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Painting by Benjamin West, Mellon Collection, 
National Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C. 



Prepared for publication by 

Senior Historian 

The Division of Archives and History 

Director and State Historian 



If. ix- Si 






Volume X 


Illustrations v 

Preface vii 

Chronology of Daniel Claus ix 

The Seven Years' War 1 

The Indian Uprising 618 



Colonel Guy Johnson Frontispiece 

Painting by Benjamin West, Mellon Collection, National Gallery of Art, 
Washington, D. C. 

General James Abercromhy 2 

Painting owned by Major R. W. Duff, Scotland. From J. C. Webster, ed., 
Journal of Jeffery Amherst (Chicago, 1931). 

Plan of the Forts at the Oneida Carrying Place 42 

From original in British Museum. 

John Butler 1 00 

Portrait by an unknown artist. In the Canadian Archives. 

Montreal in 1 760 1 90 

Engraving in J. C. Webster Collection, New Brunswick Museum, St John, 
New Brunswick 

Certificate used by Johnson in Presenting Medals to Indians 254 

From New York Historical Society 

Plan of Fort Niagara 320 

Taken from that of M. Pouchot, the builder. In Documents Relating to 
Colonial History of the State of New York, X:976. 

General Henry Gladwin 380 

Engraving from the portrait by John Holland. In Charles Moore, The Northwest 
under Three Flags (1900). 

General Frederick Haldimand 408 

Painting by Sir Joshua Reynolds. Courtesy of Mrs W. L. Haldimand, 
Westmount, Quebec. 

Thomas Flulchins' Map of 1762 522 

Illustrates his Journal of April 4-September 24. Courtesy of Henry E. Hunt- 
ington Library. 

General Thomas Gage 788 

Painting by John Singleton Copley. Courtesy of Mrs Frederick S. Moseley, 
Boston, Mass. 

John Montresor's Map of Detroit in 1763 870 

Courtesy of William L. Clements Library 


This volume covers the period from September 1 758 through 
December 1 763, inclusive. Thus it deals with the campaigns and 
diplomacy of the French and Indian War, with Pontiac's Con- 
spiracy, and with many matters pertaining to the settlement of the 
Peace in America. It parallels Volume III and a part of Volume 
IV of the Johnson Papers, supplementing and filling out the picture 
of those years. These documents illuminate the part played by 
Sir William in placating and controlling the Indian tribes, espe- 
cially the Six Nations of Iroquois, and clarify his wise policy 
as contrasted with that of Lord Jeffery Amherst, the British 
Commander-in-Chief for most of the period. 

The contents of this volume have come from these principal 
sources : the Amherst Papers in the Public Record Office, London, 
England; the Indian Records and Claus Papers in the Public 
Archives of Canada, Ottawa; the Gage Papers in the William 
L. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Michigan ; the Loudoun Papers 
in the Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, California; 
Wheelock letters in the Dartmouth College Library; the New 
York Historical Society; the Massachusetts Historical Society; 
and the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. A number of other 
libraries and collections have supplied smaller numbers. 

Through such collections, missing letters and documents, some 
formerly listed in the Johnson Calendar and known only by copies, 
or lost in the fire of 1911, are now presented. 

Much new material has been obtained from the Canadian 
Archives, where the several volumes of Indian Records are often 
in the hand of Sir William or of his secretary, Guy Johnson ; and 
many copies of documents which were enclosures with reports or 
letters have been included as a legitimate part of the Johnson 
papers. In a few cases more complete copies, or variants, are given 


of letters published in earlier volumes ; and a few of the original 
documents of the New York State Library, somewhat damaged 
by fire, are given in the mutilated form. 

As in earlier volumes, the location or ownership of all documents 
is given, and the generous help of many persons, too numerous to 
mention, is hereby acknowledged with sincere thanks. 

The great bulk of the papers printed in this volume was collected 
prior to 1939. The papers were transcribed and annotated by 
Dr. Almon W. Lauber under the general editorship of Dr. 
Alexander C. Flick. Since that time much new material has 
been discovered and added to this volume and those that are to 
follow. This volume has been thoroughly reviewed and edited by 
Dr. Milton W. Hamilton who has checked every item against the 

Director, Division of Archives and History 

and State Historian 


Chronology of Daniel Claus 





Sept. 13 

Born at Benningham, Germany. 



Arrived at Philadelphia. 



Set out with Conrad Weiser to 
visit Iroquois country. 


Visited Rhinebeck, Schoharie, 
Fort Hunter, Fort Johnson, 
Stone Arabia, and German 


Reached Onondaga. 

Oct. 1 ( 


Left Onondaga. 

Dec. 1 ( 


Returned to Philadelphia. 


Dec, 1750 to 




Lived in Philadelphia. 


Went to Canajoharie. 



June and July 


May 7 
May 15-21 

Resided at Fort Johnson. 
Returned to Canajoharie. 

Present at Albany Congress. 

Visited Philadelphia with Mo- 
hawk deputies. 

Lieutenant in the Indian service 
and interpreter and deputy 
secretary of Indian affairs. 

Wrote to Johnson for Mohawk 

At Indian meeting at Fort John- 


August 9 

Sept. 4 (?) 

Sept. 8 

Nov. 16-25 


Dec. 30 



Sir William Johnson Papers 

June 21 -July 4 At Indian meeting at Mount 


At Indian meeting at Mount 

Set out for Lake George in com- 
pany with Indians. 

Reached Lake George;- at Indian 
council there. 

Participated in the battle of Lake 
George, under General John- 

Scouting on Lake George. 

Accompanied Johnson to New 
York City. 

Attended congress with Oneidas, 
Tuscaroras, and others, at Fort 

May (?) Visited Philadelphia with Six 

Nations Indians. 

Attended Indian congresses. 
Lieutenant in the 60th or Royal 
American Regiment. 

At Indian congresses. 

At Indian congress. 

With Johnson in Indian congress 

at Canajoharie. 
In battle at Niagara. 
At conference with Mohawks. 

Oct. 1 (about) Deputy Superintendent of Indian 

Affairs in Canada. 

1761 July 6 Captain in the 60th or Royal 

American Regiment. 

May, June, and 




April and June 



April 4-22 

July 24 


March 20 

Chronology of Daniel Claus xi 

1 762 Jan. 30 Attended General Gage's pro- 

ceedings with Caghnawagas at 
Soult St. Louis. 

July 1 Requested leave from Amherst to 

quit his commission in the 4th 
Battalion of the Royal Ameri- 
can Regiment. 

July Married Nancy Johnson. 

Fall Corrected new edition of Indian 

Prayer Book. 

1 763 July Ordered to hold a conference with 

Canada Indians. 

July 27-Sept. 12 Held Indian congress at Caghna- 


1 765 April-May Attended Indian congress at John- 

son Hall. 

1765 May 8 Witnessed treaty with the Dela- 

wares at Johnson Hall. 

1 766 July 23-3 1 Assisted at a treaty with Pontiac 

at Oswego. 

1 767 Returned to Canada for a short 


1 768 Feb. 1 8 Colonel of militia. 

March Attended Indian congress with 

Canada Indians and Cherokees 
at Johnson Hall. 

Fall Attended congress at Fort Stan- 


1770 July Attended Indian congress with 

Six Nations, Canada Indians, 
Cherokee Indians and depend- 
ent tribes, at German Flatts. 

xii Sir William Johnson Papers 

July About to return to Canada. 

1771 July At Indian congress with Six 

Nations at Johnson Hall. 

1 773 April At Indian congress with Six 

Nations at Johnson Hall. 
1 774 April, June- July, 

and December At Indian congress with Six 

Nations at Johnson Hall. 
Sept. 15 At congress of Six Nations, at 

Johnstown, the Indians request 
that he be continued as their 

1 775 Jan. and Feb. Attended Indian congresses with 

Six Nations at Guy Park. 
June 1 Departed from Mohawk River 

home for Canada. 
July (about 

middle) Reached Aughquisasne. 

July 1 7 Held Indian council at Caghna- 


Sept. Sent to Caghnawagey to allay 

fears of Caghnawagas that 
their town was to be destroyed. 
Nov. 1 1 Embarked for Europe. 

1 776 and 

early 1 777 In England. 

1 777 March 3 Left London. 

June 1 Reached Quebec with commission 

as deputy superintendent of 
Indians, and with instructions 
to bring the Indians to cooperate 
with the British in the campaign 
of that year. 

Chronology of Daniel Claus xiii 

June 5 (about) At Montreal. 

June 23 Left Lachine. 

June 25 (about) Reached Buck Island. 

July 8 Appointed superintendent of In- 

dians for expedition of Briga- 
dier General St. Leger against 
Fort Stanwix. 

July 23 Reached Oswego. 

July 26 Left Oswego. 

August 2 Fort Stanwix invested by St. 

Leger's expedition. 

August 20 Intended to accompany Sir John 

(about) Johnson in attack on the Mo- 

hawk River country, but was 
forced to abandon this plan. 

August 22 Retreated from Fort Stanwix with 

St. Leger's force. 

August 26 Reached Oswego. 

Sept. 8 (about) At St. Johns (near Lake Cham- 
plain) on way to Canada. 

Oct. 1 6 At Montreal ; criticized St. Leger 

for not making use of certain 
information, and blamed the 
Fort Stanwix failure on this. 

Nov. 6 At Montreal ; stated that Sir Guy 

Carleton disliked his (Claus') 

Reported destitution of Molly 
Brant. Criticized Colonel John 
Butler's conduct and expenses; 
criticizes Sir Guy Carleton's be- 


Sir William Johnson Papers 


August 20 

Oct. 22 

Attended conference of General 
Haldimand at Quebec, with 
deputies of the Five Nations. 

His property in New York for- 
feited to that State, under act 
of the State Legislature of that 

1781 Jan. 11 

At Quebec. 

March 3 

At Montreal 


after 1 783 

Returned to 

remuneration for his losses. 


Died at Cardiff, Wales. 



Df. 1 

Camp at Lake George 2 Sep: 8th. 1758 


By some Private Letters just come to my Hands, it seems 
Col°. Bradstreet has proved successful in his Enterprize; 3 But as I 
have no Letter from him, tho' the others are very circumstancial, I 
cannot give all that Credit to them, that is necessary for to make 
them authentick; But if this Intelligence, as I hope may be de- 
pended upon, which You will best know from some of Your 
Indians, I must beg the Favor of You to sunder out a Couple of 
the most trusty to send across the Country, to B. Forbes, 4 with the 
Account and Particulars thereof, as his knowing of it, as early as 
possible, is very essential, and may be of very great advantage to 
H. M's. Service in the Operations carrying on to the Southward. 

I am &c. 

To Sir W m . Johnson 
Sep. 8, ! 758 

1 In Henry E. Huntington Library. Copy in Public Record Office, W. 
O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 Named St. Sacrement, in 1646, by Father Jogues; renamed Lake 
George, in 1 755, by Sir William Johnson. 

3 Colonel John Bradstreet was the commander of the British and colonial 
expedition which, on August 27, 1758, brought about the capitulation of 
Fort Frontenac, the important French bastion which controlled the traffic 
on Lake Ontario, and which protected the French supply-line to the upper 
country. Fort Frontenac was on the site of the present city of Kingston, 
Ontario, and was at or near the place called, by the Indians, Cataracoui 

4 Brigadier General John Forbes came to Halifax in 1757 as colonel 
of the 17th. Regiment of Foot. In December 1757 he was made a 
brigadier general and was adjutant general to Lord Loudoun until 
March 1 758. At Pitt's order he commanded the expedition against Fort 
Duquesne, which was surrendered November 24. He died March 11,1 759. 

2 Sir William Johnson Papers 

L.S. 1 

Fort Johnson 10 l \ Sep'. J 7 58 

I received your favour 2 with the Warrant 3 for a £ 1 000 Sterlg. 
for the Indian Service. 

Last night I received a Letter 4 from Governor Denny & another 5 
from Gov r . De Lancy, Copies of both which I herewith transmitt 
to your Excellency. 

As to Gov r . Dennys Invitation, it leaves me scarce time to 
be there in Season, besides I have some Doubts whether my 
Attendance would be as consequential as General Forbes & M r . 
Denny seem to imagine, and as I have no one to supply My 
place here, Whether my presence in this Quarter & at this Juncture, 
may not be more advantageous to His Majestys Indian Service in 
General than my Presence at this Meeting. 

I refer myself hereon to Your Excellencys Directions as I 

look upon myself to be under the Orders only of His Majestys 

Commander in Chief. T 

1 am 

Most respectfully 

Sir Your Excellencys 

Most Obed 1 . hum Serv* 

To His Excellency Wm. Johnson 

Major General Abercromby &ca. 


Sir William Johnson 

Fort Johnson 1 September 1 758 

Rthe 12*. 

Ans d . same day. 

1 In Henry E. Huntington Library. 

2 Dated Aug. 20, 1758. See Johnson Papers, 9:969. 

3 Dated Aug. 20, 1758. See Johnson Papers, 2:888. 

4 Denny to Johnson, Aug. 30, 1758, Johnson Papers, 2:890. 

5 De Lancey to Johnson, Sept. 3, 1 758, Johnson Papers, 2:894. 

6 To attend the Indian conference at Easton, September, 1758. 


Painting owned by Major R. W. Duff, Scotland. 
From J. C. Webster, ed. Journal of Jeffery Amherst (Chicago, 1931). 

Seven Years' War 


Df. 1 

Camp at Lake George J2 l . September, 1758. 

I am just now favor'd with yours of the 1 th . when [at the same 
time J received] 2 I likewise received Intelligence, "That the five 
Nations, in general, had promis'dtojoin M or . Longeuil, 3 with 2000. 
Men against the Mohawk River, & to meet him at Oswego about 
the 25 th . Instant, and that there were about 500, Utawawas 4 at 
Montreal for this purpose; that they were first to meet at Fort 
Frontenac, 5 there to be joined by some Messasagas, & to take 
thier provisions Artillery & Stores, for the Enterprize; and that 
it appears, the whole of the five Nations, are so much in the 
french Interest, that we may expect having their principal [In- 
terest] Force against us in a short time, — tho' not openly." — The 
reduction of Fort Frontenac, Our building a Fort at the Oneida 
Carrying Place, and [no mention] your taking not the least 
notice of any such Intentions or Designs of the five Nations, 
make me hope, that Nothing But prudence and precaution cou'd 
[give foundation to] authorize such a Report; but as it behoves 
Us to be on Our guard, [& to prevent] as well as to forecome 
such measures, if they are in the least intended, which (from 
your Influence [with & connections] over the Indians, [& your 
Connections with them we can by virtue of] or Your Connections 
with them thro' Means of Your Department,) none can more 
easily discover than yourself, I beg that You will immediately 
Enquire into it, and [make me a] report [of them] to me how You 
find them disposed, and what Number You Judge woud Join Us 
against the Enemy, when called upon either your Way or this, 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. Another copy is in 
the Henry E. Huntington Library. 

2 Words italicized and in brackets are crossed out in the manuscript. 
8 Paul Joseph le Moyne de Longueil. 

4 Ottawas. 

5 Cadaraqui, Cataraqui, on side of present Kingston, Canada. 

4 Sir William Johnson Papers 

which may [be] soon be the Case; For these Reasons I do not 
think it prudent [that] for you, [should at this time at just 
present] at present, to be absent, especially as you [yourself] 
have no one on the Spot, that can Supply Your place, [whilst] 
and that Mr. Croghan, who I doubt not is fully authorized 
and instructed by you for the purposes he was sent upon, is, and 
has been at Easton [& could, I should thin!?, by virtue of those 
Instructions & appointments] for some Time, besides, were you to 
set out upon the receipt of this Letter, you must come after the time 
appointed for the proposed Meeting, which, tho' you do not men- 
tion it, I suppose you have taken Notice of to Governor Denny & 
Lt. Govr. De Lancey. 

o W7u t I am &ca. 

to Sir w m . Johnson 

indorsed : 

To S r . W m . Johnson 
Sep'. 1 2*. 1 758. 


L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson, 1 7th Sep r . 1758. 

Yesterday Evening I was honoured with yours of the 1 2 Inst. 2 
As to the Intelligence which you have receiv'd, & of which You 
are pleased to give me an Extract, thus far in general I am no ways 
doubtfull of it — That the French had formed a Plan of penetrating 
down this River with a considerable Body of Troops, & Artillery 
& in which a Number of Indians would have joined them; that for 
this Enterprize they had ready the Artillery, Provision, Stores, & 
Indian Goods, which Col. Bradstreet found, destroyed & brought 
off from Fort Frontenac. of this Design you may recollect Sir, 
I gave you repeated Informations which I received from the 
Indians, who universally spoke of it with apparent Anxiety & full 

1 In Henry E. Huntington Library. 

2 Ante. p. 3. 

Seven Years' War 5 

Conviction. But that the 5 Nations in General did promise to 
join in this Enterprize, I do not beleive, and that 500 Ottawawas 
were at Montreal for this purpose seems to me somewhat im- 
probable, as I am persuaded that would be a very improper place 
to assemble them at for an Enterprize this way, & that the French 
are not such absurd Managers to call them so far out of the way on 
this Occasion, when Niagara, or Cadaraqui, was so much more 
proper. Neither do I believe the French could at any time this 
Summer have prevailed on so many Ottawawas to have joined 
with them. 

This Scheme of the French I suppose is for this year rendered 
impracticable by Col. Bradstreets Success. 

Now it appears that the whole of the 5 Nations are so much in 
the French Interest that we may expect having their principal 
Force against us in a Short time, tho not openly, as your Informa- 
tion words it — is what I have no lights to judge by. 

With regard to the late & present Disposition of the 5 Nations, 
unless it be some of the Farther Castles of the Senecas & 
Chenosio, 1 I beleive very few, If any of that Nation would have 
joined the French against us, but on the Contrary would have 
befriended us. Neither do I think the Cajugas would have stired 
against us, I am fully convinced the Principles & Endeavours of 
their Chiefs are to preserve an exact Neutrality for their Nation. 
One of the Chief Men at Onondaga did I am informed, & beleive, 
accept the French Hatchet for the five Nations last Year at 
Montreal, & for which he has been severely reprimanded by the 
Chiefs of the other Nations, & they have disavowed his conduct 
to me with every appearance of Sincerity. This Man, with those 
of his People who are under his Influence might probably have 
joined the French as he is still I suppose under that Influence. 
The Oneida Castle at the Lake are mostly I believe in the French 
Interest, tho their Chief Warriors declare to the Contrary. Some of 
the other Oneida Castle & some of the Tuscaroras might have 
joined the French, but the Major part I am persuaded would not, 
& are not disposed to be our Enemys. 

1 Genesee Senecas. 

6 Sir William Johnson Papers 

From every Circumstance by which I an able to form a Judge- 
ment, I think your Information of the present Disposition of the 5 
Nations in general to be groundless & without reason. Amongst 
many others, their readiness in Delegating some of their Chief 
Men to the Meeting at Easton, is I think a proof in their favour. 
I have now at my house Severall Seneca Indians from Chenosio 
sent down to inform me that Deputies are gone near six weeks ago 
from their Nation to severall Nations of Western Indians, to 
animate them to fall upon & destroy the french Settlements at 
Detroit, the River S l . Jerome 1 & Illenois & the hither part of the 
Mississipi & on the return of these Deputies I am promised to be 
Inform'd of their Success. I am of opinion the Destruction of 
Fort Frontenac, of the Vessells, Provisions &c there will fix the 

5 Nations firmer to our Interest, & tend to destroy what Interest 
the French had amongst them. 

Tho from all that I am hitherto able to form a judgement of 
the Disposition of the 5 Nations, my Opinion of them is, as I have 
above given it, yet upon the Information you have transmitted me, I 
shall be more particularly Attentive to Obtain the most speedy 

6 best Intelligence I can of what lately passed between Mons r . 
Langeuil & the 5 Nations when he was at Oswego, tho I am of 
Opinion his negotiations extended no further than to the dis- 
affected amongst the Onondagas & Oneidas. Upon my making 
any Discoverys of Moment, you may depend on having them 
immediately transmitted to you. 

I am suspicious some strong Scalping partys of the Enemy may 
speedily fall upon some of the Settlements on or near this River, 
between the German Flatts, & Schenectady, this does not arise 
from any Intelligence I have received, but is a matter of Meer 
Opinion. As to what number of Indians I think would join us 
against the Enemy either at Lake George or this way. Provided 
I have a months time given me, & can purchase the requisite 
particulars for fitting them out, I think I can promise for between 2 
&300. — I could upon earlier notice have stopped the Young Mep 

1 Now the Wabash River. 

Seven Years' War 7 

a great Number of whom are gone from the Indian Settlements on 
the Susquahanna River to the Meeting at Easton. & some parties 
w h . are gone out to War into Canada, & are not expected back 
within this Month. Arms I have not one left, Blanketts which 
will be a necessary Article, there were none lately either at New 
York, or Albany. I have Given Captn. Funda 1 Orders to purchase 
what Indian Arms, & some other goods he can get at the Carrying 
place, out of the Plunder bro 1 . from Fort Frontenac, when it is 
to be disposed of. Possibly I may have the above number of 
Indians ready within a Month, & perhaps a greater number, 
but you know Sir last time, tho I did everything in my power, I 
could not join you within the time I expected, & both as to time, & 
numbers with Indians, it is scarce possible to act with strict punctu- 
ality. Arms and Blanketts I am affraid of being distress'd for, 
however I will, when I receive your Directions do the best I can. 

I am 

most respectfully 

Your Excellencys 
Most Obedient & most 
humble Servant. 
Wm. Johnson 
To His Excellency 
Major Genl. Abercromby. 


Sir Wm. Johnson Bar 1 . 

Fort Johnson, 1 7th Sept r . 1 758' 

R the 1 9th, ans d . same day. 

Jelles Fonda. 

8 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Df. 1 

Camp at Lake George, September 19 th . 1758 

I glad to find by Your Letter of the 17 th . Ins 1 . 2 that from 
every Circumstance, by which You are able to form a Judgment, 
You think my Information of the present Disposition of the 5 
Nations in General to be groundless & without Reason ; and that, 
provided You have a Months Time Given You, & can purchase 
the requisite Particulars for fitting out Indians You think You 
can promise for between two & three Hundred. On the other 
hand I am very sorry that it [will require so long a time] 3 is the 
Want of Arms and Blanketts, which Occasions Your requiring 
so long a time to Collect and Equip them in; [and] I always 
Imagined You wou'd have a Stock of those Things by You, to 
answer any Emergency, and I am still hopefull You will be able, 
to procure them in less Time ; the five Batt ns that are coming to me 
from the Eastward, Part of which are already arrived at Boston, 
from when they are to march by Land, [will be with me I reckon 
in three Weeks, and as soon as they Join me,] if it is found 
practicable, I propose to proceed with them down the Lake 
[wherefore I flatter myself you will be ready by that time] And 
as You cannot but be Sensible of the good Effects that may result 
from being attended with a number of Indians on that Service, I 
doubt not but you will Exert Yourself to the utmost [of] in getting 
them ready by that Time. 

As I suppose You have Communicated to Brig. Gen. Stanwix 4 

1 In Public Record Office W. O. 34, Vol. 38. Another copy is in 
the Henry E. Huntington Library. 

2 Ante p. 4. 

3 Words italicized and in brackets are crossed out in the manuscript. 

4 Brigadier General John Stanwix came to America as colonel of the 
62d Royal American, Regiment, afterwards known as the 60th. He was 
first put in command of the Southern District of North America, with 

Seven Years' War 9 

your Suspicions of a strong Scalping Party of the Enemy speedily 
falling upon some of the Settlements on or near the Mohawk river, 
between the German Flatts and Schenectady, [/ he will certainly 
use his endeavours to prevent any mischief ensuing] I hope, if this 
Suspicion shou'd prove true, he will be so well on his Guard as 
not only to prevent all mischief, but also to give a good Account 
of the Enemy, his Strength being far Superior to any Scalping 
Party, [the enemy] they are, I think [are] able to bring that Way. 
if you have not already imparted this surmise to Brig r . Stanwix, I 
beg You [would] will do it immediately upon the receipt hereof. 

Silver heels, with two more Senecas came here some Time 
Since, & went out with an Ensign of the 44 th . in order to get a 
Prisoner from Tienderoga, but [the enemy were so well on their 
guard that] being discover'd they were obliged to return without 
any; they returned home yesterday. 

And on Sunday Capt. Dick with nine Mohawks likewise came 
into Camp with a design to try what they can do; according to 
Custom they got so intoxicated at there War Dance, that they 
are not sober yet. 

I am, &ca. 

L.S. 1 

Fort Johnson, 22 Sep r . J 758. 

I have the Honour of your Excellencys Letter of the 1 9 Inst. 2 
and in Consequence thereof I shall enter upon the best measures in 
my power for collecting all the Indians I can prevail onto join 
you, & this within as short a time as possible. 

headquarters at Carlisle, Pa. Appointed Brigadier General, December 
27, 1757, he was then relieved by Brigadier Forbes, and was ordered 
to Albany, and from there to the Oneida Carrying Place, where he 
erected a work called in his honor Fort Stanwix. 

1 In Henry E. Huntington Library. 

2 Ante. p. 8. 

10 Sir William Johnson Papers 

You may remember Sir I did propose to My Lord Loudoun to 
send for a proper assortment of Indian Goods 1 which might be 
ready against any Emergency, and which I told him would be 
a saving scheme to the Crown, his Lordship seemed to approve of 
my Proposal & I have him the List of a proper assortment, but I 
heard no more of it. If you think it would be an Adviseable 
Measure I can send to London for an Assortment this Winter 
which I may have in time next spring against the Campaign Opens, 
had I Blanketts & Guns, I am apprehensive it would be near a 
Month before I could join you with the Number of Indians I 
mentioned. Arms I am affraid cannot be got, & if I cant get 
Blanketts in time, I will endeavour to satisfie them with strouds 2 
tho they will be out of season unless the present fine Weather 
should continue. I will send to the Indians to bring down all the 
Arms they can muster among themselves & for which I will pay 
them. When I applied to you for a Warrant for the last £ 1 000 
I was in advance & I proposed the remainder for the Current 
Service. Upon this occasion I shall want an Additional Fund 
& you will please therefore to send me a Warrant for £2000 

I have not yet done it, but as you judge it proper I shall 
this day acquaint Brig r . Stanwix with my suspicions that some 
Scalping Parties of the Enemy may make some Attempts this 
way. I had Stone Arabia particularly in my mind when I men- 
tioned this, as we have no troops there. As to the Oneida Carrying 
place, I am not apprehensive they can do more there, (if they are 
carefull) than perhaps steal a man or two according to Custom. 
I am sorry Silver Heels 3 was unsuccessful, & that Captn. Dick 
& his Party behave so 111. Rum they cannot resist, & it flows every- 
where in Plenty. I dread its Consequences when the Indians come 

1 See Johnson Papers, 2:898. 

2 A coarse blanket or garment used in the Indian trade; apparently 
from Stroud, England. 

3 A Seneca Warrior, known as Half King. 

4 Of whom Johnson once bought a gun — Johnson Papers 3:152; and 
whom he called "a sincere friend of the English," 3:157. 

Seven Years' War 1 1 

down hither, & while it is to be bought, there is no remedy, from 
hence chiefly will arise my Vexation, & Delays. 

You may Sir be assured that both as to the time of my joining 
you and the Number of Indians no Endeavor of mine shall be 
wanting to render it as Expeditious & Satisfactory as the Nature of 
the Service & Circumstances will admitt. 

I am with great Respect 
Sir, Your Excellencys 
Most Obedient & 
Most humble Servant. 

W M . Johnson 

To His Excellency 

Major Genl. Abercromby 


Sir Wm. Johnson Bart. 
Fort Johnson 22, Septr. 1 758. 
R the 25th, Ansd. the 26th. 


Fort Johnson 23 September 1758. 

Sir William Johnson having Yesterday received a Letter from 
Major General Abercromby accquainting him with his Design of 
proceeding with His Majestys Troops down Lake George & 
directing Sir William to muster all the Indians he could in order to 
join him within 3 Weeks if possible. Sir William hereupon having 
sent for the chiefs of the lower Mohock Castle & they coming this 
Morning, held a Meeting with them, The Belt a Seneca Sachem 
& the Chiefs of 6 Chenossia 2 Indians who were at Fort Johnson 
at this Juncture to whom he made the following Speech, which 
with the Belts of Wampum therein mentioned was agreed to be 
transmitted thro the several Nations by Two Chiefs of the Chen- 
ossia Indians & Deputies from the Two Mohock Castles, who were 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 5. 

2 Genesee Senecas. 

12 Sir William Johnson Papers 

to deliver it in Sir Williams Name to the 6 Nations at their 
respective Castles. 

Bretheren of the Six Nations. 

I am very glad to find some out of each of your Castles joined 
Col. Bradstreet & the Troops under his Command in the late 
Enterprize against Cadaraqui, and I congratulate you on the 
extraordinary Success it was attended with; for as that Fort is 
now demolished your Country is so far freed from the Fetters 
of the French & they cannot now from thence alarm you by any 
hostile Preparations. I hope you will prevent them from en- 
croaching again upon you, by never suffering them to rebuild this 
Fort where a number of your Ancestors were treacherously & 
cruely Massacred. 

Gave a white Belt. 


I have received the Generals Directions to join him at Lake 
George as soon as possible with as many Indians as I can prevail 
on to accompany me. 


I hereby therefore invite You to run down hither without delay 
in order to march with me & join His Majestys Troops Assembled 
at Lake George, and as it hath pleased God very lately to bless 
our Arms & deliver Cadaraqui into our hands, in which good 
Work several of our Bretheren of the Six Nations assisted, I 
hope he will also give a Blessing to our further Attempts from Lake 
George, by which both you & we may hereafter enjoy our 
Country in Peace & Security, and I hope on this Occasion you 
will all rise up & come down without delay to march with me 
upon this good Design. 


The Season of the year requires that no time be lost, I shall 
be ready to march with you as soon as you come hither, and as I 
now call you down to go immediately upon Action, I must desire 

Seven Years' War 13 

that your Women & such of your old Men as are not able to run 
fast & bear the Fatigues w ch . will be necessary may defer coming 
down hither till another Opportunity, when I shall be glad to 
see them for at present we must think of nothing but War. 


I desire that every Man will bring his Gun with him. At the 
Onieda Carrying Place you will receive Provisions for your 
Journey hither where you will find a Person to take Care of you. 


You have now an Opportunity to show yourselves Friends to 
the English, all you that are such & are able to come, I expect 
will run down without Delay; and all those who now join His 
Majestys Arms will be considered & treated as Friends & 
Bretheren to the English, not with their Lips only but in their 
Hearts also. 


By this Belt I call on you to comply with the Invitation I now 
give you & to Show yourselves Men & Friends to the English 
by your Actions. You have often told me you are Light of 
Body & can move fast, now show your Bretheren the English 
that you spoke Truth when you said so. — 

Gave a large Black Belt painted 

24 Sep r . — Sir William set off with the Indian Messengers for 
Connajohary in order to get some more Indians from thence to 
carry the above Speech thro the Nations. 

14 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Contemporary Copy 1 
[Oneida Carrying Place, Sepf. 25, 1758.] 

Extract of a Letter from Cap 1 . Jellas Fonda to Sir William 
Johnson bearing date from Oneida Carrying Place 25 of Sep r . 
1 758.— 

"Last Night came here 6 Seneca Indians from Chenossia, 2 
who says that when they came by Cayouga they heard that the 
French were assembling at Sweegachie, 3 the Cayougas further 
said that they had left 4 Men in Sweegachie to watch their Motion 
where they were going to, and when they found they were 
acoming this way will give us here timely Notice thereof. ' 


Contemporary Copy* 

Camp at Lake George 26 l September . 1758. 

That we may not be deprived of the Assistance of as many 
Indians as you will be able to Collect, if it shou'd be found 
adviseable and Practicable to proceed down the Lake again 
this Fall, I herewith send you the Warrant 5 for £2000. wanted, 
you say, 6 to enable you to procure the requisite Particulars for 
fitting them out; with which I am hopeful you will, notwith- 
standing your Apprehensions to the Contrary, have it in your 
Power to collect them much sooner than within a Month, as I 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 5. 

2 Chenussio, Geneseo. 

3 Oswegatchie, Ogdensburg. 

4 In Henry E. Huntington Library. Copy also in Public Record 
Office W. O. 34 Vol. 38. 

5 Among Johnson manuscripts, destroyed by fire. See Johnson Cal- 
endar p. 97. 

6 See Johnson to Abercromby, Sept. 22, 1 758, ante p. 9. 

Seven Years' War 15 

propose, if the Troops, now on their March from Boston, arrive 
here by the Time it is Expected, (which will be about the 12th. 
of next Month) to embark immediately thereafter, no Time 
being to be lost at so advanced a Season of the Year ; wherefore 
if you are certain of not getting them by then, I shou'd think it 
wou'd be needless to put the Crown to so large and needless an 
Expense; but of this you are the best Judge. 

I must likewise observe to you, that the last Supplies of Money 
from York, what with Subsistence and Contingencies, have been 
near exhausted, and that Mr. Mortier 1 is gone down for a fresh 
Supply ; therefore, I must desire you, if you can get a short Credit 
for the Things you have to purchase, that you will delay present- 
ing the above Warrant, untill you hear of Mr. Mortier's return 
to Albany, unless your Payments are to be made at New York, 
in which Case you may send it down when you please. 

There is no Manner of Doubt, that Sending for a proper 
Assortment of Indian Goods from England, must be a very 
great Saving to the Crown; why they have not been sent out, I 
know not; but, I shou'd think you would do well, to send a List 
of those wanted in your Department, to the board of Trade, 
who, upon a Representation from you, setting forth this Saving, 
will certainly not fail to lay the Same before his Majesty; and 
receive his Commands thereupon to your Satisfaction. 

The Steps you have taken to procure Arms, which it seems 
you are deficient in, is a very proper one; We have Arms in the 
Stores at Albany, but I am afraid they will not answer your 
Purpose, if you think they will you shall have them. 

As you have acquainted Brigr. Gen. Stanwix 2 with your Suspi- 
cions of some Scalping Parties of the Enemy making some 
Attempt upon Stone Arabia, 3 I trust and am Confident he will 
have the Precaution, to frustrate the Designs of the Enemy, for 
which he has certainly a sufficient Strength. 

Notwithstanding my Orders, forbidding any Liquor being 

1 Abraham Mortier, deputy paymaster. 

2 Brigadier General John Stanwix. 

3 North of the Mohawk, about fifteen miles west of Fort Johnson. 

16 Sir William Johnson Papers 

given to the Indians, they still continue to have it without my being 
able to find out where or from whom; This has occasion'd a 
Continual Scene of Drunknenness among them; They went out 
one Day with a Design, as they said, of going to Tienderoga, but 
they returned under Pretence of Sickness before they got half 
Way ; the Day before yesterday one went out with Rogers, whom 
he also left and returned to Camp, in less than 24 Hours; there 
are only four of them left, who propose to go out by themselves 
to Night, The Six others returned home yesterday, and I Suppose 
will make heavy Complaints of having been beat; So Soon as 
I heard it, I caused Enquiry to be made into it, and I find, that 
being encamped with the Rangers 1 and having Drunk together 
they fell to Handy-Cuffs, but no great Mischief ensued. 

I am [Sir] &ca 
Sr. Wm. Johnson, Bart. 


To Sr. William Johnson 
Sep : 26th, 1 758. 

L.S. 2 

Fort Johnson, 30th Sepr. J 758. 

I am honoured with yours of the 26 Inst. 3 inclosing Your 
Warrant upon Mr. Mortier for £ 2000 on Acco 1 . of the Indian 
Service. I will buy the goods I shall want upon my own Credit 
& keep the Warrant by me untill Mr. Mortier returns to Albany 
with whom I will adjust the Payment as convenient to him as 
I can. — 

1 Rogers' Rangers. 

2 In Henry E. Huntington Library. 

3 Ante. p. 14. 

Seven Years' War 17 

I am certain the Senecas & Cajuga Indians cannot possibly 
come down so as to join You by the time you mention, and 
therefore I think with your Excellency that it would be throwing 
a needless Expence upon the Crown to bring them hither espe- 
cially as I expected a considerable number of the former Nation 
would have come, and this being now the Hunting Season with 
the Indians for Deer, those who are hindered from it will expect 
to be considered for that Disappointment. 

I am getting Messengers ready to send off to the said Indians 
in order to stop them from coming down on the call I have given 
them & who will be in time to prevent any Inconveniences, and 
I will send such a Message as I hope will make the Stopping 
them turn to good account. — 

I shall put every thing forward in order to join you at the Lake 
in due time with all the other Indians I can muster, but if your 
Excellency should find affairs so circumstanced that Indians will 
not be necessary, the sooner I know it the more I shall be able to 
lighten Expences, as every day from the time they leave their 
Castles will be Attended with Considerable Charges. 

I am sorry Captn. Dicks Party has given you so much trouble, 
as I mistrusted the Consequences if they touched at any of our 
Encampments in their way out. I directed them & they promised 
me to proceed thro the Woods without halting at any of our 
Posts. Your Excellency may hence see in Miniature how my 
Patience is tried when I am surrounded by large Bodies of them; 
rum to be had almost at every house & out of my Power to 
repress its sale. My Neighbors at the Mohawke Castle are almost 
incessantly Drunk, old & Young, and in short such in General 
is the Debauchery of the Indians by Rum as greatly impedes & 
disconserts all my Management of them. 

As life & limb is safe. I am glad the Sotts got a good drub- 

18 Sir William Johnson Papers 

bing at Lake George, I dare say they deserved it, & this I shall 
tell 'em if they make any Complaints to me. 

I am 

Most respectfully 

Your most Obedient 
& most hum b,e Servant, 

W M . Johnson 
To His Excellency 
Major Genl. Abercromby &ca. 


Sir Wm. Johnson Bart. 

Fort Johnson, 30t September 1 758. 

R the 2d October. Ansd. 6th. 


L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson, 30 Sepr. 1758 

Mr. John Latteridge 2 who last year commanded a Company 
in the Service of this Province, and in which he was a Lieutenant 
from the beginning of the present war, offered his service to me 
on the opening of this Campaign to go out with the Indians. As 
I knew him to be a Young Man who had shown Resolution, 
was a good Woods-man, known to & liked by many of the 
Indians, I accordingly employed him, & have found he answered 
the Character I had conceived of him. 

He went with Col. Bradstreet upon his late Enterprize to Fort 
Frontenac, and I have understood, for I have not since seen the 
Colonel, that he was very much pleased with Lutteridge's Be- 
haviour & promised that he would make favourable mention of 
him to your Excellency, that he might be some way provided for. 

1 In Henry E. Huntington Library. 

2 John Lottridge, though spelled, as in this letter, in various ways. 

Seven Years' War 19 

I think he is most calculated for the Indian Service, & that to 
retain him therein will be for the advantage of the Department, 
upon this Account I beg leave to recommend him to Your Ex- 
cellency for a Captains Commission. 

I write Col. Bradstreet upon this Subject & desire him to 
report Mr. Lutteridge's Conduct & Behaviour to You whilst 
he was under his Command. 

This Provision for Mr. Lutteridge will not entail any addi- 
tional Expence on the Indian Service, as I propose when I have 
the pleasure of seeing you to take your Directions about some 
Alterations therein. 

I am 

Your Excellencys 
Most Obed*. & most 
humble Servant. 

W M . Johnson 
To His Excellency 
Major General Abercromby. 


Sir Wm. Johnson Bart. 

Fort Johnson, 30: September, 1758. 

R the 3rd October, Ansd. 6th 


Oneida Station 30 th Sep'. 1758 

Yesterday Ottrawane 2 Came here, & Brought With him a 
Belt of Wampum, & a few lines you Give him as a Token, as 
you'll see Inclos'd, to bring News of an Armey Comming this 

1 In Henry E. Huntington Library ; enclosed in Johnson to Abercromby, 
Oct. 3, 1758, post, p. 21. 

2 A Cayuga head sachem. 

20 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Way, & that they now are Asembling at Oswego. Ottrawane 
farther Says, that the French has Sent Belts of Wampum thorow 
out all the Five nations, for them to meet the armey at Oswego, 
& the Englishman a Cayuga Sachem, & Sevrall others out of 
that Castle, parted with Otterawane at the three Rivers, & are 
Gone to have a Treaty With the French at Oswego. The French 
have Threatened to destroy the Five Nations for not bringen 
intilegance of that Col on . Bradstreet Was to goe to Caderoque, 
I am of Opinion this news Will but a stop to a Great meany 
Indians, Comming Down, the Oneida's has promised me to Come 
down to morrow, I've Bought no goods Since I rec d . your letter, 
nor is here any to be bought, for Colo". Delaney 1 & Colo n . 
Gleaser has Boug*. as much as they Cold get & the Sutlers has 
Sent down What they Bought, CoK Gleaser has made me an 
offer of the Goods he boug*. but I think they are at a very Extrav- 
agant price. 

I Will not Buy them Without your farther Order 

I am Sir 

Your Dutifull Serv*. 
Jellis Fonda 

To The Honb 1 . SlR WlLLIAM JOHNSON Barr*. 

P S I am Taken very Bad with the feaver & ague 
I intend to go down in a few days 


Capt n . Fonda to S r . W m . Johnson Bart. 
Oneida Station 30 l . Sept'. 1 758 

1 Col. Oliver DeLancey, brother of Lieut. Gov. James DeLancey, 
who commanded the New York Contingent. 

Seven Years' IV ar 21 


Fort Johnson 1 October 1758. — 

In consequence of a Letter S r . W m . Johnson reed from General 
Abercromby bearing date the 26 [Sep r . 1758] Ult°. accquainting 
him that such Indians as could not join the Army at Lake George 
on or about the 1 2 Octo r . had better be stopped from proceeding 
from their Castles. Sir William this day dispatched Silver Heels 
& another Seneca Indian to the Cayougas & Seneca Indians 
accquainting them that as they could not be down in time to join 
the Army, he desired they would not set off at this Juncture as 
they could not possibly come hither time enough to march with 
him & the rest of their Bretheren. with these two Expresses Sir 
William sent Capt John Butler to see them past the Settlements 
& by him sent Instructions for Cap*. Jellas Fonda at the Onieda 
Carrying Place with regard to the Onieda & Tuscarora Indians 
to come down with them by the latter end of this Week. 


L.5. 2 

Fort Johnson, 3 d . Oct'. 1758 

I have just now red'd the Inclosed Letter 3 from Capt n . Fonda, 
the lines he mentions as a token which I gave to Ottratvana & he 
brought with him & gave to Fonda with the Belt of Wampum, 
you have also a Copy of. 

This Ottrowana is one of the Principal Sachems of the Cayuga 
Nation, an Indian who hath always distinguished himself in 
favour of the English. The Englishman likewise mentioned in 
the said letter is another Chief of the Cayouga Nation & the 
most leading Indian amongst them, he was some time ago down 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 5. 

2 In Henry E. Huntington Library. 

3 Fonda to Johnson, Sept. 30, 1 758, ante p. 19. 

22 Sir William Johnson Papers 

here and promised me, that he would keep a good look out on 
the motions of the French, and that when he was fully assured 
the Enemy were in Motion towards this part of the Country he 
would take care to send me the most speedy & early Intelligence 
of it in his power with a Belt of Wampum. The Belt of Wampum 
now sent is a large one. Upon all these Acco ts . I persuade myself 
a Body of the Enemy is in Motion towards these Parts, but 
whether they are a body strong enough & provided with Artillery 
in order to attack our Troops at the Carrying place, or whether 
they have some other Scheme in View, is what I am in doubt 
about. Brig r . Stanwix to whom doubtless Mr. Fonda has com- 
municated this Intelligence tho he does not mention it, will I 
suppose send out Partys to or towards Oswego upon Discovery. 

The said Cayouga Chief called the Englishman has constantly 
favoured a Neutrality amongst his People, and when he was 
down here, he told me he should abide by that System of Con- 
duct, and assured me in the most fervent Terms, that he would 
never break with the English, but maintain inviolable to the 
utmost of his influence, a Strict friendship & Alliance with us, 
consistent with that Neutral Scheme which he had always thought 
& did think was the most proper & prudent Conduct for their 
Nation to observe in the present Hostilities between us & the 

From the Character I have conceived of this Man & the other 
Chiefs of the Cajuga Nation, I cannot yet bring myself to beleive, 
they will enter into any Treaty with the French inconsistent with 
the Neutrality they have avowed. Nor that the 6 Nations Na- 
tionally considered will join with the French in any Attack upon 
us, however we may probably soon be able to form a determinate 
Judgement hereupon if a Body of the French are gathered at 
Oswego with an Intent to make a Descent upon this part of the 
Country, and I shall continue to communicate all such Intelligence 
as I receive on this Subject to Your Excellency. 

I am afraid as M r . Fonda observes that this News will prevent 
the Oniedas & Tuscaroras from coming down hither in order to 
march with me & join you at the Lake, at least so many as I 

Seven Years' War 23 

otherwise expected: however unless I have your Orders to the 
Contrary I propose to set off from hence in order to join you 
with all the Indians I can get, beginning of next week. 

I am 

most respectfully 

Y r . Excellencys 
Most Obed 1 . hum ble . Servant 
W M . Johnson 

To His Excellency 

Major Gen l . Abercromby. 

indorsed : 

Sir W m . Johnson Bart. 

Fort Johnson 3 d . October 1 758 

R the 6*. 

Ans d . same day. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Oinede 2 Station 4 lh October 1758 

I am Commanded by His Excellency Brigadier General 
Stanwix to acquaint you that Lieut Tiebout, of the New York 
Regim*. is Just return'd from a Scout to the Oineda 2 Lake, and 
Reports that he Discover'd Yesterday Evening about Five oClock, 
a Body of about Four Hundred of the Enemy, in y e . the First 
Bay, upon the North Side of the Oineda Lake, upon the Beach, 
Marching this way, he is of Oppinion that one Half the Party 
were Regular Troops, as he says he could plainly discover their 
Uniform, The other Half he takes to be Canadians & Indians. 
He has further Inform'd the General that [*/iei?] the Enemy 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol- 39 ; enclosed in Johnson 
to Abercromby, Oct. 6, 1 758, post, p. 26. 

2 Oneida. 

24 Sir William Johnson Papers 

had not any Packs, or Bagage, from which he concludes them 
to be either the Advanc'd party of a More Respectable Body, 
or only A strong Scout Sent to Distress our Working Party's, 
Cutt of Some of Our Provision Convoys or Some of the Posts 
or Settlements, upon the Mohack River. The General has there- 
fore Commanded me to forward this to you open, that y e Com- 
manding Off rs . at the Several Posts and Inhabitants on the 
Mohawke River, May be prepar'd to give the Enemy a proper 
Rec[e]ption. A Number of Scouts, are gone Different Paths 
to Make further Discoveries of the Enemy, whose Reports I 
shall endeavor to acquaint you with, M r . Buttler is here, with 
the Three Mohawke Indians, The bearer, one that is Sick and 
that is just gone on a Scout with Four Rangers, there are no 
Indians here but those above Mention'd, The Oinedas had 
Promis'd Cap 1 Funda to be here this Night but are not yet Come, 

I am 

your Most obedient 
Humble Servant 

Horatio Gates Major of Brigade 
Sir William Johnson Bar*. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Fort Johnson 5. Oct r . 1758. — 

This Afternoon Silver Heels & another Seneca Indian whom 
Sir W m . sent Express the 1 Inst to the Cayouga & Seneca Na- 
tions, returned & made the following Report. 

That on their arrival at the Upper Onieda Castle they found 
the Indians there in a Council & being called in, & having told 
them upon what Errand they were sent to Cayouga & Seneca, 

1 In Henry E. Huntington Library, in the handwriting of Peter Wraxall. 

Seven Years' War 25 

The Onieda Indians acquainted the Messengers, that they had 
according to the Generals Request at Lake George kept a look 
out in order to make Discoveries of the Motions & Designs of 
the Enemy, in consequence whereof they had just now rec'd 
Intelligence that a large Body of French were assembled at the 
Fish Creek on Lake Ontario, who expected to be joined by a 
great Number of Ottowawa Indians from Niagara. That they 
had heard 5 Cannon fired from that part of the Country towards 
the fish Creek — That the French had spoke with great Resent- 
ment against all the 6 Nations except the Cayougas for joining 
the English in the Destruction of Cadaraqui, and had sent a 
Message to the Cayougas to come & meet them in order to have 
a conference with them, and that they understood Some of the 
Cayouga Sachems with about twenty of their Young Men were 
set off to meet the French. — and they had further understood 
that it was agreed by the Cayougas that they would express 
their Disapprobation of the French passing thro the Country of 
the 5 Nations with any Army, if such was their Intent, and tell 
them it would have 111 Consequences. That upon this News, the 
Oneidas & Tuscaroras thought it absolutely necessary for their 
own Security to stay at home & keep themselves on their Guard 
against the Event of this Intelligence, that they Earnestly Request 
a Strong Reinforcement might be without Delay sent up to the 
Onieda Carrying place in order to make a Stand ag*. the At- 
tempts of the Enemy. 

And hereupon they gave Silver Heels a Belt of Wampum to 
confirm to Sir W m . Johnson the foregoing Intelligence & to en- 
force their request that more troops might be sent up. and that 
they would send off his Belt of Wampum to the Cayougas & 
Seneca Indians by Messengers of their own, & desired Silver 

26 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Heels & the other Indian would immediately return to Sir W m . 
with their Message & Belt. 

A true Copy from the Original 

Peter Wraxall 
Secy p. In. Aff s . 


Silver Heels Report 
5 Octo'. 1 758. — 

Enclosed in Sir W m . Johnsons of the 6'. 


L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson 6 Oct. 1758 

I transmitted you the 3 d Inst a Letter 2 I had then received 
from Capt n . Fonda with a peice of Indian Intelligence. 

Inclosed I now send you the Report 3 of Silver Heels & another 
Seneca Indian which I received Last night, and also Capt n . Gates's 
Letter 4 I this Morning reced by an Indian Express. 

I have ordered the Militia of this part of the Country to march 
& meet me at Fort Hendrick. 5 

As these several peices of Intelligence confirm each other, 
I apprehend you will think it necessary for me to remain in this 
Quarter of the Country, at least for somedays, in order with the 
Militia & the Indians I can gather together, to contribute our 
best Endeavours toward the defence thereof, this I propose to 

1 In Henry E. Huntington Library. 

2 Fonda to Johnson, Sept. 30, 1 758, ante p. 19. 

3 See Wraxall to Johnson, Oct. 5, 1 758, ante p. 24. 

4 Horatio Gates to Johnson, Oct. 4, 1 758, ante p. 23. 

5 At Canajoharie, on the Mohawk River, about 55 miles west of Albany. 

Seven Years' War 27 

do and shall wait your Excellencys farther Orders upon joining 
You. I am 

most respectfully 

Sir Your Excellencys 

Most Obedient hum bl . Servant 

W M . Johnson 
To His Excellency 
Major General Abercromby 


Sir W m . Johnson Bart. 

Fort Johnson 6 f . October 1 758 

R the 8*. 

Ans 13*. 



Camp at Lake George 6 l . October 1758 

[/ was just going to acknowledge the receipt of your trvo Letters 
of the 30K and inform You, that from the Intelligence Col. 
Bradstreet had obtained & which he gave the greatest Credit to, 
the Enemy were intent on striding a Strode on the Mohawk 
River, for which purpose I] 2 

As I now find I shall not have any occasion here for the Indians 
[on that side] I required you to hold in readiness, I give you 
the earliest notice in my power but I must observe to You at the 
same time, that [this ought by no means to] altho' they are not 
necessary here, they will be so in your parts if Lieu 1 . Col. Brad- 
streets Intelligence proves true, and he seems very Confid 1 . of 
its being beyond all doubt, that the Enemy intend a stroke against 
the Settle- upon the Mohawk River; You [should therefore lose 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 Words italicized and enclosed in brackets are crossed out on the 

28 Sir William Johnson Papers 

no time] will therefore immediately upon receipt thereof Appoint 
M r . John Lutteridge, Captain of Indians; the Character he bears 
from You & Lieu 1 . Col. Bradstreet (who had recommended 
him before I received Your Letters) [is sufficient to convince me 
it must be for the good of the Service & that] Entitles him to this 
reward for his past Services, especially as it can be Effected 
without entailing any Additional Expence on the Indian Service 
in which [We shall] you propose [to settle when we next meet, 
or when I shall postpone making out the Commission] make some 
Alterations to that purpose when we next meet, as it will make 
no difference to postpone making out the Commission I shall 
deferr it till then. 

So soon as You have Appointed Capt. Lutteridge You will 
send him with two trusty Indians of the Six Nations to Oswego; 
keeping a little Wide on the North Side of the Oneida Lake & 
Onondaga river, so as to Strike Oswego near the Fort that stood 
on the East Side; if they see nothing going on there, they are 
to return to the Oneida Carrying Place by the falls along the 
banks on the North side of the Onondaga rivers & of the Oneida 
Lake. You will order them to sett out for the Carrying place & 
shew their Instructions to Brig r . Gen 1 . Stanwix, who on his part 
will send out other Scouts, and by that means we shall perhaps 
be able to come at the truth of this Intelligence & by a timely 
discovery, of the Enemys designs, be so fortunate as to frustrate 

Just as I had wrote the foregoing the post bro 1 . me your favor 
of the 3 d . Instant, [which] Confirming [the] Lieu 1 . Col: Brad- 
streets Intelligence before mentioned; which I hope Brig r . Gen'. 
Stanwix has been informed of. I write to him by this Oppor- 
tunity, recommending constant Scouts being kept out, particularly 
the foregoing which You will likewise order to be performed by 
Cap 1 . Lutteridge as above ; if this affair should turn out anything 
Serious, it will afford You an Opportunity of knowing our foes 
from our friends & [enable Us to Act differently from what we 
have done hitherto, but not to trust entirely to the faith of Indians, 
which I am afraid is not the most sound. I shall order a Batt n . of 

Seven Years' War 29 

regulars to reinforce Brig r . Stamvix.] Authorize Us to take other 
measures with them than heretofore, as it is very essential not to 
be lulled a Sleep by them whilst they are Circumventing us [every 
where] at pleasure, which Lieu 1 . Col: Bradstreet says he can 
well prove ; in order to put a timely Stop to this as well as to ward 
off any blow the Enemy might under such Circumstance offer to 
strike, I have given orders to a Regim 1 . of regulars to Join Brig r . 
Gen 1 . Stanwix forthwith, & more Shall be ready if [in case they 
are] found necessary, to Strengthen them. 

Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 . 

Fort Johnson./. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Fort Johnson 9 ih . Octob'. 1758 

Last night late I return'd from Fort Hendrick where upon 
receiving a Letter from Brigadier Stanwix that the late Alarm 
had prov'd a false one I Discharg'd the Militia. 

I expect the Conajoharee Indians of Scohare, and Some 
Delawars are Already come, and Several of the Five Nations 
who were Accidentaly here propose Marching with Me. The 
Oneidas and Tuscaroras upon the late Inteligence they rec'd 
of the French Assembly at Lake Ontario, are I find Determin'd 
not to leave their Castles, which they say in case of their absence 
wou'd lay expos'd to the Enemy who they Still think will [make] 
an attempt somewhere upon that part of the Country. 

I expect to March with near 200 Indians, and shall Join you 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

30 Sir William Johnson Papers 

either Saturday or Sunday at farthest, unless I shou'd receive 
your Directions to the Contrary. 

I am with great Respect 


Your Excellency's Most obed*. 

and most humble servt. 

William Johnson 
His Excellency Gen l . ABERCROMBY 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Fort Johnson, Oct' 10, 1758. 

You are to proceed with the Three Indians I have spoke to, 
from hence to the Onieda Carrying place, where you are to Show 
these your Instructions to Brig r . General Stanwix. 

In your way thro the Settlements & at the Oneida Station 
you are to use your best Endeavors to keep the Indians who ac- 
company you Sober, as much as you can from any Intercourse 
with other Indians and from everything which may tend to retard 
your Journey, and as you are on your part to observe Secrecy 
with regard to your Destination to all Persons except General 
Stanwix, so you are to prevent as much as you can the Indians 
from discovering the same. 

When you have General Stanwix*. Permission to proceed — 
'You are to set off to Oswego observing to keep a little on the 
North side of the Onieda Lake & the Onondaga River, so as to 
strike Oswego near the Fort which stood on the East side — if 
you see nothing going on there you are to return to the Onieda 
Carrying Place by the Falls along the Banks on the North side 
of the Onondaga Rivers & of the Onieda Lake" 

You will exert yourself & animate the Indians with you to 
fulfill these Orders with regard to your Route, with the utmost 
Punctuality, & be Dilligent & exact in your Observation & Dis- 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 5. 

Seven Years' War 31 

coveries as Circumstances will admit of; and you will use the 
whole extent of your Influence over the Indians, to whom I have 
given the most solemn charge in my power, to aid & assist you 
in this peice of Service, without being deterred from the same 
by any Difficulties or Apprehensions of Danger, less than such 
as will be justifiable upon the severest Examination 

If General Stanwix Should think proper to prescribe to you 
any particular Exceptions to your Compleating this Service in the 
manner these Instructions describe & direct you therein, you are 
to obey the same. 

On your Return you will make a Report of your proceedings 
& Discoveries to Gen. Stanwix & to no other person whatsoever. 

Given under my hand 
at Fort Johnson this 10 day 
of October 1 758. — 
W Johnson 


Fort Johnson 10 October 1758— 

Sir William Johnson having Yesterday received a Letter 2 
from Major General Abercromby accquainting him that he found 
he should not now have occasion for the Indians he had directed 
Sir William to collect in order to join His Majestys Troops at 
Lake George; Sir William on the receipt hereof sent off an Ex- 
press to stop the Connojohary Indians who were on their way 
down here & desire them to return to their Castle; And this 
Morning he spoke to some of the Mohocks, some Oniedas & 
Onondagas, the Schohary & River Indians who were assembled 
here in order to have marched [for] to Lake George and gave 
them two belts of Wampum. 

The first a White Belt wherewith he thanked them in His 
Majestys Name for their readiness & punctuality in coming 

1 Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 5. 

2 Abercromby to Johnson, Oct. 6, 1 758, ante p. 26. 

32 Sir William Johnson Papers 

hither on the Call given them in order to have joined His Majestys 
Troops at Lake George, and hoped they would preserve the 
same commendable Disposition on any future Occasion which 
might occur. 

The Second a Black Belt wherewith he accquainted them that 
they were now at Liberty as it was their hunting Season to take 
the Advantage of it, but that he would not have them go very 
far from home, leave Word whereabouts they might be found 
in case there should be occasion to call them together and that 
they would keep a good lookout when they were in the Woods 
& upon making any Discoveries of the Enemy send or bring im- 
mediate Intelligence thereof, and thus so conduct their Hunts 
as that they might be profitable to themselves & useful to His 
Majestys Service & the Security of these parts of the Country. — 


Fort Johnson 10. October 1758. — 
past 1 1 at night. 

Three Connojohary Indians came running with their Murder- 
shout, who say they were sent off this night from near Frys 2 on 
the Mohock River by one of their Chiefs to bring the following 

That an Onieda Indian was just arrived there who says that 
our Encamp 1 . & Fort at the Onieda Carrying Place is invested 
by the Enemy so that no Messenger can come from or go thither — 
and that Kinderunte 3 an Onieda Sachem who with another of 
said Nation being employed in some Business for the Troops, 
were fired upon by the Enemy, the said Sachem killed, the other 
Indian taken Prisoner & afterwards released. 

These Messengers say that the above Onieda Indian Express 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 5. 

2 Hendrick Frey's. 

3 Kindarunty, alias Kayandigaro, an Oneida sachem, killed by a 
scalping party of French Indians, near the carrying place. 

Seven Years' War 33 

was too much fatigued to proceed this night, but that he will be 
here to morrow Morning, and that they were sent off in a great 
hurry with the above particulars & know nothing farther. 


Contemporary Copy 2 

[Oct. 10, 1 758] 3 

Fort Johnson Past II oClock at Night 

Wednesday y e 

After Peruseing the Intelligence on the other side 4 you will im- 
mediately deliver it to the Commanding Off r . of the two Battalions 

1 Lt. Col. Jacob Glen, in charge of the militia at Schenectady, 
though not mentioned in either the letter or the indorsement, is identified, 
in the letter To the Commanding Officer on the March, Oct. 1 1, 1758, 
post p. 35, as having been the recipient of this intelligence in an express 
sent to Schenectady. Glen, who would necessarily be familiar with all 
military movements in his area, would be the logical person to whom 
Johnson would intrust the task of locating the mentioned commanding 
officer, and of seeing that the intelligence arrived at its proper destination. 
The orders that Johnson, commanding officer of the Mohawk Valley 
militia, gives to Glen, his subordinate, helps to confirm Glen as the 
letter's original recipient. 

2 In Henry E. Huntington Library. 

3 This date is supplied instead of the 1 1 th, due to the fact that 
Johnson received the original Indian intelligence on the night of the 1 Oth 
(see Journal of Indian Affairs of that date, ante p. 32.). The probability 
is small that Johnson, knowing that the intelligence was of great importance, 
waited until the next night to transmit it to the proper military authorities. 
The date of "Wednesday ye 1 1 th," which is given at the beginning of the 
intelligence, probably was supplied by a copyist, and stands for the date 
on which the copy was made. 

4 The "Intelligence on the other side," is, with the exception of a few 
ommissions and errors of minor importance, evidently made by the copyist, 
the same as that contained in the Journal of Indian Affairs, ante p. 32, of 
date Oct. 10th, 1 758; therefore, it is not repeated here. 

34 Sir William Johnson Papers 

of His Majestys Troops, which I expect are this night at your 
Town, if not yet arrived, you will then immediately send it 
forward to be delivered to the said Commanding Officer if on 
his March from Albany otherwise to the Commanding Officer 
of His Majesty's Troops encamped near Albany. 

You will also without Delay order the Militia to hold them- 
selves in Readiness to march with His Majestys Troops this 
way & that they be Compleated with Ammuntion and five days 

I am 
Your very humble Servant 
W M . Johnson 

A True Copy. Wm. Foster Col°. 


Intelligence from 

S r W m Johnson 

dated Wednesday 

at 1 1 aclock at night 

Hth Oct'. — re d 12 th — 

Enclosed in Col : Burtons of the 1 l . 1 

1 To General James Abercromby. Col. Burton was evidently the 
"Commanding Officer" for whose ears Johnson intended the intelligence 
transmitted through Glen. 

Seven Years' War 35 


Contemporary Copy 2 

Fort Johnson 11 th Octob' 1758 
4 Clock P M 

Since the Intelligence I received last night and which I sent 
down by Express to L l Col. Glenn 3 of Schenecktady to be given 
or forwarded to you I have heard nothing further which enables 
me to judge of the truth of exactness of the said Intelligence 

This I thought proper to acquaint you with & I shall without 
delay transmitt you any further Accounts of moment relative to 
this subject which may come to me, I wish you a fovourable 
march and am 



Sign'd W M Johnson 

Coppy of a letter 

from Sir W m Johnson to the 

Officer Commanding His Majestys Troops 

now on their March up the Mohawck River 

1 Undoubtedly Colonel Ralph Burton. See Johnson Papers, 3:6-8, 
especially the indorsement. Later correspondence between Johnson and 
Burton confirms this. 

2 In Henry E. Huntington Library. 

3 Lieut. Col. Jacob Glen. 

36 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 2 

Fort Johnson, 10th [Uth]*Oct". 1758. 
11 O'clock at night. 

This moment two Chief Indians of the Mohawke Castle 
came over to my House, to Acquaint me, that the Oneida Indian 
mentiond in mine of last night 4 is arriv'd at their Castle, but too 
much fatigud to come over here this night, that he confirms the 
Intelligence I have already transmitted you with the following 
additional particulars, that he left the Oneida Castle four days 
agoe just as the Indian who was releas'd by the Emeny arrivd 
there and made his report, who said the French Indians which 
took him told him, there were about 1000 Indians in the whole 
who were sent forward to invest our Fort and Encampment at 
the Carrying place, that the French were coming on with Ar- 
tillery, but they could not tell their Numbers, that he only 
proceeded about two miles from the Oneida Castle the first night. 
That the next day he heard the constant firing of Cannon till he 
came as far as Capes — 28 miles from the Oneida Carrying 
place when he could hear them no more, their Mohawke Chiefs 
say they believe this Intelligence may be depended upon for 
truth, as it is further by this Indians telling them that one of the 
Scouting Parties which the Oneidas had sent out, to and about 
the Lake according to my desire upon our Troops taking Post 

1 Colonel Ralph Burton. The Content of this letter, like that of 
"To the Commanding Officer on the March," of same date, ante p. 35, 
leaves little doubt of the identity of the addressee. 

2 In Henry E. Huntington Library. 

3 See Johnson to Ralph Burton, Oct. 12, 1758, Johnson Papers, 3:7, 
for Johnson's statement that he had mis-dated this, his "previous letter," 
and that the correct date should be the 1 1 th. 

4 Johnson to a Commanding Officer of Militia, Oct. 10, 1 758, ante p. 
33, which was later transmitted to the commanding officer to whom this 
present letter is addressed. 

Seven Years' War 37 

there had return'd some time before and the Indians who was 
released by the French Indians came to the Castle and reported, 
they had discovered a body of the Enemy Indians advancing 
towards the Carrying Place. — 

This Indian says there were two more Indians with Kinderunte 
when he was killd one of which made his escape and got into 
our Fort or Encampment. 

The Indians thereabouts express themselves very ready & 
willing to join our Troops, as I am confident those of the Con- 
nojohary Castle will also — I have given Mr. Moncrief my 
opinion for his remaining here untill the Battalions reach hither 
or he recieves further orders from you I am Sir yours &ca. 

Signd W M . Johnson 


Copy of a Letter from Sir Wm. Johnson to the 
Commanding officer of H.M. Troops on their 
march up the Mohawk River. 
Fort Johnson, 1 Oth October 1 758. 1 1 at night 
Enclosed in Col. Morris's of the 1 2th, N.2. 

Copy of a letter from Sir W m Johnson to the 
Commanding Officer of his Majesties Troops 
on their march up the Mohawke River. 1 


Fort Johnson 12. October 1758. 
5 a Clock P- M. 
The Report of Zacharias a Mohock Chief who was sent by Sir 
William Johnson thro the Five Nations in order to call their 
Warriors down to join His Majestys Army at Lake George. 

That after 3 days march from hence he arrived at the Onieda 
Castle & after delivering his Message to the Onieda & Tuscarora 

1 Second indorsement in the hand of the copyist. 

2 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 5. 

38 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Indians to come down, he was readily answered by those Nations 
that they would all be ready to join the upper Nations & come 
down with them. 

Coming to Canaghsoragy a small Town inhabited by Onondaga 
Indians about 20 Miles this side of Onondaga he delivered his 
Message & was answered that they would all prepare immediately 
& come down to Sir William Johnson. 

At Onondaga he found but 5 Men at home all the rest were 
gone to Cayhuhage at the Fish Creek where the Body of French 
were lately & therefore was told he could not have an Answer 
from the few at home. 

At Cayouga he found but 3 at home Three large Bark Canoes 
being gone to the s d . Fish Creek. 

Arriving at the old Seneca Castle he called a Meeting at 
which there soon assembled a large number of Men & Women, 
when he delivered Sir Williams Message to them, which they all 
kindly & gladly received, they soon gave their Answer, that they 
were all resolved to rise up & come down, at the same time telling 
him they must send Sir Williams Belt of Summons to the farther 
Castle of Chenossia 1 in order to call & accquaint the Senecas 
living there with the same, and would have their Answer in 
three days. Zacharias having a sore Leg set off immediately 
homewards & was promised by the Senecas that they would soon 
overtake him, in his Return he met the [Messenger] Message at 
Cayouge that was sent by Sir Willian to stop the upper Nations 
from coming down. 

Zacharias further says, that he heard the French were very 
buisy in rebuilding Cadaraqui and said they would soon have it 
finished again as the English did not much destroy the Fort. 2 

That Jonquiere's 3 Brother Senoghsias 4 had marched with 400 
all French to reinforce Fort DuQuesne & that he heard there were 
not many Indians there. 

1 Geneseo, castle of the Genesee Senecas. 

2 Fort Frontenac. 

3 Joncaire Chabert, a French Indian officer. 

4 Senughis. 

Seven Years' War 39 

That the Forreign Indians were extreamely disgusted with the 
French, they & their Families being quite naked for want of 
Goods. That they could get but half a Gill of Powder for a 
Bever Skin, that they told the French they would invite the 
English to return to Oswego of whom they had always plenty 
of every Article & Cheap. 

That 20 Delawares passed Chenossia with heavy Packs of 
Amunition & fine Guns w ch . They got at Niagara in order to go to 
War against the English to the Southward. 1 

That Two days ago in his Return he came to the Onieda Castle 
where in a Meeting w th . the head Men of that Nation he was 
told that the Body of French & Indians who not long ago as- 
sembled near Cayhuhage or Fish Creek were returned to Canada, 
the French Commanding Officer telling the Indians that he Plainly 
saw he could undertake nothing against the Onieda Carrying 
Place & c . at present, the Season being too far advanced. This 
account was given by some of the 5 Nations who had been as 
Deputies at that place with the French, and further said that the 
French were actually prepared to make an Attempt this way, 
but after the arrival of a canoe from Niagara all preparations 
were stopped & the Army decamped. The reason of which was, as 
the 5 Nations imagine, that the French could not get the Indians 
to join them whom they expected from the Westward & were to 
assemble at Niagara. 

That the late Alarm was occasioned by a Scalping Party of 
about 30 French Indians who fired upon Three Onieda Sachems 
that were in the Wood near the Carrying Place fetching some 
Bark to make a Hut, one of the Cheifs named Kindaruntie was 
Killed, one taken but after a warm Dispute with the French Indians 
they gave him his Liberty, and the Third escaped. That the 
Onieda Indians were all of Opinion that the Scalping Party 
was returned to Canada again. 

1 From this point on, the information given repeats that of Johnson to 
Ralph Burton, Oct. 12, 1 758, Johnson Papers, 3:6. 

40 Sir William Johnson Papers 


L. S. 1 

Camp at Westina, 2 Octo'. 12, 1758 

11 oC 

I have received your Letter of the 12 Instant 3 5 o C p:m: an 
hour agoe, a Copy of which I shall forward to Schenecktady, or 
Albany, for the Lt. Governors perusal, and to be forwarded on to 
General Abercrombie. 

The letter just now recieved from you, as you rightly observe, 
not being quite Determinate. I shall march with the Troops under 
my Command, for Mount Johnson to morrow, where I may 
recieve from you, or Brigr. Stanwix, more certain Intelligence, 
of the proceedings of the Enemy, at the Oneyda Station. 

Your letter of this day, 5 oC p :m : I shall take Care Coll Glen 
has the Perusal of, but as to the Dismission of the Malitia of 
Schenecktady, and those above, as likewise the Indians. I look 
upon them as your Department, not mine, as the intelligence has 
come throw You, and you have the Command of those People. 
I hope to have the Pleasure of seeing you to morrow. 

I am S r your most Obed*. 
num ble Servant 
R. Burton 


Col Burton — to Sir Wm. Johnson 

Westina 12. October 1758 

Inclosed in Col: Burtons of same date. 

Copy of a letter from Col : Burton to S r W m . Johnson. 4 

1 In Henry E. Huntington Library. 

2 Woestina, in present Schenectady County. 

3 See Johnson Papers, 3:7. 

4 In Burton's hand. 

Seven Years' War 41 

Contemporary Copy 1 

Camp at La\e George Oct: 13th, 1758. 


Having, by my Letter of the 6th. 2 acquainted you, that I shou'd 
not, for the present, have any Occasion, in these Quarters, for the 
Indians I had desired you to hold in Readiness to accompany me, 
in Case it had been found adviseable to go down the Lake again 
this Season, and that in Consequence of yours of the third, I had 
order'd the Battalion of Highlanders, commanded by Col°. 
Fraser, 3 immediately to proceed on their march to the Oneida 
Station, in Order to reinforce B. G. Stanwix, I therefore, upon 
the Receipt of that you wrote me on the 6th. 4 contented myself 
with directing Col°. Burton to acquaint you, that upon the Contents 
thereof, I had given immediate Orders, for the 2 d . Battalion of 
the Royal 5 to Follow Fraser's, and to mention to you the Route, 
they were directed to take, in Order to prevent being cut off, in 
case the Intelligence proved true, which I was persuaded I shou'd 
soon learn from you; Accordingly I yesterday at Noon, received 

1 In Henry E. Huntington Library. 

2 Ante p. 27. 

3 Col. Simon Fraser of the 78th Regiment. 

4 Ante p. 26. 

5 The 60th or Royal American Regiment. After Braddock's defeat the 
British government decided to raise an American regiment of four 
battalions of 1000 each, mainly recruited in the American colonies. 
Nearly one-third of the officers were Protestants of Swiss, French, 
Dutch, and German origin, who had had army training. Among these 
were Henry Bouquet, Frederick Haldimand, the three Provost brothers, 
and Samuel Holland. The new regiment was named a Royal American 
Regiment of Foot, or the 62nd. In 1 756, the number was changed to 
the 60th. Under the leadership of Lieutenant-Colonel Bouquet, who 
commanded the 1st battalion, the regiment reached a state of high 
efficiency. It adopted colonial methods of equipment, a simplified form of 
drill, open formations, and colonial methods of warfare. 

42 Sir William Johnson Papers 

yours of the 9 th . 1 acquainting me with that Alarm having proved 
a False one, and your having thereupon dismissed the Militia ; & 
further, that you expected to march with near 200. Indians to 
join me either Saturday or Sunday at farthest; unless you shou'd 
receive directions from me to the contrary; This Letter was 
agreeable to me in every Sense, but particularly on Acct. of 
the Indians, which, from Col°. Bradstreet's Opinion of them, in 
which he still persists, I had Reason to suspect a total Defection 
of them from His Majesty's Interest, which you will own with me, 
is not only very alarming, but cruel, seeing the Expense they put 
the Publick to, and the little, if any, service we have been able 
to get from them for it; But I will hope that CoR Bradstreet may 
prove mistaken, and that not only the 200. you mention, but many 
more will have joined you, gainst the Enemy, that by your last 
Intelligence of the 1 1 lh , forwarded to Col°. Burton, & by him to 
me, are said to have invested the Oneida Station, in Consequence 
of which he himself has marched with three Companies of Gren- 
adiers and light Infantry to Schenectady, in order to be at Hand 
to give all the Assistance possible ; besides which he has order'd the 
Three Battalions encamped at Green bush likewise to hold them- 
selves in Readiness to march at the first Call ; But I shou'd imagine 
there cannot be any Occasion for near all that Force, as from the 
present Circumstances of the Enemy, it is not to be supposed they 
are able to bring any Body of Troops against us on that Side, 
equal to what we have there, & in its neighbourhood. 

I am &ca. 
Sr. Wm. Johnson, Bart 


To Sr. Wm. Johnson. 
Oct. 1 3th, 1 758. 

1 Ante p. 29. 




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Seven Years' War 43 


Fort Johnson 14. October 1758. 

An Onondaga Chief Sachem & Warrior arrived here with 
several of his Party & accquainted Sir William that they were 
coming down with the Red Head 2 in their Company upon his late 
Call to them, that Red Head was stopped by Cap*. Lotteridge 
who desired him to join him in the Scout he was going upon, and 
that he the said Chief proceeded hither with the rest of the Party, 
he assured Sir William that he was & would remain firm to the 
English Interest & that whenever there was occasion he & his 
Party would rise up & join His Majestys Arms. 
The 1 8 October. Sir William gave the above Chief a String of 
Wampum exhorting him to continue firm & Sincere [in] to the 
Declarations he had made & to use his best Influence in promoting 
His Majestys Interest & Service amongst the Indians in general 
& those of his Nation in particular, desiring him to have a watchful 
Eye on the Motions of the French & in case he made any Dis- 
coveries of Importance that he would send down Word with 
the String of Wampum he now gave him 

All this the said Chief promised to do. — then Sir William 
cloathed him & his Party & c . as usual & took leave of them 

Contemporary Copy 3 

The following is a Copy of an Original Deed or Instrument 
of Release of certain Lands therein mentioned given by the Agents 
of Thomas & Richard Perm Esq rs . Proprietaries of Pensilvania, to 
the Six Nations at a Treaty at Easton in said Province dated 23 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 5. 

2 A well-known Onondaga sachem, who had been the leader of the 
Indian scouts with Colonel Bradstreet's expedition against Fort Frontenac. 
His Indian name was Kaghswughtione. 

3 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 5. 

44 Sir William Johnson Papers 

of October 1 758 — and which Deed was delivered by Nickus the 
Mohock Sachem to Sir William Johnson the 1 8 Nov r . 1 758 . . . 

This Indenture made the Twenty third day of October in the 
Year of our Lord, One thousand Seven hundred & fifty eight, 
Between Thomas Penn & Richard Penn Esquires Proprietaries of 
the Province of Pensilvania & Counties of Newcastle, Kent & 
Sussex on Delaware by their Attornies Richard Peters & Conrad 
Wieser Esquires of the One part and Nickas Karaghiagdatie, 
Sachem or Chief of the Mohock Nation, Assarondongas, a 
Sachem or Chief of the Onondaga Nation, Sagehsadon a Sachem 
or Chief of the Seneca Nation, Thomas King alias Sagughsonyont, 
a Sachem or Chief of the Onieda Nation, Tohahoyo a Sachem or 
Chief of the Cayouga Nation, Nihaquontoquon, a Sachem or 
Chief of the Tuscarora Nation, on behalf of themselves & all 
others the Six Nations of Indians on the other part. Whereas by 
a Deed Poll bearing date the Sixth day of July in the Year of 
our Lord One thousand seven hundred & fifty four, made at the 
City of Albany in the Province of New York, Henry Peters & 
others Sachems or Chiefs of the Mohock Nation, Anughuanqua & 
others Sachems & Chiefs of the Onieda Nation, Otsinughyada 
alias Bunt on behalf of the Onondaga Nation, Scanuraty & others 
Chiefs or Sachems of the Cayouga Nation, Kakukdoden alias 
groote Younge 1 & others Chiefs or Sachems of the Seneca Nation, 
and Suntrughwachon & others Sachems or Chiefs of the Tuscarora 
Nation, on behalf of themselves & all the Six Nations aforesaid 
for the Consideration therein mentioned, did give, grant, Bargain, 
sell, release & confirm, to Thomas Penn & Richard Penn Esquires 
Proprietaries of the Province of Pensilvania their Heirs & assigns 
forever, all the Lands lying within the Province of Pensilvania 
bounded & limitted as follows, namely beginning at the Kittoch- 
tinny or Blue Hills on the West Bank of Susquahanna River, and 
thence by the said River to a Mile above the Mouth of a certain 
Creek called Cayarondinhagh (since John Penn's Creek) thence 

1 Groote Junge, a Seneca sachem who was a partisan of the French. 
See Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:233,262. 

Seven Years' War 45 

North West & by West as far as the said Province of Pensilvania 
extended to its Western Line or Boundary, thence along the said 
Western Line to the South Line or Boundary of the said Province, 
thence by the said South Line or Boundary to the south side of 
the said Kittocktinny or Blue Hills, thence by the South side of 
said Hills along the said Hills to the Place of beginning, together 
with the Rivers, Creeks, Islands, Ways, Waters, Water Courses, 
Woods, under Woods, Minerals, Priviledges, Hereditaments & 
Appurtanences thereunto belonging or in any wise Appertaining, 
with all the right, Title, Interest, Property Claim & Demand 
whatsoever of the said Sachems or Chiefs or any of the Six 
Nations of Indians aforesaid or any Person belonging to them 
of, in & to the same, To have & to hold to the said Thomas Penn & 
Richard Penn their Heirs & assigns to their only proper use for- 
ever, as in & by the said Deed duly executed, relation being there- 
to had may more fully & at large Appear, and Whereas by an 
Endorsement on the Back of the said Deed Poll, it was stipulated 
& agreed by the Agents for the said Proprietaries with the Indians, 
that whenever the Lands over the Appalachian Hills should 
be settled, the Indians who signed the said Deed should 
receive a further Sume not exceeding the Consideration Money 
in the said Deed mentioned as by the said Endorsment may more 
fully appear, and Whereas after the Execution of the said 
Deed Poll, it was represented by Sir William Johnson & made 
known to the said Thomas Penn & Richard Penn Esq", that 
altho the said Purchase was fairly & openly made yet some of the 
Six Nations were disgusted at it & others repented their selling it, 
& insisted that they would not part with the Lands comprized in 
the said Deed for which the further Consideration mentioned in 
the said Endorsement had not been [maJe] paid, And whereas 
the said Thomas & Richard Penn on receiving this Information 
freely declared, that they should ever make it their constant 
Rule to act such a part as should be of greatest use to the 
Public, tho it might be prejudicial to their private Interest, and 
as the Indians were not well satisfied with the Sale of those 
Lands on the Ohio, they were willing to wave that part of the 

46 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Purchase aforesaid And Whereas to the Intent that all Causes or 
pretended Causes for Uneasiness that might remain on the Minds 
of the Indians, so as to prevent a perfect Union & Friendship 
between His Majestys Subjects & the Indians in America, might 
be removed, They the said Thomas Penn & Richard Penn Esq", 
by their Letter of Attorney bearing the date the 7. day of Novem- 
ber in the Year of our Lord 1 757, did constitute & appoint au- 
thorize & empower Richard Peters & Conrad Weiser Esq rs . 
jointly & severally their Agents Attorneys & Commissioners with 
full Power & Authority to attend such Meetings as should be ap- 
pointed by Sir William Johnson to be held by them with the 
Indians of the Six Nations or their respective Deputies, and in 
their name & behalf & as their Act & Deed to consent to surrender 
& give back to the said Indians, and to execute all Necessary 
Deeds Surrender & Releases & Instruments for the Actual Sur- 
rendering & giving back to the said Indians all such parts of the 
Lands comprized within the beforementioned Purchase Deed as 
lye to the Northward or Westward of the said Appalachian or 
Alleghany Hills, in such Manner as the said Proprietaries their 
Heirs or Descendants or Assigns should never Claim the same or 
any part thereof by Virtue of the said recited Purchase Deed, 
provided always that at such Treaty the said Six Nations or their 
Deputies did fully & effectualy agree stipulate & settle the exact 
and certain Bounds of the residue of the said Lands included in 
the said Deed, which were still to remain to the said Proprietaries 
after such Surrender should be made, and did also agree that the 
said Lands so to be surrendered or any part or parts thereof, if 
the Indians or their Descendants should thereafter be inclined to 
sell the same, should not be sold or made over, but only to the 
Proprietaries of Pensilvania & to no other Person or Persons 
whatsoever & did further agree to renew & confirm the former 
general Engagements on the part of the Indians, never to sell 
to any Person or Persons other than to the Proprietaries of Pen- 
silvania for the time being any Lands within what is accounted by 
the English the general Bounds of that Province as in & by the 
said Letter of Attorney duly executed & proved before the Lord 

Seven Years' War 47 

Mayor of London to which the Great Seal of the said Province 
is Affixed reference being thereto had may at large appear. 
And Whereas at a Treaty lately held at Easton on the 23. 
day this Instant, at which the Chiefs or Deputies of the said 
Six Nations were present with George Croghan by the Appoint- 
ment of the said Sir William Johnson, they the said Chiefs or 
Deputies have agreed with the Aforesaid Attorneys of the said 
Proprietaries to accept of the Surrender & release of that part 
of the Lands comprized in the said Deed of purchase lying to the 
Northward & Westward of the Alleghany Hills on the Terms 
proposed by the said Proprietaries & to confirm the other part 
lying on this side the said Hills to the said Proprietaries & have 
settled the exact Bounds of the same according to the Lines & 
Limits herein after mentioned & described, that is to say, it was 
mutually agreed by & between them, that all such part of the 
Lands comprized within the said Deed of Purchase as shall be 
contained within the following Bounds, that is to say Beginning 
at the Kittochtinny or Blue [Mountains] Hills on the West 
Bank of Susquahanna River and runing thence by the said River 
& binding therewith to a Mile above the Mouth of a Creek called 
Kaarondinhah or John Penn's Creek, thence North West & 
by West to a Creek called Buffalos Creek, thence West to the 
East side of Alleghany or Appalachian Hills, thence along the 
East side of said Hills binding there with to the South Line or 
Boundary of the said Province thence by the said Line or 
Boundary to the South side of Kittacktinny Hills, thence by the 
South side of the said Hills binding therewith to the place of 
begining shall be ratified & confirmed to the said Thomas Penn & 
Richard Penn their Heirs or assigns forever & that all the rest 
of the Lands comprized within the said purchase Deed shall be 
surrendered up & released to the Six Nations. 

Now this Indenture Witnesseth that the said Thomas Penn & 
Richard Penn Esquires Proprietaries of the Province of Pen- 
silvania & the Counties of Newcastle Kent & Sussex on Delaware 
by their Agents Attornies & Commissioners Richard Peters & 
Conrad Weiser Esq rs . & in consideration of the Premises & of 


Sir William Johnson Papers 

the Sume of Five Shillings to them in hand paid have remitted, 
released, quit claimed & surrendered up, and by these Presents 
do remise, release quit claim & surrender up to the said Nickas 
Karaghiagdatie, Assaradunkqua, Sagehsaden, Thomas King alias 
Sagughsonyont, Tokahoyo, Nihaquontoqush on behalf of them- 
selves & all others, belonging to the Six Nations & their Heirs 
& Descendants forever, All the Residue of the Lands comprized in 
the said Deed made at Albany w ch . are not contained within 
the Lines & Limits herein last abovementioned & described any 
thing in the said Deed contained to the Contrary notwithstanding 
To have & to hold the same, to them & the Six Nations their 
Descendants as fully & amply to all Intents & purposes as they 
did, might or could hold or enjoy them before the Execution of 
the said Deed so that niether they the said Thomas Penn & 
Richard Penn their Heirs or Assigns shall at any time hereafter 
have or claim any right Title or Interest therein by Virtue of the 
said Deed as to the rest & Residue of the Lands aforesaid therein 
contained shall be utterly void as if the same had never been made 
in Testimony whereof the Parties to these Presents have hereunto 
interchangeably set their Hands & affixed their Seals the Day 
& year first above written 

Sealed & De- Thomas Pen 

livered (the word 
being first inter- 
lined between Line 
the first & 

Second from RlCHARD PENN 

the Top) in the Presence of. 

Geo. Croghan Depy Agent 

Henry H M Montour 

Will m . Logan 
Charles Swaine 
John Watson Jun r . 




Richard Peters 

Conrad Weiser 

N. B. a Draught of the Land 
agreed to be given up to the 
Proprietaries as described in 
the above Deed was afixed to 
the said Deed of Surrender 

Seven Years War 49 


[Oct. 28-29, 1758] 
Fort Johnson 28. October 1758. 

Sir William went over to the Mohock Castle and cloathed 
the Women & Children of the Indians living there as follows 
of the Turtle Tribe 24 Women 32 Children 
Bear Tribe 1 8 Women 26 Children 
Wolf Tribe 22 Women 27 Children 

64 85 

5 more cloathed 


Totall Women & Children 154. — 
the 29. 1 4 Oniedas & 2 Senecas were cloathed. 

L. S. 2 

Fort Johnson 31 K October 1758. 

Upon the Receipt of your Excellencys Favour of the 6 th . Inst. 
I appointed Mr. Lotteridge a Captain in the Indian Service, and 
sent him on the Scout you directed, ordering him to take the Rout 
as described in your Letter. 3 I expect him back in a Day or two, 
when I shall transmit you a Copy of his Report. 

I have also your Excellencys favour of the 1 3 th . Inst. 4 I shall 
defer giving an Answer to the particulars contained in these 
Letters, as I propose in a few Days to do myself the Honour 
of waiting on you. 

The chief Errant of this Letter is to acquaint your Excellency, 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 5. 

2 In Henry E. Huntington Library. 

3 See Abercromby to Johnson, Oct. 6, 1758, ante p. 27, and also 
Johnson to Abercromby, Sept. 30, 1 758, ante p. 18. 

4 Not found. 

50 Sir William Johnson Papers 

that I expected some Ind n . Goods, for which there was an imediate 
Occasion, from Albany, and Mr. VanderHeyden who was to send 
them me, and had got a Waggon, not only had that Waggon 
taken from him by the Depy. Q r . Master, whom he acquainted 
with the Service it was going upon, but was also refused a pass 
for any other by that Officer. I must therefore entreat you 
will be pleased to give a written and positive Order, that such 
Waggons as may be necessary for carrying on the Indian Service, 
may not be liable to be taken away by any Person whatsoever, 
and that I may also be supplied with Battoes to bring up the 
Goods from Schenectady, And I beg you will please to order 
the said original Order to be sent me or a Copy of it. Unless 
I have the Support of your Authority herein, and that none of 
these Assistant Q r , Masters do presume to disobey it with Im- 
punity, the Ind n . Service must suffer, and so far I shall be in- 
capable of carrying it on. 

I should not be so earnest hereon, if the Disappointments 
which have, and may arise by these Proceedings were not of real 

By Report but not from any other Authority, I hear the 
present Party at my House is speedily to be relieved, if so I would 
be obliged to Your Excellency, to let me know by what Corps, 
I have been quite pleased with the Behaviour of the present Party, 
and I will hope the same of that which may relieve them. As L*. 
Claus resides here, and has formerly commanded sundry Parties 
here, I am desireous he may command the Party which is to relieve 
the present, if your Excellency proposes to relieve it. 

I am most respectfully 

Your Excellencys 

Most Obedient humble 

W M . Johnson 

To His Excellency 

Major Gen l . Abercrombie 

&ca. &ca. 

Seven Years' War 51 

*PS. on Second thought, I Judged 
it best to Send Y r . Excellency M r . 
Van Derheydens letter to Me. by 

M r . Coventry's conduct on this, and that of some others heretofore 
on the like occasion, it appears, as if this department of mine was 
not (by those Persons) looked upon as a part of his Majestys 
Service, the inclosed letter w h . he mentions, is one from Justice 
Van Eps of Schenectady to the Same purport. 


Sir W m . Johnson Bart. 

Fort Johnson 3 1 l . October 1 758. 

R the 2 d . November. 


[Oct. 31 -Nov. 10 J 758] 
Fort Johnson 3 1 October 1 758. — 

This day Ten Seneca Indians arrived, who some time ago were 
coming down hither on Sir Williams Call to march with him to join 
the Army at Lake George, but were stopped by him at the German 
Flatts & upon his desire went with Col. Bradstreet to Cadaraqui. 

Sir Y/illiam welcomed them & thanked them for their Com- 
pliance with his request & the assistance they had given in the 
Enterprize against Fort Frontenac & told them he expected the 
Interpreter this Evening when he would speak more to them 

Fort Johnson 2. November 1 758. 

Sir William Johnson set off for Connojohary in order to 
cloath the Women & Children of the Indians of that Castle. 

Eod. die — Cap 1 . Lotteridge returned with the Indians who went 
with him upon a Scout of Discovery to Oswego (Vid pag 299 
& 300) 3 & made the following report. 

1 In Johnson's hand. 

2 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 5. 

3 See ante pp. 30-3 1 . 

52 Sir William Johnson Papers 

October 20 — Left Fort Stanwix in the Morning, lay that night 
on the N. E. side of Onieda Lake. [Ontario] 1 

21 — The Indians declaring it impossible to proceed on the N. E. 
side of said Lake as the Swamps & Creeks were so full of Water 
occasioned by the heavy Rains that fall, we crossed the Lake in a 
Bark Canoe to the fishing Place — hauled up the Canoe. 

22 — Proceeded to the Three Rivers on the N. E. side 

23 — Arrived at Oswego at four in the Afternoon, reconnoitred 
along the E. side of Lake Ontario & lay that night 10 Miles 
beyond Oswego on the Bank of the Lake 

24 — Returned to Oswego 

25 — Made a Raft on which we crossed to where the Trading 
House formerly stood & ranged the surrounding Woods. 

26 — We marched along the West side of Lake Ontario Six 
Miles thro the Woods towards Onondaga Castle & lay that night 
at a small Lake West of Oswego Falls 5 Miles. 

27 — Arrived at Onondaga Castle was remarkably well treated 
by the Indians 

28 — Marched from Onondaga lay that night about half way to 

29 — Arrived at Onieda Castle. 

30 — Arrived at Fort Stanwix. I was received in the different 
Indian Castles I went thro in the most Hospitable & friendly 
manner, but made not the least Discovery of any Enemy, niether 
the Tracks of the least Scouting Party approaching this way. 

John Lotteridge 

N. B. found a peice of Linnen 
near where the Trading House 
at Oswego stood & where our 
Troops encampt on their return 
from Cadaraqui by which I 
judge no Enemy have been since 
that way. 

1 Words italicized and in brackets are crossed out in the manuscript. 

Seven Years' War 53 

4 Nov r . — Sir William Cloathed the women & Children of the 
Indians at Connojohary Castle as follows 

Bear Tribe 31 Women 14 Boys & 13 Girls 
Turtle Tribe 21 d°. 1 6 d°. & 1 1 d°. 

Wolf Tribe 24 d°. 1 5 do. & 20 do. 

Totall 76 Women 45 Boys 44 Girls 

They returned thanks for the above & made Application to Sir 
William for Provisions for the People of their Castle they being 
quite destitute of any thing in Store. — 

9 November. Sir William Johnson set out for Albany upon 
Major General Abercrombys desire of seeing him there. 

1 th d°. — he waited on the General, who amongst other things 
desired he would make a report to him of the present state of the 
5 Nations, & particularly let him know his opinion of Colonel 
Bradstreets Information to him; This Sir William did by the 
following Letter — 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Albany 10 Nov. 1758 

Your Excellency having desired from me a Report of the 
present Sittuation of the 5 Nations of Indians with regard to 
the British Interest and His Majestys Service, I will in obediance 
thereto give you the best Information in my power & that with the 
utmost Impartiality. 

It is my opinion from all the Intelligence I have been able 
to obtain, from the various Facts & circumstances which my 
Transactions with these Indians on behalf of the Crown have 
furnished me, — that they are not of themselves inclined to abandon 
the British Interest & join the French against us. My principal 
reasons for being of this Opinion are as follows. 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 5. 

54 Sir William Johnson Papers 

1 . From so many of the Six Nations, to the amount of 400 having 
chearfully joined His Majestys Troops under Your Excellencys 
Command this Summer at Tionderogo, 1 and their behaviour on 
that Service w ch . obtained the Honour of your Excellencys thanks 
to them. 

2. From their readily joining Lieu 1 . Col. Bradstreet in his late 
Enterprize against Fort Frontenac & their Behaviour upon that 
Service, in which many more (before the Event was known) de- 
clared to me, they would have joined had they been accquainted 
with it & timely called upon. 

3. From none of them carrying the least Intelligence of the 
movement of our Troops & preparations, thro their Country, to 
the Enemy which had they been devoted to the French Interest, 
they might have done long before Col. Bradstreet appeared before 
Cadaraqui, and I conceive in such Case would certainly have 
done it. 

4. From the Behaviour of their Delegates at the late Treaty at 
Easton in Pensilvania with the Gov r . of that Province & of New 
Jersey which Treaty I have just now received & with it Letters 
acknowledging, that to the Zeal & mediation of the Delegates of 
the Six Nations, the favorable Event of that Treaty is in a great 
Measure owing, and from which there is abundant reason to hope, 
the Indian Interest in those parts will be restored to its former 
[state] Strength and the Designs of the Enemy with regard to the 
Indians in that Quarter be in a great Measure frustrated. Without 
the zealous Mediation of the Six Nations at this Treaty in our 
favour, things would not have taken the happy turn they have done, 
had they not been attached to our Interest, it would not be 
reasonable to suppose the 6 Nations would have thus zealously 
mediated — add to this that my Deputy M r . Croghan writes me 
he is set off with 50 Indian Warriors who were at this Treaty, 
to join Brig r . Forbes in his Operations against the Enemy, and 
this upon a short Summons. 

5. And Lastly the 5 Nations have frequently & solemnly assured 

1 Ticonderoga. 

Seven Years' War 55 

me, they are detirmined not to abandon their Antient Alliance 
with the English, and this I am inclined to beleive, among other 
reasons for this strong & natural One, namely that I do not appre- 
hend it is the Interest of their Confederacy, to quit our Alliance 
& join the French against us. 

And here I beg leave to repeat to Your Excellency, that with 
regard to the Intelligence you received from Col. Bradstreet of 
the 5 Nations having taken up the Hatchet against us in favour of 
the French, I do not give Credit to it for the above reasons. 

I am Sir very sensible that the Conduct of the 5 Nations in 
general, hath for a considerable time past, been such as to give 
room for Suspicions of their Fidelity, and I am of Opinion that 
until we repossess our selves of Oswego & by that means estab- 
lish such a Barrier for them, and that our Success against the 
French render us so respectable in the Eyes of the 5 Nations as 
to take off their present Dread of the French, and of the extensive 
Indian Influence, which their unmolested possession of the Lakes 
gives them. I say until Affairs take this turn, I am of Opinion that 
the most favorable Expectations we may form of the 5 Nations, 
cannot reasonably be for more, than their remaining Neutral 
between us & the French. Our taking post at Oswego, com- 
manding the Navigation of Lake Ontario & destroying Niagara, 
would I conceive oblige & indeed incline the 5 Nations to declare 
& act heartily in our favour, and by the means of a well conducted 
Trade would draw the Western Indians into our Alliance & 
Interest, and I think shake the whole French Indian Interest to 
the Center, & disconcert if not totally subvert their whole System 
of Indian Trade & Power upon this Continent. 

Until this, or some part at least of this Scheme be effected 
or that some other equally effecting Advantages over the French 
power & possessions on this Continent be obtained, I apprehend 
our Indian Interest will not mend in its Appearance but may per- 
haps wear a more discouraging aspect. 

I am Sir & c . & c . 

W M . Johnson 

56 Sir William Johnson Papers 

The same day Sir William Johnson delivered Gen. Abercromby 
his Ace', of Indian Expenses for 2 years 1 

Contemporary Copy 2 

Fort Hendrick 3 Dec*. 2, 1758 

There is one thing further induces me to trouble you, and that 
is the Indians of this Castle making Objection for cutting Fire 
wood for this Garrison on their Territories, who seemed at First to 
make us quite welcome, but were led on by the Schuyler Family & 
forbid us for the future to cut any, the reason I understand since 
was, that they were not bespoke for drawing the Wood themselves, 
which I am informed of by old Nickus, with whom with great 
Difficulty I made it up again, but dos not know how long it 
may last on account of their being surrounded by a parcell of ill 
advised Malicious Dutch, who enternally studies to make variance 
between His Majestys Garrison & the Indians, the reason I 
suppose why is, as I understand from different People as Schuyler 
resides here have been persuading the Indians not to allow any 
here but Country Troops and to have the Command himself. I 
could make this clearer to You if at any time I should have the 
honour to meet with you, but as you have His Majestys Interest 
always at heart I hope you will take it into Consideration 

I am Sir with the greatest Esteem 
Your Affect e . hum serv*. 
Arch d . M c Aulay 

Lieu 1 . Indep ls . 

1 The comment at the end of the letter is not part of the letter but a 
continuation of Sir William Johnson's Journal of Indian Affairs, in which 
this copy of the letter is to be found. 

2 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 5. Extract of a letter, 
inserted after the foregoing journal. 

3 At Canajoharie. 

Seven Years' War 57 


[Nov. 18 -Dec. 4, 1758] 

Fort Johnson, 1 8 Nov r . 1 758 

Sir William returned Otrawanas Belt of Intelligence, also that 
of the Oniedas (which they sent some time ago to give him 
notice of the Design of the French to come & attack the Carrying 
Place, Fort Herkemaar & this River) by the Red Head, another 
Onondaga Indian & a Seneca with his thanks for their Friendly 
notice & early Intelligence desiring they would continue the 
same friendly Dispositions on all occasions — 

2 black & white Belts 

The same day Sir William sent a Belt by the above Indians 
strongly pressing the Onondagas & Oniedas for the last time to 
withdraw their People from Oswegachie & that if they would not 
comply & quit the French Interest (w ch they were wrong in joining 
& deserved to be everlastingly despised by them as well as us) 
they might repent it when too late. 

gave a Belt of 7 rows black & white 

he then cloathed the Messengers & their Party consisting of 
14 Men, 5 Women & 3 Children very well, being strongly 
attached to the British Interest, gave them some Money to carry 
them home, Rum & c . so parted, also an Order to the Commissary 
at Fort Herkemaar to give them Provisions to carry them home. 
they all promised they would be ready at a Call to join our 
Arms & would give the earliest Notice they could learn of the 
Enemys Designs. 

the same day Nickus Chief Sachem of the Connojohary Castle 
arrived here from the Meeting at Easton in Pensilvania, and in 
the presence of the Belt a Seneca Sachem & several more of 
said Nation, the Read Head & some mor Onondagas, shewed 
Sir William all the Belts which passed between the Gov rs . of 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 5. 

58 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Pensilvania & Jersey & the several Nations of Indians there 
assembled with the purport of them, which are not inserted 
here as M r . Croghan Deputy Agent has transmitted to Sir W m . 
Johnson all the Proceedings at the said Easton Meeting. 

Nickus also delivered Sir William in the presence of said 
Indians an Indenture of Release from M r . Pens Agents, namely 
M r . Peters and Conraad Weiser, to the Six Nations, giving up all 
rights & Titles to Lands purchased by said Pens Agents at Albany 
in the year 1 754 of the Six Nations except what is reserved by 
said Indenture as will appear by a Draught of said Land affixed 
to the Indenture now in Sir Williams possession. 

Said Nickus requested Sir William would inform the Mohocks 
on their return from Hunting of what passed at the Meeting at 
Easton 1 & shew them the Indenture & Draught aforesaid, which he 
promising to do, Nickus said he would return to his Castle. 
Sir William made him a handsome Present for his Services at said 
Meeting & after all this affair was over, told him of the several 
Irregularities & violences committed during his Absence by the 
Young Men of his Castle on the Property & Persons of the In- 
habitants of this River, also of their killing the Cattle going to the 
several Posts on this River for the use of His Majestys Troops, & 
after expatiating a great deal on this Subject, Sir William told 
him he must exert himself on this occasion or such Behaviour in 
them must be productive of very fatal Consequences. 

He said it was with the utmost Concern he had heard this 
Account & assured Sir William he would endeavour all in his 
power to restrain them & try to bring them to proper Order but 
doubted of Success whilst there was such a Flood of Rum in the 
Country which alone occasioned them to commit those Irregu- 
larities & which if not prevented must inevitably destroy them 
all in a little time. 

Thus ended this Conference. 

^uly and August, 1757. See Docs. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 

Seven Years' War 59 

Fort Johnson, 19 Nov'. 1758 

Seth a Chief of Schohary arrived here this day & made the 
following Complaint — 

That a number of Germans were settled on Lands belonging to 
the Indians of that Settlement who upon being asked by what 
Authority they settled there, told the Indians they were settled 
there by the Patroon of Albany, 1 upon that the Complainant says 
he was sent by the rest of the Sachems with a Letter concerning 
the Affair to the Patroon at Albany, who disclaimed any right 
to it, at the same time desired they would not molest the said 
Germans, but let them use the Lands, and pointing to a Boy then 
present (who they told the Indians was the young Patroon) 2 said 
when he came of Age he would buy the said Land & pay them for 
it, to which the bearer of the Letter had no power to answer — 
on his going away the late Patrooness 3 gave him £5 to divide 
among the Sachems to drink her Health. Hans Lawyer of 
Schohary he says shewed them a Draught of Schohary & showed 
the Indians that the Patroon had no right or Title to said Lands 
on which the Germans were lately settled, that it was yet their 
property & so did many more of the Inhabitants of Schohary — 
the Indian concluded with telling Sir William that their Castle had 
a Meeting upon it a few days ago at which they agreed to send 
the Bearer to accquaint him with their Grievance & hoped he 
would have justice done them, otherwise they were resoldved 
to quit their Settlement the ensuing Spring & go to the Southward 
— he further said that their Women & Children were in Expecta- 
tion of being Cloathed by Sir William as the two Mohock Castles 
had been last Month, and as they & their Men were firmly attached 
to His Majestys Interest as any Indians whatsoever hoped I 
would have no Objections to it, it being what was promised them 
at the Commencement of the War & what they duly had hitherto. 

Sir William told them he would enquire into the Affair of the 

1 Stephen Van Rensselaer, 2nd. 

2 Stephen Van Rensselaer, 3rd. 

3 Elizabeth Groesbeck. 

60 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Land as soon as possible & if he found they were injured he would 
use all means in his power to have Justice done them. 

As to cloathing their old women, old Men & children he was 
ready to do it a week ago had the severe Weather not prevented it 
— that he would in a day or two send them by an officer to their 
Settlement, being very sensible of their Attachment & readiness 
on all Occasions which he desired they would ever continue & 
assured them they would find it their Interest — on which the 
Sachem in the name of the whole Castle returned thanks & said, 
he had eased his Mind much & was sure it would give his People 
very great Satisfaction on his return — Sir William gave him a 
small Present & five Dollars to purchase some Necessarys which 
he said he much wanted, & so parted. 

2 1 November — Sir William sent Captains Butler & Fonda to 
Schohary with two Horse Loads of Goods to cloath the Women & 
Children of that Settlement, being in number 1 8 Women & 33 
Children — 

the 26. — They returned & reported that they had cloathed 
the above number for w ch . the Indians were very thankful, the 
Officers gave them some Money to buy a little Provisions & 
so parted. 

The same day Sir William cloathed the Belts Family, viz. 
Himself, his Wife, 3 Daughters Women grown one Grandchild 
& a Boy of 1 years old. 

23 Nov r . — Cloathed 50 Onondagas who came with a Trusty 
Indian of that Nation who lost his hand here by a Shot also gave 
him a Cag of Rum & 3 Dollars to carry him home — Sir William 
desired he would use all his Influence this Winter amongst the 
young Men of his Nation so as to have a number of them ready 
to join the Army next Spring — he promised he would do every 
thing in his power for His Majestys Interest & would be down 
here in the Spring or sooner, then parted. 

24 November — At a meeting of all the Mohock Sachems 
& Chiefs at Fort Johnson they desired Sir William to accquaint 

Seven Years' War 61 

them with what passed at the late Meeting at Easton in Pensil- 
vania. he having the Minutes of said Meeting before him, he from 
thence accquainted them with the several Transactions at it, and 
shewed them the Indenture of the Release of their Lands about 
Ohio, mentioned in said Treaty. They expressed & manifested 
great Satisfaction at the Proprietaries giving up their Claim to 
said Lands & hoped it would ease the Minds of all their Friends 
& Countrymen which have for some time been very much dis- 
turbed on that & some other Accounts. They returned Sir William 
many thanks for communicating to them the particulars of the 
Treaty at Easton, and on his asking their Opinion of it, their 
cheif said that if all the Indians had promised at said Meeting 
was sincere & intended to be performed by them, it would be a 
very good thing for us & would give them also great Pleasure, but 
that the 5 Nations & Delawares were so used to speak fine Words 
without meaning, that they were at a loss even now what Opinion 
to form of their future Behaviour, at the same time, that if a 
general Meeting of the Nations were now to be called by [me] 
Sir William, they would be obliged to be more open & explicit 
than hitherto having the great Burthen taken off their Minds, 
namely the Lands w ch . were now given up to them. Sir William 
told them he would consider of it & if found necessary & prac- 
ticable at this Season of the Year he would call a Meeting of all 
the Nations gave them Pipes Tobacco & c . Drank the Kings 
Health & so parted. 

Fort Johnson 30 Nov'. 1 759. 

Two Onieda Indians, 3 Squas & 5 Children arrived here & 
accquainted Sir William that the Sachems, Warriors some Women 
& c . of their Castle were on their way hither & would they thought 
be here the next day. they said their Sachems were coming on 
Buisness of a good deal of moment. These Indians were going 
into the Woods a hunting. 

1 Dec. — The above Indians had some Amunition & some 
Cloaths given them, being 1 in all, also Provisions on their 
Journey, for which they were very thankful, & promised they 

62 Sir William Johnson Papers 

would be ready at any time when Sir William called upon them 
to join His Majestys Arms. 

4 December — Sir William dispatched Cap 1 Thomas Butler 
to Fort Stanwix in order to regulate the Trade there with the 
Indians & prevent their being ill used or imposed upon, also to 
receive & transmit to him all Intelligence he may learn from the 
Indians. His Instructions on this Service are recorded in the 
Blue Book of this date. 

Fort Johnson 4 December 1 758. — 
This day Sir William received a Letter from Lieu 1 . MacAulay 
of the Independ 1 . Companys posted at Fort Hendrik, an Extract 
of which concerning Indian Affairs is here inserted. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Fort Johnson Dec r . 5. 1758 — 

I take the Opportunity by Cap 1 . Butler of acknowledging the 
receipt of yours of the 2 Inst. 2 being then very much hurried 
desired Lieu*. Claas to write you, which he tells me he did there- 
fore have not much now to add but to assure you that nothing 
would give me more Satisfaction than to have it in my power 
to make an Example of such as would endeavour to breed Mis- 
understandings between the Garrison there & the Indians, that 
there are such I am fully satisfied, for w ch . reason I here inclose 
you an Advertisement to be set up in the properest place. I hope 
I may be able to find thereby some sufficient proof to ground a 
Prosecution on, if not it will have some good Effect for a time as 
I dare say it will frighten those Kind of people a good deal. 

I am Sir 

Your very hum serv*. 
W M . Johnson 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 5. 

2 Ante p. 56. 

Seven Years' War 63 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Fort Johnson, Dec. 5, 1758. 

From the several Disputes & little Bickerings which have 
hitherto happened between the Garrison of Fort Hendrick & the 
Indians of Connojohary there is abundant reason to think that 
some evil low designing People among the Inhabitants in those 
parts, have & do stir up the Indians (who are naturally a quiet 
peacable People) to it from some vile mercenary & selfish Views 
to the prejudice of the Service & disquietude of the Garrison, 
in order therefore to detect such Villains & Enemies to the Coun- 
try so as to enable me to prosecute them, I do hereby offer a 
reward of Twenty Pounds to any Person who will bring or 
give me sufficient proof against such Offenders. 

