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Prepared for publication by 

Senior Historian 

The Division of Archives and History 

Director and State Historian 






Regents of the University 

With years when terras expire 

1969 John F. Brosnan, A. M., LL. B., J. D, LL. D., D. C. L, 

Vice Chancellor -------------- New York 

1963 Mrs. Caroline Werner Gannett, L. H. D., LL. D. - - Rochester 

1961 Dominick F. Maurillo, A. B., M. D., LL. D. - - - - Brooklyn 

1962 Jacob L. Holtzmann, LL. B., LL. D., D. C. L. - - - - New York 
1968 Edgar W. Couper, A. B., LL. D. --------- Binghamton 

1964 Alexander J. Allan, Jr., LL. D., Litt. D. ----- - Troy 

1967 Thad L. Collum, C. E. _-..._ Syracuse 

1966 George L. Hubbell, Jr., A. B., LL. B. ------- Garden City 

1958 T. Norman Hurd, B. S., Ph. D. - - - - - - - - - Ithaca 

1960 Charles W. Millard, Jr., A. B. --------- Buffalo 

1965 Chester H. Lang, A. B., LL. D. --------- Schenectady 

1970 Everett J. Penny, B. C. S. ---------- White Plains 

President of the University and Commissioner of Education 
James E. Allen, Jr., Ed. M., Ed. D., LL. D. 

Deputy Commissioner of Education 
Ewald B. Nyquist, B. S., LL. D., Pd. D. 

Associate Commissioner for Higher Education 

19 5 


State Historian and Director, Division of Archives and History 
Albert B. Corey, A. M., Ph. D. 



Volume XII 


Illustrations v 

Preface vii 

Indian Affairs to Treaty of Fort Stanwix, 1 766-1 768 1 

Indian Affairs and Land Development, 1 769-1 774 681 



Indian Council at Johnson Hall Frontispiece 

From the painting by E. L. Henry. Courtesy of the Knox Gelatine Company, 
Johnstown, New York. 

Medal Presented to Indians in 1766 20 

Courtesy Fort Ticonderoga Bulletin 

Cantonment of Forces in North America, March 29, 1766 36 

From original in British Museum 

Sir Henry Moore 200 

Portrait by Sir Joshua Reynolds. Photograph courtesy of Frank T. Sabin, 
London; the picture is in a private collection. 

Sir Guy Carleton 324 

First Lord Dorchester, Governor General of Canada. Copy by Mable B. Messer, 
painted in 1923, from original portrait that hung in Rideau, since burnt. Courtesy 
of Public Archives of Canada. 

Major Robert Rogers 356 

From an old print 

Fort Michilimac1?inac, 1766 438 

Manuscript map by Lieutenant Perkins Magra. Courtesy of the William L. 
Clements Library. 

Hugh Wallace 474 

Painting by Daniel Huntington, 1905, from a miniature. Courtesy of the Chamber 
of Commerce of the State of New York. 

Samuel Wharton 482 

From the woodcut of a miniature painted in England, in possession of the His- 
torical Society of Pennsylvania 

Coldsbroiv Banyar 656 

Portrait by John Trumbull in Albany Institute of History and Art 

Samuel Stringer 714 

Portrait probably painted by Ezra Ames, in 1806. Courtesy of the Masonic 
Temple, Albany. 

Thomas Hutchinson 912 

Portrait by John Singleton Copley. Courtesy of the Massachusetts Historical 

Daniel Campbell 1006 

Portrait by Thomas Mcllworth in the Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur 



Volume XII of the Sir William Johnson Papers, covering the 
years 1766-1774, to the death of Sir William, completes the 
second chronological series. It supplements papers and letters 
originally published in volumes V-VIII, containing originals or 
copies of letters which were destroyed or were unknown at the 
time of the former publication. Nearly 300 new items for these 
years have since come to light and many of these are incorporated 
in this volume. These so expanded the original plan that it has 
been found necessary to take out of this volume the lengthier docu- 
ments — journals, accounts and land papers which would fall in 
its chronological scope — for publication in the addenda volume 
which is to follow. 

The documents in this volume are drawn principally from such 
large collections as the Indian Records in the Canadian Archives 
at Ottawa ; the Gage Papers in the William L. Clements Library, 
Ann Arbor, Michigan; the Banyar Papers and others in the 
New York Historical Society, and the Gratz and Cadwalader 
Collections of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. The hold- 
ings of many other libraries and individuals have added richly to 
the content of the volume, and these are all cited in footnote 
references. Grateful acknowledgment is likewise extended to all 
who have permitted their holdings to be published. The editor 
especially thanks those who have shown their interest by calling 
his attention to many new or fugitive items. 

Readers and students of Sir William will find here documents 
of much interest as well as those which may throw new light on 
well-known events. There are many documents which deal with 
the episode of Robert Rogers and the post of Michilimackinac, the 
meeting with Pontiac at Fort Ontario, and the Treaty of Fort 
Stanwix. Sir William is shown vainly attempting to establish a 
centralized plan for the management of Indian Affairs. The ap- 
proaching Revolutionary conflict is reflected in letters which show 
the royalist sympathies of the Johnsons, and their criticism of the 


agitators. While it is apparent that Sir William would have been 
a Tory, like his son and nephew, had he lived, yet he might well 
have so modified policies and so influenced both Indians and gov- 
ernment as to have profoundly affected the course of history. 

The broad interests of Sir William are reflected in the 
correspondence of these later years. Not only was he involved in 
the extensive land speculations of the time, but he was building an 
empire and establishing its institutions in central New York. 
Church and missionary activity enlisted his active support, the 
introduction of new settlers and the development of agriculture 
and industry were prime concerns. He was promoting the creation 
of Tryon County, establishing its county offices and building its 
courthouse and jail. The new Masonic lodge at Johnstown was a 
principal interest, reflecting his social and gregarious bent. At the 
same time his seat at Johnstown, Johnson Hall, was more and 
more the center of a community under his personal and paternal 
care. In addition, Indian relations were becoming increasingly 
tense. Less able to travel than formerly due to his ill health, he 
was constantly holding conferences at Johnson Hall. It was at 
one of these on July 11,1 774, that he suddenly passed away. The 
description of this portentous event, as reported by Guy Johnson 
in a letter to Gage, is the final document in this volume. 

One of the significant documents of this volume is Sir William's 
will. It has been printed elsewhere but is here corrected and 
annotated from all known copies. Another document of great 
interest, the inventory of Johnson Hall after his death, had to be 
deferred to the addenda volume. Other documents, subsequent to 
his death, will also be published since they deal with his vast estate 
and his policies. 

The addenda volume likewise will include a chronological 
listing of all published documents with their locations. An index 
volume is planned to conclude the series. 

Albert B. Corey 

Director, Division of Archives and History 

and State Historian 




Copy 1 
New York, 10 th . January, 1766. 

Instructions to Major Robert Rogers, Commandant of the 
Post of Michilimackinac. 

His Majesty's pleasure having been signified to me, that you 
should be appointed to the command of Michilimackinac, or some 
other post in the upper country, I do by these presents, appoint you 
to be Captain Commandant of the Garrison of Michilimackinac, 
and you are hereby authorized to take the command of the said 
garrison, and the officers and soldiers that compose the same are 
required to obey you as their commanding officer. You are there- 
fore to take the said charge upon you, and carefully and diligently 
to discharge the duty thereof, by doing and performing all and all 
manner of things thereunto belonging. And you are to observe 
and follow such orders and directions as you shall from time to 
time receive from his Majesty, myself, or any other your superior 
officer, according to the rules and discipline of war. And for your 
better guidance and direction, in the great trust reposed in you, you 
are herewith furnished with such orders as have been given out, 
during my command, to the officers commanding posts, to which 
you will pay due attention and obedience ; I can't recommend too 
strongly to you, the strictest economy in the small expenses that 
may unavoidably be incurred at this post now put under your 
command. But nothing new or chargeable, must upon any ac- 
count, be undertaken by you, of your own head. 

1 Printed in Journals of Major Robert Rogers, F. B. Hough, ed., pp. 
216-18, from the Johnson Manuscripts ; original destroyed by fire. See 
Johnson Calendar, p. 297. 

2 Sir William Johnson Papers 

As in the course of your command, you must necessarily have 
some intercourse with the Savages. I have thought proper in this 
particular, to put you under the direction of Sir William Johnson, 
Bart. His Majesty's sole agent and Superintendent of the 
Northern Indians, and he will furnish you with proper instruc- 
tions for your guidance in your transactions with the Indians, who 
reside near, and may visit the said post of Michilimacknac, to 
which, and all such future orders as he may judge necessary to 
send you, upon this subject, you are to pay the strictest attention 
and obedience. 

You will as frequently as possible report to the officer com- 
manding at Detroit, under whose immediate command you are, — 
( Michilimackinac being a post dependant thereon,) the state of 
the troops under your command, sending the proper returns and 
acquainting him of every occurence relative to the better conduct- 
ing His Majesty's affairs in that country, that you shall think it 
necessary he should be informed of. You will likewise correspond 
with Sir William Johnson, giving him notice of every thing you 
shall think worthy his knowledge, relative to the conduct and 
temper of the Indians. 


Philad: 10". J any. 1766 

I take the liberty to inform You I am lately return'd from the 
Nation, from whence I brought Seven Couple of Hybernian Fox 
Hounds & if You have the least desire for any of 'em Please to 
signify it to me, by S r . Calaghan O'bralaghan the bearer of this, 
& I will send 'em to You by the first safe Opportunity. I am sorry 
to inform You that I Labour at present under the fashonable 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Gratz Collection. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 3 

disadvantage of a foul Yard but hope soon, with the assistance of 
Doc r . Antoin, to be able to ride the Fringes once more. 

Am D r . S'. 
S R . W M . JOHNSON Your Affectionate 


The Hon ble . 
S r . W m . Johnson Barr 1 . 
Johnson Hall 


Philadelphia Janry. 10*. 1766 

Co 11 . George Armstrongs 
Letter — 

2 In Sir William's hand. 


New York, January 20 ih . 1766. — 

DR. SR. WM. _ 

I Receivd a Letter of yours Dated the 18th of July, 2 In 
October Last. This will be Given you by Major Rogers, 3 He has 
Overcome all his Distresses, If He can be Encouraged on this Side 
of the Water, For he has met with Powerfull freinds on the Other. 
He Desires I woud mention him to you, Your Disposition to 
Serve Mankind, is well known, & needs Little Prompting. The 
Interest he has made at home, Might have Done Something 
better for him, than Sending him to Michillimakina, However 
there He is to be Set Down; & to be Subordinate to you. If He 
has not too Great Conceptions of the Place, & its Advantages, In 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

2 Not found. 

3 Major Robert Rogers, commandant at Michilimackinac. 

4 Sir William Johnson Papers 

all Probability He will Do very well, & be Soon Extricated from 
all his Difficultys. You know him as well as I Do, & I am 
Persuaded will be Inclind to Do him all the Service in your 
Power, that is Reasonable. What think you of the Gentlemen 
Writers Now? Have Not they Brought the Country into a fine 
Situation. Have not they Brought themselves under a Premunire ; 
Nothing to be Done Now amongst that Learned Body, All 
Stands Still, I beleive they woud be Glad to Lay the Devil they 
Raisd, Now they find it Clashes with their Interest, For Dam'n 
me, If I will Beleive there was one Spark of Patriotick Virtue in 
all their Maneuvres. D r . S r . I heartily Wish you Good Health, 
Good Spirits ; And a Good Shelaly Ever in Terrorem to Raskals. 
Major Rogers will tell you, Your Son 4 is Safe Arrivd. 

I am D r . S r . 

Most Sincerely Yours 

New York Janrx. 20 th . 1 766 — 

Major Moncreifs Letter 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Copy of a Memorial from the Merchants, and Indian Traders 

of Montreal, dated 

Montreal, 22 d . ]an». % 1766. 

To Sir W M . Johnson Bar*. Superintendant of Indian Affairs. — 


We beg leave to lay before you a subject of the last Importance 

to ourselves, equally interesting to the Publick, and which we ap- 

4 John Johnson arrived in London November 18, 1 765. 

5 Thomas Moncrieffe, captain, and afterward major in the 59th British 
regiment in the French and Indian War. Aide-de-camp to Amherst in 

6 In Sir William's hand. 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 5 

prehend comes immediately under your Department. Just relieved 
from a War in the upper Country, by w ch . we and many more of 
his Majesty's Subjects, residing in this Province have been very 
great sufferers and encouraged by the Proclamation of our gracious 
Sovereign, We, last Spring sent a very considerable Quantity of 
Goods to Michillimacinac, but instead of a general Permission to 
winter among the Indians, as formerly, to which they were all 
equally entitled by their Passes from Governor Murray, 2 only 
some few Particulars have been allowed such Indulgence, 
whereby we are & must be great Sufferers, and unless some Step 
be taken to prevent the like Partiality hereafter, it will be the 
Ruin of many Individuals, and a Hurt to Commerce in general. — 

But we have still more Cause to be alarmed at an attempt that 
is intended to be made to deprive us of that Trade more effectually 
by a pretended Purchase made by M r . William Grant of the Post 
of La Bay 3 with an exclusive Priviledge of Trading there, which 
we imagine cannot be valid for the following Reasons. 

That by the Copies of the Original Priviledge, the Confirma- 
tion thereof by his most Christian Majesty, and the Deed of Sale 
to M r . William Grant attested, which we take the liberty, Sir, to 
inclose for your Perusal, the exclusive Trade of the said Post 
appears to have been granted by the French Governor 4 to Mon- 
sieur Rigaud de Vaudrieuil 5 and his Lady at a very Critical 
Period, on the Eve of the country of Canada's falling under the 
British Empire, and only confirmed by his most Christian Majesty 
the 15 th . January 1760 at which time Quebec had actually been 
in our possession four months, and a great Part of the upper 
Country conquered before the Original Priviledge was granted. — 

2 James Murray was appointed governor of Canada and commander in 
chief of the British forces in Canada on Nov. 21,1 763. He retained both 
these offices until 1 766. 

3 Green Bay, Wisconsin. 

4 Intendant is meant. 

5 Pierre Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil. See Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. 
N. Y., 7:817, Sir William to Lords of Trade, March 22, 1766, re- 
counting this deal. 

6 Sir William Johnson Papers 

That no Possession was ever taken by Monsieur Vaudrieuil by 
Virtue of the said Priviledge consequently he never had any real 
Property therein ; and when the Country was totally reduced, the 
said Deed of Priviledge was required by General Amherst, and 
actually given up to him, which is a convincing Proof that his 
Excellency did not consider it as private Property. — 

That the Post of La Bay is entirely Indian Lands, and accord- 
ing to the Limits laid down in said Priviledge at a moderate Com- 
putation it contains 1 0,000 Indians, we can't help observing that 
when they find M r . Grant 6 is the only person allowed to trade 
with them, and that the said Priviledge is disposed of to him 
Exclusive without their Consent, or knowledge, contrary to the 
Faith of all Treaties, and the most Solemn Promises, they will 
certainly be very much disatisfied, and we are fearful it will be 
the Cause of another War. 

And Lastly — 

That any Priviledge whatever of an Exclusive Trade, or 
Monopoly of any kind being directly contrary to our Constitution, 
undoubtedly w th . the Conquest of the Country fell to the 
Crown. — 

And further we are assured by our most gracious Sovereign's 
Proclamation dated the 7 th . October 1 763 "that the Trade with 
the s d . Indians shall be free, and open to all his Subjects whatever 
on Condition of their giving Security to observe such Orders, and 
Regulations as may at any time be established for the benefit 
thereof. — And further his Majesty forbids on pain of his royal 
Displeasure all his loving Subjects whatever from making any 
Purchases, or Settlements, or taking Possession of any of the 
lands not included within the Limits of the said three new Govern- 
ments therein pointed out w lh . out his special Leave, and License 
for that purpose first obtained, — And does further strictly enjoin 
and require all Persons whatever who have either willfully, or 
inadvertently seated themselves upon any lands within the said 
Countries, which having not been ceded, or Purchased by his 

6 William Grant. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 7 

Majesty, are still reserved to said Indians, forthwith to remove 
from such Settlements." — by which we see with gratitude, his 
Majesty ever attentive to the Welfare of his Subjects, will not 
allow any Individual to possess himself of the smallest Tract of 
land not included within the limits of the Government. — and we 
do not doubt Sir, you are fully sensible of the bad effects of of a 
Monopoly of any kind, and more particularly here, as almost 
every House furnishes a Trader, whose sole Support, and Depend- 
ance is upon a free, and open Trade with the Indians — 

The pretended Proprietor may urge that his Majesty never in- 
tended by his Proclamation to divest any Individual of his Prop- 
erty ; yet the very Condition of the Priviledge considered with the 
Critical Period at which it was granted, we humbly hope will 
convince you Sir, of the necessity of his having his Majesty's 
approbation before he can avail himself thereof. — 

We are credibly informed his views are to get immediate 
Possession in hopes that he may thereby induce his Majesty to 
consider it as a real Property, and confirm the same to him. — 

We have done our selves the Honour by this Post to write to his 
Excellency the Honble Tho s . Gage a Circumstantial Detail of this 
Subject, requesting he will condescend to give the Officer com- 
manding at Michillimacinac, early in the Spring, such Orders as 
the nature of the Subject requires, or he may Judge necessary 
to prevent such Monopoly taking place, at least till his Majesty's 
pleasure shall be known. — And if you Sir, as Superintendant of 
Indian Affairs for the Northern District will be pleased in Con- 
cert with his Excellency to take such measures as may remove this 
Grievance for the present, and countenance the application we 
make this Post by our Agent to the Lords of Trade, or otherwise 
as you may think most effectual, it will be doing the Public a 
Service, and laying an Obligation on a Province almost worn out 
with a Succession of Misfortunes. — 

We beg leave to assure you Sir in the most hearty, and solemn 
manner that our only view in laying these Affairs before you, is 
to preserve inviolable a free, and open Trade, which his Majesty 

8 Sir William Johnson Papers 

has most graciously been pleased to promise to all his American 
Subjects. — 

We further beg leave to inform you Sir, that many of us have 
a large Quantity of Goods that we intend sending to Michil- 
limacinac the approaching Spring, and request you will condescend 
to inform us upon what Footing the Trade will be, that we may 
govern ourselves accordingly. — We have the honor to be most 
respectfully — Sir 

Your most obed 1 . & hble Serv ts . 
Signed by all the principal Merchants of Montreal as appears by 
the Original in the Superintend 1 *. Office — 


A. L. S. 1 

Janry. 25*. 1766 — 
Dear Sir — 

I have to acknowledge the receipt of y r . favours of the 30 th . 
Ult°. 2 & 13 th . Ins'., 3 the former with the agreable news of our 
being in possession of the Illinois, on w h . I congratulate You & 
hope we may peaceably enjoy it, & that M r . Smallman 4 & 
M c .Kee 5 may be a means of contributing thereto, altho their 
Journey is now somewhat late, and could y e . expence have been 
undertaken, it was doubtless better to have sent them with the 
Troops. I have heard from M r . Croghan on the Occasion, & Sent 
directions for M c .Kee respecting the Condolence with the Shaw- 
anese. — 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Johnson Papers, 1 1 :988-89. 

3 Not found. 

4 Major Thomas Smallman. 

5 Alexander McKee, deputy agent for Indian affairs at Fort Pitt. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 9 

Touching your last favour I must own it Surprised me a good 
deal to find the papers for some time past filled with Gov r . Rojers 6 
and his great appointments. He was a Soldier in my Army in 
1 755, and as we were in great Want of Active Men at that time, 
his readiness recommended him so far to me that I made him an 
officer, and got him continued in the Ranging Service, where he 
soon became puffed up with pride and folly from the extravigant 
encomiums & notice of some of the Provinces, this spoiled a good 
Ranger for he was fitt for nothing else, neither has Nature calcu- 
lated him for a large Command in that Service, he has neither 
Understanding, education, or principles, as I could sufficiently 
Shew, the Character You have given of Him is extremely Just 
and I am astonished that the Government could have thought of 
Such an Employment for him, but since it is so, I am of Your 
opinion he should be tied up in such a manner as may best prevent 
him from doing Mischeif, and I wish I could well point out how 
it is to be effected. I apprehend it will cheifly depend on the 
Words of his Commission or Appointment. If he is appointed 
Commd 1 . of Michilimackinac & a Deputy Agent for Indian 
Affairs in that Quarter under the Superintendant & bound by his 
Orders (except where those of the Commd r . in Cheif for the time 
being interfere) in everry thing relative thereto, and oblidged to 
transmit regular Reports from time to time of all Transactions, I 
think he will not have it in his power to do so much harm as other- 
wise, but to prevent him from doing any is impossible, for he has 
been concerned in Trade during the time he was in y e . Service, 
and will again with those of his connections in that Quarter where 
by his being Commd 1 . he will have it in his power To confine the 
Trade in a great degree to himself & Freinds, neither can I think 
he would stick at saying any thing to the Indians to effect any of his 
purposes. — The like objections will be against him if appointed 
for any other place. I wish the Government would revise the case, 

6 Major Robert Rogers. 

10 Sir William Johnson Papers 

and put him on full pay or give him some little appointment, as a 
Barrack Master or Fort Major & ca . of which there will be doubt- 
less some Establishment, in such Offices it would be out of his 
power to do harm either in Acc lts . or otherwise, but as a Commd 1 . 
& Indian Agent it will be extremely difficult to check him or detect 
him. — if after all, nothing else can be thought on I shall on y r . 
being pleased to signify to me the power contained in his Com- 
mission lay before You such Articles as may in some measure tye 
up his hands, for I presume he may not set out for his Post this 
Winter, in the meantime as I observed before the only thing to be 
done at present is to point out from whom he is to take his orders 
respecting Indian Affairs, the Channel thro which his reports are 
to be transmitted, & to limit his Expences to some Pipes, Tobacco, 
& some liquor, unless when he may be ordered to meet any body 
of Indians, but not of himself to incurr any other Expences, or to 
Assemble or treat with the Indians, and whenever they shall 
address him to Send a faithfull copy of their Speeches, & to take 
care of all their Belts Calumets & ca . — 

I am extremely Sorry for the Death of the Duke of Cumber- 
land, & hope it may have no ill consequence on public affairs, I 
have no letters from the Lords of Trade by this Packet, but from 
other letters, there is reason to think the affairs of my Department 
will be at last taken into consideration. The Government at Home 
begin to resent the conduct of the Colonists, & I wish it may open 
their Eyes to revise or give a Check to the cause of it, for without 
that, in half a Century or much less we may be cutting our own 
throats, and this Country may be parcelled out amongst the Mari- 
time Powers of Europe, the Misguided Common People dont 
conceive their Danger, they only hear One Side of the Argument, 
& that greatly exaggerated by some Interested Cheifs, Whose 
Violent party Principles have deceived themselves, or their private 
Views led them to raise the Genr 1 . Spirit of Discord, which is now 
extending itself over the Whole Continent, and daily disturbing 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 1 1 

the peace, without any visible motive, or prospect of Success, but 
apparently tending to render us odious to the Mother Country. — 

I am with the most perfect Esteem 
Dear Sir 
Your verry obedient 
His Excellency & most Humble Servant 

Genr l . Gage — W M . Johnson 


S r . W m . Johnson 

25* Jan'y. 1 766. 
received 2 d . Feb r )\ - 

answ d . 

Cop}) 1 

Johnson Hall, Jan. 30, 1766 

Dear Sir, 

Major Rogers delivered me your favor of the 20th inst., 2 by 
which I am surprised to find that my letter of July was three 
months on the road. Indeed, the irregularity of the Posts, and 
miscarriages of letters are become very frequent of late, and a sub- 
ject of general complaint from most of my correspondents. 

I have known Major Rogers ever since 1 755, and should be 
glad the Government had made a better or more adapted appoint- 
ment for him. As Michilimackinack is pointed out, he must go 
there, where I hope he will act a proper part, prove of service to 
the public and extricate himself out of his difficulties, and deserve 
a better character than the public has for some time bestowed upon 
him, the particulars and causes of which you are so well acquainted 

1 Printed in Journals of Major Robert Rogers, ed. F. B. Hough, pp. 
218-20. Original destroyed by fire. See Johnson Calendar, p. 299. 

2 Ante pp. 3-4. 

12 Sir William Johnson Papers 

with, that I need say no more than to assure you that your recom- 
mendation will always have due weight with me. 3 

I heartily thank you for your honest remarks and candid senti- 
ments on our American disputes. They have been always mine, 
and I trust we shall never differ in opinion thereon. The unconsti- 
tutional steps pursued to obtain a constitutional redress, can 
hardly be parallelled, and I fear they have kindled a fire which 
all their engines may not extinguish, not withstanding all the paper 
puffs, and the distresses which they threaten Great Britain. 4 If I 
could find one instance of patriotic disinterestedness and modera- 
tion — of respect for the Crown and its officers and unpreju- 
diced sentiments of liberty I should esteem them; but when long 
experience induces me to think that opposition and bravado are 
their darling passions, I cannot but condemn their doctrine, and I 
shudder at the licentiousness it might introduce. 5 A country with- 
out fleet, army, or even numbers equal to the smallest Kingdom, 
and they too, scattered over an extensive tract of country, with 

3 In the original draft, in place of the preceding sentence the following 
had been written and then erased: "I am sorry to say, he does not appear 
much esteemed, for it gives me a sensible pain to find a useful active man, 
struggling under the disadvantages of distress, and a bad name, and he 
would have done much better, if not exalted too much by the people here, 
who appear now foremost in debasing him." — Note by F. B. Hough, ed. 

4 In the original draft, the following had been here written and erased: 
"I am not friend to any act which may bring difficulty or distress on a free 
people ; but I love the British Constitution, and would not add £ 1 00 a year 
to my estate, to produce the smallest diminution of the British Rights, I 
love a monarchy, such as England is, but not such as they would make it." 
— Note by F. B. Hough, ed. 

5 This passage as first written, in the original draft, and then partly 
erased, was as follows: "But when I know by long experience, by good 
information, and even from their own history, that it is not liberty but 
faction they court, and that their sentiments and conduct so strongly 
resembles that of those who once overcast the British Constitution, I shudder 
at the licentiousness they would introduce; and if they were absolved from 
all British tyes, cannot but consider them as a prey for the first maritime 
power, or rather as fallen to the share of all the maritime powers in 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 13 

few sea ports, and those few, with all their commerce, liable to be 
totally obstructed by the smallest squadron, must certainly fall a 
sacrifice if left to themselves, to one, or other, or all the maritime 
powers, which makes me astonished at the extravagant speeches 
I daily hear (no doubt brought from good authority) of their 
strength and resolutions. In a country where we are denied the 
liberty of altering our thoughts, it is scarcely safe to say much, and 
I can say little further than to express my wishes, that moderation 
may become more in esteem, and that the public may at length be 
convinced by serious reflection, that their violent conduct is in no 
wise calculated for procuring them redress. or esteem from the 
mother country. I sincerely thank you for all your good wishes, 
and if you approve of my sentiments, shall expect a continuance 
of your friendly correspondence. 

Be assured of my unalterable esteem, of my best wishes for 
your prosperity, and that I am Dear Montcrieffe, your Sincere 


William Johnson. 



Johnson Hall Feb'y. 4 th . 1766 
Sir — 

If You have got any Hornbooks & Primmers in English please 
to Send me a Dozen of Each. I had a great Number of them on 
board of Bogerts 2 Sloop now frozen up at y e . Mannor, but are 
some how lost or mislay'd. if you should not have any of them, be 

1 In St. George's Episcopal Church, Schenectady, N. Y. 

2 Henry I. Bogert, sloop captain. 

14 Sir William Johnson Papers 

so good to purchase so many for me any where else, and You will 
oblidge — Sir 


Humble Servant 
W M . Johnson 
PS. I have wrote lately 
to York concerning y e . 
Affair of the Church, 
expect it will have a good 
Effect, — but this to y r . self. — 



M r . John Brown 
In Schenectady 

3 pray Send 2 Boxes 
of Spermaceti Candles 


WJ — 


W M . Johnson 
Letter 1 766 

3 On the outside of sheet with the address. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 15 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Nerv York Fefry. 10 th . 1766 — 
Dear Sir, 

M r . Croghan has delivered Me your Favor of the 3 1 st . Ul mo . ; 2 
What You propose, relative to the Meeting with Pondiac &ca, 
at Ontario 3 in the Spring seems very proper. I Expect every day 
to receive the Originals of the Dispatches brought by last Packet, 
what is become of the Man of War they were Sent by, I can't 
Conceive. But I perceive by the Duplicates, that there is a Report 
of the Board of Trade, which I am to Communicate to You, I 
understand by M r . Conway's 4 Letter that it relates to Meetings 
with the Indians, that Such proposals Should be always trans- 
mitted to them, with an Estimate of the Expence that will prob- 
ably Attend the Meetings. What You propose now at Ontario, 
will not Stay for their answer, but You may Acquaint them of it, 
and Send an Estimate as well as You can Ascertain, when the 
Report comes to Hand, it shall be transmitted to You: I Shall 
be glad You would inform Me of the Time You would fix for the 
Meeting, and the Quantity of Provisions You would require, 
There is a large Stock at Niagara, rather Stale that might be used 
on Such an Occasion, and Save a great Expence to the Crown, 
in transporting More. I can hear no Tidings of the 34 th . Regim*. 
Since they left the Natchis in August last. The last Letters from 
West Florida, or New Orleans, are Dated in October, arising 
I conclude from the Difficulties about the Stamp Act, which has 
Delayed the Sailing of Vessels. The gaining of Pondiac & his 
Friends is certainly worth our Attention. He has great Influence 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 See Johnson to the Lords of Trade, Jan. 31,1 766, Doc. Rel. Col. 
Hist.N. Y., 7:808-11. 

3 Oswego. 

4 Henry Seymour Conway, one of his majesty's principal secretaries of 

16 Sir William Johnson Papers 

at the Ilinois as well as with his own People ; But his power Alone 
was not Sufficient to gain us possession of Fort Chartres. Capt 
Stirling 5 Says, he should certainly [have] been Opposed, had he 
not Arrived so Suddenly, upon them, that they had not time to 
Consult, and in their fright Sent Pipes of Peace ; as Soon as they 
discovered his Numbers, they grew Insolent, but he had gained 
the Fort. He Says further, that none of the Chiefs of those 
Villages had been with M r . Croghan, or attended his Congress. 
The Parliament probably will have too much other Business on 
their Hands respecting America, than to Settle Matters con- 
cerning your particular Department, but the King & His Ministers 
will have that Confidence in You, as to Approve of any Steps 
You take that shall be so highly Conducive to the Service, as You 
report the Plan to be, Which You make Mention of; and I am 
of Opinion You may, without more Hesitation put it in Execu- 
tion; Reporting the Same to the Board of Trade. Very large 
Sums have indeed been Expended, in getting Possession of the 
Ilinois, M r . Croghan's Account alone, with his losses are very 
Considerable. That Gentleman is certainly better Acquainted 
with the Indians of the Ohio & Mississippi, than any other Person, 
and therefore the most proper for that District; He must give in 
a Memorial concerning his Losses, which must be transmitted 
to the Treasury — 

I inclose You a Certificate of Lieut M c Tavish 6 being on Half 
pay, and am to Acquaint You that they have all been rejected 
hitherto, unless Personal Application was made, & it will not 
Answer for L l . M c Tavish to come from Scotland to demand his 
Lands — 

I inclose You the Size of the largest Dye made here for Casting 
Indian Medals, in form like those formerly Sent You to Niagara, 
the Same Device. There is no person to be met with here, who 

5 Captain Thomas Stirling of the 42nd, or Royal Highland regiment. 

6 Jon. McTavish of Inverness, Scotland. See Johnson Calendar, p. 277, 
for his petition for lands. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 17 

can make them Neater or better than those Sent You as Above. 
You will Judge if they will Answer — 

I don't know how far they will consider You as a reduced 
Officer, not being on Half pay, hitherto they have only given to 
those Actually receiving Half pay. And I certify they are on 
that Establishment — 

I am, 

Dear Sir, 
Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 . &ca. 


To Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 . 

Johnson Hall 
New York 1 0* Feb*. 1 766 


Copy 1 

New York, February 14, 1766. 

I have received orders from General Gage for taking command 
of the troops and garrison at Michilimakina, a copy of which 
orders Mr. Croghan will forward to you with this letter. I hope 
for your approbation, and that I shall have your assistance for 
any thing that may offer, that is in your Department, as I shall 
ever be happy to receive, so I shall take pleasure in obeying your 
commands. I shall send up my Journals 2 for your perusal, by the 
Post. The Packet is hourly expected, should she bring any intelli- 
gence worthy your notice, I shall do myself the honour to com- 

1 In Journals of Major Robert Rogers, F. B. Hough, ed., pp. 220-21 . 
Original destroyed by fire. See Johnson Calendar, p. 300. 

2 "Probably referring to the volume printed in London in 1765, which 
we here republish." — Hough's note. 

18 Sir William Johnson Papers 

municate it to you. The London Papers inform that your son had 
the honour of a knighthood conferred upon him at his arrival in 

I am with great Respect, Sir, your most Obedient and most 
Humble Servant, 

Robert Rogers. 

Copij 1 

New York, Feb. 14, 1766. 

On my aravel here I delivered Your honours Letter to the 
General who read itt with great attention then tould me he would 
be glad to see me another Time as he was very busey then. 

this morning he tould me that you had wrote him that I was to 
go to the Ilinois this Spring wh he much aprov'd of & that you had 
wrote him concerning Your making the Necessary apointments in 
the Departments agreeable to the plan settled by the Lords of 
Trade wh he said he had herd of being putt in Execution att 
home as was intended wh he said he bliv'd was owing to the 
several Changes in the Ministry, Butt said he was of opinion Your 
Honour would make all the apointments necessary agreeable to 
that plan wh he had wrote to you. 

We had a good deal of conversation on the Trade at the 
Ilinois Country that seems to be his great object to secure 

the possession of that Country & he prest me to prepare to go 
there. I tould him I wold have no objection to going there pro- 
vided a regular and uniform plan wold be observed So as to settle 

1 An extract printed in Illinois Historical Collections, 1 1 :155; original 
in New York State Library was destroyed by fire. According to Johnson 
Calendar, p. 300, it also mentioned "losses which he suffered by advancing 
sums for the Indian service," and recommended "Mr. Smallman, Mr. 
McDugall and Capt. Burns for commissaries at Detroit, Labay and 
Oswego, respectively." 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 19 

Maters with those distant & almost unknown Nations on a perma- 
nent footing and that I would prepare myself for the Journey as 
soon as I receive Your Honours Instructions. 



Johnson hall Feby.20 ih . 1766. 

Gentlemen — 

I have just received your Letter of the 22 d . ult°. 2 (with the 
enclosures) concerning the purchase of La Baye &ca. lately made 
by M r . W m . Grant which you represent as a very affecting cir- 
cumstance and desire my Interest and representations against it. — 

You may be assured that I am sensible of your Situation and 
the disadvantages you must labour under should that Grant take 
place, that I foresee the ill effects of an exclusive Trade, or 
Monopoly to Commerce in General, and would prevent it by all 
means in my power. But I am hopefull that your apprehensions 
are greater than the Case requires as I have some reason to think 
that such a Grant will not be permitted to take place for the 
reasons you have assigned, more especially in consideration of its 
powers and extent, That it is beyond the Limits of any of our 
Governments, & that it was not purchased, or conquered by the 
French. — Were it within any of the Provinces, A purchase from 
a French Proprietor having good title must take place, but the 
Title of the Orig 1 . Proprietor being materially defective and his 
Grant containing powers for making Settlements in and enjoying 
an exclusive Trade throughout an Extensive tract of Country 
which his Majesty appears earnestly disposed to protect from any 
encroachment or Settlement whatever, I have little doubt but 
that he will prevent a Grant which however agreable to the French 

1 In University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada; copy in the Johnson 
manuscripts in New York State Library was destroyed by fire. A French 
translation accompanied this letter. 

2 Ante pp. 4-8. 

20 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Constitution is not so consistent with ours, especially when it 
affects a Corherce which His Majesty intends shall be free & open 
to all his Subjects. — 

I make no doubt of Gen 1 . Gages accordation in Sentiments with 
me, I shall probably hear from him on that Head & you may be 
assured of my good Offices, in my next Letters to the Lords of 
Trade, for it would give me much pleasure if my representations 
could be a means of preventing any Scheme prejudicial to Com- 
merce, & to the Trading interest in Canada. — 

I am, 

Your hearty Wellwisher, 
and verry Humble Servant 
To the Merch ts . & Traders W m . Johnson 

at Montreal &c 


Johnson Hall Feby 10 1766 
S r . W m . Johnsons Letter 
to the Merch ts . in 


A. L. S. 1 

Johnson Hall Feb^y. 20 ih . 1766 
Dear Sir — 

Since my last I have received your favours of the 3d. 2 & 1 th . 
Ins'. 3 and am glad that my Sentiments respecting the Posts have 
in General met with your approbation. — 

Those Posts You intend to retain are doubtless necessary as 
also Fort Stanwix for keeping up a Communication, I shall make 

1 In William L. Clements Library; draft in New York State Library 
was destroyed by fire. 

2 Johnson Papers, 5 : 30-3 1 . 

3 Ante pp. 15-17. 

Courtesy Fort Ticonderoga Bulletin. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 21 

the proper use of it to the Indians, which will doubtless be verry 
agreable to them with regard to the Posts y u . purpose to abandon. 
— The Manner you intend to restrict Major Rojers 4 will best 
conduce to prevent his taking too much upon him, which other- 
wise he might do. — 

I think I mentioned to You in a former letter that L*. Gov r . 
Fauquiere 5 had applyed to me for to mediate a Peace between the 
Six Nations, & Cherokees at the particular desire of the latter, 
& informed me that the latter were about to send Deputys hither to 
treat with them concerning it, on this Head altho I was well ap- 
prised of the Sentiments of the Six Nations I nevertheless con- 
sulted them, but found as I expected that they did not incline 
thereto from the old grudge they bear them, and their great in- 
veteracy which in my opinion will defeat the design of a Peace, 
as I experienced many years ago, when I endeavoured to accom- 
modate a matter of that nature, & besides that, the Deputys from 
the Southward are not yet arrived as was promised by Gov r . 
Fauquiere, w h . makes the thing worse. — I find that the Northeren 
Indians are not only Jealous of our Mediation but also determined 
to continue the War, unless the Cherokees & Catabaws will Sub- 
mit themselves & their Country to their mercy, w h . I dont appre- 
hend they will yet readily agree to. In point of Policy it is for our 
Interest that this War should be carried on provided it does not 
affect his Majesties Subjects, as it takes & engages the attention 
of many restless Ind s . to the Northward who have great Influence, 
and must be at War in one Quarter or another, however I wrote 
both to the L l . Govemour of Virginia & to M r . Stuart 6 on the 
Subject that I shall nevertheless if the Deputys arrive use all my 
Influence to effect a Peace. , — 

I have received a letter from Sir Hen?. Moore 7 intimating his 
desire to see me at this Juncture, it would give me great pleasure 

4 Major Robert Rogers, commandant at Michilimackinac. 

5 Francis Fauquier, lieutenant governor of Virginia, 1 758-1 768. 

6 John Stuart, southern superintendent of Indians. 

7 Governor of New York. Letter not found. 

22 Sir William Johnson Papers 

to undertake the Journ'y. as it would afford me the Satisfaction of 
Seeing You and him, and I could wish I might be of any use, 
but my constitution is greatly changed, for Six years past, I have 
been at different periods attacked with a Violent disorder in the 
Bowels, w h . often produces a Dilirium and from several Symp- 
toms I expect a return of it daily which has oblidged me to apply 
to Doctor Magrah, 8 should it attack me on the Road at such a 
Season as this, It might prove fatal. I must therefore of necessity 
postpone my Journey, the rather as there is no Sledding, Albany 
River is Shut up, no other Carriage can yet go on the Road, & 
my Wound which everry Year grows more troublesome will not 
permit me to undertake a Journey on Horseback, I have wrote to 
Sir Henry on the Subject by this Conveyance. 

I am pleased to find by your letter of the 1 th . that You approve 
of my meeting with Pondiac & the Cheifs of y e . Westeren Nations 
at Ontario, 9 I now Send orders to M r . Croghan to forward Belts 
with my Messages to Him & the rest, whilst I send others by way 
of the Lakes to prevent a Disapointment. — as the Indians are 
Slow in their Motions on these occasions they may not arrive at 
the fixed place before June, or July next, a Conference w l \. him 
and the rest may contribute to consolidated w l . has been hitherto 
done, He is a fellow of Ambition & forwardness, & those kind 
of People will make an Interest amongst all Indians — whether 
he had Sufficient to obtain possession of the Illinois I cant pretend 
to say, I know from a variety of proofs it was the cheif obstacle 
to our acquiring that Country till last Year, but I dont consider 
his power alone as the cause of our Success, & I apprehend Cap 1 . 
Sterling 10 may have been misinformed by the French (whose 
Study it is to misguide us) with regard to the cause of his gaining 
possession of Fort Chartres, 11 for I know the Indians were well 

8 Dr. Redmond Magra. 

9 Oswego. 

10 Captain Thomas Stirling of the 42nd, or Royal Highland regiment. 

11 Fort Chartres was located on the Mississippi River near La Prairie du 
Rocher in present Randolph County, Ind. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 23 

acquainted with all his Motions, and had the Majority been actu- 
ally disposed to oppose him, it is evident He could never have 
reached that place, neither are they to be Surprised by any body 
we can send by so tedious a Rout, & thro so many Nations. The 
French will doubtless, tho falsly assert that the Cheifs did not 
attend, or approve of it, because they like to create misunderstand- 
ings & avail themselves thereby, doubtless many disliked it, & 
none more than the French as appears by their Letters, but the 
Cheifs & the Majority were willing to try our bounty otherwise 
we could not have got it. I only mention this in Justice to M r . 
Croghans endeavours. — 

I should be sorry that the Parliament did not find time for 
attending to affairs, the importance of which have been felt here 
severely, but as You observe it is highly probable they may be 
otherwise engaged, if so, my hands must be greatly tyed up, for it 
will be out of my power to consult the Board on any occurring 
Matter, and without that my Risque is evident. In the present 
case there is some difference, & M r . Croghan will be the best 
Person certainly to go to the Illinois & introduce the Commissary 
who is to reside there to the Indians Acquaintance, there will be 
some Expence attending his Journey, as no Man can go empty 
handed amongst the Indians. — I am verry glad You approve of 
these appointments, which I shall report to the Board of Trade, 
and for the present confine the expence to those of most impor- 
tance ; as Fort Pitt, Illinois Michilimacinac Detroit & Niagra, for 
which as I formerly mentioned I have pitched upon Several per- 
sons whose names I shall transmit in my next, as also an Estimate 
of the quantity of provisions as near as I can. It would doubtless 
be a Saving to give them the provisions You mention to be at 
Niagra, but as they would certainly take notice of it, I apprehend 
it might give them offence, as I once experienced on such an occa- 
sion. — 

The size of the Dye you sent is verry large but most of the 
Workmanship of that nature done at New York is so ill executed 
that it is observed even by the most distant Indians I believe 

this work is better finished at Philadelphia, by some Meddals I 

24 Sir William Johnson Papers 

have seen w h . were struck there, the French Meddals are much 
thicker than those made here, the paper I now send enclosed is a 
good Size, and as I know the Ind s . are fond of Shewing them in 
all places they go to, & enquire the meaning of y e . Inscription I 
could wish that on the Reverse was inscribed, Pledge of Peace 
& freindship with great Brittain confirmed in 1766, but of this 
as You please. — 

I hope shortly to receive the report You Mention, and that you 
will be so kind as to favour me with any other particulars neces- 
sary for my Government or Information. — 

I am with the greatest Respect 

Dear Sir 
Your most Obedient, and 
most Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 
His Excellency Genr l . Gage — 

P.S. You will excuse Sir the liberty I take of enclosing a letter 
for Major Moncrieffe 12 


S r . W m . Johnson 
Febn\ 20*. 1 766 
received March 3 d . 
Answ d . — 

12 Major Thomas Moncrieffe. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 




In Testimon y of Peace and 

Friendship with 6? Britain 




26 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Kaunandausaga, 2 Feby. 21 K 1766 

To the HonBle sr. W m . Jonhson. — 
Sir — 

I beg leave to trouble Your Honour w h . a short Ace*, of my 
present Situation. — Not doubting it may be agreeable, & find 
place, tho amidst a crowd of Business, — as I have always had y e . 
strongest Evidence, & experienced so largely of Your Honours 
Kindness, Condescention & good will towards my Mission. 

I lately spoke to The Head-Men & Warriours of this, & several 
other small adjacent Castles, — when I acquainted y m . more 
fully w h . my Design, Intention & Desire. — requiring of y m . w'. 
was their disposition w h . regard to my settling among them, — 
whether they would rece ve . & embrace y e . word of God. — I 
offed them several Arguments to enforce y e . Matter, & desird 
y m . to give it due Consideration, equal to its importance. — In y r . 
Answer to me, said. — They had considered well y e . whole of my 
speech — were intirely satisfied w h . my Design woud have ml pro- 
ceed in learning y r . Language — y l . They would rece ve . ii" em- 
brace y e . word of God, when I shoud be able to speak to them. — 
This was deliver'd to me in y e . presence of eight persons, & that y e . 
greater part were thus Minded, — Tho' there are Numbers who I 
know are resolutely determind never to hear any thing I shall 
say. — This however appears something encouraging, that y e . 
poor wretches are not able to perform w*. they have promisd, 
being so given to drink, & having no proper form or kind of Gov- 
erment. — Their present treatment, & behaviour towards me is 
far better than ever before, and do much to y e . Comfort & peace 
of My Life. — 

I cant yet feel willing to give up y e . Cause, 'till I have acquired 
a tolerable knowledge of y r . Language, & make a short trial. — 

1 In New York State Library. 

2 Kanadesaga, a Seneca village near Geneva, N. Y. See Beauchamp, 
Aboriginal Place Names, p. 158. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 27 

Tho my apprehensions are something dark & discouraging w h . 
respect to y r . ever truly embracing Christianity. Their Condition 
appears to me most miserable. Yet I can scarcely find one who is 
in any Measures sensible of it. — or thinks w h . y e . least concern 
w h . will become of y r . Children & y e . succeeding Generations. 
They imagine all will be well if they keep close to thir Traditions 
— w ch . are almost entirely lost & forgotten. — 

I purpose down some time in y e . Spring (God willing) when 
I hope to find Your Hon r . in health & prosperity. — The Bearer 
Sochichooware (who is one of my best friends) knows I have here 
acquainted Your Hon r . w h . their Answer to me y e . other day, as I 
told them it would be agreable. — I add no more, save my most 
humble renewed Thanks & Wishing Your Hon r . every Blessing 
of Life & those from above. — 

Your Honours 

Most most obie f . & oblig d . humb 1 . Serv*. 
m „ ,, „ na T S. KlRTLAND 3 

The Hon ble . S R . W M . Johnson 


To The Honourable 
S r . Will™. Johnson Bar 1 . 

by Soojechoowa 


Kanadissegey Feb r >\ 
21 st . 1766 

Mr. Kirtlands letter 
<P a Young Ind n . & 
Ans rd . March 16 th . 1766 
by y e . Same Ind n . 

3 Samuel Kirkland, missionary to the Indians, originally spelled his name 
as signed here. By 1 769, however, he had adopted the spelling "Kirk- 
land," by which he is generally known. See Johnson Papers, 6:774-75; 
and 7:xii. 

4 In Sir William's hand. 

28 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Extracts 1 

Johnson Hall, Febry. 21, 1766 

I have just received a letter from Genl Gage 2 wherein he 
approves of Your going to the Ilinois, he says nothing on the 

head of the Expense Attending that journey but altho' I have not 
heard from you as I expected I presume you spoke to him about it. 
However I have mentioned it in my answer to him, 3 he writes 

that Capt. Sterling has represented he would not have succeeded 
had he not come unexpectedly upon them, & before they knew his 
force or should take measures to prevent him, also that no Chiefs 
from that Country Attended you. It is easy to acct. for the motives 
of his representation & I have answered the General pretty fully 
on the Subject, but in justice to you, I thought it best to give you 
this Information of it. 

•J* *j» *j* •$* flS 

As the General approves of my Meeting with Pondiac & the 
Chiefs in that Quarter at Oswego, I think it best that you do 
imediately find a proper White Man in whom you can Confide 
accompanied by 2 or 3 Good Indians to invite him to meet me at 
Oswego in June next together with a Sachem & a Warrior from 
each tribe of the Twightwees, Chipeweighs, Ottawas & Hurons, 
& Powtowatamies. The Article of Expense will not admit of 
much more Coming from any Nation & these will be sufficient for 
the purpose. You will Give plain directions to the person who 
carries the Message to inform them that I do it — to open the 

1 First paragraph was copied by Dr. C. E. Carter and printed in 
Illinois Historical Collections, 11: 156; the second paragraph is from a 
copy in Oneida Historical Society, Utica, N. Y. The original was destroyed 
by fire. According to Johnson Calendar, p. 302, the rest of the letter dealt 
with "appointments of Indian commissaries, silver trinkets, 'colly flower' 
and turnip seeds." 

2 Feb. 10, 1766, ante pp. 15-17. 

3 Feb. 20, 1 766, ante pp. 20-25. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 29 

Road to us & to renew & Confirm all their late Engagements, & 
your Messenger should give me the Earliest Notice whether they 
will attend & the time when as Nearly as possible to prevent my 
being disappointed. I would have you to send off the Message 
without delay as it is a long Journey & the Collecting the Chiefs 
of so many Nations will take some time. — I shall also write by 
way of the Lakes to LA Coll. Campbell 4 to direct Miny Chien 5 
by my desire to meet Pondiac & accompany him to Oswego. 

Copy 1 

Detroit Feb. 24*. J 766. 


I am to acknowledge the favor of your letter of the 19 th . 
Aug. 2 & to assure you that it gives me -great pleasure to receive 
your directions concerning Indian affairs which I shall strictly 
observe. I have had little or no trouble with Indians since Mr. 
Croghans departure from hence. They meet with so much trade 
here that they seem to be very well satisfied. I have had few or no 
visits from any of them all this winter, so that I had no opportunity 
of conversing with any of their chiefs or to form any notion of 
their disposition at present, but from what has happened lately, 
I have very great reason to be disobliged at some of them — On 
the 4 th . inst two of our men were barbarously murdered at a small 
Post, at the river Rouse 3 about 4 miles below this, by some Indians 
of the St. Joseph Potowattomies that had been here the day before 
they committed this mischief — Trading with the merchants, the 

4 Lieut. Col. John Campbell, of 1 7th regiment, at Detroit. 

5 Meni Chesne, interpreter. 

Printed in Illinois Historical Collections, 11:157-58, from Pontiac 
Miscellanies in Massachusetts Historical Society. 

2 Johnson Papers, 1 1 :906-08. 

3 River Rouge. 

30 Sir William Johnson Papers 

poor offenceless victims were at work cutting firewood at a small 
distance from their Post when they were fired on by the savages — 
& wounded one of the men who was instantly seized on & killed on 
the spot in a barbarous manner — stabbed him with a knife & cut 
his head almost off with the filling one of the men had cutting 
wood — They carried the other man prisoner a few miles/but as 
he could not travel so fast as they wanted, killed & scalped him. 
The moment I heard the alarm guns fired on board the vessel, laid 
up at said Post I immediately ordered a strong Party to repair 
thither as quick as possible, who returned soon thereafter with an 
acct of the mischief done which I must own surprised me very 
much — but as I suspected the St. Joseph Indians, I ordered the 
same Party, the following night to march 2 hours before day-light 
to go in pursuit of the villains & to carry with them 6 days provi- 
sion with directions to steer their course towards the St. Joseph, 
having provided them proper guides, well acquainted with the 
woods, as I did not then hear of their killing the man, they took 
prisoner. I was in hopes the party would be able to overtake the 
delinquents with the prisoner, the 1 st , or 2 nd . day's march — but 
the officer that commanded the party, after travelling 2 days in pur- 
suit of them thought it vain to proceed any farther as all the 
Cabbins they came to were deserted by the Indians therefore 
concluded all the Indians that way were apprised of this design 
& the party returned here the 4 th . day without any intelligence of 
the offenders. A few days thereafter, several Indians brought me 
intelligence concerning the affair & told me that it was some of the 
young men of the Pottowattonies of St. Joseph (& two of them 
were chiefs' sons) that committed the murder as already related — 
I have since prohibited any trade with that nation of Indians until 
they deliver up the murders ; but I fear it will not have the desired 
effect as they can employ other Indians to dispose of their peltry. 
It is a most provoking to loose men in this manner without being 
able to get the least satisfaction from the rascally offenders, nor do 
I believe it is possible to prevail on any other nation of Indians to 
revenge this insult. I would be much obliged to you for your 
opinion & advice how to act in case they do not deliver up the 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 31 

Murderers as I think it should by no means be passed over with 

I had the pleasure of receiving some weeks ago a letter from 
Maj. Farmer, 4 informing me of his arrival at Fort Chartres with 
the 34 th . Reg f . The 2 nd . of Dec. last 5 I am in hopes our being 

in possession of the Illinois will effectually put a stop to French 
intrigue & be the means of preserving peace & tranquillity among 
the nations of Indians to the west-ward. I had a letter from Capt. 
Howard lately by which I am glad to find every thing remains 
quiet at Michilimacinack. 

I am, with the greatest regard, Sir, your most obd't & humble 

John Campbell 6 


Cop}) 1 

Extract of a Letter from S r . W m . Johnson — 

dated Febx. 28, 1766 
Indian Boundary 

In my last Letters I mentioned what the Indians then inclined 
to agree to with regard to the boundary between us and them and 
they have often applyed to me since to know if I was impowered 
to settle it, I long to hear from the Lords of Trade on that and 
other heads. 

When I have orders for the purpose I make no doubt of 
procuring their accordation to such a Tract as will be agreable, 
they having already agreed as you find to cede a vast Tract west- 
ward to above Fort Pitt, and the only difficulty that arises on the 

4 Major Robert Farmar. 

5 Farmar's account of his expedition is told in his letter to Gage, Dec. 
I 6- 19, 1765, printed in Illinois Historical Collections, 1 1 : 131-34. 

6 Lieutenant John Campbell, commandant at Detroit. 

1 Transcript in William L. Clements Library. Another transcript in 
Canadian Archives, Shelburne Papers, Vol. 5 1 . 

32 Sir William Johnson Papers 

east Branch is from the residence of so many Tribes there, which 
difficulty ray endeavours shal not be wanting to overcome, So as to 
make Tohicon the boundary to the north east &c a . and with the 
assistance of a propper present & some good medals, struck on the 
occasion for the cheif Sachems, and principal Warriors I do not 
despair of effecting it. 


A. L. S. 1 

Johnson Hall March K 1766 — 
Dear Sir — 

Since I had the pleasure of writing to You last, M r . Perthuis 2 
Interpreter arrived here from Montreal being dispatched by all 
the Coghnawageys to inform me that a certain M r . C artier 3 is 
arrived there to take possession of the Lands on which they live, by 
virtue of a purchase from M r . S l . Paul who claimed it by descent 
from one that had a Grant for it many years ago. The case (as I 
understand it from Perthuis) is this, — The Person from whom 
M r . S f . Paul derived his Claim had a Grant of it (I think) from 
Lewis the 1 4 th . but on a representation of the Jesuits pointing out 
the Advantages to be derived from the Establishment of the Ind s . 
there, the King made the then Proprietors Grant Void, & Granted 
it to the Indians, or the Jesuits in trust for their use. Since the 
Reduction of Canada You may recollect that y e . Jesuits Title 
was annulled by the Court of Officers at Montreal & about that 
time M r . S f . Paul went to France & is now returned with a Con- 
firmation of the Original Grant in his favour dated 1 750, which 
Grant or Confirmation he has Sold to M r . Cartier who has com- 
menced a Suit, & is determined to obtain possession, & turn the 

1 In William L. Clements Library; the draft in mutilated form, was 
printed in Johnson Papers, 5 :45-46. 

2 Louis Perthuis. 

3 Rene Cartier (Cartie). 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 33 

Indians of these Lands, and from Perthuis Ace*, the Judges have 
declared it must go against the Indians, & Judgment is only 
awarded as he says until they hear from me. — from the circum- 
stances of the date of the new Grant compared with the time M r . 
S f . Paul went to France to obtain it, which was in 1 760, Perthuis 
affirms it is conjectured that y e . Year 1 760 has been artfully 
changed to 1 750, but be that as it will the Indians express the 
highest discontent, & fixed resolution to go to the Westward, 
where they may in all likelyhood Stirr up fresh disturbances, I 
must therefore beg the favour of y r . Sentiments and advice thereon, 
& that you will act therein as seems best to You. — Three days 
ago I rec d . a Packet from Lord Adam Gordon & my Son 4 with 
the agreable news that his Majesty was pleased to give my Son a 
most gracious reception & to conferr the honour of Knighthood 
upon him imediately on his Arrival, asking him a variety of 
Questions, he mett with the same reception from the rest of the 
Royal Family, and he expresses his great obligations to Several of 
the Nobility & ca . for the Notice they have shewn him, & par- 
ticularly to y e . Civilities he has received from Lord Gage, for 
which I am in Duty bound to make You my most Gratefull 
Acknowledgments. There is verry little news in my letters, & the 
Bearer Just going off, I have only time to assure You, that I am 
most respectfully 

Dear Sir 

Your most Obedient 

& verry Humble Servant 
His Excellency W M . JOHNSON 

Genr l . Gage 


S r . W m . Johnson 
March 1 st . 1766 

received March 9 th . — 
Answ d . 

4 John Johnson. These letters of John and Lord Adam Gordon, prob- 
ably dated Dec. 1 2, or 14, 1 765, have not been found. 

34 Sir William Johnson Papers 


New York March 3*. 1766 
Dear Sir, 

I am very sorry to find by your Letter of the 20 th . of Feb r J\ 2 , 
that you are in Expectation of a fresh Attack of your old Dis- 
order, which will prevent me having the Pleasure to see you so 
soon as I could wish. 

Major Rogers has got his Instructions from me, of which I 
shall take an opportunity to transmit you a Copy, that you may be 
a Judge of what it will be Necessary for you to direct him in your 
orders to him relative to your Department. 

I find the Virginians were Intent on bringing about the Peace 
between the Northern Indians and the Cherokees, to prevent the 
latter from taking Revenge for the Murders committed in Virginia 
hopeing by Such a Material Service to gain their Friendship, for I 
believe the Gov r . will not be able to give them the Satisfaction 
they require, and seem to have a Right to demand. 

The sooner M r . Croghan Sets out with the Person whom you 
intend to nominate for Commissary at the Ilinois the better; it's 
very proper they should be there as early as it is possible, and 
what you shall Judge necessary for them you will inform me of 
and it will be supplyed them immediately. 

I will enquire whether there is any good Engravers at Phila- 
delphia; the Dye in my Possession was done by one de Bruhls 3 
who was reckoned the best in these Parts of the world. 

There are Reports here by Letters from Pensacola that the 
34 th . Reg f . had got up to the Ilinois; I hope it's true, as they 
carried a large Quantity of Presents with them, and many other 
things which Cap 1 . Stirling 4 was in need of. 

1 In Harvard University Library. 
^ Ante pp. 20-25. 

3 Michael De Bruls of New York. See negotiations with him for engrav- 
ing Sir William's coat of arms in 1 765. Johnson Papers, 3:vii-ix. 

4 Captain Thomas Stirling of the 42d regiment. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 35 

I am to beg the Favor of you to send off a trusty and diligent 
Indian with all Dispatch, with the inclosed Letters for F : Stanwix 
and F: Ontario &c a . The last has Inclosures to be forwarded to 
Niagara and Detroit on Business of great Moment to his 
Majesty's Service. — Affairs here are very Critical as you will 
learn by Letters, and indeed by the Publick Papers ; for they are 
bold enough to publish their Designs openly. 

I am with great Regard 
Dear Sir, 

Your most obedient 
S R . W M . Johnston humble Servant, 

Tho s . Gage 

P:S: I wish you Joy of your son's safe arrival, and of the 
gracious Reception he met with, and the honor His Majesty con- 
ferred upon him. 5 T. G. 


March 3< 1 766 — 

Genr 1 . Gages Letter 
rec d . the 15 th . 12 a Clock 


Copy 1 

New York 4 th . March 1766 

Altho we have had Variety of Operations here this Winter, yet 
they never have appeared to me worthy of laying before you, 
neither indeed could I presume to write of matters that I have not 

5 John Johnson arrived in London November 18, 1 765. On November 
22 he was presented to the king and knighted. 

6 In Sir William's hand. 

1 Printed in Illinois Historical Collections, 11:161-62. Original in 
mutilated form was printed in Johnson Papers, 5 :48-50. 

36 Sir William Johnson Papers 

understood. I could not perceive any feasible Design, altho there 
was certainly one intended. It is impossible to think these People 
thought of a War against the Mother Countries, yet they have 
gone such Lengths, that they must look foolish, if Matters are not 
settled to their Desire, not to go further; In these Commotions 
I have endeavoured to be a good Citizen, as far as my other 
Duties would permitt ; I have said long ago that the Colonies have 
been hardly dealt with ; but never was for breaking off the Chain 
of Rule, and throwing away the Links of mutual compacts. It 
has this Good that I hope the Chain will be made so strong as 
not to be broke, and those Links be made of mutual Interest. 

The news of the safe Arrival of our Friends 2 in England was 
communicated to me by my Lord Adam from Falmouth. But 
since I have not heard but by publick Rumour on which I never 
depend. That they are well & esteemed is enough for me, as I 
wish well to good People. 

We have entered into some Resolutions concerning our Posts 
which the General will acquaint you of or has already. Two 
Reasons are strongly for them, having some Troops together, and 
diminishing Expence; 3 By your Proceedings I do not doubt but 
these Reasons will prove safe. Many People talk of Matters 
they do not understand, the Management of our Allies the Indians 
is a Subject of Dablers, yet extremely seldom, in my Opinion, do 
they hit on the Sense of the Matter — and least of all when they 
say it can be done or ought to be at no Expence. Gen 1 . Gage I 
really think understands it better than many others who pretend, 
and he is of a contrary Opinion when not infested or pestered by 
that of the late Commd r . in Cheif, 4 who still continues to throw 
Squibs to this Distance. 

2 Sir William Johnson's son, John, and Lord Adam Gordon. 

3 The Rockingham ministry was in favor of concentrating the troops in 
the East. Lord Barrington's Plan for the West, May 1 0, 1 766, printed in 
Illinois Historical Collections, 1 1 :2 34-43, states the reasons for this 

4 General Amherst. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 37 

I sincerely wish you Joy of the good Accounts from England, 
and am happy my Freind who does me the Honour to call me a 
Relation likewise, is usefull to so worthy a Young Gentleman as 
all the World allows y r . son 5 to be. Lord Adam is warm some- 
times whimsical a little but of the warmest Freindship — which the 
good Sense of his Companion will make agreable & usefull to 

Be so good as remember me kindly to Lieu 1 . Johnson," and 
allow me to be as I am with Truth and sincere Respect Sir Your 
most obed f . and most humble Servant 

Harry Gordon 

Sir William Johnson 

We have no Accounts lately from the Illinois. I hope Croghan 
will set out soon. 


New York 4 th . March 1 766 
Letter from Cap'. Harry Gordon 

n .jL/.y3. 

New York March 9*. 1766. 
Dear Sir, 

I had this Day the Pleasure to receive your Letter of the I st . 
Ins 1 . ; 2 And am a good deal Surprized at what you tell me con- 
cerning the Claim of M r . Cartier to the Lands of S*. Lewis's 
Falls. You may depend upon it that the whole is a Trick. If the 
Ancestors of M r . S l . Paul had ever a Grant of these Lands, or 
that they have been confirmed to this Gentleman again in the year 

5 John Johnson. 

6 Guy Johnson. 

1 In Harvard University Library. 

2 Ante pp. 32-33. 

38 Sir William Johnson Papers 

1750, as is alledged, That both the Original Grant as well as the 
late Confirmation must be found in the Registers of the Govern- 
ment. It was there I found the Grant to the Jesuits, of these Lands, 
in Trust for the Indians, and in Case the Indians should remove, 
the Lands were to revert to the Crown. This Grant was made 
by Louis the 14 th . about fourscore years ago, and is it probable, 
that when Lands were so plenty in Canada as they were at that 
time, that the King of France should have taken them from the 
Ancestors of M r . S l . Paul for the uses Mentioned, without giving 
them an equivalent in Lands elsewhere; if he took them at all 
from them, which I do not believe? And is it consistent with com- 
mon Sense, that after the Jesuits with the Indians, had lived upon 
the Lands for such a Number of years without Interruption from 
the present M r . S*. Paul, or any of his Ancestors, when the 
Scheme of forming a Barrier of Indians against the English & 
their Indian Allies was compleated (on which account the Plan 
of assembling Indians in this Manner was adopted, tho' under 
Pretence, of converting Savages to Christianity) that the French 
should undo all they had done, by confirming M r . S f . Paul in the 
year 1750 in a pretended Grant of Lands, of which Louis /4 th . 
had divested his Ancestors. By these means they would have 
drove away the very Indians they had taken so much Pains to 
get amongst them, and from firm Friends made them bitter 
Enemies. Neither M r . S f . Paul or any of his Agents laid any 
Claim to the Lands; during the Contestation between the Jesuits 
& Indians, in the Time of my Government : And the Indians had 
often laid their Claims prior to that Time before the French 
Governors, if I mistake not much about the Time of this pretended 
Confirmation in the year 1 750. You may be assured, that the 
whole is a Fraud between the Jesuits, M r . S f . Paul, M r . Cartier, 
and the French Ministry to perplex us and make us at Enmity with 
these savages, whom we have attached to us, by doing them 
Justice. I am satisfied M r . S l . Paul can't prove any Claim made 
by him to the French Governors, during any Contestation between 
the Jesuits and Indians; in one of which the Jesuits were Abso- 
lutely forbid, letting out any more Farms, and this particular 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 39 

happened, if my Memory does not fail me, since the year 1 750. 
You may Judge from thence, whether M r . S l . Paul would not 
then have put in his Claim, had any such Confirmation as is now 
pretended been given to him. M r . S f . Paul went to France after 
the Conquest of the Country, and there you may depend upon it 
all this Matter has been cooked up, when the Jesuits had given 
them an Account of their suit, and of their being cast in it. And if 
the French Ministry would enter into such a Business, they might 
Date a sham Grant, and sham Confirmation, in any year that 
would Answer their Purpose. If the latter was given, as you 
apprehend in the year 1760, which Cartier has altered by chang- 
ing the Figure of 6 into a 5, it could not be registered in the Books 
of the Government in Canada, but must be registered in France, 
where it may be looked for if requisite. But if any such Con- 
firmation was given in 1750 it should be found amongst the 
Registers of the Province. Upon the whole, I think it's absolutely 
Necessary you should lay all this Matter before the Gov r . of 
Quebec without Delay, and desire that the Indians Right may be 
defended in the best Manner, and carried as far as it will be 
proper to pursue it, of which the Lawyers will be the best Judges. 

You may send Gov r . Murray 3 an Extract of this Letter leaving 
out some Tautologys which have escaped me in the hurry of 
writing. I am most thoroughly convinced that the whole of the 
Affair is a Piece of Roguery. 

I am now to acquaint you that the 34 1 ^. Reg 1 , got to Fort 
Chartres on the 4 th . of Dec r . and the Detachment of the 42 d . 
under Cap f . Stirling 4 went down the Mississippi soon afterwards; 
there was not Provisions sufficient to maintain the whole, and 
Cap 1 . Stirling could not get back to F: Pitt till the Ohio should 
be free of Ice in the Spring. The French I fear will give us Busi- 
ness enough in that Quarter, They have two Settlements opposite 
to us, and are debauching the Inhabitants and Indians over to their 

3 James Murray, governor of Canada. 

4 Captain Thomas Stirling who took possession of Fort Chartres, October 
9, 1 765. See Illinois Historical Collections, 1 1 : 107-1 1 . 

40 Sir William Johnson Papers 

side of the River. Major Farmar 5 and his officers I apprehend not 
very knowing in the Treating or Management of Indians, so that 
I wish M r . Croghan was set out. Cap*. Murray 6 writes me word 
from F : Pitt that he had condoled with the Shawnese for the Loss 
of their Chiefs, which they took very well. Mr. Croghan should 
have some Instructions how the Shawnese should act respecting 
their taking Revenge or not of the Indians who killed the Chiefs. 
He had best first see how Affairs are in that Quarter. I understand 
from L l . Fraser 7 that Pondiac was at the Ilinois; had also gone 
over to the French side, and had many Conferences with the 
French. That Rogue I fear will make his Advantage of us both. 
We are just now in a situation for him to play his Tricks with both 
French and English. 

I am very glad that you have heared from your son 8 and of his 
gracious Reception being 

Dear Sir, Your most obedient, 
humble Servant, 

Tho s . Gage 
S R . W M . Johnson 


N York March 9*. 1 766 

From General Gage — 

concerning M r . Cartiers Claim 

to the Caghnawaga Lands in Canada. 

5 Major Robert Farmar. 

6 Captain William Murray, commandant at Fort Pitt. 

7 Lieutenant Alexander Fraser. 

8 John Johnson. 

9 In Guy Johnson's hand. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 41 

Copy 1 
Philadelphia, 11th of March, 1166. 


It was with a very great Concern that a few days ago I re- 
ceived certain Information by Capt n . Samuel Barrit, 2 that on the 
1 1 th of January last, a Mohawk Indian, in his return from the 
Cherokee Country, was Murdered on the Road between Fort 
Cumberland & Fort Bedford, in this Province. 

This unhappy affair will no doubt give great Offence to the 
Indians of the Six Nations, and may be attended with very bad 
consequences. But I shall think it my indispensable duty, from 
motives of Justice as well as good Policy, to give them all the 
Satisfaction in my power for this Injury, and I beg you will be 
pleased to take the first Opportunity to acquaint them that I 
heartily condole with them on this occasion, and that all means 
shall be used for apprehending the Murderer and bringing him to 
Condign Punishment. I intended to have issued a Proclamation, 
offering a Reward for that purpose; but as there appears by 
Capt n . Barrit's deposition, 3 a Copy of which you have enclosed, 
very great reason to think the Murder was commited by one 
Samuel Jacobs, who is supposed to have fled to the back parts of 
Maryland and Virginia, I shall suspend the Proclamation till 
better means have been tried to apprehend him, for which purpose 
I have written to the Governors of Maryland and Virginia, to 
request they would cause a strict search to be made for him 
throughout their respective Provinces. 

