Son made any Attempt against any Man, till 
those People that were turning the poor Families out of Doors 



1 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada. Indian Records, 
Vol. 4. 

2 John Van Gelden, an Indian of Sheffield. See Doc. Rel. to Col 

Hist. N. Y., 7:206-7. 

3 Robert Livingston. See Ibid., 206-7. 



582 Sir William Johnson Papers 

undertook to make them Prisoners, and if the Old Man made 
not any resistance we cant see what right there was of Attacking 
him or any others that was in the highway in the Peace of the 
King. 

And as you Brother well observe that the white People have 
good Laws for the protection of the Innocent & punishing the 
Guilty, so we leave the white People to the righteous & just 
Execution of them. But Brother, you say further that the white 
People dont meddle with our Quarrels but leave it to our Wise 
Men to settle it so let us continue to do on each side. 

The Contention of the Land we will leave to the white People, 
but Brother we desire if it can be, that Van Guelden may be 
brought into our Province for his Trial since he belongs to us 
& we shall be willing that Justice may take place. We cannot 
think well of M r . Livingstons severe Conduct to those poor People 
& we think it would be better for him to desist. 

Brother We have by our Messenger sent you a Belt in answer 
to yours, hope as our elder Brother you will believe well of 
us & send us advice when you think it needful. 

We are your true Friends & Bretheren 

BENJAMIN Sachem in the Name 

of the Rest. 
To the Hon ble . 
Sir William Johnson. 

orders to thomas butler & jellas fonda 

Copy 1 

[Fort Johnson, Dec'. 20, 1756] ' 

As it is of the utmost Consequence at this time to His Majestys 
Service to know the Disposition of the French & their Movements 
if any, as well as what passes amongst the Six Nations & their 
Allies. 



1 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada. Indian Records, 
Vol. 4. 



Seven Years' War 583 

You are therefore to repair forthwith to Onondaga there to 
remain until further Orders. When there you are to see that 
the Traders do not impose upon the Indians by making them 
pay extravagant prices for their goods nor suffer them to sell 
too great a quantity to any one Indian or Family lest they dis- 
pose of it to the Enemy. You are to tell the Six Nations that 
I expect they will send me what news their Deputies bring from 
Canada as soon as they return, and send the Cayouge called the 
Englishman down to me; tell him I want much to see & talk 
with him. 

You are also to tell the Six Nations by this Belt of Wampum, 
that I expect & desire they will not offer to go to any Meeting at 
the Call of any Government whatever, as they are all Sensible 
His Majesty has entrusted the sole Superintendency of their 
Affairs to me. 

And further you are to let them know that I expect they will 
lose no time in calling that great Council to be held at Onondaga 
& when it is over to let me know the result thereof. 

You are to prevent as far as in your Power any French 
Emissaries coming amongst the Six Nations, telling them if they 
suffer such I cannot comply with their Request of sending Smiths 
& Armourers to work for their Nations, nor Merchants to supply 
them with necessaries at reasonable prices which I am resolved 
to do provided they act up to their Engagements with us as 
Bretheren. 

You are to endeavour as much as possible to prepare the 
Warriors minds for War against the Spring so that they may 
be ready to join His Majestys Troops whenever called upon. 

Lastly you are to endeavour all in your Power to gain what- 
ever Intelligence you can from all Quarters, by Sending Indians 
you can depend upon as Spies to Caderaqui, Niagara & 
Sweegachie also to Oswego & immediately transmit any Intelli- 
gence you may get to me by safe hands. 

Given under my hand at Fort 
Johnson the 20 Dec r . 1 756. 

W M . Johnson 



584 Sir William Johnson Papers 

ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONS TO CAPTAIN THOMAS BUTLER 

Copy x 

Fort Johnson 28 Dec r . 1756. 

You will order Cap 1 . Fonda to the Senecas Country there to 
remain until further Orders and he must apply to M r . John Abeel 
to assist him there as Interpreter whenever he has occasion to say 
any thing to or to hear any thing from the said Nation, which I 
am persuaded M r . Abeel will do for the good of the Service 
as it will be little or no trouble to him. Cap'. Fonda is to 
observe all the Articles in the first Instructions and have Jean 
Ceur 2 taken if possible & come down immediately with him to me. 

Your Brother Cap 1 . John Butler is to remain at Onieda & 
Tuscarora Castle by Turns where he is to observe all the Instruc- 
tions given to you, except the First & third articles. The Belt 
you will show as you go thro Onieda & tell them the purport 
or meaning thereof, also let the Tuscarores know & see it. 

You will leave Lieu 1 . Stephen Schuyler at Onondaga there 
to remain until further Orders, you will give him as well as the 
rest a Copy of my Instructions with whatever further Instructions 
you may judge or find necessary for the good of His Majestys 
Service in w ch . you are employed. M r . Ryckman 3 will I dare 
say give M r . Schuyler all the assistance in his Power while there 
which I shall consider him for on his Return. 

You are to proceed to Cayouge Castle yourself after settling 
all the rest as directed, and use your utmost Endeavours to 
strengthen His Majestys Interest in that Nation. You & the 
other Gentlemen will make use of the best economy possible in 
your Power & keep a regular Ace*, of what Expences you may 



1 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada. Indian Records, 
Vol. 4. 

2 Chabert de Joncaire. 

3 Albert Ryckman. 



Seven Years' War 585 

be obliged to be at while on said Service & Deliver it me at your 
Return 

I am Sir Your 

hum Ser*. 

W M . Johnson 

JOURNAL OF INDIAN PROCEEDINGS 
Copy 1 

[Jan. 15-25, 1757] 

Fort Johnson 15 Jan r y. 1757. 

Four Indians viz. Nichus an Onieda, a great Friend of Sir 
W m . Johnson, his Brother Tyanogo, Printups son, and a Tusca- 
roore much Carbuncled, came to pay him a visit & assured him 
they & their Families were determined to live & die by him, that 
they would now go (if he approved it) & hunt until the Spring 
when they would be ready at a Call to join our Arms, for 
w ch . kind assurance of their readiness & Fidelity Sir William 
returned them Thanks & told them they & all their Nations 
would find it their Interest to live by the English their Antient 
Friends & Bretheren, as a proof of which, he cloathed them well, 
gave them some Amunition, Provisions & Money on their 
Journey & after 5 days resting here they set off. — 

Eod. Die 

John AbeeP with two Seneca Indians & a Cayouge arrived 
here from the Senecas, viz The Drunkards Son, Tienhogeara 
& a Cayouge who was a long time Prisoner among the Cat- 
tawbas. They brought no news, but that Jean Ceur & his 
brother Senuchsis were gone with several Horses loaded with 
goods among the Delawares & Ohio Indians & in their way 



1 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada. Indian Records, 
Vol. 4. 

2 John Abeel (O'Beal, O'Bail) Indian trader and father of the noted 
Seneca chief, Cornplanter. 



586 Sir William Johnson Papers 

back intended to call at the Senecas. Abeel said he was told 
that there were some Indians fitted out & sent from Niagara to 
take or kill any English Traders they could find among the 
Senecas. Those Indians promising well Sir William Cloathed 
them & supplied them with Provisions & Amunition & ca . 

Wednesday 19 JanT. 1757. 

Cap*. Thomas Butler & Cap*. Jellas Fonda arrived here from 
Onondaga. They brought no Material Intelligence 

Fort Johnson 19 Jan r y. 1757. 

Caraghuageygo with Three more Onondaga Indians and an 
English Drummer who was taken Prisoner at Oswego last spring 
& given to them by the French Indians in the room of an Onon- 
daga who died, arrived here. Sir William bid them Welcome & 
sent them to their Quarters after giving them Pipes, Tobacco, 
some drink & ca . 

Thursday the 20. The above Indians desired a Meeting at 
which M r . Montour att d . as Interpreter. They said 

Brother Warraghyjagey 

We are not sent by the Sachems of our Nation neither are 
we charged with any News but what concerns a certain party 
of Warriors to whom you gave a War Belt last Summer desiring 
we should bring you a Prisoner or Scalp to replace your & our 
Friend Tyanogo alias Cap*. Stoddirt 1 who was killed at Lake 
George. As we were preparing to set off on that Design our 
Sachem spoke to us with this large Belt which you now see 
(shewing a large Belt) desiring we would not leave home nor 
persist in our Design as it was likely that a Peace between the 
English & French would soon take place, then we should draw 
by this Step the French upon our backs by these means we were 
prevented from executing your Desire & our Design & now want 
to know what we shall do. 