Given under my hand at Fort 
Johnson this 5 day of Dec r . 1 758 
W M . Johnson 


[Dec. 5-9,1758.] 

5 Dec. — Hannis an Onieda (Nixnoxque's Son) was sent 
by his Father, Tierhadaghrio & others of that Nation from 
Schohary where they were a hunting to let Sir William know 
they with their Families were in a starving Condition owing to 
the scarcity of Game & the Sullenness & ill temper of the In- 
habitants of that Settlement on Account of some Pigs & c which 
were killed by some Indians lately, and for which as they say, 
they are so much out of Temper that they will not give an Indian 
a Morsel of any thing tho ever so much in want, but give them 
ill language which the Indians he says are very uneasy at, & 
desired the Messenger to ask [me whether] Sir William, whether 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 5. The original was 
enclosed in Johnson to McAulay, Dec. 5, 1 758. 

2 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 5. 

64 Sir William Johnson Papers 

he did not know any other reason for such their unfriendly 
behaviour, towards the Indians & that Sir W m would write to 
the People of Schohary about it. He sent the Messenger back 
immediately, gave him some Money to buy Provision for their 
Family & desired him to tell the Oniedas & others, that he would 
enquire into the Affair & have it settled, at the same time desired 
he would tell all the Indians, he expected they would on their 
part continue their friendly Disposition towards the Inhabitants 
of that Settlement as usual, by which means & Sir William's 
writing to them he did not doubt but everything would be amicably 

9 December — Sir William sent Cap 1 Jellas Fonda one of his 
Indian Officers to Schohary with a Letter to the Inhabitants of 
that Place, remonstrating to them the Disadvantages to them- 
selves in particular & to His Majestys Service in general, which 
would arise from a Breach with the Indians at this Juncture & 
exhorting them to bear patiently with some triffling Inconveniences 
rather than create a Misunderstanding between them & c . as will 
appear by the Copy of the said Letter of this date in the Blue 
Book of Minutes. 

And he directed Cap'. Fonda to explain this said Letter prop- 
erly to them — in the following Instructions. 

Contemporary Copy 1 

Dec. 9, 1758 

Instructions to Cap 1 . Jellas Fonda going to Schohary — 
You are to call the principal Inhabitants of that Settlement 
together, explain my Letter to them, and tell them the ill con- 
sequences of their differing with the Indians, particularly at this 
time. I would have you in the Strongest manner recommend a 
good Agreement to them with all Indians who reside or pass that 
way, and also to make a collection of Indian Corn & c . for such 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 5. 

Seven Years' War 65 

as are now in want of Provisions as the best way of continuing 
their Friendship which secured will be the best means of pre- 
venting their being disturbed by the Enemy. 

Also to let them know that you are in my name to speak to 
all the Indians there & desire they will live in Friendship with 
their Bretheren & not offer to molest them or their Properties, 
if they do that it will be a means of souring their Tempers & 
giving a check to their Donations to them & must certainly give 
me a bad Opinion of them, which will be the greatest Loss of 
all to them, this & any other Arguments which may occur to you 
necessary to use on that Occasion you have my Liberty to make 
use of. 

These Strings of Wampum you are to deliver to the Indians 
after speaking & desire they will take notice of what I recommend. 

W. Johnson 



Fort Johnson 9 Dec'. 1 758 — 

The Onieda Sachems with several of their Young Men, 
Women & Children to the amount of 40 arrived here, after 
quartering them, giving Provisions & c . the Sachems, viz Gan- 
achquieson, Sonoghsis, Teyhary, Senoghsis Brother & c . came 
into the Council Room when Conochquieson spoke as follows. 


We of the Onieda Nation are glad to see You at this Council 
fire. We are 14 days by the way occasioned by some of our 
People's falling sick & are now fatigued & hungry therefore 
must defer saying anything to you till tomorrow. 

Sir William asked them whether it would be agreeable to 
them to have the Mohocks his Neighbors present whan they were 
to deliver what they had to say. After some pause Conochquieson 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 5. 

66 Sir William Johnson Papers 

said there was no Occasion as Sir William could acquaint the 
Mohocks afterwards. They said they had no extraordinary 
News, but expected they should have when Chinughiata Chief 
of Onondaga returned from Canada which they expected would 
be soon he having been gone a good while. They then asked 
what News was stirring here. Sir William told them he had 
none, but that he understood two Deserters from the French 
brought an Account that 700 Men were marched from some 
part of Canada before they came away, & were to attempt some- 
thing this way, on which they said they expected the French 
would attempt to cut off their Castle for their giving us constant 
Intelligence, thus ended this Conference. 

In the Evening of the same day Sagueriza Chief of the Tus- 
caroras with Gagh'swangereris & several others of said Nation, 
came into the Council room & after usual Salutations appologized 
for their not coming before, saying the Oniedas had not used 
them well, in not letting them know they were coming in to wait 
on Sir William & begged he would not take amiss their not 
coming in before, but imputed it to the Oniedas (with whom 
they came in Company [with the Oniedas] from their Country) 
not giving them notice they were coming in. 

Sir William told them he was satisfied of their good Intentions 
& with their Appology — after drinking the Kings health, they 

1 December — The Oniedas & Tuscarora Sachems to the 
amount of 30 came into the Council room. 

Pres*. Sir William Johnson 
Capt. Guy Johnson 

Lieu* Claus Dep. Sec 1 ?. 

Jacobus Clement Interp r . 

Conochquieson the Onieda Chief Sachem in behalf of both 
Nations spoke as follows. 


We understood by an Onondaga who was going home that 

Seven Years' War 67 

you was surprized at our not acquainting you with the murder 
of Kindarunte one of our Chief Men, by some French Indians 
lately at the carrying place. 


As soon as the Affair happened we Dispatched a Messenger 
with this Belt to our Fathers the Onondagas & Senecas & our 
Brothers the Cayougas acquainting them with the Circumstances 
thereof & desiring them to consider upon it & let us know the 
Result. When the Messengers came to Cayouga they were 
stopped & desired not to proceed any farther, but return & tell 
their People to deliberate & maturely upon the affair & not act 
like drunken People. 

Gave a Belt 

Three of the Onondaga Chiefs who immediately after our 
Loss came to our Castle & condoled with us thereon, desiring 
that we would for the present defer doing anything in the Affair, 
as Bunt the Chief of their Nation with several more were in 
Canada & soon expected, assuring us at the same time that on 
their return, they would acquaint all their & our Allies of it and 
have a general Council upon it, and We have no reason to doubt 
but they will act agreable to the Fundamental Rules of our 
Confederacy, viz that if any Nation should kill one of the Con- 
federate Nations, that all should rise against that Nation & 
revenge it which the Onondagas confirmed with this Belt. 

a Belt. 

Last year when you proposed a Trade amongst us you told 
us that the Goods should be sold us Cheap. Likewise last Sum- 
mer the General at the Lake, told us that after having built a 
Fort at the Onieda Carrying Place he would procure us a Cheap 
& plentiful Trade there, but after all it seems these fair Promises 
came from your Lips, for we find that goods are sold us dearer 
than ever, wherefore some of our People are gone towards Pen- 

68 Sir William Johnson Papers 

silvania where we hear Goods are sold Cheap; and also the rest 
of our Young People after you stopped them from coming to 
join the Army the last time & desired them to go upon the hunt 
for Leather for Shoes in order to be prepared whan Occasion may 

a Belt. 


We are in a distressed Condition having nothing in the World 
for our Sustenance, our Crops of Corn having faild this year by 
the early Frosts and we find it to be the same Case with our 
Fathers the Connojoharys, 1 for when we passed by there they 
had not so much as a meal of Victuals to Give us on our way 
hither. Wherefore we must call upon you for your Assistance 
& Pity in this our distressed Condition & beg you will appoint 
a place where we may get some Provisions. 

a Belt. 


The Commanding Officer when we came there first, ordered 
us some Provisions, but after that would not let us have any 
more & treated them who went for it very ill, at the same time 
did not refuse any to some Onondagas that were then there. 
Brother this seems quite strange to us & should be glad to know 
the reason & beg you'l prevent such doing for the future & have 
us provided as usual. 

a String. 

They further added that after they were refused Provisions 
with very ill treatment as abovementioned, one Harman Fisher 
told them, he would go with them to the Fort & buy Provisions 
for them if he could get it no other ways, but when he came with 
them to the Gate they met Cap*. Wendal & then could not get 
more for their whole Company than 3 peices of Porke which we 
attribute to Cap 1 . Wendall. 

1 The Mohawks at Canajoharie. 

Seven Years' War 69 


By this String we not only in the name of our Selves but also 
in that of the Onondagas & Cayougas apply to you for having 
a stop put to the selling of any Strong Liquors to our People, 
first it not only disturbs us in our Meetings & Consultations where 
the drunken People come in quarelling & very often have Weapons 
in their hands, but it likewise carrys off many of our People both 
old & young. 

Wherefore we earnestly beseech you to have no more Liquor 
brought among us to be sold. All we desire to be sold is dry 
Goods as usual for Necessary Cloaths & ammunition to hunt with. 

a String, 
here ended this Conference. 

Fort Johnson 1 2 Dec r . 1 758. 
Sir William Johnsons Answer to the foregoing Speech. 

Bretheren of the Onieda & Tuscarora Nations. 

I return you thanks for the Ceremony of Condolance which 
you have performed for our Losses & I on my part do the same 
for the several Losses you have sustained by Sickness &c. more 
particularly for that of your Sachem Kindarunte lately butchered 
by the French & their Indians in y r . own Feilds. 

Gave 3 Strings Wampum. 

You say you sent immediately on the Death of Kindarunte a 
Belt of Wampum to accquaint the upper Nations of your Loss, 
and the Behaviour of the French & Indians on that Occasion, 
it was so far right, but I am surprized you did not accquaint me 
& the Mohocks at the same time. They are the head of the Con- 
federacy, that would have been proper & keeping up to your 
former & once established Engagements & Customs, but I am sorry 
to see you daily falling off from & neglecting them which were 
so salutary & prudent that your wise & brave Ancestors flourished 
in their days by an Observance of them. 

70 Sir William Johnson Papers 

You must all remember that I have repeatedly advised your 
Nations in particular to take timely & proper Steps while in 
your power, to put a Stop to the French & their Indians coming 
thro your Country, otherwise it would be productive of ill con- 
sequences. You now find my Words true, and I wish for your 
sakes that the Loss of that Sachem may not be followed by a 

Your Bretheren of Cayouga acted a very wrong part in not 
forwarding your Belt & Message to the Senecas who probably 
might have paid more regard to it than they have. 

here returned their Belt. 

The Onondagas immediately you say sent some of their People 
to condole to to condole 1 with you the loss of Kindarunte at your 
Castle, so far it was friendly & well done if sincere, but their 
lulling You (then justly roused to a commendable resentment 
as I was informed) to a pacific Disposition for the present, until 
some of their People returned from Canada, who had they a 
regard for You, for us or their Country, would not have been 
so mean to creep to the French at this time, to me looks more 
like French Policy, than any thing else, and it is also doubtful 
with me whether they will return at all unless forced by hunger, 
the part the Bunt & they have acted is too base for any Beings 
who have the least power of Reflection to think of ever looking 
you or us in the Face. As for my part Bretheren I shall say but 
little more to you on this Subject, than that had you applied to 
your Brothers who altho with the Hatchet in their Head this 
long time and unregarded by you would have afforded you & 
will yet their assistance as they are well disposed to keep up to 
their Engagements with you. 

a Belt. 


The Promises I made to the Six Nations about Trade last 
Winter, I will remember, besides here it is recorded & their 

Repeated in manuscript. 

Seven Years' War 71 

Answer to it by their Deputies Tagodereghsere & Odaatsighte 
& c . last May both w ch . I shall repeat to you as I find your 
Memories are bad or do wilfully misconstrue my Proposal then 
made, by which was meant a general Trade as well for your 
Allies as your selves, which you must be all sensible could not 
answer the End intended at the place then proposed by those 
Deputies viz the German Flatts, thereupon that friendly & benefi- 
cial Offer was by you overset, still willing & desirous to open a 
Trade for your present Relief, the General promised to build a 
Fort at the Onieda Carrying Place which might not only protect 
a Trade there but be a lever to your Country ; in a great Measure 
both have been effected. I had also an Indian Officer there to 
see Justice done you in your Dealings with our People & another 
is gone there lately for the same purpose. 

I am sorry to find that notwithstanding all these Steps & 
precautions taken by us for the promotion of your Interest, you 
seem still insensible of them by Complaining in the Manner you 
now do & ungratefully Charge us with Dissimulation, a Character 
or Vice I wish our Bretheren of the Six Nations were as great 
Strangers to as the English. It is an Expression or rather a 
Charge of such a Nature as obliges me to call upon You here 
present & Challenge the 6 Nations to make it good. If you cannot 
I expect You will make a proper Acknowledgement. 

Your Complaints of the dearness of our Goods I can prove 
to be ill grounded, for Instance a Stroud Blanket w ch . in times 
of Peace when Goods are always Cheapest sold for 3ft) of 
Bever now you bought it for 2ft) or less owing to the high price 
of Bever & so all other Articles in like proportion. You do not 
or at least are unwilling to consider that a Scarcity of any Com- 
modity makes it dear, for Example your Bever & Skins are 
double the Value they have been when plenty. The War we are 
engaged in employs many of our Manufacturers & Artificers & of 
Course Goods cannot be altogether so Cheap as otherwise, but 
if you compare the prices w ch . the French make their Indians 
(who from their strong Attachment to their Interest should be 
entituled to the most reasonable Bargains) pay, with those you 

72 Sir William Johnson Papers 

pay, you must think yourselves extreamly well used & the Com- 
plaints you have made quite idle & groundless. I am glad to 
hear our Bretheren of Pensilvania sell you Goods so Cheap, & 
would advise you to buy at the most reasonable Market. I am 
also glad to hear that your Young Men are gone a hunting, as 
that may relieve their Families much & supply themselves with 
Shoes so as to be ready on Occasion to act against the Enemy w ctl . 
by this Belt I recommend to you all most strongly as you have 
the Hatchet in your Heads. 

a Belt. 


You tell me the Sachems & Women are come to me crying 
for the want of Provisions in your Country ; I am sorry for it & 
should be much readier to relieve you, had it been occasioned 
by your Mens being employed in our Service so as to prevent 
their Attending our Crops, but as you well know the Contrary I 
am surprized at your unreasonable Demands, as much also at 
your Complaints against the Officer at Fort Herkemaar who 
altho he had no Orders that I know of to supply any Indians at 
that time, writes me this Letter, whereby it appears that you 
received from him above 600 Rations in a few days which is the 
Allowance of 30 Soldiers in 20 days. You also received as Gen. 
Stanwix tells me a vast Quantity at the Carrying Place this time 
past ; what Service you have done for it is well known to yourselves. 

I know of no reason why the Commanding Officer of Fort 
Herkemaar gave the Onondagas more Provisions than to you, 
unless it was for their joining our Troops against Cadaraqui & 
yours not w c}l is all known to your Bretheren & they will be 
regarded for it. 


These Demands are very unexpected & find me unprovided 
with Provisions to answer them. I have sent to New York for 
a Quantity to be Shipped me in the Spring when I receive them 
all who are entituled to them shall have them. In the mean time 

Seven Years' War 73 

as I know there are some among you who are our Friends tho but 
lukewarm, I will give you as much Money as will purchase 250 
Schepels of Grain which with your Hunting will support you 
till the Spring, when if you convince me of your deserving it ; you 
will find me as I have hitherto been, ready to serve you. 

a Belt & String Wampum 

Your request in Conjunction with the Onondagas that there 
should be a Stop put to the Sale of Rum to the aforesaid Nations, 
I must say to me appears very whimsical as you well know what 
a Noise was made about stopping it before by some of every 
nation, nay several Sachems now present told me unless it was 
allowed to be sold again they were in Danger of their Lives. 
What an Opinion must the Gov r . of New York, his Council & 
assembly (before whom & by whom only such Laws can be 
passed) have of the Six Nations? Why first they must think 
them divided amongst themselves as the Request comes only 
from some of the Nations, in the next place they must imagine 
them very fickle to say no worse, being but 2 years ago since they 
passt such a Law at the 6 Nations earnest Request, tho against 
the Interest of the Subject, the Year After at their desire the 
Law was repealed, now to desire the same Law to be [repassed] 
renewed, must certainly appear to every body extreamly odd; 
wherefore as I should be unwilling to have you propose any thing 
to that Body improperly, I advise you to agree upon it at some 
general Meeting of all the Confederacy, not only to agree to 
desire such a Law may be past, but to determine what number 
of years you would wish to have it continued; when you do this 
I shall use my Endeavours to get such a Law past, being sensible 
the immoderate use of Rum is very pernicious to your Nations & 
which I have often endeavoured to convince you of. 

a String 

Your Arms & Axes I will give Orders to have mended & wish 
you may make a proper use of them. 

74 Sir William Johnson Papers 

After Sir William had delivered this Answer the Sachems 
consulted together & made the following Reply to it. 


We heartily thank you for what you have said to us in answer 
to our Speech of Sunday last, and from the fullness of it we 
find no part has escaped your Notice. We have fully understood 
every particular thereof. 


With regard to our Resolutions upon the Loss of our Sachem 
Kindarunte we declare to You as our only Friend, that we have 
not nor do we ever intend to drop it, for we the Oniedas & Tus- 
caroras are firmly agreed to revenge his Death & only wait an 
Answer from our Allies which as soon as we receive shall im- 
mediately accquaint you therewith. 

Your reflecting upon our not accquainting You & our Father 
the Mohocks with Kindarunte's being Killed, surprizes us much, 
as we in a Meeting desired the Messenger who you sent to sum- 
mons the 6 Nations the last time, to acquaint you & the Mohocks 
of it in form, why he did not do it we cannot account for. 

Sir William then returned them a large belt which he formerly 
gave the Oniedas to send as a Token of Truth if any News of 
Consequence came to their knowledge, and they faithfully prom- 
ised they would continue to give Sir William all the News they 
could learn of the French's Designs or Motions which Sir Wil- 
liam strongly recommended to them as it would be a convincing 
proof of their Attachment & regard for us. 

After all was over Sir William gave a French Scalp 6c Belt 
of 3000 black Wampum to replace Kindaruntie as is their 
Custom which gave very great Satisfaction, and on which all the 
Indians came & shook him by the hand, thanked him most heartily 
for it & told him, they would carry it in so public a manner & 
with the usual shout on such Occasions, that all the Nations 
should know it, then the fire was covered by Sir William and 
the Conference ended. 

Seven Years' War 75 

Some time after, the Chief of Onieda desired Sir William 
would come into the Council room where half a dozen of the 
other Sachems were met; On his entering the Room Conochqui- 
eson stood up & told him, that the reason of their Meeting & 
calling him in was to deliver the Medal which he formerly gave 
to Aguiyoda 1 then the Chief of the Onieda Nation who died 
last Summer at Sir Williams House, that he might give it to such 
of the Oniedas as he thought deserving or qualified for a Sachem. 
On which he told them he would enquire & learn who was the 
properest Person to succeed Aguiyoda & him he would appoint 
for which they returned him their hearty thanks and withdrew. 

1 2 Dec r . The Sachems of the Onieda & Tuscarora with a 
Number of their Warriors entered the Council room & sent 
the Interpreter to accquaint Sir William that they had a few 
Words to say to him & would be glad he would hear them. Sir 
William coming in they spoke as follows. 

Bro r . We are much obliged to you for ordering the few Axes, 
Locks of Guns & c . we have brought with us to be mended. We 
have many at home out of Order w ch as we expect we shall have 
use for in the Spring beg you will appoint some particular Smith 
to bring them to in order to be mended — 

Sir William told them that he could not see how they could 
avoid resenting the Injury done them by killing one of their Chief 
Men as the French must otherwise despise them, as must every 
body else. If not that he expected they would without fail join 
His Majestys Arms in the Spring, in Confidence of which he gave 
them an Order on Peter Cremer to mend all the Guns, Axes & c . 
w^. the Oniedas & Tuscaroras might bring him till that time, 
when he assured them if they behaved as he expected, he would 
immediately thereon order Smiths to their Country & supply 
them with Amunition & c . & not otherwise. 

They returned him their most hearty thanks & assured him 
their resolution was to do themselves Justice from the Maltreat- 

1 Aguiotta. 

76 Sir William Johnson Papers 

ment they received from the French & their Indians in Killing 

After all was over Sir William gave a French Scalp & a large 
Belt of Wampum to replace Genaghquaia a great Onieda Sachem 
& Warrior, w ch . gave great Satisfaction to them all. 

Sir William had several private Conferences with the Chiefs 
afterwards who all acknowledged (after his using several Argu- 
ments to convince them of their Folly by acting the part they 
had done for some years) what he said & the Advice he had 
given them to be for their Interest & assured him that they began 
to pay a due regard to it & would more every day being thoroughly 
convinced he was their Friend & c . 

He gave them several little private Presents & so they parted 
very well satisfied. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Fort Johnson 16 th Dec'. 1758 
Nine in the morning 

I just now received your favour of yesterday, & imagine that 
any information concerning the enemy could not have come from 
the Inhabitants of Stoneraby, 2 as I Yesterday evening returned 
from a ride that way, & the day before spoke with Justice Tilli- 
bach 3 of that place who mentioned nothing of it to me. About 
a week ago, a report came up the country from Albany, that a 
body of French, & Indians were discover'd upon their March, 
towards the Mohock River upon which I sent out several scouts, 
who made no discovery, but I shall still continue to send parties 
our whilst its practicable without Snow shoes, with which I am 
not provided, as I received no account from you, I did not give 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

2 Stone Arabia. 

3 Justice Wilhelmus Dillenbach. See Johnson Calendar, p. 5 76. 

Seven Years' War 77 

much credit to the above report, which was said to be brought 
by deserters to Albany. 

The 9 th . ins 1 , the principal men of the Oneida, & Tuscarora 
nations with several others, & their families arrived here, & in- 
formed me that they were starving at home, having nothing to 
subsist on, & begging my assistance, upon which I gave them 
some money to buy corn at Stoneraby, & other places about the 
River, where most of them intend to stay during the winter having 
nothing at home, & from the disposition they appear at present 
in, I can't imagine they would concern themselves in any thing 
to the Injury of the Inhabitants of this country. 

It is not improbable but the enemy may make an attempt on 
Stoneraby, or one of those places which lye exposed, when the 
Ice & Snow is favourable, they being always provided with 
requisites for a Winter expedition. Therefore I am still of opinion 
some troops then would be very necessary. 

I have just erected two Blockhouses 1 upon the most convenient 
ground to serve as Outworks, & cover my house, & as I under- 
stand the Garrison of Fort Hunter is large, & the place crowded, 
should be glad you would please to order a Subaltern with 40 
men here, which I can more conveniently dispose of in those 

If any intelligence of moment comes to my hands, I shall im- 
mediately make you acquainted therewith, & should I hear further 
of an Enemy's approach, I shall write to Col. Fraser. 

I am &c 
W M . Johnson 
BR GL Stanwix. 


Copy from S r . W m Johnson 
To B'. Stanwix 1 6* Dec', 1 758 

1 See Guy Johnson's drawing of Fort Johnson, Johnson Papers, 1 :260- 
61 , for location of these two blockhouses. 

78 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Contemporary Copy 1 

New York Dec*. 17 th . 1758.— 


I have received a Memorial from the inhabitants of Conajohary 
on the North side of the Mohawk River, desiring one hundred 
Men to be quartered in their houses, or that they should be 
obliged to fly away, this fear I imagine may be withiout any 
foundation, but to insure them a quiet Possession of their habita- 
tions, I have wrote to Brig r . Gen 1 . Stanwix to Advance one 
Hundred Men there according to the Desire of the Inhabitants. — 

I have at the same time informed Brig r . Gen 1 . Stanwix that I 
should write to you to Acquaint you of my Intentions, & that 
if he wanted any Intelligence as to the quartering of the hundred 
Men, I desired he would apply to You, as no one knows the 
Country so well. — 

The Success of His Majesty's Arms on the Ohio by the Enemy 
having been obliged to Burn & abandon Fort Dequesne, which 
Brig r . Gen 1 . Forbes took possession off the 24 Past, is a Piece 
of News that will give great joy in England. — 

I shall very glad seize every Occasion to Assure you that I am 
with great Truth 


Your Most Humble 

and Most Obedient Servant 

Jeff: Amherst 
S R . William Johnson Bar 1 . — 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

Seven Years' War 79 


[Fort Johnson, Dec. 16 - 18, 1758] 

1 6 December — Cap 1 . Jellas Fonda returned from Schohary 
& made the following Report of his Proceedings at that place 
in Consequence of the Instructions given him by Sir William viz. 

That at a Meeting with the Schohary & River Indians held 
at the house of Josias Swaart the 14 Inst present Cap 1 . Fonda, 
Josias Swaart & Cornelius Vroman both principal Inhabitants 
there that after Cap 1 . Fonda had delivered the Indians Sir Wil- 
liam's Message & c . 

Seth the Chief Man & Warrior of that Village spoke as 
follows — 


We are all extreamly thankful to our Brother Warraghyjagey 
for his regard & care now shown for us by sending you here & 
advising us to follow such Steps & Measures as may greatly 
contribute to our Happiness & avoid those which may prejudice 
us all which we shall, you may assure him, strictly follow & 
observe. His writing to the white People of this Settlement to 
behave kind to us & supply us with a little Provision now in our 
Distress, lays us under the greatest Obligation & he may depend 
upon our living in such Friendship with our Bretheren as will leave 
them no room to complain & we hope they will do the same on 
their parts, and this we confirm with these Strings 

here they gave 3 Strings Wampum 

A Mohikander Indian stood up & spoke to the same purport 
as above & gave a String of Wampum to confirm his Words 

David a Schohary Warrior followed Cap 1 . Fonda to M r . 
Lawyers 2 where he desired M r . Fonda to accquaint Sir William 
with the following particulars 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 5. 

2 Johannes Lawyer, of Schoharie. 

80 Sir William Johnson Papers 

That all the Damage on which the Complaint was made 
against the Indians by the Schohary People was only the Oniedas 
having Killed a Hog of one Whitmire, and says that the People 
to whom it belonged did not express themselves in the manner 
it was reported. 

David further desired Cap 1 . Fonda to inform Sir William that 
the Death of Ogachte the Onieda who was killed by a River 
Indian was condoled by the Schohary Indians & that it was 
resolved upon the said Murderer should be killed & an Onieda 
Indian is appointed to do it, this being the Third Murder he hath 
committed amongst the Indians 

a String of 2 Rows 

The People of Schohary on Sir Williams Letter to them of 
the 9 Curr 1 . had a meeting at which they returned him their 
hearty thanks for the early Steps he had taken to prevent the 
late little differences which happened between them & the Indians 
their Neighbors from going further, & assured him they would 
pay all due regard to his Admonitions & also make a Collection 
of Indian Corn & c . for the Indians about them who were in want, 
according to his Advice. 

M r . Lawyer of Schohary also wrote Sir W m . a Letter of thanks 
for his Care of that Settlement & therein assured him that he would 
use all his Influence to keep up a good Understanding between 
the People of that Settlement & the Indians being very Sensible 
it was for their Interest, & more particularly so at this time. 

Dec r . 1 8. — Sir William Dispatched Cap 1 . Jellas Fonda to 
reside at Fort Herkemaar with Instructions a Copy of which 
are entered in the Blue Cover Book of this date. 

Seven Years' War 81 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Fort Johnson 18 th Dec r . 1758 

I have received your favour of yesterday by express. The 
inhabitants of Stoneraby are not able to subsist any number of 
Troops in their Settlement not having a sufficient quantity of 
Provision, above what will be necessary for the subsistence of 
their own families. 

I have not heard any news since my last, concerning the enemy, 
but I shall make you acquainted, with any intelligence I may 
receive of their motions. 

I am &c 

W M . Johnson 
To B R . G L . Stanwix 


Contemporary Copy 2 

Sir William Johnson reed the following Letter from Cap 1 . 
Fonda dated at Fort Herkemaar 3 27 Dec r . 1 758 — 4 

[Fort Herkemaar 27 Dec'. 1758] 

There came an Onieda Indian named Sahoressa with those 
three Strings of Wampum I hereby send you in order to invite 
Sir William & the Mohocks to a Meeting which is now to be held 
at Onondaga, he will not or cant tell me what it is to be about, 
so have no more to add but remain 

Sir Your dutiful Serv 1 . 
Jellas Fonda 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

2 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 5. 

3 Fort Herkimer, a post on the Mohawk River near the German Flatts. 

4 This material prefacing the letter is the entry, at Fort Johnson, of Jan- 
uary 11,1 759, in the Indian Records. 

82 Sir William Johnson Papers 

P. S. The Oniedas that are here 

say that if Sir William will 

go to the Meeting they would be 

glad if you will let them know so that they 

might stay to accompany him up, it is Nicolaase 

& Aghtaquiesera that speak this. 

Contemporary Copy 1 

The following Letter Sir William received in Albany from 
Cap 1 . Thomas Butler residing at Fort Stanwix 2 dated 29 De- 
cember 1 758. 3 

[Fort Stanwix, 29 December 1758.] 

I am to accquaint you of a very extraordinary thing which 
happened there the 23 d . in the Evening came in two Young 
Indians, the One an Onondaga the other a Cayouga, the latter 
was at your House last Summer a considerable time, his name is 
Tanighwanega, you will remember him perhaps by his remark- 
able Big Ears & always wore a Handkerchief loose about his 
[jEars] Head. The other I know his Face & believe they both 
came from their Castles — I did not see them till the next Morn- 
ing. After talking a little together they both told me they had 
been a hunting about Onieda Lake & brought with them two 
Bever Skins to try the market & if they liked it would return 
soon with more — John M c .Mickel who was the only Trader had 
them at his house 3 Nights & bought the Skins. 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 5. 

2 Fort Stanwix, on the site of the present day city of Rome, N. Y., was 
built by Brigadier General John Stanwix, in 1 758, at the Oneida 
carrying place. It was built on the site of old Fort Williams, built in 1 755, 
under orders of General Shirley, by Captain Williams. In 1 776, the fort 
was repaired, and renamed Fort Schuyler, in honor of General Philip 
Schuyler, nephew of Peter Schuyler. 

3 This material prefacing the letter is an undated entry in the Indian 

Seven Years' War 83 

Skanondo the Onieda who lives here came & told me he had 
been informed by a young Cayouga who had past his House 
on his way home, that in a day or two at farthest a Scalp would 
be taken here and desired me to inform the Commandant that 
he might keep his Men from scattering, he said the Cayouga had 
told him at the same time there was a Design to attack this Fort, 
that 400 of the Enemy lay at Cayouhaga about 30 miles to the 
Eastward of Oswego & 800 at Cadaraqui for that purpose, upon 
this Intelligence Rangers were ordered out to search the Woods 
if possibly they might discover a Scalping party. I likewise em- 
ployed Indians for that purpose that I could confide in. 

Major Clephane 1 as he thought Lieu*. Campbel was on his 
way hither with Baggage & c . wrote him a Line the 26 to give 
him Notice to be on his Guard & got John M c .Mickel to carry 
the same who for want of an Onieda, they being all on the Scout 
employed the above Cayouga to go with him, in about 3 hours 
after they had been gone, the Indian returned, who I heard was 
making ready to go away which gave some Suspicion. I examined 
him what was become of M c .Mickel he told me he was gone 
forward with one of the Oniedas & that he returned on Account 
of a Lameness in his Knee so left me & went to his House — that 
instant came in one of the Onieda Scouters who I sent to enquire 
at the Indian Cabbins if one was gone with M c .Mickel, but 5 
minutes after the Cayouga had left me, came a Man who in- 
formed me he with the Onondaga were gone — Cap 1 . Wendal 
who was with me he & I ran out of the House to stop them, but 
saw they were at too great a Distance, so dispatched 6 of the 
nimblest Rangers after them, but all in vain, for upon the fellows 
seeing them, set a running so fast that they would not by any 
means be overtaken. 

I then went and accquainted the Major of it & the Suspicions 
I had of M c .Mickels being killed, a party was ordered out to 
search, & about 6 miles from this found him scalped & by all 
the marks suppose the Indian as he walked behind took an Op- 

1 Major James Clephane, of 78th regiment. 

84 Sir William Johnson Papers 

pertunity to Kill him with his Hatchet, he took from his Watch 
& what little Money he had about him, but not the Letters. Its 
to be thought some of the Cayouga Nation here know of it, but 
not the Oniedas, they condoled his Death in their manner with 
some strings of Wampum 

Tyonosharessha an Onondaga who came here the 27, says 
400 Canadians are on this side Sweegachie & 1000 Regulars 
soon expected in order to build there a Fort — that he had heard 
of 20 Indians out for Scalping & thinks the above two are of 
that party, he tells me likewise a Meeting of the Six Nations 
are called to be held at Onondaga & that one is gone down to 
accquaint you of the above & invite you thereto. The above 
Onondaga told Scanondo as he past his House that the French 
were building a strong Fort a little on this side Sweegachie & 
early in the Spring would build one at Cadaraqui after which 
would come with Cannon to attack this. He cast several Reflec- 
tions on the Oniedas in his Drink, saying they were too much in 
the English Interest. A long black haird fellow of Onieda 
known by the name of John tells a Lame Story that he saw the 
above Sweegachie Fellows at the Lake, that they were then 4 
in number & told him their Party had been 20 Strong sent out 
by the French to take as near Account of this place as possible 
they could, and to get one or two Prisoners for Intelligence as 
they understood we were assembling here for a Winters Expedi- 
tion & they much wanted to know the certainty, he said nothing 
of the 400 Men at Cahukage nor of those at Cadaraqui. 

I am Sir & c . 

Tho s . Butler 

P. S. The Indians say 

the Enemy design to continue Scalping here this 
Winter & propose by Policy to draw out a Party from 
the Garrison. The Indians lying about this [post] have 
notice sent them by the Enemy to have as little 
Concern with the white People as possible & so soon 
they had done their Affairs with them to return to 
their Hutts for Fear of a Mistake in case of an Attack. 

Seven Years* War 85 

N. B. Sir William sent an Abstract of the above Letter to Brig r . 
Stanwix by Lieu 1 . Claas. — 1 


[Jan. 16-19,1759] 

1 6 Jan r y. — Sir William arrived at Connojohary with some 
Seneca & Mohock Sachems. 

The 1 7 th . — He ordered the Indians living at some Distance 
to be called home, which was accordingly done. 

The 1 8 th . — They being assembled at their Council room 
sent him Notice that they were ready to hear him on which Sir 
William with Cap 1 . Johnson 3 & Fonda, Lieu*. Clause, Clement 
the Interp r . & the Seneca & Mohock Sachems, went to the House 
they were assembled in. When after the usual Ceremonies Sir 
William condoled the Losses they had sustained by Sickness & c . 
with three Strings of Wampum. 

3 Strings 

they on their part did the same in their usual way for the Losses 
we suffered by the Sword & c . 

with 3 Strings Wampm 

Then Sir William desired their Attention & spoke as follows. 

Bretheren of the Two Mohock Castles & Senecas. 

I take the first Opportunity of accquainting You that His 
Majesty has been pleased to appoint Maj. Gen. Amherst Com- 
mander in Chief of all his Forces in North America in the room of 
Major Gen. Abercromby who is called home, also that the General 
has by Letter desired I would use my utmost Endeavours to get 
as great a Number of our Bretheren the 6 Nations to join him 

1 The N. B. is an entry in the Indian Records, and not part of the 

2 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 5. 

3 Guy Johnson, captain of rangers, although he was commissioned a 
lieutenant in December 1 759. 

86 Sir William Johnson Papers 

early next Spring as possibly I can; this I shall endeav r . to do & 
would be glad of your Advice & assistance therein which by this 
Belt of Wampum I desire you as our steady Friends will afford me. 

a Belt. 

As you are all accquainted with the cruel & unprecedented 
Murder of John M c .Micking x one of our People by a Cayouga 
Indian near Fort Stanwix who he employed to escourt him to 
Fort Herkemaar — I shall not repeat the disagreable Circumstances 
to you as I am sensible it affects you as well as me. I would now 
ask your Opinion what are the properest Steps to take in the 
Affair, as it will always have great Weight with me. 

3 Strings 

I lately received these Strings of Wampum from the Oniedas 
by Cap*. Fonda, by which they say I am invited to a Meeting 
proposed to be held soon at Onondaga where you are also desired 
to Attend. I am ready & willing to go if you think it will be for 
the Good of His Majestys Service. At the same time I must observe 
to you that I think it an unprecedented manner of inviting either 
you or me without some of the Onondagas coming down with it as 
usual. I nevertheless submit to your Judgement as being better 
accquainted with their Forms, & expect you will give it me as 
well as your [opinion] 2 of the properest Steps for me to take in 
order to get what Prisoners of ours may be amongst the several 

3 Strings Wampum 

After this Sir William told them what News was stirring 
amongst us of our several Successes by Land & Sea which gave 
great Satisfaction to them all. then he ordered them some Liquor 
& left them to consider of the several Matters he had laid 
before them. 

1 John McMickel. See Thomas Butler to Johnson, Dec. 29, 1 758, 
ante, p. 82, for details. 

2 Omitted in manuscript. 

Seven Years' War 87 

The same day Tarrawarriax & another Seneca Sachem came 
to Sir William at Brandts 1 house & told him that the Messengers 
he had sent last Fall among the Chenundadus & Ottowawas, 
were returned, and that he would soon be Accquainted with 
the [ir] Answer they had brought from said Nations, that he 
Tarrawarriax & his Party would come to Sir William in the 
Spring & go with him against the Enemy, he made an Apology 
at the same time for his not coming on his former Invitation & 
said he was hindered by the Sachems. 

Sir William thanked him & told him he expected he would 
come according to his Promise & assured him he & his party 
should be well cloathed & c . as well as all others who should join 
His Majestys Arms. He gave them some Cloathing, Money for 
Provisions & an order to M r . Visger at the German Flatts for a 
Keg of Rum on their Journey homewards, so parted very well 

1 9 Jan r y. — The Sachems being met at the Council room sent to 
accquaint Sir William, they were ready to give him their Answer 
to what he had laid before them, on which he with the same 
Gentlemen who Attended him Yesterday went to the Meeting, 
when Arogheyadecka alias old Brandt Chief of Connojohary 
spoke as follows 

Brother Warraghyjagey 

We are much obliged to you for giving us such early notice of 
the Generals Desire & Intentions and we hope & wish that he may 
be ready to take the Feild very early which in our Opinion is what 
should always be done. You may depend upon our Attachment & 
assistance, being determined as we declared to you in the begin- 
ning of this War, to stand or fall with you, and as you desired 
our Opinion with regard to the 5 Nations, We have considered 
of it & think it best that you call their Sachems, Chief Warriors 
& leading Women down to your House as soon as may be where 
we shall be ready to Attend & assist you all in our power. 

returned the Belt 

1 Called Nickus (Nicholas) Brant, or "Old Brant," of Canojoharie. 

88 Sir William Johnson Papers 



The late Murder of one of our Bretheren near the Carrying 
place by one of the upper Nations in the French Interest, gives 
us great Concern & think he ought to be severely punished for it, 
but as we hope the 5 Nations may now act a better part than they 
have hitherto, we would advise you not to say any thing about it 
until they come to the Meeting at Your House, and then we think 
the milder you speak to them the better at this time, and this is 
our Opinion. 

returned 3 Strings. 

As for the Strings of Wampum lately sent by the Oniedas to 
invite you & us to a Meeting at Onondaga, we think with you that 
it was not according to our antient & usual Custom nor was it 
even a proper Invitation, We are of Opinion that your inviting 
them all to your House is much better & more in Character. 
Wherefore we would be very glad you would give them an 
Invitation & at the same time send some strings of Wampum 
desiring they would bring what Prisoners of our Bretheren may 
be among them. 

3 Strings Wampum 


We return you hearty thanks for the Confidence you repose 
in us & be assured we shall ever study to act so as to continue 
your good Opinion of us. We are also thankful to you for the 
good News you have yesterday told us & we heartily congratulate 
you thereon & hope further Success may attend the Kings Arms. 

then ended. — 

Sir William told them he approved of their Judgement in the 
several Matters considered by them & thanked them for the close 
Attention they had given thereto, and in their Presence appointed 
4 Men to go to Onondaga with the Belt of Invitation & Strings 
desiring the Six Nations to bring down with them what Prisoners 
they had amongst them in 20 days. The Embassadors sent were 

Seven Years' War 89 

2 Senecas, 2 Connojoharys. The old Belt the Seneca was the 
Chief they set off Satturday the 20 Jan r >\ from Connojohary. 

Thus ended. 


L.S. 1 

Conajohary Jan r y. 19 th . 1759. 

I have received your Excellency's favour of the 8 th . Inst. 2 
& am now settling some affairs here with respect to the Six 
Nations which I hope may be productive of good consequence. 

The demand made in my last 3 of 4 or 5000 1 . sterling, to enable 
me to furnish the Indians with the requisites for the ensuing 
campaign, was as near as I could Judge the Sum absolutely 
necessary to answer that purpose. I have formerly had occasion, 
and received warrants for the same sum, when our Affairs bore 
not so favourable an aspect, and when consequently we could not 
expect the assistance of so many Indians as we now have reason 
to hope for, from the success of the last Campaign. It was always 
my study to lighten the ace*, of Indian expences as far as possible 
with good policy, & should be glad it were now in my power to 
lessen the demand, but, am certain it cannot be done consistent 
with the good of the service if we consider the expence attending 
the fitting out a body of Indians with all manner of necessaries 
for service, presents to be made to leading men among them, & 
their families, Salaries to Officers, and many occasional expences 
which do not imediately occurr. The prudent measures already 
taken by your Excellency for the security of this Country will 
I hope have the desired effect, & in a great measure prevent the 
apprehensions of its Inhabitants, who were before in a very de- 
fenceless scituation. — It is as yet imposssible for me to transmit 
your Excellency, the determinate number of Indians which I 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

2 See Johnson Papers, 3:16. 

3 Johnson to Amherst, Dec. 26, 1758, Johnson Papers, 3:13-15. 

90 Sir William Johnson Papers 

may prevail upon to engage for the purposes of the ensuing 
Campaign, as they are a people under little, or no subordination, 
and upon all such occasions are so very deliberate, that we must 
wait the result of their meetings to Judge with any exactness of 
the number; to ascertain which, as well as in order to settle 
several other affairs with them, I propose imediately, to call a 
meeting of the 6. Nations, from which I hope to know what 
number may be expected to joyn his Majesties Arms the ensuing 
Season, the result of which Meeting I shall imediately com- 
municate to you 

I am, 

with great respect, 


Your Excellency's most obedient 

most Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 
His Excell c y. Major General Amherst 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Extract of a Letter from M r . Croghan, Dep>\ Agent dated 

Philadelphia Jany. 30 ih . 1759. 

'You desire to know what may be expected from the southern 
Indians next Campaign, it is very hard to form any Judgement, 
there has been such differences betwixt them & us this last Cam- 
paign; There has been with General Forbes in the whole about 
700 Indians and he tells me they have cost him, between 8, and 
9000k besides their provisions and have done him no manner of 
service; they are in my opinion but poor Warriors, and they 
have been as ill managed. The people of Virginia differed with 
several parties of them returning home the last Summer & killed 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39 ; enclosed in Johnson 
to Amherst, Feb. 22, 1759, post p. 102. 

Seven Years' War 91 

about 40 of the Cherokees, and the General last Fall ordered all 
the Guns and Cloathing to be taken from the Chief of the Cherokee 
Indians little Carpenter and his party, when they were going home; 
These differences I fear will not tend to our advantage, Nothing 
in my opinion could prevent a War with the Southern Indians but 
our Success at Ohio, and it yet depends much on our keeping 
possession of what we so luckilly got. — 

I have had little, or no Conversation with the General, since I 
wrote you from Raystown, he seems very backward in doing 
any thing in Indian affairs, and in my opinion this is the only time 
to engage the Western Indians in his Majesties Interest, but that 
cannot be done without expence, what General Amherst will do, 
I can't say, he is expected here in a few days, I offered my service 
to go back to Ohio, but Gen 1 . Forbes did not think proper to 
send me. 

"Here are five Indians of the six Nations in Town from the 
Ohio, they have been here 10, Days and the General has not 
yet condescended to see them, or hear their business, nor do I 
think he will till Gen 1 . Amherst comes, I have spoke to those 
Indians & find they are only come down after me and those 
Indians with me, to know if the Six Nations be determined to 
join the English heartily this next Campaign, if so, they say the 
Ohio Indians will do the same; They tell me that there are about 
400 French on the Ohio, at the three upper Forts; They are 
very busy employing the Indians to hunt for them, and purchasing 
all the Indian Corn they can get at the several Indian Towns, 
which is what we ought to have done, as employing the Indians 
that way would be engaging them in his Majesties Service. I am 
of opinion if we can take the field this Spring before the French 
that the Indians on Ohio will Join us, but if the Enemy take the 
Field first I dread the consequence, for I think the Indians will 
not stand idle Spectators, and see us and the Enemy carrying on 
a war in their Country, without being concerned on the one side 
or the other. 

The People of this Province are all running wild after the 
Indian Trade, tho' we have not secured the possession we hcve 

92 Sir William Johnson Papers 

taken, and I fear they will persuade the General that he need not 
be at any expence with the Indians, but I think it is too soon to 
shake off that expence considering the Enemy are still in their 
Country, & I think the greatest care should be taken to put the 
trade on a good footing; If I continue this way you'll please to 
give me your directions how to act, as the Indians will expect me 
to see Justice done to them. I have advanced about 500 1 for in- 
telligence, and fitting out the Indians I joyned the General with, 
he has not settled my account yet, and if he should not, it will 
distress me a good deal. Inclosed is all the orders I had from 
him, and I am told he intends You are to settle it." 


Extracts from M r . Croghan's 
Letter to Sir W m . Johnson 

Rec d with S r . W m . Johnsons 
of the 22d Feb'y 1 759. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Arrived here Canaghiyagey an Onondaga Indian from 
Ganaghskaragey with several of said Nation, and brought Sir 
William two Letters from Cap*. Thomas Butler posted at Fort 
Stanwix, copys of which are as follows. 2 

Fort Stanwix 30 Jany. 1759. 

I received yours dated at Connojohary the 20. wherin I find 
youd have me employ some trusty Indians to find out the Truth 
of the Report which has been of an Army assembling near 
Sweegachie. I could think of none more to be depended on for 
that purpose that [than?] those living at Kanissaragha, to whom 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 5. 

2 This material prefacing the letter is the entry dated Feb. 5, 1 759, in 
the Indian Records. 

Seven Years' War 93 

I sent some Strings Wampum desiring they would go on that Er- 
rand & to set out from their Castle, of which I accquainted you in a 
Letter of the 15. And am now to let you know that the 25 
several young Men of that place came here on the above Message 
& offered their Service to go. Accordingly I compleatly fitted 
out 4 of them who left this the day before Yesterday & propose be- 
ing here again in about 20 days, they have promised faithfully to 
go into Sweegachy & bring certain Accounts of what the French 
are doing there. You mention the Indians have made several Com- 
plaints to you of the Abuse they meet with here in Trade. They 
must have very wrong informed you for all that have been to this 
since the the Death of M c . Michael is a very triffle excepting a 
Seneca Man & his Wife with a little Boy, had with them the 
Value of 6 or £ 7. and as no Trader was here for the Indians & no 
body chusing to sell them Rum, Since they could have more of the 
white People for it, in order they should not go away without get- 
ting what they came for, desired one Straider to trade with them 
and either Cap 1 . Wendal or I was always present. I could not con- 
stantly attend on Account of Indians in my House but am sure 
they were well used & went away pleased. This Strader has 
bought nothing since but two Bever Skins & a Bear Skin, the 
Beavers I weighed for which he gave 1 2/ "p & 1 6/. for the Bear 
Skin all in Cash to an Indian that was here who bought rum for it 
at 3/ ^ Quart & sent his Wife a Suttling to Onieda, when very 
like they met with Water as they commonly do. They once in a 
While buy a Loaf of Bread which costs them a Shilling. One 
Nieukerk & his Partner who bought M c .Mickels Effects are now 
the only Traders, they came here the 9 Inst. & as yet have got 
nothing except a little Cash of the Indians living here chiefly for dry 
Goods. Several Indians come here but all for Provisions & so poor 
that I have not had it in my power to buy myself a pair of Shoes, 
and have several times asked the Indians why no Trade comes to 
this. They tell the upper Nations are Affraid since the Murder 
of M c .Micking, but will all go to the Flatts, and as for the other 
Nations they have nothing. I had an Oppertunity of buying 3 
pair of Shoes for the Sweegachy Scout of an old Fellow belong- 

94 Sir William Johnson Papers 

ing to their Castle, for which I gave 20/ in Money, as he would 
not sell them Cheaper. The Bearer of this is Karayaga who is 
going down to your House. 

I am & c . 

Tho s . Butler 


Contemporary Copy 1 

another of same date 2 

[Fort Stanmx Jan. 30, 1759] 

I send you this Line just after sealing the other of this date 
to accquaint you that a Young fellow of the Onieda Nation came 
here, who says that two Men belonging to their Castle were 
lately arrived from Sweegachy, their names are Assuntia & 
Taneatorass who brings Accounts that Anourisha of Kanissa- 
dage — a Castle next to Caghnawaga in Canada — at the Head of 
20 more of his Nation were arrived at Sweegachies & designed 
soon to set off for this place for scalping & c . but dont say whether 
they are to be joined by the Indians of that place or not — that no 
preparations were making there for an Attempt upon this post — 
that the French were in great Fear of us & were very buisy at 
work in fortifying & building Vessells & c . I refer you to the bearer 
Naraghga 3 for further particulars & beg leave to Subscribe my self 

& c . 

Tho s . Butler 

P. S. The Bearer was present 
when the News was told. 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 5. 

2 Entry in Indian Records referring to Johnsbn from Thomas Butler, 
Jan. 30, 1 759, ante, p. 92, establishing date of letter. 

3 Karayaga, or Canghiyagey. 

Seven Years' War 95 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Arrived the Two Messengers that were sent from Connojohary 
to Onondaga with the Belt of Invitation and brought with them 
the hereafter inserted Letter from Cap 1 . Fonda posted at Fort 
Herkemaar to Sir William Johnson. 2 

Fort Herkemaar 31 Jan r y. 1759 
Hond Sir 

Just now came two Mohocks who went up with the Belt to 
Onondaga. They say that the Bunt 3 told them, there would cer- 
tainly come a French Army this Winter when the Snow is hard 
to Fort Stanwix, as the Snow Shoes, Indian Sledges & small Cags 
to put their Liquor in were ready when the Bunt passed Swee- 
gachy. He says that the Two Indians who Killed M c . Michael 
were sent from Sweegachie to measure the Ditch round Fort 
Stanwix & that the French design to Scale the Fort. 

The above Indians say that there two Onieda Indians from 
Sweegachie at Onieda & were to go back there soon. I propose 
to send an Indian there tomorrow Morning to hear what News 
they brought & if worth while shall directly let you know. I refer 
the whole to the Bearer & am 

& c . & c . 

Jellas Fonda 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 5. 

2 Prefatory material is entry in Indian Records dated Feb. 2, 1 759. 

3 An Onondaga sachem. 

96 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

New York 2 d . February J 7 59. 

As I find by your Letter of the 1 9 th Ultmo 2 that Your former 
demand of four or five thousand pounds, to enable you to furnish 
the Indians with the requisites for the ensuing Campaign, cannot 
admit of any Abatement, and that you formerly had occasion, 
and received Warrants for the Same Sum, when our affairs bore 
not so favorable an Aspect, and when Consequently we could 
not Expect the Assistance of so many Indians, as we have now 
reason to hope for, from the Success of the last Campaign ; I Shall 
certainly make no Scruple of Ordering a Warrant to be made out 
in Your Name for the Above Sum; my reason, as I told you 
before for desireing that that demand might be lessen'd was owing 
to the Military Chest not being overstock'd at present, but that 
must not by any means prevent us from using all our Influence 
and endeavours to procure as many Indians, as possibly can be 
got, to Join and Assist us in the Operations of the ensuing Cam- 
paign, I trust therefore and Join with you in hope that the 
Affairs which You were Settling with the Six Nations may be 
productive of good Consequences and bring over to His Majestys 
Interest, as many Indians as You seem to Expect from the above 
Circumstances; the Number of which I shall be glad to know, 
so soon as the meeting, which you propose to have with the Six 
Nations, is over, for Your Success in which You have my Sin- 
cerest Wishes. 

The Ship which has the Money on board to recruit the Military 
Chest, being daily Expected I must defer granting the Warrant 
till it's arrivall which I hope will be Shortly. 

I am &ca. 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 Johnson to Jeffery Amherst, Jan. 19, 1758; see ante, p. 89. 

Seven Years' War 97 


[Fort Johnson, Feb. 3-10, 1759] 

3 Feb r y. Peter, Jacob & another Aughquaga Chief came here 
with their Familys & accquainted Sir William that they were in 
a starving Condition for the want of Provisions having no Corn 
nor any thing else to live upon, also begged for Amunition. 

Sir William gave them 1 3 Dollars to buy them some Corn & c . 
also gave them Amunition & some Cloaths being very naked & so 
discharged them. 

5 Feb r y. — Skanarady, Teughsaragarat & Ottrawanio, Three 
Chiefs of the Cayouga Nation arrived here with several more & 
after they were introduced by Clement the Interpreter, began 
& said. 

Brother Warraghyjagey 

the unhappy Murder of one of our Bretheren lately at the 
Onieda Carrying place, is the occasion of our coming down at 
this severe Season of the Year, would 2 nation would not be at 
rest or easy until they had spoke to You about it. We now in 
their behalf wipe away the Tears from your Eyes so that you may 
look pleasant at us, likewise remove all Obstructions, & clear your 
Throat so that you may speak clear & friendly to us — lastly we 
Wipe away the Blood of our Brother lately killed near the 
Carrying place & that the sight of it may no longer give us Concern. 

3 Strings of Wampum 

Sir William told them that he would be ready the next Morn- 
ing to hear what they had farther to say & would desire his 
Neighbours the Mohocks to Attend. 

6 Feb r y. — About 20 Mohocks arrived, the Cayougas being 
accquainted Sir William was ready with the Mohocks & Two 
Onondagas to hear them, They entered the Council room & 
Skanarady spoke as follows 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 5. 

2 Our (?). 

98 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Brother Warraghyjagey 

On our arrival yeaterday we wiped the Tears from your Eyes 
& c . and we now agreable to the Custom of our Forefathers take 
the French Hatchet (which they gave to one of our foolish de- 
luded young Men, giving him great rewards & making him large 
Promises if he would use it against our Bretheren the English) out 
of your Head & bury it in a deep Pool where it can never be 
found, also with this Belt of Wampum we assure you it gives 
our Nation as much Concern as it can you, & we promise the 
greatest Care shall be taken to prevent the like happening for the 


A Black & white Belt. 


With this Belt we cover his Grave that the Sight of it may no 
longer give you or us Concern 

a white Belt. 


With these Strings we raise up your Head now hanging down 
with Concern for the loss of one of our Bretheren & beg you 
will no longer keep Sorrow in your Mind. 

3 Strings Wampum 


Lastly we most earnestly entreat you that you will not for 
what has happened neglect the Management of our Affairs, as 
your neglect of them [of] at any but more particularly at this 
time must render us unhappy & throw the Confederacy in Con- 

A Belt of black & white Wampum 

Sir William answered 
Bretheren of Cayouga 

I have heard what you have by these Belts said & I shall only 
now tell you that I shall defer entering into the affair until the 
Five Nations are Met which I expect will be soon as I have in- 

Seven Years' War 99 

vited them all here, then You & they will hear what I have to 
say on the Subject & your Belts shall be laid by safe until then. 

Sir William gave them in private a very severe Lesson & ad- 
vised them speedily to return all the Prisoners they had in their 
Country otherwise they could not be deemed Friends any longer. 

They in answer assured Sir William that what Prisoners were 
among them had been given them by the Delawares & c . to replace 
some of their People who died & were killed by the Flat heads 
& that they would as soon as the Weather admitted of it deliver 
them all up to us. 

thus ended. 

Feb f y. 9. — Sir William sent Cap 1 . Lotteridge, Lieu 1 . Claas & 
Clement the Interpreter to accquaint the Mohocks that he wanted 
a party of their Young Men to go on a Scout to Tionderogo or 
Crown point & endeavour to bring him a French Prisoner, he 
also spoke to Abraham Chief of the Mohocks who came that day 
to his House, about it & desired he would encourage the Young 
Men to the utmost of his power to undertake it which he promised 
& then went away. 

Eod. Die — Caraghigaey an Onondaga with others of his 
Nation went to Schenectady with an order from Sir William to 
join John Van Sys 1 Gun Smith to mend their Arms Hatchets & c . 

Cap 1 . Lotteridge with the rest returned from the Mohocks & 
report that at a Meeting with those of the Mohocks who were at 
home they agreed to go on a Scout towards Canada in order to 
get a Pris r . if possible but desired Sir William would send a good 
Strong Party on that Service as a small Parties are liable to be cut 
off. also desired to Know when they were to march. 

1 Feb r y. — Sir William sent Clement the Interp r . to acquaint 
then that he proposed going to Connojohary on the Morrow in 
order to get some Men from that Castle to join them, and would 
also send Cap*. Butler to Schohary to bring some of the Young 
Men from that Settlement in order to make out a good Party & 
that he hoped to have them all ready in four or five days — 

1 John Van Seice 

100 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Contemporary Copy 1 

[Fort Johnson], Feb'y. 10, 1759. 

Instructions to Cap 1 John Butler going to Schohary. 

You are to proceed to Schohare & there call the Indians together 
immediately & let them know by this String of Wampum that I 
want as many of their best young Men to join the Mohocks of 
both Castles with Cap 1 . Lotteridge on a Scout to Tionderogo, as 
can be got, and let those who incline to go on said Service take 
their Snow Shoes with them & accompany you hither if possible 
so as to be ready to march in 5 days. 

The Indians of that Town having complained to me lately of 
one Becker a German keeping & planting some of their Land 
contrary to their Inclination, you will examine said Becker con- 
cerning it & see whether he has any Title to it. 

Lastly you are to take an account of what Indians & their 
Number that want Provisions at & about that Settlement & on 
your return to make me a report of the whole. 

I am yours 

W. Johnson 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Fort Johnson 18 Feb r y. 1759. 

You are to take this Party of Indians under your Command 
& care & with them proceed to Fort Edward 2 thro the Woods 
the nearest way. if between this place & that you should discover 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 5. 

2 For Edward (Fort Lyman) located on the east bank of the Hudson 
River, 66 miles north of Albany, was called Fort Lydius by the French. 
After Johnson defeated Dieskau in 1 755, he changed the name to Fort 
Edward. For a time the fort was neglected. However in 1 759 it was 
repaired and reinforced by Lieutenant Colonel Eyre. The walls of the 
fort, which consisted of two bastions and two half-bastions, were made 


Portrait by an unknown artist. In the 
Canadian Archives 

Seven Years' War 101 

any Body of the Enemy marching towards our Settlements you 
are to send me Word by a Couple of brisk Indian Runners & 
proceed with the rest. 

When at Fort Edward you are to wait on the Commanding 
Officer of that Garrison & let him know the Service you are 
going upon & should he think proper to reinforce you with a Body 
of good Rangers, in such case you are to endeavour to keep up a 
good Understanding between them & the Indians & act in con- 
cert as well as possible. 

You will apply to the Commanding Officer there for what Pro- 
visions are necessary for the Scout & the same on your Return 
also for Snow Shoes & c . should any happen to break, from thence 
you are to march to the French Fort at Tionderogo in such manner 
as not to be discovered always keeping proper Scouts advanced 
& Sentrys where you halt or encamp to prevent your being sur- 
prized. If you should in your way meet or discover any Party of 
the Enemy not too much Superior to yours in Number you will 
no doubt attempt cutting them off if not & you arrive near the 
Enemys Fort you are to make the best Disposition you can with 
the Advice of the Leaders of the Indians & the Officers of the 
Rangers, to draw out part of the Garrison by sending a few of 
the Indians to kill or take any who may be out of the Fort & then 
they retreat to the main Body which should form such an Ambus- 
cade as that the retreating Party may lead the Enemy between 
two Fires & they form at the rear of the Ambuscade & fire at the 
Enemys Front. If this method should not be found practicable, 
you are to consult what other Measures are best or most likely to 
assure your Success. Above all things you are to endeavour for a 
good Prisoner that the General by thereby learn the Enemies 
Designs or gain some Intelligence of their Motions. If you get 
such you are to bring him to the Commanding Officer at Fort 
Edward to be examined first by him & next by the General. If the 
General should have no Objection to it I would then have you 

of timber and earth. It had a broad rampart, a bomb proof, a deep 
fosse, with drawbridge, a covered way and a glacis. The fort was located 
directly on the bank of the river, and several block houses stood near. 

102 Sir William Johnson Papers 

bring the Prisoner to me as the Indians will all expect to see him. 
Lastly you are to keep an exact Journal of your Scout & make 
the best remarks you possibly can of the Enemys Numbers, Situa- 
tion & Works so as to enable you to give a proper Report of the 
Whole on your Return which I wish may be Successful 

I am 

Sir Your Hum serv*. 

W M . Johnson 



L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson 22. Feb r y 1759 

I am honoured with Your Favour of the 1 1 Inst by M r . 

I hope Your orders for the purchase of good light Arms for 
the Indians, will be effected, for tho I have on other Occasions, 
& I did propose on this, to obtain as many as I could amongst the 
Indians, yet it is but a precarious Dependance, and will probably 
at best leave me short of the requisite number of this necessary 
Article — besides the Nature of this Service requires a constant 
Stock of Arms at hand to answer accidental Demands. The best 
Indian Arms are slight, & the Indians, especially when in Liquor, 
are very careless & frequently break, loose or sell them, which 
amongst many other Irregularities, is beyond my Influence to 
prevent. I proposed both to My Lord Loudoun & Gen. Aber- 
cromby, that a Number of Indian Arms as well as an assortment 
of Indian goods, should be imported from England, and to re- 
main here as a resource upon proper Occasions, and told them, 
this Method would be a considerable saving to the Crown: My 
Lord Loudoun approved my Proposal, and had the List of an 
Assortment from me, but I heard no more of it. 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39 ; in handwriting of 
Peter Wraxall. 

Seven Years' War 103 

There was an act of the Assembly of this Province, to prevent 
any Persons from purchasing, taking in Pledge, or exchanging 
Arms, Amunition or Cloathing belonging to Indians; which Act 
is expired, and as these iniquitous Dealings are still carried on, 
greatly to the Loss of the Crown & prejudice to the Indian Service, 
more especially at this Juncture, I would be glad Your Excellency 
mentioned the revival of such an Act to the Lieu 1 . Governor, & 
to be made as strong & explicit as possible. 

Since my last to your Excellency, I have received a Letter 1 
from my Deputy M r . Croghan, Extracts from which I think proper 
to transmit you, as I conceive they relate to Subjects the importance 
of which makes it my Duty to do so. 

I hope the Slaughter of the Cherokee Indians he mentions, is 
or may be compromised, or I fear it will be attended with very 
serious Consequences to some of the Southern Governments, and 
perhaps be of extensive prejudice to His Majestys Indian Interest 
in general. 

The present favorable Prospect of re-establishing & extending 
our Interest & Influence amongst the Western Indians, (if the 
Improvement of it be thought an eligible & interesting Measure) 
I think with M r . Croghan, ought not to be delayed or neglected, 
either by Inattention or an ill-timed Parsimony. In the Light I 
view it, the Security & Extension of our Indian Interest in those 
parts, appears a matter of very great Moment, not only to the 
Tranquility of our Southern Provinces, but to that great End 
for which we are now contesting with the French. 

Trade with the Indians is one of the chief means by which we 
may expect to obtain & retain Them in our Interest, great Irregu- 
larities have formerly been committed in this Article; and these 
have very much tended to weaken our Interest amongst them. 

In the late Treaty at Easton, Your Excel?, may have seen, 
that the Western Indians were promised a Trade should be 
opened; and I learn from M r . Croghan, that Col. Bouquet has 
promised them the same, in the name of Brig r . Forbes. If this is not 

1 Croghan to Johnson, Jan. 30, 1 759, ante, p. 90. 

104 Sir William Johnson Papers 

fulfilled & an equitable Trade established with a plentiful & 
proper Supply of Goods, we shall in my humble Opinion, soon 
loose all those pleasing hopes which are expected from the late 
Easton Treaty, and those favorable Dispositions which M r . 
Croghan intimates from the Western Indians. The Gov. of 
Pensilvania did some time ago pass an Act of their Assembly 
with regard to the Indian Trade, and if the Spirit of that Act is 
righteously kept up to, I hope the good Consequences of it will 
be speedily felt ; for I am convinced Trade is one of the strongest 
Cements to bind our Indian Connexions. 

I thought it my Duty to lay before Your Excellency, my Senti- 
ments upon the aforesaid Extracts of M r . Croghan's Letter to me. 
I have done it in a general way & as concisely as I could, that I 
might give You as little Interruption as possible. As M r . Croghan 
mentions You are soon expected at Philadelphia, and as Brig r . 
Forbes declines giving him any Direction or Orders with regard 
to his Proceedings, and as I sent him to the Westward at the 
earnest Desire of M r . Forbes & Gov. Denny, 1 who have hitherto 
given the Lead to his Conduct, I am at a loss to give him more 
than general Instructions. I shall write him on your arrival to 
inform You of all his Transactions & to follow such Orders as he 
may receive from You, on which Account, I hope your Excelb. 
will not think the above Observations which I have offered to your 
perusal, ill-timed or Impertinent. 

The 6 Nations are not yet come down, the Weather has been 
extreamly bad for several days, but I hope when it clears up 
I shall soon see them. 

I am most respectfully 

Your Excellencys 
Most Obedient 

and most Humble Servant 
W M . Johnson 

1 See John Forbes to William Denny, Aug. 26, 1 758, Johnson Papers, 
9:970. ' 

Seven Years' War 105 

To His Excellency 
Major General Amherst 
&c &c 


S r W m Johnson 22 d Febr 
Reed 2 d March 
Ans< 5*. J 759 


Feb. 11-23, 1759. 

1 1 . Feb r y. — Sir William set out for Connojohary with Cap*. 
Johnson & Lotteridge & sent Clement the Interpreter with Taquia- 
nunt a Mohock Chief by the way of Stoneraby to tell all the 
Indians around that Settlement to meet him next day at Conno- 

Monday 1 2. — Eight at night being all assembled Sir William 
told them that the reason of his coming to their Castle was to get 
a Number of their briskest Men to join Cap 1 . Lotteridge & some 
of the Mohocks & Schoharys on a Scout to Tionderogo or Crown 
Point in order to see what the Enemy was about & get him a 
Prisoner from whom he might be able to get better Intelligence 
than he daily receives and which would enable the General to take 
proper Measures for the defence of the Country until the Opening 
of the Campaign — and that they would be ready in two days 
to set off from his House where they would be supplied with every 
necessary for such a Service — 

A Painted War Belt thrown to them. 

The Belt was no sooner cast among them than Senughsias a 
Chief of the Bear Tribe arose, took the Belt in his hand & sung 
his War Song & was followed by several more of each Tribe — 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 5. 

106 Sir William Johnson Papers 

then Oraghiadecka the Chief Sachem of that Castle stood up 
& said 

Brother Warraghyjagey 

We the Sachems & Warriors of the Connojahary Castle im- 
mediately quitted our Hunting on your Call & made all the haste 
possible to meet you here, where are are all heartily glad to see 
you & in answer to your desire without any Hesitation I am 
desired by the Young Men present to tell you they will be ready 
to go with Cap 1 . Lotteridge and the Mohocks & c . on the Service 
you require & we have no reason to doubt you will in their Absence 
take care of their Familys who are extreamly poor & in great 
want of Provisions. 

Here returned the War Belt. 

Sir William thanked them for the readiness they showed on 
this Occasion & told them he would give their Families some 
Provisions in their Absence or Money to purchase it so that they 
should not suffer, he gave them an Entertainment as usual on 
such Occasions & so parted, he left that Castle Tuesday Morn«. 
& arrived at Fort Johnson that night. 

Whilst he was at Connojohary Sir William received a Letter 
from Cap 1 . Fonda posted at Fort Herkemaar for the regulation 
of Trade & procuring what Intelligence he possibly could of the 
Enemys Designs & Motions accquainting him that some Onon- 
dagas who arrived there told him the Senecas, Cayougas & c . 
were daily expected at their Castle in order to come to the Meeting 
proposed by Sir William at his house. 

16. Feb r y. — Twenty two Warriors arrived here with several 
Women & c . from Connojohary & the 1 7. fourteen Schoharys 
arrived with several of their Women & Children also — they 
came on his call in order to go on a Scout to Tionderogo or Crown 
Point — the next day Sir William accquainted the Mohocks with 
the arrival of the above Indians & desired they would be ready 
as soon as possible to set out on the proposed Scout, they answered 

Seven Years' War 107 

they would make all Dispatch possible & be ready to set off the 
1 8 or 19. The 1 8. they were detained by the Death of a young 
Mohock who buried that day. 

The Whole Party was ready the 19. but were detained till 
the 23 Feb r y by rainy & bad Weather, that day 44 Indians with 
Cap'. Lotteridge set out for Tionderoga. 

N.B. a Difference happened between the Mohocks & Connojo- 
harys w ch . diminished the intended party. — 


Feb. 24-March /. 1759 

24 Feb r y. — 1 1 More Indians went out on the Scout to Tionde- 
rogo & c . Thicked neck Thomas Cheif of the Party. 

1 March — 14 Mohock Indians set off for Tionderogo & Crown 
point against the Enemy. 


Contemporary Copy 

New York 5th. March 1759 

I had by last post Your Letter of the 22 d of February, Ac- 
quainting me that altho' You did propose to obtain among the 
Indians as Many light Arms as You could, Yet it was but a 
precarious depandence, I shall therefore send You as Many 
light ones as I Shall have been able to Collect against the March- 
ing of the 44 th Reg 1 which will be in three or four Days, and may 
be about 200 in Number. 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 5. This is the last 
chronological entry in Vol. 5 of the Indian Records. The fact that there 
is a two-year hiatus between this entry and the first entry of Vol. 6 suggests 
that one, or perhaps two folios of the Indian Records for this period 
have been lost. 

2 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

108 Sir William Johnson Papers 

What you mention in regard to a Number of Indian Arms 
as well as an Assortment of Indian Goods to be imported from 
England & to remain here as a resource upon proper occasions, 
I entirely approve of, and when ever you furnish me with such a 
list I will Transmitt it to the Kings Ministers, that you may be 
provided therewith upon future Occasions. 

I Shall not fail to recommend to the Lieut. Governor the re- 
vival of the Act which you Mention to be Expired, and I hope 
with good Effect, as I am convinced of the Necessity & useful- 
ness of such a Law. 

I am obliged to You for the Extracts from M r Croghan's 
Letter. I propose soon to Sett out for Philadelphia, whither I 
have called the Governors in order to Settle the Indians Affairs, 
and when there I hope we Shall together be so fortunate as to Settle 
every thing to the best Advantage & bring about such a Trade 
with the Indians as may fix them entirely to our Interest, but in 
this I cannot do anything untill the Governors are Assembled, 
meanwhile I doubt not but Col°. Bouquet (for Brig r . Forbes is so 
ill that he is not able to give any directions) will in every thing 
advise M r Croghan for the best and give him all the Assistance 
he can. — 

I am &c. — 


L.S. 1 

Fort Johnson 7th. March 1759. 

As I must purchase at Newyork, and Philadelphia sundry 
Goods necessary for the Indians against the approaching Cam- 
paign, in order to get the proper kinds, and at the cheapest Rates, 
I have dispatched M r . Ferral Wade, who will have the Honour 
do deliver your Excellency this Letter. — He is very well 
acquainted with the Assortment, and prices of Goods proper for 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

Seven Years* War 109 

Indians, and in Consequence of this Commission I have given him, 
I beg the Favour of you to order a Warrant to be made out to 
him for Two Thousand Pounds Sterling, and for which I shall 
be accountable in my Acco*. of Indian Expences, And I must 
beg your Excellency will transmit me an other Warrant for 
£ 3000 Sterling. I am in Advance near £ 1 800 Curry, and my 
own ready Money is thereby exhausted. — daily small Demands 
are coming upon me, particularly for the Support of such Indians 
and their Families who joined His Majesties Arms last Cam- 
paign, and are by the failure of their Crops of Ind n . Corn which 
is this Year General in these parts, and Obstructions arising from 
the Situation of public Affairs here, reduced to great Want and 

If you please to order a Sample of the light Arms you propose 
for the Indians to be shown to M r . Wade, he will tell your Excel- 
lency whether they will answer. 

I am 
With the utmost Respect 
Your Excellencys 
Most Obedient, and 

Most Humble Servant 
W M . Johnson 

To His Excellency 

Major General Amherst 

1 1 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Copy 1 

Fort Johnson 14th March 1759 

I have received your Actt. and your son in laws, also an Actt. 
of the late Capt n McGinnis, 2 all of which shall be adjusted, & 
discharged in a verry little time. 

I would have you gett me a Return of the Albany Battallion 
as Soon as possible, I have got one of this Battallion which is but 
verry weak. I want to transmit them Both to y e . Govr. 

I am S r . 

Your Welwisher 
& Sincere Freind 

W M Johnson 
Lieu t Co LL Glen 

1 In New York State Library. 

2 Captain William McGinnis who was killed at the battle of Lake 
George, Sept. 8, 1 755. 

Seven Years' War 1 1 1 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Nev> York, J 8 th March 1759. 

M r . Wade 2 delivered me Your Letter of the 7 th . Instant, on 
Tuesday last, when I immediately granted him the Warrant for 
£2000 Sterling, which You desired he might have for the pur- 
chase of Sundry Goods necessary for the Indians against the 
Approaching Campaign; And this day I have granted another 
for £ 3000 Sterling on Account of the same Services, in Your own 
Name, which I have sent to M r . Mortier, that he may make out 
the Proper Receipts for, and transmit the Same to You for Your 
Signature, in Order to give you a Credit for its Amount, either 
at Philadelphia, here, or at Albany, whichever You please; but 
as the Ship Expected from England with Money, is not yet Ar- 
rived, I must beg that You will pospone as long as possible, the 
Claiming the Payment of that Warrant, as the Acquittal of it, 
at this time, or before the Military Chest is Recruited would 
greatly distress other Essential Services. 

I had, as I mentioned to You in a former Letter, laid by 200 
Good Light Arms, such as I thought would have been fit for 
Indians, which, agreable to Your Request, were shewn to M r . 
Wade, who has Chosen 200 Others that are not so good, but 
which he thinks better, by reason of their being somewhat Lighter ; 
These, according to Promise, have been Sent up by the 44 th . 
Regiment, the first Detachment of which Embarked Yesterday. 

I am 
& ca . 
To Sir William Johnson, Bar 1 . 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 Ferrall Wade. See Johnson to Amherst, March 7, 1 759, ante, p. 1 08. 

1 1 2 Sir William Johnson Papers 


L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson 26 th . March J 7 59. 

I Last night received a Letter from Lieu*. Gov. De Lancey, 
also a Proclamation, Act of Assembly, & his Orders for having 
as many Men Drafted out of the Regiment of Militia Under My 
Command, as will with the Voluntary Inlistments make up the 
Number of four Hundred & twenty four Men, which is the Quota 
of this County. As my time is, and will be so much taken up in 
other parts of his Majestys Service, that I cannot attend to this, 
I have herewith sent You the Gov". Orders, Coppy of his Letter, 
Proclamation, & Act of Assembly, and must desire & Strongly 
Urge your following & fulfilling the said Order agreeable to the 
Intent & Meaning thereof & that with the Utmost dispatch & 

When done, You will make me a Report of the Whole. 

I am 

Y r . Humble Serv 1 . 

W M . Johnson, 



Lieu t . Coll°. Glen 

addressed : 

On his Majestys Service 

To Jacob Glen Esq r 

Lieu*. Coll°. of the 1 st . Battallion 

In collection of Mrs. Henry M. Sage, Menands, N. Y. 

Seven Years' War 1 1 3 


D. S. 1 

[May 19, 1759] 

By the Honorable James De Lancey Esq r . 
Lieutenant Governor & Commander in Chief 
In & over the Province of New York And the 
Territories depending thereon in America 

Whereas it is expedient in all Times of War that the Militia 
should be in Constant Readiness to March but More Especially 
so in the present Conjuncture of affairs when, as the Enemy have 
a Fleet in the West India Islands, and the Troops are gone up 
the Country, the March of the Militia May possibly become 
Immediately Necessary for the Defence of the Province. 

You are therefore to give Orders that the Field Officers Cap- 
tains And One Subaltern Officer, And in Case of the Sickness 
or inability of the Captain then Two Subaltern Officers with the 
Non Commission Officers of every Company and All the Men 
belonging to Each Company in the Regiment under your Com- 
mand between the Ages of forty Six and of Twenty Years to 
hold themselves in Readiness on the Shortest Notice Each Man 
provided with a good Blanket besides good Arms and Accoutre- 
ments and a Sufficient Quantity of Ammunition According to 
Law, And for this purpose you are forthwith on the Receipt 
hereof to Order the Several Captains Or Commanding Officers 
to Draw out their Respective Companies under arms to Cause a 
Roll to be Made of All Men therein between the Ages of forty 
Six and of Twenty Years, to Order All Such to hold themselves 
in Readiness to March Well Equip'd and furnished as aforesaid 
and to See that every Mans Arms and Accoutrements be good 
and Serviceable or forthwith put into good Order or the penalties 
for Want thereof Rigorously Levied on the Defalters as the 
Law Directs. 2 

1 In the New York Public Library. 

2 From this point on, the document is in De Lancey 's hand. 

1 1 4 Sir William Johnson Papers 

And you are immediately to send copies of these Orders to 
the Lieutenant Colonels or commanding Officers of the two 
Battalions who are to see to the due Execution of them and to 
march such parts of the Militia as above mentioned as soon as 
they shall recieve orders from me or in case of my absence, then 
on the requisition of the Commander in Chief of his Majestys 
Forces. Given under my hand at New York this Nineteenth 
day of May 1 759 

James De Lancey 

To Sir William Johnson Colonel or the Commanding officer 
of the Regiment of Militia in the County of Albany. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Albany 30 th . May J 7 59. 

Brig r . Gen 1 . Prideaux 2 having Acquainted me that You had 
represented to him, that as You were without Money, and might be 
in urgent want of it on the present Occasion, and that as there 
was none in the D. P. M. G.' s hands, 3 You desired an Order 
from me to Authorize You to raise it where You Could ; I have for 
Your Security, and that You might Succeed therein the Readier 
granted a Warrant in Your Name on the D. P. M. G. for 
£3000 Sterle which I here Enclose; but as Our Military Chest 
is in the same Situation I mentioned to You before, I must give 
You this Caution, that Your presenting that Warrant to M r . 
Mortier before he receives a Supply of Money, will avail You 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 Brigadier General John Prideaux; appointed Colonel of 55th regiment, 
Oct. 28, 1 758; and Brigadier General May 5, 1 759. He was designated 
to command the expedition to Niagara, but was killed in the trenches 
during the siege, July 19, 1759, and was succeeded by Sir William 
as commander. 

3 Deputy Paymaster General, then Abraham Mortier. 

Seven Years' War 1 1 5 

of nothing, and therefore if You cannot possibly do without the 
Money, You must endeavour to get it among Your friends & 
Acquaintance, for the reimbursement whereof You have, as I 
observed before, that Warrant as a Security. 

Brig r . Prideaux likewise informed me that You had recom- 
mended M r . W m . Hare & Hendrick Nellus for Captains of 
Indians, which should have been immediately Complied with, 
and Commissions made out for them, had I known the Name of 
the Two Officers in whose room they are to be. So soon as You 
send one of those Names the Commissions shall be made out & 
transmitted to You, meanwhile that no time may be lost, Appoint 
them & Employ them as Such. 

I am, 
&ca — 
Sir Wm. Johnson Bar*. 


A. L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson 30 th May 1759 

I have Just now the Honour of Yours of this Ins 1 . 2 by Capt n . 
Prescott, I also received the Warrant for £3000 Ster's., which 
I shall not present to M r . Mortier untill he receives a Supply of 
Money, but will endeavour to get what I want from my Ac- 

In my letter of the 28 th . to Brigadier Prideaux I recommended 
M r . W m . Hair, and Hendrick Nellus for Lieut s . of Indians, 
being both verry active Young Men, and qualified for Scouting 
with them, which will be verry necessary this Campaign. Capt n . 
Thomas Butler who has been all this Winter Stationed at Fort 
Stanwix, and remains there Still, is verry unwell, and will not 
as I understand be able to undergo the fatigues of the Campaign, 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

2 Amherst to Johnson, May 30, 1759, ante p. 114. 

1 1 6 Sir William Johnson Papers 

yet may do some other Duty. Capt n . Jeles Fonda at the time I 
wrote was verry unwell, but is now much better, and I imagine 
will be able to do his Duty, however as M r . Croghan, & Capt n . 
Montour are to the Southward, I shall Still have occasion for 
Mess". Hair, & Nellus, as the few Officers I have (if all in 
health) will be Insufficient to manage any considerable number 
of Indians. — 

I am 

most Respectfully 


Your Excellencys 
Most Obedient 

& Most Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 
His Excellency 

Major Genr l . Amherst 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Albany May 3K 1759 

Capt. Prescott has just now delivered me Your Letter of 
Yesterday, 2 Acquainting me as I desired, with the Names of the 
two Indian Captains that You before mentioned were so unwell 
as not to be able to do any duty this Campaign, and in whose 
stead You were desireous M r . Hare & M r . Nellus Might be 
Appointed Lieut*. ; Agreable to that request I enclose you Com- 
missions for those two Gentlemen, by which you will see that I 
put them both in the room of Tho s . Butler who you still imagine 
will not be able to Serve this Campaign, as the other Capt. M r . 
Jelous Fonda You say will, which I am very glad of; my reason 
for mentioning them in the body of the Commission in the room 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 Johnson to Amherst, May 30, 1 759, ante. p. 115. 

Seven Years' War 1 1 7 

of Capt. Thomas Butler, is in Order not to encrease the Estab- 
lishment, which I do not Chuse to take upon me; as I do not see 
any room for giving away the publick Money without the proper 
and necessary Service is done for it, these two Lieut 3 , whose joint 
pay is Just the Same as that of Capt. Butler, will receive it in 
lieu of him, which will be a saving to the Crown & give You an 
additional Officer. I am sorry for Capt. Butlers Situation, but 
if his health does not permit him to do his duty, & that without 
it the Service must Suffer, I cannot do Otherwise than Appointing 
others in his Stead without any additional Expence to the publick ; 
if he recovers & You can Employ him otherwise under You 
without any encrease of Expence, it will certainly be doing Justice 
to give him the preference. 

I am &ca — 
S R . W M . Johnson Bart. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

[Albany, May 31, 1759] 

This Indenture made and concluded this Thirty First Day of 
May in the thirty Second Year of the reign of our Soveraign 
Lord George the Second by the grace of God of great Brittain 

1 Recorded by the then County Clerk in Book 7 ( 1 757-1 768) of the 
Records of the Day, pp. 36-7, Albany County Clerk's Office. See Johnson 
to Peter Warren, July [22?] 24, 1749, Johnson Papers, 1 :240, where 
he mentions buying houses in Albany and Schenectady; Johnson to Peter 
Middleton, Sept. 16, 1755, Johnson Papers, 2:46, wherein Johnson 
gives Dr. Middleton orders to take the wounded Baron Dieskau to his 
(Johnson's) house in Albany; and "Purchase of a House," 1748, John- 
son Papers, 9:36. In his will dated Jan. 27, 1 774, (see Stone's Life and 
Times of Sir William Johnson, 2:493) Sir William bequeaths "to my 
son-in-law, Colonel Daniel Claus, and to his heirs, ... the house and lots 
in Albany which I purchased of Henry Holland, together with the 
water lot adjoining thereto, which I purchased from the corporation of 
Albany, . . ." 

1 1 8 Sir William Johnson Papers 

France and Ireland King defender of the Faith & ca and in the 
Year of our Lord one Thousand Seven hundred and fifty nine 
Between the Mayor Aldermen and Commonalty of the City 
of Albany of the one part and Sir William Johnson Barn 1 , of 
the County of Albany of the other part Witnesseth that the Said 
Mayor Aldermen and Commonalty for and in Consideration 
of the Sum of Sixty Six pounds Currency of the province of New 
York to them in hand paid at and before the Ensealing and 
Delivery hereof by the Said Sir William Johnson the receipt 
Where of They do hereby acknowledge and themselves there- 
with to be fully Satisfied Contented and paid and there of and 
therefrom do fully Clearly and Absolutely Acquit Exonerate 
and discharge the Said Sir William Johnson his heirs Executors 
Administrators and Assigns for Ever Have Given granted Re- 
leased and Confirmed and by these presents do fully Clearly and 
Absolutely Give grant release and Confirm unto the Said Sir 
William Johnson his heirs and Assigns for Ever a certain Lott 
of Ground Lying and being in the Third ward of the City of 
Albany near the water Side behinde the Lott of the Said Sir 
William Johnson Bounded on the west and South by the Street 
and on the North and East by the ground of the Corporation 
of the City of Albany and is in Breath on the West in the front 
by the Street Thirty three feet and the Same Breath of Thirty 
three feet on the East in the rear And in Length on both Sides 
from west by the Street to the East in the Rear Sixty feet English 
Measure Together with all and Singular the Profitts Comodities 
and Appurtenances to the Said Lott of ground Belonging or in 
any wise appertaining To have and To hold the above recited 
and granted Lott of Ground and premises unto the Said Sir Wil- 
liam Johnson his heirs and assigns to the Sole and only Proper 
use Benefitt and Behooff of the Said Sir William Johnson his 
heirs and Assigns for Ever And the Said Mayor Aldermen and 
Commonalty for themselves And their Successors Do Covenant 
promise and Agree to and with the Said Sir William Johnson 
his heirs Executors administrators and assigns that they the Said 
Mayor Aldermen and Commonalty and their Successors Shall 

Seven Years' War 1 19 

not nor any Other person or persons for them in their names 
right or Stead of any of them Shall or will by any Manner of 
ways or means hereafter have Claim Challenge or Demand any 
Estate right Title or Interest of in or to the premises or any part 
or parcel thereof but from all and Every Action Estate right 
Title Interest and demand of in or to the premises or any part 
or parcel thereof they and Every of them Shall be Utterly Ex- 
cluded and Barred for Ever by these presents In Testimony 
whereof the Mayor of the Said City hath by Vertue of a resolu- 
tion 1 Entered in the Minutes of Common Council Bearing Date 
the Nineteenth Day of February Last past in behalf of the Said 
Mayor Alderman and Commonalty hereunto Sett his hand and 
Caused the City Seal of the Said City to be hereunto Affixed and 
these presents to be Entered in the Publick records the Day and 
Year first Above Written. 

Sybrant G. Van Schaick, Mayer 

Signed Sealed and delivered 
In the presence of 

Harmanus Schuyler 
John Williams 

Recorded in the Clerks office for the City and County of 
Albany Book N: 9 page 36 and 37 and I do hereby Certify 
to have Examined the Above deed with the Record of the Same 

1 In Munsell's Collections on the History of Albany, 1:114, is printed 
the resolution as follows: 

"At a Common Council held for the City of Albany on the 19 day of 
February, 1 759. 

Resolved by this Board, That S r William Johnson, Bar*, may have 
the ground behind his house and lott where Patrick Magee has lately 
build on, that is to say, the breath of his lott on the street and then sixty 
foot long down toward the River at the rate of forty shillings a foot on 
the street, and that the Mayor execute a deed for the same in behalf of 
the Mayor, Aldermen and Comonalty." 

Munsell's Collections, 4:195, shows the location of a city lot owned 
by Sir William Johnson at the northeast corner of Broadway and Staat's 
Alley (now State Street) . 

120 Sir William Johnson Papers 

and finding no Material Razurers or Interlineations therein 
thirty first Day of May 1 759 

i r Ha: GaNSEVOORT Clerk 


Fori Johnson I s1 June 1759 

I am Just now honoured with yours of Yesterday, and with it, 
the Commissions for two Lieut 5 , in the Room of Capt n . Butler, 2 
Who has been an Officer all the last, and this War under my 
Command, and for whom, Should he recover, I should be glad 
to have it in my power to provide. — 

As Soon as Brigd r . Genr 1 . Prideaux Arrives here, I shall be 
ready to accompany him as far as Fort Hendrick, 3 from whence 
I shall March with such Indians as are to meet me there to Fort 
Stanwix, where I expect to be Joined by a good many more, 
and be ready to move as Soon, as the Battoes can be got over the 
Carrying place, Our next Rendezvous will be at Osswego, and 
your Excellency may depend upon my doing all in my power 
to get as many Indians as I can and make them as usefull, as 

I wish Your Excellency all the Success Imaginable and am 
most respectfully 


Your most Obedient 
& most Humble Servant 

Li- i7 11 W M . Johnson 

His Excellency J 

Major Genr l . Amherst 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

2 Johnson requested commissions for William Hare and Hendrick Nellus, 
see Johnson to Amherst, May 30, 1 759, ante p. 115, and also Amherst to 
Johnson, May 31,1 759, ante p. 116. 

3 At Canajoharie. 

Seven Years' War 



Contemporary Copy 1 

[Jul], 24, 1759] 

Articles de Capitulation pour 
le Fort et la Gamison de 
Niagara de Sa Majeste Tres 
Chretienne Le Roy de 
Art : 1 r . . . La Garnison Sortira avec 
Armes et Bagages, Tambour 
battante, Meche alumee par 
les deux bouts, Une petite 
piece de Canon pour S' Em- 
barque sur des Voitures qui, 
Accorde Seront fournier par Monsieur 

Le General de sa Majeste 
Brittanique pour etre Con- 
duite a la Nouvelle York 
par le Chemin le plus Court 
et dans le plus court espace 
de terns. 
2 e . . . La Garnison remmetra ses 
Accorde Armes en S'embarquant et 

Conservera ses bagages. 
3 e . . . Mess". Les Officiers Conser- 
Accorde veront leurs Armes et Equi- 

4 e . . . Les Dames et Femmes Fran- 
chise et leur Enfants qui sont 
ici, ainsi qui L'aumonier 
Seron renvoyer a Montreal, 
et il leur Sera fourni par 
Monsieur Le General de sa 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. An English translation 
is printed in Doc. Rel. to Col Hist. N. Y., 10:990-92. 


Sir William Johnson Papers 

Accorde, excepte 
Celles qui Servoient 
Sujet de sa Majeste 



Tous le Battiman 
et Batteaux s o n t 
Compris sous cet Ar- 

Majeste Brittannique, le 
Voitures et Subsistance Ne- 
cessaire pour le Voyage, et 
ce dans le plus court espace 
de terns qu'il Sera possible 
Jusqu'au premier P o s t e 
Francoise Celles qui Voud- 
ont Suivre leur Marie seront 
les Maitresse. 

Les Malade et Blesse Oblige 
de rester dans le Fort pour- 
ront en Sortir avec tout ce 
qu'il leur appartient et Seront 
Conduite en Surete, lorsqu'il 
Seront en Etat de Supporter 
le Voyage, a la destination 
du reste de la Garnison. En 
Attendant il sera fournie une 
Garde pour Veille a leur 

Le Commandant et tous les 
Omciers de Troupes elle 
meme en tout ce qui est au 
Service du Sa Majeste tres 
Chretienne Sortiront de la 
place sans etre Sujet a 
Aucun Acte de represaille 
de quelque Nature que se 
puisse etre, et sous quelque 
pretexte que ce Soit. 

II Sera fait un Inventaire de 
Munition de Guerre qui se 
trouveront dans le Magazin, 
ensemble L'Artillerie qui 

Seven Years' War 


L'on peut enten- 
dre Ceux qui sont 
Actuellem*. sur le 
platon, les Autres 
n'etant point a Notre 




Accorde dans le 
l cr Article 

Seront remises de bonnefoi 
Ainsi que les Autres EfFets 
de sa Majeste existant dans 
le Magazine Loide 1 de la 

8 e . Le Soldats et Milicien ne 
seront ni depouilles ni Sep- 
arer de leur Officiers. 

9 e . La Garnison sera Conduite 
avec une Escorte Jusqu'a 
1'endroit destine pour son Se- 
jour. Monsieur le General 
recommendra expressement a 
L'Escorte d'empecher que le 
Sauvage n'approchent et 
n'insultent tout ce qui Com- 
pose le Garnison et ne la 
pillent lorsqu'elle quittera ses 
Armee et S'embarquera elle 
aura le meme Soin le long 
de la Route par tout du il 
pourra se rencontres des 

10 e . II sera fait une Etat exacte 
de Nom et Surnom de Sol- 
dats de differents troupes, 
ainsi que des Miliciens et des 
Autres Employe pour Sa 
Majeste tres Chretienne les 
dits Employer de quel etat 
qu il soient conserveront leur 
Equipage et auront le meme 
sort de la Garnison. 

'Lors" intended. 


Sir William Johnson Papers 

Accorde, mais il 
est apropos qu'il ta- 
chent a le faire en 

Pour demain a 
Sept heure 

1 1 e . Tous les Sauvage da quelque 

Nation qu'il soient qui se 

trouveront ici ne seront point 

Insulte, et Seront point In- 

sulter et seron libre de Sortir 

du bon leur S'emblera. 

Ces Articles Accepte il 

Sera livre une parte a 

Monsieur le General de sa 

Majeste Brittanique ce qui 

ne peut etre que demain. 

Pouchot, Capitaine du Reg f . 

de Beam Command r . 

Vitar 1 Cap*, au Reg*. La 


Servier Capt. dans Roy 1 . 


Sieur De la Roche Verney 

Capt. de Troupes de la 


Bounaffous, Of f icier du 

Corps Roy 1 , de L'Artillerie 

Cousnoyer L l . des Troupes 

detache de la Marine 

Soluignac Officer dans Beam 

Le Ch ,e . De Larminac, L l . 

de la Marine 

Joncaire Capt. de la Marine 

Morambert L l . 

Chabert joncain dans Gui- 


Copy of the Original 
Capitulation in Sir W m . 
Johnson's hands. 

1 Printed "Vilar" in English translation. 

Le Chirurgien qui 
reste avec les Mal- 
ades en Recomman- 
der a Mons r . Le 

Seven Years' War 125 


Copy Articles of 

Capitulation of Garrison 

of Niagara 25 th July 1 759 

Enclosed in S r . W m . Johnsons of same day. 

N. B. Original Copy sent to M r . Pitt 5 th . August. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Camp at Crown Point 25 th Sep r . 1759. 

This moment are Arrived here accompanied by One Fisher, 
a Carpenter Employed at Fort George, 2 & who Serves them as 
Interpreter, Eight Indians, said to be all from the Lower Castle 
of the Mohawks, but as they have no pass from You, and that I 
will trust no Body, I shall not let them Stir out of this Camp 
untill You Inform me that I may rely upon & Employ them; 
their Names are Captain Petrus, Captain Dick, Sett, Nickus, 
David, David, Hendrick, & John. — 

Colonel Bradstreet having Wrote to me that he has been 
desired by some of the Inhabitants of Albany and Schenectady, 
to Acquaint me they were desirous of going to Niagara, to trade 
with the Indians, and that they beg'd my Leave and pass; In 
Answer thereto I told him that I should Communicate that Re- 
quest to You, and that if You Approved of those Persons, they 
should have my leave & pass for the above purposes ; Accordingly 
I Suppose they will Apply to You, and upon Your Recommenda- 
tion they shall have passes. I am, with great Regard, 

Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 . 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 The name given to the fort erected, in 1 759, by James Montresor, 
on the order of Amherst, at the south end of Lake George. (There was 
another fort of the same name in New York City.) 

126 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Camp at Crown Point 2 d . October 1759. 

On the 30 th . I was favor'd with Yours of the 18 th . Ultimo 
from Oswego, which I take it for granted You have left eere 
this, since I find by a Letter of the 1 1 th . of same Month, from 
Brig r . General Gage, that he had then already determined not 
to take post at La Galette; 2 Could I have foreseen that this very 
Essential Operation should not have taken place, I should most 
certainly have desired Your Company, with what Number of 
Indians You could Collect, here, where they might have been 
of Service, and have Compensated for the very great Expence 
their Subsistence & fitting out Creates to the Public, which, from 
the above Resolution, is now become entirely needless, & therefore 
I hope that so soon as You have been Acquainted with it, You 
will have Stopped those that were still to Join You from coming 
forward, and disbanded the Others that were already with You, 
as it is now too late for them to Come in any time, to be of Service 
at present on this Side. — 

Since it will be impossible to buy & get up the Indian Goods 
requisite to Induce the Missassagas &ca, to Act offensively for 
Us this Campaign before the Rivers freeze, I Approve of your 
leaving a proper Person at Niagara for the Winter to transact 
Affairs with them, and do everything necessary for the keeping 
up that good Understanding, which at present seems to Subsist 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. A portion of this letter 
was printed in Johnson Papers, 3:141-143, from P.R.O., CO. 5.56, 
with a long indorsement. 

2 LaGalette was an Indian settlement on the north bank of the St. 
Lawrence river a little below the modern town of Prescott founded by 
the French for Indians of the Five Nations whom they had persuaded 
to move to Canada under their protection. Fort La Galette was a post 
on the south bank, later Fort La Presentation, now the site of Ogdens- 
burg, N. Y. 

Seven Years' War 127 

between Us, untill we can have an opportunity of getting up 
such Necessaries as may Induce them to Act Offensively against 
the Enemy. 

I hope the Party of near Forty Indians and some Whites, 
which You have Sent to Oswegatchy 1 will Answer Your Ex- 
pectations & return with some Prisoners which I shall be glad 
to learn from You, as well as any other Intelligence that You 
may have to Communicate. 

I Am glad to learn that Your Account from Your Deputy 
to the Southward relative to our Indian Affairs in that Quarter, 
bear so favorable an Aspect. And Surprised that Your Indians 
were not returned with M r . Stanwix's Answer to Your Letter 
of the 28 th . for he has Acknowledged the Receipt of it to me 
ever since the 23 d . August, when he was on his departure from 
Fort Ligonier for Pittsburgh whence he was to send back the 
two Indians. 

The Eight Mohawks, which I mentioned to You in mine of 
the 25 th . not meeting here with so much Rum as they had perhaps 
Expected, have soon Wearied of this Place, and as I could not 
trust them on any Service, till I knew from You that I might w th . 
safety, I have consented to their return home, & have given them 
a Pass, with which they set out Yesterday. Altho' I did not 
care to Venture them on Service, yet as I did not care to Confine 
them to the Camp, I proposed them, by way of Amusement, a 
hunting Match of three days on the Otter Creek, which they 
readily Accepted of, but it was with difficulty they were got out, 
and when they were out, some returned the first day, and the 
Others early the next. 

I am, with the greatest Regard, 

Sir W M . Johnson Bar 1 . 

1 On the south bank of the St. Lawrence River, later Ogdensburg. 

2 Loyal Hannon, afterwards Fort Ligonier, was situated on the east 
side of Loyal Hannon creek, in the town of Ligonier, Westmoreland 
County, Pennsylvania. 

128 Sir William Johnson Papers 


To Sir W m . Johnson, Bar 1 . 

Camp at Crown Point 2 d . Oct r . 1 759. 


Camp at Ossrvego Octob r . 5 th . 1759 

Your Excellency s favour of the 25 th . Ult°. I Yesterday re- 
ceived, wherein you make mention of Eight Mohawk Indians 
Just then arrived at Crown Point with one Fisher, and that You 
were unwilling to trust them until You heard from me. Capt n . 
Dick, and most of the rest are verry well known to many Officers 
of the Army, and I may venture to say will do all in their power 
for the good of the Service. 

I think it will be verry necessary to encourage Trade to Niagara, 
but a great Number of those who generally apply, will rather 
hurt our interest than otherwise from an unfair Dealing. 

I have, ever Since I had the Superintendancy of Indian Affairs, 
taken all the care I could in the choice of the honestest Men I 
could find to Trade among the Indians, & Your Excellency may 
be assured I shall whenever applied to, continue to encourage 
all such as (from my long experience of the People of this Coun- 
try) I may Confide in, convinced that nothing can promote or 
extend his Majesty's Indian Interest more than a fair, and plenti- 
ful! trade. 

The Officers of his Majesty s 46 th . Regiment have applied to 
me to represent to Your Excellency that their Regiment was 
since its arrival in America for the most part upon the Frontiers, 
and harrassed by severe Marches upon many Alarms, hopeing 
that they might be indulged with any other Quarters than those 
the Ensueing Winter, if the Quarters of the Army were not 
fixed, at their repeated entreaty, and my own knowledge of 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

Seven Years' War 129 

some of the Severe Marches they made & ca . I have taken the 
liberty of mentioning their Request, — Capt n . Lotteradge w*. 
a Party of Onondagaes is hourly expected from La Galete, as is 
also a Party of Mohawks who have been gone from hence 2 1 , 
and the former 1 4 Days. — 

I am 

Your Excellencys 
Most Obedient and 
Most Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 

His Excellency 

Major General Amherst 


Sir W m . Johnson 
Oswego 5 th . October 1759. 
R 15*. do. 
A sd 23 rd . d°. 


L. S. 1 

Camp at Osxvego Oct r . 12 th 1759 

Your Excellencys of the 2 d . 2 Instant I was yesterday favoured 
with, wherein you desire that those Indians who were still to joyn 
me may be stopped and the rest disbanded. 

On the 8 th . instant part of the Indians returned from La Galette 
with two Scalps and three prisoners whose intelligence concerning 
the reduction of Quebec, Gen 1 Gage informed you of by express, 
which occasioned my not writing at that time; after the arrival 
of the Indians, at Gen 1 . Gages desire, I discharged those who 
were here, and purpose to leave Oswego in a day or two, having 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

2 Ante, p. 126. 

130 Sir William Johnson Papers 

waited these two days past for a party of Indians who are not 
yet returned from the Scout. 

It would have given me infinite pleasure to have received Your 
Excell c y s . commands to joyn you earlier, as I believe the Indians 
might have been of some use, but until they were discharged 
in this Quarter, it was impossible to tell when they might be 
called upon for service on the then intended Expedition to La 

If the small party of Indians who are yet out should return 
successfull I shall imediately inform you thereof, and am 

with the greatest Esteem 

Your Excell c y s . most Obedient 

most humble Serv*. 

W M . Johnson 
His Excell c y. Major Gen l . Amherst 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Camp at Crown Point 23 d . Oct r . 1759. 

On my return here from a Cruize down Lake Champlain 
(with a Detachment of the Army, the Brig D. of Cumberland, 
Boscawen Sloop, & Ligonier Radeau, in which We Caused the 
Enemy to Sink, run aground, and Abandon their three Sloops, & 
leave us entire Masters of the Lake) I found Your two Letters 
of the 5 th . and 12 th . 2 Instant, which Except a Representation in 
favor of the 46 th . Regiment, being Answers to two of Mine, I 
have only to Assure You that I shall always be glad to have it 
in my power to Acquiesce with any thing that Comes from You ; 
but long before Yours came to my hands, I had, within Myself, 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 Ante, pp. 128-9. 

Seven Years' War 131 

fixed the Winter Quarters of the Troops, and in that disposition, 
had a particular regard to the preceding Quarters of the Several 
Regiments, and as I knew that the 46 th . had for two Years been 
mostly on the Frontiers, I intended to bring them down the Coun- 
try this Year, which Intention no favor or Affection could make 
me lay aside, but how far down, the Service will permit me to 
bring them, I Cannot yet Say, 

I am with the greatest regard 

Sir W m . Johnson Bar*. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Pitsbwg22 d Deer. 1759 

Since I wrote you with my Journal, I have receiv'd Intelligence 
from the Lake, that the French at Detroit are using their Influence 
with all Nations of Indians, to ingage early next Spring to Attack 
our Communication and Frontiers, and there is no doubt but that 
they may get some Indians to ingage in it, tho I think it will not 
be general in any Nation, The Indians are very Jealous seeing 
a large Fort building here, but it will in a great measure depend 
on the French being able to Support them, Tis true they have a 
large and flourishing Settlement in the Illinois Country, and a 
Water carriage to Fort Detroit, which will make it easy to Supply 
them with Provisions & Goods at Detroit, & I cant help thinking 
but the French will go to any Expence they are able, to give us 
trouble, and infest our Communication, as well to keep the Indians 
in their Interest, as to disappoint the intended general Meeting 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. This letter was en- 
closed in Johnson to Gage, March 17, 1760, Johnson Papers, 3:200, 
and re-transmitted in Gage to Amherst, of unknown date in March, 1 760. 
For additional comment see also Gage to Johnson, March 26, 1 760, 
Johnson Papers, 3:202, and Amherst to Johnson, Johnson Papers, 3:206. 

132 Sir William Johnson Papers 

of all Nations here next Spring, which may be attended with ill 
consequences, if they shou'd Succeed, The French have been 
very indulgent to the Indians this way, & no doubt will be more 
so now to carry their Point, we are not so, being flush'd with the 
Success of his Majestys Arms in other quarters, as it is generally 
thought by the Gentlemen of the Army, that the Indians must 
from their Necessitys come into our Measures, and Every Body 
thinks that any thing given to Indians thrown away, as the Com- 
munication has been this Fall free from any Interruption. 

The General told me this Morning, that there was but 3 Months 
Provisions, in the Stores here, for the Garrison which is 900 Men 
& no more Expected, this Winter, so that before the last of March, 
we may expect to be put upon short Allowance, and it will be 
impossible to get a Supply up, till the last of April, or beginning 
of May— 

I am with esteem & Regard your most 
obedient & most humble Serv*. 

Geo: Croghan 
To Sir Will m . Johnson Bart. 


Decb'. 22<*. 1 759— 
Mr Croghans Letter 


Contemporary Copy 

Pittsburg 31 st . Dec: J759 

By an Indian from the Shawanese I have the following In- 
telligence Viz 1 . 

That some Shawanese who went to Fort Detroit last Fall were 

1 In Johnson's hand. 

2 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. This intelligence was 
transmitted by Johnson to Gage, and by the latter to Amherst, as per the 
communications mentioned in footnote 1 , ante, p. 131. 

Seven Years War 133 

Returnd, and inform their Nation, that while they were at Fort 
Detroit, two large Convoys of Provisions & Goods came there, 
from the Illinois Country, about 100 Battoes each time, and as 
near as they could guess 300 Men with each Convoy, which, 
when unloaded set immediately back for more Stores, as the 
French had told them. 

And that the French reported to all Nations of Indians, over 
the Lake, that they intended to go early in the Spring & retake 
Niagara, in order to open the Road to Montreal, that they might 
go & fetch Goods to Cloath their Children the Indians, and after 
that, if the Indians thought proper, to drive the English from 
Pittsburg, over the great Mountain, They would Assist the Indians 
their Children, as they pittyed them; and knew the English 
design'd to take their Country from them. 

These Shawanese farther say, that Bauby a French Trader, 
was coming from Fort D'Troit, to Trade with their Nation. But 
they say the Nations over the Lake, had come to no Resolution, 
whether they would assist the French, or not, in their intended 
Expedition next Spring against Niagara — 

Geo: Croghan 
Deputy Agent 


Decb'. 3K 1759— 
The Intelligence given to M r . 
Croghan by a Shawanese 
Indian — . 

In Johnson's hand. 

134 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Pittsburg 25 lh . January 1760. 

Last Night arrivd here an Express, from Gen 1 . Amherst, who 
brought a Copy of your Intelligence of the 20 th . Decem r . by 
which it appears the Enemy with as many Indians as they can 
get, Intend to Attack this Post. 

I Received a piece of intelligence the 31 st . Decem r . which I 
sent you but least that might not go safe, I here inclose you a 
Copy, which Shews the Enemy intends to push to the last, & tho 
they give out, they intend to retake Niagara, I always thought 
their Intentions, was against this Place or to cut of our Commu- 
nications, which is equall the same, for if they Cut of our Com- 
munication, the Place must fall. 

The Success of his Majestys Arms, this Campaign, in Differ- 
ent Parts, gives rise to an Opinion generally received in the Army, 
that We have conquered the Continent, it is True We may say 
We have beat the French ; but we have nothing to boast from the 
War with the Natives, yet it is thought every Penny, thrown 
away, that is given them, which Obliges me to think the Service 
very disagreeable tho' I will by no means Resign without your 
Consent and Approbation, I have done every thing in my Power 
this Campaign, to promote the Good of his Majestys Ind n . Interests 
what Expense the Crown has been at, I cannot tell, as I was 
determin'd to have nothing to do with the Kings' Store, more 
than draw orders to Cloath such Indians as stood in Necessity 
of them for which Cloathing I have Past my Receipts, Copys of 
which I keep to prevent any Reflections on Me; there seems to 
be no Goods prepareing for the next Campaign; tho' We may 
Expect to have our Communication Attacked at least, which ap- 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. This letter was trans- 
mitted by Johnson to Gage, and by the latter to Amherst, as per the 
communications mentioned in footnote 1 , ante, p. 131. 

Seven Years' War 1 35 

pears a little odd to me, as those the least Acquainted with Indians 
Affairs, must allow that Indians can not be sent on Service with- 
out Goods, nor those against Us, be brought over to his Majestys 
Interest, without presents, & the Enemy make Use of the most 
prevailing Arguments, to Indians, in the World, to gain them, 
by telling them that the English intends to Settle their Country; 
at the same time We lake no pains to oblige or treat the Indians, 
in such a Manner as might Counteract the French Policy. 

I will send You every piece of Intelligence I receive this 
Winter, as soon as I receive it; but must request the favour of 
your Honour to write me, how I am to Act if I be to continue 
here this next Campaign, which I woud not chuse to do, If I 
could help it. 

I am, with great Esteem & Regard 
Your most Obedient & most humble 

Geo: Croghan 

P.S. 26*. Jany. 

Last Night an Unlucky Accident happened here, between 
some Seneca Indians & some Virginia Soldiers, three of the 
Indians are Wounded, one dangerously and his life dispaird off. 