If we should be so fortunate as to secure this Lawless Villain, 
I will immediately acquaint you therewith, that you may have it 
in your power to satisfy the Indians of our good disposition 

1 Printed in Pennsylvania Colonial Records, 9:306. 

2 Captain Lemuel Barrit of Cumberland Valley, Pa. 

3 See deposition of Lemuel Barrit, March 6, 1 766, Johnson Papers, 

42 Sir William Johnson Papers 

towards them, and our desire and readiness to do them the strictest 

Justice upon all Occasions. 

I am, with great Regard, Sir, 

Your most Obedient humble Servant, 

John Penn. 
Sir William Johnson. 



Philadelphia March 13 th . 1766 — 

D R . Sir — 

I Received Your most affectionate Letter Dated the 15 of 
Last Instant three Days ago: 2 the reason of my not Receiving 
Your Letter Before this time was By reason of my Being absent 
from Philadelphia] Recreating my Self with my friends at a 
Country Village; I Return You my hearty thanks for Your Good 
advice Both to me and my Brother in which I have Accordingly 
Apply d . to the most knowing Gentlemen my friends, for their 
Good advice — 

They Neither of them Commend my p[ ] By Leaving 

my Substance in Such an unsettled mann[er] as they Say the 
Difficulty would be if Long Before this the principle part of my 
moveable Substance is not Confisticated: So as my not Being 
present it would Lie in the Breast of him or them to make a full 
Delivery in whoes power it now is/I immagine She is Some what 
Coole d . Long Er e . this time which prehaps May be a means of her 
Behaveing Better for the future I shall remain a Little Longer in 
Philadelphia with my friends who Treat me with a Great Deal of 
kindness — 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

2 Not found. See letter of Francis Wade, Feb. 28, 1 766, concerning 
his efforts to deliver this letter. Johnson Papers, 5 :43. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 43 

The people in this parts are most Notoriously ridged against 
M r . Croghan By reasons of an Inveaterate Antipathy they have 
taken against him as I have heard many of them Express 
[himSelf] themselves in a most shocking manner — I happen d . By 
Chance on my Journey to fall in with a number of Quakers who 
raised a Dispute with me Concering the State of Indian affairs 
which Some most notorious Lies the Alledge d . Concering the Con- 
ducting of Indian affairs which I resented. And for my pains I was 
Very much Oblidge d . to them to Come of with whole Bones: 
they are a Cursed Sett all together : it is my Oppinion they one and 
all have but a Small regard for any one who Belongs to our 
Service — 

for my part I think I Could not tarry amongst them By 
reasons of their Showing what they would do if in their power/ 1 
shall Sir waite Your Good Advice to one who is Somewhat un- 
fortunate at present whither I had Best return or not: So as to 
Secure what Little I have if requisite : and no Sign of her amend- 
ment: I Likewise return You my poor but hearty thanks for the 
Good Inclinations You my Dear friend Sir William have So 
kindly Express d . to me in Your Letter: that if it was in Your 
power it should not be wanting in You to Serve me: Although 
not Deserving of So much of Your favor: they have in Some 
Measure Mortified me But however I shall Endeavour to put 
the Best face on things as possable although if it should Be that I 
should Be Reduced to the Last Extremity a Spirit which I 
Brought into the world with me — 

Pardon me Dear Sir for taken the Liberty to Express My Self 
So freely: I Conclude By Being Your Your Sincear Devot d . 
and hum le . Ser*. 

John Johnston 
To Sir W m . Johnson Bar'. 

P. S. please Sir — to let my Brother know there is Letters by 
this Oppery. for him — 

44 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Contemporary) Copy 1 

New York 17 ih . March 1766 


As there is an Intention to Sow Indian Corn or other grain at 
Fort Schloser 2 for the use of the Cattle on the Carrying Place 
of Niagara ; It may perhaps be necessary that the Senecas Should 
be apprised of it, and told on what Account it is done, and that 
it is not undertaken with a view to make or begin any Settlements 
there. Without these precautions, they might possibly take Um- 
brage at it. I have Entered into a Contract with L'. Phister 3 for 
the Transporting Every thing belonging to the King over that 
Carrying Place for £ 1 00 Sterling ^9 annum, and the Estimate 
given Me, of said Expence, amounts to £ 1 300 Y.C. 4 He is to 
live at Fort Schlosser and will also trade with the Indians, & 
proposes to Cultivate some Ground near the Fort for his own Use, 
and to maintain the Cattle — 

The Indians as well as the French are removing fast from the 
Ilinois to the New French Settlements on the Opposite Side of 
the Mississippi. If this Emigration Continues, we Shall have no 
Method to Support Our New Acquired Settlement, but by Send- 
ing People there to Settle on the deserted Lands ; for it will not be 
possible to Support Our Garrisons, by Sending them Provisions 
from Pensylvania or Mobile, and I Apprehend We Shall have 
Enough to do for some Time to Come, to parry the Intrigues of 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 At Little Niagara. 

3 Lieutenant Francis Pfister of the 60th regiment. 

4 York currency. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 45 

the French in that Quarter, who will not fail to take every ad- 
vantage of Our weakness — 

I am, 

Sir Will m . Johnson Bar 1 



To Sir William Johnson Bar 1 , 

Johnson Hall 
New York 1 7 th . March 1 766 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Copy of a letter from William Grant to Sir William Johnson 
relative to his purchase of La Baye &c with an exclusive trade 
from Monsieur Rigaud de Vadreuil, dated 

Montreal 20 th . March 1766. 
Sir — 

Though I have not the honour of being known to you I hope 
you will excuse this trouble as it is occasioned by seeing a letter of 
yours dated [20] Feb r >\ last, and addressed to the Merchants & 
Traders of Montreal concerning La Baye, 2 a Tract 3 of land 
granted by the French King to Monsieur Rigaud de Vadreuil, 
and purchased of him by me. I imagine those Gentlemen have 
misrepresented the nature of this affair to you, as I cannot think 
from the general Character of Sir W m . Johnson that he wou'd 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 Green Bay, Wisconsin. 

3 See Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:817; and ante pp. 19-20; 

46 Sir William Johnson Papers 

join with any set of People who attempt to hurt the Property of 
any of his Majesty's Subjects. — to all aggrieved the Laws are 
equally open; he who has just Cause to complaint, will meet with 
Redress. — 

Permit me Sir to inclose you authenticated Copies of the Deeds 
by which Monsieur Rigaud de Vadreuil 4 became Proprietor, and 
possessed of Lay Baye. — the first is, the Grant made to him in 
consequence of an Order of the most Christian King by Vadreuil 
(his) Governor General & Bigot Intendant of Canada Signified 
to them by Berrier 6 his Minister, and Secretary of State in a 
letter bearing date at Versails 26 tJl . January 1 759. — The 
second, — the King's farther approbation and confirmation of the 
Grant signed by himself, dated at Versails 15 th . January 1760. — 
the third a Certificate dated at Montreal 1 1 th . of January 1 766 
by Sixteen of the principal Gentlemen, and Inhabitants "that these 
Deeds are in form, that Monsieur de Vadreuil's Titles are just, 
that he was in Possession of Lay Baye many Years before he 
obtained a Grant thereof from the King, and that by the Laws, 
and Customs received in this Country before the Conquest, it was 
his property, known to be so, & now ought to be regarded as 

You know well Sir, Canada and its Dependencies were not 
conquered until September 1 760, and not added to the British 
Dominion until the definitive Treaty of Peace February 1 763, by 
the Article of which "it is Ceded, and guaranteed to his Majesty 
by the most Christian King, and the Subjects of France have 
liberty to dispose, and sell their Property to British Subjects" 
consequently the acts of the French King before these dates, are 
certainly valid, and binding throughout all the Countries then 

4 Louis Phillippe Rigaud, marquis de Vaudreuil. A footnote in the copy 
at this point refers to the deeds transmitted to Sir William by the merchants 
and their memorial as copied in the Indian Records. 

5 Francois Bigot. 

6 Nicolas Rene Berryer (Berrier), minister of justice. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 47 

ceded by him to Great Britain. On the strength of the Capitulation 
1 760 and Treaty of Peace 1 763 several others of his Majesty's 
Subjects, as well as myself have bought Lands in Canada of 
French Proprietors, and I believe all of us imagine we are to 
enjoy all their Rights, and Priviledges as expressed in our 
Grants. — With this view I have, and am to pay Monsieur de 
Vadreuil a very considerable Sum of Money, too much for me to 
lose, while the laws of my Country will protect me. — 

I cannot think the meaning of his Majesty's Proclamation 
October 1 763 is to deprive any of his new or old Subjects in the 
Countries ceded to him of their Rights, and Properties, he has 
been pleased to prescribe bounds to his present American Govern- 
ments, but still reserves to himself the Sovereignty of the Lands — 
without those limits, especially what is given to him by treaty with 
France, and may at any time constitute new Governments through- 
out the whole — 

Most of the Grants of lands in Canada have the exclusive right 
of trade with the Indians, and many others, much more contrary to 
our Constitution, and Customs. — Lands were never bought by the 
French Government of the Indians, but always granted by the 
King as Sovereign, and Father of all the nations under his Pro- 
tection. — I hope when you consider this matter, my Claim will 
appear equitable & well founded ; & I flatter myself you will grant 
me your Protection, rather than endeavor to distress me. — I shall 
fullfill the conditions of my Grant to the utmost of my power, and 
carefully observe all Rules, and Regulations which are, or may be 
thought necessary by you, his Majesty's Commander in Chief, 
and Commissaries for the maintaining of Peace and tranquility 
among the Indians, towards which my retaining my property in La 
Baye will contribute. — 

It will always give me the greatest pleasure to serve S r . W m . 
Johnson for whom I have the utmost respect, and the Honour to 
be his — Most Obed 1 . &c — (Signed) 

William Grant 

48 Sir William Johnson Papers 


A. L. S. 1 

Johnson Hall March 22<*. 1766 
Dear Sir — 

I have had the favour of your letter of y e . 9 th . Ins 1 ., 2 wherin 
you have particularly Stated the Affair of the Indian Lands, but 
since my letter on y e . Subject I find on a farther enquiry into it 
that the Lands in Dispute are not those which were decreed to 
them by the Military Court, but a Tract in the Rear of their 
Grant, which however is attended with all y e . Circumstances of 
the other except that the Indians have no Actual French Grant 
for it, but the King of France's letter in 1727 that such Lands 
should not be permitted to be occupied by M r . S f . Paul or any 
other French Claimant contrary to their Interest, but that it should 
be theirs, as this however makes the case in some measure different, 
I have represented it Accordingly to Gov r . Murray, 3 and I hope 
he will take it into due consideration. — 

As You have received news of Pondiacs being at the Illinois, 
I think it would be best that M r . Croghan should meet & treat 
with him there, as this would not only prevent the necessity of 
my calling him down, but would enable whatever present he 
carries up to thither to make the better appearance, and should 
he be now actually at Illinois it will be impossible to expect him 
this way during the Summer so as to have any time before him, & 
the Potawattamies of S l . Joseph, Twightwees, & ca . to return 
Home, all which I submit to your consideration. — 

I Judge it improper at this time that the Shawanese should go 
about revenge, as it may obstruct the Communications, & render 
our People liable to much Danger, I shall therefore give M r . 
Croghan Instructions upon that Head, & I wish he was gone on his 

1 In William L. Clements Library; draft in mutilated form was printed 
in Johnson Papers, 5 :91 . 

2 Ante pp. 37-40. 

3 James Murray, governor of Canada. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 49 

Journey, w h . will only wait Your approbation of what I now pro- 
posed, & your orders to him concerning the Expences as men- 
tioned in my last. — 

I should be glad you would order me three or four Hundred 
weight of Gun powder, & lead or Ball Equivalent for the use of 
the Several Nations, who daily come begging some for to hunt 
with, and which they cannot be well denyed. — 

I am with the most perfect Esteem 
Dear Sir 

Your most Obedient 
& verry Humble Servant 
His Excellcy GENR L . GAGE — W M . JOHNSON 


S r . W m . Johnson 
March 22<*. 1 766. 
Answ d . 


Contemporary Copy 1 

[Johnson Hall, March 24, 1766] 
Copy of Warrant, and Instructions to Alexander M c Kee ap- 
pointed Commissary at Fort Pit — 

By Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 . Superintend 1 , of Indian Affairs for 
the Northern Department — North America &c &c &c. — 

In Pursuance of the Intentions of Government for the better 
Regulation of Indian Affairs, I do by virtue of the Powers, and 
Authorities to me given by his Majesty, and with the Consent, and 
Approbation of his Excellency Major General Gage constitute, 
and appoint you the said Alexander M c Kee to be a Commissary 
to reside at Fort Pit for the management of all Indian Affairs 
there, and for the Inspection of, and Correcting Abuses in the 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. Identical Warrant 
and Instructions for Benjamin Roberts are not reproduced. 

50 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Indian Trade in that Place. — You are therefore carefully, and 
diligently to discharge the said Duty, by doing, and performing all 
and all manner of things thereunto belonging, to which end you 
are now furnished with Instructions. — And you are to observe, 
and follow all such Orders as you shall from time [to time] receive 
from myself, or my Deputy for the Western District for all which 
this shall be your sufficient authority. — 

Given under my Hand, and Seal at Arms at 
Johnson Hall the day of 1 76 " 

W J 

You are on Receipt of your Warrant, and these Instructions 
to proceed immediately to Fort Pit where you are to reside as 
Commissary, on your arrival there, you are to acquaint the 
Indians that you are appointed an Officer in my Department to 
inspect into the Trade, prevent abuses therein and transact all 
business with them under my direction, that an Interpreter, and 
Smith are also appointed to act for them gratis in their respective 
Capacities under your directions. — 

You are to shew your Warrant, and communicate your instruc- 
tions to the commanding officer, applying to him for Quarters in 
the most convenient Place for the Reception of the Indians, and 
for yourself the Interpreter, and Smith, — with Provisions, and 
Fire wood. — 

The Inspection of Trade, Correcting abuses, Redressing 
Grievances, gaining intelligence of all ill designs, and securing the 
Friendship of the Indians, being the principal objects of your 
appointment, you will diligently apply your self to discharge these 
important trusts, to w ch . end you are immediately to inform your- 
self of the means in w ch . trade has been hitherto carried on, and 
the most reasonable Prices of Goods, and Peltry, the Strength, 
Connections, and Interests of the sev 1 . Tribes about you with 
their Sachims, Warriors &c, all Which you are to report without 

2 Date left blank in copy. McKee's accounts were rendered for the 
previous year to March 24, Johnson Papers, 5:100-01, and the previous 
commission in the Indian Records was so dated. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 51 

delay to the Deputy Agent for the Western District — And you 
are to make regular Entries of all Occurences, and transactions a 
fair Copy of w ch . in Folio you are to transmit to my said Deputy 
every three months, or oft'ner if the Service require it. — You are 
also to keep an exact account of the quantity, and value of Goods, 
and the like of Peltry traded off at your Post, as well as such as 
pass to other Garrisons transmitting the same annually to my said 
Deputy — And for your further Government with regard to trade 
&c you are furnished with a Copy of Regulations to which you 
are to see that due Obedience is paid. — 

You are not to incur any Expence, without Orders from me, or 
my Deputy beyond what is absolutely necessary for Pipes, 
Tobacco, or a Dram occasionally to the Indians, and you are to 
satisfy any Indians who may be troublesome on that head by ex- 
plaining to them the expence the Government is at by these 
appointments, and shewing them the nature of your Office, and 
that whatever Presents may be occasionally bestowed on those 
Nations who best deserve it, will be done by the Superintendant, 
or his Deputy. — That it is expected they will shew their grati- 
tude for the appointments already made, — that they will abide 
firmly by their engagements, and live in Peace, and Friendship 
with all his Majesty's Subjects, as the only means they have to 
intitle themselves to a Continuance of this Establishment, or the 
hopes of farther Favors. — 

The Interpreter, and Smith are to be subject to your Orders to 
apply themselves diligently to their duty without accepting of 
any gratification from the Indians, or being concerned in any trade 
or business on pain of immediate Removal, and you are to inspect 
strictly into their Conduct in their respective Capacities, the better 
to enable you to do w ch . you will apply yourself to study the 
language of the neighbouring Indians — 

You are to keep regular, and just accounts of all Expences 
you are authorized to incur, transmitting the same with proper 
Vouchers from the commanding Officer, together with the amount 
of your Salary, and that of the Interpreter, and Smith, to the 
Deputy presiding over the District, half yearly, — that is to say 

52 Sir William Johnson Papers 

to the 24 th . of March, and September in each year, and these are 
to be sent in sufficient time to be included in my general Accounts 
transmitted immediately after these Periods. — 

Lastly — You are on these, or any other Subjects that fall 
within your Duty to do your utmost to the best of your Judgement 
for promoting the Service you are sent upon, studiously applying 
your self to discover the Sentiments, and designs of the Indians, 
acquiring their Confidence by Integrity, mildness, and a strict 
attention to their affairs, and promoting to your utmost that 
Harmony which shoud subsist between them, and the Soldiery, 
Traders, or others at the Garrison. 

Given under my hand at Johnson Hall 


Copy 1 

Johnson Hall, March 28, 1766. 

The acco'. you have given me of the Murder of the Indian in 
your favor of the 1 1th. Inst., 2 affords me much Concern from a 
reasonable Apprehension of the Consequences; the particulars in 
the Affidavit of Capt. Barrett, 3 for the Copy of which I give you 
thanks, render it pretty certain that the Samuel Jacobs therein 
mentioned is the Murderer. I am fully persuaded of your inclina- 
tion to have him brought to Justice, but the Proclamation might 
have proved ineffectual from the Precaution of the back settlers. 

My Apprehensions are augmented on this occasion from the 
reason there is to Expect that this Spirit, which has so often shewn 
itself of late amongst the Inhabitants, will not stop here, and that 
this ill-timed rage of theirs must doubtless rouse the Resentments 
of a People prone to Revenge, and too ready to Quarrel with us, 

1 Printed in Pennsylvania Archives, First Series, 4:249, where it is 
incorrectly dated March 2, 1 766. Printed in mutilated form in Johnson 
Papers, 5:123-24. 

2 Ante pp. 41-42. 

3 Johnson Papers, 5 :52-54. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 53 

Whereby all my endeavours to bring them to peace, and to remove 
their suspicions must appear calculated to amuse and deceive them, 
whilst their ruin is our Aim. Had this been the first or second 
Instance I might have pacifyed the Injured, but at present I am 
somewhat at a Loss how to speak to or take upon me to promise 
them a Redress, of which, thro' the Arts or Secrecy of the In- 
habitants they may be disappointed as some of these people appear 
to set every power at defiance. If the Murderer is apprehended, 
the Indians may be brought to think well of us, and it may be an 
Example to others; If not, our Sincerity will become doubted and 
an odium will be cast on the people of the Province that may not 
be easily or soon removed, andpn of r thai^ mav be the Least con- 
sequence to be apprehended in t^uartfSsane? 

Englishmen who so wantor.I se, ltain [inue to Violate public 
Treatys, regardless of the Cota'ngts hices to their Neighbors, 
scarcely deserve pity, but to prevanch ac ! inocent from suffering for 
their Guilt, every thing will douHcu a dbe done in your power for 
effectually checking such Conduct, and I beg you may rest 
Assured of my Interest, and of all the good offices in mine to heal 
the Breach, and to serve the province of Pennsilvania 
I am with the utmost Regard, Sir, 
Your most obedient 

& very Humble Servant, 
The Hon'ble Lt. Gov r . Penn Wm. Johnson 


Contemporary Copy 1 

CharlestoTvn, 30 ih . March, 1766. 
Sir. — 

After acknowledging the pleasure of your letter of the 1 7 th . of 
September, 2 and returning you my hearty thanks for your kind 
Congratulations, I think it incumbent upon me to make an Ap- 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 Johnson Papers, 4:847-49. 

54 Sir William Johnson Papers 

pology for my long Silence which you Justly attribute to my long 
Journies, and troublesome Negotiations with so many new, and 
strange Tribes. I am conscious of the propriety of your being kept 
acquainted with the State of Indian affairs in this Department, 
which may in some measure enable you to judge of the Steps to 
be pursued in your own. — I shall henceforward advise you of 
whatever may be worth your attention, and I esteem the Informa- 
tion of Indian Concerns which you are pleased to communicate, as 
a great favour. — Give me leave also to congratulate you on the 
happy consequences which attended M r . Croghan's Disaster, 3 of 
which General Gage long ago advised me. — the apparent neces- 
sity of taking possessiqiiven the lllenois, induced the General to 
attempt it from every v *r — the 34 th . Regiment was ordered 
from West Florida, and\ it M r . Sinnot, 4 as my Deputy to pave 
the way for them, by maD J<: Peace with the small Nations on the 
Banks of the Mississippi, a i at the lllenois. — M r . Sinnot having 
surmounted the great Dim lties, and Obstructions thrown in his 
way by the Intrigues of the French, had concluded a Peace with 
13 Villages at the lllenois, and the other small Tribes, when the 
news of M r . Croghan's being taken, came to Fort Chartres, which 
affair was so improved by the French to their own advantage, that 
M r . Sinnot, and Monsieur La Gauterais 5 were obliged to escape 
in the night to save their lives. — M r . Sinnot was instructed to 
advise you of his transactions by every Opportunity, and as I 
foresaw the Probability of your sending a Deputy on the same 
service, he had Orders to cooperate with him in everything, and 
to consult with him in Issuing the Presents with which he was 
furnished, which were to a considerable value. It is a considerable 
time since I heard of Capt n . Sterling's 6 (with the Detachment of 

3 The affair at the mouth of the Wabash in June 1 765. See Croghan's 
report of this in Johnson Papers, 1 1 : 836-41 , el passim. 

4 P. A. Sinnot. 

5 Harpain de La Gauterais, interpreter. 

6 Captain Thomas Stirling, of the 42nd regiment, who took possession 
of Fort Chartres on Oct. 9, 1765. See Stirling to Gage, Oct. 18, 1765. 
Illinois Historical Collections, 1 1 :i07ff. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 55 

the 42 nd . Regiment under his Command), having taken posses- 
sion of the Illenois, & Posts depending on that District, since which 
I have advice of the 34 th . Regiment's having arrived at Fort 
Chartres the 2 d . of December. — the Chactaws at my desire 
furnished 1 00 Warriors to escort them, and they were afterwards 
Joined by 1 25 Chickasaws. — The Cherokees sent parties by my 
Direction to surround the Illenois, and so Cooped them up in their 
Villages as to defeat entirely their intentions of obstructing the 
Passage of our Troops, and rendered it dangerous for them to 
shew their heads out of their Houses. — this must convince them 
that they can never expect Peace while they oppose us. — I am 
extremely glad to see by your Letter that you concur with me in 
Judging the appointment of Commissaries, and other Officers at 
the different Posts necessary for maintaining the Disposition which 
the Indian Tribes in both Departments have manifested for Peace, 
and Friendship with us. After I had settled matters with the 
Chactaws, and other Tribes, who had formerly been attached to 
the French, I perceived that some such appointment could not be 
postponed, without imminent Danger of rendering our hopes of 
Utility from my Negotiations, abortive. — I therefore communi- 
cated to the Ministry, and General Gage what occurred to me on 
the Subject, representing the necessity of immediate Appointments, 
and I then took upon me to send Persons in the Character of Com- 
missaries into the several Nations, which has not been objected 
to. The benefits arising from such appointments are not so full as 
I cou'd wish, owing to want of legal Jurisdiction in the Commis- 
saries, and the want of uniformity in the Regulations, to the 
Observation of which the Traders are bound, by the respective 
Governors when their Licences are granted. — The Settlement of 
Traders at the different Posts in your Department, and their not 
being permitted to wander thro' the Nations, must render it easy 
for your Officers to keep them under proper Subjection. — In this 
Department there are no Posts in any of the great Nations, except 
Fort Prince George in the Cherokee Country, and the Indians 
object to the building of any Forts on their lands. Traders are 
indiscriminately licensed to trade in all the Nations by all the 

56 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Governors, and none of them by the condition of their Licences 
subjected to the Orders of or rendered responsible for their mis- 
conduct to the Superintendant, or his Officers, except such as have 
their Licences from West Florida, f— Without the Plan proposed, 
or [unless] something similar is adopted, and receives the Sanction 
of Parliament, the Management of Indians must remain very 
difficult, and imperfect, and we shall constantly be threatned 
with Ruptures, and Disturbances. — I found incredible Obstruc- 
tion in every thing I undertook from the Intrigues, and Machina- 
tions of the French, and I was often Obliged to avail myself of 
French Interpreters, and others to conduct matters with such 
Tribes as had always been under their influence from which I 
found many inconveniencies resulted. — but as the Spaniards are 
now in possession of French Louisiana, it is to be hoped we shall 
not in future be plagued with such a Competition in Indian Con- 
cerns, as it is not in the Genius of the Spaniards to be so enterpriz- 
ing as the French. — At the different Congresses with the Chero- 
kees, Chicl^asaxvs, Abekas, Cotvetas and Tallepusses, considerable 
Territories were ceded by those Indians to the Provinces of East, 
& West Florida and Georgia, and the Boundary between their 
Claims, and us so well ascertained that no Dispute on that head 
can well arise ; and M r . Cameron 7 the Gentleman deputed by me 
to reside in the Cherokee country, is now employed in running out 
a Line to divide this Province from their Hunting Grounds, and I 
shall endeavour to get the like done with respect to North Caro- 
lina, and Virginia, which will remove one great Cause of Dis- 
content among the Indians. — 

The Cherokees by their Sufferings in their War with us, and 
the perpetual Incursions of the Northern Tribes are much reduced, 
and at this time do not exceed two thirds the Number they con- 
sisted of about ten Years. — On the other hand, the Creek 
Nations are greatly encreased, and the most insolent, and un- 
governable of any in this Department, they do not fall short of 
4000 Gunmen. — While the Cherokees were upon a Par with 

7 Alexander Cameron, a commissary of Indian affairs. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 57 

them, they were more modest; and as the latter are much in our 
Interest at present, and obedient to any Orders, I do not wish to 
see them reduced. I expect to hear from them fully upon this Sub- 
ject in answer to a Tall?, I sent them by an Express now in their 
Nation, which I shall communicate to you. — I have wrote to 
Governor Tryon 8 concerning the Tuscaroras acquainting him 
with your Paragraph to me upon that Subject. As those Indians 
lived in the Settlement I took very little Notice of them. — I doubt 
not but M r . Tryon will facilitate their going to Join their brethren. 
I had much trouble by the imprudent behaviour of our back 
Settlers behind this, and the other Provinces, and the Cherokees 
have only been restrained from taking Revenge for the murder of 
eight of their Countrymen in Expectation of Obtaining Satisfac- 
tion from the Justice of Government, which in truth is not Strong 
enough to Operate with necessary vigour among such People. — 
I am Sir &c Yours — 

John Stuart. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Montreal March 30 lh . t 1766. — 
To his Excellency the Honoble James Murray Esquire Captain 

General & Governor in chief in, and over the Province of Quebec, 

and Territories thereon depending &c &c, & to the Honorable his 

Majestys Council for the same. — 

The Memorial of the Merchants of the City of Montreal — 

Humble Sheweth — 

8 William Tryon, governor of North Carolina 1 765-71 . 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. Inclosed in letter of 
John Welles to Sir William, April 17, 1766, post pp. 77-78. Printed in 
mutilated form in Johnson Papers, 5:130-34, where the 52 names of 
merchants who signed the memorial are given. 

58 Sir William Johnson Papers 

That your Memorialists being lately relieved from a War in 
the upper Countries, and which they, and many more of his 
Majesty's Subjects residing in this Province were very great 
Sufferers, and encouraged by the Proclamation of our gracious 
Sovereign, they last Spring sent a very Considerable Quantity of 
Goods to Michillimacinac in hopes the trade wou'd be estab- 
lished upon the same flourishing Footing as formerly, but to their 
great disappointment instead of a general Permission to winter 
among the Indians to which they were all equally entitled by their 
Passes from your Excellency, only some few Particulars were 
allowed that Indulgence, whereby we now are, and must still be 
great Sufferers unless relieved by your Excellency, and the honble 
his Majesty's Council by some Salutary Methods, or Representa- 
tions to prevent any Partiality hereafter, which we presume cannot 
be done without giving the Traders a free Permission to winter 
among the Indians, it being inconsistent, and impossible that the 
Trade can be confined to the severafl] Posts agreeable to the 
Passes granted last Spring, because the Indians cannot have the 
necessaries they require in their hunting; and with respect to our- 
selves, it will be attended with the Ruin of many Individuals, and 
the Commerce in general, a- We therefore beg leave to lay before 
your Excellency, and the Honble his Majesty's Council the 
following reasons relative to this Grievance in hopes that you will 
thereby be induced to take such measures as may effectually re- 
move it. First — The Fort of Michillimacinac, and the Country 
around do not produce any Provisions, the Indians living there, 
being necessitated, when they leave their Hunting Grounds to 
bring with them dried meat, upon which, and on Indian Corn, and 
Fish, they subsist during the Summer, consequently if the Traders 
are to be confined to the Fort, they wou'd be obliged to take Pro- 
visions from hence near sufficient for the Subsistance of themselves, 
and their Men, 'till they return, w ch . was it possible, is an Expence 
the trade cannot support. — Secondly — that the greatest Part 
of the Indians live at the Distance of 200 to 800 Leagues from 
Michillimacinac. — Thirdly — Their Custom is to go upon 
Hunting Grounds in September, and October, and seldom return 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 59 

to their Villages 'till the month of May, and during that time, as 
they have a great deal of Fatigue, and hard labour, we are certain 
they never wou'd submit, was it in their Power to employ the rest 
of the Year in making a Voyage still more laborious. — Fourthly 
— that under these Circumstances very few cou'd come to the 
Fort to purchase their Necessaries, consequently they wou'd be 
subject to so many difficulties, and it wou'd be the Cause of much 
Discontent; for they wou'd have no credit, because they live at 
too great a distance, and are not well enough provided in their 
Hunting to enable them to pay for it Whereas if the Trader was 
permitted to winter among them, as formerly, he wou'd supply 
them from time to time with every necessary, and wou'd be ready 
in the Spring to withdraw his Credit. — Fifthly — That the 
Indians never neglect Purchasing when it can be had at any Price, 
without having the least regard to their necessities, therefore the 
few that might come to the Fort, wou'd expend the Furs, with 
which they intended to purchase real necessaries, and involve 
themselves, and their Families in great Distress — Sixthly — That 
the greatest part of the Indians in the North being much nearer 
Hudson's Bay, than Michillimacinac, will out of Preference go 
there for such Goods as they have Occasion for, which will be an 
Encrease of their Trade, already allowed to be prejudicial to the 
Nation, and a manifest Injury to this Province, the Imports of 
the Hudson's Bay Company since the Indians in that Quarter have 
not been supplied with Goods from this Province clearly confirm 
the truth of this argument - — Seventhly — That it was a Custom 
established by the French for the Traders to winter among the 
Indians, and found by the experience of fifty years to be beneficial, 
and the only method convenient to the Indians, and advantageous 
to the public, it may be urged that confining the Traders to the 
respective Forts will protect them from any Insult; but every 
Person acquainted with the trade, must be convinced that it is an 
ill grounded Opinion, and can only be supported by those who are 
entirely ignorant of the nature, and Situation of this Country, 
because it is well known that Michillimacinac is computed to be 
near 300 Leagues from Montreal, and if at any time the Indians 

60 Sir William Johnson Papers 

were disposed to make War upon us, or distress the traders there 
are many places where they can lay in wait, and do it with success, 
and might take their measures so effectually that 2/3 ds . of the 
Canoes sent from hence in one Season, wou'd fall into their hands 
before it cou'd be known. — Eightly — That in every treaty they 
were always assured of Favors & protection, and if they find them- 
selves distressed through our means without having done any thing 
to forfeit our friendship, they certainly will be very much dis- 
satisfied, and a universal Discontent, or another War will be the 
certain consequence. — It may be alledged that the late affair of 
cutting off the Fort of Michillimacinac by the Ind s . will be a 
sufficient cause, but it is to be observed that it is extremely hard 
so great numbers of them shou'd suffer for the Imprudence, and 
misconduct of a few. — Ninethly — That shoud the trade be 
confined to the Forts, the Indians cannot get more than one half of 
the Goods they cou'd consume, and in that Case the annual 
Supplies for that trade, wou'd fall about thirty Canoes short of 
the usual number, the Wages of w ch . will amount to above £ 2000 
Ster., which will be an entire loss to the Country People in this 
District, who usually make the Voyage Spring, and Harvest, and 
it consequently follows, that we shou'd decrease greatly in our 
Imports from England, because we are deprived of the means of 
paying for them by being distressed in Commerce that is the real, 
and only Source of our Remittances, and on which the welfare 
of this Province in a particular manner, entirely depends. — These 
things considered, with the low value of the Paper money, the 
losses many of your memorialists have suffered by the late Fire, 
and the large Quantity of Goods they have on hand already made 
up no other way useful than for the Indian trade, the Prospect 
there is of their being still detained in the Fort, and thereby 
rendered unable any longer to support their Credit, are circum- 
stances that give your Memorialists the greatest Concern, and they 
cannot expect to extricate themselves from such a complication of 
misfortunes, unless your Excellency and the Honble his Majestys 
Council will be pleased to take such measures, as will put the trade 
upon a Footing agreeable to the Indians, and advantageous to the 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 61 

Public. — We have taken the liberty to annex for your Perusal 
an attested Copy of a private letter received from his Excell c >\ the 
Honble Thomas Gage, commander in chief of his Majesties 
Forces in America, from which it appears that any Passes your 
Excell c y. & the Honble his Majesty's Council may be pleased to 
grant the Traders, will be valid, and paid due Regard to by the 
Officers commanding at the respective Forts, they having Orders 
for that Purpose. 

Your Memorialists therefore humbly pray you will be pleased 
to grant Passes this Spring with Permission to winter among the 
Indians, or take such other measures as to your Excellency and the 

(Honorable his Majesty's Council may seem most necessary for the 
Relief of your Memorialists, And they will as in Duty bound 
Pray — 

Signed by 52 of the Merch ts . 
of Montreal as by the Copy in 
the Superintendant's Office — 


Contemporary Copy 1 

[March 2-31 ../ 766] 
M 1 . Perthuis 2 arrived at Johnson Hall, and brought Sir 
William Complaints from the Coghnawageys in Canada against 
one M r . Cartier a Frenchman, relative to their Lands, on receipt 
of which Sir W m . wrote to General Gage concerning the matter, 
and on Receiving his answer the 20 th . wrote to General Murray 3 
thereon, requesting him to take the affair into consideration, and see 
Justice done to the Indians. — On the 24 th . dispatched Perthuis 
with the letters, and also a Bunch of Six Strings of Wampum to 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 Louis Perthuis, interpreter. . 

3 James Murray, governor of Canada. 

62 Sir William Johnson Papers 

let the Coghnawageys know that he had wrote to Governor 
Murray 3 on the subject of their complaint, which in General 
Gage's, and his Opinion was the best & properest Step to be 

taken — 

3 1 sl . — Sir W m . dispatched Cap 1 . Montour 4 from hence to meet 
M r . Croghan at Fort Pit, and gave him Instructions for his con- 
duct as he passed the Indian Nations, as also during his ab- 
sence. — 


A.L.S. 1 

Quebec 31 st . March 1766. 


I think it necessary to acquaint you, that in the Licences 
Granted by me last Year for persons Trading with the several 
Indian Nations living under His Majesty's Protection, I restricted 
the said Trade being carried on, but as such Posts and Forts, as 
then were or might afterwards be Established by His Majesty and 
Garrisoned by His Troops. — I have been lately informed by 
General Gage, Commander in Chief, that many of the Posts in 
the upper Country will be Evacuated ; This circumstance induces 
me to make some Alteration in the Licences for this year, the in- 
closed is a Copy thereof, and I shall be very much Obliged to you 
Sir, if you will let me know your Sentiments thereupon. — I shall 
at all times be glad to receive any Information from you respect- 
ing Indian Affairs, and you may be Assured of my readiness, in 

3 James Murray, governor of Canada. 

4 Captain Henry Montour. 

1 In New York State Library, Tayler-Cooper Collection, property of 
William Leland Thompson. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 63 

doing every thing in my power that may contribute to the carrying 
His Majesty's Commands into Execution. — 

I have the Honour to be with great truth and Regard 


Your most Obedient and 
Most Humble Servant 

Ja: Murray 
To Sir W m . Johnson Bar*. 
His Majesty's Superintendant 
for Indian Affairs. 


Quebec 3 1 st . March 1766. 

From his Excels. Gov. Murray 


Copy 1 

Hugh Crawford's Account of Losses Sustained from the 
Indians in 1 763 by Major Thomas Smallman, Cumberland Co., 

March 31,1766: 

An Account of Losses sustained by Major Thomas Smallman 
by the breaking out of the Indian War in I 763, and the Indians 
seizing the Effects he had in their Country, and making himself 
Prisoner, viz., Goods & Peltrys, &ca., in the hands of Mr. Hugh 
Crawford, taken by the Indians 4 May, 1 763 : 
1 5 Packs of Beaver, 1 ,500 lbs., at 6/., £ 450. 
44 Packs of Parchment and dressed Leather, 4,000 lbs., at 2/. p. 
lb., £440. 

2 In Guy Johnson's hand. 

1 Printed in C. A. Hanna, The Wilderness Trail, 2:374-75. Printed 
in mutilated form in Johnson Papers, 5 : 1 34-35. 

64 Sir William Johnson Papers 

22 Packs of Deer Skins in the Hair, 2,200 lbs., at 1/6 p. lb., 

2,800 Raccoons, at 2/., £280. 
1 00 Catts and Foxes, at 2/6, £12,10/. 
128 Otters, at 10/., £64. 
1 1 Horses, with Sadies and Bitts, at £9, £99. 
3 Cannoes, £45. 
1 Batteau, £30. 
A number of small furs, I don't remember the quantity. 

The Goods [Traders' goods] remaining on hands, about 

£ 1 ,500. Above half the Goods remaining at the time they 

seized the Goods and made me Prisoner. 

Total, £3,085, 10/. 

Cumberland County, ss.: 

This day personally appeared, before me, Saml. Perry, Esqr., 
of Shippensbg., one of his Majesty's Justices of the Peace for the 
County of Cumberland, Hugh Crawford, who, being duly sworn 
on the Holy Evangelists of Almighty God, made oath, that the 
within Account of the goods, peltrys, and other effects, amounting 
to Three Thousand and Eighty-five Pounds, Ten Shillings, which 
were in his hands, belonging to Major Thomas Smallman, at the 
time of the breaking out of the Indian [War], in May, 1 763, and 
which the Indians seized and at the same time made him, this 
Deponent, a Prisoner, is as just and true an Account as he can 
make, the Indians having seized and destroyed all his books and 
papers, and further this Deponent saith not. 

Hugh Crawford 
Sworn before me at . . . , this 3 1 day of March, 1 766. 

Sam. Perry. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 65 



Quebec 5 th . April 1766 — 

I this day, in Council, received Your Memorial dated the 30 th . 
Ult . 2 accompanied with General Gage's Letter to M r . 
Ermatinger 3 of the 30 th . Octo r . last. — I had given My attention 
to the Subject of Your said Memorial before you address'd Me, 
and was happy from M r . Gage's having evacuated the remote 
Posts, to have it in my power to alter and extend the Licences for 
this year, having nothing more at heart, than that this Branch of 
Commerce may be carried on with the Success and Advantage 
which Nature has given to His Majesty's Subjects of this 

Herewith I send You a Copy of the General Licence I intend 
Granting this Spring, and I flatter myself You will be satisfied 
that I cannot do more for You consistent with the King's Com- 
mands; I always intended to Grant these Licences for One Year 
only, expecting, that within that period, some new Regulations 
might be made in England, but as it appears by Your Representa- 
tion, and from other Information I have, that it is necessary for 
some of the Traders to have longer Time, I am disposed to oblige 
them therein, and the Twelve Months may be made Eighteen for 
such Persons as cannot return home with their Effects before. — 
If the Licences of this Year, which are the most extensive I am 
empower'd to Grant, fall short of Your Expectations, I not only 
join You in wishing, but I have already, long ago, applied to His 
Majesty's Ministers that every Advantage may be given to the 
Indian Traders here ; my hopes of Success are very Sanguine, and 

1 In University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada. Inclosed in John 
Welles to Johnson, April 17, 1766; printed in mutilated form in Johnson 
Papers, 5 : 1 48-49. A French translation accompanied the letter. 

2 Ante pp. 57-61. 

3 Lawrence Ermatinger. 

66 Sir William Johnson Papers 

whatever Instructions I receive upon the Subject shall be made 
known to You without delay. — 

Upon reading General Gage's letter to M r . Ermatinger which I 
have mention'd above, it would seem to have been insinuated that 
Licences were given last Year with some partiality ; the Secretary 
Assures Me, Upon his Honour, that he made no distinction in any 
of them, and this indeed is Confirm'd by a Letter from M r . Gage 
to the Merchants at Montreal, dated the 1 st . of March last, 
wherein he explains the reasons why some persons were permitted 
to go beyond the Posts ; however to prevent Suspicions or Doubts 
of any kind for the future, I will Sign All the Passes with My 
Own hand, but to prevent trouble and Expence to the People at 
Montreal, they shall be left to be fill'd up by a person I can con- 
fide in there. — 

When You apply to Me in a proper manner, as You have done 
in the last Memorial, You may not only depend upon my readiness 
to redress Your Grievances, but You may be Assured that I shall 
have a particular Satisfaction in exerting Myself to promote Your 

I am with great Regard 

Your most Obedient Hum le . Servant 

Ja: Murray 
To the Merchants of Montreal, who subscribed to a^ 
Memorial Dated 30 th . March 1 766, to the Governor & 
Council of Quebec, Relating Indian Trade. 


Quebec 5 April, 1 766 
Gen 1 . Murrays Letter 
to the Merch ts . in 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 67 


New York April 7* 7766. 
Dear Sir, 

The Lands which you tell Me in your Favor of the 22 d . of 
March 2 are claimed by the Indians of the Falls of S*. Lewis, I 
believe they have no more Right to than I have. There was 
originaly only one Tract, then another joined to it, both which was 
united in one Patent and adjudged to them by the Military Court. 
They no sooner got that, but they were laying Claim to all the 
Lands round them ; particularly to a spot, belonging to a Lady, on 
which they had trespassed for Some years. This was brought 
before me and appeared very plain. What the Tract is in the 
Rear of their Grant to which M r . S*. Paul lays Claim I can't 
ascertain, but I do not apprehend that the Indians can shew any 
Title to it, or do I believe that they have any. But as you have 
represented the affair to Gov r . Murray 3 their Cause will no doubt 
be defended, if there is any legal Pretence to do it. We are 
plagued everywhere about Lands, The French had never any 
Dispute with the Indians about them, either on the S l . Lawrence 
or Mississippi Rivers, Detroit, or any other Place where they 
chose to Settle, tho' they never purchased a single Acre and I 
believe they make Difficultys with us because we have gone on a 
different Plan. 

Upon reperusing my Letters from the Ilinois, I think I was 
mistaken when I told you that Pondiac was in that Country. He 
was mentioned, with a Frenchman from New-Orleans, it was this 
latter who went over the River, so that I hope you may be able 
to have your proposed Meeting with Pondiac. 

I shall speak to the Comptroller of the Artillery about the 
Powder & Lead which you require. 

1 In Harvard University Library. 

2 Johnson Papers, 5:91, in mutilated form, reprinted ante pp. 48-49. 

3 James Murray, governor of Canada. 

68 Sir William Johnson Papers 

M r . Croghan has sent me his Demand of Presents for the 
Ilinois, amounting to the sum of £3445, a very large Sum con- 
sidering the very great Expense already expended in Presents for 
that Country. I imagined he was to wait for M r . Cole, 4 if M r . 
Cole does not go with him he will set out directly. 

I am with great Regard, 

Dear Sir, 

Your Most obedient 

humble Servant 

Tho s . Gage 
S R . WM. Johnson Bar 1 . 


April 7*. 1 766 — 
Genr 1 . Gages Letter 

A.L.S. 1 

W™bwgh April 11 ih . 1766 

By Letters lately received out of the Cherokee Country I am 
informed, that in a late Skirmish between them and some northern 
Indians, the great Warrior Oconostota, the principal Man of the 
over hill Towns had his brothers Son taken prisoner whom he 
much laments. As our people have last murdered some Cherokees 
We are extremely desirous to appease them in every manner We 
are able, w ch . indeed they deserve from us, as they have hitherto 
been prevailed on not to take immediate Revenge, the recovering 
this young Man may possibly be looked upon as such an act of 

4 Edward Cole was appointed commissary for the Illinois country, April 
1 7, 1 766. 

5 In Sir William's hand. 

1 Harvard University Library, Sparks Collection. 

Indian Atfairs, 1766-68 69 

friendship, as will root out all ill will against the white people, 
therefore I would if possible recover him on any terms. 

The Cherokees themselves are not certain of what nation 
the Indians were, who took him, all the Light I can give you in this 
Affair, is, that his Name "Go-ohsohly, he is of a low Stature, slim, 
and much marked with the small pox. he was taken toward the 
end of September or beginning of October 1765, by what I can 
guess not far from Pittsburgh." 

I have wrote to the Commandant at Fort-pitt to desire he 
would endeavor to find him out if possible. If you can assist me 
in this you will do great Service to this colony, and highly oblige 
me who am 

With great Regard 

Y r . most Obed'. 

Fran: Fauquier 

To S R . W M . Johnston Bar 

A.L.S. 1 

New York April 1 3 l K 1766. 
Dear Sir, 

We have had bad Reports about your Health; your Letter of 
the 5 th . Inst. 2 does not mention that you are ill, so I hope our News 
concerning you is not Authentick. 

Lieut PhisterV Improvements will not be great, that would 
not answer his Purpose. All that is wanted is Corn to subsist his 
Cattle for the Carrying Place of Niagara which is his Chief 

1 In Harvard University Library. 

2 Draft, dated April 4, 1766, in Johnson Papers, 5:145-47. Original 
in Gage Papers, William L. Clements Library. 

3 Lieutenant Francis Pfister of the 60th regiment. 

70 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Object. The Trade if he carrys on any, must be confined accord- 
ing to the Rules made for others. I hope the Packet is gone safe, 
I heared it was carried on by soldiers instead of being sent to you. 
My last Letters will have acquainted you of my Mistake in 
telling you that Pondiac was at the Ilinois, but your Instructions 
to M r . Croghan on that head may not be amiss in Case he should 
meet with him. I have settled matters now with M r . Croghan, and 
send him his orders by this Post. I have only 20 Medals to send to 
him by the first safe Conveyance, I have got them made more 
weighty than those you had, & broader at the Edges but can't 
meet with any Person who will undertake to make a better Dye 
than those I have. The large and small are both alike as to devise, 
and goodness of Engraving. M r . Cole 4 may follow M r . Croghan 
by some other opportunitys I shall probably have to convey him 
to the Ilinois. Missilimakinak realy seems to me a Place of Con- 
sequence from the great Trade carried on there, and necessary to 
have some Intelligent Person to manage our Affairs with them. 
M r . Croghan will draw on M r . Darlington for the Amount of his 

The Man of War after losing her Main-Mast, went to 
Antigua, and is now at Halifax, from whence we may soon expect 
to see her here. The Duplicates of all her Dispatches you know 
has been received long ago. 

I am, with great Regard, 
Dear Sir, 

Your most obedient 
humble Servant, 

Tho s . Gage 
S R . WM. Johnson Bar 1 . 


April 13th 1766 — 

From Gen 1 . Gage 

4 Edward Cole. 

Indian A fairs, 1766-68 71 

Contemporary Copy 1 

Montreal, April the 15 th ., 1766. 

To the Honorable Sir William Johnson Baronet his Majesty's 
sole Agent, and Superintendant of Indian Affairs for the Northern 
District of North America, Colonel of the Six united Nations their 
Allies, and Dependants &c &c 

The Memorial of the Merch ts . &c of the City of Montreal — 
Humbly Sheweth 

That your Memorialists encouraged by your answer to their 
letter of the 22 d . of January, 2 as well as your kind, and hearty 
Disposition to promote the trading Interest of this distressed 
Province, are prompted to address themselves to you relative to 
the trade with the Indian Nations, and at the same time beg liberty 
to enclose you the Copy of a Memorial, forwarded by your 
Memorialists to the Governor, and Council of this Province with 
his Excellency's answer in Council on that Subject. 

That by said Memorial they have endeavored to make appear 
the Utility, as well as absolute necessity of the Traders being per- 
mitted to winter, among the Indians. — 

That in Consequence of said Memorial, his Excellency the 
Governor, and the Honble Council of this Province have thought 
proper to grant Passports on another Plan (as <P Copy we have 
taken the liberty to enclose) by which the Traders are not limited 
to the Posts, but give Security to follow such Regulations, as may 
be judged necessary by you, Sir, his Majesty's Superintendant &c 

That from the assurances your Memorialists have already re- 
ceived of your earnest desire to put things on a Footing most agree- 
able to the Commercial interest, and from your known Attachment 
to the Interest of the Public in General, and the Indian trade in 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. Inclosed in Welles 
to Johnson, April 1 7, 1 766. This document in mutilated form was printed 
in Johnson Papers, 5 : 1 67-69, where most of the signatures, not given in 
the copy, appear. The French translation is not reprinted. 

"Ante pp. 19-20. 

72 Sir William Johnson Papers 

particular, we flatter our selves on Perusal of the enclosed Mem- 
orial our Request will appear reasonable — 

Your Memorialists therefore humbly pray that you will be 
pleased to take their Case into your most Serious Consideration, 
and grant an Extension of Commerce with the Savages beyond the 
Posts, and give such Instructions, or take such Measures, as to 
your Wisdom may seem necessary, and tend to the relief of your 
Memorialists — 

And they will as in duty bound &c &c — 

Signed by the Principal Merchants of Montreal as 
appears by the Original in the Superintend' 5 . 
Office — 


A.L.S. 1 

Burlington, April 15, 1766 

I take the earliest Opportunity of acquainting you with the 
Intelligence I have received from the Frontiers of this Province, 
of a Murder & Robbery committed on the Body & Effects of one 
of the Oneida Indians. For the Particulars of this unhappy Affair, 
and of the Measures taken in Consequence thereof, I must beg 
leave to refer you to the enclosed Copies of Letters, & of the 
Proclamation I have just issued. 

The Perpetrator of this Villainy is, it seems, a Vagabond 
Fellow who has no Property in the Province; and as the People 
of Substance on the Frontiers are much alarm'd, being apprehen- 
sive it may be productive of another Indian War, I am convinced 
that they will be active in their Endeavours to bring him to Justice. 

The Indian's Name is not known, nor whether he was a Person 
of any Consequence in his Nation. It was certainly very imprudent 
in him to venture among the Settlements, when he neither under- 

1 In Harvard University Library, Sparks Collection. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 73 

stood English, nor was acquainted with any of the Inhabitants. 
Some of the worst People in every Colony reside on the Frontiers, 
and it were to be wish'd that the Indians could be persuaded to 
avoid coming among them. But perhaps this can't be done 
effectually, till some certain Boundary between them & us is 
settled by Treaty, and a suitable Number of Trading Houses 
established in their Country. 

I am fully convinced, Sir, that it is unnecessary, after ac- 
quainting you with this Matter, to urge any Arguments to induce 
you to interest yourself on the Occasion. It is on your well-known 
Zeal for His Majesty's Service, of great Influence with the Indian 
Nations in our Alliance, that I place my chief Hopes in having the 
Affair happily terminated. 

I am, with great Regard, 

Your most obedient 
humble Servant 
W M . Franklin 
The Hon ble . 
Sir W m . Johnson, Bar*. 


A. L. S. 1 

Johnson Hall 1 7* April 1 766 
Dear Sir — 

I have your favour of the 7 th . Ins 1 ., 2 and am not as yet more 
particularly informed concerning y e . Lands disputed in 
Canada. — The Indians in General certainly give us great trouble 
about Lands as they are become better acquainted with their 
Value, & the manner in which we have so often availed ourselves 
of their Ignorance, did we adopt the same measures we should 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Ante pp. 67-68. 

74 Sir William Johnson Papers 

have as little disputes on that head as the French, and I have often 
represented to the Government, that the latter always took care 
to obtain the Indians Esteem and confidence at any expence before 
they Attempted to erect Forts or make Settlements, they certainly 
bear none of that affection but much more Jealousy towards Us, & 
therefore they make many difficulties which with good Manage- 
ment we could get over if we gave them time, but Our Landed 
People are so eager in pursuit of their Schemes that they will not 
give the Ind s . Jealousy an opertunity of cooling but touch them in 
the Tenderest point, & the most alarming of all others, without 
giving them any recess to consider us as a disinterested People, 
or taking the least pains to improve their Confidence b)' giving 
them any favourable impressions of Us, which encreases the diffi- 
culties & Expences in all public & private transactions with 
them. — 

I now Send M r . Croghan his Instructions the like to M r . Cole 3 
directing him to meet M r . Croghan either on the way to, or at the 
Illinois, and I have given M r . Croghan Strict Orders with regard 
to expences, whereby he is to be entirely governed by the limita- 
tions you make, and I hope the Success of his Journey will be 
adequate to the Expence attending it. — 

A few days ago I received the disagreable Acc lt . of y e . 
Murder of an Indian at the back of pensilvania, & Since a letter 
from Gov r . Penn with enclosures by which I find it is pritty 
clearly proved upon Oath that the Indian was causelessly & 
treacherously murdered by a White man who has fled to Mary- 
land or Virginia, Whither Gov r . Penn has wrote to have him 
apprehended, & this day I have received letters & Messages from 
the Ind s . of Susquahana Informing me of the Murder of an 
Oneida Indian at the Minissinks whither he went to Trade from 
Oghquagoe, both these Murders appear to Spring from the ill 
timed resentment of y e . Country People, who think they do good 
Service when they Knock an Ind n . in the Head, and I am well 
informed they intend to do so with all they meet in small partys, 

3 Lieutenant Edward Cole. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 75 

I need not enlarge upon y e . clanger in which these Ignorant People 
may involve their fellow Subjects All the Nations are full of the 
news, and of the threats thrown out that they will obtain retalia- 
tion for their losses in y e . late War, & indeed I am utterly at a loss 
what to do upon this occasion having been so often oblidged to 
compromise Matters of this Nature at the price of much trouble 
and Expence. — I have lately rec d . Acc tts . that some People from 
Pensilvania did about three Months ago Send Belts to the 5 
Nations, whereby they represented the Stamp Act as calculated 
to Injure them, & took pains to excite them to interest themselves 
on the occasion, and two Days ago I received a letter from the 
Missionary at y e . Senecas acquainting me that an Inhabitant of 
these parts had gone verry extraordinary lengths on that Subject 
with the Indians of that Nation, and mentioned the name of a 
Gentleman of some note on the occasion, who I could hardly 
suppose would be concerned in it. I would not think it worth 
mentioning, but that I am fully convinced the Indians have been 
so informed by Instructions from some one Quarter or another, 
& may be farther tampered with to the disturbance of the Peace, 
the Contents of the letter is verry extraordinary, and tho the 
authority is good, it is not the only Information I have had on that 
particular Subject. — 

Cap 1 . MacLeod 4 has spoke to me to be employed in my De- 
partment, and I beleive would make a good Commissary at 
Ontario, to which I hope You have no Objection. — 

I herewith enclose You the Ace", of Officers pay in my Depart- 
ment to the 24 th . Ult°., the amount of which I should be glad to 
have as soon as You can, and if it is in your power to remit it to 
me by any good opertunity I shall be much oblidged to You, as I 
lately find myself charged 7S/i & O. for receiving & forward- 
ing money for this considerable time past with which I must charge 
the Crown, and I am therefore verry desireous to save that Ex- 
pence for the future, The Interpreters & Smiths at Detroit & 
Michilimacinac I have not included, as they have been hitherto 

4 Captain Normand MacLeod. 

76 Sir William Johnson Papers 

transmitted by the Commanding Officers and are now probably 
charged in their Acc ls . — 

April 20 th . — Before I could send off this I was favoured 
with yours of the 1 3 th . Ins'. 5 M r . Croghan is instructed to renew 
engagements & ca . with Pondiac for me in case the latter cannot, or 
will not come down, and as You seem to think it necessary I shall 
appoint a Commissarry for Michilimacinac, and I have directed 
M r . Cole to proceed for Ilinois by the shortest rout. 

I have been threatened for some time past with a return of my 
Disorder, but it is not as yet come upon me, Doctor Magra c is 
now here, and his prescriptions & the Regimen he directs may 
prevent it or at least abate its force, I am much oblidged to You 
for your freindly Enquirys on that Subject, and am most respect- 

Dear Sir, Your most Obedient, Verry Humble Serv*. 

W M . Johnson 

His Excellency GENR L . Gage — 


S r . W m . Johnson 

1 7* April 1 766 — 
received 2 d . May 
w fh . an Ace 1 , of his Pay & ca . from 
24*. Sep'. 1765, to March 

Answered — 

5 Ante pp. 69-70. 

6 Dr. Redmond Magra. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 77 

Contemporary Copy 1 

Montreal, April 1 7 th . J 766. 

I received your f av r . of the 2 1 st . Feb?. 2 also the enclosed under 
Cover to the Merchants of this City, which I faithfully communi- 
cated according to your desire, and as I thought in the properest 
manner, which was (after its being translated into French) at a 
general Meeting of all the Inhabitants English, and French who 
expressed the highest satisfaction on your Condescension in giving 
them an answer so expeditious, and full of your regard for their 
Interest. I now do my self the honour to enclose you a Memorial 3 
from the Principal Merchants of the City on the Subject of Trade 
with the Indians, which I have always maintained, is in your De- 
partment, and comes consequently under your immediate Inspec- 
tion. — The Merchants of this Place in order to leave no Stone 
unturned, and endeavour if possible to raise the drooping head of 
the Commercial Interest of this distressed, and unhappy Province, 
made application to the Governor, and Council, hoping thro' them, 
in the present unsettled State of trade, to strike out something, or 
get some Information that might tend to the general good, and are 
much pleased to find that in the end things will be brought into 
their proper Channel, and that you, Sir, as they have always 
thought, is [are] the Person from whom they are to expect Redress 
in regard to their Complaints, and present Requests relative to 
Trade, or other matters concerning the upper Countries. — 

They have likewise thought it necessary to enclose you the 
Memorial 4 to the Governor & Council with his Excell c y' s . answer 5 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7; original in mutilated 
form was printed in Johnson Papers, 5 : 1 79-8 1 . Postscript there given is 
not in the copy. 

2 Not found. 

3 Memorial of Montreal merchants to Johnson, April 15, 1766, ante 
pp. 71-72. 

4 Memorial of Montreal merchants to governor and council, March 30, 
1 766, ante pp. 57-61 . 

5 Governor James Murray to the Montreal merchants, April 5, 1766, 
ante pp. 65-66. 

78 Sir William Johnson Papers 

in Council, also a Copy of the Licence, 6 and have now nothing to 
hope but from y r . taking their Case into your serious consideration, 
and from your kind Promises (for w ch . they render a grateful 
acknowledgement) to grant them every Priviledge in your Power, 
consistent with your Sentiments, which we are convinced will be 
for his Majesty's Interest. I shou'd not omit that I sent down an 
Extract of your Letter to me relative to the Merchants of Quebec, 
which gave them great pleasure & Satisfaction. We flatter our- 
selves you will excuse the great trouble we give when you con- 
sider that the whole Welfare of this part of the Province depends 
entirely on a free open, and extensive trade with the Savages — I 
am happy when I have it in my power to render any services, but 
shou'd be much more so in a certainty of your approbation of my 
Conduct. — I have the Honor to be most respectfully S r . &c 

Yours — Signed — John Welles — 


Johnson Hall April 17* 1766 

Dear Sir — 

I have several letters of y rs . to acknowledge the receipt of, but 
am so greatly hurried that I can't do so in time, as Doctor Magra 2 
& Constable 3 are at Cap 1 . Clau's and cant come up here I fear as 
he is much indisposed, So that I must go to him early in the Morn- 
ing if possible — 

I heartily thank You for your great kindness in Consulting the 
Physicians at Philadelphia, my Indisposition did not attack me 
with so much severity as before, & I am happy to find that the 
opinion of these Gentlemen Corresponds a good deal with that of 
Doctor Magra's — I send Instructions to M r . Cole as Com- 

6 See Johnson Papers, 5 :458-59. 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Cadwalader Collection. 

2 Dr. Redmond Magra. 

3 Dr. John Constable of Schenectady. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 79 

missary, and I now enclose You Instructions for Your Journey, 
in which I have referred You for particulars to your own Judg- 
ment. — I wrote You lately that on y e . report of Pondiac's being 
at the Illinois, I thought it best not to call him down but leave the 
meeting to You, but finding by y e . Genr ls . last letter that he is 
desireous I should meet him &ca. I shall do it accordingly, and 
hope to receive timely notice of his Approach. The Genr 1 . men- 
tions the am 1 , of the Expence of your Journey, which I make no 
doubt You will render as Important as You can. — 

As the pay of the new created officers must pass thro My 
hands I shall draw for it half yearly, & should be glad some 
Method could be fallen upon to get them Supplied with Cash 
till they receive it. You know how I am circumstanced, that I cant 
draw for the money till 'tis due, & that may be too late for People 
at Such a distance, neither can it be expected that you should 
advance it, therefore I could wish some method could be fallen 
upon for Supplying them till the money can be drawn from me. 

The Commissary at the Illinois is £ 200 St r s. cp Annum, the 
Interpreter 8 s Currcy <p Diem, and the Smith the same, but if 
You cannot get One y f . is a Smith for that You may go as far as 
£ 1 00 Sw. $ Annum 

I have directed You in the Instructions that you should take 
a few Indians with You, and I mentioned some time ago to y e . 
General that I thought it best the Shawanese &ca. should not yet 
be excited to revenge, least it might obstruct the communication, 
and I have Given Drafts on the General for the Interpreters pay 
&ca. in favour of M r . Wallace of New York agreable to L f . Co 11 . 
Campbells letter, & I sent your Acctt long ago to the Genr 1 . but 
have not had his Answer thereon which I am a good deal Sur- 
prised at, & Shall write him again, by this Post. — 

I sent by the Delaware Deputys last Year A Coppy of the 
Treaty of Peace which they now have in their possession, & was 
wrote on parchment as the Original that it might be the better 
preserved. — You will perceive that it is recommended in y r . 
Instructions to enquire about the French Claims & Boundaries, I 
am persuaded You will inform Yourself thoroughly thereof and 

80 Sir William Johnson Papers 

of everry other particular in the fullest Manner & that You will 
omit nothing for rendering Y r . Journey effectual by ratifying all 
Matters with the Ind s ., & establishing y e . Cornish. & Subordinate 
officers in freindship with the Indians, Giving them Such additional 
Instructions as may be found necessary. — 

I heartily wish You Success, & Safe return, & remain 

Dear Sir 
Your most Sincere Freind 
& verry Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 
George Croghan Esq r . 
The Family desire their 
Compliments — 

P.S. if You should chance to meet anything curious that way, 
pray purchase them for me, even Bows, & Arrows and a Sheild 
such as they use made of y e . Neck of Buffaloes & ca . — & tell 
Coll. Cole to do the Same — 

P.S. In case Pondiac cannot, or does not incline to come down to 
me, I would then have You meet & Settle all Matters with him & 
the rest in the best Manner possible, letting me know by express 
the certainty in either case, So that I may not be disapointed. Y rs . 



D.S. 1 

[Johnson Hall the 20 th . day of April 1766] 

Instructions for George Croghan Esqr. Deputy Agent for Indian 

You will imediately on receipt hereof set out for Fort Pitt and 
having settled matters there and left proper directions for the 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Cadwalader Collection. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 81 

Transacting affairs during your absence You are then without 
delay to proceed for the Ilinois by such Rout as shall appear most 
adviseable, taking with you a few of such Indians as you shall 
Judge absolutely necessary for promoting the service you go 
upon. — 

As I have now transmitted a Warr*. and Instructions to M r . 
Cole as Commissary at the Ilinois, and directed him to meet you 
either there or on the Road, you will accordingly Introduce him 
to the Indians, and acquaint them that I have sent him to reside 
there to prevent abuses in Trade, to hear and report their Com- 
plaints, or any other business to me, and to transact all Affairs with 
them under my direction. That I therefore Expect they will take 
due notice of him, and treat him with respect and esteem, whereby, 
and by paying a due regard to their engagements, they will become 
intitled to farther notice when we get better acquainted and find 
that the Road is continued to be kept open to their Country. You 
will likewise acquaint them that he will have an Interpreter with 
him, and a Smith to repair their Arms and Implements. — 

You are to inform the Indians that you are now sent to ratify 
and Confirm the Transactions of last Year, and to Assure them 
that his Majesty is favorably disposed towards them and without 
any Views to their prejudice is only desirous to Cultivate a friendly 
intercourse between the English and them, and will not suffer the 
former to injure them or invade their propertys. 

That it is therefore Expected they will shew themselves worthy 
his Royal favor and kindness by keeping open the Road of peace 
and living in the Strictest friendship with the English, to which 
end, they must not hearken for the future to any News carriers, as 
they may be assured that every thing of importance to them will be 
communicated by me, and that they must consider all other News 
as Void of Authority, and coming from interested ill disposed 
people who have an advantage in creating differences between 
them and the English., — 

You will Likewise Enlarge, renew and Confirm the Engage- 
ments already entred into with them, inducing them to engage that 
as we shall do them Strict Justice, and punish all Offenders of our 

82 Sir William Johnson Papers 

people, that therefore they must give us the Like, whereby alone 
the peace will become lasting and Secure. — 

And the better to convince them of our Upright Intentions, you 
will make Strict enquiry concerning the bounds and Extent of 
the Lands occupied or claimed by the French, and whether by 
purchase, or otherwise, making a full report thereof to the end that 
such parts as are now or shall hereafter be abandoned may be 
ascertained to the Crown beyond dispute, and that all unjust 
Claims on their native rights may be enquired into, or set aside. 

It not being possible at present to descend to particulars you 
must Guide yourself by the State of Affairs as you shall find 
them on your arrival, having this Object principally in View 
Namely the removing their Jealousies, improving their confidence 
in, and Esteem for the English, on whom they must now be taught 
solely to depend, and convincing them that they cannot be happy 
without our friendship but must be considered by us, as well as 
by all well disposed Indians as Enemys if they forfeit their 

You are to have a Strict regard to Oeconomy, and not to Ex- 
ceed the Limits set you by the Commander in Chief in the Article 
of Expence, furnishing yourself with proper Vouchers for the 

You are to see the Commissary is put into the full discharge 
of his Office and that a proper Interpreter and Smith are appointed 
with such Instructions as you may think necessary, and You are to 
hasten the Journey of Pondiac and the other Chiefs to meet me in 
case they should be found at the Ilinois, or on the road, Assuring 
them of my good Intentions in calling them to Ontario and that 
I open the Road for all the Nations of that Country to resort 
hither when business calls them. — 

Lastly, You are to give me notice of any Material Occurrences 
on the Road, as well as make a full report of all your Transactions 
and Observations on your return from the Ilinois. — 

Given under my Hand at Johnson Hall 
the 20 lh . day of April 1 766. — 

W M . Johnson 


Indian Affairs, 1766-68 83 


for George Croghan Esq r . 

Depy. Agent 

20 th . April 1 766 


Contemporary Copy 1 

[Johnson Hall, April 24, 1766] 

By Sir William Johnson Bar 1 . Superintend*, of Indians Affairs 
for the Northern District 

To Edward Cole Esq r . Commissary for the Illenois. — 
In Pursuance of the Intentions of Government for the better 
Regulation of Indian Affairs, I do by virtue of the Powers, and 
Authority to me given by his Majesty, and with the consent and 
approbation of his Excellency Major General Gage constitute 
and appoint you Edward Cole Esq r . to be a Commissary at Fort 
Chartres at the Illenois for the management of all Indian Affairs, 
and for the Inspection of, and correcting Abuses in the Indian 
trade at that Place. — You are therefore carefully and diligently 
to discharge the said Duty by doing, and Performing all, and all 
manner of things thereunto belonging, to which end, you are now 
furnished with Instructions. — And you are to follow, and observe 
all such Orders as you shall from time to time receive from myself, 
or my Deputy to the Westward, for all which this shall be your 
Sufficient Authority. — 

Given under my hand & Seal at Arms at 
Johnson Hall 24 th . day of April 1 766. — 

W. Johnson 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

84 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Contemporary Copy 1 

[Johnson Hall, April 24, 1766] 

Instructions — 

You are on Receipt of your Warrant, and these Instructions 
to proceed without delay by the nearest, and best Rout for Fort 
Chartres at the Illenois, where, or on the way you will meet with 
[M r .] George Croghan Esq r . one of my Deputies sent thither to 
renew, and strenghten the engagements, and Treaties of last year 
with the Indians of that Country, who will introduce you to them, 
and acquaint them with the intention of your appointment, and 
the nature of your Office. — 

You are then to apply to the commanding Officer for Quarters 
which shou'd be chosen in such a place as may enable you to 
receive the Indians at any hour or time without interfering with 
any Rules of the Garrison; and for your better guidance herein 
I refer you to the enclosed Articles concerning Commissaries as 
appointed by the Lords of Trade which you may communicate to 
the commanding Officer, and with which you are strictly to comply 
as far as possible until their Lordship's Pleasure is farther 
known. — 

As the Inspection of, and preventing abuses in the Indian 
Trade, the Hearing, and Redressing Complaints, gaining Intelli- 
gence of all Designs, and keeping up a friendly Intercourse with 
the Indians, are the principal Objects of your appointment, you 
are to use your utmost abilities for effectually performing the same, 
to which end you are immediately to inform yourself of the 
manner in which the Trade heretofore has been carried on there, 
with the usual Prices of Goods, and Peltry, the names, numbers, 
Connections, and dispositions of the sev 1 . Indian tribes there, with 
their Chiefs, or leading men, and the present disposition, and in- 
fluence of the French in that Quarter, all which you are to report 
to me immediately, — and you are from time to time to make 
regular Entries of all Alterations, Occurences, and transactions, 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 85 

of which you are to send me an exact Copy every six months, and 
when any thing material occurs, you are to give me imediate 
Notice thereof. — You are not to involve the Crown in any ex- 
pence at present without the General's, or my Orders for so doing 
untill the Affairs of the Department are settled. — You are to 
acquaint the Indians that they must consider your appointment, 
and that of those under you as a great instance of his Majesty's 
regard, who has no other design but to render them happy, that 
therefore I expect they will study to merit those marks of his Royal 
Attention by a due observance of all their engagements, which 
may procure them some further occasional tokens of favor, when 
we become better acquainted, and find that the Passage to their 
Country is continued to be kept free open, and Secure to all his 
Majesty's Subjects, and that in the main time they may be assured 
that no Violence will be offered to their Persons or Properties, and 
that no Abuses in Trade shall go unpunished on due Complaint 
made thereof, to which end you are now appointed, and are to 
report all matters to me from whom alone they are to receive news, 
and that they may be assured of my strict attention to their Inter- 
ests whilst their pacific Conduct, and readiness to give us the like 
satisfaction shall intitle them to expect it. — You are to take an 
exact account of the quantity, and value of Goods, and Peltry 
sold in each year there, transmitting the same annually to me ; — 
And immediately on your arrival, you are, with M r . Croghan's 
approbation, to procure a man of the best Character, and Knowl- 
edge of the Indian Language to serve as an Interpreter, who is to 
be subject to your Orders with a Salary of 2 & ann, — and 

you are to make the like appointment of a Smith for mending the 
Arms, and Tools of the Indians at the annual Salary of 2 or less 
if possible, provided M r . Croghan does not take one with him, — 
and you are to see that the Smith attends closely, and solely to the 
business of his appointment, and that the Interpreter be allways in 
readiness to discharge his Duty with Fidelity, to which end, and 
it is absolutely necessary you apply your self closely to acquire the 

2 Blank in this copy. 

86 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Languages of the Nations with whom you are to transact 
business. — 

Lastly. — As it is impossible at this time to point out every 
Part of your Conduct, the same depending on a variety of Circum- 
stances, with which you will be best acquainted, when on the Spot, 
and as much of it will depend on the Reports Shortly to be made 
to me, you are therefore, 'till you receive my further Instructions, 
to do the best you can for promoting Peace, and Harmony be- 
tween the English, and Indians there, and for discovering any 
Plot, or Schemes calculated to disturb the public tranquility, 
guided by Justice, Impartiality, and the utmost disinterestedness in 
all your actions, winning on the Indians by mildness, Candor, and 
Affability, and preventing, to your utmost, all Quarrels or disputes, 
between them, and the Soldiery at the Illenois. — 

Given under my hand and Seal at Arms at 
Johnson Hall the 24 th . of April 1 766. — 

W. Johnson 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Johnson Hall May 3 d . 1766. 
Sir — 

I have had the favour of Your Letter of the 3 1 st . March 2 with 
the Licence inclos'd, and I am much Obliged to you for the polite 
manner in which You are pleas'd to consult Me on that occasion 

The manner in which Your Licences are drawn up will admit 
of no exception or addition except with regard to the places where 
the Indian Trade is to be carried on, which in all the passes from 
the other Governments are confin'd to the Forts or Garrisons where 

1 In University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada; copy in the Johnson 
manuscripts in New York State Library was destroyed by fire. 