Captain Benjamin Stoddert. 



Seven Years' War 587 

Brother 

We were told by those who were at the late Meeting here at 
your House that it was your earnest desire the Six Nations should 
open their Minds freely to you & let you know what they at 
any time intended to do, and that they should not offer to engage 
in any Matter of Moment without your knowledge & appro- 
bation. It had such weight with me & the rest of my Party 
that I thought I would not do less than accquaint you as a 
Brother with our Design which is to go to War against some 
of the Southern Indians as soon as our Young Men return from 
hunting. 

Upon which Sir William answered 

Brother Carraghuagey & you Bretheren of Onondaga here 
present. 

When I gave you a Belt last Summer desiring you would 
bring me a French Prisoner or Scalp, I was greatly pleased at 
your ready acceptance of it & never expected you could be pre- 
vailed on to drop the Design at the request of the Sachems, and 
for such silly reasons as they gave you, it was very wrong of 
them to act in that manner after they had absolutely taken up 
the Ax against the French & solemnly promised me they would 
be ready to use it whenever I called upon them, however as 
you still have my Belt I insist upon your acting therein becoming 
Bretheren & Warriors of the Six Nations. 

Bretheren 

I approve much of your opennes, & the honest declaration 
of your Intentions as it is Brother like, but as the Southern 
Indians are our friends & no Enemy of yours if you do not 
molest them, I insist upon it by these Strings of Wampum that 
you do not offer to go that way but like Men & Bretheren turn 
your Ax to the North where you & we have implacable Enemies, 
who never will let either of us live happy & at Ease until we 



588 vSir William Johnson Papers 

thrash them severely which if we unite we can easily & very 
soon do. 

gave 4 large Strings of 
black Wampum 
gave them also a large Keg 
of Rum to carry home, several 
other things & a Gun to one of them. 

Upon which they made the following Reply 

Brother 

We have attentively heard what you have said to us & 
assure you that your Desire shall be complied with, when the 
rest of our Party return from Hunting I shall lay your words 
with your Strings before them & let you hear from us. 

Then parted 

Fort Johnson 21 Jan r y. 1757. 

The Drunkards youngest Son & a Cayouge Indian who came 
here the 15 Inst with John Abeel came & accquainted Sir 
William they intended to return homewards but would be with 
him in the Spring if Sir William called on them. Upon which 
he clothed them & gave them Amunition, Provisions for their 
Journey, some Rum & ca . and a New Gun to the Cayouge. a 
Bag of Cut Tobacco sent to Tageyhsady alias Drunkard, one 
also for Sayengeraghta a Chief Man of the Senecas. 

Eod. Die. 

Hans the Wild & Cechehouana Two Mohock Cheifs of the 
Tribe of the Bear & Turtle & a Young Man named Jacob 
Scoutson came to Sir W m . Johnson in order to settle a difference 
between said Jacob & Doctor Wallace, which was soon done 
by giving them both a Reprimand for their Behaviour to each 
other & making them shake hands together. 

After this was over S r . William took the Sachems into his 
Room & talked over several Affairs with them & let them know 



Seven Years' IV ar 589 

what news I heard from Pensilvania concerning the Treaty at 
Easton which pleased them much, he then proposed to them 
condoling the Death of old Abraham Hendricks Brother, which 
they much approved of & Begged he would as usual join them 
in the Ceremony & Belts which He agreed to & sent by them 
a large black Belt to shew their People w ch . is to cover the 
Grave & is never returned nor exchanged but goes to the nearest 
Relations. 

Eod. Die 

David Chief of the Schoheere Indians arrived here with two 
more of said Tribe & spoke as follows 

Brother Warraghyjagey 

We take this Opportunity of returning your String of Invita- 
tion sent us last Summer & hope our readiness in coming on 
said call was agreable to you. Since that time we lost Seth 
our Cheif Sachem and now are in darkness 

Sir William Answered 

Bretheren of Schoheere 

I am sensible of your good will & readiness to assist us & wish 
a continuance of it as it will be for our mutual Interest. You 
may depend upon it I shall never be unmindful of those who 
are so well attached to His Majestys Interest as you are 

gave 4 Strings Wampum 

gave David the Chief Cloathing for himself. 8 Blanketts, 8 
Shirts & 8 p r . stockings for the Women whose Husbands joined 
Sir W m . last Fall. 

Bretheren 

I sincerely condole with you for the loss of your Chief Man 
with these Strings I wipe the Tears from your Eyes that you 
may no longer sit in Darkness, then cleared their throats & ca . 
as Customary. 

3 Strings Wampum 



590 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Bretheren 

As soon as there is a general Meeting of all the Nations I 
shall appoint a proper Person to take upon him the Care of 
your Affairs, until when I must strongly recommend to you 
Unanimity & tho you are but few if you continue of one Mind 
you will be strong & esteemed 

4 Strings Wampum 

Fort Johnson 23 Jan r y. 1 757. 

Captain Jacob of Stockbridge with two more of that Tribe 
of Indians arrived here & laid the List or Roll of his Company 
before Sir W m . Johnson at the same time telling him, that there 
were three or four of his Men not paid & that his Clerk (for 
not being duly qualified) had received but 10 Dollars instead 
of £24 Curr^ 

He further added that several of the Stockbridge Indians 
who inlisted last year in the New York Regiment for 5 Months 
& served 7 Months were not paid a penny, if this be the way 
(said he) that we are served by our Bretheren we have no 
reason to join them any more, he then asked Sir William what 
was to be the fate of the River Indians who were in Jail at 
Albany whether to be hanged or not. 

Sir William Told them that as Lord Loudoun's Secretary 
(who had the original Roll of his Company & the several pay- 
ments made to them) was not here, there could be nothing done 
in it, but that he might depend upon his examining into the 
Affair as soon as M r . Appy 1 came to Albany, and that he 
would also enquire into that Affair of the 5 Indians who were 
enlisted into the New York Reg 1 . & if they would find who 
the Captain was Sir William would speak to him about it & 
did not doubt obliging him to pay them if they had Justice on 
their side 

That as to the Fate of the Two Indians of theirs who were 
committed on Suspicion of Murder he would not tell. The Law 



1 John Appy, secretary of General Abercromby and General Amherst. 



Seven Years' War 591 

must take its course if they were not guilty of the murder they 
would be accquitted. Sir William added, that he would be a 
Friend to them & their Tribe in general as long as he found them 
deserving. 

The Captain returned thanks for what Sir William said & 
promised them & assured him he would in return be ready at 
his Call whenever he wanted them, for w ch . kind offer Sir Wil- 
liam thanked them, gave him & his Party some Trifles & a 
Keg of Rum on their Journey & parted 

Fort Johnson 24 Jan r y. 1 757. 

An Onieda Indian & his 3 Sons arrived here, after drinking 
a Dram round & giving them Pipes & ca . Tobacco & ca . he told 
Sir William that he only came down on his own private affairs, 
he said that as his Crop of Indian Corn was destroyed last year 
by the Soldiers & Battoe Men he hoped Sir William would enable 
them to buy some from those who had to spare and as the only 
thing he could purchase it easiest with, was Rum he begged 
Sir W m . would let him have some, which he agreed to charging 
him at the same time not to make any other use of it. gave him 
also some necessaries for his Family knowing him to be sincere 
& hearty in the English Interest. 

he returned many thanks & gave assurances of his good 
Behaviour 



so 



parted. 



Fort Johnson 25 Jan^. 1757. — 

Peter Spelman a German named in the Shawanese Language 
Ooligasha, 1 who has lived these seven years past amongst the 
Indians was sent Express by Ruddehega King of the Shawanese 
living on the West Branch of the Susquahanna which place he 
left 10 days ago arrived here & says he was sent to let Sir 
William know that four of their Nation who were returning 
from their Hunt on the Oubach discovered a great Number of 



1 Spelled "Owiligascho" in Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:244. 



592 Sir William Johnson Papers 

French & Indians at the Falls on the Ohio. One of them spoke 
to a French Indian, who told him there were 1500 French & 
300 Indians who came from Mississipi & were going up the 
River. On their reporting this to the Chiefs of their Nation, 
the King of said Town sent Five of their People to make a 
further discovery & assured Sir William that as soon as they 
return he will come with several of his People to let me know 
what news they bring. 