M r . Croghans Letter 
Dated Jan'?. 25 th . 1 760 

1 In Johnson's hand. 

136 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Pittsburg 26 th . January 1760 

One Charles Power an English Prisoner was brought here by 
the Weyindotts, he was taken upon the Cherokee River Six Years 
agoe & has liv'd with them and the French at D'Troit since he 
was made Prisoner, & gives me the following Intelligence Viz 1 . 

That every Spring since he has been among them, there has 
been a great Number of Indians from over the Lake come this way 
to War against the English sometimes 700 Men in One Company. 

The Weyindotts are pretty kind to their Prisoners, but all 
other Nations are very cruel to them. 

Till last Fall that the French abandoned this Place, the 
Indians were of Opinion that the French would conquer all the 
English in America, but since the fate of Niagara, the Indians 
seem to be convinc'd that the English can beat y e French, for 
which reason, the most Sensible Indians are for standing Neuter, 
but he says the Chief of all the Indians over the Lakes has much 
greater Affection for the French, than for the English, as they 
are afraid the English intend to Settle their Country. 

He left Fort D'Troit the begining of October, that the French 
had not finished their New Fort, the Stockades were all up, & 
they were filling it up with Earth on the inside, about 8 feet 
thick of Earth & about 7 feet high, that they began to be scarce 
of Provision but Expected a Supply in the Fall from the Ilionois 
Country, in the Spring, they Expected 2000 Beaves and a 
Number of Men to D'Troit, but for what purpose he cannot tell, 
but he is of Opinion that if the French be able to send any Troops 
against the English this Spring, that Numbers of the Indians 
over the Lakes will Join them. 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. This intelligence was 
transmitted by Johnson to Gage, and by the latter to Amherst, as per the 
communications mentioned in footnote 1, ante, p. 131. 

Seven Years' War 137 

That about the 20 th . Dec r . there came a Messenger from 
Fort D'Troit to where the Indians were hunting on this side 
of the Lake with an Account that S r . Will™. Johnson had sent a 
Summons to the Commanding Officer to know whether he would 
Surrender up the Fort, or fight for it, that the Commanding 
Officer returnd for Answer, that he would fight for it as long as 
he was able, then the Messenger told the Indians that the Gov- 
ernour of Fort D'Troit, desir'd that all the Indians on this side 
of the Lake might repair to Fort D'Troit as early in the Spring 
as possible, whenever the Ice would Permit Battoes to pass in 
the Lake. 
S r . The above I rec d . since I wrote my Letter 



Pits Borough Janry. 26 th . 1 760 

The Intelligence of one 
Charles Power who has been 
long a Pris r . among y e . Indians 


Contemporary Copy 2 

Fort Johnson 16 Feby. 1760 
Sir Copy 

My time having been much taken up with the Reports of Con- 
ferences between the Six Nations & the French Indians particu- 
larly the Cagnawagas, Conesedagos, Swegachys &c that had I 
Attempted to Answer yours of y e . 7 th . of last Dec r . before, I 
shoud not have had the Satisfaction of telling you how favourable 
all Negociations with the Indians have been this way: I had 
several Meetings myself with the Chippeways & Missisagos 
before I left Niagara when they gave me the strongest Assurances 

1 In Johnson's hand. 

2 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Cadwallader Collection. 

138 Sir William Johnson Papers 

of their Attachment to the English, and since that the Command- 
ing Officer and Interpreters at Niagara inform me that the 
Chippeways Missisagos &c are come in to confirm the peace 
with us, and have given Belts in most solemn Testimony: the 
Cagnawagas Conessedagos, Swegachys Squegonoghsoonos &c 
have done the Same, to y e . 5 Nations there is also an Indian 
returned f m . Detroit to Niagara as the Interpreter writes me, who 
has brought a Belt from the Wawsoghtenhoeks to Desire Peace; 
the Commanding Officer there told the Indian that he had not 
heard of Quebecks being [taken] 1 in the hands of the English, 
which if he had, he said, he himself would be obiigd to Surrender, 
the Wawsaghtonhooks are to be at Niagara next Spring to ratify 
in a formal manner what they have requested by that Belt — I am 
extreamly pleased with your whole Management this last Cam- 
paign, & doubt not but as you always have, you will continue 
to Exert yourself in your Station: notwithstanding our Indian 
interest has a more prosperous Appearance than ever, I am of 
your Opinion, not meerly from y e . Intelligence you have, but 
from my own observation & knowledge of the Country, that the 
French f m . Detroit with a few ill-disposed Indians may interrupt 
the Convoys w th . provisions to your Post, & thereby distress that 
Garrison if not Seasonably prevented by your being qualified to 
give presents to & treat with those you may Suspect will act 
against Us, and by your keeping good Scouts towards Presque 
Isle & along Lake Erie/ for these reasons I think it adviseable that 
you immediately acquaint General Amherst with said Intelligence 
if you have no aready done it, and Address him in the same 
manner you did Gen 1 . Stanwix, as in that Letter (a Copy of 
which I receivd) you mentioned all the Requisites necessary 
for your carrying that busieness into Execution, which you are 
Employ'd in as my Deputy — By this time you have heard of 
Gov r . Lyttleton's 2 Treaty w ,h . y e . Cherokees which has given 
peace to the Southward : Our Success this Campaign has wonder- 
fully alter'd the Conduct of all Indians & did I beleive somewhat 

1 Crossed out in the manuscript. 

2 William Henry Lyttelton, goverror of South Carolina, 1 755-62. 

Seven Years' War 139 

contribute to facilitate that Peace & may disappoint the Designs 
of any Emisaries of the Enemy who may be now among the 
Indians, provided we do not relax but keep up our Indian interest 
by every Method which you have hinted very properly in said 
Letter to Gen 1 . Stanwix — I have now dispatched Cap*. Montour 1 
with this Letter & he has my Orders to join & Assist you at your 
Post or wherever else it may be thought necessary for the King's 
Service : Your Stay there & the continuance of the War is some- 
what uncertain & as you already recommended Cap ls . Trent 2 
and M c .Kee 3 to Gen 1 . Stanwix, if he approves of them I dont 
doubt but he has mention'd them to Gen 1 . Amherst from whom 
you are sensible all Commissions or Warrants of that kind must 
come: should the General require my Opinion I shoud give it 
agreable to y e . Exigency & y r . Request. 

I have at your Desire, order'd M r . Francis Wade 4 of Phila- 
delphia to Answer y r . Draught for £ 200 SterK & I wish you well 
as do all at my house & am y r . humble 


W M . Johnson 
To George Croghan Esq r . 

as Cap 1 . Montour has been present at most of the Meetings which 
have been held since he has been here, I refer you to him for 
particulars — 


Sir William Johnson 
Leter Dated 1 6 th . Feb?. 
Received June 1 4 th . 1 760- 

1 Captain Henry (Andrew) Montour. 

2 Captain William Trent. 

3 Captain Thomas McKee. 

4 A Philadelphia merchant with whom Johnson dealt extensively. 

140 Sir William Johnson Papers 


March y. 3 d . 1760 
M R . Vroman/ 

I cant help wondering at your behaviour to the Indians, Setting 
them up to have provisions from you & everry thing they want, 
which would put the Crown to a fine Expence. these things I 
will never put up with, as I am Intrusted by the King I will see 
Justice done him. the Indians complained lately to me that You, 
or y r . Son bought Lands from them, which are the only Lands 
they have now to occupy. I must look into that affair, as well as 
many more of that kind, haveing received orders lately from his 
Majesty in Council for that purpose. I hope you have done 
nothing wrong, or may hurt you. I am 


Y r . Humble Serv* 
W M . Johnson 


Contemporary) Copy 

Fort Stanrvix 24 th . April 1760 
Honoured Sir 

This day came two Indians from Onieda, & bring the following 
Acco*. Viz*., That ten days ago, left Swegatchy one of their 
Nation, who was sent by the Onondagas to envite the Swegatchy s 
Indians home, who refused to hear him, untill the french Officer 
was present, They then desired him to Speak, which he did, but 
before he had done, the Officer desired him to hold his Tongue, 
& said his Children should not rise, & walked backward & for- 
ward all the time, and said when my Children were at your 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 In William L. Clements Library, Gage papers ; enclosed in Johnson 
to Gage, April 27, 1 760, post p. 142. 

Seven Years' War 141 

castle last winter, they no sooner left You ; but you run to S r . W m . 
Johnson with the news that passed there, they said, look at me! 
(I am not Dead yet) in a great passion, and said you are the 
people that took Niagara from me, as the English could not 
have taken it, if you had not assisted.-therefore I am very angry 
with the Six Nations in my heart, and you shall see what it is to 
fight, this summer; the English had a great number of Troops 
come over last Spring, and we have more come this Spring and 
are daily acomeing, and in forty days you will see part of them, 
but the main body will soon follow. — 

Children I gave you some time ago a small hatchet to keep in 
your bosom, & desired you to make use of it against any Body 
that might oppose you, but you have made use of it against myself; 
So, I desire you will return it very soon, as I am very angry and 
this is all I have to say at pres*. 

After this the Indians had a meeting without the french, they 
then said they would not come home at all, and said the Ottawawas 
were angry, and had a meeting at De Troit, and said they would 
call the five Nations to have a meeting with them, and then serve 
them, as they did them at Niagara, and the Garrison of Niagara 
they would surprize by comeing to trade and treat with the 
Commanding Officer; and at Swegatchy they were making 
Battoes padles &c — 

ColR Massey 1 on hearing this, desired me to take a party of 
Indians & go on a Scout along Swegatchy road, which I shall 
do tomorrow, but have but two old Indians here, this is all I hear, 
but expect to hear this more particular when Tagewara comes, 
which is the Indians name that has been at Swegatchy, I should 
be glad to know whether I am to send Indians A Scouting from 
this, or not. ColR Massey gives broad hints that he thinks it Neces- 
sary, but will not give me Orders to send them and as the Indians 
will not go without the same pay they had last Spring, I dont 

1 Lt. Col. Eyre Massey, of the 46th regiment. 

142 Sir William Johnson Papers 

know how to behave. — I shall write you when I hear from the 
Indian himself in the Meantime am 

Hon* S'. 

Your Dutifull Servant 

John Butler 

Col°. Massey tells me 
that Col°. Haldiman is making 
preparations & Expects to be attacked 
very Soon 


Cap 1 . Butler's Letter to 

S r . W m . Johnson w th . Ind n . Report 

P. Stanwix 24 th . April 1 760 


Fort Johnson 27 ih . April 1760 
Dear Sir/ 

The inclosed is coppy of a letter 2 I received about an hour ago 
from Capt n . Butler at Fort Stanwix, which I thought my Duty 
to Send You, I find by what passed between the Officer at 
La Gallete, & the Six Nation Indian, that the French still con- 
tinue their old custom of puffing, and threatning, w h . I think 
at present ill becomes them. I have sent orders to all my officers 
at the Posts to get our Partys of Indians to Canada, and La 

1 In William L. Clements Library, Gage papers. 

2 Captain John Butler to Johnson, April 24, 1 760, ante, p. 1 40. 

Seven Years' War 143 

Gallete for Intelligence, & Prisoners &c a . I am sorry to be so 
troublesome to You at present but cannot help it. 

I am 
Dear Sir 
Your most Obedient, most 
Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 
The Honr ble . 
Brigd r . Genr l . Gage 


S'. W». Johnson 27*. Ap 1 . 1 760. 

Contemporary Copy, Signed 1 

Fort Johnson 7 lh . May 1760 

Two Messengers from the Onondaga Nation arrived here 
yesterday with a Belt of Wampum, sent as they say by the whole 
Confederacy, to acquaint me of the Threats of the French and 
to beg that they may by all means be supplied with Arms & 
Amunition wherewith to defend themselves against any Attempts 
the French or their Indians may make which they say they expect 
they will in 1 7 days from this Date as the Caghnawaga Indians 
told them so at Oswego. 
•%, It is very wrong to suffer Caghnawageys or any other nation 
who are our Enemys to come to, and return from Oswego or any 
other of our Posts unmolested, much more so to trade there as 
I hear they have done. — 

I hope you were not privy to this, it would be very unbecoming 
an Officer, to admit of any such thing as it is giving the Enemy 
the greatest advantages Imaginable as by that means they may 
have constant Intelligence of every motion of ours; 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39; enclosed in Johnson to 
Amherst, May 27, 1760, Johnson Papers 3:253. 

144 Sir William Johnson Papers 

If any should come there for the future to your knowledge, 
it is your Duty to acquaint the Commanding Officer of that Post 
with it, which I expect you will do — 

As I do not think it prudent or necessary to give them amunit n . 
here at pres 1 . I have put them off by giving them this Letter to 
You & telling them that if any attempt was likely to be made 
against them, or us that Way, that You would on proper applica- 
tion made get them Amunition from the Commanding Officer 
of that Fort, who I am sure on such an occasion would readily 
do it. 

I am about sending a Battoe with Goods & Amunition in two 
or three days for the use of the Indians who may come upon 
Business to that Post; the same for Niagara, so that the Com- 
manding Officer may occasionally make them Presents as is 
expected. — You will always give him your Opinion who are the 
people or Persons most worthy of such, I mean of the foreign 
Indians, & also the most deserving of the five Nations. — 

You will when this is delivered to you, assure the Indians that 
whenever there is any attempt made upon any of their people 
by the Enemy, that they will be supplied w th . sufficient Amunition 
at that Post & Niagara, and that we will not suffer the french, 
or any other nation, to fall upon, or destroy any Nation of 
Indians who may, or will be our Friends, and join his Majestys 
Arms. — 

I wish you well &c 

W M . Johnson 

To Capt n . John Lotteridge 1 

P S I hope you have before this 
been able to send out Partys for Pris s . 
or Intelligence. — if not pray do it 
Imediately. — 


In Johnson's hand. 

Seven Years' War 145 


Letter to Cap*. Lotteradge 

May 7« h . 1 760 — 

Enclosed in S r . W m . Johnsons of 27 th . d°. 


Contemporary Copy 

Niagara 8 th . May 1760 

Since my last an Indian arriv'd from the Chippeways, who 
informs that the French are very busie in building a Fort at 
Detroit, and that a good Many French Ind s . were arriv'd there 
from the Mississipi, and that some Cannon was likewise arrivd at 
that place fr m . the Mississipi — 

When the Chief Warrior of the Missisagos returns, I shall not 
fail to Acquaint you of y e Material Occurrances ; — Inclosed 
you have a Return of the Provisions, Ammunition & Rum given 
to the Ind s . at this place in the month of April; by which you 
will see the quantity of each Specie — 

Six Canoes of Missisagos came here last Night to Trade, they 
bring no News — Coll. Eyre's 3 just now told me that the Smith 
cannot be spared to do any thing for the Indians, He had ordered 
me to give two pipe Tomohawks, One to the Chief Warrior of 
the Missisagos, another to the Indian who brought a little Girl, 
which I borow'd of Levi the Sutler, and since I cannot get them 
made I must pay for them. I am 

Sir &c 

Henry Nellis 


1 In Johnson's hand, except the last line. 

2 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39 ; enclosed in Johnson to 
Amherst, May 18, 1760, Johnson Papers, 3:242. 

3 Lt. Col. Will Eyre of 44th regiment. 

146 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Copy of a Letter from M r . Henry 
Nellis to Sir William Johnson 

Niagara 8*. May 1 760 
Enclosed in S r : Williams of 1 8'. d°. 

Contemporary Copy 1 
Extract of Capt. Lottridges Letter dated Oswego 1 0, May 1 760 

"Since my Last there have been from Oswegachy two Canoes 
who say the french Vessells are rigged, the third almost finished 
which was very large, but few People there, in great Want of 
Provisions ; — they likewise inform that the French are gone to 
attack Quebec, which is the Reason of so few at the above place. 
This agrees with what the different Parties of Indians have 
Informed us with this Winter. — 

The Swegachies behaved extreamly well when they were here, 
and are much taken with their Usage at this Post, they also say 
they were all in our Interest, and never give ear to any thing the 
French may recommend to them. 

Just now arrived some Battoes from Niagara they saw one 
of the French Vessells on their Passage thither, but none on 
their Return. — 

The Mohawk is now in this Harbour and in fine Order, but 
in great Want of Seamen She is to sail the 1 6 th . Ins 1 , for Niagara. 


Extract of a Letter from Cap 1 . Lotteridge 
to S r . William Johnson 

Oswego 10*. May 1760 
Enclosed in S r . Williams of 20 l . d°. 

1 In Public Record Office, W.O. 34, Vol. 39. 

Seven Years' War 147 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Albany ll l K May 1760.— 

I Arrived here on the 8 th . And as I should be glad to Converse 
with You, on the Affairs of the ensueing Campaign, relative to 
Your Department, I propose to meet You at Schenectady, Where 
I shall be glad to See You, tomorrow in the forenoon, and to 
Assure You, that I am, 


Your most obed 1 . Hble Serv 1 . 

Jeffery Amherst 

Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 . 


A.L.S. 2 

Fort Johnson May 14 th . 1760 


There are some Indians there about You, who belong to the 
Mohawks, and were left among y e . Chenundadies formerly, One 
Aria a Mohawk Young Ind n . wanted much to go for them, 
but I stopped him, as I wanted him to go this way with y e . Army, 
and promised them I would write you about them. I should be 
glad if you could prevail on Said Indians to come to their freinds 
here at the Mohawks, but would not have you be at any Expense 
or great trouble about them, as, after this Campaign is over, they 
may go and fetch them themselves, this is Just to gratify the Ind s . 
here at present. I have sent my Packet for You by the Post, as I 
thought it the safest way, & I beleive as expeditious, this goes by 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Cadwallader Collection. 

148 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Johnny Montour. 1 — this Day Sett of three Ottawawaes from 
near Detroit, from my House with ten Ondagaes and a White 
Man for the River S l . Laurence below Swegatchy. where they 
expect to cut of some of y e . French Convoys, this will induce 
[some] 2 many to go out now against Canada, and will thereby 
distress the Enemy more than a Small Army. I have Sent Six 
days ago 2 partys from Fort Stanwix for a Prisoner, which I 
expect back in a few Days. Our Heavy Cannon begun to move 
yesterday to Schenectady, so that I belive the greatest affair will 
be up this way. 

I am S r . 

Your hearty welwisher 
& Humble Servant 
W M . Johnson 
George Croghan Esq r . 


L.5. 3 

Fort Johnson 1 4 th . Map. 1760. 

I had heard of Cap 1 . Montour's loosing all my Dispatches 4 for 
Pitsburgh ; Gen 1 . Stanwix having mentioned it at New York to M r . 
Shuckburgh my Secretary, with this Addition, that as the Gen 1 , 
pass'd thro' Carlisle, He found Montour detaind there for a 
Tavern Debt, which was paid by M r . Sinclair, by Order of the 
General, and so qualified him to proceed on his Journey. — You 
have herewith a Copy inclos'd of what he was to bring, and what 
will be more Satisfactory to you (in Answer to yours 'p Express 

1 Son of Capt. Henry (Andrew) Montour. 

2 Crossed out in manuscript. 

3 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Cadwallader Collection. 

4 See Johnson to Croghan, Feb. 1 6, 1 760, ante p. 137, which by its in- 
dorsement was received June 14. Apparently a copy of that letter was 
enclosed with this. 

Seven Years' War 149 

of 22 d . April) 'That upon my Acquainting his Excell c J\ Gen 1 . 
Amherst of your Scituation, from the want of Goods to present the 
Indians, on certain Exigencies, He told Me that he would write 
immediately to Brigadier Gen 1 . Monkton who is to command 
your Way, to Buy and take with him a sufficient Assortment of 
Goods for that Purpose : and as for what you have issued att your 
own Risque," He says You shall certainly be paid. — I only 
gave Aaron the Mohawk a meer Pass to on his own business to 
Pitsburg, without the least instruction even Verbal to Negotiate 
any for the Publick; Nevertheless I don't disapprove of your 
sending him to Detroit, as possibly he may gain intelligence of the 
Enemy's Scituation & their Connections with the Indians there 
& abroad if He & his Associates are discreet. — You'll find In- 
velop'd with this a Copy of my Orders to Cap 1 . Montour, which 
you will deliver to him, as the Original I suppose is lost, having 
heard that when he left Carlisle, He had no Papers with him, 
but his Pass to Pitsburg. — I think it unnecessary to give you 
any farther Instructions, not doubting but the same Conduct in 
the Busieness you are intrusted with, that Recommended you to 
take Notice of Gen 1 . Stanwix, will entitle you to the same from 
Gen 1 . Monkton, 1 to whom doubtless Gen 1 . Stanwix will recom- 
mend you, as it gave me the greatest Pleasure to hear that Gen 1 . 
Stanwix and Major Gates 2 had spoke in such high Commenda- 
tion of your behaviour and Management of the Indians in that 
Quarter. — I know by Experience the Service you are engaged 
in, must be very disagreeable and troublesome however I woud 
have you do as I intend to do myself, which is to continue it as 
long as the War lasts, for I woud not upon any Ace*, have the 
Service suffer, tho it will not lay at your Door if not properly 
Supply'd or Enabled to prevent it. The Operations of this Cam- 
paign are not yet public; I yesterday mett Gen 1 . Amherst at 
Schenectady when I took the Opportunity of Talking to him on 

1 Col. Robert Monckton, of 17th Foot; a brigadier under Wolfe at 
Quebec, he became a Maj. Gen., Feb. 20, 1761, and governor of New 
York, 1761. 

2 Capt. Horatio Gates, commissioned a Major, April 24, 1 762. 

150 Sir William Johnson Papers 

y r . Affairs, as before mentioned, at the same time gave him my 
Opinion of the Necessity there is for keeping the Indians in 
general in good Temper, & particularly those who live around 
you, and but lately come into our Interest — I am in hopes We 
shall be able to bring a greater Number of Indians into the field 
this Campaign than ever was known; all I am uneasy about is 
at our being so late — I think this Summer must make us Masters 
of America, We mis'd it last Winter I think in not reducing 
Missisipi, which I am certain is not very difficult to be done from 
all the Acc ts . I have had — All Friends here are well & desire 
their Compliments to You 

I am Sir with all Sincerity 
Y r . real Wellwisher 
& humble Servant. 

W M . Johnson 

George Croghan Esq r . 

P. S. 

I wrote by Montour to you 
for the Seeds of some curious Trees 
that grow along the Ohio & ab*. Scioto 
the names of which I now forget 
Montour can tell you what they are, 
I shall be obliged to you for any Seeds 
we have not here. — 

P. S. 

Three Mississagoes are just arriv'd here at my House, I have 
not heard yet what they are come about, as I have no Interpreter, 
I suppose they are come as friends & Sent with some Messages 
of Peace — 


W.J- 1 

if you receive any Intelligence of Moment from Detroit, or else- 

Initials and following postscript in Johnson's hand, also the address. 

Seven Years' War 1 5 1 

where by Aron &ca, or by any other means, let me know it by 
express thro the Nations, & by the way of Oswego. — 


Sir W: J : Leter Date d . 1 4 th . May 
Received 14 th . June 


Contemporary Copy 1 

[Fort Stanwix, May 17th. 1760.] 
Hon d S*. 

This Moment returned Tacawosary & & party that Left this 
in order to go to Oswegatchy, & Says that they mett Pacawara, 
who turned them back, & said that the french Army were on 
their March to attack Oswego, part had already past Oswegatchy, 
and says that the French told him that they had retaken Quebec 
Last Month, this is all I hear [w]orth [ ] 2 outing I have 

reported the above to Coll°. Massey 

The Above is an Extract of a letter from Capt n . Jn° 
Butler Dated Fort Stanwix May 1 7 th . 1 760. 


Extract of a Letter from Capt. Buttler 
to S r . William Johnson. 
Fort Stanwix 1 7*. May 1 760 
Enclosed in Sir Williams of 20 l . d°. 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39 ; enclosed in Johnson to 
Amherst, May 20, 1760, Johnson Papers, 3:243. 

2 Word illegible in manuscript. 

152 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Extract of Col°. Haldimands Letter dated 

Fort Ontario I9 lh . May 1760. 

Mons r . Herring m'a communique une Lettre que vous lui 
ecriviez en Mars & qu'il n'a regue que le 15 e . de May 

Le Cap 1 . Lottridge me fit voir aussi une Lettre qu'il avoit recue 
le 1 4 e . le Facon dont vous vous y exprimes M'engagea a empecher 
que les Indiens d'Oswegachy ne fissent aucun Commerce icy, 
je le leur fit dire par le Sachem d'Onondagua, et je projettois 
meme de les faire Areter. Lorsque le Cap*. Lottridge vint m'avertir 
que les autres Indiens qui etoint icy paroissoint fort mecontent 
que cette Affair pour oit avoir de Suittes facheuses &ca. je cms 
devoir prendre l'Avis de quelques Officiers sur le Sujet, je vous 
envoye Mons r . la Copie de L'Extraits que je fait parvenir au 
General Gage, en lui demandant les Ordres. 

Je vous prie aussi de donner des Instructions positives a Lot- 
tridge au Sujet des presents que vous destines pour les Indiens 
et sur la Facon dont il doit traitter ceux d'Oswegachy il vous 
ecrit fort au long a ce Sujet. 


Extract of a Letter from Col. Haldimand 
to S r . W m . Johnson. 
Fort Ontario 2 19*. May 1760 
Enclosed in S r . Williams of 27*. d°. 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39 ; enclosed in Johnson to 
Amherst, May 27, 1 760, see Johnson Papers, 3:253. 

2 The fort on the east bank of the river, at Oswego, N. Y. 

Seven Years' War 153 


Extract of Col°. Haldimands Letter dated 

Fort Ontario 19 ih . May 1760. 

Mr. Herring has communicated to me a letter which you 
wrote him in March, and which he did not receive until the 1 5th 
of May. 

Captain Lotteridge also showed me a letter which he had 
received on the 14th. The way in which you expressed yourself 
led me to prevent the Indians of Oswegatchy from carrying on 
any trade here. I also had the Sachem of the Onondagas tell 
them that I even intended to have them arrested. When Captain 
Lotteridge came to warn me that the other Indians who were 
here seemed very much dissatisfied, and that this affair might 
have unfortunate consequences, etc., I thought it proper to take 
the advice of some officers in this matter. I am sending you, Sir, 
a copy of the extract which I sent to General Gage asking him 
for his orders. 

I also beg you to give definite instructions to Lotteridge on the 
subjects of the presents which you intend to give to the Indians 
and on the way he is to treat those of Oswegatchy. He is writ- 
ing you at length on this subject. 


Extract of a Letter from Col Haldimand 
to S r . W m . Johnson. 
Fort Ontario 18*. May 1760. 
Enclosed in S r . Williams of 27*. d°. 

154 Sir IVilliam Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Albany 25 lh . May 1760 — 

William Phillips a Ranger in Major Roger's 2 Corps having 
passed through here in his way home, Which I am told is near 
Your house; I must beg the favor of You if he should not be 
with You upon receipt hereof as is likely, that You would Send 
to his place of Abode, of Where thereabouts You think he may 
be, and to Direct him to Set out immediately to come to me 
here. — 

I am, with great regard, 

Jeff: Amherst 

P.S. he passed here a few days Since & told me, he was going 
to Your House, he is much recommended to me and I intend 
to give him a Commission. — 

J. A. 


Sir W m . Johnson Bar* 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 Robert Rogers of the Rangers. 

Seven Years' War 1 55 

Contemporary Copy 1 

Albany 27 lh . May 1760 

I am obliged to You for having Sent to Phillips 2 and for Your 
promise of Ordering him down here, on his Arrival with You. — 

With regard to the Oil Cloaths 3 You mention, I believe You 
will recollect, What I told You at Schenectady, concerning 
them, Which was, that I had Experienced Such a Waste of them, 
and Scarce ever Saw them employed in the Services, they were 
really intended for, that I had resolved to Save the great Expence, 
they Stood in to the Crown, and not to Order any this Campaign ; 
I shall however enquire of the D.Q.M.G. if there are any in 
Store, if there are, and You will let me know the Numbers, 
You may want, they shall be forwarded to M r . Vanslyke. — 
Betteaus shall be provided for You so Soon as I know the Number 
You have Occasion for; and the Cloathing Arms & Stores for 
the Indians, Shall be taken up the River in the best and safest 
way we can. — 

As the Senecas are greatly distressed for Indian Corn & pork 
and that You promised to relieve them, I think it is but right 
you Should do so; besides as You observe When they find, that 
their families are provided for, they will the more readily & 
Chearfully Join us; Wherefore if You will be so good as to let 
me know from what post on the Mohawk River, it will be most 
easy and Convenient to Supply them, with that Article, and 
that You inform me what Quantity, in which we must be as 
Sparing as we can, You Shall want, I will Send an order for it 
to be Issued to You with the Batteaus, You desire for that use. — 

I am, with great regard, 
Sir &ca. 
Sir W m . Johnson Baronet. 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 William Phillips. See Amherst to Johnson, May 25, 1 760, ante p. 1 54. 

3 See Johnson to Amherst, May 26, 1760, Johnson Papers, 3:252. 

156 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Albany 28 th . May 1760. 10 A.M. 

I am this Moment favored with Your Letter of Yesterday, 
with an Extract of a Letter 2 from CoR Haldimand to You of 
the 19 th . Instant; the Copy of an opinion 3 of Some of the Officers 
at his post ; And a Transcript of Your Letter 4 to Cap 1 . Lotteridge 
of the 7 th . of this Month. The opinion I transmitted You myself 
Yesterday, & informed You that Col°. Haldimand was desirous 
of receiving positive Instructions, how to Act for the future with 
the Indians, for Which I have referred him to You, as being An 
Affair within Your Department, and on Which You would best 
know how to decide, Which I think You have very Judiciously 
done, in Your letter to Cap 1 . Lotteridge; Whereupon I have 
only to add, that Such of the french Indians as chuse to come & 
live among us May be received altho' they might decline Joining 
His Majesty's Arms; All I require of these is to remain quiet 
and not to go to and fro with Intelligence, as from the Moment 
they do this, they can be no longer looked upon as friends, & 
consequently must be treated as Enemies. — 

I am to Send a Dozen of Horses & Some Waggons to Niagara ; 
and as I think the best post to Send them from is Fort Herch- 
heimer, I should be glad, if You are of the Same Opinion, that 
You would procure me Some Indians to take charge of them, 
as it will not be practicable for any of our people to do it; And 
as this must suffer no delay, I Shall be obliged to You, if You 
will inform me, Whether You can do it, and how soon. — 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. An extract is printed 
in Johnson Papers 3:254. 

2 See Haldimand to Johnson, Extract, May 19, 1760, ante p. 152-3. 

3 For the opinion of officers, see Examinations Concerning Trade, for 
May 17, 1760, Johnson Papers, 3:238. 

4 See ante p. 143. 

Seven Years' War 157 

The Horses will be quite light, having nothing but their Halters 
to Carry with them; the Waggons shall go by another route. 
Phillips is just Arrived. 

I am, with great regard 


Sir W m . Johnson Bar 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Albany 29 th . May 1760 — 

As I have Ordered the Garrison of Niagara, to be relieved 
from Pittsburgh, for Which Purpose I am now Sending a Number 
of Whaleboats, to the former of those posts, to be taken across 
the Carrying place & Launched into Lake Erie to fetch said 
relief at Presqu'Isle, 2 I should be glad, that You would procure 
me, a Couple of good Pilots, that know that Lake & Presqu'Isle 
well, and that You would immediately Send them for that pur- 
pose to Col°. Haldimand at Oswego, Who has my orders con- 
cerning the Same; but as it will be prudent not to Mention this 
intended Service to the people Whom You may Employ upon 
this Occasion; I beg You will only tell them, that they are Sent 
to Guide an Officer, Ordered from Oswego to Presqu'Isle. — 

I am, with great regard, 

Sir W m . Johnson Bar*. 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 Now Erie, Pa. 

158 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Albany 29 l K May 1760 

Your Letter of Yesterday reached me just before Dinner; 
You shall have the Twelve good Large & tight Batteaus You 
desire, for the Transportation of the Cloathing, Stores, &ca, for 
the Use of the Indians; as also the Oil Cloaths to Save them from 
the Weather; but with regard to the Batteaumen, as You say 
they should be purely destined for that Service, and ought to 
Continue the Campaign, in order to prevent any Losses that 
might happen from Changing hands, Every now and then; I 
think it will be best that You Appoint those People Yourself, 
as from Your knowledge of them, You will better know what 
Dependence You can make on them. 

As Oswego is the properest Post to Issue the Pork 2 from, 
for the Senecas, I shall Direct that You may have the Thirty 
Barrells, You desire, there; but I must Observe to You, that from 
the Orders I have sent thither, in Consequence of what I Wrote 
You this Morning, that Quantity cannot possibly be Spared 
from thence at present: it will however not be long first, as I am 
getting a Large Quantity up there, as fast as I can; the four 
Batteaus & Covering You Ask for these provisions, shall like- 
wise be found You, 

I am not better provided with Tents this Year than I was the 
last ; so that I can only, as I did then, let You have some Horse- 
men's Tents. 

I am, with great Regard, 

Sir William Johnson Bar 1 . 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 See Amherst to Johnson, May 27, 1760, ante, p. 155. 

Seven Years' War 1 59 


Fort Johnson May 29 th . 1760 

I received your Excellencys favour of Yesterday, and have 
dispatched Coll: Haldimans Express with the best directions I 
could give to regulate himself by with such french Indians as 
may come to Oswego. I sent him an extract of your Excellency's 
letter as far as it relates to his conduct, with those Indians. — his 
own prudence must in a great measure guide him in any exigency. 

I immediately on receipt of yours, took a ride and employed 
three verry good Men to take the twelve horses to Niagra, two 
of them are farmers Sons who have lived severall years among 
the Senecas, the other, is a Mohawk Indian, they are ready any 
time to take them from Fort Harkemer. I was oblidged to prom- 
ise them a Dollar each f^ Day, which is the hire all People 
get here now from Suttlers Traders &ca. 

I am 

most respectfully 

Your Excellencys most Obed'. 

& most Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 

His Excellency 

Major Genr l . Amherst 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

160 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Fort Johnson 31 st . May 1760 

I am Just now honoured with yours of this Day, and shall 
order the three men (who were with me today to know when 
they were to go) to set out tomorrow for Fort Harkemer, & then 
receive the Horses for Niagara, I will give them proper Instruc- 
tions, & Passports to carry them thro the Indian Country. — 

The French Indian whom I mentioned to your Excellency 
in a former letter, & who brought his Prisoner the Ranger here, 
I find proposed to come no farther than Osswego, & there to 
deliver him but was prevailed upon by Col : Haldiman & Capt n . 
Lotteradge to come thus far, he has been since down to Schenec- 
tady to visit one Newkirk of that place, who was some years a 
Prisoner in his House, & sent home about a year ago with this 
Indians Sister, who came with her Brother now purely to see 
Said Newkirk whom she calls her Son & is verry fond of, I have 
talked a great deal with him, he is verry open & I believe candid 
in his acc u . He says the Indians are in general heartily tired of 
the War, as well as the French that but verry few of them 
Joined the Army going to Quebec last Month, notwithstanding 
they were greatly importuned by the Governour & Preists. He 
says likewise that the French expect a great Number of forreign, 
or verry distant Indians the latter end of next Month, or begin- 
ning of July, who are to come down the Ottawawae, or great 
River which discharges itself into the River S l . Laurence near 
Montreal, that the[p] French told him they had great, and daily 
hopes of a great Number of French & Spannish Vessels to come 
up the River to their releif. provisions tollerably plenty tho verry 
dear, but all kind of Merchandize prodigiously scar[c]e, and the 
price exorbitant. He was told several times last winter by Officers 
& others, that an attempt would be made to recover Quebec as 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

Seven Years' War 161 

early in the spring as possible as their last effort, in which if they 
should not Succeed, they all said, it would be in vain to make 
any further opposition against the English, he says Gov r . Vau- 
druile is dispised by all the Soldiery for his behaviour at Quebec 
last Year. — I had a great deal of chat with this Indian, altho 
or Service to me, it is not worth troubleing or takeing up your 
Excellencys time with. I hope to be able to make some good 
use of him. — I fear I shall not be able at this time to get many 
Battoemen hereabouts, the Suttlers, Traders &ca haveing at 
monstrous prices engaged the most of them. I shall however do 
all I can to get some, as soon as I have your Excellencys Orders 
for that purpose, which I beleive will be necessary, as well as 
to know what I am to allow them *p Day. — 

I am with all respect imaginable 
Your Excellencys 
Most Obedient, and 
Most Humble Servant. 

W M . Johnson 

His Excellency 

Major Genr l . Amherst 

indorsed : 

Sir W m . Johnson 

Fort Johnson 31 st . May 1760 

R. 1 st : June 

Ans d . 2 d . d°. 

162 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Albany 31 st . May 1760 

Last Night, I was favored with Yours of the 29 th . ; 2 immedi- 
ately Whereupon, I gave Direction to Colonel Bradstreet, 3 to 
forward the Waggons & Horses intended for Niagara; the first 
to Oswego, the latter to Fort Herkheimer, 4 Where the three men, 
You have been so good as to procure, and for Which I thank 
You, will find them ready to proceed with, or they must wait 
at Fort Herkheimer till the horses Arrive there, and they Shall 
each be Allowed the dollar *p day You mention. You will be 
so good to give them Such a pass to go through the Indian Castles, 
as You Judge necessary. 

I am obliged to You for the Instructions You have sent to 
Colonel Haldimand, for regulating himself with Such of the 
French Indians, as may come to Oswego, in Which certainly 
his prudence, must in a great Measure guide him in any Ex- 
igency. — 

I am, with great regard, 

Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 . 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 Ante p. 159. 

3 Col. John Bradstreet, 40th regiment. 

4 Fort Herkimer. 

Seven Years' War 1 63 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Albany 2 d . June 1760 

I am much obliged to You for the Information contained in 
Your Letter of the 3 1 sf . Ultimo, 2 imparted to You by the French 
Indian that brought in the Ranger; And I Must own, I readily 
believe his Assertion of the Indians, being in General, heartily 
tired of the War; nor do I doubt, that the french, in Order to 
Induce them to remain in their Interest, have fed their hopes 
with a Speedy Junction of a large Number of foreign & very 
distant Indians, & the Arrival of Considerable relief from Europe, 
as well in Spanish as french bottoms; but, on the other hand, I 
imagine it is before this pretty Evident, that their Succours from 
Europe are out of Question, & with regard to their foreign, & 
distant Indians (by Which I suppose they mean those from the 
Southward) they need not neither have any dependence on; 
As I have desired Brig r . Gen 1 . Monckton to let those Indians 
know that he intends to March against the Detroit, and that if 
they Join him or remain neuter, that their Women & Children 
Shall have no Sort of hurt done to them, but Shall be Protected 
& Assisted ; So that I have reason to think they will not venture 
in an Hostile Manner against us, so far from home. — provisions 
I cannot Suppose to be so plenty; but admitting they were it is 
morally certain, it cannot be for any considerable time, and 
without any fresh Supplies from Europe, they must undoubtedly 
be Short in that Article before long; and of course the latter 
part of his information, that if they did not Succeed in their last 
Efforts against Quebec, it would be in vain to Make any further 
Opposition against the English, Must Sometime this Summer 
be verified. — 

I am hopefull, that You will prove more Successfull than You 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 Not found. 

164 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Apprehend in Your Endeavors, to obtain the Number of Batteau 
Men, You may want, as I cannot Encourage You to Expect 
any of the Troops for that Service; as I observed in my former, 
were I to grant You the Number You may have Occasion for, 
You could not be able to rely on their Sufficient care to prevent 
any imbezzlement, or that they would Execute the Service in 
Such Manner, as would be most agreable to the Indians Which 
I would wish Should be done; You must therefore get those 
You may want, and that at as reasonable a rate as possible, as I 
cannot fix You an Settled price for their labor 'p day Since 
perhaps You might not be able to get them for Such a price, & 
Consequently the Service might be retarded by it, to prevent 
Which You will do for the best. — 

I Enclose You Some intelligence I received from Crown Point, 
brought by two Indians, Who pretended to have made their 
Escape; the real truth is, and Which has been found out Since, 
that these people came out with a party of Nine others, with a 
design to take a Prisoner, but finding an Opportunity to make 
an Escape they did ; and fearing to own the truth, least they might 
meet with Some rebuke, they did not disclose the Whole, by 
Which Means the Canoe & the rest of the party escaped, except 
one Who discovered the truth & is now at Crown Point; they 
were Sent down to me, and as I did not think it prudent to trust 
them, I Yesterday Ship'd them for New York, in order to be 
Sent from thence to Cranbury in the Jerseys, & Newberry in the 
Massachusetts bay, their respective homes. 

I am, with great regard, 

Sir W M . Johnson Bar 1 . 

Seven Years' Wai 165 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Albany 3 d . June 1760 

Since my Letter of Yesterday, Which goes enclosed the third 
person therein mentioned to have come into Crown Point, is 
Arrived here ; his name is Jonathan 2 he is a White Man, belong- 
ing to New England, & was taken When he was only four Years 
old, he is now Nineteen, has ever Since been Mostly at S l . Francis, 
and Sometimes at Montreal, always among the Indians, Whose 
Language alone he Speaks well, for he has almost forgot his 
English, & Acquired but little French: As this Young Man from 
his long continuance in Canada, & among the Indians, may afford 
You Some Intelligence, that may prove usefull to You; I send 
him to You under the care of a Man of the Royal Highlanders 
for Your Examination, And when You have done with him, 
and that You tell me I may trust him, I will Send him to Serve 
with Rogers, Who is desirous of having him, and he himself 
wants to go with the Major; he says many of the Indians are 
gone to the Missisippi, but You will hear all he knows of it. 

I am, with great regard, 
Sir W m . Johnson Bar*. 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 See Amherst to Johnson, June 4, 1 760 post p. 1 66. 

166 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Fort Johnson 4 ih . June 1760 

Since I wrote your Excellency this morning, by one of our 
People who made his escape from Detroit, I am honoured with 
yours of the 2 d . & 3 d . Ins 1 ., together with the intelligence of the 
two Indians, for which I am much obliged to your Excellency as 
also for the opertunity allowed me of examineing the New England 
Lad 2 who resided so long among the Abanakis, or S'. Francis 
Indians 3 . — on enquiry find he knows little or nothing of their 
disposition, or connection, or, of any of the rest of the Indians. — 
I take the liberty to send Your Excellency the information he 
gave me, as it differs from that of the two Indians to your Ex- 
cellency, on telling him, his account did not agree with that of 
the two Indians, he answered, that if they told otherwise than 
he did, they did not tell the truth, affirming that what he related, 
was what he had seen & heard at Montreal before his departure. — 
Severall letters arriveing here for Your Excellency from the 
upper Posts before I had finished examineing the New England 
Man, and, as I would not detain the dispatches a moment, I sent 
them by the Soldier who brought up the Said Man, and will send 
him to morrow by Water, in some of the returning Boats. He 
does not appear to me a fellow of any design, he may make a 
good Ranger, as he says he is a good Hunter. — I will try my 
utmost to get as many Battoemen as possible, and on as reason- 
able terms as I can, but am certain I shall not be able to find in 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

2 Jonathan, alias Martin. See Amherst to Johnson, June 3, 1 760. 
Ante p. 165, and also Indian Intelligence, June4, 1760, post p. 167. 

3 A small Indian village on the St. Francis River, near its junction with 
the St. Lawrence River. The village was entirely destroyed, and its in- 
habitants killed or scattered by a small force under Major Robert Rogers, 
in the fall of 1 759. 

Seven Years' War 167 

these parts half the Number wanted, were any of the Indian 
Officers at Home, I would send them down the Country below 
Albany, where I believe some Men might be got. but they are 
all on service at the Several Posts. — I am most respectfully 

Your Excellencys 
Most Obedient, and 
Most Humble Servant 

\V M . Johnson 

His Excellency 

Major Genr l . Amherst 

P.S. Capt n . Lotteradge is gone on a Scout 
from Osswego with 16 Indians in order 
to get a Prisoner, they sett of the 3 1 st . Ult°. — 
I expect the return of some other Partys 
every day. — 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Fort Johnson 4 th . June 1760 
Information of Johnathan, alias Martin, lately f m . Canada 

Who Says he was taken Prisoner by the Abenaquis Indians, 
when he was but 4 years old, in New England. — That he has 
been with them ever since, till he went out with a Party of those 
Indians & 2 French Men, with 2 Ind s . (who were taken by the 
French at Fort William Henry) who took on with the French 
&c to go together & get a Prisoner from the English at Crown 
Point or thereabouts. — 

That He & the 2 Ind s . formerly belonging to Us, not being 
inclin'd to proceed; went off in the Night, while the rest of the 
Party were Sleeping — That He left Montreal 17 Days agoe 
this Day — That He Saw in Montreal several English Officers, 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39, enclosed in Johnson to 
Amherst, June 4, 1 760, ante p. 1 66. 

168 Sir William Johnson Papers 

he says about twenty, & about 100 private Men all Prisoners, 
many of whom were Highlanders: The Report was, that 700 
of the English were Slain & three hundred taken Pris nrs ., near 
Quebeck — That the Enemy were yet making their Approaches, 
& Mons r . Levi 1 sent word to Gov. Vaudreuil, that he Expected 
to be in Quebeck in 4 Days 

That the French had lost at this time 800 Men — That many 
Women were in Tears at Montreal ; — That M. Bourlamarque 
was dangerously wounded in that affair — That Mons r . Bougain- 
ville commands att Isle de Nois, 2 with 500 Regular Troops — It 
was said in case Mons r . Levi was repuls'd, that he was to return 
up the Country, & Defend the Passes on the Frontiers at Isle 
de Nois &c — There were various Reports of an English Fleet, 
& also of a French Fleet, but no certainty of the Arrival of 
either : — that Ammunition was scarce, as most of it was at 
Quebeck, when it was taken, Provisions very scarce, no Pork 
at all, Salt 300 Livres *p Bushell, very little Merchandize, & 
Excessive dear — That it was difficult to fit out Partys, for want 
of Provisions : — To their Ind n . Partizans, they gave only a little 
Meal, a pair of Leggins, a Cloth to cover their Nakedness, & 
some Ammunition — 

That some Indians were withdrawn to Misilmakinac, as the 
French could not Support them & most of them were to retreat 
that Way, if the French could not keep the Country — , 

He says, that when Mons r . Levi was moving towards Quebeck, 
he gather'd the whole Posse or Arriere Ban of the Country, to 
the Amount of twenty thousands five hundred Men, with whom 
he Proceeded — 

N. B. After a more narrow Examination of the abovementioned 
Person, it was found, that He & the 2 Frenchmen remain'd in 
the Canoe, about 3 Leag s . on this Side Isle de Nois, while the 
Remainder of the Party w th . y e 2 Ind. (who afterwards came 

1 Francois de Levis-Leran. 

2 Isle aux Nois in the Richelieu River (outlet of Lake Champlain) , 
south of Fort St. Johns. 

Seven Years' War 169 

off) went on the Scout towards Crown Point, & when they came 
to a convenient distance, the aforementioned 2 Ind s . were de- 
tach'd, by the Party, to reconnoitre the Coast, to see if any Boats 
were on the Lake or any Partys out f m . Crown Point, & they not 
returning, by the time they were Expected, the Party were 
afraid & it being then Night ran back till morning, then lay by 
in the Day time, but continued to run in the Night till they 
reach'd their Canoe, when they told what had happen'd; & all 
agreed to put off early the next Morning, being afraid lest y e 2 
Ind s . who were gone off would Occasion a more formidable 
Party f m . Crown Point to pursue them, Hereupon this Person 
(who says as he had sometime before determin'd to go & look 
for his friends where he was born) took this Opportunity that 
very Night After their Consternation, to Slip off while they 
Slept — 


The information of Jonathan an 
New England Lad returnd from Canada 
where he had been numbers of Years 
a Captive, taken down at 
Fort Johnson, 4 f . June 1 760 

Inclosed in S r . W m . Johnson's of same day 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Albany 6 th . June 1760.— 

I am much Obliged to You, for the Orders You have Sent 
to the two Indian Officers at Niagara to procure a Couple of 
good Pilots, and to Decouagne, 2 to Accompany them; this will 
not only ensure a good Pilotage, but likewise prevent any Differ- 
ences, that might Arise between our People and the Indians, 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 Jean Baptiste de Couagne, interpreter at Niagara, 

1 70 Sir William Johnson Papers 

for want of Understanding each other. — I likewise thank You 
for having left open Your Letter to the Officers, by Which Means 
Col°. Haldimand will be Apprised of the Pilots being procured 
at Niagara. 

In return for the Exact 1 of M r . de Couagnes Letter, I en- 
close You one, out of a Letter I Yesterday received from Lieut. 
Colonel Eyre, by Which You will See his reception & treatment 
of the Indians therein mentioned Which is quite Conformable 
to my Intentions & Instructions; has met with by Approbation, 
and doubt not, but it will equally Meet with Yours. 

I have also received Letters of the 1 st . & 2 d . from Colonel 
Haldimand, informing me that Cap 1 . Lotteridge had been out 
with Sixteen Indians, but that at 40 Miles from that Post, having 
met with a party of ... . Indians they after Some talk by Mutual 
Consent parted, And Ours returned back to Fort Ontario; All 
Which I Suppose Cap 1 . Lotteridge has informed You of. — 

Colonel Haldimand adds, What the Oswegatchy Indians told 
Ours, of which I Send You likewise a Copy Whereby You will 
See his Apprehensions of these Discourses, intimmidating our 
Indians, & that he expects the Onnondagas would in a few days, 
come & ask him for Ammunition, Whereupon he desires orders. 
I imagine he must not have Seen Your Letter of the 7 th . May to 
Cap 1 . Lotteridge, Which was certainly very full and express; 
Wherefore I have again referred him to it, adding that I thought 
it was time enough to give them Amunition, but however, that I 
should inform You of What he mentions. 

The Connecticutt Troops are dropping in daily; The Jerseys 
& Yorkers are almost all come; the Massachusetts I hope will 
not tarry ; So Soon as there is a Sufficiency of the Whole I shall 
Collect & forward them, Meanwhile they are employed in Trans- 
porting provisions to the Frontiers, Which takes up a Vast Num- 
ber of hands and a great deal of time ; I shall inform You in time 
of my Motions, that you may be prepared to Join us with Your 
Indians, Whenever there will be Occasion for them. 

1 See Johnson to Amherst, June 4, 1760, Johnson Papers, 3:258. 

Seven Years' War 1 7 1 

Collingwood, and one of the other two, have agreed to go 
with the Army; from the Character L l . Col°. Eyre gives the 
first, I fancy he will prove very usefull. — 

Since writing the above, I am favored with Your Other Letter 
of the 4 th . 1 Covering the Information of Jonathan, (Who is 
returned) Which differs a little from that of the other two, but 
yet, I am Apt to believe his may be the Sooner Depended on: 
As he is a good Hunter, & Appears to You a fellow without 
design, I shall send him to Join Rogers. — 

I am, with great regard, 
&ca. — 
Sir William Johnson Bar*. 


A. L. S. 2 

Fort Johnson June 10 lh . 5 PM, [1760] 

This Moment received a letter from Capt n . J n . Butler with 
the following Account. "Yesterday returned Lieu 1 . Francis 3 w th . 
four of his party, who have been lost, I refer You to himself for 
further particulars. This day returned George M c . Micking who 
met with Tawangatha within half a mile of Swegatchy and told 
them as follows. — That the French were returned from Quebec 
where they were repulsed with a great loss of Men, Cannon &ca. 
& Six Ships, four laden with provision, the others with amunition, 
they were taken by two of our Ships and a Frigate, soon after 
arrived eight more, who oblidged them to raise the seige. — 

They say that 12 Mohicanders were out in order to take 
Prisoners, or Scalps on the Mohawk River, and that a French 
Officer from Detroit was at Swegatchy, who said that the Indians 

1 Ante p. 166. 

2 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

3 Lieut. Turbot Francis, of the 44th regiment. 

1 12 Sir William Johnson Papers 

(meaning Detroit) that way, were still in their Interest, and 
that Numbers of them were gone to Canada." 

This is the Substance of his letter w h . seemed wrote in a hurry, 
when M c . Micking arrives, I shall learn more, and transmit it 
to Y r . Excellency without loss of time, the fellow Mentioned 
to have met M c . Micking near La Gallet, is the Head man of 
the Swegatchy Indians, originally an Onondaga, who promised 
me verry well last Autumn while at Osswego, M c . Micking is a 
young lad I sent out with a party of Indians from here Some 
time ago., 

I am with all respect 
Your Excellencys 
Most Obedient, 
and most Humble Serv*. 
. T . ~ .. W M . Johnson 

His Excellency 

Major Genr l . Amherst 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Albany 12 ih . June 1760. 

Early Yesterday morning, I was favored with Your Letter 
of the 1 th , brought by M r . Claus, Who having Still Some busi- 
ness to transact for You Here, I take the Opportunity of M r . 
Schuckburg, Who is returning to You to thank You for the 
Intelligence You have been pleased to Communicate to me, Which 
I am the more willing to Credit, as that part of the Shipping 
agrees perfectly with the Accounts I had had of two Ships of 
War, and a Frigate having been Sent from England, besides 
the Eight Other Ships of Lord Colvill's Squadron, All Which 
the Indians could not guess; And it is more than Probable that 
the Sight of this Fleet, added to the Enemy's Succours having 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

Seven Years' War 1 73 

been Intercepted and taken would Make them raise the Siege 
of Quebec : On the other hand, I cannot Credit Some of the par- 
ticulars contained in the Information Since received from L 1 . Col°. 
Massey, 1 viz 1 , of the Enemy having lost 5000 Men, nor can I 
Account for What is there Said, of our Second in Command 
having been taken Prisoner, in an Advanced Bastion, unless 
Governor Murray 2 had time to Intrench himself on the Heights: 
Otherwise this must be Colonel Young that was taken on the 28 th . 
April. 3 

L l . Colonel Massey, likewise mentions the Twelve Mohi- 
canders, after Whom he has sent out a good party either to Over- 
take or waylay them, and in Which he thinks they will prove 
Successfull; if they do, it will certainly put an end to all those 
Scalping parties, and make the Communication very Safe. 

I have this day, agreable to my former Letter Ordered the 
Commissary of Artillery to deliver to M r . Claus Ten Horsemen's 
Tents, Which is the Same Number You had last Year, and they 
are the largest & best that are in the Stores. — 

I am with great regard, 
&ca. — 
Sir W m . Johnson Baronet 

1 Lieutenant Colonel Eyre Massey, of 46th regiment. 

2 James Murray, governor of Canada. 

3 At Ste-Foy. See Johnson Papers, 3 :244. 

1 74 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A.L.S. 1 

Fort Pitt June p e . 30 th . 1760- 
Hon d . Sir 

Inclos d . I Send you y e . Last Intilegance I Received from Fort 
Detroat as to y e . March of a body of Trupes from Misasipey to 
attack this place I Can hardly think itt I blive they only Report itt 
in order to putt the Indian Nations into Confusion & keep up the 
Druping Sperietts of Such Indians as they May yett have any 
Influence over tho itt is very Likely they May have Some Trupes 
Coming to Fort Detroat to Inable them to Defend y e . plaice against 
us as they Expect to be attackt this Sumer Either from Nigara or 

Gineral Mongton ARive d . hear yesterday and Inform* 3 . Me 
he Intended to Send Some Trupes to Preskeel 2 Soon part of which 
is to Relive the garison att Nigara So that I propose to go with 
them and Take as Many Indians with Me As will be Nesesery 
for that Service and if I hear any thing Worth y r . Notice I will 
Send you an Express from there I am Honour d . Sir y r . Most 

Humble Sarvant 

1 In the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Cadwallader Collection. 

2 Presque Isle, present day Erie, Pa. 

Seven Years' War 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Oswego, Aug. 5, 1760 

Return of the Men, Women & Children of the Six Nations of 
Indians, under the Command of Sir William Johnson, Bar'. 
At Oswego, August 5 th . 1 760 






Oneidas. . , 








Ma was. 



The Belt party 

Battoe Men , 

John Butler, Capt. 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

I 76 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

50 Pieces of Red Stroud. 

18 D° of Brown. 

15 D° of Blue. 

29 Coarse Shirts. 

1 6 Small Pieces of Canvas. 

7 Small Pieces of Shalloon. 

A Coat and two Bed Gowns. 

161 Pieces of Gartering & Tape. 

3 Dozen of Combs. 

2 Dozen of Knives. 

A Quantity of Rings & thimbles. 

9 Bear Skins. 

1 Buffaloe's D°. 

64 Drest Deer Skins. 

Camp at Fort W m . Augustus 
27 ih . August 1760 

I have given a Copy of the above List to S r . W m . Johnson, and 
he will Send the Chief of the Indians with the Indian Officers to 
keep good Order, to morrow Morning at Nine o'Clock to the Fort; 
Pray be so good to deliver the above Stores to the Indian Officers 
that they may be distributed amongst them, with Which they must 
be Content, & not Permitted to take any the least thing, that is 
not given to them, it will Please them to let them See the Fort, 
but they must be Obedient to Orders. — 

I have Ordered the 1 2 p". Which were in the Will m . Jon. Brig 
to be Landed for the Use of the Fort and ten of the 4 p rs . to be 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

Seven Years War 1 77 

Shipped on board the Brig; the Commissary of Artillery will 
Apply to You Accordingly. 

I am, 

Your most Obed*. Servant 
Jeff: Amherst 


to L T . Colonel Massy 


Contemporary Copy 1 
Camp at Fort William Augustus, 2 30 ih . Aug 31 . J 760. 

Dear Sir 

I Send You with this a Translation of the Letter I received 
last Night, by which You will See the Temper and Disposition of 
the Enemys Indians. With this Intelligence, and the Talk You 
will have from their Sachems, You will be best able to Judge what 
will be the most likely means to hinder the Indians from Joining 
the Enemy, in which Case, they may be Assured of being permitted 
to Live in Peace and Quiet, and of receiving all the protection, 
they can desire. I am, with great Truth, 

Dear Sir, 

Your most Obedient Servant 
Jeff: Amherst 

Sir William Johnson, Baronet 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 Formerly Fort Levis on Isle Royale, known also as Oracontenon. In 
the St. Lawrence River, it is three miles below the present city of Ogdens- 
burg. Late in 1 760, Amherst, on his way to Montreal, captured the island 
and renamed it Fort William Augustus. 

1 78 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Head Quarters la Pointe de Boudet 3 d . SepV. 1760. 
Dear Sir, 

I am Just now Informed, there is an English Prisoner at 
Asquesashna, 2 A young Lad, if this is the Case I beg the favor 
of You to Send One of Your Officers to demand this Prisoner, or 
any Other of the Kings Subjects they may have, as I by no means 
Intend to leave any Subject of the Brittish Crown, in the hands of 
any of the Enemy's Indians ; the Indians May be Assured of all the 
protection I can give them, and that I will not permit any one to 
molest them; but the Kings Subjects Wherever I find them either 
in French or Indian hands, I design to release. 

I am, 

Dear Sir, 
Sir William Johnson Bar 1 . 

Si. .L,.d . 

Fort Pitt Sep*. 6 lh . 1760 
Hon d . Sir 

Inclos d . I Send you a Copey of y e . Late Conferance Held hear 
with a Number of y e . Westren Nations for y r . perruseal. I Can 
AShure you with Truth that Dureing y e . Time they were AS- 
emble d . hear they behave d . well & kept Very Sober Nott with- 
standing y e . Greatt Temtations they had from the greatt quantitys 
of Luquer hear after y e . busriess was over & they had Received 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 Aughquisasne, an Indian village of St. Regis. 

3 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Cadwallader Collection. 

Seven Years' War 1 79 

thire presents y e . Gineral was Ginerouss ANouff to order them 
a Sufficent quantity of Rum to Make y e . whole Drunk fer Some 
Days and while they were Drunk they behav ed . with So Much 
Sivelety to Every person as was Sufficent to Convence Me they 
were Sinceer in all thire promises & well plesed with thire 
Renewall of frendshipe with his Majestys Subjects 

My Last to y r . honour was from Presqu Isle where I went with 
y e .Trupes to Take post there Sence that we have Taken post att 
Vanango 1 I had Nott Time to Aquaint y e . Several Nations before 
we Marcht of itt. butt as Soon as I gott there I Sent an Indian to 
aquaint them, of w h . they have Sence upbreaded Me between 
Jest & Earnest Saying I tuck a very good Method to first Make 
a Road Throw thire Cuntry and then Aquaint them I was going to 
Do itt. Butt I am Convence d . Now we Tuck y e . best Method 
for had we Weated Till y e . Conferance we Should have Meet 
with Some Dificultty Butt Now the Poasts are Taken and y e . 
Communication open & Safe we have Nott had a Singel horse 
Stolen on that Comunication Sence itt was open d . 

Every thing is quiett in this quarter att present tho the Enemy 
has att Least 1 200 Men att Detroat they have hosted of thier going 
to Retake Niagara this fall Butt I rather think they are ASembled 
there from y e . Elionios Cuntry to Defend y e . plaice Against any 
attempts we Might Make there 

we have Some Account hear of A paice or Aliance between 
England Prusiae & france Butt I hope this May Reach you in 
Posision of Monreal before you Receive any Acounts of itt 
should y e . Acounts prove True I wish you a Successfull Campain 
and am with Greatt Esteem & Regard y r . Honours 

Most Obeident and 
Humble Servant 

Geo. Croghan 

To the Honourable 

Sir William Johnson Bar 1 . 

1 Fort Venango, Fort Machault, on Allegheny River near French Creek, 
Western Pennsylvania. 


Sir William Johnson Papers 



Contemporary Copy 1 

September 13 th . 1760 

a Return of such Indians as proceeded with the Army under 
the Command of His Excellency General Amherst, from Fort 
William Augustus to Montreal. 

Thigh resa 














































1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

Seven Years' War 





Arosa. alias Silverheels 



and the Belts 

2 Nephews 




























































Sir William Johnson Papers 

Seghskyeghte Seghse, 





































M49: Indians 












1 Beginning second page of the record. 

Seven Years' War 



2. Nephews. 


















10. Aughquisasne 






in a 


The Number of those that left us after the 
Surrender of Fort Levi at our Embarkation for 
Montreal are as follows. — 
The Chieftains & heads of each party being 
mentioned, viz 1 . 


Philip Cayenquiregoas Son & party 11 


Skanondoa, Tayorheare & party 15 

Canaghrageayat, Onowak & party 13 

Nicolasa Thawayagearat & party 14 

184 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Kaghswangaroro, Karondawago 

Tyoughquawago and party 23 

Kaghraquatha of Canaghs 1 . & party 16 


Canodok, Tekantskaranet & party 20 

Saristageghto Kaghnighsyengo & ca 25 

Caroughyazigoa Tsyonahady & p? 15 

Otsino & party 7 

Canatsyagaye & party 14 

Skaronyade, Tagoughsa & party 11 

Assarundunguas & party 23 


Tekyaderowane, Yenahonke & p? 21 

Ohio, Yowetho and party 13 

Tsyohees, Tyoghyonko & party 12 

Kadaheha and party 9 

Ottowanino and party 27 

Canadeniyo, Caneghdai & p? 31 

Ethoweghko, Tayoheare & p? 11 


Takeghsados, Onoghsokto & party 32 

Tyokenhasa and party 11 



Tsoharis and party 17 

Tekadoreghse and party 19 

Seven Years' War 185 

Caneghsonko & p? 9 

Taghnatsiowane and p? 1 * 

Canadaragey Indians 14 

Atwanaickho Cayenquaraghto & py 10 

Tyoghsweghdao and party 15 

Sodyanont and party 8 

Cap 1 . Harris of y e . Toderighronos & py 7 

Skanyadaradighronos 13 

Those who proceeded to Montreal 185 

W M . Johnson Coll . 


Contemporary Copy 

du Camp de Montreal ce 1 6 Sep re . 1760 

Vos deux Lettres de hier viennent de m'etre rendues dans le Mo- 
ment; Elles me font d'autant plus de plaisir, qu'Elles ne respirent 
que des Sentiments dont il seroit a Souhaiter, que tous let Nouveaux 
Sujets du Roy fussent Inspires; Et Je veut bien Croire qu'ils sont 
Sinceres de Votre part. Par Contre Vous pouvez Compter sur 
toute la protection qui vous a ete promise, tant par ma precedente 
Lettre, que par M. Le Ch er . Johnson de ma part; laquelle Je 
Vous renouvelle avec des Assurances que tant que Vous Con- 
tinuerai dispose a Vous rendre Utile au Roy &aSa Domination, 
Vous en Jouirai paisiblement. Et Comme par les Termes de la 
Capitulation II Vous est permis de Sejourner dans le pais, M. 
Vaudreuil, ni personne de sa part, n'a droit de Vous en faire 
Sortir; Et Cela d'autant plus que Je Vous donne la permission 
d'y rester et de Continuer ou Vous etes. 

1 Figure illegible. 

2 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. Enclosed in Amherst 
to Johnson, Sept. 20, 1760, post p. 187. 

186 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Lorsque Votre Commodite Vous le permettra Vous feres bien 
de Vous rendre a Montreal pour donner au Lieutenant du Roy, 
toutes les Lumieres dont Vous Vous dites muni. Vous en seres 
bien receu, vu qu'il sera prevenu de Votre Mission. 

A l'egard de ce que Vous paroisses apprehender d'une partie 
des Abenakis, cela ne m'etonne pas; Je suit plus que persuade 
que leur Attachement pour l'Anglois ne provient que de ce qu'ils 
craignet leur force Superieure; mais n'importe par quelle raison, 
tant qu'ils se comporterent comme lis le doivent, lis ne seront 
point; quand ils semanciperont & Secarteront de ce 
devoir, Je S^aurai les en punir, quand bien meme ils r'entreroient 
Sous la Domination francoise et qu'ils fussent appuies de Cette 

Je ne dois pas non plus manquer de Vous accuser la reception 
de Votre Autre lettre, Vous assurant en meme terns que Je Suis, 
Monsieur, Votre tres humble et tres Obeissant Serviteur. 

M. RoUBAUD, Missionaire des Abenakis ~ 
la Compagnie de Jesus au Saut S l . Louis 


The Camp at Montreal, Sept. 16, 1760. 
Your two letters of yesterday have this moment been received. 
They give me more than pleasure in that they express nothing 
but such sentiments with which it is to be desired that the new 
subjects of the king should be inspired and I am ready to believe 
that they are sincere on your part. On your part you can count 
on the protection that has been promised to you both in my 
preceding letter and by Sir [William] Johnson on my account, 
which I hereby renew with assurances that as long as you continue 
disposed to make yourself useful to the King and his dominion, you 
will peacefully enjoy this protection. And whereas by the terms 
of the capitulation you were permitted to sojourn in the country 
neither Mr. Vaudreuil nor anyone on his part has the right to 
eject you, and this the more so as I give you permission to con- 
tinue to stay where you are. 

Seven Years' War 187 

As soon as your convenience permits you will do well to go to 
Montreal to give to the lieutenant governor all the information 
which you say you possess. You will be well received by him 
because he will be already informed of your mission. 

As to what you seem to fear from some of the Abenakis, I am 
not surprised. I am more than persuaded that their attachment 
for the English proceeds only from the fact that they fear their 
superior force; but no matter what the reason, so long as they 
behave as they should, they will not be disturbed; if they free 
themselves and depart from their duty I shall know how to punish 
them, even if they should return to French rule and be supported 
by the French. 

I must not fail to acknowledge the receipt of your other letter, 
assuring you at the same time Sir that I am at the same time your 
very humble and very obedient servant. 

[M.] Roubaud, missionary of the Abenakis 
of the Company of Jesus at the falls of St. Louis 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Camp of Montreal 20 ih . Sep r . 1760.— 
Dear Sir, 

I Send An Officer 2 with a party to take Boats to Gunnesadago 3 
for our Prisoners; he has at the Same time a Letter 4 for the Priest 
as You desired. — 

The Gun Powder Which You mention to give the Indians, 
Shall be furnished to them from the Nearest Posts to them, When 
they Arrive at their homes ; they can't want any in going as they 
will receive Provisions on their Route, and the less Ammunition 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 See Amherst's order of Sept. 20, 1 760 post p. 1 88. 

3 Canassadaga. 

4 See Amherst to Roubaud, Sept. 16, 1760, ante p. 185. 

188 Sir William Johnson Papers 

they have, the More regular they will be, of Which I hope, the 
Officers Who Conduct them will have due Care. — 

I am, with great truth, 
Dear Sir, 

Your most Obedient 
Humble Servant 
Jeff: Amherst 


SR w M . Johnson Bar 1 


Copy 1 

Head Quarters Camp of Montreal 20 th Sep r . 1760. 

The Officer of the 44 th . Regiment, Ordered with a Party to 
repair to Ganushsadagey, 2 to fetch the King's Subjects Prisoners 
with the Indians of that Village, will immediately go to Sir Wil- 
liam Johnson, Who will give him an Indian officer to Accompany 
him, and directly thereafter he will, with Said Indian Officer and 
Party, proceed to Ganushsadagey aforesaid, Where on his Arrival 
he will deliver the Letter herewith to the Priest (if he Should not 
be with Sir William Johnson) Who will be aiding & Assisting 
to him, in the recovery of Said Prisoners ; And When he has thus 
received them, he will return with & Conduct them to this 
Camp. — 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 Canassadaga, an Indian village near Montreal. 

Seven Years' War 189 


A. Df. S. 1 

Montreal 27 lh . Oct'. 1760. 

Agreable to your Orders to me I hereby enclose you a copy 
of my Journal from the Day of your Departure from hence to 
the above Date, and altho it contains some things which not im- 
mediately concern Ind n . Matters, yet I would not omit them, 
imagining they might perhaps be of Curiosity to you. You will 
likewise find, that a few days pass't by since I am here, but I had 
some Business with, or Visit from the Ind ns . of difR Nat s . and 
those never without something to ask, which made them so far 
disagreeable to me as all Indians now a Days are an Eyesore to 
everyone about the General, tho not so much with himself, at the 
same time you will find Sir by my Journal that he is under Re- 
strictions with Regard of granting them anything they ask for, 
and I must make use of all my Eloquence to put them off and 
then they go to M r . Le Corn's 2 or Joncairs 3 who are glad to hear 
of such Complaints, and make proper Use of it, and by what I 
can foresee this will be nothing to what Visits & ca . I shall have at 
their Return from hunting. The Inhabitants seeing themselves 
free from their former Yoke are disregarding the Indians and 
wont let them come into their houses so that they often come to 
me for Lodging and Victuals the former I am Obliged to refuse 
them having but a small Room and put them off with a little 
Money to buy themselves Bread, the paper money w ch . some 
of them have being of no Value which they regret much. We 
happen to be quartered at a Merchant or rather Ind n . Traders 
house which was ruined by Captures at Sea during this War and 
consequently not overstocked with Necessaries to keep in a 

1 In Canadian Archives, Claus Papers, Vol. 1, 1716-1777, M. 104, 
p. 10. 

2 La Come St. Luc, Luc de Chapt de, at Montreal. 

3 Chabert de Joncaire, interpreter. 

190 Sir William Johnson Papers 

middling house, and we find that boarding is rather more ex- 
pensive than the Tavern, being obliged to buy what fresh Prov s . 
& ca . we want ourselves, and by what I find the People want to 
be paid besides. The Woman told me lately that two French 
Officers boarded with them and besides their Rations of Prov s . 
paid her 8 Livers apiece p r . Day. The Scarcity of Necessaries 
these People lived in for some Years passt and the Plenty of 
Paper Money among them made them ask such extravagant 
Prices for every thing and now the Eagerness of getting Silver 
keeps up the Price with them and the only way to mortify them 
is to have nothing to do with them till they come too me. Best 
the Sadler keeps as good a House as any Tavern in Albany & 
almost as cheap to which most all Officers resort to except some 
few who happened to be quartered upon genteel able People who 
invite them to their Table. — 

As You was so kind Sir as to tell me when you ordered me 
to remain here, that I should be allowed handsomly for the Service 
I should be employed in, So whatever you please Sir to allow 
me I shall gratefully accept, with no other view than to spend it 
becoming the Station You pleased to appoint me to. — 

There are only few vessels arrived from Quebec since Your 
Departure, laden mostly with Salt & Claret. The former is sold 
@ 2 Doll". p r . Bush 1 as fast as it comes, and Liquors & Dry 
Goods keep their former high Prices, and no Likelyhood of any 
Alteration this winter. I can almost foresee that I'll be obliged 
to hire a house towards Spring, the one I am in at present being 
too inconvenient for the Business I shall have to do in that Season, 
besides I think it disgrace to the Service to keep Meetings in such 
a Corner as I am in. 

D r . Oglivie 1 has been here these 4 Days and has only now 
got a Lodging with all the Difficulty imaginable. 

I have been asked by several of the Merchants now here how 
it would be with Respect to the Ind n . Trade. I told them I could 
say nothing ab l . that till I heard from you. 

1 Reverend Dr. John Ogilvie, formerly rector of St. Peter's Church, 
Albany, who later went to Canada. 







CO *=« 

I— I M 


<! QQ 

O c 










Seven Years' War 191 

Gen 1 . Gage has granted a Pass to Hans Leger of Albany to 
trade at Caneghsadagey with dry Goods only, he asked me if 
I knew him, I told him no more than that he was one of those petit 
Traders w ch . seldom dealt honestly and only would be a disgrace 
to us, he said he believed it and would give him a strict charge 
that if he in the least misbehaved he should suffer accordingly. — 

M rs . Gage catched cold on her Journey, she is w lh . Child. 

I understand there are more Capt s . to sell out in our Reg 1 . I 
wonder if Gen 1 . Amherst will think of me, if not, I shall instead 
of gaining, loose a step or more as I hear an Officer of ours younger 
than me intends to purchase. I cant think of any other Reason 
the Gen 1 , has for neglecting me than the Disregard he has for 
the Service I am in, w ch . is very discouraging and has since given 
me Thoughts of selling out and quit the Army, however in this 
as well as in every other Respect I entirely submit myself to your 
Advice & Direction and remain with the utmost Respect 


Your most Obedient and 

most humble Servant 

Dan Claus 

To the Hono ble 

Sir William Johnson Bar 1 . 

PS*. M r . Peters 1 has given me in 

his Acco f . of Expences going to 

Caghawagey & leaves to you 

the Allowance of his Troubles 

but I think the former is enough. 

Col°. Haldiman has sent in some 

Acco ls . to me for Ind n . things that he 

had for them at Oswego last Winter 

I told the People I must first acquaint 

you therewith that I had no Money in hands 

for the like Accot*. 

1 James Peters. 

192 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A. L. S. 1 

London Nov'. 1-1760 

Tho' our Communication & Correspondence has been long in- 
terrupted Yet nothing will ever interrupt my Esteem & Freindship 
for You. These Sentiments, which will ever remain with me not 
to be alter'd by intreague or popular noise, have led me to take 
y e . Liberty of Mentioning your name, upon y e . Vacancy in 
NYork, as Worthy of that Gov't. I do not mention this as any 
merit towards you or from any vanity of Hopes of Success by my 
means. I have sufficient pleasure in doing y e . Act of Freindship 
& if y e . thing be agreable to You — I acquaint You that You 
may apply to L d . Halifax — 

I am Sir Your f reind & Serv 1 


Sr. W m . Johnson Bar 1 . 

Copy 2 

New York Nov 3* 1760. 
Dear Sir, 

I receiv'd the Honour of yours of the 23 rd of last month 3 with 
the greatest pleasure, as I am thereby assur'd you had not forgot 
your old Friend, after a silence for some years from our very 
different situations. Nothing in my present state can give me more 
pleasure than the hopes I have thereby of renewing that friendly 
intercourse which formerly subsisted between us & of assuring 
you of the high respect I have allways retain'd. 

1 In collection of Dr. Joseph E. Fields, Joliet, 111. 

2 Printed in Collections of the New York Historical Society, 1876, 
Colden Papers, p. 3 1 . 

3 Johnson to Cadwallader Colden, Johnson Papers, 3 :268. 

Seven Years* War 193 

I am confident you will be pleas'd when you know that a very 
great unanimity subsists in the Government whereby I hope my 
administration will be made easy to me in my old age. The As- 
sembly have resolved to give me the same support which they 
gave to the Lieu* Govern 1 " & this was done almost unanimously. 

I was formerly a useless friend, It will give me the greatest 
pleasure if I now can be of any use to you & to have many 
opportunities of convincingyou with what high esteem I am, Sir 


Df. 1 

Montreal 6 th . Nov. 1760. 

Yesterday arrived here Van Alstine with a note from M r . 
Welles wherein you desired me to assist him in getting his Child, 
I accordingly made all the Enquiry ab l . it I possibly could and 
by some Caghnawagoes who happened to be here found out 
that the Child was sold here in Town [after the taking of it to a 
Man] 2 but did not know to whom [but] and this Morning after 
enquiring for it in all the Nuneries I happened to meet w th . M r . 
Decougne that speaks English and on asking him if he knew 
of any such Child he recollected and brought Van Alstine to 
the house where it was, [r» ch . proved to be a] Sister to that priest 
that came to the Post the Ind ns . were ordered to before the Sur- 
render of the Town, he made some Difficulties. 


Van Alstine arrived here yesterday and according to your 
Desire have assisted him to get his Child tho not without a Long 
Search ab { . Town and some Difficulty of getting it. I hope my 
Packet by M r . Peters Surgeon is before now come to hand, 
[since which nothing worth Remark happened.] The Priest 3 of 

x In Canadian Archives, Claus Papers, Vol. 1, 1716-1777, M. 104. 

2 Material italicized and in brackets was crossed out in the manuscript. 

3 Roubaud. 

194 Sir William Johnson Papers 

St. Francois has been with me since and told me that this Ind n . 
had agreed to send a Pris r . with a Belt of Wamp m . to settle that 
Aff r . between them and Capt n . Jacobs but that it could not well 
be done before Spring as they could not loose the hunting Season, 
and at the same time begged for a piece of Colours towards their 
going to Albany, he likewise asked for a Smith for s d . Ind ns . I 
told him that as they were all gone hunting now there would not 
be much to do for him at the same time if they behaved well I 
knew you would have nothing again [st] a Smiths doing a few 
things for them, he said Gen 1 . Amherst ordered them amunition 
and some Prov s . at 3 Riv rs . he asked likewise for a few Blank ls . 
& Shirts for some poor old People that could not go hunting, I 
told him there were no such things [& You do not intend] in my 
care to give [an;y]ed. Nor did I know whether you intended 
to introduce such a custom, but he thought it indispensibly neces- 
sary to have a little Store of such Articles if a lasting Amity was 
intended to be cultivated & maintained with our new Friends & 
Allies as without which anyone that was the least acquainted 
with their Aff rs . knew it could not subsist firm & strong. [/ an- 
swered him also] 

I have enclosed you Gen 1 . Amhersts Order to Interp r . S l . Jean 1 
w ch . he delivered me th' other Day after taking up 9 Deserters, 
there are near 400 gone to Misilimakenac. We have a Report 
in Town that Maj r . Rogers upon demanding Detroit was attacked 
and defeated by Mons r . Belletre & the Ind ns . thereabouts, and 
that 2000 Ind ns . were assembled there to oppose any English 
Army that should pretend to come there. 

Preparations for rejoicing are make, towards next Monday 
His Maj s Birth Day 


Letter to S r . W m . Johnson 
6* Nov. 1 760 

1 St. Jean Russeau. 

Seven Years' War 195 


Contemporary) Copy 1 

Albany 8 lh . November, 1760. 

The Memorandums You have delivered me in at the Same 
time with the Accompts, I Shall try to fix in Such manner, as they 
may be agreable to Your Requests. — 

I return You the Accompt of the Batteaumen to Sign; with 
that for the Pay of the Officers, to make the alteration as Men- 
tioned at the foot thereof. — 

I am, with great Regard, 

&ca. — 
Sir W m . Johnson Bar*. 


Contemporary Copy 2 

Albany 13 th . November 1760. 

Agreable to Mine of the 8 th . Instant, 3 the Acco ts . You then 
left with me have Passed Examination, and Enclosed You will 
find the Warrants for the payment thereof, on M r . Mortier the 
D.P.M.G. viz*. 

The first, for One Thousand, Three Hundred Seventy eight 
Pounds, Sixteen Shillings & ten pence Sterling; the Ballance of 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. These paragraphs are 
the final paragraphs of Amherst to Johnson, Nov. 8, 1 760, printed in 
Johnson Papers, 3:277, which was taken from the Colonial Office files in 
the Public Record Office, and from which copy the last two paragraphs 
had been omitted. 

2 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. • 

3 Johnson Papers, 3:277-78, and ante. 

196 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Your Acco*. Current with the Crown for Disbursements incident 
to Your Department to the 5 th . November 1 760. 

The Second, for Eight hundred, Thirty Eight Pounds, Nine 
Shillings & Eleven pence Sterling ; On Account of Your Sallary, 
and the pay of the Several Officers Employed under You to the 
respective times Mentioned against each of their names in that 

And the third & Last; for Five Hundred and Seven Pounds, 
One Shilling and ten pence Sterling, for the pay of Batteaumen 
Employed during the Campaign in transporting Stores, Arms, & 
Amunition for the Use of the Indians Who Accompanied You 
to Canada. 

The whole Amounting together to Two Thousand, Seven 
Hundred Twenty four Pounds, Eight Shillings, and Seven pence 
Sterling. — 

I am, with great regard, 

Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 . 


Fort Johnson Novb r . 15 l K 1760 

I am this Instant honoured with yours 2 of the 15 th . with the 
three Warrants for y e . discharge of the Severall Accounts de- 
livered you last Week, but I must beg leave to observe to your 
Excellency that it is likewise necessary I have some money in hand 
to discharge some Accounts not yet brought to me, as well as 
for the further carrying on the Service, which you may be assured 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

2 The letter to which Johnson refers here is Amherst to Johnson, dated 
Nov. 13, 1760, ante p. 195, and not, as he erroneously states, dated 
the 15th. 

Seven Years' War 197 

Sir I shall do with all the Oeconomy that prudence & the good 
of the Service will admit of, Since I gave you my last ace". I've 
paid Severall Bills which have been due some time amt§. to ab*. 
one Hundred Pounds Currency, & I am certain there are more 
outstanding yet, which I could not possibly call in before my last 
Acc lls . were given in. these, and what unavoidable little demands 
must come upon me in y e . course of my management between this 
& Spring, will need my haveing at least five Hundred Pounds. — 
I should be glad to know what your Excellency thinks of my 
proposal, that no Traders, or pretended ones should go among 
any of the Indian Nations, or to Niagara Osswego & ca . to Trade 
with them, without a Pasport from me. — 

I am Sir 

with the highest Esteem 
Your Excellencys 
Most Obedient 
Most Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 
His Excellency 

General Amherst 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Albany 19 th . November 1760 

Your Favor of the 1 5 th . Instant did not reach Me before this 
Day at Dinner. I am glad the Warr ts . I transmitted You came 
to Your hands in due Course, as I doubt not but they will Enable 
You to Advance What further Small Expences May Necessarily 
Incurr in Your Department, between this & Spring, Which, as 
all passed, will be Allowed upon Your Charge, as I am Confident 
You would not put the Publick to any needless Expence; the 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

198 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Same reasons Shall likewise always Induce Me to Allow of Such 
further Charges, as You have not been able to bring in Your last 
Accompts, thro' reason of their not having been Demanded of 
You, prior to them. — 

I have Maturely weighed Your proposal in relation to the 
Indian Trade; the prohibiting its being Carried on without Your 
passports, I am Confident must be productive of much good, So 
long as it rests with Yourself; but how differently this measure 
may turn out, if thro' Your declining the managem*. of it here- 
after, it Should pass into other hands, I cannot Answer for; And 
as Doubtless, Whoever Should, in Such Case Succeed You, 
would from this precedent Claim the Same privilege, Which tho' 
well vested in You, might not be so in them, I cannot prevail on 
myself to grant Such a Latitude; Wherefore, And as we may 
now Expect Some Answer to the Plan of Indian Trade, Which 
You formerly Sketched out, and Which has been transmitted 
to the Ministry, I would Chuse to Wait their Decision, before I 
Determine upon the Point in Question, in Which I am Sure You 
will Join in opinion with me. — 

The Bearer of Your Letter desired the Receipt, against the 
Scurvy ; Enclosed I send You a Copy of it. — 

I am, with great regard, 

Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 . 

Contemporary Copy 1 

[Dec. 3-5, 1760] 

At a Conference Held at D'Troit By George Croghan Esquire 
Deputy Agent To the Honourable Sir William Johnson Baronet, 
His Majesty's sole Agent and Superintendant, for Indian Affairs, 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

Seven Years' War 199 

in the Northren District of North America with the Weyondotts, 

Ottawas and Putewattimies December the 3 d 

1760 — 


Major Robert Rogers Commanding His Majestys Troops 

Captain Donnald Campble 1 Governor of D'Troit. 

A Number of Officers and other Gentlemen, & several of the 

principal Inhabitants 

Captain Henry Montour Interpreter 

And several Deputys of the Nations Living on the Ohio, who 

Accompanied us. 

Brethren, Chiefs, and Warriors, of the several Nations now present 

You have been made Acquainted with the Success of His 
Majestys Troops, under the Command of Excellency General 
Amhurst; And the Reduction of all Cannada; And now you are 
Eye Witnesses to the Surrender of this place, agreable to the 
Capitulation, as I sent you Word before the arrival of His 
Majestys Troops: you see now your Fathers are become English 
Subjects you are therefore desired To look upon them as such 
and not to think them a sepparate People, And as long as you 
Adheare to His Majestys Interest and Beheave yourselves well 
to all His Subjects as Faithfull Allies; you may depend on heaving 
a free open Trade with your Brethren the English, and be pro- 
tected by His Majesty King George, now your Father and my 

A Belt 

At a Conference held with several Chiefs & Deputys of your 
several Nations at Pittsburg this Summer; you Tould me that 
all our Prisoners which has been Taken since the War, yet Re- 
maining in your Possession was then Set at Liberty to Return 
Home if they Pleased; Now I have received by Major Rogers 
the Commanding Officer here, General Amhursts & Sir William 

1 Captain Donald Campbell. 

200 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Johnson's Orders To demand due Performance of your Prom- 
ise; and desire you may forewith deliver them up, as that is the 
only way you can convince us of your Sincearity, and future 
Intentions of Living in Friendship with all his Majestys Subjects 
in the several Brittish Colonies in America. 

A Belt 


On Condition of your Performance of what has been said to 
you; I by this Belt Renew and brighten the Ancient Chain of 
Friendship between his Majestys Subjects, The six United Na- 
tions and our Brethren of the several Western Nations to the 
Sun setting and wish it may continue as long as the Sun & Moon 
give light 

A Belt 


As my Orders are to return to Pittsburg, I now Recommend 
Captain Campble to you as he is appointed by His Majestys 
Commander in Chief to be Governor of this place ; with him you 
must Transact the Publick Bussiness; and you may depend that 
He will do you all the Service in his Power, and see that Justice 
is done you in Trade. 

A Belt 

Brethren Chiefs & Warrior's 

As the Ancient Friendship that long Subsisted between our 
Ancesters is now Renewed I wash the Blood of the Earth that 
has been shed since the present War, that you may Smell the 
Sweet Virdoure of the Sprining Herb's and Bury the War 
Hatchet in the Bottomless Pitt. 

A Belt 


I Know your Warriors have all a Martial Sperit & must be 
imployed at War; And if they want diversion after the Fateague 
of Hunting, there is your Natural Enemy's the Cherokees, with 
whome you have been long at War; There your Warriors will 

Seven Years' War 201 

find diversion, & there they may go; they have no other place to 
go; as all Nations Else is become the Subjects of great Brittain. 

A Belt 

As I Command this Garrison for His Majesty King George 
I must acquaint you that all the Settlers living in this Country 
are my Masters Subjects therefore I take this Oppertunity to 
desire you, our Brethren of the several Nations ; not to Take any 
of their Effects from them by force nor Kill or Steal any of their 
Cattle as I shall look on any Insult of that kind as if done to me, 
as they are Under my Protection; I disire you Incourage your 
Young Men, to Hunt & bring their Meat to me, for which they 
shall be Paid in Powder & Lead. 

A Belt. 

Major Rogers Acquainted the Indians that He was going to 
Mischillimackinack to Releive that Garrison and desired some 
of their Young Men to go with him when he would Pay for their 
Services & that he was sending an Officer to S l Josephs, and 
Waweaughtinnoes to releive them Posts, and desired they would 
send some with him which should likewise be paid for their 

A Belt 

Then we Acquainted them by a String that as they had re- 
quested a Smith to Mend their Guns as usual and the Doctor to 
attend their Sick, that it was Granted them till the Generals 
Pleasure was Known. 

A String 

At a Meeting held in the Council House December the 4 th . 


Major Robert Rogers Commanding Officer 
Captain Donnald Campble Governor of D'Troit 

202 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A Number of other Officers & Gentlemen 
George Croghan Esquire Deputy Agent 
Captain Henry Montour Interpreter 

The same Indians 
A Principal Man of the Weyondotts Spoke and said Brethren 
we have heared & Considered what you said to us Yesterday, and 
are met this day to Return you our Answer agreable to our 

Achonnere Speaker Adressed his Speech to Major Rogers, 
Cap 1 . Campble & Myself. 


We have heard what you said to us Yesterday we are like a 
lost People as we have lost many of our principal Men, and we 
hope you will excuse us if we should make any Mistakes, but 
we assure you our Hearts are Good Towards our Brethren the 
English: When your General and Sir William Johnson took 
all Cannada the Ordered you to send us Word; we received your 
Messages, & we see by your Removing the French in the Manner 
you have from here, that what you said to us by your Messengers 
is True ; Brethren be it so ; and continue as you have begun for the 
Good of us all ; All the Indians in this Country are Allies to each 
other and as one People : that you have said to us, is very agreable 
& we hope you will continue to Strengthen the Ancient Chain 
of Friendship 

A Belt 

You desired us Yesterday to perform our Promise and deliver 
you up your Prisoners it is very True we did promise to deliver 
them up, and has since delivered up many, what would you 
have us do; there is very few here at Present they are all yours, 
& you shall have them as soon as Possible ; tho we do not choose 
to Force them that have a mind to live with us. 

A Belt 

Seven Years' War 203 


Yesterday you Renewed and brightned the Ancient Chain of 
Friendsp between our Ancesters, The six Nations, & you 
Brethren; I am Glad to hear that you our Brethren the English 
and Six Nations have Renewed and Strengthened the Ancient 
Chain of Friendship Subsisting between us, & we assure you, that 
if ever it be broak it will be on your side, and it is in your Power, 
as you are an Able People to prevent it for while this Friendship 
is preserved we shall be a Strong Body of People; & do not let 
a Small Matter make a difference between us. 

A Belt. 

You Yesterday desired us to be strong, and preserve the Chain 
of Friendship free from Rust, Brethren look on this Friendship Belt 
where we have the Six Nations and you by the Hand, this Belt 
was delivered us by our Brethren the English and Six Nations 
when first you came over the Great Water ; that we might go, and 
Pass to Trade or Council where we pleased, and you likewise 
with us, This Belt we preserve that our Children Unborne may 
know it. 


We have heard what you said Yesterday it was all Good but 
we expected Two Things more first that you would have put it 
out of the Power of the Evil Spirit to Hurt the Chain of Friend- 
ship; and secondly that you would have settled the prices of 
Goods that we might have them Cheaper from you, than we had 
from the French as you have often Told us; Brethren you have 
renewed the Old Friendship, Yesterday; the Ancient Chain is 
now become bright it is new to our Young Men and Brethren 
we now take a faster hold of it than ever we had and hope it 
may be preserved free from Rust ; to our Posterity. 

A Belt 9 Rows 

This Belt is from our Warriors in behalf of our Womin & 

204 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Children, and the desire of us to request of you to be strong & 
see that they have Goods Cheap from your Traders & not be 
Opressed as they have been by the French 

A Belt 7 Rows 

Showing Two Medels those we had from you as a Token that 
we might remember our Friendship whenever we should meet in 
the Woods & smoke under the Tree of Peace ; we preserved your 
Token & we hope you remember your Promises it was then said 
that this Country was given by God to the Indians and that you 
would preserve it for our Joint use when we first met under a 
Shade, as there was no Houses in thise Times. 
The same Speaker Adressing himself to the Six Nations 


I am very Glad to hear what our Brethren the English has said 
to us, and I now send this String by you, & take the Chiefs of the 
Six Nations by the Hand to come here to Council next Spring. 

A String. 
Brother Adressing himself [to] me. 

You have been imployed by the King of England & Sir William 
Johnson among many Nations of Indians in settling this Peace 
now you are sent here where our Council Fire is, the smoke of 
which ascends to the Skie, you are going away & all Nations to the 
Sun setting is to meet here to see their Brethren the English in 
Possession of this place & we desire you may stay here till that 
Council; that you may take your Masters Word of what will 
be Transacted here. 

A Belt. 

By this String we Request you will Consider, as it will be 
difficult for us to understand each other, it would be agreable to 
us ; if you would continue our Old Interpreter as he Understands 
our Languige well. 

A String 

Seven Years War 205 

At a Metting held in the Council House Decmber 5th 1 760 

Major Robert Rogers Commanding Officer 
Captain Donnald Campble Governor of D'Troit 
A Number of other Officers & Gentlemen 
George Croghan Esquire Deputy Agent 
Captain Henry Montour Interpreter 

The same Indians 
The principal Man of the Putiwattimies Spoke 


Yesterday Our Uncles the Weyondotts spoke to you for us all, 
do not be Surprised at it, they have more Understanding in 
Council Affairs than us, we have imployed them to speak for 
us all and Confirm what they have said by this Belt. 

A Belt 


be Strong & bring large Quantities of Goods to Supply us, and 
we will bring all our Furrs to this place we are Glad you Ac- 
quainted us, that the Inhabitants of French here are become 
Brittish Subjects, we shall look upon them as such for the future; 
& Treat them as our Brethren. 

A Belt. 


Our uncles gave us this String of Wampum and desired us to 
be Strong and Hunt for you; we should be glad to know & fix 
the price to be given for the Meat of a Dear. Then insisted 
Strongly that the Six Nation Deputys should press their Cheifs 
to attend the General Meeting to be held here in the Spring: 
By a Belt. 

The Principal Man of the Ottawas got up & made two 
Speaches to the same purpurt as above. 

Then I made the following Speech. 

206 Sir William Johnson Papers 


I return you Thanks for the several Effectionate Speeches you 
made us Yesterday: Today you applyed for your Old Inter- 
preter; it is agreed to Continue him till General Amhursts & 
Sir William Johnsons Pleasure be known you likewise desired 
I might stay here till your General Meeting in the Spring. I 
am not my own Master so you must excuse me Till I receive 
further Orders 

A Belt. 

Then the Present of Goods was delivered to each Nation in 
His Majestys Name for which they returned their Hearty Thanks. 

Then Major Roger's Spoke to them. 

I Return you Thanks for your readiniss in Joining His Majestys 
Troops under my Command on my way here ; as I shall Soon set 
out to execute my Orders and Releive the Garrison of Mischilli- 
machinack I take this Oppertunity of taking my leave of you ; and 
you may be assured, I will Acquaint General Amhurst and Sir 
William Johnson of the kind reception I have met with amongst 
your Nations & Recommend your Services. 

A Belt. 

Then the Council Fire was Couvered up & y e Conference 

A True Copy from the 
Original by Alexander M c .Kee 


Copy of Conferences held at the Detroit 

on the 3 d . december 1 760, with the Weyondott, 

Ottawas & Putuatami Indians 

Copy Enclosed to S r . W m . Johnson 1 st : February 


Seven Years' War 207 


Names of sundry Nations of Western Indians with whom the 
English became Connected after the Surrender of Canada in 1 760 

Sauteux Missisageghrono's 

Podewadamies N'Dowadeny 

Miamis Skeghquaneghrono's 

Sakee Oyadogeghrono 

Folsavoine Onatsyageghrono Menominies 

Puants Awegachywageghrons 

Renards Skeghsoghrons 

Sioux Nadoweghseghrons 

Gens de Terre Eeastiageghrons 

Hurons Wiandats Tieu'non'da'df ha'ga 





Otsiqui — 

Cristineaux — 


Contemporary Copy 

New York, 1 st - January 1761 . 

Captain Prescott Arrived here last Night from England, by 
whom I have received the most melancholy News of the Death 
of the Late King on the 24 th . October. 

His present Majesty 3 was proclaimed the next day, and the 
Parliament met on the 26 th . which You will See by the two En- 
closed Gazettes, that I Send You for Your full Information. 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

2 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

3 George III. 

208 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I Have the Satisfaction to Acquaint You that the Dispatches 
which I sent by Major Barre from Montreal, met with the King's 
most Gracious Approbation, and it gives me a particular pleasure 
that Yourself, B r . General Murray, 1 & Colonel Haviland, 2 are 
mentioned to me by M r . Pitt, in strong Terms, of the Just Sense 
His Majesty had of the Spirit and perseverance You have Exerted 
on all Occasions in His Service. 

I Enclose to You a Copy of a General Order I have this day 
given, as the Indians, who were under Your Command, are therein 
Included, and that You may make such Use thereof as You 
shall think most Conducive, not only for keeping the King's Faith- 
full Indian Allies firm in their Zeal for His Majesty's Person 
and Government, but that they may be ready to Joyn, and Act 
in Conjunction with the King's Troops against the Common 
Enemy, whenever His Majesty's Service may Require it. I am, 
with great Truth & Esteem, 

Dear Sir &ca 

Jeff Amherst 
Sir W m . Johnson, Bar*. 


A. L. S. 3 

Trenton February 2 d . J 761 
Dear Sir 

I hope my last from Philadelphia which I sent by M r . Forsey 
came safe to hand since writing which, as Cap 1 . M c Leane 4 is gone 
for England I have had trouble enough on my hands, I hope you 
and Capt. Johnson have had an agreeable winter, As for people 

1 Governor James Murray. 

2 Col. William Haviland, Comdt. 60th regiment. 

3 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

4 Capt. Allan McLean, who was court-martialed in 1 759; see Johnson 
Calendar, p. 100. 

Seven Years' War 209 

hereabouts they can more easily pass away their time tho' Slaying 1 
is a thing much wanted at present, we had it for about 1 Days 
at Philadelphia which was reckoned much longer than is usual, 
& the people were so fond of embracing the occasion that no Slay 
was hired under 30s A Day — 

Governor Ellis 2 passed thro Philadelphia lately in his way to 
Gen 1 . Amherst, and as he lodged at Francis's Brother Relfe's, I 
had an opportunity of hearing, that the cause of his Journey was 
to represent to the General the necessity of his procuring Indians 
to be sent to the Southward, he being of opinion that Regular 
troops will never be able to do any thing in that quarter, & that 
unless we can spirit up the Indians to go in numbers against 
those of Carolina we can never expect to end the war in these 
parts. And as he says the General has orders from home to consult 
with him about Southern affairs, he makes no doubt of bringing 
him over to his opinion. If so you have certainly heard from him 
on that head before now — 

Coll 1 . Bird of Virginia was married on Thursday last to Polly 
Willen, 3 he seems to be a very good natured man, who has his 
Countrys interest much at heart, but from what conversation I 
have had with him, he mistakes the means of promoting it, being 
of opinion that his Regiment is capable if properly supplied of 
extirpating our southern Enemys & talks of burning Towns &ca. 
with great certainty, he seems to throw a good deal of blame on 
Coll 1 Montgomerys hasty departure from that place — a mine 
of Silver ore being found out at the back of Virginia, which upon 
tryal proves very good, he has purchased it and 'til said 'twill 
turn out to great advantage. 

This Day An officer from Rogers [run*/?] passed thro' here in 
his way to York with the Garrison of Fort Detroit consisting of 
3 Officers & 30 Men, he informs that Rogers is gone for Missili- 
mackinac with 60 Men & M r . Croghan returned to Pittsburgh — 

1 Probably "sleighing." 

2 Governor Henry Ellis of Georgia. 

3 William Byrd III, and Mary Willing of the prominent Philadelphia 

210 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Some of our Companys not being yet compleatd We shan't 
leave these parts for near 2 months — M c Lean not bringing but 
one Serg 1 . has occasiond me some desertions which otherwise 
would not have happened If I have trespassed upon your time 
from the length, & incoherrence of my Letter I beg You'll attribute 
it to the pleasure which I have in writing to you which I shall add 
to by subscribing myself D r Sir, 

Your most Sincerely devoted 

humble Serv*. 

G. Johnson 

Sir W m . Johnson 

I beg leave to present my 
Compliments to Cap 1 . Johnson 1 
& all the family 


Sir W m . Johnson 


Trenton Febrx. 2 d . 1761 — 

Lieut. Guy Johnsons Letter 


Contemporary Copy 3 

Philadelphia I0 lh . February 1761 

Teedyuscung 4 in a visit he lately made me shewed me a Letter 
from you of the first of March last, 5 wherein "after acquainting 
him that his Majesty had ordered you to examine thoroughly 
into the matters complained of by him in the Conferences at Easton 

1 John Johnson. 

2 In Sir William's hand. 

3 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

4 Chief of the Delawares. 

B See Johnson Papers, 3 : 1 94-5. 

Seven Years' War 2 1 1 

in July, and August 1 757, you desired to know when and where 
it would be most convenient for him and the Indians concerned 
to meet you, and the sooner you knew the better, that you might 
give notice to the Proprietory Commissioners to attend" 

He farther told me that this Letter was brought to him by his 
Son just as he was setting out on his western journey, and that 
he had hitherto made no answer to it 

Then taking a String of Wampoum he expressed great un- 
willingness to have this complaint heard by one, who he said, 
was a Stranger to him, and acquainted me that the Indians were 
all desirous it should be heard by me as Governor of this Province, 
and that there would be a good opportunity of doing it at the 
great Meeting of Western Indians which was intended to be at 
Philadelphia the next Summer, where all the Indians concerned 
in those complaints had agreed to have them heard and adjusted. 

I know not whence this change in Teedyuscung arises, but can- 
not help suspecting that it may be suggested to him by some people 
here with whom he is very intimate, and who might give him 
this advice that they might have the entire management of him 
and this whole affair during the Treaty, in opposition to and 
dislike of the Proprietors. This made me express great reluctance 
at his proposal, and I returned him no other Answer than that I 
would take his request into consideration. 

I have ever been of opinion, that you, who are His Majesties 
Agent for Indian affairs, and are perfectly well acquainted with 
the Rights, Sentiments and Interests of the six Nation Indians, 
should not only hear and determine this, but all other matters 
relative to Indians, and, were I to follow my Inclination as well 
as Judgement, I would have rejected the proposals; but if never- 
theless these officious people would not interfere, and you shall 
judge, from the present circumstances of affairs and the minds of 
the six Nation Indians who may be consulted as being concerned 
to support their own rights and proceedings, that my hearing it 
will contribute to the general good I will not decline it. But then 
should you advise me to undertake this — I beg leave to use the 
precaution of assuring you, that, if I find any undue influences 

212 Sir William Johnson Papers 

or any partial interferings from the people of this City, I will 
desist and leave it to be heard by you. 

I am further to acquaint you, that we are like to have fresh 
trouble, and I am afraid the renewal of the Indian war from a 
most Wicked revival of the Connecticut claims, these restless 
Spirits have actually come at the close of the last Summer and 
laid out Townships on the west side of Delaware river on Lands 
not purchased of the Indians, and left some of their people to 
retain the Possession during the Winter, intending to joyn them 
with vast numbers in the Spring, and to carry all before them by 
force. — as soon as I was informed that there were some Con- 
necticut people settling over against Cushietunk, in the upper 
parts of Northampton County, opposite to the Jersey Station 
points, I sent the Sheriff and some of the Magistrates of that 
County to enquire into their pretensions & proceedings, and to 
warn them off, — and on their return they made me a Report in 
Writing, of which I enclose you a Copy, that you may see what 
wild work they are carrying on, and what imminent danger there 
is of our provoking the Indians to fresh hostilities. Indeed ! what 
can they think of us when they see the blood of our Inhabitants 
scarce covered, but we are quarrelling for Land that belongs to 
neither of us, but to them. 

I had scarce sent my dispatches to the Sheriff and Magistrates 
but Teedyuscung came in great concern to inform me of this 
settlement and to insist, that the Government these people came 
from should be desired to recall them, and, if they did not, that I 
should remove them, and if neither Government would do it, he 
assured me that the Indians would do themselves Justice. 

Accordingly I have wrote a Letter to Governor Fitch 1 to use 
his utmost Influence to recall the people already settled, and to 
prevent others from coming, and have set before him the bad 
consequences that may arise as well from the Indians as from 
the opposition they will certainly meet with from this Government. 

As I expect that nothing Governour Fitch can say or do on my 

1 Governor Thomas Fitch of Connecticut. 

Seven Years' War 213 

Letters will avail anything, I was thinking to write an account 
of this unhappy proceeding to General Amherst and desire his 
interposition with the Colony of Connecticut, as it may obstruct 
the Kings Service to have such a flagrant piece of Injustice offered 
to the Indians who may thereupon be induced to withdraw their 
friendship from the English Interest, and again become our 
Enemies; but it may be better perhaps if you will be so good as 
to take that task upon you, and set it in its true Light before the 
General, and desire him to use his influence with Governor Fitch 
to have this dangerous attempt laid aside. 

I am under very great concern least the six Nations should lay 
anything to the charge of this Province and therefore request 
that you will be pleased to represent this attempt to them, together 
with what I am doing to prevent it, and assure them that nothing 
shall be wanting on my part to vindicate their and the proprietary 
Rights from this mischievous set of Intruders; and if any thing 
occurs to you that you shall think proper for me to do I shall be 
infinitely obliged to you if you will be pleased to communicate 
it. — I am with very great respect 


Your most obedient 
Humble Servant 

Honble Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 

James Hamilton 1 


Copy 2 
~ Philadelphia, 1 2 th February, 1761 . 

Mr. Croghan has no doubt given you, from time to time, a 
particular Account of Indian Affairs on and to the Westward 
of the Ohio, and that there is a general Disposition in all the 
Tribes of Western Indians to come to Philadelphia next Summer, 

1 Governor of Pennsylvania, 1 759-1 763. 

2 In Pennsylvania Archives, First Series, 4:40-42. 

214 Sir William Johnson Papers 

which will produce a numerous meeting. He will further have 
informed you of the very bad behaviour of Teedyuscung, at 
Pittsburgh, and in the other places where he had any thing to do, 
and that he is in a very low repute among his Ohio Brethren of 
the Delaware Nations. In fact, Chingass and his Relations have 
the best pretensions to the Lands, concerning which the Com- 
plaints were made at Easton, in 1757, and neither Teedyuscung 
or any of his Jersey Basket makers ever made the least pretence 
to Lands on the West side of the River Delaware. However 
abundance will be said by them at the ensuing Treaty, and many 
things which may affect the Rights and former proceedings of 
the Six Nations, and therefore it may be absolutely necessary 
that there shou'd be a very respectful Body of Deputies properly 
instructed and impowered by the Council at Onondago present 
at this meeting, and with them I hope and earnestly entreat that 
M r . Clause may be sent, cloathed with the Authority of a Deputy, 
and as Interpreter likewise; for poor M r . Weiser 1 is no more, 
he dyed suddenly in the Summer, and has not left any one to fill 
his place as Provincial Interpreter, His Son Samuel has almost 
forgot what little he learned. Considering these Circumstances, 
and the Connections the Proprietaries, as well as myself, claim 
to have with M r . Clause, on all necessary Occasions, I flatter 
myself you will readily spare him to assist this unhappy Province, 
or at least the Government, in this important meeting ; And if any 
thing happens to him that he cannot come, or he is necessarily 
employed in other publick Concerns, I beseech you to send as 
able a Minister and Interpreter, and honour me with a Letter by 
him. I shall write to Mr. Clause with your Leave, as soon as I 
am favoured with your answer. 2 

1 Since 1 744, he [Conrad Weiser] has acted a prominent part be- 
tween the Indians and the Government, by whom his loss will be severely 
felt. A faithful sketch of him by some of his descendants would be ex- 
ceedingly interesting. — Footnote in the Archives. 

2 See Johnson to Peters, March 4, 1 761, for reply post p. 231 ; also cf. 
Johnson to Claus, March 10, 1761, Johnson Papers, 3:352ff., especially 


Seven Years' War 215 

The Connecticut People are making their grand push both in 
England for a new Grant from the King, and in this province 
for a forceable Entry and Detainer of the Indian Lands, on no 
other pretence than that their Charter extends to the South Seas, 
and so like mad Men they will cross New York & New Jersey, 
and come and kindle an Indian War in the Bowels of this poor 

M r Clause will be necessary as a Witness on this occasion, 
because he knows all the particulars of the vile management of 
Lidyus 1 in the Year 1 754, and the sentiments and purposes of 
the Six Nations with respect to that Deed that was signed at 
Lidyus's House by the Indians, as Lidyus cou'd bribe them or 
get them Drunk. 

The Governor has wrote you at large on this wicked revival 
of the Connecticut Claims, and I wish either You or General 
Amherst cou'd fall on some means to have it laid aside, for it 
will breed a Civil War among our Back Inhabitants, who are 
sucking in, all over the Frontiers, the Connecticut poison and 
Spirit, and will actually, in my Opinion, go into Rebellion in the 
opening of the Spring. 

I could heartily wish that the Delaware Complaints were heard 
and adjusted, for as I am determin'd to quit all Public business, 
I shou'd be glad, before this be done, to vindicate myself, as well 
as the Proprietaries, against all aspersions and accusations. 

If by mistake any Error has been committed it would give me 
a pleasure to have it detected and rectified; but I know of none, 
nor has there been so much as a Secret in Indian Affairs during 
my management. 

May the Almighty preserve your Life, that in case of a gen- 
eral peace, the Colonies may avail themselves of your Influence 
and Judgment, in the settlement of all matters between the Indian 
Nations and his Majesties Subjects in every part of North 

I imagine Instructions shou'd be given by the Onondaga Council 

John Henry Lydius. 