2 Ante pp. 62-63. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 87 

Commissarys are to reside agreeable to the Intentions of His 
Majesty, and to the Lords of Trade's Plan for the Regulations 
of Indian Affairs, which I have reason to expect will be speedily 
put in execution, This restriction is intended as well for the pro- 
tection of The Traders, as to prevent the Frauds they might be 
guilty of, if left to themselves in the Indian Country, which with 
many other Irregularities they often commit, and many of the 
French Traders particularly from Motives of Interest or Disaf- 
fection have acted such parts as to render this restriction highly 
necessary and whatever may be alledged of the French Indulgence 
to Traders to go into the Indian Country, it is not consistent with 
good Policy for us to continue that practice neither will the 
Indians in general desire it, when they find the Advantages result- 
ing from a Trade under due Inspection, and as none of the Posts 
to which those of Your Government were Used to resort are to be 
evacuated, it will therefore be no new Inconvenience to the 
Traders if restricted to these Posts as before. 

I shall be very glad to hear that we Agree in Sentiment on this 
Subject, as I am with great Esteem 

Your Excellency's &c. 
(Sign'd) W M . Johnson 
His Excellency 
Governor Murray 


Copy — 
Sir Will" 1 . Johnson's Letter 

Governor Murray — 

88 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Contemporary Copy 1 

London May 10 th . 1766. 

Dear Sir, — 

I have just received your Letter of the 28 th . of Feb?., 2 and defer 
answering that part of it relating to the Indian Boundary 'til I 
have conferred with the Lords of Trade, which I shall do before 
the next Packet sails. 

I enclose you a Copy of the Memorial as it is presented. I con- 
sider'd it with M r . Wilmot, 3 whose knowledge of things of this 
sort is very great, and we both consulted my Lord Dartmouth 
upon it, who as well as M r . Wilmot was of opinion it was best to 
have but one Memorial referred to the Board of Trade, that they 
would report on all they could, and the rest might be done by the 
Treasury or Secretary at War. 

It is but lately presented, and the American Affairs not having 
been agreed to in the House of Commons 'til Thursday it could 
not be considered but next Week if possible I will endeavour to 
bring it on, & get every thing done for you that I possibly can of 
which I will inform you by the first opportunity and am with great 

Dear Sir 

Your affectionate Friend 
& most obed*. Servant 


Sir Will m . Johnson Bar 1 . 

Your Son 4 is in Ireland. I thought it very necessary to imploy M r . 
Wilmot. I congratulate you on the Success we have met with in 
all our endeavours for the Service of America. 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Penn Letter Books. 

2 Not found. 

3 Probably John Eardley Wilmot, privy councillor. 

4 John Johnson. 

Indian Afiairs, 1766-68 89 

A.L.S. 1 

Johnson Hall May 13 th . 1766 
Dear Banyar — 

Altho I have near cracked my knowledge Box in endeavouring 
to find out the cause of your coolness, or (I will rather call it) 
silence, I am yet at a loss to account for it, & so great & 
unexpected a change in one whom I so much esteemed & 
confided in. Is it on Ace 1 , of the times being so critical, or the 
Peoples being so Violent that You would not write me? if not, 
convince me thereof by a few lines, & I shall be satisfied, otherwise 
I must Imagine that I am considered as a Dangerous Correspond', 
tho I cannot bring myself to think, that any who know me well, 
will Judge me so. — Now I will talk to You a little upon busi- 
nes. — know then, that the Pattent whereon I live adjoins that of 
Sacondaga, And as I find by a Survey lately made (by order of 
the Patentees) that they take away some cleared Land from one 
of my Tenants, I would be glad You would Send me the 
Boundaries of that Pattent, & Sign it as Usual, The Gentlemen 
who run the courses thereof Say that they took them from the old 
Survey of M r . Collins, & not from the Patent, so that I have 
reason to doubt the Survey. — 

I find by Said Gentlemen who are Concerned in that Patent, 
that Cap 1 . Edward Clark (my old Acquaintance) has a part 
therein, and that You have y e . disposal thereof, if so, & that it is 
to be sold, pray let me know it, & the lowest price, also the 
Quantity. — He has also a 4 th . part of Northampton Patent 
which lyes along the Sacondaga, or Branch of Hudsons River, if 
that is to be sold likewise be so good as to inform me, & the 
price. — 

Excuse all this trouble, & believe me 

Your Sincere Welwisher 
& Affec te . Freind 

Wm. Johnson 
Golds Borrow Banyar Esq r . 

1 In New York Historical Society, Banyar Papers. 

90 Sir William Johnson Papers 

My Complim 15 . to M r . Colden & Family, Doctor Middleton & to 
all my old Acquaintance. — 


May 13. 1766 

letter fr m . S r . W m . Johnson 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Johnson Hall, May 1 5 l K, 1766. — 
Gentlemen. — 

I have received the Memorial 2 you were pleased to address to 
me concerning the Indian Trade, on which Article I wish it was in 
my power to write satisfactorily. — The Government from a sense 
of the many Risques to which Trade is liable, if carried on in the 
Indian Country, the Opportunities which it might give to Injustice, 
and the different Principles of Policy which induced the French 
to permit trade every where, have thought proper to direct that it 
shou'd only be carried on at certain Posts expressed in the Plan 
for Regulating Indian Affairs, much approved of by the present 
Ministry; and the several Governors have granted their Licences 
accordingly, neither have the Lords of Trade made any Excep- 
tion, or adverted to the different System for the trade in Canada. 
— I am well convinced from reasons too many to be comprized 
within the Bounds of this letter, that this Restriction upon the 
Indian Trade, will in a short time be found most agreeable to 
both Traders, and Indians, and that the present contrary opinions 
of the latter are founded on a Custom, which had better be broke 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 The memorial dated April 15, 1 766, from the merchants and traders 
of Montreal, ante pp. 71-72. 

Indian A fairs, 1766-68 91 

than kept, and which are not consistent with the Policy of our 
Governm 1 . 

Under these Circumstances you will perceive, that whatever my 
Inclination may be, it is not in my Power to do any thing contrary 
to the Intentions of his Majesty, and the Lords of Trade's Plan, 
the Regulations proposed, which can be of no use if the Traders 
are permitted to go at discretion beyond the Reach of the proper 
Officer who is to have the Inspection of the trade. — 

As this Plan was wisely, and deliberately calculated, and is 
greatly approved by those now in Power at home, I must be silent 
on that head, and hope it may not affect your particular Interests 
so much as you suppose, as I am your real Welwisher, and heartily 
disposed to serve you in every thing consistent with my Duty. — 
I am Gent n . — Yours &c 

W: Johnson 
To the Merch ts . of Montreal — 


Contemporary) Copy 1 

New York 19*. May 1766 — 
Dear Sir, 

Four or Five Indians have been lately killed by two white men 
who went from the Settlements near Fort Pitt down the Ohio, 
after some traders Boats ; I inclose You a Copy of the Speech of 
some of the Shawnese Chiefs to Capt. Murray 2 on this Matter, 
and his Answer. These Cursed Villains will Sooner or later bring 
us into a War; I have ordered Capt. Murray to tell the Indians, 
that I am very Sorry they could not come up with them, & put 
them to Death, and that I shall do Every thing in my Power to 
Apprehend them & bring them to Punishment; It is Supposed 
that they are gone to Fort Chartres where their Actions might not 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Captain William Murray, commandant at Fort Pitt. 

92 Sir William Johnson Papers 

be known. I have Sent Orders to the Officer Commanding there 
to apprehend them & Send them guarded by the Indians to Fort 
Pitt. Capt. Murray will Send their Descriptions to the Ilinois as 
well as to Me, to be forwarded to all the Governments. I most 
Sincerely Wish, that the Indians had killed them that we might 
Shew them our approbation in the Punishm 1 . of Such Execrable 
Villains, the Indian Acco*. of the affair is, that the two Murtherers 
were in distress not having come up with the Boats & were relieved 
by one of their Hunting partys composed of Five Men, a Child & 
a Squaw, the Villains took the opportunity when they were all 
Asleep to Murder the Men, Stole their Canoe, Blankets &ca, & 
went down the Ohio — 

I am, with great Regard, 
Dear Sir 

Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 . 



To Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 , 

Johnson Hall 
New York 19 th . May 1766 



New York May 23*. 1766 
Dear Sir 

The Bearer hereof M r . Wetherhead is a Friend of mine he 
waits on you to take your sentiments respecting a Purchase 
[intended] 2 of Lands proposed to be made of one of the five 

1 In New York Historical Society, Kempe papers. Original letter in 
mutilated form printed in Johnson Papers, 5 :2 1 8-1 9. 

2 Words italicized and in brackets are crossed out in the manuscript. 

Indian Afairs, 1766-68 93 

Nations, and to crave your Countenance and Assistance therein — 
I am informed [the Gov] his Excellency the Gov r . is inclined to 
make the Purchase, and to favor him and his Associates with a 
Grant, and that the Indians are [desirous] disposed to sell the 
Lands to them. [/ shall I should betray the Confidence I have 
[justly] have in your Friendship — to declare acquaint to you — 
not — did I not acquaint you that I am myself interested — / 
should be] — It would bespeak a want of that Confidence I 
ought to have in your Friendship, did I not [deel] acquaint you 
that I am myself interested [/lerez'n] in the application, as I cannot 
but assure myself you will readily lend me your friendly aid 
herein [as far as is-in-as far as is right, — / must and more 
especially-It is the only way I can have of making my office 
of any advantage to me, especially when-especially too when 
it is considered that as a public officer, in this Way only, I can 
mafye my office — as this may continue — / fynow of no competi- 
tors for these Lands,] not only on my own Account but [because I 
have to — am but illy supported in my office, have no other way 
of — ] as an officer of Government, illy supported, and who 
[has] having had much Trouble [concerning,] in the Affairs of 
these very Indians does not stand before them as an Indifferent 

Let me take this oppertunity of acknowledging the Receipt of 
£ 1 1 4. 1 1 .6 by the Hands of M r . Mortier, being the amount of 
the Costs [ — and his] in Klocks affair, and the two Ejectm ,s . — 
Causes of the Tenants of the Connajoharie Indians (except in the 
Ejectm 1 . causes the Council Fees usually allowed for attending at 
Albany, which I presume were by some Mistake ommitted in 
transmitting the Acc tts . in order to their passing for Paym 1 . — [/ 
received it in] I received it ab*. the Middle of February, [but hav- 
ing been a good deal out of Town, and married into the Bargain] 
and should have acknowledged it before but I have been greatly 
out of Town and much engaged ever since, [/ am] 

ITis a long time since I heard anything [of the Indian Complaint] 
from you respecting the Kayaderosseras Patent, — It is rumored 

94 Sir William Johnson Papers 

much obliged to you, to inform me whether it be so, [for] least as 
the Stamp Act is repealed and we shall soon go on with Business, 
I be blamed for [ — ] not proceeding according to the order I 
formerly received — 

I am 

Dear Sir 

with great Respect 
Your much obliged 
& most humble Ser 1 . 

J. T. Kempe 


May 23 : 1 766 

Draft Letter to Sir W m . Johnson 
by M r . Wetherhead — 



Contemporary Copy 1 

[Johnson Hall May 24-27, 1766] 

24 th . Delivered a large Bunch of White Wampum to Lieu 1 . 
Williams 2 of the 1 7 th . Regiment then going to Michillimacinac to 
deliver it to the Chiefs of the Chippaweighs &c living at S*. Mary's 
thereby to remind them of their engagements entered into with him 
at Detroit the year before last, recommending to them a strict Ob- 
servance of all their Promises with an Assurance of his Friendship, 
and Care of their Interest, so long as they continued to deserve it 
&c — At the same time sent by him a new Flagg for the Chief 
of the Chippaweighs, a large Silver Broach with a Ribbon, and 
a large Silver Jewel to hang to his breast, the latter was sent as a 
Testimony of Sir W ms . regard for him. — 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 Lieutenant Samuel Williams. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 95 

24th # — On this day Adam, and another old Sachim of Oghquago 
arrived here being sent to acquaint Sir W m . of the murder of one 
of the Oneidas by a White man living at the Minisinks without 
any Cause, but from mere dislike to Indians. — they brought Sir 
W m . several letters from their Chiefs signifying their Concern, 
and uneasiness on the Occasion, lest it shou'd cause a fresh 
Rupture, as the deceased was a very good man, and had great 
Connections, and had always been a firm Friend to the English, 
accompanying their Armies every Campaign. — that this, and the 
murder of some other Indians of the Confederacy which had 
lately been committed, wou'd, they fear'd Shake the Covenant 
Chain, happily brightened, and renewed last Year, and make 
those who were not yet thoroughly acquainted with us, look upon 
our Treaties and Professions of Friendship in a very unfavorable 
light. — 

3 Strings of Wampum. 
Sir W m . answered their sev 1 . Letters in the best manner he 
cou'd to reconcile them, and also condoled the Deaths of those 
murdered, in the usual way, and in such manner as he judged 
would be most agreable to them, viz 1 , with Wampum, black 
Strouds &c, and acquainted them that he wou'd immediately let 
the Governor of this Province know of the murder, who he 
assured them wou'd take every necessary Step to have the 
murderer apprehended, and Justice done therein, and lastly gave 
them a strict Charge to prevent their young men from doing any 
thing rash, and dismissed them with a Present. 

Three Strings Wampum 

Same day Wanughsissa, and another old man came here with a 

Belt of Wampum, requesting in the name of all the Seneca Nation 

that a Smith might be sent to them to mend their Tools, for the 

want of which they were much distressed. — 

A Belt — 
To which Sir W m . answered that until they had fullfilled their 
Promises made to him last Summer, and Delivered up all the 
Prisoners yet among them they had no Right to expect such Indul- 
gence, particularly so as he was now sending a Smith to Niagara, 

96 Sir William Johnson Papers 

and another to reside at Oswego by whom they might have their 
Work done. — however, on their firm assurance of bringing in all 
the Prisoners yet among them, that he wou'd send a Smith to 
reside there, and work for them. — 

A Belt — 
Then acquainted them with the General's Resolution of abandon- 
ing some of the Posts, namely Fort Schuyler, 3 Royal Block 
house, 4 Fort Brewerton, 5 and that at Oswego Falls, and that the 
General had given the transportation of the Kings Provisions, 
Stores &c to a Gent who was to reside at Fort Sclosser, 6 plant 
Corn &c which were for the use of the Oxen, Horses &c, and that 
no other Settlements were intended to be made there, so that they 
might entertain no more evil thoughts on that account, and de- 
sired the Messengers to inform the sev 1 . Nations thro' which 
he passed of the first news, and the Senecas in particular with 
the latter. — 

2 Strings of Wampum 
May 12 th . Old Laurence chief of Schohare aged 78 Years, with 
his Wife, and Nephew named Nicolaus son of Catharine chief 
Woman of Scohare came here, and made Sir W m . a Present of a 
Mine above Scohare up the Creek above the upper Settlements 
a good way, and about 300 Yards from the Creek on a Hill, as- 
suring him at the same time that it was never sold, and that he had 
it a long time in view to present him with it, and some Land about, 
and that now he had taken a Journey on purpose on that Occasion, 
as he never expected to come this way again, being quite feeble 
with age. — at the same time gave Sir W m . a Sample of the Stone 
about the Mine, which was full of Verdigreaze. — S r . W m . 
thanked him, and told him he much doubted it's being yet unsold, 

3 On the site of the present city of Utica, N. Y. 

4 Royal Block House at east end of Oneida Lake at the mouth of Wood 
Creek. See Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:557 for erection and destruc- 
tion of these forts. 

5 In Oswego County, N. Y., on Oneida outlet, opposite the present village 
of Brewerton. 

6 Fort Schlosser at Little Niagara. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 97 

on which he again assured him it was never sold. — then gave him 
a Present, and told him he would again enquire into the matter —?S 

27 th . Takarihogo Sachim of Conjohare brought Sir W m . the 
Wampum sent from Cayuga by that Council to let the Mohawks, 
and him know that they had lost their chief Sachim the English- 
man, and that the Conjohares requested he woud acquaint the 
Mohawks with the News, which he did immediately, whereupon 
their chiefs came to consult with him concerning the Condolence 
which was settled agreeable to Custom. — 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Copy of the above Petition 2 to Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 . Superin- 
tend 1 , of Indian Affairs for the Northern District in North 
America bearing Date 29 th . May 1 766. — 

Stockbridge 29 th . May 1766 — 
Most Humbly Sheweth — That we your Petitioners being 
duly authorized and empowered by all the Indians of our Tribe 
M ohafyunmich to go to Great Britain and lay our Grievances 
before his Majesty. — We do from our experienced knowledge 
of your uprightness, and Justice to us in all our transactions, 
and from a knowledge you have of a Series of the most unjust 
Oppression which we have laboured under for a considerable 
time past, must humbly request that agreeable to your Conduct 
to us, and all other Indians hitherto, you our friend and Pro- 
tector will aid and assist us by recommending us to the notice of 
the King of great Britain in as favorable a manner as the Justice 
of our Cause, our Poverty, and our Ignorance of the Laws 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 Mentioned in Journal of Indian Affairs under date of June 8, as 
delivered to Sir William by Samuel Star of Ridgefield, Conn, post p. 1 22. 

98 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Customs and manners of that Country will admit of — And we 
as in Duty bound shall Pray — 

(Signed) Jacob Checksaunikun 

Solomon Wisaunpauwaunnut 
John Naunautiphtaunk 

Daniel X Nimham in behalf 

of himself and all the 
Indians of his Tribe 

Contemporary Copy 1 

Charlestown June the I st . 1766 — • 

Sir — 

I had the pleasure of writing to you the 30 th . March 2 last, since 
which I have not been favored with any of yours. — I now 
enclose you a Copy of a Tall?, 3 I lately received from the 
Cherokee Nation, by it you will perceive how much they are 
harrassed, and distressed by the Incursions of the Northern Tribes 
what they alude to when they say that the Northern Enemy Strike 
the White People as well as them, will be explained to you by 
inclosed Abstract of M r . Camerons Proceedings in a letter to me, 3 
by which you will also see that I have been busy in ascertaining the 
Boundary lines between this Province, and the Indian Hunting 
Grounds. — 

Although it wou'd give me some pleasure to give relief to the 
Cherokees from their Sufferings by the War with your Indians, yet 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. Printed in mutilated 
form in Johnson Papers, 5:233-35. 

2 Ante pp. 53-57. 

3 In Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 99 

I cannot help doubting with you of the Propriety of such a 
measure in a Political point of view with regard to the interest of 
the Southern Provinces. — for the Creek Nations are very inso- 
lent and ungovernable, and have of late been endeavoring to form 
a Confederacy among the great nations in this department. — The 
murder of the Cherokees by the Inhabitants of Augusta County in 
Virginia, for which no satisfaction has been obtained, nor is their 
Strength of Government in that Province able to bring the 
Offenders to Justice, and the encroachments by the Provinces on 
their Hunting Grounds gave just grounds for Complaint. — The 
Creeks avail themselves of these accidents to inflame their minds, 
and the Mortar 4 has offered them a Reinforcement of 700 men 
to enable them to do themselves Justice, in this Situation, it may 
not be good Policy in us to be too active in mediating between 
them, and their Northern Enemies. I shall take the sense of the 
different Governors upon the Subject, as the Provinces of Georgia, 
South Carolina, and North Carolina are more connected with the 
Cherokees, and more immediately contiguous to them than 
Virginia, which Province wou'd be glad to amuse, and divert them 
from demands of Justice, by such Acts of kindness. — Whatever 
the Sense of the different Governors may be on this Matter, 
I shall take the earliest opportunity of communicating to you. — 
You see they mention sending Deputies to the Northern Nations to 
sue for Peace. I think at all Events, your interposition to procure 
safety to the Persons of the Deputies, will be very proper, and you 
will be best Judge what notice may be proper to take of the murder 
of Welch by the Shawanese. The Bad Consequence which M r . 
Cameron apprehends from the murder of Traders by these Parties 
is not altogether improbable. — 

I have had no late accounts from the Nations in this Depart- 
ment, contiguous to West Florida, but I conclude that everything 
there is peaceable. — I have the Honor to be S r . &c. 

John Stuart 

4 Otis Mico, a Creek chief. 

100 Sir William Johnson Papers 



New York June 2 d . 1766. 
Dear Sir, 

I take the Liberty to inclose you a Letter for Major Rogers, 
imagining he will certainly call on you in his way to his Post, 
if he shall have passed you, you will be so good to send it after 
him by the first good opportunity: I am likewise to beg of you, 
for very particular Reasons, which I can't now mention, that you 
will give the stongest Orders to your Interpreters and Commissarys 
to watch Major Roger's Transactions with the Indians; and that 
they send you Information if he holds any bad Conversations with 
them. As he speaks no Indian, and can't employ any under you in 
any such Business, he can only have Recourse to the French to 
interpret for him. Your People can have an Eye over him in any 
private Conferences in which, he may employ the French to inter- 
pret for him with the Indians, and may afterwards get from the 
Indians the Result of their Conversation. I hope no such thing 
will happen, if it does, it will be Chiefly at the Detroit, par- 
ticularly with Pondiac, Tho' if he begins there, he will no Doubt 
do the same at Missilimakinak. Your People should keep their 
Instructions Secret and not divulge what you write them on this 

Your Ace 1 , shall be paid as soon as it is possible. I assure you 
I have been obliged to borrow for my private uses, not being able 
to sell Bills. The Stamp Act is repealed, but I don't find that 
People are yet inclined to pay their Debts. I wish when all is 
cleared up that the real Truth does not appear, that they are not 
able to pay. 

The Shawnese were applied to for to transport some Provi- 
sions from Fort-Pitt to the Ilinois their Misunderstanding with 

In Harvard University Library. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 101 

the Kikapous made them decline it. The Mingoes undertook it, 
and are gone with a small Cargo. 

I am with great Regard 
dear Sir, 

Your most obedient 
humble Servant, 

Tho s . Gage 
S R . W M . Johnson 


New York June 2 d . 1 766 

Genr 1 . Gages Letter 

With a remarkable Enclosure 

2 In Sir William's hand; third line in hand of Guy Johnson. 


Cop]) 1 

Philad*. June 6 ih . 1766. 

We beg leave to communicate to you the enclosed Paper, 2 con- 
taining Reasons for establishing a Colony at the Illinois with some 
Proposals for carrying the same into immediate Execution. It is 
our Opinion that, if these proposals should be agreed to, great 
Benefit must necessarily result therefrom to the British Crown and 

If you, Sir, should be of the same sentiments with us, who, 
from your great knowledge and Experience in Indian and other 
Public Affairs, are every way best qualified to judge of this Sub- 

1 Printed in Illinois Historical Collections, 11:247-48; original in 
mutilated form was printed in Johnson Papers, 5 :240-41 . 

2 Printed in Illinois Historical Collections, 1 1 :248-57. 

102 Sir William Johnson Papers 

ject, we then earnestly request you to transmit, and recommend our 
Proposals to his Majesties Ministers. And we do hereby authorize 
you, to assure them that we the Subscribers, (together with some 
others who are shortly to be admitted into our Company) are 
ready and willing, to enter into those Engagements which are 
mentioned in the said Proposals for the speedy settlement of the 
Countrey, on receiving the encouragement desired for that 

We are, very respectfully, Sir Your most obedient Servants 

Tho Wharton Joseph Wharton 

John Morgan Jo n Hughes 

Jos. Wharton Junr John Baynton 

Jos. Galloway John Baynton for Sam 1 . Wharton 

John Baynton for Geo. Morgan 


To The Hon ble . Sir William Johnson Bar 1 . His 
Majesty's Superintendant of Indian Affairs for the 
Northern District of America at Johnson-Hall 


Philadelphia, June 6 th . 1 766. Letter with Enclosures 
from Mess rs . Baynton Wharton Morgan Hughs &ca. 

Df. x 

New York W lh . June 1766 

His Excellency having yesterday laid before the Council two 
Petitions, one of Francis Pfister, a reduced Lieutenant: the other 
of James Duane and his Associates, [copies whereof are inclosed], 2 
I was directed by his Excellency to inclose you Copies thereof, and 
to desire your Opinion and Information as to the first; Whether 

1 In New York State Library, Colonial Land Papers. 

2 Words italicized and in brackets are crossed out in the manuscript. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 103 

the Lands prayed for are vacant, if so whether they are already 
purchased, [if not whether there] and if they are whether the [are 
any and what Objections to passing the Grant prayed for — And 
as to the second — Whether] Indians lay any Claim to the Lands ! 
And as to the Second ; whether there are any Lands in the Situa- 
tion described in the Petition vacant, and if there are, as the 
Petitioner desires only leave to purchase, — whether there are 
any & what objections to the granting [to] such Leave ; The Peti- 
tions are inclosed and I beg your Answer, [by the] I am 


10 June 17[66] 

Draft of Letter to Sir William 

to be copyed with the two Petitions 

referred to & sent to Sir W m . Johnson 

A.L.S. 1 

Albany 13 th . June 1766 
HonBle. Sir 

I am Order'd by The Worshipful, The Master Warders, and 
Brethren of Union Lodge N°. 1 of Albany To Express their 
desire that your Hon r . and the other Bretheren at Johnson Hall 
wouR Honour them (if Convenient) with Your, and their Com- 
pany at the Festival of S l . John, which I am desir'd to inform 
You, that they intend to Celebrate in Public, by Proceeding from 
the Lodge room to Church. 

I am Hon ble . Sir Your 
Most Humble Servt 

W M . Benson 

To the Hon ble . 
Sir William Johnson Bar't 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Gratz Collection. 

104 Sir IVilliam Johnson Papers 



The Honourable S r . W m . Johnson 

^ fav Rev°. M'. Brown/ 2 Johnson Hall 

Albany 13th. June 1766 

M r . SecrT. Bensons letter 
Ansr d . 1 7 th . June 

2 Reverend Thomas Brown, rector of St. Peter's Church, Albany, 
1 764-68. See Doc. Hist. N. Y., 3:1 153, for biographical sketch. 


Johnson Hall June 1 4 th . 1766 
Dear Sir — 

Your letter of the 2 d . Ins 1 . 2 with the enclosure Arrived here 
two Days ago, and has given me an opertunity of making a verry 
extraordinary 6c alarming Discovery not to be mentioned at this 
time, altho I imagine from some expressions in Yours that you 
may have some Conjectures on the Subject, Yet be assured that it 
is of such a nature, as I think Should be imediately made known to 
the Ministry, and requires a speedy Interview between usytho, 
how to effect it I am realy at at a loss, being in a weak state of 
Health for some time past, & confined to a Regimen which will 
by no means admit of my going to New York. — How the Dis- 
covery was made, I shall hereafter explain to You, it is Sufficient 
at present y l . I assure You of its importance, and that if it is 
possible for me to expect You at Albany, I shall notwithstanding 
the pain it may give me meet You with pleasure there. Was my 
health anything better I should imediately go to New York with- 

1 In William L. Clements Librarj'. 

2 Ante pp. 100-01. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 105 

out a Moments Hesitation, but I am persuaded You will excuse 
me on that consideration, and that if it is possible for You to come 
that length, I shall then have it in power to convince You that 
Your Journey was to a verry Material purpose. — I hope You 
will excuse the freedom which my present State compels me to 
use with You, & that You will as soon as possible favour me with 
Your Answer hereon. 

This Moment I received Your favour of the 9 th . Ins 1 . 3 concern- 
ing the late Affair at Detroit & ca . & at y e . same time I have a long 
letter from L l . Co 11 . Campbel 4 who is at a loss what to do with the 
two Indians Prisoners at Detroit, as Pondiac and the rest are verry 
sollicitous to obtain their liberty. I have also another from 
Cap 1 . Howard who has sent me a List of the Traders whom he 
permitted to go to Lake Superior & ca . with his reasons for so 
doing, namely that many of y e . Nations had complained that they 
could not subsist during the Winter without them, & that the 
Traders were extremely Sollicitous for Such permission, & repre- 
sented that it might otherwise occasion a Quarrel. I see plainly 
how it is now throughout y e . Continent. People expect to do now 
as they please. I have wrote Sundry times to the Board of Trade 
& represented y e . dangerous tendency of such a practice under the 
Brittish Government, In which I hope I shall be seconded by 
everry disinterested person, who knows the Chicanerey used on 
these occasions, and the Various Interests & Infamous practices of 
the Majority who go there, and whose freinds impose on the Gov- 
ernment at home with the most dangerous & fallacious Arguments. 
The Indians are set up to this, and would be soon reconciled to 
Trade at the Posts, & find it much for their Interest, but for y e . 
Artifices of many who live by the distresses in which they involve 
the Colonists, and who will be supported both here & at Home by 
the Trading People. Walker 6 is arrived at Montreal with M r . 

3 Johnson Papers, 5 :243-44. 

4 Lieutenant Colonel John Campbell, commandant at Detroit. 

5 Captain William Howard, commandant at Michilimackinac. 

6 Thomas Walker. 

106 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Conways 7 letter to Governour Murray. 8 — it is time the Govern- 
ment were undeceived & convinced of y e . narrow Motives which 
are the foundation of most of the representations laid before them. 
— If Traders are necessary in Lake Superior a Post is absolutely 
necessary there, but if they are permitted to trade without inspec- 
tion, all our Skill will not be able to overcome the indiscretion of 
some, & the Villainy of Others, together with the licentiousness of 
the Frontier Inhabitants. I have wrote home so often on all these 
Subjects, that I am heartily tired of it. I have no doubt however 
that You will represent these Affairs in their true light, & in the 
Strongest Colours. — Your last brought me under Cover a Letter 
for L l . Roberts 9 which I shall forward, He set of some time ago 
for Niagra. — Ontario will not be a place of much Trade for 
some time, but it is nevertheless a place of much resort of the 
Indians of Influence, whose Councils] & conduct Operates 
Strongly on the rest, I Judged it therefor adviseable to appoint 
Cap 1 . MacLeod 10 for that place, where I beleive he will Answer 
verry well, & L f . Jehu Hay at Detroit, So there only remains one 
for Michilimacinac, which from y r . last letter Should I think be 
imediately appointed. ■ — 

There are several Land Affairs now in Agitation in these parts, 
be assured of my looking out for a good place agreable to y r . 
letter of the 16 lh . Ult . 11 & that I shall do all in my power to 
obtain A Tract to y r . Satisfaction, as I am 

Dear Sir 

Your most Obedient 

& verry Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 

His Excellency 
General Gage — 

7 Henry Seymour Conway, secretary of state. 

8 James Murray, governor of Canada. 

9 Lieutenant Benjamin Roberts. 

10 Captain Normand MacLeod. 

11 Not found. 


Indian Affairs, 1766-68 107 

From S r . Will" 1 . Johnston 
Johnson Hall June 1 4 th . 

received June 12 th . 12 
answ d . — 

Df. 1 

Johnson hall June 20 th . 1766. 


I have been favored with your Letter of the 7 th . Inst. 2 together 
with the Enclosures containing a Letter from the Company with 
the Reasons for Establishing the Colony &c of all which I before 
gave my approbation & shall chearfully do every thing consistent 
with my Office for Carrying it into Execution as early as possible ; 
— I have already [spo^ef hinted the Affair in a Letter to the 
Lords of Trade [and I apprehend they are the best persons for me 
to Lay the particulars before, my Correspondence being Chiefly 
with them. I dont know in what light they may take my trans- 
mitting them a Scheme for a Colony, or whether] & I am some- 
what of Opinion it would [not] answer better that I recommended 
it in Gen 1 . Terms, as an Affair I had heard was in Agitation, but 
[if] as it is deemed necessary to the design that I sho d . enclose it I 
shall not Scruple to lay it [before the Board of Trade or] together 
with my recommendations thereof before the Ministry [perhaps it 
may be misconstrued should I send it thro' your Fathers hands, 
but this is only conjecture, however, as, I shall only enforce the 
Reasons assigned in the paper, it will be immaterial whether he 

12 Sic, evidently an error. 

1 In American Antiquarian Society. In Guy Johnson's hand. 

2 Not found. 

3 Words italicized and in brackets are crossed out in the manuscript. 

108 Sir William Johnson Papers 

sees it, or not previous to the delivery for he will Certainly] under 
a flying Seal to your father who will doubtless be consulted on the 
Occasion. — 

I have sounded Gen 1 . Gage on the Occasion, who declines 
being concerned I apprehend it will not be the Case with Lord 
Adam Gordon. As to what you say of applys. for an Extensive 
boundary I agree in opinion with you on the Utility of it, but the 
Government should I think be previously Sounded on that head 
Least it might obstruct or retard the Design — 

I am persuaded you will use all your Endeavours for bringing 
the Murderers of the Indians to Justice, the Conduct of the 
frontier Inhabitants in many Colonies being such as gives us [a//] 
great reason to dread a Renewal of that Cruel War from which 
we are but Just freed, every Week brings me fresh Complaints 
from the Ind s . & but Just now I have reed an Acct of the Murder 
of 4 Onondagas on their return from the South ward with 2 or 3 
more tow ds . Fort Pitt and I wish my [Endeavours have not been 
too late to prevent it considering the provocation given to so 
Revengefull a people,] So that I have great reason to doubt of 
Succeeding in attempting to Calm the Minds of a Revengefull 
people to whom we are Giving fresh provocation. 

I promise myself great Satisfaction from your friendly Corres- 
pondence which I shall be glad to improve by every occasion that 
Offers as I am — 

Gov R . Franklyn 

I shall write to the Compy by next Opp 1 ?. — 


A.Df.S. 1 

Dated Lebanon June 20, 1766. 

To all Gentlemen, Clergymen, and other christian 
Friends, in New York, and on Hudson's River, or Who- 

1 In Dartmouth College Library. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 109 

ever the Bearers the Rev d . M r . Pomeroy, 2 and My Son,* 
Shall have Occasion to consult in the important Business 
they are Sent upon, And Especially his Excellency Sir 
William Johnson Baron'. 


I suppose it is Well known to Most of You [*/ia(] 4 That the 
indian Charity-School under my Care, has, by the Favour and 
Blessing of Almighty God, been continued and increasing for a 
Number of Years last past. And I wo d . now inform you y l . y e . 
Number of Students in it is [now] so increased, and the Prospects 
of a yet greater Increase Such, as make it [Necessary] expedient 
to fix upon the Place for its Continuance, and to build to Ac- 
comodate the Same, as shall best Subserve the great and general 
End in View. And Such are now the Incouragments from Home, 
that I have Reason [to expect], (if the present Ministry continue 
in place) to expect any Favours Which I Shall reasonably desire, 
from the Board of Trade & Plantations, for Endowing Said 
School, When the place is So fixd, and determined that it May 
be known What is fit, & reasonable to ask for it or necessary to be 
granted [to it]. 

And being unable to Attend upon the Affair [myself,] in Per- 
son I have desired my faithful Brother, the Rever d . M r . Benjamin 
Pomroy, and My Son Radalphus, 5 in my Stead, to Search out, 
and Secure, such a place, if Such May be found in their present 
Tour as May be recommended to the Lords of Trade and Planta- 
tions, as most Suitable & convenient for the afores d . Purpose. 

And they are desired to Solicit the charitable Assistance of 
such as are able to give them needful Intelligence, or any manner 
of way contribute to their effecting the Design in View. 

And I do accordingly bespeak the friendly Counsel and As- 
sistance of Such [W7?o] as desire, [and are willing] to contribute to, 

2 Benjamin Pomeroy. 

3 Ralph Wheelock. 

4 Words italicized and inclosed in brackets are crossed out in the manu- 

5 Ralph Wheelock. 

1 1 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Such a Determination in this Important and Interesting Affair, as 
may be most conclusive to the Design of Spreading the Gospel 
among the Pagans of this Land ; and Who Shall think their Serv- 
ice therein, a Charity Well bestowed for the Furtherance of the 
Redeemers Cause, as Well as a great Obligation upon 
Their obedient and Very humble Servant, 

Eleazar Wheelock. 


Commissn [to Benjamin] Pomroy 
and my Son to ask Assistance 
in Searching out a Place 
for the School June 20, 1 766. 
on Hudson's River. &c 


Contemporary Copy 1 

New York June 22 d . 1766. 
Dear Sir, 

Your letter of the 12 th . Ins 1 . 2 is come to hand, If you have any 
other reason to desire an interview with Me than the discoverys 
you have made, from the Inclosures in my letter of the 2 d . Ins 1 . 3 I 
shall come to you without a moment's delay; but if that only is 
the reason for your desiring to see Me, I am to acquaint you that 
I am well informed of every thing. The person who forwarded 
the letter from a villain You & I know, now in a certain Island, 
did it by my desire, if you have opened the letters you will see he 
desires the Answer if any, may be sent to him here. If it comes it 
will be brought me. There were four or five letters from that 
Scoundrel of all which I have taken Copies and forwarded the 
Originals. You know in all these matters the difficulty of con- 
victing people lyes in proofs, and none can be had of these several 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 June 1 4, 1 766. Ante pp. 1 04-07. 
* Ante pp. 100-01. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 1 1 1 

persons keeping up a bad Correspondence but the Answers to 
these letters. A bare denial of all connection with that person, and 
saying they can't help what such a Scoundrel writes, confutes 
every thing, and it's on that account I have laid myself out, if 
possible, to get their several Answers. And to prevent the person 
at your house doing any mischief above if he is so inclined made 
me write to you in the manner I did to watch his Motions. If his 
intentions are honest he would shew the letter immediately which 
wou'd clear him. If he liked the proposals, his Answer wou'd 
come, and I should get it: You will be so good to keep these 
Matters secret or the person I have employed here, may perhaps 
make himself Some Enemies, in what some righteous pople may 
term acting a double part, but I must own I think no Man can act 
a wrong part who uses all means to detect Traytors to their King 
and Country. Of All the letters, None seemed to recall to mind 
any previous Correspondence or Conversation except the One 
transmitt'd to the person at your house, for I hear he has been 
there. And if you have seen his letter you will observe a Con- 
versation between the two which passed at this place. Hearing he 
was to be at your house made me send it to your Care. The person 
who inclosed the letter, put it in such thin paper that the writing 
was seen, and it was I presume by that means that you made the 
discovery. My Clerks observed it, and sent me word that there 

was a letter directed to with a letter from inclosed 

in it, but it was too late to rectify and it went in that shape to 
You. I have now told you the whole Affair, and you will judge 
whether it is proper to let the person who was with You recieve 
his letters or not. But if he gets one, he shou'd get both, or I may 
miss getting his Answer. 

M r . Croghan's Letters from Fort pitt will acquaint you of the 
Meeting he has had with several Nations who complain loudly 
of the several Murders that have been committed on their people. 
I shall write in the most serious manner to the several Governor's, 
and transmit it likewise home. — The Settlers on Redstone Creek 
must be drove away if it is possible, I shall represent the necessity 
of it in the strongest terms, and offer Military Aid to effect it, 

112 Sir William Johnson Papers 

were they not so numerous it might have been easily done; the 
Garrison of Fort Pitt drove them off once or twice, I believe no 
later than last year. If a Skirmish happens, and Blood is shed, 
you know what a Clamor there will be against the Military Acting 
without Civil Magistrates. 

I have letters from the Ilinois to the 10 th . of April all well and 
quiet, but great want of provisions which I am endeavoring to 
get to them. 

I have represented to M r . Secretary Conway 4 the situation of 
the trade by this packett, and gave my reasons why the late regu- 
lations about the Indian trade confined the traders to the posts. 
This was in answer to the letter with M r . Walker's 5 Complaints. 

Within these two days I have procured a little Money, and 
shall give directions about paying your Account. I have borrowed 
long enough and must discharge my Debts. 

I am with great Regard, 
Dear Sir, 
&ca — 
Sir William Johnson. 

indorsed : 

Copy To 

Sir William Johnson 

&ca &ca &ca 

Johnson Hall. 
New York June 22*. 1 766. 

A.L.S. 1 

Johnson Hall June 26 th . 1766 
Sir — 

I herewith enclose You a Memorandum of Such Articles as I 
shall want for the present intended for the Westeren Confederacy. 

4 Henry Seymour Conway. 

5 Thomas Walker, a trader. 

1 In possession of Mrs. Helen Q. Lathers of Johnstown, N. Y. 

Indian Affairs, J 766-68 113 

which, be as exact in as You possibly can. and get them all 

together at John B Van Ep's House till the Battoes are ready to 
take them in & to Sett of for Osswego. there Should be Covering 
of Oil Cloaths for such Boats as Carry the powder & Dry Goods, 
if not to be had, to buy a p s . of thick blew Duffils for that purpose. 
I have Spoke to John Glen for new battoes at least five. You will 
doubtless be carefull to purchase Such Goods as will please the 
Indians, for I would by no means have them be finding fault with 
them. If M r . Duncan 2 has Such goods as will answer, I would 
have you give him the preference, & provided they are as cheap as 
You can get them Elsewhere — If he has not [got] them give M r . 
Campbel, 3 Van Derheyden, 4 & Lisle 5 the next preference. 

You will buy 2 p s . of the broad blew ribband exactly the same 
Colour of the enclosed, & 2 p s . of deep Green the Same breadth 
of the blew & 2 p s . of white flowered ribband of y e . Same breadth 
of the others being for a particular use. — Get a pair of Silk 
Colours made for the Grand Sotif or Chief of all the Chip- 
pawaes. — 

You will tell y e . Merchants You buy from, that As Soon as I 
return w h . will be in ab f . 6 weeks or 2 Months I will See that they 
are paid, w h . is equal to ready [ ] and I expect the Goods 

on the same Ca[r]go — pray let me hear from You, & know when 
You will have all finished & let Everry thing be completely 
packed. — & let me have Bills of Parcels from Each for the 
Whole, keeping An Ace", of the riding & other Expences attend- 
ing S d . Cargo. 

pray give my Complim ,s . to M r . Brown 7 & tell him I will be 
much oblidged to him for y e . perusal of y e . Discourse he gave us 
last Tuesday, as I would also to M r . Christ[ ] for a Copy of 
his exhortations read to us before we walked [ j I should 

2 John Duncan. 

3 Daniel Campbell. 

4 David Van Der Heyden. 

5 Abraham Lyle. 

6 Grand Sauteux, Grand Sauteur, or Grand Sautois. 

7 The Reverend Thomas Brown of Albany. 

1 1 4 .Sir William Johnson Papers 

also be glad You could get from Secr^. Benson 8 a Copy of their 
By Laws &ca. — 

Lastly to remind M r . Gamble 9 of the Certificate w h . he was 
so good to promise to write for me. & let it be on parchment. 

The Old Woman 10 was Just buried as we arrived Yesterday. 
I found all well everry where. — 

I am Y r . Welwisher 

W Johnson 

Enclosed is a letter to 

M<\ Wray 11 for 5 O. of Powder 

& Ball or lead in proportion. 

12 1 p s . of good red flannin "i 
such as You had in y r . Store J 

] pair of black Silk Mittens for a Woman 
Gauze for 2 Hatts, to keep of the Muskitoes, 
a black Feather for a Hatt, and a White Hat for a Woman 
6 pair of worsted Stockings for a Boy of 8 years old — 
and a Hatt for Little Peter 13 of Beaver Plain 


M r . Robert Adems 

in great Haste — 
remember me to all the Bretheren, & tell them I greatly regret 
my being oblidged to leave them so Soon & abruptly — 

8 William Benson, secretary of the Union Lodge of Albany. 

9 William Gamble. 

10 John Johnson's "dear Grandmother," and "poor Granny," whose 
decease was reported to him June 28, by Daniel Claus in a letter not found. 
John Johnson to D. Claus, Oct. 1 2, 1 766. 

11 George Wray of Albany. 

12 Written in the margin. 

13 Peter Johnson, son of Sir William and Molly Brant. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 115 


A. L. S. 1 

Johnson Hall June 27 th . 1766 
Dear Sir — 

I have received your favour of the 16 th . Ins 1 . 2 with the en- 
closures concerning the late Murders at Detroit, I am of your 
opinion with regard to the delivering up the Indians to their 
Nation, as well as to the proposed Attack on the S f . Josephs 
Village, which I cannot approve of especially as Matters now 

I am sorry the Mutiny Act oblidges y e . Sending Murderers to 
be tryed within the Governments, as from the present disposition 
of our People we can expect little Justice for the Indians, and 
therefore it is better never to Send down the Negroe, than to Send 
him to be acquitted here for want (as it may be said) of all the 
necessary Law proofs, neither our Laws, nor our People are much 
Calculated for redressing Indians, and we are in the utmost want 
of some method for doing them effectual Justice without leaving 
it to the decission of those whose prejudices will not permit them 
to see the necessity there is for releiving them in these cases, and the 
consequences of a different conduct. I shall write to L*. Co 11 . 
Campbel, 3 and do all that I can in this Affair, in the mean time, 
I have a fresh affair of a verry disagreable nature to write You 
upon. The Onondagaes Cheifs have been with me from the Six 
Nations to acquaint me that one of their greatest Warriors with 
three others & a Squaw were lately murdered near Fort Pitt on 
their return from the Cherokee Country, A Huron at Sandusky 
by a Trader, & y e . Shawanese lately, that these with Sundry other 
late Instances of the like Nature had created a Universal Discon- 
tent amongst the Six Nations, & many others, & that the same was 
particularly affecting to them (the Onondagaes) as they had dis- 
tinguished themselves during the late Wars by their good be- 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Johnson Papers, 5:271-72. 

3 Lieutenant Colonel John Campbell, commandant at Detroit. 

1 1 6 Sir William Johnson Papers 

haviour & attachment to us, for w h . they were oft upbraided by 
our Enemys, & would be now more so, they therefore by a large 
Belt desired in the name of the whole Confederacy to know what 
are our Intentions in so doing, & our reasons for these late Murders 
in time of peace, adding that they feared it might be the means of 
extinguishing their Council Fire & ca ., To this I made them the 
best answer I could which however You may suppose cannot be 
verry Satisfactory Since all my assurances are daily contradicted 
by these Unjustifiable Actions. Several Cayugaes & Oneidaes Ac- 
companied these Messingers, & so soon as they had related the 
foregoing all addressed me concerning the Posts lately abandoned, 
which they said they expected would have been demolished ac- 
cording to promise at y e . end of y e . War, but that they are sorry to 
find that the Soldiers have been Succeeded by Settlers, who are 
equally disagreable to them & may in a short time be more so, as 
they may draw People there to Cultivate Lands, that they dreaded 
y e . consequences especially as these places were as so many 
Springs of Rum where their Young Men were constantly drunk, 
they therefore begged I would represent the Same to You, which 
I promised to do, at the same time telling them that no Settle- 
ments were intended, & charging them not to offer any Violence 
to any who reside at them, as I should give them an Answer 
Shortly, but since I find that M r . Tute 4 has been removed by them 
from the Royal Blockhouse 5 & is gone after Major Rojers 6 & I 
apprehend that any others who Settle along this Communication 
will meet with no Small Difficulty from the Indians. — 

I have heard from M r . Crawford' who was sent to Pondiac 
& the Westeren Confederacy, that He & they were to meet him 
about the middle of this Month at the Mouth of Detroit River, 
in order to proceed to Ontario, but I begin to be apprehensive that 
the late Affairs in different Quarters, (w h . have gone thro all the 

4 A close friend, a former Ranger, and agent of Robert Rogers. 

5 At the mouth of Wood Creek, east end of Oneida Lake. 

6 Major Robert Rogers. 

7 Hugh Crawford, a trader. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 1 1 7 

Nations) may produce some Change in him & the rest, However 
in order to be prepared, I must beg You will send me about forty 
Meddals, I need not apply to You about any Orders for provi- 
sions, or for the better expediting me thither, as I presume they 
will not be wanting, tho in fact in consideration of the late 
Murders & ca . in the Provinces, I should much rather meet them 
at a distance from the Six Nations, who would doubtless other- 
wise attend & tell them many melancholy Tales, w h . might do us 
prejudice, to prevent this in some measure, I have been thinking 
of calling them here, but this will depend on what I hear farther 
from them & the Six Nations. — 

I am necessitated to lay before You my Want of Cash. I am 
already greatly in Advance to the Crown Since last August, as 
will appear by y e . enclosed Acc u ., and I must now take up goods 
on my own Credit for the Intended present to be given at y e . 
Congress, which distresses me not a little, & which will excuse 
me for making this Application. As my Department is not on so 
regular a footing as Others, it Subjects me to many Sudden 
demands which I must answer, and which I cannot hold out unless 
the Government will enable me. You are so weil Acquainted with 
this, that I need add no more, than that I am heartily sorry to 
give so much trouble on these Subjects. — 

I am with y e . greatest respect 
Dear Sir 
Your most Obedient 
& verry Humble Servant 

W M . Johnson 
His Excellency 

General Gage — 

indorsed : 

Sir William Johnson B l . 
Johnson Hall June 27 ,h . 
1766 — 

Answ d /. — 

1 18 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Contemporary Copy 1 

Johnson Hall 28 th . June 1766. — 
Sir — 

I shou'd have answered your letter of the 20 th . March 2 last, 
sooner had I not been prevented through business and an Indis- 
position under which I laboured. — You wou'd certainly greatly 
mistake my character if you thought I woud join with any Set of 
People who attempt to hurt the property of any of his Majesty's 
Subjects. — but give me leave to inform you of my Sentiments 
respecting the Case in question, whilst I assure you that I have as 
tender a regard for your property as for that of any other Brittish 
Subject, and never intended to interest myself in the smallest 
degree with any thing that did not equally concern the Indians' 
Rights, and the Peace of the Country — 

I have read all the Deeds, and Papers &c relating to your 
Purchase which is very extensive, and I think it carries evidence 
enough with it, that it was M r . Rigaud's 3 interest, not their Right 
was considered, and they well knew it might involve the English 
in a quarrell about it which I presume you'd not be disagreeable 
to the Court of France — I shall not enlarge on this because I 
conclude you to be a fair Purchaser of what you thought to be his 
right to grant — 

The French, it is true, seldom purchased, as they made but few 
Settlements, but having the good will of the Indians, established 
Posts under the names of Trading Houses, and if they claim'd 
any right of Soil adjacent they never dared to mention it to the 
Indians; on the contrary they made use of their Conduct therein 
as a Strong argument in their favour, and had they acted other- 
wise, it might have ended in the ruin of their whole Colony. — 

The case of their Lands on the River S ( . Lawrence is very 
widely different, the Aborigines being almost extinct for many 
Years, and having ceded great part of their Country — it is the 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 Ante pp. 45-47. 

3 Louis Philippe Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 119 

Policy of nations to ascertain bounds of Sovereignty to prevent 
Disputes with their neighbours: but such has been the wisdom, 
and Justice of our Kings that they have never permitted the Rights 
of the Natives to be thereby affected, and indeed good Policy 
requires us to be cautious hereof, otherwise we shou'd involve our- 
selves in continual troubles to the ruin of our Frontiers. — 

Conquest or Purchase are the only foundations for rights of 
Soil here. You confess that M r . Rigaud did not obtain it thro' the 
one, and I am well Satisfied the French never had it by the other, 
nor wou'd they have presumed to have raised up such a Title 
before they saw the fate of Canada inevitable when M r . Rigaud 
had interest enough to get a Grant, which was just putting so much 
money in his Pockett at the expence, or at least risque of the Pur- 
chaser. — I cou'd therefore have wished that you had agreed 
conditionally with M r . Rigaud; for whatever indulgence he 
might have met with from the Indians, we are not upon such 
terms with them, and there were many acts done by the French 
which we must not think of imitating 'till we are upon equal terms 
with the Indians. — 

Having said a little concerning the Right, I shall in a few 
words consider the nature of the Grant, and here it appears in as 
indifferent a light, as it is a Monopoly of an extensive trade, 
which will make it an Object of more general uneasiness, as the 
Traders will be thereby affected. — This Grant is attended with 
such peculiar Circumstances of Place, and Extent that it has no 
Paralell, — neither is it any Argument in its favor that there are 
other Monopolies in Canada &c. — I wish they may not be con- 
tinued, for we all know they are prejudicial to the fair Trader, 
and that this wou'd be more so, must, I believe, be allowed, as it 
is greater than the rest, abstracted from its nature, and Situa- 
tion. — 

If the foregoing Objections, and many more, which time will 
not permit me to mention cou'd be removed, I shou'd be desirous to 
do you a Service therein; but be your Title never so good at 

L Common law its consequences in a political View, and the Justice 

120 Sir William Johnson Papers 

assured you might command my good Offices with as much free- 
dom as I have given you my Opinion, and as the Case now Stands, 
it will give me Concern shou'd the Complaints of the Indians at 
this critical Period oblige me to take further measures as I am 

S r . &c — Yours — 

W. Johnson — 

To W M . Grant Esquire — 


Fort Earie \? e . 28 lh . June 1766 


I yestarday arived at this place where I meet M r . crafford 2 
(with pointeac) and Several other Seachams of y e . westeran 
Indians — we smooked a pipe togather and drank a bottle of 
wine — and parted with the usal Ceramonays of Shaking hands 
& ca . — 

Should you make any new Regelations with Such Indians as 
you think I may See at Michilikemnack — I should Esteme it a 
favour if you would be pleased to Drect me further that I may 
know the better how to comunecat your Intentions to them — M r . 
crafford keeps the Indians in the Best order that I have Ever Seen 
any keept in and I hop his EzaP for the Service will Recomend 
him to your notice 

I Set out from hence tomorow and Shall I hope Soon Reach 
Detroit and if I have any thing there woth comunicating to You 
it Shall be done 

I am Sir with great trouth 
Your Verey 

Humble Servant 

Rob t . Rogers 4 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

2 Hugh Crawford, a trader. 

3 "Zeal." 

4 Major Robert Rogers, appointed commandant at Michilimackinac. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 121 

M rs . Rogers's Compliments waits on Sir William, and begs Leave 
to Recommend to his notice M r . Crafford ; and hops he will Send 
him Commassary to Michilimackinac 5 

To Si R William Jonson 


Sir William Jonson Bar 1 , 

Jonson Hall 

Fort Erie 28 th . June 1 766 

Major Rojer's Letter 


Contemporary Copy 1 

[Johnson Hall, June 3- June 29, 1766] 

June 3 d . On this day Hannis and his Son who were sent by the 
Oneidas of Kanawaroghere arrived here, and acquainted Sir 
W m . of the death of Gawehe 2 the chief Warrior, and Sachim 
of that Castle who died at Fort Stanwix by hard drinking ; but the 
Messenger said he was told by some white People along the way 
hither that he was killed by the Push of a [Bayonet] 3 Firelock in 
the breast from some of the Garrison. — a letter from Thomas 
son of the deceased mentioned the same to Sir W m . — Sir W m . 
answered in the most satisfactory manner, the Nature of the affair 

5 This note in another handwriting, perhaps that of Mrs. Rogers who 
went with her husband. 

6 In Sir William's hand. 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 Gawehe, an Oneida Indian. In Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 8:240, 
he is spoken of as a Tuscarora sachem. 

3 Words italicized and in brackets are crossed out in manuscript. 

122 Sir William Johnson Papers 

wou'd admit of, and also sent by the bearer three black Strouds, 
and a Pair of black Stockings to the friends of the deceased, also 
a large String of 9 Strings of Wampum to wipe away the tears 
of the deceased, and sent the Nation word that the two Mohawk 
Castles, and Deputies wou'd soon go to their Castle, and perform 
the Ceremony of Condolence in full form — Sir W m . then gave 
the Messengers a small Present, some Ammunition, and Cash for 
their Journey, and so parted. — 

9 Strings of Wampum. — 

8 th . M r . Samuel Star of Ridgefield in Connecticut arrived here, 
and delivered Sir W m . a Petition 4 from the Wappinger Indians 
requesting a favorable Representation of their Case to his 
Majesty, and Privy Council, at the same time they sent for his 
Perusal a Copy of their Petition to his Majesty, and Privy 
Council, also the State of their Case, as prepared, and drawn up, 
in Order to be sent with their Petition concerning the lands w ch . 
M r . Philipse, 5 and M r . Robinson &c have settled Tenants on. — 
Sir W m . wrote a few lines to the Wappinger Indians by the 
Return of the bearer acquainting them that his time was then so 
much taken up with matters of importance that it was not in his 
power to peruse the Papers sent him, nor consider the Contents 
immediately, but that he woud again mention their Case in his 
next letter to the Lords of Trade w ch . wou'd be very Soon — 

June the 8 th . On this day the Mohocks all assembled here in 
order to Shew Sir William the Belts they intended to send to the 
Huron Nation by one of their Chiefs going that way, namely, 
Nickus alias Kanadyora. — they sent four Belts, all declaring 
their Desire of a strict Alliance with that nation expressing their 
Satisfaction at the Restoration of Peace, and recommending it to 
them to use all means for the preservation of it in their Country, 
as they were determined to do the same in theirs. — Sir William 
gave Nickus a Pass, some Cash &c, and parted — 

4 Petition of the Wappinger Indians to Johnson dated at Stockbridge, 
May 29, 1 766, ante pp. 97-98. 

5 Philip Philipse. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 123 

June 18 th . Tarvasfyughta a Principal Warrior of the Onondaga 
Nation with two more of his Countrymen arrived here. — as they 
approached the House, they gave the murder Shout several times, 
they were accompanied by two Conojaheres, namely, 
Araghiixjiadecfya, and Tafyarihoga, both Sachims. As soon as they 
entered the Council Room, Tawaskughta said he was sent by all 
the Sachims, and Warriors of his Nation to let Sir W m . know 
that Karaghiagigo a Chieftain of their Nation together with two 
of his Warriors were killed in Encampment near Fort Pit, along 
the Monongahela River by the English, and that another was 
wounded in the Leg, and taken Prisoner to the Fort, there blind- 
folded [and] shot, so that his Party which consisted but of four 
were all murdered on their Return from the Cheroke Country — 
that an Onondaga Woman was murdered near the Fort, — a 
Huron Indian at Sanduskey by a Trader, a Shawanese Indian 
at Loggstown, and seven Tuscaroras, and Oneidas on their Return 
from North Carolina. — 

He then produced a large white Belt interspersed with black 
Figures, desiring Sir W m . to let him know the reasons of his 
People (the English) murdering so many of theirs in time of 
profound Peace, and insisted on his telling them by what Province 
it was done, and that as soon as possible. — He then reminded 
Sir W m . of the several Services done to the English by their 
Nation during the late War with the French, and in that with the 
Chenussios, Delawares, and others, and added that it hurted 
them the more to be so treated, as the other Nations, (who were 
jealous of them for their Attachment to the English) had now an 
Opportunity of throwing out disagreeable Reflections, such as, — 
"See what a regard your English Brethren have for you. You are 
well rewarded for your Services &c". — this adds much to our 
grief. — besides all the surrounding nations will now be alarmed 
at our treatment, and especially so, when they see our Council 
Fire extinguished, and the tree of Shelter, and Peace bear no 
Leaves. — 

On same day a Party of Oneidas arrived here when Thomas 
al Adinghfyanorum with three Strings of Wampum acquainted Sir 

124 Sir William Johnson Papers 

William that their Chiefs had a Meeting six days ago, at w ch . 
they appointed him to come down and let him know that they 
were very uneasy at the General's allowing People to sit down 
at the Royal Blockhouse, 6 after acquainting them some time ago 
that it and several Posts shou'd be abandoned, — that they were 
very apprehensive of ill Consequences if they were not removed, 
— that as they are like so many Springs of Rum, their young men 
who constantly hunt and fish about them Places, may in their 
Liquor go great lengths, which may be productive of a quarrell. 
they therefore desire that you may be as good as your Word, that 
is to say, to demolish the Posts as was promised when the War 
with the French shou'd be over. they desire much that Sir 

W m . would write to the General thereon, and beg leave to have 
his answer as soon as possible. — 

3 Strings of Wampum. — 

He then informed Sir W m . of Gawehes last words to him, 
which were respecting his Family, desiring him to take Care of 
them until they were able to help themselves, — that as he was our 
hearty friend, he hoped that proper Notice wou'd be taken of his 
last Request. 

Sir W m . in answer told them that he wou'd write to the General 
on the Subject of their Complaints, and let them know his senti- 
ments thereon, and also make known to them his own, — at the 
same time charged them not to suffer their young men to commit 
any violence on the Persons, or Properties of those People to 
whom the General granted them Posts, as that wou'd be a means 
of breaking the Peace between them, and the English. — 

3 Strings. - — 

Sir William promised that in consequence, and consideration of 
Gatoehes attachment, and Services during the late War his 
Widdow and Children shou'd be taken notice of by him, and 
assisted whenever in real want. 

6 Royal Block House at east end of Oneida Lake at the mouth of Wood 

Indian Affairs, J 766-68 125 

On same day two Mohawks arrived here, and delivered Sir 
W m . three strings of Wampum from their Chiefs acquainting him 
that they were all on their way, and wou'd be here this day. — 

3 Strings. — 

At 4 past M. they arrived, — being met they sent for the 
Onondagas, Conojahares, Cayugas, and Oneidas, and desired 
the former to acquaint them with the news they brought, which 
they did in the same manner they had S r . W m . the day before, 
with this addition that they had sent Runners to acquaint their 
Allies along the Susquahanna the Ottawas &c and the Cognawa- 
geys with their Loss, — also that the Cayugas had already spoke 
to them requesting that they would not suffer their Heads to turn, 
but pursue the good Work of Peace, which they had been re- 
markable for, and which they promised to do. — Then the 
Mohawks thanked them for acquainting them with the News, 
much approved the Cayugas advice, and recommended the same 
strongly to them — then parted for that time it being late. — 

The Mohawks then told Sir W m . that the story did not hang 
well together for several reasons, which they then mentioned, and 
that they were more apt to think that Karaghiagigo, and his Party 
had done something wrong, or bad to the White People, which 
occasioned them to pursue and destroy them, than that the White 
People (particularly the Garrison of Fort Pit) shou'd without 
any reason fall upon & masacre them — 

June 20 th . The Indians being all assembled in the Council 
Room, Araghiyiadecfya performed the Ceremony of Condolence 
by wiping away the tears, clearing away the Passage to the throat, 
and heart, and wiping away the blood of the four Onondagas 
Warriors lately slain, out of the sight of their People so as never 
more to be seen, this was performed with three Strings of 
Wampum. — In the next place, he in the name of Sir W m . and 
that of the two Mohawk Castles, recommended it to the Onon- 
dagas not to grow giddy, or allow their heads to turn, but patiently 
to bear their Loss, and keep their Warriors within bounds, — 
also desired they wou'd send to acquaint their Allies with their 
good Disposition. — S r . W m . gave a — Large White Belt 

126 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Sir W m . lastly assured them that he knew nothing of the 
affair as yet but what he had heard from them, and promised he 
wou'd make Enquiry without loss of time, and acquaint them with 
the truth of the matter as soon as was in his power, at which time 
they should receive a Belt from him in Return for the one they had 
left. Sir W m . also assured them of his taking every Step possible 
to find out and bring to Punishment the Perpetrators of an Action 
so vile, and contrary to our Disposition, — wherefore he ex- 
pected that their nation wou'd act with that Prudence, and 
Patience for which they had ever been remarkable. — Sir W m . 
then only shewed them their belt, and promised to send another 
with the accounts. — Then the Onondagas, Cayugas, and 
Oneidas withdrew leaving the two Mohawk Castles by them- 
selves, who immediately with Sir W m . settled the Ceremony of 
Condolance for the death of Gawehe an Oneida Chief, Kaghra- 
doto a Cayuga Sachim, and Chitharteraa a Nanticoke chief, 
to the settlement of which Sir W m . gave a good black Belt 
to cover Gawehes Grave. — the two Mohawk Castles gave 
each a Belt for the other two, and seven other Belts for other 
Parts of the Ceremony, which are to be exchanged. — After the 
Ceremony was over, Sir W m . laid before the Mohawk Castles 
the Proposals of the Proprietors of Kayadarosseras, and desired 
they might consider of the same, and give a favorable answer, 
so that the affair might be amicably settled, — they promised to 
consider of it and give him an answer as soon as possible. — 

June 21 st . The Indians being all assembled, the Mohawk 
Speaker, Abraham spoke as follows — viz 1 . 

Brethren. — We have had proposals delivered to us fully by 
our brother Warraghiyagey, and on full consideration thereof we 
are to tell you that we cannot think of parting with the lands of 
Kayadarosseras, as we are fully satisfied that they were never 
fairly purchased, nor did we ever receive any Consideration for 
them, which many of our old men, yet living, must know, if so, 
and besides, that it is our chief hunting Ground, without which we 
cannot live where we are, but must look out among other Nations 
for lands to live, and hunt upon. it appears to us that your 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 127 

design is to take it from us by force, and thereby bring trouble on 
the land again, which is not our disposition if we can avoid it. 
if those Lands were honestly come by, how is it that they 
were not thick settled 'ere now, or laid out as other Patents have 
been? it is only since you have got the better of French that you 
have made Settlements thereon, imagining as we suppose that 
you think you could now do as you please. — it is true, that you 
may by violence take it from us, but the consequence shou'd be 
considered, and we can't think that, that is the intention of the 
King and his great men, who have so often assured us of his 
Justice, and Protection. — We have now given you our answer, 
and beg you will think no more about nor offer to settle them 
Lands — 

Being all assembled in Council S r . W m . condoled the death 
of the Oneida who was murdered at the Minisinfys with three 
strings of Wampum, and a black stroud for which they all re- 
turned many thanks — 

A letter and Bunch of Wampum was this day brought to Sir 
W m . from M r . Crawford 7 whom he had sent to invite the 
Western Indians to a meeting, the latter from Pondiac assuring 
him that he wou'd meet him at Ontario about the 25 th . Ins 1 , of 
which Sir W m . acquainted the Indians then in Council. — 

29 th . Sir William sent John Thornton express to Oswego with a 
letter to Cap*. M c . Leod s desiring to be informed whether the 
Indians were come to Niagara, or to Ontario, and in case they 
were come to the latter, to endeavor to prevail on them to come 
here, and employ some good man to accompany them hither. — 

7 Hugh Crawford, trader. 

8 Captain-Lieutenant Normand MacLeod, commissary for Indian trad« 
at Niagara. See Doc. Rel. to Col Hist. N. Y., 8:228. 

128 Sir William Johnson Papers 


-il • 1—1. \~> • 

Niagara July the I st . 1766 

Yesterday evening arrived here M r . Crawford, 2 who was sent 
by M r . Croghan to bring Pondiac & some other chiefs to Ontario. 
M r . Croghan had desired him to apply to me, if he should want 
assistance at Detroit ; but I was hurried away from thence a day or 
two after his arrival; however I was of some little help to him 
before I left it. I hope I am not mistaken in thinking him a man of 
enterprise & diligence & fit to manage Indians. The vessel happen- 
ing very luckily to be on the point of sailing, & M r . Crawford 
being impatient to get the Indians away, as they have been of late 
a little troublesome, they were immediately embarked, & I hope 
will arrive at the place of Rendezvous in due time. I desired M r . 
Roberts 3 to give you notice of Pondiac's arrival at F. Erie, by a 
bark canoe which passed by this port the day before yesterday. 

I am sir 

your most obed 1 . hum. serv 1 . 

Thom s . Morris 4 

indorsed : 5 

Niagrajuly 1 st . 1766 
Cap 1 . Morris' Letter 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

2 Hugh Crawford. 

3 Lieutenant Benjamin Roberts, commissary at Niagara. 

4 Captain Thomas Morris of the 1 7th regiment. 

5 In Sir Williams' hand. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 129 

Extract 1 

Ontario, 3 d . July 1766 

I overtook Lady Susan 2 the 1 sl . Instant early in the morning at 
the Royal Blockhouse next morning [we] sat out with a 
fair Wind & this day arrived here to Breakfast. She bore all the 
fattigues of Battoing Muskitoe Biting & bad Riding with good 
humor & Spirits peculiar to herself & tomorrow we expect to set 
out on board the Brunswick With a fair Wind for Niagara. 

1 From a copy in Oneida Historical Society, Utica, N. Y. This first 
paragraph is badly mutilated in the manuscript, printed in Johnson Papers, 

2 Lady Susan O'Brien, wife of William O'Brien, who in company with 
her husband was making a journey from New York to Niagara. 


Jri. . l—i. O. 