The said Messenger says, that as he passed thro Tiaogo on 
Susquahanna one of the Delawares told him that there were 
two French Officers & Seven French Indians in their Town but 
he being in haste did not stay to see them, but was told they 
were doing all they could possibly with Bribes &c a . to engage 
the Delawares & other Indians against the English. He was 
also desired to assure Sir W m . that the Shawanese living in the 
Town he came from (being 150 fighting Men) will stand by 
the English & be ready to join His Majestys Arms whenever 
Sir William may call on them, and that they have & will con- 
tinue to advise the Delawares to be peaceable, to w^. he said 
they seem inclinable ever since Sir William spoke to them last 
Summer at Fort Johnson 

S r . W m . immediately dispatched the above Intelligence to Lord 
Loudoun. 

Sir William sent Two very large Belts by him, one to the 
Delawares strongly recommending to them to keep up to the 
Engagements they so solemnly entered into at a Meeting of the 
Chiefs of their Nation at his House last Summer & not be again 
deluded by the Artifices of the French 

a large Belt 

Another Belt to the Shawanese King returning him thanks for 
the early Intelligence he sent me and desiring he would con- 
stantly accquaint him of the Enemies Motions in that part of 
the Country, also exhorting him & his Nation to adhere firmly 
to the Treaties & Friendship subsisting between them & the 
English which they would find to be their Interest & with all 



Seven Years' War 593 

giving them a hearty Invitation to come & join His Majestys 
Arms when called upon. S r . W m . gave the Messenger 10 
Dollars, a fine Scarlet Blanket with several Rows of Ribband 
on it, a fine Ruffled Shirt a Silver Arm Band for the Kings 
Son — Pipes, Tobacco, Powder & Ball & a pair of Snow 
Shoes — so parted 

Eod. Die. P. M. 

All the Sachims & several Warriors of the lower Mohock 
Castle came to Fort Johnson in order to settle Matters for the 
Condolance of old Abrahams Death the great Hendriks 1 
Brother — They joined Sir William therein as did also a Seneca 
Sachem called the Belt of Wampum & Scaroyady alias the 
half King. Sir William gave a large Black Belt to cover the 
Dead — another very good one to drape up the grave, and a 
third to desire both Sachems & young Men would be unanimous 
in their Councils & firm in their Resolutions — there were in the 
whole 10 Belts & two Strings w ch when setled by the Sachems, 
Sir William appointed Satturday the 29 Inst the day to set off 
on their Journey to Connojohery — which was accordingly 
agreed upon. Sir William then told them what News he had 
received from the Shawanese w ch they thanked him kindly for — 
they were treated plentifully with Victuals & drink & so parted. 

TO JAMES ABERCROMBY 

A. L. s:- 

Fort Johnson Jam*. 26th 1757 
Sir 

I inclose You a peice of Intelligence sent to Me by the King 
of the Shawanese liveing on the Cajuga Branch, which falls into 
the Susquehana River near Tiaogo. The Messenger is gone 
back again, with whom I have sent two verry large Belts of 
Wampum, One of them to the Delewares, Strongly recommend- 



1 Hendrick, a Mohawk chief, the so-called King Hendrick. 

2 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. 



594 Sir William Johnson Papers 

ing to them to keep up to ye. engagements they entered into at 
a Meeting with their Nation held here last Summer, and not 
be again deluded by the French, the other to the Shawaneses 
King, returning Him thanks for the early Intelligence He sent 
me, and desiring He would constantly acquaint Me of the 
Enemys Motions in that part of the Country, also exhorting Him, 
and his Nation to adhere firmly to the Treatys, and Friendship 
so long Subsisting between them & the English, and withall 
giving them a hearty Invitation to come & Join his Majestys 
Arms when called upon, which I hope will have a good effect. 

I propose in a few Days going to Conajoharee with the lower 
Mohawks, to Condole the Death of Old Abraham, and as it's 
customary among them on those Occasions, to give a Prisonner, 
or Scalp in the room of the Deceased. I should be glad you 
would please to order the Scalp which hung in Lord Loudouns 
Levy Room to be given to the Bearer, as it will be pleaseing to 
the Relations. 

I have the honour to be 
Sir 
Your Most Obedient 
& Most Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 
To Major Genr l . Abercrombie. 1 

My Compliments to Mr s . 
Abercrombie, who I hope 
is now in a better State 
of Health. 

INDORSED: 

Sir W m Johnson 
Letter to G. A. the 26 
January 1757 
Fort Johnson 



Major General James Abercromby. 



Seven Years' War 595 

JOURNAL OF INDIAN AFFAIRS 

Copy 1 

Fort Johnson Thursday 27. Jan 1 "*. 1757 

Four Sachems of the Mohocks came to Fort Johnson to know 
what time Sir William would set off & where they should lodge 
that night & be provided with Victuals & c . he told them there 
should be Lodging & Provisions for them all at Hannis Eils a 
Germans who lives 10 Miles this side of the Connojohery 
Castle — he then gave them a French Scalp & a very large 
Black Belt of Wampum hanging to it to give old Abrahams 
Relations, w ch greatly pleased the Indians. 

Fort Johnson 1 Feb r y. 1757. ' 

On Sir Williams return from Condoling the Death of Old 
Abraham the head Sachem at Conojohery he received a Packet 
of Letters from George Croghan Esq r . Deputy Agent dated 
from Pensilvania the 5 & 8 of Jan r ?. concerning Indian Affairs, 
particularly about a Meeting which with the Approbation of 
the Gov r . Council & assembly & the advice of Col Stanwix 2 
Commanding officer of his Majestys Troops in that Province, 
M r . Croghan proposed to be held at Harris' Ferry by the 1 of 
March, desiring at the same time Sir William would send a 
few Sachems of the Six Nations through the Country by 
Shamokin to attend & assist thereat. 

Monday being a very Snowy day, Sir William called 
Scharoyady, The Belt of Wampum and Seneca George to come 
here on Thursday — when being accordingly met, he accquainted 
them that he had received Letters from M r . Croghan, the Con- 
tents of which he made Cap' Montour interpret to them, w * 1 . 
as he knew them to be sincere Friends & well accquainted with 



1 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada. Indian Records, 
Vol. 4. 

2 Colonel Commandant John Stanwix of the 62nd regiment who was 
commissioned Major General June 25, 1759. 



596 Sir William Johnson Papers 

the affairs of the Southern Indians as well as of Indian Affairs 
in Pensilvania 

gave 4 Strings Wampum 

They withdrew to consider of it & returned in an hour and 
said they thought it best to call the Chiefs of the Mohocks 
tomorrow & accquaint them with it, "and have our joint 
Opinion." this Sir W m . agreed to & gave the Strings of 
Wampum to the half King who promised to invite them. They 
came accordingly on Fryday & after consulting a long time with- 
the Senecas & half King gave their Opinion, That Sir William 
should send a String of Wampum by them (then going to Con- 
nojohery) to accquaint that Castle with their Affair & have their 
Advice, and then they should send it to the Six Nations for 
them also to consider of it, as they looked upon it to be a matter 
of great Concern — they added it might cause a Jealousy were 
they to act therein or go to the proposed Meeting without 
accquainting their Bretheren the Six Nations thereof — neither 
did they think it would be so effectual whereupon Sir William 
agreed to it & sent the Strings by the Mohock Sachims Hans 
the Wild alias Kanadagai & Cechehoana who promised to see 
it forwarded from Connojohere. 

KERLEREC TO THE FRENCH MINISTRY 
Contemporary Copy 1 

Translation of a Letter from Mo r . de Kerlerec, 2 Governor 
of Louisiana, to the french Ministry, bearing date at New 
Orleans, the 30 th . January 1757. Intercepted and sent by 
Governor Lyttleton. 

I have the honor to send You, enclosed, the duplicate of the 
Preliminarys of Peace 3 agreed upon between me & the 



1 Inclosed in Loudoun to Johnson, July 1 , 1757; in Public Record 
Office, W.O. 34, vol. 38, London, England. 

2 Louis Billouart de Kerlerac, governor of Louisiana from 1 752 to 
1764. 

3 See page 5 74 of this volume. 



Seven Years' War 597 

Cherokees ; of which I have already informed you, by my Letter 
of the 13 th : December last. 