216 Sir William Johnson Papers 

to their Deputies about this Connecticut mad attempt, Or if it was 
mentioned to the Six Nations, they wou'd of themselves come to 
some Resolutions, & transmit them to the Connecticut Government. 
I most heartily congratulate You on the Surrender of Canada, 
and on the most favourable situation of all our Affairs. 
I am with very cordial esteem 


Your most obedient Servant. 


[Feb. 17-18, 1761] 
Tuesday February 1 7 th . 

On Sir William Johnson's arrival at Conajoharee, the Sachems 
and Chiefs of that Castle came to his quarters and after their 
usual ceremonys of wellcome were performed, their Speaker 
Araghiadecka, (alias Brant), spoke as follows. 

Brother Warraghiyagey 

We are come to you as his Majesties Agent, and our friend, 
to lay our complaint and grievance before you. We understand 
from several of our Neighbours the White people that George 
Klock (who lives at Conajoharee) has offered Lands of ours to 
sale, altho' we are entirely ignorant of any right which he has, so 
to do, we likewise hear that he has forbid some people residing 
thereon to pay us any more rent, ordering them to bring, or pay 
the same to him, if this is allowed of, we must become miserable, 
and foresee our ruin approaching, we therefore beg you will en- 
quire into it and procure us Justice. 

To which Sir William made them the following Answer 

Brethren of Conajoharee 

I am glad to see you all assembled here at my quarters, although 
it gives me concern to find you have any cause of uneasiness — 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

Seven Years War 217 

with regard to your complaint concerning Klock, I shall, as His 
Majesties Agent endeavour to procure you all the justice which 
the case deserves, and shall tomorrow morning send for Klock 
in order to hear what he says thereon, least it might have been 
misrepresented to you. If I find that you are injured, I promise 
You that I shall take the proper steps to have you redressed — 
As I have it in charge from the Great King your Father, to see 
that neither you, nor any of his Indian allies be imposed upon 
with regard to your Lands, he has likewise given instructions to 
that effect many years ago to the Governour of this Province — 
The Indians returned Sir William hearty thanks for what he 
had sayed, and then took leave for that night — 

Wednesday 18 th . 

Sir William wrote a Letter to George Klock which he dis- 
patched by two Indians, desiring he would attend him, in order 
to inform him concerning the affair of which the Indians had com- 
plained — On the Messengers return they reported that Klock 
had gone out of the way, and delivered back to Sir William his 

All the Sachems &c assembled at Sir William's quarters where 
after condoling their losses, he acquainted them of his late 
Majesty's approbation of their conduct last campaign in the 
reduction of Canada, of his death since, and of his present 
Majesty's succession to the Throne, assuring them that his present 
Majesties intentions were very favourable towards all friendly 
Indians, who might depend on his favour & protection so long as 
they remained his Friends, and in alliance with the British 
Crown — 

Gave a Belt of wampum 

He then proceeded — 

I have considered your late request for a Schoolmaster to in- 
struct your Young people, and agree to allow you one, as it is 
what I much approve of, and hope you will make a proper use 

218 Sir William Johnson Papers 

of him, which will be an encouragement to me to afford you 
farther assistances. 

You should therefore find out a proper Schoolhouse, and I shall 
procure you Paper, Pens, Ink, &c, having already made choice 
of a Master to whom I have promised 20 £ a year to instruct 
you — I have employed M r . Colden the Surveyor General 1 
(agreable to your late request) to make out a proper map of this 
part of the Country, whereby I may be the better enabled to 
ascertain what Lands remain yet in your power to dispose of — 

I have likewise notified the late Kings death, and the Succession 
of his present Majesty George the third, to the five Nations by 
Messengers whom I have sent for that purpose, and whom I have 
instructed to insist on the Senecas making satisfaction for their 
ill behaviour to some of Major Rogers's Men lately passing 
through their Castle. 

Sir William then acquainted them with what had passed be- 
tween M r . Croghan his Deputy, and the several Nations of In- 
dians about the Detroit: and also with the proceedings of Lieut. 
Claus his Deputy in Canada; & concluded by letting them know 
that Gen 1 . Amherst had wrote to inform him that the Medals 
which he intended for those Indians who had accompanied the 
Army to Montreal last Campaign were almost finished, and 
should shortly be sent to him, who was to distribute them — 

After Consulting amongst one another near two hours, their 
Speaker Araghiadecka addressed Sir William as follows — 


We most sincerely thank you for the condolence you were 
pleased to perform for our late losses, and we on our parts now 
do the same well knowing your loss of people here, and over the 
great Lake, must also have been considerable. — 

gave 3 Strings of Wampum 

The death of the Great King George must be a very severe 

1 Alexander Colden, son of Cadwallader Colden. 

Seven Years' War 219 

loss to his people especially at this time, of which we are all 
thoroughly sensible, but as we have the pleasure to hear from 
you that his Grandson now King, is a Good man, we hope the 
loss will be in a great measure made up in him, and we heartily 
wish he may live long, and be successful over his Enemies — 

A black, & white Belt 

We are greatly obliged to you for the care which you shew of 
us, and our Children, by procuring us a Man to instruct our young 
people, and agreable to your desire that we should find out a 
proper place for a School, we have considered thereof, and can- 
not think of a better or more convenient place than one of the 
empty blockhouses within the Fort where drunken people cannot 
disturb them, we should therefore be glad you would speak to 
the Commanding Officer concerning the same 

2 Strings of Wampum 

We return you thanks for communicating to us the news which 
you have received from your several Deputies, and 'tis with 
pleasure, we now hear that you have at length been enabled to 
bring all Your Enemies to reason, and one way of thinking, and 
we earnestly wish proper measures may be taken to continue 
them therein — 

Sir William then adressed them 

Altho I approve of the blockhouse which you mention, for a 
Schoolhouse yet you cannot be able to make use thereof until I 
have acquainted General Amherst therewith, and can procure 
his approbation — which I make no doubt of obtaining, to en- 
courage so necessary a work. I went to George Klock agreable 
to your desire, but he not being at home, I shall take another 
opportunity of hearing from him concerning you complaints, and 
shall acquaint you therewith. 

The Indians all expressed a suspicion of Klocks trifling and 
keeping out of the way on purpose ; — saying, they knew him 

220 Sir William Johnson Papers 

to be a bad man. They then earnestly begged Sir William 
would look into the affair, and not suffer them to be ruined. 

After which the Conference ended — 

P.M. — an old Mulatto Woman named Eve Pickerd waited 
on Sir William with a Deed of gift (for a parcel of low, and 
wood land containing about 1 1 00 acres) which she had, which 
was dated last September, and which Sir William discovered 
had been executed only two days ago, by three Indians whom 
she called to her house, & whom she, and her Grandson (who sell 
liquor) had made drunk, & then prevailed on them to sign the 
Deed, without having a License from the Governour, or President, 
with which unjust proceedings Sir William made some of the 
Chiefs of that Castle acquainted, to whom the Land belonged, 
which threw them into a violent passion, and made them Exclaim 
against the deceitfullness, and unbrotherlike behaviour of the 
white people towards them, who they sayed, dayly took all ad- 
vantages of their ignorance, and seemed to aim at their entire 
extirpation, — which they added, was a most cruel, and un- 
christianlike return for their adherence to the English, and chari- 
table conduct towards their Neighbours, when they were unable 
to assist themselves 

Eod. Die — A Tuscarora Sachem named Gawehe, delivered 
Sir William a Letter from one Edw d . Johnson 1 living at their 
town, to acquaint him of his having began to instruct those Indians, 
& the Oneidas in the Christian Religion, and as they were very 
desirous thereof, hoped he would sent them some books, paper & c 
mentioned in his letter; the Indian sayed a good deal on the 
subject, and seemed an entire proselite. whereupon Sir William 
gave him a Letter for such things as he wanted, told him he should 
soon go to their Country and if he found they made a good 
progress in Religion, and Learning he would give them all the 
assistance in his power towards perfecting so good a work. 

1 See letter of Edward Johnson to Sir William Johnson, Doc. Hist, 
of N. Y., 4:310-11 (quarto, 4:200). 

Seven Years War 221 

The Indian then went thro' the ceremony of condolance, with 
three Strings of wampum, next returned many thanks for the 
order for the books & c and assured Sir William that their Nation, 
and the Oneidas were fully resolved to get as much inseit 1 into 
the Christian Religion as they possibly could, and hoped by the 
time of his arrival at their Castle, they should be able to shew 
him, that they had not neglected it, but made some proficiency 
therein — After which he took his leave — 


[Fort Johnson, February 22-23, 1761 .] 

Sunday February 22 d . — Two Onondagas, and three Cayugas 
arrived at Fort Johnson, the chief of the Cayugas named Skan- 
arady. on their entring the Council Room, Sir William bid 
them wellcome, told them that the five Nations were great strangers 
of late, and after ordering them some provis ns . informed them, 
he should be ready next day to hear what they had to say — 

Monday 23 d . — They assembled when Skanarady addressed 
Sir W m . as follows 

Brother Warraghiyagey 

I am come hither to acquaint you that the five Nations are to 
have a Council at Onondaga within a few days, on several matters 
of some consequence to them, after which I am desired to acquaint 
you, they purpose to come down, and report their proceedings 
to you — 

You told me yesterday we were great strangers of late, it is 
very true Brother we have been so, and some evil reports we have 
amongst us from our Brethren the English towards Pensilvania, is 
the cause thereof. We are told from thence, that the English 
intend to destroy us, for what reason, we know not, however, 
some foolish people amongst us, are credulous enough to think 
it true, as we are not allowed Powder &c. as formerly, for which 

1 Insight. 

2 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

222 Sir William Johnson Papers 

reason we are obliged to have recourse to our Bows, and arrows. 
I should hardly have come down at this season of the year, were 
it not to clear up to you the cause of my not joyning you last 
Campaign, as I was informed you were very much displeased with 
those that did not. I therefore assure you that I was at the time 
of your marching, and for two months after, bedrid, with a pain 
in my breast, otherwise, nothing should have prevented me from 
accompanying you, therefore I hope you will not attribute it to any- 
thing else — By that sickness, and the weakness which followed 
it, you may perceive I am reduced very low, and am become 
destitute of every thing, which I hope you will take into Considera- 
tion, and allow me some Ammunition — We have no news amongst 
us, except that the Governour of Pensilvania has sent three belts 
of invitation to the six Nations, desiring very pressingly that we 
should go to Philadelphia in the Spring, to a Meeting he intends 
to hold there, and after the Council at Onondaga is ended you 
will hear their resolutions thereon — 

Sir William then addressed them — 

Brethren of Onondaga, and Cayuga — 

I am glad to hear that the five Nations are about holding a 
Council at Onondaga on matters of importance. I hope they 
may maturely deliberate thereon, and when ended I shall expect 
to hear the result thereof. After the many admonitions I have 
from time to time given your Confederacy, and assurances of the 
Kings good intentions towards you, and all the Indians who by 
their behaviour shall merit his friendship and protection, I am 
surprized at your folly in listening to such idle, & wicked reports. 
Have you not sufficient reason to discredit them, don't you all 
know, and have you not daily proofs of British humanity, who 
not only give quarter to their most inveterate Enemies the French, 
& their Indians on their making proper submission, but even afford 
them more reasonable terms than their behaviour could give them 
hopes of expecting from any Nation less generous, & Humane 
than the English? How then can you become as infatuated as 
to harbour the least suspicion of their having any bad designs 

Seven Years' War 223 

against you? Drop therefore, all Jealousy of that nature, and 
behave yourselves as Brethren should do least you give us cause 
to think that your fears proceed from a consciousness of your 
having deserved ill at our hands — 


As I am sensible of your attachment to his Majesties interest, 
I am therefore the easier satisfied with the reasons which you have 
given me for not joyning the Army last Campaign, and shall order 
you some cloathing, with a little ammunition — 

I shall wait the result of your general meeting at Onondaga, 
and heartily wish it may turn out to our mutual advantage 

Then delivered out some Cloathing, Ammunition with a little 
money to Skanarady, & the Onondagas, who attended the Army 
last Campaign, after which they took their leaves — 


[Fort Johnson, March /, 1761 .] 

March 1 sf . At a Meeting held at Fort Johnson 

with all the Sachems, & Chiefs of the Lower Mohock Castle 
Present, Sir Will m . Johnson Bart. 
Warren Johnson Esq r . 
Ensign Carden of the 1 7 th . Reg*. 

Little Abraham their Speaker stood up, and acquainted Sir 
William that they were ready to proceed. Sir Will m . thereupon 
answered them that he judged it proper after the many losses 
they had sustained to condole with him thereon, agreable to the 
custom, and rules prescribed by their forefathers, which done, 
they might then speak — 

They answered it was very proper, whereupon Sir William 
began with wiping away the blood of their friends &c. from 
their sight — 

gave three strings of wampum 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

224 Sir William Johnson Papers 

He next covered the grave of Thomas, or Ganughsaddishe, 
Chief Warrior of their Castle, who died the last week — 

gave a very large black belt of wampum 

After which the Indians returned Sir William many thanks 
for his kind remembrance and observance of the antient Customs 
of their wise Ancestors. Then Little Abraham stood up, and 
condoled the losses of the English, which he said they were sen- 
sible must have been considerable during the War — 

gave three strings 

After which he proceeded in manner following — 

Brother Warraghiyagey 

It is now upwards of five Months, since the great Spirit above, 
was pleased to give the whole Country of Canada into the hands of 
our Brethren the English, and thereby restored peace to this part 
of the World, which affords us all great pleasure, as we may now 
have rest, and enjoy the benefit of hunting on our grounds without 
molestation, and our Brethren the English may follow their several 
occupations in peace. We cannot avoid observing to you our 
expectation of your having ere now taken that hatchet out of our 
hands, which you gave us in the beginning of the war, as the 
French against whom we took it up are no more — 

Delivered a black belt given by Sir William 
to them (at the time Fort Bull 1 was destroyed) 
desiring them all to follow him thither, in 
order to oppose the Enemy — 


It is with great concern we daily hear of the troubles our 
Brothers of Conajohare are now involved in, as we are given to 
understand that the very Lands on which they live, and out of 

1 Fort Bull, on Wood Creek, in present Oneida County, N. Y., was 
destroyed, with its garrison, by a detachment of French and Indians under 
de Lery, on March 27, 1 756. 

Seven Years' War 225 

which they get their maintenance, are now ready to be snatched 
from them, by people whom they assisted, and nourished like 
Children when unable to help themselves — This is a grievance 
which we all think cannot be borne, wherefore we wish it may 
be soon redressed — 


It is now several years since we of the lower Mohocks did by 
our chiefs (since lost in his Majesties service) make known to the 
Governor of New York, and you of our having been imposed upon 
by some of those who call us Brothers, by their taking Patents 
for our Lands without the knowledge or consent of those to whom 
they belonged, and without paying any consideration for the same, 
(which is the case in that patent of Kaniaderusseras) 1 . also for 
Lands whereon we live, which we are told the People of Albany 
have a Deed for, and claim a right to it thereby making those 
persons who reside thereon pay rent for the same which we 
think very hard, and more than the King will allow. We 
last year renewed our complaints to you, and most earnestly 
requested you to look into them and procure us Justice therein. 
You then assured us that you would write to England concerning it 
but we have heard nothing from you since, relative thereto; we 
fear your Letters are sunk in the great Lake, or that there is 
no notice taken of them at home by the great King, on whom we 
rely for justice — Pray Brother let us know how that affair 
is, as all our people are very uneasy concerning it — 

gave a belt 

Sir William answered them as follows — 

Brethren, of the Mohocks 

We have all reason to rejoyce at the success of his Majesties 
Arms in the reduction of Canada, and its Dependencies, a 
Country inhabited by such a troublesome, and ambitious Nation 
who until conquered would not permit ther Neighbours to enjoy 
any peace — 


226 Sir William Johnson Papers 

As they are now in our power, & become Subjects to the Crown 
of England both you, and we are thereby enabled to follow our 
several occupations unmolested, and may at our leisure improve, 
and extend our alliances amongst all the Nations throughout the 
continent, so as to become in time of one heart, and one mind 
together, a period which I hope is not far distant, and which 
will greatly contribute to our mutual happiness & security. I 
cannot with propriety take the hatchet out of your hands, as you 
have expected, until all matters are entirely over, or I receive 
orders from the Commanding Officer for that purpose, when 
either happens, you may depend on my doing what is right 
and customary. — 

Brethren, and Friends 

With equal concern I hear the constant complaints of the 
Conajoharees concerning their lands, and I am resolved to do 
every thing in my power to have justice for them therein — You 
may remember that about Six years ago I wrote home to the 
Lords of Trade concerning the complaints which you then made 
and tho' some attention was then paid thereto, yet, the war in 
which his Majesty has ever since been engaged, has so occupied 
the thought, and time of his Ministers, and those whose Province 
it is to enquire into and redress such grievances that nothing has 
been done therein — You likewise know that I transmitted home, 
your complaint made to me last summer on the same affair, to 
which I have as yet received no answer, tho' I daily expect one, 
and hope it may prove agreable to you; whenever I receive it, 
you may depend on my acquainting you without loss of time with 
his Majesties pleasure thereon, in the mean time I must recommend 
patience to you, as Affairs of that nature cannot be so speedily 
determined as you may imagine. — 

The Mohocks returned Sir William thanks for what he had 
said, and promised to them, and concluded with hoping that 
their cause would not be neglected nor themselves slighted 
when the War was over — after which they departed 

Seven Years' War 227 


[March 4 J 761] 

March 4 th . — In the evening arrived at Castle Cumberland, 
(a Seat of Sir Will 1 ". Johnsons) twenty one of the chief men 
of Conajoharee, & the first Woman of the Wolf Tribe, named 
Esther, all in sleds, and after the usual ceremony at Meeting, Old 
Brant, al s Araghiadecka, their Speaker stood up and spoke as 
follows — 

Brother Warraghiyagey 

We sent you three strings of wampum two days ago by one of 
our young men to acquaint you with the villainous, and unbrother- 
like proceedings of George Klock, as we have had no answer 
thereupon and he still persevering in his wicked Schemes, we in 
a full Council of all our People yesterday, judged it best to come 
to, and acquaint you with his behaviour, and to beg your inter- 
position, which we wish may be speedy and successful!, if not, 
we fear the consequences may prove bad, as all our young Men 
are highly enraged at Klocks, and some other people's conduct 
towards us & with which we shall now inform you. We need not 
repeat to you his behaviour concerning the Lands we live upon, 
& plant, having when you were lately at our Castle given you an 
account thereof — Since that time, he met with three, or four 
of our Young Men who were going to hunt, and invited them to his 
house, where after making them very drunk, he proposed to them 
his desire of purchasing some of their lands on the north side of the 
river and pressed them to execute a Deed for the same; which 
they for some time refused to (altho' in liquor) as sensible it was 
improper for them to do; but he plying them with more liquor, 
(which you know it is almost impossible for them to resist) and 
they being some of the most addicted thereto of any of our people, 
he at length prevailed on them to assent thereto; after which at 
parting he gave to each of them a bottle of Rum as earnest for 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

228 Sir William Johnson Papers 

the bargain, and desired they would come to his house on the 
Saturday following to execute a Deed for the Land, which Deed 
he would imediately send to Albany to have drawn — We shall 
do all in our power to prevent their going to his house as desired, 
and we beg you will write to him about it, & forbid him from 
using such unfair methods for depriving us of our lands, You 
having frequently told us, the King would not permit any of his 
Subjects to cheat us thereof — 

Gave three Strings 

Another part of our business here is likewise to assure you, 
that the Land which we gave you sometime ago, was the unanimous 
act of our whole Nation, which we are determined to abide by, 
and desire that you may not listen to any idle reports, or lying 
talk of the Country people, of which there is too often a great deal 
— We do now in behalf, and in the name of all our people ratify 
and confirm (by this belt of wampum) to you, the Land for which 
we have given you some time ago a Deed, and beg you will 
not regard what any idle body may say concerning it, or us — 

Gave a black, & white belt 

The Block-House 1 which we told you when up at our Castle, 2 
we thought was the properest place for a School, we now find 
will not answer, being made use of as a Stable by the Commanding 
Officer of the Fort, so that we have been obliged to look out for 
another, and Nickas, here present offers the use of his house, for 
that purpose, provided he be allowed something reasonable for 
it which we hope you will take into consideration — 

Sir William addressed them as follows — 

Brethren of Conajoharee 

I heartily wellcome you all here, and am glad to see so many 
of your Chiefs at this my new settlement — 

1 Probably at Fort Hendrick, on the south side of the Mohawk River. 

2 See Journal of Indian Affairs, Feb. 17-18, 1 761, ante p. 216. 

Seven Years War 229 

Your message by one of your people I received two days ago, 
and in consequence thereof, I imediately wrote to George Klock 
desiring him to desist from acting the villainous part, he has hither- 
to done which I hope he will. If not, I shall take such measures 
as the Law directs — 

I have also wrote to the President of this Province concerning 
the affair, and doubt not in the least but he will (by following 
his Majesties instructions concerning the purchase of lands) put 
a stop to, & prevent Klock, or any other persons imposing on 
you — You may rest assured his Majesty, the great King George 
will not Countenance the unlawfull purchase of your lands, by 
any of his subjects, so that you, and your young men may rest 
satisfied on that head, until I may hear from home which I expect 
will be within a little time, and with which you shall then be 
made acquainted — 


I thank you for the mark of regard shewn to me, and the 
assurances which you now make of being unanimous in what you 
have done — I never in the least doubted of its being otherwise 
than a voluntary act of all your people after the solemn declaration 
you all made to me at the time when you executed the Deed, 
and you may be assured I shall not now regard the idle reports 
of busy, or bad people concerning the same — I am glad you 
have found a proper place for a School, and you may depend on 
its meeting with all due encouragement from me as nothing can 
afford me more satisfaction than to see those improve in Religion, 
and Learning who are put under my care and direction — 

Then the Meeting was dissolved — 

230 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Fort Johnson 4 th March 1761 

The Letter which Teedyuscung shewed you, was wrote in 
obedience to his Majesties order in Council to me, dated the 29*. 
of August 1 759, altho not received until a few days before the date 
of my Letter to Teedyuscung. from the tenor of said order I cannot 
dispense meeting with and hearing the complaints of the Delaware 
&c. as well as the proprietaries defence by their Commissioners, 
whenever Teedyuscung & his tribe, or these Indians concerned, 
will appoint the time and place, which I am surprized they have 
not as yet done — 

His unwillingness to have his complaint heard by me, because 
he is not personally acquainted, is really a very trifling reason, 
and carries with it, a strong suspicion of his having been tampered 
with, as well as an unbecoming oppossition to, and contempt of 
his Majesties order, and his Ministers Judgment; which he must not 
be indulged in, especially as it was his own request, that the 
affair might be decided by his Majesty ; who, by the advice of his 
Council was pleased to order that method, as the most likely 
of finding out, and laying before him, (for his Royal decision) 
the full and true state of that case, so that I flatter myself, you 
will joyn in opinion with me, that that there is no deviating (with 
any propriety) from said order. 

I am very sorry to hear you are embarrassed by the Connecticut 
people, and so apprehensive of the renewal of an Indian war in 
your borders, was it in my power to be any ways instrumental in 
settling the difference between the two Governments, I do assure 
you, Sir, none would take a greater pleasure in so good a work. 

General Amherst Influence and interposition (which doubtless 
he will in such case readily afford) would in my opinion be the 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. This is in answer to 
James Hamilton to Johnson, February 10, 1 761, ante p. 210. 

Seven Years' War 231 

most effectual method that could at present be used for accomo- 
dating that affair, and preventing the ill consequences which you 
apprehend may derive from it, if not timely prevented. I should 
have readily complied with your desire of my writing, and laying 
the case before the General but that I am certain it will come 
with much more propriety from you, as well as be sett in a fuller, 
and clearer light to him — 

Should this affair unhappily go so far as to cause any emotions 
amongst the Indians (which I hope will be prevented) I shall then 
use every method in my power towards a reconciliation; in the 
mean time should anything occur to me, which may be necessary 
for you to know, be assured I shall not omit communicating it 
to you, as I am 

very respectfully 

Your most obed*. humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 


Copy 1 

Fort Johnson, 4 th March, 1761. 

I have been duly informed by Mr. Croghan, &c, of the present 
disposition of the Indians in them parts where he has been these 
two years past, & am glad to find them so well pleased with 
the change, if proper care is taken by us to use them well in 
trade & otherwise, & keep up to one uniform plan for the manage- 
ment of Indian affairs; I am certain they will all become our 
friends, on the other hand they can be very troublesome Enemys. 

I am told by Mr. Croghan, & understand from the Indians that 
there is a very great meeting of many Nations of Indians to be 
held about Detroit the ensuing Spring. And the Six Nations are 

1 Pennsylvania Archives, First Series, 4:44. Draft in New York State 
Library was destroyed by fire. See Johnson Calendar, p. 110. 

232 Sir William Johnson Papers 

asked to attend, but I have not heard any Indian talk of the Six 
Nations going to Philadelphia, altho' they say they received three 
Belts of Invitation, since winter, which I could scarce credit. 1 

As for Tedyescungs character, it has never been very favourably 
represented to me, I shall know more of him I presume 'ere long, 
as I expect every day to hear when & where he and his Tribe 
will meet me, w h , when known, I shall Imediately acquaint the 
Proprietarys Commissioners, then I shall enquire into & hear his 
Complaint, which was laid before his Majesty, (& what the 
latter have to say in defence of it,) and his Order in Council 
Ishued to me for that purpose. 

I was obliged to leave Mr. Claus in Canada to act there as my y 
Deputy, when he can be relieved is uncertain. I have not another, 
should there be ever so great occasion for one, (capable to 
interpret or transact any business with Indians) since General 
Amherst was pleased to discharge my Officers, who, now for a 
Livelyhood, are preparing to go atrading amongst the Indians. 2 / 

The Connecticut People, or any other Settling on Lands as is 
said not to be fairly & openly purchased of the Indian Proprietors, 
is very wrong, & contrary to his Majestys Intentions, and may at 
this critical Juncture, when all Indians are more or less Jealous 
of our power & encroachments, be attended with very bad conse- 
quences, tho it may not appear in that light to Others. I heartily 
wish the affair could be soon settled, if General Amhersts inter- 
position can effect it. I know of nothing else here can. 

I am sir, 

Sincerely your Welwisher, 
& very Humble Servant, 
Wm. Johnson 
Rich d Peters, Esq r . 

1 This letter is summarized in Johnson to Claus, March 10, 1761, the 
Johnson Papers, 3:354-5. 

2 Removal of officers from Johnson's suite and reductions in service 
were mentioned by Dr. Richard Shuckburgh, Feb. 24, 1 76 1 . See John- 
son Calendar, p. 110. 

Seven Years' War 233 


Copy 1 

Fort George March 7 lh 1761. 
Dear Sir 

I have the favour of yours of the 20 th of last Month, 2 which 
I delayed Answering by the return of the Post that I might be 
better inform'd of something in it. It shall be my particular 
care that the Indians shall not be decieved in any purchases of 
Lands made while I have the administration that they be made 
openly & fairly. 

If they have, or shall hereafter receive any injuries, represented 
to me in such manner that I can redress them, it will give me 
pleasure to do it, & I will do it with the greater pleasure that I 
know it will be agreeable to you. Please therefore to assure the 
Indians of my firm resolution to that purpose. That they may be 
the more convinc'd of this, you may put them in mind of what 
I did in the year 1 736, after they had complained to me of the 
Injuries done them with respect to the Land in which Livingston 
was concern'd, & that to prevent the like for the future the regula- 
tions as to the purchase of Lands from the Indians were made at 
my instance. 

I am told that Clock has only purchas'd a Quit Claim for 
that Land without any Warrantee, & therefore the Indians are 
in no worse state in that respect than before, but perhaps better, 
as the Livingstons & c are under no obligations to defend that 
title. You know that redress in such like cases can only be 
obtain'd by process in Common Law or Equity, & how the 
charges of such a prosecution can be defray'd, I know not. 

I know nothing more of Ury Clock 3 & Eve Pickard more than 

1 Printed in Next) York Historical Society Collections, (1876); pp. 

2 In Johnson Papers, 3:338-41. 

3 George (Ury) Klock. The case of Eve Pickerd was described in 
Johnson's letter. 

234 Sir William Johnson Papers 

what you write. No application has been made to me on their 

I have at present no thought of issuing new Commissions of 
the Peace. Whenever I do I shall have perticular regard to your 
recommendation. In case any application be made I shall be 
glad to have the names of the Persons you recommend & your 
reasons for prefering them to others in such manner that your 
reasons may be communicated to the Council whenever any nomi- 
nation shall be made. 

Since I had wrote so far M r Hartwick 1 has applied to me for 
Letters patent for two Tracts of Land on the south side of the 
Mohawk River. One of which is a Tract of Six Miles square on 
Susquehanna River. The Deed of purchase of this is in proper 
form & the satisfaction of the Indians certify ed under your hand, so 
that I think there can be no dispute with them as to this tract. The 
other is in the name of Godfred Miller. Adam Sheffer and others, 
bounded northerly by the Lands granted to Peter Wagener & 
others, westerly by John Lindsay & others, southerly by Volkert 
Outhout & others, & westerly by Otsega Lake & by the first Tract. 
The purchase of this last is not certifyed in due form. The Council 
advis'd the late L*. Gov r . to grant this on your affidavit that 
the purchase was made in your presence & a note given by Hart- 
wick for the payment of 350 Dollars the 1 st of May following 
or at the time of surveying the Land. Please to inform me 
whether the Indians will be satisfyed on the payment of the 
350 Dollars as indeed they ought to be. I suppose one will 
be deputed to survey it as soon as the season will permit. 

Be assured that I shall be fond of every opportunity to serve 
you & that I am with great regard, Sir & c 

1 Rev. John Christopher Hartwick, missionary, who petitioned for land 
granted to him in 1 756 by the Indians. See Doc. Hist. N. Y., 4:294-301 . 

Seven Years' War 235 


Contemporary Copy 1 

New York, 14 lh - March 1761.— 

M r . Harris, a Merchant in this Town, Who was particularly 
recommended to me last Year, having Just now Acquainted Me 
that the last Ships from Europe, had brought him a large Assort- 
ment of Goods, fit for, and Used by the Indians; And being 
Desirous to make You an Offer of Such part thereof as You 
or any of Your Deputies may have Occasion for, he begs to be 
made known to You; I do, in Consideration of the Persons, 
by Whom he thus Stands recommended to me, take this Op- 
portunity of Introducing him to You, that he may Inform You 
more particularly of the nature & kind of Goods he is possessed of, 
that if they prove to Your liking, and You Should have Occasion 
for any, You may furnish Yourself and People with Such as Shall 
best Suit You. He likewise Informs me, that he Intends Soon 
for England And that if You Should have any Commands for him 
there, in the purchase of any particulars, that You Cannot meet 
with on the Continent, he Should be glad to Execute them to 
Your Satisfaction. — 

I am, with great Regard, 


Sir W m . Johnson Bar* 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

236 Sir William Johnson Papers 


[Fort Johnson, March 8-15, 1761.] 

March 8 th . At a Meeting held at Fort Johnson with several 
Sachems of the Senecas, Onondagas, and Mohocks. — 


Sir William Johnson Bart. 
Warren Johnson Esq r . 
John Johnson Esq r . 
Cap*. Jeles Fonda 
W m . Printup Interpreter 

On the Indians coming into the Council Room, Sir Will m . 
Johnson agreable to their custom, condoled with them, & wiped 
away the tears from their Eyes — 

gave three Strings 

being informed that Tagethsadde Chief Sachim of the Senecas 
had died lately, he with a belt condoled his death, and covered 
his grave, so as to remove from their sight, whatever might 
countenance their grief — 

Gave a black, & white belt 

This ceremony having been performed by Little Abraham, 
a Sachem of the Mohocks — Sir William then told them they 
might proceed to the business on which they had been dispatched, 
Whereupon Anaroongo Speaker of Onondaga addressed him as 
follows — 

Brother Gorah Warraghiyagey 

We return you many thanks for your condolance, on account 
of our losses, which are really very great, and as yours (especially 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

Seven Years' War 237 

at this time) must have been very considerable, we likewise condole 
with you in return — 

Then returned Sir William, and the Mohocks thanks 
for covering the grave of the deceased Seneca in manner 
before mentioned, and afterwards proceeded — 


We are desired by Teyoquando, Chief warrior of the Onon- 
dagas, and your great friend, to acquaint you, that since his return 
from Canada, death has deprived him of all his Family and 
party, (except an old Woman) which losses have so dispirited, 
and cast him down that he is determined to lay aside all business, 
wherefore he has directed us to deliver you this Medal, & Colours 
which you gave him when you raised him to be one of our Sachems, 
at the same time he desired us to assure you that he would ever 
remain a true friend to the English, and that nothing should ever 
turn his head, or heart for them. — 

Gave three Strings of wampoum, and laid down 
Teyoquando's Medal, and flag. — 


I beg your attention to what I am going to say, as I likewise 
do yours, Brethren of the Mohocks who are the head of our 
Confederacy — I am charged by the Council who lately sat 
at Onondaga to remind you, Brother Warraghiyagey of the many 
fair promises made to us since the commencement of the present 
war, by all the Generals who have been here, as well as by 
yourself. First, that we should have a free plentiful trade, carried 
on for our advantage, so soon as the French were subdued, or the 
war was ended. Secondly, that the Covenant Chain of friend- 
ship should ever be kept bright, and Strong, and the communication 
free, and open between us — thirdly, that we should not want 
for the necessaries of life if we joyned his Majesties arms, which 
we have done more, or less every campaign; yet, we are sorry 
to say these promises are not fullfilled, nay, we are now (by the 
dearness of goods sold to us in our Country, and at the different 

238 Sir William Johnson Papers 

posts,) obliged to pay such exorbitant prices, that our hunting is 
not sufficient to purchase us as much cloathing as is necessary to 
cover us, & our families, indeed, our hunting is not so great as 
usual — (altho there is more game) through the want of am- 
munition which we can by no means procure. To you therefore, 
Brother, we apply, as the person appointed by the King to the 
direction of us, and hope you will take our wants into consideration 
and let us have some ammunition that we may be enabled to hunt 
for the support of our families ; otherwise, we must suffer greatly, 
and may wish the war had never began, neither can the trade v/ith 
your people, without such assistance, be as considerable as 
heretofore — 

Gave a belt 

Sir William then returned them the Medal, and Flag, desiring 
they would give them back to Teyaquando, and tell him, it was 
his desire that he should wear the same, & continue to act as 
he had hitherto done so long as he lived. That his looseing 
so many of his people was the will of God, for which he should 
not be dejected, nor neglect the affairs of his Nation. 

Then laid down the Flag, & Medals, & Spoke to them 
as follows 

Brethren of the six Nations 

As all my promises & proceedings with you are recorded, you 
need not to have reminded me of them since I can be no stranger 
thereto, I heartily wish you had all followed my advice, and 
manifested more zeal for his Majesties Interest than you have done, 
which had you done, you might then with more propriety have 
taken notice of our not entirely fullfilling our promises, but the 
Records are full of your promises, which were never performed, 
and will remain as an everlasting evidence against you — 

After the great expence which the Government was at last year 
in Cloathing, arming, and supplying you, and your families with 
provisions, you basely abandonned his Majesties forces, imediately 

Seven Years' War 239 

after the reduction of Isle Royale, 1 which could not fail to exas- 
perate the General against you, and occasion his entertaining a 
very bad opinion of you; however, by a letter which I received 
from him a few days ago, he declares he is willing to forget all 
provided your future conduct be such as becometh brethren and 
friends, and he is now About establishing an open and fair trade to 
be carried on by his Majestys subjects, with all friendly Indians, 
which trade, will I dare assure you be settled on such a proper 
footing as will convince them that his Majesty has the welfare of 
all Indians at heart who shall merit, and desire his protection. 
When that plan for trade is once regulated (which I believe will 
be in the ensuing summer) you may then have goods reasonable 
and the more so whenever the war is entirely ended. 

The scarcity of gunpowder of which you complain is owing to 
two reasons, first, your deserting the General as I have already 
mentioned, & secondly that our traders are discouraged from bring- 
ing any powder amongst you, from the prejudice which you 
entertained allways that French powder was better than English, 
on which account they never imported any for trade, but probably 
when they find a demand for it, they will bring that article amongst 
you as well as other things; In the mean time I shall so far 
consider your wants as to supply you with a little to hunt with, & 
supply your families 

Gave a belt in Exchs e . 


As you have been unjustly charging us with breach of promises; 
I must now tell you that you have broken your word with me, in 
not delivering up all the prisoners in your custody who have been 
during the war, notwithstanding I have with several belts of 
wampum now in your custody, requested you would imediately 
deliver all such prisoners up, which you frequently promised to 
do, but have not yet complied with my demand, our (former) 
enemy Indians have delivered up all our people who were amongst 

1 Now Chimney Island in the St. Lawrence River, three miles below the 
city of Ogdensburg, N. Y. 

240 Sir William Johnson Papers 

them, and how you (who now talk of renewing the covenant chain 
as brethren) can presume to detain any I cannot account for, 
unless you suppose us to be a very foolish, easy people, or that 
we have no regard for our flesh and blood, neither of which is 
the case — I therefore once more desire you will deliver up to 
me or to the Governments they belong to all his Majesties 
Subjects, as also all the horses, and Cattle which your young 
people for some time past stolen, and picked up from the distressed 
inhabitants of the several provinces, when these demands are 
complied with, you may with more propriety talk of renewing 
the Covenant Chain, and you may then find us ready and willing 
to have it renewed and Strengthened 

A belt 

You likewise find fault with my not sending oftener to your 
Nations with news. Your bad behaviour last Campaign, and 
lately to some of his Majesties troops under the Command of 
Major Rogers is a sufficient reason for my not chusing to send 
any of my people amongst you, and as to indulgencies which you 
have formerly met with, they are not at all applicable to the 
present times, as in them days, the behaviour of the 6 Nat\ was 
much better than at present, tho' they then never received one 
fourth part of the presents &c. which you have received from 
his Majesty since my appointment to the Managem*. of Ind n . 
affairs — 

Ordered a Cask of 50. weight to each Nation present 
with lead in proportion, also pipes, Tobacco, Rum, 
& some Money for their journey, after which they 
parted — 

Friday March 1 3 th . — Aaron, Zacharias, and Lawrence, three 
Mohocks, waited on Sir William at his Seat at Castle Cumberland 
with a Message from the Chiefs of that Castle, desiring to have 
a Meeting at Fort Johnson as soon as 'twas convenient, they 
having something of moment to communicate — 

Gave 3 Strings of wampum 

Seven Years' War 241 

Sir William informed them that he would be at home on 
Sunday the 1 5 th . in order to hear what they had to say 

& returned 3 Strings 

Sunday 15 th . At a Meeting held at Fort Johnson with all the 
Chiefs, and Warriors, together with the Women of the Mohocks 
— Abraham their Chief, and Speaker addressed Sir Will" 1 , as 

Brother Gorah Warraghiyagey 

We are assembled at present to disclose our minds to you and 
let you know our unhappy situation — 

Sometime before the last war, the King was so good as to allow 
us a Minister for our instruction in Religion, at which we greatly 
rejoyced, and in order to make his Mission the more agreable, we, 
in a meeting of our Chief Sachems concluded it would be necessary 
to give him a piece of Land for a House, Garden, and Pasture &c. 
which we accordingly did, and thereupon he assured he would 
continue to reside thereon and preach to us, so long as he lived, 
but to our great concern he soon left us tho' we could never 
learn the cause except that we heard it was for a better living 
which we think strange in a Minister — Long after this, M r . 
Ogilvie came amongst us, and told us much to the same purpose, 
but he has also left us, and we are now like a lost people, having 
no person to instruct either us, or our Children, who are like the 
wild Creatures in the woods, having no knowledge of the great 
Spirit above, nor even regard for their parents, besides, we are 
now all left at liberty to act as we are inclined, and our grown 
people have become so addicted to liquor that unless some stop be 
put thereto, we shall soon be a ruined people, and as the only 
method of reclaiming them must be by the help of a Minister, we 
most earnestly request that his present Majesty will be so indulgent 
as to allow us a Minister to remain constantly amongst us, and not 
to act as the former, which was as soon as they had acquired a 
little of our language to abandon us — 

We also beg that the land which we intended as a Glebe may be 

242 Sir William Johnson Papers 

given up by M r . Barclay 1 for that purpose, as we should soon 
be without a foot of land for our own use, were we to give every 
Minister as much — We have formerly sent several belts of 
wampum to the great King to enforce our 2 but have been so 
unlucky as neither to see our belts returned nor our request 
granted, wherefore we entreat you Brother to take our case in 
hand, and try what you can do therein, as we imagine from what 
you have often told us that the great King will not deny this, 
our humble request, since it is the only means we have left to 
render us happy in this, and the next World — We have 
observed last Campaign in Canada, that the French have really a 
great regard for the happiness of their Indians, allowing every 
village a Minister, or two — according to their largeness, — and 
we flatter ourselves, we have been as hearty in the great King 
George's interest, as ever they were, in that of the French, which 
induces us to hope we will not be refused so reasonable a demand 

Gave a belt 

Sir William answered them that he would transmit their request 
home, and made no doubt it would be complyed with ; adding that 
he was very glad to find them so well disposed towards instruction, 
and observed, that their former petitions of that head, must have 
miscarried, or else not been sent, otherwise his Majesty would 
have granted them — and as he knew somewhat concerning the 
Land formerly given to M r . Barclay he promised to write to the 
Governor of the Province concerning it. adding that M r . Barclay 
had offered some years ago, to give up his title to the land 
provided he was reimbursed his expences for building an house 
thereon, this proposal the Govemour might lay before the House 
of Assembly, in whose power it was to pay M r . Barclay his 
demand, after which the affair would be settled to their satis- 
faction — i K 

gave a belt 

1 The Reverend Mr. Henry Barclay as missionary at Fort Hunter was 
given a grant of land by the Indians. See Barclay to Johnson, Aug. 8, 
1763, Doc. Hist. TV. Y., 4:332-2, respecting this farm, or glebe. 

2 A word is omitted here in the manuscript. 

Seven Years' War 243 


Df. 1 

Montreal 18th March 1761 


[/ have sent the Pany 2 Ind n . who deserted from the Ind ns . last 
Fall, he says they Were drunk when he run off and he was afraid 
they would kill him, he was sen d along by the Officers of the Posts 
this Way who gave him Provis 8 . & a passport, as I can learn. — 
When I found out & demanded him of his Master J had more than 
a half an hours oration from him but I shortly told him I had the 
Cen ls . ord rs . to take him & our Ind ns . would either have him or a 
frenchman W ch . damped the Blind fellows passion & he consented 
to deliver him up.] 3 


Fort Johnson 21 st . March 1761 — 

I am honoured with yours of the 22 d . Ult°.° which inclosed a 
Warrant for £ 1 000 Sterling, to discharge the Several demands 
now upon me. 

1 In Canadian Archives, Claus Papers, Vol. 1, 1716-1777, M. 104, 
p. 34. This is a fragment of the draft of Claus to Johnson, March 19, 
1761, Johnson Papers, 3:361, and in the original is a portion that is 
crossed out. The remainder of the draft agrees substantially with the letter 
in Vol. 3, mentioned above. 

2 Pani, a term regularly used to denote an Indian slave. 

3 This part of draft italicized and enclosed in brackets was crossed 
out in the original. 

4 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. A copy of this letter 
is to be found in the Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. This 
copy is dated March 18, 1761, and exhibits a few minor differences 
from the A. L. S. 

5 See Johnson Papers, 3:543. 

244 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I am glad to find the Intelligence and list of goods proper for 
Indian Trade Sent You 1 were agreable, as nothing would afford 
me more pleasure, than haveing it in my power at any time to render 
Your Excellency what little Service I can — I have sent for M r . 
Croghan and Montour to come this way, and desired the former 
to post such of his Assistants as he may Judge necessary, in the 
best manner he can, leaving them instructions, and directions to 
keep up a constant correspondence with each other, and to write 
me duely how Affairs go on with the Indians in their Several 
Quarters, by that means I shall be able to learn the disposition of 
the different Nations, and so manage the whole on One Settled 

When M r . Croghan arrives, I will examine his Acc tts ., altho 
they have always been adjusted and paid by the Officer Comds. 
the Western Army. Your Excellency is pleased to observe 
that he has been verry bountifull. I cannot say, otherwise than 
he writes me, that what he gave to the Indians was cheifly by order 
of Major Rojers, & in his & Cap 1 . Campbels presence, when I see 
his Acc tf . I shall be able to Judge better, in the meantime I must 
beg leave to observe, that, as M r . Croghan with the Indains he had 
with him, and the method they took, was a safe guard to Major 
Rojers in an Indian Country, where Our Troops were liable to 
be insulted, his giveing them presents was I think verry necessary, 
for my own part, I must acknowledge, I have given a great deal 
of Money Goods & ca . both this, & last War to purchase y e . Interest 
& good behaviour of different Nations of Indians, by the advice 
and direction of the then Commanding Officers, & I realy thought, 
as they did likewise, that it was money well laid out. & altho the 
scituation of Affairs, then, & now is verry different, yet I think that 
a little generosity, & moderation will tend more to the good of his 
Majestys Indian Interest, than the reverse, which would raise their 
Jealousy much more than it is now. — the reason of my mentioning 
these was a necessity of haveing a Law passed for keeping Indian 
Traders within due bounds (w h . I know will not otherwise be 

1 In letter of Feb. 12, 1761, Johnson Papers, 3 : 330-33. 

Seven Years' War 245 

easily done) was from an opinion I did then, & do still entertain 
that Lord Loudon had done nothing in that affair, the Officers 
Commanding the several Forts, & Posts where Trade is to be 
carried on between his Majestys Subjects, & the Indians, will 
doubtless (haveing your Excellencys instructions) endeavour to 
see a fair Trade carried on. My late proposal, that said Officers 
ought to have it in their power to give (on proper occasions) 
a little provision, amunition & ca , proceeded from the knowledge 
I have of their wants & expectations when they are among us, 
& so far from home, it is no new thing, we have done it. and the 
French (who certainly were verry clever in extending their 
Indian Alliances) did it at a verry great expence, and reaped y e . 
benifit of it. — Should we Sir unexpectedly, or unhappily be 
obliged to give up Canada (which God forbid) it will in my 
opinion be (beyond all dispute) for the Interest of Brittain, to 
shew these People a little generosity, and friendship, & thereby 
shew 'em it is their Interest to keep well with us. the benifit of 
a Free extensive and well regulated Trade, will it is true, be one 
of the most effectual measures to convince them of it, but until such 
a Trade be established, they, without haveing some little assist- 
ance of the kind I mentioned to Your Excellency, from us, must 
in the intermediate time suffer, and feel a sensible difference in y e . 
change of Freinds./w h . in case of a change as above supposed, 
may turn out greatly to our disadvantage. I fear, that you imagine 
from my proposing the giveing the Indians some provisions & ca ., 
that I meant it should be given profusely. I realy did not, and 
only intended a small quantity should be delivered to such distant 
Indians as might come to treat or trade, which the Traders have 
not in their power to supply, neither have they had powder to 
sell to the Indians as yet, so that if they are not allowed some by 
your order, they cannot hunt, this is their scituation, which I 
hope your Excellency will consider, and pardon the freedom 
I take of mentioning my Sentiments so freely, which nothing 
should induce me to, were I not fully sensible of your readiness 
to hear anything for the good of the Service. 

Lieu 1 . Claus in my opinion acts (in the scituation he is now 

246 Sir William Johnson Papers 

in) as well and frugal as any Man that could be chosen for that 
Service, he has not as yet drawn on me for much, and from what 
I wrote him, after the receipt of your letter, I dare say the expence 
of manageing all the Indians in that Country, will not cost the 
Crown as much, as four Familys of them cost the Crown of France 
formerly, whether that change of treatment, be for our Interest, 
at least until a peace is Settled, I much doubt. I should be glad 
to know, whether M r . Claus is not to have the same Allowance 
as my other Deputy, and whether he is to be continued there 
any time. — 

I can give Your Excellency no other tokens of Kass the Ger- 
man, than that he is the Man whom I brought to Head Quarters 
at Oswego, & told you that he had been a long time Prisoner 
at La Gallete, knew the Isleands & ca . and offered his Service. 
You then desired him to go to my Camp & me to order him 
provisions with my People, which I did, and he accompanied us 
all the way, & returned with me. He made a kind of Draft of La 
Gallete the Isleands & its Environs at Osswego, which I shewed 
You. 1 — 

The Indians of the two Mohawk Castles & ca . as usual applied 
to me a few days ago for Some powder & lead for their Spring 
Hunt, as I received but 2 Hundred weight last Fall by your 
order, which I then divided among them when going on their 
Hunt. I have none, & not knowing who to apply to at Albany, 
I wrote to a Merchant there to buy me 3001b. but he writes me 
he could not in y e . whole Town make up 30 pound, so that I 
am obliged to apply to You Sir for an Order to get so much at 
Albany, which I hope You will send soon, otherwise the best of 
the season for Bever Hunting will be over. The upper Nations 
have also lately petitioned for powder, the Traders who go among 
them haveing none, they must suffer greatly if they can't have 
some from You. — refuseing them now, will encrease their 

1 The copy in the Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6, has an 
additional sentence at this point, as follows: "I send you a Certificate 
which a Mohawk Indian who was to Detroit on service last year brought 
me, and begged I would send it to you, in hopes of getting then his money." 

Seven Years War 247 

Jealousy, and make them all verry uneasy I am certain, this Sir, 
I think my Duty to make known to You. — 

f\ was honoured a few days ago with Yours of the 14. Ins 1 , 
by M r . Harris, 1 your recommendation of any Person to me, will 
always meet with the greatest regard, & altho neither myself or 
any of my Deputys are concerned in Trade, I shall have influence 
enough with those who trade, to prevail on them, to consign their 
Firrs & ca . to him, for European Goods, which I have promised 
him I would doy 

I am Sir 
with the greatest respect imaginable 
Your Excellencys 
Most Obedient & 
most Humble Servant 
W M . Johnson 
His Excellency 

General Amherst 


Castle Cumberland March 23 d 1761 — 

The Mother of Jacob Miller, a german Lad who was taken 
at the German Flatts y e . same Summer that y e . German Flatts 
was destroyed 3 came this day to me, & begged I would use my 
endeavours to get her Son from Canada, He lives with the Preist 
at La Chene opposite Caghnawagey, and is about fourteen Years 
old. I must desire the favour of You to get him from S d . Preist, 
and Send him home in y e . Spring by returning Battoes. If you 
should meet any difficulty in getting him, apply to Governour 

1 Amherst to Johnson, March 14, 1761, ante p. 235. 

2 In Canadian Archives, Claus Papers, Vol. 1 , M. 1 04, p. 36. 

3 Destroyed in 1757 by French and Indians under Belletre. 

248 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Gage, who I am certain will order him to be delivered up to You. 
it will be doing y e . poor Mother a great peice of charity, and oblige 


Y r . Real Freind 
& Welwisher 

T T ^ n W M . Johnson 

Lieu t . Daniel Clause — 

PS. My Negroes have got 

the same Disorder, w h . carries of 

so many Indians & Whites now. 

I have already lost Kitchener, & Quacko 

I beleive will not recover. Ury y e . German 

is Just out of it. — I fear it will thin my Flock — 


D. 1 

New York 27 K March 1761. 

To the Hono b,e . Cadwallader Colden Esq r . President of His 
Majesty's Council, and Commander in Chief of the Province 
of New York and the Territories depending thereon in 
America — , 

The Petition of Sir William Johnson Baronet, Ferrall Wade, 
George F. Cheap, James Rogers, Dennis Maddin, John Johnston, 
William Johnston, Peter Frax, Michael Russell Wilhelmus 
Russel, Paul Reiter, Philip H. Klyne, John Spangenbergh, Lucas 
Vader, Lawrence Eman, Michael Sallinger, Matthias Link, 
Timothy Creitz, George Stam, George Stam Jun r . Peter Cooley, 
John Johnson, Peter Servis, Christopher Servis, Francis Rupert, 
Adam Rupert, Hannis Wert, Andreas Snyder, Conradt Creitz- 
enborgher, Conradt Smith, Jonathan French, Jacob Pickle, Han- 
nis Wolfe Barlet, Augustus Eikler, Jacob Lefers, Johannis Alt, 
Bastian Steenmyer, Stephen Kipp, George Kipp, and Peter 
Frederick — 

1 In New York State Library, Colonial Land Papers. 

Seven Years War 249 

Humbly Sheweth 

That there is A Tract or Parcel of Vacant Land Situate 
lying and being in the County of Albany on the North Side of 
the Mohawks River near to the Conajoharie Castle and begin- 
ning at the Northwesterly Corner of the Rear Line of a Patent 
or Tract of Land Purchased by the late Teady M c Gin and 
Others and lately Surveyed by his Widow Sarah M c Gin, which 
Corner or beginning is on the Bank of a Creek or Kill Called 
by the Indians Dekayoharonwe and About Thirteen Miles from 
the Mohawks River which Creek falls into the Said Mohawk 
River about Two hundred Yards below Fort Hendrick or Cona- 
joharie Castle thence running from the Said Northwesterly Corner 
of Said M c Gins rear line a Westerly Course to the West bank 
of Another Creek or Kill Called by the Indians Deyoshtoraron 
by the Christians Canada Kill at Burnets field from thence down 
along the West Side of Said Creek or Kill to the Lands Patented 
Formerly So down to the Mohawk River then Running round 
the Several Tracts of Land Already Patented within the Above 
mentioned two Creeks and taking in all the Vacant Lands be- 
tween the Said two Creeks from the Rear Line Quite to the 
Mohawk River Containing about Forty Thousand Acres of 
Land: which your Petitioners are desirous immediately to Settle 
and improve, being Willing to Submit to such Restrictions as to 
the Settlement or Cultivation of the Said Tract of Land as Shall 
be Judged Reasonable — 

Your Petitioners therefore humble Pray Your Honour will be 
Favourable Pleased to Grant to them Your Hounour's Lycense 
to purchase in his Majesty's Name of the Native Indian Pro- 
prietors thereof the Quantity of Forty Thousand Acres of the 
Tract of Land above described in Order to enable them to Obtain 
his Majestys Letters Patent for one Thousand Acres to each of 
the Petitioners Under the Quit Rent Limitations and Provisoes 
directed and appointed in his Majestys Instructions — 

And Your Petitioners as in duty bound Shall Ever Pray & c — 

W M . Johnson 
in behalf of himself and his associates 

250 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Petition of Sir William Johnson 
and his Associates for a 
Lycense to Purchase 40000 
Acres of Land in the County 
of Albany — 
8*. J u ly U61 Read and 
Referred to a Committee 


A. D. S. 1 

Memorandum, March 28th, / 761 . 

This is to make known to the inhabitants of Kings Borough 
that for the encouragement of the settlers, the instruction of their 
children, and above all for the good of their souls, I do this day 
give them that for the above purposes and more especially for 
the use of the Church as a glebe. I will give fifty acres of land 
adjoining to the land of Peter Service and Christopher Service 
his brother, which fifty acres will be a kind of triangle. This 
writing shall suffice and secure the above mentioned land for the 
before mentioned purposes until time will allow me to have a 
proper deed drawn, as witness my hand this 28th day of March, 

W M . Johnson 

1 In the collection of a resident of Johnstown, N. Y. ; discovered in 
1911. At the bottom of the agreement appears the following, added some 
years later: "This certifies that the land above described has not been sold 
or conveyed by the late Commissioners of Forfeitures of the late Western 
District. — Jer. V. Rensselaer 5 March, 1800." 

Seven Years* War 



Contemporary Copy 1 

[March/ April! 761] 
List of the Names of the Indians who Accompanied the Gen- 
eral to Montreal, and to whom Silver Medals have been delivered. 


















































Arosa, alias Silver heels 



Belt's Nephew N°. 1 

N«. 2 


1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 


Sir William Johnson Papers 



























































Seven Years War 












































Nephew N°. 1 
N°. 2 
















Sir William Johnson Papers 




Aughquisasne N°. 1 

N°. 2 

N°. 3 

N°. 4 

No. 5 

N°. 6 

No. 7 
No. 8 
N°. 9 
N°. 10 





Mohawks . . 
Oneidas . . , 
Tuscaro . . . 
Senecas . . 
Cayougas . 
Mohikans . . 














List of the Names of the 

Indians who Accompanied 

the General to Montreal & 

to whom Silver Medals have 

been delivered. — 

Sent to Sir W m . Johnson, with the 

General's Letter of the 1 7 th April 1 761 . 

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V^ Cmmmt^/^iyl, H'Pf^4n^ irn . 


From New York Historical Society 

Seven Years' War 255 


Contemporary Copy 1 

New York, S l K April 1761. 

I beg leave to trouble You with the postscript of a Letter I 
have lately received from M r . Denny late Governor of Pensyl- 
vania, 2 bearing date at London the 19 th . January 1761 ; And is 
as follows. — 

"I hope Sir W m . Johnson has Discharged a Debt of his Deputy's 
Captain Croghan, Amounting to near £ 200-Currency, And paid 
the money to M r . Dunlap of Philadelphia, Who has the Vouchers, 
and my Letter of Attorney to receive it. The Case was this ; Goods 
were brought by that Gentleman to give the Cherokees, over and 
Above what the Province Sent, with the Approbation of the then 
Colonel Stanwix : At Easton he was Arested with a wicked Design 
to break up the Conference. I was his bail & obliged to pay the 
money." — 

As I hear that Goods are much wanted at the Detroit, I would 
recommend it to You to Send Such Quantities as You Shall think 
necessary to Supply those Indians with, untill the method I 
proposed in My former to furnish them, can take place. 

I am, with great Regard, 

Sir W m . Johnson Baronet. 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 William Denny, governor of Pennsylvania, 1756-1759. 

256 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Head Quarters at New York, 20 April 1761. 

You are hereby Ordered & directed to deliver or Cause to be 
delivered to Sir W m . Johnson, Bar 1 , or whom he shall Appoint to 
receive the same, out of His Majesty's Stores; the Ammunition & 
Store as under, for the Use of the Indians, Viz 1 . 

Corn'd powder in Quarter Barrells Twenty. 

Muskett Shott C.W« Ten. 

Carbine Flints Two Thousand. 

Observing to take a proper Receipt for the Same; And for so 
doing, this shall be Your Sufficient Authority. — 

Jeff: Amherst 


To the Storekeeper of His Majesty's 
Ord'nance at Albany. 


/J. /_>. o. 

Albany 23 d . April 1761 — 

My Brother 3 who has spent the winter with me and is now going 
home, will have the honour to deliver this to You. — in answer to 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

3 Warren Johnson. His diary covering the period from June 29, 1 760, 
when he left England, until his return to England in May 1 761, is in the 
New York State Library. He journeyed from Schenectady to Albany 
April 22, and sailed for Bristol May 9, arriving in Devonshire, May 27. 
The diary contains many interesting observations and descriptions of his 
experiences in America. 

Seven Years' War 257 

yours of the 8 th . Curr'. 1 concerning what M r . Denny wrote your 
Excellency, I can only say that I know nothing of the affair, 
there never has been any application made to me for the money, 
neither do I see how there could with any propriety, as I told M r . 
Croghan when sent that way, I would not advance any money on 
the Crowns Ace", for Service done that way, Judgeing that any 
expence of that kind, would be paid by y e . Officer commanding 
the Westeren Army, or by the Southeren Governments, besides as 
the Cherokees were out of my district, it could not be supposed I 
would advance any money of the Crowns on that account, unless 
by an Order from the Commander in cheif. I expect M r . Croghan 
here soon, when I will learn from him how that affair is. — 

I have yesterday received a letter from Lieu 1 . Claus dated at 
Montreal the 9 th . Ins 1 ., 2 whereby he acquaints me that the Indians 
there are a good deal surprised and concerned at not being 
allowed to come to trade to Albany, where they say they can have 
goods much cheaper than at Montreal, besides as all matters 
between us, and them were amicably adjusted last September, 
when, they were told and promised that the road of peace & 
commerce should be free and open for them, they now think 
it hard to be debarred that liberty. I am of opinion Sir that as 
long as they continue to behave well and keep up to their en- 
gagements, it will be right to allow them a Free open trade, as I 
may expect an application from them concerning this affair, 
I shall be glad to know your pleasure thereon, so as to be able to 
answer them properly. — 

I am certain the Indians at, and about Detroit must be in 
great want of Cloathing amunition & ca ., and as sure, that supply- 
ing them at as reasonable a rate as the Traders can afford, will 
be one of the most effectual methods can be taken, of attaching 
them to his Majestys Interest, and makeing them usefull if 
required. I have given passes to some Traders for that place, 
and will agreable to your Excellencys recommendation give as 

1 Ante p. 255. 

2 In Johnson Papers, 3:375-77. 

258 Sir William Johnson Papers 

many more as may be requisite, so that Goods may be tollerably 
cheap, & plenty. — ^ 

I have the honour to be with 
the most perfect esteem 
Your Excellencys 
Most Obedient & 
most Humble Servant 
W M . Johnson 
His Excellency 
General Amherst 


Fort Johnson 29 th . of April 1761 — 

Since I did myself the honour of writeing You by My Brother, 
I received yours of the 1 7 th . Cur 1 . 2 also the meddalls for such 
Indians as accompanied You to Canada, which shall be equally 
distributed among them on their return from hunting, and the 
reason why they are given to them. I have likewise got the Gold 
Meddall you were pleased to Send me, for which I am much 
oblidged to You. Your Excellencys favourable opinion of my 
conduct towards them, gives me the highest Satisfaction. You may 
be assured Sir, that as long as I have any charge of them, or their 
Affairs, I shall endeavour to discharge that trust with all the 
uprightness & good management in my power, for his Majestys 
Interest and my own Credit. — 

Silver Heels, and the few Indians who accompany him, were 
also with You to Montreal, they shall have their Meddals if they 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

2 In Johnson Papers, 3:378-79. 

Seven Years' War 259 

come back, should they not return, I will then give them to their 


I have the honour to be with the 
greatest respect, Your Excell- 
encys most Obedient, & 
most Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 

His Excellency 

General Amherst — 


Castle Cumberland May I st 1761 

I come now to Answer yours of the 26 th . March 2 & 9 th . of 
April. 3 part of one of them I must say I am at a loss to answer, 
however shall presently say something on that Head. — Your 
haveing permission to purchase, I believe was in a great measure 
owing to the favourable mention made of You last Winter in 
some of my Letters to General Amherst ; I heartily Wish You may 
succeed therein, in one of my last I let you know that I would 
assist You in compleating y e . purchase of y e . Company, with what 
you could get for y r . Lieutenancy, which You imagined would be 
ab l . £300 St r §. I understand Companys are sold for no more 
than a thousand, or Eleven Hundred Pounds at most, I wrote 
to Major Rutherfurd 4 last Week, and desired to know his 
intentions concerning the disposal of his Company, if inclined 
to sell & would let me know the Terms, I would settle the Affair 

1 In Canadian Archives, Miscellaneous Papers, 1714-1790, Claus 
Papers, W. Vol. 1 4. The draft of this letter which differs much from the 
letter actually sent Claus, is printed in Johnson Papers, 3:381-2. 

2 Johnson Papers, 3:371. 

3 Johnson Papers, 3:375. 

4 Major Walter Rutherford. See Rutherford to Johnson, May 12, 1 761 , 
post p. 265. 

260 Sir William Johnson Papers 

for You with him, When I have his Answer will let You know it; 
In the mean time I think y u . should make use of Your, & your 
Freinds Interest to bring it to a hearing. — If You find much 
difficulty in transporting y e . horse You bought for me hither, You 
had better dispose of him, as I would not choose to give You 
or myself much trouble about Him altho I want him much to 
match the one I have. 

I have answered Your Draft on me to Kennedy & Lisle. 
When You draw, I should know whether it is on Acc u ., of Indian 
Service or y r . own Ace"., that I might charge it accordingly. 

I am surprised General Gage will not suffer the Caghnawageys 
& other Ind s . inhabiting y l . Country, included in the peace made 
with them last Autumn, to come to, and trade at Albany or else- 
where, it being one of the Articles settled at the great Meeting at 
Cagnawagey last Year in presence of the Six Nations & ca . I think 
keeping them so much under, and debarring them the liberty of a 
Free Trade is far from being good Policy, whatever others may 
think [it] who know little ab*. it. I have wrote General Amherst 
[about it] thereon, when I have his ans r . shall be able to say more 
about it. — 

Your proposal of Marriage 1 surprises me a great deal, haveing 
never had the least hint of the kind dropped or mentioned to me 
before, so that it realy seems to me verry extraordinary & 
precipitate: besides, it is giveing me a bad impression of my 
Daughters regard for, & Duty towards me, whom I think she 
should consult in a case which concerns her happiness so nearly, 
it shall ever be a maxim with me to give a Child as great liberty in 
the choice of a Wife, or Husband as is consistent with the Duty 
they owe to a Parent, in whose power it 2 is to make them happy 
with their own industry, if they exceed that indulgence, and will 

1 See Claus to Johnson, March 26, 1761, Johnson Papers, 3:371-72. 

2 This sentence from here on makes little sense. In the draft at this point 
were the following: "Certainly should be to have a voice, & indeed a 
decisive one, as from them must generally come, what will make them easy 
in the world with their own industry afterwards." Apparently Johnson 
thought better of this, and the sentence above is the result. 

Seven Years' War 261 

act independant (which seems now to be the case with my 
Daughter, as you represent it) then I think all expectations, as 
well as Parental regard are forfeited. — I have always had a 
regard for You, and beleive you are sensible of it, from the notice 
I have on all occassions taken of You. that alone, should have 
weighed with You, or any Man of Honour, and be a bar to 
prevent the carrying on any private intrigue in my Family, 
had you moved the Affair to me, before you had made your 
inclinations known to some others, as I find, is the case, it would 
have been more in Character of a Gentleman & Freind. I have 
not as yet spoke to her on the Subject, but intend it as soon as 
I go to the House, & when I find out her Sentiments or inclination 
shall be better able to say more to you on the affair in the mean- 
time, am 


Yours as usual 

W M . Johnson 
Lieu t . Daniel Claus- 

P. S. after finishing y e . foregoing letter, I received yours of 
the 21 st . Ul 10 . 1 acknowledgeing y e . receipt of mine by Capt n . 
Lotteradge, to whom remember me. as to your throwing y r . Self, 
or depending on my advice, I am oblidged to You for your good 
opinion of me, (which be assured I should never deceive you in) 
but at the same time, would have You Judge for Yourself, least, 
hereafter things turning out contrary to y r . expectation I might 
be thought blame worthy, all I can say with regard to my appoint- 
ment of You, that is a mere deed of my own, and may perhaps soon 
be thought unnecessary, wherefore would not have you depend 
much thereupon, I wrote my Sentiments at y e . time to General 
Amherst, concerning it, but he gave me no answer, which makes 
me doubt his approbation of it. However be that as it will, I shall 
endeavour all in my power to make good any engagements with 
You. it is more probable you may be ordered to Join y r . 
Regiment if Capt n . than as you are now. and I much doubt it 

1 Johnson Papers, 3:379. 

262 Sir William Johnson Papers 

being in my power in such case, to persuade the General to let 
you act in the Station you now do, let my inclination be never so 
sanguine to serve You. for I am sorry to say it, that the General 
is too indifferent about, & severe to all Indians, which I greatly 
dread, will prove of verry bad consequence to his Majestys Indian 
Interest now so well established, as well as to his Subjects inhabit- 
ing the out Parts of the severall Governments. I shall be glad 
Jacob Miller comes home to his Freinds, as they are so desireous of 
it. 1 — 


S r W m Johnsons Letter 
May 1 * 1 767 — 


A. Df. 2 

Montreal I st . May 1 761 — 

I was honoured with yours of the 7 th . Ult°. and accordingly 
have been with Gen 1 . Gage ab l . the Pany 3 he told [me] that by the 
Caracter he had of him no Body would be able to keep him as he 
would run away even if brought d[own] to the Sea coast, 
however if the Mohawks he belonged to would come and fetch 
him from here he would deliver him up. I have spoke to the old 
French Man ab l . giving up the Boy or Girl in Exchange of him 
but he ex[cuses] himself of not being able of getting any in Town 
a [nd] offers to deliver his Pany up when ordered by the Gen 1 . w ch . 
indicates of his having some hopes of keeping [him.] I think 
Gen 1 . Gage has lost a good deal of his former Lenity since he has 
this Governm 1 . 

1 See Johnson to Claus, March 23, 1761, ante p. 247. 

2 In Canadian Archives, Claus Papers, Vol. 1, 1716-1777, M. 104, 
p. 46. The actual letter sent, dated May 2, printed in Johnson Papers, 
3:382, differs in many respects from the draft. 

3 Pani, a term regularly used to denote an Indian slave. 

Seven Years' War 263 

I have been this Week at Caghnawago and was pes [tered] with 
nothing but complaints ag sl . the 44 th . Reg 1 . Officers as well as 
Soldiers however more so of the latter. I have presented them to 
Gen 1 . Gage in writing and he was surprised to hear it telling me 
he had given repeated Orders to Maj r . Beckwith to keep up a 
good Understanding between the Ind ns . & his Reg 1 , also to 
enquire strictly into the Affair M r . Pennington had with the Ind ns . 
but they told me that all the Satisfaction they got was the Liberty 
of bringing away their Arms Packs & Canoes w ch . they were 
obliged to leave in order to avoid more Strokes, The Gen 1 , tells 
me that he was informed of the Ind ns . having exaggerated their 
Story, but M r . Pennington's own Confession in a Letter 1 
he wrote to Mons r . Du Musseaux by the same Ind ns . proves 111 
Treatment & Presumption enough, the whole is Maj r . Beckwith 
dont countenance the Ind ns . in the least by several Proofs I have 
myself. The night before I went to Caghnaw?. the Ind ns . were so 
Alarmed at some strange Behaviour of his that they were the 
whole night awake & on their Guard. I have given a hint of it 
to Gen 1 . Gage and observed that tho the Ind ns . were now in fear 
of us & perhaps might put up with some 111 Treatments yet if 
that Fear was pushed too far it might have such Consequences as 
to bring a Gen 1 . Ind n . War upon us, all Nations being allready 
jealous of our Success & would easily engage in it. he told me he 
would write ag n . to Maj r . Beckwith. He granted them some 
Amunition & have procured them some Shot w ch . will please 
them, they being scarce of Amun n . & Prov n . They begged of 
me to stay with them for some Days as then they could be at 
Ease w ch . I intend to ask the Gen 1 , for. [// you] should acquaint 
Gen 1 . Amherst of the above I Would be glad I endeavour all in my 
Power to keep them [out of] as easy as possible by laying the 
Blame upon the Irregularity of the Army & tell them that they 

1 At this point on the margin of the draft is written: "Verbal Translate 
w ch . I have hereby anexed." See Johnson Calendar, p. 112, "Lieut. George 
Pennington, of the 44th, to M. Du Musseaux, recounting his exploit in 
clubbing Indians." This letter, inclosed with that of Claus, was lost 
in the fire. 

264 Sir William Johnson Papers 

would soon encamp near the Town w ch . however I am not sure of 
tho there is such a Re [ ] 

I acknowledge with the highest Gratitude the great Mark of 
your Favour [towards me] in giving me leave to draw upon you 
towards the Purchase [/ mentioned] , but as by the Letters of the 
26 th . March & 21 st . Apr 1 , your Advice might make some Altera- 
tion I have not divulged it to Mankind [nor ever shall] until I 
have Your Answer. M r . Ogilvie has a few [pra]yer Books in a 
Chest at Isaac Gallices 1 the Key of w ch . he has [in Albany] not 
here. [/ shall correct] The Ind n . Boock M r . Welles is to bring 
shall be corrected with all Speed. 

I am Sorry of having not had the Pleasure of seeing Capt n . 
Warren. 2 

Recomending myself to Your future Patronage I am with the 
highest Respect & Complim ls . to the Family. — 

If I could have the least Trace of Capt n . Stud*. 3 Debts here 
I perhaps could find them out It seems to me he had to do with 
the Merch 5 . at Caneghsadagey if I had the Least Proof I would 
attack him it 


Contemporary Copy* 

New York, II th - May 1761.— 

I have Your Letter of the 29 th . April, 5 Acknowledging the 
Receipt of the medals for the Indians. — 

I hear Silverheels has been Guilty of a misdemeanor in Carolina, 
having almost Murdered two Tame Indians, but \J. Col°. Grant 
was in hopes they would Recover. — 

1 Isaac Colliers, in the letter, Johnson Papers, 3:384. 

2 Warren Johnson. 

3 Capt. Benjamin Stoddert, who was killed at Battle of Lake George. 

4 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

5 Ante p. 258. 

Seven Years' War 265 

No Ship is Arrived from England, So that I have Nothing 
new to Send You : The packet is Expected daily Which probably 
will bring Something. 
I am, with great Truth, 


S R . Will m . Johnson Bar*. 


New York 12* May 1761 

I take the first Opportunity to acknowledge the Receipt 
of your Favor, of 25 th . April, and thank you for your Civility to; 
M r . Stirling. 

Lieu 1 . Duncan spoke to me on the Subject you mention, which 
I communicated to the Generale who thinks that as a great Ad- 
vantage will arise to the public, by the Carrying-Place being 
settled, that we can have no doubt at least to settle it as far as 
the French did, by having Forts at each end, and such a Settlement 
as . . . the Shebear, 2 had for necessaries and Refreshments, for 
that we cannot be supposed to be on a worse Footing there than 
the French were. We don't intend to go further Lengths than this I 
till we are authorised from England, and then hope to have your 
Assistance in making the Intentions of the Government effectual. 

My Company was disposed of the 18 th . April, but as Cap'. 
Wllyamore's is still to be sold, M r . Claus I hope will have that 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

2 Chabert ( Joncaire) . 

266 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Doct r . Shuchburgh 1 has been this fortnight confined with a 
Boil on his Thigh. I am with esteem 


Your most ob l . hum. Ser 1 . 
Wal r . Rutherfurd 


New York 12* May 1761 — 

Major Rutherfurds Letter 
concerning Niagra Portage 


New York 18 th May 1761 

I thank you heartily for your kind answer 4 to mine of the 1 2 th . 5 
Febry. M r Hamilton has laid before General Amherst a large 
Detail of the Connecticut Peoples Proceedings, and desired 
his Excellency s Interposition, so far as to prevent any fresh 
disturbances with Indians. The Issue it is put upon with y e 
General is, that the Delawares were placed by the Six Nations 
on the Susquahanna (I think in 1 744 or 1 745) and Teedyuscung 
at the Treaty of Easton in 1 757, just before the Peace Belts were 
exchanged, did demand that the Lands at Wyomink & parts 
adjacent shoud be granted to him & his Delawares for their 
Habitation, and houses be built for them there, which was 

1 Dr. Richard Shuckburgh. 

2 In Johnson's hand. 

3 In Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, Maryland ; Gilmore 
papers. The letter is printed in the Maryland Historical Magazine, 4:349- 
50, where it is erroneously given as having been addressed to Governor 
Horatio Sharpe of Maryland. 

4 March 4, 1761, ante p. 231. 

5 Ante p. 213. 

6 James Hamilton, Governor of Pennsylvania. 

Seven Years' War 267 

acceded to, so far as coud be done for Lands not purchased of 
the Indians; and in consequence of this Stipulation, to w ch . M r . 
Croghan your Deputy Agent was consenting together with the 
Six Nations then present, Houses have been built for these 
Indians at Wyomink. Now for them to be turned out of their 
peaceable Possession so solemnly stipulated as well in his 
Majesties name as in that of the Six Nations is such a Breach of 
Faith as deserves the highest resentment in them, & most certainly, 
they will shew it, if the attempt to settle those lands be carried into 
Execution. The Governor thinking y l . General Amherst might 
want to be informed of some perticulars that were mentioned in the 
Governors Letter gave me the charge of it ; and I have endeavored 
to set before the General the Stipulations made with the Susqua- 
hanna Indians and the Consequences of a Breach of them, and he 
has wrote to y e Governor of Connecticut on the head ; w ch with any 
other people woud have a proper Effect, but w lh these I imagine 
that bare writing will not be regarded. Gov r Fitch will I suppose 
disown on the part of the Governm 1 any Grants or Countenance to 
these Land Companies, & say that it is a Project of their own, 
& they must be dealt with according to the Laws of the Province 
into which they intrude themselves. This is what he has said to 
Governor Hamilton and It may be truth. But what is the Conse- 
quence? Some Indians espouse that cause some even live among 
them — others are angry and threaten to do them mischief. The 
Civil Power, by a Sheriff and the Posse of the County we will 
suppose, endeavours to apprehend them as Trepassers & breakers 
of the Peace, (for so they are having no Grant from the Gov 1 
Council & Assembly of Connecticut) they resist, and, being 
numerous, people are killed on both sides, and perhaps some 
Indians y l are their friends & abettors fall in the Fray. Will 
not this kindle fresh disturbances? At least until y e Indians are 
properly acquainted with this matter & their minds known no 
force can be used against them — and if in the mean time they 
multiply umbrage will be given to the Indians & so it may prove 
very bad in this Way. It is a very bad affair and I shoud be 
extremely obliged to you for a little advice. As to the Lands 

268 Sir William Johnson Papers 

it is an indifferent matter whether the Prop" of Pennsylvania or of 
Connecticut have or have not the legal Property of them to the 
rest of the Kings Subjects — but their not being purchased of 
Indians & appropriated by the Six Nations to the Delawares 
for an habitation at a Treaty where Peace was concluded between 
His Majesty & the Indians; this, I say, makes it a national not 
a provincial Cause & the Controversy is not between Subject & 
Subject but between Indian & Englishman. 

Teedyuscung told Governor Hamilton that he had not received 
a second letter from you, and until he does I imagine, by this Habit 
of Drunkenness that he is got into, that he will neglect this as he 
does most other things. 

M r Shuckburg will I hope relieve some of the distress that you 
must be in for want of Secretaries & other Assistants. I beg pardon 
for this trouble, but my mind is so much disturbed least y e Indians 
fall again into hostilities that I could not rest till I had opened 
my Griefs to a Gentleman who has the clearest understanding & 
the most in his power in all matters relating to Indians. I am with 
a very sincere regard o- 

Your most obedient and 
most humble Servant 
Richard Peters 
Sir William Johnson 


A. L. S. 1 

Castle Cumberland May 20 ih . 1761 

Yours of the 2 d . Ins 1 . 2 I this day received, with Coppy of 
M r . Penningtons odd Letter 3 to Mons r . Musseaux. I would be 

1 In Canadian Archives, Claus Papers, Vol. 1 , M. 1 04, p. 48. 

2 Johnson Papers, 3:382-84. 

3 Pennington to Du Musseaux, March 27, 1 761 , see Johnson Calendar, 
p. 112. 

Seven Years' War 269 

glad to have the Original letter, as it may be of some use one time 
or other. I am greatly surprised at M r . Gages makeing so much ado, 
about the Panny 1 Prisoner, what is it to him if he runs away 
again from the Indians; why does he not order him to be delivered 
to You, or any good Man who would take charge of him hither? 
his trifleing so, does not look well. I am resolved to have the fellow 
at any rate, and will speak to Gen'. Amherst about it when he 
arrives at Albany which is to be in two or three days, from thence, 
he is to visit Crown Point as is Said. I had a letter this Day from 
Rutherford, in answer to mine, He tells me he Sold his Commis- 
sion the 18 th . of the last Month, so that, that affair is over^ 
I wish M r . Haldimand may be as much y r . freind, as you im-' 
agine. — 

it gives me no small concern to hear y e . many greiviances com- 
plained of by the Ind s . of Canada; which You say they receive 
cheifly from the Officers & Men of the 44 th . Regiment, quartered 
in the[/r] Neighbourhood of the Caghnawageys. this mali terat- 
ment shewn them by our Troops & without provocation, Contrary 
to the assurances given them last Year at the Treaty held at 
Caghnawagey, 2 will I fear be found in y e . end to be verry bad 
policy, whatever the Gentlemen of the Army, & those at the head 
of Affairs here may think of it. You will doubtless endeavour 
to quiet their minds as much as you can, and tell them there must 
be allowances made for little riots, or 111 behaviour now & then 
of some Soldiers, who by taking too much liquor, may have been 
led to commit Irregularities, and assure them His Majesty intends 
them nor no Nation of Indians any Harm, as long as they behave 
properly, on the contrary, gives the greatest assurences of his 
protecting all such Nations, as have any right to expect it. 
which they of Canada, as well as others (from the engagements 
they entered into with me last Year,) have.; — Your giveing or 
getting them Amunition was verry right, as without that they 
cannot hunt, or subsist well, besides keeping it from them would 

1 Pani, a term regularly used to denote an Indian slave. 

2 Caghnawaga, Sault St. Louis, south of St. Lawrence River, near 

270 Sir William Johnson Papers 

doubtless make them, & all other Nations harbour bad thoughts 
of us. — which I am verry sorry is already the case with almost all 
the Nations we have any knowledge of. This makes my manage- 
ment of them, & their affairs so verry difficult, & disagreable, that 
I heartily wish I was clear of it. \ 

Major Ruthorford, Duncan (who I hear has Sold out,) Symes, 
Coventry, Bradstreet & many more have got leave from the Gener- 
al 1 to establish Settlements on the Niagra Carrying place & about 
there, for w h . end they have purchased many Oxen, horses. Carts 
Waggons & ca . and are now Sending them up to begin the Settle- 
ment. I gave M r . Rutherford & Duncan my Opinion thereon, 
and shall to the General when I see him at Alb?, if they persist 
in their Scheme, I am certain it will confirm all the Nations in the 
opinion they long have had, of our design of rooting them out of 
their Country. w l . the consequence will be, time only will shew, 
but I must own I dread it/ — I will endeavour when I have a 
little leasure to look over Stoddarts Books, & Send You an Ace"/ 
of the Debts due to him, 2 if to be found. 

I am 


Your verry Humble Serv*. 
W M . Johnson 
My Compliments to M r . Ogilvie 
& Spouse, & to all enquireing Freinds — 

1 See Amherst to Johnson, May 7, 1761, Johnson Papers, 3:387. 

2 Affairs of Benjamin Stoddert, killed at Lake George, which Claus 
was asked to settle. 

Seven Years' War 271 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Sufield 2 22 May. 1761 

There has been kept up in the Government of Connecticut for 
Several Years past a School, 3 under the direction of the Rev d . 
Eleaz r . Wheelock (a very Worthy honest Gent n .) for Instructing 
of Indian Children in Such Knowledge as Shall best qualify them 
for Service which has Obtained Such Repute as to induce y e . 
Hon Ie . Society In Scotland for Propagating christian Knowledge, 
to allow to that School a Sum of Money for the Education of a 
Number of Young Indians of the Six Nations and the Barer 
hereof Now Waits on You for Your Advice and Assistance to 
Send down to the Care of s d . M r . Wheelock Six Young Men of 
those Nations. I assure You he is a Gentleman who keeps good 
order in his School and is as likely a Man to educate them Well, 
and to fit them for Service as any Man amongst us, So that I doubt 
not but y f . You Will be Willing to point out Such Young men as 
will be most likely to receive Benefit thereby. I am with great 

Your Most Obed 1 . 
Hum le . Serv*. 

P. Lyman 
Gen l . Johnson 

addressed : 

To the Honourable 

Sir Will m . Johnson Bar 

Mount Johnson 

1 In Dartmouth College Library. 

2 Connecticut. 

3 Moor's Charity School, established at Lebanon, Connecticut, in 1 754. 
This name was dropped in 1 758, and the school was moved to Hanover, 
New Hampshire, in 1 769. Wheelock's Narrative gives the name as 
"Indian Charity School." 

272 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Copy of Gen 1 . Lyman's 
Letter to Gen 1 . Johnson 
May 1761 


A. Df. S. 1 

Lebanon 27. May. 1761 . 
Sir v v 

The Hon le . Comiss rs . of the Society in Scotland for Propagat- 
ing christian Knowledge have granted a Support for three Boys 
of the Six Nations at the School under my Care in order to their 
being fitted as Soon as may be for Interpreters, or other publick 
usefulness among their Own Nations, and the Disposition to Lib- 
erility toward Such a design, appearing in a Number is Such, as 
that I have determined to add three More at My own Risque, 
the Barer who is one of my Pupils waits upon Your Hon r . to be 

advised and assisted in the Affair. The chusing [of ] 2 

Such as are Suitable for the Purpose and most likely to Answer 
the End purpos'd, as also y e . using proper Endeavours to [induce] 
Move them to Accept the Offer of An Education now made 
them, is principally referred to you, as being best able to Judge 
of the Persons, and Influence them in the Affair. 

Your Hon 1- [will please to] if you think fit may let them 
know y*. the Government of this School Will be easie [Govern- 
ment] to them if they Will be Orderly, virtuous and industrious 
in improving their Time [and Opportunity & virtues] ; Other- 
wise there will be no easie living for them here. 

If they behave well, and My Life Shall be continued there 
is the greatest Probability they may Continue here 'till the Design 

1 In Dartmouth College Library. 

2 Words italicized and in brackets are crossed out in the manuscript. 

Seven Years' War 273 

of their coming be Ottained. but if they Shall behave ill they 
Will be sent Home to make way for Others Who will prize and 
improve such a Priviledge. or if I should be removed by Death 
or otherwise disabled to act in the Affair the Consequence may 
be [this] that three Will be chosen out of the Six to be the Sub- 
jects of the Society's Benefit and the Other three Sent Home, 
unless as is most probable Other Provision shall be made for 
them. I shall be glad to be advised as to their Diet, Lodging 
and any thing you may think proper to preserve their Health. — 
And that the Matter may be accomplished and the Barer return, 
With them, to his Studies as soon as may be. — I am With Much 
Esteem and Respect 

Your Honours Most Obed*. & Most Hum ,e 
Serv 1 . 

Eleazar Wheelock 
The Hon le . S R . W M . Johnson Baron. 

P.S. M r . Occom 1 an Ordained Indian Minister of Long Island 
(by the Motion of M r . KirkPaterick Who Attended Your Hon r . 
in the Last campaign in the Capacity of Chaplin to Coll Scuyler's 2 
Regi mt .) Was going on a Mission to the Oneidas supported by 
Some Gentlemen in N York Governm 1 Whom the Young Indian 
from this School Was to Accompany in his Journey to You Was 
taken Sick [/ hear] on his Way before he left [Long] the Island 
for Which Reason the Journey of this Young Man is a little 
delayd till he can hear further from M r . Occom and of the Issue 
of his Sickness. I tho't proper nevertheless to Send this With 
Gen 1 . Lyman's 3 to the Care of M r . Forscey of Albany, to be 
carefully transmitted to You that You might have Intilligence 
of the Affair and proceed in it as you shall see fit preparitory to 
his coming [as You] which you may expect in a very Short Time 

1 Samson Occum, a Mohegan Indian missionary to the Indians. 

2 Colonel Philip John Schuyler. 

3 Lyman to Johnson, May 22, 1 761, ante p. 271. 

274 Sir William Johnson Papers 

if Sickness or Death dont prevent, or the Expence & Trouble 

of the Attempt be not prevented by advice from your Honour 

y l . y e . Design is impracticable or very doubtful of which Advice 

I pray Your Honour Will be so good as to send me Word if 

that be the Case. 

I am y r . Hon r . as before. 

Eleazar Wheelock 

indorsed : 

Letter to Gen 1 . Johnson 

to send Boys Jun. 1, 1761. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Albany 30 th . May 1761.— 

It is but Since My Arrival here that I had the pleasure of 
receiving Your Letter of the 21 st . of March, 2 Which, I suppose 
has followed me from New York to this place. — 

The Wise Measures You have taken, for getting the best 
Intelligence of the Different Indian Nations, I think, cannot fail 
of Success. — 

I Have Sent to Lake Erie to prepare and Build two Armed 
Vessells for Exploring the upper Lakes, and to See the Situation 
of the Posts, and the State of the Country near the Lakes. — 

I am hopefull that time will permit me to take a Tour that way; 
and I Shall Desire the favor of Your Company that Everything 
in regard to the Indians May be Put upon the best footing;/ And 
I shall try to Convince them by all Means that are in my Power, 
that they are; and must be more happy under the protection of 
the King, than When the French were masters of the Country. — 

I am much obliged to You for Your Opinion, WTiich You 
have given me of the State of Indian Affairs; You are the best 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 Ante p. 243. 

Seven Years' War 275 

Judge of What will best Conduce to Secure them in our friend- 
ship; and I shall always be glad to have Your Sentiments 
thereon. — 

I think Lieut. Claus Should have the Same Allowance As 
Your other Deputies; from Your Recommendation of him, I 
am Convinced he is the properest person for the Care of the 
Indians in Canada; and it is for the good of His Majesty's Service 
that he Should Continue there. — 

I remember perfectly well, What You mentioned of Kass 
the German. — 

I Shall Order Colonel Williamson to Deliver You Three 
Hundred Weight of Powder on Your Sending for it If I knew, 
Who to deliver it to here for You, it Should be immediately 
done. — 

The time I Shall take the Tour on the Lakes, will depend on 
My being able to finish the Business I have here, of Which I 
Shall give You Notice; and if You think of any thing that is 
necessary to be done, or taken, for the Indians in the Upper Coun- 
trys, I Should be glad You would Inform me thereof. — 

Cap 1 . D'Arcy will Deliver You this. — 

I am, with great Truth, and Regard, 

Sir, &ca 
Sir W m . Johnson, Baronet. 


Copy 1 

N. Y. June 2» d 1761. 
Dear Sir 

I have the honor of your congratulation of the 12 th of last 
month on my recovery, & your kind declarations of Friendship. 

The Day that the Members of Albany left this place they 
told me that it was thought the Sheriff of Albany could not live 

1 Printed in Collections of the NeTv York Historical Society, 1 876, 
The Colden Papers, p. 87. 

276 .Sir William Johnson Papers 

many days & hoped that I would take their recommendation in 
case of his death for another to succeed him, which I promised 
I would & they have recommended Guisbert Merselius. 1 Yester- 
day morning at the same time I received their recommendation 
G 1 Moncton came to me & in G 1 Amhersts name & his own 
recommended Hermanus Schuyler. 2 This is so powerful a recom- 
mendation that I cannot withstand Only I have taken the Liberty 
of informing G 1 Amherst of my previous promise, but in case he 
continues to think that the appointment of Schuyler is more for 
his Majesties Service I shall think myself absolved from my 
promise to the Albany members. You may see the difficulties 
I am under & that I often cannot serve those I am most desirous 
of serving. 

It is really true that by my indisposition the affair of the Land 
you mention had entirely escaped my memory. 

I had several times discoursed with M r . Banyar on that subject 
& have again lately. We were both of opinion that it would be 
attended with perhaps insuperable difficulties in Council otherwise 
than by some compromise with the Gentlemen who had obtained 
a License to purchase the same Lands. M r . Banyar tells me 
that he had wrote largely on that subject for which reason I think 
it needless to add more. 

Every disappointment in serving you gives me pain, but I 
hope to have the pleasure of shewing with what high esteem & 
respect I am Sir 

By the Ship Prince George Capt n Finglass. 

1 Guysbert Marselis, skipper of a Hudson River sloop. 

2 His appointment as sheriff announced, Johnson Papers, 3:207. 

Seven Years' War 277 


A. L. 1 

Albany June 2 d . 1761 

I came yesterday to town to wait on the General haveing Sent 
Capt n . Darcy for me, on waiting of him, he told me he would 
be glad of my Company to Detroit Niagra & ca ., when I should 
have opertunity of Seeing and Settleing Matters on a good foot- 
ing with all the Nations liveing that way. We will not be ready 
to Sett of for some time, as the provincials come in verry slow — 
the General does not let this [be] known to any Body yet, so 
that you need not Say any thing about it. He does not choose 
You should leave where You are, as he thinks it would not be 
for his Majestys Service. So that You must content yourself 
w t}l . y r . present scituation awhile. You may when I am gone 
acquaint the Caghnawageys of my takeing that Tour. — 


Fort Johnson 7 th . June 1761 

Agreable to your Excellencys desire I have considered of, 
and made out as *p inclosed, what will be necessary to take along 
for the use of the Indians, or rather as presents to be given to 
such Nations of the Westeren, and other Tribes as may prove 
deserveing of it. the Sum, or amount will perhaps appear much 
to y r . Excellency but let me assure You Sir, that takeing less 
will be doing nothing. 

You have also herewith the account of Pay due to the Officers 
of my department, for which w*. a Ballance comeing to me of 

1 In Canadian Archives, Claus Papers, Vol. 1, M. 104, p. 50. 

2 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. A copy is in Canadian 
Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

278 Sir IVilliam Johnson Papers 

about £300 Currcy., and a little to have in hand, to carry on 
the Service, I should be glad to have a Warrant for a £ 1 000 
Sterlg. so as to discharge them debts before I leave home, if Your 
Excellency approves the former, I shall loose no time in ordering 
the things to be bought and made ready. 

I hope this will find Your Excellency perfectly recovered of 
your late indisposition 

as I am with the greatest Sincerity & respect 

Your Excellencys 

Most Obedient, & 

Most Humble Servant. 
W M . Johnson 
His Excellency 
General Amherst 

[7?] June^ 


A. D. S. 1 

Goods necessary as a Present, to be Given to the 
Westeren Indians at the intended Meeting with them 

40 peices of different colours Strowds £500. . — . . — 

400 Rolls & peices of Gartering & Gimps .... 1 40 . . — 

20 p s . of different kinds of Stocking Stuff. ... 180. . — 

20 D°. of Blankets Sorted 240. . — , 

400 Ready made Shirts different Sorts & sizes . 1 80 . . — . 

100 pound of Virmillion 70. .— 

a parcel of Silver meddals & Gorgets & ca . for 

Sachims & ca 1 00. .- 

Looking Glasses 20. .— 

White black & other colours small Beeds. ... 20. .— 

Knives, Razors, Combs, & Scizars 30. .— 

Brass Wire, Awl blades, needles & thread. ... 30. .— 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39 ; enclosed in Johnson to 
Amherst, June 7, 1761, ante p. 277. 

Seven Years' War 279 

Jews Harps, and Steels for Strikeing fire. ... 35. 

50 laced Hatts 100. 

30 p s . of ribbonds 30 . 

Pipes & Tobacco, being an Article greatly 

esteemed 60. 

a parcel of common Rings, & Hawk bells 10. 

Kettles of brass, & Tin 100. 

Currency. £1845..— 

there are many other Articles would be verry 

necessary & acceptable to them, but did not choose 

to insert them here, least it might be thought 

too much, the above mentioned, next to Gun powder, lead & 

Flints, and Arms will be most acceptable. — 

Arms and Amunition will be expected by what ever Nation 

enters into an Alliance with Us. — 

W M . Johnson 


A. Df. S. 1 

Lebanon In Connecticut June 9, 1761 . 

The Barer David Fowler 2 one of my Indian Schollars, in Com- 
pany with the Rev d Samson Occom Now Waits upon Your 
Honour, pursuant to the Desire and by the Direction of the 
[Honorable] 3 Comiss rs of the Hon ,e Society in Scotland for 
Propagating christian Knowledge, and asks Your Honours Direc- 
tion and Assistance to procure Six likely Male Youth of the Six 
Nations to be conducted hither to the School Under My Care for 
an Education in such Parts of Learning as may render them Most 

1 In Dartmouth College Library. 

2 A Montauk Indian. 

5 Words italicized and in brackets are crossed out in manuscript. 

280 Sir William Johnson Papers 

useful among their Tribes and perticularly to be fitted for In- 

The Hon le Comiss rs have granted [a] Support for Three, the 
Other Three I take at My own Risque. 

They Must Expect to be Subject to the Government of the 
School as English Youth in it are, and if they be Orderly & 
Diligent they Will find it an Easy [one] government but if 
otherwise they [Will not], they Must expect to be sent back 
to Make Way for Others Who will prize and Improve [S — ] 
the Previlidge. 

I trust You have before Now Rec d . the Letters from Gen 1 . 
Lyman & Myself 1 Which I sent forward Some Days ago. And 
that You will approve and gladly promote the Design. M r . 
Occom Can give You a [more] full Account of the Affair. 

I should be glad to have it Accomplished as soon as May be 
that David Might return With them to his Studies. I am with 
Much Respect 

Your Hon rs Most Obed 1 . 

& most Humble Servant 
Eleazar Wheelock 
Gen l . Johnson 

[The Hon le . S r . W m . Johnson Baron 1 .] 


Letter to Gen 1 . Johnson 

by David Fowler June 9. 1 761 . 

1 Ante pp. 271-72. 

Seven Years' 1 War 281 


Castle Cumberland June I I lh . 1761 

Since I wrote You from Albany y e . 2 d . Ins 1 ., 2 have received 
yours of y e . 24 th . Ult°., 3 by which I am glad to find, that part of 
a former letter of yours, cleared up, so as remove the 111 impres- 
sion it, (at the time I received it) made, as well as the uneasiness 
it gave me since on different acc tts . which I shall now think no 
more of. — and only add this, that I would not have you make 
any advances that way until your arrival here whenever it may 
be. the General is not for Your Stirring from thence as You 
will find by my last letter from Albany. — 

I am verry glad to hear that there seems to be a better under- 
standing of late between the Troops, & Ind s ., and that all 
Jealousies are likely to subside. — M r . Amherst told me he 
wrote to Gage to see that the Indians are used as well as they 
deserve, w h . I reckon has had some effect, and perhaps produced 
that change of conduct towards them. 

You are right in sending a Message by the few Ottawawaes 
who are going home, & let them know w l . they, and all other 
Nations are to expect from Us, as long as they behave well, & 
friendly to All his Majestys Subjects. 

*1 am sensible of the great effect Religion has on all Indians, 
and think it should be encouraged as much as possible, as well 
out of a christian Principle, as good Policy, but then it should 
not be the Roman Catholick Religion for their Preists will always 
infuse such principles into them, as must be prejudicial to the 
English interest in spight of all threats or rewards, -r- 

I have not as yet learned that our People were in possession 

1 In Canadian Archives, Miscellaneous Papers, 1714-1790, Claus 
Papers, W. Vol. 14. 

2 Ante p. 277. 

3 Johnson Papers, 3:393. 

282 Sir William Johnson Papers 

of Missillimackinack, however, they soon will I suppose. When 
they are, and behave well to them Indians, I dare say they will 
be well enough pleased with the change, for all People ever so 
rude, know something of their own Interest. -^/ 

M r . Roubauds Letter 1 I have with Yours, but can make noth- 
ing of it. whenever he writes me, I would have you open & 
translate his letter, & Send me both. 

The Acc lt . of Capt n . Lotteradge may easily be adjusted when 
we are all together, give my Compliments to him & tell him I 
expect he will not forget a good Dog he promised me. 

Remember me to Mess rs . Welles & Wade 2 whom I congratu- 
late on their safe, & early arrival with their Cargoe and wish 
them a good sale for them, tell Welles I expect he will write me, 
altho I doubt (unless it is soon) it's reaching me at Home, as I 
believe I shall be obliged to take a long Tour this Summer. — 
I shall be glad to have the horse Safe, as for the Vines, it is not 
a time now to plant them. I shall be verry glad, if you would 
this Summer collect a parcel of the best Garden Seeds of everry 
kind for me, so that I may try them next Spring in my new 
Garden, w h . is 2 Acres & near a half without a Root or Stump. — 
if I was to remain at home this Summer, I should make con- 
siderable improvements here. 

I am busy clearing Land at Dennis Maddins also, where I 
propose please God to build Mills for the use of y e upper part 
of the Pattent. — I have but about 50 Familys Settled as yet, 
but expect many more towards Fall. — 

The Land, w h . you are told I am takeing up near to Conajo- 
hare, lyes opposite the Castle, and got a Deed of Gift of it last 
Fall from the Ind s ., who unanimously & Voluntarily Sent for 
me, and at a full Meeting, made me a Present of it. were it now 
not so far gone & on another footing, I should have no Objection 
to y u . or M r . Ogilvie being concerned, pray give my kind re- 

1 Missing; see Johnson Papers, 3:395, footnote 1. 

2 John Welles and Matthew Wade, traders who had gone to Montreal. 
See Wells to Johnson, Johnson Calendar, p. 124. The partnership was 
dissolved in November 1765, ibid., 129. 

Seven Years' War 283 

spects to him, & tell him his* Children are verry uneasy at his 
absence from them. — *Y e . Mohawks 

You forgot to inclose y e . Acc ,ts . You mention. 

As the Breed of Wild Geese are very plenty in Canada I 
wish You would secure & Send me 4 Geese & 2 Ganders for 
Breed, and send them by some safe Hand who will take Care 
of them. 

I had a letter this Day from Coll°. Van Derheyden, 1 begging 
to have a pass for M r . Dirk Van Derheyden & M r . Stringer, 
who are at Montreal and want to trade among the Indians, if 
there is no reason or objection can be made to it, I would have 
You give, or get them a pass, altho I think all passes for Indian 
Trade should come from Me, & Deputys, w h . is y e . only perquisite 
I ever had, or indeed that I know I can have, altho my Commis- 
sion intimates, as if there were severall kinds of perquisites & 
advantages. I give all passes here for Indian Trade to Detroit, 
& ca . w lh . General Amhersts knowledge, & consent, it should be 
the Same there.. 

We have no news here of any moment so conclude 

Yours as ever 

W M . Johnson 
Lieu t . Daniel Claus — 

indorsed : 

S r . W m . Johnsons Letter 
11*. June 1761. 

David Van Der Heyden, of Albany. 


284 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Albany, II th . June 1761. 

I am to thank You for Your Letter of the 7 th . Instant, Which 
I had the favor of receiving on the 9 th ., Enclosing a List of 
Goods, 2 that You Judge Necessary as Presents, to be given to 
the Western, & Other Tribes of the Indian Nations about the 
Detroit ; as also An Accompt of Pay due to the Officers in Your 
Department. — 

I am, in the first place, to Observe, that the Amount of the 
Goods, Supposed Necessary for the Indians, is really a large Sum ; 
but You are the best Judge of What is Necessary to give them ; I 
must only Desire You will Confine it to Such only, as are Absolute- 
ly requisite; that no Expence May be Incurred, that can be 
Avoided ; And I Must beg the favor of You to prepare Accord- 
ingly, of that List, What You think absolutely necessary. I Should 
think the Strowds may be taken off, Which is a heavy Article, 
And the Other things are Sufficient to please them; for it is not 
My Intention ever to Attempt to gain the Friendship of Indians 
by presents: — As to Gun Powder, Lead, & Flints, the Indians 
will be furnished with them from the Several posts; Arms they 
have in Abundance, and I would not Encrease the Number. — 

I Greatly fear, time will not permit me to make the Tour to 
the Detroit, as I Intended: the tardiness of the Governments in 
Sending the Provincial Troops to their Rendezvous here; And 
the time Approaching in which Some Material Operations are to 
be Carried on, that makes my presence necessary this way, will 
debar me having the pleasure of Your Company in the Tour 
Which I intended; and I think it of So much Consequence to 
Settle all Affairs upon a good footing, with those Upper Indians 
that I must Desire, You will be prepared for making a Visit to 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 Ante pp. 277-79. 

Seven Years' War 285 

the Detroit; And that You will let me know When You can 
conveniently go; When You will have the goods ready; and 
What Batteaus You will require to take them to Oswego. — 

I Have already Acquainted You, I am building two Vessells on 
Lake Erie, & I purpose immediately Sending a Detachment of 
about 300 Men, to help forwarding the building of the Vessells, 
& afterwards to proceed with the Same to the Detroit to Assist 
Cap 1 . Campbell the Commanding Officer there, in relieving the 
Several Advanced posts, Which could not be Effected in the 
Winter (in Case Cap*. Campbell Should not already have done 
it) and for Exploring Lakes Huron, Michigan, & the Country 
round about. — 

If these Vessells Should not be ready by the time You Arrive 
at Lake Erie, I Shall nevertheless put the Officer under Your 
Command to Obey Such Orders as he Shall receive from You; 
& to proceed with You in his Whaleboats, & Batteaus from 
Niagara to the Detroit; and I Judge the Sooner this can take 
place, will be the better for the publick Good. — 

As You Desire a Warrant of a Thousand pounds, I Enclose 
You One for that Sum, and beg the favor of You to have Your 
Accompt made out, Including the things Which You will 
purchase for the Indians, that a Warrant for the Ballance may be 
Granted; Accounting for the Sum You received in February 
last, and that now Granted You. — 

I Have Yesterday received here Twenty One Children that 
General Gage has Sent me from Canada, Who were Still remain- 
ing there, hid by the Inhabitants; Amongst these, I find One 
Daniel taken on the Mohawk River in 1 756; his Parents Dead; 
a little Boy his Cousin, taken at the above place. Jacob Miller 
of the German flatts taken there in 1 759. — 

I Beg the favor of You to Acquaint the Relations of the 
above Children, that they are here, and if they will Come and 
receive them they Shall be Delivered to them. — 

286 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I Send Captain D'Arcy with this, and I am, with the greatest 


Sir Will m . Johnson, Baronet. 


Castle Cumberland June 12 th . 1761 — 

I am honoured with yours of Yesterday 2 by Cap*. Darcy, 
inclosed I have a Warrant for £ 1 000 Sterling for paying the 
Officers still in the Indian Service. 

When I made out the list of goods for a Present to be given to 
y e . Westeren, & other Nations of Indians, who will attend a 
Meeting at Detroit, I do assure You Sir, I used all the frugality, 
which I Judged the good of the Service, & the end intended 
thereby would admit of. and as I observed to your Excellency 
in my letter at that time, that takeing less would be doing nothing. 
I cant help being of the same opinion still, and as to Strowds, it 
is the main Article next to Amunition. — as I have nothing in 
view thereby, nor more at heart than his Majestys Interest and 
my own Credit, by rendering him what Service I can, I would 
choose by all means to go in such a manner as will best answer 
that end, and I flatter myself if I am properly supported, and 
allowed what is necessary, I shall be able to Settle matters with 
all the Nations of Indians that way to your Excellencys Satisfac- 
tion, and the Interest of y e . Government. 

but this I am to observe to You Sir, and you may depend upon 
it, that unless all our Old, as well as New Indian Allies are allowed 
Amunition for their Livelyhood, or hunting, all Treaties held 
with, or Presents made to them will never secure their friend- 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

2 Ante p. 284. 

Seven Years' War 287 

ship, for they will in such case ever be Jealous of Us, as I find 
they are a good deal so already, by reason of their not being able 
to get, or purchase any from Us. — I therefore think it will be 
absolutely necessary to have it in my power to give them, what I 
may see requisite, they may at present do with what Arms they 
have, but should they request Smiths among them, to repair & 
keep in order what they have, as well as their working Utensils, I 
should have it in my power to allow Such, if I find they deserve 
it, which when among them, I shall soon be able to Judge. — 

I expect to have everry thing necessary for my Journey ready 
in about a fourth night, when I shall use all the dispatch possible 
to get there. I think I shall want at least five large Battoes 
well manned, and a good Whealboat for myself. — I doubt not 
Sir, but You will furnish me with such Orders, as will prevent 
any delay, or my being at a loss at any of the Posts along the 
Way, for provisions for my Party, Boats, Carriages, or any 
necessary Assistance I may have Occasion for. — 

You may depend upon it Sir, I shall abuse no power you may 
think proper to invest me with. — 

As I have not time to have any Acc lt . drawn out now without 
delaying Capt n . Darcy, I shall have it done, & sent down in a 
few days. — 

If the Children whom Genr 1 . Gage Sent from Canada were 
here at my House, their Parents & Relations could verry soon 
have them. If You think proper to order them here, I shall think 
it no trouble to keep them until taken away. — As Lieu 1 . Guy 
Johnson of the Independants, would be very Serviceable, I 
should take it as a favour, if Your Excellency will allow him 
to Accompany me the Tour. — 

I am with all imaginable Esteem 
Y r . Excellencys 
Most Obedient & 

most Humble Servant 
W M . Johnson 

His Excellency 

General Amherst 

288 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Sir William Johnson. 

Castle Cumberland, 12 th . June 1761 

Rec d 14 th . Ditto. 

Ans d 1 5 th . Ditto 


A.D.S. 1 

Memorandum for Capt n . Darcy to speak to General Amherst for 
a Dozen Horsemens Tents, haveing forgot to mention it in my 
Letter. 2 they are for putting y e . Stores & Goods in, in case of 
bad weather. 

W M . Johnson 



from Sir W m . Johnson 

Rec d . with his Letter of the 

12*. June 1761 —the 14*. D°. 


Contemporary Copy* 

Albany, 15 th . June 1761. 

Captain D'Arcy has Yesterday Delivered Me Your Letter of 
the 1 2 th . Instant. 4 — 

As You Judge that all the Goods Which were Included in 
the List You Sent me, are necessary for Making the proper 
presents to the Indians, I can't but Chearfully Acquiese thereto; 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39 ; enclosed in Johnson to 
Amherst, June 12, 1761, ante p. 286. 