Johnson Hall July 4 th . 1766 
Dear Sir — 

I have received your favour of y e . 22 d . Ult . 2 and must confess 
to You that the Discovery I made which appeared to me of much 
importance & to require great caution & Secrecy were my sole 
Motives for requesting the favour of meeting with You, I owe 
this Discovery to my own Suspicions & the thinness of the paper, 
before the perusal of it, I had heard some Stories & made several 
Observations which sufficiently Justified the liberty I took es- 
pecially if we duly consider all Circumstances, & since I have 
accidentally heard more to strengthen my Opinion. 

You may be assured of my Secrecy, & that the utmost Caution 
shall not be wanting on my part for preventing any 111 conse- 

1 In William L. Clements Library; draft in mutilated form printed in 
Johnson Papers, 5:301-03. 

2 Ante pp. 110-12. 

130 Sir William Johnson Papers 

quences. — I think as You do, that it should be forwarded, but 
if I can by any means do it, Shall keep the Original. I am 
sensible of the difficulty's we are yet under for proofs of the one 
Person, but from some knowledge of his principles & present 
Scituation, I fear it is in the power of low Cunning to elude our 
watching, and bring matters to a Crisis before our measures are 

I have a fresh Ace', of a Murder committed at Detroit on an 
Indian Cheif, but this was done by another Indian & of another 
Nation, & by other letters I hear that one of M r . Croghans people 
has been murdered near the Illinois, this he has not himself wrote, 
but has transmitted me the proceedings with the Ind s . concerning 
the peoples Settling and the Murders committed, on this Subject 
I find all the Indians are verry clamourous, and I am now daily 
perplexed with their complaints from all Quarters. — a verry 
disagreable Scituation when I reflect that other Affairs at Home 
the Weakness of Government, & Strong prejudices of people here 
render it almost unsafe for me to continue my Assurances of 
redress, for where will this redress come from, or will it come at 
all ? — I beleive the Governours on consulting their Councils will 
not incline to make any requisition of Regular Troops to remove 
Settlers, and I am well Acquainted with the General dislike 
against such Troops on these Occasions, but the turbulency of the 
People may at last render them the only resource. I fear as little 
will be done to prevent Murders for the future, as has been done 
to redress y e . Indians & punish the guilty. This Anarchy is likely 
to continue 'till the policy of the Americans Whites & Indians are 
thoroughly known at Court. I have endeavoured for the Common 
Good to explain both, & your concurring with me in your letters 
on these Matters where our private opinions coincide may occasion 
that to be attended to, which hitherto has been neglected, or ob- 
structed thro the designing Artifices of many Hundreds now in 

Nothing is more likely than a Rupture soon, those who foment 
it, will doubtless feel it, but the Crown must pay for all at last, 
and either open a Door desired by more than the French by 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 131 

lessening the Army, & withdrawing the Out Posts, or else spend 
large Sums on Expeditions & ca . to effect a Momentary Peace 
which is no sooner made than broke thro, the want of proper 
Laws, and proper powers for enforcing & rendering them 

I have as yet only heard that Pondiac is collecting his People 
& daily expected, I understand there is no provisions at Ontario 
this will be a sad Affair indeed, & I know not how to help it, I 
mentioned in a former letter some reasons for calling him down 
farther, & I have now more cause to do so, but at all events I 
am quite at a loss what to do for provisions, there being none I am 
informed nearer than Albany. — 

I shall be extremely glad that you will be pleased to Issue 
some orders to the Commanding Officers at the Posts where 
Comissaries are to reside respecting them. — I have furnished 
Each Comissary with Instructions, & Copys of those Articles re- 
specting their Duty taken from the Plan of y e . Lords of Trade, 
but as this Plan is not yet Settled by Act of Parliament (tho 
Some of my letters inform me that the present board of Trade 
greatly approve it) it will be necessary for the Comd§. Officers 
to have your Orders to give the Comissarys what Support and 
Assistance they can, without which, a Comissary will not have it 
in his power to do any thing, & be in a great measure useless, & 
the Traders & ca . will do as they please. If at y e . same time You 
would give some directions for Quarters, firewood & provisions for 
them, the Smiths, & Interpreters, it would be highly necessary, as 
these Articles are hard to be got & verry Expensive. — there are 
some few things of the presents You ordered up last Year yet in 
y e . possession of y e . Commanding Officers at Detroit, & Niagra, 
& ca ., which would now be best in the Hands of the Comissarys. — 

Many Traders from Canada are trading at the different Rivers 
ab l . Lake Ontario & ca . One Todd 3 was taken up at Toronto, & 
brought to Niagra for trading at y e . former place, & dismissed on 
promising to return imediately to Montreal but on the contrary, he 

3 Isaac Todd. 

132 Sir William Johnson Papers 

has since disposed of his Cargo by the way, & is waiting at the 
North Side of the Lake for a fresh Supply of Goods & Rum, 
Others are at Kente, Kadaraghqui & ca . I beg You will take it 
into consideration with out w h . there will be no trade at the Posts, 
& the regulations for preventing Abuses & frauds will become use- 
less, & the consequence verry disagreable. — I hope the Meddals 
will be soon up, and as to provisions, I must endeavour to purchase 
some from the Inhabitants if possible, as Cap 1 . Rojers 4 Sends me 
word there are none at his Post, 5 & I hear there are but verry 
little at Niagra, or Swegatchy. — 

I am with y e . greatest Esteem 
Dear Sir 
Your most Obedient 
& verry Humble Servant 
W. Johnson 

His Excellency 

Genr l . Gage — 

P S. I was so hurried by y e . last Post that I forgot to enclose You 
my Ace 1 . — 


Sir W m . Johnson 

4 th . July 1 766 — 
received July 1 2 th . 
Answ d . — 

4 Robert Rogers. 

5 Michilimackinac. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 133 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Dated Sciota July 6 th . 1766. 

Extract of a Letter from M r . Croghan, Deputy Agent of Indian 
Affairs, To Major General Gage, Commander in Chief in North 

I have been obliged to give those Indians Some Presents, and 
to Gratify them with sending a Trader with a few Goods to their 
Town for the present, as they complained of the Distance to Fort 
Pitt, in Transporting their Peltry, and our not Suffering any 
French traders to come amongst them. 

1 In William L. Clements Library; inclosed in Gage to Johnson, Aug. 
18, 1 766, and printed in mutilated form in Johnson Papers, 5:307. 

A.L.S. 1 

Neto-york July 7 ih . 1766. 
Dear Sir, 

Your Letter the 27 th . of June 2 gives me very great Concern in 
the Relation of fresh Murthers upon the Indians near Fort : Pitt ; 
and it Surprizes me the more, as Neither Captain Murray's 3 
Letters or those of M r . Croghan from F : Pitt of the 1 st . of June, 
make mention of it. I conclude this Villany must have been per- 
petrated since those Letters were wrote, th'o there seems hardly 
Time enough. I have represented all these Matters to the Gover- 
nors of Jersey, Pensylvania & Virginia ; with offers of my Assist- 
ance to apprehend the Murtherers, and to drive the Settlers from 
Red Stone Creek and other Places by Force, recommending it as 
proper That Some Indian Chiefs should be with the Troops and 
witness of our earnest Desire to relieve Them. I have wrote a 

1 In New York State Library, Tayler-Cooper Collection, property of 
William Leland Thompson. 

2 Ante pp. 115-17. 

3 Captain William Murray, commandant at Fort Pitt. 

134 Sir William Johnson Papers 

second Letter to the Governor of Jersey, on hearing that two 
Squaws had been killed in his Province, and that one Allen was 
taken and committed to Jail for being guilty of the Murther; his 
Accomplice fled, and a Description has been sent to the Mayor 
of this City to endeavor to discover him. I have proposed to M r . 
Franklin 4 if Proof is had sufficient to condemn Allen, and that 
he shall be condemned, to send for some Chiefs to be present at 
his Execution. You may depend upon it that I shall leave no 
stone unturned to get Justice to the Indians. I have wrote to Cap 1 . 
Murray at Fort : Pitt, if the Murtherers are to be found amongst 
any of the Settlers complained of, which is not unlikely that he will 
seize them and take Depositions, and that I wish the Indians could 
discover them and put them to Death, in which Case he was not to 
retaliate; but to take every opportunity to convince them of our 
earnest wishes to do them Justice. And they will see from our 
Behavior to them at the Fort, That the King's Servants & his 
Soldiers desired to preserve their Friendship. I have once repre- 
sented the Necessity of having Courts of Justice in the uninhabited 
Country but all I could get, was the Clause in the Mutiny Act, 
which I have mentioned in my former Letter. 

I am Sorry the Indians take umbrage at the People living in 
the Fort, No Settlers could be brought there upon the Terms upon 
which the People live in them; as their Liberty of being there, is 
only Temporary, and might be of great use to all Passengers, and 
even to the Indians themselves, as they pass to and fro'. However 
if this is an Eye Sore to them, the People should first have Notice 
to remove as they must have been at some Expence in going to the 
Posts and carrying some little Furniture perhaps with them. And 
after that the Indians may, if they choose it, have them levelled 
to the ground. They will only let me know their Desire in this 
Matter and it shall be done. 

The Medals are ordered, you don't Say whether large or not, 
or if of both Sizes. I shall send an equal Quantity of each Size but 
have ordered them to be made heavier, and rounder at the Edges 

4 William Franklin, governor of New Jersey. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 135 

than those last Sent to you. I can find no Person here or at Phila- 
delphia, who can Make them better than what you have Seen. 
M r . Leake 5 has received Orders about Provisions for your Con- 
gress, at Oswego, and that it may be good. 

You mention inclosing an Acc f . to me, but it has been omitted 
in your Letter. I have now Cash, if you can draw Bills it will be 
the best way, if that is not practicable we must see how Cash can 
be Sent to you. A Bill of your's has appeared I think for £.300 
and of Course duely honored, and I hope you will not be dis- 
tressed longer on that Account. 

By a Letter from Cap 1 . Howard, 6 to Gen 1 . Burton 7 at Mon- 
treal I find many Traders went to winter with the Indians. As I 
have not Time to Copy the Copy of that Letter sent me by L l . 
Col°. Massy, s I Send it to you as it came to me; and when you 
have done with it, you will be so good to return it. The Scheme of 
Indians trading at the Posts seems entirely broke through; and I 
can not approve of any officer Commanding at a Fort having it in 
his Power to choose what Traders shall go amongst the Nations 
and who shall not go. If they are to go they ought all to have the 
same Liberty. You will See what Judgement can be formed on 
this affair, and what it will be proper to have done in it. 

I am with great Regard, 
Dear Sir, 

Your most obedient 
humble Servan'. 

Tho s . Gage 
S R . W M . Johnson 



New York [July 7, 1 766] 
General Gages Letter 

5 Robert Leake, commissary general. 

6 Captain William Howard. 

7 General Ralph Burton. 

8 Lieutenant Colonel Eyre Massy. 

9 In Sir William's hand. 

136 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Df. 1 

Johnson hall July 8 ih . 1766 — 
Sir — 

The 20 th . ult°. 2 I acknowledged the receipt of your last favor, 
& Signified my Intentions of Enclosing the plan for the Colony 
[at the Ilinoisf with my Recommendation to the Ministry which 
I now [Enclose] send you with a Letter thereon to M r . Secretary 
Conway, wherein I have said all that I could Venture to do from 
[the] my very [small \n Acquaintance with] slender knowledge of 
him and the delicacy of the Subject but I hope [it will from] the 
Nature of it [the Subject] and the interest of some Gentlemen at 
home, [become] may render it an Object worthy of attention. — 

As I have not had the pleasure of your fathers Correspondence 
I just wrote him a few lines [& must Leave it to you to say what 
further you think necessary] wch you can Explain more fully as I 
should think it were better that [he sealed the Letter which goes 
under a flying Seal &] my Letter was put [it in] into the Office for 
the Secy, of State but [/ leave this to himself] this I Submit to his 
discretion & hope You will [please to] write him [& Enclose my 
pacquet] thereon. 

I am sorry it goes over at a time when from the daily Murders 
& Encroachments [on the peoples Ind s . rights] complained of 
we have all the reason imaginable to Expect an Ind n . War. Sev 1 . 
other Murders have been Committed Since my last so that I know 
not where it will [Stop] end. 

As I am Just Setting off to meet Pondiac & the Western 
Nations who are arrived at Ontario for that purpose I have only 
time to add that I am with much Esteem, Sir, 

Yours &c 

I shall be very Glad to hear from you & shall return in Three 
Weeks — 

1 In American Antiquarian Society. In Guy Johnson's hand. 

2 Ants pp. 107-08. 

3 Words italicized and in brackets are crossed out in the manuscript. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 137 


Contemporary Copy 1 

[July 3-9, 1766] 

July 3 d . — Lieu'. Hay 2 arrived here from Detroit, and told Sir 
W m . that Cap 1 . Rogers 3 commanding at Ontario desired to 
acquaint him that there was not a morsel of Provisions for the 
Indians at his Post — also acquainted Sir W m . of the universal 
uneasiness, and discontent that prevailed among the Indians on 
account of the sev 1 . murders committed by our People on the 
Frontiers of the sev 1 . Provinces, which he thought wou'd occasion 
a Rupture. — by letters from Cap 1 . Morris 4 commanding at 
Niagara Sir W m . therewith received a Speech made by the chief 
Sachim of all the Seneca nation intimating much the same with 
some additions. — On the same day Sir W m . received letters 
from M r . Croghan Dep?. agent to Indian Affairs dated Fort Pit 
May 25 th . giving an account of the great uneasiness among the 
nations of Indians in them parts on account of the several murders, 
as also on account of our People settling on Red Stone Creek on 
their lands there. — Lieut. Roberts 5 Commissary at Niagara 
wrote to Sir W m . to the same purport. 

July 5 th . — Sir W m . was told that a great many of the 
Conojhare Indians had left their Country greatly enraged at the 
threats of Ury KlocJ^, e who told them they had no Right to a 
foot of land whereon they lived, and forbid their improving the 
same, and that he was then preparing to lay it out into Lots, 
altho' released by four of the Proprietors. — that this had de- 
termined those who were gone never to return, and the rest to 
follow. — 

6 th . — On this day Adam, and Nicolaus Chiefs of Oghquago 
arrived here with 6 Warriors and being met by Sir W m . told 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 Lieutenant Jehu Hay, commissary at Detroit. 

3 Probably Captain Jonathan Rogers of the 1 7th regiment. 

4 Captain Thomas Morris. 

5 Lieutenant Benjamin Roberts. 

6 George (Ury) Klock. 

138 Sir William Johnson Papers 

him that they were sent by their Nation to acquaint him that they 
were greatly concerned, and alarmed at the daily Accounts they 
had received from different Quarters of the Murders committed 
by our People on the Indians, and that on some of the best 
friends he had, who from their attachment to the English were 
not the least apprehensive of any danger from them ; — that it 
seemed to them as if the evil Spirit was very busy, and endeavoring 
to deprive them of the Happiness they enjoyed, and which they 
hoped, from the Peace made last Year with all Nations, wou'd be 
permanent, they then assured Sir W m . that they had paid a due 
regard to his Admonitions, for which reason they came to be in- 
formed by him whether there were any grounds for believing the 
Reports they now had received, viz*, "that the seven Tuscaroras 
they had sent last Autumn to Carolina in order to bring away 
such of their Countrymen as were still there, had been 
murdered." — 

Gave a Bunch of Wampum 
Sir W m . in answer told them that he had heard nothing of 
it, neither cou'd he think that there was any truth in it, having had 
letters of the 1 st . of June before from M r . Stuart 7 Superintendant 
of Indian Affairs to the Southward which are silent as to any 
thing of the kind, besides that there were then present two Gentle- 
men from them parts, namely M r . Izard, s and M r . Ugy who had 
heard nothing of it. — Sir W m . then desired they wou'd be 
easy with regard to the Report they had heard, and that he wou'd 
inform them of whatever he wou'd hear relative to the matter. — 

Returned a Bunch of Wampum 
7 th . — A Coghnawagey Indian brought Sir W m . two letters 
from Cap*. M c Leod 9 acquainting him that there were little or no 
Provisions at Ontario, and that he was at a loss what to do, when 
Pondiac, and the Western Ind s . shou'd arrive there. 

7 John Stuart, southern superintendent of Indians. 

8 Ralph Izzard. 

9 Captain Lieutenant Normand MacLeod. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 139 

Same day Silver Heels, and another Seneca Warrior arrived 
here in ten days from their Country — bro't no news of moment, 
than that as they had passed the great Plains last winter, he had 
heard the Shawanese often declare their dislike to the English, and 
wish for an Opportunity of breaking with them. — He added that 
the Six Nations were vastly uneasy at the loss of sev 1 . of their 
People killed by the English, as were also the Indians of the 
Ohio &c — 

9 !h . — Cap*. John Butler who accompanied the two Mohawk 
Castles to Oneida, and assisted them in performing the Ceremony 
of Condolence for the deaths of Gatvehe, an Oneida chief, 
Kaghradoto chief of Cayuga, & Chithantara a Nanticoke Sachim, 
returned this day, and made the following report to Sir William, 
viz 1 . — "June the 30 lh . Sir — agreeable to your desire I this day 
set out for Oneida, & arrived at Conojahare where I found the 
Mohawks waiting, who informed me that they had waited three 
days for the Indians of that Castle, who were kept drunk during 
that time by George Klock with design to purchase some lands 
from them in that State, we waited until the 5 th . day, but finding 
they got Rum so plenty, we proceeded in our Journey with two of 
that Castle, who were the only sober ones at that time, and who ex- 
pressed their disatisfaction at the State of the rest. — July the 2 d . 
arrived at Burnetsfield at 12 o' the clock, waited here this day, 
expecting some of the Indians might get sober, and overtake us, 
and got Provision accordingly, but none came. — July the 3 d . this 
day proceeded about 1 2 Miles, and encamped — July the 4 th . 
this day we got within about 4 Miles of Oneida where some of 
that Nation met us, and desired we wou'd wait until they were 
prepared to receive us. — 

July 5 th . some of the Sachims came, and took us by the hand, and 
led us in after sev 1 . Stops, and performed the usual Ceremony — 
July the 6 th . and 7 th . — Employed in performing the usual Cere- 
mony of Condolence — July the 8 th . left the Castle, and arrived 
at the Fall Hill. — the 9 th . returned home without meeting any 
think extraordinary. — ' 

140 Sir William Johnson Papers 



Johnson hall July 10 th . 1766 — 
Sir — 

At the Request of your Son Gov. Franklyn, & sev 1 . Gent n . of 
Pensilvania, I now enclose you a Scheme proposed for Establishg 
a Colony at the Ilinois, together with my Letter to M r . Secretary 
Conway in fav r . thereof, which the proposers desired might be 
transmitted [to him] 2 thro' your hands. I have accordingly sent it 
under a flying Seal, & must request you [to Seal it & cause it to be 
sent] to forward it as Addressed — 

[Altho' I have not had an opportunity of Cultivating an Ac- 
quaintance with you, I shall always be glad to render You, or 
yours, any Services in my power as I am] 

I daily dread a Ru[p]ture w th . the Ind s . [&] occasioned by the 
Licentious Conduct of the frontier Inhabitants who Continue to 
Rob, and Murder them. — I am imediately to meet Pondiac with 
the Western Nat s . at Ontario and wish I may be able to satisfy 
them. — 

Altho' I have not had an Opportunity of Cultivating your 
Acquaintance I shall always be Glad to render you, or yours any 
Services as I am, &c 

To Benj n . Franklyn Esq r . — 

1 In American Antiquarian Society. In Guy Johnson's hand. 

2 Words italicized and in brackets are crossed out in the manuscript. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 141 


Cop]) 1 

Phil, July 12 J 766. 

We have the honor of the 2 of June, acknowledging 

the Receipt of our Letter with the Proposals &c for a Colony at 
the Illinois. 

We are greatly obliged, by your kind assurances, That you will 
contribute all in your power to carry it into execution — which 
permit us to say, we are persuaded will tend greatly, to its speedy 
& happy accomplishment. 

By the May Packet we received Letters from Dr. Franklin in 
respect to the Establishment of the Colony at the Illinois. He 
writes us: "I join fully in opinion with you, that a western 
Colony, would be highly advantageous & very easily settled." 

He writes also to Mr. Galloway : "I think that a strong Colony 
in the Illinois Country, is a most desirable measure. The Proposal 
is much listened to here." 

Upon the first thoughts of the Scheme, Mr. Galloway & I wrote 
to Dr. Franklin, so that he might essay it, with the Ministry, 
wherefore he now advises us, in the foregoing favorable manner. 

From time to time as we receive any intelligence, we shall take 
the freedom of communicating it to your honor. 

We have the Honor of being Sir, with the sincerest Respect 
Your Honor's Obliged & most Obedient humble Servants 

Baynton, Wharton & Morgan. 

1 Printed in Illinois Historical Collections, 1 1 : 33 7-38. Original in 
New York State Library was destroyed by fire. 

2 Blank in manuscript copy. Evidently refers to the letter of June 20, 
1 766, Johnson Papers, 5:276-78. 

142 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

New York hh 14 th - 1766 — 
Dear Sir, 

I have letters from the Ilinois the 28 th . of April, but no men- 
tion is made of any person killed there, so I hope what you tell 
me in your favor of the 4 th . Instant 2 concerning the Murder of 
One of M r . Croghan's people is a false report; M r . Smallman 3 is 
there but I hear nothing extraordinary from thence. I have re- 
cieved several letters from Fort Pitt, but no mention of the 
Murders which the Onandagoes complained of, You say they 
were committed near that post, Several Indians have called at 
that Fort returning from War, and it's likely after such a Stroke, 
that they shou'd have gone to complain to the Officer Command- 
ing, but He is certainly ignorant of the Affair, or would not have 
failed to take notice of it : The Settlers must be removed by some 
means or other, I have not yet recieved any Answers from the 
Governors on these Subjects. 

It surprises me a good deal that there shou'd be no provisions 
at Ontario, 4 by the Returns from thence in May there was a 
considerable quantity, I presume, they must have sent it to Niagara 
where there is a great deal as well as at Swegatchi. 5 I hope you 
will have no difficulty in this Article, but if you will let me know 
for certain the place you will fix upon for holding your meeting, 
the affair of provisions can be easily managed. If it is any where 
near the inhabited Country, we shall see whether it would be best 
to send it from Albany or have it purchased in the Country — 

With respect to the traders strolling over the Lakes there 
seems no Method to prevent it, but the Governor's obliging them 
to pay the forfeit of their Bonds: and even after all if they will 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Ante pp. 1 29-32. 

3 Thomas Smallman. 

4 Oswego. 

5 Oswegatchie. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 143 

risk, it seems difficult to prevent them, indeed I might say im- 
possible, unless some Rules more strict than what are at present, 
can be formed for the trade. The Officers Commanding at the 
posts will have Orders to give what support and Assistance is in 
their power to the Commissarys, who will be allowed their 
Quarters and provisions &ca. The Medals will be finished in a 
few days, and as well done as they can be here. 

Estimates are demanded, and I shou'd be obliged to you for 
a List of the several Deputy Commissary's Interpreters &ca in 
your Department with their Yearly Sallaries. These will be 
sufficient I presume for the treasury, as more compleat Estimates 
are sent by You every year as I understand to the Board of 

I am with great Regard, 
Sir William Johnson B*. — 

I have forgot to acknowledge your Acc f . which came inclosed in 
your letter. This with the Other will be paid as soon as you can 
find Means to draw, or get it sent to You. 


Copy/ To 

Sir William Johnson B*. 

Johnson Hall 
New York July 14*. 1766. 

Copy 1 

Miamis July 15*. 1766 
Dear Sir 

I shall Leave this to morrow, Upon my arrival here The Chiefs, 
Sent for me, to take me by the hand, and well come me to their 

1 Printed in Illinois Historical Collections, 1 1 :338-39. Original in New 
York State Library was destroyed by fire. 

144 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Villige, and made a speach in which they Declared their firm 
Resolution to adhear Strictly to the peace they had made, then 
I acquainted them, where I was goeing, and my business, and gave 
them, a little milk they Seem'd much pleased with the new 
regalations and now hoped every thing would go wright. 

By a Shawanese that past through here Some days past, I shall 
be at the Illinois near as Soon as M r . Croghan, who is to meet 
Some Indians at the mouth of the Ouiabache which will Detain 
him Some days. 

I hope soon to write you from the Illinois, and in the interim 
with my Comp ts . to your Family, 

I am D r . Sir Your most ob l . Serv*. 

Edw d . Cole 
indorsed : 

Miamis July 1 5 th . 1 766 
Cornish. Coles Letter 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Butlersbury July 1 6 th . 1766 — 
HonRD Sir — 

I came here at the desire of the Board of Correspondents of the 
Colony of Connecticut, commissioned by the Society in Scotland, 
for Indian Affairs, & particularly of The Rev d . M r . Wheelock, 2 
in Company with his Son, 3 to wait on your Excellency for your 
Advice, relative to the Indian Charity School, under his Care. 
M r . Whitaker 4 writes from England y l . it is necessary that a Place 
for fixing it, & building for its Accomodation be pitch'd upon; 
and advises that several of the most promising be mentioned, out 

1 In Dartmouth College Library. 

2 Eleazar Wheelock. 

3 Ralph Wheelock. 

4 Rev. Nathaniel Whittaker, Wheelock's friend, who in December 
1 765, in company with Samson Occum visited England and Scotland to 
raise money for Wheelock's school. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 145 

of which the best may be chosen. M r . Wheelock has by informa- 
tion conceiv'd some prospect that it might be well accomidated 
with Lands near the Banks of Hudsons River, either between 
New- York & Albany, or a little above the latter, as your Ex- 
cellency will see in his Minutes of Memorandum which I shall 
herewith inclose, as also a Copy of M r . Charles Jeffery Smith's 5 
Plan &c. We waited on most of the Gentlemen mentioned in s d . 
Minutes, particular^ Judge Smith & the Livingstons; and could 
get but little Incouragement of obtaining any suitable Place any 
where within this Provence, they seem'd to be of Opinion that it 
had best remain where it is; however they told me they would 
take the Matter into Consideration, take advice & send their 
Result to M r . Wheelock. We in Connecticut are very fond of 
retaining so usef ull an Institution among our selves : and I suppose 
considerable Donations will be made to it on y l . Condition. But 
M r . Wheelock's declar'd purpose is to fix it where it shall appear 
best to serve the grand Design ; and we humbly ask your Advice 
in this as well as in other things relative to said School hinted in 
s d . Minutes; nothing doubting of your readiness as well as Ability 
to assist us in the importent Affair, & relying on your Goodness of 
which we have had so plentifull Testimony — As M r . Wheelock 
I suppose wrote but breif to your Excellency, expecting y l . we 
sho'd be his Epistle; by laying the Case before you, viva voce; 
which expected Satisfaction, divine Providence forbids us. we 
must therefore refer your Honour to Mess rs . Kirtland 6 & Kinne 7 
for a fuller Information of the several proposals for fixing s d . 
School, and the Circumstances; which as soon as your Affairs 
will permit you to Consider we shall hope for a Line from your 
Excellency; which the above Gentlemen will take Care to for- 

5 Charles Jeffrey Smith, with Joseph Brant as interpreter, visited the Six 
Nations in I 763. He withdrew at the outbreak of Pontiac's War. 

6 Rev. Samuel Kirkland. 

7 Rev. Aaron Kinne, of Groton, Conn. On July 7, 1 766 Wheelock sent 
him as missionary to Old Oneida. Apparently within a few months, 
because of poor health, he was forced to stop his missionary work. In 
1 768 he was again sent by Wheelock to the Six Nations. 

146 Sir William Johnson Papers 

ward — Thus ever, praying Heavens Blessings on your Self and 
worthy Famely, I remain 

Your Honour's most Sincere, most obedient 
& very humble Servant — 

Benj a . Pomeroy s 
The Hon ble . S R . Will m . Johnson Bar 1 . 


M r . Pomeroy's Letter 
to Sir William Johnson 
July. 16—1 766. 


Guy park July 20*. 1766. 

Sir — 

As Sir William was so much hurried from the time of the 
receipt of your Letter 'till his departure for Ontario he could not 
answer it at Least to your Satisfaction, not being able to inform 
himself Exactly concerning both the Tracts petitioned for. — He 
will be returned in about Three Weeks at farthest when he will 
Write you more fully in the mean time he desired I should 
Acquaint you that he believes one of the Tracts has been long 
engaged by the Indians to some Inhabitants in these parts to 
whom the Indians had Voluntarily engaged to Give the prefer- 
ence, and the other Tract, near the little falls is under the same 
circumstances, of engagement. — 

8 Wheelock's brother-in-law, he was graduated from Yale in 1 733, 
ordained in 1 735, and served as chaplain with the army in the French and 
Indian Wars and later in the Revolution. Died Dec. 1 783, aged 80. 

1 In New York Historical Society, Banyar Papers. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 147 

As he will give you more particulars on his return I have 
only to assure you that 

I am, 
D r . Sir, 

Your most Obedient 

And Very humble Servant. 

G. Johnson 
G w . Banyar Esq r . 

Sir William Left the flatts on his way to meet Pondiac & the 
Western Chiefs, on the 1 5 th . instant — 


July 20. 1 766 

From Cap. Guy Johnson 

Copy 1 

New York 2K July 1766 

Some time ago Gen 1 . Gage by his Warrent Invested me with 
all his Majesty's Property to Fort Brewerton at West End of 
Onidia Lake, Under Some Restrictions and all such Lands &c a . 
as the Indians at the Time of Building Gave to his Majestys Use 
on that spot. — Since which I am Credibly Inform'd the Indians 
have made Objections to any Persons having anything to Say to 
them Forts. 

Waiting on the Gen 11 , to know the Reason, as my Intention was 
to go there this Month, he Inform'd me that Since these Objec- 
tions have been made by the Indians, he had Requested of you 
Sir, to Settle Such Matters with them, And that he hopes to hear 
they are Accommodated, that the persons he has Given those 

1 In Oneida Historical Society, Utica, N. Y. Original was destroyed 
by fire. 

148 Sir William Johnson Papers 

places to, might not go there till such time they are Inform'd from 
you that they may go Safely. 

I Shou'd be Much Obliged to Sir William if he wou'd be 
pleased to Inform me how those Affairs Stand, As I woud not 
Chuse to be at any Expence in going there upon an Uncertainty. 
In doing which you will Confer a Great Obligation on &c &c 
Sir W m . Johnson 

Barnaby Byrn 


Contemporary Copy 1 

New York July 23*. 1766. 

Dear Sir, 

I Am favored with Yours of the 14 th . Instant, 2 from the 
German Flatts, and am sorry to hear of Your fresh Attack of 
Your Old Disorder, at a time when you have the most Occasion 
for health and Vigour. I have only to hope Exercise will be of 
Service to you. 

You have been very much Misinformed about the State of 
Provisions. People write and give Information of what they know 
nothing of. It is very Surprizing that the Officer Commanding at 
Ontario, who knows of the Meeting with Pondiac, should send all 
his Provisions away to Niagara, for that must be the Case if 
there is not a Sufficiency in that Post. By the Returns from 
Ontario of 24 th . Ultm°. there was Sufficient Provision to feed 
500 Indians for three Weeks, and enough left to Support the 
Garrison for above One Year. Besides Damaged Provision, of 
which Your inspection some would have been found Eatable. I 
hope none has been sent over from Albany, for there is at F: 
Stanwix a very Considerable Quantity, which You might have 
taken up with you, had they been short at Ontario. 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Johnson Papers, 5:332-3. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 149 

I transmit you a Copy of a Letter from M r . Croghan just upon 
his leaving Fort Pitt; In another Letter he mentions having made 
a Draught on You, for Accounts at Fort Pitt, during the Autumn 
and Winter, which I suppose is the Bill you mention payable to 
Baynton & Wharton. The Expences of that Post do Amount 
very high indeed, and was it not for the Ilinois; of which Fort 
Pitt seems now the Key, it would certainly be abandoned. 

I will Endeavor to find some good Conveyance, to transmit 
You Some Money by the Time you may be expected back to 
Your Own House. 

Orders are given to the Officers Commanding the Posts, to Aid 
and Assist the Commissarys you have appointed to treat with the 
Indians, and I presume you will confine them in their presents, 
and the Obligation of getting proper Certificates of the delivery 
of Presents, as the Officers Commanding have all been hitherto. 

The Medals could not be finished till this Morning, I have 
waited for them, and immediately forward them to You by 

I Am, 
Dear Sir, 


Sir W m . Johnson. 

F. Ontario. 


Copy / To 

Sir William Johnson 


Fort Ontario 
New York July 23< 1 766. 
Sent by Francis Staples, Express. 

1 50 Sir William Johnson Papers 



Ontario, the 4 th . August 1766 

A little after your departure, Pondiac and the rest of the 
Upper Nations sent the Interpreter to me to acquaint me, that the 
Mishilimackina Man was a great war Chief, that they were sorry 
that he had not been taken more notice of by you, as he was the 
only one of his Nation that came down. I told them it was not your 
fault as he was not represented to you as a man of such conse- 
quence, in short to please them I gave him a Silver gorget and two 
wrist bands, at which they all seem'd to be much pleas'd. I gave 
Pondiac four pounds of brown sugar to make him some toddy 
and a bottle of Madura, they seem'd to be extremely pleas'd and 
kept constantly telling me, they would never forget the promises 
they had made you and went off in the Evening very well 

Last Night one Monsieur Dejean arriv'd here from Detroit, he 
tells me that it's firmly beiiev'd at that place, that Pondiac is 
to receive ten Shillings sterling a day from the Crown of Great 
Britain, it seems this report has been used by his Enemys, to 
Create a Jealousy amongst the Indians that will end in his ruin. 
The Frenchman offered to lay me a beat that Pondiac would 
be killed in less than a year, if the English took so much notice 
of him. * * * 

Mr. Newkerk 2 one of the traders here was with me Just now 
desiring liberty to go amongst the Indians. I told him it was 
impossible to grant his request, he told me it was very hard the 
English shouid be prevented when a French Man had liberty to 

1 In Oneida Historical Society, Utica, N. Y. Original was destroyed by 
fire. According to Johnson Calendar, p. 32 1 , the missing portions indicated 
by asterisks in this copy dealt with "gifts to the Senecas, difficulties of 
MacLeod's situation, and dislike of the upper nations for Mr. [Jehu] Hay 
as commissary." 

2 John Newkirk. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 151 

go, meaning the Man that is to trade for the Ginsan. 3 he said his 
going meaning the French man would hurt the trade of this place, 
as the Indians will mind then nothing but gathering of that root 
and desir'd I should mention it to you, that you may either prevent 
the French man's going or allow them the same privilege. * * * 

Sir W m . Johnson 

Nor d . MacLeod 
Commissary for Indian Affairs. 


Copy 1 

Ontario the 7 th . August 1766 

Yesterday a Frenchman called Portier arrived here from Mon- 
treal with a letter of recommendation from le Pere Gordon 2 at 
S l . Registe, his intention in coming here was to go amongst the 
five to trade for Ginsen, 3 he seem'd a little disconcerted at my 
stoping him here he told me as he was prevented from going he 
hoped nobody else would be allowed to go. 

I am affraid the permission you order'd me to give to Monsieur 
Cavalier will Create a very great Jealousy amongst the Traders 
for which reason I shall detain him here untill I have farther 
Orders from you. I am &c &c 

Sir W m . Johnson 

Nor d . MacLeod 

1 In Oneida Historical Society, Utica, N. Y. Original was destroyed 
by fire. 

2 A. Gordon, Jesuit at St. Regis, Aughquisasne. 

3 Ginseng root. 

152 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Johnson Hall Aug st . 8 th . 1766 

Dear Sir — 

The 6 th . in the Evening I arrived here having made an Ex- 
peditious Journey from Ontario 2 w h . I left on the 31 st . Ult°., 
having finished all my Transactions with Pondiac & the Westeren 
Indians to my Entire Satisfaction, He & the rest set off the same 
day on their return having given me everry Assurance in their 
power of preserving peace, and to gain y e . more Credit has 
candidly declared what Steps he had taken in the late Rupture, 
where his War Belt now lies, and ordered it to be delivered up 
to me or him. My present hurry will not allow me to give You 
the particulars, but I shall as Soon as possible, and Send You a 
List of my Officers and their Sallaries. — 

Altho the Express with the Meddalls which L*. Johnson 3 sent 
forward to me made all the dispatch possible, he did not arrive in 
time, but met me on my return Just below Oswego Falls, from 
whence he returned with my Boats and is to be the Bearer of this, 
I have promised to recommend him to You for payment of his 
Additional Journey from Fort Johnson to the Falls, L l . Johnson 
has wrote You his reasons for forwarding him, it gave me a good 
deal of concern that I did not receive them in time, the rather 
as the Indians expressed such a desire to deliver up their French 
Medalls & ca ., However I have settled it w th . them until next 
Meeting. — 

The Transactions at this Congress were such as give great 
reason to rely on their Sincerity, and I am pritty Confident that if 
my labours are not overset thro Misconduct and if an effectual 
remedy is apply ed to Satisfy the 6 Nations & ca ., that Pondiac may 
be depended upon. He is to pay me a Visit in the Spring with 
some other Cheifs. — 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Oswego. 

3 Lieutenant Guy Johnson. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 153 

Before the receipt of y r . letter, & my leaving home I was (from 

the Acc tts . sent me) under a necessity of taking up four Boats 

with provisions, and on my arrival at Ontario I found (as You 

said) that there had been a good deal of provisions there, but they 

were constantly sending it to Niagra. — 

It will greatly oblidge me if you can find any opertunity for 

sending me Cash, otherwise I must be oblidged to Send down 

for it. — 

I have verry strictly confined y e . Comiss r y s . on the Article of 

Expence which they are not to incurr to any amount, unless in 

cases of the greatest Exigence without proper orders for so 

doing. — 

I am with the greatest respect 

Dear Sir 

Your most Obedient 

& verry Humble Serv 1 . 

T T . ~ 11 w - Johnson 

Mis Excellency 

Genr l . Gage — 

indorsed : 

S r . W m . Johnson 

Aug*. 8 lh . 1 766 — 
received Aug*. 13 th . — 

Answ d . — 


Johnson Hall August 9 th . 1766 
Gentlemen — 

I received your letter last night by David the Indian and 
observe Your desire is to purchase Some Lands of the Indians of 
y l . Settlement. All I can say is, that, if You can find the Land is 
yet unpurchased, You should now agree with the Indians for it in 

In American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia. 

154 Sir William Johnson Papers 

public Council, So as to have the consent of them all, then bring 
them over here to my House next Week at w h . time the Governour 
will be here, and then I will assist You all in my power. Indeed 
if one of You could come over before that it would be better 
still. — 

I am Y r . Welwisher 

W. Johnson 


A.L.S. 1 

Philad*. August IO l K 1766. 

f A few days ago We received a Letter from Our Partner M r . 
Morgan, 2 from Sciota, acquainting Us That at the earnest 
Solicitation of M r . Croghan & the Chiefs of the Shawanese, He 
had consented to send a Person, with a small Assortment of 
Goods to their Town. — 

We were much surprised at the Information, As it was our 
firm Determination, never to trust any Part of Our Property, 
in the Indian Country; As well from the Consideration, That 
it was contrary to the Governor's Licence, as the Insecurity of the 
Measure. We suppose M r . Croghan made the Request of M r . 
Morgan, from a Conviction of its Publick Utility — Yet We are 
liable to a Suit, by Order of Governor Penn, upon that Account 
— We must therefore take the Liberty of mentioning to your 
Excellency, That we hope you will be so good, as not to permit 
Us, to be injured, for Our Partners doing an Act, merely to 
Oblige the Indian Agent & the Chiefs of the Shawanese. — In- 

1 In William L. Clements Library. A copy of the three paragraphs 
indicated was sent to Sir William. Although destroyed by fire, this from 
a copy made by C. E. Carter was printed in Illinois Historical Collections, 
1 1 : 363-64. A contemporary copy is also in the Gage Papers along with 
the letter of Gage to Sir William of August 1 8, 1 766, with which it was 

2 George Morgan. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 155 

deed, We are so dissatisfied, at the Goods being sent there, least 
it may meet with your Excellency's Disaprobation, That We will 
immediately send an Express, ordering Them all away, if most 
agreable to you. 

M r . Morgan also writes us — That the Shawanese expect a 
Supply of Goods will be sent to their Town this Fall — But 
Permit Us, to assure Your Excellency, That We will not forward 
One farthing's Worth, Unless We have your Permission, Or a 
Post of Trade is established there.f — 

We have the Honor of being Sir — 

Y r . Excellency's very Obliged & most Ob'. Serv'. 

Baynton Wharton & Morgan 

His Excellency GENERAL GAGE 

P. S. Should a Post of Trade be established at the Shawanese 
Town, We shall be greatly Obliged to your Excellency, to direct, 
That We be informed thereof; That we may prepare Ourselves 
for the Purpose. — 


Mess rs . Wharton & al 

Philadelphia 1 th . Aug*. 1766 

received 13 th . of Aug 1 . 

Extracts from this Letter (marked f ) 

sent to Sir W m . Johnson, August 18:1 766 


A.L.S. 1 

Johnson Hall 14 th . Aug*. 1766 — 
Dear Banyar — 

On my return from Osswego, a few days ago I received your 
favour of the 7 th . Ult°. 2 The assurances You therin Give me of 

3 In Gage's hand. 

1 In New York Historical Society, Banyar Papers. 

2 Johnson Papers, 5:310-11. 

156 Sir William Johnson Papers 

y r . inclination to serve me, lays me under no small obligation, 
and I flatter my self that Major Clarke 3 (from our former very 
intimate acquaintance) would let me have any Lands he intended 
to dispose of as soon as any one. My desire of purchasing his part 
of Sacondaga Patent, arises from the vicinity of Some of my 
Land to his, the having of which, would make mine more 
compleat. If I knew what quantity he had in Said Patent, I would 
make you an offer for the whole, & which I will do on y r . letting 
me know it. — 

with regard to the small Tract you mention I had it included 
in the Survey, made 2 years ago, of the whole Tract given me by 
the Conajoharees, & sent Home, the Issue of w h . I now daily ex- 
pect to hear, it is not so much as You mention, but be it what it 
will, You are welcome to a share therein. I paid to the Indians 100 
Dollars for it, and a Treat to their whole Castle of an ox & ca . — 
It was not I assure You the Value of y e . Land led me to do so, 
but to hinder a Villain from getting it, whom You know. I am 
sorry to hear that any difference between y e . Governour 4 & You 
should arise, & more so, that it should prove a loss to You, as I 
understand it must be his curtailing Some of y e . Emoluments of y r . 
office, but from what you observe, I hope all will go well again. 

I expect him here in about 15 Days by his last letter to me, 
before w h . time, I must beg the favour of You to Send me the 
bounds of Orisko Patent. 5 & that of the Lands at Fort Stanwix 
alias the Oneida Carrying place, both which I am told have been 
patented many Years ago. but kept verry private until of late. — 
I heartily wish You all happiness, and am 

Dear Banyar 
Yours Sincerely & Affectb. 

W. Johnson 


3 Major Edward Clarke. 

4 Sir Harry Moore. 

5 For Oriskany Patent see Sauthier's Map of the Province of New York 
in 1 779. Doc. Hist. N. Y., 1:774. 

Indian A fairs, 1766-68 157 

PS. pray let me know also what y e . late Surveys are made for, & 
by whose orders, as it has occasioned, a good deal of uneasiness — 


14 Aug'. 1766 

From Sir W m . Johnson 


Copy 1 

London, Aug' 1 , the 14 th . 1766. 

Upon my leaving Montreal, the Chiefs and Warriors of the 
Sault. St. Louis, the lakes of the two Mountains, &c. &c. &. pre- 
sented me with a belt & speech; desiring me to represent their 
behavior to the King, which I have done through Lord Shel- 
burne, one of His Majesty's principal Secretaries of State; in 
consequence of which, I have received the inclosed letter from 
Lord Shelburne, signifying His Majesty's pleasure thereupon, 
which fully shows his entire approbation of their friendly conduct 
and assurance of the continuation of His tender regard and pro- 
tection, which I must beg, Sir, you would be so good as to 
Communicate to those nations. And at the same time must beg of 
you to assure them that I shall ever hold fast the Belt they honored 
me with and never forget them. 

I have the honor to be, with 

the greatest regard and esteem, 
Your most obedient 

humble servant, 

R. Burton 
To Sir William Johnson Bart. 

1 In Massachusetts Historical Society, Parkman Collection. 

158 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A.L.S. 1 

London Aug' 1 , the 14 th . 1766. 
Dear Sir. 

I was extremely sorry it was not in my power of paying you a 
visit, before my leaving America ; hope you are quite recovered of 
the illness, which Captain Claus informed me of, at Albany. We 
had a ruff, but quick Passage, but twenty eight days from Sandy 
Hook to Bristol ; upon my arrival in Town, I enquired for your 
Son, 2 found he was gon down to Scotland, as I am in a few days 
going down to Yorkshire, hope to meet with him upon his return, 
detain him a few days at my house, and show him a little of the 
amusements of our County, You know we Yorkshire Men, are all 
Sportsmen. — A many Changes amongst the Great Folks, since 
my arrival, for the particulars of which, as also Politicks, (which 
I am yet quite young at,) I must refer you to the Publick Papers, 
except an Event, to us Military Folks ; Lord Granby's 3 being ap- 
pointed Commander in Chief, which gives general satisfaction. 
Twelve years absence, makes this quite a new world to me, it is 
intirely so to M rs . Burton, however, She begins to like England. 

I have along with this, troubled you with a Publick letter, 4 
which I took the earliest opportunity of transmitting, as I should 
be extremely sorry, the Indians who had allways behaved so well, 
should have the least reason to imagine, that I had neglected, what 
they charged me with. If there is any thing my County produces, 
that you choose to have over to America, beg you would let me 
know, and I shall be happy in procureing it you; be pleased to 
direct to me, at James Meyricks Esq r ., Parliament Street, West- 
minster, I do asure you I shall be extremely happy at hearing 

1 In New York Public Library. 

2 John Johnson. 

3 John Manners, Marquis of Granby (1 721-1 770). 

4 Ante p. 157. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 159 

from you, and that you are in perfect health. M rs . Burton begs to 
Join with me in best respects, and kind wishes to You, Cap 111 . 
Claus, and all the Family. 

and I am dear Sir, 

very truly and sincerely, 

Your most obedient humble 

R. Burton. 
Sir William Johnson Bar*. — 


JX .A_- /.i~/ . 

Johnson Hall 23 d . August 1766 
Dear Sir — 

I take the liberty of Sending the Bearer M r . Robert Adems to 
receive the Amount of my Acc tts . which I am hopefull You will be 
able to transmit thro' his Hands, as I am in the greatest want of 
it. — 

I have been so much hurried since my last, and so much com- 
pany here that I found it difficult to get a Copy of my late Trans- 
actions in readiness for the Lords of Trade, One is begun for your 
perusal, which I must beg you will excuse me for not being able 
to Send by this opertunity. It shall go with my next, together with 
the List of Officers & Sallarys & ca . — I should have mentioned in 
my last that the French Inhabitants at the Miamis, Detroit & ca . 
used everry Artifice in their power to hinder Pondiac & the 
Westeren Indians from coming to meet me, & M r . Crawford 2 
found it a difficult Task to efface the impressions which their 
Stories had left on the Minds of y e . Indians. 

1 In William L. Clements Library; a portion of the autographed draft 
of this letter was printed in Johnson Papers, 5 : 362-63. 

2 Hugh Crawford was sent to accompany Pontiac. 

160 Sir William Johnson Papers 

The Same Schemes were practiced to retard or prevent M r . 
Cole 3 from going to the Illinois, and a certain Josephe Chapaton 
an Inhabitant of Detroit offerred Godfrey his Conductor 3000 
Livres, if he would quit his Service, & prevent his getting anybody 
to conduct him to that place, but all did not do, — 

I have received a letter from Cap*. Howard 4 by which he tells 
me that the Indians are extremely desireous to have the Post at 
La Baye 5 reestablished and have urged it much, if it be so, I 
shall be glad to be informed whether You think it would be 
proper to repair it, & put a small Garrison into it, for my part I 
think it a post of verry great importance on many Acc tls ., & that 
it will be usefull to us if the Indians are desireous of its being re- 
established as has been reported to me. — I am 

with the most perfect Esteem 
Dear Sir 
Your most Obedient 
& verry Humble Servant 

W. Johnson 
His Excellency 
Genr l . Gage — 


S r . W m . Johnson 
23 d . August 1766 
received August 3 1 st . 
answered — 

3 Edward Cole, commissary for Illinois. 

4 Captain William Howard, commandant at Michilimackinac. 
B Green Bay, Wisconsin. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 161 

Contemporary Copy 1 

Copy of a letter from Lieu 1 . Robert Johnston to Sir W m . 
Johnson dated 

Michillim» ac . Aug 1 . 24 th . 1766. 
Dear Sir — 

According to your desire I have made particular enquiry (tho' 
unnoticed by any person) for Major Roger's 2 Conduct since his 
arrival at this Post, and find that nothwithstanding, you, I believe, 
have given him no Orders in regard to the Indians, he publicly 
affirms he has express directions to manage all Indian affairs, and 
in consequence of that has called two Councils of (I believe) 
different Nations, and has distributed several little Presents among 
them, he likewise in his Speech informed them that it was by your 
Order that he then sat in Council with them, at one of these 
Councils I can't find that any other Officer in the Garrison, but 
himself, was present. — 

The Chippaweighs have lately delivered up a bad Belt, al- 
though given up to Major Rogers, was wholly owing to Cadef 
that vigilant Friend of the English, who by Lieu 1 . Williams' 
account was at a great deal of trouble in getting this accomplished, 
and for fear of Jealousies wou'd take none of the merit to him- 
self. — At present we are at a loss to know how far Major 
Rogers Authority extends. for my part I look on him as 

Governor of the Garrison, but at the same time think it the Duty 
of the Troops, if he shou'd be backwards in Issuing Orders for 
the immediate defence of the Garrison, (when it appeared neces- 
sary) to let his Governorship lie dormant in order to acquit our- 
selves with Honour, & for the good of his Majesty's Service. — I 
believe he intends giving leave, and Passes to particular Traders 
to winter with the Indians, this one of them told me ; but whether 
his Authority extends so far, you best know; but if I cou'd take 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 Major Robert Rogers, commandant at Michilimackinac. 

3 Baptiste Cadot. 

162 Sir William Johnson Papers 

the liberty of giving my Opinion, as I find M r . Roberts 4 is ap- 
pointed Indian Commissary to this place, the sooner he arrives, it 
will I believe be much for the Advantage of trade, and Harmony 
with the Savages. — I am Yours &c — 

Rob t . Johnston — 


Copy 1 
Ontario, the 25 th . August 1766 

I just now received your letter of the 20 th . inst. and shall obey 
all the contents as far as in my power lys, as to Clerks &c I am 
afraid the Department will not allow of them. I most therefore 
scrible away myself, but I wish they would allow us something for 
Paper, pens and Ink, and for repairing our quarters. I think the 
People at home could not have chose a more proper Person for 
propagating the Gospel, than one who has been in the east, tho' I 
dare not at present look that way: I agree with you Sir that at 
present it would not look well ; but as there is no Indians come in 
here in winter, I hope it will not be look'd upon as an impropriety 
my being allowed to take one peep at the East in the fall, but you 
may depend on it, that I shall allways act agreeable to your 
desires, if within the reach of my small Capacity. Inclosed I send 
you the coppy of an order, sent here since you left this place. 

•y* •t* *%* *T* *T* 

I wish I knew what ought to be done with any Indian or Squa who 
is guilty of theft, they have stole lately here a Feusil a watch and 
a pair of shoes, he who stole the gun is well known. Pertuis 2 tells 
me the 5 Nations are much displeased at the traders not being 
allowed to go amongst them, they told him they were to come here 
and scold me for it, as they immagin it was me that stopt them : 

4 Lieutenant Benjamin Roberts. 

1 In Oneida Historical Society, Utica, N. Y. The original was 
destroyed by fire. 

2 Louis Perthuis, interpreter. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 163 

if they come as I dare say they will, I shall be at a loss how to act 
with them, as they are resolved to insist upon the Traders going 
with them. I should be very glad to have your advice upon this 
occasion and what I shall say to them if they push me hard. * * * 
Sir W m . Johnson 

Nor d . MacLeod 


[Montreal, August 27, 1766] 
My Dear Sir W m . 

Enclosed You have some long Accounts, 2 I can only say, I 
wish M r . Wade 3 had the furnishing the whole, as I believe the 
Ace 1 , would be the juster, I can only say, it was his own Modesty, 
that prevented him: however I hope all Affairs to the Norther- 
ward will please you: I did all in my power to Strengthen your 
Interest with those Nations, You are not acquainted with, and 
hope it will have the desired Effect, as I regard your power with 
them very much, as I well know the necessity of it — I already 
mention'd Cap 1 . C — ble's 4 Application for to be employed here, 
I hope you took my hints, in regard to the Conections with S l . 
Luke, 5 I fancy his interest is powerfull with M r . Conway, 6 as 
Lady Aylesborough is of the same Name, therefore mention to the 
Lords of Trade, how dangerous such a Connextion would be, 
pardon me, but I know you w d . do the same for me — Cap*. 
Claus has but this moment told me of S r . John 7 going off, there- 

1 In New York Public Library. 

2 Accounts printed in Johnson Papers, 5:364-65. This supplies the 
date for the letter which is undated. 

3 Matthew Wade. 

4 Captain Campbell. See Massy to Johnson, June 29, 1 765, summarized 
in Johnson Calendar, p. 274. 

5 La Corne St. Luc, Luc de Chapt de. 

6 Henry Seymour Conway. 

7 Sir John Johnson. 

164 Sir William Johnson Papers 

fore cannot conclude without Sincerely wishing good Health to 
You and my jolly old Friend Guy, 8 I am 

My Dear Sir William truely Yours 

Eyre Massy 
I am well recoverd of my late Illness, but much torn down, a 
good hunter will not hold out always. 


Lt Co 11 . Masseys letter 

in August ■ — 

Ans' d . 1 h . T». 1 766 


Copy 1 

Philad". August 28, 1 766. 


As We hope 'Ere this, your Honour is returned in good 
Health from your important Journey to Ontario — We do Our- 
selves the Pleasure of acknowledging the Receipt of your very 
kind Favor, of the 1 4 th . of last month ; 2 & heartily thanking you 
for your friendly Promise "That as soon as you returned, you 
would not fail of enclosing Our Accounts to the General & recom- 
mending Them for Payment." 

It is particularly Obliging to us, at this Time, as we never 
knew the want of Cash so much (occasioned by Our great Aven- 
ture to the Illinois, from whence we have not yet received any 
Remittances) & We have long since discharg d . all M r . Croghan's 
Drafts, for the pay of the Indian Department, to the Westward. 

Pardon Sir Our Freedom, in thus, unreservedly, expressing 
Our great want, of the Amount of M r . Croghan's Bill. 

8 Guy Johnson. 

9 In Sir William's hand. 

1 Printed in Illinois Historical Collections, 11:366-68; original in 
New York State Library was destroyed by fire. 

2 Not found. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 165 

Our last Letter from Doctor Franklin, was by the June Packt. 
He writes us thus. 

"I approve much of the Preposal of a strong Colony at the 
Illinois. It is well listned to here; But all affairs, except what im- 
mediately relate to Great Britain are laid aside, until the Season 
of Publick Business comes on & until the Ministry, are a little 
better settled." 

He was to make an Excursion to Germany, On the 14 th . of 
June, in Company with D r . Pringle, Physician to the Queen & 
On his Return, preposed, vigorously, pushing the Illinois Matter. 

Your Honor was so good as to inform us, On the 8 th . of Janu- 
ary last 3 — "That when you was empower'd to treat publickly 
with the Indians, concerning the Boundry — you flattered yourself 
you should be enabled to procure an advantageous Grant as a 
Reimbursment for the traders Losses" — May we therefore 
presume to ask — Whether you have yet received Orders, to pur- 
chase that Boundry 4 & if you have not — That you will be 
pleased to inform us, when you do. 

We are afraid we are troublesome, upon this Subject; — But 
we trust, as it is significantly interesting, to us — It will plead an 
Excuse, for Us. 

No Doubt your Honor has had Letters from M r . Croghan & 
That He acquainted you — He had requested Our Partner M r . 
Morgan, 5 to send a small Cargo of Goods, to lower Shawanese 

We were much distress'd, When we first received this Informa- 
tion, least Governor Penn might construe it, as a Violation of his 
Permission of Trade ; — We therefore, instantly wrote to his 
Excellency the General, respecting it, For fear some ill natured 
people, might give a false & unfriendly Colouring to it. 

3 Not found. 

4 Refers to the Indian boundary line, which was not run until 1 768, 
when the Treaty of Fort Stanwix was negotiated. 

5 George Morgan. 

166 Sir William Johnson Papers 

M r . Morgan writes us, That M r . Croghan was quite worried by 
the Indians, to gratify Them with this Trade. — But it is Super- 
fluous for us, To dwell upon a Subject, which no Doubt your 
Honor is fully acquainted with. M r . 6 wrote to us & 
requested, That we would permit Him to draw upon us, for the 
half Yearly Pay of Himself — The Interpreter &c at Fort Pitt 
& That we would negociate his Draft, upon your Honor, for the 
same; which we chearfully agreed to, As we imagined, it would 
be serving the Department. We now inclose your Honor his 
Draft in Our Favor, for £ 299/4/0 New York Currency & are 
satisfied you will order us properly reimbursed. 

M r . John Laycock a Silver Smith, brought us some time ago, an 
Account of some Silver W or\ Which He made by Order of M r . 
Croghan to be sent to your Honor ; — Which account He desires 
us to inclose. — He is an honest, good workman. The Box, goes 
by the Stage to your agent at New York. 

We have had no news from M r . Croghan since He left Sciota. 
& Every One here, is impatient for the Result of the negociations 
at Ontario — as They must have been very critical, at a Time, 
when Our Frontier People, so shamefully violated the Peace; 
— But every sensible man, consoles Himself with the Reflexion, 
That the same consummate Knowledge, unparrelel'd Industry & 
Address, which have hitherto averted the impending Storm, — 
will as wisely & successfully do it Now. 

We have the Honor to be Sir With the sincerest Respect & 
Regard Y r . much Obliged & most Obedient Serv ts . 

Baynton Wharton & Morgan 

The Honorable SlR WlLLIAM JOHNSON Bar f . &c &c 

Philadelphia 28 th . Augus 1 . 1 766. 

Mess rs . Baynton Wharton &c 

Acc u . & a Draft on me 

Ans d . 1 6 th . SeptV 

6 Alexander McKee. 

7 See post pp. 1 8 1 -82. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 167 


Extract 1 

Johnson Hall, August 29, J 7 66. 

I returned from Ontario (in better health than I set out) 
the 5 th . inst. after having done everything to my entire satisfac- 
tion with Pondiac and the Western Chiefs, on whose fidelity I 
think I can safely rely, if not counteracted by the indiscretions of 
many of our own people, which are frequently such as would 
defeat the Wisest Measures. 

1 Copy in Oneida Historical Society, Utica, N. Y. The original was 
destroyed by fire. 

Contemporary Copy 1 

[Johnson Hall, Aug. 13-30, 1766] 

Johnson Hall August 13 th . — 

On this day the chiefs of the Mohawks in Council here by 
Abraham their Speaker, told Sir William that when they were 
lately at Oneida the Sachims of that nation expressed their Con- 
cern for the unhappy Situation, which they were told their Fathers, 
that is to say, the upper Mohawks, were now in, owing to the 
White People using every low, and unfair method to deprive 
them of their Lands, and even of their Habitations, and Planting 
Grounds, as one of his chiefs with his Party named Johannis 
passing thro' their Country informed them, and that they were 
determined to seek for shelter, and protection from some of their 
Allies, who, they were certain wou'd assist them, in avenging 
themselves on their faithless Brethren. — They then told Sir W m . 
that they were resolved to go up to Conajohare and endeavor all in 
their power to put a Stop to their Flight, but feard it wou'd be in 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

168 Sir William Johnson Papers 

vain, whilst the White People were allowed to persevere in their 
villainy, unnoticed, nothwithstanding the many fine Promises made 
to them all by S r . W m . in the name of the King at different times, 
which they said they were sorry to see so much disregarded. — 
(This was all occasioned by, & alluded to Ury Klock's 2 be- 

Sir W m . in answer told them, and advised them to go up 
immediately, and try all means to prevent the Conojaheres 
abandoning their Castle, and Country, and desired them to assure 
their [Brethren] 8 friends that he wou'd as soon as the Governor 
arrived here (which was shortly expected) lay their Case before 
him, who he was certain wou'd put a stop to Klock's villainy, 
and do them all the Justice in his power. — this they promised 
to do, and accordingly five of their Chiefs set off the next day for 
Conajohare. — 

Aug 1 . 1 9 th . — Saquarisera chief of the Tuscaroras, his son, an 
Onondaga Indian, with a Shawanese arrived here, the former at 
the Request of his nation, to beg that a trader might be allowed to 
go into their Country with Goods wherewith to purchase Jensang, 4 
of which they had a Plenty, also to order them three Axes, and 
two small Hoes — In answer to which Sir W m . told them the 
unreasonableness of their asking for Traders, as it was contrary 
to the Kings intentions, and their interest, that, however he wou'd 
speak to the Governor concerning it on his arrival here, who he 
doubted not wou'd indulge them therein — then ordered them the 
other Articles. — The Onondaga said that he was sent by the 
Chiefs of his nation then in Council to know when Sir W m . 
wou'd call them to a Meeting in consequence of what had been 
transacted last Year at the general meeting here relative to a 
Boundary between the Ind s . and us, — adding that they were 
surprized at the delaying of its Settlement so long. — 

3 Strings. — 

2 George (Ury) Klock. 

3 Words italicized and in brackets are crossed out in manuscript. 

4 Ginseng. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 169 

M r . Perthuis, 5 and one Portier 6 arrived here this day w ,l \ 
letters from Lieu*. Roberts 7 Commiss>\ Hay 8 and Cap 1 . McLeod. 9 
— the 20 t!l . dispatched them with a letter to Cap 1 . M Leod 
touching the business they came about — agreed with Perthuis to 
Serve in Canada as Interpreter, and here when called upon at 
4/- <P diem from this date. — A Huron Chieftain son of 
Adyughfyannorum with his wife arrived here by the way of Fort 
Pit, from thence thro' the Six Nation Country, w lh . whom Sir 
W m . had a long discourse concerning the present Disposition of 
the Indians in that quarter, as well as of the Twightwees of all 
whom he rec d . very favorable accounts. — Sir W m . dispatched 
the Huron with a Belt, and three Strings to his village at 
Sanduskey consisting as he said of 150 Men acquainting them 
w th . what he had done at Ontario, and desiring them all to pay 
due regard thereto, and not listen to evil Reports, as they had been 
accustomed to do. — 

A Belt 
30 th . — On this day 1 8 of the Mohawks with all their Sachims, 
and Chiefs arrived here to acquaint S r . W m . with their Proceed- 
ings at Conjohare, which they said, they were affraid wou'd 
answer but little Purpose, as the Indians of that Village were 
entirely ruined by the villain Klock, 10 who had quite debauched 
them, and turned their heads, and hearts from the rest of their 
People who still live in their proper Village, and alone & manage 
affairs with them, and the Six Nations, as the others had aban- 
doned them, and their Village, and were become slaves to Klock, 
and his Liquor — Eod die arrived here Lawyer, 11 and three 
others from Scohare to purchase about 3 M Acres of Woodland 
there from the Mohawks, but could not agree about the Price, and 

5 Louis Perthuis. 

6 A French trader. 

7 Lieutenant Benjamin Roberts, commissary at Michilimackinac. 

8 Lieutenant Jehu Hay, commissary at Detroit. 

9 Captain Normand MacLeod, commissary at Fort Ontario (Oswego) . 

10 George (Ury) Klock. 

11 Johannes Lawyer. 

1 70 Sir William Johnson Papers 

departed — the Indians expected they wou'd pay them 50 £ <P 
O. Acres. — Septem r . the 14 th . 12 On this day arrived here a 
Cayuga named Erah Roakare with 34 from Chughnot 13 request- 
ing Ammunition from S r . W m . & complaining of one Ury 
Weaver, who they said cheated them in trade most grossly, and 
begged redress. Sir W m . gave them the best advice in his power, 
also some Goods, & Ammunition & discharged them. — 


Johnson Hall 7K 8 ih . 1766 
Gentlemen — 

The Bearer hereof is Widdow to the Indian who was murdered 
last Spring in your parts, and goes now with two of her Brothers 
in Search of the Gun &ca. which belonged to the deceased, and 
which, I doubt not, but You will be good enough to procure for 
her, and if You were to make her a present of Something hand- 
some, it would remove from her, & her freinds remembrance any 
Malice or resentment, and appear well to y*. Nation he belonged 
to, namely the Oneidaes. This I recommend to You as the most 
necessarry Step can be taken to remove the 111 impressions which 
that unhappy affair has occasioned. — 

I am Gentlemen 
Y r . Welwisher 

& Humble Servant 

W. Johnson 
To the Magistrates 
of Minissink 

12 This entry is out of chronological order at this point, but so appears 
in the copy. 

13 An Indian village on the Susquehanna River. 

1 In collection of Dr. Joseph E. Fields, Joliet, 111. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 171 


Copy 1 

[September 8, 1766] 

Know all Men by these Presents, that I the Subscriber have 
this day, Sold, yielded, quitted, ceded, transported and made 
Over from henceforth and forever, with warrant to free from any 
trouble or hindrance generally whatsoever, unto Edw d . Cole 
Esquire Commissary for Indian Affairs at the Ilinois, and to his 
Successors in the said Office, on Account and for the use of the 
Government, A House, situated in the Main Street, near the 
Church in Chartres Village, in the Ilinois, late in the Occupation 
of Mons r . La Cled, with the Outhouses, Land, and all the appur- 
tenances thereunto belonging, as they now stand, for and in con- 
sideration of the Sum of Six hundred Dollars. Which I have this 
day Received from him, and do allow that he, & his successors do 
possess the same, for the Service aforesaid, and have delivered to 
him all original papers relative thereto, And I bind myself, my 
Heirs, Executors, Administrators, & Assigns, unto the said Edw d . 
Cole Esq r . & his Successors as aforesaid firmly by these Presents, 
Sealed with my Seal this Eighth day of September, in the Sixth 
Year of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord George the third by the 
Grace of God of Great Britain France & Ireland King defender 
of the faith &c. and in the Year of Christ : 1 766. 

Tho s . Smallman 
Signed Sealed and delivered in the 
presence of 

Jn° Reed Col 

L*. D. 34 Regim'. 
Thos Ford. 

A True Copy Jn°. Reed Col. 
L*. 0. 34 Regim*. 


Deed Tho s . Smallman to Edw d . Cole N° 1 5 

1 Printed in Illinois Historical Collections, 11:372; original in New 
York State Library, Johnson manuscripts, was destroyed by fire. 

172 Sir William Johnson Papers 


D. 1 

[Isle a la Mote, Sept 8-9,1 766] 

hood and we beg by this Belt of Wampum [ f that you 

will be pleased to support wh[at] His Majy. was graciously 
[Intent was towardf pleased to reserve to us And give Us your 
Opinion & answer upon what we now have laid before you. 

a Belt of Wampum 

Breth n . 

What we have been speaking of to you concerning the Lands & 
Lake in Question was only of latter Times & since the Europeans 
have come amongst us ; As to the original Owners [of] thereof any 
one that knows the history of this Country before that period will 
[find] testify it to have been then y e . undisputed Right of the 6 
Nations & their Allies & was chiefly occupied in the hunting 
Seasons by the Antient Mohawks whose Descendants we are, 
And our Forefathers going to hunt [ing] mostly in this Neighbour- 
hood was one of the principal Reasons for our Settling upon the 
River S'. Lawrence near Montreal, Since whenever they killed 
any Game nearest that market they brought it there, and being 
well rec d . & flattered by the french (on the Contrary were 
slighted by the Dutch who then possessed the Prov e . of N York) 
families after families settled & remained in Canada w ch . oc- 
casioned the Establishment of what to this day is called the french 
Mohawks & our present habitation. 

As to the first Building & Settlem'. made upon this [ 
it is known to be Crown point w cl \ our Middle aged Men all well 
remember when begun, And the five Nations hearing of it, im- 
mediately remonstrated against it to the French Gov r ., who telling 
them it was only to guard his Country [/rom] against a sudden 
Attack [&);] from the English [&] prevailed upon them to let him 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 9. This is a fragment 
of a document, the first part of which is missing. 

2 Portion crossed out and illegible. 

3 Words italicized and in brackets are crossed out in the manuscript. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 173 

finish it w ch . they consented to upon Condition that no other 
Settlement should be made upon it hereafter w ch . he readily 
[agreed to] promised, & engaged to observe at that Interview. — 

The Misisqui Ind ns . spo^e 
Breth n . 

We are going to finish with a Remonstrance something similar 
but if possible more urging than the foregoing. We the Misisqui 
Ind ns . of the Abinaquis or S f . Johns Tribe have inhabited that 
part of Lake Champlain time unknown to any of Us here present 
without being molested or any ones claiming any Right to it to 
our Knowledge, [nor] Except ab l . 1 8 Years ago the French Gov r . 
& Intend', came there & viewed a Spot [then] convenient for a 
Saw mill to facilitate the building of Vessells & Batteaux [for 
these Lafyes] at S f . Johns as well as for building of ships at 
Quebec and on the Occasion convened our People to ask their 
Approbation, when accordingly they consented & marked out a 
Spot large enough for that purpose for the cutting of Saw Timber 
ab'. J/2 League square, with the Condition to have what Boards 
they wanted for their own use, gratis, but on the Commencement 
of last War, said Mill was deserted and the Ironwork buried, 
after which [they the Ind ns .] we expected that every thing of the 
kind hereafter would subside, but no sooner was the peace made 
than some English people came there to rebuild the Mill, and now 
claim 3 Leagues in breath & we dont know how many deep w ch . 
would take in our Village & plantations by far. we therefore 
request by this Belt of Wampum that to whatever Governm 1 . 
it may belong, the Aff r . may be inquired into that we may obtain 
Justice it being a Matter of great Concern to Us. We likewise beg 
there maynt any Traders be allowed to bring spiritous Liquors 
amongst us, the selling of which being so prejudicial & detrimental 
to us, if we want to purchase any we are not far from Montreal 

[ Y 

Sept r . 8 th . — The Sloop Mas [ ] has hove in Sight at the 

Isle la Mote. 

4 Illegible due to patching of manuscript. 

1 74 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I waited upon Gov r . Moore 5 and acquaint^, him with the Ind ns . 
Errand & deliv d . him what they had to say in writing & he ap- 
pointed them to come in the Morns, to deliver their Speech. 
9 th . — Went with the Ind ns . they were kindly rece d . and delivered 
the above speech 


Ind ns . Speech 
to the Governours 
of N. York & Quebec 
delivered on Isle a la 
Mote in Lake Cham 
plain 9 th . Sept r . 1 766. 