You will see, by the 9 th : Article of these Preliminaries, that 
suppose Mo r . de Vaudreuil, General of Canada, adhere to the 
Peace asked by that Nation, it will be absolutely necessary, 
(not only to Attach them to us Solidly, but likewise to avoid 
irritating them, and prevent our being dispised) that I should 
at all Events be prepared, to furnish them with what they may 
want, according to the Engagement I have enter'd into by that 
Article 

No one is more circumspect than I am, with regard to the 
Kings Interest. I feel, with regret, that they have in this Country, 
drawn him into several needless Expences; but I cannot avoid 
representing to You, that you cannot dispense with giving your 
precise Orders, for sending to this Colony as soon as possible, 
that is to say, between this & the month of July next, a double 
Quantity of the Goods sent out yearly for the Trade with the 
Chactas; Augmenting even the Article of Powder of which the 
Cherokees consume Yearly, ten thousand Weight. 

Mo r . Dauberville, wanted me to deliver him in, the List given 
me of the Species & Quantities of Goods necessary for the 
Annual Trade of this new Nation, in order to Ask You for 
them: but besides our being uncertain of a Peace with them 
and that the Wants of the Cherokees are far different and much 
more Considerable than those of the Chactas, I have convinced 
him, that in order, not to lead His Majesty into Expences, 
which may become needless, it would suffice to Ask You the 
double of the things necessary for the Chactas Trade; because 
if Mo r . de Vaudreuil should not approve of the Peace with the 
Cherokees, this Supplement of Goods, far from turning out a 
loss to the King, would serve the following Year for the Chactas 
Trade; and that thereafter one might take other precautions to 
satisfy the Taste of the Cherokee Nation; And moreover that 
if the Peace with them took place, I hoped for this first time to 
satisfy them with this Suplement. 



598 Sir IVilliam Johnson Papers 

These are the Steps which I have thought the most prudent 
to take, in the present Circumstances, and in Consequence of 
which Mo r : UOrdonnateur doubtless makes You the same 
request I do. 

I am &ca. 



FROM JOHN BUTLER 
Copy 1 

Captain John Butlers Letter who is posted as an Agent at 
Onieda, to Sir William Johnson 

Onieda 7 Feb r K J 7 57. 
Sir 

The 1. Inst arrived here 7 Indians from Sweegachie 2 — 
they are all Onondagas — they have said but little as yet, tho 
they say they have said all. I believe they would not say much 
because I was in the Meeting. What they said is this 

"Brothers of Onieda 

"We are hired by your Father the Priest who resides at 
Sweegachie who had a Letter from our Father the Governor, 
he desired we should go first to Onieda, and let them know that 
their People were all well in Canada, & tell them to be easy 
about them, there is one hundred (Those who live in Canada) 
of the Six Nations & not one Sick — The Gov r . of Canada 
said to them " I am very glad to see so many of my Children 
here — I am very glad to see things in so good a Sittuation & 
to see so many of my Children disposed to preserve the Antient 
Harmony between us. We are making the acc d . Agreement 
New again — I desire Children that you may live in Peace — 
You have lain quiet Children of Oswegachie, I thank you for 



1 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada. Indian Records, 
Vol. 6. 

2 Oswegatchie. 



5ei;en Years War 599 

it, as I have not desired you to do any thing this Winter. I 
give my Service to all your People & to the Oniedas likewise, 
Young and old, with my Service I send you Four Bags of 
Powder to shoot Birds with. The reason I send you this is, 
because I heard the English your Brothers gave you but a 
single handfull. I have it piled up here, you can have what you 
want for fetching 

They say there are Eight sent to the River Ohio & Letters 
for the several Forts they are to pass, there are some Mes- 
sengers sent to every Nation in their Interest & the Six Nations 
are included in their Speech — the Contents is this — 

"Children 

"I am very glad to see that your Lands are so peaceable, be 
quite easy in your Minds." 

The Indians belonging to this & the other Castles were set 
out from Canada to Sweegachie. The Gov r . ordered several 
Sleys to go with & carry them things as they could not carry it 
themselves also a Quantity of Liquor. There are some of this 
Nation hunting that way who have killed so many Deer they 
cant bring their Skins but must wait until Spring to come by 
Water. 

These Indians were 20 days coming from Sweegachie hither it 
being so bad travelling. Unless something happens extraordinary 
they dont expect their People home till Spring 

I dont think these Indians have told all they have to say yet, 
if I can learn any thing more worth writing you shall have it. 
Our Indians behave very well in this Affair they dont meet in 
Council but they take me with them. I have had a great deal 
of Talk with these seven Swegachie Indians, they say all the 
regulars that were taken at Oswego are sent to France 



600 Sir William Johnson Papers 

AN INDIAN CONFERENCE 

Copy 1 

Conojohere Castle Monday 7. Feb 1757 

At a meeting of the Connojohere Indians held at Brandt's 
House, Nichus a Sachem of the Tribe of the Wolf spoke 
as follows. 

Brother Warraghyjahey 

We are glad at seeing you here now as it gives us an Oppor- 
tunity of laying our Complaint before you. We are not well 
used by the Officers or Soldiers posted here, they do not behave 
like Brothers to us — they will not suffer us to come into the 
Fort, and tell us that in case the French were to attack us, we 
should not have admittance, besides they tell us this is the Kings 
Fort & that we have nothing to do with it. This is hard. We 
thought & you told us that this Fort was designed for our pro- 
tection. It is on our Land & built with our Timber, therefore 
think we have a right to it, at least to protection in time of 
Danger — but they tell us not. If that be the case we desire 
those People may be immediately withdrawn, and beg you will 
let us have some of the Militia here to keep this Fort as they 
are People we are accquainted with & can agree better together. 
If you do not comply with this our earnest request I must tell 
you, you will not see our Warriors in the Spring. 

Sir William told them he woud answer them in a few days 
as he thought it would not be consistent with Decency or their 
Customs to speak about any Business before the Ceremony of 
Condolence which he came to perform was over. 

After the Ceremony of Condolence was over Sir William 
made the following Answer to the foregoing Speech. 

Bretheren of Connojohery 

I was not so hasty nor Indiscreet the other day as you were, 
therefore I did not answer you then, but told you I would in a 



1 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada. Indian Records, 
Vol. 6. 



Seven Years War 601 

few days say something to you. I have now sent Cap 1 . Andrew 
Montour & Lieu 1 . Claas to deliver you my words, which shall 
not be many. In the first place I must tell you that who ever 
carrys you those Idle Stories against the Officers & Men are 
Enemies to their Country & no Friends of yours — You may 
rest assured that the King your Father lays no Claim to your 
Lands, nor Fort nor has he any thing in View by posting Men 
there but to gratify you & protect your People against any 
Insults or Attempts of the Enemy, to convince you of the Falsity 
of the said Reports, if you do not want Men there, they will 
be soon withdrawn, then you may have your Fort & Lands to 
yourselves, but I cannot think you woud be so blind to your 
own Interest as to think of or desire any such thing. 

In the next place I want to know the reason of such your 
Behaviour — I have not been used to the like no not even from 
the 5 Nations whom you exclaim so much against, They never 
told me as you have lately, that I should not see any of their 
Young Men. such Expressions are very unbecoming Bretheren 
& ungrateful for the Notice which has been always taken of You. 
I want to know if they are the Sentiments & Resolutions of all 
your People — If they are then I must tell you, that I fear the 
Tree which you helped to plant & the Fire w ch you helped to 
light up here, will not afford that Shelter or Comfort which 
otherwise you might undoubtedly expect from them. 

a Belt 
Bretheren 

Be not foolish or distracted, think of the old Friendship so 
long subsisting between us & you, also of the good opinion 
entertained of you by the great King of England your Father 
& all your Bretheren the English w ch . you daily find the good 
Effects of, and I dare say you will repent of what you so incon- 
siderately said to me the other day & act more prudently for the 
future which will be for your Interest & give me Pleasure 

3 Strings Wampum 



602 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM JOHN BUTLER 

Copy 1 

Second Letter from Cap*. John Butler 

Dated in Onieda 8 Feb r K 1757. 