2 Ante p. 286. 

3 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

4 Ante p. 286. 

Seven Years' War 289 

being Assured You would not Incurr any Expence that can be 
reasonably Avoided. — 

I Have ordered Five Batteaus to be provided at Schenectady, 
and I will Direct that a good Whaleboat Shall be got ready at 
Oswego ; for there are none on this Side. — 

I Have also ordered painted Cloths for the Batteaus, As they 
will be Usefull in Keeping the Goods dry; and the Horsemen's 
Tents Shall be delivered here to any one person You Shall Direct 
to receive them. — 

It is not Yet quite determined but that I may have the pleasure 
of Accompanying You, Which I Should be very glad to do, if 
time would but permit me. If I Should not be able to go, You 
may be assured I shall furnish You with the necessary orders for 
receiving Every Assistance You can want. — 

I Shall Send to You the three Children that I mentioned in 
my Letter of the 1 1 th . and Desire You will be so good to deliver 
them to their parents, or Relations; but if they have no parents or 
Relations, I must beg You will Send them back here that they 
may be put into proper hands, that will take Care of them. — 

As You Desire to have Lieut. Johnson 1 with You I will Send 
him Orders that he may be with You, in time to Accompany 

One James Maxwell, Who had Stolen a Batteau belonging to 
the King, at Schenectady, and was Carrying Rum up the Mohawk 
River, Which I believe You heard Reported to me, When I had 
the Pleasure of Seeing You here, has been with me to Intercede for 
His Goods, Which I have Absolutely refused And have taken his 
pass from him; telling him that he must turn his hands to Some 
Other way of Life, for after this Action I cannot Suffer him to 
Trade where the Army is ; I therefore Send You his pass, and beg 
You will please not to give him any further permission. — 

I am, with great Truth, and Regard, 



Sir William Johnson, Baronet 

1 Guy Johnson. 

290 Sir William Johnson Papers 

P : S : On Examining the Children I find a fourth who belongs to 
the Mohawk River viz 1 . James Christis, Whom I likewise Send 
to You. — 


Fort Johnson June J 6 th . J 76 J 

I herewith send Your Excellency the State of my Acc lt ., by 
which it will appear that I have £ 1 76 . .2 . . 10 Curr c x. in my 
hands, for carrying on the Service, when the Warrant is paid. — 

There is now wanting a Warrant for the Goods & ca . which You 
have the list of; the amount of them, as sett down in Said List, 
being but a calculation of my own, I cannot until I have all 
y e . Merch ts . Acc tts . give your Excellency the exact amount. I 
fancy they will not come much less than what I put them down 
at. — Altho You are pleased to think the present intended rather 
large, I am much mistaken (when properly given) if Your 
Excellency dont think it well bestowed, and find it productive of 
a great deal of Good, for which my best endeavours shall be 

used. — 

I am with the greatest respect 

Your Excellencys 

Most Obedient 

Most Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 

His Excellency 
General Amherst 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

Seven Years' War 291 


-/~1 . 1—1. vj. 

For/ Johnson 21 st . June 1 761 — 

I am honoured with your last, and much oblidged for y e . 
assurance you are pleased to give me of ordering all the necessary 
assistance I may stand in need of while on the intended service I 
am going upon, it ought indeed to be pritty generall as it is 
impossible to foresee or know exactly what may be wanted in so 
long a Journey. — I forgot in my last, to observe to y r . Excelly 
that for the proposed Meeting at Detroit, some provisions will be 
wanted to give the Indians while they attend it, as they never 
carry any of their own on those occasions. — the Amunition w h . 
I desired M r . Wade 2 to ask for, I intended to have taken along 
and given to y e . Ind s . on proper occasions, being well assured, that 
if I have none to give them on my first going among them, my 
Journey will not be to much purpose, for I find of late that all 
.the Nations in Alliance with us, & those who might be brought in 
to his Majestys Interest, are verry Jealous & uneasy at the cool- 
ness & indifference w h . they think is shewed towards them, and 
above all at the want of amunition, which they (from w l . the 
French have been telling them, in order to make them more hearty 
in their cause, as well as from their own fears & Jealousy of our 
power) look upon to be done with a design of falling upon them, 
whether these Suspicions are the cause of their not comeing down 
among y e . Inhabitants, & carrying on that friendly intercourse with 
us as usual heretofore, or not, I cannot with certainty say, but I 
imagine it is, and am verry apprehensive that something not right 
is a brewing, and that verry privately among them. I do not only 
mean the Six Nations, I fear it is too generall. whatever it be, I 
shall endeavour to find it out if possible before I return, and take 
the best method I can, of oversetting everry thing I see wrong. — 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

2 Ferrall Wade. 

292 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I shall be glad that the Party w h . is to work up y e . boats was 
ready by next friday or Saturday, at farthest at Schenectady by 
which time I shall be ready to Sett of, haveing no delay but the 
bringing up thither a few Stores of my own, the Tents & oil 
Cloaths, which is done as soon as Your Excellency gives an order 
for them & amunition to be delivered to Mess rs . Kennedy & Lisle 
at Albany, who will forward them imediately. 

The Water in y e . Mohawk River is as low as ever known, so 
that without it rises before I sett the boats of, they cannot take 
halfe loads, even that will be verry difficult, unless the Party 
I am allowed, understands something of that kind of work. — I 
last night received the inclosed letter from one Harkemer 1 liveing 
at the German Flatts, which I find was wrote four days ago. it 
is a very unlucky affair at this time. — I shall, as I go up that 
way, speak to the Oneidaes concerning it, and insist on their 
delivering up the Murderer, & any thing else Your Excellency 
may think proper to direct me. — 

I expect they will have a good deal to say against us, in a 
parrallel case, about three years ago, there were two of their 
People murdered by one of the Inhabitants of Albany, who was 
tradeing among them, he got clear some way, by his haveing a 
connection with the Dutch, that he had not even a Tryal. the Man 
was seen by them often since to pass thro their Country, which I 
heard them often complain in greatly off. the Man I understand 
died at Niagra last Winter, his name was Thomas Smith, the two 
Indians were helpless & dead drunk when he knocked their brains 
out with a Setting Pole, this I do not mention as a palliation 
of what the Indians has lately done, I only acquaint Your Ex- 
cellency of it, least you might not have heard it, & there are 
several such instances. — I am most respectfully 

Your Excellencys 
Most Obedient 
and most Humble Servant 
W M . Johnson 

1 See "From Conrad Frank," June 17, 1 761, Johnson Papers, 3:407. 

Seven Years' War 293 

P.S. I have not as yet received all the Merch ,s . Acc tts . ; when I 
do, which will be in two or three days, I shall send Y r . Excellency 
y e . Amount of the whole, in order to receive y r . Warrant for it. — 


Copy 1 

[Albany, June 22, 1761.] 

By His Excellency Jeffery Amherst Esq r . Major General, & 
Commander in Chief of all His Majesty's Forces in North 
America, & ca .& ca .& ca . 

To Major Gladwin, Commanding His Majesty's 80 th . or Reg 1 , 
of Light Armed Foot. 

As I Judge it necessary to Explore the Upper Lakes, and 
the Country Surrounding them, as well as to Assist Cap*. Camp- 
bell, Commanding at the Detroit, in Calling in all the Out posts of 
the French, & fixing proper Garrisons for the protection & Security 
of the Same ; In Order to Compleat this Service Effectually, I have 
Directed two Vessells to be built on Lake Erie, one of which is to 
Carry Six Four Pounders & Eight Swivels, & the other Four 
Four Pounders & Six Swivels, Which Vessells are building under 
the Direction of Lieut. Robertson, as near as may be to Niagara. 

You are therefore, immediately on the receipt of this to take 
the Whole of the Reg', under Your Command, Excepting a 
Captain, two Subalterns and about 100 men, which You will leave 
for the Defence of Fort W m . Augustus & Oswegatchie; In ad- 
dition to which I have ordered a Captain, two Subalterns, Four 
Serjeants, & one Hundred Men of the New York Troops to 
proceed from Oswego to Fort W m . Augustus, to reinforce that 
post as well as for Continuing & Compleating the Repairs, that 
You are now making there. 

You will therefore leave all such Orders as You have received, 
that regard the Defence of that post, & Oswegatchie, with such 

1 In Canadian Archives, C. O. 5, Vol. 61-62, pp. 566-72. 

294 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Instructions as You Judge Necessary for the said Captain of 
Gage's, who will Continue to Compleat the Repairs; for the 
Direction of which I shall order Ensign Rivez 1 from hence, that 
You may take Lieut Brehme 2 under Your Command, on the 
Service You are now going on, and Lieu 1 . Brehme need not 
wait for Ensign Rivez' Arrival. 

You will therefore with all Convenient Expedition, after 
leaving the Detachm 1 . of near 100 Men as above Directed, take the 
whole Remainder of the Regimt. with their Camp Equipage ; tak- 
ing likewise Your Surgeon with You, as I shall order a Mate for 
the Care of the Men remaining at the Fort ; And You will proceed 
to Oswego, where You will take under Your Charge Ten four 
pounders, which are to be taken from any of the Vessells, with 
fourteen Swivels that I sent from hence to Oswego for that purpose, 
and as much Ammunition as is necessary for these Guns ; and with 
such Batteaus & Whaleboats as You Judge Necessary to take 
with You to proceed to Niagara, where there are Horses & 
Waggons to transport them over the Carrying place; for which 
You will apply to Major Walters; 3 and You will encamp Your 
People, during your stay there, so as to Assist as much as You 
can in building of the Vessells and repairing and putting in 
thorough good order such Batteaus, and Whaleboats, as You shall 
think proper to take over the Lake to the Detroit. 

You will take the Command of the said two Vessells, by giving 
such Directions to Lieu 1 . Robertson, as You shall Judge proper 
& for his following You with one or both to the Detroit, in Case 
they should not be ready time Enough to proceed with You ; My 
Instructions being, that You should Explore in the best Manner 
You Can Lake Huron & Michigan, for which purpose these 
Vessells are built, so that they may pass the Detroit; and You will, 
either with the whole, or a part of Your Command proceed to the 
Detroit before the Vessells are finished, in Case they should take 
up any length of time to Compleat them. 

1 Ensign Charles Rivez of 60th regiment. 

2 Lieut. Dietrick Brehm of 62d regiment. 

3 Major William Walters, of 60th regiment. 

Seven Years' War 295 

I Judge Cap*. Campbell may have relieved the out posts, for 
which he had orders to the Commanding Officers, and I would 
have the Rangers, if there are any yet remaining, Relieved & sent 

Michillimakinac, St. Joseph, the post of La Baye, Miamis and 
oyatonons, 1 will all require small Garrisons; What will be Suf- 
ficient for Keeping these posts, will be best Decided on Your 
Viewing them, which I shall leave to Your Judgement and Dis- 
cretion ; And that You will Settle Accordingly with Cap 1 . Camp- 
bell ; And as the numbers the said Captain has with him I imagine 
will not be Sufficient for Garrisoning these Small posts, I would 
have as many Men as may be wanted for that Service, added to 
Cap 1 . Campbell's Command, and sent from the Garrison of 
Niagara for which an Order shall be Enclosed. 

The Tour You have to take, must require some time to do it, 
And it is necessary You should take a Quantity of provisions with 
You from Oswego to Niagara, from whence You may be 
supplied at any time; but You will of course take as large a 
Quantity with You, when you proceed from Niagara as You think 
You shall Want. 

I have Directed Major Gen 1 . Monckton to order a Block 
house to be built at Saint cTousgey at the South West End of Lake 
Erie, this will be done from the Troops of the Garrison of Presqu' 
Isle & ca . and will not Interfere with Your Command. 

It will be necessary that You should take a proportion of 
Tools with You; Lieu 1 . Brehme will best decide what Quantity 
will be necessary, and as I have ordered up a Large Proportion 
from Montreal to Fort W m . Augustus & Oswego, You will supply 
Yourself there before You set out with what You may want. 

Sir Will m . Johnson will set out in a short time for the Detroit 
to Call together the Indian Nations, & settle all Affairs upon the 
best footing with them; You will obey any Orders You may 
receive from S r . W m . Johnson, in regard to the relieving the posts, 

1 Ouiattonon, site of present Lafayette, Indiana, 

296 Sir William Johnson Papers 

giving him any Assistance he may want, or in Any thing that may 
be required for the Service that he is Carrying on. 

You will take all opportunitys of Acquainting Me of Your 
progress — You will assist Cap 1 . Campbell in doing anything 
that may be necessary for the Defence of the Posts where he Com- 
mands, or that he may require for the Good of the Service. 

I Enclose You Copies of the orders that were sent to the 
officers Commanding the posts ; and a Sketch of the Lakes with a 
Line marking what belongs to Canada, as it was drawn out by 
Mons r . de Vaudreuil. By this You will see all La\e Superior is 
Included in the Capitulation of Canada; so that You will get 
Every Information, and Intelligence You Can of that Lake as 
well as the others before mentioned ; and as this will be the work 
of the Whole Summer You will proceed in such manner as You 
think most Conducive to the Desired End ; And when You have 
Compleated the Whole, You will Return to Niagara, leaving 
such part of the Regiment under Your Command as may be 
absolutely wanted to make up the numbers that Cap 1 . Campbell 
shall Draw from thence; and with the rest You will Return to 
Fort William Augustus. 

Given under my Hand at Head Quarters in Albany this 22 d . 
Day of June 1 761. 


Copy - General Amherst's 

To Major Gladwin. 
Commanding a Detachment of 
300 Men of Gage's for Exploring the 
Upper Lakes & ca . 

Albany, 22<*. June 1761. 
in M. G. Amherst's of Aug*. 13: 1 761 . 

No. 57. 

Seven Years' War 297 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Albany, 24 th June 1761 

I am to own the Receipt of Your Letter of the 1 6 th . Instant, 2 
which I should have immediately Acknowledged; but as I had 
transmitted you a Warrant for one Thousand Pounds Sterling, 
there was nothing that Required a Direct Answer. — 

I am last Night favored with Your Letter of the 2 1 st . Instant 3 
Enclosing a Letter from one Herchheimer, 4 giving an Account of 
One of the Inhabitants being Killed by an Indian ; I am extremely 
Sorry for this Affair, and can't but think it absolutely right that 
the Nation to whom this Indian belongs should be Instantly obliged 
to give the murderer up, that Justice may be done : Had one of 
the Inhabitants Committed a Murder on one of the Indians, I 
Should be for bringing that Inhabitant to Justice in like manner. — 
This is my way of thinking in which I shall never alter — 

The great Slothfullness of the Provincials Arriving here, and 
other Services that will Soon call for my presence, oblige me 
entirely to give over the thoughts of Accompanying You as I 
should have been glad to have done; but I will try to make 
Every thing as Convenient and agreable to You in the Essential 
Service You are going on, as is in my power. 5 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 Ante p. 290. 
8 Ante p. 291. 

4 See "From Conrad Frank," June 17, 1761, Johnson Papers, 3:407. 

5 From this point onward, with but minor differences in style, the letter 
continues as printed in Johnson Papers, 3:421. 

298 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

[June 24 , / 761] 

List of papers Enclosed to Sir W m . Johnson, and Referr'd to in 
the General's Letter to him of the 24 th . June 1 761 2 — Viz*. 

N°. 1 . Extract . . . Gen 1 . Amherst's Orders to 

Major Rogers 12 th Sep 1 1 760. 

2. Ditto . . . Gen 1 . Amherst's Letter to Capt 

Campbell at Detroit 1 2 Apr 1 1 761 

3. Ditto. . .Ditto to Ditto 27 May 

4. Ditto. . .Ditto to Ditto 18 th . June 

5. Ditto. . .Ditto to Ditto 22 d . June 

6. Copy. .Address of the Inhabitants of 

the Detroit to the General 

7. Ditto. .The General's Answer 12 th . April 

8. Ditto . . M r . Navarre's Letter to the 

General 1 th . March 

9. Ditto . . The General's Answer 1 2 th . April 

1 0. Extract. Gen 1 Amherst's Instructions to 

Major Gladwin 3 22 d June 

1 1 . Copy — Intelligence sent by Gen 1 Gage ;" 

being a Letter 4 from a Jesuit at 7 th May 
S*. Ignace to another at MontreaL 

1 2. Ditto — Gen 1 . Amherst's Orders to Capt 

Waters of y e Yorkers 5 24 th June 

1 3. Ditto of the third Article of the Capitu- 

lation of Canada. 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 Amherst to Johnson, June 24, 1 761 , ante p. 297, and Johnson Papers, 

3 Ante p. 293. 

4 This letter will be found in Johnson Papers, 3:412. 

5 Post p. 299. 

Seven Years' War 299 

The following Letters under flying Seal, Viz*. 

To Major Duncan 1 or officer Commanding 

at Fort Ontario 24 th June 

To Major Duncan, 1 or officer Commanding 

at Niagara Ditto 

To Captain Campbell, or officer Command- 
ing at the Detroit Ditto 


Contemporary Copy 2 

[Albany, June 24, 1 761] 

By His Excellency Jeffery Amherst Esq r . &ca, &ca, &ca — 

To Captain Waters of the New York Troops at Schenec- 
tady. — 

Whereas I have this day Directed Lieut. De Garmo, 3 with one 
Serjeant, & Sixteen men of the Yorkers, to proceed to Schenec- 
tady, and to Deliver over to You Such of the above men, as You 
might Chuse to Join to Your Detachment for the Services 
hereafter mentioned; These are therefore to Order and Direct 
You, after taking these men (notwithstanding my Orders to You 
of the 23 d . Instant) to make a Detachment from those under Your 
Command, of One Subaltern, two Serj ts . And Thirty Eight 
men, Such as are most Expert in the Batteau Service, as they are 
Intended for transporting Some Indian Stores to Oswego, And 
You will take the Command of this Detachment, and follow and 
Obey all Such orders as You Shall receive from S r . W m . John- 
son. — 

On the receipt of this You will apply to M r . Glenn 4 for Five 
Batteaus that are Ordered to be ready for Sir W m . Johnson's Use ; 
And You will take these Under Your Care and Charge, remaining 

1 Major Alexander Duncan, of 55th regiment. 

2 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

3 John De Garmo, of New York provincials. 

4 John Glen, Jr. 

300 Sir William Johnson Papers 

with Your Detachm 1 . of one Subaltern two Serjeants & 38 men 
at Schenectady 'till You receive Sir W m . Johnson's Orders. — 

You will Direct the Subaltern officer whom You leave with the 
men, over and above the Number You take with You, to remain 
at Schenectady, to Joyn the first Detachm 1 . of New York Troops 
that may be ordered to Oswego, & to proceed with that 
Detachment. — 

Given &ca. Albany. 24 th . June 1761 — 


f\% Li. WJ. 

Fort Johnson 27 th . June 1761 

Yours of the 24 th . Ins 1 , with the Severall inclosures, 2 I was 
last night honoured with. I have by them, a clear Idea of what 
You intend I should know, and you may depend upon it, Sir I 
shall endeavour all in my power to do everry thing for the best, 
as far as I am able, and should I be so lucky as to answer y r . 
expectations in sending me this Tour, I shall think myself happy, 
& my time well spent. — M r . Croghan delivered me the inclosed, 
by which, and what he tells me, I find there is a great Number of 
the Chiefs of the severall Nations, who were to compose y e . 
intended Meeting at Detroit, called down, and likely now are 
on their way to Pensilvania, on the repeated Invitations received 
from that Government, this agrees with what the Six Nations 
told me the last Winter, which was that they had received three 
Belts from Philadelphia entreating them to come and attend a 
great Meeting which was proposed to be held there this 
Summer. — 

Notwithstanding all this, M r . Hamilton in his letter to me of 
the 12 A . 3 May last, which I shewed your Excellency, when I had 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

2 See A List of Enclosures, June 24, 1761, ante p. 298. 

3 In Johnson Papers, 3:390-392. 

Seven Years' War 301 

the honour of seeing you last at Albany, declares most sincerely 
that he never did since his arrival to the Government send the 
least message or Belt of invitation to them for any purpose 
whatsoever neither had he the least expectation of a visit either of 
freindship or business from them, and that if any other Persons 
of the Province had presumed to send Messages to them, it was 
quite unknown to him and that he would be glad to be made ac- 
quainted w th . their names that they might be dealt with according 
to their deserts. — that government has acted in this manner 
several times since my appointment, and in open opposition to 
measures ordered by former Generals, particularly in the Earl 
of Loudons time, if the Indians are not stopped, & brought back 
to Detroit, the end of my going there will not at all be answered, 
wherefore I now send M r . Croghan back by the way of Pitts- 
borough, that he may let all Indians whom he may meet going to 
Philadelphia or elsewhere, know of my being on my way to 
Detroit, in order to settle all affairs with the Indians in them parts. 
I must beg leave to refer You to M r . Croghan for a more 
particular account of the conduct of that Government in this 
affair. — Capt n . Walters arrived here last night with some Artill- 
ery which he secured at one M r . Wemps within a Mile of my 
House, and is gone this Morning to Schenectady with his Party 
for the five Battoes I am to have, as soon as he returns they shall 
load & sett off, which will not be I believe before Monday or 
tuesday next, as the Water is verry low in the Mohawk River. 
M r . Croghan tells me that by the Rendezvous of the French 
Troops, and Indians at Detroit in 1 759, the Inhabitants were 
plundered, and left so destitute of everry thing, particularly pro- 
visions, & Cattle, that I cannot depend on purchaseing any thing 
from them for the maintenance of the Indians while they attend 
the Treaty, this I doubt not your Excellency will consider, as 

302 Sir William Johnson Papers 

you well know there will be no keeping them without provisions. — 
and that not a small matter. 

I have the honour to be Sir 
with the utmost respect 
Your Excellencys 
Most Obedient, and 
most Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 
His Excellency 

General Amherst — 


Contemporary Copy 1 

[Albany, June 28, 1761] 

Proceedings At a Meeting held at Albany June 28 th . 1761, by 
George Croghan Esq r . Dep?. Agent for Indian affairs with the 
Deputys of the Coghnawagas, Canassadagas, & other Nations of 
Indians, by order of Sir William Johnson Bart — 

Mr. Croghan first Wellcomed them with the usual ceremonies; 
then condoled with them for the loss of the Sachem, who died the 
last Spring at Conassadaga. Then the Indians after going through 
the same ceremony, spoke as follows 

Brother Warraghiyagey 

When you spoke to our Nations in Canada, you cleared the 
road between you & us, & buried every thing that was evil, & 
desired us to forget what was past this war. We now assure you 
Brother that we have acted as you desired us, we assure you of our 
sincerity, & hope you will always direct us, how to promote the 
friendship subsisting between us — 

A belt 8 rows 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

Seven Years' War 303 


Since the beginning of the present war, great Numbers of our 
People and Friends have been lost by the instigation of the 
Evil Spirit, with this belt we therefore gather up the bones on 
both sides, & bury them, that what has happened may be forgot 

A belt 1 1 Rows 


By this belt we desire in behalf of all the Nations that 
you will assist us in strengthening the peace, so happily settled 
between us by you last fall, it is in your power to make it a 
lasting one — 

A belt 1 1 Rows 


This belt is in behalf of our Warriors who have agreed with 
us to asist in strengthening the peace & friendship, & we hope y r . 
warriors will do the same — 

A belt, 8 R s . 


By this Belt I assure you that our Warriors have taken the 
strongest resolutions to behave in such a manner, as will be agreable 
to our brethren, & make this a lasts, peace. 

A belt 9 R. 


You are sensible that 'tis our peoples misfortune to love spiritous 
liquor; but if any of them sh d . behave ill in their liquor, we 
desire you may not abuse them, but on applying to us you shall 
have such satisfaction, as their crime may deserve — 

a black belt 6 Rs 


I have told you the resolutions of our Warriors to strengthen 
the peace. And in case any thing that is Evil, should remain in 
the hearts of any of them; we shall give them a Dose, which 

304 Sir William Johnson Papers 

shall oblige them to Void up their evil thoughts & Cleanse their 
hearts — 

A black belt 5 Rows 


For some time past, there hath been darkness all over this 
land, we therefore now disperse all the dark Clouds, that hath 
hung over our heads, that we, & our Children unborn, may see the 
Sun clear so soon as they come into the World — 

A belt 9 Rows 


You told us the Road was good; but we have found a great 
many stumps in the way. Now Brother we will assist you, & pull 
up all the stumps that is in way, & make the road smooth & 
pleasant from Albany to our Castle at Caghnawaga, for you, & us 
to travel 

A Row'd belt 


Last fall you sent us a Message desiring we might speak to 
the Delawares that live near us, as they were a foolish people, 
& did not behave well ; & promised that you w d . speak to those that 
live near you. We have spoken to those you desired us, and you 
may depend on their good behaviour for the future — 

A belt 9 Rows 


We have delivered you all your flesh and blood, and to 
those Ind s . who have been with you during the War; We desire by 
this belt, that you will speak to the Mohikanders Ind s ., that 
we may see our flesh, and blood, that they have — 

A belt 8 Rows 


We are sorry at this time to have occasion to make complaint, 
but we can't help it, havs. received very ill usage from your 

Seven Years' War 305 

people this winter at the Cedars 1 on our hunts, road, who have 
fired sev 1 . times at our Canoes passing down, & when we came 
on shore, have taken our meat, & what they fancied from us with*, 
pay & beat any of our people severely who grumbled, which, as 
'tis tretm*. we have not been used to, We hope Brother that you 
will give orders, that we may not be used so again — 

A belt 6 Rows 


One of our princip 1 . men being dead, it is our custom to have 
one rear'd up in his room, to assist in Counc 1 ., we therefor apply 
to you to rear up one in his stead as is customary — 

A belt 6 Rows 


We have now done the business we came on, in behalf of the 
sev 1 . Nat 5 , in our Country, accords, to our Custom we can't help 
letting you know that we are in want of ev'ry necessary of life, 
& beg you'll order us a few Guns, & Powder & Lead, Kettles & 
Cloaths, to enable us to hunt for our provisions going home — 

A String 


On all occasions when we formerly visited our fathers, the 
French, they listened to our requests & always pitied our neces- 
sities ; we hope broth 1- , you'll do the same, as we are a poor people, 
& can't well subsist without your assistance — 

A belt 

1 On the St. Lawrence River. 

306 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Fori Johnson 28 th . June 1 761 

I was so much hurried when M r . Croghan left this, that I had 
not time to look over the amount of the goods for the intended 
present, but I have since, & find it more than the first list I gave 
You, occasioned by the high prices of them kind of goods, and 
some material Articles which I had forgot inserting in y e . first list 
such as Wampum, Rum & ca ., so that the whole except some 
trifleing acc tls . at Schenectady not yet sent in, comes to £ 1 250 
Sterling, for which I shall be glad Your Excellency would please 
to order a Warrant, that M r . Wade 2 who I send down on that 
acc lt ., may be enabled to discharge the whole e're I sett off. — 
altho this Sum exceeds what you intended, it will be a mere 
trifle, should there Assemble, as many Indians as I expect, and, 
as it is the first time of my going ami them Nations, (which I 
flatter my self will be verry agreable to them, and I believe of a 
good deal of Service) had I been able to take a proper quantity, 
that Each might Share something worth while of his Majestys 
Bounty, & I am certain it must make a verry good impression on 
the minds of Young & Old, in case it never was repeated. — M r . 
Croghan can now acquaint Your Excellency of that affair, which 
M r . Denny wrote You about, concerning two Hundred Pounds, 
which he had advanced. 

I sincerely wish your Excellency a pleasant & Successfull 

Summer, and am with the greatest Esteem 


Your most Obedient 

and most Humble Servant 

tj. r ,i W M . Johnson 

His Excellency 

General Amherst 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

2 Ferrall Wade. 

Seven Years' War 307 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Albany, 29 th . June 1761 

I Conclude You will be Set out on Your Journey ; but as Your 
Loaded Batteaus, I fear, will take Some time to get up the River 
this dry Season, this will Easily overtake You, and I therefore 
can't omit acknowledging the favor of the Receipt of Your Let- 
ters of the 27 th . & 28 th . Instant. 2 — 

Wl r . Croghan Delivered me the first, Came very opportunely to 
have a Talk with Some Canessadaga Indians Who Came to See 
You; he has Settled Every thing with them: I Shall Send them 
back in good Humour, and Desire General Gage to furnish 
them with Some things that Otherwise Should have been given 
them here, that they May not be too fond of taking this Route. — 

I Think You do Perfectly right in Sending M r . Croghan back 
by the Pensylvania Route, to take back any of the Indians, Who 
may be Coming that way, Who Undoubtedly will be of their 
Chiefs; and it would, in a great measure Destroy the Intent of 
Your Journey, in having them Absent When You Assemble 
the Several Nations at the Detroit. 

The Behavior of the People of Pensylvania, on this occasion, 
is very unwarrantable, and I hope the Governor will punish them 
as he has promised You, and finding out those Who are con- 
cerned in Inviting of the Indians down. — 

I Have wrote to General Monckton to acquaint him of Your 
Assembling the Nations at the Detroit; and that as fresh Provi- 
sions are, What You Would Chuse on that occasion, I think 
the best way of Sending of Live Cattle will be by Pittsburgh. 
M r . Croghan will Speak with Gen 1 . Monckton on this, and Settle 
it. — 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. Also a copy in Canadian 
Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

2 Ante pp. 300, 306. 

308 Sir William Johnson Papers 

As You Desire to have a Warrant for Twelve Hundred and 
Fifty Pounds Sterling, and that You tell Me the Acco ls . already 
Amount to that Sum, I have Signed one for the Same, in favor 
of M r . Ferral Wade, & Delivered it to him that he may Dis- 
charge the Several Bills, agreable to Your Desires to me for that 
purpose; and I shall be glad to have the Accompts, as Soon as 
You Conveniently can that I may Clear the Whole off. — 

As I hear Nothing of Lieut. Johnson, 1 I imagine he may be 
gone across the Country from Fort Edward, to meet You. If he 
Should Come this way, I Shall Send him after You. 

I am, with great Truth & Regard, 


&ca. — 
Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 . 


Fort Johnson June 29 th . 1761 

I yesterday received yours of the — and have only time to tell 
you that y e . Stockbridge Indians expect the Abanakies will come 
soon and replace the Indian they killed, which will make up the 
affair entirely, useing some more form with Belts, such as taking 
y e . Hatchet out of their Head & ca . the sooner it is over the Better. 
I am sorry I cannot be at home to assist them, at the time. They 
must now do it themselves, as I am going for Detroit in a Day 
or two. — French Peter 3 & Capt n . Dick arrived here half an hour 
ago, & told me You & Cap 1 . Lotteradge were well. & that the 
Pawny 4 run away from them, not being tied, w h . might be ex- 

1 Guy Johnson. 

2 In Canadian Archives, Claus Papers, Vol. 1 , M. 104, p. 56. 

3 Peter, alias Tacquayanont, formerly a spy, was a Mohawk who had 
deserted the French in 1 755. Thus he was known as French Peter. 

4 Pani, a term regularly used to describe an Indian slave. 

Seven Years' War 309 

pected. I wish he was sent by a good carefull hand, the next 
time. I have heard nothing of the horse You were to send me this 
long time, I hope he is not cast away. I wish you a pleasant 
Summer, and am with regard 

Your welwisher 

& Humble Servant 
pn W M . Johnson 

I sent Croghan down yesterday 
to Albany to meet & hear what 
the Caghnawageys have to say, 1 
as I am on the Wing myself — 


Copy 2 

Lebanon, June - 1761. 

Your public character, the honor and bounty of the crown 
conferred upon you, and your situation among, and concern for 
the Indian Natives, all invite me to take the freedom to represent 
to you the design of a Charity School instituted in their favor, 
and act the part of a beggar in their behalf, convinced of the 
great neglect of this land, in using so few and feeble endeavours 
to polish and christianize them. We have been persuaded, that 
the education of some of their sons in the liberal arts and sciences, 
as well as in the knowledge and practice of the protestant religion, 
and the fitting of some for missionaries among their respective 
tribes, might have a happy effect to guard them against the influ- 
ence of Jesuits; be an antidote to their idolatrous and savage 
practices; attach them to the English interest, and induce them 
to a cordial subjection to the crown of Britain, and it is to be 
hoped, to a subjection to the king of Zion. 

1 See An Indian Conference, June 28, 1 761 , ante p. 302, for Croghan's 
conference with the Caghnawagas. 

2 Printed in Memoirs of the Rev. Eleazar Wheelock . . . , pp. 227-78. 

310 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Upon my desire the Rev. John Brainard sent me, thirteen 
months ago, two likely Indian boys of the Delaware tribe, to be 
qualified as missionaries among the natives. And towards a fund 
for the support of a charity school, Mr. Moor had given a small 
tenement in this place, and for the same purpose, we have obtained 
subscriptions for five hundred pounds. 

We could wish, Sir, that the affair might appear to you as it 
does to us, worthy the encouragement of all great and good men, 
and that you will account it not the least of your honor, to be 
a friend and patron to it. 

Please to pardon my boldness, and let the nature of the design 
excuse one, who is, though unknown, with much respect, 

Your Honor's very humble servant, 

Eleazar Weelock 

Honorable SlR WlLLIAM JoHNSON, Baron, 
Mount Johnson. 


Cop}) 1 

New York, July 2 nd 1 761. 

I am sorry to find by yours of the 1 8 th . of last Month 2 that I 
have not given you all the satisfaction that I was very desirous 
to do. After G 1 Amherst by letter, and G 1 Monkton in person 
had interposed in favour of M r . Schuyler, I had in prudence no 
choice left, & I flatter myself that you are so much convinced 
of this that you will readily excuse my not complying with your 

But your imagining that any obstruction to your obtaining a 
Grant of the Lands which the Indians have given you by Deed 
of Gift, arises from me, gives me the most uneasiness, because I 

1 Printed in New Yorl( Historical Society Collections, 1876, Colden 
Papers, pp. 96-97. 

2 In Johnson Papers, 3:408-1 1. 

Seven Years' War 3 1 1 

truely took those steps which I and your friends thought the most 
adviseable for your obtaining your purpose. The Council had 
advised to giving a Lycence of purchase to the same lands before 
your Deed of Gift was known to me. After I knew it I stopped 
the issuing of the Lycences and they still remain with me. As to 
other particulars in this affair, I must refer you to what your 
good friend M r Banyar has wrote you on that subject, for he 
has your interest sincerely at heart. 

I cannot allow the Kings right to the Soil of the Lands on the 
East side of Hudsons River to be call'd in question. The Lands 
which I am advised by the Council to Grant to Major Rogers 
and his Associates on the West side of Lake George are evidently 
part of the Lands purchas'd of the Indians the 5th Day of June 
1690 by Godfrey Dellius & granted to him by Letters Patent 
the 3 rd of Sepf following, which Grant was vacated by Act of 
Assembly, confirm'd by Queen Anne and the Land revested 
in the Crown. 

As to the other Purchases of Lands, they are of little con- 
sequence to me, as the grant of these Lands, supposeing the pur- 
chase could be made without delay, cannot with any probability 
pass while the administration is in my hands, but the stopping of 
them may be of great prejudice to the settling of the Country, 
as great numbers of people are now fond of settling in that part 
of the Country, & they likely to draw greater numbers after them. 
If they should be diverted another way, as probably they will, 
it will really be a prejudice to the King & to the Province. 

Be assur'd that I am with the greatest regard S r & c 

P.S. I expect an answer in writing from M r Barclay as to the 
land he has near the Mohawk, which I shall send to you as soon 
as I receive it. The Indians have my permission to build a Church 
at Conajohary. I am & c 

312 Sir William Johnson Papers 

jn.* I—,, v5. 

German Flails July 7 th . 1761 — 

On my arrival here, I met with about thirty of the Cheif Men 
of Oneida & Tuscarora who were on their way to my House in 
order to settle matters relative to the late Murder. I imediately 
assembled them together, and after the Ceremony of condolence 
was gone thro, they expressed their great concern for that unhappy 
accident, and informed me that notwithstanding they had con- 
stantly cautioned their Young Men not to offer the least insult 
to any of the Inhabitants, or their property, unfortunately one 
of them being drunk committed it without their knowledge and 
imediately fled, neither have they as yet been able to learn which 
way he is gone, when they do, and can get him they will readily 
conform to your demand of delivering him up. — they then added 
that as two of their People were some time ago murdered by one 
Smith near this place, for which they never met w th . any redress 
they hoped it would be a means of induceing us to forget the 
late Accident, which was committed so contrary to their inclina- 
tions or intentions. — 

They then addressed me in the name of the Confederate 
Nations, to represent their earnest request that You would pro- 
tect their Lands, and preventing any farther Settlements being 
made thereon, as they were determined not to dispose of any part 
of their Property yet unsold above this place, wh h . they are fre- 
quently solli [ci] tted to do, notwithstanding their resolution to 
keep it in their own hands. 

They complained greatly of the dearness of Indian Goods, 
and their not being allowed to buy powder which must prevent 
their Young Men from hunting for their Support, as to the first, 
I shall look into it at the several Posts where the Traders reside, 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39 ; the first paragraph 
of this letter is printed in slightly different form in Johnson Papers, 3:504. 

Seven Years' War 313 

and regulate the prices in the best manner I can to their satisfac- 
tion, & should be glad to be favoured with you Excellencys 
sentiments regarding the latter, as I am certain it will be a generall 
complaint amongst all the Nations, & to which they will expect 
an answer. 

The extreme lowness of the Water at this season, together with 
some desertions, renders my Journey verry tedious, and will 
necessitate me to get some more Men as soon as I possibly can 
procure them. — 

I sincerely wish you a Successfull & pleasant Summer, and am 

with great truth & respect 

Your Excellencys 
Most Obedient 
& most Humble Servant 
W M . Johnson 
You will excuse the badness of the paper, 
as my baggage is gone forward — 
His Excellency 

General Amherst 

to eleazar wheelock 

Copy 1 

German Flatts, July 7 th, 1761 . 
Rev. Sir 

As I am so far on my way to Detroit, I have only time to 
acknowledge the receipt of yours, 2 and to acquaint you that in 
compliance therewith, have got two Mohawk lads, to go to you 
in order to be instructed; and doubt not but in my way through 
the other nations, I shall be able to send you three or four more, 
so as to complete the number you desire. 

1 Printed in Memoirs of Rev. Eleazar Wheelock ...(1811), pp. 

2 See Wheelock to Johnson, June, 1 761, ante p. 309. 

314 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Mr. Cecum 1 is now here, and proceeds with me tomorrow to 
the Oneida nation, to whom I shall introduce him, and advise 
them cheerfully and thankfully to embrace this favourable op- 
portunity, which, I doubt not will prove greatly to their temporal 
as well as eternal felicity. 

I wish you all the success, which your pious undertaking 
deserves, and am, Rev. Sir, 

Your most humble servant, 

Rev. Mr. Wheelock William J° hnson 


Albany 14 lh July 1761. 
Dear Sir 

I flatter myself you will excuse me the liberty I take in troubling 
you with this, as I imagine among!. st the several Nations of Indians 
at the Detroit, some Furrs may be got which are not to be pro- 
cured here, and I beg the favour of you to desire L f . Johnson 3 
to buy me some black Fox, or any curious Furrs which may be 
found there, that I should be glad to have, to make presents to 
two Ladys in England, which I hope will plead the excuse of 

this trouble from r-. c - 

Dear oir 

Your most Obedient Humble 


S R wm Johnson Bar'. JefF: Amherst 


Albany July 14*. 1761. 
General Amhersts Letter 

1 Rev. Samson Occum (1723-92), a Mohegan pupil of Wheelock, 
famed as an itinerant preacher in New England. 

2 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

3 Guy Johnson. 

4 In Johnson's hand. 

Seven Years' War 315 


Albany 19th July 1761 

May It Please Your Excellency. 

I am sent by Sir William Johnson to pay a draft of £800 
St&. which Capt. Daniel Clause drew on him in favour of Capt n . 
Williamoz (its payable heare) I offered to pay it at the rate of 
4/8 ^3 dollar which was M r . Clause's Directions and Sir William 
Johnson Orders me Except Your Excellency Ordered it Other- 
wise — M r . Van Schaayk 2 in whose hand the draft is has refused 
to Receive the Money at that rate I mentioned to him that Capt n . 
Coventry paid Cap n . Crookshanks at 4/8 the dollar — would be 
Glad to have Your Excellencys orders — I am 

with the Greatest Respect 
Your Excellency's 
Most Obedient & most humble 

Ferrall Wade 


M'. Ferrall Wade. 
Albany 19* July 1761 
Rec d — same day 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. See Clans to Johnson, 
Sept. 30, 1761, Johnson Papers, 3:546. 

2 Henry Van Schaak, of Albany. 

316 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary) Cop}; 1 

Fort Pitt July 25*. 1 761 

I arrived heer three days ago and immediately sent messages 
to the principal indians of the deferant Nations to meet me at the 
Bever's Town on my way to Sanduskee for which place I set Off 
this evening in my way to D'Troit. here is no cattle to take To 
D'Troit nor can the party set off with me to Sanduskee to Build 
the Block house there for want of provisions, and twenty Days 
ago the Carpenter's was not arriv'd at Prisqu-Isle to build The 
vessels for reconitering the uper Laks. 

I have spoke to several indians of the six Nations Dallaways 
and Shanneys and cant find by any of them That those Nations 
make any Complaints, or seem much Uneasy on any account, 
but an Old Six Nation indian from The Sinica Country says 
that the six Nations, are very uneassy And make great complaints 
of the usage they have meet from the General Since the reduction 
of Cannada, and says it is True they have acquainted all those 
westren indians of it, and Seems very jealous that the English 
have some bad designs Against them, but he Says the Six nation 
Message must have been misrepresented to give rise to the leat 
Alarm, what Step's the Six Nations may take hereafter, he 
declairs, he dos Not know, nor do's he belive they have come 
to any resolution Themselv's as yet 

What they complain Of is as follows, they Say that dureing 
the warr, they were call'd frequently, by all the Kings, Generals, 
one after another, from time to time when any Service's was 
wanted of them, that before they declaired Oppenly in favour 
of the English, that they all-ways gave intelligence of the Enemys 
motion; that when they had declaired themselv's in favour of the 
English they sent five hundred men to join General Abercrumby, 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Cadwallader Collection. This 
copy addressed to General Monckton was sent also to Sir William. 

Seven Years' War 3 1 7 

that they sent one thousand men With Sir William Johnson 
against Nigara, and aledge that if they had not joined the English 
there, the place had not Been taken, and last year they say they 
joined General Amherst with as many men as they could spare 
out of thier Country, and would have gon to Mountreal with him 
But he would not Suffier them to prosequte the warr agreeable 
to thier own custom, against his Majestys Enemy s Which they 
wanted to do in Order to take full revenge of the French, for 
the former insults thier Ancesters had received, on the first Settle- 
ing of Cannada (by this your honour Will see that those people 
never forget, nor forgive) and they thot thier turning back 
at a time when the General seemed not to want them, could not 
give Sufficheant reasson to refuse them a free and Oppen tread 
and communications in thier own Country (as they call it) and 
farther they say that the General has given away a part of The 
Country, which the King has long ago promist to Keep for thier 
use. those he says is the Grivences That he has herd them, in 
thier councils complain Off, and he says they Expect nothing but 
that the General intends to Attempt inslaving them. 

He farther informs me that three days Ago, he meet about 
fifteen miles up the Ohio tow 1 Cheraokie indians (who was for- 
merly prisnors amoungse the Six Nations) going to the Sinica 
Country with Messages To the six Nations, that those Cherrokees 
tould him that The Cherrokees had had a battle with part of the 
Armey To the Southard, and had beat the English, but could 
give No perticulours. by what I can learn from principal Men 
of the Shanneys, from the uper Towns, it appeers to me that 
they are in the utmost Confusion about our prisnors; that they 
have got About fourty to Deliver up ; but cannot agree amoungst 
themselvs, to deliver up the whole at onest; I pushed them on 
This Subject before I went down, and they have been hard pusht 
Since I went down by Col°. Bouquet, they have no laws to 
Oblige thier people but by presueassion and the prisnors by 
Adoption is a property of the Familys they live with ; and I make 



318 Sir William Johnson Papers 

no doubt but In time they will be chiefly got from them and the 
Delaways to; unless those who will not lave them (many to my 
knowledge has been at liberty Some time) and I cannot prevaile 
on them to go Home boath men and woman; Whether now to 
Distress the Shanneys to much, at this time on this Account if 
they shoe a good inclanation to behave Well by delivering a 
number might not push them To be guilty of some rash and 
inconsiderate behavour, without Considering the consequences, I 
must refer to your Excellency's Consideration, and when I know 
Your Orders on this head I Shall punctually Obey them. I am 
Sorry to acquaint you that the Expence Since my Departure, for 
Expreses Serviceses don & some small Presents will amount to 
above four hundred pounds. 

The Delaways is to meet me at the Bevers Town, when I will 
acquaint them of Hickman being kill'd, and Condole with them 
on the Occasion (As he was a man of some Consequence) and 
do Everything in my power to promote the good of his Majestys 
Indian Intrest amoungst those Nations, and at As Small an 
Expence as the nature of the service will admit. 

I am with great Esteem and regard your 

Excellencys Most 
Obedient Servant 
To His Excellency 

Major General Monckton 


Publick Letter that passed 
between G. C. and General 
Stanwix, Monckton, Amhurst 
& Gage and 
S r . W m . Johnston 

Seven Years' War 319 


A. L. S. 1 

Fort Niagra July 26 th . 1761 — 
Dear Sir/ 

I arrived here in one of the Vessels two days ago, left my Boats 
behind in y e . Wood Creek near Fort Stanwix, and now wait 
for their, & Major Gladwin of the Light Infantrys coming up, it 
will take them a Week to get over all the Boats & things they 
have with them, when they arrive I shall make all the Haste 
possible. Major Gladwin, with 300 Light Infantry is going to 
explore the Lakes Huron & Mitchigan, & to see the Severall 
Posts garrisoned which are Surrendered to us by the Capitula- 
tion of Canada, it will be proper for You to apprise the Indians 
thereabouts, and at Detroit of his comeing with me for that 
purpose, so as to prevent any uneasiness, or Suspicions among 
them there are two Vessels building in Lake Erie for exploring 
them two Lakes this Season if time will admit it. there [ 
a Blockhouse to be built at Sandusky by the Gene[rals] order, 
which I fancy will not be agreable to the Indians. I hope You 
will have Succeeded in bringing along a few Cheifs of each 
Nation we talked of to Detroit, where I expect to be in less than 
three Weeks, I shall not be able to go by y e . way of Sandusky, 
as they tell me it will be greatly out of my road, so make the 
best of your way to Detroit, where, Should you arrive before 
me, I hope you will be able to Assemble the Head Men of the 
Severall Nations liveing near that placce, again I come. — You 
will have been informed no doubt at Fort Pitt, of the behaviour 
of the 2 Chenusfsio] [Am]bassadors, sent by their Nation 
to Detroit, in order to prevail with them, and as many other na- 
tions as they could, to take up the Hatchet ag st . the English: as 
their Plott is discovered, I fancy they will now drop it, the 
behaviour of y e . Wiandotts on the occasion is verry commendable, 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Cadwallader Collection. 

2 Brackets indicate where part of the manuscript is missing. 

320 Sir William Johnson Papers 

and entitles them to our particular notice. — as I have thoughts 

of going b[ack] by way of Pittsborough, I should be glad 

you would [ ] such measures, as may facilitate the Journey. 

I have | ] with the Onondagaes at Osswego, where all of their 

Cheifs were mett, and after acquainting them with [n>/ia*] had 

heard of the Chenussio Ind s . Villainy, they declared they had no 

hand in it, nor knew the least of such a Design; that, if such 

Villainy was intended, it must have been concerted by the Senecas 

themselves, w* 1 . I am apt to beleive is y e . case. I beleive it will 

be more convenient, for me to lodge in one of the French Houses, 

than in the Fort, because there will be Ind s . constantly about me, 

and that I would not choose to have in the Fort, at least at this 

time. You may talk to Cap*. Campbel ab l . it ; & He and You will 

be so good, as to choose out a proper place for me. — I wish 

You Well 

and am 


Your verry Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 

George Croghan Esq r . 


Letter S r . W. Johnson 
to Geo Croghan 


For Niagra, July 29 l K 1761. 

Altho I did myself the honour of writeing your excellency 
the 24 th . Ins 1 . 2 by Cap tn . Butler, I would not let slip so favour- 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. A copy of this letter, 
dated July 30, 1761, from the Johnson manuscripts, later destroyed by 
fire, was printed in W. L. Stone, Life of Johnson, 2:145-47. 

2 In Johnson Papers, 3:510-13. 

A. Gtllcftw lo cwnmuDlola with the f it«rtor work*. 

B IJtkt (Hiurlo BmUoh. 

C. Barrack., mofw %bA *<*<««• of tt»» ol.l fort. n . T m . »-« Tr -i 

D . Kim" •- LAC ON TARIO . 

K. B««ioo «t the Q»te of »e Five N»<!oo». 

!. B«rl«rt I »0»rf of 5 jtbdk. 

' R. ArK>ih**r tlart»et b»tt*ry of 5 jr«ti». 
4. ImhAD bttt*. 


Taken from that of M. Pouchot, the builder. In 

Documents Relating to Colonial History of the State of 

New York, X: 976. 

Seven Years' War 321 

able an opertunity as this of Coll. Eyre's return to inform you 
that since my last, I had a conference with severall Cheifs of the 
Chippaway Nation & some Mississageys to whom I expressed 
my satisfaction at the good character I had here received of them, 
and after I had communicated the intention of my Journey, rec- 
ommended it to them to continue to deserve our freindship and 
protection, which was so essential to their own Interest, desired 
them to send some of their Sachims to be present at the generall 
Meeting at Detroit, who might be able to acquaint their Nations 
with what might pass there and inform them of the mutual en- 
gagements entered into at said Meeting by the Severall Nations 
of Indians, & us. and concluded with promising to use all my 
endeavours for the better regulating of Trade, and with assureing 
them of his Majesty's freindship & protection so long as their 
conduct entitled them to it. then the Cheif of the Chippaways 
returned many thanks for what I had said, and after smoaking 
out of one Pipe together, according to their Custom on the like 
occasion the smoake of which, they said, would ascend so high 
as to be seen by all the Nations over the Lakes. — they then begged 
I would consider their necessitys, haveing scarcely cloaths to 
cover them, not being able to trade, as they were debarred the 
liberty of buying powder for hunting, and then ended w th . re- 
questing they might be allowed a little provisions. I have received 
a verry good character from the Commanding officer, and everry 
one else here of these Indian's behaviour, and am convinced they 
are not concerned in any schemes against us. I therefore intend 
giveing them a little cloathing &ca, which will be of service I 
plainly discover an universal Jealousy and uneasiness appear 
amongst those of every Nation, on acc u . of the hasty Steps they 
look upon it we are taking towards getting possession of their 
severall Countrys, which uneasiness I am certain, will never sub- 
side whilst we encroach within the Limits, which Your Excellency 
may recollect have been actually put under the Kings protection 
in the year 1 726, and continued to them by him & his successors, 
as well as positive orders sent to the Gouvernors of New York 
&ca by his late Majesty not to suffer any of his Subjects settleing 

322 Sir William Johnson Papers 

thereon with which they were then made acquainted. Which 
Your Excellency in your speech of the 22 d . April 1 760 (delivered 
to them by Brigd r . General Monkton) was pleased to promise 
to secure to them and to prevent any Person whatsoever from 
settling, or even hunting theron but that it should remain their 
absolute property. I Judged it necessary to remind your Excel- 
lency thereof, as the other day on my rideing to where the Vessel 
is building, I found some Carpenters at work, finishing a large 
house for one Sterling, near the Falls, and have since heard 
others are shortly to be built thereabouts, as this must greatly add 
to the Indians' discontent, being on the Carrying place, & within 
the verry Limits, which by their own agreement, they themselves 
are not allowed to dispose of. I should be glad to know whether 
I can acquaint the Indians that those People will be ordered to 
remove, or not, and hope by y r . Excellencys answer to be able 
to Satisfie them on that Head. — I am also apprehensive the 
erecting a Post or Blockhouse now at Sandusky will likewise 
greatly alarm them, & could wish that I had been time enough 
at Detroit, in order to reconcile them to our establishing our- 
selves there. 

Majors Walters & Gladwin haveing advised with me on the 
Sending some Men to reinforce Cap'. Campbell, as it must be 
too late to wait for his requisition thereof, to garrison the severall 
Posts this Year which your Excellency intends. We are of opinion 
that there should be 2 Subalterns & 60 Men sent thither as soon 
as may be, they have received their orders accordingly. — 

I yesterday dispatched a Boat to Sandusky, with a letter to 
M r . Croghan, with orders imediately on its arrival there, to pro- 
ceed with the Indians to Detroit, as I cannot at present delay my 
Journey by calling at a place so much out of my Rout. I have 
also by the same opertunity wrote Capt n . Campbell to inform 
him of my being so far on my way, and to apprise y e . Indians in 
that quarter of Major Gladwins coming with some Troops, the 
appearance of which might otherwise alarm them. My Battoes 
with the Presents &ca. are not yet arrived, but as I may now 

Seven Years' War 323 

hourly expect them, hope to be enabled to sett out from hence 
as soon as Major Gladwin or Sooner. 

I have the honour to be with the 
greatest respect 
Your Excellencys 
Most Obedient 

and most Humble Servant 
W M . Johnson 
His Excellency 
General Amherst 

Cop]) 1 
Fort Niagara, August 9, 1 761. 

I take this opportunity by Mons. Desonie 2 going to Montreal 
of letting you know that I am detained here these 1 7 days wait- 
ing for my Battoes, which I left in the Wood Creek, the 14th 
ult. and never heard of them since but hourly expect them. When 
they arrive I shall proceed immediately for Detroit in order to 
hold a meeting with all the Indians in that Quarter and settle 
matters with them on the best and most permanent footing I can 
and regulate the trade there, here and at every Post where trade 
is carried on with the Indians which Gen. Amherst approves of. 

I think all who trade from that country or Canada to Michil- 
macanac etc, should have passes from you in my name as it is 
entirely belonging to my branch, by the words of my commission, 
which runs thus, 'To hold, exercise and enjoy the said office 
and employment with the several respective salaries, perquisites 
and advantages during our pleasures." 

However if Mr. Gage would make a point of it, and insist on 
his giving them, I would not at present dispute it. As I am uncertain 

1 Copy made by former editor of Johnson Papers; present location of 
Ms not ascertained. 

2 Des Onie'. See Johnson Papers, 3:546. 

324 Sir William Johnson Papers 

how long I may continue to act, having wrote home twice to be 
excused the service. 

There were some time last month Seneca or rather Chenussios 
messengers at Detroit with a war belt sent by some of the little 
towns near the Ohio, as it said, to try to engage the Hurons 
and Ottawas to join them against the English, but the Hurons 
and the others behaved very well on the occasion and absolutely 
refused having anything to do in so mad and unnatural a scheme. 
They even informed the commanding officer of Detroit of it and 
in the presence of the two Senecas Ambassador delivered him also 
that war belt which he has since sent to the General and me. 

As their plot is discovered and I going there, it will, I fancy, end 
in nothing. I am this day to have the Senecas and Chenussios 
answer to a most severe speech I made them yesterday on the 
occasion and wish I may have time to send it to you. 

I have had some meetings here with the Chippawas, Missis- 
saugas and others which behave extremely well and seem very 
happy and friendly to us. On my coming to this place I had 
conferences with the Oneidas, Tuscaroras and Onondagas who 
assured me they knew nothing of any design against or intention 
to hurt the English, so that I am apt to think it arises from 
Chevalier Joelicoeur's friends living beyond Chenussio, for his 
Indian son was one of the two who went with the belt to Detroit 
and made use of his father's name several times in the speech 
intimating as if it was his plan and device. On my arrival at 
Detroit I expect it will subside. You may, if found necessary 
acquaint the Indians there of it, and let them know how the 
villainous plot was rejected by those Indians who were lately our 
enemies and looked upon by them in a most unnatural and rebel- 
lious light, for which I shall take all the more notice of all them 
Nations and the less of them who ought to be more entitled to 
our favor than any other. 

You may judge how uneasy I must be, being detained here so 
long, when I want so much to be at home. My going on this 
tour is a vast hindrance to my settling my land and improvement. 

Seven Years War 325 

Johnny 1 and Guy Johnson are all the company I have with me. 
They are both well and desire to be remembered to you and 
Messers. Welles and Wade who I hope are doing well and 
enjoy their health. 

Major Gladwin who goes to explore the Lakes is getting over 
the carrying place here these 16 days past. He will be ready 
to proceed to Detroit in about two or three days more. 

I hope everything is settled with regard to your purchase 
as I left money and directions with Ferrall Wade to answer your 
draft for the purpose. It will give me pleasure to hear of your 
welfare and genteel economy, as I wish you well and am 

William Johnson 

Contemporary Copy 2 

[Sept. 25-Oct. 3, 1761] 
25 Sep'. 1761 

Arrivd at Miamis the Indians expecting great Presents by 
me as they were not called to the Council at Detroit; by the 
Advice of L l . Butler & the Interpreter I call'd a Council the 
next Day at which after given the 3 Chiefs of the Miamis 3 
Strings of Wampum, I informed them that they were expected 
at the meeting at Detroit & that I was surprizd they did not go 
there, that I had brought them no Presents but that those I now 
gave them I made bold to do without any Orders & told them I 
was sent amongst them by my Master to stay amongst them & 
to keep up a strict friendship with them. And that I should 
take the greatest Care that my Men did nothing to give them 
uneasiness & that I expected on their Part they would do the same 
& if at any time their Young Men should get drunk they would 
use their utmost Endeavours to keep them from coming to the 
Fort or making any Disturbance. 

1 John Johnson, son of Sir William Johnson. 

2 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

326 Sir William Johnson Papers 

2 d, y I inform them that the General heard they had some 

English Prisoners still amongst them & had orderd 
me to demand them & that I hopd they would readily 
give them up, otherwise that I must be obligd to inform 
the General of their Refusal. 

3 dl y That if any thing at Present or whilst I continued 

amongst them did or should give them uneasiness desird 
they would inform me of it & I would do every thing 
in my Power to make things easy & Pleasant to them 

4 th, y I inform them of the good News I had from Carolina 

& likewise that a strong Party was gone to Possession of 
Michillamackina & Bay 1 & S l . Joseph & that I believd 
a strong Party of the Light Infantry would Winter 
at Detroit, & then gave them the Presents as on 
the other side (viz) 

2 fine Shirts 

3 Plain D° 

4 English Blankets 

2 Stroud d° 

5 p r . Leggins 
60 Barrs Lead 

3 Thousand Wampum 
2 Caggs Powder 

2 lb Vermillion 
1 3 lb Tobacco 

4 Gallons Rum 
30 Gun flints 

1 Stroud [for]\ . 

t ni • ci ■ . r tor their Children 
Z Plain bhirts 

5 Cuttoe Knives 

In the Afternoon the Chiefs returnd & gave me 3 Strings of 
Wampum one of which they informd me was to Open my Ears 
& to clear my heart of any ill impressions I might still Harbour 

1 La Baye, now Green Bay, in Wisconsin. 

Seven Years' War 327 

of them; that it was true they had the french formerly for their 
Brethren but that we had conquerd them, & that they were 
now my Brothers & that if any other Nation should at any time 
disturbe our Road that they would make it plain & Easy to us. 
that they found the English had some Pity for them & that they 
took the Present very kindly, but would be very glad if I would 
give another Cag of Powder as what I had given them would 
not be a Handful a man & likewise a little more Rum which I 
did as they begd very earnestly for it: as see last Ace 1 . 

In Regard of the Prisoners they told me they could do nothing 
in it as they were in the Place of others which we had kill'd but 
that they would do all in their Power to Persuade their Masters 
to give them up & then finish'd their Speech with a Promise to 
bring me Plenty of Meat for the Garrison. 

Sep'. 27*. 1761 

The 3 Miami Chiefs came with a String of Wampum & brought 
4 Squaws with Corn & Pumkins as a Present for me & to desire 
I would [take] their sick men & their Wives & Children which 
they left behind when they went a Hunting into my Care & hopd 
as I had been so good to them that I would give them a few 
things to cloath their Children. I gave them 

1 Stroud 

2 plain Shirts 

2 Doz Needles 

Sep'. 28 — 

The Chief of the Oataawas with 1 5 Warriours brought me a 
String of Wampum & desird I would take their Case into Con- 
sideration & give them a little Powder & Ball & well as the 
Miamis or else that I would give them Credit on the Merchant 
for some & that they would pay for it very faithfully in Spring. 

I told them that their Chiefs were assemblyd at Detroit to 
receive Presents when I left it therefore could give them nothing : 
but rather then they should want as L l . Butler informd me they 

328 Sir William Johnson Papers 

had brought a great deal of Venison for the use of the Garrison 
all Winter & had behavd remarkably well I would make free 
to Advance them 

15 lb Powder 
32 Barrs Lead 

2 English Blankets 

1 lb. Vermillion 

1 Gall". Rum 

Sep'. 29. 

The Old King came & told me he was going a Hunting, but 
was afraid he should be Strav'd with Cold if I had not Compassion 
on him. & likewise desire I would take some Method to get 
his young mens Arms mended which I ashurd him of & as he 
had been at a good deal of trouble to keep his young Men 
within Bounds when in Liquor gave him 

1 English Blanket 

1 Shirt 

1 Bottle Rum 

Sep'. 29. 

This Day arrivd 1 Chief of the Shawnese with nine warriours 
from a Scout brought in 2 Prisoners & a Scalp which they gave 
me as likewise a String of Wampum & made great Complaints 
in the Name of all the Indians of the dearness of the Merchants 
Goods & the low Price that was set on their Furrs so that it was 
almost impossible they could live 

I told them the Merchant was gone to Detroit that his Clerk 
Inform'd me he had S r . W m . Johnsons instructions 1 in Regard of 
the Price of Indian Good*: with him therefore could say nothing 
to that Article till he returned, but if he had imposd on them I 
would see them righted in the Strictest Manner, but as for giving 
them Credit it was not in my Power but when the Merchant arrivd 

1 See Indian Trade Regulations at Miami, Johnson Papers, 3:533. 

Seven Years War 329 

I would do all I could to get him to advance them a little Powder 
& ball & gave 

1 Gall n Rum 
1 Roll Tobacco 

Oct. 1 st . 

Bought a Woman Prisoner from the Indians who usd her very 
barbarously but was obligd to give excessive dear for her as the 
family she stay'd with had 2 Young men kill'd by y e English this 
War & she stay'd in their Place, L* Butler & M r Taafe offerd 
50 Doll 5 for her in Spring but it was refus'd I gave 


15 lb Powder 5.12.6 

8 Bars lead 15 - 

1 Blanket 1 . 2.6 

1 Petticoat 0. 1 5 - 

1 p r Leggins 0. 1 5 — 

1 Shirt 0.15-- 

Ocf. 3^ 

David Lutts Soldier in the Royal Americans killd a very 
fine Indian horse by throwing his Bayonet at him, the horse 
belonged to the Oataawas, it made a great Disturbance the 
Indian [said] they would kill every horse & Cow belonging to 
the fort if I did not give them another Horse immediately, but 
with a great deal of trouble I made it up with giving them a Gallon 
of Rum 2 English Blankets 2 lb Powder & 4 lb Ball & was 
likewise obliged to promise them the first horse I could get & [to 
give] I gave Lutts 100 Lashes for Disobedience of orders. 

330 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Fort Johnson Novb r . 5 th . 1761. 

I have the honour to acquaint you that I arrived here from the 
Detroit on Saturday last, after a tedious Journey of Six Weeks, 
having left that place on y e . 1 8 th . of Septb r . last — 

it is with great satisfaction I now inform your Excellency that 
I have left the Westeren Indians extremely well disposed towards 
the English, and I am of opinion that matters are settled on so 
stable a foundation there, that unless greatly Irritated thereto, 
they will never break the Peace established with them, and there 
now only remains to compleat everry thing, by calling down the 
Six Nations to a meeting, and settleing all matters with them, 
which I doubt not being readily able to do, and will imediately 
sett about it, if your Excellency approves of it. — 

The particulars of my proceedings since leaveing Home, and of 
the severall Conferrences which I had on my Journey, as also that 
of the generall Meeting with the Western Confederacy oxa. at 
Detroit, being verry long I cannot be able to transmit them for 
some time. I should therefore be glad to know whether Your 
Excellency would choose those at the Meeting at y e . Detroit alone, 
before the rest are made up. — 

I have detained Lieu 1 . Johnson 2 who is now makeing up, and 
recording the proceedings, he haveing acted in y l . capacity dure- 
ing the Summer, in the absence of my Secretary, whose bad State 
of health prevented his attending me, and hope Your Excellency 
may not have any objection thereto. — 

I herewith inclose Your Excellency letters from Cap 1 . Campbell 
Commands, at the Detroit, with an Ace", of expences, which I am 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. Printed in part in 
Johnson Papers, 3:559. 

2 Guy Johnson. 

Seven Years' War 331 

of opinion, the remoteness of his garrison, and state of Affairs 
at that time rendered them in a great measure necessary. — 

I return your Excellency thanks for the Coppy of the confer- 
ences at Easton. M r . Hamilton has not as yet sent me any Coppys 
so that I should otherwise have been an entire Stranger to y e . 
proceedings. I find ye Indians complaints therein contained, are 
much of a peice with those made to me, and run cheifly on the 
dearness of Goods, & Scarcity of Amunition. but I hope the 
Regulations I have made, and left at the Posts, will be a means 
of makeing them easy with regard to y e . prices of Goods & 
Cloathing, which they cannot gett Skins, or firrs to purchase 
without the latter. 

As Soon as all the proceedings, or such part as Your Excellency 
may choose can be made ready for your perusal they shall be 
imediately transmitted to you and I flatter myself that on inspec- 
tion, they will appear to your Excellencys Satisfaction, than 
which, nothing will give me greater pleasure. 

haveing the honour to be 
Your Excellencys 
Most Obedient 

& Most Humble Servant 
W M . Johnson 
PS. I should be glad Your 
Excellency would give me an Order 
for some Amunition, & provision, 
as I have not an ounce of either 
in Store. — 

His Excellency 

S R . Jeffery Amherst, Kn l . of the Bath 

332 Sir William Johnson Papers 


■TX. Li. vj. 

Niagara 11 lh . November 1761 
Dear Sir 

I hope this will find You Safe Arrived at whome 2 and that You 
Enjoy Your Health — 

I am to acquaint You that old belt 3 with four chiefs of the 
six nations with about ninety other Indians came here the 9 th . 
Instant and Delivered me three Belts of Wampum with five 
Strings; they told me they came to renew their Brotherly friend- 
ship telling me they was very poor as to ammunition, Clothing & 
provisions, I told them that it was my case at present, but that I 
was glad to See them & Should do Every thing in my power for 
them, I gave them a Little ammunition and a Smale Quantaty of 
provisions being very Scant of that article, in one Speech they 
wanted Some Clothing for their women but I had it not in my 
power to give them any they brought a few skins which is usual 
at their meetings which I prevailed on them to take a way and 
purchase a Blanket or two from the Traders with, I also would 
have them take their wampum teling them it had cost them 
money at the same time told them I had great Confidence in them 
and Should always receive them as faithfull good Brothers without 
any obligation to their Cost, but they Insisted on Leaving their 
Wampum & went a way very well Satisfied, old belt desired 
me to acquaint our good Brother Sir William Johnson that 
they had been with their Brother at Niagara, they want the 
Gun Smith very much to Repair their Arms & Hatchets — 

The Indian Chiefs told me they was on their way to meet you 
here in the Summer but was taken sick on the Road — 

the Little Indian that went with You to the Detroit arrived 
here Yesterday — old belt brought two horses which was taken 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

2 Home. 

3 A Seneca sachem. 

Seven Years' War 333 

from us in the beginning of the Summer The Indians has taken 
two others from us about five week agon — 

M r . Deconey 1 gave the Indian Chiefs six gallons Rum three 
Blankets three Shirts three pair Stocking & three Caps he tells 
me it is agreeable to your Desire I beg pardon for troubling 
you with this Long Letter, I beg my Complements to Cap tn . 
Johnson & to M r . Johnson — 

I am Dear Sir 

Your most obedient 
Humble Servant 

W M . Walters 
Sir William Johnson 


Niagra 1 1 th . Novb r . 1761 
Letter from Maj r . Walters 


Castle Cumberland Novb'. 22 d 1761 — 

Since I wrote you a few days ago I received Yours by M r . 
Wade together w lh . y r . Journal, which when I have time to 
peruse shall lay by safe ; — 

I would have you buy Bourlemarques Box, or Shaveing Case 
if you think it good, or worth the Money. & Send it by the first 
Safe opertunity. — 

If you have finished correcting the Indian Prayer Book pray 
send it me that I may have a parcel printed soon. 

When I left Canada last Year, I put into the care of a 

1 Probably meant for De Couagne. 

2 In Johnson's hand. 

3 In Canadian Archives, Miscellaneous Papers, 1714-1790, Claus 
Papers, W. Vol. 14. 

334 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Frenchman who lived next to my encampment, 10 or twelve 
Casks of Ball, Shot, & Lead, which I think I told You to deliver 
to Gen 1 . Gages order, and get me an order for so much at Albany, 
I shall be glad to know what was done in it, and if to be done to 
have an order for so much at Albany. 

I have not looked at, nor even had time to open, [or look a 
y r . Acc tts . being verry busy drawing out my proceedings this past 
Summer, for the press, as well as for the Board of Trades, & 
General Amhersts inspection, when done shall settle them. — I 
shall be glad to see You this Winter, that I may settle all matters 
relative to the management of the Ind ns . in that Quarter with you, 
having it more in my power now to Settle Indian Affairs on one 
uniform Plan than ever, as I now know the disposition of y e . 
Northeren & Westeren Indians from what has passed between 
Me & them this Year. — 

My compliments to Coll°. Haldimand, & all freinds there, 

I am Y r . Welwisher 
& Humble Servant 

\V M . Johnson 

You may apply to Gen 1 . Gage for leave w th . propriety as 
under his Command as a Military Off 1 "., and You have mine as 
a Civil Off r ., by my letter w ch . incloses this. — I do not think 
Gen 1 . Amherst will be at Alb?, the ensueing Winter & if he was, 
I dont see it improper your comeing down, on Gen 1 . Gages 
permiss 11 . — 

PS : You may shew, or tell Gage 
what I write You in y e . paragraph 
of my letter concerning Indian Affairs, y l . is y e . last Paragraph 


S r . W m . Johnsons Lettre 
22J.Nov. 1761. 

Seven Years' War 335 


Copy 1 

Fort Ceorge Nov 22 nd 1761. 
Dear Sir 

Last night I received your favour of the 6 th2 which gave me the 
great pleasure of knowing that you are return'd safe from your 
tedious journey, & that you had succeeded in the affairs you went 
upon. On which I heartily congratulate you. It will give me the 
greatest pleasure to have a more particular account of this new 
addition to the many signal Services you have don your Country. 

I hope Sir you :!o not imagine that your disappointment as to 
the Lands the Indians have given you is in any shape owing to my 
negligence of what concerns you. It would have given me the 
greatest pleasure to have convinced you of the great regard & 
esteem I have at all times retain'd for you, and of the high value 
I put on the friendship with which you do me honour You know 
that in the grant of Lands the Council have a negative upon me, 
& while I thought that I could not have their concurrence, I thought 
it best to delay to a more favourable opportunity which I hope 
may now happen on your proposals by M r Banyar. It is cer- 
tainly my interest as well as Inclination to forward your affair 
as much as in my power. As to the Sheriff of Albany's office, I 
hope you are satisfyed that General Amherst had laid me under a 
restraint from which I could not free myself. 

M r Barclay told me that he was willing to part with the land 
which he has near the Mohawk Castle for the use of a Minister 
for the Mohawks provided he have the money repaid him which 
it cost him, & to prevent mistakes he would give his proposals in 
writing, which he has not don. After I heard you was gon on your 
journey I thought it best to delay pressing him till your return. I 
shall now very soon put him in mind of it. 

1 Printed in Collections of Nerv York Historical Society, 1876, 
Colden Papers, p. 1 30. 

2 In Johnson Papers, 3:560-62. 

336 Sir William Johnson Papers 

It may be best for you to write the informations you have 
received of Urie Clock's 1 behaviour in respect to the Indians land 
in a letter by itself with what you desire to have done, that I 
may lay it before the Council for their advice and concurrence, 
as I really think it a matter of consequence in which they have 
had great injustice don them, & would gladly do everything in my 
power for their reliefe. As your Letter this time is on private 
affairs, I think it improper to lay it before the Council, & it is 
not full enough to form any legal proceedings on it, neither do 
I as yet conceive what method may be the most effectual for their 

I expect the Packet will sail before the end of this week, and 
as I am busy in my Letters to England and prepareing for the meet- 
ing of the Assembly I am pretty much hurried for I seldom can 
prevent being interrupted by people's comeing on their private 

Be assured that nothing can give me more satisfaction & 
pleasure than to be esteemed by you as I really am Sir your 
Sincere friend & most obedient Servant 



Fort Johnson Decb r . 8 ih . 1761 — 

I was favoured with yours of the 22 d . Ult°. 3 the other day 
wherein You express a desire to be more particularly informed of 
my late transactions, with which I shall acquaint you at large as 
soon as my present hurry of business is a little over. — 

I have already wrote You concerning Ury, or George Klock of 
Canajohare, and am now to inform You, that dureing my absence 
this Year, he has been the occasion of much disturbance and 

1 George (Ury) Klock. 

2 In Massachusetts Historical Society. 

3 See ante p. 335. 

Seven Years' War 337 

uneasiness amongst the Indians, as well as Inhabitants of that 
neighbourhood, He haveing purchased some Lands last Winter 
from M r . Livingston, which has [keen] always been looked upon, 
and claimed by the Indians of Conajohary as their property, in 
so much that the Pattentees thereof, never attempted to divide it, 
or publickly own the Land theirs well knowing the Justice of the 
Indians right thereto, which one of the Pattentees confessed to me, 
and of which I have been informed by sevefall other persons, 
as well, as of the extraordinary manner mad use of, to describe the 
Bounds, by the late M r . Collins 1 of Albany. — in the Year 1 754 
when y e . Congress was held at Albany, the Conajohare Ind s . with 
Hendrick their Cheif made a formal complaint to the then Lieu 1 . 
Gov r . Delancey of the unjust manner, by which this land had been 
taken up or Pattented, entreating him to see Justice done to them 
therein. — He informed them, that he had spoke to the Heirs of 
M r . Livingston, who, verry generously, (in the presence of him, 
& the Commis rs . from the Severall Governments then assembled 
in the Citty Hall at Albany) offered to give up their share of 
Said Land, for the prevention of Disputes, but that some of the 
Heirs not being yet at age prevented the concurrence of the whole. 
Since that time, the Tenants then living on Said Lands, have 
duely paid their Rents to the Indians of that Castle, without 
any molestation interruption or demand for the same, by M r . 
Livingston or any Person whatsoever. 

Now Klock haveing lately given warning to those tenants 
liveing on that land, and forbidding them with threats from 
paying the rent to the Indians or plowing or sowing thereon, but 
to quit the same, has greatly alarmed y e . Ind s . who thereupon have 
had severall consultations, and have made application to me, 
representing the loss they must sustain thereby, and their firm 
determination to assert their property and to maintain these Tenants 
in the possession thereof, adding that it hath been, and is still 
the constant practice of Klock (notwithstanding the Principall 
Ind s ., and the majority of the rest have frequently warned him 

Edward Collins who surveyed the patent — the moonlight survey. 

338 Sir William Johnson Papers 

against it) to endeavour to keep the most idle and drunken of their 
People in liquor, & to take advantage thereof, by then persuadeing 
them to sign Papers, which if complied with must deprive them 
and the rest of their property, and render the whole a considerable 
charge to the Government as they could not subsist without their 
planting grounds, but be necessitated to live upon the Publick. 
that he has likewise frequent 1 ?, called, and held private meetings 
with the Indians, at which, he and some others of y e . Germans 
liveing in that quarter, have endeavoured by false tales, & artfull 
insinuating to create differences, and misunderstandings, between 
the Army Inhabitants and Indians, & thereby overset, and render 
ineffectual the pains I have been at, to promote a Union amongst 
them — they are likewise highly displeased with his haveing 
falsely accused them to the severall Generals as Ind ns . who had 
been concerned in many of the late depredations, & murders 
committed by the Enemy, and thereupon applying for men to 
protect y l . Country ag st . them, dureing the absence of the Army; 
a proceeding so verry villainous and so injurious to a People 
who have severely felt the effect of their Steady Attachment to 
our Interest dureing the War, by a considerable dimunition of 
their Numbers, cannot fail of greatly astonishing them, and 
exasperating them against the Author of such a falsehood, but 
being now employed in hunting, they are thereby prevented 
from representing the whole in a Publick Meeting to me, which 
they are determined to do on their return Home, then to demand 
redress for the same, and to insist on our imediately pu[tting] 
a Stop to his proceedings, and protecting them in the lawfull 
possession of their property, agreable to the repeated assureances 
given them by the Severall Generals and myself, as I have 
always known this Klock for a verry dangerous Man, and one who 
had by his proceedings in 1 753, and 54 verry near brought on a 
generall quarrel between the Inhabitants & Indians in these parts, 
which with great difficulty was made up, and may be remembered 
by You & y e . Gentlemen of the Council at that time, and being 
verry apprehensive that unless some effectual measures be imediate- 
ly taken to put a stop to his present (in my opinion illegall) 

Seven Years' War 339 

proceedings, it may be productive of verry fatal consequences, 
and which it may not then be in my power to prevent. I therefore 
thought it necessarry to lay the same before you, as well to 
represent the necessity there is for doing something therein, as to 
be favoured with your opinion concerning the same, which it will 
be proper I should be informed of before they return from hunting. 
I have nothing further at present to add, but to assure You 

I am with all due respect 

Your most obedient, 

& most Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 

Lieu 1 . Governour of New York 


S r W m . Johnson to L l . Gov. Colden 
^December 1761 
Letter from Sir W m . Johnson 
complaining of the Conduct of 
Georg Klock in turning off 
Tenants setled on Lands near 
the Connajoharie Castle under 
the Title & Claim of the Indians 

23 December 1761 : Read in 
Council & referred to a 

1 From this point in Colden's hand. 

340 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

[Dec. 9, 1761] 

Sir William Johnson received 2 from the \J. Governor a Copy 
of his Majestys Instructions, 3 of which the following is like- 
wise a Copy — 

George R. Additional Instruction for our Trusty and Well 
beloved Robert Monckton Esq 1- , our Captain Gen- 
eral and Governor in Chief of our Province of 
New York and the territories depending thereon 
in North America; and in his Absence to our Lieu- 
tenant Governor or Commander in Chief of our 
said Province for the time being. Given at our 
Court at S l . James's the Ninth day of December 
1 761 , in the second year of our Reign — 

Whereas the peace and Security of our Colonies and Planta- 
tions upon the Continent of North America, does greatly depend 
upon the amity and Alliance of the several Nations, or Tribes 
of Indians, bordering upon the said Colonies, and upon a just 
and faithfull observance of those Treatys and Compacts, which 
have been heretofore Solemnly entered into with the said Indians, 
by our Royal Predecessors Kings and Queens of this Realm. 
And Whereas notwithstanding the repeated Instructions which 
have been from time to time given by our late Royal Grandfather, 
to the Governors of our several Colonies upon this Head, the 
said Indians have made and do still continue to make great Com- 
plaints, that Settlements have been made and possession taken of 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

2 Received March 11,1 762. 

3 See also Report of the Lords of Trade on the Instructions to Governor 
Monckton, in Docs. Rel. Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:463-64; Lords of Trade 
to Lieutenant Governor Colden, in ibid., 7:485; and Lieutenant Governor 
Colden to the Lords of Trade, in ibid., 7:486-87. 

Seven Years War 341 

Lands, the property of which, they have by Treaties reserved to 
themselves, by Persons claiming the said Lands under pretence 
of Deeds of Sale and Conveyance, illegally, fraudulently and 
surreptitiously obtained of the said Indians; And Whereas it 
has likewise been represented unto us, that some of our Governors 
or other Chief Officers of our said Colonies, regardless of the 
duty they owe to us, and of the Welfare and Security of our 
Colonies, have countenanced such unjust Claims and pretentions 
by passing Grants of the Lands so pretended to have been pur- 
chased of the Indians. We therefore taking this matter into our 
Royal Consideration, as also the fatal Effects, which would 
attend a Discontent amongst the Indians, in the present Situation 
of affairs, and being determined upon all occasions to support and 
protect the said Indians, in their just Rights and Possessions, and 
to keep inviolable the Treaties and Compacts which have been 
entered into with them Do hereby strictly enjoyn and command, 
that neither yourself nor any Lieutenant Governor, President of 
the Council or Commander in Chief of our said Province of New 
York, do upon any pretence whatsoever, upon pain of our highest 
Displeasure, and of being forthwith removed from your or his 
Office, pass any Grant or Grants to any person whatever, of 
any Lands within or adjacent to the Territories possessed or 
occupied by the said Indians, or the property or possession of which 
has at any time been reserved, to or claimed by them; And it is 
our further Will and pleasure that you do publish a Proclamation, 
in our Name Strictly enjoyning and requiring all persons what- 
ever, who may either willfully or inadvertently have seated them- 
selves upon any Lands so reserved to, or claimed by the said 
Indians, without any lawfull Authority for so doing, forthwith to 
remove therefrom. And in case you shall find upon strict enquiry 
to be made for that purpose, that any Person or Persons do 
Claim to hold or possess any Lands within our said Province, upon 
pretence of purchases made of the said Indians, without a proper 
License first had and obtained either from us or any of our Royal 
Predecessors, or any persons acting under our or their Authority, 
you are forthwith to cause a prosecution to be carried on against 

342 Sir William Johnson Papers 

such person or persons who shall have made such fraudulent 
purchases, to the end, that the Land may be recovered by a 
due Course of Law — And Whereas the wholesome Laws, which 
have at different times been passed in several of our said Colonies, 
and the Instructions which have been given by our Royal 
predecessors, for restraining persons from purchasing Lands of the 
Indians, without a License for the purpose, and for regulating the 
proceedings upon such purchases, have not been duly observed ; It 
is therefore Our Express will and pleasure, that when any applica- 
tions shall be made to you, for License to purchase Lands of the 
Indians, you do forbear to grant such license until you shall have 
first transmitted to us, by our Commissioner for Trade and planta- 
tions, the particulars of such applications, as well in respect to 
the Situation, as the Extent of the Lands so proposed to be pur- 
chased, and shall have received our further directions therein. 
And it is our further Will and pleasure, that you do forthwith 
cause these our Instructions to you to be made public, not only 
within all parts of our said province Inhabited by our Subjects, 
but also amongst the several Tribes of Indians, living within the 
same, to the End that our Royal Will and pleasure in the premises 
may be known, and that the Indians may be apprised of our deter- 
mined Resolution to support them, in their just rights, and invio- 
lably to observe our Engagements with them — 

G. R.— 
A true Copy of the Original Exam d . by 

G w Banyar D Secry 
Entred Verbatim from the Copy aforesaid 
G. Johnson Act. Sec. Ind. Aff rs . 

C /. i 



v V Y / 

v(> iK ^ "V 



Seven Years' War 343 


Contemporary Copy 1 

New York, 11 th - December 1761. 

I Enclose You Copies of Some Papers 2 delivered to me by L l . 
Governor Colden, Regarding the Captivity of Several of His 
Majesty's Subjects, amongst a Tribe of the Delaware Indians; 
and as the L l . Governor Laid those Papers before me, with a 
Request to take Some Effectual method for Recovering those 
Unhappy Captives; I acquainted him that as You were to have 
a Meeting with the Several Tribes of Indians, in Order to Lay 
Your Transactions at the Detroit &ca. before them, I Should 
transmit Copies of those papers to You, that You might take 
Such measures, as might appear most Conducive for obtaining 
the Liberties of those miserable objects, Still remaining in the 
hands of the Indians. — 

I am persuaded I need not Use any Arguments to Induce You 
to Use Every method in Your power, for Discovering the Truth of 
What is Set forth in these papers, and for Recovering Such of 
the King's Subjects as appear to be Still Concealed by that, or 
any other Tribe of Indians in Your Department. — 

I am, with great Regard, 


Sir W m . Johnson Baronet. 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. Copy also in Canadian 
Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

2 A Conference With Delawares, Nov. 16-17, 1761, Johnson Papers, 
3:566, was probably the enclosure, as see Colden to Johnson, Dec. 13, 
1761, Johnson Papers, 3:589-91. 

344 Sir William Johnson Papers 


A. Df. S. 1 

Lebanon Dec r . 11. 1761 . 


Last Evening I was informed of an Opportunity by M r Forscey 
of Albany to Acknowledge the Receipt of Your Hon f2 by M r . 
Kirtland and, return You My Thanks for it; and also the Kind- 
ness and Respect you Shewed him, While he Was With You. 
And inform You, that Joseph 3 and the two Boys arived here Safe 
& Well on y e . 28 th of last Month; and are now well and Seem 
well pleased, and content, and hitherto behave Well in the School ; 
and I see nothing but that they may well answer the Design 

I Would also inform Your Honour, that I received last Eve- 
ning from Secretary Oliver of Boston, the Vote of their General 
Assembly, passed in Answer to a Memorial I preferrd, as follows. 
'That the Rev d M r . Wheelock the Petitioner be allowed to take 
under his Care for one Year, Six Indian Children of the Six 
Nations, for Education, Cloathing and Boarding; and that he, 
be allowed for that Purpose for S d Children, or for so many of 
them as he shall receive Under his Care, at the Rate of Twelve 
Pounds *p Annum each for one Year, out of the Interest of the 
Money of Sir Peter Warren's Donation ; He the Said Wheelock 
laying before this Government an Accompt of his Disburstments 
on said Children, and of the Improvements they May have made 
at the End of the Year When he shall Apply for Payment. 

Sent up for Concurrance. 

James Otis Speaker 

In Council Nov r . 23. 1761. Read and Concurred 

A. Oliver. Secy. 

Consented to Fra: BERNARD" 

1 In Dartmouth College Library. 

2 See Doc. Hist. N. Y., 4:305-7, Q. 4:197-98. 

3 Joseph Brant. 

Seven Years' War 345 

Your Hon r . Sees the Sum allowed is twelve Pounds per Annum 
for each, Which as Times are this Way, will not support them, 
unless they be Females, and perhaps it Will be expedient to take 
some Female from Your Quarter, to be joyned With two Which 
I now have, (one from M r . Brainerd the other of the Mohegan 
Tribe) to be educated in all parts of good Housewifery. Tending 
a Dary. Spining. the Use their needle &a. as well as Reading 
writing &c. Which I have hired proper Gentlewomen of this 
Neighbourhood to do, the Girls attending the School at My 
House, to be instructed in Writing, one day in Each Week, 
and receive Copies in order to write four Lines on each Day 
they are Absent, The Necessity of Which, in order to introduce, 
the English, or any More decent, and easie manner of Living 
among them, Your Hon r well understands. 

I desire, If Your Hon r pleases, You would add six to the 
Number Which I expect by Negyes 1 and if you think proper let 
two of them be Girls [and let them be sent down as soon as May 
be], however I shall trust y e . matf. to y r Hon rs discretion Your 
Hon r . will doubtless think it Will be best that they be of as remote 
Tribes as may be. as to the Expence of their Journey I shall 
wait for your Hon rs Demands, and comply therewith, [the Boys 
are not Yet out of Bed and J^now nothing of this Opportunity.] 

I trust Your Goodness will Pardon the Faults of What I 
Write, thus in a Hurry, and Accept Most sincere Duty and 
Respect from. 

Your Hon" Most Humble and 
Most Obedient Servant. 
Eleazar Wheelock 

P S. I trust your Hon r . Will forward their coming as soon as 
may be if the Girls cant come in the Winter season, perhaps 
there May be a good Opportunity from Albany to Norwich 
to the Care of the ReV. M r . Whitaker by Water next spring. 

The Hon ,e . Sir William Johnson 

1 A Mohawk Indian who entered Wheelock's school August 1 , 1 76 1 . 

346 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Letter to S r . William 
Johnson Dec r . 11. 1 761 . 
To send more Children 
to partake of S r . Peter 
Warren's donation. 


A. L. S. 1 

Fort Johnson DecK 12th. 1761 
Dear Claus/ 

Since I wrote you last, have nothing new, but to desire You 
would make my Complim ls . to Pere Roubard 2 of the Abanakis, 
tell him I rec d . his verry friendly & polite letter, together w th . 
one for Cap tn . Jacobs 3 of Stockbridge, w h . I had not time as yet to 
deliver to him, they being all on y e Hunt, be so good to make an 
apology to him for my not Answering his, on acc tl . of the great 
hurry I am now in since my arrival from Detroit, Settleing all my 
transactions for the Ministry as well as for y e . General, make 
him a present from me of ten Pounds York Currency and charge 
it. tell him it will be necessary that a few of the Abanakis come 
now as Soon as they can, and Settle that affair w th . y e . Stock- 
bridge Indians, who expected to have had it over long ago. when 
they come let them have a Flag, & a good Pass if you do not 
sett out for this part before then, You had better accompany them 
to Albany, tell Pere Roubard it would not be agreable to Gen 1 . 

1 In Canadian Archives, Claus Papers, Vol. 1 , M. 104, p. 62. 

2 Roubaud. 

3 A Stockbridge Indian. 

Seven Years' War 347 

Amherst that he should accompany them, as he desires. — expect- 
ing to see You Soon, I shall add no more than that 

I am Y rs . Sincerely 

W M . Johnson 

All here are well, and 
desire to be remembered 
to You, & all friends there. - 


Contemporary Copy 1 

New York, 26. Decern': 1761 . 

Having carefully perused Your Proceedings and Conferences 
with the Several Tribes of Indians on Your Way to, and at the 
Detroit; I am to Assure You of my Entire approbation of the 
Whole; and must beg Your Acceptance of my sincere thanks, 
for having Executed that Service in so compleat a manner, that 
I am hopefull all the good Effects that were Expected from Your 
taking that Tour, will be felt not only by his Majesty's Subjects in 
those Parts, but by the Neighboring Indian Nations; who, by 
following the Advise You have given them, will Secure Peace 
& Quiet to themselves, as well as a free & open Trade to Support 
their Families. — 

The Behavior of the Senecas appears to have been Treacher- 
ous; and Kayashota, their Messenger, with the Other whom he 
Accuses, if they are not Punished, ought certainly to be marked 
in such a manner, as to be Discountenanced at all our Posts; & 
be Excluded the Benefit of the Friendly Treatment given to Such 
as have Acted uprightly & honestly. 

The Instructions You delivered to the Officers who went to the 
out Garrisons, are very proper: I Do not find the Ounatonon 2 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 Ouiatonon, Wawiaghtonon, the site of present Lafayette, Indiana. 

348 Sir William Johnson Papers 

mentioned among the rest; but I Conclude the Officer who Com- 
mands at that Post, will be furnished with a Copy of Your Instruc- 
tions, that he may Regulate himself accordingly. — 

In Looking over Your Disbursements on Account of the 
Presents, &ca, for the Indians at the Detroit Meeting, I Confess 
the greatness of the Sum Surprizes me, since it is almost Double 
what You at first Demanded: Altho' I have no doubt of Your 
having Used your utmost Endeavors to be as Oeconomical as You 
Judged best for the good of that Service ; yet I am of Opinion that 
We must Deal more Sparingly, for the future; for from the Now 
Tranquil State of the Country, and the good Regulation You 
have put the Trade under, I can See very little Reason for Bribing 
the Indians, or Buying their good Behavior, since they have no 
Enemy to Molest them, but, on the contrary, Every Encourage- 
ment & protection they can Desire for their Trade. — 

I Herewith Enclose You a Warrant for the Ballance of Your 
Accompt; by which You will See that it amounts to £5:0:1/4 
New York Currency more than was Charged by You; the £5. 
being thro' mistake of the Addition in the 2 d . page of the Accompts 
delivered in at Albany ; and the 1 Vi Wrong set down in the 
Ballance Carried from these Accompts to those which You last 
Sent me : I Have had them Rectifyed, and Granted the Warrant 
accordingly. — 

I Likewise Send You a Warrant for One Thousand Pounds 
Sterling ; On Account for the purchase of the Necessary Presents 
for the Six Nations Meeting, & other Expences that may be 
Incurred in Your Department, agreable to Your Request. — 

I am, with great Truth & Regard, 

Sir, &ca. 
P. S. 
Sir William Johnson, Bar 1 : 

Seven Years' War 349 


N York 27 deer ]j 6 i 

I take the liberty to trouble you with this, in the Name of 
the Commissioners for Setling the Aco ts of General Shirlys Agents. 

We find a Charge Against the Crown in the Acco ,s exhibited 
by these Agents, £2519:2: York Cur. for provisions delivered 
by the province of Connecticut to General Shirlys Order, The 
Agents produce Us a proof that this Sum was payd or Credited 
to General Shirly, and it is alledged that it was payd by him to 
You, to bear part of the expence of the Artilery you employd, 
If so, Our enquiry properly ends, but in case this Sum was not 
payd to you by M r Shirly, he remains debto r , for it to the Crown. 
And we Must take Notice of it in our report. 

Youl Oblige Us And enable Us to execute our duty, by 
Acquainting Me with what you know in relation to this Affair, 
I have the honor to be with respect 


Your Most Ob 1 humble Serv 1 
James Johnson 

D Q r M^ General — 


Decb'. 27* 1 762 
M r . James Johnsons 
letter concerning Money 
in M r . Shirleys time. 
£ 25 19:2: York Curr-y. 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

2 In Sir William's hand. 

350 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

New York, Fort George, Dec' 27th 1761 
Dear Sir 

Last Wednesday the soonest I could after I had received 
yours 2 relating to Klock & the Indian Lands at Conajohare, I 
laid it before the Council And it is referred to a Committee to 
consider what may be properest to be done — they all seemed 
satisfied of the fraudulent practises in that Affair & desirous to do 
everything in their power for the relief of the injured Indians, but 
as your information was not accompanied with any Affidavits on 
which a legal process can be founded they seemed to be at a Loss 
in what manner to proceed. For which reason I think it may be 
proper for you to procure what Affidavits you can of the frauds 
in the original purchase of which I believe David Schuyler & his 
Son's if they or any of them be willing can fully inform you and 
perhaps some others can. — If this cannot be obtained or even if 
it should it may be proper to have a formal Complaint from the 
Indians in Writing setting forth all the particulars of the fraud, 
& the persons names concerned in it — 

As I really believe that the Indians have had great injury 
done them by these fraudulent proceedings, you may assure them 
of my doing every thing in my power for their relief — 

We are now upon the Conclusion of the Sessions of Assembly 
which takes up both my time & this Councils, I suspect nothing 
can be done in Council on what is now before them till after the 
Holydays and indeed that nothing be effectually done till some 
Affidavits can be procured and sent down. However I shall not 
omit to press them to some resolution to give the Indians Ease at 
least for a time. — 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

2 See Johnson to Colden, Nov. 6, 1761, Johnson Papers, 3:560, for 
additional information. 

Seven Years' War 351 

The General at my desire has transmitted some papers to you 
relating to several prisoners detained by a tribe of fugitive Indians 
near Oghquagoe. 1 These miserable people I doubt not will have 
your Compassionate regard — 

I am &ca — 

Contemporary Copy 2 

New York, 4 th . Jan'y. 1762. 

I Herewith Enclose You a List of the things belonging to the 
two Indians who returned lately from Carolina; And, as I 
Acquainted You in my last that One of those Indians Died in the 
Hospital here, I now Send the Surviving One under the Care of 
M r . Michael, 3 the Interperter, to whom I have Ordered the Money 
& Other Articles to be Delivered, as mentioned in the said List, 
with a pass Directing him to proceed to Fort Johnson, where he 
will Deliver over the said Indian, & the Money, &ca, to You, that 
You may give such Directions as You Judge best for forwarding 
the Indian to His Family, & for Securing the Money, & things that 
belonged to the Deceased, that his Relations may Receive them. 

I am, with great Regard, 


Sir William Johnson, Bar 1 . 

1 See Amherst to Johnson, Dec. 11, 1761, ante. p. 343, also a Con- 
ference With Delawares, Nov. 16-17, 1761, Johnson Papers, 3:566. 

2 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

3 "Pass permitting George McMichael to convey an Indian named 
Cram from New York to Fort Johnson." Johnson Calendar, p. 123. 

352 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Fort Johnson J amy. 10 l K 1762 

After the death of my Secretary Capt n . Wraxall 2 I employed 
M r . Shuckburgh then Surgeon of his Majestys Independant Com- 
panys in that Capacity, with your Excellencys approbation, as 
he was acquainted with Indian Affairs, and transactions, and 
wrote in his favour to the Board of Trade, that he might succeed 
to that employment, concerning which, I have never yet received 
any Answer, shortly after my writeing M r . Marsh 3 came over with 
a Commission to Succeed thereto, but in the mean time M r . 
Shuckburgh in expectation thereof, and haveing been told he 
could not continue both employments, disposed of his Surgency, 
by which he became destitute of employment, by the disapointm 1 . 
he had mett with. — As M r . Shuckburghs Circumstances, and 
abilities of Supporting a Family are thereby much contracted, 
and he haveing been an old Serv'. of the Crown, it would afford 
me much Satisfaction to see him reinstated (without prejudice to 
M r . Marsh) in the employment which he for some time dis- 
charged, on the Stipend which your Excellency may Judge 
sufficient to allow him, as the Indian transactions are, from our 
present extensive Alliances become more considerable, it will re- 
quire more assistance for the proper discharge of that Duty, other- 
wise that your Excellency would be pleased to consider his long 
Services & indulge him with some employment in the way of 
his profession in the Army, which may make up for the disapoint- 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

2 On July 11, 1759. 

3 Witham Marsh. 

Seven Years' War 353 

ments his desire to serve in my department occasioned, and will 
confer an obligation of Sir, Your Excellencys 

Most Obedient and 
Most Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 

Knight of the Bath — 


Contemporary Copy 1 

New York 16 th - January 1762 

I am to Acknowledge the favor of Your Letter of the 7 th . 2 
Instant, Which was this morning delivered to me by M r . Crog- 
han. — 

The meetings held by the People of the Provinces with the 
Indians have always been Regarded by me in the Same Light as 
You represent them ; but I hope You will have Influence enough at 
the Intended meeting with the Six Nations, to Oblige the Depen- 
dant Tribes to Deliver up Such of the English Prisoners as May be 
Still Amongst them. — 

I Acquainted You in mine of the 20 th . Decern 1 ". 3 that I Should 
transmit a Copy of Your proceedings at the Detroit &ca. to the 
King's Ministers, and that the publication of any part thereof 
Should be left to them, Whose province it is, to make Publick 
the Transactions of His Majesty's Servants, in the Several Depart- 
ments of the King's Dominions: I have only to add that I am Still 
of the Same Opinion, for as it is not to be Doubted but these 
Proceedings will be Laid before the King, the publication of 
them before, would be Premature, & Improper; I Have already 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 Johnson Papers, 3:598-601. 

3 Johnson Papers, 3:593-95. 

354 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Assured You of my Entire Approbation of the Whole of Your 
Conduct; and it will give me a particular pleasure to have it 
Confirmed by Our Royal Master, of Which indeed I hav« not the 
least Doubt. — 

Capt Campbell's Accompts Amounted to a little more than the 
Sum You mentioned ; and I have Sent him a Warrant for all the 
Articles, Excepting the Provisions; the manner in which they are 
to be paid I have not Yet fixed upon. — 

The Rash and Treacherous Behavior of the Senecas ought 
certainly not to pass unnoticed; and marks of disapprobation 
Should be fixed on the Ring Leaders to deter others from the 
like Steps for the future. 

From the Reasons You give me of the Necessity of Incurring the 
Expences Charged by M r . Croghan and L l . Buttler, 1 I have, 
altho' I must Still think these Disbursements very high, granted 
a Warrant in favor of M r . Croghan for the Amount of his Ac- 
compts, and I Shall likewise Sign Another in favor of L*. Butler 
for his Disbursements, & so finish these matters, which have put 
the Crown to More Expence than I could have wished: M r . 
Croghan has Shewn me Your Instructions to him ; and I am hope- 
full that part regarding the Retrenching of the Disbursements in 
his Department, will have the Desired Effect. 

"\ am very glad to find You are of the Same opinion with me, 
in regard to the prohibition of Rum, and that in all Your late 
passes, Spirituous Liquours have been forbid; I have Constantly 
in mine, Inserted a Clause Expressly prohibiting Rum, & Spirituous 
Liquours; And I Shall now Send Orders to the Officers Com- 
manding at the Several Posts, not to permit any of these pernicious 
Articles to pass, on any account whatsoever: when the Traders 
find this, they will, of Course, Carry more usefull Commodities; 
And as Ammunition may be permitted to be Sold to the Indians, 
while they Continue quiet, and that we have no Reason to 
Suspect they have any treacherous designs towards us, I am 
hopefull they will be very well able to provide for their Families 

See also Amherst to Johnson, Dec. 30, 1 761, Johnson Papers, 3:597. 

Seven Years' War 355 

by Hunting, and that there can be no Occasion for Distributing 
presents at any of the Posts, Since the Dependence thereon can 
only Serve to render the Indians Slothfull & Indolent, and burthen 
the Crown with a Needless Expence.y 
I am, with the greatest Truth & Regard, 

Sir William Johnson Baronet. 


To Sir William Johnson Bar 1 . 

Fort Johnson 

New York, 1 6 th . January 1 762. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

New York, 24 th . January 1762. 

A Few days ago M r . Shuckburgh delivered me the favor of 
Your Letter, 2 in relation to the Reinstating that Gentleman into 
the Employment of Your Secretary, Which he had formerly 
held, untill M r . Marsh Arrived here with an Appointment to 
that office, from home, of Which You Sometime ago Spoke 
to me. 

I Had a very good opinion of M r . Schuckburgh from the 
Character You had given him; and Should be glad now of an 
Opportunity of doing any thing for him in the way of his pro- 
fession, in the Army; but as M r . Marsh received his Commission 
at home, I cannot think it right to Allow Any Sallary to Another 
Person for doing his Duty ; And therefore M r . Shuckburgh can- 
not be paid as Secretary, While M r . Marsh continues to possess 
the Commission granted for that Office ; but You may be Assured 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 Johnson to Amherst, Jan. 10, 1 762, ante p. 352. 

356 Sir William Johnson Papers 

that Your Recommendation of M r . Shuckburgh, And Your 

Interesting Yourself so much on his Acco*. Shall not be forgot 

by me, When any opportunity Offers of providing for him in the 

way You desire. 

I am, 



Sir William Johnson Baronet. 


23d [Jan. 23-29, 1762] 

The Conajoharee Indians sent to acquaint Sir William that 
they were desired by the Onondagas, Oneidas, and Tuscaroras, 
then at their Castle to acquaint him that they were going down 
to his House upon business, where they expected to be, together 
with the Conajoharees within two days — 

26 Onondagas, 30 Oneidas, 12 Tuscaroras, 60 Conajoharees 
& 48 Mohocks arrived at Fort Johnson — 


The Indians all Assembled in the Council Room, when Sir 
William Condoled with them for the death of some of their 
Sachems — 

P. M. They again assembled and returned the Compliment 
of Condolance, but it being late the Onondagas Speaker on behalf 
of the rest sayed that they would deferr proceeding upon busi- 
ness until the next Day — 


At a Meeting held at Fort Johnson with several of the Onon- 
dagas, Oneidas, Tuscaroras & Mohocks 2 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

2 A contemporary copy of the minutes of this meeting is to be found 
in the Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39, with an enclosure date 

Seven Years' War 357 

Present 1 

Sir William Johnson Bart 
John Johnson Esq r 
Lieut Guy Johnson as Secretary 

Conoghquieson addressed Sir William as follows — 

Brother Warraghiyagey 

We return hearty thanks to the great being above for enabling 
you now to see your Brethren of the Mohocks, Onondagas, 
Oneidas & Tuscaroras here assembled, for conducting you safely 
thro' all the dangers you had to encounter in your late journey, 
and enabling you to finish all matters at the D'etroit — 

Agreable to your Message sent us from the Oneida Lake 
when you were on your journey, we imediately attended at- 
tended 2 you at Oswego where you informed us of the reasons 
for your going to D'etroit, and the good business on which you 
were dispatched You likewise informed us that Messengers were 
dispatched by the Indians who overtook you, on your way, & 
were desired to acq*, you that the 6 Nations had something 
treacherous in hand, & therefore begged you would return, but 
you informed them You were, determined to continue your 
Journey, & obey your orders — 



On your acquainting us therewith, the News seemed very 
disagreable to us, & we assured you, we were strangers thereto 

of Feb. 7, 1 762. It was enclosed in Johnson to Amherst, the Df. of 
which, in Johnson Papers, 3:622, is dated Feb. 6, 1762, as is a 
contemporary copy in the Indian Records; the A. L. S., however, in 
the Amherst Papers, is dated Feb. 7, 1 762. The copy of the minutes 
in the Public Record Office differs somewhat from the Indian Records 
text; where the differences are important, they will be noted in the text. 

1 The copy in the Public Record Office adds Captain Wade (Ferrall 
Wade) and William Printup, interpreter, to those present at the meeting. 

2 Word "attended" repeated in manuscript. 

358 Sir William Johnson Papers 

as were the Oneidas, & Cayugas, but that on your arrival at 
Niagara you might perhaps hear more concerning it — 


Since your leaving us, our Necks have been stretched out to 
hear from you, as you had so many difficulties to encounter, & 
many dangers to go through, but as you have now happily 
effected your desires, & are returned back in safety, we are come 
in Compliance to our antient Custom in order to heal your 
wounds, & to know from you the particulars of your transactions 
at the D'etroit — 

Gave three strings 

Ever since the breaking out of the War between the French 
and you, You have been so constantly abroad that you had no 
leisure, & whenever you came home, you were up to the knees 
in blood & had no rest, but, we are now greatly rejoyced to hear 
that peace was so happily established. And as your business has 
hitherto prevented us from an opportunity of speaking to, and 
wellcoming you, we now hope that as matters are well established 
you will hereafter have more leisure, and we now bid you heartily 
wellcome, and wish you may be enabled to stay at home — 

A belt of nine Rows 

We all know the great difficulties which your late journey was 
liable to from Mischievous dangerous people who would willingly 
frustrate your schemes, & prevent our welfare, and we are sen- 
sible of the great perils you have undergone from so long a 
journy, having so many Rivers to go down, and so many danger- 
ous Lakes to cross, as well as from the Thorns, & Briars, which 
must frequently have run into your feet, & as we doubt not but 
some may yet remain there, we therefore by this string take all 
such out of your feet, so that they may again become sound and 
whole — 

4 Strings 

Seven Years War 359 


At the beginning of the War some years ago the Council fire 
still burned at Albany, but as it burned but dully, and did not 
afford sufficient heat — It pleased God that you should kindle 
one here at your House which was very agreable to us all, and 
which hath still continued to burn bright, yet, by reason of the 
troubles in the Country it could not be quite clear — We now 
therefore brighten up your fire, & make it good and Clear, and 
cleanse your fireplace so that there may be no more creeping 
things found there to disturb our quiet, and that you may not 
listen to, but kick all such insects away as disturb the peace & 
friendship between us — 

A belt 7 Rows 


There being a great Tree planted at our fireplace which 
hath Yielded us abundancy of shelter, and which notwithstand- 
ing hath received some damage from insects, and creeping things, 
who crawling over the roots have decayed the leaves, we now 
Stretch out the leaves and branches of that Tree, & cover its 
Roots from east to West so that nothing more may ever have 

power to decay it 

4 Strings 


As we have now complied with antient Custom, & have light 
up and enlarged the fire place, and as we know that there are 
many things may be heard to the disturbing of the peace we 
enjoy, we hope that none of us for the future may listen, or pay 
attention to any idle stories which may be buzzed about to disturb 
our quiet ; And that we may give no credit thereto for the future, 
and the better to enable you to comply therewith, we now pour 
over you the Water of Life which hath power to cleanse you 
inwardly from head to foot, so that no ill thoughts can remain 
within you from this time forward 

A belt 6 Rows 

360 Sir William Johnson Papers 


We have for sometime past heard that our Brethren the 
English were wanting to get more Lands from us, and several 
came amongst us for that purpose last year, Whereupon, the 
whole 6 Nations assembled, to consider thereon, and have re- 
quired us, the Oneidas in their Names to desire you will prevent 
your People from Coming amongst us for that purpose hereafter, 
as we begin already to be greatly Confined, not having sufficient 
left us for our hunting — We have had our Lands from the be- 
ginning of the World, and we love them as we do our lives, 
therefore we hope you'll put a stop to any attempt of that nature 
for the future — We have sold our brethren Lands so long as 
we could spare any, and as they have great tracts yet unsettled, 
we are certain they can be in no great want thereof — When 
those are settled we shall think further Concerning it, and we 
expect that there may be no farther bargains attempted to be made 
with a few of any of our Nations without the consent of the rest — 
therefore we leave this belt at your house, that when any person 
shall be desirous of purchasing any more you may shew them 
thereby, that the six Nations are all determined not to part with 
more of their Lands on any account whatsoever — 

A belt 6 Rows 

Then the Conference ended for this Day — 


The Indians assembled in order to attend Sir Williams Answer 

Present as before 
Sir William addressed them — 

Brethren of the Onondagas &ca 

The satisfaction which you all express at my return from my 
tedious Journey to a distant Country, and at my surmounting 
all the difficulties which were in my way, affords me much 
pleasure, and I am likewise glad to find you have not forgot what 
passed at the Meeting which we had together at Oswego when 
on my journey — 

Seven Years' War 361 

I am glad to find you were so anxious to hear from me, & so 

desirous for my succeeding in what I was sent, and return you 

thanks for your healing my wounds on my return; but as you 

are now come down unasked, I deferred letting you know my 

transactions at the D'etroit 'till you had first mentioned your 

business — ^ ^ 0l • 

uave d otnngs 


Tis true during the War in these parts I had very little leisure 
on my hands from the duty of my employment, but I hope to 
have some more time for the future to consider of your wellfare, 
and I now thank you for your good wishes that I may have 
more ease hereafter and heartily welcome you here in return — 

A belt 

I am glad you are so sensible of the dangers, & difficulties 

which I had to encounter in my late journey, and am likewise 

obliged to you for plucking the thorns & briars out of my feet 

which yet remained therein A . 