Ontario the 9 th . September 1766 


Last night arrived here a Chief of the Conasedagas Call'd 
Ca-run-da-che, who told me there are certainly upwards of an 
hundred Orondacks 2 in Arms and that we ought to be on our 
guard, the reason they give for commencing hostilitys is that the 
Traders are not allowed to go among the Indians as formerly, The 
Conasedagas 3 gave them two belts of Wampom one of 1 1 and 
one of 9 strings to prevent their coming out but they return'd them 
with scorn, the Conasedagas told them they promis'd you to 
Oppose any Nation that would Commit any hostilitys on the 

5 Sir Henry Moore, governor of New York, 1 765-69. 

1 In Oneida Historical Society, Utica, N. Y. The original was 
destroyed by fire. 

2 Adirondacks. According to W. M. Beauchamp, History of the New 
York Iroquois, p. 1 38, this was another name for Algonquins. 

3 Canaseraga Senecas. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 175 

English, the Orondacks did not mind them but set of that same 
night, he is not certain where the will begin first he says perhaps 
they are gone up the Ottawa River. They are Commanded he 
says by two very brave Indians, their greatest man is Call'd 
Ra-hun-ra-wits, their second Ran-ho-tos, we are a little on our 
guard here. I wanted much that the Conasedaga Chief would go 
to your House, as he was present and gave himself one of the 
Above belts of Wampom he might have been more particular 
than I can in a letter, but he refus'd. he is gone amongst the 
Onondagas with some gunpowder for their Warriors who are to 
go against the Cherakees 

I have wrote to Mr. Roberts 4 Concerning the Orondacks. Since 
writing the above I am inform'd it's not the Orondacks but the 
Ske-qua-necks a Nation who lives with them that are gone to 
war, they are gone up the Ottawa River and expect to be joined 
by some of the Nations that way and then Come on the Carrying 
place at Niagara. 

The old Chief was a little drunk when he gave the first 
Intelligence, but is this Morning sober; and thinks there is no 
danger here, at least not untill they pass Niagara, what they may 
do then he knows not. the Bearer was to have left this yesterday, 
but got Drunk 1 1 th . September 

The Barrack Master says he is to give no fire wood to the 
Interpreter without he lives in a barrack room with the Soldiers, 
the smith he says is not allowed any wood at all they allow the 
Commissarys one Room and half a Coard of wood per week dur- 
ing the winter, the same allowance with other Rooms. The 
Indians and they most sit at the same fire if there's no other 
allowance made. * * * 
Sir W m . Johnson 

Nor d . MacLeod 

4 Benjamin Roberts, commissary for Indian affairs at Niagara. 

1 76 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Copy 1 

Fort Chartres, Sept. 10th, J 766. 

After a long & fatiguing Passage from Sioto, (from which 
place I wrote your Honour last) we arrived here the 20th of 
August, where I found the Several Nations of Indians residing in 
this Country was Collected together at the Kaskaskias, a large 
Indian Village near , a French Town. After deliver- 
ing my dispatches to Colonel Reed 2 & consulting with him about 
the Conference to be held with the Indians, I set out for the 
Kaskaskias & had a meeting with the several Nations, where the 
Deputys of the Six Nations, Shawanese, Dellaweres, & Hurons, 
delivered the Speeches sent by them from their Nations to those 
Nations, in a very Spirited Manner. 

And in the afternoon the Several Nations Returned those 
Deputys answers to their Speeches ; after which I fixed a day for 
them to assemble at Fort Chartres in Order to hold the Con- 

The Conference begun at Fort Chartres the 25th of Augt, 
where was Assembled the Chiefs & principle Warriors of Eight 
Nations, divided into Twenty-two tribes or bands, which made it 
very deficult to do business with them; however, after two days 
meeting with them, we finished the business to the Satisfaction 
of the Several Nations, who all seemed Convinced that the French 
had imposed upon them in every thing they had told them. A 
General Peace & Reconciliation was then declared in Public 
between his Majesty's Subjects, the Northern Nations, & all 
those Western Nations, except three Tribes which the French 
had influence enough to keep back from attending the Conference. 
But those, the Chiefs which attended the Conference brought them 
to me at Fort Chartres the 5th of this Month, when I settled every 

1 Printed in C. A. Hanna, The Wilderness Trail, 2:49-51; and in 
Illinois Historical Collections, 1 1 : 3 73-74. 

2 Colonel John Reed of the 34th regiment. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 177 

thing with them, & Received them into the Covenant Chain of 
friendship; The spirited Conduct & Steadiness of the Deputys of 
the Nations that attended me from Fort Pitt was of great service 
to bring about this General union, as those Nations in this 
Country stand in great Awe of the Northern Nations. 

At present, Indian Affairs ware a different Face in this 
Country, & the Indians seem quite reconciled to the English, & 
the French in their turn begin to fear the Consequences, since 
the Conference. The Indians has brought in all the Horses they 
had formerly stolen from the Garrison, & I flatter my self, with 
a little good Usage, they will soon become a very quiet & 
Peacable People, as they are Naturally well disposed, had not 
the French influenced them to mischief. 

The unavoidable Necessaty I was under of making a Present 
to the Indians that met me at Sioto has obliged Col 1 . Reed & my 
self to purchase a Quantity of Presents here, & to accrue some 
other expences for maintaining the Indians, as they could not be 
supported by the Garrison without distressing the Troops, which 
will greatly increase the expence of my Journey, more than I cod. 
Wish, or indeed could have expected, But here has been above 
One Thousand Indian Men, besides Women & Children, & there 
was an absolute necessaty of Convincing them at this time that the 
English were as able to Support them as the French, which I 
think they are, & I can assure your Honour that the greatest 
frugallity has been observed. Coll. Reed has given me all the 
assistance in his power, but has been very ill, as is all the Garri- 
son; there is not above three Officers fit for Duty & about 50 Men. 

I have been so ill this fortnight past that I have not been able 
to write, or would have sent your Honour a Coppy of my Trans- 
actions with those Nations. As I am so Reduced with Sickness, 
I shall be obliged to go round by New Orleans, as I'm not able to 
ride aCross the Country to Fort Pitt. 

I am, with great respect, your 

Honour's most obedient & most 
Humble Servant 
To the Honourable GEO: CROGHAN 

Sir William Johnson, Baronet. 

1 78 Sir William Johnson Papers 


A.L.S. 1 

London, Sept. 12, 1766. 

I am honoured with yours of the 10 th . of July, 2 just come to 
hand, with that for M r . Secretary Conway 3 under a flying Seal, 
which I have clos'd and forwarded. He is now in another Depart- 
ment, but it will go of course to Lord Shelbourne, 4 who I think is 
rather more favourably dispos'd towards such Undertakings. 

I have long been of Opinion that a well-conducted western 
Colony, if it could be settled with the Approbation of the Indians, 
would be of great National Advantage with respect to the Trade, 
and particularly useful to the old Colonies as a Security to their 
Frontiers. I am glad to find that you, whose Knowledge of Indian 
Affairs and the Temper of those People far exceeds mine, enter- 
tain the same Sentiments, and think such an Establishment in the 
Ilinois Country practicable. I shall not fail to use my best 
Endeavours here in promoting it, and obtaining for that purpose 
the necessary Grants; and I am happy that this Occasion intro- 
duces me to the Correspondence of a Gentleman whose Character 
I have long esteemed, and to whom America is so much obliged. 

It grieves me to hear that our Frontier People are yet greater 
Barbarians than the Indians, and continue to murder them in time 
of Peace. I hope your Negociations will prevent a new War, 
which those Murders give great Reason to apprehend; and that 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Gratz Collection. 

2 Ante p. 140. 

3 See Johnson to Conway, July 10, 1766, Johnson Papers, 5:319-20. 

4 The Chatham ministry came into power in July, 1 766. Lord Shel- 
burne, who was appointed secretary of state for the southern department, 
proved friendly toward the colonial scheme. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 179 

the several Governments will find some Method of preventing such 
horrid Outrages for the future. 

With sincere & great Regard, I have the Honour to be, 


Your most obedient 
& most humble Servant 

B. Franklin 


London Septb. 12 th . 1766 

Benjm n . Franklin Esq rs . 
Letter — 


Johnson HaM*. 16*. 1766 — 
Dear Sir — 

I have been prevented from writing by a dangerous fitt of my 
old Disorder with which I was attacked since the receipt of your 
favour of y e . 1 8 th . Ult°. 2 with the enclosures. 3 — I am perfectly 
of your Opinion concerning the ill consequences of Suffering the 
Regulations to be in any Instance broke thro. I have wrote to these 
Gentlemen accordingly, nothing is more hurtfull to the Service, or 
tends more to the prejudice of the character of the English in the 
Eyes of the Indians, than the Traders going where and acting as 
they please, and the Steps taken by each of them to Villify his 
Neighbour for the sake of Trade, this mean practice is neverthe- 
less almost universal. 

5 In Sir William's hand. 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Johnson Papers, 5:346. 

3 Croghan's letter of July 6, and that of Baynton, Wharton and 
Morgan, of August 1 0, printed ante pp. 1 54-55. 

180 Sir William Johnson Papers 

The Medalls answer better than the last, those Nations think a 
great deal of such badges and consider them as Memento's of 
their Alliance with those who gave them. — 

M r . Adems 4 is Just returned with y e . Cash and a letter from 
M r . Maturin 5 enclosing Receipts which I now return him signed, 
as also two Receipts transmitted to me before thro M r . Darling- 
ton. 6 I enclose You herewith Extracts containing everry thing 
Material transacted at the Congress with Pondiac, &ca, and I 
hope You will excuse me for not having sent it sooner. 

I have Just received a letter from the Lords of Trade, which 
among other things regards a late application of the Canada 
Merchants, on which they desire my Sentiments I find these 
People do everry thing they can to carry their favorite point, I 
shall give my thoughts verry freely thereon. Their Lordships ex- 
pect to do something in the Affair of the Department by next 
Pacquet, & direct me to enquire into these Affairs, & use my 
Authority to redress any Greiviance which the free Commerce 
of his Majestys Subjects in that District may labour under. — 
I am sorry to say I cannot find where my Authority lies, as I am 
able to do Nothing. I must recommend to your thoughts the 
Irregularity with which this trade is now conducted, Some Gov- 
ernours giving passes to go any where, & others granting none at 
all, I know no method to prevent this, till things are settled at 
Home, but by your Authority, Directing the Officers at the Posts 
to admit no Traders without passes wherein their place of Trade 
is particularly expressed, to be at some certain Post, if y e . Traders 
are apprised of this, in a public manner, they will then take out 
Licences regularly. — As to the complaints of y e . Canada 
Traders, & their asserting that the Furrs get to the French by y e . 
restrictions it is an idle story, and the contrary is y e . case, as I 
could sufficiently demonstrate. — 

4 Robert Adems. 

5 Gabriel Maturin. 

6 William Darlington. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 181 

Mess rs . Baynton Wharton & Morgan are verry pressing for 
the payment of M r . Croghans Draft on me w h . was presented to 
me when going to Ontario, the amount of it is, Two thousand 
three Hundred & twenty one Pounds Nine Shillings & Eight 
pence New York Currency, which I should be glad was dis- 
charged. — 

I am with the utmost respect & Sincerity 

Dear Sir 
Y our most Obedient 

& verry Humble Servant 

W Johnson 
His Excellency 
General Gage 


S r . W m . Johnson 

Sep*. 1 6 .h. 1 766 

Inclosing Copy of a Congress 

held at Niagara 

received Oct r . 3 d — 

Answ d — 


Copy 1 

Johnson-Hall Sepf. 16 th . 1766 

His Excell c y. Gen 1 . Gage has communicated to me your Letter 
of the 1 th . ult°. 2 together with that of M r . Croghan on the same 
Subject, and informed me with his having referred you for an 
Answer to me, as he does not approve of sending Goods to any 
Villages or places where they are not under proper Inspection. 

1 Printed in Illinois Historical Collections, 1 1 :377-78; original in New 
York State Library was destroyed by fire. 

2 Ante pp. 154-55. 

182 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I know there may arise particular Circumstances wherein this 
prohibition might possibly be taken off, but as it is not only con- 
trary to the General plan, but also to the General Security of the 
public, it is Extremely improper to break thro' the Regulations in 
any instance, as it affords Cause to others to Expect and demand 
the Like indulgence which would be defeating the intentions of 
Government and give rise to Greater complaints from the Indians 
& fresh disturbances; for altho' some Indians may now and then 
Complain of the Want of Traders in their Country we should soon 
have them all complaining for the gratificat n . of a few ; — M r . 
Croghan I suppose thought it necessary at his Setting out, but I 
cannot think it should be permitted Any Longer, & therefore the 
Sooner The person you sent returns the better. 

I have also received your last Letters & have transmitted Your 
acco ts . to the General as I promised, & shall also send the other 
drafts received with my next acco ts . as Soon as it becomes due — 
I have Just rec d . a Letter from the Lords of Trade informing me 
amongst other things that they hope shortly to Settle the Affairs of 
the Departm 1 . but have rec d . no orders concerning the boundary, 
When I do I shall not forget my promise. 

I have had the pleasure of Settling matters with Pondiac and 
the Western Chiefs much to my satisfaction and beyond my ex- 
pectations as they were greatly discontented on hearing the com- 
plaints of those Nations whose people had been killed by our 
frontier Inhabitants, and unless such doings are effectually pre- 
vented for the future I despair of any Success from any endeavors 
for securing the Tranquillity of the Colonies. 
Mess rs . BAYNTON &ca. 


Sept r . 1 6th 1 766. To Mess rs . Baynton, and Wharton &c 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 183 

L.S. 1 
Johnson-hall. Sepf. J6 lh . 1766 — 


I have but Just time to tell you that the Bearer is Margaret — 
the Wife of Daniel a Mohock Indian who haying used her Very 
ill & Cohabited with a near Relation, she is under a necessity or 
retiring from his Resentment for a time, & is desirous of making 
your house her Assylum, the rather as she has a Young Relation 
under your Care at present. — 

I enclose you two Letters which came lately to my house in the 
Condition you will find them and I am 


Your well wisher 
and humble Servant 

W. Johnson 
The Rev d . 

M R . Wheelock 

1 In Dartmouth College Library. In Guy Johnson's hand. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

[Johnson Hall, Sept. 5-19, 1766] 

Sep r . 5 th . — On this day I 7 Indians of Conjohare from Orisca 2 
arrived here to acquaint Sir W m . of their design of going against 
the Cherokees in a few days, then informed him what steps Ury 
Klock had taken to get them to Sign a Deed for some Land 
between the Castle, or Fort Hendrick, 3 and P. Schuylers 4 land 
where the Division line was run between them, and the Patentees, 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 Oriskany. 

3 At Canajoharie. 

4 Philip Schuyler. 

184 Sir William Johnson Papers 

— that he gave each man a Dollar for signing it — next, that he 
(Ury Klock) had been since last Spring tampering with, and 
tempting the Indians to sell him lands included in the Deed of 
Gift executed by them to Sir W m . six years ago altho' he had 
been well acquainted with the affair — that he Sends for, and 
holds meetings with the Indians whenever he chuses, and has pre- 
vented their Attendance when called upon by Sir W ra . on 
matters of Importance sundry times, to the Prejudice of the 
Service, and tells them, as they mention, many very improper 
things tending to hurt his Majesty's Indian interest. — This and 
a great deal more they told Sir W m . — who gave them Ammuni- 
tion, Paint, Cash, Liquor &c — & then parted — 
1 4th — Diaquande chief Warrior and Sachim of Onondaga, with 
two more arrived here this day, and acquainted Sir W m . that his 
Nephew had lain very ill, and was still very bad, and that some 
of their People dreamed that he Diaquande shou'd go to Sir 
W m ., and demand a large Keg of Rum, ab l . 10 Gallons w ch . he 
was to divide at a meeting among the old, and young of that nation 
in order to recover the sick man, — with a Belt he assured Sir 
W m ., that in case his Nephew died he wou'd not neglect the 
affairs of his nation, as some did on the like occasions. — 

A Belt. 

Then with a String of Wampum acquainted Sir W m . that 
Onughranorum a friend of his & another (Sarrehoana) were 
made Sachims lately in the room of another deceased, and that he 
was sorry to say they were very careless, and neglectful of the 
charge committed to them, therefore begged he wou'd take them 
to task about it at the next general meeting, which he doubted not 
wou'd have a good effect. — 

3 Strings — 

Wednesday Septem r . 1 7 th . — a Onondaga arrived here who 
brought Sir W m . a letter from Cap 1 . M c .Leod 5 at Ontario ac- 
quainting him that a Party of Squegh}?anighroones from 
Ganughsadage}) in Canada to the amount of a hundred was gone 

5 Captain Normand MacLeod, commissary at Ontario (Oswego). 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 185 

up the Ottawa River in order to commit hostilities on any of his 
Majesty's Subjects they met with there, or else where, that the 
Sachims of Canada had endeavored to hinder them all in their 
power, but to no purpose, that the reason they assigned for it, was 
that the Traders were not allowed to ramble among them as 
formerly, but Cap 1 . M c .Leod says they have been for a long time 
ill disposed. — Sir W m . wrote by said Indian to Cap*. M c .Leod, 
and gave directions how to act in the affair. 

Septem r . 1 9 th . — On this day eighty Oneidas arrived here to 
meet the Governor, who after waiting 14 days with the greatest 
impatience, did on his arrival here sell two large tracts of their 
Land to the Crown, the one on the North side of the Mohawk 
River above the German Flats to the Bend in the River, about 
two miles above Orisca,^ the other on the South side opposite 
to the other for the greatest part, for both which they were fully 
paid according to agreement, and executed Deeds for the same 
in Presence of the Governor with the unanimous Consent of the 
whole nation. — The Mohawks, and Conjohares did at the same 
time dispose of sundry tracts to Scohare People, and others; 
— and the Conjohares did then, one, and all acknowledge the 
Gift of Lands made to Sir W m . in the year 1 760, and did also 
declare to the Governor (who then had the Deed in his hand 
before them) that they gave him (Sir W m .) from the North 
West Corner of the Patent formerly purchased by Tiddy 
M c .Ginn,' and others on the Bank of Defyayuharontve, or Canada 
Hill, all the Lands contained within a N.58 Degrees West line 
from said Corner to the Canada Creek al. Teughtaghraron at the 
German Flats, and to the Mohawk River. — This was in- 
terpreted to the Governor by Justice John Butler, and approved 
of by him. — The Indians of the several nations then present, 
mentioned many abuses & Injuries suffered by them from their 
white Brethren, in w ch . they desired Redress, and which the 
Governor then promised should be granted them — 

6 Oriskany. 

7 Teady Magin. 

186 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Copy 1 

[September 20, 1766] 

To the Honourable the Committee of Merchants for American 


After three years attending to have our Trade with the Indians 
put upon a Footing, that shoud be for the Advantage of all his 
Majestys subjects; and for the Increase of that branch of Com- 
merce, which if properly conducted must be so very Advantageous, 
and is the support of this Province ; We find nothing has been done 
for the Benefit of Trade, but on the contrary, Regulations have 
been made to confine all the Trade to certain Posts and Forts 
which Posts & Forts now established, never were in the Time of 
the French, look'd upon as Posts for Trade ; but only as stores and 
Magaziens to the Traders, as they went to, & Return'd from their 
Wintering's or Trading Places. Those Regulations We are very 
well assur'd, if pursued, will every year lessen our Trade, and in 
the End render us a most unhappy People. 

We are much affraid that Misrepresentations have been made, 
as well to the Sole Agent and Superintendant of Indian affairs, 
as to the Honble Board of Trade ; who we are well assur'd wou'd 
if they once knew in what manner the Trade should be conducted ; 
and how to make the most for the Advantage of the Mother 
Country, be ready to assist us ; and make such regulations as wou'd 
be for our Mutual Benefit. 

'Tis therefore Gentlemen we lay before you our sentiments on 
that Trade; and have endeavour'd to point out to you, such 
Methods, as we think would be sure to give satisfaction to all the 
Indians; and be productive of every Benefit and advantage the 

1 Printed in Illinois Historical Collections, 1 1 : 3 78-82; original in New 
York State Library was destroyed by fire. Originally in French and 
English, only the English version is copied. Undated in Johnson Calendar, 
p. 296, where it is placed at close of 1 765, it is dated Sept. 20, 1 766, by 
the Lansdowne MSS. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 187 

Trade can require. After your Examination if it shou'd as we 
doubt not it will, meet with your approbation; We request you 
to take it under your Protection, and forward it as you think will 
be most for the Benefit of Trade in General & the Relief of this 
Government in Particular. 

We think that the Trade with the Indians, shou'd be free & 
open to all his Majesty's Subjects without Exception: and that 
no one shou'd avail himself of any Advantage more than another, 
this always has been the Policy of Great Britain and a Liberty 
that every Subject of the Crown has hitherto claim'd. 

We think and are well assur'd unless there is Permission for all 
Persons to Winter with the Indians on their hunting Grounds, that 
the Trade must every \ear diminish. 2 For many Nations of 
Indians, and those too who have always made the greatest con- 
sumption of our British Manufactories; and have brought the 
Largest Quantity of Furrs, and other Peltries to our Market : are 
at so great a distance from any Fort, that it is impossible they 
shou'd supply themselves, and Return again to their Hunting 
Grounds in the same year, Consequently if it was their Determina- 
tion to be supply'd from the English, yet every Second Year of 
their Hunting must be Lost; which would prevent the Consump- 
tion of our British Manufactures: Stop the Current of our Trade: 
Hinder us from making Proper Remitances to our Correspond- 
ents ; and in the End entirely breake the Chain of our Commerce 
(and if the Traders are oblig'd to Winter in the Fort at 
Michelmakinac it wou'd take such a Quantity of Provisions to 
Support them that the expences would be greater than any profits 
arising from the the Trade as every Trader with One Cannoe 

2 "The regulation requiring that the trade be confined to posts was 
favored by the traders of Pennsylvania and New York, particularly by 
those of the latter colony. The traders of Canada, on the other hand, 
favored the custom of the French who followed the Indians to their winter 
quarters and there conducted the trade. The situation in the Old South- 
west was somewhat different, as, there, each Indian commissary resided in 
the principal Indian village of the tribe to which he was assigned." — Note 
from Alvord and Carter, eds., Illinois Historical Collections. 

188 Sir William Johnson Papers 

would be obliged to take one other Loaden with Provisions other- 
wise he Could not carry Goods sufficient to clear Expences & 
make Proper Returns whereas if he has Liberty to go out and 
Winter with the Indians he has no Occassion for any More then 
what will Carry him to his intended Destination where the Indians 
with the Assistance of his own Men will sufficiently Supply him 
through the winter : ) But this is not all ; for to our Mortification, 
we every day see French Traders from the Mississippy, who have 
Permissions to trade with the Indians wherever they have Inclina- 
tion and the Peltries that wou'd, if we had equal Liberty to trade, 
come through this Government are now sent to the Mississippy & 
go to France, from whence they have French Manufactures in 
Return we are well assured great Quantitys pass'd that way 

Last year, which we apprehend is the Reason why Peltries in 
England are so much Lower'd in their Value, And as Long as we 
are restricted in our Trade, the French, from the Mississippy by 
having freer access than we have, will always have it in their 
Power to carrey the Trade from us to the great detrement of our 
Manufactures, in Great Britain, and the utter Ruin of this our 
Province of Quebec. 

We will Shew you Likewise that we think it bad Policy to 
restrict us in our Trade with the Indians on another Account. 

It is well known that the support of an Indian and his whole 
Family is his Fusee, now if any Indian Family who perhaps 
winters at the distance of Five or Six hundred Miles from one of 
these Establish'd Forts shou'd by any Misfortune either Breake 
his Fusee, or the Least Screw of his Lock be out of order or want 
Ammunition ; where could that Indian Family be supported from ? 
or how get their sustenance? they must either perish with 
hungar, or at Least Loose their Hunting for that year, which will 
be so much Peltries diminish'd from the Publick quantity, and 
unless that Family is relev'd, by some Persons in the Fort giving 
them Credit, the Ensuing year, they will not be able to return to 
their Hunting Ground : and so be Lost for ever. 

Those Persons who have never had Commerce with the Indians, 
may think that any Indian coming from so great a distance, though 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 189 

he should not have it in his Power to return to his own Hunting 
Ground yet may always get his Living by hunting on his way ; but 
those who have been acquainted with them, know the Indians are 
so tenacious of their Property ; and jealous of other Nations ; that 
they will not suffer them in passing through their Lands to Hunt 
for their support ; Therefore those Nations at the greatest distance 
will never be able to Come to the Posts establish'd. 

"It has been thought that a free trade with the Indians wou'd 
be detremental, and that Confining the Trade to the Posts estab- 
lish'd wou'd prevent many disturbances that may arise;" 

But on the Contrary we are well assur'd that a Free Trade 
with the Indians, and Persons sent to Winter amongst them, as has 
been their Custom will not only Prevent any disturbances, but will 
Likewise increase the Consumption of our Manufactures, and save 
an immense expence to the Crown ; For it Cannot be suppos'd, that 
Indians, if it was possible they Cou'd come from so great a 
distance, can bring with them sufficient quantity of Provisions to 
support them on so Long a Voyage; Therefore the Crown must 
relieve them & furnish what is Necessary otherwise they will be 
murmuring & discontented. 

Without the Indians have Credit given them; 'tis impossible to 
carry on a Trade to advantage ; and when we are on the Spott to 
Winter with them, we have always an oppertunity of knowing 
their dispositions: pressing them to exert their diligence and are 
ready in the spring to Receive what is due. 

'The Province of New-York desire the trade, may be confin'd 
to the Forts, for say they, the People in Canada having a better 
Navigation than we have; if they are permitted can send among 
the Indians & Carry most of the Peltries through the Province of 
Quebec." Such Reasoning surely ought not to affect the Trade; 
for supposing that to be Really the Case; where is the difference 
to Great Britain, whether the Peltries go through the Hudsons 
River, or through the River S'. Lawrence as Long as it centers in 
England: and the Manufactures of Great Britain are taken in 

But we have already shewn, and here mention it again, if the 

190 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Trade is Confin'd to the Forts, the greater Part will be Lost to 
England; by going to France through the Mississippy. 

"Another Objection is, that Traders having Liberty to Winter 
among the Indians may Occassion a Warr; owing to the British 
Government being resolved to Protect its subjects, from any 
Insults and outrages of the Indians ; and if Traders go among them 
there may every Year be some of the Traders either Robb'd or 

This Objection at first sight seems to have some Foundation 
but upon nearer Examination, it will not be Sufficient to restrict 
us in our Trade : for Whenever any Robbrys are Committed ; by 
a Proper Application to the First Agent for Indian affairs, he will 
undoubtedly order that Nation to make Restitution to the Person 
Robb'd : or refuse any more Traders to Winter with that Nation 
so offending ; to prevent Thifts is impossible ; For we every day see 
among our own People, just in the Heart of a Civilized Country 
many more R[o]bberies committed than can be brought to Justice : 
And the Indians tho their minds are uncultivated ; and have noth- 
ing but the Law of nature to govern them, act upon Principles of 
honesty with each other ; Whenever they have been guilty of any 
Violation of the Law of Honesty it has been in general, from the 
Persuasions of some Person or other, who calls himself a Christian 
and has done it through a View of Interest ; But you may further 
Examine, & find that when you consider the extent of Country; 
the Number of different Nations you pass through; and the 
Quantity of People you have to deal with ; there are not so many 
Robbries Committed in Proportion as are amongst Civilized 

Thus have we Endeavoured to Convince you that the Trade 
being so Restricted will not only be detremental to this Collony 
in Particular; but the whole Trade in General; both in England 
as well as America; and that by having it open & unconfin'd it 
will be greatly augmented. 

Therefore we Recommend it to you Gentlemen, and doubt not 
under your Protection it will be graciously Received and Procure 
Redress for 


Indian Affairs, 1766-68 191 

A.L.S. 1 

Johnson Hall 7K 22*. 1766 
Dear Banyar — 

I am favoured with yours of the 25 th . Ult°. 2 & the enclosures, 
for w h . I return You many thanks 

It surprises me to find the Lotts You describe in the Sacondaga 
Patent (belonging to Major Clarke) 3 so vastly different from 
these I see in the Map or Survey which the Pattentees living in 
Albany have of that Tract. — 

By the Survey which they have, Cap*. Clarke 4 has the Number 
of Lotts mentioned in y e . enclosed paper, 5 which, if upon a Stricter 
examination, it should appear that he has the Number of Lotts, & 
quantity of Land mentioned in the enclosed, I will in that case 
give a thousand Pound Currcy. for the Whole, altho there is a 
great part of it a Pine Sandy barren. — 

His Lotts in Northampton Patent as You described them, are 
right, I have a Share therin, which I bought Several Years ago 
from Arent Stevens for £ 1 1 3 — for which reason, I will make 
You an offer of £ 500 Curr c y. for his right therein, or I will sell 
mine to him, or to You at that price. — I cant understand what is 
meant by that part of y r . letter, where You say "You have en- 
closed an Acct of the Lotts belonging to Major Clark both in 
Sacandaga, and in two other Tracts adjoining that, one of 6000, 
the other of 5000 Acres his Interest in both amounts to 4791 
Acres" I know of no such Pattents in that part of the Country. 
— Sacondaga Pattent is counted 28 thousand Acres, Northamp- 
ton is between 1 1 & 1 2 thousand Acres, & Excepting Kayada- 
russeras, them are y e . only Pattents thereabouts. — I shall be glad 
to have your Answer on y e . whole as soon as You can, My 

1 In New York Historical Society, Banyar Papers. 

2 Not found. 

3 Major Edward Clarke, son of Edward Clarke. 

4 Captain Edward Clarke. 

5 Post p. 193. 

192 Sir William Johnson Papers 

reason for it, is, that in case you should not approve of my offer, 
(w h . I can hardly doubt) I would make a purchase of a Tract of 
Land along the Mohawk River partly clear & Settled, w h . I can- 
not do in case I buy the other. — so much for Land Affairs. 

The Governour 6 is not yet returned from Lake Champlain. 
People who wait his coming here, are out of all Patience, what 
will be done when he does come I know not. Some People have 
been treating w th . y e . Ind s . for Land, w h . they expect to have 
settled, or confirmed on his Arrival. The Ind s . are grown so 
cunning, & tenacious of their property, y f . in short it is verry diffi- 
cult to get Land from them without paying too much for it. — for 
example the Mohawks lately in my presence, asked £50 <P O. 
Acres for poor Stoney Land near Scohare, of some of y e . 
Germans, who wanted an Addition to their Lotts. — If you have 
any news there be so good to communicate it. we have none here 
of moment. 

I sincerely wish you all happiness, and 

am Y rs . Aff^. 

W Johnson 
Golds Borow Banyar Esq r . — 

P.S. I will be oblidged to You for the Boundaries of y e . first 
Pattent granted to y e . Germans where they live at y e . German 
Flatts. — 


22 d . Sep'. 1 766 

From Sir W m . Johnson — 

6 Sir Harry Moore. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 193 


A.D. 1 

[September 22, 1766] 

Capt n . Edward Clarks Lotts in Sacondaga Patent as described 
in the Survey now in the possession of the Pattentees at Albany. 
— Viz*. 

No. 1 — 2 — 4 — half of N°. 6, with Harry Holland 9 — 
half of 23 with D°. — 27 — 29 — half of 35 with D°. — 43 — 
44 _ half of 50 with D°. — 58 — 66 — half of 68 w ,h . D°. 
half of 73 w*. D°. — 77 — 84 — 

NB. If Kayadarusseras Patent Stands, it will take away the 
greatest part, if not the whole of the 2 Tracts wherin Major 
Clarke is concerned — 

1 In New York Historical Society, Banyar Papers. Inclosed in Sir 
William's letter of September 22, 1 766. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Copy of a Letter from Major Rob 1 . Rogers Command 1 , of 
Michillmac ac . dated 

Septem r . 23 d . 1766. — 

Sir — 

I Yesterday received your letter from Ontario of the 25*. of 
July, 2 and likewise the letter you mention to have forwarded to 
me, for which Favors I am obliged to you, and at the same time 
congratulate you that the Treaty with M r . Pondiac &c has ended 
so much to your satisfaction, certain I am that this Treaty has 
prevented an Indian War — the Powtawatamies of S l . Joseph 
were the most uneasy of any, — but as you have released those 
confined at Detroit, I trust their uneasiness will in a great measure 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 Not found. 

194 Sir William Johnson Papers 


subside. The Indians hereabouts have mostly all visited me, and 
it gives me no small Concern that I have been under an unavoid- 
able necessity of giving them so much, but really I have not given 
them a sixpence, but what I judged (and the Officers here con- 
cerned with me) absolutely requisite for the good of the Service, 
for which reason I doubt not you will excuse the largness of the 
account which is now forwarded to you by M r . Groesbeck 3 the 
Person I had the Goods from certified by the Officers. — the 
Indians are mostly gone to their Wintering in good temper, and 
well satisfied, — the last are now w th . me, and will likewise 
soon depart, after which I trust there will be very little, if any 
fresh expence 'till next Spring — and I think you may rest as- 
sured that no mischief will be done by them this Season — 
There are however Belts coming daily among them from the 
Spaniards, some of which are delivered to me, and as I have in 
your name demanded them all, I have their Promise of bringing 
in others. — but doubtless you will be better informed of Indian 
Affairs at S l . Joseph's by M r . Croghan. — I once more beg 
leave to mention that an uneasiness too visible in the Indians who 
have visited me, is the sole Occasion of the accounts being swelled 
to such a pitch, and that the Occasion has been such that I have 
been rather sparing than lavish in my Donations, as the numbers 
that have resorted to me have been very great 

I have a peaceable Garrison, and a good understanding with 
the Indians, and I am daily more and more delighted with this 
Country, and M rs . Rogers is quite reconciled to it — I beg for 
the continuance of your good Offices to me at home, and that I 
may be — Your most Obed*. &c — 


Rob t . Rogers — 

p.S. — M r . M c Gill a Deputy of M r . Grant's 4 whom I men- 
tioned to you fully in a letter sent by Lieu 1 . Williams is now gone 

3 Stephen Groesbeck. 

4 William Grant. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 195 

to the Baye 5 with six Canoes more, and upwards of twenty men 
— I shou'd be glad of your answer to my letter by M r . Williams 
concerning them — 



Contemporary Copy 1 

[Johnson Hall, Sept. 24, 1766] 

Copy of Commission and Instructions to Major Gorham ap- 
pointed Depy. Agent of Indian Affairs in Nova Scotia. — 

By Sir William Johnson Bar 1 , sole Ag*. & Superintend 1 , of 
Indian affairs for the Northern Department of North America 
&c &c &c — 

Reposing especial trust, and Confidence in your Zeal, and 
Abilities, I do by virtue of the Powers, and Authorities to me 
given by his Majesty, and with the Consent, and approbation of 
his Excellency Major General Gage constitute, and appoint you 
Joseph Gorham to be Deputy agent for the Province of Nova 
Scotia. — You are therefore carefully, and diligently to discharge 
the Duty of a Deputy agent by doing, and Performing all and all 
matters thereunto belonging to the utmost of your Power for his 
Majesty's Interest among the Indians — And you are to observe, 
and follow such Orders, as you shall from time to time receive 
from his Majesty, the Superintendant of Indian Affairs, or other 
your superior officer for all which this shall be your Commission, 
and Authority — 

Given under my hand, and Seal at Arms at Johnson Hall the 
24 ,h . Septem'. 1 766 — 

W: Johnson 
To Joseph Gorham Esquire — 

5 La Baye, Green Bay, Wisconsin. 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

196 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Contemporary Copy 1 

[Johnson Hall Sept. 24, 1766.] 

Instructions for Major Joseph Gorham Dep?. Ag l . of Indian 
affairs in Nova Scotia. — 

On Receipt of Your Commission, and these Instructions you 
are to repair to Nova Scotia in order to reside there agreeable 
to your appointment, and on your arrival at Halifax you are to 
communicate your Commission, and these Instructions to Lord 
William Campbell the Governor that he may be acquainted with 
your Office, and the authority by which you act. — 

You are next as soon as possible to notify your arrival, and 
appointment to the several Tribes of Indians in that Country 
assuring them of my Esteem, and that of all the Indians so long 
as they shall continue to live peaceably, and friendly with the 
English. — That you are appointed my Deputy in that Quarter, 
for the Care, and management of their Affairs, — to see that 
they are justly dealt with ; to hear, and redress Grieveances as far 
as in your Power, and that you are constantly to report all 
matters of any moment to me who am by Duty & Inclination 
bound to befriend them. — That you will have an Interpreter and 
a Smith who will be engaged to work for them, and that I flatter 
my self they will manifest their sense of his Majesty's royal Favor 
in making such Appointments, by an invincible attachment to 
his Royal Person, and Government, — that we are now at 
Peace with all nations of Indians, and expect that they will be 
careful in preserving the Covenant Chain of Friendship on their 
Parts, to which end you will occasionally meet them to repeat 
former Treaties, and Engagements, — And you are then to de- 
liver them a large Belt of Wampum in my name willing them to 
hold fast thereby, and not suffer themselves to be misled, but to cast 
their Eyes towards the Sun setting where I reside, and hold fast 
one end of the Belt as Superintendant of Indian Affairs in the 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 197 

Northern Department, — and that they follow your Directions 
and respect you as my Deputy. — 

You are then as soon as possible to provide yourself with a 
good faithful Interpreter and a good Smith to repair their Arms 
&c both of whom you are to engage at the lowest Salaries you can 
<P ann, which Interpreter, and Smith are to attend solely to their 
Duty, and nothing else on Pain of being dismissed. — 

You are [then] as soon as possible after your Arrival to transmit 
me a full Return of all the Tribes in Nova Scotia with the number 
of Men, Women, and Children in each tribe, the names and 
Characters of their Chiefs, the State of their Trade, their manner 
of Living, and their Places of Residence, and you are to keep 
regular Journals of all transactions, noting any Changes, or other 
Occurrences that may happen among them. — 

You will treat them with mildness, and affability hearing their 
Complaints, & Reporting such to me as you cannot redress, pre- 
venting to the utmost of your Power any Disputes from arising 
between them, and the white Inhabitants, and using all possible 
endeavors to detect, and defeat the Designs of those who may be 
our secret Enemies, — And you are annually to visit the Tribes, 
and hold a Congress at which all past Engagements are to be 
repeated, and ratified; and when some small Presents may be 
necessary, concerning which you shall be hereafter directed, you 
will carefully avoid any expences except such as are absolutely 
necessary and approved of for all which you are to have good 
Vouchers. — 

You are to bring up your accounts of Pay &c, and those of 
the Interpreter, and Smith to the 24 th . of March and September 
which you are to transmit me with Vouchers every six months so as 
I may receive them before either of the aforementioned days in 
order that the whole may be included in my half Yearly 
Accounts — 

You are to Omit no Opportunity of informing yourself of any 
matter relative to the Indians &c, and the better to qualify yourself 
for the discharge of your Duty, to which end a knowledge of their 
language is highly necessary — 

198 Sir William Johnson Papers 

You are to transmit me Copies half yearly of all your Transac- 
tions with them, as well as of all Occurrences, together with a 
State of the Trade, specifying the Quantities of Goods, and 
Peltry, and the Numbers of the Traders, and shou'd any matter of 
moment occurr, you are to give immediate notice. — 

Lastly — You will hereafter receive farther Instructions, as 
the State of Affairs there shall appear to require them. — You 
will in the main time govern yourself in the best manner you can 
in all other matters for the good of his Majesty's Indian Interest 
with the strictest Regard to the Indian's Rights and the closest 
application to acquire their Esteem, and preserve the public 
Tranquility — 

Given under my Hand, and Seal at Arms at Johnson Hall 
24*. Sep'. 1 766. — 



Contemporary Copy 1 

Extracts of a letter from Lieu f . Johns[t]on to Sir W m . Johnson 
dat d . 

Michillim a . 25 ih . Septem r . 1766. — 
Sir, — 

I this day saw a letter from M r . Grant 2 of Quebec, by his stile 
I believe he is a merch 1 . he mentions to Major Rogers 3 he has an 
undoubted Right to La Baye 4 &c notwithstanding he receiv'd a 
letter 5 from you to the contrary which he particularizes, he has 
the presumption, by his People, to exact Contribution from 
Traders who pass to La Bay, and has established a regular Forti- 
fication at his Post ; — how this is to end, you are the only 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 William Grant. 

3 Major Robert Rogers, commandant at Michilimackinac. 

4 Green Bay, Wisconsin. See Grant to Sir William, March 20, 1 766, 
ante pp. 45-47. 

5 Johnson to Grant, June 28, 1 766, ante pp. 1 1 8-20. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 199 

Judge, the Indians seem to be disatisfied with it, — and in 
short if he keeps the Country he claims, great Britain & Ire- 
land in a few Years will be liable to be subject to him, as his 
Pretensions are of a much greater Extent than both those 
Places. — 

I have made my self master of the Ottawa language. — Major 
Rogers, & I passed a night at their village, the Ceremony they 
received us with, a little surprized us. but their Policy in Civil, 
and military affairs, is worthy of notice. I am so fond of Indians, 
I wish I was to continue among them; but that I fear I can't hope 
for, — they indeed at present don't seem to be thoroughly satis- 
fied. I can't find out their reason. — Major Rogers often calls 
them to Councils ; but what they do there, I don't know, as I have 
but once been called to attend at a very public one. — Yester- 
day there were 84 Warriors exclusive of Children, Old men, and 
Squaws admitted into the Fort, this they say is customary before 
the Ottawas go out to hunt. but nothwithstanding that, for my 
own preservation, I took the Guard, and remained with them under 
arms during the Indians stay in the Fort, thoroughly determined if 
there was any treachery, or bad Designs (which I somewhat sus- 
pected) to hold out whilst I had a man. but they behaved very 
well, which might be owing to the strict watch kept over them. — 
The Traders have sold more Powder and Ball to the Indians this 
Season than they have for three former Years put together. In one 
day I find the Ottaways carried out of the Fort seven hundred 
pounds of Gunpowder, they have likewise picked up all the Arm 
they cou'd, what their Intentions are by this, you are better able 
to judge than — I am &c. 

(Signed) Rob t . Johnston 6 — 

6 Ensign Robert Johnston (Johnson) of the 60th regiment. 

200 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Extracts 1 

Ontario Septbr. 25, 1766 

Capt Guy 2 will let you know that the alarm given by the 
Conesedaga Chief is Groundless, at least the rest of the Indians 
tell me so. The Missisagas went from here yesterday, I gave them 
ten Gallons of Rum ten pound of Tobacco five pound of gun 
Powder, some pipes and provisions. They went away very well 
pleas'd, they promis'd me to bring ali their trade to this place and 
not to allow any Traders to go amongst their Villages. * * * 
For reasons best known to the Commanding Officer the boat that 
carrys this has been detain'd these five days, which gives me an 
opportunity of acknowledging the receipt of your letter by the 
return of the Indian I sent you. he arriv'd here yesterday in the 
afternoon. You'll find by some part of my letter, that Mr. 
Ca-run-da-che was telling me lyes, for which he ought to be well 
scolded. I expect him here every day from Onondaga. I shall 
deliver him a Message left here for him by At-quen-da-guh-ta 
and the head of the rest of the Osswegatchees and some Coneseda- 
gas which was, to tell the old man from them he lyed. 

1 Copy in Oneida Historical Society, Utica, N. Y. Original letter was 
destroyed by fire. Contents given in Johnson Calendar, p. 329: "a variance 
between Mr. Roberts and the commanding officer, the remissness of the 
smith at Niagara, other troubles at that post, some Yanky horse dealers, 
presents to the Messesagas, the birth of a grand daughter to Johnson, Mr. 
Newkirk's claim for articles given to the Indians, a harper expected from 
Ireland, a report from Detroit that Mr. Cole is killed, a charge of the 
Oswegatchies and Conesedagas against Mr. Carundache, Joseph's desire to 
go down, and the question of passes for Detroit." 

2 Guy Johnson. 


Portrait by Sir Joshua Reynolds. Photograph courtesy of Frank T. Sabin, 

London ; the picture is in a private collection. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 201 

A.L.S. 1 

Albany Sep r . 26, 1766 

I arriv'd here last Night from my Expedition to the Lake 
Champlain, & should have proceeded directly for your house this 
morning, but some dispatches which I receiv'd by the Pacquet will 
detain me here till Sunday morning, at which time I propose to set 
out for Schenectady, & to be with you the next day ; I am sorry to 
inform you that on my return I found My Wife too much 
indispos'd to attempt a Journey in which She had propos'd much 
Satisfaction, but as I have already trespass'd to much on your time, 
by a delay which the unfavorable Weather I met with occasiond, 
I shall set out without my family on Sunday Morning. I am S r . 

With great truth & Regard 

Y r . most Obed f . & 

hum 1 . Sev 1 . 

H: Moore 

1 In Harvard University Library. Sparks Collection. 


Copy 1 

Philad*. September 30 th . 1766 

We have been this Day honoured with your Favour of the 15 th . 
Instant, 2 and shall you may be assured, pay the strictest Obedience 
to your just Sentiments, respecting the Trade at the Shawanese 

This Province is unhappily agitated with party Disputes; of 
consequence, the Conduct of particular Persons, is too frequently 

1 Printed in Illinois Historical Collections, 1 1 : 396-9 7; original in New 
York State Library was destroyed by fire. 

2 See Johnson to Baynton, Wharton and Morgan, Sept. 1 6, 1 766, 
ante pp. 181-82. 

202 Sir William Johnson Papers 

view'd thro' an unfavorable medium ; — Which now happens to 
be Our Case, with Respect to the small Quantity of Goods, — 
which our Partner M r . Morgan, sent to the Shawanese Town. — 
We esteem it our indespensible Duty to explain our Conduct in 
this matter, Particularly, to your Honor; as it is immediately 
relative to your Department — We therefore pray your Patience, 
whilst we briefly mention it. 

We assure you Sir — That our express Agreement with M r . 
Morgan, before He left Philadelphia, was, that all our Goods 
should be transported to Fort Chartres; & none of Them sold in 
any Part of the Indian Country; & That those which were for- 
warded from Scioto to the Lower Shawanese Town, were with- 
out our Knowledge or Consent & That we were entire Strangers 
to the measure untill our Partner M r . Morgan, wrote us from 
Scioto — He was induced to it, At the earnest solicitation of M r . 

M r . Alexander Lowry & some of the Traders at Fort Pitt, 
supported, we are told, by two or Three Merchants (one of 
whom, is scarcely concern'd in the Trade) of this City — have 
Petitioned Our Govenor against us, 3 and have procured a Promise 
from Him, That if They will prove, we have sent any Goods to 
the Shawanese Town, — He will order our Bond, to be instantly 
put into Suit. 

If any Merit is due to Merchants, for exploring a newly ac- 
quired Country for Trade & thereby supporting the important 
negotiations of your Honor's agent — We humbly conceive, we 
are entituled to the Countenance, & Ought not to incur the Resent- 
ment, of the executive Officers of this Government — may we 
therefore flatter Ourselves, That your Honor will be so good, as to 
afford us your Protection and not suffer us to be sued, for doing an 
act, expressly required of us, by your Deputy. 

We are fully persuaded, of the real Necessity to establish 
Regulations for the Indian Trade & we sincerely disdain the 
Thought, of violating Them. 

3 See letter from Joseph Spear et al, Johnson Papers, 5 : 384-85. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 203 

If we have done wrong in sending Goods to the Shawanese 
Town — we did not do it, with an illegal Design, — But simply 
to gratify M r . Croghan, in what He judged for the Good of the 
Service, He was engaged in. 

We are highly obliged to your Honor for your kind Informa- 
tion That you had transmitted Our Accounts to his Excellency 
the General & we trust, you will be so good, as to excuse Our 
mentioning Our great want of the Money — for we assure you, 
Trade never languished more, for want of it. 

We thankfully acknowledge your Honors Kindness in com- 
municating the agreeable Intelligence, you have received from their 
Lordships, the Lords Commissioners for Trade, & for another 
striking Instance of the Friendship, you favour us with, in respect 
to our Indian Losses. 

We are heartily rejoiced, That your Honors negociations with 
Pondiac & the Western Chiefs, terminated so much to your satis- 
faction. An Event, that must yield solid Pleasure to every One & 
Particularly to those, who are generous adventurers to the Indian 
Country ; — As They have now just Grounds to hope, a perma- 
nent Peace is establish'd with Them. 

We are with the sincerest Respect Sir Your Honour's much 
obliged and most Obedient Servants. 

Baynton Wharton & Morgan 

To The H Sir William Johnson Bar 1 . 


Philad*. Sept r . 30 th . 1 766 

From Mess rs . Baynton Wharton &ca 

Ans d . October 24 th . 

204 Sir William Johnson Papers 

to thomas gage 

Dear Sir — 

I have only time at present to Acquaint You that I have been 
Just parting with a great Number of Gentlemen, & a large body of 
Oneidaes and also the Mohawk Castles & ca ., Who have been 
disposing of Lands before the Governour at this place, on this 
occasion I exerted my Interest so far as to obtain from the 
Oneidaes a verry valuable & extensive Tract of Land lying near 
the North side of the Mohawk River above the German Flatts, it 
will contain about 200,000 Acres, and I have made the purchase 
and paid for it meerly to comply with your letter on that Subject, 
and to oblidge the Governour & some other freinds, and I cannot 
only affirm that no body else could have effected this purchase, 
but also that it is both with regard to Soil & Scituation the verry 
best and only Tract that could have been obtained. I have re- 
served to my self Just a fifth part. The other four parts will each 
of them make a fine Estate, and I hope it will prove to y r . Wishes. 
I find by letters from Niagra, & Ontario that the Commissaries do 
not seem to be supported in many cases The Inspection and 

management of the Traders & their Hutts & ca . are particularly put 
under y e . Commissarys by the plan for Indian Affairs, as also the 
Smiths & Interpreters which the Commanding Officers will not 
approve off w th .out particular orders on that Head, as appears by 
some papers now in my hands. I take the liberty of laying this 
before You, because that unless the Commissi, have y e . direction 
of the Ind s ., Trade, & Traders Hutts, and are supported by the 
Garrison in particular cases, they can be of no use at the Posts, 
and I hope You will think with me on this Head. — at present I 
have only time to add, that I am with the greatest regard 

Dear Sir 

Your most Obedient 
His Excellency & verry Humble Servant 

General Gage — W Johnson 

1 In William L. Clements Library. Draft in the Johnson manuscripts 
was destroyed by fire. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 205 


S r . W m . John[s]on — 
Oct'. 4*. 1 766 
received Oct r . 15 th . 
answered — 

L. S. 1 

Johnson-Hall OcK 6 th . 1766 
Sir — 

I had the favor of yours sometime ago on the Subject of Lands, 
since which his Excellency the Governor has been here, present at 
the making of some Indian purchases by the Inhabitants, and as 
the Oneidas were present to a great number I would not let Slip 
the opportunity of purchasing a Tract for some Gentlemen, who 
had repeatedly applied to me on that subject. I accordingly bought 
and paid for a Considerable tract of Good Land near the North 
Side of the Mohock River above the German flats, in which I 
have intended to secure a part for you if possible such as will 
answer your purpose, on which Subject I shall write farther to you 
when the patent comes out; As to the purchase of M r . Butlers 
which you mention, it is divided into a Number of small Shares 
which would not answer for you neither have I any thing to do 
with it. 

I shall be glad to hear from you on this Subject as I am with 
real Esteem, 

2 Sir, y r . Welwisher 
& verry Humble Servant 

Robert Leake Esq-. W - J 0HNS0N 


6 th . Ans wd . 26 th . October 1 766 
Sir W m . Johnson Bart. 

1 In Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, N. Y. 

2 Closing and signature in Sir William's hand. 

206 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Johnson Hall Octb\ 13*. 1766 
Dear Sir — 

This Morning I rec d . your favour of the 5 th . Ins 1 . 2 with the 
enclosures which I shall take care to forward. 

I now transmit You the List of Officers with their Sallaries, 
to which I thought it necessary to add at the foot the intended 
appointments, as I Judged it was to be sent home, I have not sent 
any list to the Lords of Trade since [/ returned them since] I re- 
turned them the Plan with my thoughts upon it, as his Majesty 
had directed. The Smiths at Michilimacinac & Detroit have been 
as yet on so unsettled a footing that I would not Annex their 
Sallaries. neither have I as yet recd y e . Acc tts . from y e . Com- 
missaries, Except from Fort Pitt — 

I likewise transmit You the Acc lts . of Pay to the 25 th . of 
Septb r ., y l . is of as many as I have rec d ., together with those of 
Disbursements on the Congress at Ontario & elsewhere, the 
amount of which I should be extremely glad You would please 
to pay to M r . Adems 3 who is the Bearer of this, as I am daily 
plauged with Demands on that score, I have in these Acc tts . 
charged a Secretary whom I have paid ever since the Death of 
M r . Marsh 4 in Janr^. 1 765, who being an Officer bearing the 
Kings Commission, his Office is still Vacant. 

ESEP (I have now again wrote my opinion fully on the State of 
Commerce with the Indians to the Lords of Trade and I have 
daily proofs of the artifices of the French Traders to effect their 
Point. Sir Harry Moore has promised me to remedy it by 
proclamation, and I likewise understand that the Governour of 
Pensilvania does not allow of Traders without taking out passes, 
and giving Bond for abiding thereby & by the Regulations & ca ., 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Johnson Papers, 5:386-87. 

3 Robert Adems. 

4 Witham Marsh. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 207 

so that there only remains the like Step to be taken in Canada on 
which head, I could wish You would write to Brigd r . Carleton 5 
who would doubtless take the necessary measures, I have not as 
yet the pleasure of any acquaintance with that Gentleman.) ^132 

It is verry probable that Bills would answer Baynton & 
Wharton, tho they have said nothing to me on that Head except 
pressing for payment, & representing that their Partner had 
merely at M r . Croghans request sent goods to y e . Shawanese 
contrary to their Instructions, & that Gov r . Penn 6 declares they 
shall forfeit their recongnizance for so doing, on which Subjects I 
have now a letter from them requesting my interposition. — 

I have given M r . Croghan particular Orders against incurring 
farther Expences, which I expect he will pay due regard to, 
unless where the Service may absolutely require a Small Matter. 
— I should be glad of an Order on the Storekeeper of Artillery 
Stores at Albany for two Hundred weight of powder & ball for 
the Same, it being so scarce here, that the Ind s . can't get any to 
hunt with. — 

I am with all due respect 
Dear Sir 
Your most Obedient 

& most Humble Servant 
His Excellency W JOHNSON . 

General Gage — 

indorsed : 

Sir W m . Johnson 13*. Oct". 1 766 
received Oct r . 22 d . — 
Inclosing An Ace 1 , and List 
of officers in his Department 

Answ d . — 
Extract of this letter marked BSEr" 
sent to Brigadier General Carleton at 
Quebec in a Letter Dated 25 th . Cctcbcr 1766. 

5 Sir Guy Carleton, acting governor of Quebec. 

6 Lieutenant Governor John Penn of Pennsylvania. 

208 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Extracts 1 

Ontario, Octbr 13, 1766 

Yesterday one of the Chiefs of the Onondagas came here to 
acquaint me that all the head men of that Nation were to be here 
to-morrow, what their business is I know not, but they sent their 
orders to have provisions ready for them, which Order I intend to 
comply with, I suppose they look upon Rum, pipes and Tobacco 
as provisions and most have them also. I hope when I have dis- 
missed them and as the last of the traders who lived at this place 
is gone down with the Bearer, I may soon be thinking of travelling 
to the East. 

The old Conosedaga Chief who told me the story about the 
Ske-qua-necks has this day left this place for home, he still per- 
sists in the old Story but is in hopes some of the Indians on the 
Ottawa River has stopt them, he seem'd displeas'd at the Message 
sent him by the Osswegatchee Chiefs and said he was too great a 
man to tell lyes, tho' I'm much of opinion he has told many. * * * 

The Onondagas are to speak to me to morrow his Majesty King 
Bunt has a great deal to say to me, but I'm afraid his drunken 
Speaker will say a great deal more than he; the Speaker has 
already bother'd me out of half a gallon and will out of some more 
before we part. * * * 

Sir W m . Johnson 

Nor d . MacLeod 

1 Copy in Oneida Historical Society, Utica, N. Y. Original destroyed 
by fire. According to Johnson Calendar, p. 332, it also referred to "Mr 
(Hugh) Crawford" and "Mr (John) Newkerk's incivility." 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 209 


Contemporary Copy 1 

[Ontario, Oct. 15-16, 1766] 

Copy of Proceedings of a Congress held at Ontario 2 October 
the 15 th . 1766 transmitted to Sir W m . Johnson Bar*, by Cap*. 
Lieu'. Normand M c .Leod — 
Capt. Lieu 1 . Normand M c Leod of the late 80 th Regim 1 . 
Lieu 1 . Allen Grant — of the Royal Americans 
Lieu 1 . Schaulk 3 — of the Royal Artillery 
Ensign M c Donnell — of the Royal Americans — 
Interpreter — Joseph Brant. — 
T eyawharunte speaker of the Onondagas arose, and spoke as 
follows — viz*. 
Brother — 

We are come here to speak to you. — Yesterday we got drunk, 
else we shoud have then spoke to you. — Sir W m . Johnson 
often told us that he was looking for a good man to take care of 
us, and all Indians in general, who may come to this Post. He 
has now found one: You must therefore have large Ears, and 
Eyes ; — with this Wampum I open them, and clear all your 
Inside &c so that you may hear us, see us, and talk to us as you 
ought to do. — 

Gave 4 Strings of Wampum 
Brother — 

The French Indian that went among us has cheated us out of 
half our Roots &c that he traded with us for. — Sir W m . John- 
son when at this Place promised to allow Monsieur Cavalier 4 to 
go to our village, because he is a good man, and kind to the 
Indians, he is this day come here from Montreal, and we insist 
upon his going home with us, as our old Women, and Children 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 Now Oswego, N. Y. 

3 Lieutenant Jacob Schalck. 

4 Louis le Cavalier, an Indian interpreter. 

210 Sir William Johnson Papers 

cannot come far from home to trade. — The Traders at this 
Place sell their Goods very dear, especially Newfyerlf who is a 
very ill natured man. — Goods are a good deal cheaper at the 
German Flatts than here. — We hear that you made great 
Promises to the Missasagaes, and told them that there wou'd be 
Plenty of Milk, and other Goods sold cheap here. — As our Ears 
are large, we heard there was a French Trader at Arundequot, 6 
and he ought not to be there. — You must take care that the 
Goods are to be cheap for the future, and you must keep a store 
of Goods for the use of our Warriors, old Women, & Children. 
There must be a good large House built at this Place for the 
Indians to go into when it Rains, & when the weather is cold. — 
We have now no more to say to our Brother, as he now knows the 
Errand we came upon — 

Gave three strings of Wampum, w ch . they desired might be 
given or sent to Sir W m . Johnson — 

On the 16 th . the Onondagas having assembled, received the 
following answer from Cap 1 . M c .Leod 7 

Pres*. as before — 
Brethren. — 

You spoke to me yesterday, and desired I shou'd open my Ears, 
and hear what you had to say. — I have done so, and have 
thought of all you have said. — Now with this Wampum I open 
your Ears &c and I hope you will listen to, and remember what 
I am going to say. — 

4 Strings of Wampum. — 
Brethren. — 

You all know that I am appointed here by Sir W m . Johnson 
to take care of you, and your Trade, it shall be always my Study 
to do everything I think will be of Service to you, and promote 
every thing that can be for your good, so long as you continue to 
behave well. — As to the French Indian, of whom you complain 

5 John Newkirk. 

6 Irondequoit. 

7 Captain Lieutenant Normand MacLeod. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 211 

for having cheated you, it was by your own desire, and to please 
you that he was sent among you, so that you must blame your- 
selves, if he has wronged you, as you were the Cause of his going, 
— and you will always be cheated, and told lies so long as you 
allow Traders to go to your Villages. It was to prevent this, that 
Sir W m . Johnson appointed Gentlemen at the different Posts to 
take care of your Trade. — You frustrate his good intentions 
towards you, if you desire that Traders shou'd go among you, or 
if you allow them to go. — As for your old People, and young 
Children, they can send by one of their Relations whatever they 
have to sell, to one of the Posts. — As to the French man you 
desire shou'd go with you home, it is true Sir W m . Johnson 
promised he wou'd let him go, but when the other Traders heard 
of this, they all wanted to go as well as he. — you wou'd then 
have had too many, and they certainly would have cheated you as 
much as possible, for which reason, and your own good, Sir W m . 
wrote to me to allow no body to go among you, or any other 
nation. — As to the Frenchmen that you say are at Arundegot, I 
know nothing about them, and if I can find them out, I will punish 
them for it, because they have done wrong in going there, and in 
going past this Place without my knowledge. — All the promises 
I made to the Missasageys, were, that they might sell their Skins 
here, as well as at any other Place, because it is nearer, than any 
other Post, and as I am sent here to take care of the Trade, I 
shou'd see that they were not Cheated, and I now make the same 
promise to you. that when you think you are cheated, you have 
only to complain to me, and if I cannot give you redress, the affair 
shall be laid before Sir W m . Johnson. — As to my keeping a 
Store of Goods for the use of the Indians, if the King allows me 
one, I shall take care that the Indians shall be reasonably sup- 
plied out of it. — As to Goods they must certainly [be] cheaper 
at the German Flats than here, as the People there are not at the 
expence of carrying their Merchandize to this place, one of the 
reasons of the dearness of Goods here is that things are not yet put 
on the proper Footing ; but I hope in Spring to bring w ,h . me such 
Regulations as shall please you all, — And as to the building a 

212 Sir William Johnson Papers 

House for the Reception of the Indians, I can give you no further 
answer, than that matter shall be represented, and if my Superiors 
shall order one to be built, their Orders shall be obeyed. — I hope 
now that you are and ever will be sensible of the good Intentions 
of your Brothers the English to take Care of you, for which reason 
I hope you will always be attached to their Interest, as they intend 
nothing else but your good, so long as you merit their Kindness, 
which I hope you will always study to do. — 

4 Strings of Wampum. — 


Cop}) 1 

Montreal, 1 6th October, 1766. 

By the last account from Michilimackina, Major Rogers was 
arrived there, and immediately without hesitation, gave a general 
permit to all Traders to go wintering, for which he is vastly liked 
and applauded here. The Traders that came from there told me 
also that his behaviour towards the Indians was liked and ap- 
proved of by them, as well as the people of the place. 

1 Printed in Journals of Major Robert Rogers, ed. Hough, p. 228; 
original in New York State Library was destroyed by fire. In the Johnson 
Calendar, p. 333, the contents of the letter were described as "condoling 
on the death of Admiral Tyrell, asking payment of a bill in favor of 
Beach & Simpson, New York, in consideration of a loan made by Mr. 
Wade, and mentioning complaints of the merchants about trade restriction, 
Mr. Grant's claim to La Bay, Maj. Roger's liberality toward traders at 
Michilimachina [above], and that of Gov. Carleton in his province." 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 213 


Contemporary Copy 1 

New York2 d . Novem r . 1766 
Dear Sir, 

I have been favored with your Letter of the 13 th . Ul mo . 2 with 
the List of your Officers and thier Salaries which I have Sent 
home by a private Ship — 

Your Acco 1 . of Pay due to the Officers to the 25 th . Sept r . last, 
& your Disbursments on the Congress at Ontario and Elsewhere, 
came by Same Opportunity, the Amount of which I could not im- 
mediately Disburse. M r . Adams 3 has received about £ 1 800, or 
upwards, to pay off the Amount of the Roll of Officers, & the 
Res!: must be transmitted to You as I find Opportunitys, & as 
Cash comes in — 

Captain Howard 4 late Commander at Michillimackinac, has 
presented here four Seperate Acco ls . with Vouchers, the whole 
Amounting to £307 or thereabouts; There appears a Charge in 
your Account of Disbursements of £ 180..0.6 d under the Article 
of Capt. Howard's Acco*. & Vouchers. As Capt Howard can't 
make out that Article Seperate from the Acco ts . produced here, I 
have directed him to Send the whole to You ; Which if they meet 
with your Approbation, You may give Captain Howard an Order 
upon Me for the whole of his Expences, & include what you have 
not already Charged, in your next Account of Disbursements — 

I think I have mentioned to You in a former Letter, that I had 
paid Baynton and Wharton's Demands Demand on Account of 
M r . Croghan's Expences: which I perceive You have not included 
in your last Acco 1 . as I imagined You Intended to do by your 
Letters to them and Me — 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Ante pp. 206-07. 

3 Robert Adems. 

4 Captain William Howard. 

214 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I have transmitted what You desired to Governor Carleton, 5 
So hope he will take proper Care of the Traders who go from his 
Province to the upper Country. 

I am with great Regard, 

Dear Sir, 
&ca - 

Sir W m Johnson Bar'. 

P: S, The Storekeeper at Albany will have Orders to Supply 
You with 200 Weight of Powder & Ball on your Application to 
him — 



To Sir William Johnson Bar 

Johnson hall 
New York 2* Nov. 1 766 

A.L.S. 1 

Johnson Hall Novfr. 8 th . 1766 
Sir — 

I did not receive your letter of the 13 th . Ult°. 2 with the 
Warrants & ca . till the 4 th . Ins 1 ., which gave me some concern as the 
Season is so far advanced, Imediately on recp'. of them I sent to 

5 Guy Carleton, lieutenant governor of the province of Quebec. 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

2 See Johnson Calendar, p. 332. This letter of Colden, which was 
destroyed, is summarized as "informing that he has deputed Hendrick Fry 
and Christopher Yates to run the bounds of the tracts purchased from the 
Indians on the north and south side of the Mohawk, inclosing bond to be 
executed and oath to be taken by these officers, asking that Fry continue 
Vrooman's line between the two Canada creeks, and sending an assurance 
to the Indians that no surveys will be made without his written orders." 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 215 

the Surveyors. M r . Fry 3 Came & is deputized and I took his Bond 
which I now enclose You, I settled y e . point with him concerning 
y e . 4 th . part of the Wages agreeable to your desire, I expect 
Yates 4 everry Minute, when I shall settle with him in the same 
manner, altho they are daily employed at 20 s «P Day dividing 
Lands, and to forward the Survey I shall go up the Country my- 
self in a Couple of Days, as there is no Person here to manage that 
Tract on y e . North side but myself. — 

Nothing relative to my Lands has been yet determined at 
Home, but I am given to understand that it will be shortly taken 
into consideration there. If I dont hear about it speedily, I shall 
take some other measures having advanced two much money to 
give up my right to it. besides all my trouble. The Lords of Trade 
write me that the affairs of my Department have been hitherto 
unavoidably postponed from the multiplicity of business of other 
Nature, but that they expected it would soon be Settled, as it was 
now before his Majesty. — 

The Ind s . did make sundry complaints to y e . Governour for 
which they had good reason, but I am persuaded they will have no 
cause to find fault with y r . conduct concerning their Lands. Indeed 
I know no way surer to satisfy the Indians on the Article of Lands 
than by my having a good Map of the Patents from Albany 
Westward, to Fort Bull or the uppermost Grant ready to shew 
them the nature & quantity of their Sales, and as I find Several 
People have such a Map, I should be glad You would order one 
of y r . Clerks to make me a Copy, & charge it. — I enclose you a 
Letter for my worthy Freind your Father, 6 & shall be glad to hear 
from you at all times, as I am with great regard, Sir 

Your sincere Welwisher & Humble Serv f . 

W Johnson 
Alexander Colden Esq r . — 

3 Hendrick Frey, Jr., surveyor. 

4 Christopher Yates, surveyor. 

5 On Wood Creek, Oneida County, N. Y. 

6 Johnson Papers, 5:416-17. 

216 Sir William Johnson Papers 

P.S. as you forgot to send y e . boundaries of y e . several Patents 
w h . y e . 2 Tracts now to be surveyed are to touch & run alongst, 
the Surveyors could not proceed but that I chanced to have them 
by me. — 


Nov. 8 th . S r . W m . Johnson 
Ans d . Nov r . 24. that 
I would Send him the 
Map he desired as 
Soon as Cockburn 7 
returned to Copy it 


Contemporary Copy 1 

[Detroit, November 12, 1766] 

Copy of a Court of Enquiry concerning Abbot 2 a Trader held 
by order of Cap 1 . Turnbull 3 commanding officer at Detroit the 
1 2 th . of Novem r . 1 766 at the Request of Lieu 1 . Hay 4 Commissary 
of Indian affairs there transmitted to S r . W m . Johnson Superin- 
tend 1 . — 

President Lieu*. M c .Alpin of the 60 th . Regiment 


(Ensign Amiel — of the Same 

\ Ensign Gage — of the 3 1 st . Regim f . 

Lieut. Hay informs the Court that Col. Croghan wrote a letter 
by one Andrew Huron Indian to M r . Abbot of this place, desiring 
him among other things to give him one hundred weight of Lead, 

7 William Cockburn. 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 James Abbott, a trader of Detroit. 

3 Captain George Turnbull. 

4 Lieutenant Jehu Hay, commissary at Detroit. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 217 

and two Quarter Casks of Powder, which the Indian received as 
M r . Abbot told him: but weighing it at M r . S l . Martin's 5 house, 
found the Lead wanted twenty Pounds of the weight, and the 
Powder, five; upon which M r . Hay sent for M r . Abbot, and told 
him the Complaint of the Indian, and desired he might make up 
the Deficiency of the weight. he said he wou'd. — but that he 
received the two Pieces of lead for a hundred weight, and one of 
them weighed forty nine pounds by his Steelyards, which made him 
imagine the other Piece wou'd make up the Hundred weight. — 
The Indian came back a second time to M r . Hay and told him 
that M r . Abbot had only given him Eleven Pounds to make up the 
weight of twenty Pounds of lead wanted, and one Pound of 
Powder to make up the Deficiency of five. — the Lead mentioned 
being produced to the Court, weighed by proved steelyards 
Seventy nine pounds; the Lead afterwards being weighed again 
by M r . Abbots steelyards found to weigh ninety one Pounds, by 
which it appears M r . Abbots Steelyards are false twelve Pounds 
in ninety one. — 

M r . Abbot informs the Court that he does not know by what 
mistake the Weight came short at the first Weighing, but that he 
intended the two Pieces for a hundred weight, and that he in- 
tended making up any deficiency there might be at the Return of 
the Indian who he had lent a Kegg to, — And as to his Steel- 
yards he imagines them to be just, as he bought them here for good 
ones. — 

M r . S l . Martin appeared before the Court, and agreed in his 
declaration with what M r . Hay has said with regard to the Indians 
Complaint, as the Lead, and Powder was weighed by his Steel- 
yards in his Presence at his house. — 

true Copy DANIEL M C ALPIN President 

John Amiel ) 

John Lewis Gage J Memh ™- ~ 

5 Jacques St. Martin, interpreter. 

218 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Johnson Hall 20 th . Novo'. 1766 
Dear Sir — 

I have had the favour of your letter of the 2 d . Ins 1 . 2 <j$ M r . 
Adems 3 who brought me the Cash You mention. As there was no 
more to be had then, it cant be helped, I am persuaded You will 
let me have the rest as soon as You can for indeed I never write 
for it till I am greatly in advance & cannot command Cash any 
other way, and this Subjects me to many inconveniencies which are 
not experienced in other Departments. — 

Capt n . Howard 4 has transmitted his Several Acc tls . to me, but 
there is a little perplexity in them owing to Some Mistakes, I have 
now wrote him on the Subject. — In August last I received three 
Acc tts . of his amt§. to £ 1 80 . . — . . 6 which I sent down accord- 
ingly in my Acc lts ., & therefore there is a mistake made which he 
must rectify. — 

I am Sorry I omitted Baynton & Whartons Acc ts . If You think 
it proper I shall include them in my next, I wrote to them some 
time ago Signifying my disaprobation of the Trader at Scioto, & 
desired he might be withdrawn, I also wrote to M r . M c .Kee 5 at 
Fort Pitt to remove him. — 

I hope Gov r . Carleton 6 will exert his Authority In Canada, 
but I find the Traders of that Government are using all possible 
endeavours in England to obtain liberty to Trade where they 
please, and possibly y e . Mercantile Interest to whom they have 
applyed will carry the point for them. This is the effect of the 
Plans having been so long in agitation as to enable them to make 
Interest & Collect Arguments against it, which, tho verry weak, & 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Ante pp. 213-14. 