Sir 

Just now come in the Cheifs of this Castle & desired me to 
write this concerning M r . Abeel's having been attacked in the 
Senecas Country — 'These French Indians declare they never 
heard a word of it before our Indians told them of it here nor 
dont think the Gov r . of Canada ever gave such Orders, but 
when they return they will find out by whose Orders this was 
done 

They desire me to write if you have any thing to say to these 
French Indians you will dispatch the Bearer as soon as possible 
as they may be back before the Indians go. 

TO JOHN BUTLER AND STEPHEN SCHUYLER 

Copy 1 

Sir William Johnson's Answer to the foregoing Letters. 2 

Fort Johnson 12 Feb r v. 1757. 
Sir 

Yours of the 8 by the Onieda Indians came to my hands this 
day. I am glad to hear that Nation behaves so well, but I 
am not pleased at their allowing French Emissaries to come into 
their Castle at this time with such idle & ill designing Messages, 
however as they are there now you must try to get all you can 
out of them, & tell them it will be their Interest to listen to & 
follow the friendly advice I have so often given them, if they 



1 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada. Indian Records, 
Vol. 4. 

2 Two letters from Captain John Butler, and a letter from Lieutenant 
Stephen Schuyler. 



Seven Years War 603 

do not they may repent it when too late. We will still receive 
them & the Cagnawagas as Friends if they will leave the French 
& return to their own Country & allegiance to his Majesty, if 
not they must take the Consequence & blame themselves. The 
English are now in earnest & determined to punish the French 
for their Villainous & Insolent Behaviour, they are resolved 
to bear it no longer & I would therefore as a friend advise all 
Indians to take care & consider & not be so ready to join the 
French, for they will not be able to protect & supply them with 
the necessaries of Life as the English can. This much you may 
tell the Sweegachie Indians & let them tell it to their People 
who may depend upon it that what I now say is the Truth, give 
them this Belt to confirm my words. 

To Cap 1 . J. Butler &) ~ . , 
T . £ J \ at Onieda 

Lieu 1 . Schuyler. \ 

AN INDIAN CONFERENCE 
Copy 1 
Fort Johnson 13 Feb r ». 1757. 

At a Meeting of the Connojoharys 
Pres*. 
S r . W m . Johnson 
Doctor Catherwood 
Lieu*. Claase Cap'. Montour Interp r . 

Sir William first bid them welcome with the usual Ceremonies 
on these Occasions & told them he did not doubt but they were 
charged with some Matters of Consequence which he was ready 
to hear. 

Their Speaker said 

Brother Warraghyjagey 

After the Ceremony of Condolence was performed the other 
day at our Castle by you & our Bretheren the Mohocks, your 



1 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada. Indian Records, 
Vol. 6. 



604 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Speech was delivered to us, by which we find that the last time 
you were here, some thing had been said which gave offence & 
has caused a Misunderstanding which we are sorry for & hope 
to make easy now. here they appoligized for what they said to 
him at Connojohary and declared they never meant it as Sir 
William had taken it & hoped their Declaration now made 
would satisfie & convince him they never intended any thing 
that would be disagreable to him for they had not the least 
regard to the French niether did they look any other way but 
to their Bretheren the English, this they confirmed by giving a 
Belt of Wampum 

Brother 

As to what you charged us with & said concerning the Tree 
& Fire, we do solemnly declare we never had a thought of 
doing or saying any thing w ch would hurt either — you may 
know our words are of no weight unless accompanyd with 
Wampum & you know we spoke with none & therefore beg 
you will not take notice of what was inconsiderately said by 
two or three of our People. You know we have been always 
ready to venture our lives in our Bretherens Cause & you may 
depend on our continuing in the same Resolution, but this we 
must say that we should be glad (in order to prevent our 
Bretheren of the Six Nations from being Jelous) to see them 
first Engage, that they may not say as they have already said, 
we were too forward — however this You may depend upon 
that let them act what way they please we will be ready to join 
you let our Fate be what it will 

gave a Belt of Wampum 
Brother 

You desired us to take care & not be drunk or suffer our Heads 
to turn but think of the old Friendship so long subsisting between 
us. We shall you may depend upon it beware of that as we 
are sensible it would be very prejudicial to us both. 

gave 3 Strings Wampum 



•Seven Years' War 605 

Sir William spoke & told them That as they had declared 
their Innocence in so solemn a manner, he was thoroughly satis- 
fied, but desired they would be more cautious for the future & not 
speak to him on matters of Moment unless it was the Voice of 
the whole. 

gave 4 Strings Wampum 
Bretheren of Conojohary. 

I must earnestly recommend Unanimity to you, be strong 5c 
stedfast in your Resolutions as you have hitherto been & I 
assure you, you will have His Majestys Care of & regard for 
you continued. 

Sir W m . gave them 6 Barr s . of Pork & flour — a Barrel of 
Powder 1 ct . of Lead — 3 Casks of Rum, a Chest of Pipes & 
a Bag of Cut Tobacco & c . 

JOURNAL OF INDIAN PROCEEDINGS 

D. 1 

Fort Johnson 14 Feb r ». 1757. 

Two Onondaga Indians, who accompanyd the Deputies of 
the Six Nations that went to Canada last November, as far as 
Sweegachie arrived here in 20 days from the latter place in Com- 
pany with Seven Sweegachie Indians who were sent by the 
Priest & Officer there by order of the Gov r to enquire of the Six 
Nations, Whether what their Deputies said & desired in Canada 
were the Sentiments of the whole Confederacy. These 
Onondagas say, 

When the Deputies arrived in Canada, they found there was 
a Body of 200 French & 300 Indians of different Nations pre- 
paring to set out for the German Flatts & the Mohock River 
with the first Snow — They asked the Gov r . General whether 
he was detirmined to put said Scheme in Execution, being 



1 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada. Indian Records, 
Vol. 4. 



606 Sir William Johnson Papers 

answered in the Affirmative they spoke to the French Indians & 
told them it would absolutely breed a Quarrel & that immediately 
between them & the Six Nations were they to join the French in 
it, they afterwards desired the Governor to drop the Scheme & 
not molest that part of the Country. On which the Gov r . told 
them he thought their Bro r . Warraghyjagey had put those Words 
into their Mouths — They assured him it was their own desire 
& Sentiments, adding that, as that was a Road of Peace which 
their Forefathers had always used when they came to speak with 
their Bretheren the English, they would not have it stopped or 
covered with Blood. On this the Gov r . told them it should not 
be done, and that he would accquaint all his Children the Indians 
with it & forbid them going that way. 

The Informant says that the Cheifs who went to Montreal 
were on their way home & near Sweegachie when he left it but 
thought they would stay & hunt some time, he says there are 
but 1 00 Soldiers at Sweegachie & 300 at Cadaraqui. The French 
officer & Priest at Sweegachie, told them that if the English 
should build another Fort at Oswego they would destroy it. He 
further added that he heard it commonly reported at Swegachie 
that before the Snow was all gone the French would take the 
Field with a great Number of Indians from the Westward who 
use Bows & Arrows, also Arondacks, Squightarighroenes & c . & 
attack us in our Forts at the Lake & Carrying Place (meaning 
Fort Edward) since we do not come to them. He says that the 
Six Nation Deputies & Cagnawagas spoke very smartly to the 
French Gov r . & told him it appeared to them that he wanted 
nothing more than to set them who were Friends & Relations by 
the Ears & have them destroyed, as he was always for having 
them the advanced Party — he says the Cagnawagas are 
endeavouring all they can to keep out of the Scrape alledging 
they know not what the Quarrel is for. Provisions at Cadaraqui 
pretty plenty since they took Oswego, Amunition & Arms also — 
but he thinks in general Provisions are pretty scarce in Canada. 
Goods very plenty, they like the General very well. There are 
many German & Dutch amongst the Troops who are much more 



Seven Years' War 607 

Tender to the Indians than the French are. he says that some 
of the Swegachie Indians tho much against their Inclinations, 
joined the French last year & that they & the Cagnawagas were 
detirmined now not to join if they can avoid it. Lastly he says 
the French are detirmined (as he heard) to build several Forts 
between Montreal & Ticonderogo early in the Spring. 

Sir William gave them Four Kegs of Rum & sundry other 
Trifles & so dispatched them. 

TO WILLIAM DENNY 
Copy 1 

Fort Johnson, February 1 6th, 1757. 
Sir: 

I have the Honour of your Favour of the 6th of December 
last with a Copy of the Two Conferences held at Easton, and 
am well pleased with the Strong Professions of Friendship made 
by Teedyuscung, the Delaware Chief. I sincerely wish we may 
be able to remove the Cause of those Indians' Discontent, and 
effectually bring them back to his Majesty's Interest. 