4 Strings 


It gives me pleasure to find that you approve of, & have re- 
ceived benefit from the Fire which I kindled for you at my House, 
and I return you thanks for brightening the same, & for cleansing 
the fireplace from any creeping, or unclean things, assuring you 
that it shall be my Constant study to keep the fire bright, and 
the fireplace clear from everything which may be pernicious, and 
I now in return brighten up your fire at Onondaga, and sweep 
every thing which may be bad from your fireplace so that you 
may not listen thereto, and I hope you will for the future con- 
tinue so to do, & keep your fire bright, & lasting to all Ages — 

A belt 

I give you thanks for your care of the great Tree which hath 
yielded you cover, and it shall be my care likewise to stretch out 

362 Sir William Johnson Papers 

its branches, & keep it from decay, so that it may always afford 
you shelter — 

4 Strings 


I take in good part your compliance with your antient Custom 
upon this occasion, and your pouring on me the water of life 
in order to purge me from any ill thoughts which might yet dis- 
turb me, and I in return do the same with you desiring you will 
not on your part for the future give attention to any bad News, 
or idle stories which you may happen to hear — 

A belt 

With regard to your Lands I must again assure you as I have 
formerly that his late Majesty gave positive orders to all his 
Governors not to make grants thereof to any persons who have 
not fairly purchased them from you, which all his Governors 
abide by, & are determined punctually to observe — As to any 
tracts which have formerly been fairly bought from you, I expect 
you can have no objection to them neither need you be under 
any apprehension of the Governor's grants. Lands, unless by the 
unanimous Consent of a Whole Nation, however, as you request 
it, I shall acquaint all those who are desirous to purchase any 
more, that you are determined not to dispose of any for the 
future — 

A belt 

Concerning my proceedings at the D'etroit, I am now to in- 
form you 

"Here recited the most materials of the proceedings held there 
— then shewed them the belt sent to the D'etroit, and told them 
that he intended to call down all the 6 Nat s . to a Meeting, in 
order to enquire into the same & know their present resolutions 
thereon — then Delivered the Mohocks the several belts, strings, 
and Calumet sent by the Ottawa Confederacy in answer to the 
2 Mohock Castles — after which he proceeded" 

Seven Years' War 363 


I have received some Letters a few days ago from his Excel- 
lency Sir Jeffery Amherst, and the Lieut Governor of the Province, 
informing me that the latter had given directions to the Inhabitants 
of Esopus to hold a Meeting with your Nephews the Mounseys, 
&ca in order to get some English prisoners out of their hands, 
which they first promised to comply with, shortly, but afterwards 
trifled, and did not perform their promise, as appears by the 
Minutes of the proceedings thereon, which were enclosed to me 
— I now therefore insist on your obliging your Nephews the 
Mounsies &ca to deliver up all such prisoners as remain amongst 
them, and I desire by this belt that my request may be imediately 
complied with — 

A belt 

The Revd M r . Wheelock of Connecticut has informed me 
by letter that the Government of Boston has made a provision 
for the maintenance of six more Indian Children, to be educated 
by M r . Wheelock in the Christian Religion, I therefore thought 
proper to give you this notice thereof, that those who are well 
disposed to a work so essential to their future happiness may send 
their Children down who shall be forwarded to New England 
for that purpose — 

3 Strings 

As the Senecas, and some other of the 6. Nations did not 
attend the Meeting at the D'etroit, I desire you will forward this 
belt to them, & all the 6 Nations, requiring them to come here 
to a Genera] Meeting within Thirty days, that I may acquaint 
them with what hath passed, & know their sentiments on the late 

Gave a belt 

Sir William having finished his Speech, The Speaker of the 
Onondagas addressed him — 

364 Sir William Johnson Papers 


We have listened with attention to what you have saved to us, 
at which we are well pleased, but it being now late we shall 
defer saying anything in answer till tomorrow, at which time we 
shall attend, & deliver what we have to say thereon — 

Then they parted 

P. M. The Conajoharees desired a separate meeting with Sir 
William and accordingly assembled — 

Sir William Johnson Bart 
John Johnson Esq r . 
Lieut Guy Johnson as Secretary 

W m . Printup Interpreter 
Speaker Kayenquiragoa, al s Jonathan 

Brother Warraghiyagey — 

We have come here at this time together with the rest of our 
Brethren of the 5 Nations to hear what had passed between you, 
and the Nations at the D'etroit, also to wellcome you from 
your long, & perilous Journey, and to assure you that we have 
great satisfaction in hearing of your Success therein; and as you 
have now delivered what you had to say to the 5 Nations, we 
were desirous on our parts to say something to you relative to 
an Affair which lies very heavy on us, and greatly concerns us 
all, therefore we beg your serious attention thereto — 


We understand that when you were lately indisposed at Cona- 
joharee you could not attend to, or take notice of what we then 
sayed to you, therefore, we shall now begin the same — 


When you were ordered last summer to go to the D'etroit, you 
called at our Castle and acquainted us therewith, & desired that 

Seven Years' War 365 

we should keep all our Young Men at home, nor suffer them to 
go to war till your return, which we have waited for impatiently ; 
at the same time you recommended to us, a kind, & friendly 
behaviour towards the Inhabitants during your absence — since 
which we have taken care to follow your directions, & have the 
pleasure to tell you that our Young people have taken notice 
thereof, & behaved themselves accordingly — We are sorry to 
observe that, notwithstanding, this our good behaviour, we have 
met with a bad return from our Neighbours/ particularly from 
Ury Klock, who has all along endeavoured to set us in the worst 
light to the several English Generals, by giving in charges in 
writing, accusing us with scalping & other depredations. We, 
who have allways shewn ourselves firm Friends, & have lost so 
many of our people in your cause — this accusation hath given 
us much uneasiness, when we consider our innocence, & losses 
sustained from a contrary behavior, and our only consolation 
thereon, was, that we cannot hear that any of the Generals gave 
credit to such a falsity — 

We were in hopes that after so many trials to inflame the 
English against us, so malicious a proceeding would at last be 
put an end to; Yet, we find that all our endeavors to preserve 
peace & friendship have not had effect, and therefore, we now 
return you the belt which you gave us when you advised us 
to behave as Brethren & Friends — 

returned a large Belt 


Our troublesome Neighbour, George Klock having failed in 
his designs of setting the Generals against us, has now fallen 
upon another method equally destructive; that of endeavouring 
to cheat us of our Lands, and thereby deprive us of subsistence, 
by making our Young people, and others, drunk, & then per- 
suading them to sign Deeds for it, which they are utter strangers 
to when sober. 

Which Indians who have been so deluded, together with all 
those who have a right to dispose of Lands, are now present, & 

366 Sir William Johnson Papers 

declare their ignorance thereof, & their unwillingness to part 
with the land — Our oldest Sachem (who is said to have signed 
them) is likewise present, & positively denys his knowledge 
thereof — 

This Klock, being more artfull than our people, intices some 
of our Young Men to his house, calls in others passing along the 
road & makes them drunk, then, telling them that all the rest 
have agreed thereto prevails on them to sign it. by this means, 
he, as we hear has got several to sign a Deed — 

On discovering his proceedings we called a Meeting of the 
Whole Castle to consider on what was to be done, well knowing 
that such steps were very unfair, and not agreable to the Custom 
hitherto used, that when any person was desirous to purchase 
Lands, it was usual to call a Meeting of the Castle, or Nation, 
& there make proposals — contrary thereto, he has taken them 
by the most unfair means — without consulting us thereon in 
any manner — 

At the Meeting we declared one, and all that we would not 
agree to dispose of such lands upon any account, for, if we did 
we must of Course perish for want of subsistence, and we now 
in your presence unanimously declare these to be our sentiments 
& intentions — 


At another meeting which we held thereon, it was agreed that 
we should send to Klock, to speak with us concerning his be- 
havior but the Messenger who was his Brother neither returned 
to us, nor did George Klock come, altho' we waited the whole 
day for his arrival — 

At a Third meeting, being resolved to have Klock present, 
we sent two Indians for him, that he might shew us the Deed, 
which he gave out we had all agreed to — on the Messengers 
coming to his House Klock hid himself, and his Wife informed 
them that she did not know where he was, perhaps in Albany, 
or New York, but on their going into the Kitchen, a Servant 
told them that he was above stairs, from which we concluded 

Seven Years' War 367 

that his proceedings were unjust, otherwise, he would have made 
his appearance — 

This Klock has two partners with him, who whenever they 
meet with any of us, offer their hands, and ask us if we don't 
love them, upon which we answer that we do, looking upon them 
as Brethren, and on our shaking hands, they insert our Names 
in Deeds, saying that we thereby give our Consent — and they 
are all now threatening the Tenants which we have on these 
Lands, for paying rent to us, forbidding them from cutting a stick 
of Wood thereon, and telling them that it belongs to Klock — 

Having now told you our Grievance, we beg you'll give at- 
tention to what we are going to say — 


We now most earnestly desire that this our deplorable situat n . 
may be laid before the Governor that we may be redressed; As 
we are Always esteemed amongst the most distant Nations the 
head of the Six Nations, in what light will we appear to them 
if we can have no satisfaction therein, or what usage may they 
then Expect — 

As we have now no other Lands left we must perish if we are 
deprived thereof, and rather than so, we are determined to dye 
thereon — 

Gave a Belt — 

There is another affair very disagreable to us, and which we 
shall now lay before you — 

We formerly gave a piece of Land to a Minister, on Condi- 
tion he should build a Church for us, which was never done. 
This Minister whose name was Van Dreesen deceived us, much 
in the manner which Klock is now about, He first came to us, told 
us twas very hard we should be obliged to go down to Albany 
to have our Children baptized, or to receive the Sacrament, but 
that if we would give him a piece of Land he would build a 
Church thereon, & always reside there and officiate for us, which 

368 Sir William Johnson Papers 

we agreed to and accordingly gave him as much Land as would 
make a good large farm, & which condition he never fullfilled 
tho' we constantly expected he would perform his promise, which 
when we found he was determined not to do, we naturally ex- 
pected to have the Land given back to us again — 

We are now without any persons to instruct us in the Christian 
Religion, excepting three or four Visits in each year from the 
Rev d . M r . Ehle; and we are informed that Van Dreesen being 
dead, his heirs have sold the land which we intended for so good 
a purpose. If the Clergy are thus to deceive us, who can we 
rely on — had he performed his promise we should now have 
been better people and our Children would become good Chris- 
tians, but, as it hath fallen out otherwise, we beg you will take 
this likewise into your Consideration, and procure us justice 
therein — 


As we have now (for the third time) related our Grievances, 
& heard with great pleasure what passed at the D'etroit, we have 
nothing more to say, and therefore purpose returning home 

Sir William then addressed them 


I have attended to what you have sayed, & shall imediately 
lay the Whole of your Complaints before the Governor and 
Council of the Province who I make no doubt will see justice 
done you therein — 

Then the Speaker addressed Sir William 


There is but one person amongst us now alive, who was said 
to have signed the Deed about our Lands, which Klock Claims; 
and he says he knows nothing thereof — but we have often been 
informed by Indians since dead, that, on their suspecting some 

Seven Years War 369 

bad proceedings, they searched about and found an Axe, which 
led them to search farther, where they found the place where 
the Surveyors staff had been, from whence they were convinced 
of the fraud — 


The Onondagas &ca assembled to answer Sir Williams 
Speech — 

Present as before 

Conoghquieson (Speaker) Took the Belts which Sir William 
had spoken on, and after repeating what he had sayed relative 
to the Mohickanders delivering up their prisoners he proceeded 

Brother Warraghiyagey — 

After seriously considering what you spoke to us relative to 
the Prisoners — Nicolasa, and myself are pitched upon to go 
to the Mohickanders, and require their delivering them up — but 
we are of opinion that it may be deferred until you have the 
General Meeting with the six Nations, as we could not be able 
to return from executing it, before that time, & our presence 
will be required at the Meeting; however, we submit it to you 
to act therein as you desire, being prepared to go, tho\ we think 
so small a delay will be of no great consequence — 

returned the belt for Sir W m . to consider 

Then the Onondaga Speaker stood up, with several belts in 
his hand and spoke as follows — 


About two years ago, and since we had different messages 
from the Indians in Canada inviting us to visit them, which you 
dissuaded us from, observing, that our Compliance would have 
appeared odd, as they were only a part of us, besides, in a time 
of War it would be very improper, upon which we did not go — 
You likewise desired we would deliver up, all the English prison- 

370 Sir William Johnson Papers 

ers in our Nations, together with what Horses were amongst us, 
all which we readily complied with, and now return you the 
belts on which you spoke 

returned three Belts 

You spoke to us at Oswego, when you were on your way to the 
Detroit concerning the Belt sent by the Senecas to the Nations 
there, and advised us to reject such a scheme as was proposed,, 
and to advise the Senecas against such a proceeding, thereupon, 
we called them to a Meeting, and advised them against it, to 
which we received no answer, In consequence whereof, our Na- 
tion with the Cayugas, Oneidas, & Tuscaroras joyned in sending 
them a large belt to dissuade them from it, & to inform them of 
our inclinations, which they never thought proper to answer — 
Wherefore, we now return you the belt on which you then spoke 
to us — 

returned a Belt 

I am now to represent to you, our poor scituation & want of 
ammunition &ca which we cannot get, and therefore we beg you 
will take it into consideration, and let us have some to kill Game 
for our subsistence — 

A belt 

Sir William then addressed them as follows 



As you represent that the time will be short, & that you can- 
not be present at the intended meeting, if you sh d . now go among 
the Mohickanders, I therefore agree to deferr it till then, when I 
expect it will be imediately put in Execution — 

I return you thanks for your adherence to my advice in not 
going to Canada when invited, as also for your complying with 
my desire of surrendering up what prisoners & Horses were 
amongst you, as you thereby shewed your friendship, and at- 
tachment to the English — 

Seven Years' War 371 

I am glad to find you took such steps to dissuade the Senecas 
from their project, tho I am sorry to find it was without effect, 
but hope at the intended Meeting that I may learn their motives 
for such behavior, and hear of their penitence for the same — 

As your hunting season will not commence before I hold the 
meeting with the whole Six Nations, till when you can't have 
much occasion for ammunition, I hope by that time to procure 
some for you, when, I shall supply your wants — 

Then the Onondaga Speaker stood up & informed Sir William 
that they would take their leave, purposing to return home next 
Day, begged for some provisions to carry them home and prom- 
ised to forward his belt — after which they departed 


Fort Johnson Janry. 30 th . 1762 
Dear Sir/ 

It gave me great concern to hear from the Publick prints of 
the loss which You have lately sustained, in being deprived of 
an Amiable Consort with whom You had enjoyed the most 
exalted State of Conjugal happiness for a course of many Years, 
/nowever I have the Satisfaction to consider, that this great trial 
of human patience has fallen upon a Gentleman, whose universal 
knowledge of y e . Accidents to which human nature is liable, 
added to y e . certainty of the happiness She, as a good Christian, 
must now enjoy, will enable him to bear up under that affliction 
which, without those consolations, the greatest Mind would not 
be able to support. — 

I should not at this time trouble You with the herewith en- 
closed proceedings & Affidavits was I not apprehensive that the 
Good of y e . Publick, and his Majestys Service might suffer by 
a farther delay, which I know You have always had so much 
at heart that you will be the readier induced to forgive my in- 

In Massachusetts Historical Society. 

372 Sir William Johnson Papers 

trude&. upon You with business at a time when Your thoughts 

must be otherwise occupied. — 

I most sincerely wish You all y e . fortitude of mind necessary 

on so melancholly an occasion. — 

and am truely 

Dear Sir 

Your most Obedient 

Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 
The Honorable 



January 30, 1 762 

To Lt. Gov. Colden 

Letter from Sir William 

Johnson inclosing Conferences 

with the Indians & Affidavits 

of Complaint against George 


1 7 th . Feby. 1 762. Read in Council. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

[Montreal 30 th . January 1762— ] 2 

Copy of a Conference held by his Excell c y. Major General Gage 
in the presence of Capt Dan 1 . Claus Depy. Ag'. of Indian affairs, 
with four Chiefs of Caghnawaga, or Sault S f . Louis, Deputies in 
behalf of the whole Nation. — 

Kaghneghtago, a Chief, addressed his Excellency 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

2 Though this conference is dated Jan. 30, 1 762, it was not entered 
in the Indian Records until Claus' arrival at Fort Johnson, in March; 
see Journal of Indian Affairs, March 24, 1 762, post, p. 409. 

Seven Years' War 373 

Brother the Governor 

The Chiefs and Warriors of our Nation having been assembled 
in Council, after mature, and unanimous deliberation, have sent 
us with the Complaint which we are going to make, and which 
touches us as well as our posterity so nearly 


When this Country was reduced, Indian matters were wisely 
settled, and to the satisfaction of all the Indians in Canada. We 
then pleased ourselves with the hopes of quietly following our 
hunting and planting our Fields, which by the Accounts our 
Ancestors gave us were granted to us by the King of France; 
but what gives us now much uneasiness is, that these Lands are 
continually ceded, and given out in Lots to the Inhabitants in 
our Neighbourhood by our Fathers the Jesuits, who we looked 
upon, were only charged with instructing us in Religious matters, 
but if they Continue to act as they have done Since your Coming 
to this Government, we shall be without planting ground, and 
obliged to retire with our Familys into the Woods to search for 
subsistence, — For, we now can't go to our Fields without meet- 
ing with Frenchmen who give us to understand that the Land 
is theirs — 


Our Predecessors have always told us, that, when the Land 
we live upon was granted to them, they had at the same time 
Letters of Concession 1 given them upon Parchment by their 
Father the Jesuit who obtained them from the King of France 
for us, and who explained to us our right and title to these Lands 
of Sault S l . Louis for us and our posterity, and which extended 
itself from the Creek of La Tortue to that of Chateau Gay, and 
that so particular that in case the French people and Indians 

1 See Louis XIV, Letter of Gift and Concession to the Caghnawaga 
Indians, dated May 29, 1680, post p. 374, which was submitted with 
this report. 

374 Sir William Johnson Papers 

should be fishing at the same time on any of these Creeks, they 
should be obliged to share the Fish between themselves — The 
Chief of our Town kept always carefully this parchment of our 
Right and Title, until about 50 years ago, when he that had the 
Custody of it was killed in Action, it then remained in the hands 
of his Wife, who not long after falling sick, was in her dying 
hours prevailed upon by her Confessor to deliver him the parch- 
ment, he persuading her that her salvation would be at stake in 
case she should dye possessed of it — Thus Brother we were 
deprived of our Letters of Concession, not knowing the con- 
sequences that would follow, nor imagining we should have any 
Variance about it, especially with those whom we looked upon 
as our spiritual, and Temporal Fathers, therefore we are the 
more surprized to meet with such treatment from them — 

Wherefore, Brother, as we have no other resource left, but 
that of your Justice and Equity, We implore you in the name 
of our Whole Nation to grant us your protection in this Case, and 
to reinstate us in our Rights by new Titles in place of those that 
were taken from us with design to deprive us of our Lands — 

This is what we have now to say, and we confirm it with this 

Gave a Belt to General Gage 


Cop]) 1 

[May 29, 1680] 

Translation of Lewis the Fourteenth's Letter of Gift and 
Concession, Extracted from the Register of Records in the 
Secretarys office at Montreal — 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6; submitted by Daniel 
Claus with records of Indian conference regarding complaints of Cagh- 
nawaga Indians, dated Jan. 30, 1 762 ; this is a copy of a copy probably 
made in early February, 1 762 ; the translator is unknown. 

Seven Years' War 375 

Lewis by the Grace of God, King of France and Navarre &ca — 
To all whom these presents shall concern Greeting 

Our Dearly and wellbeloved the Religious of the Company 
of Jesus, who reside in our Country of New France, having most 
humbly remonstrated to us, that the land of La Prairie de la 
Magdelaine which was heretofore conceded them, were too Wet 
to be planted and improved for the sustenance of the Iroquois 
who are established thereupon, and that it might be apprehended 
they would go off them, if it did not please us to grant them that 
Land called Le Sault containing two Leagues in front, to begin 
at a point which is opposite the rifts of S*. Louis, and running up 
along that Lake in the same depth, with two Islands, Islets, and 
shallows over against it, and adjoyning the Land of La Prairie de 
La Magdelaine, which will be the means not only to keep the 
said Iroquois, but also augment their Number, and likewise, 
Extend the light of faith of the Gospel, & to this Desired End 
contribute towards the Conversion and Instruction of said Iroquois, 
and to look favourably upon said Sollicitors (the Jesuits) We 
have given, and Do give by these presents signed with our hand, 
the said Land called Le Sault, containing two Leagues in front, 
to begin at a point opposite the Rifts S l . Louis, running up the 
Lake the same depth, with two Islands Islets and Shallows which 
are there, and are joyning the Lands of a La Prairie de la Mag- 
delaine. With this Condition that the said Land called Le Sault 
shall return to us with all its improvements as soon as the Iroquois 
shall leave it — 

Permitting all those who incline to carry to said Iroquois Rings, 
Knives, or other Merchandice of such kind whatsoever. — We 
do at the same time prohibit expressly to all the French that may 
Settle, or Establish themselves amongst said Iroquois or other 
Nations of Indians that may settle on the said Land called Le 
Sault to keep any Creatures, or Cattle, and forbid all, and every 
Person to erect a Tavern, or Taphouse in the Village of the 
Iroquois that may be built thereupon Ordering our Armies, and 
Members of our Supreme Council at Quebec, and all other 
Officers of Justice to have said Letters of Gift, & Concession 

376 Sir William Johnson Papers 

read, and registered, and let said Sollicitors use and enjoy them, 
hindering, & preventing all Trouble or disturbance that might 
be given them to the Contrary, For such is our Will and pleasure. 
In Witness whereof we have ordered our Seal to be affixed to 
these presents, Given at Fountainebleau the 29 lh . day of May, In 
the year of our Lord 1 680, and the 38 lh . year of our Reign — 



By order of the King 


decree of a court 1 

Copy 2 

[Undated] 3 

Translation of the Sentence of the Court of Field Officers at 
Montreal held by Order of his Excellency Major General Gage 
for the trial of the Dispute between the Indians, & Jesuits con- 
cerning the Lands at Sault S l . Louis 4 — 

Having heard the parties on both sides, We Order that from 
the Date of these presents the two Concessions in question, be 
brought into one only concession, under the title of Concession 
of the Iroquois of Sault S f . Louis bounding on the one side to the 
Line of La Prairie de La Magdelaine Patent, and the other 
side on that of Chateaugay. And after having with attention 
examined the terms of said Concession and compared them with 
several others, we cannot find that the Reverend Fathers Jesuits 
have obtained any right of Seignory, or Mannor over said Land, 
but on the contrary are unanimously Convinced by the wise precau- 
tions taken in said Act, that his Most Christian Majesty never 
supposed that the Rev d . Fathers Jesuits should be temporal Lords 

1 Submitted to Sir William Johnson with Report of an Indian Conference, 
Jan. 30, 1762, ante p. 372; translator unknown. 

2 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

3 Probably February of 1 762. 

4 Caghnawaga. 

Seven Years' War 377 

of those Indians whom the necessity of that time required to be 
called and established about Montreal; Wherefore we frustrate 
said Rev d . Fathers Jesuits of all temporal rights, which they 
have arrogated to themselves over said Lands be it by the Con- 
descension of Governors, or Intendants (which is the only title 
by which they have obtained it) or by acts of reinstating into 
Domains which they have at different times obtained either by 
right of possession or other Reasons they may alledge. And 
We Order that the said Indians of Sault S'. Louis be put in pos- 
session, and enjoy peaceably to themselves, their Heirs and other 
Indians that might joyn them, all the Lands and Income said 
Concession may produce. And being persuaded that nothing 
Contributes more Effectually to Civilize and attach all Nations 
of Indians than strictly & religiously keeping the Engagements 
made with them, and preventing all Misunderstandings from 
arising between them and the Inhabitants established in their 
Neighbourhood, We Order that the Limits of said Concession 
of the Iroquois of Sault be run as soon as possible by a sworn 
Surveyor, and marked by stones being put in the Ground with 
his Britannick Majestys Coat of Arms, and that the plan of the 
figures be left in our Office — 

We order further that the Church, the Priests house called 
the Mannor house, with all other buildings made by the Rev d . 
Fathers Jesuits upon said Concession (or such as have been left 
to them) be looked upon as belonging immediately to the Indians 
and that they be considered as forming a Parish, said Indians 
will thereby be obliged to keep said Buildings in repair at their 
Expence, but they nevertheless shall be intended for the use of 
the Missionaries that may live among them; and with regard to 
the Expences the R d . Fathers Jesuits were at in this respect, we 
think them sufficiently indempnified — 

1 st . By the Income they drew hitherto from the Inhabitants 
they established upon said Concession. — 

2 dl y. By the value of the Land the Indians abandoned at 
La Prairie de la Magdelaine, which the R d . Fathers Jesuits may 

378 Sir William Johnson Papers 

grant out to the Inhabitants as the Indians have been removed 
to the Sault. 

And being obliged to see the Iroquois, and Indians of Sault 
enjoy peaceably and solely the Benefits granted to them by his 
Most Christian Majesty — 

We order that all the Inhabitants who have received particular 
Concessions in the territory of the Patent of Sault S l . Louis do 
deliver the Originals of their Concessions into the hands of M r . 
Panet Notary of this Town before the first of July next in order 
that matters may be regulated as above ordered. 

1 st . All Concessions granted by the Revd Fathers Jesuits to 
this day, and of which the Inhabitants have not as yet taken pos- 
session, are hereby disannulled, and void — 

2 dl y. All Concessions granted since the 8 th . of September 1 760, 
in whatever state the Land so granted may be at present, are 
hereby annulled, and the Inhabitants obliged to leave them before 
the 1 st . of November 1 762, and we sentence the RA Fathers 
Jesuits by these presents to reimburse said Inhabitants for the 
rents or other benefits they may have received by said Con- 
cessions — 

3 dl y. In Consideration of the loss of Time, Expences, and 
Work which those Inhabitants established upon said Concession 
before the 8 th . of Sept r . 1 760 may have had, And unwilling that 
they, or their families should suffer by the mistake made in this 
respect, We order that they continue to enjoy peaceably the lands 
they possess now by Concession obtained from the R d . Fathers 
the Jesuits, at the same time that they be not allowed to enlarge 
them by imposing upon the Indians, or any other means whatso- 
ever. Commanding them to come and procure new Concessions 
for themselves from our Office towards the 1 5 th . of July next — 
To the end that the Indians may enjoy their rents, the Governor 
shall be obliged to name and appoint a person to receive the 
rents, and other rights of the Mannor which said Concession may 
produce, and we bind the said Receiver to render ace 1 , to said 
Indians every 2 d . February in the year, or Candlemass, in the 

Seven Years' War 379 

presence of said Governor, or such persons by him authorized 
for that purpose. — 

The produce of said rents to be used towards repairing the 
Church and other Buildings at Sault S f . Louis, and the Overplus 
to be delivered into the hands to do therewith what they judge 
proper. And as the Concession of the Iroquois of Sault in gen- 
eral is reversible to his Majesty when they abandon it, and that 
the rights of Jurisdiction thereof (over every other person but the 
Indians, who established themselves there illegally) cant belong 
but to his Majesty — We furnish the said receiver with orders 
and necessary powers to maintain the rights of his Majesty in 
this respect, as well as the regulations which we shall find neces- 
sary to give concerning the Curateship, and Parish of S f . Peter 

Ordering from henceforth that the said Inhabitants Continue 
to grind their grain at the Mill upon the Rev d . Fathers the Jesuits 
patent called La Prairie, until it shall please us to order other- 
wise — 



jH.. Li. wJ. 

Norwalk 3 d . Febry. 1762 

Your Letter of the 1 th . December 2 Signifying Your Request 
to me to Lay before the Legislature of this Colony Your De- 
mands of Satisfaction for Your Service in the Year 1 755. I am 
now only to Acknowledge and to Acquaint you I Shall take the 
first Opportunity to communicate your motion to the Assembly 
which will not Sit before May Unless some Special Occasion 
shall make it Necessary to call it to meet sooner. When the 

1 In Harvard University Library, Sparks Collection. 
'■ This letter was probably identical with that sent Governor Wentworth, 
of this date; see Johnson Papers, 3:586-87. 

380 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Assembly has Determined the Matter I shall Endeavour to give 
you Notice as soon as may be of their Resolution therein 

In the Mean Time I Remain 
with very great Regard your 
most Obedient and 

most humble Servant 

Sir William Johnson Th ° S ' Fitch 


Contemporary Copy 

Fort William Augustus, Feby. 4 th 1762. 

Last Winter I had some intimation of a belt being sent from 
Montreal thro' all the Northern Indians inviting them to assemble 
at Canasadaga early in Spring, to commence hostilities, if a 
favourable opportunity offered; The Indian who informed me 
of this, denyed it upon being questioned before some of his 
Brethren, this alarmed them, and put them on their guard; so 
that I never was able to get any further insight into the affair, 
from them, till the other day, when I asked the above mentioned 
Indian to tell me his reasons for denying before a few of his 
Brethren what he had told me in private, he said, his life was 
threatened by them if he ever mentioned it again to the English ; 
But, upon being promised that he should never be called in ques- 
tion about it, he then said, he would tell me the truth, the purport 
of which is as follows ; That the priest of the Oswegatchie Indians, 
in presence of the Grand Vicar, and the rest of the Clergy at 
Montreal delivered three Belts to two of the leading men of that 
Nation, after the Grand Vicar had explained the signification 
of them, that these Belts were forwarded to the five Nations, 
and from thence to all the Northern Indians, but upon the dis- 

1 Copy enclosed in Gladwin to Johnson, March 5, 1 762, post p. 394. 

2 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 



Engraving from the portrait by John Holland. 
Charles Moore, The Northwest under Three Flags (1900) 

Seven Years' War 381 

covery at Detroit, they dropped their plan for the present; he 
likewise tells me, that all the Indians are our secret Enemies, 
which is intirely owing to the influence the Priests, and Jesuits 
have over them; That last fall some principal Indians from most 
of the Nations attached to the French assembled at Conesadaga, 
in order to receive Instructions for their Conduct, which was, 
that they were to keep as far from the English as they possibly 
could, and have no manner of communication with them, that 
their service would be wanted ere long, but they were not to stir 
till they heard further from them; he likewise says, not only the 
Clergy, but all the principal Inhabitants of Montreal are con- 
cerned in the affair. My Informer being asked to tell me his 
Authority for what he advanced, he replyed that the Indian to 
whom the belts were given, told him every thing concerning them ; 
that he was at Canasadaga last fall, and was an Eye witness 
of every thing that passed there, but in regard to the Inhabitants 
of Montreal being concerned, it was only a General report among 
the Indians — I think it my duty to send you this piece of Intel- 
ligence, because I am fully persuaded, from these and other 
circumstances, that the priests and Jesuits are tampering with the 
Indians, which may be attended with ill consequences sometime 
or other. 

My informer has promised to let me know from time to time 
every thing that passes among them, and you may be assured, 
Sir, if any thing new comes to my knowledge, I shall send you 
the earliest intelligence of it, I am with the greatest Respect 


&ca — 

382 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

New York, 14 A . February 1762. 

I am Just now favored with Your Letter of the 7 th . Instant; 2 
Enclosing a Copy of the Conferences held with the Chiefs of the 
Onondagas, Oneidas &ca. that had Come to Visit You, Which 
I Shall peruse as Soon as I have time. — 

I Cannot Imagine how the Indians Should have Cause to 
Complain of their Lands being taken from them, as I take it for 
granted that no Lands belonging to them have been Disposed of 
by the Province, without first Satisfying the Indians for the 
Same; However You did certainly right to lay their Complaint 
before the L l . Governor, Who, I Doubt not, will Redress any 
Grievances of this kind; And I Shall likewise Speak to him on 
the Subject. — 

You are the best Judge of What End it would Answer to 
hold a Meeting at Albany, with the Coghnawaga Chiefs &ca., 
& the New England Indians; but I must Confess, I think, it 
had better be let alone, as the Latter, in my opinion, are not 
of Consequence Enough to be Consulted on Such an Occasion, & 
would only Create a needless Expence, without being of the 
least Service. — 

With regard to the Memorial that has been presented to You 
by a Number of the Indian Traders, for Leave to Trade at 
Little Niagara, All I can Say thereon, is, that as I have never 
granted an Exclusive priviledge to Any Persons, And that 
Every One is free to Carry on Trade at Niagara Carrying 
place (untill His Majesty's pleasure is known in regard to these 
Lands) agreable to the Orders and Regulations that have been 
given, So there can be Nothing more Required for their Reaping 
all the Advantages they can Expect, than their keeping Strictly 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 In Johnson Papers, 3:622-24, where it is dated February 6, 1 762. 

Seven Years' War 383 

to these Orders and Regulations, without Which they must Expect 
to be prohibited: As to the Rum already at the Several Posts, 
I think it would be hard to Oblige the Proprietors to bring it 
down the Country, & they must Dispose of it the best way they 
can; the Commanding Officers, from the orders I have Sent, 
I am convinced will do all in their power to prevent its being Sold 
to the Indians, And a Short time will, I am hopefull, put an 
End to all Complaints arising from the Sale of this Destructive 

I am, with great Truth & Regard, 



Records, Vol. 6. 

Fort Johnson Feb'v. 20 ih . 1762 — 

Brother Teedyescung 

I informed you by my letter dated 1 st . March 1 760 3 of his 
late Majestys pleasure signified to me, concerning the complaint 
w h . you formerly made relative to your lands, which he gave me 
orders to enquire into, and report to him thereon. I therefore 
desired to know when and where I could have a Meeting with 
You, and the Delawares thereon, that I might give timely notice 
to the Proprietaries Coms rs . to attend the same & ca . 

I am not a little surprised that such a length of time hath 
elapsed without my hearing from You relative thereto, and 
greatly astonished at finding by Gov r . Hamilton's Letter to me, 4 
that You declared yourself unwilling to have the affair laid 

1 Enclosed in letter to Richard Peters, for delivery by him. See Johnson 
Papers, 3:639-40. 

2 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 9. Copy in Indian 
Records, Vol. 6. 

3 In Johnson Papers, 3 : 1 94. 

4 February 1 0, 1 76 1 , ante p. 2 1 0. 

384 Sir William Johnson Papers 

before me, from our being Strangers to one another, Such delays 
and excuses are verry extraordinary and must (when I represent 
them at Home) prevent his Majesty from paying so much attention 
to any future complaint you may make, after y r . neglecting this 
proof of his Royal Clemency. 

I now therefore expect you will imediately on receipt hereof 
(agreable to my former desire) give me notice when and 
where you can meet me, together with such Delawares as are 
concerned, that I may examine into the nature and merits of 
your complaint, in obedience to his late Majestys order, and you 
may rest assured that everry thing shall be by me transacted 
thereat with the utmost impartiality, and strictest attention to 
your Interest, and to the procureing you Justice therein. — 

I am your Sincere Brother 

W M . Johnson 
To Teedyescung a 
Cheif of the Delawares — 


Contemporary Copy 

Fort W m Augustus, February 24 th 1762. 

Since my last to your Excellency of the 4 th . inst. 3 we have 
with some difficulty made another convert, who seems to be under 
great apprehensions for fear of being discovered, and, as he 
speaks a little English, and some Dutch, he will not allow of an 
Interpreter, and in order to avoid suspicion, he desires he may 
be turned out of the Fort, as a troublesome fellow whenever 
he is found here by any of his Brethren; the Man seems to be 
very sincere, and I really believe I may depend on him, he says 
he will advance no more than what he knows to be true, the 

1 Copy enclosed in Gladwin to Johnson, March 5, 1 762, post, p. 394. 

2 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

3 Ante p. 380. 

Seven Years' War 385 

purport of which is as follows; That last year some Belts came 
from below among them; and he believes they were sent by 
the Clergy, but he never knew rightly the signification of them, 
because it was only communicated to the leading Men of their 
Nation; he likewise says that about five Weeks ago a very 
large belt came from Tactaquisela at Montreal, Inviting all the 
Indians attached to the French in, & about Canada, to assemble 
at Frontenac, 1 as soon as the River opens ; but for what purpose 
he can't say, nor will it be known till things are agreed on there — 

My other Informer is gone to the five Nations to pick up what 
he can; I expect him back in about Twenty days; you may be 
assured, Sir, nothing shall be wanting on my part to get all 
Intelligence I can, as I am fully persuaded if we have not an 
Indian War, Its not owing to any slackness on the part of our 
Secret Enemies below — 

My Informer says, he would know the French name of him 
who sent the Belt, were it mentioned to him, for which reason, 
I have wrote to General Gage, Requesting he would send me the 
Names of all the Clergy, as well as the principal Inhabitants of 
Montreal; if any thing new comes to my knowledge, I shall 
from time to time, let you know it. — 

I am &ca — 


Contemporary Copy 3 

[Fort William Augustus] Feby 25, 1762 

Since my last to your Excellency of the 24 th . instant, I have 
Received further Intelligence concerning the Belt that was sent 
from Montreal about five Weeks ago; it seems Monsieur 

1 Fort Frontenac. 

2 Copy enclosed in Gladwin to Johnson, March 5, 1762, post p. 392. 

3 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

386 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Longuile, 1 who commanded at Oswegatchie some years, delivered 
it to three Indians, who carried it thro' all the Nations between 
Montreal & Onondaga; And I believe it was forwarded from 
thence to all the Northern Indians; my informer likewise tells 
me, that every thing is fixed in order to commence Hostilities, 
early in the Spring, on the Communications to all our Posts; 
and those that do not chuse to act, are to remove to the Borders 
of Lake Ontario; in a Word they Intend to renew the plan they 
dropped last year; The Indians this way, are not to stir 'till 
they begin to the Southward, in order, I suppose that the Priests 
& Jesuits may make a handle of it; and I am convinced upon 
comparing Circumstances that the Clergy are the Cause of the 
whole. Hie Messengers who carried the belt are (I am told) on 
their return to Montreal, and will be there about the time this 
Reaches it — 

I am &ca — 


[Albany Feb. 25, 1762] 

Sir W m . Johnson being then at Albany was there met by the 
Mohickander Indians 

At a Meeting held at Albany Feb?. 25 th . 1 762 


Sir William Johnson Bart 
Lieut Pfister Roy 1 . Americans 
Lieut Guy Johnson as Secretary 
Papehanoak, and several Indians of Stockbridge 
Chicksagan ak Jacob, spoke to Sir William as follows 

We have observed that ever since the War has ended the 
Inhabitants of this Country have looked coolly on us, and not as 
heretofore — 

1 Longueuil. 

2 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

Seven Years War 387 

Formerly we met with a good reception from the white people, 
and were treated with Victuals by them at their Houses, but now, 
times are so altered that we might perish before any assistance 
was afforded us — 

At present We find our Lands, and hunting grounds taken 
possession of by people who have no right thereto, and who keep 
houses of Entertainm 1 . at our places of resort, which induces our 
people to drink, & neglect their hunting, selling both the flesh, 
and skins of the Beasts which they have killed to these Tavern 
keepers for Rum — 

If we now at any time claim our Lands, and ask the people 
settled thereon, what they do there, they answer that it hath been 
purchased from our forefathers, many years ago, and that they 
have been settled thereon by the Patroon of Albany and others — 
If this way of dealing is allowed to be continued, we must all be 
ruined, having little else beside our Lands at present to depend 
on — 

gave a Belt 

We hope you will take our case into Consideration, and put a 
stop to the selling of rum amongst us, since, in case we have no 
redress therein we shall in a little time become naked, we there- 
fore wish you'll prevent its being sold us hereafter, that we, 
and our Wives & Children, may be enabled to earn their bread, 
& that you will likewise prevent us from being deprived of 
our Lands, & Hunting Grounds in this Country. 

Then laid before Sir William a Petition which they had laid 
before the Governor, and Council in 1 754 concerning their 
Lands together with the proceedings & Opinion of the Council 
thereon, dated 5 th . July 1754 — 

Sir William then answered them — 

I should be very sorry you had any real occasion, or cause of 
complaint against the behavior of the English, who I am very 
certain will always continue to use such Indians well, who shall 

388 Sir William Johnson Papers 

deserve it at their hands; If you now find any alteration in the 
deportment of them towards you, it must be imputed to their 
knowledge of your present abilities & inclination to serve your- 
selves, that you being now in a great measure civilized, and 
acquainted with our manner of gaining a Subsistence, you 
frequently enlist yourselves in his Majestys Service, as well as 
apply yourselves to labour, from all which I am glad to see you do 
not stand in so much need of our assistance as formerly — 

Whenever it can be made appear that you have been defrauded 
of your Lands, you shall not want my assistance to redress you 
and tho' abuses of that Nature have sometimes happened, Yet, 
many of your people have formerly sold lands without the 
knowledge of the rest, and which the present race of Indians 
Claim, not being acquainted with the puchase thereof 

A Belt 

His Excellency Sir Jeffery Amherst being sensible of the 
pernicious Consequences attending the sale of Rum amongst you, 
has given orders to prevent any more spiritous liquor from being 
carried up or disposed of to any of the Indians, which will I 
hope be attended by the best Consequences, and be the occasion 
of your attending to your hunting, and trade, whereby you will 
once more be enabled to Cloath and Support Yourselves, and 
f amilys — 

I shall imediately lay your petition, together with the Order 
thereon before the Governor, and Council of this province who I 
make no doubt will take the same into Consideration, & do you 
the justice which you require — 

A belt 

Sir William haveing answered the Speech of the Indians they 
took their leave — 

Seven Years' War 



Contemporary Copy 1 

[Feb. 1762] 

Sir William made out and sent a Regulation for the Indian 
trade at Fort Stanwix of which the following is a Copy 

Indian goods 

To be sold for 

One stroud of 2 Yards long 

One large White Blanket for 

a Man 
One Womans blanket, of 24 

to y e . piece 
Childrens blankets, of 30 to 

the piece 
One pair, or 1 Ell, & 1 /3 pen- 

niston for Stockings 
One pair of Stroud Stockings 

or one Ell of D°. 
One pair of Womens worsted 

One pair of Womens yarn D°. 
One pair of Childrens D°. 
One penniston Coat for a man, 

with binding 
One d° for a lad of 16 years 

old w th . D°. 
One D° for a boy of 4 years 

old with D°. 
One Garlick shirt for a Man, 

or Woman 

Two Beavers, or three dressed 

One large Beaver, or 2 Small 

A Beaver of 21b , or 2 Doeskins 

A Small beaver, or middling 

A Beaver of 1 lb , or a Doe 

A Middling beaver, or buck- 

A small buckskin, or middle- 
sized beaver 

2 Racoons, or one Martin 

one Racoon, or 3 Muskrats 

2 Bucks, or 2 Middlesized 

2 Small bucks, or 2 Small 

One Buck, or small Beaver 

One small beaver, or middling 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 


Sir William Johnson Papers 

Indian goods 

To be sold for 

One fine Ruffled Shirt for D°. 

2 small Bucks, or 2 middling 


A Childs Shirt from 5 to 2 

One Martin, or 2 Racoons 

years old 

100, of good black Wampum 

One beaver of a lb, or 3 Ra- 

coons, or 2 Minks 

1 00, of white Wampum 

2 Racoons, or 6 Muskrats 

A large Cutteau knife 

one Racoon, or 3 Muskrats 

A Common Clasp, or Scalping 

one Small Racoon, or 2 Musk- 



One Whole piece of best roll 

1 small Beaver, or 4 large 



One piece of ordinary D°., or 

1 Doeskin, or 3 large Racoons 


One fathom of 10 penny Rib- 

1 Martin, 2 large Racoons, or 


6 Muskrats 

One pound of Vermilion 

2 middlesized beavers, or 2 


One fathom, of Callicoe, or a 

1 Beaver, or 2 Doeskins 

short Gown of D°. 

One Callimancoe Gown 

1 large buck, or 2 Doeskins, or 

1 middling beaver 

One large silk hankerchief 

1 middling beaver, or one buck- 


Brass Kettles *p pound 

2 Racoons, or one Martin 

Tin, or Camp Kettles of a 

1 Middling beaver, or a buck- 

Gallon each 


1 large stamped Silver armband 

3 middling beavers, or 3 good 


1 Silver Wrist band of the best 

1 Beaver of 21b, or 2 middling 



1 Silver Broch, or Shirtbuckle 

3 Muskrats, or 1 Racoon 

Seven Years' War 


Indian goods 

To be sold for 

1 pair of Silver ear bobs 

1 large silver hair plate for 

1 large silver Gorget for Men 
One pound of Gunpowder 
3 Bars of lead 1 Vi u each 
6 Flints 
1 Common, or middlesized 

Ind n . lookg glass 
1 fathom of Embossed Serge 

Red Trunks largest size, or 

next to it 
Middle Sized D°. 

Small Trunks 

6 Small Jews Harps 

6 plain brass rings 

1 fathom of thick brass wire 

1 fathom of smaller D°. 

1 Horn Comb 

A Beaver Trap 

3 Awlblades 

2 Racoons, or 6 Muskrats, 
or 1 Martin 

3 Beavers, or 3 large Bucks 

3 Beavers, or 3 large Bucks 
I Beaver of a lb , or a Doeskin 
1 lb of beaver, or a Doeskin 

1 Muskrat 

2 Racoons, or a Martin 

1 middling beaver, or 1 Buck- 
1 Beaver, or 1 Buck, or one 

1 middling beaver, or 1 good 

1 Martin, or 2 Racoons 
1 Racoon, or 2 Muskrats 
1 small Racoon, or 2 Muskrats 
1 Racoon, or 3 Muskrats 
1 small Racoon, or 2 Muskrats 
1 — D°. — or 2 D°. 
1 Beaver, or 1 Buck, & 2 

1 Muskrat 

392 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 2 

[Fort William Augustus,] March 5 th 1762 

The intelligence I sent your Excellency of the 4 th ., 24 th ., and 
25 th . of Feb r >\ 3 is confirmed to me by another hand in almost 
every circumstance. My informer resided at Caghnawaga up- 
wards of thirty years, & was Spokesman of that Nation some- 
time, consequently he must know every thing that passes among 
them, which I believe he would never have told me, had it not 
been for some difference between him and the priest of Aquisas- 
nag/i, 4 in consequence of which, he is determined to leave the 
Indians below, and go to the five Nations; for these reasons I 
thought him hand[y] to question concerning any News that 
might be among them, he readily owned he knew everything that 
was stirring, but was very loth to say any thing about it 'till he 
was a little elevated with liquor. I then desired him to tell all he 
knew, beginning with last year, which he did, but it will be need- 
less to repeat here all he advanced, because his information con- 
currs in almost every Circumstance with my other Letters of 
Intelligence, some matters he clears up, a few things he advances 
which I never heard before, and is as follows; 

The Oswegatchy priest delivered the belts last year, and was 
at the same time the Grand Vicars Interpreter; that last Summer 
the Clergy below sent two Belts to the Northern Indians, the 
meaning of the first was, that they were not to allow any parties 
to enter their Country, and those who attempted it, they were to 
cut off, — the meaning of the other was, that they were to murder 
Sir William Johnson, if they did not approve of his Council; 

1 Copy enclosed in Gladwin to Johnson, March 5, 1762, post p. 394. 

2 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

3 See Gladwin to Amherst Feb. 4, 1 762 (ante p. 380), Feb. 24, 1 762 
(ante p. 384), and Feb. 25, 1 762 (ante p. 385). 

4 Aughquisasne, the Indian village of St. Regis. 

Seven Years War 393 

he likewise says, the belt that came from below about six Weeks 
ago was delivered by the Clergy to Monsieur Longuile, 1 and was 
by him given to three Indians at Conesadaga, one of them an- 
swers to the name of Joseph, he returned from the Mohocks last 
Summer, or fall, and is Nephew to Monsieur Simons at Conesa- 
daga; they are to carry it thro' the five Nations, and deliver it 
at Detroit, from thence it is to be forwarded to all the Northern 
Indians, one of them was here a Day, or two ago. we made him 
drunk which opened the sluices of his heart, and he then told 
all he knew, which corresponds exactly with what I have advanced 
concerning the belt that was sent from below this Winter, how- 
ever improbable all these accounts may appear, Nevertheless I 
am persuaded there must be some truth in them, as none of my 
Informers have had the least intimation that I had any knowledge 
of these matters from others, besides, I am almost convinced 
they have no Acquaintance with each other: My Informer like- 
wise tells me, that now there is at Conesadaga Eight of the 
Northern Indians, one from each Nation, and all leading Men, 
that they were waiting to receive their Instructions from the 
Priests, before they return. 

This comes by an Express which I sent across to Sir William 
Johnson by presents I have engaged the Indian who informed 
of the above to go with the party: I am persuaded Sir William 
will be able to get from him (when he is sober) what he told 
me in his Cups — 

I am &ca — The foregoing are true 

Copies 2 taken from the 
Originals by 

G Johnson, as Secy. 

1 Longueuil. 

2 Copies of letters from Gladwin to Amherst, dated Feb. 4, 1 762 
(ante p. 380), Feb. 24, 1762 (ante p. 384), Feb. 25, 1762 (ante 
p. 385), And March 5, 1762 (ante p. 392) were sent by Gladwin to 
Johnson, and entered in the Indian Records by Guy Johnson. 

394 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Fort William Augustus, March 5 l \ 1762. 

I enclose you herewith Duplicates of four letters 2 I wrote to 
Gen 1 . Amherst. I chose to copy them exactly in order that you 
may see the steps I have taken to come at the truth — 

I send this by Cain 3 the Interpreter, he has been very active 
on the occasion, and really he merits a gratuity for his services, 
he has been employed in this way ever since I had the honour 
to command here, and never had any thing for it; I have like- 
wise promised the Indian that you would reward him to his 
satisfaction — 

Permit me, Sir to tell you, I shall allways retain a gratefull 
sense of your Civility to me at Detroit, and I don't despair of 
seeing you some time or other, when I shall take the opportunity 
to thank you in person 

I am 

Sir &ca 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. A marginal note 
by Guy Johnson, referring to this document, reads: "V. [vide] Page 
228 [refers to location of Gladwin to Johnson, April 4, 1 762, (post 
p. 422.) in the Indian Records, Vol. 6,] for a more particular acct. 
of the secret acts of the French to set up the Indians." A list of the 
documents of this case is given in footnote 2, p. 424. 

2 Letters from Gladwin to Amherst, dated Feb. 4, 1 762 (ante p. 380), 
Feb. 24, 1762 (ante p. 384), Feb. 25, 1762 (ante p. 385), and 
March 5, 1762 (ante p. 392). 

3 Meni Chesne. 

Seven Years' War 395 

Contemporary Copy 1 

Philadelphia, 6 ih March 1762 

I sent off M r . David Seisberger, 2 express with your Letter to 
Wyoming where Teedyuscung lives with orders, as he under- 
stands the Delaware Language, to take care that the letter was 
well interpreted and an Answer sent by him to you — 

M r . Seisberger returned to this City this day sevennight with 
the inclosed answer, in Company with twenty Cayuga Indians, 
whom he met on the way coming down, who have acquainted 
the Governor, that they were dispatched by the Six Nations, & 
particularly the Senecas, to tell the Governor that they had col- 
lected all our Prisoners and were coming down with them, and 
that there would be a great Number of Indians from all the six 
Nations on this occasion. 

M r . Croghan has no doubt informed You of the Belts that he 
delivered to Governor Hamilton from the Beaver and other 
Indian Chiefs advising him that they would visit him this Spring 
and bring with them the Western Indians — 

This unexpected visit from the Six Nations being likely to 
be chargeable to the province, The Governor informed the Cayuga 
Messengers that the Western Indians would be here in two 
Months, and he thought it best for the Six Nations to be here 
at the same time, and therefore desired it might be so ordered, 
letting them know likewise that it would be more agreable to 
him that they would leave their Young Men, Women and Chil- 
dren behind, and send down the prisoners by some few of their 
principal Men, in which case they should be able to make them 
a better and more valuable present — 

The Indians delivered a String of Wampum to the Gov r . 
from the Six Nations desiring him to send for M r . Croghan and 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

2 David Zeisberger. 

396 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Cap 1 . Montour 1 to be present at the ensuing Conferences, to 
which the Governor answered that as they were in your Service, 
he could not take this upon him, but if they thought them neces- 
sary he desired they would apply to you to give them orders to 
attend — 

You know, Sir, that the Coming down of the Western Indians 
is in consequence of the treaty of Easton, 2 from which Invitations 
were sent to them by the earnest advice, and with the Concurrence 
of General Forbes, & your Depy. M r . Croghan. As to the present 
Visit intended by the six Nations, the Governor desires me to 
assure you, that it is quite unexpected, he having never sent to 
them any Messages but only to urge them to fullfill their promise 
of delivering up our prisoners remaining in their Country, and 
that these Meetings are chargeable to the Province and very 
disagreable to him — 

The Governor further desires me to acquaint You that he 
expects both sets of Indians in about two Months, that being his 
Majestys Agent for Indian affairs, you may, if you please, either 
be present yourself or order some of your Deputy s to attend, 
that in case any thing should arise which might be of service 
to his Majestys Interest it might be under your advice & direction. 

If you should think of indulging Teedyuscung on his desire 
of having his differences heard in this Province, I will not fail 
to give my attendance on the part of the Proprietors — 

I am Sir &ca — 

Fort Johnson March /2 th . 1762 
Dear Sir 

Your kind favour of the 3 d . Ins*, with the Print of that day, 
I yesterday had y e . pleasure to receive, for which I am much 

1 Captain Henry (Andrew) Montour. 

2 October, 1758. 

3 In Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, N. Y. 

Seven Years' War 397 

oblidged to you and congratulate [you] with you on our present 
Success so far. — 

with regard to the Tract of Land called Kayadarusseras which 
you mean, at the time I made mention of it, I believe that Shares 
might be reasonably purchased, but it is incredible how high in 
value Lands are now grown, that Pattent is reckoned among those 
Surreptiously obtained, therefore in my opinion not adviseable 
to be concerned in, besides there are a great Number of People 
who have shares in it, and liveing in different parts of the World, 
which alone is a great inconveniency. — 

As nothing would afford me greater pleasure than serveing a 
friend, and encourageing the Settlement of the Country, with Brit- 
tons, as well as haveing your Relation for a Neighbour, I shall 
readily, and chearfully give You all the advice and assistance I can 
towards the purchase of some Land for him, but it would be 
necessarry first to know what quantity he might want, — 

this you are to observe, that there is no buying any Lands 
[nolp] at present from y e . Indians, so that what is bought now, 
must be from those who have already pattented Lands. — 

I am truely Sir 

Y r . hearty Welwisher and Humble Serv 1 . 

W. Johnson 
Rob t . Leake Esq r . — 


12* March 1762 

Sir W m Johnson Bart 
rec'd 20* D°. 

398 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Report of Cap 1 . Dan 1 . Claus's proceedings at Canassadaga with 
the Indians there, Dated Montreal 15 th . March 1762 

His Excellency Major Gen 1 . Gage having desired Cap 1 . Claus, 
Depy. Agent for Indian affairs to make all possible enquiry, 
what belts of Wampum were sent during the Autumn 1 760. 
and the Spring following by the way of Oswegatchy to the five 
Nations, and from thence to the Northern Indians, and by whom, 
with the substance thereof, and whether the Clergy of Canada 
might not be suspected to have a hand therein, he was further 
required to find out the person (a Frenchman) who passed 
amongst the Indians by the Name of Taghtaghquisera and what 
message he sent in December last by three Canassadago Indians, 
one of them named Joseph, Nephew of one Simon an half breed 
Trader at Canasadaga — , 

Cap'. Claus thereupon went to Canasadaga, and made the 
most strict enquiry in private relative thereto, after which he 
had a Publick Meeting of the Chiefs of that Village, the result 
of both which was, that he was given to understand that after 
the reduction of that Country, the Oswegatchy Indians finding 
themselves deprived of their Priest, applied to the Clergy of S'. 
Sulpice to replace that Mission, but said Clergy finding it incon- 
venient to send, or continue one at Oswegatchy, proposed in a 
Meeting held at Canasadaga by the Indians of that Town, & 
where their Chiefs, and most of that Nation then resided, to 
erect a Mission about 7 or 8 Leagues down the River from 
Oswegatchy, at this Meeting were several of the Clergy of S l . 
Sulpitius present, but not the Vicar. The Same Spring several 
reports were spread, and Messages with belts of Wampum were 
sent amongst them from the Chenussios that a numerous English 
Army was preparing to cut off the praying Indians of Canada, 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39 ; enclosed in Johnson 
to Amherst, April 1, 1762, Johnson Papers, 3:664. 

Seven Years' War 399 

but they knowing the Six Nations to be fond of sending alarming 
news & messages returned the belts without giving credit thereto, 
and at the same time acquainted General Gage therewith — 

With regard to the Frenchman who went by the Name of 
Taghtaghquisera they never knew, or heard of any other person 
of that name excepting Mons r . Longeuil, Seigneur of the Cedars 
who went to France on the surrender of Canada. Simon the 
half breed Trader has a son in law called Joseph, whose Sirname 
is Feifer born at Burnetsneld on the Mohock River who was 
taken in the beginning of the last War, when a boy and Speaks 
Arundax, but very little Iroquois, and who never meddled with 
any publick business, neither was he employed in carrying mes- 
sages — 

The Chiefs of Canasadaga, by the before mentioned, & other 
occurring questions put to them, being apprehensive that Gen 1 . 
Gage suspected them of some evil design, begged of Capt Claus 
to assure his Excellency in the most solemn manner of their Sin- 
cerity and friendship for the English, and therefore hoped he 
would drop any suspicious thoughts with regard to them they 
being too sensible of the blessings of peace, and a mild & quiet 
Government after feeling the miseries of a tedious War still recent 
in their memories, to promote, or engage in fresh hostilities, which 
might probably terminate in their destruction — 


Contemporary Copy 1 

New York, 17 lh . March 1762. 

A Few days ago I received a Letter from Maj r . Gladwin, 2 
Informing me of a Discovery he had made of the Evil Intentions 
of the Indians, Stirred up thereto, by the Priests and Jesuits: 
Altho' this Intelligence appears to me altogether wild and Im- 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 Gladwin to Amherst, March 5, 1762, ante, p. 394. 

400 Sir William Johnson Papers 

probable, I think proper to Acquaint You therewith, & therefore 
I Enclose You a Copy of Major Gladwin's Letter, & have only 
to Observe, that if there Should be any Truth in the Affair, the 
Priests as well as the Indians, are greater Fools than ever I took 
them for, as any attempt to Disturb Us, at this time, must only 
End in their own Destruction; As Major Gladwin has Reported 
the Whole to Governor Gage he will take Every method in his 
power to find out whether there is any foundation for that part 
which Accuses the Grand Vicar, Clergy &ca. of Montreal, of 
being Concerned in the Plot; In the meantime, You will please 
to Make no further Use of this than You think proper, as I 
would not Suppose those Gentlemen Guilty of Such behavior 
without Sufficient proofs. — 

I am, with great Regard, 

Sir William Johnson, Bar'. 

A. L. S. 1 

Mont Real le 17 Mars 1762 

Y ayant un Drappeau a vendre dans le B" (que j'ay l'honneur 
de Commander) je me fais Un plaisir Monsieur, de vous 1'offrir 
pour Mons r . Votre fils; Si vous le destines au Militaire, & qu'il 
y aye du gout, je Crois qu'il poura apprendre bien des Choses 
Utiles; vous pouriez au reste etre perSuade de la Satisfaction 
que j'auray a lui rendre Service: & a vous themoigner le parfait 
devouement avec lequel j'ay l'honneur d'etre 


Votre tres humble 

& tres obeissant Serviteur 

Fred: Haldimand 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

Seven Years' War 401 

P:S: Si vous acceptes l'offre 

Cy dessus, il faudroit Monsieur 

en ecrire immediattement au 

General Amherst, a qui j'a[i] Marque 

la proposition que je vous ay faitte, & qui je Suis persuade 



Montreal 17 th March 
from ColR Haldiman 
in French — 


There being a commission for sale in the battalion (which I have 
the honor to command) I take pleasure, Sir in offering it to your 
son. If you destine him for military service and he has a liking 
for it, I think that he will well be able to learn some useful things. 
Furthermore you may be assured of the satisfaction which it 
will give me to render him a service and to prove to you the 
perfect devotion with which I have the honor to be 


Your very humble 

and very obedient servant 

Fred : Haldimand 

P. S. If you accept the above offer 

you should write, Sir, immediately 

about it to General Amherst, to whom 

I have mentioned the proposition 

which I have made to you, and 

who, I am sure, will approve it. 

402 Sir William Johnson Papers 


[March 19-20, 1762] 
March 19 th . 

Two Conajoharee Indians dispatched by the Sachems of 
that Castle, with a string of Wampum, waited on Sir William 
and informed him that Serihorvanee, one of their Chiefs who 
last fall went a hunting to Otseningo, 2 v/as newly returned, and 
had informed them, that he was told hy some Indians from 
Chenussio, that Kinderuntie (alias Blue Cheeks) had last fall 
made up a party of 600 Warriors of different Nations to the 
Southward, to whom he proposed an attack upon Niagara, 
which they were unwilling, but had agreed to surprize Fort Pitt; 
and that the Senecas had not since that time received any intel- 
ligence from him, at which they were much surprized — 

Serihowanee, was likewise informed, that at the same time 6 
Delawares had set out in order to obtain satisfaction for the 
murder of some of their people by the English, but were restrained 
by their Sachems from committing hostilities for some time, in 
expectation that the Affair would have been made up, which not 
being done, the Indians had now proceeded to procure satisfac- 
tion for the same — 

Sir William in answer, thanked the Sachems of Conajoharee 
for their intelligence, and desired the Messengers to inform them, 
that as the Meeting with the Six Nations was so shortly to take 
place, he then expected to be informed thereof, if such a thing 
had been in Agitation, to which he could scarcely be induced to 
pay any credit — 


Two Soldiers of the 80 th . Reg 1 , arrived with a packet from 
Major Gladwin Commanding at Fort William Augustus to Sir 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

2 Chenango. 

Seven Years War 403 

Jeff. Amherst & another containing a Letter and Duplicates for 
Sir W m . Johnson of which the following are Copies 1 — 

Contemporary Copy 2 

Wyomink 20 ih March, 1762 
Answer from Teedyuscung dated Wyomink 1 9 th March, 1 762. 

When I David Zisberger arrived at Wyomink, I delivered 
Sir William Johnsons Letter to Teedyuscung, and got it trans- 
lated to him whereupon he called his Council, and after con- 
sulting with them, the next day being the 20 th . of March he gave 
the following Answer 3 — 


I am very glad to receive your Letter, by which I am informed 
that you did not get an answer to your Letter I received from 
you two Years ago — Now I inform you that when I received 
your Letter, I immediately sent you an Answer from Bethlehem, 
and this last fall I sent a Seven rowed belt of Wampum by 
Francis a Mohikan Indian — When I received your Letter at 
Bethlehem I was upon my Journey to Ohio, and when I opened 
the Letter & found that it was about the Lands, and I being then 
busy with other affairs, I thought it proper to let the Land affairs 
stand until I should return home again and be at rest, then we 
would finish that matter about the Lands — And by the belt I 
have sent to you last fall I did let you know that I was now at 
rest and stretched out my hand and took you by the hand and 

1 The letter: Gladwin to Johnson, March 5, 1762, ante p. 394; the 
duplicates: Gladwin to Amherst, Feb. 24, 1762, ante p. 384; Gladwin 
to Amherst, Feb. 25, 1762, ante p. 385; Gladwin to Amherst, March 5, 
1 762, ante p. 392. 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

3 See Pennsylvania Archives, First Series, 4:74-75, for Zeisberger's 
letter dated Wioming, March 19, 1 762, with substantially the same report. 
See Johnson to Richard Peters, April 21,1 762, Johnson Papers, 3:687. 
David Zeisberger was the Moravian Missionary. 

404 Sir William Johnson Papers 

told you to come to Philadelphia in six Months time, when we 
should settle the affair of the Lands — 

And now Brother, I return you an Answer to your letter I 
received the 19 th . March 1 762 by a Messenger from the Governor 
of Philadelphia and finding now that you are put in Trust to see 
the Indians done justice, we are now no more strangers to one 
another — I take you by the hand and desire you to come to 
Philadelphia in two Months time, for I find that I can put my 
trust in no body but only in you, and by the space of two Months 
I and the rest of my people shall be in readiness — 

Gave a String 

Tadeyuskung Chiefs of the 
A true Copy of TADBESKOHON Delawares at 

Teedyuscungs Answer Wyoming — 

delivered to me 
Richard Peters by 
David Zeisberger 
R. Peters 


Fort Johnson 20 th . March 1762 

I am to acknowledge the receipt of your Excelled, favour of 
the 14 th . Ult°. 2 in answer to mine, encloseing a Copy of Confer- 
ences with the Indians. — 

As Your Excellency is of opinion that no Lands have been 
taken up without first satisfying the Indians for the same, it will 
be necessary for me to assure You, it is notorious, that they have 
been frequently overreached, and defrauded greatly by Persons 
taking up small Tracts from a few Indians, whom they have 
often made drunk to bring them to their purpose, and have after- 
wards by false Surveys &ca., included in the Pattents much more 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

2 Ante p. 382. 

Seven Years' War 405 

lands than were Sold by the Indians, which they have not been 
able to discover until of late Years, by seeing us Settleing thereon, 
of all which I could give many Examples. — 

Herewith I inclose your Excellency a Packet from Major 
Gladwin, which I this day received by two Soldiers of his 
garrison dispatched for that purpose accompanied by a Coghna- 
waga Indian mentioned in the Majors letter 1 to You which he has 
furnished me with a Coppy of. — 

I have examined the Indian with regard to the Intelligence 
mentioned in the letter to your Excellency. He seems in a great 
measure to corroborate what is therein sayed, and accounts for it 
from the Belts which had last year been sent amongst all the 
Indians throughout the Continent to stirr them up to a War with 
Us, w h . was not yet laid aside by them all, but was still he Judged 
pushed on, and inflamed by their Preists and Jesuits resideing 
amongst them. — It appears to me and is what I always expected 
that they must be greatly discontented on finding a treatment 
verry different from that, to which they had been accustomed, 
as well as alarmed and jealous of our power since the reduction 
of Canada, which disposition the French had filled their Heads 
with long ago, by telling them, we should then fall upon and 
destroy them, and I am of opinion there are not wanting Em- 
missaries, particularly amg st . their Clergy who make it their 
business to continue the Indians in that way of thinking, by 
aggravateing circumstances, feeding them up with expectations 
of the French becomeing again possessed of the Country, as 
well as by everry means which artifice can suggest to render 
us obnoxious to them. — 

Yesterday I was informed by an Indian from the Conajohare 
Castle, who has been hunting for some time ab*. Otseningo on 
the Susquahana River, that he heard there was a party of about 
600 Southern Indians of different Nations who had assembled 
themselves, and left their Habitations with a design to Surprise 
Fort Pitt, or some other of our Garrisons, that they were headed 

1 See Gladwin to Amherst, March 5, 1762, ante p. 392. 

406 Sir William Johnson Papers 

by a dissafected Chenussio who was principally concerned in 
sending the Belt last Year to the Detroit, but my Informer had 
heard nothing further concerning them, if there be any truth 
therein, I expect M r . Croghan will be able to discover, and 
prevent the same. — 

I am hopefull that at the meeting of the Six Nations (who I 
have expected some time, and hear are now on their way hither) 
I shall be able to find out the particulars of all the before-mentioned 
Intelligence, as well as use my endeavour to prevent their carrying 
any design into execution to the interruption of the public tran- 

I have the honour to be with 
the greatest esteem Sir 
Your Excellencys most Obedient 
& most Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 

His Excellency 

Sir Jeffery Amherst — 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Ne»> York, 21 st - March 1762. 

Since mine of the 1 7 th ., 2 which You will Receive herewith, I 
have two Other Letters from Major Gladwin, Containing Some 
further Accounts of that Wild Incomprehensible Design of the 
Indians, to Which I cannot give Credit, notwithstanding the 
Major thinks he has procured very Strong proofs of the plot 
being real. — 

I However Judge it proper that You Should be Acquainted 
with what I know of the matter, & therefore Enclose You Copys 
of Major Gladwin's Letters, that You may make what use thereof 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 Ante p. 399. 

Seven Years 9 War 407 

You Shall think best ; And I Doubt not but Governor Gage will 
be able to Come at the Truth, if there is the least Foundation for 
the Accusation of the People of Montreal. — 

I am, with great Truth & Regard, 

Sir William Johnson, Baronet. 


A. Df. S. 1 

[March 24, 1762] 

Dear Sir 

Capt n . Claus this day delivered me your verry polite and 
[freindly letter] 2 kind favour of the 17 th . Ins 1 . 

I am extremely oblidged to You for [j;our] the verry kind 
intentions [and offer of services] towards My Son and freindly 
Sentiments [towards my son, as therein] expressed in y r . letter. 
I am [a/so] verry sensible that he could acquire as much military 
knowledge in your Corps, particularly [n>/ien] under your direc- 
tion as in any Corps Whatsoever, [these must be y e . greatest in- 
ducements to any young man I would therefore] & if he had an 
inclination for the Army [have preferred] the foregoing reasons & 
encouragements would have doubtless led me as well as him to 
prefer Your Battalion. — [ ] in the beginning of the 

War he was verry desireous of going into the Army, but his 
Youth then and not haveing finished his Learning prevented my 
indulging his inclination [at that time,] and now he says, as the 
War is near at an End, he does not think it would look well for 
him to enter into the Army. — and as he is come to the years 

1 This Df. was written on the back of Haldimand's letter to Johnson 
of March 1 7, 1 762, ante p. 400, and is to be found in the Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania. 

2 Words italicized and in brackets are crossed out in the maunscript. 

408 Sir William Johnson Papers 

of discretion I allow him his own turn of Mind. /— we have 
nothing new here, but what You see verry near as soon as we 
in the papers, [/ hope] we daily expect to hear of the reduction 
of Martinico. 1 — 

I am with perfect esteem, 
Dear Sir 
Y'. & ca 

Coll°. Frederick Haldimand — 

W. J.— 


In the Auction Catalogue of Charles F. Heartman, Metuchen, New 
Jersey, Jan. 24, 1931, were listed two holograph letters of Sir William 
Johnson, present location unknown: To Colonel John Bradstreet, Johnson 
Hall, March 7, 1 762 : "Since my last to you, the Barer, Red Head, with 
a few of his Nation arrived, and inform me, that the greatest part of the 
Six Nations are on their way hither, and will be here in a few days. As he 
imagines to bring about a Peace between Us, and the Chenussies, of whom 
there is a great Number comeing. 

"After this meeting is over I shall be able to form a thorough Judgement 
to the Sentiments of the Indians in General, and what I shall be able to do 
with them. Even as affairs are now circumstanced, I am certain I can 
provide that Number mentioned in my last, and probably many more to 
act against the Enemy. 

"Your taking notice of Red Head and those few with him, (who are 
chiefly going down to trade) will have a good effect. This I need not 
recommend to you, as you know what a mercenary kind of People they are, 
and how to be gained by good treatment and presents." 

Holograph letter of Sir William Johnson to unknown addressee, March 
26, 1 762, quoted in part: 

"Inclosed I send your Mr. Longs full account. I thought it was not 
of much consequence to draw out all the Particular Accounts; moreover 
it would be a tedious piece of Work. However, if it be requisite, please 
to let me know and I will draw them all out. At first I had but his bare 
word and Honour for the payment of the tenant's Debts, but since I have 
had several Letters from him, and in his absence from his Wife conscerning 
them, and acknowledging the Debt as his own. I am Sorry he Urges me 

1 Martinique. 


Painting by Sir Joshua Reynolds. Courtesy of 

Mrs W. L. Haldimand, Westmount, Quebec. 

Seven Years War 409 

to this proceeding, however, it being his fault, as I will plainly and to his 
shame make appear, I cannot be blamed, nor Censured for Useing him as 
he deserves. Therefore in as much as it requires haste, I beg you will use 
your Utmost for the Recovery thereof, ..." 


[March 24-30, 1762.] 
Capt Dan 1 . Claus Deputy Agent for Indian Affairs, arrived at 
Fort Johnson from Montreal, and delivered Sir William several 
papers, 2 & proceedings relative to a Complaint by the Indians of 
Caghnawaga concerning their Lands, of all which the following 3 
are Copys. 


Ten Onondagas arrived, and acquainted Sir William that their 
Nation were out of patience expecting the Chenussios & other 
Senecas, whom they heard were collecting all the English prisoners 
amongst their several Tribes, as well as those yet remaining with 
the Delawares, and others — so that they judged it would be six, 
or Eight days yet before they could be here; That the Oneidas, 
Tuscaroras &ca as well as they, waited only the arrival of the 
Chenussios — Sir William ordered these Onondagas provisions, 
and sent them to the ground laid out for their encampment — 


Five Abenaquis Chiefs, their Interpreter, and a Panis Slave 
(whom they were to deliver up to the Stockbridge Indians) 
arrived, and after paying their Compliments to Sir William, were 
directed to the Quarters assigned them 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

2 See Report of an Indian Conference, Jan. 30, 1 762, ante p. 372. 
Louis XVI's Letter of Gift and Concession to the Caghnawaga Indians, 
May 29, 1680, ante p. 374, Decree of a Court, undated, ante, p. 376, 
and Haldimand to Johnson, March 1 7, 1 762, ante p. 400. 

3 The papers mentioned in note 2 above were submitted by Claus on his 
arrival at Fort Johnson, and were entered in the Indian Records following 
the prefatory statement above, dated March 24, 1 762. 

410 Sir William Johnson Papers 

The Abenaquis were called to a Meeting in order to declare 
the purpose of their Errand — 


Sir William Johnson Bart 

Capt Dan 1 . Claus Dep?. Ag l . LA Johnson Secretary 

Abraham alias Tayorheasere a Mohock Chief, & Cap 1 . 

Dick a principal Warrior of Onondaga, some Cona- 

joharees & the Abenaquis — 

Sir William having desired the Interpreter to acquaint the 
Abenaquis he was ready to hear them, accordingly Jean 
Baptiste, al s Wadongemit spoke as follows — 


Nothwithstanding the length, and fatigue of our journey hath 
been very great, yet, the pleasure we receive on finding you Well, 
on our arrival, hath sufficiently compensated us for our Labour, 
and caused us to forget, all we have undergone — therefore with 
these Strings of Wampum we Clear your sight, open your Ears, & 
remove all uneasiness which may have had place in your breast — 



We acknowledge to have received your Summons last Spring, 
but the great distress we have laboured under since the Destruction 
of our Castle, together with the loss we have Since that sustained 
by Fire rendered us unable to obey your Call until now — We 
therefore hope you will not impute our delay to any bad Cause, 
or attribute it to any wilfull neglect — 



For the reasons I have already mentioned we have been hitherto 
scattered and dispersed so that we could not have a proper Meeting 
upon your Messages concerning Capt Jacobs, 1 and his Nation but 

A Stockbridge Indian. 

Seven Years' War 41 1 

on receipt thereof last Spring we imediately collected as much 
money as would purchase a Slave in order to accomodate all 
differences between us, and our Brothers the Stockbridge Indians, 
who had one of their Men killed by us; for which purpose we are 
now come hither — As we Consider you as our Father we beg 
your directions, & willingly submit ourselves to your Reproof if 
we have been guilty of any mistake or neglect — and be assured 
we esteem you as our real Friend & Father, and as such address 
you — 

gave a Belt 

We see the head of our Brothers the River Indians is bleeding, 
occasioned by the Wound we have given them by the death of 
one of their Nation whom we killed, and therefore with this belt 
of wampum We take the Axe out of their Heads, and sink it in 
a rapid Stream which shall drive it to the bottomless Sea, that it 
can never again be found, and that all the past may be forever 

gave a belt 

Then replaced the Man who was killed with a Panis Slave 
whom they delivered up to Sir William to be sent by him to the 
Stockbridge Indians, together with the 2 Belts of Wampum, 
after which the speaker addressed Sir William as follows — 


We the Deputies of the Abenaquis Nation beg that after the 
Ceremony of replacing their loss, you will be pleased to make the 
same known to all the Indian Nations hereabouts, for that they may 
forget what hath passed, and that an Everlasting friendship may 
subsist between us, and our posterity; and we beg you will offer 
them our Sincere Wishes and salutations — 

gave a belt 

We pray to the great Being above, that he will from henceforth 
guide, & rule our hearts, so that we may remain united with all 

412 Sir William Johnson Papers 

those Nations for ever hereafter, and form one large House 
together so that we may live in strict Union as one Family and 
with this belt we clean away all filth which we may have 
occasioned — 

A belt 

We have long wished to see you and our Brethren the Indians 
in these parts, and it affords us now the utmost pleasure of meeting 
you, and them here — as there were but a few of our people 
at home when we set off, we could not think of any thing more to 
conferr with you upon, but next summer when our People shall 
be assembled, we hope to have a more ample Interview with You, 
and shall therefore for the present make an end — » • , 

Sir William then told them that he had attended to what they 
had sayed, and would on the Morrow say something to them — 
The Mohocks, Onondagas, &ca likewise signified to them their 
approbation of what they had done, after which the Meeting 
broke up for that day — 

The Abenaquis Deputies &ca being assembled Sir William 
spoke to them as follows — 

Children of the Abenaquis Nation — 

I bid you hearty Wellcome to my House, where there is a 
Council fire always burning clear for the benefit & reception of all 
Indians who are Friends to the English, and from your late Con- 
duct I now receive your Nation amongst that number 

3 Strings of Wampum 

As I am sensible of the fatigue you have undergone in your 
Journey hither, at this severe Season of the Year — I with 
these strings of Wampum wipe away the sweat from off your body, 
and also pluck the thorns out of your feet, that you may be able 
to return with ease and pleasure — 

3 Strings 

Seven Years' War 413 


With these Strings of Wampum, I dry up the Tears which you 
have lately had occasion to shed, for the losses you sustained 
thro' your own obstinacy, and ignorance, and I open also your 
Eyes, that you may plainly discern your past folly (which I 
expect you will never more repeat) and that you may take notice 
of the favour & indulgence you enjoy under the English — 

3 Strings 

I approve of the method you have taken to reconcile all 
differences between your Nation, and the Stockbridge Indians, 
which measures should always be taken as soon as possible but the 
reasons you have given (which I am willing to believe are just) 
for your delaying it so long, satisfy me, and be assured the 
Stockbridge Indians will also be ready enough to make allowance 
for your unavoidable delay, as well as contented with the satisfac- 
tion you have made, which I shall imediately acquaint them with, 
and call them to fetch the Prisoner — I shall likewise let all the 
Surrounding Nations of Indians know (agreable to your request) 
what you have now done, and that all Differences which have 
subsisted between the River Indians, & you, are happily ac- 
comodated A i i. 

A belt 


I am pleased with your Endeavors and desire to live in friend- 
ship with all the Nations of Indians in this quarter and I must 
(as I have done to them) recommend it to you as the only sure 
means of enjoying peace & happiness to live in the strictest Amity 
with your New Friends the English — as also to collect your 
people together in one Village, apply yourselves to your hunting, 
planting and Trade, and leave off Rambling about through the 
Country; by following which advice you will become more 
respectable than you are at present, and as I expect you will 
observe the same you may in that case depend upon his Britannick 
Majestys fatherly protection, and the friendship of his Subjects 
the English - A be]t 

414 Sir William Johnson Papers 


There is one thing remaining which I must recommend to you 
that is, that you do not for the future listen, or pay any regard to 
evil reports, from any quarters whatsoever, to which I know the 
Indians in General, and your people in particular are too ready 
Upon several occasions to give credit, which I am induced to 
impute to their Consciousness of having hitherto acted an unnatural 
part against the English, who are notwithstanding so humane and 
generous a people (of which you see daily proofs) that they will 
readily forgive, and forget what hath passed, provided You behave 
for the future as Friends, and Allies, which You Should, 
and I expect you will do, as thereby you may depend on their 
friendship and protection 

A belt 

As You are now come into the Indian Confederacy of which I 
have the Superintendency I must desire you will not enter into, or 
hold any private or publick Meetings with any Nations of Indians 
whatsoever, without my knowledge and approbation, as such 
meetings must raise in us suspicions of the sincerity of your In- 
tentions, & tend to overset the happy state, you now are entering 
into — Whenever therefore you have anything of Moment 
amongst you, I expect you will communicate the same to his 
Majestys Governor of Trois Rivieres, or to Cap 1 . Claus my 
Deputy at Montreal who will transmit it to me, as also acquaint 
you with my sentiments and Answer thereon, as a means of 
preventing your taking a long and fatiguing Journey to my 
House — 

A belt 

To which the Speaker of the Abenaquis made answer 

Your Speech in Answer to ours has in all respects given us 
inexpressible Satisfaction, but as there are only a few of us here, 
and those Chiefly young people, we cannot pretend to give you a 
proper and sufficient Answer thereupon, Wherefore we beg leave 

Seven Years' War 415 

to deferr it to another opportunity, that in the mean time we may 
lay what you have sayed before the Chiefs and Leaders of our 
Nation to have a General Consultation thereupon — 


The Abenaquis desired another Meeting with Sir William 
and after assembling, their Speaker addressed him as follows 


We have a few words more to say, after which we shall have 
entirely done, and take our leave — 

We look upon our Journey to have been very favourable to us, 
in that we have had the pleasure, (by divine permission), of 
finding you, our Father in Good health — Our request now is 
concerning the performance of Divine service amongst us, for 
which purpose we were always used to have two Clergymen 
appointed but, since the destruction of our Village M r . Robeaud 1 
alone remains with us, and as he is generally indisposed, he cannot 
perform the Service singly, which we were accustomed to have 
three times a day — We therefore address ourselves to you as the 
Superintendant of our Affairs, that we may have the Clergyman 
who left us, recalled, so that we may not forget, or Neglect our 
prayers, especially, in case our Nation collect themselves to their 
Village as you have recommended — 

to which Sir William Johnson replyed 

On the Reduction of Canada His Excellency Sir Jeffery 
Amherst was pleased to permit the free use of their Religion not 
only to the French Inhabitants, but also to the Indians living 
in that Country, which is an indulgence they, and you, should 
never forget, and as to the number of Missionaries proper for 
each Nation, that must be left entirely to the determination of 
the Clergy who have always managed those affairs, and will no 
doubt do what is necessary therein — 

1 Roubaud, Jesuit missionary to the Abenakis. 

416 Sir William Johnson Papers 


A.L. 1 

Johnson Hall March 30 th . 1762 

Herewith I transmit you a Speech made by the Mohocks at my 
House, together with a Belt of Wampum which I was requested 
by the Indians to lay before you. 

I had the pleasure of writing you after the Departure of Col 1 . 
Fitch & M r Chew 2 last Summer who came to me on the affair 
of the Susquehanna Company, which Letter I hope you have 

A Few Days ago Col 1 . Eliphalet Dyer, & M r . Woodbridge of 
Stockbridge arrived here and acquainted me with their having 
been charged with a Sum of money to pacify the Ind s . & make 
matters easy, & that they expected to have met y e . Six Nations at 
Albany, in consequence of an Invitation sent them last year by 
one Smith of New England then at Susquehanna. I informed 
them that the Ind s . had certainly no such intention, as they were all 
with me a few days before & had said nothing thereof, I then 
gave these Gentlemen my Sentiments as I had done to Col 1 . Fitch, 
& represented that the 6 Nations would never agree thereto, & that 
the putting their plan in Execution would inevitably bring on a 
rupture with the Ind s . in General which would not only be severely 
felt by the Settlers, but would involve all the Neighbouring 
frontiers in an Indian War, — they replyed that as the Company 
had the House of Representatives permission, & right given up to 
them, by virtue of the Claim of Connecticut to the Westward, 
& as they had obt d . a Deed, & Expended much money thereon, 3 

1 In Library of American Antiquarian Society, unsigned. The first 
four paragraphs of this letter were printed in Johnson Papers, 3:660-61 ; 
the entire letter is given here to make clear the context. 

2 Col. Thomas Fitch and Joseph Chew. 

3 See speech of Timothy Woodbridge, April 28, in Johnson Papers, 

Seven Years' War 417 

they were determined to persist in their undertaking, & would 
shortly settle there to a Considerable number, sufficient to maintain 
themselves in the possession thereof. 

At the time of these Gentlemens Arrival the Mohocks were 
all Assembled in Meeting at my House & on being made ac- 
quainted with the Cause of their Errand, which they Expressed 
a Desire to know, they showed the utmost uneasiness, declaring 
such measures would certainly occasion the whole 6 Nations 
& their Confederates to commence hostilities; after which the 
Mohocks returned home & two Days ago delivered me the Speech 
& Belt herewith Enclosed desiring the same might be transmitted 
to you, for your timely interposition therein. 

From my certain knowledge of the Sentiments of the Indians, 
on the Steps taken to obtain the Indian Deed, & their determined 
resolution, not to part with the Lands in Question (thro' which is 
their great War path, & where they have very good hunting) I 
cannot but be convinced there is a necessity for your taking the 
same into farther Considerate & interposing the Authority of 
Governm*. in some more Effectual manner to prevent the Effusion 
of Blood, & the Depopulating of the Frontiers, w ctl must Inevitably 
follow if the same should be prosecuted. 

The Evils which I plainly foresee, must attend such Settlement 

and my certainty that you will use every endeavor to prevent the 

same are the only inducements which I have to give you this farther 

trouble in the affair — or l ii .. r? * 

Believe me to be with great bsteem 


The Honble Gov R . FlTCH 


Johnson Hall March 30 th 1 762 

Letter to Gov r . Fitch, desiring 

his Interposition concerns the people 

of Connecticut's settling on the Susquehanna 

& Enclose the Mohocks Speech and 

Belt thereon — 

418 Sir William Johnson Papers 


A.L.S. 1 

Fort Johnson April I s1 . 1762 
Dear Sir 

Your favour of the 22 d ult°. 2 I have received, and return 
you thanks for your promise of transmitting me the first news from 
home, Cr Martinico which I hope may prove agreable. — I am 
sorry to hear that any Party Papers should be undertaken at a 
time when so much unanimity is requisite, and expected from Us, 
as Such writeings always tend to a bad purpose, as that of promote- 
ing feuds and civil dissentions in a Government. 

The order of his Majesty concerning Lands in this Country, will 
considerably raise them in value & consequently make the Pro- 
prietors of them to be high in their demands. — I realy know of 
no Lands at present to be disposed of near the Mohawk River, 
there is a Tract of about Six thousand acres Scituate near Fort 
Hunter, and within a mile or thereabouts of the Mohawk River, 
in the possession of Coll. Glen of Schenectady and the Heirs of 
the late Lieu 1 . Governour Delancey, 3 which I believe would 
answer your Nephews purpose, provided they could be induced to 
sell the Same, which I doubt not they may, at least M r . Delancey's 4 
Share, as his Father offerred it me some Years ago verry reason- 
able, I have been informed that this Land is better for grass in 
generall than grain. 

Whenever I may hear of any land near the River to be 
disposed of, which I think would suit him, I shall not fail, to 
acquaint you therewith, as well as to do you any service in my 

1 In Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, N. Y. 

2 See Johnson Calendar, p. 1 29. 

3 James DeLancey ( 1 703- 1 760) . 

4 James DeLancey (1 732-1800), eldest son of the lieutenant governor. 

Seven Years' War 419 

power towards procureing the same, as I am with sincerity, and 
real Esteem, 

Dear Sir, your Hearty Welwisher 
and Humble Serv*. 

W M . Johnson 
Robert Leake Esq r . 

indorsed : 

1 **. April 1 762 

Sir W m . Johnson Bart 


April 2, 1762 
April 2«*. 

Gawehe an Oneida Chief with others of his Nation arrived 
and acquainted Sir William with the uneasy situation of his people, 
on account of the Senecas backwardness in coming to the intended 
Meeting, and that both the Oneidas, and Onondagas have im- 
patiently expected their coming, that finding them so slow in 
Moving they had sent belts by some of their people to hasten 
them but the Messengers were not returned when he left his 
Nation, he added that all the Sachems of Oneida were to set 
out on their journey to attend the meeting, within three, or four 
days after his departure — 

Sir William ordered them provisions and directed them to 
their quarters — 

In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

420 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

New York, 3 d - April 1762. 

By the Enterprize Man of War, which Arrived here the 1 st . 
Instant, I had the Honor of a Letter from His Majesty's Principal 
Secretary of State, Acquainting me of the King's having De- 
clared War against Spain, And in the Declaration, which was 
this day publickly Proclaimed here, the Just & Indispensible 
Reasons that Obliged His Majesty to take that measure, are 
fully Explained 

I am, &ca. 

NB. The Above to Sir W m . Johnson; & to Colonel Bradstreet. 
Likewise to the following Officers, with the Additions, as set 
against Each of their Names. — 

To the Officer Commanding 

at Albany "I am therefore to Desire that this may be 

known to the Officers & Soldiers *at Albany, & 

the Communication to Fort Miller Inclusive." 
Crown point *at your post, & the Communication to Fort 

Edward, Inclusive. 
Fort Stanwix at your post, & the Communication to 

Schenectady, Incl ve . 
Fort Ontario at your post, & the Communicate to the 

East End of Oneida Lake, Incl ve . 

Niagara at your Post. 

Detroit at the Several Posts within your District. 

Fort Pitt at your post, & the Communication. 

Louisbourg under your Command. 

NB. P.S. To Cap*. Campbell at the Detroit. 

Your Letter of the 6 th . Feb?, is this moment come to 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

Seven Years' War 421 

hand : but as it contains only a Copy of Yours of the 
1 th . Jan r >\ which Arrived safe, & was Answered by 
me, on the 21 st . March, I need only Acknowledge 
it. — 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Fort William Augustus, April 4 th 1762 

I enclose you herewith a Duplicate of a Letter 2 I wrote to 
General Amherst this day ; I wrote 3 you by Cain 4 some time ago, 
I hope he has reached you ere this; I think its very Evident that 
our Scoundrel Enemies below, are Stirring up the Indians every 
where to do mischief; I could wish my intelligence met with a 
more favourable reception in that quarter, but I find instead 
of striking at the root, the Indians are threatned to be drove off 
the face of the Earth, this still is nothing new to you, therefore, I 
need say no more about it, but I sincerely wish your intelligence 
may Concurr with mine which may be a means of bringing these 
Traitors to justice, I beg you will present my Compliments to M r . 
Johnson, and believe me to be Dear Sir 

&ca — 

P.S. The other Day I received 
my Commission as Major to the 80 th . 
Reg f . bearing date in Dec r . 1 760 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

2 Gladwin to Amherst, April 4, 1762, Johnson Papers, 3:670. 

3 Gladwin to Johnson, March 5, 1 762, ante p. 394. 

4 Meni Chesne. 

422 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 2 

Fort William Augustus, April 4 th , 1762 

Since my last to your Excellency of the 24 th . March, one of 
the Oswegatchy Chiefs came to Oswegatchy ; Capt M c Leod 3 who 
commands there, questioned them concerning the meeting at 
Frontenac, in answer to which, he replied, that he would tell the 
real truth in gratitude for the many civilities he had met with here, 
he then said, the Meeting was to take place about the Twentieth 
of May, and to consist of a very large body of Indians, Viz, all 
the Five Nations, Misisagaes, Abnaquis, and Oswegatchies, that 
they were to be joyned there by the Northern Indians, who are 
to Surprize our Posts on their way thither, if they can ; that their 
grand push is to be at Oswegatchy, for the provisions, and 
afterwards, they are to harrass the Communication; some of the 
head Men of Conesadaga, and Caghnawaga, are to be at the 
Meeting who are immediately to proceed with the result of the 
Council to Conesadaga, I think this looks as if they intended to 
joyn them; My informer desires I would send an Officer to 
hear what passes, as well as to convince us that he is a friend to 
the English — 

In my last I acquainted your Excellency, that the Indians came 
in after the alarm to renew their friendship, upon a Messenger 
coming among them from below ; since which, I learn from another 
of the Oswegatchy Chiefs, that S*. Luke Le Corn, and Monsieur 
Larimie, 4 sent a Caghnawaga Indian to tell them, not to make 
peace with the English upon any terms, this Message soon followed 
the other, therefore, I take it for granted, from this, and other 
circumstances, that their renewal of friendship, was only a blind; 

1 Enclosed in Gladwin to Johnson, April 4, 1762, ante p. 421 

2 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

3 Normand McLeod. 

4 Probably "Lorimier." 

Seven Years' War 423 

he likewise says, that the Clergy of Conesadaga, and Tarraugh, 
a Chief of that Village, were the first promoters of Mischief this 
way; he was then asked if Mons r . Larimie was concerned with 
them, he replied they were all as one — 

Yesterday a Coghanawaga Indian came here, he has often been 
of use to the Garrison, in which he always found his account, for 
this reason I thought him a proper hand to question about the 
practises of our Enemies below, he immediately replied he would 
tell me all he knew, in Substance as follows, That immediately 
after the reduction of Canada, the Priest of Aquasasnagh 1 made 
four very large belts, after the Chiefs of that Village had declared 
they would have no hand in it ; that two of these belts were sent to 
the Northern Indians by S*. Luke LeCorn, the other two came 
this way, and the meaning of them was, that a French fleet, and 
Army would come over the ensueing spring to retake Canada, 
that now was their time, to rise and recover their Country; he 
likewise says, last fall the priest of Aquasasnagh, made the like 
number of belts as the year before, which were delivered in the 
same manner, with this difference only, that the Spaniards would 
joyn the French, and that they were invited to assemble at 
Frontenac ; these belts were sent off just before S l . Luke LeCorn 
took his departure for France ; he has likewise given me the names 
of all the principal promoters of this affair, who are (he says) 
all equally concerned, I enclose you herewith their Names; 
Besides these Belts, and the Grand belt that is to be delivered at 
D' etroit, I Have reason to believe from concurring Circumstances, 
that the Clergy, and their Agents, have sent Messages or belts 
to all the Indians with whom the French have ever had any 
Communication; I have prevailed with my Informer to go to 
Montreal to tell General Gage what he knows — 

My Informer who went to the five Nations some time ago, 
sent me a letter from thence which came to hand Yesterday, he says 
that all the Indians that way will rise to a Man to take Oswegatchy 

I am &ca — 

1 Aughquisasne, Aquisasne. 

424 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Names 1 of the Persons concerned in promoting the affair men- 
tioned in the foregoing Intelligence — 
Monsieur S l . Luc Le Corne 
Mons r . Lorimier 
Mons r . Partouis, a Priest 
Mons r . Ohybeaux, a Priest 

Gautchytayraks, Ind n . Name of a Merch*. at Montreal 

Tyaunatoranks, an Oswegatchy Indian 

Conasadaga Priests 

Priest at Sainte Registe 


Contemporary Copy 3 

Fort W m . Augustus, April 5 lh 1762 

Since writing the enclosed, my informer says, as he had told 
me part, he would now tell me all, provided that I would assure 

1 Also enclosed in Gladwin to Amherst, April 4, 1762, ante p. 421. 

2 Evidently enclosed in Gladwin to Johnson, April 4, 1 762, with 
Gladwin to Amherst, April 4, 1 762, ante p. 422. The entry in Indian 
Records, Vol. 6, by Guy Johnson was made on May 2, 1 762, and there 
is a marginal note that reads "V. [vide] page 1 72 [refers to location 
of Gladwin to Johnson, March 5, 1762, (ante p. 394.) in the Indian 
Records, Vol. 6,] for the first letters regardg this plot, which actually was 
put into Execution the year followg. G JOHNSON Secy." 

A full list of the documents embodying Gladwin's reports, up through 
April 5, 1 762, is as follows. 

Gladwin to Amherst, Feb. 4, 1 762. 
Gladwin to Amherst, Feb. 24, 1 762. 
Gladwin to Amherst, Feb. 25, 1 762. 
Gladwin to Amherst, March 5, 1762. 
Gladwin to Johnson, March 5, 1 762. 
Gladwin to Johnson, April 4, 1 762. 
Gladwin to Amherst, April 4, 1762. 
Gladwin to Amherst, April 5, 1 762. 

3 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

Seven Years War 425 

him, that he should never be called in question about it, upon 
which I satisfied him on that head, he then said, that last fall, 
S l . Luc LeCorne, and the Priest of Aquasasnagh, delivered seven 
belts to Monsieur Deroche, known among the Indians by Name of 
Aagistagese (Just before S l . Lukes 1 departure for France) that 
he and four other Canadians, carried them to the Northern Indians, 
delivered some belts there, afterwards they returned to Montreal 
by way of Detroit, and thro' the five Nations, delivering their 
belts and Messages by the way, and inviting all the Indians to 
assemble at Frontenac early in Spring, in order to attack 
Oswegatchy, and harrass the Communication, That a French, and 
Spanish fleet was coming to retake Canada, and now was their time 
to rise and recover their Country, he likewise says, as they passed 
this way, they delivered three belts one to each of the following 
Nations, Viz — Misisagaes, Abanaquis, and Oswegatchys, that 
these belts were accepted by them, but the Coghnawagas, and 
Conossadagas refused to receive any, he further says that these 
belts were not made by the Priest of Aquasasnagh they were 
made under his Eye, by an Abenaquis Woman, and by his 
direction — About the end of January last, five Canadians Came 
hither from Mischilimackinac by way of Detroit and thro the five 
Nations, they went from hence to Montreal with Capt Le Hunte; 
In my last to General Gage of the 24 th . March, I mentioned that 
I suspected them to be belt-Carriers, since which I find it proves to 
be very true; I shall send a Duplicate of this to General Gage, 
by the Indian who informed me of the above, he says he will 
tell all below — 

I am Sir &ca — 

The forgoing 2 are true Copies from 
the Originals 

G Johnson as Secy. 

1 La Corne St. Luc, Luc de Chapt de. 

2 Referring to Gladwin to Johnson, April 4, 1 762, ante p. 421 Gladwin 
to Amherst, April 4, 1 762, ante p. 422 ; and Gladwin to Amherst, April 
5, 1 762, ante p. 424, as entered in the Indian Records and here certified 
by Guy Johnson as Secretary. 

426 Sir William Johnson Papers 


A. L. S. 1 

Niagara 5 ih : April 1762 — 
Dear Sir 

I take the first opportunity to pay my Respects to You and to 
acquaint You that an Idle fellow a Stockbridge Indian that was 
taken prisoner When in Major Rogers' Rangers was Delivered 
to Me by some Indians Last Summer which I Sent to oswego in 
order for him to Return to his whome, 2 since then he has been here 
back & forward as a Batteau man and this winter he was at 
oswego and brought Some Letters for this Garrison, 'Since his 
return he got in Company with Some Chipowa Indians & has made 
great Uneasiness a mongst that nation by telling them that the 
Light Infantry had Scalp d . two of their Tribe and had carried 
two of their Children off with them & also told them that the 
reason that the English did not give them ammunition as usual, 
was that they Intended to come and Destroy the Indians, which 
a number of them beleived it was true, as the Stockbridge Indian 
talks good English and had been at oswego, the old Chief that 
went with you to Detroit Last Summer told me this and said he did 
not believe what was Talk d . but Said it had made some Ignorant 
Indians very uneasy and that he had been at the trouble to 
Send Several Hundred miles round about to their Castles to assure 
them that it was Lies that was Talk d . Leting them know he had 
been Several times this winter with his Brother at Niagara and 
was always Received Kindly and was Shure that he would tell 
him no Lies — I took a great Dale of pains to assure him that 
the English Look d . on them as faithfull good brothers and would 
always use them kindly, the old chief Desired me to keep the 
Stockbridge Indian here untill I could Send him whome 2 and not 
to Suffer him to go to Detroit, saying, should he meet with Some 
poor Ignorant Indians he might make great uneasiness a mongst 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

2 "home." 

Seven Years' War All 

them I Shall Send this Indian to oswego by the first opportunity 
that he may proceed to his whome 2 he is a poor Idle Drunken 
fellow — 

I find by General Amhersts Letter which I Rec d . 27 th . March 
that He is not willing any thing Should be given to the Indians, 
I Dont See how it is Possible to Avoid it, I have had, great, 
numbers of poor Indians at this post this two winters past which 
I have Supported Chiefly with fish Which cost no Expence I have 
some times given them a pound or two of powder with a Little 
Ball in order to keep them Alive Which I have Don at a very Easy 
rate, or Else Some of them Must have Starv'd they Even Collected 
all the Guts and off el of the fish the Soldiers caught here to Support 
nature therefore in compassion I cannot help giving them a Little 

You Will Know how necessary it is in the Summer to give the 
Indians some Smale preasents with a L ittle ammunition and Pro- 
vision when a number of them comes many Hundred miles to 
Trade at a season they can get but very Little to Subsist on I 
mention this as You are sencible how necessary it is to give the 
Indians a Little Support, I have been at a great dale of trouble to 
Convince them of the good Intention that the English has towards 
them, I Should be glad You Would be pleased to represent this 
affair to General Amherst that I May have it in my power to 
assist the Indians a Little 

You Know they are a jealous people and Should we hold our 
hand Intirely from them — they will be Easily made beleive We 
Intend them Some hurt — 

the Black Smith is not return d . he is much Wanted, old Belt 
has been here Several times this Winter he has made Some of the 
Indians bring back four Horses Which was stole from us Last 
Summer we have Still two a missing He is a good old fellow 
& I always Receive him Kindly and give him a Little Ammunition 
& provision I shall be greatly perplex't with the Indians this 
Summer If I have not the means to give them a Little help I 

428 Sir William Johnson Papers 

wrote to you in Nov r Last Which I hope you Rec d . I beg my 
Complement to M r . Johnson & to Cap tn . Johnson 

I am Dear Sir With great Esteem — 
Your most obedient 
Humble Servant 

W M Walters 
Sir W m Johnson Baronet 


Niagara 5 th April 1 762 — 

Letter from Major Walters 


[April 9-10 J 762] 

Ganughquausa, Tagwaron, and others of the Oneida Nation 
arrived — Sir W m . rec d . a Letter from Sir Jeff Amherst acqt§. 
him w th . the reduct n . of Martinico 2 


Two Onondaga Runners arrived from their Sachems in 6 days 
to acquaint Sir William that that Nation with the Chenussios &ca 
would set off within two days after the Messengers, they likewise 
brought a Letter from Printup the Interpreter then at the German 
Flatts to acquaint Sir William that the Number of Indians on 
their way down, were very considerable. Sir W m . rec d . a Letter 
from the General to inform him of War having been declared 
against Spain 3 — 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

2 Martinique, which capitulated to British forces under General Monck- 
ton on Feb. 1 6, 1 762 ; see Banyar to Johnson, March 29, 1 762, 
Johnson Papers, 3:658. 

3 Amherst to Johnson, Bradstreet, et al., April 3, 1 762, ante p. 420. 

Seven Years War 429 

Contemporary Copy 1 

Stockbridge April 10 lh . 1762 

Your Children in these parts are like to suffer greatly if you don't 
prevent it by your interposition, the time was, when the English 
allowed the Indians of the Mohekunnuck, or River Indian Tribe to 
own the Lands on Westenhook, or Housatonnock River, and 
allways till about twenty years past when the Court granted a 
Township, the Court ordered the Land to be purchased of the 
Indians. But your Children have lately been treated in a different 
manner, several Townships have been granted to the English, and 
no pretence of satisfying the Indians for their Claims — and now 
Father, we are fully informed that the Court at Boston have 
ordered all our Lands to be sold at a Vendue to the highest 
bidder, and the money which the Lands fetch are to be put into 
their publick Treasury, and your Children are to be deprived of 
all their interests, not because they pretend to have purchased of 
us, but now say we never had right to those Lands — 


we think it hard to be so treated when we have helped to subdue 
the French, and their Indians, now the English think they shall 
need us no more they are not willing to do us Justice. We have 
often remonstrated to the Court against such proceedings, offered 
them our Lands for pay, but they would not hear us, but put us 
off from time to time, and now design to take our Lands from us for 
nothing — If the Court at Boston are determined to use us in 
this manner, we are determined to carry our complaints to the 
King, not doubting but he will do us Justice — we pray you 
Father to help us, and write to the Gov r . of Boston that we may 
have justice done us, and that our Lands may not be forced from 
us, we, your Children look to you, our Father for help — I write 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

430 Sir William Johnson Papers 

this by the desire of my people, pray you wo d . not be silent but 
help us, and send us a Letter what we must do, and what you will 

We are your obedient Children 

Benjamin Kokhkewenaunant 
Chief Sachem, in the name & by 
desire of the Indians at 

A. L. S. 1 

Perthamboy 10 th . Ap l . 1762. 

The Bearer John Lenox having met with misfortunes, has 
apply'd to me for a letter of recommendation to you to obtain 
Your leave to trade to Detroit, or any other part of Canada 
adjacent, if his request is not improper. I shall be obliged to 
you if you will be Kind enough to grant it. I am with great regard 

Sir Your most Obed 1 
Humble Servant, 

Josiah Hardy 2 
Hon ble Sir W m Johnson 


Perth Amboy 10* Ap' 1762. 
Letter from Josiah Hardy 
Esq r . Governor of the Jersies 
recommending John Lenox to trade 
at D'etroit, or Elsewhere 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

2 Josiah Hardy, governor of New Jersey, 1761-63. 

Seven Years War 431 


[April 14-17, 1762] 


In Consequence of the foregoing Letter 2 Sir William Johnson 
wrote to M r . Croghan 3 to acquaint him with the Intelligence 
therein Contained, that he might enquire into the same, and put 
a stop to the like for the future — 

Two Sachems of the Westenhook Tribe of Indians arrived 
and delivered Sir William the following Remonstrance, from their 
people concerning their Lands — 

to which remonstrance Sir William answered them "that he 
would require a more particular account, or state of the Affair, 
before he could give an opinion therein, in the mean time recom- 
mended it to them, to send two or three of their most Intelligent 
Men to treat with the Governor of Boston thereon, and that on 
their representing their Case properly he did not doubt but the 
Governor would do them Justice" — He then Explained to them 
his present Majestys Instructions to his Governor of New York 
relative to Indian Lands, and told them, that they, or any Indians 
who were really injured, or fraudulently deprived of their Lands, 
might depend on his Majestys ordering Justice to be done them 
be it in whatsoever Government, and after letting them know 
what the Abenaquis had said and Transacted when lately at 
Fort Johnson, He delivered them the Two Belts, and Strings 
of Wampum spoke with by the Abenaquis on that occasion, 
together with the Panis Indian, a prisoner delivered in the room 
of the Indian whom the Abenaquis had killed two years ago — 

After which one of the Sachems returned Sir William many 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

2 Amherst to Johnson, April 4, 1762, Johnson Papers, 3:670. 

3 Johnson to Croghan, April 1 7, 1 762, post p. 432. 

4 Remonstrance of April 10, 1 762, ante p. 429. 

432 Sir William Johnson Papers 

thanks for the care and trouble he had taken in getting the affair 
so happily accomodated, which otherwise would have been pro- 
ductive of a Quarrell between their Indians, and the Abenaquis 
that they were now thoroughly satisfied, & would return home 
with pleasure. Lastly, the Sachems earnestly entreated Sir Wil- 
liam to take their unhappy Situation into Consideration, and see 
Justice done them, otherwise, they would be obliged to go to 
their Father the King, to obtain redress — 

Three Cayugas arrived as Messengers from the Six Nations 
then at Ganughsaragey on their way to the Meeting, and begged 
that the Council fire might be kept burning till their arrival, they 
returned Sir William the String which he had sent to hasten 
them, and likewise the belt which he had sent to know whether 
the Senecas would come or not, which belt they met at Onondaga 
— The six Nations begged by the Messengers that Sir William 
would provide more provisions, as great numbers of them were 
on their way — 


Df. 1 

Fort Johnson 17 th Apr 1 . 1762 

I have received a Letter from Sir Jeff Amherst dated the 4 th . 
inst to acquaint me that [tp a Letter he received from] 2 Coll 1 . 
Bouquet had acquainted him by Letter that he had been informed 
by an Indian that a party of Shawanese had lately taken 4 Scalps, 
on the Frontiers of Virginia, or North Carolina ; which had been 
confirmed by three Traders, coming from the Lower Shawanese 
Town, who said, that the rest of that Nation are very peaceable, 
and have expressed great discontent and uneasyness at those 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 9, No. 92, in Guy 
Johnson's hand. 

2 Words italicized and in brackets are crossed out in the manuscript. 

Seven Years' War 433 

I desire you will therefore imediately enquire into the particulars 
thereof, & the motive of the Indians for so doing, which you will 
transmit me by the first opportunity, as also that you will take 
the most effectual Measures for putting an [effectual] 2 entire 
stop to such behaviour for the future — 

I should be glad you will likewise inform me whatever you 
may have heard concerning Blue Cheeks, the Seneca, & his 
party, & that unless his behavior may intitle him to better usage, 
you will treat him but Coolly whenever you may meet with him 

I am Sir &c — 
M R . Croghan 


Fort Johnson Ap 1 . 1 7 th . 1 762. 

Letter to M r . Croghan 
concerning 4 Scalps, taken 
by the Shawanese — 


Fori Johnson April 17 th . 1762 

After the Reduction of Montreal, 2 I represented to Your Ex- 
cellency, that in case I continued in my employm 1 . there was a 
necessity for my haveing some more Persons to assist me, for the 
more effectual discharge thereof, which You were then pleased 
to tell me I should not want, and which I have likewise mentioned 
in a letter sometime ago. I must now therefore beg leave to re- 
mind Your Excellency that the extensiveness of our Indian Alli- 
ance, together with the fluctuateing disposition of some Nations, 
renders it indispensably necessarry for me to have the Assistance 
of a Secretary constantly, as it will be impossible for me with 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

2 Montreal formally capitulated to Amherst on Sept. 8, 1 760. 

434 Sir William Johnson Papers 

all the Assiduity I can use to carry on this branch of his Majestys 
Service as it should be, or I could wish, and as I flatter myselt 
Your Excellency is sensible that I would not desire any assistance 
that was not absolutely requisite, I doubt not (from such con- 
siderations) You will Judge it proper that I have the constant 
attendance of a Secretary at least till all Matters become entirely 
settled throughout the Country, in which case I should be ex- 
tremely glad if your Excellency would please to allow Lieu 1 . 
Guy Johnson to act as such, He being (from the many oper- 
tunitys he has had for some Years of an acquaintance with the 
Indians and their manners, as well as their language & Politicks) 
the best qualified for such an office (without partiality) of any 
one I am acquainted with, and that alone I assure Your Excel- 
lency is my only motive of recommending him. — 

M r . Marsh 1 being constantly indisposed from the Gout & ca . 
ever since his appointment, hath transacted no manner of business 
for me, neither (could his State of health admit of it) will his 
attendance alone be Sufficient for the discharge of that, and 
severall other necessary dutys, as I have formerly observed, par- 
ticularly as M r . Marsh is yet entirely unacquainted with trans- 
actions of that nature, and many others in which A Secretary 
must occasionally be employed. — as I understand your Orders 
are gone to the Posts for the removal of the Independent Com- 
panys from these parts, I therefore could not avoid applying to 
your Excellency, that some measures may be taken to prevent 
me being deprived of Lieu*. Johnsons assistance, which, I shall 
be greatly distressed without, at a time when it is so much 
required. — 

I am to acknowledge the receipt of your Excellencys favours 
of the 3 d . 2 & 4 th . 3 Ins 1 , in the former of which you are pleased 
to acquaint me with the Declaration of War against Spain, which 
I hope may be attended with all desired Success. — 

I have heard nothing from the Indians concerning the 4 Scalps 

1 Witham Marsh, then Secretary of Indian Affairs. 

2 Ante p. 420. 

3 Johnson Papers, 3:670. 

Seven Years' War 435 

lately taken by the Shawanese, but on the 6 Nations arrival I 
shall endeavour to learn their Motive for such behaviour, as well 
as prevent its being continued to the utmost of my power. I wish 
there may not have been some cause given them for such a rash 
Step, and I fear some of our People from an invincible prejudice 
against the Indians, are often too ready to use them 111, which 
induces them to commit acts of Violence, otherwise they woud 
hardly have taken any Step against the inclination of the rest, 
who I look upon at present to be well disposed, but it is my opinion 
that whilst the Enemy remain possessed of the Mississipi, they 
will always be enabled, and Study to Stirr up all Nations of 
Indians they possibly can against our Frontier Settlements, and 
escorts, which they will be the better enabled to do by the assist- 
ance of the Spaniards, whom the Indians have for some time 
heard intended a Rupture with us, which will the readier incite 
and embolden many of the distant Nations in particular to commit 
Acts of Hostility; I have wrote M r . Croghan to make enquiry 
into the late behaviour of the late Shawanese, 1 and to use all his 
endeavours to put a Stop to farther barbarities. — 

Severall of the Six Nations are already arrived and a con- 
siderable Number more than I desired on their way, and may 
be daily expected, I hope to make the intended Meeting turn 
out to the publick advantage, as well as to put all Idle Notions 
out of their Heads, of the powerfull diversion, they are told the 
Spaniards may make in favour of France. — which has been 
industriously propagated among them by Some of our Enemies. — 

I shall conclude with assureing Your Excellency that in order 
to answer the Ends of my employment, I should rather pay a 
Sallary out of my own income to the Officer which I have re- 
quired, than want such assistance at this Juncture, and I hope 
Your Excellency will impute my prolixity on that Head to abso- 
lute necessity, and the earnest desire which I have always had to 

1 Johnson to Croghan, Apr. 1 7, 1 762, ante p. 432. 

436 Sir William Johnson Papers 

promote his Majestys Interest in this Country, & discharge the 
duty of my office agreable to your Excellencys expectations. 