3 Robert Adems. 

4 Captain William Howard, commandant at Michilimackinac. 

5 Alexander McKee, assistant deputy agent at Fort Pitt. 

6 Guy Carleton, lieutenant governor of the province of Quebec. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 219 

many of them without foundation would not otherwise have made 
their Appearance. — 

The Establishment of M r . Grant' at La Bay 8 I find gives a 
general discontent to all y e . Indians and as it is equally disagreable 
to the body of Traders, I am afraid between them it will be 
attended w th . the worst consequences, unless he is speedily re- 
moved, & this is as well the opinion of the Commanding Officers, 
as those of my Department, & the Indians, The Lords of Trade 
in their last to me express themselves much against it, and do not 
allow of his Title, they direct me to exert my Authority in Support 
of a free Trade. — 

I am with sincere & great regard 
Dear Sir 
Your most obedient 
& most Humble Servant 
His Excellency W. Johnson 

Genr l . Gage — 


S r . W m . Johnson 
20*. Nov. 1 766. 
received Nov 1 ". 30 th . — 


A.L.S. 1 

Johnson Hall 20 l K Novo'. 1766 
Dear Sir — 

I Judged it necessary to acquaint You that as you desired, I 
forwarded the letter from a certain Isleand to the Person to 

7 William Grant. 

8 Green Bay, Wisconsin. 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

220 Sir William Johnson Papers 

whom it was addressed, and as I sent it with one of mine, care- 
lessly enquired whether it brought him any agreable news from 
Europe, to which I have Just received his Answer, returning me 
much thanks for sending it, but without saying a word more on the 
Subject. From which (as You Justly observed in a former letter) 
there is the utmost reason to think the Contents were agreable, 
otherwise I imagine he would have at least said something upon it, 
or agreable to his natural disposition made a merit of divulging the 
contents, what farther should be done You are doubtless the best 
Judge of. — 

The Warrant for Surveying the Tract I bought from the 
Oneidaes, is come up, and I have sent off a Surveyor with Suffi- 
cient Hands & everry necessary to run the Lines, but have not had 
a line from the Governour since his return to New York altho I 
wrote him some time ago. and as the Warrant was not sent in due 
time I apprehend the Survey cannot be finished this Year. — 

I have taken the liberty herewith to Send You a Receipt for 
the Officers pay, w h . M r . Adems 2 received. — I am with the most 
perfect Esteem 

Dear Sir 
Your most Obedient 

& verry Humble Servant 

W. Johnson 
His Excellency 
Genr l . Gage — 

indorsed : 

S r . W m . Johnson 

Nov. 20*. 1 766 
received Nov r . 30 th — 
answ* 1 . — 

2 Robert Adems. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 221 

Df. 1 

New York 24 Nov. 1766 — 
Dear Sir William 

I should have answered yours of the 22 d . [Ult ., by the last 
Post] 2 Sep r . 3 sooner but that I was at a Loss [at that Time] to 
ascertain M r . Clarkes 4 Lotts in Sachendage. I now find that he 
had originally the Lotts you mention. — Those I mentioned in my 
former Letter, he conveyed to his Son Major Clarke; the others 
that are also marked E C on the Map I believe he conveyed to 
M r . Lane by a Memorandum which I have to that Effect in M r . 
Clarkes own Hand Writing, the Numbers of these Lotts I sup- 
pose are 2, 4, 27, 44, 58, & 77. the two first contain each 500, 
the other four, each 250 acres, in all 2000 Acres — The other 6 
Lotts which are marked in the Map Clarke & Holland, belong to 
the Secretary 5 one half, and the other Moiety to M r . Henry 
Holland and M r . Henry Cruger. So on a Supposition that M r . 
Clarke conveyed the above mentioned Lotts to M r . Lane, the 
Family have now only 3000 Acres in Sachendage instead of 5000 
Acres, which you apprehended they had — and under which ap- 
prehension you offered £ 1 000 [which is at the rate only of 4 s . 
Currency the Acre, a Price which I imagine the Major wo'd not 
accept of, or his Brother the Secretary. If you think ft however 
worth while to make any Offer for the 3000 Acres in Sachendage 
and the 2750 or 2790 Acres in Northampton Tract (which con- 
sists of two Patents one for Six the other for five thousand Acres) 
I will transmit to the Major in Jamaica and let you know his 
Answer, unless your offer shall in my own Judgment appear to be 
the value of the Lands in which Case I will convey them with- 
out waiting his further Orders — ] 

1 In New York Historical Society, Banyar Papers. Original letter in 
New York State Library was destroyed by fire. 

2 Words italicized and in brackets are crossed out in manuscript. 

3 Ante pp. 191-92. 

4 Edward Clarke. 

5 George Clarke, Jr., secretary of the province. 

222 Sir William Johnson Papers 

[Since the above] I am informed by M r . Henry Holland that he 
has very lately been offered one thousand and fifty pounds for his 
2500 Acres in Sachendage, this Offer amounts to £ 50 more than 
a Dollar the Acre, [and he acknowledges that Northampton is the 
best Tract of the two. It is therefore not to be thought I can take 
any Price that shall be much less than has been offered to another.] 
I will venture to convey the 3000 Acres [of] in Sachendage [or the 
five thousand Acres if I shall find on fuller Enquiry that the 
memorandum above mentioned is a Mistake and that the Lands 
were not conveyed to Mr. Lane] for [a Dollar] 8 s . the Acre, 
which will amount to £ 1 200 and if I find on fuller Enquiry that 
the 2000 Acres supposed to be conveyed to M r . Lane is a Mis- 
take I will convey that also to you at the same Rate. 

The Northampton Lands contain 1 1000 Acres, but there are 
two Patents for them, one at 6000 the other for 5000 — These 
Lands I am told are better than the others, and I flatter my self 
soon to get as much for them or nearly so as for the other. How- 
ever I think your offer greatly below the Mark & I believe you do 
not want these Lands. I am 


24 Novem'. 1 766 

Letter to S r . W m . Johnson 


D. 1 


+ N°. 1 EC 500 E.C. — S'. W™. 2 

+ 2 E C 500 Lane 2 

+ 4 E C 500 Lane 

1 In New York Historical Society, Banyar Papers. Enclosed with 
Banyar's letter of Nov. 24, 1 766. 

2 The words "Sr. Wm." and "Lane" have been added in pencil. 































Indian Affairs, 1766-68 223 

C. & H. 500 

E C 500 E.C. Sir W». 

C & H. 500 

E C 250 Lane 

E C 250 — E C. S*. W». 

C & H. 250 

E C 250 ECS'.W" 

E C 250 Lane 

C & H 250 

E C 250 Lane 

E C ..250 — E. C.S'. W 

C & H 250 
C & H 250 

E. C 250 Lane 

E C 250 — E.C. Sir W 



North Hampton 

.1 875 

.4 238 

.7 333 

.11 190 

.13 220 

.15 310 

.25 366 

.30 134 

.34 125 



4 1100 

224 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A.L.S. 1 

Novbr. 28* 1766 
Dear Banyar — 

This is my Third letter, Since I had the pleasure of a line 
from You. If my letters have not miscarried (which I can hardly 
think) I dont know how to account for such taciturnity on your 
part. In one of mine, I acquainted you of y e . great difference 
between the Quantity of Land You mention, & that w h . is given 
to Cap*. Clarke by the Map, w h . the Pattentees living in Albany 
have, and was desireous you would explain the cause of such 
difference &ca. 

I flatter my self with y r . Ans r . by Everry Post So that I think 
it needless now to enlarge on y*. Subject. 

If You want a Lad of ab f . 1 6 Years, who can write a tollerable 
good running hand, there is one who lived about 2 Years with me, 
would be verry willing to Serve You the first Year for his Cloaths 
Lodging & Diet. His Father was \J. M c .Tavish 2 of y e . High- 
landers \J. Fraser 3 now here is his Brother in Law, The Boy Has 
no Vice as yet that I know & is verry smart, I should be glad to 
know whether You want such or not. 

When the Gov. was here he talked of making great alterations 
in the Government with regard to Civil Officers, If an Alteration 
in the Commission of y e . Peace is to be made, & that you know 
when, pray let me know. 

I wish You all happiness, & am 

Dear Banyar 

Yours Most Sincerely 

W. Johnson 
Golds Borrow Banyar Esq r . — 

1 In New York Historical Society, Banyar Papers. 

2 Probably Jon. McTavish. See Johnson Calendar, p. 277; see also 
Johnson Papers, 5:19. 

3 Probably Lieutenant Alexander Fraser of the 78th regiment. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 225 


Nov. 28. 1 766 

From S r . W m . Johnson. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Novem*. 1766 

In this month the Mohawks, and Conajohares made sev 1 . ap- 
plications to Sir W m . to know whether he had any answer from 
the Governor relative to their affairs, the latter complained that 
Cobus Maybee, notwithstanding the repeated Notice given them 
[him] by Sir W m . and them, paid no regard thereto; also that 
Lines had been run in the night (as they imagined) which in- 
cluded the Indian Castle, Fort and near half of their Lowland, 
which gave them all the greatest uneasiness, and begged the Gov- 
ernor might me [be] made acquainted therewith ; — to all which 
Sir W m . answered by promising to look into the affair as soon 
as he was empowered from home. — 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Ncrv York I st . Decern'. 1766 — 
Dear Sir, 

I have received your's of the 20 th . Ul mo . 2 & shall take the 
first Opportunity to Send You some more Cash, which comes in 
very slowly, but what I have will be forwarded — 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Ante pp. 218-19. 

226 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Capt Howard 3 is in the Jersey's, but as Soon as there is an 
Opportunity of Seeing him, he shall be talked to Concerning the 
Mistake in his Accounts — 

The Traders in Canada use Every Endeavor to carry their 
Point : I Judge from some of my Dispatches that the fixing Regu- 
lations for the Indian Trade is in Agitation, And have advised 
the fixing them by Law, with some Judicial Powers legally in- 
vested in the Commanding Officers at the Posts, to Enforce 
Obedience to the Law. I have also informed the Secretary of 
State of M r . Grants 4 pretentions to La Baye.° Unless things of 
this kind are fixed positively by a Law, when prosecutions are 
began against Military People, You know how Jury's will Act, 
whose own Interest are too generaly Concerned — 

I have before Wrote about Baynton & Wharton, You may 
Send their Account Separate, or any other Manner You please, 
but the Sooner it is Sent the better, as I have only a Temporary 
Receipt. By a Letter from Fort Pitt, I find the Trade to the 
Ilinois from thence, has turned out as I Expected it would. The 
Traders bring back no Furrs or Skins. They carry them down the 
Mississippi, & will tell us that they carry them to West Florida; 
But You may depend upon it, they all go to New Orleans, where 
they get a better Price, than at any of our Markets: And I wish 
they may not go up the Mississippi again with French Goods — 

The Person whom You mention in your private Letter may be 
Watched this Winter, & I will Advertise the Person who has de- 
sired him to Send his Letters through him, that he may possibly 
Expect an Answer from him to be forwarded — 

I am, with great Regard, 

Dear Sir, 

Sir W m Johnson Bar*. 

3 Captain William Howard, formerly commandant at Michilimackinac. 

4 William Grant. 

5 Green Bay, Wisconsin. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 227 



To Sir W m . Johnson Bar*, 

Johnson hall 
New York 1 st . Decem r . 1 766 



Johnson Hall 12*. Dech r . 1766 
Dear Sir 

I am just favoured with yours of the 1 st . Ins'. 2 and as some of 
the money is due to persons at New York Shall be glad to have 
the liberty of drawing upon You for a part, and could wish that 
the remainder was forwarded agreable to your intentions. — 

I have sundry letters from the Commissary at Detroit, Major 
Rojers 3 and Cap 1 . Spicemaker 4 at Michilimacinac concerning the 
Steps taking by the Spaniards & y e . French their Agents to re- 
kindle the Spirit of discord amg sl . y e . Indians, Cap 1 . Spicemaker 
who seems to have had the most circumstantial Information writes 
me, that one Chevalier 5 from S f . Josephs Sent there one La 
Grandeur, formerly a Serj*. in the french Service with a letter to 
the Comd f ., — Who told him that Just before he left S f . Josephs 
the son of an Indian Cheif arrived there & shewed M r . Chevalier 
7 branches of of Wampum each about a yard long, which he said 
he had received from a French Comd 1 . on the Mississipi called 
Mons r . S l . Ange G who had directed him to carry them to the 
Indian Cheif called Wasson near Detroit to be divided amongst 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Ante pp. 225-27. 

3 Major Robert Rogers. 

4 Captain Frederick Christopher Spiesmacher. 

5 Louis Chevallier. 

6 Captain Louis St. Ange de Belrive. 

228 Sir William Johnson Papers 

the 7 Nations, acquainting each that their Father the King of 
France was still alive, & had sent a great Number of French & 
Spanish Soldiers under the Com d . of a Spanish Officer at S l . 
Anges Post called Tencourt & Missaire, that therefore they 
should hold themselves in readiness to attend y e . first notice. 

That La Grandeur verrily beleived the Troops were arrived 
there, & that the French who were formerly in the Colony Service, 
were inlisted into that of Spain, & that he was ignorant of their 
intentions but by all acc Us . they amounted to 1 2 or 1 500 Men, & 
that Mons r . S f . Ange had sent 1 5 Indian Cheifs to meet them with 
a Grand Cheif called Mivanon. — The Informant added that all 
y e . Warriors about S l . Joseph had been in readiness last Summer 
past to go & attack Detroit, but that Chevalier had persuaded 
them to lay it aside alledging that they had heard false reports, 
and that he hoped shortly to give them the Truth, notwithstanding 
which they remained verry ill disposed, & that Chevalier has a 
good deal of Interest from his Connections with them. — Cap*. 
Spicemaker also adds that he has enquired amongst the French 
Inhabitants whom he can best depend upon, & finds that he bears 
a verry honest character. — L l . Hay 7 Ind n . Com r y. writes that one 
of Pondiacs nephews has informed him that Wamaghtanon Cheif 
named the Goose with some Miamis brought two Belts to his 
Uncle from the French & the Aransas, demanding why he had 
buried the Hatchet, and desireing he would take it up again & 
keep it bright till y e . Spring, when it should be used with more 
vigour than ever, that Pondiac refused the Belts & exhorted his 
People not to notice those who wanted to lead them astray, as he 
was resolved never more to listen to any thing but what he heard 
from the English thro me. M r . Hay adds likewise that he has 
heard of 7 Belts being sent from the Mississipi amg st . the Nations 
ab l . Detroit & Michilimacinac to the foregoing purport. Major 
Rojers confirms the foregoing, Says that a Saquena Cheif has 
promised to deliver up one of the Belts sent to his People, & that 
he has demanded the rest, but that some will not deliver them up, 

Lieutenant Jehu Hay, commissary at Detroit. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 229 

He adds that the release of the S'. Joseph Ind s . has been of Serv- 
ice, & that he is certain the late Treaty at Ontario prevented a 
War. I have sundry other Acc t,s . to much the same effect from 
different Quarters, but hope M r . Croghans presence may be of 
Service, on whose return shall be better informed. — I cannot 
think that any such number of Troops as is before mentioned, have 
gone up the Mississipi, but indeed I have verry little doubt of y e . 
rest touching the Steps taken by the French & ca ., to keep up that 
Spirit of disaffection amongst the Indians, until they may be able 
to create new troubles in America. This was their practice long 
before the last War, and will ever be so, whilst they have the 
Smallest connections with North America, or so long as the most 
distant hopes remain for their getting any footing in it on a future 
Rupture. — 

I am verry certain that Our Traders will either send or sell 
their peltry to those that will send it down the Mississipi for higher 
prices, and I am well assured that the French trade in many 
places far East of that River, of which there are sundry Acc lls . 
& proofs. — Unless something be imediately done by the Govern- 
ment for effectually preventing these abuses, & supporting Officers 
of their own creating, the Good of the public must be sacraficed to 
the Interest of a few Traders, and it will not be in the power of 
Government to effect this, if they give them time to draw up Argu- 
ments against it, & to raise an Army of People in Trade in Sup- 
port of an Irregular & dangerous Commerce. 

I enclose you Baynton & Whartons Acc tl . As You told me it 
might be sent seperate, otherwise I should have included it in my 
next Acc ,ts ., please to let me know whether I have understood 
You, and beleive me to be 

Always with perfect esteem 
Dear Sir 
Your most Obedient 

& verry Humble Servant 

W. Johnson 

His Excellency GENR L . GAGE — 

230 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Sir Will m . Johnson 

12 th . Decern'. 1766 

Inclosing M r . Croghans 

Account & Receipt. 

Received 20 th . Decern 1 ". 

Answ d . — 

NB:M r . Croghens Ace 1 . & Receipt 

sent back to S r . W m . 


L. S} 

Annapolis the 15 th . of December 1766 

Lord Baltimore the Proprietary of Maryland & Mess rs . Penns 
the Proprietors of Pennsylvania having some Years ago entered 
into an Agreement for Running Divisional Lines 2 between their 
respective Provinces appointed certain Commissioners to carry the 
Said Agreement into Execution who have at length caused all the 
Lines to be actually run & described by Vistoes except One which 
is also extended a few Miles farther Westward than Fort Cumber- 
land. According to the Articles of Agreement this Line is to be 
continued to the extreme Western Limit of Pennsylvania but the 
Commissioners being apprehensive that the Indians may take 
Umbrage at it's being done without their Consent I am desired as 
You will see by the inclosed Copy of the Commissioners Minutes 
to represent as much to You & to desire that You will on behalf 
of the Proprietors apply to the Indians concerned for such Con- 
sent so that the Surveyors may proceed with the Line the End of 
March or Beginning of April next. As I presume Governor Penn 
has already wrote to You on the Subject I shall only add that I 
hope You will endeavour to prevail on the Indians to give their 

1 In New York State Library. 

2 The Mason-Dixon Line. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 231 

Consent that the Line may be now run so that there may not 
hereafter be any Dispute between the Inhabitants of Pennsulvania 
& this Province about the Boundaries which has been too much 
the Case for many Years past. 

I am with great Regard 


Your most obedient 

humble Servant 

Hor°. Sharpe 
Sir William Johnson 

indorsed : 

Annapolis 1 5 th . Dec r . 1 766. 

From GoV. Sharp 
concerning the running the 
bounds of Maryland and 


Copy 1 

Johnson Hall, Dee. 19th. 1766. 

I have just now received an account as well from the Inter- 
preter who accompanied the Tuscaroras from North Carolina as 
from an officer of my department, that these people, who were 
accompanied by some Chiefs from the Six Nation Country, who 
fetched them hither, had been well used, by the Inhabitants dur- 
ing their whole journey 'till they came to Paxlon, 2 the people of 
which Settlement have not only used them ill, but also robbed the 
Chief and others of sundry horses, &c, which they got, and pur- 

1 Printed in Pennsylvania Archives, First Series, 4:260-61. 

2 The town of Paxton, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, had been the 
site of early Indian depredations, and the Paxton men had formed a body 
of rangers for Indian warfare. They had carried out the Conestoga 
Massacre in 1 763. 

232 Sir William Johnson Papers 

chased by the sale of their Lands lately in Carolina, which horses 
so stolen ammounted at least to £55 Pensilvania Currency, also 
that the Chiefs who went down in February last to bring their 
relations from Carolina, were ill used, in York County, and sev 1 . 
attempts made to murder them, but that the Officer of my Depart- 
ment had employed the Interpreter to accompany them as a better 
protection which has brought the Charges of his Journey upon the 
Crown, at the same time it appears from the several Certificates 
I have under the seal of the Magistrates through whose Districts 
they passed, that they had behaved with the greatest decency and 

I thought it highly necessary at the request of the Indians who 
have complained to some of the rest of the five nations thereof to 
write you on this subject, in hope something may be done for their 
satisfaction, nothing doubting of your hearty concurrence herein, 
and I find by a letter I have just received from Lord Shelhurne 3 
that his Majesty is highly displeased with the conduct of those 
frontier Americans. 

I am with great esteem, sir, 

Your most obedient, 

humble servant, 

W. Johnson 
The Hon'ble Lt. Gov. Penn. 


Johnson Hall Decb r . 26 th . 1766 
Dear Sir — 

I have had the favour of Your Letter, and am extremely sorry 
to hear that the persons You mention, are endeavouring to Sup- 
plant You in the Land Affair. — 

3 September 1 3, 1 766. Johnson Papers, 5 :374-75. 
1 In Massachusetts Historical Society. A mutilated draft is printed in 
Johnson Papers, 5:453-54. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 233 

M r . Glen spoke to me last Summer concerns. Some lands in 
that Quarter, from which I dissuaded him as I thought, and heard 
no more of till the recp*. of your letter. 

You may be assured that my good offices shall be chearfully 
employed on behalf of yourself & Associates and with that view I 
spoke to the Mohawks long since, but they are now, and have been 
for some two Weeks out on their Hunt, So that there is not a Man 
left in their Village to attend a Meeting of Onondagaes & others 
now here. — I shall on their return lay the case again before them, 
and recommend it to them in y e . manner you desire. At the same 
time I apprehend that Schermerhorn who is a Cunning fellow, and 
acquainted with them, will make use of everry private Art to 
obtain his Ends, and probably without my knowledge, it being 
verry Customary of late for People unauthorized to assemble 
Indians on many Affairs contrary to his Majestys express Inten- 
sions, but it Seems the Law will not admit of a remedy for it, for 
in any Trial by Jury I am certain they would be acquitted. — 

I should imagine the Governour in whose power I think it lies 
might find a Remedy, and I hope that he and the Council will take 
your case into consideration, at all events be assured of my 
freindship and good offices in your behalf, as it would give me a 
pleasure to serve You in any thing consistently, but you well know 
my Scituation is such, and the ill natured so numerous, that I can- 
not use too much caution, but all that I can possibly do in this 
Affair with propriety shall be done. — 

As none of that Land has been surveyed, nor the bounds of 
Ka^adarusseras ever run or ascertained nay not known I am in 
doubt whether there is any large quantity in that place clear of the 
claims of Said Patent, and what will be the fate of it I cant fore- 
see, for I see little hopes of an Accomodation. — 

By a letter I have lately rec d . from Lord Shelburne Secr>\ of 
State 2 wherin his Majesty has been graciously pleased to signify 
his intire approbation of my Conduct, I am informed that the 

2 Dated Dec. 11, 1 766, and labeled No. 2 of Shelburne's letters. 
Johnson Papers, 5 :447-49. 

234 Sir William Johnson Papers 

General & the Several Gov rs . have received Orders respecting the 
Conduct of the Frontier Inhabitants, Some towards the Indians, & 
concerning Encroachm ts . Other Affairs of the Department are 
under consideration, in consequence of this the Gov r . of Pensil- 
vania has Issued a Proclamation & Sent Copys to the Ind s . for 
their Satisfaction one of w h . the Ondagaes brought to me, I have 
not heard of any Steps of that nature in the other Governments. — 
I am always sincerely disposed to Serve You as I am with 
perfect esteem, 

Dear Sir 
Your hearty Welwisher 
& verry Humble Servant 

W. Johnson 
J T. Kemp Esq r . — 


26*. Decern'. 1 766 

Letter from Sir Will 1 ". Johnson 

Indian purchase 


Cop]; 1 

New York December 28th 1766 

We should have sooner acknowledged the Receipt of your kind 
Favor, of the 24th of October 2 But we were at a Loss to know, 
what your Honor intended by Our "transmitting to you, all the 

1 Printed in Illinois Historical Collections, 1 1 :464-66. Original in New 
York State Library was destroyed by fire. The original was in the hand- 
writing of Samuel Wharton. 

2 Not found. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 235 

necessary Vouchers and Receipts &c respecting the £2321 9 8 
New York Currency, paid to us by the General." 

When Our M r . Wharton was at Fort Pitt, in June last, He 
exhibited Our Accounts against the Crown, to M r . Croghan and 
at the same Time, gave Him a full Receipt under Them. 

These Accounts, M r . Croghan forwarded to you and Then he 
gave us a Draft upon your Honor, for the above Sum (which in- 
cludes, as well our Account, as the Cash we advanced to that 
Gentleman, for the pay of Himself &c) and that Draft, we in- 
closed to you, indorsed, by us. 

We are realy distressed, That we do not know, What farther 
Voucher is wanted ; — But if you will be so good Sir, as to point 
Out to us, What is — we will chearfully execute it. And in the 
mean Time, we hereby acknowledge to have received from you, 
Thro' his Excellency The Honorable General Gage's office, the 
above sum of Two thousand Three hundred & Twenty One 
pounds 9/8 New York Currency, in full of all Our Demands 
against the Crown at Fort Pitt, to the 8th or 1 Oth of June last and 
likewise, in full of George Croghan's Draft upon your Honor for 
that Sum, drawn in the said month, of June. 

We are most sensibly Obliged, by the very Polite and friendly 
manner, in which you have mentioned the Trade at the Shawanese 
Town, to his Excellency the General. M r . Croghan will shortly 
return from the Illenois and will, we dare say, chearfully confirm 
what we have said to your Honor, On this Subject. Now we men- 
tion this Gentleman, we have the pleasure of acquainting you, 
That this Day we are informed, by a Batteau Man, in Our 
Service, Who landed here last night from Pennsacola, — That 
He arrived at New Orleans on the 1 5th Day of October, and was 
getting somewhat better. 

The Batteau man left Him there, on the 24th of that month and 
says — He preposed embarking, for this City, by the first Vessel, 
That offered. 

M r . Croghan was very ill with the Fever and Ague at Fort 
Chartres (as were Captain Gordon & Our Partner) and con- 
tinued so, The whole passage, down the Missisipi. Our Letters 

236 Sir William Johnson Papers 

from Our Partner, 3 are replete with Complaints against the 
French, being suffered to come from the Spanish Shoar (where 
They have removed to) to Ours & then dispersing Themselves, up 
the Wabache, Illenois Rivers &c — To the inexpressible Injury 
of the British Interest. And Which, is very hard, upon us, after 
strugling with almost insurmountable Difficultys and Expence — 
But we will not anticipate a Subject — Which is the proper 
Province, of y r . Deputy. 

The Liberty and Honor of corresponding with you — , which 
you have Sir, been so condescendingly obliging, as to grant us — 
constrain us, to mention a matter to you, — That may perhaps, 
hereafter, check that Tranquility, Which you are incessantly 
laboring to perpetuate. By Letters from Cumberland County, from 
Persons, we can rely upon, we are informed, That Colonel 
Cressap 4 of Maryland, sometime last Summer held a Treaty with 
forty Six Nation Warriors, In Which, They, by Deed, ceded to 
Him a large Extent of Land, down the Ohio & about Green Brier 
&c. We never heared, That M r . Cressap any ways acted, in Sub- 
ordination to your Honor and Therefore we are uneasy, least 
such Contracts may produce Discontent; For others will no 
Doubt, follow such unwarrantable Practises & for small Con- 
siderations — , perhaps, When the Natives are intoxicated, may 
beguile Them into a Disposal of their Lands. 

We can never fully testify Our Gratitude, for the very humane 
and friendly manner, In Which your Honor has interested your- 
self, for us, with Respect, to a Compensation, for Our Immense 
Indian Losses; But if Colonel Cressap or any other Persons, are 
permitted thus to bargain with the natives — we are apprehensive, 
your benevolent Intentions may be frustrated and this Un- 
fortunately, at a Crisis, When Our Fr d . Doctor Franklin, is 
earnestly pushing, for the Kings Confirmation ; — For by the last 
packet, He writes us, That Lord Shelbourn, had the matter then 
under Consideration. 

3 George Morgan. 

4 Michael Cresap. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 237 

The Losses, which we formerly sustained by the Indian War, 
joined to the Embarrasments, we have since encountred with, in 
the Trade, have been, almost, too much for us, to wrestle with. — 
Your Goodness, we trust, will therefore pardon our, perhaps, 
troublesome Tautology, On the Subject of the Indian Grant; For 
suffer us to say — It is the great & long sighed for Object, — 
From Whence, we fondly hope, to derive some Comfort. One 
favorable Letter Now, from your Honor, to his Lordship the Earl 
of Shelbourn, expressing the Policy, as well as Equity of the 
Kings confirming to the Traders, the Indian Grant D r . Franklin 
says, would induce the Confirmation, as his Lordship, has the 
highest Respect, for y r . Honor. 

We realy blush, to be so free, — But permit a compassionate 
Regard, for innocent Sufferers, to plead in their Behalf. 

Major Murray gave Captain Callendar, at Fort Pitt, on the 
20th Day of last month, the same Relation, as to M r . Cressap's 
Purchase, which we have afforded your Honor. 

Last night M r . Wharton (who writes this, from New York) 
had the pleasure of a Letter from Governor Franklin, giving Him 
the agreable Intelligence, — That just as He was writing, He had 
an Express from Judge Read, informing Him, That He had tryed 
the murderer of the Oneida Indian, in Sussex County & That He 
was convicted and executed. 

The Government of New Jersey, certainly deserve great 
Credit for the laudable Spirit, They have evinced, in punishing 
Indian Murderers. And to do Governor Franklin Justice It must 
be admitted, That He has been very industrious, To have, the last 
Fellow, in particular, convicted, As his Crime was aggravated, by 
a most atrocious Robbery. 

You no Doubt Sir, have heared from Him, in Respect to the 
Illenois matter, As He told us, He should write very fully, to you. 

We are fearfull of offending, And Yet Our Want of Cash is so 
great, That necessity impels Our Pen to intimate, That if it was 
not disagreable to your Honor — we should esteem it, very kind, 
to order us paid, M r . M c Kee's Draft for £299 New York Cur- 

238 Sir William Johnson Papers 

rency ; — As we advanced it to Him, long since — But if it is the 
least Inconvenient — We Pray you will decline it. 

We are with Sentiments of the highest Respect & Gratitude 
Sir your most Obedient and faithful Servants. 
The Honorable SlR WlLLIAM JOHNSON Bar 1 . &c 

Baynton Wharton & Morgan 
indorsed : 

New York Dedy. 28 ,h . 1 766 

Letter from Mess rs . Baynton Wharton & Morgan 


Contemporary Copy 1 

New York December 29 ih . 1766. 
Dear Sir, 

The Belts which you tell me in Your Letter of the 12 th . 
Instant, 2 to have been sent amongst the Nations upon the Lakes by 
the French and Spaniards may be a Fact, but I dont apprehend 
that any Number of Troops are gone up the Mississippi. You will 
probably by this time have heared from M r . Croghan, he wrote me 
en the 10 th . of September, and tells me in general, that he had 
a Conference at Fort Chartres on the 25 th . of August, with the 
Principal Warriors of Eight Nations divided into Twenty two 
Bands of Tribes, and finnished his Business to the Satisfaction of 
the several Nations, who all seemed convinced that the French 
had imposed upon them, in every thing they had told them. A 
General Peace and Reconciliation was then declared in Publick 
between His Majesty's Subjects the Northern Nations, and all 
those Western Nations, except Three Tribes which the French 
had Influence to keep from the Conference, but the other Chiefs 
brought them afterwards to M r . Croghan who Settled every thing 
with them, and recieved them into the Covenant Chain of Friend- 
ship. He commends the Conduct of the Deputy's of the Nations 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Ante pp. 227-30. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 239 

who attended him from Fort Pitt, M r . Croghan Adds, that at 
present Indian Affairs wear a different face in that Country, and 
the Indians seem quite reconciled to the English, and the French 
in their turn begin to fear the consequences since the Conference. 
I have had no Letter from the Officer Commanding, or from any 
other Person but M r . Croghan. 

M r . Maturin 3 has laid by £ 1 500. Sterling for Your use some- 
time, waiting a proper and safe Opportunity to transmit it to you, 
he has paid a Draft of Yours, I think of £390. — 

I return you M r . Croghan' s Receipt, with another which I beg 
of you to Sign and transmit here, and keep M r . Croghan's Your- 
self. I shall then destroy the Temporary Receipt which Baynton 
and Wharton gave me. I find that I had not explained Myself 
clearly to you about this affair. 

We have been upon the Eve of a War in West Florida, with 
the Creek Indians, but by Letters which are just recieved from 
Pensacola I find Colonel Tayler 4 who has Commanded there as 
Brigadier General has exerted himself, and restored Peace to Sat- 

I Am with great Regard. 

Dear Sir, 

Sir W m . Johnson Bart. 


Copy./ To 

Sir W m . Johnson Bart. 

Johnson Hall. 
New York Decern'. 29 th . 1 766. 

3 Gabriel Maturin. 

4 Lieutenant Colonel William Tayler of the 9th regiment. 

240 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

[Johnson Hall, Dec. 18-30, 1766] 
Decm r . 1 8 th . — On this day Isaac a Tuscarora Chief with 
another of said Nation, and Joseph Nicolaus Interpreter arrived 
here from North Carolina from whence they brought 1 60 of their 
Tribe to settle among the Six Nations, and sev 1 . letters for S r . 
W m ., by which it appeared that they with great difficulty were 
allowed to pass in safety thro' the Frontiers of Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, Virginia &c nothwithstanding they had his Pass, as 
also that of the Magistrates of the sev 1 . Districts — that at Paxton 
in Pennsylv ia . in their Return from North Carolina they were 
plundered of sev 1 . things, particularly of Six Horses they had 
bought with Part of the money they had received for the Sale of 
part of their Lands in that Government. — these with many more 
Complaints were made known to the Six Nations, altho' Sir W m . 
endeavored all he cou'd to keep it private from them, knowing 
their tempers were already much sowered by such like treatment 
shewn to sev 1 . of their People this year [past] as they passed thro' 
them Governments. — They then begged Sir W m . wou'd allow 
[//iern] some Provision, Ammunition, and Clothing to the New 
comers, who were now in the utmost Distress at Shamokin, 2 not 
having been able to reach the Place of their Destination 'till 
Spring. — Sir W m . wrote a letter by the Interpreter to Captain 
Graydon living at Shamokin with directions to furnish the Indians 
with such a quantity of Provision as they could Subsist on 'till the 
Spring, and to give their young men some Ammunition wherewith 
to kill Game, — also a letter to Governor Penn therein acquaint- 
ing him with the behavior of the Paxton People, and requesting 
he woud have some satisfaction made to the Sufferers, — all which 
then made them easy together w th . a small Present given them. — 
1 8 th . — Eod. die a Messenger from the Onondagas arrived to 
acquaint Sir W m . that the Sachims of his Nation accompanied 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 
3 Later Sunbury, Pa. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 241 

by others, were on their way hither, and wou'd be here the next 
day. — 

1 9 th . — The Bunt chief Sachim of Onondaga with the Speaker, 
and five other Sachims &c in all to the number of 25 arrived here 
— On their being conducted into the Council Room, the speaker 
went thro' the usual Ceremony, and then accquainted Sir W m . 
that the Nanticofys were to attend the Meeting, and that they ex- 
pected them in a day or two, when they wou'd lay before him the 
business they came upon. 

Eod. die the Conjohare chiefs arrived here, being desired by 
the Onondagas to attend, as also the lower Mohawks, a circum- 
stance distressing to Sir W m . not having any Kings Provision for 
them, therefore was under a necessity of Issuing his own Family 
Stores to them. — 

23 d . — The Nanticoks not being arrived, and the Conajohares 
being impatient to return home on ace 1 , of a great Thaw, the 
Onondagas agreed to lay before Sir W m . the occasion of their 
coming down. — being all met, Sir W m . performed the Cere- 
mony of Condolence for the loss of Diaquanda's Son, and the 
Speaker's grandchild with three Bunches, and one black belt of 
Wampum — to which they made the usual Return. — Sir W m . 
then told them that he was ready to hear what they had to say, 
On which T eyaxvarunte speaker desired first to speak a few words 
on behalf of the Six Nations viz*, "that they judged it necessary 
before they entered on business to cleanse Sir W ms . inside from 
head to foot so as to leave nothing there which might interrupt 
their friendly meeting." — 

A white Belt 6 Rows 

Then continued — Brother, we the Six Nations do also with 
this white Wing cleanse the Council Room so that nothing may 
obstruct the Harmony, and Friendship subsisting between us, and 
the good Works necessary for our mutual Interests. — 

3 Branches of Wampum. — 
Brother. — 

We the Six Nations return you many thanks for the Enquiry 
you made into the many Reports some time ago spread, of our 

242 Sir William Johnson Papers 

People being killed, and we rejoice with you to find they were 
groundless. — We with this Belt remove all uneasiness from your 
breast which they might have occasioned, and also dress up the 
Tree of Shelter, and Peace, so that the Roots, and Limbs thereof 
may spread and flourish over this extensive Land. — 

A Belt 6 Rows mixed with some black. — 
Brother. — 

This much we Judged very necessary to do before we pro- 
ceeded upon the business which lead us here, and at present shall 
go on with the rest, after some Pause, Tiawarunte spoke to S r . 
W m . as follows 
Brother. — 

We now desire your attention on behalf of our Children the 
Nanticoks, Canoys, and Delawares who have lately requested of 
us to lay their desires before you, and begged our Interest on this 
occasion. — First that as their People who yet remain near 
the Sea Side, are in a very poor Situation, and desire to come & 
settle among the rest on the Six Nation's Land, we request, to 
this end, you will grant them Passports, as you have done to the 
Tuscaroras, and others formerly. — Next they produced to Sir 
W m . a Letter from James Cohorka a Nanticok to his Friend 
Sam 1 . Cottice, requiring him (S r . W m .) to inform them of the 
contents of it as also Governor Penn's Proclamation of the 23 d . 
Septem r . 1 766, both which they laid on the table, and said they 
were delivered to them by a Nanticok who returned from Philad ia . 
some time ago, whither he with his tribe went last Summer to know 
from the Governor the reason of his People's Killing three of their 
Relations in cool blood near Shamokin, — also to know from 
him whether it was by his Permission, or Order that some People 
of his Government came up to, and took away from off the Six 
Nations Lands at Wioming some Oar at sundry times. — That as 
to the killing the three Indians, the Governor assured them it gave 
him the utmost Concern, and to convince them of it he took the 
Axe out of their heads with three short strings of Wampum, at 
which there was a general Laugh raised on account of its small- 
ness, Such Ceremony being always performed with a large Belt 

Indian A fairs, 1766-68 243 

&c — And as to the Oar being carried away, he said he was 
ignorant of it, but promised them he wou'd find it out ere long, and 
make them satisfaction for the same. — that the Governor further 
told them to Seize any Persons they found trespassing there, and 
to bring them before him, that then he woud find out the Persons 
who employed them. — The Speaker then said he had finished 
what they came about. 

Sir W m . answered them by telling them that as the Conjohares 
&c were desirous of setting off immediately on account of the Ice 
they had to pass being bad, he wou'd then acquaint them all with 
the Purport of the two Papers which they delivered him, and also 
would give them his answer concerning the Nanticoks &c, that he 
wou'd the next day return answers to the other Belts, and Strings, 
which being their usual Ceremonials, did not require their attend- 
ance ; and of this they approved. — 

Here S r . W m . interpreted to them the Indian Letter, and 
Governor Penn's Proclamation, — & told them that as they were 
desirous of having all the scattered tribes removed from their 
present Places of Abode near the Sea Shore, and it being also 
their own desire, he wou'd give them a Pass for that Purpose, 
also that he wou'd write to the sev 1 . Governors in whose Provinces 
they lived, to see Justice done them with regard to what Lands 
they then might have. — for w ch . they returned many thanks, & 
seemed well pleased &c — 

Dec r . 24 th . — The Indians being assembled Sir W m . thanked 
them for the Ceremony they performed the day before, and in 
return removed from their breasts all uneasiness which might have 
been occasioned by any misconduct of the White People, or other- 
wise, — also lighted up the Council Fire of Onondaga, cleansed 
the Council Room of all Filth it might have contracted for some 
time past, and recommended to the Chiefs a strict observance of 
their engagements with the English &c, all which he enforced w th . 

2 Belts of Wampum & a Bunch of D°. 

The Speaker having informed Sir W m . that the Bunt chief of 
the Onondaga nation was at present very uneasy in mind on ac- 

244 Sir William Johnson Papers 

count of some Family Difference, begged that he wou'd speak in 
public concerning it, which Sir W m . did with a Bunch of 
Wampum, and Exhorted all of that Nation then present to use 
their best Offices for a Reconciliation so necessary and which then 
effected, must tend to the advantage of the whole Nation; to the 
Performance of this the Indians gave Sir W m . the strongest as- 
surances, as did the Bunt of his readiness, and desire to come into 
any reasonable terms. — 

Sir W m . then laid before them the many Advantages accruing 
to their Nations from their embracing the present favorable and 
very friendly Offers made them by the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, of sending Missionaries, and 
Catechists among them for their Instruction in the Principles of 
the Christian Religion, and the Education of their Children, 
which as a Member of that body, he was desired to make known 
to them, and as their Friend he strenuously urged it to them, being 
well assured that nothing wou'd tend more to their acquiring an 
Esteem & Regard in this World, and their Happiness in the next. 
— then desired they wou'd on their Return to their sev 1 . Nations 
seriously consider the affair, and give him their answer by the first 
favorable Opportunity. ■ — 

A Bunch of Wampum. — 

The Indians promised Sir W m . that they would lay the affair 
before all the Six Nations, and as soon as their Resolutions were 
taken, to make him acquainted with them. — 

Sir W m . then gave them a Present of Clothing, Amunition, 
Cash &c, and concluded with giving them a friendly Admonition, 
and necessary Rules for their future Conduct, which if observed, 
he assured them wou'd be the most effectual means of preserving 
that Covenant of Friendship, and brotherly Love entered into with 
the English, on their first Arrival here, and so often renewed in 
his Presence, and on which their Happiness depended. — To all 
which they gave a very favorable answer, — but did not seem to 
think well of the Senecas — Ended — 

Decern 1- . 29 th . — On this day Conaquieson chief Sachim of 
Oneida with Saghuagarat, and another arrived here from their 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 245 

Nation, being sent by them to Sir William with a Complaint 
against Conradt Frank Justice, 3 Ury Klock, and an Albany man, 
whose name they did not know, that they were treating for Land 
with one of their People who was always in the French Interest, 
and lived in Canada 'till of late, and is determined as soon as he 
gets the money for the land he is now about Selling (to which they 
say he has no Right) to leave their Country, and remove to 
Canada, or Detroit, — that as such Proceedings are contrary to 
what they were told by the Governor, and Sir W m . repeatedly, 
they requested Sir W m . wou'd immediately put a Stop thereto, 
their Men and Women, old, and young being ag f . it 
30 th . — Sir W m . wrote a letter by them to Justice Frank, and 
desired he wou'd not proceed any further in it as it was contrary 
to his Majesty's Proclamation, and the Indians inclinations. — 
Sir W m . then acquainted them with the account he had then 
received from Lieut Roberts 4 Commissary at Niagara about one 
of the Vessels being burnt by accident, and desired that they 
wou'd report it in the same manner to the Six Nations, lest false 
accounts might be spread concerning it. Then gave them some 
Cash, Clothing &c and sent a Sled with them to the River. — Eod. 
Die — Thomas a Conjohare Indian was sent to acquaint Sir 
W m . that one Cobus Pickard now living in the Fort at Con- 
johare, on being refused the Loan of a Sled a few days ago by 
Hendrick's Widdow, made use of much abusive language to the 
Indians there, and among other things told them that they need not 
be so forward, for that they wou'd soon be sent a Packing from 
thence by the Governor, as having no right to the Lands — they 
begged Sir W m . wou'd remove him, and put a Stop to such 
behavior for the future. — 

3 Captain Conrad Franck, justice of the peace. 

4 Lieutenant Benjamin Roberts. 

246 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Orders and Regulations respecting the Indian Trade and Duty 
of Commissaries throughout the Northern Department by Sir 
W m . Johnson Bar', for the Year 1 767 in consequence of his 
Majesty's Orders signified to him by the Secretary of State. — 

1 st . That every Person desirous of trading with the Indians shall 
first obtain a proper Pass from the Governor of the Colony from 
whence he came, and shall enter into a Recognizance to abide by 
the Regulations which now are or hereafter shall be thought 
necessary — 

2 nd . That the Traders shall on their Arrival at each Post lay 
before the Commissary their Pass, together with an exact Invoice 
of all their Goods &c, and that they do not by any means break 
bulk without the Commissaries knowledge, and permission, nor 
refuse him a State of their Traffick, and Peltry when he shall 
demand it. 

3 d . That no Trader presume to pass any Post, the Residence of 
a Commissary, without first shewing the Commissary his Pass 
specifying the Place where he is to trade, and if no particular 
Post be therein mentioned, that then the Commissary shall give 
such Trader a Permit to go to the next Post where a Commissary 
resides, and such trader shall go immediately to said Post, with- 
out breaking bulk by the way, and when there, shall produce his 
Pass, and Invoice as before directed to the Commissary, who shall 
immediately report to the Commissary who gave the Permit, the 
day of such traders arrival, and whether his Goods agree w th . the 
Invoice. — And that no trader having passed a Post, be admitted 
to trade at another without a Permit from the Commissary of the 
Post he so passed. — 

4 th . That every trader do take care to be always provided with, 
and constantly make use of just Weights, and Measures, as any 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 247 

errors therein in trade with the Indians will be for the future con- 
sidered as willful. — 

5 th . That the Trade with the Indians throughout the Department 
be confined entirely to the Posts, and that nothing but the most 
absolute necessity from the peculiar Situation of the Indians North 
of Lake Huron shall Justify any Permission given to Traders 
from Michillimacinac to go among the Tribes, — and any trader 
so going out, shall be answerable for all Consequences and is not 
to expect the Protection or Redress of Government. — 
6 th . That no Trader presume to beat, or abuse any Indian, or to 
send Belts of Wampum, or Messages to any Nations, or Indi- 
viduals whatsoever, or to hold meetings with them on any 
Occasions, or use any unfair Practices to draw in the Indians to 
trade with him, or them, or force away their Peltry under Pretence 
of their being in Debt, as all traders who voluntarily credit Indians 
must abide by the consequences. — 

7 th . That a Tariff be established by the Commissary early every 
Spring on the most equitable terms for both traders, and Indians. 
— that all the traders abide thereby — that the Traffic at each 
Post be carried on by day light in the most public manner, — And 
that the traders avoid taking Pledges, particularly Arms, and 
Medals. — 

8 th . That the Traders do strictly observe, and follow these Regu- 
lations on pain of having their Bonds put in Suit, and of being 
otherwise dealt with for neglecting the Orders of Government. — 
9 th . That the Commissaries cause frequent Enquiry to be made 
whether any Persons are trading in any of the Rivers, Bays, &c, 
or along any of the Lakes, and if any such there are, that he apply 
to the commanding Officer for assistance to bring such trader 
away, — And that the Commissaries do constantly acquaint the 
commanding officer of any material Occurrence, or how many 
Traders have passed the Post & who — 

10 th . That the Commissaries do correspond constantly with each 
other, communicating everything necessary the better to enable 
them to detect the Frauds, and Abuses, and transact the affairs 
committed to their Charge agreeable to his Majesty's Intentions. — 

248 Sir William Johnson Papers 

1 1 th . That the Commissaries carefully inspect into the Conduct of 
the Interpreters who are employed solely for the uses of the De- 
partment — That they likewise see that the Smiths are diligent 
and works faithfully without Fee or Reward. — 


Hunsdon next Ware Hartfordshire 
January 10th, 176/ \ — 

My Good Sir William — 

To this little quiet Place, are Your Son and I, come down, to 
pass a quiet week together, during the recess of Parliament, and 
to talk over American Stories, and write by the Packett; which 
is to be made up, this very night. — therefore, I hope this will be 
very fresh Intelligence of us Both — but you must submitt to a 
great deal of it — & blame Yourself for some of it, for being 
much more attentive to us, than we deserve — T'is myself I 
assure You — not Sir John, whom I describe, in this Place. — 

I have been happy in hearing four times, from You, since we 
parted at Johnson Hall — the first you sent by your Son, which 
I answered from England 2 — as much as I was able to do — but 
not so fully, as I could have wished, where You was concerned. 
— for, It has been my bad luck, never to have had one friend, in 
Power, since my return, to Europe; & for that obvious cause, I 
have gott nothing done, either for my self — or for my friends, 
during that long Period, for, long It has seemed to me, who have 
generally differed from these wise Heads, and frequently, run on 
the losing side of the Post. — 

I have taken much to Heart, that no notice has ever been 
taken, or no answer ever thought of, or sent to the Honest 

1 In New York State Library. 

2 November 18, 1765. Not found, but mentioned in Daniel Claus to 
John Johnson, Feb. 28, I 766. Claus Papers, Canadian Archives. 

Indian A fairs, 1766-68 249 

Mohawks, & others; who complain with so much right, and 
Justice, about their Treatment, of the Kayderossery Lands. — 
and I have no reason to feell pleased, that notwithstanding the 
strenghth and reason of your just Claims, and the repeated remon- 
strances, I have made on that head, to everp one of them all — 
that, as yet no material Step towards contenting You, has been 
taken — except fair words, & Promises can be held so. — Indeed, 
the Great Officers of State, & all the Boards of Government, have 
been in so continued a state of fluctuation, ever since Mr. Gren- 
ville was turned out — I believe in my Heart, they have thought 
of nothing, but how to gett into office, & then how to keep In! 
On my arrivall very lately I found quite a new Batch of Ministers 

— and Lord Shelburne is now the Man for all American affairs 

— I have not Yet paid my Court there, for one reason that I do 
not much like the Man — nor his Counsellors — but I am how- 
ever determined to go to Him, on Your business solely — & tell 
Him all the truth — before Your Son — that he may not claim 
ignorance, and that Sir John may be my wittness to You — that I 
have done every thing in my power, to procure You Justice — for 
I can never allow it, to be a matter of favour. — 

Your 2 d . Letter dated in Nov r . 1 765 3 — contains nothing 
particular, but the accounts of the riot, at New York — and in 
one I wrote to You soon after — I told You, the Part I had taken 

— for which, I make no doubt, I have lost my Popularity in 
America — Which I am sorry for, but would have been more 
sorry, had I, by acting against the Conviction of my own Heart 
and feelings — been guilty of Giving my Consent, to vote away 
forever Dependancy of that Country on Great Britain — I could 
not have done it — had a regiment of Guards been the Bribe ! 

Your next kind Letter was of Aprill 1 766 4 — and was a 
Sollicitation In favour of Capt n . Prevost to succeed Capt n . Sclosser 
of the Americans — from each of which Gentlemen I had a 

3 November 29, 1 765. See Johnson Calendar, p. 293. Destroyed by 

4 April 20, 1 766, Johnson Papers, 5 : 1 88-89. This is mutilated by fire. 

250 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Letter, much about that time — & to each of them I returned a 
plain answer — namely — that the Secretary at War had assured 
me, the King was determined, to allow no officer to sell any Com- 
mission, He had not actually bought — & it is so much so — that 
I have not yet been able (tho I went in to the King myself, on his 
account) to gett out an old Captain of my own regiment, who has 
served more than forty Years, is wore out and maimed in every 
Joint by wounds — and is so ill of an Asthma as to be fitt for no 
further Service — if they alter their plan — It would give me 
pleasure to be of any use to these two Gentlemen, both on their 
own Accounts, and because You are interested about it — & I 
wish when opportunity offers, You would signify so to both of 
them, at present it must stand still. 

Your last Letter dated 1 th . Cct r . 1 766 5 — I have now before 
me — and I am to return you my most particular thanks for it — 
but I am surprised, You take no notice of a Letter, I wrote you, 
from Preston Hall, & sent by Glasgow — about July last, how- 
ever I will send by that channell no more — for yours is not the 
only Letter, I have not yet had accounts of. — 

I passed all my summer in Scotland and had a flying sight of 
Sir John for half a day, which I scolded Him for — as no good 
can be gott, and Knowledge acquired, by flying over a Country 
like a Wood Cock — I cm however not to blame Him too much 
— ■ for he had been detained in dear Ireland longer that he meant 
— and it was to attend some Dispatches of Yours, He was 
Hurrying So to London. — 

I am glad you sent over a Draft of the Land, tho Sir John 
tells me, he saw the same in one of M r . Pownalls office books — 
The terms we have gott in East Florida is at five Years end to 
pay Quitt rent for half our Quantity & at the expiration of ten 
Years to commence quit rent for the whole — on these terms 
Myself and many others have taken out Grants Here — for Land 
there — some ten some twenty thousand acres — some five — I 

5 Perhaps that dated Oct. 8, 1766, in Johnson Calendar, p. 331, 
destroyed by fire. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 251 

find in General however, Gentlemen who are accustomed to these 
Country Lands, preferr taking up their Land, on the Spot, by 
Family right, from the Governor, rather than by Grant from 
Home — I have some, in both ways — and so, if ever I gett to 
see it, I shall be a competent Judge, of the Difference, between 
one, & the other. — 

I think myself very much oblidged to You, Good Sir, indeed, 
for thinking of me, for ten thousand acres, near the Mohawk 
river ; and I wish You, to secure it, for me, as near, what is to be 
your own, as may be. — The Duke of Atholl, my very worthy 
friend (& a friend to your Son too) has wished, to go halves, with 
me, in my Bargain — and as soon, as You lett us know, what we 
are to pay for it — & what cultivation, You would most recom- 
mend to us — we are determined, to sett about settling it 
imediately, either, by appointing an Agent — there, and granting 
it out, to those who desire to be our tenants ; or by sending out, to 
it, some people from Scotland, Ireland, and Germany — as we can 
gett them. — But all will depend, on a Report, from You — The 
Duke has entered much into the Spirit of it — & means it, for an 
establishment, for his 2 d . Son, Lord James Murray. — who comes 
into our Line — & is to be under Your Hum ble . Serv*. — next 
War, — and an American of Course. — I should not have 
thought, of such an acqusition — but as you have been so kind, as 
to think of me — I am very thankfull to You, for it ; — and hope, 
to see it, before I die. — I would keep that is nearest You, for 
my self; to be called in the Survey, Nerv Huntly — & what is 
to be for Lord James Murray — New Atholl. — It will be a 
good Summer retreat, when the Sun is too much for me in East 
florida. — having now said, all I can think of, about my self, and 
my Concerns — I come, to something, much more deserving Your 
Attention — & very interesting to You. — 

I desire then, to assure You, — that every Body, who has 
seen Your Son, is pleased much with him ; and desirous of being 
better acquainted, with Him. — I think, He is greatly changed 
for the better, in point of Address, and Conversation. — as to His 

252 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Heart, & his Understanding, No Change could be wished; for 
the one is honest, and the other clear. — The Dutchess of Nor- 
folk, declares, Ireland has made Him quite another Man; I 
preach to him Dayly — that, when He is here — & at his age, is 
the time, to see Europe, & Men & Manners — of various 
Countries — and I go so farr, as to say — I will be bound for it, 
Sir William shall approve, of his staying another Year, or two — 
if he will determine, to dedicate his time, and his Attention, to such 
Purposes, as may by the acquiring of them — render him usefull 
to his own Country, when he returns to it — and an Honour to 
his family. — 

I have tried all my rhetorick upon Him — but, indeed, He 
seems so much bent on getting back, to these stveet inchanting 
banks of the Mohawk river — I fear, tis in vain I preach, and 
argue — for tho He admitts, I am in the right — He does not 
seem enough convinced, to acquiesce — and Stay! 

I bid him delay only, till the fall — before which season, He 
may know Your Mind fully, on the Matter. — 

this I must say — that whatever expence, he has been at, or 

may still be at, whilst absent from You — it is all well beston>ed 

— and You will be pleased, it has happened, When Ever You 

meet. — As for my part — I do assure You, Sir William — I am 

more than repaid, any little attention I have for him; in the 

Pleasure, I have, in his Company, & the satisfaction I enjoy, and 

hope ever to injoy, in Your friendship, and his, to me — who am, 

with the utmost truth, and real Esteem — My Dear Sir 

William — 

Your faithfull, hum b,e . Servant — 

& attached, fast friend — 

Ad : Gordon 

I beg my Compt s . to the Ladies, & Gentlemen near the Fort. — & 
that you will tell C Clauss, neither I [or] nor any Man I have 
mett, would have any scruple, to take the oath of half pay — & 
hold a civil employment, at the will of a Subject. Which, his office 
under You, certainly, must be understood to be. — God bless 
You, & send You many returns of this season — I do not think, 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 253 

they can prevail on Gov r . Murray to return — The Noble Gov". 
last sent out to two opposite, & distant Colonies — are sad 
trash. — 


Sir William Johnson Bar 1 . 

His Majesty's Superintendant for Indian Affairs — 
At Johnson Hall by 
New York 

North America 

p d . 

. 2/ .N.C. 

P. Cooke 


Hunsdon Janr>\ 10*. 1767 

Lord Adam Gordons letter 
from Hartfordshire. 


Copy 1 

A Letter from G. Croghan to General Gage on the best method 
of supplying Fort Chartres with provisions. 

New York 12 Jan'y. 1767 

In obedience to your Excellencys desire, I herein deliver you 
my Candid opinion, in respect to the easiest, Cheapest and most 
certain method of supplying Fort Chartres with Provisions. 

6 In Sir William's hand. 

1 Printed in Illinois Historical Collections, 1 1 :479-81. Copy sent by 
Croghan to Franklin, and by Franklin to Shelburne. A signed copy of 
this letter is in the Shelburne papers, 48:127, in the William L. Clements 
Library. Copy in Johnson manuscripts was destroyed by fire. See Johnson 
Calendar, p. 340. 

254 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Finding, when I was there, a great Scarcity, notwithstanding 
the two Batteau Loads, which went down, with me from Fort 
Pitt, I made it my business to enquire into the State of the 
Country, and found, that the Garrison could be well furnished 
with Flower, Peas, Indian Corn, Buffelo & Bullock Beef. The 
latter indeed cannot be got a[t] Fort Chartres, but can be pro- 
cured at Post Vincent, about Sixty Leagues from thence and they 
would always be delivered in good order to our Troops, as they 
would be drove thro' a fine Meadow Country. 

I likewise made it my business, whilst at the Illinois, as I saw 
the Situation of the Garrison, to enquire of the most considerable 
French Farmers there, what was the reason, they discovered so 
much backwardness in Selling Provisions to us, when such plenty 
could and was raised in their Country. They informed me, that it 
was Occasioned by the pay they received, which being either in 
Bills upon England, or upon New York. It was not only very 
inconvenient to them (living at such a vast distance from any Sea 
Port Town) but they were great Sufferers thereby, as they were 
obliged to Sell them, to a Loss of fifty and Sixty Per Cent, 
to the Merchants of New Orleans, from whom they Purchased 
their Goods. 

The bad management of the paper Currency of the Illinois, 
during the French Time, and the very general Discredit of English 
Bills, both there, and in New Orleans, have fixed such an aversion 
in the minds of the French, that they never will supply us with 
Provisions, except they are either paid on the Spot, in Cash, or 
such Commodities, as they want. 

Upon the whole I am clearly of opinion, that a Sufficient 
quantity of Provisions, for five hundred Men, for twelve Months, 
may be immediately obtained there, Provided, either that Cash, 
was without loss of time, sent to the Commanding Officer to pur- 
chase it, or some good Persons of Suitable property in the Country, 
bought it of, and paid the French Farmers for it, and by which 
means, I think the Troops may be certainly furnished, at about 
Twelve pence Sterling per Ration on the Spot. With respect to 
supplying Fort Chartres from New Orleans, Pensacola or Mobile, 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 255 

I am convinced it is wholly impracticable, unless at an immense 
expence to the Crown. 

From Fort Pitt, it can undoubtedly be done, but there are 
only two Seasons in the year, that can be depended on, for ex- 
pedition, and even then, the expence is enormous to the Crown in 
Building Batteaus, for every new Supply and in Employing Men 
to Navigate them (who will not go except at high wages) which 
Batteaus are an intire Loss to the Crown, as they cannot be 
brought up the Ohio again, to Fort Pitt. Indeed, as they are all 
made of Green Timber, they will not last any time. If a good 
Magazine of Provisions was immediately bought of the French, 
I beg leave to Acquaint your Excellency, that I am persuaded it 
would tend greatly as well to the Safety of the Garrison, as to the 
continuance of the present peaceable Temper of the Natives : and 
it would Induce the French to be Industrious in raising Wheat 
Cattle &c for future years. In short, it is my opinion, we should 
loose no time in making it their Interest to be our Friends, whereby 
we should break their Connextions with the people at New 
Orleans (which the sooner it is done, will be the better for the 
British Interest) And it would be a means of inducing many of 
those, who have removed to the Spanish side, to return to our's 
with their Cattle &c. on the contrary If what I have mentioned, 
is not done speedily, I am convinced the few French, who continue 
on our side of the Missisipi, will drive over their Cattle &c, and 
remove to the Spanish side. I have delivered my Sentiments, with 
great Openness, and Candour to your Excellency. As I am very 
Confident, the good of his Majestys Service requires it. I am Sir, 
Your Excellency's most obed 1 . and most humble Servant 

Geo. Croghan 

To His Excellency 

The Honourable GENERAL GAGE &c 

256 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Johnson Hall /5 th . January 1767 — 

I have had the favour of Yours of December last, 2 and You 
may be assured of my readiness in undertaking anything consistent 
with my Office for your Family, and that I shall if you approve 
of the Expences attending it, Assemble the Indians and explain 
the matter concerning the Line to them in the best manner pos- 
sible, and endeavour to obtain their consent, which I should not 
think a difficult Task were they more rational and less suspicious. 

It is necessary for me candidly to observe to you that when 
the plan for Indian Affairs was drawn up in London, it was pro- 
posed that a Boundary between the Colonies and Indians should 
be obtained and Settled previous to my receiving farther Orders. 
— At a public Conference with the Confederacy, I pointed out to 
them the Advantages of it, and obtained their consent to a very 
commodious one for the Colonists whenever it should be finally 
settled; which there was reason to expect would soon have 
happened, when they were to have received a very considerable 
Sum of Money, and with this I acquainted the Ministry, but the 
Plan was deferr'd, And tho' it is again in Agitation, I have had 
as yet no Orders respecting the Boundary in so much that the 
Indians grow Suspicious on that Head, and may be apt to con- 
ceive very differently the meaning of the present Line not being 
able, or perhaps willing to comprehend our Motives for running 
Courses claimed but unpurchased, Another thing, is that — 
should I send for a few Chiefs of each Nation only, they would 
according to Custom say "We are not all here, our Warriors must 
also be consulted, We must therefore go to our respective Castles, 

1 In Archives of Maryland, Hall of Records, Annapolis. It was sent 
by Governor John Penn to Governor Horatio Sharpe, of Maryland. Copy 
in New York State Library, in Johnson manuscripts (Johnson Calendar, 
p. 34 1 ) , was destroyed by fire. 

2 Not found. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 257 

assemble them all, and consider on it", by which too much time 
would be lost, and perhaps nothing done, so that it is absolutely 
necessary for me to call together all the Sachims and Chief 
Warriors at least, of every Nation from the Upper Senecas to 
this, which will take some time, but however may be effected so 
as to finish in about two Months, but as You and the Commis- 
sioners have justly observed that this will, be attended with some 
expence, it is necessary for me to inform you, that being well 
accustomed to Matters of this Nature, they cannot be Assembled 
at this Season nor any point carried with them for less than £ 500 
Currency in provisions and Gratuitys at a moderate Computation, 
Altho, to lessen the Charges and oblige the Proprietors, I shall 
gladly go fifty Miles to meet them. — 

As you might not be Justly able to Judge of the Amount of 
such an Undertaking, and might possibly have thought it could be 
effected at a more reasonable rate, I have made the lowest Calcu- 
lation ever I believe estimated on such an Occasion. If you think 
the two Provinces, will incurr this Charge, I shall immediately on 
Receipt of your Answer dispatch proper Messengers to all the 
Six Nations, and flatter myself with being able to accomplish 
Your Request, altho it will, not be an easy Matter I am certain 
at this time. — 

I shall expect the favour of hearing from you on this Subject 
as soon as Convenient, that I may regulate myself accordingly 
before the Indians go on their Hunt. — 

In the mean time, I am with perfect Esteem 

Sir, Your most Obedient 
and very humble Servant 

W. Johnson 
The Hon ble . L T . Governor Penn. 

258 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

[Johnson Hall, Jan. 2-22, 1767] 
Johnson Hall Janry 2 d . — 

On this day a number of Nanticokes, two Onondaga Chiefs, 
and sundry other Indians arrived here, and desired a Meeting 
with Sir William, — being all met Seneca George their Speaker 
performed the usual Ceremony with three Strings of Wampum — 
then spoke on behalf of the Nanticoks, requesting that Sir W m . 
wou'd look into the affair of their Land in Dorset County in 
Maryland, and see Justice done them therein that is to say — as 
they were desirous of removing some of their People yet remaining 
there, that they shou'd not be defrauded of their Land, but be 
paid a reasonable Consideration for the same — It is about 3 M. 
acres as the white People tell them, particularly M r . Edw Loyd 2 
who takes care of it for them — 

Gave a Belt of 8 Rows. — 
— then proceeded 
Brother — 

We are very poor, and the weather is very severe which has 
occasioned us to suffer greatly, our Cloths being very bad, and 
our Arms, and Axes are much out of repair, as we have no one 
else to apply to but you, we hope you will take Pity of our present 
Situation, and order us some Clothing, and give directions that our 
Arms, and Axes be mended, as without them we cannot travel at 
this Season — 

A Belt. — 
Brother — 

I now deliver you the words of the Delawares living about us 
who request most earnestly that you will allow them a Pass to go, 
and fetch such of their People as are still among the White People 
in the Jerseys so that they may all settle together on the Six 
Nation lands, and be out of trouble, and danger from the White 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 Edward Lloyd, a member of the Maryland council. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 259 

People who, having got all their lands, and by them means become 
rich, are now very cross to them & forget their former Obliga- 
tions. — 

A Bunch of Wampum 

Having finished Sir W m . in answer told them he wou'd write 
to Gover rs . of Maryland and Jerseys concerning their lands yet 
unsold &c in their Governments, and also give them a Pass when 
going for their People — Gave them Ammunition, and some 
money to defray their expences home, and orders to have their 
Arms, & Axes repaired, then concluded with advising those who 
were to go for their People to behave discreetly on their Journey 
thro' the sev 1 . Inhabitants &c — 

Jany. 1 5 th . — Sir William sent three strings of Wampum to the 
Mohawk Chiefs desiring their attendance the Sunday following 
being the 1 8 th . — in order to remind them of their promise con- 
cerning the land lying between Kayadarosseras, and Sacondaga 
Patents — this message, and String was delivered to two young 
men from Scohare going that way. — 

1 6 th . — On this day two Oughquago chiefs came here to acquaint 
Sir W m . that John Harper of Cherry valley had been at their 
Settlement in order to prevail upon them to sell him a Tract of 
land between the Susquehanna, & Delaware Rivers of ten Miles 
Square — that on their asking him whether he was able to pay for 
so large a tract, he answered that it was not for himself, but for 
some People at New York who had employed him on that 
head — 

Sir W m . answered by telling them the manner in which Pur- 
chases were to be now made, by which Caution no fraud coud be 
committed; and as the manner in which Harper had applied was 
wrong, he advised them not to make any bargain with him, but in 
the Presence of the Governor, — or to call him to the first general 
meeting which might be held here, and that then he shou'd judge 
whether he intended to act uprightly, or not. to which they 
agreed. — 

18 th . — The Sachims of the lower Mohawks agreeable to a 
Summons they had reed, and being entered the Council room 

260 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Abraham their Speaker returned Sir W m ' s . Belt of Invitation, 
adding that they were then ready to hear what he had to say — 
Sir W m . began with acquainting them of what Lord Shel- 
burne Secy, of State had lately wrote to him concerning the 
measures intended to be taken to prevent Frauds, and Abuses in 
trade, or any illegal methods by the Inhabitants for the future, 
and of the King's determined Resolution to have Justice done to 
such of them as were injured — then acquainted them w th . the 
news he rec d . from M r . Croghan at the Illenois — Lastly desired 
to know from them whether any application had been made to 
them for the purchase of the vacant Lands lying between Kay- 
adorosseras, and the Sacondaga Patent. To which they answered, 
that to their knowledge, there never had been any made until they 
were spoke to on that head by Sir W m . last Summer on behalf 
of some Gent n . at N. York. — On being asked by Sir W m . 
what they now intended to do therein ; their answer was the same 
as was before viz 1 , that they wou'd not dispose of said tract, until 
they had Justice done to them with regard to their Dispute with the 
Patentees of Kayadarosseras, that whenever that happened they 
wou'd consider of the Proposal made to them by him, and said 
that those who applied first shoud have the Preference — Thus 
ended the Meeting — 

2 1 st . — Adam chief Sachim of Oughquago arrived here with 
another Chief named Peter on purpose to acquaint Sir W m . that 
application had been made to them in Council from one Harper 3 
in Cherry valley in behalf of himself and a number of People 
living in New England for a tract of land lying between Sus- 
quahanna and Delaware Rivers, and along the banks of a Creek 
by the Indians called Goehquagey, — the quantity proposed by 
the s d . Harper was 25 Miles Along s d . Goehquagey, and 1 Miles 
in breadth that is 5 miles on each side of said Creek which the 
Indians agreed to dispose in case Sir W m . approved of it. — 
Harper offered, as they said, only 300 Dollars for that quantity, 
they then desired Sir W m \ opinion, and advice which he gave 

3 John Harper. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 261 

them (after first acquainting them of the great attention paid in 
England to Indian affairs as lately signified to him by the Secret?, 
of State) that they shou'd not regard any Offers made them in so 
private a manner, being repugnant to his Majesty's Proclamation 
of 1 763, and done only with a view to deceive them — that if 
they were inclined to dispose of any Land, it shou'd be done 
publickly, wherefore he advised them to defer doing anything in 
the affair 'till the next general Meeting here, when those People 
who want to purchase may have an opportunity of speaking to 
them in public provided they are authorized so to do, & not other- 
wise. — They ret d . many thanks for Sir W ms . Advice, and 
promised to follow it. — then gave them a small Present, & 
parted — 

22 d . — Thomas King with David Taquaianout arrived here this 
day on the same Errand chiefly and had the same advice from Sir 
W m . which they much approved of. — they then described the 
land very particularly upon a sheet of Paper which they intended 
to dispose of for a valuable Consideration. — it is about 20 Miles 
Square, or 256000 Acres, and above the half of it good Land, 
as they say. — Sir W m . told them that as Harper &c were very 
poor, and not able to make such a Purchase (he wou'd) as they 
were desirous of selling it, write to some Gentlemen about it, who 
wanted to make such a Purchase, and on hearing from them, woud 
let their Nation know what answer he had received. — this they 
approved of, and parted, requesting that he wou'd See them fairly 
dealt with, w ch . he promised to do — then gave them some 
Ammunition &c — 

262 Sir William Johnson Papers 


A.L.S. 1 

Johnson Hall 27 th . J amy. 1767 — 
Dear Banyar 

I should have acknowledged the Recp*. of y r . favour of the 
8 th . Ult°. 2 Sooner, but was for some part of y e . time troubled 
with my Disorder, at other times so crowded w th . Business that I 
was not able to advert to, or consider y r . proposal. — 

Your few lines of the 1 2 th . Ins 1 . 3 with the enclosures Came but 
Yesterday to hand, the Posts having come verry Irregularly for 
some time past. — 

If Major Edward Clarke or any of the Family had all these 
Lotts which are marked with His Name in the Survey which I 
have by me, I should be induced to give more for the Land than I 
can now do, as some of them w h . are disposed of Join my Land, 
and are good Lotts. Would you not dispose of the following Lotts 
at the Same price Viz'. [Lotts] N°.1 — 9 & 84 Conte. 1250 
Acres ? if you will, let me know it as soon as convenient. — 

I have Settled a Couple of Familys on part of my Land at 
Sacondaga called Northampton, and as M r . Clarke has a part of 
S d . Patent, I should be glad to know on w'. terms he will Settle it. 
having made no Agreement with my Settlers, until I know how the 
other Partners will give out theirs. & as M r . Watts 4 has also a 
Share therein, I would be glad you would speak to him on y r . Sub- 
ject, and Soon, As there may more People apply shortly. — 

You may at all times be assured of my readiness to Serve You 
in any thing I can with propriety do. Some Gentlemen of my Ac- 
quaintance at New York wrote me last Summer concerning Some 
Land they Judged Vacant between the Kayadarusseras and Sac- 
ondaga Patents, and requested I would mention their desire of 
purchasing the Same to the Ind s ., w h . I did, & acquainted them 
w th . the Indians Answer. w h . was, that they could not think of dis- 

1 In New York Historical Society, Banyar Papers. 

2 Destroyed. See Johnson Calendar, p. 337. 

3 Destroyed. See Johnson Calendar, p. 340. 

4 John Watts. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 263 

posing of any of Said Lands until Justice was done them w ,h . 
regard to Kayadarusseras Patent, when that happened, they as- 
sured me that them Gentlemen should have the preference. — 

On reading y r . Letter I recollect that when the Gov r . was here, 
and in the height of hurry that Cap'. John Glen spoke to me about 
his having thoughts of making a purchase of Some Lands adjoin- 
ing Kayadarusseras, & asked whether I had any objection. I told 
him I could have none, as I did not doubt but it would be pur- 
chased in an open & fair Manner, & added the Answer w h . the 
Indians gave me on making application for y e . York Gentlemen, 
but I did not then imagine that it was the Same Tract w h . they ap- 
plied for. Indeed it is a Doubt with me whether there is any con- 
siderable Vacancy on the Westerly Side of Kayadarusseras & if 
there is, I fancy 'twill be found in General verry ordinary. — 

Be so good as to Send me a Copy of the Bounds of the Great, 
or Hardenberghs Patent as soon as Convenient, pray tell the 
Printer to Send me the Acts passed the last Sessions. pardon 
My giving You so much Trouble, and believe me D r . Sir 

Your Sincere Welwisher 
& faithfull freind 

Golds Borrow Banyar Esq'-. — W J 0HNS0N 

PS. praj' let me know if any opposition was made by y e . 
Council to y e . Sevr 1 . purchases made here by the Governour of 
Lands. — 


27 January 1 767 

From Sir W m . Johnson — 
Answered 1 7 March 5 — & offered 
him Major Clarkes 6 Lotts 
No. 1,9,84 — 29, 43&66 
for 8 s . Acre. 2000 Acres 
in all. — 

5 Post p. 283. 


Sir William Johnson Papers 


Copy 1 


The Crown to George Croghan 
Deputy Agent for Indian 
Affairs to Sir W m . Johnson, for 
Sundry Expences accrued in 
my Journey last Summer to the 

[February 22, 1767]' 


To Baynton Wharton & 
Morgan's Account for paying 
Sundry Indians for Sundry 
Services &ca, as per particulars 
inserted in Accompt N°. 1 

To Ditto's Account for Presents 

as per Acco*. N°. 