Sensible of the Importance of this Affair, I charged Mr. 
Croghan upon his going into your Province to sound the Dis- 
position of those Indians who still live in the Province, and by 
all means to spirit them up to continue their Friendship and join 
his Majesty's Arms here, or anywhere else they may be wanted 
next Spring; and above all to enquire into the Cause of the cruel 
Behaviour of the Shawonese and Delawares to their Bretheren, 
the English. I am extremely glad to find that Mr. Croghan's 
Opinion given to you was unanimously approved of, and that 
there is a general Disposition in the different Branches of the 
Legislature to bring this unhappy Affair to a peaceable Issue. 
The Meeting now proposed will be a favorable Opportunity for 
that Purpose, and, therefore, by this Conveyance, I send proper 
Instructions to Mr. Croghan how to act upon this Occasion, 
and have given him particular Directions to apply to Lord 



1 Printed in Pennsylvania Colonial Records, 7:434-35. 



608 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Loudoun for his Advice and Approbation, who, I presume, will 
be in your Province by that Time, or if not there, then to the 
Commander-in-Chief for the Time being. I observe what you 
say relative to the Complaints of the Delaware Chiefs concerning 
their Lands, and I am quite clear that a Particular Attention 
should be paid to them, and if made good that an immediate 
Satisfaction should be made as to the only likely Means to affect 
an intire Reconciliation. 

I shall sollicit the Six Nations in the strongest Terms to use 
their Influence with the Delawares and Shawonese for the imme- 
diate Restoration of the Prisoners (still in their Power) to their 
Families. 

That nothing may be wanting to make the intended Meeting 
as useful as may be to the Purposes proposed, I have sent Notice 
thereof to the Six Nations, and desired some of their Chiefs 
would be present, but fear their remote Situation and the Severity 
of the Season will not permit their Attendance so soon. I have 
sent the Half King, some Senecas and Mohawks of both Castles 
to be present and give all the Assistance they can possibly, which 
they promise to do. 

As I have nothing more at Heart than the bringing this 
unhappy Affair to a favourable Issue, I shall very readily join 
with you, Sir, in any Measures which may be conducive to that 
End. 

I am, Sir, Your most obedient humble Servant, 

W M . Johnson 

INSTRUCTIONS TO GEORGE CROGHAN 

Copy 1 

[Fort Johnson, Fete 16, 1757.] 

Instructions to George Croghan Esq r . Deputy Agent for 
Indian Affairs, at the intended Meeting to be held at Harris 
Ferry on the Susquahanna or elsewhere in those parts. 



1 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada. Indian Records, 
Vol. 4. 



Seven Years' War 609 

You are in the strongest Terms to remind the Shawanese & 
Delawares of the Solemn Promises they made to the Delegates 
of the Six Nations whom I sent to meet them at Otsiningo last 
Spring, and confirmed by the Delaware & Shawanese Kings in 
behalf of their People last July at my House, in the presence 
of their Uncles the Six Nations — which was that they would 
lay down the Hatchet, return to their Friendship with the English 
& deliver up all the English Prisoners which were in their 
Power — this they again repeated & ratified at a subsequent 
meeting with Gov r . Denny 1 at Easton in Nov r . last. All which 
I have sent proper officers to accquaint their Uncles the Six 
Nations with who will as well as we expect a due performance of 
all they so publickly, repeatedly & solemnly promised & engaged. 
In the next place you are in the best manner you possibly can, to 
Show them that it will be their Interest to live in Friendship with 
the English who are best inclined & not only most able to supply 
them with the Necessaries of Life but also to protect them 
against the Insults or Attempts of any Enemy, as they are the 
most Powerful & Wealthy People on the Cont 1 . 

You are carefully & attentively to hear what they have to 
say with respect to the Grievances mentioned by them at Easton 
last Nov r . or any others they may have recieved, and if justly 
grounded, you are to take the most prudent, speedy & effectual 
Method to have them amply redressed, as I am convinced with- 
out that, all we can do will be to no purpose. 

In case you can accomplish this, you will then by all Means in 
your power and with the assistance of the Sachems of the Six 
Nations & Mohocks whom I send to Attend the said Meeting, 
endeavour to prevail on them to turn the Edge of their Hatchets 
against the French the Enemys of Mankind, in conjunction with 
their Uncles the 6 Nations, and that this & the delivering up all 
the Prisoners in their hands or power, will be the only convinc- 
ing proof they can give us of their Sincerity & is what we expect 
from them. 



Governor William Denny. 



610 Sir William Johnson Papers 

You are to make a full & faithful Report to His Excellency 
the Earl of Loudoun of every thing done at said Meeting & in 
Consequence of it, who I suppose will be at Philadelphia at that 
time, if not you will make it to Col. Stanwix 1 or the Commander 
in Chief there agreable to His Lordships Directions. In the 
Mannagment of this Affair You are to do all in your Power to 
promote the good of His Majestys Indian Interest in general 
without the least Reserve or partiality. 

As many things may occur in the Course of the said Meeting 
which I cannot possible foresee you are to act to the best of your 
Judgment, & if practicable, obtain Lord Loudouns Advice & 
Directions or Col. Stanwix s . agreable to His Lordships Letter 
to You 

Lastly let every thing be carried on in the most Candid, equit- 
able & friendly Manner possible so as to remove & prevent all 
Jealousies, keep an exact Authentic Copy of all your Proceed 1 
ings & either bring or send them to me as soon as conveniently 
can 

Given under my hand at Fort Johnson 
this 16 day of Feb r y. 1757. 

W M . Johnson 

JOURNAL OF INDIAN PROCEEDINGS 

Copy 2 

Fort Johnson 17 Feb r ». 1757. 

Hercules alias 3 a great Friend of Sir W m . John- 

son's an Oneida Indian was coming down to his House with 
the following News, but falling Sick by the way sent his Wife 
to tell him — "that the fair Promises made by the French to the 



1 John Stanwix, colonel commandant of the first battalion of the 60th 
or Royal American regiment. 

2 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada. Indian Records, 
Vol. 4. 

3 Blank in the manuscript. 



Seven Years War 61 1 

6 Nations (as in the Onondagas Report of the 14 Inst (vide 
pag 424) was not to be depended on. He understood it was 
only to lull us to sleep for he was assured there would be an 
attack made against the German Flatts & this part of the Country 
very soon." 

Sir W m . sent his Wife back again immediately with a Sley & 
sent by her a String of Wampum, desiring that her Husband 
as soon as he got well would go on the Scout towards Swegachie 
& if he discovered an Enemy to send immediate Notice to Sir 
William, who sent him a fine Gun, a Ceg of Rum & c - 

Eod. Die 

Sir William sent Gingegoe's Son & two other Mohocks to 
Sacondaga who are to Scout the Woods towards Fort Edward & 
Lake George & if they discover the Enemy to bring immediate 
Intelligence. 

gave him a pair of Snow Shoes the 
rest had their own, took Provisions 
& set off. 

Eod. Die 

An Onieda Young Man arrived here in two days from that 
Castle, and three days before that he left Cayouge Castle, the 
Night before he left it a Frenchman named La Force a Partner 
of Du Quanie s arrived from the Senecas & told him that he had 
heard there, that there was a very numerous Meeting of the Otto- 
wawas & other Nations at Teughsaghruntie alias Detroit from 
whence they were detirmined to march as soon as the Snow & Ice 
was gone against these parts, to revenge the Death of One of their 
Cheifs who was killed in a Skirmish near Oswego last year 

These Indians said they would destroy the German Flatts & 
Mohock River — 

Sir W m . gave him a fine Gun, a Keg of Rum, Stockings & c . 
and Cash to purchase Provisions also paid for his Slay here & so 
dispatched him — 



612 Sir William Johnson Papers 

INDIAN INTELLIGENCE 
D. S. 1 

Fort Johnson, J 8th Feb*. 1757. 

Silver Heels, alias Rosa (whom I sent last december with 
another Seneca Indian named John to the Senecas for Intelli- 
gence) arrived here alone, he left his Comrade behind whom I 
expect in a few days. 