I have the honour to be with 
the greatest esteem 

Your Excellencys 
Most Obedient, 
and most Humble Servant 
W M . Johnson 
His Excellency 

Sir Jeffery Amherst 
Knight of the Bath 


Sir William Johnson, Bar 1 . 
Fort Johnson 1 7 th . April 1 762. 
Rec d : & Ans d : 25 th . Ditto. — 


April 20* 1762 

P.M. The Onondagas to the number of 47, and the Senecas to 
the amount of 33 arrived and encamped — In the Evening the 
Sachems came to Sir Williams House when the Speaker of the 
Onondagas addressed him — 

Brother Warraghiyagey 

When some of our Nations were last at your House, you sent 
by them a belt of invitation to us to come down to a Meeting 
with n . 30 Days — on receipt of which belt we imediately pre- 
pared to obey your Summons and sent our Young Men who 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

Seven Years War 437 

are quite worn out in journeys to the Cayugas and Senecas to 
invite them down, but the Roads being very deep and bad we 
have been greatly delayed thereby — 

Returned Sir William's belt of Invitation 

After which the Seneca Speaker addressed him 


We lost no time after receiving your invitation to the Confer- 
ence, but, as we were preparing to set out, we received a Mes- 
sage from the Governor of Pensilvania, desiring us to send him 
all his people who yet remained prisoners amongst us, agreable 
to which, we imediately set about collecting them; but, as we 
live so scattered it could not be done in time, and therefore it 
was agreed that our Sachems should remain at home to collect 
them, and our Warriors should come down to attend you — 

Gave a String 

Sir William then told them that he was glad to see them, as 
they had been long expected, he now therefore wellcomed them, 
and told them that when those Nations who were yet behind, 
Should arrive tomorrow, he would Meet and speak to them 

Then gave them pipes, Tobacco &ca — 

At Night, the Cayugas to the amount of 1 09, Tuscaroras 3 1 
and Tederighronos 26, 1 arrived and waited on Sir William and 
told him they were sorry his Neck was obliged to be stretched 
out so long waiting for them, but that 'twas not thro' their neglect, 
they being in the same situation, waiting for the Upper Nations — 
Sir William answered them that he was glad to see they were 
at length arrived, and should speak to them next Day 2 — 

1 The Tederighronos: Catawba or "Christanna" Indians of Virginia, 
with whom the Five Nations made a general peace in 1 722, and who 
joined the Cayuga Nation, and were made a part of the Six Nations, 
in 1753. 

2 The report of the conference which took place from April 2 1 to 
28 inclusive is given in Johnson Papers, 3:690-717, and is therefore 
omitted here. 

438 Sir William Johnson Papers 


In the New York Public Library, under date of April 20, 1 762, is an 
indenture of Grace Cosby, widow of William Cosby, deceased, selling, 
to Oliver de Lancey, two thousand acres of land in Albany County granted 
to William Cosby by George II of England, and situated on the South side 
of the Mohawk River. Sir William Johnson acted in this matter as attorney 
for Grace Cosby, and in all probability arranged the sale. Because of the 
document's excessive bulk, and because of the repetitive nature of the 
information contained therein, it is not printed here. 


Contemporary) Copy 1 

New York, 25*. April 1762 — 

I Have this morning the favor of Your Letter of the 1 7 th . 2 
Instant, wherein You point out the necessity of Your having the 
Assistance of a Secretary constantly to Attend You, and par- 
ticularly Requesting to have L l . Guy Johnson appointed to that 
Office Since M r . Marsh, from his Indisposition, and other Reasons 
Urged in Your Letter, is rendered Incapable of Discharging 
that Duty. — 

I Have already told You, that as M r . Marsh was appointed 
at home, I could not think of Superceding him ; but that I thought 
he Should either Attend, or get a Deputy to Officiate for him. 
However if he is not fit for the Employment, or does not find a 
Deputy to Your approbation, it is but reasonable You Should 
have a proper Person for that Duty; and as Doctor Shuckburgh 
has been disappointed of Repurchasing the Surgeoncy in the 
Independents, by M r . Peter's Chusing to Continue, I Imagine he 
will be very glad to Attend You, And I am persuaded he will be 
agreable to You, from What You have formerly mentioned to 
me concerning him. Altho' I Shall always be glad to grant You 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 Ante p. 433. 

Seven Years' War 439 

any Request I can Consistent with the Service, Yet I can, by 
no means agree to L'. Johnson's being absent any longer from his 
Company, Which You will have Seen by mine of the 1 1 ,h . Instant, 
was Ordered on Immediate Service, and that I Desired he Might 
Joyn it. As those Companies are going on a Service of the utmost 
Importance, I have Judged it highly necessary that None of the 
Officers Should be Absent ; & have accordingly ordered Captain 
Coventry from Albany, & Lieut Rose from Tienderoga, Who 
are both much wanted in their respective Departments; and I 
Should certainly have left them, as I should willingly do L l . John- 
son, did I not think their presence with their Companies absolutely 
requisite. — 

I Have no Doubt but at the Intended Meeting, You will Use 
Your utmost Endeavors to put the Indians in a right way of 
thinking, & Shew them the absurdity of Listening to any idle 
Reports of the French being able, from any Assistance they can 
receive from the Spaniards, to Molest, or Disturb the Tranquility 
of the English. — 

I am, with great Regard, 

Sir W m Johnson, Bar 1 . 


April 28-29, 1762 

This day and the following the Indians spent in Decamping and 
returned home (except some who had Skins to dispose of and who 
kept in the Neighbourhood 3 or 4 Days for that purpose [ ) ] — 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6; follows after 
Indian Conference reported in Johnson Papers, 3:690-717, as taking 
place April 21-28, inclusive. 

440 Sir William Johnson Papers 

29* i 

Sir W m . acqtA Gen 1 . Amherst by letter that he believed he 
co d . send some parties to the Southward ag f . the Spaniards & their 
Indians if he approved thereof & encouraged it, also acqtA him 
with Teedyuscungs Letter 


A. Df. S. 1 

Lebanon 30 ih . April 1762. 
Much Hon d Sir 

I wrote Your Hon r . Last Fall by M r . Thomas Forscey of 
Albany, 2 an acco f . of the Act of the general Assembly at Boston, 
by Which they had disposed of the Intres 1 [of the Legacy]* of 
Sir Peter Warren's Legacy for one Year for the Support of 
Six [£?oi;s] Children of the Six Nations at this School that is, 
£ 12. lawful Money for each, and I also desired Your Honour 
to be instrumental to their coming with Negyes if it Might be. 
but have heard nothing of the Affair Since. I should now Sir, be 
glad if their coming Might be hastned [as possible as ma\> be]. 
and that the [public!?] Design might have the Benefit of Your 
Honours Prudence in chusing the Children [/ Suppose] if [the 
Design] the affair Should be seasonably entered upon & prudently 
expedited I suppose there is no doubt, but that Assembly will 
continue the Grant 'till a better door be opened for the improve- 
ment of it. Joseph Moses & Johannes are all well and have 
behaved considerably well, and seem well contented. I inclose 
a Specimen of their writing. & y r Progress in reads is I think 
fully equal to y r writs, but I find great want of an Interp r . to 
make y m understand any thing more y n . y e . most common matters. 
[// is now p e . Most Distress?. Time on Acco 1 . of the scersity 
of Bred Corn that ever I (nen> in this Government.] 

1 In Dartmouth College Library. 

2 Wheelock to Johnson, Dec. 11, 1761, ante p. 344. 

3 Material italicized and in brackets crossed out in original. 

Seven Years War 441 

Could not your Hon r . make Way for the Setting up [of] this 
School, & the Settlement of three or four Towns of the better 
Sort of our people round about it, Somewhere near Sesquahanna 
River or in some other Place more convenient for it? If Such 
a Door Was opened With a Prospect of extensive Usefulness of 
it Among the Indians I would Gladly remove with it. And I 
know of Several other Ministers [who are] of the Best Character 
that Would gladly [remove and Settle in Your Country With 
such a Prospect of Usefulness to the Pagans.] Accompany me 
and endeavour to take none with us but [partners] men of known 
honesty and integrity and such as Love Indians, our People, 
Your Hon r . knows, are freeholders in this Government, And 
have a Prejudice against being Within M r Penn's Claim, nor 
would they be forward to remove to settle any w[here] [unless 
y a could be vested] Without the Fee of their Possessions 

Your Hon". Candour Will readily pardon my Freedom and 
all Mistakes, and accept Most Sincere Regard, from, 

Your Most Obedient and 

Most Humble Servant 

, v , T t-> , Eleazar Wheelock 

Sir William Johnson Baron 1 . 


Lett 1 " to Sir W m . Johnson to send 
y e Ch n . to p r take of Sir Peter 
Warre ns Legacy. Apr. 30. 1 762 


Copy 1 

Fort George May 3 d 1762. 
Dear Sir 

When I tell you that my Daughter Willett & my Daughter 
Caty have been dangerously ill ever since the Death of my 

1 Printed in Collections of Nell) York Historical Society, 1876, 
Colden Papers, p. 198. 

442 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Wife, that I have lately lost my Daughter Willett, & Caty 
continues dangerously ill of a Hectic, I hope you will excuse 
my not answering yours of the 1 7 lhl of last month sooner & in 
the manner I would take pleasure to do. 

I directed M r . Banyar to inform you of what is done in Council 
in respect to Clock which is all in our power to do & I hope it 
will give satisfaction to the Indians. I believe he is now humbled 
so far as not to take upon him to brag. 

The Gentlemen of the Council who act as Justices of the 
Peace take the oath of a justice of Peace for the Province as 
well as that of Councillor. 

I have the Misfortune likewise at this time to have an unusual 
load of public business all which I hope will excuse my referring 
you to M r Banyar for farther particulars. I am with great 
esteem & regard, Sir. 


[May 3-6 , / 762] 

Forty four Indians from the Susquehanna, & Otsiningo, who 
had set out in order to attend the General Meeting of the six 
Nations, arrived at S r . W m . Johnson's. 

Map 3 d . 
The Oghquago's Waited on Sir William when Adam Chief 
Sachem of Oghquago made the following speech 

Brother Gorah Warraghiyagey 

On our receiving notice from the Six Nations of your calling 
them to a General Meeting to be held at your House, We, the 
Representatives now present of the different Nations living along 
the Susquehanna River, and its branches, set off in order to hear 
what you had to say but we are sorry to find we came too late — 

Then performed the Ceremony of Condolance usual on such 

1 Johnson Papers, 3:684. 

2 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

Seven Years War 443 

occasions after which Thomas King stood up, & spoke to Sir 
W m . as follows 


As we came too late to be present ourselves, we beg you will 
acquaint us with what passed at the Meeting, and with your 
intentions — 

After this, Adam, stood up with a long String of Wampum 
in his hand, and after acquainting Sir William of the death of 
one of the Sachems, whom he had formerly made, presented 
another Indian named Torvanutta al s . William of the Tuscaroras, 
saying, their Nation had a great opinion of his Abilities, and 
would be glad, Sir William would create him a Sachem — 

Gave a long String 

Thomas King them produced a Speech of Governor Bernards 
of Boston in Writing with his Seal at Arms affixed thereto, also, 
one white belt, and two Strings Given by him at the same time 
to be delivered with his Speech, (by Thomas King, who came 
lately from Boston) to the Six Nations, which they desired Sir 
William to read, and Explain to them, that done, Thomas told 
Sir Will m . that he would go and deliver said Speech and Wam- 
pum at Onondaga, and leave it to the six Nations to return an 
Answer thereto — 

Sir William bade them wellcome, and performed the ceremony 
of Condolance in return, after which he told them, that he would 
have been glad to have had them present at the Meeting, that 
they might have heard what had passed thereat, which he was 
certain (from the knowledge he had of them and their good 
disposition) would have given them great satisfaction, & that 
notwithstanding the whole thereof was somewhat tedious, he would 
for their information repeat all that was material — 

Then repeated to them the Transactions at the Meeting — 
with the Cause thereof — They expressed the greatest Satisfac- 
tion on finding that the Senecas had explained themselves so well 

444 Sir William Johnson Papers 

concerning their late behavior, and had made so many promises 
of behaving better for the future. Then assured Sir William 
that the late conduct of that Nation had given them so much 
Uneasiness for some time past that their minds could not be at 
rest, being so sensible of the ill consequences which must attend 
a Breach with their Brethren, they had sent several belts of 
Wampum advising and conjuring them to desert from so unatural 
and rash an attempt, as well as to deliver up all the prisoners 
amongst them, and live in friendship with the English — 

Then Adam of Oghquago spoke to Sir W m .as follows 


We beg to recommend to your consideration the unlawfull 
Claims of the Connecticut People to a large tract of our best Land 
along the Susquehanna River, known by the Name of Sfyahan- 
doane, concerning which the Six Nations have spoke to you, it 
behoves us to look into the same, and prevent the English from 
Settling thereon which must prove our Ruin, having no more 
Such Land, either for planting, or hunting, we therefore entreat 
you to look into the affair and not suffer us to be dispossessed of 
our Lands, which might tend to overset the good Work of peace 
and Friendship so happily settled at the last Meeting — 

Sir William assured the Indians thereupon that he would repre- 
sent their Grievance in a proper manner, and use all his Interest 
to have Justice done them, or any Indians who were really in- 
jured — Then acquainted them with his approbation of Toxoa- 
nutta & taking him by the hand told him that he now made him 
a Sachem, advised him to behave himself well in that Station, & 
to make it his Study to cultivate the Friendship of the English, 
& promote the welfare of his people 

Then gave them some powder, & shot &ca with some provi- 
sions to carry them home, & orders to have their Arms, & working 
implements mended & also some Money as private presents to the 
Sachems, after which he dismissed them — 

Seven Years* War 445 

May 6 th . 

Sir William prepared the following Answer to the Speech 
delivered by the Caghnawaga's &ca to M r . Croghan at Albany 
in June 1 761 , which Answer he gave Cap'. Claus to deliver them 
at Montreal for Which place he was to proceed within a few 

Brethren of Caghnawaga, Ganaghsadaga, & all others our Friends 
in Canada 

I was last year prevented from Meeting you at Albany, by 
reason of my being then preparing to set out for the D'etroit, 
but M r . Croghan who then spoke with you, having transmitted 
your Speech to me, I now take the opportunity of Cap 1 . Claus, 
My Deputys return to Canada to Answer the same, having some- 
time ago acquainted you with the Good Success of My Negotia- 
tions, and the friendly State in which I left the Indians about the 
D'etroit last year — 


As I understand by Capt Claus that you have (since my 
leaving Canada) lost a great many of your people by sickness, 
for which I am sorry, I now take this opportunity by him of con- 
doling your loss, & wiping away the Tears from your Eyes so 
that you may look up to the Divine being & crave his blessing, 
and a Continuance of health to those who have Survived, as well 
as to enable you to look chearfully at your Brethren, the English, 
and observe what they have done and still continue to do for you 

3 Very long Strings 

At the Meeting which I held with you in Canada after the 
reduction of that Country to his Britannick Majestys Arms, I 
spoke to you with Sincerity, and meant what I said, and you 
may rest assured that Whatever promises the English make, or 
engagements they enter into with you, or any other Nation they 
will punctually observe, as long as you continue to behave well 

446 Sir William Johnson Papers 

and friendly towards them and this I recommend to you to do, 
as the most certain means of making you an happy people — 

B.i_ A belt of 9 Rows, & 4 Ovals thereon 


I thank you for your gathering together and burying the bones 

of such of our people, as we have lost during the War, and as 

you have been imprudently led to act as an unnatural part against 

the English by the instigation of the French, whereby you have 

also lost several of your people, I now gather up all their bones, 

bury them, and level the graves wherein they are deposited, so 

as never more to be seen — 

A belt of 1 Rows 


As you are now become one people with us, I chearfully Join 
in Strengthening and brightening the Covenant Chain of Peace 
and friendship, and you may depend upon it that no thing on 
Earth can break it, so long as you all strictly abide thereby, and 
as you have not the advantage of Records like us, I recommend 
it to you, often to repeat the purport thereof & of all our mutual 
Engagements, to your young people so as they may never be 

forg ° tten A Cov*. Chain belt of 8 Rows 


I am Glad to find your Warriors are so sensible of their own, 
and the Interest of your people, that they joyn you in Strengthen- 
ing and maintaining the peace and friendship lately settled between 
us, and be assured our Warriors are equally well inclined to do 
the same — 

A Belt of 7 Rows 

It is also very agreable to me to hear that your warriors are 
determined to behave in such a manner as to leave no room for 
any doubt of the sincerity of their professions, I recommend it 
to you and them to persevere in these good resolutions which 
cannot fail of rendering the present peace lasting — 

A belt 9 Rows — 

Seven Years' War 447 


The General was so sensible of the bad effects of spirituous 
liquors being brought to sell amongst the Indian Nations, that 
(in order to put a stop to its pernicious consequences) he has 
entirely prohibited any from being sent, or brought amongst you, 
and I am hopefull that by this means, there will be no further 
disputes, or Quarrells between you, and any of his Majestys 
subjects — 

A belt of 8 Rows 


From what the Warriors said in your speech, I cannot in the 
least imagine that any thing evil can remain in their hearts which 
requires purging, if there should, I am at a loss to understand 
what was meant by the friendly declarations they made. By this 
belt of Wampum cleanse and purge your bodys and theirs of all 
ill humours which might have been lodged there, and wash you 
with that pure Water which your Ancestors made use of on all 
such occasions — 

A belt of 8 Rows 


It is certain you have been in darkness for some time, of which 
I am glad you are now become sensible, and with this belt I 
dispel that dark Cloud which hung over you, that you, and yours 
may enjoy the pleasant and enlivening sunshine — 

A belt of 1 Rows 


I am sorry to hear of your meeting with so many stumps in the 
Road hither; you must consider it is newly repaired, & cannot 
be so smooth, and even as when a little more used, I will assist 
you in making it level, smooth, & wide, so that you, and we may 
travel it with safety, and pleasure by night or day to all, or any 
of our Towns — 

A belt of 9 Rows with a black 
Road thro' the Middle — 

448 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Agreable to my desire some time ago I find you have admon- 
ished your Cousins the Abenaquis to act a proper part, for which 
I thank you, and now tell you that they have settled that unhappy 
affair with the Stockbridge Indians to their satisfaction, & have 
in every thing else behaved very prudently, with all which I have 
acquainted the six Nations, and I hope you will take care to see 
that they act up to the promises they have made — 

A belt of 7 Rows 


You have acted well and wisely in delivering up all our 
people who were Prisoners amongst you, as you know there could 
not be that strict friendship kept up which it is natural for Brothers, 
or Friends to bear each other, whilst the people of either side 
were detained prisoners, & I sho d . be as ready to procure you 
any of your flesh & blood if I should hear of them 

A belt 

I am much concerned at your having any cause of Complaint 
ag'. Your Brethren who were posted at the Cedars, — I am 
certain that no ill treatment would be offered to any of your people 
with the approbation of any Officer, and, as you know that Sol- 
diers are sometimes inconsiderate, especially when in liquor, & 
that your Young Men are so likewise there must be an allowance 
made; This I can assure you, that neither the General, nor any 
Officer will suffer you to be ill treated, knowingly and unde- 
servedly, wherefore you must not look upon it as a thing intended, 
or blame a whole Nation for the behavior of a few individuals, 
who, if found out would be punished according to their deserts — 

A belt 

I know it has been Customary for the French to give you many 
things for the support of your familys, but when you consider 
their motives for so doing, and the difference of the French's 

Seven Years' War 449 

scituation from that of ours, You will certainly think yourselves 
no way intitled to any thing from us, as yet, and can only hope 
for a friendly behaviour from us. I must therefore recommend 
it to you (as I have done to all Nations of Indians) to follow 
your hunting, planting and Trade, and not to depend upon 
others for what you may want, and can easily procure by your 
Industry, as you have now nothing to employ you otherwise — 


I have lately had a General Meeting of the Six Nations &ca 
at my House where every thing relative to peace, friendship, 
Trade &ca has been fully settled, and the Senecas whose heads 
were last Year somewhat turned as you have doubtless heard, 
have now made an honest Confession thereof, and in the presence 
of the rest of the Nations promised never to be guilty of the like 
again, of all which together with many other Transactions at 
the Meeting I have directed Capt Claus to acquaint you, and I 
expect to hear from you the result of the Cadaraghqui Meeting, 
& by whom it was called, as such Meetings without my knowledge 
don't carry a good appearance, And I expect that you, who are 
a sensible people who live regularly, and are instructed in, and 
profess the Christian Religion will not foolishly fall into, or suffer 
yourselves to be led away with any wild, or destructive schemes; 
Should any such be proposed to you, stop your Ears against 
them, & pay them no regard, but follow your Hunting, Planting, 
and Trade, which will be much more Essential to your happiness 
and true Interest than the Embracing of such measures, as must 
draw upon you, our wrath & your inevitable Ruin — 

A belt 

Sir William received a Letter from M r . Peters acquainted 
him that he had forwarded his Letter to Teedyuscung, & should 
himself attend at Easton. 

Also a Letter from Gov r . Hamilton of the 1 2 th . May approv- 
ing of Sir Williams intentions to meet the Indians at Easton, & 
acquainting him that he had appointed Commissioners on behalf 
of the Proprietors to be present at the Meeting — 

450 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Extract of a Letter from James Gorrell Ensign 1 B.R.A. 
Reg 1 , dated Fort Edward Augustus 7 th . May, 1762. 


The Trouble I have had is inexpressible, as you are not ac- 
quainted in what Situation I left Detroit, without any one thing 
to Give the Indians, this being the most Remote Fort, and Situ- 
ated near the Six Nations, which are very Numerous, I will take 
the Liberty to Specify them in the Names given them by the 
French, viz*. — 

The Follouanis 18 Leag s . Dis*. from this Fort, 100 fighting 

The Pevents 12 Leg 5 , distant 160 Men — 

The Assois 12 Leg 8 , distant 60 Men 
J The Sacks 60 Leg*. dis». 300 Men 

The Renards 72 L s . distant 300 Men — 

The Scious seldom rest in one Place ; they are very numerous, 
in the nearest Town there are upwards of 2000 Men. — This 
is the best Account I have been able to Collect as yet: I shall 
make it my utmost Study to get what Information I can. — 

I am &c — 


Contemporary Copy 2 

New York 9 th . May 1762 

I am to own the favor of your letter of y e 29 th of April, 3 & Am 
very Sorry to hear of Your indisposition. 

There was nothing Secret in the Orders I received from home, 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

2 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

3 In Johnson Papers, 3:723-25. 


Seven Years' War 451 

relative to the Indians. As they principally concerned the Gov- 
ernments in Canada, I transmitted copies thereof to the Several 
Governors there; and I now Enclose you an Extract of what 
Relates to the Indians in general, that You may make Such use 
of it as You Judge best for the Service. 

I am glad to find the Indians, At the late Meeting Seem'd 
desirous of cultivating the Peace Established between the English 
And them, And I hope when You Meet at Chenussio, you will 
be able to Convince them of the folly of hearkening to Idle 
Stories, or of pretending to Revenge Injuries received from the 
white People, As on complaints made they may depend on having 
Justice done them, if you think there is any thing matterial that 
passed at Your late Meeting which I Should be Acquainted 
with, I Should be glad to have a Copy of the proceedings, but 
this I leave Intirely to Your Self. 

I cannot but approve of your Meeting Teedyuscung, Agreable 
to his late Majesty's Orders. 

Your proposal of Sending Some parties of Indians to the 
Southward, against the Spanish back Settlements appears to me 
of the Utmost Consequence, And if properly conducted, might 
Answer many good purposes; but I Should be glad to know 
what Number You think you could depend on; And the places 
you Imagine they would chuse to go Against. 

I am, with great Regard — 
Sir Will m : Johnson, Bar 1 , 
fort Johnson 

452 Sir William Johnson Papers 


For/ Pitt May 10 th . 1762 

May Itt Plase Your Excelancy 

Inclos d . I Send you My Acount & Vouchers from No br . to 
the 1 st . of May which I hope will Meet y r . Excelancys aproba- 
tion, as the Greatest Cair has been Taken to Lessen y e . Indian 
Expences, all the Acounts is sign d . by Co 11 . Boquet Except two 
w h . was Acru d . before he Received y r . orders, M r . Hutchins an 
Asistant of Mine Sett of y e 3 d . of April to Visett the Indians 
Liveing a bout or Near y r . Several posts over y e . Lacks Agreeable 
to My Instructions from Sir William Johnson, by him I Sent y e . 
Money to pay y e . Interpreters Docter & Smiths att Detroit and on 
his Return I will Send y r . Excelancy thire Vouchers all y e . Rest 
I Send with My Acount & hopes y r . Excelancy will Send Me 
a bill on M r . Nelson in Philk for y e . Amount 

A bout y e . 7 th Aprel there was two Verginians kilR by y e . 
Indians about 12 Miles Above y e . post att Lead Stone butt I 
Dont think itt was a National thing Butt Rather a Kind of 
Robery Commited by Some Strageling Indians as boath the 
Men had fine Rifels I have Taken Every Step in My power to 
find out who y e . Murders ware and of what Nation butt has Nott 
as yett been able to find them out tho I flater My Self I Shall 
Soon hear who they ware as all y e . Indians this way att present 
behave quietly & Sivil to y e . Treaders who go Amoungst them 

there is Greatt Numbers of y e . Six Nations passing this way 
to & from Warr against y e . Suthren Indians a party of 80 past 
Heer a few Days Ago with two Cherrokes prisners and Eight 

the Indian Nation that Live between this post and the Lackes 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39 ; printed here because 
of its relationship to Croghan to Johnson, May 10, 1 762, Johnson Papers, 
3:732; and to Hutchins' journal and report enclosed in Johnson to 
Amherst, November 12, 1762, post p. 567. 

Seven Years* War 453 

have Sent Me Werd that they are going to Philk in June to 
have a Conferance with y e . Governer there & att that time they 
propose to bring what prisners yett Remain Amungst them & 
Deliver them hear 

As Soon as M r . Hutchins Returns I will Send y r . Excelancy his 
Journals 1 I am with greatt Esteem and Regard Your Excelancys 

Most Obedient 
And Humble 

Geo : Croghan 
PS : As I find it very Dificult to gett 
Money hear to Answer y e . Service I am 
oblidg d . to Send those Acounts by an 
Express att My own Expence 


Contemporary Copy 2 

Fort Johnson May II th . 1762. 

Capt. Clause will have the honor of delivering you this, whom 
I retained here until the meeting which I lately had with the 6 
Nations was over, that he might be acquainted with the trans- 
actions thereat, and thereby enabled to inform the Indians in 
Canada of such parts thereof as were necessary. 

At this Meeting were present [near] above 400 Indians, who 
have behaved themselves very well, the Senecas clearing up, and 
giving a very circumstantial detail of the affair which gave rise 
to their being accused of a plot against the English, and after 
Strengthening and renewing their former alliance, made many 
protestations of friendship, and of preserving a good behavior 

1 Enclosed in Croghan to Amherst, Oct. 5, 1 762, post p. 543, and 
in Johnson to Amherst, Nov. 12, 1762, post p. 567. 

2 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 9. 

454 Sir William Johnson Papers 

towards the the English. Delivered up two prisoners, and prom- 
ised to send down [nine] ten others, as speedily as possible — 
upon the whole I believe they are in general well disposed, and 
will continue so notwithstanding the Machinations of some secret 
Enemys, who I am informed are using all their interest and in- 
fluence to set them up against [you] us, but I am hopeful 'twill 
be without Effect so long as they meet with good treatment from 
us, and find that we don't encroach on their Lands or property, 
in which case they would be apt to suspect us of some bad design 
against them which [but] His Majesty's late instructions to the 
Gov 1 , of this Province concerning lands claimed by the Indians 
must Effectually prevent — 

I hope all the Ind s . in your Government 1 are in a State of 
Tranquility, and heartily wish [that] you find everything else 
agreable to you within the same and that [as I beg] you will 
believe me to be, 

D r Sir &ca 


Fort Johnson May 1 1 1 762 

Letter to General Gage, 
Governor of Montreal. 


Contemporary Copy 2 

Wioming, May 14 lh , 1762 

Teedyuskungs Answer to Sir William Johnson's Letter of the 
21 st April, taken down by David Zisberger at Wioming — 

1 On July 11, 1 760, Brigadier Thomas Gage had departed from 
Oswego with the army to Montreal, of which city he was appointed 
governor after its capitulation on Sept. 8, 1 760. 

2 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. Also printed in 
Pennsylvania Archives, First series, 4:78. 

Seven Years War 455 

Brother Sir William Johnson 

I received your Letter 1 yesterday & am very glad & well sat- 
isfied that you have appointed a place for us to meet at, and I 
suppose that the Governor of Philadelphia hath nothing to say 
against it, & as we have appointed Easton in former times to be 
a place of Council, I and the rest of my people shall be ready to 
meet you at Easton the 1 5 th . of June, such as are concerned in 
the Land Affair and my Kins people. I also expect to meet the 
Governour & all the Gentlemen from Philadelphia who are con- 
cerned in the affair, I shall bring no other Indians along with me 
but such as are necessary to be present because the other Nations 
will not be obedient to me but gets drunk, & do a great deal of 
Mischief for which I cannot be answerable, but I can answer 
for my own people — 

A String 

TEEDYUSCUNG Chief of the Delawares 

at Wyoming 


Copy 2 

Philadelphia, 20 th May, 1762 

The Messenger did but return this morning from Teedyuscung, 
and delivered to me his Answer 3 to your last Letter, taken down 
in Writing from his own mouth by the Express, & as it is Post 
day I have an opportunity of forwarding it to you without loss 
of time. 

The Governor has appointed Mr. Chew 4 and myself to at- 
tend the hearing on the part of the Proprietaries, and I hope to 

1 Johnson to Teedyuscung, April 21, 1762, Johnson Papers, 3:689. 

2 Printed in Pennsylvania Archives, First Series, 4:80. 

3 May 14, 1 762. See ante p. 454. 

4 Benjamin Chew. 

456 Sir William Johnson Papers 

have the pleasure of seeing you at Easton on the 15th of the 
next month. 

I am, Sir, 

Your most obedient 
Humble Servant, 

On His Majesties Service 

To S r . William Johnson, Baronet, at Fort Johnson, 

New York: 


Contemporary Copy 1 

[May 21, 1762] 

Extract from M r . Croghans Journal of Indian Affairs at Fort 
Pitt. — 

"the 18 th . of March I received a letter from one Hugh Craw- 
ford a Trader at the lower Shawanese Town, Informing me that 
a Party of Shawanese who had been at War against the Cherokees 
was returned with 4 white Persons Scalps & Eight horses, that 
this party informed the Nation they killed them in mistake in 
the Night, that three of the Shawanese was sent out to see if 
they could discover any of the Enemy about, and they discovered 
the fire where those People was, and on drawing near they saw 
two Indians as they thought w h . they shot, but on scalping them, 
they found them to be of a half breed, but before they had dis- 
covered this, they had killed two White men that were in Bed, 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39, in Johnson's hand. 
Enclosed in Johnson to Amherst, May 21, 1762, the draft of which is 
printed in Johnson Papers, 3:742, dated May 19, 1762. The date 
of the letter to Amherst as given above is the date of Johnson's extract 
of Croghan's Journal. It is given under date of March 1 8, 1 762, 
"George Croghan's Journal, 1759-1763," edited by Nicholas B. Wain- 
wright, Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, LXXI, no. 4. 
(October 1947), pp. 421-22. 

Seven Years War 457 

this they say was y e . manner in which they killed them. M r . 
Crawford further says that the Indians are prodigious uneasy at 
this Accident and declare they will deliver up the Men who 
committed the Murder. M r . Crawford further writes me that y e . 
Cap tn . of this Party has been particularly attached to the Brittish 
Interest, and has never been to War against Us. that he is much 
troubled for what had happened, tho he was not one of those that 
committed the Murder, he has offered himself to be given up 
to the English as an attonement for the others Crimes, and to 
prevent any differences between their Nation and Us." — 


Johnson Hall May 24 th . 1762 

As I am given to Understand that the Affair regarding the 
fraudulent, & Villainous proceedings of one George Klock of 
Conajohare, concerning the Indians Lands &ca. now remains 
with You, & that by an Order of the Lieu*. Governour & Council 
You are to proceed ag st . Klock thereon, I thought it necessary to 
apply to You for your information relative thereto, and whether 
y e . Inhabitants on these Lands (who have paid, & still continue 
to pay their Rents yearly to the Indians) are to engage themselves 
therein, Klock haveing Served two of them with Ejectments 
dureing the Winter, if so, what Steps they are to take therein, & 
to request that You will engage Yourself on their behalf, & give 
me Notice what is necessary to be done in the Affair, that I may 
give directions to an Attorney at Albany to furnish You with 
everry thing necessarry for that purpose. 

I think it my duty as his Majesty s Superintendant & Agent of 
Indian Affairs to interest myself in an affair, in which the Indians 
have been so apparently injured, contrary to his Majestys Royal 

1 In Massachusetts Historical Society. 

458 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Intentions, and which if not speedily & effectually redressed, 
may be attended with bad consequences, and occasion great 
trouble in this Country. — 

I am with much Esteem 

Your Most Obedient 
Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 

KEMPE Esq r . 
Attx. General — 


May 24* 1 762 

Letter from Sir W m . Johnson 
- George Klock 

Contemporary Copy 1 

Nerv York, 30 th . May 1762. 


I am to Own the favor of your Letter of the 21 lh . Inst'., En- 
closing a copy of your Transactions with the Six Nations at the 
late Meeting, &c. 2 

I have not Yet had time to peruse them, but from the Extract 
of M r . Croghan's Journal, I am glad to See the Shawnese Seem 
willing to deliver up the Supposed Murderers, which by all means 
ought to be done, that they may be Tried, & if they are as in- 
nocent, as they represent, they will of course be Acquitted. 

A few days ago I had a Letter 3 from M r . Croghan, of which 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 The draft of the letter is dated May 19, 1 762, and will be found in 
Johnson Papers, 3:742; the report of Johnson's transactions with the 
Indians will also be found in Johnson Papers, 3:690-71 7. 

3 Croghan to Amherst, May 10, 1762, ante p. 452. 

Seven Years War 459 

I Enclose You a Copy, whereby You will See that he has trans- 
mitted me his Accompts; And as they appear to be clear, And 
the Greatest part of them Signed by Colonel Bouquet, I Shall 
Send him a Warrant for the Amount Agreable to his Desire. 

M r . Croghan Likewise Mentions that The Indian Nations 
Between Pittsburg And the Lakes had Sent him word that they 
were coming to Philadelphia In June to have a Conference 
with the Governor There, and at the Same time, were to deliver 
up all the English Prisoners that Still remain'd Amongst them: 
if this is their Chief Errand, I very much Approve of it, Altho' 
I have no great opinion of their Conferences with the provinces 
in General. 

I have the pleasure to Acquaint You, that I have Certain 
Accounts of the Arrival of Lord Albermarle, with four Regiments 
from England, at Martinique And that his Lordship Sailed from 
thence on the 6 th . Instant, having been Joyned by all the Troops 
that went from hence Except Vaughan's Regiment, in lieu of 
which His Lordship took Morgans, And As the Troops in gen- 
eral were very healthy there is the Greatest reason to Expect 
Success from this Armament. 

I am with great regard 

Sir William Johnson, Bar 1 . 

Fort Johnson. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

New York 31* May 1762 

A few days ago I received your Letter of the 10 th Ins 1 , En- 
closing Your accompt and Vouchers from the l l . Novem r 1761, 
to the R May 1762; and I herewith Enclose You a Warrant 

x In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 


Sir William Johnson Papers 

for the amount thereof, agreable to Your desire. M r . Nelson at 
Philadelphia will pay the Money, on the Warrant being En- 
dorsed by You, and presented to him. and I have only to desire 
that you will Transmit to me the Receipts of the Interpreters, &c 
At the D'etroit, So Soon as they come to Your Hands, that 
they may be Lodged with the rest of the Vouchers. 

I Shall be glad to hear that the Indians that are coming to 
Philadelphia, are as good as their word, in bringing down all 
the English prisoners that remain amongst them: this is the only 
advantage I can Expect from their conference with the people 
of the province. 

I hope You will be able to discover the Indians who Murdered 
the Two Virginians; and I would insist on their being delivered 
up, in order to be Tryed according to the Laws of the Country. 

I am 

GEORGE CROGHAN Esq r . D 1 ?: Agent for the Indian affairs at 
fort Pitt. 


Df. 1 

Fort Johnson [May] 1762- 
My Lord, 

I do myself the honour to [enclose] 2 transmit your Lordship 
my transactions with the Indians on my way to, and at the Detroit 
last Summer whither I was sent by Sir Jeff[er]y Amherst [in 
order to] that I might settle all matters, and Enter into a Treaty 
of Alliance with the Western and Northern Indians, and as at 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 9, in Guy Johnson's 

2 Words italicized and in brackets are crossed out in the manuscript. 

Seven Years War 461 

that time, [then] a report had been spread of the disaffection, 
of the Senecas, and of their designs to excite the Western Indians 
to a revolt, I therefore delayed transmitting to your Lordship 
the before mentioned transaction until I should be enabled to 
hold a Meeting with the 6 Nations on my return home to enquire 
into the cause of such reports as well as the motives which induced 
them to such a proceeding with their then present resolutions 
thereon, which meeting having been lately held at this place, I 
herewith Enclose a Copy thereof to which I beg leave to referr 
your Lordship 1 — 

On inspecting my Transactions of last Year, & the late Meet- 
ing your Lordship will observe that the Indians are not only very 
uneasy, but Jealous of our growing power, which the Enemy (to 
engage them firmly in their interest) had always told them would 
prove their ruin, as we sho d [at last] by degrees Surround them 
on every side, & at length Extirpate them, this they are the readier 
induced to believe from the many posts we have taken, and 
Erected in their country, for [great part] many of which, accords 
to their ideas of such matters, they think we can at present have 
no manner of use, except to hem them in, and serve as so many 
checks upon them, as also from [ different] treatment they receive 
from us, different from what they have been accustomed to by 
the French, who spared no labor, or Expence to gain their friend- 
ship and Esteem, which alone enabled them to support the War 
in these parts so long whilst we, as either not thinking of them of 
sufficient Consequence, or that we had not so much occasion for 
their assistance not only fell infinitely short of the Enemy in our 
presents &ca to the Indians, but have of late I am apprehensive 
been rather premature in our sudden retrenchment of some neces- 
sary Expences, [/rorn] to which they have been always accus- 
tomed, & [/rorn] which on due consideration I flatter myself your 
Lordship will be of opinion they should be gradually weaned 
from, rather than be totally deprived of, [which] as that cannot 

1 On the margin of the draft is written: "To mention the No. of 
Prisoners delivered up to Mr. Croghan &c in consequence of Sr. W"". 

462 Sir William Johnson Papers 

fail [of] encreasing their Jealousy, and adding fuel to their dis- 
content. The great Abuses committed in trade with the Ind s . 
of wch they had made frequent Complaints, occasioned my mak- 
ing regulations therein, which I left at all the Principal posts, as 
ment d . in my Transactions of that Year, and I am hopefull It may 
be in some measure conducive to make the Ind s . easy on a head 
which they look upon of the utmost importance at- 

tended to by | 

I have likewise made the best use which I could of His 
Majesty's late Instructions to his Governor of this Province, con- 
cerning the Indians Lands, to convince them of his Royal intentions 
to use them well & do them all justice, which hath greatly pleased 
them, and I take very much occasion from time to time of ap- 
peasing their Clamours, & satisfying them with regard to their 
distrust, and notwithstanding I am satisfied of his Majesty's 
friendly disposition, & of the Experience & knowledge the present 
Ministry have of the importance of keeping on good terms with 
them, and of the sense which they have of this illtreatment, & 
frauds often used towards them, I am induced to make a few 
[observations] remarks on that head, which have come within 
my observation, as his Majesty's Agent in this Country from no 
other motive than a desire to preserve the peace & promote the 
prosperity thereof, for which trespass on your time, I beg your 
Lordship's favourable Indulgence. 

When we consider the defenseless State of the back parts of 
each American Colony, & the importance they are of to [the] 
promote the flourishing state of the rest, I am of opinion it will be 
judged expedient to take every step which may be necessary to 
prevent their receiving any check in their growth, which must 
certainly put them back several years, a the consequence [of] 
whereof I am apprehensive will not only be felt throughout this 
Country, but also in Great Britain — The forts which are erected 
to cover and protect the Country are Certainly built in the most 
judicious manner, & in the most advantagious places, to ans r . 
that end, but I must beg leave to observe to your Lordship that 
tho' they may prove a means of retarding the progress of an Army, 

Seven Years' War 463 

they can in no way prevent the Invasion of the Indians, who can 
enter the Country in small partys by taking a Compass round 
these Garrisons-the impossibility of ascertaining their number in 
the woods, & the little purpose it would be to pursue them, or 
find them out, rendering any attempt from the Garrisons not only 
imprudent but ineffectual (as we have often Experienced) even 
tho' a Commanding Officer had notice of their approach, which 
very rarely happens. In the meantime these partys, fall upon 
the settlements in different parts, dr can in any well settled Country 
along the banf^s of Rivers, (which are commonly well inhabited) , 
cut off [& destroy] a number of Families, Destroy their houses, 
effects & grain, all within the Compass of a very few hours, and 
then return by a different rout to some of their places of rendez- 
vous, they can also find frequent opportunities of seizing upon 
Ammunition, in many places, as well as surprising boats going 
up with the same either with Traders or to the Garrisons, and as 
they can. furnish themselves with provisions when they Chuse, 
they can be in no want of that article even if they should not find 
sufficient at the Settlements — upon the first Stroke as before 
mentioned the surviving Inhabitants, together with all those near 
them immediately forsake their dwellings, & retire with their 
familys, in [to] the utmost terror, poverty, & distress to the next 
towns, striking a panic into the Inhabitants who then become 
fearfull of going to any of the posts — Trade becomes at once 
stagnated, nothing can be carried to any of the Posts, without 
an Escort, & unless tis a very strong one (which is not always 
to be procured) the Whole may fall into the hands of the Indians 
— the Soldiers cannot stir at any Instance, from the Garrisons, 
without an imminent risque of Death or [of] Captivity. The Ind s . 
become Encouraged, & the miserable rems. Inhabitants, are so 
terrified with the Crueltys Exercised upon their Neighbours, that 
they will not be prevailed upon to return to their former habita- 
tions — This picture of a State of a Country under an Indian 
War, however [improbable] it may at first seem, will be found 
on due examination not to have been exaggerated & I could even 
say much more, [//] on that subject if I was not apprehensive I 

464 Sir William Johnson Papers 

have already [should thereby] tresspass^ too far on your Lord- 
ship's patience, & business of greater importance — 

If this mischief can be the Consequence of a breach [of] with 
the Ind s . I humbly submit it to your Lordship whether it will be 
not [be] tend more to the [honour] [advantage] interest of the 
Crown, & the good of the Publick, to prevent it from taking 
effect, & that at a much less expence than one Expedition will be 
to endeavor at quelling them. 

The French having [some] many people who not only learned 
the Ind s . Language, but resided amongst them, as also Mission- 
arys in most of the distant Nations, who [made] consented their 
engaging in the War — [as] a[bove] Matter Essential to their 
Salvation. It was no wonder they [had great advantage over 
us &] had great influence over them & advantage over us, who 
were without [their] such assistance, [so that I] Insomuch that 
I do assure your Lordship, I have at sometimes during the course 
of the War, thought myself very happy, & that I did good 
service, when I have with great difficulty prevailed upon some of 
them [to] to preserve a Neutrality, & by some Influence which I 
had, prevented many of their Schemes from being put in Execu- 
tion, altho' [alone] singly opposed to [the interest of] a Number 
of people, employed by the French every way well qualified for 
such Employment. Insomuch that however small my Services 
may have appeared at home, I have been often induced to wonder, 
how I was enabled to do so much. — I hope your Lordship will 
pardon this digression as it [leads me] is introductory to [my 
Subject] what I purpose observing That to prevent all the before- 
mentioned ill consequences, [&] to [gain] conquer the fears and 
Jealousys, & to gain the Esteem & friendship of the Indians by 
which we may be enabled peaceably & quietly to [Enlarge &] 
Settle & Enlarge our Frontier, & in time become an over Match 
for them in the interior part of the Country, It will be absolutely 
necessary that we should for a time (at least) continue to show 
them some Countenance, & not withdraw our hands at a time 
which will confirm their mistrusts. 

That in order the more Effectually to do this, [the Command^. 

Seven Years War 465 

Officer] I may be enabled to give them some presents as formerly, 
gradually lessening the Value thereof — that the Comds. Officers 
at the most Considerable of the Outposts may also be enabled to 
make them presents of some small articles, on their making their 
Visits, which will prevent their entertaining that Jealousy [&] 
concerning us which they have hitherto done-but above all that 
from the Extent of our pres 1 . Alliances, & the road w h our Con- 
quests have opened to so many Nations, [that] I may be allowed 
such a Number of proper Officers, as are absolutely necessary for 
the management of Ind n . Affairs as Depy. Agents in the dist. 
Quarters, who are to enquire into the State of the Ind s . to settle 
all differences between them, & the Whites, to be present at their 
meetings & hold meetings with them, to make frequent Visits 
within their Districts, & to procure & Transmit me from time to 
time all the Intelligence which they can possibly procure, relative 
to the Ind s . whereby any Schemes tends, to disturb the Colonies 
may be crushed in the Bud and prevented from taking Effect. 
That for that purpose one will be necessary at 1 
The R l Honb Ie . The Earl of EGREMONT — 


May 1 762 

Heads of a letter to the 

Earl of Egremont 


Contemporary Copy 

Johnson Hall, June 2 d 1762 

I am favoured with your Letter of the 26 th . ulto 3 in answer to 
which I am to inform you that having received the Orders of his 
late Majesty in Council bearing date Aug 1 . 29 th . 1 759 Directing 

1 End of the manuscript. 

2 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

3 Johnson Papers, 3:745-46. 

466 Sir William Johnson Papers 

me to examine thoroughly into the Complaints made by the 
Delaware Indians concerning their Lands, & for that purpose as 
soon as possible to hold a Meeting with them. I accordingly 
gave the earliest Notice to Teedyuscung and all concerned that 
they might attend the same which thro' some means was notwith- 
standing delayed, until on a second application Teedyuscung 
agreed to meet me at Easton the 1 5 th . of this instant together 
with two Gentlemen Commissioners on behalf of the Proprietors 
of which I have had notice the other day from Governor 
Hamilton — 

I can neither see the occasion or propriety of the Meeting 
which you say is shortly to take place at Lancaster for renewing the 
Chain of friendship between the Government of Pensilvania & 
the Northern & Western Indians, the same having been performed 
on behalf of the English in General, and all matters settled with 
those Indians at the Treaty held by me last year at the Detroit, all 
which has been since confirmed at a Meeting lately held at my 
House, and as the time is now appointed & agreed to by 
Teedyuscung who informs me by Letter that he will at the 
before mentioned time attend with such Indians as are necessary 
for stating their claim to the Lands in question. I cannot by any 
means consistent with his Late Majestys Order, the good of 
the service, & the duty of my Office postpone an Affair of 
that importance, which hath already been too long deferred 

I am Gentlemen 
&ca — 

To the Com", for the Province of Pensilvania. 

In Consequence of the foregoing the Congress was held at 
Easton, as intended by Sir W m . Johnson, who set out for that 
place the 1 of June. — and arrived there the 1 3 th . but was pre- 
vented from doing any Material business till the 1 8 th . the Indians 
being daily in Liquor. 2 — 

1 Blank in the manuscript. 

2 The foregoing material, beginning "In consequence of . . . ," is 
entered in the Journal of Indian Affairs as an annotation following 
the copy of the letter to the Pennsylvania Commissioners. 

Seven Years' War 467 


Fort George New York June 6 ih 1762 
Dear Sir 

When you know that I have had an additional misfortune in 
my family by the loss of my youngest daughter 2 I hope you will 
excuse my not having answered your favour of the 1 5 th3 of last 
month before this time. You will readily think that these repeated 
losses of those who were the dearest to me must be very hard to 
bear at my age 

I am fully perswaded that Lydeus 4 is a very dangerous man 
& should be glad to have him well curbed. He is now under 
Prosecution by order of the Government for intruding on the 
Kings land & is to be tried next circuit at Albany. I am affrayed 
that the attorney General is not sufficiently informed of the 
Witnesses & by that means that Lydeus may escape. If you 
could be at Albany in the time [the] of the Circuits you certainly 
will be of great use in this as well as in some others where this man 
is greatly to blame. I am perswaded he will go on in the like 
practise till he is throughly humbled 

You may certainly qualify as a Justice of Peace at Albany as 
the others do in which case you will preside in the Justice Court. 

I receive great pleasure in your success with the Indians & 
congratulate you on it 

For a fortnight past I have every day expected General 
Monckton's 5 arival & still continue to expect it hourly when the 
wind is fair Tho after his arival I shall not have it much in my 

1 In Henry E. Huntington Library. 

2 See Cadwallader Colden to Johnson, May 3, 1762. Ante p. 441. 

3 Johnson Papers, 3:739-40. 

4 John Henry Lydius. 

5 Major general Robert Monckton. 

468 Sir William Johnson Papers 

power to serve you Yet it will give me the greatest pleasure to 
serve you in any shape wherein I can 

I am with great regard & sincerity 

Your most obedient & 

humble servant 
Cadwallader Colden 
The Honourable 
Sir William Johnson Baron 1 

indorsed: 1 

New York June 6 th . 1 762 
Lieu 1 . Gov r . Coldens Letter 


A. Df. S. 2 

Lebanon June 27, 1762. 
Hon d . Sir 

I wrote You[r Hon r ] 3 last fall 4 of the Act of the Gen 1 . 
Assembly at Boston in which they desirred me to obtain Six 
Children of the Six Nations to be educated in the School under 
My Care, towards the Support of Whom [the] s d Assembly 
Voted 1 2 pounds to each of them for one Year that £ 72. 
in y e . Whole of the Interest of Sir Peter Warrens Legacy 
deposited in their Hands. And I desired the Benefit of Your 
Honours Acquaintance & Influence among the Several Tribes 
for the chusing and Sending the Boys to me and I hoped 
that Negyes 5 Staying Might be in favour [afr/e] to the Design 

1 In Johnson's hand. 

2 In Dartmouth College Library. 

3 Words italicized and in brackets are crossed out in the manuscript. 

4 Wheelock to Johnson, Dec. 11, 1761, ante p. 344. 

5 A Mohawk Indian. 

Seven Years' War 469 

as he Might accompany them hither, but hearing Nothing 
from You[r Honour] I Wrote again Last Spring but 
still hearing Nothing I now send David Fowler 1 to wait upon 
Your Honour With this. And I pray Your Honour if you think 
favourably of the Affair, if You Will please to grant all that 
Assistance Which May be needful in it, Your Hon r . best of 
any Man, knows Who are likely to Answer the End proposed & I 
can trust the matter no where safer than in y r . Hon" Hands, 
these Three which I now have are well & behave very Well 
and have made laudable Proficiency in reading and Writing 
(a Specimen I inclose) and they may be three of the Six. and 
I desire at least Three more of the Six Nations as the [^o/e] 
Act of s d Assembly confines me to them. And if 3. or 4. Female 
can be added suitable for the Purpose to be Educated in good 
Families in all Sorts of Good Housewifery &c I shall be glad 
if You will please to Send them. And David informs me of an 
English Youth Who has been a Captive Among the Senecas 
and is Master of their Language who he thinks may likely be 
fitted Soon for the Business of Interpreter to that Nation if this 
be so, or if Your Hon r . knows of Several such Who are likely 
and may be soon fitted for [public!? business of] Interpreters or 
Missionaries among Any of The Tribes please to Send them. 
I have received Such Encouragem ts of late in the Affair that I 
design as fast As I can obtain such as are promising to increase 
My Number to 25. or 30. — relying on his Goodness Who 
Provid e has hithto [provided for] supported it that he Will 
Still open the Hearts and hands of his people to contribute 
Supplies for it. the Barer can inform Your Hon r . of the 
Encouragements Which I ha' receiv d . 

I have had thots (and have consulted Some Gentlemen Who 
favour them) of Sending Young Kirtland 2 to N. Jersie College 
Next Fall, And Joseph 3 with him to bed & board with him of 

1 A Montauk Indian. 

2 The Rev. Samuel Kirkland. 

3 Joseph Brant. 

470 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Whom M r . Kirtland may be learning something of the Mohawke 
Language Without any great Interruption to his other Studies, 
While Joseph in the Grammer School there May be perfecting 
himself in the English [Language] Tongue and also pursuing 
other parts of Useful Learning perhaps fitting for College. Joseph 
can now read hansomely in the Bible, please Sir to favour Me 
with Your thots of this proposal by David, and please to order 
Matters So as that he may return as Soon as may be to his Studies, 
and please to accept the Most Sincere Profession of Respect 
& Esteem from. Hon d . Sir. 

Your Hon" Most Obedient 
and Most Humble Servant 
Eleazar Wheelock 
The Hon ,e Sir Will m Johnson — 


Letter to S r . William 

Johnson June 27. 



Niagara 30 th . June 1762. 
Dear Sir 

I wrote You in my Letter dated 23 d . 2 May that M r . Deconey 3 
had told me that Some people was at Torronto Trading with the 
Indians since that some Traders from hence has been there and 
has brought Copys of the Traders Passes Trading at Torranto; 
which copys I now Enclose to you by which You will find that 
they are allowed to Trade with Rum with the Indians, which 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Gratz Collection. 

2 Not found. 

3 Jean Baptiste De Couagne. See his letter of June 27, 1762, 
Johnson Calendar, p. 138, making this same complaint of the traders 
at Toronto. 

Seven Years' War 471 

all the Traders here complain of greatly, as it Intirely Spoils 
their Trade at this post as all the Indians Resort to the place 
where they Can be Supply'd with Rum — 
I am Dear Sir 

Your most obedient 
Humble Servant 

W M . Walters 
To Sir William Johnson Baronet 


New York 5 th - hh 1762 — 

As I am so much out of order since last night, and cannot do 
myself the honour of waiting on Your Excellency this day, I 
hope you will excuse this method of doing business. — which 
I should not take, were I certain of being better to morrow. — 

The enclosed Paper shews Your Excellency what I want, to 
enable me to discharge Sundry Accounts, and carry on the 
Service. — 

I should wish to know what answer I shall (on my arrival at 
Home) make to the complaints of the Six Nations, and others 
relative to their Lands, w h . the Connecticut People and others 
say they will settle on, and that soon, also to their complaint of 
Maltreatment received at severall of the Posts. — 

I must beg leave to observe to your Excellency that should the 
New England, or any other sett of People be allowed to disposess 
the Indians of their Lands on the Susquahana, or elsewhere, it 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

472 Sir William Johnson Papers' 

will create a great deal of trouble, and in my opinion overset all 
y e . Salutary and political measures, which have been so successfully 
pursued for some time with the many Nations. — 

I have the honour to be with the 
greatest respect 
Your Excellencys 
Most Obedient & 
Most Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 
His Excellency 
Sir Jeffery Amherst 
Knight of the Bath &ca. 


New York July 5* 1762 — 

A Warrant for two thousand pounds Sterling, to pay the 
Officers, Interpreters, Smiths and other expences lately accrued, the 
Ace". Shall be made out, and sent down soon after I get Home. — 

to know whether Conrad Franks Acc lt . which amounts to 
above £ 1 00 Currc?. for Services done by him in y e . year 1 756 
is to be paid here, the said Ace", is in the hands of M r . Oliver 
Delancey, the Man keeps teazing me for the Money, altho. y e . 
half I believe, was for Cap 1 . Pattens 2 Grenadier Company then 
going to Osswego. — 

M r . Croghan 3 begged me to remind your Excellency of his 
last Ace". & that he might have a Warrant for the Am 1 , thereof, 
being much pinched for the money. — 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

2 Captain David Patton. 

3 Croghan's memoranda for Johnson, July 3, 1 762, destroyed by fire. 
See Johnson Calendar, p. 139, and Johnson Papers, 3:823. 

Seven Years' War 473 

He is also verry desireous to know, whether that Sum of £191, 
which he engaged for, by order of General Stanwix be yet 
allowed. — 

Some Ammunition, and other small Articles, as paint, knives, 
Flints &ca, are verry necessary to be given occasionally at Fort 
Pitt, Niagra & Detroit to y e . Severall parties of Indians, who call 
there in their way to War against the Southeren Indians, particular- 
ly at the former. — 

W M . Johnson 




Contemporary Copy 1 

New York, 18 th . July 1762 

I Had last night a Letter from Governor Fitch, 2 in Answer 
to mine Regarding the Lands on the Susquehannah River, claimed 
by the Connecticut People, whereby it appears that the Governor 
has taken the most Effectual method in his power for preventing 
any Such Attempts, by Issuing a proclamation, Strictly forbidding 
any of the Inhabitants of that colony from Settling on the Said 
Lands; And by the last night's post, I had Likewise a Letter 
from Governor Hamilton, 3 Acquainting me that he had received 
a Copy of the above proclamation from a friend of his in 
Connecticutt, which had given him Entire Satisfaction, as he was in 
hopes it would have the Effect of putting a Stop to Any further 
proceedings in this affair. I Enclose You a Copy of the proclama- 
tion, and I flatter myself the Fears, and Jealousies of the Indians 
on this head will Entirely Subside, as it is very Apparent that the 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 Thomas Fitch, governor of Connecticut, 1754-1766. 

3 James Hamilton, governor of Pennsylvania. 

474 Sir William Johnson Papers 

pretenders to those Lands are in no Shape whatsoever Counte- 
nanced by the Government. 

I am 
Sir W m . Johnson, Bar 1 . 


Fort Johnson 2J si . July 1762 
Dear Claus/ 

this day I arrived here after Six weeks absence, haveing been 
at Easton to Settle y l . Aff r . of Tedyescungs, w h . after a great 
deal of opposition from y e . Quaker RascK I settled to Satisfac- 
tion, and am now busy to prepare y e . proceedings, & report for 
his Majestys perusual & determination, — 

I rec d . y rs . of the 2 d . Ult . 2 *p Lieu 1 . Stevenson 3 yesterday in 
Albany, and spoke with Old M r . Stevenson ab l . it, who told me 
his Son would go to York, and try his Interest concerning it and 
did not doubt of getting y e . Gen rls . consent, in w h . case, I told 
his Father, I would Settle y e . Affair with him concerning y e . 
purchase, he promised to let me hear the Issue as soon as 
possible; for my part, I cannot, as matters are at present circum- 
stanced between y e . Genr 1 . & me, with propriety ask him any 
thing. — but I cannot see that there is anything in y r . Way, to 
hinder y r . writeing y e . Genr 1 . y r . Intentions, or inclinations, nor 
can I see or think he will make any difficulty about it, provided you 
give him any plausable reason, but I think it would be right, 
and what I believe is always done, to make an offer to Y r . own 
Corps first. - — I would not have you do any thing Disagreable to 
y r Com d 8. officer, I mean any thing w h . could give him or any 

1 In Canadian Archives, Miscellaneous Papers 1714-1790, Claus 
Papers, W. Vol. 14. 

2 Johnson Papers, 3 :75 1 . 

3 Lieut. James Stevenson. 

Seven Years' War 475 

body room to charge You w th . haveing done a wrong or Irregular 

all here are well, and desire to be remembered to You, & as 
M r . Welles 1 will be the Bearer of this I must refer You to him 
for news & ca ., — 

I am 

Sincerely Y rs . 

W M . Johnson 
wrote at 1 at night, as M r . Welles 
setts of in y e . Morning — 


S r . W m . Johnsons Letter 
22<*. July 1 762. — 


Contemporary Copy 2 

New York, 25* July 1762 

I had last night a Letter from Colonel Bouquet 3 Enclosing 
me a State of the Standing Expences of the Indian Department 
under M r . Croghan, a Copy whereof I herewith transmit You, as 
I should be glad to have your Opinion whether they may not be 
considerably retrenched, they Appearing to me to be very high. 
I have ordered Colonel Bouquet to Strike off one of the assistants, 
as I can't think that two can be Necessary. 

I am 
Sir William Johnson, Bar 1 . 

1 John Welles. 

2 In Public Record office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

3 Colonel Henry Bouquet of the 60th regiment. 

476 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Contemporary Copy 1 

Extracted out of a Letter from Lieu*. Edw d . Jenkins 2 Commanding 
at Ouiatinon; 3 To Major Henry Gladwin 4 Commandant of 

Dated Fort Ouiatinon July 29 th . 1762 


Two days ago the Bearer arrived from the Illinois, who assures 
me that the People in that part of the world are for a quiet life, 
I mean the French but he says the Indians wanted the Commanding 
Officer to come and attack these posts, which he refused. The 
English-woman that is along with him, told me that the Canadians 
were advising the Indians to Murder us all in these posts, but that 
they would not be seen in it themselves ; but I shall say no more of 
it as the woman will acquaint you all she knows about it ; she says 
she heard the Bearer talk of it; indeed I would have examined 
him, but the woman was afraid as she was to go farther with him, 
and you are in a much better place for it than I. — 

Yours &c a 
Edw d Jenkins 

J In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39, inclosed in Johnson 
to Amherst, July 8, 1 763, In Doc. Rel. To Col. Hist, N. Y., 7:531-2. 

2 Lieutenant Edward Jenkins of the 60th regiment. 

3 Ouiattonon (Wawiaghtonon) on the Wabash river, near the site of 
present Lafayette, Indiana. 

4 Major Henry Gladwin after receiving the rank of major in 1 759 
from Amherst (his commission is dated Dec. 30, 1 760) , was sent 
with a detachment of 300 men to garrison the fort at Detroit. Because of 
a severe illness in the summer of 1761, he was forced to return to 
England. In August 1 762 he returned to Detroit, but by December was 
at Fort William Augustus. In 1 763 he returned to Detroit where he 
succeeded Captain Donald Campbell of the 60th regiment as commandant. 
He was still stationed there when Pontiac's War broke out in May 1 763. 
On August 26, 1 764, reinforcements got through to Detroit and Gladwin 
was allowed to return to England. He received his lieutenant colonelcy 
Sept. 1 7, 1 763. 

Seven Years War All 


Frys 2 near Conajohare August I st . [1762] 

5 in the Morning 

I arrived here at 2 a Clock this Morning in consequence of 
an Express w h . I received at 1 a Clock last night from one of my 
Militia Officers, acquainting me that the German Flatts was 
destroyed by the Indians, on which I imediately sett out and 
ordered the Militia 3 & Mohawks to follow, but shortly after my 
arrival here, I received a Second Express declareing it to have 
been a false report occasioned by the noise and running about of 
a Drunken Indian, which, together with the magnified terrors of 
the Inhabitants, and a report which they had heard a few days 
ago of a design to destroy their Settlement, was the cause of the 
alarm. — 

I cannot think the Indians have any such design in agitation 
from the favourable disposition I find all the Westeren & Northeren 
Indians in, (from whom I the other day received a Calumet with 
a freindly message, and severall Belts of Wampum renewing & 
confirming all their engagements) as also from the present Stage 
of the Six Nations in generall. 

However I have given the necessary Orders to the Militia 
and posted some of them for this day on the Road near the German 
Flatts, in order to Support the Inhabitants in case of an attack, 
and shall send a Message to the Indians requireing to know the 
Cause as well on this occasion as of their late behaviour to Bourk a 
Sutler at Fort Schyler 4 which Affair I know Your Excellency 
is already made acquainted with. — 

Silver Heels & Peter arrived here a few days ago, and seemed 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

2 Hendrick Frey. 

8 See Johnson Papers, 3:834. 
4 At Oneida, N. Y. 

478 Sir William Johnson Papers 

so much discontented at their not haveing received what they 
expected, that I found myself under a necessitty of makeing 
them a small present of Money, until I knew Your Excellencys 
pleasure. — 

I am to acknowledge the Honour of Your Excellencys letter 
of the 18 th . Ult . 1 together with the Gov r . of Connecticuts 
proclamation, I wish it may stop their proceeding in the 
Settlement of the Lands on Susquahana, but I am apprehensive 
(from the Nature and Number of the People concerned) it 
will after some little time fail in the desired effect. — 

I have the Honour to be 
with all imaginable respect 

Your Excellencys 
Most Obedient, and 
Most Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 
His Excellency 
Sir Jeffery Amherst — 

PS. the vast quantity of Rum which is 

Sold to the Indians at the German Flatts 

by a few Individuals, is greatly complained 

of by the rest of the Inhabitants, as well as 

by the Sachims, & sensible Indians, who are 

verry apprehensive of it's being productive 

of some fatal consequence, unless soon put a Stop to. — 

nay the good ends intended by the total prohibition of the Sale 

of Rum at the Severall Posts, will in a great measure be frustrated, 

unless prohibitted at the German Flatts & along this River 

as far as Albany or Schenectady. — 

* Ante p. 473. 

Seven Years' War 479 


Contemporary Copy 1 

New York 4 th . August 1762 

By an Express last night from Albany I have Letters from 
Colonel Bradstreet and Capt : Winepress, 2 Enclosing me a Copy of 
your Orders to the Militia Captains on receiving Intelligence of the 
Indians having Destroy'd the Inhabitants of the German Flatts; 
but as they Knew nothing more of this Affair, I flatter myself it 
will turn out to be a false alarm, occasioned by Some Drunken 
quarrel, in which perhaps Some of the Inhabitants may have 
lost their Lives. 

As there are upwards of Ninety Men of Captain Hopkin's 
New Raised Independant Company ready to Sail this Morning for 
Albany, under the Command of Lieut: Cuyler, 3 who has my 
orders to proceed to the Detroit, I now write to Colonel Brad- 
street, that You may make Use of these men to Quell any Dis- 
turbances that the Indians may have Raised, if You think 
Necessary. After which you will be pleased to order Lieut. 
Cuyler to pursue his Route Agreable to his former Instructions: 
but I am hopefull Every thing will be Quiet before Arrival of 
this Detachment, as I would rather his March Should not be 

I am 
Sir Will m . Johnson, Bar*. 

Fort Johnson. 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 Captain William Winepress of the 55th regiment. 

3 Lieutenant Cornelius Cuyler. 

480 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Contemporary Copy 1 

[Johnson Hall August 11-12, 1762] 

August the 1 1 th 1 762, Five Oneida Deputies arrived from 
their Nation, to Apologize, in the name of the rest, for the 
Behaviour of some of their People at Fort Schuyler, 2 in Staving 
the Liquor of a Sutler 3 residing there, &c a . 

The Deputies desired the Mohocks would be present at their 
Meeting, and accordingly several of them came for that Purpose. 

At a Meeting at Johnson Hall, August 1 2 th , with the Oneida 
Deputies, and several Mohocks of both Castles. 


Sir William Johnson 

Lieu 1 . Guy Johnson Witham Marsh, Sec. 
Nicholasera, one of the Oneida Sachems addres'd Sir William, 
and said, 4 

Brother Warraghyagey, 

I am extremely concern'd at the Occasion which brings Us 
down now to remove all evil Thoughts from your Heart, concern- 
ing the late bad Behaviour of some of our People at Fort Schuyler; 
and I hope you will believe me, when I declare to you from my 
heart, that We are all heartily sorry for it. 


At the time the thing happen'd, there were a number of Indians 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

2 Oneida., N. Y. 

3 A sutler named Bourk. See Amherst to Johnson, Aug. 1 , 1 762, 
Johnson Papers, 3:836. 

4 Speech of Nicholasera was inclosed in Johnson to Amherst, August 
1 4, 1 762. See Baugh to Amherst, July 20, 1 762 ; Amherst to Baugh, 
August 1 , 1 762 ; Amherst to Johnson, August 1 , 1 762 ; and Amherst 
to Johnson, August 7, 1762; Johnson Papers, 3:831-59. 

Seven Years' War 481 

of several Nations, even from Swegautchi, 1 about Fort Schuyler, 
in order to take young Pigeons, of which there was great Plenty 
thereabouts : and as you know it is usual for our young men to be 
desirous to get Liquor, — Several of them went to the Sutler's 
for that purpose, who sold them it in great plenty: upon which, 
we went to Him, and cautioned him against So doing, but He 
continued to let them have it, notwithstanding our endeavours to 
the contrary. In the mean time, one Sarah Montour came from Fort 
Stanwix, with a Barrel of Wine, and desired a Meeting with all 
our Sachems, in order to get some Land from them for her 
Child (which She was desirous should be near the old Oneida 
Castle as thereby the English would be prevented from taking it) 
which being granted ; She Treated our Sachems with Wine. Dur- 
ing this time, our young Men went to the Sutler's, bought Rum, & 
drank of it till they became quite drunk, whereupon the Sutler 
refused to let them have any more, and shut up his House, which 
occasioned one of them who was very much in Liquor, assisted 
with some others, to break open a piece of Bark off the House, 
and take out a Barrel of Rum, which was about half full of Rum, 
and imediately roll'd it into the Woods, and began to drink; 
but our Women, to prevent them, overset the Barrel, and Spill'd all 
the Liquor. — On this occasion, our people made much noise, 
and ran about after their manner, without knowing what they 
were about, and this might have been the Cause of the Report 
you have heard. 

This is the whole Truth of the affair; which has given 
Us all great Concern, especially since We find you had heard so 
much to our Disadvantage about it: and we now beg you will 
beleive Us to be sincere, and that We had not the least evil 
Intentions; but only acted as all mad drunken people will do: 
for if we had had the least bad Thought, or Design of Attacking 
the Fort, which was very far from our Intentions, We should not 
have attempted it at a time when We were so much in Liquor: 
therefore We beg you will beleive what We have Said, and that 



Sir William Johnson Papers 

We never had any Design contrary to the friendship between Us, 
but on the contrary, are determined to continue to act as Brethren, 
to Use all our Endeavours from time to time, to prevent any 
Differences from arising between Us; and We hope you will, on 
your parts, do the Same. — And We likewise request you will 
not suffer any more Rum to be sold by the People at the German 
Flats; for, so long as it is permitted, it will be almost impossible 
for us to prevent quarrels, and Disputes from arising. 

Gave a black & white Belt of 7 Rows. 

Then Canadagaya, a Sachem of the Mohocks address'd Sir 
William; and after repeating the old Covenants, and agreements, 
entered into between the English, and Them, requested that the 
late affair might be forgiven, as the Oneidaes had expressed so 
much Contrition for the same. 

Gave three Belts. 

Then told Sir William that they were very uneasy to find 
they could not now Travel to the westward, nor any Nations to 
them, without a Pass-port, which could not be at all times and 
places procured; and whereby, they were prevented from corre- 
sponding with Us, for the Good of the whole. — Therefore 
earnestly intreated They might be at Liberty to proceed from 
Place to Place, without a Pass-port, as formerly. 

Gave a Belt. 

To which Sir William answered them as follows. 

Brethren of the Oneidas; 

Your Behaviour at Fort Schuyler, has not only given me 
great Vexation, but has also highly exasperated General Amherst, 
particularly on the Information received of your Attempt to 
get into the Fort. — Such Treatment from Neighbours, and 
People, who ought to live on the best Terms with Us, is really 
very extraordinary, and calls for our highest Resentment: I am 
glad, however, that you express so much Sorrow, for what then 
passed, and that you make so many Promises of amendment ; and 

Seven Years' War 483 

I expect it will prove a Sufficient warning to you for the future, 
as I have Sir Jeffery Amherst's orders to assure you, that if you 
should ever offend in the like manner again, or any of the other 
Tribes, you must expect to be punished as your Crime shall deserve. 

I have acquainted the General with the quantity of Liquor sold 
at the German Flats, and I make no doubt but He will take 
all measures to put a Stop thereto. 

A Belt of 7 Rows. 
Brethren of the Mohawks, 

I am very glad to find that you so well remember the 
ancient Covenants, and agreements, enter'd into between Us ; and 
I hope, that as you bear them in mind, you will not fail to 
observe and follow them on your Parts, which will be the only 
means of Engaging Us to an Observance of them. 

I know of no obstruction, or hinderance you can meet with 
on the Roads, and therefore I am induced to believe it must have 
arisen from some Mistake, as you may always depend on the free 
enjoyment of every reasonable Liberty, so long as you preserve 
in remembrance your several Covenants and agreements, and 
pay a due observance to the Peace subsisting between Us. 

A Belt 

After this, the Oneida Sachems having taken into Considera- 
tion the Damage done to the Sutler, said to Sir William, "That at 
present tho they were destitute of almost all kinds of Provisions, 
and were now obliged to catch what few Fish they could, in the 
River and Creeks, and were very poor; yet they would, after 
their next hunting was over in the Fall, assemble their People, 
and cause each of them to contribute something towards reimburs- 
ing the Sutler for the loss He had Sustained, which, they were 
informed, was not near so great as He had reported. 

484 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Df. 1 

London August 14 th 1762 

In Conversation with Col n Elip 1 Dyer one of the Committee, 
he says That the Charter of the Government of Connecticut 
extends its Limits to the pacific Ocean west; and notwithstanding 
its being cut in two by the Province of New York (at that time 
under the Dutch) afterwards granted to the Duke of York; 
likewise the province of Pennsylvania granted to its proprietor M r 
Penn yet the Limits west of those Governments would by no means 
be contracted by virtue of those particular Grants, any more than 
that a private person should relinquish the one and be contented 
with the other half of his Farm Because his neighbour's Field 
divided it in the middle; that the justice of this way of reasoning 
was not confined to themselves only as appeared by applications 
repeatedly made to them concerning some tracts of Land about the 
Menesinks not long since disputed by New 2 and amicably settled 
by deputies from each province; this gave room to imagine that 
by a purchase made of the Indians on those western Limits they 
should secure to themselves no more than what was realy meant 
and intended in their Charter; accordingly a number of men 
belonging to the Province applyed to those Indians living on the 
Susquahannah who Very candidly declared they had no right 
to dispose of any land thereabouts and that the real Proprietors 
were the Six Nations. 

Upon a meeting with the Iroquois in the year fifty four, they 
endeavoured to effect a purchase of those Lands with Hendrick 

1 In possession of Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 
Pa.; printed in The Susquehannah Company Papers, 1750-1772, 2:151- 
55 ; condensed footnotes used through the courtesy of Mr. Julian P. Boyd, 
editor ; manuscript letter in New York State Library badly damaged by fire. 

2 Some words have been omitted here, obviously the following: "New 
York and New Jersey." Efforts to settle the boundry line between the 
two colonies by a joint commission were begun as early as 1 747 and, 
after many interruptions, finally concluded in 1 769. 

Seven Years' War 485 

their Chief but were disappointed by the false insinuations of Sir 
William Jonston, nevertheless they did effect it the same year 
and obtained a firm deed for a tract on the Susquahanah including 
the 42 d degree of north Latitude and from about ten Miles east of 
the river extending west about two Degrees of Longitude for 
which land they gave a large Sum of Money. That the proprietors 
immediately applyed to the Government of Connecticut and have 
obtained liberty for a seperate jurisdiction as the uniting that 
part with this would be attended with insurmountable difficulties. 
That to defray the expences of many meetings on this Affair the 
proprietors have determined to admit two Hundred more who 
come in under the same advantages with others by paying about 
eight pounds per Share and some of those are yet undisposed of. 

M r Grey Clerk of the Committee 1 assembled on the 19 th May 
1 762 declares that the Business of the meeting was to determine if 
possible to throw in a Settlement upon the said Lands, and they 
have accordingly obtained Votes 2 for above One Hundred 
Families who promise to proceed immediately and in defiance of 
M r Penn and his Emissaries to plant themselves down on the 
said Lands. The Committee in order to Ballance the difficulties 
and disadvantages they must be under as first adventurers have 
granted them an extent of ten Miles on whatever part they please 
excepting the great Meadows. This they have given them ex- 
clusive of their Proportions as Proprietors, and the said Committee 
have formed another Committee who are to take care that proper 
and welthy persons only are admitted to make this first Settlement 
as well as to give them proper directions in what manner to govern 
themselves in this critical affair. 

Their last resolve was to endeavour to get this ratified at Home 
as soon as it can demand the attention of the Ministry. And they 
are of the opinion that the speedy Settlement of some part will 
have great weight to determine it in their favour, another Circum- 

1 The original draft bears, in the handwriting of Henry Wilmot, the 
following interlineation: "Of Sus. Co." 

2 The original draft is interlined here in Wilmot's handwriting: "Not 
of the Assbly." 

486 Sir William Johnson Papers 

stance from which they promise themselves great Advantage is; 
that their Province have supported the present as well as the late 
War with a truly brittish Spirit and Vigour, while on the other 
hand the inhabitants of a certain proprietary Government are 
stained with infamy by the ravages of dastardly wretches meerly 
because it was proprietary. 

M r Edwards another of the said Committee told me candidly 
that M r Ingerson 1 had in fact presented the resolve or memorial 
made by the Government in their favour, to M r Pitt and many 
others who gave him great encouragement and that it should be 
duly considered in its proper Season, and for this end M r Ingerson 
has engaged a friend to give him timely Advice, upon which Col. 
Elip* Dyer is to embark immediately for England invested with 
the above armour. 

I find it is the opinion of the Committee that the said hundred 
Men cannot proceed untill next Spring as the Season is now 
too far spent to plant and Sow. I endeavoured to obtain Copies 
of the proceedings of the meeting on the 1 9th as well as of other 
meetings but found it impossible neither would they confess that 
anything material was committed to writing, for at one meeting 
they often destroyed what they had made at another but your 
Lordship may depend upon the above to be genuine and a truth, 
for never were any set of mortals more effectually deceived than 
they found themselves when I made a demand of the Memorial 
from the Secretary who was very unwilling to certify it. 

I have the honour to be your Lordships very humble servant 

Stephen Sayre 2 
indorsed : 

M r Sayre's Account of what he heard in 
Connecticut respecting the Susquehannah Settlement, 
June 1 762 

1 Jared Ingersoll. 

2 See biographical note of Stephen Sayre in The Susquehannah Company 
Papers, 2: 152-53. 

Seven Years' War 487 


L.S. 1 

Johnson Hall August 20 ih . 1762. 

I should have done myself the pleasure of writing you sooner, 
had not my time been so taken up in finishing several matters which 
I am to send home. — 

I have not been able to get you any further Information regard- 
ing the Land in dispute between Klock, Funda and the Cona- 
joharee Indians than this, Viz 1 . That Abraham Vanhorne, Will m . 
Provost, Philip Livingston, and Mary Burnet were the Original 
Patentees; that Philip Livingston now of New York and the 
rest of the late Philip Livingstons Children are concerned, or 
have shares in the Land in Dispute, and that they sold their part 
to George Klock, & Jelles Funda, both Inhabitants of the Mohock 
River — 

I cannot say how it is with regard to the Heirs of the other three 
Patentees, but doubt not you can be informed at New York — 

Whilst I was at Easton; two more of the Tenants namely, John 
Heathcock, & Philip Garlock living on said Lands ab*. 20 years 
and paying Rent to the Indians, were served with Ejectments by 
Klock, Funda and the Livingstons, and were to appear at the 
late Supreme Court held the last Tuesday in the last Month, 
which I suppose you are acquainted with — The poor people who 
live on this Land in dispute, are very much distressed & frightened 
at the threats & proceedings of Klock & Funda, and the Indians 
are vastly displeased and uneasy on account of their ticklish situa- 
tion, as matters seem to them now Circumstanced — 

I must therefore beg you will let me know your opinion of, 
and what is to be done in the affair, so that I may quiet the minds of 
the Indians, who looking upon themselves to be greatly injured 

1 In Massachusetts Historical Society. In Guy Johnson's hand. 

488 Sir William Johnson Papers 

in the case, having never sold, or received any payment for the 
Land in dispute expect to be redressed — 

I am, 1 Sir truely 
Your Welwisher 
& Humble Servant 

John Kempe Esq'. WM - Johnson 

Attorney General 

P. S. pray let me know 

whether M r . Smith Jun r . 

is employed or not in this case. — 


August 20*. 1 763 

Letter from S r . W m . Johnson 
To J no T. Kempe 


Contemporary Copy 2 

New York, 22*. Aug'. 1762 

I had last night the Favor of Your Letter of the 1 4 th . Instant, 3 
Enclosing the Speech of the Oneida Sachem, 4 in vindication of 
the Indians' late Behaviour, and a State of the Standing Expences 
of the Indian Department under M r . Croghan, as retrenched by 
You; which latter I Shall Abide by, as You are certainly the 
best Judge of what is Necessary for that Service. 

I shall Immediately order Capt. Baugh 5 to make Strict En- 
quiry into the truth of what the Indians Alledge Against the 

1 From this point and P. S. in Sir William's hand. 

2 In Public Record Office, W. O. Vol. 38. 

3 Johnson Papers, 3:858-59. 

4 Nicholasera. See Indian Congress, August 11-12, 1 762. 

5 Captain Thomas Baugh. 

Seven Years' War 489 

Suttler 1 at Fort Schuyler, 2 that if it appears to be true, he may 
be turned away from that post, as well as prevented from coming 
near Any of the Forts or Garrisons for the future. 

Colonel Bradstreet and Capt. Winepress 3 both assure me, 
that the greatest care is taken to prevent Rum getting past the 
posts; but that the Inhabitants may get up Small Quantitys, 
without coming near the Garrisons, which is very probable, and 
that it depends on the Civil power to punish the Retailers of this 
pernicious Liquor; and Colonel Bradstreet Says there was a 
Law in force for Laying a fine of Fifty pounds for Every 
offence of that Kind: If there is any Law Now for prohibiting 
the retailing of Rum, I am persuaded You will Order it to 
be put in Execution, as nothing more can be done by the Military, 
than what I have already Ordered. 

I come now to that part of Your Letter regarding the Neces- 
sity of your having a Deputy to Act immediately under Yourself: 
if you please to let me Know the person you would chuse to have, 
And the Service he is to be Employed in, I Shall readily Consent 
to Your having Such assistance as appears to be necessary ; but I 
must own, it looks a little Contradictory to be adding to one 
department, when Retrenching in another; however, I Should be 
Sorry You had more trouble than you can Easily go through. And 
therefore, as I have already observed, I Shall gladly Agree to 
whatever may be really usefull and requisite for the good of the 

I am with the greatest Regard 
Sir William Johnson, Bar'. 

1 Named Bourk. 

2 At Oneida, N. Y. 

3 Captain William Winepress of the 55th regiment. 

490 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 
Johnson Hall, Sunday, August the 22 d . 1762. 

A Seneca Sachem arrived here, being sent by his Nation with a 
Message to Sir William Johnson; the purport of which is as 

Brother Gorah Warraghyagey ; 

We send down one of our Chief Men to let you know that the 
several Nations in this Quarter have, agreeable to your Desire, 
sent as many of your People, who were Prisoners amongst them, 
to Pennsylvania, as they could prevail on to go. — There are some 
who, We could not persuade to return to their Friends, or Country, 
which We hope you will not attribute to any neglect or Fault in 
Us. — They are so well treated where they are, that they do not 
chuse to leave their Place of Residence. 

Brother ; 

We are thankful to the Great King for allowing Us a Smith, 
to mend our Arms, and working Tools. — We are much pleas'd 
with the Man You have sent Us; but as He had not yet time to 
repair half of our tools, &c, We beg he may be allowed to remain 
with Us till Spring ; — That He be permitted to bring up, or send 
for some Blankets, and other Tilings, to Sell us for covering 
against the Winter; as also a little Rum, which, as many of our 
People are now sick, We think would be of Service, and a means 
of recovering them, — therefore I intreat you will comply with our 

Request - A Belt of 7 Rows. - 

To which Sir William answer'd; 

Brethren of the Seneca Nation, 

I am pleas'd to hear that you, and the several Nations in 
that part of the Country, have acted agreeable to my desire, which 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

Seven Years War 491 

all of you, must be Sensible, was but reasonable, as We could not 
look upon you to be our Friends, as long as you detained our 
People amongst You. — I must tell you, that untill all His 
Majesty's Subjects are delivered up to Us. We cannot think So 
favourably of you, as We could wish. — Their unwillingness to 
return to their Country, and Friends, is no Excuse: and there are 
Several amongst them, I understand, who are not at Liberty, or 
capable to Judge for themselves; wherefore, it is expected they 
will all be deliver'd up to me, so that they may return to their 
Families and Friends. 

Brethren ; I am glad that the Smith, who has been sent to you, is 
to your Liking. — I expect you will behave kind and friendly to 
Him : and as you say that He has not, as yet, been able to compleat 
the Work you want to be finished, I agree to his Staying with you 
untill Spring. This mark of His Majesty's Indulgence to you, 
will, I hope, lead you to Act well, and behave so, as to merit a 
Continuation of His Royal Bounty. 

I have allowed the Smith to send for such Goods, and Ammuni- 
tion as may supply your wants, and that at the most reasonable 
Rate He possibly can: but as to the article of Rum, you must 
not expect it, the General having put an entire Stop to the Sale 
of that pernicious Liquor, to any Indians whatever, with no other 
view than to make your young men mind their Hunting, and 
Trade, and Your Women cultivate the Lands ; both which, when 
properly attended to, must make you all a much happier People, 
than when Slaves to liquor. 

A Belt of 7 Rows. — 

The Sachem then return'd Sir William many thanks for what He 
had Said : acknowledged that Rum was pernicious to Them, and 
promised to deliver what Sir William had told Him, to the Nation 
on his Return, which He doubted not would be agreeable. — Sir 
William made him a small present, and gave him some money to 
purchase provisions on his Journey, and then the Sachem took 
leave of Sir William. 

492 Sir William Johnson Papers 

On the same day, eight Conajoharees arrived here, and in- 
treated Sir William to give them a little Ammunition, and 
provisions, as they were very poor. Sir William complied with 
their Request, for w ch . the Indians were extremely thankful, 
and then set out for their Castle. 

A.L.S. 1 

New York y e 26 lh Aug« 1762 
D r Sir 

The Bearer of This M r Remsen 2 is Going up to Crosbys 
M [eaJolp] 3 annor To Gett it Laid out in Lotts and To Prevent 
His being obstructed by the Indians I must Request You 1 Take 
Such Steps as will Prevent any Jealosies amongst the Indians by 
which You 1 Greatly Oblige me who always am 

Your Affectionate Ser 1 
S R W M Johnson Bar 1 Oliver DeLancey 4 


N York 26*. Aug*, 1 762 

From Oliver De Lancey 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

2 Peter Remsen. 

3 Crossed out in manuscript. 

4 General Oliver De Lancey, colonel of a New York regiment under 
Abercromby in French and Indian War; loyalist; and brigadier general 
in the royal service in the War of the American Revolution. 

Seven Years War 493 


Fish Kills August p e 26 th 1762 
Honoured S r 

Having been Informed by M r Van Wyck 2 when Your Honour 
was there Last that Cap* Nimham 3 had Informed You that he 
had Land here and was Kept Out of his Right S r I Should a 
thought my Self happy to have waited on Your Honour at M r 
Van Wycks had I have known on it and Given You a true Ac- 
count of the whole Affair which I have many Evidences to prove ; 
S r I must Trouble You with the foundation of the Affair, Upwards 
of thirtie Years Ago S r I met with a Vast Deal of Trouble by 
Some White people at Poghkeepsie, S r Wee having the Oldest 
Pattent 4 of any Round us, the Poghkeepsie People Getting on 
that part that by Division was alloted to me and Sold part of 
it I S r Endeavoured to Convince them in a Kind Manner but there 
was no Convincing of them and S r there Lived a Vast many 
Indians in this Place, When we first Came here and this Company 
my Adversaries at Poghkeepsie Began to threaten me and I was 
Advised to Aject two of the white people, they never Apeared 
but Let Judgement Go by the fault, I Received the Writts of 
Possession, this EnRaged them, to Sett up the Indians Against 
me telling them that I had Stollen their Land, and they would 
buy it, but Old Nimham and two of his Sons Remained my friends, 
the White People Could Not Corrupt him he was an Honest 
Morral Creature as Ever I knew for he was an Instrument to 
protect me for I was in Danger of my Life, and I was obliged to 
Complain to Governor Bornet, 5 who Sent for the Ring Leader 

1 In New York Historical Society, New York City. Printed in New 
York Historical Society Collections (1922), Colden Papers, 6:190-92. 

2 Theodore Van Wyck (?) 

3 Daniel Nimham, chief of the Wappinger tribe. 

4 See Calendar of Land Papers, 150, 151, 166. 

5 William Burnet, governor of New York and New Jersey. 

494 Sir William Johnson Papers 

one Lewis and also the Indians Called a Councel on purpose, 
and Ordered an Interpreter, had Our pattent and Indian Deed 
Read to them, the Indians Owned the Indian Names in the 
Indian Deed to have been the First Proprietors, the Governor 
Reproved them and made them Decease, and the Governor 
Desired Me to have that Part Surveyed so that the Indians 
might be Convinced of the Bounds. He Gave a Special Warrant 
to the Late Governor Colden 1 Who was then Surveyor General, 
who Came himself in Order to do it, but was Soon Repulsed by a 
Company of Drunken Indians who were Sent by them, who 
threatened to Break his Compass and was Stoped. He Sent 
for me and I went too him and found Old Nimham and his two 
Sons With M r Colden, Perswading of them to Lett it be 
Surveyed, but in Vain, and then I Agreed with them, to pay 
them if they Would See it Done, and with much Difficulty M r 
Colden proceeded and after it was Done, the Governor Ordered 
the Indians to Appear before him, and Convinced them. 
And that time there was M r Philip Cortland and M r 
Guyline VerPlank present, and the Governor Desired to make 
them a present being they were Indians, and we the Pattenteis 
M r Cortlandt M r Verplank and my Self, promised we would 
but not as a Debt but to Renew friendship, I Waited a Consider- 
able time for my Partners to Join with me, and the Indians were 
Uneasy and they Neglected So Long, At Last I went and Paid 
my Part with Amounted to Seventy Pounds, and I had Carried 
to Judge Swartworts [wouts] , were Nimham came with the 
Indians, and they were fully Satisfied, then this Old Nimham put 
me in mind of a Promise, that I had made him, Concerning 
a place where he Lived, that he and his Children might Live on 
as Long as he Lived, that Neither I nor my Children Should 
molest them, I Did in Gratitude to Old Nimham, being he was a 
freind of mine, he never Asked me what Quantity of Land he 
should have but the place were he Lived ; and when Ever he went 
of [f ] , the Land was Mine. But S r in a Little time After, Some mis- 

1 Cadwallader Colden. 

Seven Years War 495 

chevious White people went to the Indians and hired Little Bitts of 
Land and made them Give thim Leases, then they put in what 
Quantity of Land they Pleased and Made their Leases, for Ninety 
Nine Years, And this Old Nimham has been Dead about Twelve 
Years but his Children might have Stayed on till this Day 
but his Oldest Son One Shake Came to me and Asked me 
Liberty to Sell the Improvement to One Cap 1 Swartwout I 
Opposed it at First and a Little after he Came Down Again with 
Seven or Eight more Indians for Liberty to Sell the Emprovement, 
I Give him Leave to Sell y e Improvement, and he Sold it for 
Twenty Pound. It Being a Precarious time, I Suffered all this, 
for fear of their Setting up the Indians Against me. About a 
Year Ago Capt. Nimham was Last with me, And I told him if 
the Whites Owed him Any thing by Promise he might Get it if he 
Could, I have Nothing to do with it, but from that time forward 
he Should make no Demands there, and he Seemed to be 
Satisfied and thanked me And I have not Seem him Since. 
Honoured S r I am ashamed to Trouble Your Honour with Such 
a Long Scraul but hope you will Excuse me, for Necessity Obliges 
me to it to prevent Trouble, S r I have heared that he has made a 
Complaint to Governor Monckton 1 and he has Ordered the At- 
torney General to Enspect into it; S r if Your Honour would be 
pleased to Order Some One to Enquire of the truth of what I 
have Wrought as there are many Evidences to proof it 


I Remain with my Humble Regards to Your Honour, 
Your most Humble Servant att Command 

Catharyna Brett 
indorsed : 

Letter from M r$ Brett 
relative to Lands. 

1 Governor Robert Monckton 

496 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Johnson Hall August 28 th . 1762 

Your Excellencys favour of the 7 th . 2 is now before me wherein 
I am verry glad to observe, that the steps which I lately took on 
a supposition that the Inhabitants might be in danger, has been 
agreable to your Excellency. 

It has always been my Study and inclination to promote no 
Officers but such as I judged most capable of dischargeing their 
duty, and accordingly I have recommended M r . Duncan 3 to 
the Governour as a Gentleman well qualified for that purpose, 
and shall as opertunitys offer use my influence to make many other 
necessary alterations in the Militia. 

There will be great difficulty and almost an impossibility for 
the Garrisons to prevent y e . Inhabitants from bringing up Rum, 
as the Province will probably interpose in their behalf, no Law 
being ag st . the same. 

I herewith enclose your Excellency My Acc lt . which I should 
have Sent some time ago, but that I was prevented by much busi- 
ness. I shall now request your Excellency will please to order 
me a Warrant for £500 Sterling, which tho something more 
than the ballance, will be necessarry towards carrying on the 
Service. — 

As I have not an Ounce of powder for any Occasion or Service, 
and there being none to be bought here I would be glad your 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. 

2 Johnson Papers, 3:856-57. 

3 Captain John Duncan of the 44th British regiment. See John Duncan 
to Johnson, Dec. 3, 1 763. 

Seven Years War 497 

Excellency would order me whatever quantity You think proper. 
— I have the honour to be with 

the utmost respect, Sir 
Your Excellencys 
Most Obedient and 
most Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 
His Excellency 
Sir Jeffery Amherst 
Knight of the Bath — 

Si. . Li. O. 

Ontario 29 th Aug st . 1762 

With this I enclose You a Copy of a Paragraph of a Letter 
which I have just received from Lieu 1 Wallace 2 of the 55 th Regi- 
ment, who Commands at Fort Brewerton. 3 I fancy the Indians 
presume a good deal on seeing the Garrisons at the several Posts 
so weak; The fever & Ague has prevailed so much of late that 
I have not men to supply the numbers, that Fall sick, and are 
sent down here. 

I imagine that M r Wallace did not rightly understand them 
when he imagined they threatned next Day, I have sent the 
only Person that understands Indian here to M r Wallace & have 
desired him to send for Bunt or some of their Cheifs & make a 
Complaint of the Outrage, and at the same time have desired 
him to acquaint them, that they will be treated as Enemys if 
they attempt any such thing in Future, it is very probable a Mes- 
sage from You wou'd be of much greater Service than any thing 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

2 Lieutenant Hugh Wallace of the 55th regiment. 

3 On Oneida Lake, N. Y. 

498 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I can say to them; I have desired M r Wallace to tell them to 
apply to You if they have any claims for Lands &c. 

The Want of Interpreters frequently occasions Misunderstand- 
ings, with these People, besides their Behaviour is very different 
at the Small Posts, from what it is here, and some Sheep have 
lately been taken from Sutlers on the road from Fort Brewerton 
to this Place. 

I am 

Your very humble Serv'. 

Alex Duncan 1 
Sir Will m Johnson 


Ontario 29 th Aug'. 1 762 — 

Letter from Major Duncan 
Concerns the Ind s . behaviour at 
Fort Brewerton — 


Contemporary Cop\f 

August 1762 — 

Extracts from the Minutes of the Treaty of Lancaster, 

After the usual Ceremonies on those Occasions were over; 
The Governour press'd the several Nations to deliver up all the 
Prisoners remaining amongst them — the Indians delivered up 
then about thirty of our Prisoners and promised as usual on 
those Meetings to deliver up the rest — 

1 Major of the 55th British regiment. 

2 In Johnson's hand. 

3 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39; inclosed in Croghan 
to Amherst, Oct. 5, 1762. 

Seven Years' War 499 

The Governour at the request of the Merchants in Philadelphia 
Requested the Six Nations to give him Liberty to open a Com- 
munication for Trade up the West Branch of Susquehannah 
and to build Store Houses at the Heads thereof in order to extend 
the Trade of the Province that way to the Lakes by Water 
without going along the Kings Communication by which he 
alledged the Goods would come Cheaper to the Indians — 

And tho' the intent of the Government was to have a private 
Communication for carrying on the Indian Trade without passing 
by any of his Majesty's Posts, (which they look on as an in- 
fringement on their Liberties,) the Indians took it in another 
light imagining the desire was to settle their Country; and flatly 
deny'd the Governours request — 

The Quakers used all the influence they had to get the Indians 
to desire the Troops might be removed from Fort Augusta, 1 which 
they did, and to which the Governour told them it was not in his 
Power as that Post was built for the Kings use — 

The Quakers appeared at this Treaty in a Considerable Body 
and endeavoured all in their Power Privately to Stir up fresh 
disputes about Lands, but the Indians would not be prevail'd 
upon to enter into any; and it appeared to me that the Indians 
in General was very much displeased with the Conduct of the 
Province at that Treaty — 



Mr. Croghan 
from the Minutes I took 
at the Treaty of Lancaster 
Enclosed in M r . Croghan's of the 
5 th . October 1762. 

1 At Shamokin, later Sunbury, Pa. 

500 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

[September 8-10, 1762] 
Proceedings with the Sachems, and great Warriors of the 
united Six Nations, at Johnson Hall, beginning Sept r . 8 th . 
1 762, when 

Two Conajohare Indians arrived here with three Strings of 
Wampum from the Six Nations Deputies, then at their Castle, 
to acquaint Sir William Johnson of their being so far on their 
way to his House, and wou'd be there this day. 

Three Strings of Wampum 

At four p. mered m . arrived 18 Onondagoes, 6 Senecaes, 
twelve Oneidoes and Ochquagoes; who, being Seated, 
the Onondago Speaker address'd Sir William as follows ; 

Brother Gorah Warraghyagey, 

These Sachems, and Chieftains of the Warriors, who you 
now See, are sent by their Nations to speak to you; and We 
are extremely glad, and thankful to the Great Spirit for allowing 
us the Favour of meeting You, and finding You in Health. 


Our chief Sachem of Onondago, Chinughiata, alias the Bunt, 
desired to be friendly remember'd to you, assuring you He wou'd 
have come with Us, had He not sustain'd a very great Loss; to 
wit, the Death of his only Sister, with which He desired you 
might be acquainted 

3 Strings. 

After the Indians had drank a Dram, Sir Will m . told them, 
He was very glad to see so many Sachems & Chieftains of the 
Six Nations, and wou'd be ready at any time to hear what they 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

Seven Years' War 501 

had to Say: also, that He wou'd have been greatly pleas'd to 
have seen their Chief man the Bunt, but that as He was pre- 
vented from coming by the death of his only Sister, (for which 
He was very Sorry) He readily excus'd Him; and then con- 
cluded with telling them, that to morrow he was resolv'd to 
condole the Death of the deceas'd agreeable to the Custom of 
the Six Nations. 

Sept'. 9 th . 
The Sachems and Warriors came to the House, but as the Mo- 
hawks of the Lower Castle, were not yet arrived, they did not 
chuse to proceed upon Business. Several Nations gave in a parcel 
of Axes, and other things to be repaired, w ch . was order'd to be 

On the 10 th . the Mohawk Sachems arrived, and then They, 
with the Deputies of the Six Nations assembled in the Council 


Sir William Johnson, Baronet, Superind 1 . &c a 
Witham Marsh, Secretary. 

Sir William after entering the Council Room, got Abraham, a 
Mohawk Chief, to perform the Ceremony of Condolence on the 
Death of the Bunt's Sister (as mentioned yesterday) and gave 

3 Strings of wampum, 

He likewise, with a black Belt of Wampum, levell'd the grave 
of the deceas'd Sister of the Bunt, that it might no longer be 
seen, or give her Relations any farther concern. 

Gave a black Belt. 

The ceremony being Ended, Sir Will m . told them He was ready 
to Hear what They had to Say. 

The Onondago Speaker stood up, and after the Indian manner 
return'd the Complement, and perform'd the Ceremony of Con- 
dolence for our several Losses, and gave 

3 Strings of Wampum, 

502 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Then return'd Sir William many Thanks for levelling the Grave 
of the Bunt's late Sister, and for removing thereby all their Sor- 
row, w ch . for so considerable a Loss, was very great. 

The Speaker afterwards address'd the Mohawk Chiefs of 
both Castles, and said 


We give you many thanks for the Belt you sent Us 

After which He address'd himself to Sir William, saying, 

Brother Gorah Warraghiagey ; 

We the Sachems, and Warriors now present, are sent down 
by our respective Nations, in order to remove all uneasiness and 
evil Thoughts from your Mind, which the late ill Behaviour of 
the Oneidoes may have occasioned. — They are now present 
to hear what We say to You. — On our first being inform'd 
of that idle foolish Affair, our wise Men judged it necessary to 
Send us down to make your mind easy, with regard thereto, 
which we now do by washing your Inside clean, & removing all 
bad thoughts therefrom; also open your Ears, that you may dis- 
tinctly hear what we, on behalf of the six Nations are to Say 
to You. 

Three Strings. — 

After the Meeting held here last Spring, whereat, every thing, 
relative to our mutual Interest, was happily Settled, We all ex- 
pected to live in peace and quietness, and had no thought of any 
thing to the contrary, untill the Oneidoes came and told Us what 
had unluckily happen'd at Sadagaghquetna Creek, or Fort Schuy- 
ler, occasioned by some of their People getting drunk. We 
advis'd them to go to you, and make up the Affair in the best 
manner they possibly cou'd, that nothing might interrupt the good 
work of the late General Meeting. — They accordingly came to 
you, and on their return from your House, They sent some of 
their People immediately to acquaint Us with what had passed; 
when, to our great Concern, we were told that you were So angry 

Seven Years War 503 

at their Behaviour, that You told them You wou'd not Continue 
the Care of Them, Shou'd They ever be guilty of the like again. 


With this large Belt, the Six Nations beg you will not Con- 
tinue in that Resolution, nor Slacken your care of Them, as that 
wou'd be the means of over-Setting all that has been done, and 
make Us all think our Selves Slighted ; for, from Your Behaviour, 
and Care of Us, since the Great King appointed you to the 
Management of our affairs, We put the greatest Confidence in 
You, and always esteem'd you as our sincerest Friend; there- 
fore now Intreat that you will not Slight Us, nor Frown upon 
Us, for what a few drunken People have done, as we are as 
Sorry for it as You, and for that reason are now come here to 
prevent, all in our power, any ill Consequence arising therefrom. — 
Exert Your Self, Brother, in the good Work of Peace, and We 
will for the future Assist you to the utmost of our Power. We 
the Onondagoes and Senecaes will take upon Us to correct our 
Children the Oneidoes, and prevent their Misbehaving in time 
to come; therefore most earnestly intreat you, in whose Breast 
all the News and Affairs of the Six Nations, and other Indians 
in this part of the World are lodged, will not fail in your regard 
for, or Care of Us, but continue it, as you have hitherto done, 
and We will all Strive to make your Work, and time, more 
agreeable to You. We beg you will also write to the General, 
and advise Him, not to be too uneasy in his Mind at every little 
Foible of ours, Who are not so wise a People as you are, but 
let Him exert himself in the good work of Peace, which will 
be more for the publick Good. 

A Belt. — 

You must be sensible of the great Regard which all Our Na- 
tions have for, and the great Confidence we have always repos'd 
in you, which induced Us to agree to every thing you co d . reason- 
ably desire; viz 1 , our Joining you at Lake George, even before 
We well knew the cause of Quarrel between the English and 

504 Sir William Johnson Papers 

French; going upon Scouting and Scalping Service: afterwards 
at your Request joined in the Reduction of Niagara, altho it 
was a place where we were always kindly treated, and supplied 
with the Necessaries of life, chiefly gratis, by the French. — 
Then We Assisted you in drawing off the French Indians from 
your Enemy, when the Army was to go to Cannada, which, We 
are certain, in a great Measure facilitated, if it did not compleat, 
the Reduction of that Country. — After the Surrender of Mon- 
treal, and with that City, all the Country of Cannada, We were 
then in hopes We shou'd have lived happily, and in Friendship, 
with our Brethren the English. On our Return from Cannada, 
We had a Message from the Governor of Pensylvania, desiring 
the Onondagoes in particular, to use their Interest with the Senecaes 
and Delawares, &c, to deliver up all the Prisoners then in their 
Hands. — We own We did not much regard his Message ; but 
shortly after, at the Meeting here last Spring, you desired Us to 
give up what Prisoners We then had, and that, without delay. — 
This We have done; and all the Prisoners are sent down, & 
deliver'd at Lancaster. From our Compliance with all your de- 
sires, and the Part We acted at the last Meeting, We Imagine 
We have done every thing can be expected of Us, and are fully 
resolved to keep up to the Engagements enter'd into between 
our Forefathers, and yours, and that no Trifle, or small matter, 
shall oblige Us to break them : and, as We declare this to be our 
determin'd Resolution, we expect that you, who are a wiser 
people, and who know what Engagements have been enter'd 
into between Us and You, better than we can, without Records, 
will firmly adhere to them, and shew it by your Friendship, and 
a more brotherly Behaviour to Us, than we at present Experience. 

A Belt. — 


The evil Report which Tayadoris spread at Detroit last year, 
altho it was not with the desire of the whole Confederacy, gave 
so much Uneasiness to the Commanding Officer there, that He 
told the Indians, that if the Troops were continued there, and 

Seven Years' War 505 

at the other little Posts, it wou'd certainly breed a quarrel some 
time, or other; therefore He desired Tayadoris to acquaint the 
Six Nations of it, and advised them to Speak to you about it, 
and beg of you to use your Interest with the General to have the 
several Garrisons withdrawn, and none but Traders to be left 
there, which wou'd be agreeable to all Indians, which, He was 
sure that you, from the Regard you had for them, wou'd En- 
deavour for; desiring at the same time, not to Mention Him. 
On our receiving the said Message, We consider'd it as improper 
to make any such Request, knowing the war was not yet over, 
and that Affairs might take some unforeseen Turn in favour of 
the French who, in such a case, wou'd not be wanting to Resent, 
and Revenge on Us, the Part we have acted, and Turn all the 
Nations of Indians, who were, or might be, in his Interest, against 


We cannot help laying our present case before you. — The 
Officers at the several Posts, when we want to Say anything 
to them on Business, Trade, &c a . will not hear Us, or look upon 
Us, but tell us they have nothing to say, or do with Us, nor 
with the Trade; So that really we are in a very bad Situation, 
and wish that there were such Officers as wou'd behave more 
friendly to Us, and Who, wou'd see we were not Impos'd on 
in our Trade. We also wish there may be a good man reside 
there as Interpreter, which will prevent Misunderstandings arising 
between Us and our Brethren. 

A Belt. — 

One of our People lately, in a vision, was told by the Great 
Spirit above, that when He first made the World, He gave this 
large Island to the Indians for their Use; at the same time He 
gave other Parts of the World beyond the great Waters to the 
rest of his creating, and gave them different languages: That He 
now saw the white People squabbling, and fighting for these 
Lands which He gave the Indians; and that in every Assembly, 

506 Sir William Johnson Papers 

and Company of Governors, and Great Men, He heard nothing 
scarce spoke, or talk'd of, but claiming, and wanting, large Pos- 
sessions in our Country. This He said, was so contrary to his 
Intention, and what He expected wou'd be the Consequence at 
the time when the white People first came, like Children, among 
Us, that He was quite displeas'd, and would, altho their Numbers 
were ever so great, punish them if They did not desist. 

A Belt with five Squares. — 


This Belt, or Covenant Chain, was given to Us Several years 
ago by Nine Governments hereon represented, and His Majesty 
King George at the Top, Assuring Us then that they were, and 
wou'd remain our Friends; insomuch, that if any Nation, either 
French, or Indians, or others, shou'd quarrel with Us, they wou'd 
rise, and Assist Us; at the same time assuring Us, that the Great 
King wou'd protect Us in the possession of our Lands. — They 
then also shew'd a Space in said Belt, which They desired We 
wou'd Fill with as many Nations of Indians, as we cou'd bring 
into their, and our Alliance. This Belt We only shew you, to 
let you know that, we constantly look at it, and repeat the purport 
of it to our old and young, so as never to forget the Promises 
you then made, as We are determin'd inviolably to abide by those 
made on our Side. 