To Ditto for D° 

To Alex r . Maisonville for his 

Acco 1 . paid by me 
To Morris Vodre's Account as 

Indian Interpreter 
To Raphael Beauvais for Sundry 

Provisions furnished during the 

General Conference at Kaskes- 

kias & F Chartres 
To M r . La Dernetis for Tobacco 
To Baynton Wharton & Morgan's 

Account for Goods 




508 8 









1 Printed in Illinois Historical Collections, 11:511; original in the 
New York State Library was destroyed by fire. 

2 The manuscript was marked, by a later hand: "1767 Feb." From its 
listing in the Johnson Calendar, p. 346, between letters of Croghan dated 
Feb. 22 and Feb. 23, the probable date is given here. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 265 

To Raphael Beauvais Account 9 52 16 

To Simon Girty's Account 10 86 5 3 

To Myer Myers Account for 20 

Silver Medals 11 39 19 10«/ 2 
To Henry and Bensted's Acco 1 . 

for 441 Gallons Rum 12 235 4 

— £4520 12 3|/ 2 
To which Add his Drafts paid for Indian Presents. 

To Baynton Wharton & 
Morgan 2570 

To Edmund Milne 803 4 

To W». Gallagher 514 13 4 

3887 1 7 

£8408 9 iy 2 


Copy 1 

Philh Feby. 23 d . 1767 
Dear Sir 

The Inclos d . Leter Contains the Several Caueses of My Discont 
In the Sarvies and the Acount the Loses I have Suffer'd, all which 
I Submitt to your honour, and if you are of opinion that I have No 
Right to Expect any Restitusion fer My Loses & Extrordinary 
Expence I Shall Neaver Menshon them More tho I will produse 
to you the vouchers fer the whole Indeed the two first artickles of 
the Acount I had Long Given over any Expectacons of and only 
Menshon d . hear to Shoe you the whole that I am out of pocket 
the Ginerals 2 Conduct Respecting my Memorial I blive you will 

1 Printed in Illinois Historical Collections, 1 1 :5 1 3-1 4 ; original in New 
York State Library was destroyed by fire. 

2 General Thomas Gage. 

266 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Say is very Extrordnary, he Did Nott Trate Lif\ Freser 3 in that 
Maner fer on his Return he paid him all his Expences and Made, 
him a present of Six Hundred Pounds, Butt its to be Considred 
that he is a Gentleman of the army and Not an Indian agent on 
your Honours Perrusing the Leter and Acount you will plese to 
Strike out any part of itt or the whole if you think I Should Nott 
be paid and Write the Gineral what you think proper on the 
Subject I am prity Sencable that what Ever part of this Acount 
your Honour will think proper I Should be paid of itt & Recom- 
mend to Gineral Gage to pay that he will Do itt. 

as to any promises he May Make of Sending itt home I Can 
place No Confidence in them from his past Tratem 1 . To Me and 
I Shall Esteem itt as a Great feaver if your Honour will Write to 
him on this Subject. 

I will Sett out as Soon as I am able to Ride to Wate on you & 
Take My Journal with Me. 

Plese to present My Complem ts . to Cap*. Johnson 4 Cap*. 
Clause 5 and the Ladys and Good famely att Johnson Hall & 
Blive Me with the Greatest Respect y r . Honours 

Most obeident and Most Hum ble Servant. 

Geo: Croghan 
To the Hon b!e . Sir William Johnson Ban-'. 

PS : I have had Cap 1 . M c cloud° and his Dear Little Helen of 
of Greece hear this three Weeks past they go home In two Days 
and after a Litle Rest Proceeds to Johnson Hall Whare Me Lady 
I Supose will Spend the Sumer Either with y r . honour or Cap*. 
Guy Johnson who She Spakes in Raptuers of. 


Philadelphia, 23 d . Feb'y. 1 767 
George Croghan Esq rs . 
Letter with enclosures. 

3 Lieutenant Alexander Fraser. 

4 Captain Guy Johnson. 

5 Captain Daniel Claus. 

6 Captain Normand MacLeod. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 267 

CopX) X 

New York, 23 d . Febry. 1767 
Hon d . Sir 

By a Letter from Lieut Aylmer (Commanding at Fort Stan- 
wix) to Colonel Maitland 3 I find that he thought proper to pay 
no regard to my Orders to the Issue of Provisions there, to deliver 
the quantities of Pork and Flour to your Orders whenever you 
should please to send for the same, without he had orders from the 
Commander in Chief. If it has caused a Disappointment to you or 
brought on a needless Expence to the Crown, It cannot be laid 
at my door, as I ever act by the Orders of the Commander in 
Chief, who has more than once told me that he had caused general 
Orders to be sent to all the Out Posts that my Orders relative to 
Provisions are to be obeyed — I find also from a Return he sent, 
that there was only 3 4 J/2 Barrels of Pork in Store on the 24 th . 
January; nevertheless he might have regulated the Demand of 
that Specie but that was not his intent if there had been double 
the Quantity in Store. — Colonel Maitland has wrote him that my 
Orders are to be obeyed, I have therefore again wrote to the Issuer 
there to deliver only Twelve Barrels of Pork and the full Quantity 
of Flour before Ordered, whenever you should please to send for 
the same. — how the Garrison consisting of 1 7 Men could use 1 6 
Barrels of Pork in less than 5 Months is unaccountable to me — 
I know this, that the Service suffers greatly from ignorance and 
incapacity of the Serjeants employed by Order from Home &c a . 
as well as from the arrogant dispositions of some of the Command- 
ing Officers. I am &c &c 

Rob t . Leake 

Hon ble . Sir W m . Johnson 

1 In Oneida Historical Society, Utica, N. Y. The original was 
destroyed by fire. 

2 Lieutenant Richard Aylmer of the 1 7th regiment. 

3 Richard Maitland, Deputy Adjutant General. 

268 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Contemporary Copy 1 

[Johnson Hall, February 24, 1767.] 

Instructions for Guy Johnson Esq r . Deputy Agent for Indian 
Affairs. — By the Hon bIe . Sir William Johnson Bar 1 . Superin- 
tend 1 . &c &c &c — 

Whereas on Complaint made by the Wappinger Indians 2 con- 
cerning their Lands in this Province the Lords of Trade after 
remarking the Frauds which have usually attended Purchases 
made from the Indians &c did report it as their Opinion that there 
is foundation for farther Examination into the State of the Facts, 
and Proceedings upon which their Complaint is grounded, in 
consequence of which I am by letter from Lord Shelbume one of 
his Majestys principal Secretaries of State to take every measure 
that lies in my power towards procuring them such a Satisfaction 
as the nature of the thing will admit of, and afford them in general 
the benefit of my Countenance and Protection — And Whereas I 
have received Notice that in consequence thereof the 5 th . day of 
March next is appointed for hearing the same before his Ex- 
cellency the Governor, and Council at which time it will be 
impossible for me to attend in Person from my present bad state 
of health. — You are therefore to proceed fortwith to New York 
where you are to wait upon his Excellency the Governor, and 
produce this your Authority for attending these Hearing as my 
Deputy in this District, and in that Character for taking such 
Steps as are just, and necessary for effectually obeying his 
Majesty's Commands. — You are then to notify the Occasion 
of your arrival to the Indians, and their Council with assurances 
of all the Countenance, and Protection which they shall appear to 
deserve from the Department of Indian Affairs. — You are to 
inform yourself of the sev 1 . Proofs &c which are intended to be 
produced in Support of their Complaints, and to confer with his 
Majestys Attorney General or any other Council on that head 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 See Petition of Wappinger Indians, ante pp. 97-98. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 269 

whom you are to retain if you think it necessary on that head, — 
And during the Hearing thereof, you are to make such Remarks, 
and proceed in the manner the most consistant with my Orders 
from his Majesty on that head, cautioning the Indians in case the 
Isue shou'd prove unfavorable to them against creating any 
Disturbance, or Circulating Reports thereof among the Interior 
Nations, but to wait patiently until his Majesty's Pleasure is 
further known in the Premisses. — You are after the Hearing to 
apply to his Excell c )\ the Governor for an attested Copy of the 
Proceedings, and to offer to him such Remarks thereon as the 
nature of the Case, and your duty requires. And You are to 
take such other Steps as shall appear needful, for the better, and 
more fully obeying his Majesty's Commands, and fullfilling his 
Royal pleasure from time to time signified to me on Subjects of 
the like nature. And lastly You are after the Hearing, on Receipt 
of a Copy of the Proceedings, to return to this Place without 
further Delay. — 

Given under my Hand at Johnson Hall the 24 th . 

day of February 1 767. — 


Contemporary Copy 1 

[Johnson Hall, Feb. 9-25, 1767] 

Febry. 9 th . — On this day Paulus, Thomas, Philip & Teiahare 
arrived here from Conojahare with a Message from their Sachims 
to Sir W m . desiring that he wou'd write to M r . Hardwick 2 the 
minister, and appoint a day and Place for their meeting him in 
order to settle a dispute long subsisting between them & him con- 
cerning a tract of land which said Hardwick purchased of their 
Nation several years ago, and w ch . they alledged they never were 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 The Reverend John Christopher Hartwick. 

270 Sir William Johnson Papers 

paid for — Sir W m . told them that he wou'd write to M r . Hard- 
wick the next day concerning the matter by some Gentlemen then 
going to Albany, and on his arrival here, wou'd appoint a time, 
and Place for their Meeting. — 

Feb?. 1 1 ,h . — On this day, Isaac chief of Oughquaga w th . others 
of that Nation addressed S r . W m . as follows — 
Brother — 

About three Years ago, you gave me this Paper with your 
hand, and seal to it, and then desired that whenever any of our 
People were sent upon business to you by the whole of our nation, 
in such Case they shou'd have the Paper to produce, we then 
promised it shou'd be so. but we are sorry to see that several of 
our People go often without our knowledge to trouble you, — 
at the same time it affords us pleasure to hear and find that you 
treat them all kindly, and it is the surest way of keeping them 
steadfast to your Interest, however to prevent as much as possible 
your being plagued for the future, I am desired by our whole 
nation to beg of you not to be offended with us Chiefs for what is 
past, and request by this Belt of Wampum that you will not look 
upon any who come without Paper as come from us, or by our 
approbation, — at the same time I wou'd not be understood to find 
fault with your taking Pity, and notice of them — 

A Belt of 8 Rows. — 
Brother — 

With these three Strings of Wampum I am to acquaint you 
that last Fall on the Arrival of our Brethren of Tuscarora from 
Carolina I was rejoiced in the hopes I had of encreasing the 
number of hearers of the word of God, but how great was my 
Concern on finding them averse to it, well knowing they can 
never be true, and firm friends to us, or the English whilst they 
remain in the present State — To you therefore, brother, I apply 
for assistance in that Case, and beg you will afford it by admonish- 
ing them to hearken to the word of God, and telling them the great 
benefit thereof. — 

3 Strings of Wampum. — 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 271 

1 3 th . — Two Indians of the Delaware nation arrived here with 
letters to Sir W m . from the Judges who tryed Seymor for the 
murder of the Oneida Indian last spring acquainting him of their 
having tryed and Condemned him, also of his being executed in the 
Presence of the bearer named Abraham. — Sir W m . then sent 
for Isaac of Oughquago and his two sons who were then here to 
hear the affair from Abraham the Indian, then gave him 4 Strings 
of Wampum to send to, and acquaint the Indians of Oneida, and 
those of Susquahanna of the matter, which he undertook to do so 
soon as he got home. — 

4 Strings — 

1 4 — Sir W m . sent a belt by Isaac of Ougquago admonishing the 
Indians of that nation to live united and follow nothing but what 
was good in which case he wou'd regard them as formerly, and 
call them to all Meetings — 

A Belt in Return for theirs — 

Same day sent by said Isaac 3 Strings of Wampum desiring the 
Tuscaroras who he heard were preparing to come here in a body, 
to wait until the first meeting with the Six Nations to be held here, 
at w ch . time he wou'd call them to it. — Sent another String assur- 
ing Said Isaac that he would recommend it to the Tuscaroras to 
follow his Example, and advice as to their becoming Christians. — 
24 th . — Cap*. Jacobs his brother Solomon, and Hannis arrived 
here, and being met Cap f . Jacobs spoke to Sir William as 
follows — 

Father — 

When our People first met the White People, and entered into 
Friendship with them they then lighted a Council Fire to meet at ; 
we are now agreeable to that Custom come here to dress up that 
Council Fire, and Tree of Shelter, and Peace with these Strings 
of Wampum, w ch . we now do — 

3 Strings — 

272 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Father — 

As we find out since the War, by a Deed shewn us by Col. 
Lidius 3 which he said he obtained from our Uncles, the Mohawks 
for a large tract of land above Fort Edward on the East Side of 
the River, that Encroachments are made upon our Rights by the 
White People, we wou'd be glad to have a Meeting with them on 
that head, and to know the time, and place they woud appoint for 
that Purpose. — 

3 Strings — 


We are in great trouble with our Albany Friends (namely John 
Ranslaer, 4 & John Bleker 5 ) who formerly regarded us whilst we 
were men, and they then were Children. now they are by our 
means by Land trade &c become rich, and powerful, and are now 
endeavoring to deprive us of what little Land we have left. We 
therefore come to request that you, who is appointed by the great 
King to Superintend all Indian Affairs in this part of America 
will afford us your Protection, and assistance in the affair, and 
that you will advise us what Steps to take in this matter, this 
is the earnest desire of all our People — 

A Belt — 

Sir William answered by returning them thanks for their Care 
of the Council Fire, and Tree of Shelter; and assured them that 
they, and all good Indians shou'd we welcome to partake of the 
benefits of both. — 

3 Strings 

Then, that he wou'd acquaint their Uncles the Mohawks with 
their business here, and also their Request, and that he wou'd 
desire them to name a day and place for their meeting together, 
when he wou'd assist them in the Settlement of their affairs — 

3 Strings — 

3 Colonel John Henry Lydius. 

4 John Van Rensselaer. 

5 John Bleecker. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 273 

Then told them he was sorry to find the People of Albany, or 
any others shou'd prove so ungrateful as they had mentioned, and 
that it might perhaps prove otherwise when the affair was strictly 
examined into, at the same time assured them of his Majesty's 
royal Resolution signified to him lately by the Secretary of State to 
protect them, and all Indians in alliance with him in their just 
Rights and possessions, also of his own advice, and endeavors to 
have Justice done them — 

A Belt — 

Sir William then paid Cap 1 . Solomon an account of Expences 
that attended the bringing up his Party to join the army in 1 764 
for which he was obliged to pass his note for the sum of 
£ 8 . .19. .6 — so ended — 

Eod die a number of Senecas arrived here w th . Lieu 1 Roberts — 
25 th . Twenty Tuscaroras arrived here with Aucus al Kanigut a 
Chief with them who addressed S r . William as follows on their 
behalf — 
Brother — 

We return you many thanks in bringing our People from 
Carolina, where they lived but wretchedly being Surrounded by 
white People, and up to their Lips in Rum, so that they cou'd 
not turn their heads anyway but it ran into their mouths. this 
made them stupid, so that they neglected Hunting, Planting &c. 
— We are since our arrival at Oughquago last Fall, become 
wiser, and see our former folly, and beg of you to prevail upon 
the Six Nations to allow us to remain where we now are, fearing 
that if we return we may fall into the same Error again, as we 
understand they have Liquor in plenty among them. — We also 
request you wou'd give us some medicine to cure us of our fond- 
ness for that destructive liquor. 

2 large Belts tied together. 
Brother — 

Although we have lived at a considerable Distance from you, 
which we have found by travelling it, yet your Name, and Words 

6 Captain Solomon, chief of the Stockbridge Indians. 

274 Sir William Johnson Papers 

reached us, as though you was but close by, and we always paid 
the greatest regard to your Orders, and advice, for Instance when 
you desired us to leave off going to War ag l . the Catawbas, we 
obeyed. — we complied also with your desire of our Joining the 
Army to the Westward, and lost sev 1 . of our young Men in the 
Service. — As all is now your own, and that as Peace is spread 
all over the land, we have nothing now to do but to hunt, and 
plant for the Support of our Families, in Order to do this, we 
must request of you brother to help us with working Utensils, and 
Provisions until we can raise some of our own, otherwise we must 
all suffer, having nothing left us after our long Journey. — 

Kanigut now speaks for himself — 
Brother & Friend — 

You know I have from my first acquaintance with you always 
accompanied you ag f . the Enemy, and we were always successfull, 
I have really the greatest regard for you, and this has created me 
enemies among my own People, and they carry their Jealousy so 
far as to endanger my life often, particularly when they get drunk, 
so that I beg you will interpose, and tell me whether my Intentions 
are right, or not — viz 1 , to give up all business as a Chief, or 
Councillor, and not to meddle with any Council business, or to 
quit drinking, or both. I request y r . Advice in this affair, as it 
concerns me much. — 

3 Strings — 

Sir W m . answered the Tuscaroras as follows — viz*. — 
Breth". of the Tuscarora Nation — 

I bid you welcome to my house, where the Council Fire of all 
the Indians in amity with his Britannic Majesty in the Northern 
Parts of America burns clearly. I am glad you are so sensible of 
your former folly, and of the happy Change you have made by 
coming to these parts, and as the encrease and continuance of your 
happiness will depend upon your upright, and prudent Conduct in 
life. I must strongly recommend it to you to be industrious, sober, 
and honest in all your Dealings, it being the surest way to gain the 
esteem, and affection of your Brethren the English. — 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 275 

The best Medicine I can think of to prevent your falling into 
your former Vice of drinking, is to embrace Christianity, and 
follow the example of your friends the Chiefs of Onooghquago, 
who assured me of their desire, and readiness to instruct you in 
the Principles of Morality, if you do that it will tend not only to 
your present, but future Happiness which shou'd be consulted 
above all things — All this I conjure you to observe. — 

A Belt. — 

Brethren — 

It pleases me to find (although at such a Distance) that you 

have been observant of my directions, continue allways to be so, 

and you will reap many advantages from it. — As his Majesty 

has conquered his Enemy in this Country, and thereby restored 

Peace to it, and is desirous of continuing it, I must exhort you to 

leave off all thoughts of war against those Indians in alliance with, 

and under the protection of his Majesty, and so unjustly carried 

on by you, and the Six Nations, and to turn your thoughts entirely 

to hunting, planting, and trade, by which you will live much 

happier than heretofore, — and as I am sensible that your present 

situation must be distressful, I will assist you with some Provisions 

& Implements of Husbandry in order to relieve your present 

Wants, and enable you for the time to come to live without being 

a Charge to the Crown, or Government, for which I expect you 

will retain a grateful sense by your Attachment and Fidelity to 

his Majesty. — By this Belt I open the Road to you, and I expect 

ycu will make a proper use of it, and shou'd the rest of your 

nation chose at any time to remove from where they now are to 

these Parts, I will upon your application, give a Pass for that 


A Belt with a Road. — 

Brother Kanigut — 

I have heard yesterday the State of your Case which is very 
singular. It gives me no small Concern or Surprize to hear that 
there are any of the Six Nations, or of your own Tribe so void of 
Sense & gratitude to the best of Kings as to take umbrage at your 
Fidelity to him, and liking to me. did these People know their 

276 Sir William Johnson Papers 

own Interest they woud and ought to act on the same Principles 
you do, which I hope 'ere long they will do — persevere therefore 
in doing every thing in your power for the good of the whole, 
refrain from Liquor which is the bane of all Men, who use it to 
excess, and then be assured you will overcome the 111 will, and 
Malice of the wicked, & Secure my esteem & regard for you. — 

3 Strings — 

To all which they returned many hearty thanks, and assured 
Sir W m . they wou'd act agreeable to his Instructions. — then gave 
them a small Present — some Cash to buy Provisions along the 
Road, and Ammunition to Hunt with — So parted. — 

/~l .JL.O. 

Philad*. March K 1767 

Dear Sir 

The bearer, Colonel Francis, 2 being informed that Mr George 
Croghan, one of your Deputys, had, or was about to resign, and 
that I had the Honor of being numbered among your friends, has 
requested that I would mention him to you as a person fit and 
capable to discharge that trust. 

In pursuance of this desire of his, I beg leave to recomend 
him as the Son of an old and intimate friend of mine, as a Gentle- 
man who is esteemed an honest and brave man, and is said to have 
served his Country with Reputation both in the Regular and 
Provincial troops, a Regiment of which latter he commanded 
under General Bouquet. 

He tells me that he is not altogether unknown to you: If you 
should Judge him propperly qualified for that service, which I 
really beleive him to be, I should be much oblidged to you for 
your favor to him. 

1 In New York State Historical Association, Cooperstown, N. Y. 

2 Lieutenant Colonel Turbutt Francis. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 277 

I depend on your goodness to excuse this Freedom in, Dear Sir, 

Your Very Affectionate Friend & 
Most devoted Humble Servant 

Will: Allen 3 
To Sir W m . Johnson 


Phildp*. March 1 st . 1767 

Cheif Justice A liens Letter 

<P Co 1 . Francis — 
Ans d . P D°. April 1 st .— 

3 William Allen, chief justice of Pennsylvania, 1 750-1 774. 

4 In Sir William's hand. 


Copy 1 

Philadelphia March 14 lh . 1767. 

We took the Liberty of writing to your Honor, on the 28th of 
December last 2 — But we are apprehensive, as we have not been 
favored with an answer, That our Letter miscarried. 

We then mentioned, That M r . Cressap 3 of Maryland had, as 
we were informed, — purchased of a Party of six Nation 
Warriors, a large Tract of Land, situate down the Ohio and about 
Green Briar &c. We judged it necessary, That your Honor 
should be apprized of such clandestine and impolotick Proceed- 
ings, least Others may follow the Example And Thereby, in de- 
gree, defeat your benevolent Intention, towards the unfortunate 
Indian Traders; As we are informed, part of the very Land, 

1 Printed in Illinois Historical Collections, 1 1 :518-19. Original in New 
York State Library was destroyed by fire. 

2 Ante pp. 234-38. 

3 Michael Cresap. 

278 Sir William Johnson Papers 

which M r . Cressap, so illegaly bought — is what you kindly in- 
tended, for the Indian Sufferers. 

M r . Croghan has been so good, as to tell us, — That your 
Honor has lately received a Letter from the Earl of Shelburn, ac- 
quainting you, That every Thing respecting the Indian Depart- 
ment, was then under the King's Consideration. — May we not 
therefore, as well from the Equity as Policy of the Retribution, 
hope soon to hear something agreable? 

We were lately, lucky enough to meet with a pound or two, 
of the best plain Rappee, 4 — Which a Freind imported for him- 
self and spared us. 

As it is esteemed very good & none is to be bought — We pray 
the Honor of your accepting it. 

We are very respectfully Sir Y r . much Obliged and most 
Obed'. Servants. 

Baynton Wharton & Morgan 

The Honorable SlR WlLLIAM JOHNSON Bar*. 

PS. Should your Honor now want a Pipe or two of Madeira 
— we think, there are some very excellent in Town, at about sixty 
five Pounds P r . Pipe R W M 


Philadelphia 14 th . March 1767 

Letter from Mess rs . Baynton Wharton & Morgan 

Ans d . 1 st . April 


Copy 1 

Fort Stamvix March 16 th . 1767 
Sir William 

A man arrived at this place two days ago, who Informed me 
that on the 1 2 th . at night the Royal Block House Took fire & was 

4 A pungent snuff made from the ranker tobacco leaves. 
1 In Oneida Historical Society, Utica, N. Y. Original was destroyed 
by fire. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 279 

immediately consumed to ashes; the fire (He said) first took in 
some of the logs near the chimney by Its being much worn away 
— there had been three Senecas, two Oneidas, A frenchman & 
three squaws in the house at the time, who had Lost all their packs 
in the flames, by the accident being so Unexpected & so very 
furious, even their dogs were burnt — I am thus particular to 
prevent its being imagined, that it was Either thro' design or 
malice, that it happened — I shall Mention it to Col°. Bradstreet 
& to Head Quarters as above. My trip up to this place was not so 
very expeditious As I proposed before I left the Hall, but the 
fatigue was almost insupportable; the greatest comfort I have, is 
a Skippel Of choice potatoes, which are to be used to Morrow in 
honor of the Day. — I shall set a Man about making oars for the 
boats, which are to carry down the provisions for the Indians, 
as all the oars were burnt in the blockhouse. — Mr. Leake (By 
his Letter to the Issuer of provisions here) thinks me a Man of 
Punctilio, who would let the Service suffer, to indulge that pas- 
sion. 2 If my abilities were equal to my zeal for the service, its 
probable I should not be a subaltern at this time of life; but I 
shall Converse with him on that subject, whenever I've an oppor- 
tunity of Doing it personally, it is not the first time I've heard of 
his impertinence. As a member of S'. Patricks Lodge I shall 
(without doubt) drink your Worshipfull's 3 health to-morrow. 

I am &c &c 

R D . Aylmer 4 

Sir W m . Johnson 

2 See Leake's letter to Sir William, Feb. 23, 1 767, protesting his refusal 
to issue provisions as directed, anle p. 267. 

3 Sir William was constituted Worshipful Master of St. Patrick's Lodge 
F. & A. M. No. 4, May 23, 1 766. "Tomorrow," of course, was St. 
Patrick's Day. 

4 Lieutenant Richard Aylmer of the 1 7th regiment. 

280 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Copy 1 

Philad*. March 16th 1767 

By Our Partner, M r . Morgan, 2 who returned this Day from 
the Illenois, we received the within Draft of M r . Cole's 3 upon 
your Honor, for the Sum of One Thousand four hundred & sixty 
Eight pounds thirteen Shillings & seven pence New York Cur- 
rency — Vouchers for which, are inclosed in the within Letter, 
from Him. The great Length of Time, we have been without any 
Remittances, from our heavy & very expensive Adventure to the 
Illenois, constrain us, To implore your Honor, in the most earnest 
manner, — To prevail on the General to order us immediately 

We hope your Goodness will pardon this Freedom and kindly 
attribute it, To its real Cause — a very great want of Money. 

We are very respectfully Sir Your Honors much Obliged And 
most Ob 1 . Serv ts . 

Baynton Wharton & Morgan 
The Honorable Sir WlLLIAM Johnson Bar'. 


Philadelp*. March 16 th . 1767 

Letter from Mess rs . Baynton Wharton & Morgan 

with a Draft on me from Cornish. Cole 

at the Illinois for 

£l568 13 7Yt. Cur^y. 

Ans d . 1 st . April 

1 Printed in Illinois Historical Collections, 11:51 9-20 ; original in the 
New York State Library was destroyed by fire. 

2 George Morgan. 

3 Lieutenant Colonel Edward Cole, commissary at the Illinois. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 281 


Nen York March 17K 1767 


I wrote to you last Sunday upon a second application made to 
me by Mr. Holland, 2 & I apprehend that Mr. Fargie 3 was in- 
tended to be the bearer of the letter so that in all probality you 
may not receive it so soon as if it had been dispatch'd by the Post ; 
This will be deliverd to you by Cap 1 . Johnson 4 to whom I have 
explain'd my Sentiments in regard to this application therefore 
shall not trouble you with any thing farther on that head. — Cap 1 . 
Johnson takes with him a minute of the Resolutions of the Council 
on Nimham's 5 Claim, which you will See is very full, & I believe 
that the Persons concern'd for him were Satisfy'd that upon the 
hearing which lasted three days nothing was produc'd which could 
shew the least Right in the Indians; The Council will meet 
again on Thursday, & I shall then propose to them the Proclama- 
tion in regard to the Passes for trading with the Indians, in which 
I think something might very well be inserted in regard to the 
clandestine purchases of the Indian Lands; By the next post I 
shall be able to acquaint you with their resolutions on these Lands, 
& am with great esteem & regard 


Y r . most Obed'. & hum 1 . S f . 

H: Moore 

1 In Harvard University Library, Sparks Collection. 

2 Henry Holland, purchaser of land in Sacondaga. 

3 Winter Fargie. 

4 Capt. Guy Johnson. 

5 Daniel Nimham, chief of Wappinger tribe. 

282 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Df.S. 1 

New York !7<K March 1767 

Dear Sir 

The Morning appointed for the Hearing before the Governor 
and Council, on the Complaint of Nimham in Behalf of himself, 
and the other Indians of the Wappinger Tribe M r . Guy Johnson 
called on me, with the Report of the Council of the 6 th . March 
3 765. on a former hearing on this Subject; Nimhams Memorial 
of 7 th . Jan?, last, and the Order of Council made thereon, and re- 
quested I would attend the Council Board to hear the Controversy. 
I did accordingly attend, during the three days it took up, and 
think Nimham failed in supporting any equitable Claim to the 
Lands, his own Witnesses which he produced to shew M r . 
Philipse had not purchased the Land proving that every Settler 
purchased his own particular Farm from the Indians and that all 
the improveable Lands were so purchased and Settled, this alone 
I conceive clearly shows the Indians have no Ground of Com- 
plaint, but besides this the Indian Deed which M r . Philipse &ca 
have for the whole Land, was so fully proved to be so fair and 
Genuine that Nimhams Council seemed satisfied it was so and tho 
they made several Exceptions to it, yet in my own Opinion none 
of them were of any Weight to show the Indians had been 
deceived, or had any equitable Right remaining even had there 
been no other Purchases but that one only, thus this Controversy 
appears to me. 

M r . Johnson has since communicated to me a Letter addressed 
to the Sons of Liberty at Albany — I have considered it well, 
and tho I think it clear the Anonymous Author had Mischief in 
his Heart, yet I fear he is not liable to be punished for it, for it is 
not a Libel, because if every Thing he alledges was true, it is not 
scandalous, nor is it a threatning Letter to extort money &ca nor 
is there any express Request or Desire that the Sons of Liberty 
should do you any Mischief, tho' probably it was his Intent, to 
excite them to it. and therefore no words in the Letter contain 

1 In New York Historical Society, Kempe Papers. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 283 

an express Invitation of them to do you Mischief, no such Intent 
in him can with any plausibility be legally maintained, but on the 
Presumption that the Sons of Liberty were so abandoned as to 
make it probable this Letter would be sufficient to put them on the 
Execution of Mischief, which would be extremely difficult if not 
impossible to make out in Proof 

I am 

Dear Sir 

Your much obliged & 
very humble Servant 
Sir William Johnson Baronet J. T. Kempe 


1 7*. March 1 767 

Letter to Sir W m . Johnson 

Df. 1 

New York 17 March 1767 
I understand by your Letter of the 27 Jany: 2 That you are 
willing to give 8 s . the Acre for Lotts N°. 1 , 9 & 84 conR 1 250 
Acres in Sachendage. Besides these three, there are Lett N°. 29 
— 250 Acres — N°. 43 — 250 Acres and N°. 66 Conte. 
250 Acres which properly belong to Major Clarke — In all 2000 
Acres — If you will take these Six Lotts at 8 s . the Acre, I will 
convey them to you as [the] his Attorney ; as by conveying to you 
the three former only I may have to sell the best, and injure the 
Sale of the other three. 

1 In New York Historical Society, Banyar Papers. Draft on same 
sheet with draft of Nov. 24, 1 766, ante pp. 221-22. Original in New York 
State Library was destroyed by fire. According to Johnson Calendar, 
p. 348, it also dealt "with the opinion of the council that the (Wap- 
pingers') right was long ago extinguished, surveying the evidence for the 
present landowners and discussing purchases in which Johnson, the Gov- 
ernor, Lord Holland and others are interested." 

2 Ante pp. 262-63. 

is 120 Liv". 

284 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Copy 1 

Fort Chartres March 23, 1767 

The Crow 11 . To Richard Winston D r . 

For 6 Months Rent of a House for the Indian 
Interpretor Commencing 26 th . Sep tr . 1 766 and 
Ending the 26 th . of March 1 767 at 20 Liv rs . Pr 

Received Fort Chartres 23 d . March 1 767 of Edward Cole Esq r . 

the above Sum of One Hundred and Twenty Livres at five Livres 

Eaqual to One Dollar for which I have Signed Two Receipts of 

this Tennor and Date. _, „ ._. 


N° 11. 

Fort Chartres March 25. 1 767. I do hereby certify that by the 
Approbation of Colonel John Reed of the 34 th . Regiment that the 
House mentioned in the within Account, was hired for his 
Majesty's Use for the purpose therein Specified, and that the 
charge of One hundred & twenty Livres for the same is just & 
True, accounting the same at the Rate of five Livres Per Dollar 

Edw d . Cole 

Com?, of Indian Affairs 

Fort Chartres. March 25 th . 1 767. I John Reed Colonel, Lieuten- 
ant Colonel of his Majesty's 34 th . Regiment of Foot &c &c Do 
Hereby Certify that the House specified in the within Account 
was hired for His Majesty's use for the purpose therein Mention'd, 
of Richard Winston, And that the charge of One hundred & 
twenty Livres at the Rate of five Livres p r . Dollar is just & True. 
In Testimony whereof I have hereunto Set my Hand. 

Jn°. Reed Col 
L*. O. 34. Reg*. 


Rich d . Winston's Ace 1 . & Red. N°. 1 1 . 

1 Printed in Illinois Historical Collections, 1 1 :520-21 ; original in the 
New York State Library was destroyed by fire. 

Indian A fairs, 1766-68 285 


D.S. 1 
[Johnson Hall March 24, 1767] 

By the Honorable Sir William Johnson Baronet His Majestys 
Sole Agent and Superintendant of Indian Affairs for the Northern 
Department of North America. Colonel of the Six united Nations 
their Allies and Dependants &ca &ca &ca. 

To M r . S l . Jean Russeau — 

Reposing especial Trust and Confidence in your Loyalty Zeal 
and Abilities I Do (by Virtue of the powers and Authorities to 
me given by His Majesty) hereby appoint you the said S f . Jean 
Russeau [St. Jean] 2 to be an Interpreter in the Department of 
Indian affairs for the Outawa Language You are there- 

fore Carefully, faithfully, and Diligently to discharge the said 
Duty of Interpreter by doing and performing every thing thereunto 
belonging to the utmost of your power, with the Strictest regard 
to his Majestys Interest, and you are to Observe and follow such 
Orders as you shall receive from my Self, the Deputy Agent for 
that District, or other your Superior Officers for which this shall 
be your Warrant. — 

Given under my hand & Seal at Arms at Johnson-Hall the 
24 th . Lay of March 1 767 — 

W. Johnson 

By Order of Sir W Johnson 

G. Johnson D Agent 

Acts, as Secretary 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 15. In Guy Johnson's 

2 Words italicized and in brackets are crossed out in manuscript. 

286 Sir William Johnson Papers 


March 24, 1767 

This blank form, in the Johnson manuscripts (see Johnson Calendar p. 
350), is identical with the document, Instructions to Alexander McKee, 
ante pp. 49-52, except for the memorandum as to when accounts were to be 
transmitted : 

"NB Michilimackc every 6. Months. Detroit evy. 4 Do. Niagara, and 
Ontario, every 3. Months." 

It is printed in Illinois Historical Collections, 11:529-31. Since this 
is a duplication of a document printed earlier, it is not given here. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

[Johnson Hall March 4-25, 1767] 

March 4 th . — On this day Tiawarunte speaker of Onondaga, 
Karaghiagigo chief Warrior with 1 2 more of said Nation arrived 
here, and having met in Council room acquainted Sir W m . that 
they were sent by their Nation to let him know their distressed 
Situation for the want of Corn, — that the Squirrels, and other 
Vermin had destroyed so much of it that they were now in a 
Starving Condition, that the absence of their young men who were 
gone to war against the Southern Indians made it worse, as they 
had none at home to kill any Game for them, — that as they were 
now reduced to such want, they hoped Sir W m . wou'd assist 
them. — 

A Bunch of Wampum — 

In the second place they requested of Sir W m . that two good 

men might be sent with Horses, and Ploughs to their Country to 

plow their lands, and that they wou'd pay for the same, but hoped 

it might be at a moderate price. — 

A Bunch of Wampum. — 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

Indian A fairs, / 766-68 287 

To which Sir W m . answered that he was sorry to hear they 
were in so distressed a Situation for the want of Provisions &c, and 
that he wou'd acquaint the Commander in chief thereof, who he 
did not doubt, on his recommendation, wou'd allow them some, 
and that he wou'd let them know his answer as soon as re- 
ceived. — 

Returned the Wampum. — 

Sir W m . then gave them an Advertisement which they were to 
deliver to the Justice at Burnetsfield, 2 thereby giving notice to the 
Inhabitants there of their desire to have their Lands ploughed, 
and desiring such as inclined to undertake it to apply to him for a 
Pass for that purpose, and that within a fortnight — Also wrote 
to Justice Franks, 3 desiring him, and all traders there to deal 
fairly with the Indians, and not to mix the Rum with Water, as 
the Indians charge them with — Gave them a small Present, & 
sent them off. — 

Eod. die — Onoughsoghta, with sev 1 . more Senecas arrived, 
and with a belt of black Wampum begged Sir W m . wou'd give 
them some Amunition and get their Arms mended, they being 
very poor, and as they were just ret d . from War. — Sir W m . 
granted their Request, and gav'em Charge to behave well at all 
times which the [he] told them wou'd be the only means of con- 
tinuing our kindness — Ordered their Axes &c to be mended, 
gave them some money to defray Expences, and discharged 
them — 

RetA them the Belt. 

On Saturday, Sunday, and Monday sev 1 . Parties from cliff*. 
Quarters arrived here all begging for Amunition &c — which was 
granted sparingly with some money to purchase Provisions along 
the road, & discharged them. — 

On Tuesday Six Conjohares came here on the same Errand, 
and being Supplied S r . W m . sent them away with a charge to their 
Chiefs to attend the two Justices who were on their way to their 

2 German Flats. 

3 Captain Conrad Franck. 

288 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Castle in order to warn Jacobus Maybee off their lands agreeable 
to their repeated request. — Gave them some money to carry 
them home, as the Inhabitants would not give them a Morsel 
since the War, which the Indians thought very hard, they having 
promised them formerly (when they sold and gave them lands) 
that they shou'd always be welcome to their Houses passing, and 

repassing &c — 

] 4th # — J onn Butler & Henrick Fry Esq rs . arrived here, and 
reported to Sir W m . that they had last Thursday warned Jacobus 
Maybee and his grandmother Eve Pickard 4 to remove in 1 8 days 
time off the Indians land agreeable to the Governor's Orders, and 
that they the said Maybee and Eve Pickard promised to comply 
with said Order, on which the Indians made a long Speech to the 
Justices returning the Gov r . S r . W m . and them many thanks for 
the Justice done to them in the affair. — 

Eod. die 25 Senecas with Anaquadecka arrived here from 
Chenussio, & Kanadasegey, begging for Ammunition wherewith 
to hunt, also a little Paint, which Sir W m . complied with, and gave 
them an order on M r . Adems 5 to supply them with 201b Powder 
& 41b Paint, Ball, Flints, &c. — 

Eod die — Seven Conjohares with Jonathan their Cheif arrived 
here, and brought Sir W m . a letter acquainting him that the old 
Onondaga chief named Sononquires was greatly battered, that two 
of his Ribs were broke, — that the speaker Teyawarunte lost his 
Pack, and his Order from S r . W m . for Rum, and everything he 
had, and requesting he wou'd send them another Order for 5 
Gall 5 , of Rum, & a little Provision — the man with the broken 
bones begged a little Rum might be sent to cure his wounds, as 
thinking it wou'd [be] effectual to that purpose. — all which S r . 
W m . complied w*. by sending what they required by the Conjo- 
nares — a l S o a little money to help the wounded man home. — 
March 25 th . — On this day Sir W m . gave orders to Cap 1 . John 
Johnston to go, and bring down the Sachims, & chief Warriors of 

4 Mrs. Eghye (Eve) Pickerd, a mulatto of Canajoharie. 

5 Robert Adems. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 289 

the Six Nations in order to have a meeting with them on the 20 th . 
of april on business of a private nature respecting the Division 
line between Penn & Baltimore Proprietors of Pennsylvania & 
Maryland — the same day sent Si7ver Heels to accompany him 
with a belt of Invitation — & gave him a Present. — 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Copy of a Letter from Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 , to the Merch ,s . 
of Albany in answer to their Complaints of Lieu 1 . Hay Commis- 
sary at Detroit dated 

Johnson Hall, March 27 th . 1767. — 

Gent n . 

Having duly weighed and considered the general Subject of 
your Complaint ag l . Commissary Hay, 2 I take this opportunity of 
desiring that you will w th . out delay lay before me the full par- 
ticulars properly authenticated, of your complaint especially that 
concerning the Commissaries Partiality to the French Traders, 
specifying their names, time of their Departure with Goods from 
Detroit, whither they went, and whether with written Passes, or 
Verbal Permission, and from whom, and also which, and how 
many of the other Traders were refused an equal liberty, at what 
times, and what Causes were assigned for such Refusal, whether 
the French Traders had Passes from Canada, or which of them 
had, and whether the others who were refused had Passes from 
their Goverments, or not. All this appears necessary to Justify 
my calling away a Commissary at the approaching Season to 
answer for his Conduct. As to the other Charges against him, 
they dont seem of Sufficient weight, the Commissary being em- 
powered to demand a particular account of all Goods, or to ex- 
amine them, and is likewise intended by his Office to restrict, or 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 Lieutenant Jehu Hay, commissary at Detroit. 

290 Sir William Johnson Papers 

punish those who trade contrary to the Plan, and to apply to the 
Military for assistance. — And M r . Abbot's 3 particular Case 
certainly came within Censure, as well on account of his having no 
Pass, as in that of selling the Ammunition short of the Weight, 
although I am induced to think the latter was not done inten- 
tionally — 

It is for the Interest of the fair trader that a Commissary be 
properly supported until the clearest & most Circumstantial proofs 
appear against him, and therefore it is as well in Justice to the 
traders as to the Commissary that I now demand such particulars 
as may enable me to act with the Strictest Impartiality to both 
which shall always be the invariable Conduct of 

Gent n . 

Yours &c — 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Extract of a Letter from Sir William Johnson to Sir Henry 
Moore dated 

29* March 1767. — 

I am so hurried at present that I can only add that the Persons 
concern'd in the Tract purchased last Fall of the Oneidaes — 
South of the Mohawk River are very uneasy at the Mistake in the 
Indian Deed which by being a South Line, leaves them in the 
whole little more than 70,000 Acres, instead of 150 thousand 
which they expected; The Error arose thro' the want of good 

3 James Abbott, a trader of Detroit. 

1 Extract in Colonial Land Papers, New York State Library. Original 
was destroyed by fire. In addition to the data of the extract, the Johnson 
Calendar, p. 350, mentions the letter as "saying Mr. Fargie's application 
is fruitless, . . . and a desired proclamation forbidding clandestine pur- 
chases." The Calendar gives the larger acreage as 200,000, instead of 
1 50,000. 

Indian Affairs, 1 766-68 291 

Drafts at that Time, otherwise, as it was explain'd to the Indians 
they should have had a continuation of Cosby's Line Viz 1 . South 
38 Degrees West, as this was the Intention of the Indians who I 
know will readily agree to it, I cannot help (at the Request of the 
Partners) laying the Case before your Excellency, persuaded that 
you will take some Measures for allowing them the Line intended, 
and enabling it to be run, until another Deed is executed, or what- 
ever else may be deemed necessary is done in the Affair. — 


Extract of a Letter from 
Sir William Johnson to 
Sir Henry Moore, dated — 
29*. March 1 767. — 
respecting a Mistake in one 
of the Courses of the Indian 
Purchase made by William 
Bayard and his Associates — 

April 15, 1 767. The Original 
Letter of which this is an 
Extract read in Council and 
an Order made for the 
Alteration agreable to what 
is recommended in the Letter. 

L. S} 

Johnson-hall April K 1767 — 
Gentlemen — 

I have had the favor of your Letters of the 14 th . and 16 th . 
ult°. 2 — the first chiefly concerning your Letter of Dec r . last which 

1 In New York State Library ; in handwriting of Guy Johnson. 

2 Ante pp. 277-78,280. 

292 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I received and Answered long since, and then informed you that 
I intended to make the Government acquainted with the Affair of 
the purchase you sayed had been made about Ohio, which I have 
accordingly done since by Letter and shall doubtless hear soon on 
that Subject as I expect to do on some others from the Letters I 
have lately received from the Earl of Sherburne, 3 whenever it 
happens I shall without delay let you know if any thing is done in 
your favor. 

I have received M r . Coles 4 draft which I have just now added 
to my Acco ts . for the General recommending it for payment. So 
large a Sum in that space of time may Surprize the General, how- 
ever I hope he will approve of it in which case I shall write him 
to cause it to be paid to you, I herewith Send you by M r . Croghan 
the Sum of £ 290 due on M r . M c Kees accot which I have lately 
received, and I am, 


Your most Obedient Servant 

W Johnson 
Mess rs . Baynton Wharton & Morgan 5 
I thank you for the Snuff 
which is very good. — 


Johnson Hall April 1 st . 

S r . W m . Johnsons Letter 

3 Lord Shelbume. 

4 Lieutenant Colonel Edward Cole, commissary at Illinois. 

5 This line is in Sir William's hand. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 293 



Johnson-hall April 3 d . 1767 

I received your Letter of the 10 th . of last Month 2 some days 
ago, and am glad to hear you collected a little this way. I now 
enclose you the Sum of Ten pounds 1 s /6 which I desire you will 
accept of and apply towards compleating the Church. — 

I should think if you could fall upon a Method to have the 
Arch ceiled, it would be greatly preferable to boards, perhaps 
something might Still be collected at Albany if you think so it 
would be worth trying for it from those who approve of your 

It appears to me that you had best not to Lease out any part 
of the Church grounds as yet, there being reason to expect a 
Clergyman soon from England I should think you ought to deferr 
it 'till his arrival or until you hear farther on that subject. 

Cap 1 . Johnson 3 who is newly returned from N York has 
reminded the Governor of your Affair which will be Shortly 
terminated to your satisfaction. — 

I remain 


Your most humble Servant 

W Johnson 

[M]ess rs . Brown 
[Lyn]e, &c — 

indorsed : 

W. Johnson 
Letter 1767 

1 In St. George's Episcopal Church, Schenectady, N. Y. In the hand- 
writing of Guy Johnson. 

2 Johnson Papers, 5 :504-05. 

3 Guy Johnson. 

294 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A.L.S. 1 

W™. bwgh April 4 th . 1767 

I have been informed that a Skirmish has happened between 
some of our back Settlers and some Northern Indians supposed to 
be going to War with the Cherokees ; in which some were killed 
and more wounded on each side. By the Depositions sent to me it 
appears that after the Indians were entertained and fed, they robd 
the Man at whose house they were received, set fire to his Stacks 
and wantonly kill'd his Cattle. Upon this eleven young fellows 
persued them and came up with them when the fray began; the 
Consequence of w ch . I have above related. 

Now Sir I would beg the favor of you to recommend to the 
Indians whose path comes near our Settlements to go with a pass 
and conform to the Treaty of Lancaster, and not wantonly 
commit Mischief on their Brothers and good Friends: and you 
may be assured that all possible discouragement is, and shall be 
given to our people to prevent their thus revenging themselves, 
and I hope that by our mutual joint Endeavors We may prevent 
any further bad Consequences. 

I am with the greatest Regard 


Y r . most Obed 1 . Serv 1 . 

Fran: Fauquier 2 
To S R . W M . Johnson Bar 1 . 


Williamsburgh 4 th . April 1 767 

L*. Gov r . Fauquier's Letter 

Ans d . 29 th . Ap 1 . 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

2 Lieutenant Governor Francis Fauquier, of Virginia. 

3 In Sir William's hand. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 295 


Contemporary Copy 1 

New York April 5* 1767. 
Dear Sir, 

I have had little to trouble You with for some time past. By 
Letters from M r . Stuart, 2 The Cherokees are incessant in their 
Applications to him to Mediate a Peace for them with the 
Northern Indians, having been greatly harrassed during the 
Winter. And drove from their hunting Grounds. During this, they 
have Murthered in a private manner, Seven Traders from the 
Province of Virginia, some Months ago they killed a M r . Boyd 
and four more Persons from the same Province, besides about Six 
more Persons in different Places. It is imagined that these 
Murthers have been perpetrated by the Relations of those 
Cherokees who were killed two Years ago in Virginia, for which 
they could never obtain the least Satisfaction from the Province, 
either by having the Murtherers brought to Justice, or the Rela- 
tions of the deceased recieving [any] Presents as usual for the 
loss of their Friends, They have killed now Eighteen for the Six 
they lost, and M r . Stuart has sent them a Message to inform 
\ them that Satisfaction is expected for these last Murthers. It is 
Time to put an End to their killing the white People who were 
no doubt to blame, but they have had Sufficient Satisfaction, and 
seem to have confined their Revenge to the Virginians, which [is] 
rather more consistent with reason than their general Practice of 
killing all they meet without Distinction. 

The above affair may obstruct the fixing of the Boundary line 
with North Carolina & Virginia, the first was to have been done 
on the 16 th . of next Month. But Virginia does not seem much 
inclined to have any Limits fixed to their Territorys. I dont know 
whether the Boundary's of these Provinces are to be fixed with 
the Northern Nations or not? 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 John Stuart, southern superintendent of Indians. 

296 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A Delaware Chief has been killed at Redstone Creek in a 
Quarrell with a Fellow who came there from the other usurped 
Settlement at Choate River. Captain Murray 3 has taken a Rela- 
tion of the Affair as given by an Indian and a white Man who 
were present, The Indian Named Captain Peters wanted to take 
Some Rum from the White Man by the name of Ryan, who in 
the Scuffle shot the Indian, and made his Escape to Virginia. An 
Account of the affair was sent to the Governor. 

You will have seen Gov r . Penns Proclamation to warn all the 
Settlers off the Indian's Land. I have not seen or heared of any 
such Proclamation, on the part of Virginia, tho' I believe the one 
would be of as little Consequence as the other in such loose and 
disorderly Governments. Captain Murray has now sent to them to 
remove, or they should be drove away by Force of Arms, telling 
them they might expect the Indians would take Revenge for the 
loss of their Chief, and as their usurpations were Lawless and 
Unjust, they could not expect any Assistance from his Garrison. 

I Am with great Regard. 

Dear Sir, 

Sir W m . Johnson Bart. 




Sir W m . Johnson Bart. 

Johnson Hall. 
New York April 5*. 1767. 

3 Captain William Murray, commandant at Fort Pitt. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 297 


Johnson Hall 8 ih . April 1767 
Dear Banyar — 

Yours of the 1 7 lh . Ult°. 2 was delivered to me by Cap 1 . 
Johnson. 3 — I am obiidged to You for the Circumstantial Acc f . 
you were pleased to give me of y e . late Hearing, and can only 
say I am sorry that the Gov r . & Council &ca. were put to so much 
trouble on that occasion. — 

My reason for preferring Lots N°. 1 — 9 — & 84 to any of 
the rest of Major Clarks Lands in Sacondaga Patent, was only on 
Ace', of their being more contiguous to some of mine than any of 
the rest, but as you imagine that disposing of them 3 Lotts only, 
may prejudice y e . Sale of the rest (w h . I can't think would be the 
case) I will buy the whole, that is the 6 Lotts amt§. to 2000 Acres 
at 8 s . <P Acre free of all charges, provided You will warrant it 
to me, in y*. case I will Send you my Bond for the Money, & 
You send me the Deeds. — 

pray let me know what is done, or to be done in consequence of 
the petition delivered by Cap 1 . Johnson to the Gov r . for y e . 
Vacancy of 600 Acres near to Conajohare. — 

By what I can learn there will be a verry great noise about, & 
opposition made to the division proposed by y e . Council of that 
Tract of Land purchased by Lawyer & others here last Octb r . as 
mentioned in y r . letter, & now appears by the Warrant of Survey 
lately sent up. — The Ind s . Sold it to them in presence of y e . 
Gov r . &ca. and would not hear to any other Peoples proposals, for 
Several reasons w h . they then gave the Gov r ., and as they at that 
time rec ed . a Valuable consideration for the Same, are, I hear, 
determined not to allow of the Survey on any other Terms than 
y l . of the Scohare People having the whole, neither will they 

1 In New York Historical Society, Banyar Papers. 

2 Ante p. 283. 

3 Guy Johnson. 

298 Sir William Johnson Papers 

dispose of a foot more of land as they Say, to any Man, Should 
that Step be taken. — 

I am much hurried & have only time to request Your Answer 
as soon as convenient to the 2 forgoing Articles, and that You 
will beleive me 

Yr s . Sincerely 
& Affectb. 
W. Johnson 
Golds Borrow Banyar Esq r . — 


8 April 1 767 

Letter from Sir William Johnson 

A.L.S. 1 

New York 13 th . April 1767 — 

I am favored with your letter of the 4 th . Ins', and You may 
depend upon an immediate payment being made to Captain 
M c Leod, of Your draught in his favor for £60 Sterg; I have 
just had a sight of the Accounts you mention to have transmitted 
to the General, Which I hope I shall recieve Orders from him, 
and have it in my power, to settle soon As it wou'd afford Me 
real Satisfaction to correspond to Your Wishes, in this, or any 
other Respect. — 

I have the honor to be, with great Regard & Esteem 


Your most Obedient 
Humble Servant 

G. Maturin 
Sir William Johnson B l . — 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Gratz Collection. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 299 


N York 13 th . April 1767 

From G 1 . Maturin Esq r . 
Secy, to the Com r . in Chief 

Ans d . April 24 th . & drew on him 
In faV. of M r . Leake for £ 1 732./1 1 ./1 0. 
D°. of M'. Hx. White for £ 1 568. 1 3.7 

N Y Curry. 


A.Df.S. 1 

Lebanon 23 d . April. 1767. 

Tobias Shattock of the Narragansett Tribe of Indians, now a 
Member of My School desires Me to inform Your Excell c y. That 
a Number of his Tribe, and [W/io] 2 Such as are of the Worst 
Characters in it being Instigated by their Sachem continue to in- 
jure and abuse the religious and Steady part of that Tribe greatly 
— They have forcibly taken away the Possessions of many of 
their Neighbours, and taken possession of their Labours, and 
Seem designd to ruin the Tribe as fast as they can — the Indians 
there are in Such Difficulty that they know not Which Way to 
turn — Their Eyes are to Your Excell c y., under God, to releive 
them — Those English people Who have bought Land of their 
Sachem are using every Artifice to insnare them — they try to 
intice the Indians to referr their controversies to them for Decision : 
& he fears that, by delays they Will Suffer greatly in their Interest. 
This Toby appears to be a Very honest, Steady, prudent Man, 
perhaps as much so as any of that Tribe, he is One of their 

1 In Dartmouth College Library. 

2 Words italicized and in brackets are crossed out in the manuscript. 

300 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Council, And I Suppose has More Influence Among them than 
any Other of them — When Your Excellency Shall do me the 
Favour Which I requested in my Last; if You Would please to 
give Some Council & Direction in their Case You Would greatly 
Oblige them. 

I have done Nothing towards providing Missionaries and 
School Masters to Supply the Vacancies in Your Vicinity, nor 
Shall I do any thing About it, till I know Your Mind — 

I herewith inclose a Narrative, Which please to Accept & M r . 
Kirtland 3 can give You acco 1 . of late Advices from Home re- 
specting this Design, Which are too long to Write — And also 
What Measures have been taken to determine the Place to fix 
this School. — 

It is Strongly Recommended from Philadelphia to fix it on the 
Ohio About 30 or 40 miles below Pittsburg — What dos Your 
Excell c y. think of that place? I Am With Much Esteem and 

Your Excellency's 
Most Obed f . & Most 
Humble Servant. 

Eleazar Wheelock 
Sir W m . Johnson 

indorsed : 

To Gen ! . Johnson April 23 d . 


3 The Rev. Samuel Kirkland. 

Indian A fairs, 1766-68 301 


Johnson Hall 27* April 1767 
Dear Banyar — 

Yesterday I rec d . your favour of the 20 th . Ins 1 ., 2 and am sorry 
to find You so pushing for the Money, when You acknowledge 
the Scarcity of it there. Was I in Cash, I would much rather pay 
it down imediately with the Deed, than pass my Bond. 

I have been oblidged everry year to advance y e . greater part 
of my officers pay in the Department they living so Scattered, 
and wait some time before I get it from y e . Genr 1 ., w h . together 
with y e . Expence of improving Wood Land, & building &ca. 
leaves me at present verry destitute of it. — However as you 
Say M r . Clarke is in the Same Scituation, I will Strain a point to 
advance the Half with the Deed, & pass my Bond to him for the 
remainder without Interest for 1 Year. On these terms You may 
make out the Deeds as Soon As You please, & on y r . letting me 
know it is ready, I will give You a Draft for the half on a 
Gentleman at New York. & Send You my Bond for the Remd r . 

I wish that You had Sent the Warrant of Survey for the 600 
Acres, as I am going up that way this Week & could have got it 
Survey d . by Fry, 3 or Yates, 4 who are both on their way to the 
German Flats with me in order to Survey the 2 large Tracts 
purchased of the Oneidaes here when the Gov r . was this way. — 
The former or Triangle I am told is verry ordinary Land, altho 
verry dear, My reason for pushing for it was, on Acc f . of a report 
propagated by y e . Country People that there was a Mine on it, or 
rather what they call Cobalt, but more so to disapoint Kloclf who 
was taking verry unfair Steps to obtain it from y e . Ind 8 ., when, 
You may remember I entered a Caveat ag st . His proceedings. 

1 In New York Historical Society, Banyar Papers. 

2 Destroyed by fire; see Johnson Calendar, p. 353. 

3 Hendrick Frey, Jr. 

4 Christopher Yates. 

5 George Klock. 

302 Sir William Johnson Papers 

This however enhanced the purchase greatly. — If the Indians 
are allowed to be the proprietors of their Lands, which (by the 
Steps formerly & now ordered by the King & Council to be 
taken) they seem to be, they certainly can give the preference to 
whom they like, & there have been Several Instances of Peoples 
obtaining Lycences of purchase without being able to accomplish 
them. — but that purchase of Lawyers 6 &ca. was made openly 
by the Gov r . in the name & on behalf of the King, the money paid, 
Deeds executed at a public Meeting with y e . consent of the whole 
Tribe, who declared to the Gov r . in y e . presence of us all, that no 
other application had ever been made to them but from Lawyer 
& his Associates, to whom they had promised to sell it many 
Years ago. & that if there had, they would not on any Ace", 
break their word with the Scohare People, adding, that if they 
should break their promise to & bargain with them, they were sure 
that it would lessen them in the Opinion of the Governour, & all 
their Bretheren & forfeit the freindship of their Neighbours, mean- 
ing y e . Purchasers, they continue determined in their resolution. — 

Heaps of letters by the pacquet & from dif f . Quarters now 
arrived, prevents my adding more than that 

I am Sincerely & AffectK 

Your Welwisher 

& verry Humble Servant 

W. Johnson 
Golds Borrow Banyar Esq r . 

indorsed : 

27 April 1 767 

From S r . W m . Johnson 

Johannes Lawyer et al. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 303 


Contemporary Copy 1 

[Johnson Hall April 6-30, 1767] 

April 6 th . — A number of Conjohares arrived here this day, and 
Spoke much ag l . M r . Hardwick 2 the Minister for taking under- 
hand measures to get their land, and for not paying them the 
Consideration money for another tract formerly purchased of 
them. — 

Eod. Die — Daniel Nimham who came here to ask Sir W m ' s . 
advice what steps he shou'd take about the lands in dispute with 
Mess Phillips, Robinson, and Morris left this, on his acquainting 
him that he did not chuse to interest himself further in the matter 
after the Governor & Council had twice decided it against him, 
but that as he was then writing to the Secy, of State, he wou'd 
transmit him the Governor, and Council's Resolves, with all the 
Proceedings — 

8 th . — Teyawarunte the Onondaga Speaker w th . another Indian 
[came] to acquaint Sir W m . that a few days ago they had lost one 
of their Principal Warriors named Sonoquiris, which wou'd pre- 
vent their nation's attendance at the intended meeting, as they 
were now all mourning with drooping heads — Sir W m . told them 
he was extremely sorry for their great loss, and then performed 
the usual Ceremony of Condolance with Wampum &c 

The Speaker then returned Sir W m . many thanks, and promised 
to be at his village in 4 days so as to prepare them for meeting 
him at the German Flats with the rest of the Six Nations. — Sir 
W m . gave him an order on Justice Franks 3 for three Gall Rum for 
Karraghiagigoe nephew of the deceased, and the same for the 
Speaker's wife for the Performance of the Ceremony of Condol- 
ence among themselves — gave them Cash to defray their ex- 
pences — then dismissed them — 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 The Rev. John Christopher Hartwick. 

3 Captain Conrad Franck. 

304 Sir William Johnson Papers 

9 th . — Two Mohawks arrived here to acquaint Sir W m . that they 
were sent by their Chiefs to let him know they were coming to him 
on business, and wou'd be here about 1 2 o' the clock. — At 2 o' 
the clock near 20 of them arrived, and being met in the Council 
room, Abraham their Speaker addressed Sir W m . as follows. — 

Brother Gorah Warraghyagey — 

We are come to tell you a very extraordinary affair which we 
were yesterday made acquainted with by some of our neighbours 
of Scohare, and as it concerns us, we wou'd be glad to hear from 
you the reasons of such doings. — it is concerning the lands we 
sold, when the Governor was at your house last Fall for the use 
of Hannis Lawyer, 4 and his Associates, from whom we then rec d . 
y e . full Consideration for which we agreed, and now we under- 
stand that Lawyer, and his Friends are to have but one half of it. 
to us such doings appear strange, and I believe you wou'd think 
hard of us, were we to act so. — we cannot therefore in Justice 
to them People, who have been long abeut that tract, and at a 
good deal of expence about the Purchase money allow the land 
to be Surveyed for a People with whom we are not acquainted ; 
neither did we ever hear of the least Intention they had of Pur- 
chasing them Lands ; and if they had applied, we cou'd not think 
of letting them, or any other People have the Lands, which we 
had long ago promised to the Purchasers, which you may 
remember, Brother, we declared to the Governor at the time the 
Deed lay on your Table ready to be signed, and gave him our 
reasons for it at that time, all which, together with the careful 
manner every thing was transacted then, induced us to imagine 
there cou'd not be any the least Squabble about it hereafter, but 
in short, Brother — we are sorry to see that the white People, 
who have more Sense than we, will for the sake of getting land, 
wrong one another. — Since that is the case, what are we Indians 
to expect from you. — Brother, we have no more to say to you 

4 Johannes Lawyer of Schoharie. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 305 

on that Subject, but request you will let us know if you can the 
reason of Such doings. — if you cannot, we wou'd then beg of 
you to enquire of the Governor, who without doubt is acquainted 
w^. everything relative to that affair, as it was transacted in his 
Presence. — 

Sir W m . told them in answer that he was an entire stranger to 
the Cause of such a Division as was now proposed to be made of 
the land they mentioned, but wou'd at their Request transmit what 
they now had said upon the Subject, to the Governor, whose 
answer he said he wou'd communicate, on receipt thereof. — Sir 
W m . accordingly sent the above speech of theirs to the Governor 
the 1 8 th . of April — 

April 20 th . — A number of Nanticokes from Otseningo, with 
Joseph Peepy, and a Party of Delawares with Lieu*. Governor 
Penn's Passport, arrived here, and being very wet by travelling in 
the Rain, they deferred speaking upon business 'till the morrow, 
when Joseph Peepy said he wou'd shew Sir W m . the letters he 
had, and let him know the business they came upon. — Ordered 
them Drams, Pipes, [and] Tobacco and Provisions, & sent them 
to their Quarters. — 

Joseph Peepy on behalf of the whole of both Nations, went 
thro' the Ceremony of Condolence usual upon those occasions, and 
delivered — 

the Strings of Wampum. — 
30 th . — Sir W m . returned the Complim 1 . & thanked them for 
what they had done w th . — 

three Strings of Wampum. — 

Then Joseph Peepy produced a Certificate to Sir W m . from 
John Brainerd Presbiterian Clergyman living at Mount Holly in 
the Jerseys, by whom he was sent to the Ohio Delawares, setting 
forth that said Peepy was a member of the Congregation of 
Christian Indians in New Jersey, and their Representative to the 
Tribe of Delawares beyond the Ohio, and that he was now on 
his way, with a written message to them dated Bridgetown 1 1 th . 
Feb r y. 1 767. — he then produced a long speech wrote on a Sheet 
of Paper (as is supposed wrote by said Clergyman) setting forth 

306 Sir William Johnson Papers 

the many and great Advantages they wou'd acquire by a knowl- 
edge of the Christian Religion, greatly recommending the Clergy- 
man, and assuring the Ohio Indians of their readiness to comply 
with their request of removing to Ohio, and instructing them, and 
the Cayugas, if a few Obstacles cou'd be removed, w ch . at 
present were greatly in their way, viz 1 , first — that they were not 
able to defray the expence of removing thither. — 2 d . that as the 
English had now taken them in their Arms as Children, they 
cou'd not go without their Consent, assistance, and protection — 
3 dl y. that they have where they now live a Church, School house, 
and other accommodations, which by removing they must lose, as 
also their heavenly guide, cou'd these difficulties once be removed 
they wou'd willingly embrace their kind Offer, in the main time 
request the road between them may be kept open. — The Clergy- 
man farther advised the Ohio Indians to apply to Sir W m . 
Johnson for his assistance in the affair, and that perhaps he might 
order matters so that they might in a short time be able to remove 
to you, and be happy in your Country — with a great deal more 
concerning Religion. — 

JjL .L>.w3. 