He says he could not learn much from the Nations as he past 
through them, being Looked upon as a Spy, but meeting some of 
his Relations in the Senecas who lately came from the Southward 
or Ohio, he heard from them the following News, which he 
thinks may be depended upon viz. 

That the French are Indefatigable among all the Indian 
Nations to the West, and meet with great Success, They are 
mustering as many Indians, of the distant and Neighbouring 
Indian Nations as possible in order to make a descent upon the 
Southern Provinces very early in the Spring, for which reason 
they are bringing great Quantitys of Provisions daily from 
Niagara. 

The Commanding Officer at Tiyondaroga alias Fort du 
Quesne has sent 100 Delawares to Niagara, in order to assist in 
carrying Provisions to Fort duquesne from whence the whole 
Body are to move as soon as assembled. 

The Person who gave this Intelligence to my Informant, says 
that there was a Great meeting of Indians also at Detroit alias 
Teughsaughrundy and soon expected to Join those at Tiyon- 
daroga or Fort duquesne. 

This account he tells me was confirm'd by an other Indian 
arrived from Fort du quesne at Chenussio (one of the most dis- 
tant Seneca Towns) the day he left that Place which is 1 5 days 



1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Cal. With the 
exception of the last two paragraphs the text of this "intelligence" in the 
Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada. Indian Records, Vol. 4 
is identical with the text here printed. 



Seven Years War 613 

ago. The Delawares have built a Fort at Beaver Creek below 
Fort Du quesne near Loggstown. There are 10 Cherokee 
Indians arrived at Fort duquesne on an Invitation from the 
French, and it is thought that many; of said Nation will be 
Prevail'd upon to Join them, as well as many of the Six Nations, 
who live dispers'd among the Several Nations attach'd to the 
French, and it is to be feared they will seduce many more, should 
the French be successfull in their next attempts. — 

He lastly says, that the Six Nations as far as he could Learn, 
are greatly divided among themselves and he thinks if we are not 
Active early in the Spring; they may all turn against us, This 
is only his own opinion, which he delivered with Evident 
concern, Upon my asking him his Opinion why the Indians in 
General seemed to Incline more of late to the French than usual, 
he answerd that the Indeans look'd upon it, that the English by 
Extending their Settlements so far back intended to dispossess 
them of all their Lands, and the French assured them, that, that 
was their Resolution, and that, that was what led them to build 
Forts in their Country on the Ohio, and elsewhere, to stop the 
English from overrunning them besides the Six Nations seeing 
the French so successfull against the English, and little or no 
Resistance made, by means where of the French have acquired 
a strong alliance of all the Western and Northern Indians, and 
hath intimidated them. 

W M . Johnson 

Eod: Die 

An Oneida, a great Friend of mine was coming down with 
the following News, but falling sick by the way, sent his Wife 
to tell me, that the fair Promises made to the Six Nations, as 
in the Onondagas Report of the 14th Instant, was not to be 
depended upon, he understood it was only to lull us a sleep, 
for he was assured that there wou'd be an attack made against 
the German Flatts and this part of the Country very soon. 

I sent his Wife back again immediately with a Slay, and 
sent by her a string of Wampum, desiring that her Husband 



614 Sir William Johnson Papers 

as soon as he got Well would go on the Scout towards Swegachy, 
and if he discovered an Enemy to give me immediate Notice, 
Sent him a find Gun a Cagg of Rum &c a . 

W M . Johnson, 
indorsed : 

The Intelligence brought 
by Rosa, or Silver Heels 
a Seneca Indian — 
Also Peter an Oneida 
Indians Intelligence 
Eod. Die 

Feb?. 18* 1757. 

JOURNAL OF INDIAN AFFAIRS 
Copy 1 

[Fort Johnson, Feb. 18-19, 1757] 

Sir William gave Silver Heels for 
his Service good cloathing, Silver 
Arm band, 10 Dollars & c .— 

Eod. Die [Feb. 18, 1757] 

Sir William dispatched an Oneida Indian named long Jacob 
with 4 Strings of Wampum to Aughquaga to accquaint the 
Indians there that there were several & others going that way 
in a day or two & desired they would be ready to accompany 
them to the Meeting at Harris s Ferry — 

gave him Provisions Cloathing & c . 
& so sent him off 

Fort Johnson 19 Feb r y. 1757. 

Sir William dispatched M r . Croghans Servant with Dis- 
patches for Gov r . Denny & Geo. Croghan Esq r . gave him £5 — 
to defray his Expences & gave him a press Warrant — sent 
also by him a Letter & Intelligence to Major Gen 1 . Abercrombie. 



1 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada. Indian Records, 
Vol. 4. 



Seven Years War 615 

ORDERS TO CAPTAIN THOMAS BUTLER & CAPTAIN JELLAS 

FONDA 

Copy 1 

Fort Johnson 19 Feb* 1757 

You are to proceed immediately to Onondaga there to remain 
until further Orders. 

When there you are strictly to follow such of your first Instruc- 
tions as are not yet complied with by the Indians, particularly 
that part whereby you were to press forward the Meeting to 
be held at Onondaga, as the times are uncertain, they ought 
to settle matters immediately, and you are to be present at it & 
keep an Exact Record of the whole & of every thing else you 
can learn worthy your notice 

You are also to try all in your Power to get the best Intelli- 
gence possible of the Enemys Designs & Motions & immediately 
transmit them to me by Express. 

You are to let the Six Nations know that at a Meeting held 
last Nov r . at Easton with the Gov r . of Pensilvania and the 
Delawares & Shawanese & some Six Nations, Peace was con- 
cluded & satisfied between those Nations & all His Majestys 
Subjects. Whereupon they promised the Governor as they did 
to me last July that they would restore all the English Prisoners 
in their Power, and as they have yet returned but Five it is 
expected by the Governments & by me, that the Six Nations 
will use their Influence with their Nephews the Delawares & 
Brothers the Shawanese to deliver up all our People in their 
Hands as otherwise we cannot be easy in our Minds nor think 
their Cousins are sincere. Upon w ch . give this Belt. 

You are also to let the Six Nations know that there is a great 
Meeting of the Delawares, Shawanese & c . to be held soon at 
Harris 15 Ferry on Susquahannah where some of their Cheif Men 
are desired by me to attend at the Meeting & to be held by me 



1 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada. Indian Records, 
Vol. 4. 



616 Sir William Johnson Papers 

in Conjunction with the Gov. of said Province in order to 
enquire in the Causes of their Cousins Uneasinesses & cruel 
Behaviour to their Bretheren the English without giving them 
notice and to make those Indians Satisfaction for whatever 
Injuries they can make appear to have suffered, so that Every- 
thing may be peaceably settled, and you are to assure the Six 
Nations that the English have nothing more at heart than the 
Welfare of their Indian Allies, which they hope soon to con- 
vince them of by driving the French from all their Encroach- 
ments on their Lands & Hunting Grounds. 

You will by all the Arguments you can use endeavour to 
convince them it is their Interest to keep up that Friendship so 
long subsisting between them & their Bretheren the English who 
are best able to supply & support them — as I hope a little time 
now will plainly convince them thereon give this Belt. 

Lastly you are to use the best Economy you can & render 
me just Acc ts . on y r . Return 

Will. Johnson 

journal of indian proceedings 

Copy 1 

[Feb. 20-March /, 1757] 

Sunday Fort Johnson 20 Feb 1 "?. 1 757. 

All the Mohock Sachems & the half King met here & told 
Sir William Johnson, There were 8 Mohocks and 4 Senecas 
& Oniedas ready to set off for the Meeting at Harris 5 Ferry on 
Wensday & desired to have every thing necessary for their 
Journey ready against that time w ch . Sir William promised them. 
Accordingly he accquainted them with the Messages he had sent 
to the Six Nations by Cap ,s . Butler & Fonda w ch they approved 
of 6c thought it sufR 



1 In Canadian Public Archives, Ottawa, Canada. Indian Records, 
Vol. 4. 



Seven Years War 617 

In the midst of said Meeting Eserus & two Cayouge Indians 
whom Sir William had sent to Lake George several days ago, 
on a Scalping or Scouting Design, arrived and told Sir W m . & the 
Sachems they were come by order of the rest who were there 
with them to let me & them know, that their Bretheren the 
English at Lake George used them very ill, would not suffer 
them to go & speak to the Commanding Officer about Buisness 
but took them by the shoulders & turned them out like Dogs, 
this was the reason of their leaving said place & giving up their 
Design of going there upon any Service. 