The Covenant large Belt. — 


This Bunch of Wampum which I now lay before You, is 
from three Nations living on the North Side of Lake Ontario, 
namely, the Missisagues, Onagiagaghroonaes, & ChinestenooJ?- 
rooneys, lately sent to Onondago, from their Meeting at Cadar- 
achque, thereby returning the Onondagoes many Thanks for the 
friendly Intercourse they kept up with them for time past, as well 
as for the good News, and Intelligence sent them from time to 
time, assuring them that They, on their Parts, will punctually 
do the same. 

Seven Years War 507 


This other Bunch is likewise from them, expressing their pleas- 
ure on hearing the War is ended in these Parts, in which They 
were but little concerned; also assuring them of their good Dis- 
positions towards the Six Nations, which, at a Meeting they 
propos'd to be at Onondago the next Month, They hoped to 
Convince them of: then concluded with assuring them that there 
was a good Harmony between all their Nations in this part of 
the Country, and should any become otherwise inclined, They 
wou'd immediately acquaint the Six Nations therewith, and act 
in concert against them. — You See, Brother, we are, agreeable 
to your repeated desire, endeavoring to Strengthen the Alliance 
between You, and Us; but We are apprehensive, our good Designs 
may be obstructed by the unfriendly, and harsh Behaviour of 
the Officers at the Posts, who, when we come on Business, refuse 
hearing Us; if so, when Strangers come, it must alter, or overturn 
their good Intentions. — We beg it may be otherwise. — 

Laid down 2 Bunches of Wampum 


We are asham'd to make so many Complaints, but our un- 
expected and miserable Situation, obliges Us to lay our Griev- 
ances before you, as it concerns our very Existence. Some of our 
People were lately repairing a Fishing Wear, (where we have 
fished time out of mind for our Support) near where you have 
now a Fort at the lower End of the Oneidoe Lake, when an 
Officer came up and forbid them, telling them, He wou'd order 
his Men to break down what They had made. — We did not 
think it hard while our Brothers, and We, shared alike; which 
was the Case when the former Officer commanded there: but 
the present Officer acts an unbrotherly part, which We hope will 
be taken Notice of, and prevented for the time to come. We are 
told by a Man, (who speaks our Language) at the East End 
of Oneida Lake, that there were a number of Men, going the 
next Day, to build three Houses on the north side of the said 
Lake, about mid-way, by a Creek, which is one of our best Fish- 

508 Sir William Johnson Papers 

ing Places : We desire to know of You, Brother, by whose order 
these Houses are to be built : what can be intended by it, we can- 
not See, unless to Starve Us, by taking all our Hunting Places 
from Us. 

A Belt. — 


We have now open'd our Minds to you, and laid before you 
what We were charged with from our Nations, and We hope 
you will take the whole into Consideration, and afford Us such 
Redress as We think we have a right to Expect from Brethren. 

Here the Speaker ended. 

Then Sir William told them He had closely attended to what 
They had said; wou'd consider seriously of it, and when ready 
to answer, wou'd acquaint them of the time. Then the Meeting 
ended for this Day. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Neiv York, 12 th . Septem: 1762. 

I have received the favor of your Letter of the 28 th . August, 2 
Enclosing Your Accompt with the Crown, for the Ballance of 
which I herewith transmit You a Warrant. Hereafter you may 
have what may be Necessary for Carrying on the Service, in 
Your Department. But I thought it best to grant the Warrant 
for the Exact Ballance, which closes the Accompts You Sent me. 

If the Indians are Industrious, And barter their Skins for 
powder, &ca. I don't think they can have much occasion or Indeed 
that they can Expect to be Supplyed by us; but Nevertheless 
Should you at Any time think it requisite to allow them Some, 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 Ante p. 496. 

Seven Years' War 509 

and that you let me Know the quantity of Ammunition Absolutely 
Necessary, I Shall give Directions for Your being Supplied 

I am 
Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 . 



Contemporary Copy 1 

[Johnson Hall September 13-14, 1762] 

At a Meeting with the Six Nations, on Monday the 13 th day 
of Septem r . 1 762, at Johnson Hall, 


Sir William Johnson, Bar 1 . 
Lieu 1 . Guy Johnson 
The Deputies of sev 1 . Nations. 
Witham Marsh, SecT. 

W m . Printup, Interpreter 

Sir William made the following Answer to what the Onondago 
Speaker said two days ago. 

Brethren of the Six Nations; 

I am glad to find you so desirous to remove all evil Thoughts 
which were occasioned by the late Behaviour of the Oneidoes; 
and, I cannot but approve of your Sachems conduct in sending 
you hither, for that purpose. 

Gave three Strings. 
Brethren ; 

You were certainly in the right to advise the Oneidoes to come 
down immediately, to Apologize for their Behaviour; at which 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

510 Sir William Johnson Papers 

time, I own I told them, that I shou'd not continue the Manage- 
ment of their Affairs, if they ever repeated their Crime, which I 
must certainly do, if I hear more Complaints against them, as I 
cannot answer it to the Great King, to undertake the conducting 
of a People's affairs, who will not be governed by my advice: 
but I am in hopes, you will not reduce me to the Necessity of 
Slighting you, or neglecting your Affairs: And as I am glad to 
find your promise to correct your Children the Oneidoes, and 
prevent such Behaviour for the future, you may always expect 
me to be your Friend, whilst you continue to put your present 
Resolutions in Execution, and observe all your Engagements 
with the English. — Such Conduct will be the best means of 
Securing the General's Esteem, and I shall be always your ad- 
vocate with him, whilst you in any wise deserve it. 

A Belt. — 

Brethren ; 

I am perfectly well acquainted with your Behaviour during 
the whole course of the War, and very Sensible you might have 
done more, if you had Engaged in it with Spirit: however, I 
cannot but approve of the good Conduct of all such faithful 
Ind s . as afforded their Assistance to the English, which I hope 
you will always be ready to do, if there is a necessity for it. 

I am glad to hear of your sending down the English prisoners, 
and I expect you will not let one remain in your Nations, and 
that you will never give the least Encouragement to Deserters, 
(but deliver all such up at some of His Majesty's Garrisons) 
who may endeavour to Screen themselves amongst You. Such 
people, being void of principle, will always do harm amongst 
you, and Create Disturbances. By adhering to this my advice, 
and duly observing all your Treaties with Us, you may be assured 
of our giving due Attention to all Engagements on our Parts, and 
that the English will never break their Compacts with any people 
who do not compel them to it. 

A Belt. — 

Seven Years' War 5 1 1 

Brethren ; 

What you tell me of the Commanding Officer at the Detroit, 
greatly Surprizes me, and I cou'd wish you had not laid such a 
thing before me, untill you were well assured of the Authenticity 
of your Intelligence, as I cannot think any Officer wou'd have 
deliver'd such Sentiments : the several Posts are absolutely neces- 
sary, and of Use to both English and Indians. I shou'd be very 
sorry any differences might arise, or that you had any reason to 
think your Selves Slighted by the Officers, who, I hope will al- 
ways treat such Indians as behave well, in a friendly manner, 
and prevent any Impositions in Trade : and as an Interpreter may 
be of some Use at Oswego, I shall take your request into Con- 

A Belt. — 

Your romantic Notions, Custom of Dreaming, and Seeing 
visions, however usual amongst you, cannot but appear in a very 
ridiculous Light to White People, who will, Consider it, only 
as a Scheme set on foot by some designing Persons to answer 
their Purposes; and I hope you cannot but be convinced that 
the Divine Being is satisfied with the Justice of our Cause, from 
the great Successes with which He has crowned the British Arms. 
— I hope therefore, you will not Suspect Us of defrauding you 
of your Lands, after what I formerly acquainted you concerning 
His Majesty's Intentions to protect you in all your just Rights, 
and observe all his Treaties with You. 

A Belt. — 

The Belt which you produced from the several Governments, 
I have formerly seen. — I am glad to find you preserve it in 
remembrance, and repeat the Purport thereof to your people, 
So that your Posterity may be acquainted with the Engagements 
You, and We have enter'd into. — Continue to act in this wise 
manner, and you may always rely on our Friendship, and Observ- 
ance thereof. — a r> u 

A. oelt. — 

512 Sir William Johnson Papers 


I am very glad you continue in Strict Unity with the Misse- 
sagues, and other Nations you mention, and I hope that the 
Strictest Harmony may Subsist between you, them, & Us, to 
the latest Ages. 


I am pleas'd to hear that those Nations you mention Express 
their satisfaction at the War being ended in these parts, and that 
they seem so favourably disposed both towards you, and amongst 
one another: and I hope nothing may happen to obstruct the 
Harmony which shou'd Subsist between Us. 

A Bunch of Wampum. 

You may be always assured of my readiness to hear any of 
your real Grievances, and procure you Satisfaction, but I can 
hardly be induced to believe that the Officers will ill treat you 
in any manner, as the General has given Them Instructions to 
the contrary; & therefore, I am to think, (as I have often told 
you, that it must be occasioned thro some of your own Imprudences, 
of which I have lately had repeated accounts; having a Letter 
from the Officer you Mention, complaining of your plundering 
his Garden; and likewise a complaint from M r . Herkemer, that 
you take Horses from the German Flatts, when you are on your 
way Home. — Such Behaviour, you may be assured, we can 
no longer Suffer, and I expect you will prevent Me from having 
occasion to hear such repeated complaints, by your good Be- 
haviour for the future, which will be the surest means of obtaining 
good Treatment at the Garrisons, and effectually Stop the ill 
usage you complain of. 

I have heard nothing of any Houses being to be Built on the 
North Side of the Oneida Lake: if any such are intended, they 
must be designed for Places of Rest, and Shelter, for the Traders, 
& others, Who pass that way, by the General's order, and I hope 
it will not in any wise affect your Fishing. — I heartily wish, 

Seven Years' War 513 

and expect, that there may be no future occasion for complaining 
on either Side; to obtain which End, nothing shall be wanting 
on my part, w ch . may conduce towards our mutual Happiness, 
and preserving of Peace between the English, and You. 

A Belt. — 

Sir William having finish'd his answer, the Onondago Speaker 
took each Belt, and after repeating what was Said by Sir William, 
return'd thanks for it, and promised faithfully to use all his en- 
deavors to have what He recommended, punctually observed: 
then added that, He hop'd our People wou'd behave more friendly 
to the Ind s . for the time to come. 

Post Mered m . 
The Onondago Speaker, Kanodocfy, and two Seneca Chiefs, 
with Cannadagaya, waited on Sir William; when the former 
address'd Him as follows. 

Brother Warraghyagey ; 

I am now to Speak to you in the Name of the Bunt, our Chief 
Sachem, who desires I may represent to you, how faithfully He 
has been attached to your Interest during the whole Course of 
the War, together with his People: that He is now left alone 
to Transact the Affairs of our Nation without any Assistance; 
and being very old, is unable to Discharge them all himself, 
therefore He requests you wou'd appoint some Persons to Assist 
him therein, and ease Him from so much Business. — For his 
part, He wou'd be desirous to chuse two, Kanodock and my Self, 
w ch . if you approve of, He requests you will Furnish Us with 
a paper intimating that We are appointed Chiefs for the Trans- 
acting of the Affairs of our Nation, so that We may be known 
at the several Posts. — This is his earnest Desire, and He hopes 
you will take it into Consideration; and, with regard to the like 
appointment for the Seneca Nation, He submits the same in like 
manner to You. — He has likewise desired I wou'd represent 
to You, That as We have been always accustomed to have a 

514 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Smith in our Nation, and are now in great want of one, You wou'd 
please to think of it, and order one up, with Bellows, and some 
Goods to Trade amongst Us. — I am also to acquaint You, 
that the Senecaes are very desirous you wou'd send another Trader 
into their Country : the Person who is there at present, not being 
able to Supply them all. 

To w ch . Sir William made the following answer. 


I am very sensible of the good Behaviour of the Bunt, and his 
People, particularly during the latter part of the War, and am 
very sorry that He is not able to go through the Business of his 
Nation, for which reason I shall readily agree to his Request of 
two Assistants, and deliver you a paper accordingly: And I 
desire He may Exert himself in his Office, & Continue the care 
of his People as formerly. — His Demand of a Smith, I shall 
allow of, but I think it highly improper that a Trader shou'd 
reside at your Castle, where He cou'd not be under the inspection 
of any of the Garrisons. 

A String. — 


The Smith which I sent at the particular intreaty of the Sen- 
ecaes, carried with him some Goods, which I imagin'd sufficient 
for that Castle ; and as I cannot approve of a Trade at any of the 
Villages, where it is not under the Inspection of an Officer, who is 
to redress any just Grievances You may complain of, and See 
fair dealing in Trade agreeable to the Regulations left at all the 
considerable Posts, I cannot at present agree to your Desire, but 
may perhaps hereafter. 

Return'd their String. — 

Then Sayenguaraghto of the Senecaes, and his Party begg'd 
Sir William wou'd supply them with some Powder for their 
Hunting, having nothing to Buy it with, as they were but a few 
days returned from War against the Southern Indians. 

Seven Years War 515 

Sir William having no Powder, gave them money to Buy 
some, for which They were very thankful. 

Afterwards the Ochquaghoes came to Speak to Sir W m . when 
one of them address'd Him as follows. 

Brother Warraghyagey ; 

We are all extremely glad to hear what you have Said, and 
that all matters are so far settled, that you will not leave us as 
you threaten'd to do, on account of the late imprudent Behaviour 
of some Indians, to whom, I hope, what you have said, will be a 
sufficient Lesson, and occasion them to Behave better hereafter. 
As this is the principal Place for Transacting of Business, 'tis 
Here We shall always repair to whenever occasion requires; 
and all other affairs being no[w] Finish'd, We request your 
Attention to something which We have to Say. 


Some time ago, M r . Eli Forbes, 1 the Minister, came to our 
Village, and informed our People that, He was sent by the Great 
Men in New England to Instruct them in the Christian Religion, 
and that when He was going back, He requested He might take 
three young Indians with him to be Instructed, that They might 
become Ministers of the Gospel: He added that, We might be 
assured, He had no other Motive than that of Religion to induce 
Him to come amongst them, as He was not come either to Trade, 
or to Deprive them of their Lands. 

As our People were invited to a Meeting in Pennsylvania, 
in which Number were the Parents of the three Children who 
were intended to go with M r . Forbes, they naturally took their 
Children with them, which prevented their going with the Min- 
ister. Being absent from the village at his arrival, on my return 
I waited on Him, and after thanking Him for coming amongst 
Us, Expressed my Satisfaction at the Care which the great Men 
took of Us, in sending Us a Clergyman, observing that We had 

1 Eli Forbes acted as Indian Commissioner in presenting a petition 
of the Indians at Oquaga, Aug. 30, 1 762 ; see Johnson Papers, 3:370-72. 

516 Sir William Johnson Papers 

had several, Who did not reside with Us any considerable time, 
by reason, as I thought, that They had no Salary, and that We 
were not in a Condition to afford Them one. Upon which, M r . 
Forbes, informed me that, We need give our Selves no Concern 
on that Head, as He had a Salary from Home. — He con- 
tinued with Us for some time afterwards, and on our going out a 
Hunting, We waited upon him to give Him Notice thereof, and 
Inform Him of the time we shou'd return back; whereupon He 
desired we wou'd Delay it a while, having somewhat particular 
to Say to Us, and advised Us to Assemble together with the Tus- 
caroras; and our telling Him that most of our Chiefs were abroad, 
He desired We shou'd assemble those who were then at Home, 
which We accordingly did. — 

At this Meeting He told Us that, He observed We had a great 
Way to go to Hunt, which He beleiv'd we did merely thro 
Necessity, which He wo d . prevent by Cloathing the Poor, rather 
than They shou'd neglect their Studies, which could not be 
prosecuted whilst We continued our Hunting, neither cou'd we be 
prosperous untill We erected a House for a School, and for a 
Minister, and made our Selves Masters of the Art of cultivating 
our Lands, which He wou'd learn Us; adding, that He observed 
many of our People neglected every thing to obtain Liquor, which 
He wou'd prevent, and put a Stop to any from being brought 
to Us, and to Hinder all the poor Indians from bringing Rum 
amongst Us for to purchase Cloathing, He would Cloath the 
poorer Sort himself. — He likewise encouraged Us to have 
Sachems, and three white men, to Act as a Council for the Man- 
agement of our Affairs, and advised Us to Erect a Saw Mill, 
Grist Mill, and House for the Workmen, by which, we shou'd 
always be supplied with Flour, and Materials for Building: and 
that if We approved of a Trader amongst Us, such a person 
shou'd be procured. — That He was sensible it was contrary to 
His Majesty's Intentions, and that Sir W m . Johnson wo d . not 
approve of their taking Indian Lands, but that We might allot 
those Necessary Persons a Tract sufficient for their Maintenance, 
but to remain our Property. He likewise informed Us that, He 

Seven Years' War 517 

had seen Sir W m . Johnson at Albany, who greatly approved of 
his Journey to Us, and that if We approved of what He had 
propos'd, We shou'd come to you, and wo d . regulate the whole, 
so that no more white Men sho d . Settle amongst Us than those 
appointed, and that you wou'd write to England about it. — He 
also observed to Us, it wou'd be necessary to mention the place 
for a large School-House, and asked whether it shou'd be at 
Aquhago, Oneida, or Wy-oming: upon which, We told Him, 
We cou'd by no means think of it's being any where but at our 
own Village, and his mentioning other places, seem'd very odd 
to Us. To which He answer'd that his proposing other places 
was owing to his not being sufficiently acquainted with Them. 
We then ask'd Him what Provision was to be made for the White 
Peoples Children, and the Increase of their Families, who cou'd 
not always be contained within one House? To which He re- 
ply'd, that They must be sent Home to the Country of their 
Parents. — We did not chuse to Give Him any direct answer 
untill we spoke thereon to the Oneidoes; and on our laying it 
before Conoghquieson, who came shortly afterwards to our 
Village. — He greatly approved of it, and wish'd that another 
School-House was to be Erected at Oneida, each of which might 
Assist the other, which greatly pleas'd the Minister, who there- 
upon desired Conoghquieson wou'd, on his arrival at Oneida, 
Send M r . Occam 1 the Minister to your House, where M r . Forbes 
wou'd meet Him, and Settle all matters. Conoghquieson accord- 
ingly Set out, but by the way heard of the Affair at Fort Schuyler, 
which prevented him from executing his Errand, however, I was 
determin'd to Continue my Journey with the Minister, to hear 
what the Six Nations shou'd say on that Affair, and am extremely 
well pleas'd to find all matters so well Finish'd. 

To the above Speech, Sir William made the following answer. 

Brethren of Onaghquago; 

As I deliver'd my Sentiments to you on the Subject you now 
Speak of, last June, I can have little to Say at present thereon, 

1 Samson Occum, a Mohegan Indian, missionary to the Indians. 

5 1 8 Sir William Johnson Papers 

more than that I cannot but greatly approve of your having a 
Minister to celebrate Divine Worship, and to Instruct your Chil- 
dren in the Christian Religion. For the Encouragement of such 
Minister, a small piece of Land will be sufficient, without making 
any Settlement, or Erecting Mills : whatever therefore you Chuse 
to assign for that Purpose, I shall acquaint the Minister with 
immediately, that no time may be lost in making an Establish- 
ment so essential to your Welfare in this World, and to your 
Happiness hereafter. 

Then the Oghquaghos agreed to, & Signed the following Paper. 

We the Sachems of Ochquagho, assembled at the House of Sir 
Will" 1 . Johnson, Baronet, Do unanimously agree to give permis- 
sion to a Minister of the Gospel, with such an Assistant as He may 
require, to Settle at the Place of our present Residence; and 
for his Encouragement so to do, We give him Liberty to Erect 
a proper School-House to serve as a Church for the Worship of 
God, and occasionally for the Instruction of our Children, as such 
Minister shall Judge most fitting; together with such a piece of 
Land as may be found necessary for the Maintenance of Himself, 
an Assistant, and one Servant, as We do not think proper to 
Suffer any greater Number to Settle there, or to Erect any Mills, 
or other Buildings, than are obviously Necessary for such Minister. 
Given under our Hands at Johnson Hall, the 14 th . day of 

September, 1 762. _ T 

Adam. Peter. Jacob. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Septem r . / 5 th . 1762, at Johnson Hall 

This Day Sir William deliver'd Warrants to Teyawarunte, and 
Konodock, Sachems of Onondago, appointing them principal 
Sachems for Transacting Affairs, as Colleagues to the Bunt, and 
at his Request. 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

Seven Years' War 519 

On taking Leave, Teyawarunte (the Onondago Speaker) told 
Sir William that He was very happy in finding all matters set- 
tled so amicably, and made no doubt what was said, wou'd have 
a proper Impression on all present, and be productive of Peace 
& Friendship to the latest Ages: adding, that They had sent for 
the Horses belonging to the Germans, w ch . should be deliver'd 
to them immediately, and an intire Stop put to all future Irreg- 
ularities. That They wou'd for the time to come, Study nothing 
but Peace, and the Improvement of their Alliances, with the 
Northern and Western Indians. 

Then Sir William gave the Senecaes Six pounds to Buy some 
Ammunition, and three Dollars to Purchase Provisions on their 
Journey with some Paint for the young Men, and two black 
Belts of Wampum to Sayenguaraghto and Kanias, two Chief 
Warriors, to make what use They thought proper of them; for 
which They were very thankful, and Said They wou'd acquaint 
all their young Men with it, and perhaps next Spring wou'd 
come to see Sir William, and let Him know their Intentions 
thereupon. He gave the Onondagoes, Oneidoes, Ochquhagos, 
and Tuscaroras also some Money to defray their Expences on 
the Road : and after desiring them to Behave well, as They passed 
through the Inhabitants, order'd them a Dram, with a little Provi- 
sion ; and then parted. — 


Contemporary Copy 1 

New York, J 9 th . Septem. 1762 

I had last Night the favor of receiving Your Letter of the 5 th . 
Instant; 2 And altho I Shall always be glad to do anything that 
may be agreable to You, and that I have no Objection to Your 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 38. 

2 In Johnson Papers, 3:876-77. 

520 Sir William Johnson Papers 

having a Deputy, if You think one absolutely Necessary, I can 
by no Means Approve of Lieut. Johnson's 1 Undertaking that 
Employment while he Continues An Officer: Indeed I am Sorry 
he Should have been so long Absent from his Company, par- 
ticularly Since it went on Service, and I am persuaded You will 
Joyn with me in thinking that An Officer cannot be better, or so 
well Employed as in the Discharge of that Duty for which he 
receives his Commission. If it were time of peace I Should not 
have any objection to his being with You, as You think him so 
Usefull ; But at present when the Company is Employed, the want 
of an Officer is a great Loss to the Service, And renders the Duty 
Extreamly hard to the rest of the Officers. 

I approve Entirely of what You Mention In regard to allow- 
ing M r . M c .Gee 2 part of M r . Montours 3 pay, and of Making a 
Saving of £ 72. 1 0-Sterling p r . Annum, In the Whole, And you 
will please to give Directions accordingly to Your Deputy M r . 

You will no doubt have heard of the Murder of M r . Clapham, 4 
a Trader coming from the Detroit to Presqu'Isle; Capt: Camp- 
bell writes me that it is Supposed to have been committed by 
two Panis Slaves belonging to the Deceased, who are now in 
Custody at the Detroit; Assisted by Some Indians who Joyned 
them on the Route. I Send a Warrant to Major Gladwin, 6 for 
calling a General Court Martial that the Murderers may be Im- 
mediately brought to Condign Punishment for this Barbarous 
Act ; And have given him full power for putting the Sentence into 

1 Lieutenant Guy Johnson. 

2 Alexander McKee. 

3 Henry (Andrew) Montour. 

4 See Johnson to Amherst, Oct. 1 , 1 762 ; Amherst to Johnson, Oct. 1 0, 
1762; Johnson Papers, 3:886-87, 895-96. 

5 Captain Donald Campbell of the 60th regiment. 

6 Major Henry Gladwin, who in August, 1 762, had returned from 
England to Detroit and again became commandant. 

Seven Years 1 War 521 

Execution in the most Publick Manner, as a Terror to others 
from being Guilty of Such Crimes for the future. 

I am with great regard 

Sir Will m . Johnson./. 


Contemporary Copy 2 

[April 4 - Sept. 24, 1762.] 

The 4 th . of April 1 762. Set out from Fort Pitt in Order to Visit 
the different Posts to the Westward agreeable to Instructions 
received from George Croghan Esq 1- . His Majesty's Deputy 
Agent for Indian Affairs. 

The same day arriv'd at Beaver Creek where I was detain'd 
two days on Account of Wet Weather; while I was here an 
Indian Woman Sister to White Eyes a Delaware Chief with 
some other Indians of the same Nation Complain'd to me that 
a french Man who lived at Fort Pitt had been at their Houses a 

1 Thomas Hutchins (1730-1789) was known as an engineer and 
geographer. He had served as an officer in the French and Indian War, 
and had laid out plans for forts at Fort Pitt and Pensacola, Florida. 
When Croghan was asked by Sir William, Jan. 8, 1 762 (Johnson Papers, 
3:605), to make a journey to the post of the Miamis, or to send someone 
to report thereon, he chose Hutchins, who had made an earlier expedition 
to Western Pennsylvania, also reported in a Journal, in 1 760. On his 
1 762 expedition, he also made a map, completed in 1 763, which was to 
have been sent to Sir William also, but there is no record of its being 
received. See W. L. Jenks, "The Hutchins' Map of Michigan," in 
Michigan History Magazine (July 1926), 10:358-373, where the 
Journal is also printed. Hutchins supported the American Revolution, 
and in 1781, Congress made him "geographer to the United States." 

2 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39; inclosed in Johnson to 
Amherst, Nov. 12, 1 762, post p. 567, and in Croghan to Amherst Oct. 5, 
1 762, post p. 543. See Croghan to Amherst, May 10, 1 762, ante p. 452. 

522 Sir William Johnson Papers 

few days before and had Stole a Silk Shirt with Sundry other 
things to the amount of Six Pounds; they requested of me to 
Write to M r . Croghan to try to bring the Offender to Justice 
which I accordingly did — 

The 7 th Set out for Mohickon John's where I arriv'd the 1 9 th . 
at 12 o'Clock after a very disagreeable March Occasioned by 
bad Weather; I made him and his Tribe acquainted by a Belt 
of Wampum that the Commander in Chief Insisted on his taking 
to Fort Pitt Edward Long and John Hague both deserters from 
the Kings Troops ; And likewise one Frederick Ice who was taken 
Prisoner during the War and now is very troublesome to the 
Traders Passing and Repassing — 

Mohickon John desired me at my Return to Acquaint M r . 
Croghan that one of the Soldiers had Secretly gone from his 
House some time ago, and had been in quest of him but could 
not find him, that he intended setting out in a few days for the 
Lower Shawneese Town where he Suspected he was gone to, 
near which place the Cherokees had a few days before kill'd 
and Scalp'd two Shawneese and made a Delaware Boy Prisoner; 
that he had Some Business to Transact with the Shawneese 
in behalf of his Tribe, and as soon as it was over he wou'd do all 
in his Power to get the Deserter and if he should find him he wou'd 
immediately take him with the other to Fort Pitt and if he should 
be obliged to Return without him he would loose no time in 
taking the one that remain'd at his House to M r . Croghan — 

He further says that as Frederick Ice had Sundry times Stole 
Horses and Bells from travellers passing by his House for which 
himself and his People were blamed, One of his Young Men 
Tomhawk'd him — 

I travelled a few Miles further and Encamped 

The 21 st . at night arrived at Sandusky where I was detained 
for want of a Batteau untill the 30 th . of April, then Set out for 
D'Troit and arrived there the 8 th . of May after a very disagreeable 
Passage Occasioned by Wet Weather and Contrary winds — 

I was detained at D'Troit until the 15 th . of May partly on 
Account of Bad Weather, and partly on account of a Batteau 


' »■ y 


Illustrates his Journal of April 4-September 24, 1762. 

Courtesy of Henry E. Huntington Library. 

Seven Years' War 523 

not being ready for me (I being obliged to leave my other Boat 
here) which being now prepared Set out for Michilimackinac 
where I arrived the second of June; detained here four days by 
Contrary winds and a Ruff Sea — 

The day I arrived, the Cheapwas killed a Man of the Mey- 
nomeney Nation upon the Parade in the Fort in revenge for two 
Men that was killed by his Nation some Considerable time ago 
of the Cheapwas; Soon after this happen'd a Chief with the 
Murderers and some more of their Tribe came to the Commanding 
Officer and assured him they were Extreamly sorry that they had 
kill'd the Indian within the Fort, and hoped he would impute it 
to the Passion they were in and not to any insult intended to be 
offered to the English and to Confirm what was said they made 
the Commanding Officer a Present of an Indian Slave & desired 
him to rest Satisfy'd — 

June the 4 th . Eighty of the Ottawas and Sixty of the Cheapway 
Nations assembled, and agreeable to my Instructions I made 
them acquainted by a Belt of Wampum with the Business I came 
on — They then said they would meet to Morrow and inform me 
with what they had to say — 

The 5 th . The above Indians met and the Chief of the Ottawas 
spoke as follows 


We are much obliged to Sir William Johnson for taking so 
much notice of us as to send you to Visit our Country 

We do assure you that we have no Evil in our Hearts against 
the English but are entirely Reconciled to them and will do all 
in our power to advise our Young People to Behave well : every 
thing you told us at the Treaty of Peace at D'Troit we have 
Experienced to be true, and we are of the same mind now that 
we were of then. 

Notwithstanding the satisfaction the Ottawas Express'd in 
the above Speech I was informed by my Interpreter that they 
expected a present from me and seemed much dissatisfy'd that 

524 Sir William Johnson Papers 

they were disappointed, tho' they said nothing to me Concerning 

it — 

Hie Cheapwas desired I would hear them tomorrow 
The 6 th . they assembled and their Cheif spoke as follows 


We are very well satisfy'd to see you here and are Convinced 

you are come to see us on a good design; and if you should hear 

any bad reports Concerning us, we desire you will not Credit 

them. We have delivered up all the Prisoners that we had of 

the English, and we desire you will acquaint Sir William Johnson 

that we are a Poor People and we hope he will Pity us, And to 

assure you all we have said is true we give you this Bunch of 

Wampum t-~ ~. . 

1 hey gave a ounch. 

I was inform'd by my Interpreter that the Cheapwas expected 
a present from me and were much dissatisfy'd at their being 
disappointed. Notwithstanding they said nothing to me Concerning 

The 7 th . set out for the Bay where I arriv'd after a very 
disagreable passage of 1 7 days — I could not have a meeting with 
the Indians here until the 25 th . as their Chiefs were mostly gone 
to an Indian Village to hold a Council on Account of the Man of 
their Nation that was kill'd at Michilimackinac — 

The 25 th . all the Indians of the Sax Nation that were at the 
Fort Assembled and after I made them acquainted with my 
Instructions Confirming what I had said with a belt of Wampum, 

One of their Chiefs spoke as follows — 


I in behalf of my Nation Return you my Sincere thanks for 
the Accounts you have brought us, We are also greatly obliged to 
Sir William Johnson for taking so much care as to send you to 
let us know what the General had done respecting us; We are 
Extreamly well pleased with every thing you have said ; We are 
thoroughly convinced that the Prohibition of Spirituous Liquors 

Seven Years' War 525 

was done for our Good, from the Bad effects attending the use of 
it long ago — We desire you will request Sir William Johnson 
to send a Smith to this Fort to mend our Guns and Tomahawks 
&c. as we are greatly Straitned many timed to support our familys 
Occasioned by our Guns being out of Repair which obliges us 
to come here with out Women and Children to beg some 
provisions from our Brother You will also let him know we are a 
Poor People and it's very likely we Shall be obliged to take part 
in the Quarrel that subsists between the Meynomeneys here, 
and the Cheapwas at Michilimackinac, this will Prevent our 
hunting for furrs to purchase Cloaths for our Women and 
Children; therefore we hope Sir William Johnson will Consider 
us and send us some Necessaries to keep our Women & Children 
from the Cold. Your coming here plainly Convinces us the Com- 
manding Officer here was sincere in every thing he told us ; and you 
may Assure yourself that we will do every thing in our power 
to serve the English. 

The same day I made the Reynard Nation acquainted with my 
Instructions and gave them a Belt of Wampum — 

Their answer was the same with the Sax Nation — 

The 26 th . I delivered the same Message to the Meynomeneys 
that I had done to the Sax and Reynard Nations, and gave 
them a Belt of Wampum — 

Their answer was the same with the other two Nations, only 
added, That it was very Probable they would strike the Cheapwas 
in revenge for the Man of their Nation that was lately kill'd at 
Michilimackinac, and assured me that if any of the English 
shou'd have Occasion to come amongst them they should pass 
and repass unmolested — 

I was informed by my Interpreter that the Sax, Reynard, & 
Meynomeney Nations all expected a Present from me and were 
a good deal displeased at their being disappointed — 

After my business was over with the Meynomeneys I desired 
they would send a carefull Indian with me as a Guide to St. 
Josephs; their Chief assured me that at that time they could not 
spare any, as they expected in a few days to send a Party to 

526 Sir William Johnson Papers 

War against the Cheapwas; and added as their Indians along 
the way I had to go was inform'd that the English had Countin- 
anced the killing of one of their People in the Fort at Michili- 
mackinack that it was more than Probable they would do me 
an Injury and advised me to Reurn to Michilimackinack and go 
from there to S*. Josephs which I did — 

The 28 th . of June set out from the Bay and Return'd to 
Michilimackinac the 7 th . of July, where I was detain'd for 
want of a Passage until the 11*. I then Set out and arrived at 
S*. Josephs the 6 th . of August — 

The 7 th . Assembled the Powtauwautimies & made them ac- 
quainted with my Instructions and gave them a Belt of 
Wampum — 

The 8 th . they Expressed great uneasiness that Rum was not 
allowed them as usual, and desired that as their whole Nation was 
afflicted with Sickness which rendered them incapable of hunting 
that Sir William Johnson would send them some few Presents 
to keep their Women and Children from the Cold: And further 
said they were greatly surprised that I had not a present for 
them — 

They gave a String of Wampum 

The 9 th . Set out for the Fort of the Miniamies where I 
arrived the 12 th . 

The 1 3 th . had a meeting with the Minianies or Twightwey 
Indians and acquainted them with my Instructions 

Gave them a Belt of Wampum 

I then told them I had some business at the Ouiatonon & on 
my Return would hear what they had to say — 

The 14 th . Set out for the Ouiatonon and arrived there the 
1 8*. — 

The 19 th . had a meeting with the following Indians Viz 1 . 
Ouiatonons, Kickaupoose, Musquetons, and Pyankishaws who 
I made acquainted with my Instructions and gave each Nation a 
Belt of Wampum — 

Seven Years' War 527 

They then desir'd I would hear them tomorrow — 
The 20 th . the above Indians met, and the Ouiatonon Chief 
spoke in behalf of his and the Kickaupoose Nation as follows, 


We are very thankfull to Sir William Johnson for sending you 
to enquire into the State of the Indians We assure you we are 
rendered very miserable at Present on Account of a Severe 
Sickness that has Seized almost all our People many of which 
have died lately and many more are likely to Die; however this 
we don't Grumble at, it was God that put us on the Earth and 
when he pleases to take us away we must be satisfy'd; but what 
we think hardest of, is that the English have never so much as given 
us the least Present, or even allowed a Smith to be at this post 
to mend our Guns, We know very well that other Indian Nations 
have had Presents given them at two or three different times and 
a Smith allowed to mend their Guns; what those Indians have done 
to get themselves in so great favour with the English we have 
never heard, but this we are sure of that we are ready on all 
Occasions to serve our Brethren the English, and we will advise 
our Young people to behave well — 

If we were to go to the French at the Ilonois they would give 
us some Ammunition at least, but our Brother here has desired us 
to have as little dealings with them as Possible, You see we mind 
what he says as none of our People has offered to go near the 
French since the English came here — 

We desire you will acquaint Sir William Johnson with all 
we have said to you, and we hope he will allow a Smith at this 
Post and also send some Presents for our Women and Children 

As for English Prisoners we have not any remaining amongst 
our Nations, and to assure you all I have said is true I give you 
this Wampum & Council pipe 

They gave Wampum and a Council Pipe 

The Chief of the Musquitons spoke in behalf of his and the 
Pyankishaw Nations in the same manner that the Ouiatonons 

528 Sir William Johnson Papers 

& Kickaupoose had done Confirming what they said by giving 
some Wampum and a Council Pipe — 

The 21 st . detained here on account of my Horse being Stole 
The 22 d . Set out for Mineamis and arrived there the 26 th . 
The 27 th . The Mineamie Indians assembled and desired that 
I wou'd request of M r . Croghan to send them a Smith to mend 
their Guns and Tomahawks and also to allow them some 
Presents as their People were mostly sick and could not hunt 
to support their families — 

They gave a String of Wampum 

The Officer at this post assured me that it was almost impos- 
sible to keep friendship with the Indians here without allowing 
them some Presents, and that they were Extreamly uneasy 
that a smith was not allowed them — 

The 28 th . & 29 th . detained here on Account of Wet Weather — 

The 30 th . of August Set out for the Lower Shawneese Town 
and arrived there the 8 th . of September — 

I could not have a meeting with those Indians untill the 12 th ., 
as their People were mostly Sick, & some Dying every day, I 
then made them acquainted with my Instructions and 

Gave them a Belt of Wampum 

They gave for answer that as their Chiefs were gone to a 
Council with the English in Pensylvania they could not Transact 
any business in their absence, that they Expected them to arrive 
in a few days and as soon as they came an Answer to my Message 
should be imediately sent M r . Croghan. 

They gave a String of Wampum — 

The 1 3 th . September Set out for Fort Pitt and arrived there 
the 24 th . — 


The above is a Relation of what has Pass'd between the Indians 
Inhabiting near the distant Posts, and me, and notwithstanding 

Seven Years' War 529 

the manner they have express'd themselves in their Publick 
Speeches I always found in Private Conversation that they 
were not so well satisfy'd as I could have wish'd as they were 
disappointed in their Expectations of my not having Presents 
for them and as the french had always Accustomed themselves 
both in time of Peace, and during the late War to make these 
People great Presents three or four times a Year, and always 
allowed them a sufficient Quantity of Ammunition at the Posts, 
they think it very Strange that this Custom should be so imediately 
broke off by the English, and the Traders not allowed even to 
take so much Ammunition with them as to enable those Indians 
to kill game sufficient for the Support of their families. — And 
notwithstanding the Officers of the Different Posts has been 
obliged to give those Indians some Presents as it would be impos- 
sible to keep friendship with them without; they nevertheless 
look on those Presents as mere triffles, and are in great Ex- 
pectation of haveing Presents sent them from Sir William Johnson, 
— And I see it is with the greatest difficulty that the Officers can 
keep them in good humour. — 


Your Humble Servant 

Tho. Hutchins 
To George Croghan Esq r . 



M r . Hutchins 

Journal and Report of 

his Tour thro' the Indian 

Nations, from his leaving 

Detroit — 

Enclosed in Sir W m . Johnson's 

of the 12 th . Novem r ; 1 762 — 

530 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Contemporary Copy 1 

[Sept. 27, 1762] 

Daniel Broadhead's Report of his Journey to, and 
Transactions at, Wyoming, concerning the New Eng- 
enders Attempt to Settle the Lands there, being 
Indian Property, made to the Hon ble . James Hamilton 
Esq r . LA Governor of Pennsylvania, 27 th . Sep r . 1 762 

May it please your Honour, 

On Thursday at Nine o'clock at Night, I receiv'd y r . Honour's 
Orders by John Moor Esq r . to go up the river Delaware, and 
to use my best Endeavours to Discover the Pretences and 
intentions of the Connecticut People, who were then Employ'd in 
cutting a Road from the upper part of Minnisinks to Wyoming. 
Accordingly got ready on Friday, and went to John McDowell's 
in Lower Smithfield Township, where I tarried all night. On 
Saturday employ'd my Self to gain what Intelligence I cou'd 
of the Inhabitants ; how the people of that Township were affected, 
to wit, who were concerned with the Connecticut People in Lands? 
Who were to supply them with Provisions? WTio were gone 
with them? and to take the Names of the Persons, who were 
purchasers in that Township, and found that, Benj a . Shooemaker, 
Daniel Shoemaker, Samuel Dupue, Samuel Drake, Joseph 
Wheeler, W m . Clarke, Sen r ., Nicholas Dupue, jun r , John 
McDowell, Hugh Pugh, W m . Smith, Senior, Joseph Hains, John 
Fish, Charles Holmes, & James Lawson, who were the Persons 
that had purchas'd Rights, but that the Connecticut People were 
refus'd Assistance by each of them, except Daniel Shoemaker, 
Joseph Wheeler, Charles Holmes, and James Lawson; They 
having gone with them to Wy-oming: Hearing at the same time, 
that the New England People were already got to Wy-oming, 
was obliged to get a Person to go with me, to help me on the Road, 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

Seven Years' War 531 

which was attended with some Difficulty, it being a busy Time 
with the Farmers; I did, however, prevail on my Brother Garret, 
to go with Me, and agreed to Pay Him 7s 6 d ^ Day, and that 
night Lodged at Samuel Dupui's. Early on Sunday morning went 
up the River, & when I came to upper Smithfield Township, 
found the Inhabitants very close to the Interest of the Connecticut 
People, and that They seemed very anxious to know my opinion 
respecting, or relating to, the Claim of the Connecticut People: 
but I never made any other Reply, than that I had heard the 
Indians request of Sir William Johnson, & his Honour our 
Governor, that, if the White People came to Settle on the Lands 
at Wyoming, they shou'd be removed. They then told me, 
that the Connecticut People had lately sold a number of Rights 
to the Inhabitants at £48 each, and that they had given out, that 
they were determin'd to hold the Lands by Strong hand: and 
that Night I staid at Andrew Dingman's, who informed me that 
4 Men, that had been with the New England People to Wy- 
Oming, were returned; that they told Him, that when the Con- 
necticut People came to Wy-Oming, the few Indians there 
(not exceeding 7 men) were very angry, and had met them with 
their Guns and Tomhawks, (which was afterwards confirmed 
by the Indians themselves) and demanded to know their Business, 
their Women and Children having fled to the Woods, not knowing 
any thing of the Approach of such a number of armed men into 
their Country. — On Monday morning set out early, & lodged 
within 5 Miles of Lachawacksink Creek 1 . — On Tuesday, as 
soon as we could see to Travel, set out on our Journey, and that 
night Lodged within 30 Miles of Wy-Oming. On Wednesday 
morning set out early, and after travelling about 5 Miles, met 
7 Men, two of them said they were going to New England, to 
Conduct 200 Families to their quiet Possession at Wy-Oming; 
the other 5 said They were going to Manisink for Flour, and that 
the Indians were well pleas'd with their new Neighbours, Soon 
after we parted with those Men, we came to a very fine Creek, 

1 Lackawaxen Creek, tributary of the Delaware in Pennsylvania. 

532 Sir William Johnson Papers 

called by the Indians Laghawagheneak, which we followed 
to it's Confluence, with the River Susquehannah, about 1 2 Miles 
distant from Wy-Oming Town; and at about 4 miles distance 
from the New-England People's encampment, met 1 2 men with 
their Arms and Accoutrements, and They told me that a great 
number of ill-looking Fellows, of the Six Nations, had, a few 
minutes before, order'd them to leave that Place, which they had 
agreed to, and that the rest wou'd go on the morning following. — 
About 5 o'Clock we came to the Encampment, consisting of up- 
wards of Seventy men having Guns, where They had cut about 
15 Tons of Grass, and I tarried there till night, endeavouring, 
among other Things, to get their Names, but soon found them on 
their guard as to that: I was, however, directed to Gardner, and 
Smith (2 of their Commissioners) who, they Said, would Sell 
me as much Land, as I might Choose. M r . Smith, looking 
on me to be a Purchaser, began to tell me that the Pensylvania 
Line was Settled by the Indians at the Treaty lately held at 
Lancaster; and that it did not extend farther up the River Dela- 
ware than Dupue's, and that He did intend to have cut a Road 
to Benjamin Shoemakers Mill from Wy-Oming, who wou'd 
better supply them. — I asked them, how they claimed the Lands 
there? They answer'd, by their Charter, and their indian 
Purchase. Then I ask'd them, by whom they were abetted, and 
Encouraged? They answer'd, by all the Power of their Govern- 
ment of Connecticut ; and added that, They had seen a Proclama- 
tion published by their Governor, which, they said, contained 
nothing but what They cou'd prove to be false, and absurd. — 
That himself, (meaning the Governor), and his 2 Sons, were 
privy to their Undertaking, and were concerned with them: 
that They were to hold a Treaty with the Indians at Albany 
this Winter, and would Settle the Lands next Spring, with 1 000 
armed men, & 2 pieces of Artillery : They had begun to Build 3 
Block-Houses; and the Indians afterwards told me, that They 
were determined to have Built 3 miles in length upon the Bank of 
the River, had They not prevented them. — When I came to the 
Indian Town of Wy-oming, I saw there between 40, & 50 

Seven Years' War 533 

men of the Indians, besides women; and most of them were of 
the Six Nations, returning from the Lancaster Treaty, among 
whom, was an Indian called Thomas King. There was with them 
an Irish man, named David Owen; and He, and a Bethlehem 
Indian, called Cap 1 . Augustus, who talks English, told me, that 
the Indians had order'd the Connecticut People to go away, and 
quit the Land; and said, if they had not done so forthwith, the 
Indians wou'd have killed every man of them, before they cou'd 
have got into the Inhabitants. I then told them, that I came from 
his Honour the Governor of Pensylvania, to see what the New- 
England People were doing at Wyoming, and when I returned, 
was to make report of what I had seen. They desired me to 
thank your Honour, for your Honour's care over them, in the 
most affectionate manner, and desired I wou'd Stay with them 2 
Days, and rest my Self & Horse, for which I thanked them & Said, 
that their Brother the Governor of Pennsylvania was troubled 
to hear of the uneasiness the New-England People were like to 
give his Friends and Brethren the Indians; and that He cou'd 
not sleep easy, untill I returned with the good news of the New- 
England People's return to their own Country. Then They agreed 
that what I said was right ; and, on Thursday, about 1 o'clock 
in the Morning, I Set out for Fort Allen, 1 and on Saturday, about 
2 o'clock, arrived at Easton. — I had not the least Instructions, 
in writing, how to Conduct my Self in this undertaking, from 
your Honour; and therefore trust your Honour will pardon the 
Errors I may have committed. — May it please your Honour, 

I am 

Yo r . most obed 1 . most hble Serv 1 . 

Daniel Broadhead 
27*. Septr> 1 762t 

1 Located at the Moravian town of Gnadenhiitten, Northampton county, 
Pa. on the Lehigh River, opposite the mouth of the Mahoning. It was 
built in January, 1 756, by Benjamin Franklin, who named it after his 
old friend, William Allen, chief justice of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania 
Colonial Records, 7:15. 

534 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Contemporary Copy 1 

Intelligence" Received September 28 th . 1 762 — 

An Indian of good character amongst all the Western Nations 
who lived near Fort D'Troit came to my house this Night and 
Informed me that there was a great Council held at the Ottawey 
Town Above D'Troit this Summer by the Chiefs and Principal 
Warriors of the Wyandotts, Cheapwas, Ottawas, and Poutauwau- 
timies and some other Tribes who live amongst those Indians on 
Lake Superior, above Mechelemackinac and Fort La Bay; 3 that 
this Council was Kept a great Secret from all Indians Except those 
of the greatest note amongst their Nations, that Two French men 
came down with the Indians who came from above Mechele- 
mackinac in Indian Dress; and that as soon as it Broke up, 
Deputies of the Indians were Sent to the Twightwees, Ouiatanons, 
Kickaupoose, and Pyankishaws, and other Tribes Settled on the 
Wabash, to let them Know the Determination of the Council, 
and from thence their Deputies were to pass thro' the Shawneese 
Nation to acquaint them likewise, but had orders not to let the 
Six Nations or Delawares Know it. 

This Man Says I may depend upon it that they were Meditating 
Something Against Us and the Six Nations as he Knew they were 
all Jealous of Us. — for his part he said he was a friend to both 
the English and the French, and wished for peace, he further Says 
he never acted during the War for the French, nor would he be 
concerned-against them, but is much afraid that Some of the 
French will make a general Indian War. 

I asked him Several Questions, but he flatly refused telling 
me Anything. 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 9 ; inclosed in Croghan 
to Amherst, Oct. 5, 1 763. 

2 The information was from George Croghan at Fort Pitt, deputy 
of Sir William Johnson. 

3 Green Bay (La Baye des Puans), Wisconsin. 

Seven Years' War 535 

The 30 th the Intelligence I received from D'Troit I communi- 
cated to three men of the Six Nations who I have always 
found to be friends to the British Interest, 

And they Informed me that they have lately heard Some 
News from a Shawneese Man to the Very Same Effect, with 
this Addition that a party of the Owatanons going to War 
Against the Cherokees Last Spring passed by a French Fort 
in the Forks of Ohio, where they were Stopp'd by the Commanding 
Officer, who told them that the English had formed a Design 
with the Six Nations and Delawares to cut off all the Western 
Nations of Indians; and added, Children, you may believe this to 
be true, for you must See that the English has a Design against 
You; they give you no Powder nor Lead, nor allows their 
Traders to carry you any Except very little — when we Your 
Fathers lived amongst You we gave You plenty of Powder and 
Lead and all kinds of goods, because we Loved and pitied You, 
but as Soon as the English make peace with Us, You are all 
Dead. So Children, Run home and tell this News to all my 
children, but don't Iett the Delawares and Six Nations know it; 
and if You will all be Strong and agree as one Man and Join me 
next Spring, when the froggs begin to Speak here, I will Cloathe 
You and give You all Arms and Ammunition, then we will go to- 
gether and drive the English out of Your Country and restore 
peace to Your Women and Children. 

The Commanding Officer gave this party Two English Scalps, 
and told them You Should never Kill Indians, but always Kill the 
English wherever You See them. 


Copy ./. Indian Intelligence 
Transmitted by M r . Croghan to Sir 
Jeffery Amherst & S r W. Johnson — 
Sept'. 28* & 30* 1 763 — 

Entd. in Vol: 8 th Ind». Rec ds . p. 356 - 

536 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 
City of Philadelphia, ss. 

On the Twenty ninth day of September in the year of our Lord 
One thousand Seven hundred & Sixty two, Daniel Broadhead of 
the Town of Easton in the County of Northampton & Province 
of Pennsylvania personally appeared before me Benjamin Chew 
Esquire Recorder of the City of Philadelphia, and being sworn on 
the Holy Evangelists of Almighty God deposeth and Saith that 
He this Deponent wrote and Subscribed with his name the fore- 
going Narrative or Report in writing (contained on four Sides of 
these two Sheets of Paper) to the Honourable James Hamilton 
Esquire Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief of the 
Province of Pennsylvania, of what He this Deponent saw and 
heard in a late Journey, made by Him from Easton aforesaid 
to an indian Town or Settlement on the River Susquehannah 
called by the name of Wyoming, and that the several matters & 
things contained in the said Report or Narrative which relates 
to this Deponent's own Knowledge is just and true as therein 
Set forth & related, and also that such other parts thereof as 
relate to Information or Intelligence which He this Deponent 
received from others are faithful and true Accounts of such his 
Information & Intelligence without addition or Diminution by Him 
made to the same — and further Saith not — 

Daniel Broadhead. — 
Sworn at Philadelphia 
Sept', ye 29*. 1 762 — 

Benjamin Chew Recorder 

of the City of Philadelphia. 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

Seven Years' War 537 


A.L.S. 1 

Philadelphia 30 Sepf 1762 

I have the honour to forward to you a Letter from M r Croghan 
which has lain at my house these ten days. It came when I was 
attending the Boundary Lines & in opening my Letters which 
coverd it they both stuck together & therefore you have two 
Seals instead of one. 

M r Pemberton 2 and the Quakers associated with him plaid 
the same Game at Lancaster as at Easton. 3 The Indians were 
in council with them every day. They wanted to carry two 
Points. One was to set up the Claims of private Indians in 
the Sales made by the Six Nations of Lands to the People. 
The other was to persuade Beaver & the Delawares on the 
Ohio to claim the Lands in dispute w th . Teedyuscung. 4 But in 
both these Points tho labourd with infinite trouble & I doubt not 
a considerable Expence they were disappointed for the Six Nations 
woud not meddle with private Claims and Beaver honestly in 
open Council declared that None of the Indians with him 
had any Claims to Lands on Delaware or in the Forks — that they 
had sold all their Lands to the Prop". & were honestly paid for it. 

The Governor 5 consulted M r Croghan on every occasion and 
had he not been at Lancaster, they woud have imposed more 
egregiously on the Indians & made them speak things which were 
untrue & extremely injurious to the Rights of the Six Nations. 
The Governor by the advice of M r Croghan put the plain Question 
to the Indians whether they had sold the Lands at Wyomink & 
Cushutunck or no — And Thomas King 6 without consulting any 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

2 Israel Pemberton. 

3 See Johnson Papers, 6:772-73. 

4 A Delaware Chief. 

5 James Hamilton. 

6 An Oneida Chief. 

538 Sir William Johnson Papers 

of the Chiefs around him arose & in a passion said that the New 
England People had bought the Lands for 2000 Dollars of 
private Indians but not of the Council of Onondago & therefore 
these Deeds were good for nothing. He added that the Lands at 
Cushutunck belonged to the Delawares meaning the Minisink 
Indians. The Governor finding Thomas King so very forward 
desird the thing might be considerd in their Council & a sober 
answer given to him after consultation among all their Chiefs, 
& so broke up this Conference — No sooner were the Indians 
out of the Conference Room but Israil Pemberton & his As- 
sociates sent for the Chiefs & Instructed them what to say & 
had it not been for M r Croghan I verily believe They woud have 
given up the Six Nation Right to the Cushutunck Lands. But on 
his hearing what had passed at Israels Conference & asking the 
Seneca & Onondago Chief what Powers they had from the 
Onondago Council With respect to Lands & whether they were 
duly apprized of the consequences of these matters they grew 
cool & determind to report the several things to the Onondago 

The Governor having reason to think that some or other of 
them had been tutord by Israel Pemberton did not resume his 
Question at the subsequent Conference & so they were most 
horridly disappointed. 

We are very sickly in Town & my presents &, as I supply 
the Church in the absence of M r Duchee who is gone for Double 
Orders, I have full Employ. It was but last week that the 
Minutes of the Lancaster Treaty were settled & laid before the 
Assembly. A Copy is making out which shall be sent to you 
as soon as finished. 

John ShickCalamy 1 infusd some Jealousies into the heads of 
the Indians as if the North Boundary of the Albany Purchase was 
placed higher than y e Indians intended it at Albany. I found he 

1 Son of Shikellimy (d. 1748), the influential Oneida chief. John 
succeeded his father for a time as principal intermediary between Penn- 
sylvania and the Iroquois. 

Seven Years' War 539 

knew nothing of the Release & subsequent Deed at Easton & that 
the Indians had not so much as said a word to him about these 
matters. However by the advice of M r Croghan I desird the 
Governor to call a Council of the Cheifs & to Let Shickcalany 
lay this matter before him in their presence which was done & it 
turnd out that Conrad Weiser knowing that one Gabriel & 
some others had made Improvements above the mouth of Ma- 
honiahy had persuaded Shickcalany to put the Boundary so high 
above the Mouth of that Creek as to take in their Plantations 
Shickcalany said that all this was in private betw n Weiser & 
him & being askd if he had ever mentiond it to me either at 
Albany or afterwards he said he had not & that I knew nothing 
of it nor any of the Proprietary Agents. Thus you see what 
mischief these medling Quakers may make in all the Indian affairs. 

Be pleasd to let me know if the Indians did not put into your 
hands their Deed to the Proprietaries made after our executing 
the Release of y e Lands West of Allegheny. M r Croghan says 
that he thinks you have both the Release & the Indian Deed to y e 
Prop"., I beg you will let me know what Deeds they did put into 
your hands & if you have them now or they have taken them away. 

The Indians expressd great resentment at our greedy Thirst 
after their Lands and said they woud sell us no more and desird 
we woud not settle beyond the Mouth of Mahoniahy. This gave 
occasion to the Governor very properly to mention that the Deed 
to y e Prop rs . fixed the Boundary more northerly but that as the 
North Line of the Albany Purchase was not run, he woud, at any 
time that S r W m Johnson & they thought proper, order the Line 
to be run & the Boundaries woud then be exactly known. This 
will give you an opportunity of shewing the Indians the incon- 
veniency of any Line Being the Boundary of an Indian Sale 
and that it shoud always be by natural marks; I have given 
directions to the Surveyor to make a map of the Land lying 
between the Western Branch & the present Boundary Line & I 
hope to send it you time enough that this matter may be conferrd 
upon & settled, if you continue to be of the same mind as at 
Easton, with the Six Nations in their Council. The Prop" do 

540 Sir William Johnson Papers 

not want more Land & if there be the least good Objection to the 
extension of the Indian Sale to the Western Branch, it need not 
be mentioned. But as in Conversation you was clear of Opinion 
that this ought to be the Boundary and that it woud prevent many 
Quarrels & desird I woud remind you of it I take the freedom, 
so fair an occasion offering, to desire you will please to think 
upon this matter & do therein what to you shall seem best. 

Frederick Post 1 is some how or another out of Favour with 
Israel Pemberton. He tells me they woud have employd him 
in some of their concerns but he utterly refusd to have any Kind 
of intercourse with Indians but thro the channel of Government 
& therefore they have laid him aside. He is gone Over the Ohio, 
but not to continue there at parting he told me that Israel 
Pemberton spoke in very unbecoming terms of your Conduct at 
Easton & told him (Frederick Post) that they had made a 
narrative of your Proceedings & sent it to London to be put into 
y e publick Papers. 

The Gentlemen of the Assembly have made a strange Remon- 
strance to the House full of Invectives against your Conduct at 
Easton. I have no pleasure in mentioning these things I woud have 
avoided it if a regard to Justice & my sincere affection for you 
coud have permitted it. As soon as I can get a Copy of the Remon- 
strance it shall be sent to you. 

M r Logan 2 is returnd from London and at Lancaster he showd 
M r Chew 3 & me some of his Fathers Letters and Papers which 
confirmd very much our defence & woud have served to have made 
the matter still clearer in the Proprietary favour. 

I have to acquaint you that the Connecticut People have 
had the Impudence to cut a Road from Delaware to Wyomink and 
numbers of them were beginning to make Settlements on a Fine 
Tract of Land on the Susquahannah near Wyomink. It happened 
very fortunately that the Six Nation Indians were returning from 

1 Christian Frederick Post, (1710-1785), Moravian missionary to 

2 William Logan. 

3 Benjamin Chew. 

Seven Years' War 541 

the Treaty at Lancaster & when they saw these wicked Peoples 
Doings they orderd them to go away & an Indian told M r . 
Broadhead who was sent Express by y e Governor to see & warn 
them off that if the white people had not forthwith gone away 
they woud have murderd them before they coud have reached the 
Plantations on Delaware. I hope for the publick Peace y l 
during the Winter this matter may be duly considerd by the Six 
Nations & likewise by the Government of Connecticut & an End 
put to so dangerous an attempt. 

I am afraid I have tired you, but y e importance of what I 
have wrote must be my Excuse. I am with a most cordial Esteem 


Your most obedient 
humble Servant 

Richard Peters 1 

To the Honble SlR WlLLIAM JOHNSON. 


Philadelphia 30*. 1^ 1 762 
Letter from M r . Peters 

L.5. 3 

Johnson Hall Oct'. K 1762. 

Before I was favoured with yours of the 13th. ult°. 4 I had 
wrote a second Letter which I sent by M r . Marsh (who is now 
on his way down) least my former might have miscarried. — 

1 The Rev. Richard Peters of Philadelphia, secretary of the Provincial 
Council of Pennsylvania. 

2 In Johnson's hand. 

3 In Massachusetts Historical Society, In hand of Guy Johnson. 

4 See Johnson Calendar, p. 145, for letter of Kempe dated Sept. 13, 
1 762, destroyed by fire. 

542 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I am sorry to find you represent the affair concerning the 
Indians Lands in manner as mentioned in your Letter, and could 
heartily wish that matters were not so circumstanced, as I am well 
convinced their not meeting with proper redress may be attended 
with very bad consequences. — 

You are the best Judge what steps may yet be taken to prevent, 
or at least delay, the proceedings of the opposite party, & whether 
it may not be done by throwing the same into Chancery, for which 
reason I request you will take any steps that may delay the 
Execution of a purpose which must meet with great obstruction 
and produce such Effects as my Interest amongst the Indians 
may not be able to prevent — 

And as I well know the confusion which must Ensue on my 
acquainting the Indians that nothing can be done in their behalf, 
I should be very sorry to find myself reduced to that necessity, 
from the knowledge I have of their resolution to defend their 
property which they will thereby look upon as unjustly invaded. — 

I am, Sir, 

with much Esteem 

Your very humble Serv*. 

John Tabor Kempe Esq 1 

Attorney General 

W M . Johnson 


Oct'. I s '. 1762 

Letter from Sir Will m . Johnson 
To John Tabor Kempe 
George Klock. — 

Seven Years' War 543 


Fort Pitt Oct". 5 lh . 1762 
May itt Plese y r . Excelancy 

Inclos d . I Send you A Copey of M r . Hutchinns 2 Journal who is 
Return d . and with itt a List of y e . Several Indian Nations throw 
which he past with thire Numbers as Near as he Could asertain 

Likewise a Copey of M r . M c .Kees 3 Instruians whome I have 
Sent to Reside a Moungst y e . Shannas and an Extract from y e . 
Minuits I tuck att y e . Treaty of Lancaster with a Copey of Some 
Intilagance I have Received Sence My Return hear 

By w h . itt apears that y e . french att y e . Elinoies is Very Busey 
in Stiring up y e . Westeren Nations to do Misthef. tho Should 
they Succeed itt Can be of No Service to them More then giveing 
us Truble & Shewing thire Restless Sperrit w h . Conduct Does 
Nott Merritt y e . Greatt Indulgences they Receive in being per- 
mited to Trade Every where Even att y e . Indian Vilidges where 
our Traders are Nott Suffer d . to go and I have Rason to blive 
from y e . Sulkeyness of the Indians this Sumer that y e . french att 
all our posts are acting as those att y e . Elinoies. 

By y e . best accounts I have had itt was two Cherrokes who 
had been prisners a Moungst y e . Sinicas & Made thire Escape 
Last March, that Merdred y e . two Verginians above Read stone 
Creek Last aprel, 

I have Demanded from y e . Shannas y e . Man who itt was Said 
kilR three white Men on y e . fronteers of Cerrolina Last Spring 
Butt I blive from what I Can Learn itt will be found that itt was 

1 \n Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. This letter is 
printed because it is similar in content to the letter of the same 
date from Croghan to Johnson, which was destroyed by fire. See 
Johnson Papers, 3:890. 

2 Thomas Hutchins. 

3 Alexander McKee. 

544 Sir William Johnson Papers 

two half Breed Cherrokes and a Mustee or half Molota that was 


I am with Greatt Esteem and Regard y r . Excelancys 

Most Humble Servant 

Geo: Croghan 

P S : the Vouchers of y e . Smiths & Interpreters from Detroit was 
Lost with Cap 1 . Clapham 1 who was Merdred Near Presq Isle 2 
by two Indian Slaves I have Sent for others which I will Inclose 
y r . Excelancy with my Next acounts y e . 1 st . of No br . Next — 


Contemporary Copy 3 

A List of the Number of fighting Men of the Different Indian 
Nations thr'o which I passed residing at and near the Several Posts 
as nigh as I could Asscertain 

At Sandusky 
Wyandotts and Mohickons 200 


Poutauwautimies 1 50 

Ottawas 250 

Wyandotts 250 

Cheapwas 320 


1 Croghan here confuses the trader Clapham, who was murdered by 
two pani slaves, with Captain, or Colonel, Clapham of the Pennsylvania 
provincial regiment. The latter was killed in an Indian massacre, May 28, 
1 763. See Bouquet Papers, 2 1 654 : 11 3. 

2 Now Erie, Pa. 

3 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39. The list was made 
by Thomas Hutchins and was inclosed in Croghan to Amherst, Oct. 
5. 1762. 

Seven Years' War 



Ottawas 250 

Cheapwas 400 

Fort La Bay 

Meynomeneys 110 

Pewons 360 

Sax 300 

Reynard 320 

Fort S l . Josephs 1 

Poutauwautimies 200 

Ottawas 150 

Hie Mineamie 2 Fort 
Mineamies or Twightwees 





The Ouiatanon 3 

Ouiatanons 200 

Kickaupoose 1 80 

Musquetons 90 

Pyankishaws 1 00 

Carried Over 

Brought Over 




At the Lower Town on Scioto 

At the upper Town on Muskingum . . 




1 On Lake Michigan. 

2 Miami on the Maumee river. 

3 On site of present Lafayette, Indiana. 

546 Sir William Johnson Papers 

NB. There is a Nation back of La Bay 1 who used formerly 

to come there to Visit the french when they were in 
Possession of it, Call'd la Seu 2 Computed to be 2500 
fighting Men who has this Summer sent word to M r . 
Gorrel 3 who Commands [there] at that Post that they 
purpose paying him a Visit late this fall or early in the 
Spring — 



of Indian Nations 
beyond the Detroit, &ca. 
Enclosed in M r . Croghan's of the 
5 th . October 1 762. 


Contemporary Copy* 

Instructions for M r . Alexander M c Kee 

October 5 th . 1762 

You will proceed to the two Shawneese Towns ; as soon as you 
conveniently can and acquaint the Indians of that Nation that 
you are sent there by the Commanding Officer here and me to 
know if they had agreed amongst themselves and fixed the time 
to bring up our People that is amongst them to deliver up agreeable 
to their Promises made us last fall and now Repeated at Lancaster 
to Governour Hamilton, here you will give 

A Large Belt of Wampum 

1 Green Bay (La Baye des Puans) , Wisconsin. 

2 The Sioux Indians. 

3 Lieutenant James Gorrell of the 60th regiment. 

4 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39 ; inclosed in Croghan to 
Amherst, Oct. 5, 1 762. Also in Canadian Archives, Indian Records, 
Vol. 6. 

Seven Years' War 547 

After which you may tell them that the reason of our sending 
you now is that we are surprised that our Brethren the Shawneese, 
should be the last Nation delivering up our Flesh and Blood ; and 
that we now expect a final Answer wheather they will, or not; as 
all other Nations has done it and performed their Engagements. 

Then you must tell them in the Strongest Terms that I am 
surprised they have not sent me an answer to the speech I sent them 
this Summer, by which I desired they would bring up the People 
that Killed three English Men; last spring on the Frontiers of 
Carolina and deliver them up to us that they might be brought 
to Justice — here you must give 

A Large Belt — 

As I have the greatest Reason to believe that the French living 
at the Ilonois Country and those residing at our different Posts over 
the Lakes have been endeavouring to Poison the minds of several 
of the Western Nations of Indians in Prejudice to his Majesty's 
Subjects and endeavouring to Stir up all these Nations to Murder 
his Majesty's Officers and Soldiers now in Possession of the 
several Forts given up to his Excellency General Amherst, by 
the Capitulation at Montreal on the Reduction of Canada; and 
as a private Council has been held over the Lakes by the several 
Nations there: and Deputies sent to acquaint the Indians living 
on the Wabash and Shawneese of the result of that Council, I must 
recommend it to you to make it your Study to find out what 
they have Determined on as from your General acquaintance with 
this Nation I make no doubt if they are Acquainted with the 
plan (if any) you will be able to find out the Secret — 

And I desire you may acquaint the Commanding Officer or me, 
from time to time by Express any thing that you may hear during 
your stay there with that Nation. 

There are two Deserters amongst the Shawanese, who you will 
get as soon as you go there, and send up with two Indians, who 
will be paid for bringing them here. 

You will acquaint the Beaver, and the Chiefs of the Delawares, 
that the Governor of Pennsylvania, has sent up a Gentleman here 


Sir William Johnson Papers 

to Receive the Prisoners, agreeable to their Promises made at 
Lancaster, and deliver them a String of Wampum, from the 
Commanding Officer here, to let them know it is his Desire They 
make all the Dispatch they can, in bringing them here to Deliver 
up, that this Gentleman may not be detained here. 

A String. 

You will likewise deliver the same Message to the Shawanese. 

A String. 
I wish you a good Journey, and am, 

2 Sir 

Your most humble Serv 1 . 
George Croghan. — 
To M R . Alexander M c .Kee. 


Mr Croghan's 
Copy of Instructions 

M r . M c Kee 

Enclosed in M r . Croghan's of the 
5*. October 1762 — 


Contemporary Copy 2 

Fort Pitt, Oct'. 8 ih . 1762. 
Sir — 

The Bearers of this brought me a Letter from you Dated the 
29 th . of April last, desiring I would procure for them, & their 
Party a little Powder & Lead, with Provisions, they being for 
War against the Cherokees. — They brought no Party with 

1 Closing abbreviated in this copy ; the full closing and signature are 
found in the copy in Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

2 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

Seven Years War 549 

them, but said that there was 70 in the Party to come, and De- 
manded a Quantity of Ammunition and Clothing for the whole. — 
On my Acquainting Coll. Boquett with their Demand, he assured 
me that it was not in his power to give any Warriors either 
Powder, or Lead, much less Presents, without further Orders 
from General Amherst, on which I made them an Answer, & 
Endeavored to put them off as well as I could; but they insisted 
on being Supplied, or on Going to you, and Said that all the Six 
Nations were promised to be Supply'd here by you, as they 
part, and signified that they had a Right, as being the Proprietors 
of the Land, & Insisted on my writing by them to you. — Coll 
Boquet tells me that every Party that has passed by here this 
Summer has behaved in the Same manner, As there are frequently 
large Parties of the six Nations passing by here, all which Expect 
to be Supplied here, and the General not allowing them any 
thing, unless that you can Settle it with the Six Nations that they 
are not to Expect any Supplies here, or get the General to grant 
them some, I am of Opinion from their Behavior, that they will 
soon begin to Plunder, and Supply themselves that way. — 


G: Croghan 
To Sir William Johnson Bar 1 . 


[October 10* 1762] 

October 10 th . 

Lieu 1 . Guy Johnson, one of his Majestys Independ 1 . Comp^ 3 . 
Acting Secretary of Indian Affairs for sometime, was by Comiss 11 . 
Appointed Sir Will m . Johnsons Imediate Dep?. Agent, for that 
District of the Six Nations, Mississagas, and the other Dependant 
Tribes in their Neighbourhood, by Order of His Excellency Sir 
Jeff Amherst Kn l . of the Bath & a c. — 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

550 Sir William Johnson Papers 


W™. burgh Oct'. 16 th . 1762 

At the Desire of Governor Hamilton of Pennsylvania I trouble 
you with the Letter inclosed under cover with this to the Chiefs 
of the Six Nations, being at a Loss how to convey it to them by 
any other Channel. It is necessary for us to observe a strict Neu- 
trality between two Nations of Indians at war with each other 
but both in alliance with his Majestys Subjects: This I beg the 
Faver of you to represent to the Indians. Fidelity on our Side 
may at length produce Confidence on theirs. 

The Indians sent me a Belt of five Rows of Wampum, as we 
have no Wampum here I have beg'd the Favor of Gov r . Hamilton 
to send up a Belt for me; if he should be in my Situation 2 I 
must intreat you to give them a Belt for me in token of Friend- 
ship, which shall be repaid you in any Manner you shall please 
to appoint. 

I rejoice at this opportunity of beginning a Correspondence 
with a Gentleman of whom I have heard so much to his ad- 
vantage, and am 

with great Truth Sir 

y r . Obed'. Hum. Serv'. 
Fran : Fauquier 3 
indorsed : 

Williamsburgh Oct'. 1 6*. 1 762 

Letter from Lieut Governor 
Fauquier of Virginia 
with a Speech to the Six Nations 
which Speech is Recorded in Vol. VIII. p. 347 
G. Johnson 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 9. 

2 Several lines of the manuscript destroyed. 

3 Lieutenant Governor of Virginia, 1758-1768. 

Seven Years' War 551 

L.S. 1 

Philad. Oct'. 17°. 1762 
Dear Sir/ 

I am to acknowledge the very great obligation you have con- 
ferr'd upon me by your favour of the 21° of September, 2 which 
I received three days ago, just as I was going to forward to you 
the inclosed affidavit of your Landlord at Easton, whom I sent 
to Wyoming for intelligence, on hearing that a great number 
of people from Connecticut were arrived in the province, armed, 
and intending to force a settlement at that place. — Brodhead 
assured me that upon the Indians warning them to go away they 
actually departed the province and returned home; and I the 
rather believe this to be so, from my not having heard from 
Teedyuscung who promised to give me notice, if any white people 
should attempt to settle at Wyoming. 

The Six Nations at the late Treaty at Lancaster discover'd the 
greatest [je]alousy of our encroachments upon them every where, 
and actually refused me in the [m]ost peremptory manner and 
with great seeming anger, a passage up the West Branch 
Susquehanna for transporting of Goods, tho h manifestly intended 
for their Own benefit and that of the Western Indians, as by 
saving the heavy expence of Land Carriage, We might be able 
to afford Our Merchandize at a cheaper rate. — And with re- 
spect to the Lands at Wyoming, they publickly and particularly 
put them under the Care of Teedyuscung and the Delawares, 
with injunctions to watch them, and give them immediate notice, 
if any white people should attempt to settle on them, from all 
which I conclude that the Connecticut people will not be able 
to obtain their consent to settle those Lands; And that if they 
should renew their attempt with an armed force, as they threaten 
to do in the Spring, it will occasion a great deal of bloodshed, 

1 In Harvard University Library, Sparks Collection. 

2 Johnson Papers, 3 :883. 

552 Sir William Johnson Papers 

and a new Indian War, the consequences whereof, we have all so 
much reason to dread. — Hence you will believe Sir, that I 
shall exert my utmost power, which is indeed but very small, to 
prevent any settlement of those people taking place at Wyoming ; 
and I think you have done the publick the greatest service in 
representing this matter to the Lords of Trade with your opinion 
upon it. I am in hopes they will transmit such orders to America, 
as may put end to so pernicious a Design. — I cannot however 
but entertain a suspicion that Governor Fitch or his Sons or all 
of them have all along and are at present concernd in this project, 
inasmuch as all the people who have from time to time been 
examined relating to the Authors of this Scheme, from the year 
1 754 to the date of the present affidavit have constantly averr'd 
that both He and his Sons are interested in those Lands, and 
that whatever proclamations he may have issued respecting this 
afffir] He is nevertheless a well wisher to its success. In addi- 
tion to which I have observ'd that all his letters upon this subject, 
are the most artful and evasive that can be imagined, and calcu- 
lated rather to save appearances on the part of the Government 
than to Show that he himself really disaproves the design; And 
I think his Son; (if such he really be) coming to you as a Deputy 
from that Company, to learn your sentiments with regard to their 
intended settlement, very plainly evinces that my Suspicions are 
not ill founded. 

Upon my putting the question to the Six Nations, whether the 
Connecticut people who are at Cushetunk upon the River Dela- 
ware were settled there by their Consent, Thomas King 1 un- 
advisedly and without consulting the other chiefs said abruptly, 
that the Six Nations had nothing to do with those Lands, for that 
they belonged to the Delawares. — Upon recollection however, 
as I imagine, and upon a small Consultation with the other Chiefs 
present, he seemed to retract what he had before spoke, and said 
they would speak nothing further about Land at that time, but 
would lay the Affair before the Onondago Council on their re- 

1 An Oneida Chief. 

Seven Years' War 553 

turn home, and indeed, this matter is worthy of their most serious 
attention ; for if the Six Nations have not a right to the Lands at 
Cushetunk, they could have none to those they sold to the pro- 
prietors in 1 749 which lye 60 miles lower down the River, and 
Consequently they are accountable to the Delawares for what 
they received for those Lands. 

The Quakers immediately seized upon this oversight of Thomas 
King, and work'd it up into an acknowledgment on the part of 
the Six Nations that in selling those lands to Mr. Penn in 1 749, 
they had sold what did not belong to them but to the Delawares, 
who ought to be paid for it ; and from thence took occasion to set 
on foot a Treaty with the Six Nations for an exchange of those 
Lands they had sold in 1 749, for others to be made out to the 
Delawares upon Susquehanna (I suppose at or near Shamokin) 
offering besides a further consideration in money to the Six Na- 
tions. — They had the modesty to apply to me to countenance 
this projected bargain, but I absolutely refused them, as I under- 
stand the Six Nations also did. 

I believe I mentioned to you at Easton that it was my Opinion 
that the Quakers aimed at drawing the confidence and dependance 
of all the Indian Nations upon their Body, so that no Colony 
should be able to treat or transact Business with them but thro h 
their means. — Nothing could so effectually answer their purpose 
in this respect as the making a permanent settlement for the Dela- 
wares (their Creatures) at Shamokin by a purchase of the Lands; 
as, through them they might keep up what Correspondence, and 
infuse what notions they please into the minds of the Six Nations. 
And as they want neither Money nor Industry to accomplish 
any thing they undertake they may by degrees be able to give 
you much trouble in your department. — I thought it proper to 
mention to you my Opinion upon this head, that in case any 
such bargain or Exchange should be moved to the Onondago 
Council this Winter, as I suspect it will, You may be able to take 
such measures to defeat it as you think proper, for I am positive 
it is projected with no good intention towards You. 

I am extremely obliged to you for Mr. Croghan's attendance 

554 Sir William Johnson Papers 

at Lancaster, where throughout the whole Treaty he acted such 
a part as you would have approved of, and such as became the 
Character he is invested with. — were it not, that by his influence 
he was able to counterwork the Quakers, We should have had 
many wild Schemes and projects, that would have given us much 
trouble, put into the Indians heads and insisted on; but to those 
He was able very properly to give the go by; so that upon the 
whole the Treaty ended happily enough for the Government, but 
to the grievous mortification of the Friends. — As this Treaty 
was the most expensive One we have ever had, I believe those 
people will not be so fond of them for the future, at least untill 
they have accomplished their scheme of establishing an Interest 
with the Indians superior to all opposition. 

I shall hold myself extremely obliged to you for any intelligence 
that may come to your knowledge relating to the Connecticut 
people, or any other matter which concerns this Province. And 
as you are fully Sensible of the Mischeifs that would result from 
those people's carrying their Schemes into Execution, no less, in 
all probability, than the rekindling the Indian War and desolat- 
ing a new the Frontiers of the Several Colonies, I doubt not but 
you will continue to exert your best endeavours to prevent it. 
I have myself wrote fully to Sir Jeffy Amherst on this Subject 
and inclosed him a Copy of Brodhead's affidavit; & If it is con- 
sistent with your Judgment I should be much obliged by your 
representing your a.pprehe[ once more to Governor Fitch in 
the strongest Manner. 

I shall be proud to communicate to you on all Occasions, what- 
ever I think worthy of your notice relating to Indian Affairs, and 
shall send you through Mr. Peters the Lancaster Treaty as soon 
as it can be Copied. In the mean time I am with the respect & 

Dear Sir/ 

Your Most Obliged humble Serv*. 
James Hamilton 
Honble Sir W m . Johnson 

Seven Years' War 555 


Philadelphia 8K 1 7. 1 762 

Gov r . Hamiltons Letter 
with Affidavit of 
Daniel Broadhead — 

Contemporary Copy 

Tuesday October 19 l K 1762 
Three of the Chief Sachems of the Mohawks, after Holding 
a Council of all their Nation at their own Village, came to John- 
son Hall, and made the following Complaint to Sir W m . "that, 
after their Consenting to let the Dutch have the Lowland, whereon 
Schenectady stands now, for a Trading Place, some of the 
Principal Burghers, or Trustees afterwards begged that the Mo- 
hawks would allow their Cattle to feed, and Range as far as 
Torvrauny? which they after some Consideration agreed to, but 
did not sell it to them ; neither have any of their People received 
any Consideration for the same; and declared that the old 
Sachems often told them how the affair was, and that they 
should not forget their Right to said Land, and further Say'd 
that sev 1 . of them went to the late Jacob Glen last year about 
the Matter, who Answered that he knew the Affair very well, 
and had the Writings relative thereto in his Possession, and would 
produce the same to Sir William as soon as he Returned from 
Detroit, adding that the sooner the affair was settled, the better, 
lest he might dye — " that they had applied to Sir W m . about 
the matter last Spring, at which time he told them that it must 

1 In Johnson's hand. 

2 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

3 Tou-ar-e-u-ne hills. See Beauchamp, Aboriginal Place Names of 
New York, p. 200. 

556 Sir William Johnson Papers 

be deferred until the Six Nation Meeting (which was soon to 
take Place) was over. — Sir William answered them that he 
would write to the Schenectady People to produce their Deeds 
to him soon & at the most proper time he could give them Notice 
to Attend. — 


Michimilimackinak 22 d Oct r 1762 

Agr[ ] 

Commanding officer at Detr[oit ] 

given to Jacob Farly a Certificate [ ] 

Interpreter at [ ] post from 28 th . Sep r . [ ] 

to 28 th . Sept r . 176[ ( ] time I Commanded here) 
at one Dollar p r Day, that being the Saliry Agreed to be given 
him, I have Also Certify'd the Gun Smiths Account for repairing 
the Indian Arms &c from & to the same date to that time Am- 
mounting to 1 795 livers . . 17 Sols — both of which will be 
presented] to you & I make no doubt but youle Approve of 
them & order the payment. — 

I dare say you have been informed that Etherington 2 Com- 
mands at this post, I have the Honour to be 


Your Most Obed 1 Hul e [Serv*] 
WillM. [Leslye] 3 
addressed : 

Jojhnson Bar 1 
Johnson — 

1 In New York State Library. Because of its mutilated condition, this 
letter was not printed in Johnson Papers; 3:91 1. 

2 Lieutenant George Etherington, of the 60th. regiment. 
8 Lieutenant William Leslye of the 60th regiment. 

Seven Years' War 557 


Michilimacinac Octb r . 
[ ]22d. 1762 

Lieu*. Leslys Letter 

w lh . the am', of ye Smiths 

& Interpreters pay there 


[New York, Oct. 23, 1762] 

I 1 


dated 25 lh Sept[ 

Warrant in [ 

Equal to £764 [15:8?] 

Warrant indor[ 

I take [ 
Set of Receipts | 
to sign & [ 

M' Wade 3 [ 
on me [for] making together £558:8:11 Pennsylvania [ 
to Accomodate him I have given him [ 
Philadelphia, so that the ballance or[ 
in my hands on the forementioned War[ 

1 In Johnson's hand. 

2 Because it was partially burned, this letter was summarized in 
Johnson Papers, 3:913. Date is supplied by Johnson Calendar, p. 1 48, 
where it is also stated that it notified of "receipt drawn in Johnson's 
favor by Gen. Amherst, inclosing receipts for Johnson's signature and 
mentioning bills presented to him by Mr. Wade and his payment of same 
by bill in Philadelphia." 

3 Francis Wade. 


Sir William Johnson Papers 

£206.6.9 N York Curr c y. w ch . shall be di[ 
to you [r] order 

264" 1" 

200"14:8 1 

Sir W m . Johnson Barr 1 

I am with great Regard 
Dear Sir 

Your most Obedient a [nd] 
Humble [Servant] 

A[braham Mortier] 


New York 8K 23< 1 762 

Letter from Abr m . Mortier Esq r . 
w th . 3 Receipts — 

./i . I— i, O. 

Johnson Hall <SK 24 th . 1762 
Dear Sir/ 

Yours of the 10 th . 4 of July I received, and agreable to your 
desire thereby Signified have answered M r . Montours Draft, 
and your own, altho he was in my Debt somewhat at the time. — 
I have not received Willices deposition, which you said M r . Peters 
would Send me, which would have been of as much consequence 

1 This computation at this point on manuscript. 

2 In Johnson's hand. 

3 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Cadwallader Collection. The 
mutilated draft of this letter was printed in Johnson Papers 3:913-15. 
Since the original contains phrases and ideas not in the draft, it is given here. 

4 In Johnson Papers, 3:326-27. 

Seven Years' War 559 

as all the rest. — Yours of the 4 th . 7 br . 1 is also come to hand, 
but have not as yet seen the Treaty held at Lancaster, M r . Peters 
wrote me some time ago he would Send me it as soon as coppied, 
but have not rec d . it yet. 2 which is wrong, as I should be imedi- 
ately acquainted w th . all that passes at everry publick Meeting 
w th . Ind s . for many reasons. — from the generall Idea you have 
given me of the late Treaty, I think it answered but little or no 
purpose except the delivery of our People who were Pris rs . w h . 
you do not mention a word of. however I shall be a better Judge 
of y e . consequences of it, when I see the Treaty. I hear that 
Kindarunti 3 or Blew Cheeks is since dead of Wounds he rec d . 
from one of his own Countrymen, indeed if so, I am Sorry for it 
for as You Justly observe he might be made a useful Man. — 
It gives me no small pleasure to find that the Quakers were dis- 
apointed in all their Sinester & unjust Views & I think it a pitty 
they could not be brought to ace 11 , for y e . Immense Sums of 
Money You say they threw away at Said Meeting, as that would 
break them of the like profuseness for the future. I am in hopes 
that the true representation I sent home of what passed at Easton 
will convince y e . Ministry of the necessitty there is for checking 
their Insolence and Unjustifiable interfereing in Indian Matters, 
or management. 

I doubt not you will find M r . Hutchins 4 returned on your 
arrival at Pittsborough, as I was told by one of the Traders he 
was returned from La Bay a great while ago, — I had a letter 
sometime past from M r . Gorrel° Commds. that Post, who gives 
me an Acc tl . of Severall Nations Inhabiting them parts, & their 
Numbers, he has not as yet been able to procure me any of the 

1 In Johnson Papers, 3:873-75. 

2 Here is a discrepancy. In the draft letter to Richard Peters, October 
19, 1762, Sir William acknowledged receipt of the Treaty. Johnson 
Papers, 3:908-9. 

3 A Seneca chief who had been active in stirring up his people against the 

4 See Thomas Hutchins Journal, ante p. 521. 

5 Lieutenant James Gorrell of 60th regiment. 

560 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Curiosities or Firrs I gave him Comis n . to purchase. — Sir Jeff. 
Amherst has lately thought proper to retrench Indian Expences 
as much as possible, by doing which, he has Struck of one of y r . 
Assistants, which as You must have been acquainted with ere 
now, I need not say more about here. — M r . Montour 1 is to 
have but £50 Sterling *p Annum as Interpreter, to commence 
from y e . 29 th . of this Ins 1 . Octb r . and if M r . M c . Gee 2 will accept 
of £ 60 SterK P annum for acting as an Assistant in that Quarter, 
Viz*, along the Susquahana River & its Branches, I will on his 
letting me know it's agreable, appoint him & send such Instruc- 
tions as I shall Judge necessary, and in such case his pay shall 
commence from the 29 th . of this Ins'; w h . day, Montours pay 
as an officer ceases, which you will please to let them both know 
as soon as possible. — I am oblidged to you for y e . Plan of the 
Town you sent me, it is a verry good one but too extensive for 
the place I intend mine. — the Ace", of the Head of the White 
Hatts, 3 is verry merry, and I think verry worthy of haveing a 
place in the Publick prints, sure I am, that many things not half 
so diverting or Interesting are daily published in Papers and Maga- 
zines, and I must say I heartily wish that the Worthy Member 
had some kind freind who would make known his good Works 
& pious intentions of propagateing the Species agreable to the 
Word, it is a pitty so good an Action of his, should pass un- 
noticed, besides he may never perhaps afford his Freinds so 
favourable an opertunity of Sounding his praise as now — 

Aron the Mohawk is lately come here from the Detroit, and 
tells me the Hurons desired him to let me know, that the Smith 
whom you sent there, will not mend their Traps nor Hoes, w h . 
are as necessary Articles as any they have, and that he has no 
Steel to mend any thing, they also complain that the Interpreters 
do not honestly Interpret between the Commanding officer there 
& them, & further that the French Inhabitants commit great 

1 Henry Montour. 

2 Alexander McKee. "The old gentleman" is inserted here in the draft. 

3 "Head of the Quks." in the draft. 

Seven Years' War 561 

Trepass on their [ JHters Lands, such as Cutting away 
their wood, w h . they have but verry little of near their Village, 
and that cheifly when they are out on y e . Hunt. As such treatment 
must create uneasiness in y e . minds of y e . Indians and produce mis- 
understandings, between them & our People there I would have 
you look into it, and if their complaints are found to be well 
grounded, You will use all the means in your [ ] to have 

them redressed. As the Ind s . in that part of y e . [ ] deserve 

good treatment. — Aron propos [ ] the Spring of the Year, 

when I shall let them know by w[ ] that I have wrote you 
about their complaints, and that if Just, You will see that they are 
redressed. — We have nothing new here, all is peace & quiet- 
ness. — My Family all Join me in wishing You all the Success 
imaginable. & I am Dear Sir 

Your Sincere Freind 

& Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 
George Croghan Esq. 
My Compliments to Coll: Boquet. 

A. L. S. 2 

Albany &« 26: 1762 

I am Sorry [that] I have not till of Late 
Been Informed of M r . Ellwoods 3 Death who owed 
To me £24:10:7. And [since I thi]nk that you Administer 
on his Estate, If you [ ] if you let 

me know it, By a Line or [ 

1 Brackets indicate a portion of letter which is missing. 

2 Because of its mutilated condition, this letter was not published 
in Johnson Papers, 3:917. 

3 James Ellwood. 

562 Sir William Johnson Papers 

My attested Acco 1 . Against [ 

He had a good farm and tha[ 

So Supose he left Asetts Suffic[ient to pay his] 

Debts, Your Advise and Assistance in Recor[ding] 

This my Just Demand on S d . Estate will Add to the 

Favours alrady Received from you, By 

Dear Sir 

Your most Gratefull & Obed 1 . Serv 1 . 
Rob t Sanders 
Sir William Johnson Bart: 
P.S. I have been Confined 
by a very Soar leg to my house 
above 6 months, Thank God seems to 

mend now, M rs . Sanders Joins me in Best Regards to [you] 
and all yours 





iam Johnson Bart: 


Mount Johnson 



] 1762 


] t of Elwoods 


Cop}) 1 

The Belt Was Delivered in Such a Manner in this Place as 
Was Likely to have Sset on foot things that Would not have 
been Agreeable: the Substance of the Speech Was that You 
did not Ammaigan for What End the Sachams are a Comeing 
or What they Will Answer for themselves & Without the Prison- 

1 A fragment in the Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 9. 

Seven Years' War 563 

ers it Will not Answer for them to Make their Apperance Before 
You: and as for Your part You know in Genarl the Sentemnt 
of Six nations, But the Gen', in York is of a Contrary Mind 
Alway 8 a Studying for the Destruction of their Brethern and for 
Your part You Can Alway s Metigate Matter s With on another at 
the Councell but the Gen 1 . Would not be Satisfied With Such 
frivoulous Excuses untill for Good he Would have the Murdurers, 
and in Case the Sachems Were a Comeing down to Turn them 
Back Without the Would Run hazards to Come down through 
thee Inhabatants and that the Gen 1 : is in a Manner Very Easy how 
Soon they are a Mind for Mischef thee Barer Was a Going to Pro- 
ceed through the Six nations and Twee: twees to Alarm all: on 
the aforesaid Subject — 

The Barer Guy:ang Waurautee Stop 1 the Belt and Brings it 
down to be Certain if it is to the purpose as Represented and if 
So to Let the Belt Proceed through the Six nations — As Soon 
as I Recived Your Letter they Desire d to have knowledg What 
Was in the Letter I told them in Short that it Was to make my 
Self Easy in My Mind With my Brethern it being false What 
Was Alledg d . Against me in my Writing to You to the Disad- 
vantage of their Castle, and that You Was Informed that the 
Cheifs of their Castle s Was Comeing down Which You thought 
Was Needless Without the Prisoners they Were determined to 
Send down a Number of their Chief Warrours But I Stop*, them 
and told them it Was Needless as they Would find it Very hard 
for Provision Turn Over — 1 But if Determin d to Go down the 
fewer the Better — They Also Desire that What Your Answer 
may be that You Will Remit it to me by Letter So as I may 
Deliver it to them According as Will be Charged in the Belt 
You shall be pleas d . to Send/, 

Likewise the two Murdurers are Gone as I can Understand 
towards Ohio to Some hunting Place they Resort at I have Got a 
Coat Which one of this Nation forced from the Murdurer that 

1 End of the page in manuscript volume. 

564 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Belonged to one Allin 1 Who Made his Escape To Conclude 
it is my Oppinon that in Case there Was Such a thing as to Grant 
them forgiveness that it Would forever Retard Others from doing 
the Like as they are Greatly Concern d . About it no More at 

I Remain Your Ever Devo d & hum e . Sarv 1 

John Johnston 2 

P:S They Enquire 1 * of me if I would Come and Work another 
Season and Trade With them I made them Answer that Ac- 
cording as things was on a footing and Your Pleasure I would 
Give Sir William an Item : that their is a White fellow a prisoner 
from this Place Who is in Indian Disguise Which Prehaps may 
be to Inspect into things Down Country So as if any thing in 
English Should be Drop* he may as Redely Explain the Mean- 
ing of it — 

There is a Horsse hear With one Eye that Was Stole from 
Old Brant at Conjohary By a White fellow that Lives here in 
the Sinachais I Beg the Favour of Sir Will m . to Send me a New*. 
paper Inclose d . as it Would be Very Agreeable to me in this 
Remote Place 

The Barer Spake in the Cause of the Interest 

1 See Johnson to Monckton Nov. 12, 1762 concerning the escape of 
Allen. This places the murder in October, 1 762. See Johnson to Amherst, 
Nov. 1 2, 1 762 which speaks of the murder, the escape of Allen and 
his arrival at Fort Johnson. Post p. 567. 

2 A smith among the Senecas. 

Seven Years' War 565 


Contemporary Copy 1 

[November 3 J 762] 

At a Council held at Fort George in the City of New York on 
Wednesday the third Day of Novem r . 1 762 — 

Present — His Excellency the Hon ble . Robert Monckton Captain 

General & Governor in Chief. — 

M r . Horsmanden 2 M r . DeLancey 4 — 

M r . Smith. 3 — Earl of Stirling. 5 — 

It being represented to this Board in Behalf of the Parties 
laying Claim to the Lands comprehended within the Conajoharie 
Patent, that the Time Appointed for the Hearing the Matter of 
Complaint of the Conajoharie Indians, respecting the said Lands, 
will be very Inconvenient for the Attendance of such of the said 
Indians, whose Examinations it may be necessary to take on this 
Occasion: It is therefore Ordered by his Excellency the Gov- 
ernor, with the Advice of the Council, that all Examinations 6 
of the said Indians, taken in the Presence of Sir William Johnson 
Baronet, and three of his Majestys Justices of the Peace of the 
County of Albany, and Certified by them, be Admitted to be 
read before this Board, at the Hearing on the Fifteenth Day of 

December next. — 

A true Copy Exam d . by — 

GW : BanyarDc1Cou 7 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

2 Daniel Horsmanden. 

3 William Smith. 

4 James De Lancey. 

5 William Alexander. 

6 See Declarations of Sachems, Nov. 24, 1762, post p. 571 

7 Goldsbrow Banyar, Deputy Clerk of the Council. 

566 Sir William Johnson Papers 

jx • JL<. O. 

Philadelphia 4 Nov 1762 
Dear Sir 

Your kind Letter of the 1 5th 8 ber2 deserves a longer Answer 
than I can now have time to write. The inclosed from Gov r 
Fauquier came just time enough to forward it by the Post, and 
as I know a little time is of great use on particular Occasions in 
Indian Affairs I would not delay it one moment. 

The Speech may be objectionable in that part where he advises 
a Peace between the Northern Indians & the Cherokees. If you 
think it improper, or that it will disoblige the Indians, Governor 
Hamilton thinks you will do well to alter it, (or leave it out) 
so as to accomodate it to the Temper of the Indians. The Like 
advice was proposed to be given to the Indians at Lancaster by 
the Commissioners, & I consulted M r Croghan thereupon but 
he advised the Governor Not to meddle between the Two Na- 
tions: for this reason M r Hamilton desird me to mention this 
matter to you. 

The Paper, which I see by yours I called the Assemblys 
remonstrance, is no more than a Report of the Committee of 
Assembly, made to ye house on their return from Easton of their 
Proceedings there, and when it was read in the House, M r Allen 3 
objected to that part of it wherein they had represented your 
Conduct in an untrue & unfavourable Light, & upon M r Allen 
contesting this Report it was not agreed to, but lies by for further 
consideration in January, when they will push it or not, as they 
find you have represented them to the Ministers, or to the Board 
of Trade. So that no Copy can be at present got of it. 

It is apprehended as M r Allen says that tho they have Wrote 
several bad & angry things against you to their Friends in London, 

1 In Henry E. Huntington Library. 

2 Not found. 

3 William Allen, Chief Justice of Pennsylvania, 1750-1774. 

Seven Years' War 567 

yet they will not be made publick if they find you have spared 
them in your Report of the Hearing at Easton. 

M r Franklin is come & will I suppose take the Lead; & these 
Partizans who were up at Easton will follow any advice he 
gives on the Occasion. I am afraid of losing the Post or I shoud 
say more 

I am 

Dr Sir 

Your m l obedient 
humble Servant 

Richard Peters 

Pray be pleasd to furnish a 
Belt for Y e Gov r of Virginia, as 
one sent by y e Post woud be expensive. 
M r Croghan is to account with you 
for y e Belt you was so kind as to let 
me have at Easton. 


Fort Johnson Novb r . 12 th . 1762 — 

I have been honoured with your Excellencys Favours of the 
1 7 th . and 3 1 st . Ult°. 2 since the receipt of which I have been in- 
formed that the people of Connecticut have desisted from their 
design, & are returned home, on receiveing some threats from a 
party of Indians passing that way, and I am hopefull they will 
give over all thoughts of the same. 

My Interpreter at Niagra informs me that a Trade is certainly 
carrying on by some French Traders with the People of Mis- 

1 In Public Record Office, W. O. 34, Vol. 39 ; extract printed in 
Johnson Papers, 3:932. 

2 In Johnson Papers, 3 :904-5 ; 920. 

568 Sir William Johnson Papers 

sissipi, and I have it likewise from Sevr 11 . Hands that many of 
the French have obtained liberty from the Officers at the out 
Posts, and are gone to the Illenois and Country adjacent, whereby 
the Enemy will not only be furnished with constant intelligence, 
but also with such goods as they may stand in need of, at a cheaper 
rate than they could be brought from New Orleans, and I am 
certain that the French Traders will be readily induced to abuse 
any indulgences they may meet with on that head. — 

The reports of the French building Forts in y e . Cherokee 
Country continues to prevail, they will certainly take everry 
measure for ascending the Mississipi & obtaining possession of 
some of the Lakes once more if possible. — 

I return your Excellency thanks for y e . Copies of M r . Croghans 
Intelligence, which he has likewise transmitted to me, together 
with the Journal & Report of M r . Hutchins 1 his late assistant who 
made the Tour lately by my orders thro all the Indian Settle- 
ments near the Lakes, and as there are some things worthy 
observation therein, I enclose Your Excellency a Copy thereof. — 

Just now one Allen from Niagra arrived here in company with 
two Seneca Indians. He informs me that about a fortnight ago 
he being in company with one William Newkirk of the Mohawk 
Country and his own Servant were met on the Banks of the Seneca 
Lake near to the Castle of that Nation called Canussadage^ by 
two Indians of Kanestio, a village towards the Ohio, who Shook 
hands with 7Ven>fcir£, and after passing them by, imediately faced 
about and fired upon them, by which Newkirk and the Servant 
were killed, and Aliens horse shot under him, and himself made 
prisoner, that y e . Indians of the Seneca Castle freed him, and 
after expressing great concern for what had happened, they sent 
two Indians with him hither, one of them charged with several 
Belts of Wampum excuseing themselves from haveing any part 
therein, or being privy thereto. — I have thereupon dispatched 
a Message to that Nation or Village requireing them imediately 
to deliver up the Offenders on pain of our resenting it on the 

1 Thomas Hutchins. See his Journal, ante p. 521 

Seven Years' War 569 

Castle to which they belong, and those Indians were likewise 
charged to inform me that their Nation have imediately called a 
Meeting thereon at Onondaga where they request the presence 
of the Mohawks, I shall therefore send Lieu*. Johnson 1 to attend 
the same with proper instructions for y f . purpose as I took the 
liberty to place him my Deputy on receipt of y r . Excellencys 
favour of the 1 th . Ult°. that I might loose no time in employing 
him as such, until he has disposed of his Commission. — 

I have the honour to be 
with the utmost respect 

Your Excellencys 
Most Obedient, and 
Most Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 
His Excellency 
Sir Jeffery Amherst 
Knight of the Bath — 


A. L. S. 2 

Fort George. New York — 

22*.NovK1762 — 

I had Yesterday the Honour of Receiving your letter of the 
12 th . Ins 1 . 3 — And should sooner have Acknowledged the 
Receipt of your former letters — But that they did not require 
any Immediate Answer, and I expected Daily your Recom- 
mendations to the Vacancys in your Regiment. The Vacancys of 

1 Guy Johnson. 

2 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

3 Johnson Papers, 3:933-35. 

570 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Field Officers, I have fill'd up according to your Recommenda- 
tions. M r . Duncan 1 would make a verry good Field Officer, but 
it would not be right, to put him in at Present over the Old 
Captains. — 

I should have had a proper Regard to your Recommendation 
of M r . M c Cracken 2 had I found it necessary to Remove the 
Sheriffe of Albany, — As I shall always of any Persons you 
may think proper to Recommend to any Thing in my Power. — 

Having been Confin'd to my Room lately. M r . Banyar 3 will 
have Inclos'd you a Copy of a Resolution of Council, in Relation 
to the Complaint of the Conajore Indians, of which There is to 
be a Hearing On the 1 5 th . December — When you may be 
assur'd all due Regard, will be had to the Complaints of the 
Indians, and such Relief given them as their Cause may Appear 
to deserve. — I am sorry to hear of the loss of the Mohawk and 
Aliens Servant But hope that you will be Able to get the Offend- 
ers. — I hope Sir, that you Enjoy your Health — 

And am 

with much truth & Esteem 
Your Most Obedient Hum ble . Serv'. 

Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 . 


Fort George New York 
22< Nov. 1 762 

Letter from Gov r . 

1 Richard Duncan. 

2 William McCracken. 

3 Goldsbrow Banyar. 

4 British general in French and Indian War; colonial governor of 
New York, 1761 and 1762. 

5 In Johnson's hand. 

Seven Years' War 571 

Contemporary Copy 1 

[November 24, 1762] 

Declaration 2 of the Sachems of Conajoharie in Defence of 
their Lands in Dispute taken in the Presence of Sir William 
Johnson, and three Justices of the Peace, Pursuant to the 
Order of Governor, and Council of the 3 d . of Novemb r . at 
Conajoharie the 24 th . Day of November 1 762. — 

We Araghiadecka, Cayenquiragoa, Canagaraduncfya, Onian- 
rvongtha, and Synoghsis, being Oldest, and Principal Sachems 
of Conajharie Assembled agreeable to the Order of his Excel- 
lency, the Governor and Council, of this Province, of the third 
Ins*, take this Opportunity of Returning them the Unanimous 
Thanks of our Castle for their Attention to our Grievances, and 
for the Opportunity which they now offer us of representing the 
same, as we have been for some time past greatly Distressed, and 
Threatned to be Dispossessed of our just Property, by those 
whom we always considered as our Children, and who have had 
all their Possessions from us, which has caused the greatest Grief, 
and Uneasiness imaginable amongst us. 

We have from Time to Time, given our Brethren large Tracts 
along the Mohawk River, for a very triffling Consideration: 
We therefore hope that his Excellency the Governor, of whom 
we have heared an universal good Character, will Secure to us 
the Possession of the little which we have Remaining, especially, 
as we have during the course of the War faithfully Assisted the 
English at the Expence of many of the Lives of our People, and 
have no other Recourse left, but the Lands now in Dispute, which 
we do assure the Governor, and Council, we never disposed of 
by our Castle, nor did we ever consider them as Lands Sold, in 
which case, we should never have disputed concerning them, as it 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 6. 

2 See Executive Council Minutes, Nov. 3, 1 762. Ante p. 565. 

572 Sir William Johnson Papers 

is well known we never Claim any Lands we Sell, nor ever have 
called fair Purchases on this River, in Question : but in this pres- 
ent Case we have been greatly Overreached, which we might 
have Remained in Ignorance of, for a considerable time, had we 
not found out by mere Accident a Surveyors Staff stuck in the 
Ground, where he had been, during the night, surveying our Lands, 
without our Knowledge, and contrary to the usual Custom, when, 
as in all fair Purchases, Surveys are made in the Day, and in 
the Presence of some Indians. — At the Time of this [this] 
Discovery, the greatest part of our People were abroad Hunting 
Pidgeons, which we Imagine induced the Surveyor to take that 
Advantage, and which all our Castle highly Resented. — Shortly 
after, We were Informed, that the Survey had been made by 
one Collins. — We have heard that the Land lying on the South 
shore of the * from the End of the large Island called 

Degaghneghtahere, or Bleechers Island, to two large Rocks in 
the River, near the House of Christian Nellus, was disposed of 
in a private Manner by a few of our People, who had been made 
drunk for that purpose, under Colour of which, the Persons who 
had been concerned therein, took in all the Land up to Onorve- 
daga Creek, which we Suppose they were desirous to keep private, 
until all the Indians were dead, that they might then Share the 
whole amongst them. — but we positively Deny that the Lands 
from these Rocks upwards were ever disposed of by us, or any 
of our People. — These we do most solemnly Declare to be the 
Unanimous Sentiments, and Opinion of all the Indians of our 
Castle, and therefore we most earnestly Entreat the Governor & 
Council to take our Case into Consideration, and to Secure to us 
the Possession of our Just Property for the Support of our Wives, 
and Children, who must inevitably perish, unless Relieved in 
the Premisses. — 

Taken at Conajoharie November the 24 th . 1762 in the 
Presence of Sir William Johnson Bar'., and of us the under 
mentioned Justices of the Peace for the County of Albany, 

1 Blank in the Manuscript. 

Seven Years' War 573 

who are well Acquainted with the Indian Language, and 
have perfectly understood the foregoing to be their Dec- 
laration. — 

William Johnson 
Peter Conyin 
John Butler Justices 
Hen : Frey Jun r . , 


Copy 1 

Annapolis the 25 th of Nov 1762 

Governor Hamilton 2 having lately sent me an Extract of a 
Speech that was made to him by the Six Nations at the Lancaster 
Treaty last Summer by which I observe they desire one Daniel 
Cresap of this Province may be ordered to keep a Store House 
on Potowmack near the Road their Warriors pass on their 
Expeditions against the Southern Indians I take the Liberty to 
send you a Copy of the Extract & to desire Your opinion of their 
Intention in making such Application ; for if they ask no more than 
that Dan 1 Cresap may be permitted to trade with & sell their 
parties as they shall pass & repass such Articles as they may 
want he is at liberty to do so without any special Lycence from me 
there being no Law to restrain such Trade but if what they want 
is that the above-mentioned Person may be impowered to 
supply their Parties gratis or at the Expence of the Province with 
such Goods as they may apply for I cannot take upon myself to 
give him Orders to that Effect & am much afraid that the As- 
sembly, should I recommend the Matter to them, would not 
subject their Constituents to such an Expence; however to 

1 Printed in Archives of Maryland (correspondence of Governor 
Horatio Sharpe, Vol. Ill), 14:80-81. 

2 Governor James Hamilton of Pennsylvania. 

574 Sir William Johnson Papers 

prevent any Disputes between such Parties of Indians & the 
Inhabitants in case they should want provisions as they pass thro 
this Province I have recommended it to M r Thomas Cresap 
Father of the Person abovementioned who lives about fifteen 
miles on this Side Fort Cumberland 1 to furnish with necessary 
Provisions such Indian Warriors as may apply to him & I have 
promised to lay his Accounts before the Assembly for Payment 
hoping they will not object to making him satisfaction tho at the 
same time I wish those Indians when they go to the Southward 
could be prevailed on to take their Rout (which in my opinion 
is equally convenient to them) by the way of Fort Cumberland 
where I understand one of the Kings Officers still resides in the 
Character of Fort Major, & is I presume authorized & enabled 
to receive & entertain such Friendly Indians as may at times take 
Occasion to call at that place. As I shall decline returning 
any Answer to the Indians Request till you shall be pleased to 
communicate to me Your Sentiments thereon I should also 
be obliged to you for informing me whether I may then take 
the Liberty to address my Answer to You or by what other 
means I may convey it to them. 

L.S. 2 

Johnson Hall 26* Nov. 1762. 

Yours of the 15 th . Ins*. I received three Days ago, and am 
sorry to find thereby, that there are so many Difficulties in the Way 
to Justice. — I think what you hinted to the Governour in your 
Report was very proper and could wish it to take Place: but 
will not the hearing of that Affair by the Governour & Council 
the 15 th . of next Month, determine it one Way or other? 

A few Days ago I received Copy of a Minute of the Council 
on the 3 d . Ins 1 , touching the Manner in which the Examination of 

1 Fort Cumberland in Maryland. 

2 In Massachusetts Historical Society. 

Seven Years' War 575 

any Indians respecting the Canajoharee Pattent are to be 
taken; upon which I had a Meeting with the Indians of that 
Village, at which, in the Presence of three of his Majestys 
Justices of the Peace, their oldest Chiefs declared, that none 
of the Land now in Dispute was ever sold — but, what they 
describe in said Declaration, and that, they say was obtained in 
a fraudulent Manner, and, from only a few of their People made 
drunk for that Purpose; however, they are willing to give up 
all Pretensions to the Lands within the Bounds mentioned in 
their Declaration, but insist upon it, that the Lands from the 
2 Roc^s, described by them, up to Onarvadage^ Creek were 
never Sold, but stole from them by a Night Survey, at a Time 
when all their People were out upon the hunt, as w