Upon w ch . Sir William took & read a Letter from Maj r . Eyre 1 
dated the 1 1 Inst from Fort Henry wherein he assures him those 
Indians should be well used — before he could finish reading 
the Letter, they interupted him being very warm about what was 
told them, and said our People might write what they pleased, 
but they knew that to be the Disposition of the Army in general, 
for says Abraham Chief of the Mohocks, "I have seen too much 
of it last Fall at Lake George on my returning from Tionderogo 
with my Party where we killed two of the Enemy near their 
Fort, instead of being welcomed as we expected, the Great Man 
meaning General Winslow 2 would not see nor hear us speak, 
niether did he order us any Provisions tho we had been a long 
time fasting. The French do not use their Indians so, by which 
means they must get all at last. 

Sir William endeavoured to convince them that it could not 
be the Order of the Commanding Officer, as he knew him to be 
a good Man & not capable of doing an unkind thing to any of 
our Indian Friends, and that it must therefore be done by some 
foolish Rash Soldier who did not perhaps know whether they 
were Friends or Foes — this made them a little easy but Sir 
W m . could not thoroughly pacify them — 



1 Major William Eyre of the 44th regiment. 

2 General John Winslow, commander of provincial troops. 



618 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Fort Johnson 21 Feb 1 ?. 1757. 

A Cayouge Indian Nephew of Sir Williams great Friend 
Attrowana arrived here & says that late last Fall there were 1 00 
Warriors of the Delawares & c . called at Tiaogo as they were 
on their way going to War against the English and were Stopped 
by the Delawares of that Settlement who told them they had 
made peace with the English & were detirmined to keep it. 

Fort Johnson 23 Feb r y. 1757. — 

Sir William delivered Cap ts . Butler & Fonda their Instruc- 
tions with 3 Belts of Wampum & 1 black String to deliver his 
words to the Six Nations as in their Instructions (vide pag. 
433 & 434) on Account of the Badness of the Roads by 
reason of the great Floods & Ice breaking up they could not 
set off until this day. 

This Evening M r . Ryckman 1 arrived here from Onondaga 
(with 3 Onondaga Men & 1 Woman) where he has been all 
the Winter & says there is no News there of any Moment — 
The Delegates who went to Canada last Fall are not expected 
till towards Spring, when he heard a grand Meeting was to 
take place there. He says the Indians of that Nation behaved 
extreamly kind to him & the Red heads Son was a Days Journey 
on his Road hither, got Sick & returned. 

Two Onieda Indians arrived here who were sent by the 
Sachems to enquire of S r . W m . whether the Account they had 
heard was true Viz. that 3 Vessells full of Southern Indians were 
arrived at New York & what they came about, he answered 
them immediately there was no such thing, but that there were 
several Vessells arrived from England with Troops & many 
more soon expected, gave them 3 Kegs of Rum & c . & c . 

Sent also a Message by them to old Aguiotta cheif Sachem 
of Onieda a great Friend of S r . W m . to let him know he intended 
in a few days to send a Sley for him [to] bring him hither 



Albert Ryckman. 



Seven Years War 619 

where he should be well taken care of while he lived as he was 
always a true Friend to the English — 

Fort Johnson 23 Feb r J\ 1 757 — 

Yodairihoghte Son of Aguiotta the Chief Oneida Sachem, a 
Nephew of his & another Young Man arrived here, they came 
for Rum as did many more of the Onondagas, Cayouges & 
Tuscarores which S r . W m . ordered for them with other Articles, 
such as Paint, Powder, Lead, Pipes, Tobacco & c . He 
promised Aguiotta's Son & Grandson 40 Dollars if they would 
bring him early Intelligence of the Approach of a French Army 
coming this way which they sincerely promised to do and said 
they would in three days after they got home go toward Swe- 
gachie [and] there hunt until Spring right in the Road the 
Enemy must come. 

The same day a Cagnawaga Indian who has lived here these 
two Years at Sir Williams Request, came & told him he was 
very uneasy in his Mind for several Reasons & desired my advice 
how he should Act — he soon removed the Causes of his 
Uneasiness & settled his Mind & made him prepare to attend 
the Sachems to the Meeting at Harris s Ferry 

Eod. Die 

In the afternoon the Sachems & several Warriors of the Tribes 
of the Wolf & Turtle came from the Mohock Castle here & were 
fitted out with Cloaths & every thing necessary for their Journey. 
The Tribe of the Bear they said would be here in the Morns, 
to receive their Cloaths & c . Sir William gave them a Pasport & 
a Letter to M r . Ashly at Aughquaga for a Couple of Battoes 
to carry them down the River to Harris 55 Ferry — gave them 
also an Order to John Wemp to mend their Fences against their 
Return — Sir William sent by them a large Belt to tell the 
Aughquaga Indians that he was surprised at their not coming 
last Fall at his Request after the many fair Promises they had 
made to him, that whenever he called upon them they would 
be ready — he now desired by this large Belt that they would 



620 Sir William Johnson Papers 

hold themselves in readiness against he might call on them as 
they have now no Excuse there being a good Fort built for 
their Protection. Sir William gave the Mohocks 6 Barrels of 
Porke & flour for their Castle, a Barrel of Powder 1 O. Barrel 
of Lead, a Chest of Pipes, a Bag of Tobacco, some Rum & c . 
and so sent them off. — 

The same Night, John Abeel & Mons r . La Forge alias 
Giginghsway a french Man who has lived several Years amongst 
the Six Nations arrived here from the Senecas Country & the 
Cayouge Nation, in 1 1 days but brought no News of any Con- 
sequence, only that there was a very great Meeting (he heard) 
of several Nations of Indians at Teughsaghrondie or Detroit. 
He said he was of Opinion we had but few Friends amongst the 
Cayouges except Ottrowana & Skarayady who are two very 
leading Men — he said Jean Ceur 1 was very ill at Niagara 

Fort Johnson 24 Feb r y. 1757. 

Sir William Johnson set off for the Connajohary Castle in 
order to send some of those Indians to the Meeting at Harris s 
Ferry, also to talk with the Oniedas who were coming there to 
condole the Death of Abraham & send them there also. 

The same Night he arrived at Connojohary where he had the 
Sachems together & told them the reasons of his sending Cap'. 
Butler & Cap 1 . Montour to Onondaga which they much approved 
of. After that was over he desired by a String of Wampum, 
that they would keep Scouts out in order to bring him timely 
Notice of the Enemys Approach, should they attempt coming 
this Way as they threatened. 

He also delivered them a Message from the Mohocks & c . 
which was to accquaint them, that in Consequence of what he 
had said to them about a Meeting to be held at Harris 5 Ferry 
with the Delawares & c . they were ready to set off that Morning,, 
with about 20 of their People to attend at said meeting, & 
hoped they would meet them at Cherry Valley or there abouts 



Chabert de Joncaire. 



Seven Years War 621 

as had been agreed upon between them — they answered there 
would be some of their Chiefs ready very soon to accompany 
them thither — but that there was also a Meeting of the Six 
Nations to be held next Morning at their Castle in order to 
condole the Loss of old Abraham & that might detain them 
some time. 

Satturday 26 feb?. 

In the Evening Conachquiesa Chief of Oneida arrived at 
Connojohary & told Sir William Johnson, the rest of their Nation 
with some of the Tuscarores were near at hand & woulcT enter 
the Castle next Morning — there was Provision immediately 
sent for them that night & Sunday Morning they came in order 
to the House where Sir William was, which they entered crying 
in their usual way on those Occasions — after they ended that 
part of the Ceremony he bid them welcome, told them he was 
glad to see them — and then proceeded to tell them what Cap 1 . 
Butler & Cap 1 . Montour were charged to say to the Six Nations, 
and Strongly recommended to them to assist therein & forward 
the General Meeting proposed to be held at Onondaga, w**. he 
hoped would be so conducted as to turn out to our Mutual 
Advantage. 

They very kindly returned Sir W ms . Compliment & said they 
were rejoiced to have the Pleasure of shaking him by the hand — 
They approved of the Instructions given to Cap'. Butler also of 
the Meetings taking place soon, but said they were of Opinion 
it would not be before the Delegates returned from Canada 
which they expected would be soon. Sir William treated them 
with Punch & Rum, gave the