Princeton April 30 ih . 1767 

I wrote to You some time agoe from York, in which I informd 
You that Cap 1 . Maturin would pay me, the Ballance of my 
Account, if you desird him, As I have not had the pleasure of 
hearing from You, am affraid You have not receiv'd my Letter, 
I shall be much oblidgd to you, if you will desire Cap 1 . Maturin 
to pay me, As I am in want of the Money, am makeing up the 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Gratz Collection. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 307 

Reg* Account, shall want the Money to settle with them, I paid 
Money for every thing I bought in order to get it cheap, not 
haveing sufficient of my own, us d . some I had of the Reg ts . be 
pleasd to make my compliments to Cap 1 . Johnston & am 

S r . Yo r . Most Ob 1 . Hum bIe . Serv f . 

W M . Howard 
S R . W M . Johnston Barn*. 


S r . W m . Johnston Barn*, 

Johnston Hall 

Prince Town 30 th . April 1 767 

Cap 1 . W m . Howards Letter 

2 In Sir William's hand. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

New York May 4 th . 1767 
Dear Sir, 

I have been favored with your's of the 18 th . Ul m0 ., 2 and have 
Spoke to Lieut Colonel Campbell 3 about the Evidence against the 
Negro now in Jail for the Murder of the Two Squaws, but don't 
find any positive Evidence can be procured. There are many 
Strong Circumstances which I fear would not be sufficient to 
Condemn him, but all that can be done, towards it must be done. 
It was a great mistake sending the fellow down the Country. The 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 In Doc. Hist. N. Y., 2:848-50. 

3 Lieutenant Colonel John Campbell. 

308 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Indians Should not have been withheld from doing themselves 
Justice on such a Villain. 

There has been no further Acco ,s . received about the Fellow 
who fled into Virginia for the Murder of the Indian at Redstone 
Creek. Gover. Fauquiere 4 is informed of everything, and I have 
wrote to him concerning the Settlers on the Branches of the 
Monongahela, with an Offer of as many Troops as he shall re- 
quire to drive them away and destroy their Habitations. — 

If the Demands of the Northern Indians are so very Exorbitant, 
there seems to be very little hopes of Accommodation between 
them and the Cherokees. — 

Fort Ontario 5 I Apprehend will not be kept up as a Garrison 
much longer; And we may possibly be able to retrench Indian 
Expences there, as well as all others. I find everything not directly, 
and absolutely Necessary must be Retrenched, the Estimates of 
the Expence of America to the Mother Country is before the 
House & have made a good deal of noise, & been the subject of 
much Debate. — 

No Account has been Sent Me of the Draught You mention of 
£300 from Montreal on Acco*. of Presents given there. It is 
probably some Expence incurred to be defrayed by the Civil 
Government. If Gov r . Carleton 6 mean't it should be defrayed by 
You, he would I think have wrote to You about it — 

There are frequent Opportunitys of Sending Money to 
Albany; If You can Appoint any trusty person there into whose 
Hands it may at times be lodged for your Use, You will be so 
good to Inform Me, and I Shall lodge Money there for You. — 

I am, with great Regard, 

Dear Sir, 

Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 . 

4 Lieutenant Governor Francis Fauquier, of Virginia. 

5 On site of Oswego, N. Y. 

6 Guy Carleton, lieutenant governor of the province of Quebec. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 309 



To Sir William Johnson Bar 1 , 

Johnson hall 
New York 4 th . May 1 767 


Contemporary Copy 1 

[Burnetsfield, May 8-11, 1767] 

May 8 th . — Sir W m . Johnson sett out 2 for Burnetsfield 3 in order 
to meet the Six Nations pursuant to Appointment — 

Copy of Proceedings at a Congress with the Six Nations held 
at Burnetsfield at the House of Conradt Franks Esq r . on Monday 
May the 11*1 767. — 

Present Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 . Superintend 1 . 

After the Ceremony of Condolance was performed Sir W m . 
addressed the sev 1 . Nat s . as follows — 

Brethren, Sachims & Warriors of the Six Nations. — 

I am very glad to see you all well, and hearty after your 
fatiguing Journey, and I hope you come with sound minds, and 
a friendly Disposition towards all your Breth n . — 

3 Strings of Wampum 
Breth n . I intended to have called you all to a general Congress 
this Summer in order that we shou'd as usual repeat and 
strenghten our mutual engagements, hear what each other had to 
say, and acquaint one another of any news, or material Occur- 
rences since our last meeting. — but before It was necessary to 
assemble you, I rec d . letters from the Governors of Pennsylvania, 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 From Johnson Hall. 

3 German Flats. 

310 Sir William Johnson Papers 

and Maryland acquainting me that a dispute which had long 
subsisted between them was now by mutual consent to be amicably 
decided by Commissioners, and Surveyors sent from England, 
who have last year run the South line between the two Provinces 
as far as the Allegany Mountains, 4 and altho' it was necessary 
for the determination of the Dispute that they shou'd proceed as 
far West as their Jurisdiction, and the limits, in which the King 
gave them liberty to purchase from you, shou'd extend, yet from 
the Friendship these Governments have for you, and from their 
desire to make you all easy in your minds, they wou'd not go any 
further 'till they had obtained your voluntary Consent, and pro- 
cured some of your People to be present, whom they wou'd pay 
for their attendance, in order to Shew the fairness of their Pro- 
ceedings, this they earnestly desired that I shou'd lay before 
you, & desire your Consent thereto. — 

A Belt. — 
Breth n . I have now told you what the Governors of Pennsyl- 
vania & Maryland desire of you thro' me. it remains yet necessary 
I shou'd say something in recommendation of their request. — 
Breth n . You all know that these Governments have, and still do 
continue to act fairly w th . you, and you have no longer any Land 
disputes with them. You need not therefore be under the least 
apprehensions that it is intended to wrong you in any manner 
whatever of the smallest part of your lands, as you may see by 
Governor Penn's letter to me on that Subject (here explained that 
part of the letter) . — It is only a private transaction between 
them Goverm ts ., and it wou'd have been needless to have given 
you any trouble about the matter, but that in such cases bad 
people might impose upon you, and create Suspicions injurious to 
the Characters of the Persons concerned. — 

The King in conformity to our Laws has granted to every 
Province a certain Boundary, within which Rogues may be ap- 
prehended, and Crimes punished, this is for your own advantage, 
as much as for ours, it does not take away your lands — for you 

4 The line drawn by Mason and Dixon. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 311 

see from the earliest times, they have been fairly purchased from 
you piece by piece. — These measures are only for the purposes I 
have mentioned to you, — and it is absolutely necessary that this 
Line shou'd be run for terminating Provincial disputes. — 

The Parties concerned have been so generous to you their old 
Friends as to send you a small present on your agreeing to their 
desire; and I hope you have all had too many proofs of my 
Regard for your Interests to imagine I wou'd desire your Con- 
currence in any thing which might be prejudicial thereto. I shall 
therefore expect your answer, and that it will be as favorable as it 
ought to be: — 

A Belt. — 


A.D. 1 

Thursday May 12*. [1767] 
Bretheren of the Six Nat s . — 

I am to acquaint You that I have not as yet received any orders 
from Home, relative to the business of our last Meeting at my 
House, but soon expect them, as His Majesty's Ministers have 
now for some time past, the Affairs of America under considera- 
tion, so that probably I may receive them by my Son 2 whom I 
expect in about a Months time, if I do, You shall be imediately 
made acquainted therewith. In the mean time I can with pleasure 
assure You, that, by all my letters from y e . Ministry it appears 
that His Majesty is determined to have all Justice imaginable done 
You in all y r . dealings with his Subjects, and I expect that you 
will act towards him, & them in such a manner as to merit a con- 
tinuance of his regard & Protection. — 

A Belt — 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 1 0. The first part of the 
document is Sir William's hand. 

2 John Johnson, who was expected to return from England in June, 


312 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Bretheren — 

I [am also] take this first opertunity to inform You that I have 

Settled everry thing with the Westeren & Northeren Ind s . last 

Year on the best footing possible, & to our Mutual Satisfaction, 

that I have a Deputy also in the Eastern Parts of this Country 

whose reports from thence are verry favourable, so that as Peace 

[now] is now established between Us & all the Ind s . with whom 

we are acquainted from the East to the West & from the North 

to the South, & I expect that You, our Bretheren of the Six 

Nations will contribute all in your power to the continuance of it. 

And that You will, with Us look upon those who first violated it 

(without Sufficient cause) as Disturbers of our happy tranquility, 

& Enemys of the Country. — 

A Belt — 


I rejoice with You at y e . encrease of y r . Confederacy by the 
considerable Number of Tuscaroras" who joined You lately, w h . 
I promoted all in my power by writing to y e . Governour of Caro- 
lina in whose Government they lived, as well as by giving them 
Passports, & Some Assistance on their Arrival, Such as provision, 
Am n . & Some implements of Husbandry, & I now expect that 
You will act y r . part by Settling them in a proper place, and 
afford them some Assistance until they can help themselves, I 
have also given Letters last Week to the Nanticokes, & Dela- 
wares for the Gov rs . of N Jersey & Maryland in whose Govern- 
ments Several of the abovementioned Tribes [yet] still live to See 
Strict Justice done to them on leaving their Governments, which I 
am certain they will do, they have likewise passports from me for 
their better security in travilling thro the Inhabitted parts of y e . 
Country. — As I have done so much for the Strengthening of y r . 
Confederacy, w h . I have often recommended to You, I expect You 
will act a proper part on their Arrival amongst You. — 

A Belt — 

3 In 1 766 one hundred sixty Tuscaroras emigrated from North Carolina 
to New York. See Johnson to Shelburne, Dec. 1 6, 1 766, Doc. Rel. to 
Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:883. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 313 

Bretheren — 

As I am now recommending to You y e . Assembling All y r . 
Scattered freinds together, in order to Strengthen y r . Confederacy 
I cannot avoid taking notice of the Immoderate lengths Your 
Young [Men] People carry their resentment against the Chero- 
kees, a People in Strict Alliance with Us, and who want to live 
in freindship with You [as well as with us] also [And] they have 
lately requested our Interposition And as the great King George 
My Master has nothing more at heart than y e . Settling a General 
peace amongst all his Subjects & Allies in this Country. — I must 
by this belt of Wampum recommend to You a peace with the 
Cherokees, who I expect will Send Deputys this way ere long 
for that purpose. — therefore shall be glad of y r . Answer, that I 
may act Accordingly. — 

A Belt — 
4 Answer to the 1 st . 
Brother — 

We have heard now y e . Reasons why you have had nothing 
relative to our last meeting from Home, y*. you expect a full ace*, 
by your Son. — in y e . Mean time you inform us of his Majestys 
good-will towards us, & his determination to see y e . strictest justice 
done done us by our Brethren & Neighbours in these parts, we 
thank you Brother for this Good News — we all w h . one voice 
return thanks that the King & his Ministers has been mindful of 
us amidst all y e . Affairs of their Nation. — we shall rest satisfyed 
in y e . expectation of his farther pleasure & [thots towards us] 
determination respecting our last meeting by your Son. — We 
hope by our peaceable behaviour ever to merit the gracious Kings 
regard & protection. ■ — 

a Belt. 
2 d . Brother. W. our Protector. 

We rejoice to hear you have settled so strong & happy a Peace 
w h . y e . Northern & western Indians — & so agreeable & satis- 
factory to our Brethren y e . English. 

4 From here in another hand. 

314 Sir William Johnson Papers 


it affords us equal pleasure y l . you have peace w h . all y e . 
Indians w h . whome you have any Acquaintance. — & y f . you are 
under such peculiar Advantages to preserve & perpetuate this 
tranquility. &c. 

We shall ever join w h . you, & exert ourselves to continue this 
happy state. — We hope to be always of one heart & one mind 
— & y f . y e . voice of universal peace may be ever sounding 
amonghst us. — We all thank you for this pleasant news. 

A Belt. — 
3 d . Brother &c 

We have heard you, (after repeating y e . whole say) we thank 
you for this renewed Instance of your good-will & regard for us, 
rejoicing at y e . addition to our Number by y e . Tuscarora's, we 
rejoice w h . you. — We thank you for the Kindness & assistance 
you have shewn them, — both in y r . first removal from y e . 
Southard, & since y r . arrival here. — 

We also thank you for y e . speedy Care you have taken for y e . 
safe removal of some of y e . Tuscororas who are still remaining in 
y e . Southern Goverments. — 

We assure you Brother, we shall follow your Advice & direc- 
tions relative to a good settlement for them — & grant them all 
y e . assistance in our power. — 

We are well pleas'd w h . y r . settling at Ahquage, or any place 
they may chuse y f . shall be agreeable to them. — we renew thanks 
for your Kindness to them & ask y r . continuance of it, for those 
still behind. — 

a Belt — 
4 ,h . Brother &c 

We are convinc'd of your Fidelity & regard for us y f . you have 
our interest & wellfare at heart, — & are uneasy y } . we shou'd 
do any thing w h . has a tendency to diminish our Number & 
destroy our peace. — 

we are glad y*. y e . great King your Master has so good a heart 
as to desire nothing more than peace w h . all his Subjects & 
displeas'd if any carry on war without just grounds for it. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 315 

We warriors, will now give you Reasons why War has com- 
menced between us & y e . Cherokees. — 

about 4 Years ago, some of y e . Chief Worriors of y e . Senecas 
visited [p e .] our southern Brothers, with an Intention to renew & 
brighten y e . Chain of friendship — w ch . being done, — upon our 
return they struck us, & we returnd y e . Blow — Since which we 
cant enter their settlements, they meeting us abroad as Enemies — 
Thus we have only beat them w h . y r . own hatchet. — & now our 
necks are stretched & faces turn'd y*. way — we begin to hear 
y r . voice for peace. — y l . [If] they will make y r . Acknowledge- 
ments for y e . breach of friendship, we shall hear them. this we 
think proper for them first to do, as they have been y e . Ag- 
gressers. — 


May 12, 1767. — 

The Council in consequence of your letter to me have desir'd 
that I would grant the lands purchas'd, to Mr. Lawyer, & have 
drawn up a Minute which I directed Mr. French to forward to 
you by this oppertunity, but if he should have forgot it you shall 
receive it by the next post. I write this from Coll. PhilipsV to 
which place I have made an excursion for a few days, & should 
now have answer'd all the particulars of your last letter relative 
to the Militia, but as I unfortunately left your letter in Town I 
must do it in my next, having now only time to assure you that I 
am with great truth & regard 


Y r . most Obed. & 
hum 1 . S'. 


1 In Harvard University Library, Sparks Collection. 

2 Frederick Philipse, the third lord of Philipse Manor now standing in 
Yonkers, N. Y. 

316 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A.L.S. 1 

London 17 th . May, 1767. 
Dear Sir William 

I was in Hopes, I might have had a few lines from You, by the 
Hariot Packett just arrived, but on recollection I think You could 
scarce have had time to answer my last, 2 so shall look for that 
Pleasure by the next. 

Your Son 3 will deliver You this — I declare I am sorry to part 
with Him, but he will go, & their is no Help — I can assure You 
upon my Honour, that all that have known Him here, love and 
Esteem Him; if he would, or could be less reserved, He would 
make a better figure — because, His Modesty often conceals his 
merit, and prevents him, from taking that share in Conversation, 
which his Situation in Life, and his own very good Sense intitle 
him to. Some of this rare Quality he owes to nature, and much to 
not having come sooner, and mixed more amongst People of the 

I have given Him my Honest Advice, to chuse some good 
clever discreet American Lass, whom he loves, and sitt down 
contentedly, I do not think his Constitution the strongest — and 
I have too good an Opinion of the Breed, [to] not to wish 
earnestly, to see it continued down in the male Line. — I have 
bid Your Son, leave me your Survey of the Land You ought long 
ago to have had granted You, and a Note of the Boundaries, You 
describe — because when He shall be gone, who naturally was 
Your agent — I shall think my self bound in Honour and in 
gratitude to obey, to my best, any instructions You shall send me, 
about your Concerns — You know & so does he my Willingness 
— ■ but I neither love nor trust Lord Sh-lb-ne, nor have once been 
near him. — Lord Hillsboro — I know, & esteem ; He is really a 

1 In New York Public Library, Ford Collection. 

2 Not found. He had not received Sir William's letter of April 20, 
1 767; see Johnson Calendar, p. 353. 

3 John Johnson, who accompanied Lord Adam Gordon to England. 

Indian A fairs, 1766-68 317 

Man of Business — but said to me t'other day, "You know, I am 
no Body, now!" Perhaps that may not long be the Case! for 

Changes in Adm ion, to the ruin & disgrace of Britain, are now 

as frequent, as the seasons. — 

Along with this I send You out a sketch of my drawing up, 
which is in General Approved by Sir Jeff : Am — st — but w ch . 
if something unforeseen, does not make it absolutely necessary — 
I will not present untill it has had your Approbation — I wish 
You may approve — if You do not, I am desirous, You will point 
out, what you think exceptionable, whether it shall go to the whole 
plan — or to any one part of it — I also wish to have your 
thoughts at large on the matter — & express'd in a manner, I may 
use here — to attempt a thing of this size & nature, where Your 
opinion did not go along — I would be averse to. All I beg is 
secrecy — and a quick answer — please to direct for me here — 
if I am in the north, it will follow me there. — the Great mis- 
fortune here seems, that America is very little known to those in 
Power, & the few that have turned their thoughts towards it, are 
mostly so warped by Party, & linked to Factions — Its hard to 
make them see, and consider things, coolly & impartially. 

I still mean to come out in 1 768, if I do not marry, or am not 
employed in any service of the Public, either of these two occur- 
rences may postpone that Plan — but I will not hastyly relinquish 
my Castles there, or ever forgott those there to whom I am so 
deeply in debt. — You are amongst the first in that List — I wish 
to be greatefull, and to assure You, at all times, that I am, and 
shall be most faithfully, and most cordially, my Dear Sir William, 

Yours to serve You — 


„„, . „ Ad: Gordon 

S R . W M . Johnson Bar 1 . 


I beg my Compt s . to the two Families down the Country; I am 
pleased to think their half pay matters are all settled, but having 
nothing particular at this time, to trouble them with, I do not 
write. — 

318 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Sir John will better explain to You, than I can write, the 
Ideas, People in general here now hold of America — If New 
York does not comply — I dread the consequences and amongst 
ourselves I say it, (I think) force must follow the words and 
declarations of the Government of Great Britain — . I hope 
Lawyers, who kindle, and feed this flame between the Parent, & 
the Child, have much to answer for — I mean M r . S. and M r . L. 
of New York. 4 Adieu God bless You — . 


London 1 7 th . May 1 767 

L d . Adam Gordons Letter 
& ca . rec d . 8K 18 lh . 1767 

A.L.S. 1 

New York May IS. 1767 


I wrote a few lines to you by the last Post from Coll. Philips's, 2 
to which place I had made an excursion for a few days, & on my 
return to Town I find that Mr French had not forwarded the 
Minute of Council as I directed, but you will receive it by this 
opportunity. — I am very sorry I did not explain myself suffi- 
ciently in what I wrote concerning the Militia as I have given 
you some unnecessary trouble, but my Intentions were to have the 
whole Province divided into two Districts distinguished by the 
Northern & Southern, & that the Southern should comprehend 
Staten Island, Long Island New York & the Counties of Orange, 

4 Probably Isaac Sears and John Lamb, leaders of the Sons of Liberty. 

5 In Sir William's hand. 

1 In New York Historical Society. 

2 May 12, 1767, ante p. 315. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 319 

Ulster, West Chester & Dutchess, & that the remainder of the 
Province should include the Northern. The number of Companies 
You propose for each Reg'. I think very proper but apprehend 
that we may not allways have the power of raising so many 
Companies in each District in which Case we must be contented 
with the number which the Inhabitants can furnish, and complete 
the Regiments as the number of settlers increase. I apprehend that 
500 men will be very sufficient for each Reg'. & that they will be 
much better disciplin'd if they consist only of that number than 
if they was doubled. — I shall be much oblig'd to you if you 
would send me Your Plan for the whole County, as likewise 
Your Opinion of what has been propos'd to me by others which I 
here subjoin, & if you think any alterations necessary You will be 
so kind to let me have them soon. I am with great regard & 

S r . Y r . most Obed*. & hum 1 . 

H. Moore 

The Regiments are propos'd to be divided in the following 
manner — 

The City of Albany 

The Manor of Rensselaer 

Claverac & Kinderhook 

The Manor of Livingston 

Coxhachie, Kattskill, & the West Camp. 

The Reg 1 , lately commanded by Coll Mann has been divided 
in the following manner. 

From the North line of the Manor of Rensslaer to the North 
line of Saratogha. — This is given to Mr. Schuyler. 

320 Sir William Johnson Papers 

From the North Line of Saratogha to the Northern Boundary 
of the Province, taking in Lake George Lake Champlain, &c — 
The Command of this is given to Major Skene. — 


»ov r . Moores Le[tter] 

New York May 18*. 1 7[67] 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Copy of a Letter from Sir W m . Johnson to the Commissaries 
concerning the Complaints made ag l . them by the Canadians 


Johnson Hall, May the 24*. 1767— 

Gent n . 

By a letter reed from Governor Carleton 2 as well as by a Copy 
of his letter in answer to the traders of Quebec Government, I 
find they have brought a general, and Severe charge against the 
sev 1 . Commissaries. — that they loudly complain of your ill treat- 
ment of them, your Partiality, and of sev 1 . Acts of violence, of 
the continuance of which they are apprehensive. — As I am not 
furnished with the particulars contained under these heads, I 
:annot point them out. All I can say, is that as such conduct 

is contrary to your Instructions as well as to the Report made by 
other traders to me, I am willing to hope it is either groundless, or 
greatly exaggerated, and therefore I expect that you will im- 
mediately answer for the same, and in case such Charges are not 
justly founded, that you will without delay transmit to me such 
authentic, and sufficient proofs of your good Conduct as will do 

3 In Sir William's hand. 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 Guy Carleton to Johnson, March 27, 1767, Johnson Papers, 5:520- 

Indian A fairs, 1766-68 321 

Justice to your selves and to the Department, and that in this you 
will particularly explain your own Conduct with that of the 
traders from the Government of Quebec the last Season, as well 
as make your Defence to the charges of Partiality laid to you, 
shewing cause why you took upon you to make any Distinctions, 
or if such charges are groundless that you will acquit your selves of 
the same by proper, and Sufficient Testimonials in your favor. — 
In the main time you are to conduct yourselves with that Im- 
partiality so repeatedly recommended to you, without Favor, or 
affection, doing your utmost to prevent Frauds, or Irregularities 
contrary to the Regulations to the Prejudice of the fair trader, or, 
which may tend to interrupt the present Union with the Indians, 
by conniving at, or permitting Acts contrary to his Majesty's 
Royal Intentions signified to me. — I am Gent n . &c 



Contemporary Copy 1 

Johnson Hall May the 30 lh . 1767. 

On this day Abraham, and sev 1 . of the Mohawks arrived here, 
when S r . W m . among other things told them what the Committee 
for the Kayadarosseras Patent had again proposed, to which they 
made answer, that as their People were not then at home, some 
being gone to see the Line run between Pennsylvania and Mary- 
land, and others to other parts, they cou'd say nothing until their 
Return, when they wou'd after talking the affair over give them 
an answer. This Sir W m . communicated to the Comittee by lere 
to M r . Kissam 2 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 Benjamin Kissam. "Lere" evidently means "letter." 

322 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

New York 1 st . June 1767 — 
Dear Sir, 

I am to acknowledge your Favor of 20 th . May, 2 and am glad 
that you have Settled the Boundarys of Pensylvania & Virginia to 
your Satisfaction ; And that You have found the Indians disposed 
to make Peace with the Cherokees : As Soon as the Deputy from 
that Nation arrive here, they will be forwarded to You. — 

If the French Lad can be got from Detroit, which no doubt he 
may upon your writing to M 1 '. Hay, 3 it will be very proper that he 
Should Appear against the Negro at his Tryal. I will mention it 
in a Letter I am now going to write to Capt Turnbull. 4 And if 
any other Evidence, Circumstantial or Positive can also be had 
from thence, they should be Sent down at the Same time. 
Colonel Campbell 5 says, he does not recollect any thing but strong 
Circumstances against the Negro, such as a bloody Shirt, and 
others of the Same Nature. — 

Lieut Gover r . Carleton 6 is yet New in Indian Affairs, his 
Certificate must warrant the Payment of the Draughts, but at the 
Same Time I think a Genteel hint from You upon the Occasion 
will put Matters for the future upon a proper footing. — 

Governor Carleton knows very little of the Canadians You 
made Complaint of, if he conceives them to be Men of good 
Character. They are Renegadoes, who are always doing Mis- 
chief. — 

From the Tenor of your Letter, I am to Conclude some Com- 
plaints have been Exhibited against your Commissarys, of what 
Nature they are, or by whom Made, I am intirely Ignorant, 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 In Doc. Hist. N. Y., 2:853-55. 

3 Lieutenant Jehu Hay, commissary at Detroit. 

4 Captain George Turnbull of the 60th regiment. 

5 Lieutenant Colonel John Campbell. 

6 Guy Carleton, lieutenant governor of the province of Quebec. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 323 

having never heared a Syllable about this Matter; But I Shall 
Notwithstanding Continue My Orders to the Officers Command- 
ing to support them in their Duty, and to give them every Assist- 
ance they shall require when Necessary to Enforce Obedience to 
the Regulations for the Trade. 

By a Letter from Detroit I find that Captain Turnbull has 
already delivered all the Presents in his Possession to M r . Hay. 
You will possibly have heared from thence of the Murder of One 
Jadot a Frenchman killed near the Miamis by a Seneca Indian, 
Son of one Koasdaess, as they write his Name, and of the French 
at the Miamis, Encouraged by that Nation, killing the Seneca in 
Revenge for the Loss of their Countryman — 

I Say nothing of the Cash You are in want of, as Capt. 
Maturin 7 Writes to You particularly upon the Subject — 

I am, with great Regard, 
Dear Sir, 

&ca — 

S R . W M . Johnson Bar 1 . 




Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 , 

Johnson hall 
New York 1 st . June 1 767 

7 Captain Gabriel Maturin. 

324 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Johnson Hall June 6 th . 1767 
Dear Sir 

Your favour of y e . 12 th . May 2 I received on my return from 
the Congress at y e . German Flats, Since which time I have been 
greatly hurried. 

I am glad our friend Croghan has recovered So much even of 
his outstand Ace", so long due. 

I shall, when I want more provisions, write to the General con- 
cerning it. I lately received 9 barrels pork, & 13 of flour from 
Schenectady, w h . goes cheifly to replace some of my own provi- 
sions lately given at y e . Congress, as I could get none else where, 
except a few barrels of Pork from Fort Stanwix w h . was unfit 
for use, the flour from thence was good. I do not understand why 
my Department if of any Service, whould be stinted, if it is not 
properly Supported, these good effects expected from it cannot be 
obtained, on the contrary, y e . consequences w h . must inevitably 
follow a Slight or neglect of our numerous Allies (now with much 
difficulty & Management brought into a good temper) may be 
fatal to our wide extended Frontiers, & Trade &ca. — 

With regard to the Land, be assured Sir that my Intention & 

desire is to Serve you therein, as Soon as the Survey can be 

effected, w h . will be this Summer, I hope. — If any news amongst 

you at Head Quarters, be so good to communicate it to him, Who 

is Sincerely 


Your hearty Welwisher 

& verry Humble Servant, 

Robert Leake Esq'. W - J°hnson 

1 In Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, N. Y. 

2 Destroyed by fire; according to Johnson Calendar, p. 356, it said 
"that he has paid Mr. Croghan's draft in favor of Lawrence & French, 
asking that orders for provisions may be sent early and Mentioning Capt. 
[Guy] Johnson's conversation and the slight prospect of a paper currency 
on the plan proposed in New York." 


First Lord Dorchester, Governor General of Canada. Copy by Mable B. 

Alesser, painted in 1923, from original portrait that hung in Rideau, since 

burnt. Courtesy of Public Archives of Canada. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 325 

My kind Compliments 
to M rs . Leake. — 

P. S. Mr. Corn 3 . Glen formerly Dep>\ Comis?. of provisions at 
Schenectady requested I would ask You for a Birth for him, in 
case of a Vacancy at Albany. As I have always heard a good 
Character of him & found him oblidging, I take this liberty, w h . 
You will Sir be good enough to excuse. 


6 th . June Ans wd . 26 th . D°. 1 767 
Sir W m . Johnson Bart. 

Copy 1 

Quebec 12 lh . June 1767. 


Upon considering the inclosed Extracts of a Letter from Lord 
Halifax to the Governor of this Province, in Consequence of my 
Enquiries thereupon into the Character and Conduct of Monsieur 
Chabert, 2 and the little knowledge I have had the Opportunity 
myself to acquire of the Man, I could not see any just Reason for 
refusing him an Indulgence, granted to all His Majesty's Subjects 
without Distinction, of improving his Fortune, by embarking in 
that Trade, which our Royal Master has in the most public 
Manner declared should be free to all, who submitted to the 
Regulations made by himself, or by those in Authority under 
him — 

This Gentleman's Case is truly hard; He spent two Years in 
the Bastille, which could not give him a very advantagious Idea 

1 In Canadian Archives; Colonial Office Records (transcripts), Canada 
Q 4, Correspondence between Gov. Carleton and the Ministers, pp. 

2 Daniel Joncaire, Sieur de Chabert and Clausonne (1716-1771). 

326 Sir William Johnson Papers 

of French Justice, He afterwards came over to this Country with 
a large Cargo, purchased in Britain, for the Indian Market, and 
found himself the only one debarred from disposing of them, as 
he pleased; He has taken the Oaths of Allegiance to His 
Majesty, has demeaned himself for the Space of two Years, as I 
am credibly informed, in the most quiet and irreproachable 
Manner, has submitted to the general Regulations by taking a 
Licence, and giving Security in the Terms thereby required. He 
has sent over for his Sons, is possessed of Houses, Lands, and has 
Relations in the Province, which are to us so many Pledges of his 
good Behaviour. I have it under his Hand, that if it lies in his 
Way, any Interest he has shall be employed for the British 
Interest, and yet without one single Crime laid to his Charge, He 
is to be punished, upon a base Presumption, He may intend to 
Offend. — 

Notwithstanding I do not myself entertain the least Suspicion 
of his having any such Intention, the Instant I understood by a 
Paragraph of your Letter to General Gage of the 24 th . April, 3 by 
him transmitted hither, which for Expedition sake, I could have 
wished, you had sent here directly, you had conceived his going 
up might prove prejudicial to the British Interests, I immediately 
dispatched an Express, Time enough to stop him ; but tho I went 
thus far, in order, as far as in me lies, to Cooperate with the 
Person, the King has been pleased to appoint for the Superin- 
tendance of the Savages in these northern Regions, I could not 
help indulging him with a Permission to apply to yourself in 
Person, to state his own Case, and Endeavour to remove those 
Prejudices, which bear so hard upon him. — 

I have been the more ready to acquiesce in this, that I am well 
informed, if he does not succeed in his application, he is forever 
ruined, himself and Family involved in the greatest Distress; I have 
however previously insisted on his giving me his Parole of Honor 
to return to Montreal, should you think proper to persist, and 

3 Doc. Hist. N. Y.. 2:850-52. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 327 

send my nephew L'. Carleton 4 of the 3 1 8t . to pay his Respects to 
you, to have an Eye to his Conduct, and see that he returns 
agreable to his Promise — 

This Affair gives me the more Concern, that I fear it may have 
pernicious Effects with Regard to his Countrymen; if they are 
once persuaded, we still look upon them with an evil Eye, and 
cannot forgive the Injuries, they did us, while it was their Duty 
to be our Enemies, will it not render them still more anxious to 
return to their old Masters, if it was but to shake off Restraints, 
to which they never were used — 

You will at the same Time observe, Sir, that altho' I think 
the Canadians well entitled to every Indulgence in the Power of 
the Crown to give them, I am thoroughly persuaded, it is both just 
and right carefully to attend to their most trifling Motions, and 
therefore when I acquainted General Gage with my Intention of 
agreeing to M r . Chabert's going to the upper country, I intreated 
he would mention the Matter to the Officers Commanding at 
Niagara and Detroit, and direct them to have an Eye to his Con- 
duct, tho' with such Caution and Circumspection, as might not 
afford him any Ground to imagine he was by us suspected — 

I am &c 

Guy Carleton 


Copy of a Letter from 
Lieut. Gov r . Carleton to 
S r . W m . Johnson Super 1 , 
for Indian Affairs 
12 th . June 1767 — 
In Lt. Gov r . Carleton's 
Dup ,e . (N°. 8.) of the 8 th . 
July 1767. 5. 

4 Lieutenant Christopher Carleton of the 3 1 st regiment. 

328 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Copy 1 

New York June 15, 1767 

The Bearer Lieut. Galland 2 is a Man Gen 1 . Gage has much at 
Heart to serve, as he was long in the same Corp with him & has 
appointed him to reside at & take care of Fort Stanwix. As it may 
be in your power to do him some service & advise him how to 
make something of the Lands & Houses there I beg you'll be so 
good as to help him. — He is a very honest worthy Man, but has 
been unfortunate. * * * * 

1 In Oneida Historical Society, Utica, N. Y. The original letter was 
destroyed by fire. 

2 Lieutenant John Galland. 


Copy 1 

Philad*. June 21 st 1767 

Last night we had an Express from Fort Chartres which 
brought us a Packet for your Honor and a Draft on you, for 
three thousand seven hundred & twenty one pounds twelve shill- 
ings N York Currency. 

We have happily experienced many Instances of kindness & 
assistance from your Honor, in the Payment of Our Acco ls . and 
therefore are now emboldned to beseech of you, to favor us, in the 
Discharge of the within Bill ; as we assure you, Our distresses for 
Money, still Continue ; occasioned by our not having yet received, 
any Other Remittances from the Ilinois except what have been in 
Drafts On your Honor. 

1 Printed in Illinois Historical Collections, 1 1 :580; original in New 
York State Library was destroyed by fire. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 329 

We are with the utmost Respect 

Your much obliged & 

most obedient Servants 
Baynton Wharton & Morgan 

The Honorable SlR W M . JOHNSON 


Philadelphia June 2 R 1 767 
Mess rs . Baynton Wharton 
& Morgans letter 


Copy 1 

Johnson Hall June 24 ih . 1767. 

Your Nephew Lt. Carleton 2 delivered me yesterday your favor 
of the 12' h . instant 3 he was accompanied by Mons r . Chabert 4 
whose Case is certainly hard, altho' I could not do less than to 
mention what I did, as well as in Consequence of the Sentiments 
of the Government respecting him, as from my knowledge of his 
Interest, particularly with the Senecas, and from some Storys 
propagated by the Chiefs of that, and other Nations, made it my 
Duty to hint the Affair as I did — 

M r . Chabert must know that I have no personal dislike to him, 
having given him at the desire of the French Minister as favour- 
able a Certificate of his Losses 5 at Niagara, as I could have done 

1 In Canadian Archives, Colonial Office Records (transcripts), Canada 
Q 4, Correspondence between Gov. Carleton and the English ministers, pp. 
246-49. Draft in New York State Library was destroyed by fire. 

2 Lieutenant Christopher Carleton of the 3 1 st regiment. 

3 Ante pp. 325-27. 

4 Daniel Joncaire, Sieur de Chabert and Clausonne. 

5 See Johnson Calendar p. 302, for Chabert's petition to Johnson, Feb. 
21, 1766. 

330 Sir William Johnson Papers 

to any Man, and I have only acted in this Case as I would do 
were He my Brother — I am willing to hope that M r . Chabert 
will not attempt anything to the Prejudice of the British Interest. 
I am persuaded it is in his Power, but I am not inclined to Judge 
hardly of him on bare Suspicion — 

It is not my Intentions to reflect in the smallest degree on the 
Conduct of the French under their own Government, they are to 
be commended for their Zeal in behalf of their Country when it 
did not extend to Acts of Barbarity but my Sentiments when I 
speak of the Canadians must be confined to those whom I know 
to have acted contrary to their Allegiance, and been our most 
dangerous Enemies, since they became British Subjects, some of 
whom are now, and ever will be doing us all the Harm in their 
Power, buoyed up with the Hopes, with which they feed them- 
selves and the Indians of French Fleets and Armies &c, but I 
believe for the most part induced thereto from the Advantages 
they reap from Trade, of which they enjoy the much greater 
part of representing us in a bad Light. 

I will not take up more of your Time at present on this Sub- 
ject, having already wrote more fully in Answer to your two 
former Favors, which I intend to transmit you by Captain Claus, 
who will set out in a few days for Montreal, his Journey having 
been hitherto prevented by an unforseen Accident — 

I am sensible it is bad Policy to shew a Suspicion of any of 
His Majesty's Subjects, and may weaken their Allegiance, if 
there are no positive Proofs we must act with an observed 
Caution. I can feel for M r . Chabert's Distresses; Having dis- 
charged my Duty by Mentioning the Matter, and he having given 
me the strongest Assurances of his future good Conduct, I shall 
not Longer oppose him, if he trades at a Post, and therefore I 
submit the Matter entirely to yourself, and shall at the same time 
mention my Reasons for so doing to the Commander in Chief — 

I am with great Esteem &c 


W. Johnson 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 331 


Copy of a Letter from 
S r . W m . Johnson Sup*, for 
Indian Affairs to Lt. Gov r . 
Carleton 24 th . June 1 767 
In Lt. GoV. Carleton's Dup le . 
(No. 8) of the 8 th . July 1767 



Contemporary Copy 1 

[Johnson Hall, June 9-28, 1767] 

June 9 th . — Thomas King with 5 more came here with one 
Harper 2 of Cherry valley who had a Licence from the Gover- 
nor, and Council of New York to purchase a large Tract of land 
between the Delaware & Susquahana Rivers. — 
1 th . — Being met they told Sir W m . that he, and the rest were 
sent by their chiefs to acquaint him that they had determined to 
sell a Part of their lands to Harper, and associates, and to know 
from him how far the Delawares had sold land, and what he 
thought it was worth. — they added, that as this was the third 
time he and they had been about said land, they were now all 
resolved to sell it. On Sir W ms . asking them whether they wou'd 
take upon themselves the Sale of said land without the Oneidas 
approbation, whom he had looked upon to be the right Owners 
of said lands, and who lately at the meeting had told him so, 
they answered that they made the affair known to them, and that 
they agreed to their, and the Oghquagoes selling the s d . land, 
they the Chiefs of Oneida not having given them any part of the 
Money arising from the sale of lands which they last year had 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 John Harper of Cherry Valley. See Calendar of Land Papers, p. 

332 Sir William Johnson Papers 

made to sundry People in the Presence of the Governor, here. — 
Sir W m . then shewed them a draft of that part of the Country 
whereby they cou'd See how far the Delawares had sold, — and 
as to the Price, he left it to their Chiefs to settle it with the white 
People. — 

1 7 th . — An Onondaga, brother to Karaghiagigo the chief 
Warrior of that Nation brought Sir W m . an account of the death 
of Tafyafyador}) the Bunt's son having lost four men of his Party 
by the Cherokees, who lay in wait for them, and Surprized them 
unawares, as they were within a Couple of days march of their 
Country, — he said that the young men of that nation were so 
enraged at this loss that they were preparing to go immediately 
against the Cherokees, and wanted only Ammunition for the 
Party. — Sir W m . sent by the Indian 3 Strings of Wampum to 
condole their loss as is usual on such Occasions, and a long 
bunch of Wampum to the Chief Warriors reminding them of what 
was done at the late Congress held at the German Flats, and 
desiring them to keep their Warriors at home until they heard 
from him. — that he soon expected the arrival of the Cherokee 
Deputies who were coming to Sue for Peace, — that it wou'd 
not look well in them or any of the Six Nations, after what they 
had promised him, to go against them, until their arrival. — The 
messenger approved much of what Sir W m . had said, and promised 
to deliver his words faithfully to the Chiefs, and added that he 
did not doubt of their paying due regard thereto. — S r . W m . 
ordered him a small Present, and dispatched him. — 

Eod. die Tawassioghta a chief of the Onondaga nation 
arrived here, and acquainted S r . W m . that he was very uneasy in 
mind for the death of his nephew whom he wanted to replace by a 
Scalp, or a Prisoner of the Cherokees, — that he came to tell him 
of his resolution to go with his Party against that Nation for that 
purpose, to which S r . W m . answered that he must wait the arrival 
of the Cherokee Deputies, to which he agreed. — 
28 th . — On this day two Indians arrived here express from 
Conajohare at 9 o' the clock at night with a Belt of Wampum 
from their Council acquainting Sir W m . of a piece of news they 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 333 

had just rec'ed from some of the White People their neighbours 
which greatly alarmed, and enraged their whole Village, Viz 1 , 
that Ury Klock 3 with one Dillebagh, 4 Joseph, and Cobus May- 
bee, John and W m . Pickard had sent to the Governor a Second 
Complaint against them, as the informants had said of a very 
serious nature, that from the illnatured behavior of the before 
mentioned People, and others of the Inhabitants, their neighbours 
who are of late Years thwarting, and using them very ill on all 
Occasions, they are very apprehensive of some evil designs being 
forming against them, and that they do not know how soon they 
may be put into Execution, wherefore they were sent to acquaint 
S r . W m . of their uneasiness, and to desire his Interposition, and 
advice, and that very speedily, otherwise they wou'd apply to the 
other nations, and not be murdered treacherously & basely as their 
Friends the Conestogoe Indians were, which they imagined was 
what their Neighbours intended to do. — Sir W m . used sev ! . 
arguments to convince them that no such thing was intended. — 
that the People of this Government were under better Command 
than those of Pennsylvania, that if any Complaint was sent to the 
Governor he shou'd surely know something of the matter, that if 
there was any such thing he woud make it known to them, and 
take such steps in their favor as the nature of the affair required. 
Nothwithstanding all he had said, they sett off at day break to 
the Mohawk villages in order to acquaint them of what they had 
heard. — and it is not improbable but they acquainted the Six 
nations also of it. — 

3 George (Ury) Klock. 

4 Wilhelmus Dillenbach. 

334 Sir William Johnson Papers 

/~\. .i_/.0. 

New York 7* July 1767 
Dear S r . Will m . 

There is one Transport w th . Troops arriv'd before the Town & 
more Expected next Tide to our releif. I have just now ask'd 
CoR Campbell to Stay behind the Reg 1 , he tells me he beleives 
the Gen 1 , will not admit of it: thereupon must Beg of you to Send 
me as soon as you can a Letter to the Earl of Shelbume to signify 
that I am the Person you recommended to be Secretary to Ind n . 
Affairs: w ch . I shall deliver my self in case I go home. Be 
pleas'd to Enclose my Lord's Letter to me w lh . a flying Seal 
w ch . I shall fix before I deliver it. I must again Beg of you to send 
the above Letter as soon as possible 

I am w ll \ due Respect to you 
& family 

Y r . most obedient & hble 

R D . Shuckburgh 

P. S. The Amelia not yet arriv'd — Enormous Acc ,s . f m . 
Illinois without Battle, Murder, or Bloodshed 

P. S. if you please to communicate any thing to me relative to 
Ind n . affairs that I can inform his Lordship or any of the Ministry 
I dare say you'll not repent of the Confidence you have at any 
time put in me 

In New York Historical Society. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 335 

Contemporary Copy 1 

New York 12*. July 1767 

Dear Sir, 

Upon the Abandoning of Fort Stanwix by the Troops, the 
Care of the Buildings and forwarding of Stores over the Carrying 
Place, was left in Charge of Lieut. Galland; 2 who has lately 
wrote word, that the Indians threaten to turn Everybody away 
from the Place, and are so troublesome that the Inhabitants are 
going to remove. The Missionary M r . Galland Says, confirms 
this; And I think its possible this Gentleman may want a good 
Dwelling. I am to beg of You to Send to the Indians to be quiet 
and Peaceable, with Assurances that no Settlement is intended 
here, any more than at the other Posts before Abandoned, that 
the Officer must Stay in the Fort to transact Business, and that 
We Expect they shall protect him: They Complained of the 
Fort, Which they now See is abandoned to ease their Jealousies 
about it — 

A Disagreable Affair has happened near the Detroit, which I 
Suppose M r . Hay 3 has reported to You; a Servant of Lieut 
Sinclair's 4 Killed, and his wife wounded by Some Chippewas, 
What the Provocation was for this Murther, or if any, had not 
yet Transpired. Lieut Sinclair took two Indians concerned 
Prisoners, on Board his Vessel, and will Send them to Detroit. 
The Chief who was with the Band to which the Murtherers 
belonged, disclaimed the Action, and said it was against the 
Sentiments of his Nation; We must talk loudly of this Affair 
and Demand Satisfaction, which had better have been taken im- 
mediately. If we had done them Justice for the Murder of 
the Two Squaws, by hanging the Negro, now in Jail, we might 
with a better grace insist upon the Indians being also brought to 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Lieutenant John Galland. 

3 Lieutenant Jehu Hay, commissary at Detroit. 

4 Lieutenant Patt Sinclair (St. Clair) . 

336 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Justice. As affairs are, We must Manage as We can, to deterr 
the Indians from Committing Murthers hereafter: And if in Ac- 
comodating Matters We can prevail upon them to drive in the 
Straggling French, it will be a good Service. You will be so good 
to Write to M r . Hay upon this Subject, which must not be passed 
lightly over, or they will be Encouraged to do More Mischief. — 

Capt Brown 5 writes Word from Niagara, that two Squaws and 
a Child of the Seneca Nation, were Scalped Some time ago near 
the Chenussio Village Supposed to have been done by Some of 
the Messassagas. 

I have beared nothing lately from Fort Pitt, but hope Capt 
Murray 6 will have removed the Settlers at Redstone and Cheat 
Rivers — 

The Transports from Ireland with the 16 th . and 26 th . Reg rs . 
are Arrived here and those with the Royal Irish Expected by this 
Time to be at Philadelphia. — 

I am, with great Regard, 
Dear Sir, 

&ca — 

Sir W m . Johnson, Bar 1 . 
13*. July 
Since Writing, I have received a Letter from Detroit of 6 lh . 
June, by which I find Capt Turnbull' was Sending the Two 
Indian Prisoners, with the Evidences down to Albany. You will 
give such directions in this matter as You shall Judge most 
proper — 



To S r . William Johnson 

Johnson hall 
New York 12*. July 1767 

5 Captain John Brown. 

6 Captain William Murray, commandant at Fort Pitt. 

7 Captain George Turnbull. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 337 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Head Quarters New York 20 th . July 1767 

Whereas the Officer Commanding His Majesty's Forces at the 
Detroit, has thought proper to send from thence two Chippewa 
Indians Prisoners, and to be conducted from Post to Post, till 
they shall reach Albany; The Officers Commanding at Oswego 
and Niagara, are hereby Directed to follow such Directions as 
they shall recieve from Sir William Johnson respecting the said 
Indian Prisoners ; at whichever of the above Posts this Order shall 
be recieved. 

To The Officers Commanding His Majesty's Forces 

At Oswego and Niagara. 

1 In William L. Clements Library; inclosed in Gage to Johnson, July 
20, 1 767. 


Contemporary Copy 1 
Extract of a Letter from M r . Stuart 2 to General Gage 

Dated Charlestorvn 21 st . July 1767 

By this Opportunity you will recieve the Belt of Beads, the 
head piece and Scalp referred to in the Prince of Chote's Speech. 3 

The Cherokees blame the Northern Indians for the Murder of 
M r . Boyd, of which I formerly acquainted Your Excellency; 
And a few days before the Chiefs set out to meet me at hard 
Labor, 4 a White Man was killed and Scalped, near one of their 
Towns, the Enemy was pursued, Overtaken and Scalped, He 

1 In William L. Clements Library. Inclosed in Gage to Johnson, Sept. 
14, 1 767, post pp. 359-60. 

2 John Stuart, southern superintendent of Indians. 

3 For two versions of the speech, see post pp. 339-40. 

4 Hard Labor Creek in South Carolina. 

338 Sir William Johnson Papers 

wore the head piece abovementioned, by which the Cherokees 
pretend to know that he was a Youghtanow Indian and the Scalp 
was his; The intention of the Savages in sending them to Your 
Excellency is that the Nation who so much infest them and 
indiscriminatly kill Indians, and White People may be known. 
They request of Your Excellency to forward the Blue Belt of 
Beads to Sir William Johnson, that he may use his influence 
with the Tribes at War with them to bring about an Accommoda- 
tion, to whom the said Belt is to be shown, and they beg for an 
Answer as soon as possible. 


Extract of a Letter from — 
M r . Stuart to General Gage — 
Dated Charlestown 2 1 st . July 1 767 

Extract from a Journal of 
the Proceedings of the Superintend', 
sent to Sir William Johnson 
in a Letter. Dated August 1 767. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Extract from a Journal of the Proceedings of the Superintendant. 

Usteneka or Juds Friend speaks. 

Just before I left home, a White Man was killed, by the Rogue 
whose Scalp I now hold in my hand (holding a Scalp) At 
Keowee we lost one of our People, by a Northern Indian, whose 
Scalp I also took. We have now discovered who killed both the 
White and Red People: You believed that Cherokees killed 
Your People in Our Nation. We hope you are now convinced 
of their Innocence, for it was Northern Indians that did the 

1 In William L. Clements Library; inclosed with Stuart's letter to Gage, 
ante, and with Gage to Johnson, Sept. 14, 1767, post pp. 359-60. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 339 

Mischief. (Producing a Head Band He said) This which I 
hold in my Hand, the Rouge 2 who killed the White Man wore, 
by which we know his Country. My talk is now ended. (Delivers 
the Head Band and Scalp.) 

2 Rogue. 


Contemporary) Copy 1 

Extract from a Journal of the Proceedings of the Superintendant. 

The Prince of Chote 2 speaks, 

I now talk for all my Nation and when great beloved Men talk 
peaceably, other People may rest securely. 

A String of White Beads. 

I live and Sit with my beloved Brother M r . Cameron 3 in 
Chote ; White and Red Men must help each other in their distress ; 
I now apply to my Father and Our Elder Brothers, for their 
Assistance, and Mediation betwixt us and our Northern Enemys. 
that Blood may not continue to be Spilt, I therefore desire You 
would send the Belt which I now hold to New York, it must be 
shewn to the General, and sent to Sir William Johnson that he 
may show it to his Indians, and Endeavor to keep them at home. 

I proposed sending Deputies, to the Northern Indians at War 
with us Attakullakulla and other Warriors were Nominated for 
that purpose, but we have thought proper to stop them till we hear 
from Sir William Johnson on the Subject, after which Attakulla- 
kulla with the other Deputies, will go to New York. (Delivers 
the Belt to be sent to New York) 

1 In William L. Clements Library. Inclosed with Stuarts' letter to Gage, 
ante, and with Gage to Johnson, Sept. 14, 1767, post pp. 359-60. 

2 Echota, a Cherokee town, five miles above Fort Loudon, at the junc- 
tion of the Tellico and Little Tennessee Rivers in present-day Monroe 
County, Tennessee. 

3 Alexander Cameron, commissary of Indian affairs. 

340 Sir William Johnson Papers 

AD. 1 


I now talk for all my Nation and When great beloved Men 
talk peacably Other People may rest Securely. — 

I live and trade with my beloved Brothers the English in 
peace. White and Red Men must help one another in their 
Distress I now apply to my Father, and our Elder Brothers 
for their Assistance and Mediation between Us and our Northern 
Enemys, that there may be no more Blood Spilt, I now desire this 
Belt which I hold in my hand may be shewn to the General at 
New York, and then it must be sent to Sir William Johnson that 
he may Shew it to his Indians, and try to keep them at Home. 

I had Five Deputys ready to send to the Northern Indians at 
War with us, to Speak to them about Peace, but we think it best 
to wait till we hear more from Sir W, Johnson on that Subject. 
After which Attakulla kulla 2 [with] other Deputys will go to the 
Six Nations by the way of Sir Wiliiam Johnsons House. And We 
hope we may soon have a good answer. 

You can also tell Kanajiawana that I am Surprised at his 
keeping Chapmans girl so long, and that I expect he will bring or 
Send her Down Soon As her Father has been here Several times 
for her, and I expect all y e . Prisoners yet amongst them will be 
delivered to me at our next Meeting According to their promises 


The King of Chotes 

1 In New York Public Library, Gansevoort-Lansing Collection. This is 
the original version, since it is in Sir William's hand, of the preceding in- 
closure. Yet it contains material not in the extract. 

2 King of the Cherokees, who had once ransomed Capt. John Stuart 
and was friendly to the English. See Doc. Rel. Col. Hist. N. Y,, 8:159 
and note. 

3 In Sir William's hand. 


Indian Affairs, 1766-68 341 


L.S. 1 

London July 22 d . 1767. 

Dear Sir 

It gives me much concern that I cannot inform you of the 
finishing your affair of the Land, but I can with great truth assure, 
that I have not omitted any opportunity of pressing the Ministers 
to come to a resolution to do it; and indeed all of them, particu- 
larly my Lord Shelburne, declare themselves very sensible of your 
merit, and that they desire to serve you; the truth is, they have 
been so closely engaged in Parliamentary business, especially the 
latter part of the Session, as to want recess in the County, where 
some of them are not well, more especially my Lord President, 
who cannot comme to Town about any business as yet; when he 
does, I shall again press a completion of this business, and a con- 
sideration of the boundary with the Indians, of which I will im- 
mediately inform you of my Success. 

Your Son 2 carries over with him the explanatory report of the 
Board of Trade, on the reference the Committee of Council made 
to them, of which I believe, he sent you a copy before, and which 
I hope will settle every point; I could not possibly serve him, in 
asking for him such an office as you thought might be established, 
there being at present, a very great attention to save expences, but 
I shall have a good opportunity, when I come to talk with the 
Ministers about the Boundary, and shall gladly embrace the op- 
portunity, as his conduct here has been such, as deserves an en- 
couragement ; I wish him a happy meeting with you, and am with 
great regard 

Dear Sir 

Your affectionate Friend and 
Most Ob 1 . Humble Servant 

„ www _ Tho Penn 

Sir William Johnson 

1 In Henry E. Huntington Library. 

2 John Johnson, then returning from England. 

342 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Extracts of a letter from Lieu*. Benjamin Roberts to Cap 1 . Claus 
dat d . 

Michilimacinac, July 23, 1767 . 

I find that sev 1 . People trade upon the Communication from 
Canada to this Place for Rum &c which is a very great Abuse, 
and will be the Occasion sooner, or later of some Traders being 
plundered by drunken Indians, nothing wou'd be more advan- 
tageous to the mother Country than a prohibition of Rum, or 
Brandy coming up farther than Niagara or Detroit except what 
was necessary for the Consumption of the Garrison, and for Pres- 
ents from the Commissary w ch . wou'd much lessen the Expences, 
as the Indians wou'd then esteem it; but now they have it from 
every hand w ch . makes them lazy, and so disregard our Manu- 
factures which are here sold cheaper than they can be brought 
up for. 

As my Instructions are very Strict concerning the People 
that go out Wintering, I require a Joint Bond from each Person 
going out, and a Responsible Burgher that they shall conform to 
such Regulations as are mentioned in their Pass, a Copy of which 
I send you — I am Y rs . &c — 

B: Roberts 2 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 Lieutenant Benjamin Roberts, commissary at Michilimackinac. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 343 


A.L.S. 1 

Johnson Hall 28 lh . J 'uly 1 767 
Dear Banyar — 

Your favour of y e . 20 th . Ins 1 . 2 I received Yesterday, am glad 
to find thereby, that you have been paid by the Governour, and 
that You will Send me the Deed Soon. As to the Maps, I can do 
without, it was only to compare it with the one I have that I 
wanted it. — Cap ts . Claus & Johnson 3 are much oblidged to You 
for y r . kind enquiry of their Scituation, They are now recovering 
verry fast. 

There is a Lot belonging to M r . Clark 4 at Cherry Valley N°. 
41, So ordinary, that no one has hitherto cared to take it up. This 
Day One Thomas Spencer Gun Smith a Verry Industrious 
Honest Man applyed to me, & begged I would know from You 
the price of it, as it would answer for a Tradesman altho not for a 
Farmer, the greatest part of it by far being a Limestone Quarry. 
— be so Good (if to be Sold) to let me know the lowest price, of 
it. On my asking him what he would give for it, He Said he could 
not afford above Fifty pounds, as the greatest part is 111 timbered 
& Rocky. So that what Good Land there is would even at y f . 
price Stand him Dear. 

I am thank full to You for y e . News, You wrote me, it is verry 
disogreable I dare say to Numbers of those Gentlemen who have 
been such Violent partizans for w f . they call liberty, as it must 
also, to hear His Majestys, & Parliaments approbation of Some 
of y e . Provinces & Individuals who distinguished themselves dur- 
ing the late troubles. — I wish all may end well. — 

pray let me know whether the Patent is making out for that 
[that] Tract of Byrn's at Scohare, 5 the Survey of w h . has been 

1 In New York Historical Society, Banyar Papers. 

2 Johnson Papers, 5:598-99. 

3 Daniel Claus and Guy Johnson. 

4 George Clarke. See Calendar of Land Papers, p. 279. 

5 See Calendar of Land Papers, pp. 414, 418, for deed for this tract. 

344 Sir William Johnson Papers 

sent down some time since to M r . Colden. — Yesterday dyed 
Miss Duncan 6 at Schenectady. — nothing new here, so conclude 
with best wishes for y r . Happiness, and am 

Dear Banyar 

Y rs . Sincerely & Affectk 

W. Johnson 
Golds Borow Banyar Esq r . 


28 July 1 767 

From Sir W m . Johnson — 


Contemporary Copy 1 


July 13 th . — Sir W m . went to Coghnawagey where he had 
ordered all the Mohawks of both Castles to meet him, — when 
met he gave them nine barrels of Flower, one of Salt, and 30 
skipples of Corn to each Castle, being in the utmost distress for 
which they returned many thanks. — 

1 4th — J\ n Onondaga with two Conojahare chiefs arrived here 
Express from the Six Nations to acquaint Sir W m . that some 
Senecas who were hunting below Fort Pit had met with 150 
Cherokees, and Catawbas who told the Senecas they were only 
the Van of a large body going (at the desire of the English) to 
cut off the Six Nations, that the Nicariageys who killed two 
Seneca Women, and a Child had lately told them that the 
English had given them the Hatchet, and desired them to use it 
against the Six Nations. — they desired to know from S r . W m . 

6 Daughter of John Duncan. See Johnson Papers, 5:610. 
1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 345 

the cause of it, and which Government gave it, or whether it was 
a general act of the whole. — 

A Belt and 2 Strings. — 
Sir W m . desired them to go home, and tell their Chiefs to send 
a few active men to the place w r here the Senecas said they had met 
the body of Cherokees &c and that he wou'd venture any thing 
they wou'd meet no such body, or any at all, unless the chiefs of 
the Cherokees who might be coming, as they promised, to make 
Peace with them, in which case he desired they might not be 
molested. — then gave them a severe Reprimand for their ex- 
treme Credulity of any thing they heard against their brethren the 
English who he assured were in Peace every where, and de- 
termined to keep it with mankind if they were not ill treated, and 
forced to a War, of which at present there was no appearance. 
So that they must pay no regard to the lying Reports propagated 
among them by some ill disposed, foolish, and designing 
People. — 

A Belt and two Strings. 
1 6 th . — The Chiefs, and Warriors of the lower Mohawk Castle 
came here, and after returning S r . W m . many thanks for the Pro- 
visions given them in their distress, begged he wou'd allow their 
young men some Amunition wherewith to hunt, which with the 
Provisions they rec'd wou'd enable them to subsist until some of 
their Grain, squashes &c were fit to use. — Sir W m . ordered them 
a Cask of Powder, 50 W l . of Shot, the same of Ball, — Flints 
&c, and sent them away very happy. — 

20 th . — Sir W m . rec d . a letter from the Conojohares acquainting 
him of Philip Schuyler of Conojohares wounding one of their 
People very dangerously on account of a Petition wrote (and 
carried about by Ury Klock 2 and his Son Jacob) against them to 
the Governor, as they were informed by Hannicol Harkemer, 3 
and Peter Schuyler who read the same, and who being asked to 
sign it, refused, as it tended to create a disturbance, or breach be- 

2 George (Ury) Klock. 

3 Johan Nicholas (Honnikel) Herchheimer. 

346 Sir William Johnson Papers 

tween the Whites, and Indians. — by said lere they desired to 
know how they were to behave, or whether they cou'd have any 
expectation of redress in that & other Grievances complained of. 

— S r . W ra . returned an answer that he wou'd enquire into the 
affair, and endeavor all in his Power to their obtaining of 
Justice. — 

July 23 d . — Sir W m . sent three Strings of Wampum to 
Aughtaghquiseras son and Oneida, calling down their Sachims, 
and chief warriors to a meeting in order to acquaint them with 
General Gage's sentiments regarding Fort Stanwix, also the 
Konawarohare Indians whose attendance was wanted on the same 
business to which purpose he wrote to the Minister there giving 
him a list of such People as he wanted to attend the meeting 
which was to take place on Monday the 3 d . of Aug*, next. — 
gave the Messenger a Present & dispatch'd him. — 
August 4 th . — On this day Adam, Isaac, Peter with sundry 
more of the Oughquagoes, and Thomas King met here, and in the 
evening two of M r . Harper's 4 Sons of Cherry valley, and one 
Rever 5 of Conojohare arrived here : — 

Next morning the Indians acquainted Sir W m . that they came 
here in order to sell a large Tract of land to said Harpers, and 
their Associates in his Presence, and hoped he wou'd See Justice 
done to them therein. — After the Indians had described the 
Tract which they intended to sell, the Harpers & Associates 
offered them 1 500 Dollars for it, and they insisted on a £ 1 000. 

— As they cou'd not agree, both Parties agreed to leave it to Sir 
William, on which he proposed that Harper & C°. shou'd pay 
1800 Dollars or £720 York Curr c y. for said described Tract, 
with which both Parties were satisfied, — which tract is to join 
a tract purchased sixteen years ago by S r . W m . from the Conoja- 
hares &c on the West, and is bounded on the East by the West 
branch of the Delaware, and in length about 3 miles more or 
less. — 

4 John Harper. 

5 Andreas Reber. See Calendar of Land Papers, p. 459. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 347 

A.L.S. 1 

Quebec 6 lh . August 1767. 


Many Representations having been made to me by the Indians 
of the Lake of the two Mountains, 2 that several Persons have been 
guilty of vending spirituous Liquors to their young Men, which 
has been attended with such pernicious Consequences, that no less 
than five Murders have been lately committed among them, owing 
to the dismal and never failing Effects of these inebriating Liquors, 
upon those unhappy Creatures; and the Interposition of the Civil 
Magistracy of that District, tho' strongly urged to exert their 
Authority in this Matter, having by some Means or other, hitherto 
proved ineffectual, I have determined to send an Officer, whom I 
have invested with the Commission of the Peace, to reside in their 
Village, and hope this Measure will be attended with the desired 
Effect — 

The Person whom I have pitched Upon for this Purpose is 
Captain Schlosser 3 of the American Regiment, who was several 
Years in the Upper Country, is well acquainted with their Usages, 
and speaks the French Language; He shall have Directions to 
correspond with you, and to inform you of every Thing that may 
be worth your Notice — 

I am with great Truth and Regard 


Your most Obedient 
Humble Servant, — 

Guy Carleton 
The Honb le . SlR W M . JOHNSON Bar 1 . 
Sup 1 , for Indian Affairs &ca 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

2 At the mouth of the Ottawa River. The residence of the Canadesagas, 
the Arundacs and the Algonkins, who were in alliance with the Six Nations. 

3 Captain John Joseph Schlosser. 

348 Sir JVilliam Johnson Papers 


Quebec 6 th . Aug sl . 1 767 

LA Gov r . Carleton's letter 


Contemporary Copy 1 

[Johnson Hall Aug. 8-1 0, 1767] 

Aug'. 8 — On this day all the Sachims, and chief Warriors of the 
2 Oneida Castles, also them of Conojahare arrived at Johnson 
Hall, and after being supplied with Provisions &c went to their 
Encampm ts . — 

Sunday 9 th . — They all assembled in the Council Room, 
when Canaghquiesa chief Sachim of Oneida returned Sir 
W m . the String of Wampum by which he had invited 
them, and acquainted him that they were, agreeable to his desire, 
ready to hear what he had to say. — S r . W m . first welcomed 
them, and told them he was glad to see them here, and after 
drinking their Healths, ordered them a Glass round, and it being 
Sunday told them that they shou'd go to Church, which they ac- 
cordingly did, and had Service in Indian performed by Thomas an 
Oneida, which he did extremely well, and all behaved with much 
Decency. — After Service ordered them Provisions, and told 
them he wou'd meet them in the Afternoon — 

At 4 Post M. being all assembled, Sir W m . performed the 
Ceremony usual on these Occasions and then spoke to them as to 
what the General had wrote to him concerning some uneasiness, 
and trouble they had given Lieu 1 . Galland 2 at Fort Stanwix. 
having said all that was necessary on that subject, the Indians 
after examining all their People on the matter assured him that 

4 In Sir William's hand. 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 Lieutenant John Galland. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 349 

they knew nothing of any difference having happened between 
them & Lieu 1 . Galland, and that they wou'd not molest, or give 
him any trouble so long as he behaved friendly, and brotherlike 
to them, which they hoped the General w d . recomend to him as 
they believed him to be hasty, and peevish 

A Belt. 
1 th . — Early in the Morning an Express arrived with the Murder 
shout informing Sir W m . & Indians that two Onondagas were 
killed, and scalped at Oswego by (as was thought) the Missa- 
sageys about 3 days ago — 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Lebanon Aug 1 . 19 th . 1767 

May it please your Excellency. 

The enclosed came directed to my care while I was on a 
journey; by which means it fail'd of an earlier conveyance. And 
with respect to the context of it, I would only beg leave, at the 
desire of some concern'd, to certify you, that the Rev d . M r . Fish 2 
is, so far as I know, universally esteem'd, a gentleman of Integrity 
and good Ability. And accordingly the Representation he has 
made of the Case of the poor suffering Indians at Narraganset, is 
to be relied upon, as being faithfully & impartially done. 

And I would also at their [earnest] desire join my earnest 
Request in Behalf of that poor people, that your Excellency 
would please take their pityous Case into your Consideration, and 
if their be any way of relief for them (which under God they ex- 
pect chiefly, or only by your Interposition) that something 
effectual may be done to prevent that total ruin which otherwise, 
according to all human probabilities, is very speedily to be ex- 

1 In Dartmouth College Library. 

2 Rev. Joseph Fish of North Stonington, Conn. 

350 Sir William Johnson Papers 

pected — They have bid the fairest to be built up, and become a 
people, of any party of Indians I know of in New England — 
and now just as they have got well engaged in cultivating their 
Lands, and begin to know the worth of them, by tasting the 
sweets of a civilized Life, their best farms are slipping from under 
them, one after another (as they express it) with much expence 
of Labour & money also, which they have bestow'd to subdue 
them. And they have reason to expect in a very little Time, they 
shall have none left, unless something effectual be speedily done 
for their Help. The pitteous complaints of this poor people are 
truly such, as I make no doubt, Sir, would greatly move your 
Excellency's Compassions towards them, could you hear them; 
but your well known Care, Fidelity, and Resolution, prevent all 
occasion to enlarge on this Head — 

May it please your Excellency. We had frequent Reports last 
winter & spring, from your Quarter, as well as diverse Hints in 
the publick News, that a Number of Miss? 55 . & schoolmasters were 
daily expected from Europe to supply the Vacancies in your 
Vicinity : on which I wrote your Excellency desiring to be certified 
of y e . truth of the report, and to know your pleasure relating 
thereto : But I have received no written answer — and as I have 
always esteem'd your Countenance & Patronage to be of such 
Importance, in this Affair, that I would by no means take one 
step without your Approbation; I have neglected to send either 
Missionary, or Schoolmaster, this Year, to those places near you, 
'till you should please to signify your pleasure in that matter: 
and I have now sent my son 3 to wait upon you with this, desiring 
you would please to advise me fully, whether you desire the board 
of Correspondants in this Colony to provide supply of preaching 
for the parties of Indians of the Six Nations who are willing to 
hear, and schoolmasters for their Children; and whether your 
Excellency will encourage those we shall send, in their respec- 
tive services, so long, & so far, as their conduct & Behaviour shall 
be agreeable to their respective Characters & professions? 

Ralph Wheelock. 

Indian A fairs, 1766-68 351 

Your Excellency is not unsensable that the infant Institution 4 
under my care, is now, by the blessing of Heaven, much en- 
creased, & become respectable at home & abroad ; and is honour a 
with the patronage of Gentlemen of Character, and great worth in 
England, who have accepted the Trust of, and become Guaran- 
tees to the publick, for the fund collected in Europe, for the use 
& support of it; (of which Trust the Right hon ble . the Earl of 
Dartmouth is appointed president) whose Characters, & influence 
are such, that I would by no means, have a step taken which may 
not have their Approbation. And I should be very sorry, if, by 
any means, party names, and circumstantial differances in matters 
of Religion, should so operate, as to retard or prevent the progress, 
& success of the general Design in View — 

please, Sir, to let me know your Mind, and advise me, as fully 
as shall be needful to determine my conduct in this matter, and 
please, sir, to be assured that you shall always be served with 
humility, and the greatest chearfulness, in any thing that comes 
within the Power of 

May it please your Excellency 

Your most obedient, humble Servant 

Eleazar Wheelock 
Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 . 

A Copy 


To S r . W m . Johnson Bar*. 
Sep'. 19*. 1767 

4 Moor's Charity School for Indians. 

352 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Annapolis the 20 th . of August 1767 — 


The Letter You were pleased to write to Me the 1 st . of May 
last 2 having been presented a few Weeks ago by eleven Indians 
from Otsiningo 3 who were conducted hither by M r . Ogden 4 
(being on their Way to Dorchester Somerset and Worcester 
Counties in this province where all the Indians remaining among 
Us reside) I not only gave Orders for their being treated with 
kindness and furnished with provisions as they should pass and 
repass thro the Province but also made them a present of some 
Cloaths they appeared to be in want of, and recommended it to 
some Gentlemen who I apprehended had some Influence with our 
Indians to encourage them to accept the Invitation those Ambassa- 
dors came to give them ; but as the Lands our Indians possess are 
confirmed to them by Acts of Assembly to be held so long as any 
of them shall choose to reside on them and then to revert some 
of them to original Patentees, others to the Lord Proprietary, and 
the Residue to be at the Disposal of the General Assembly, I 
could not take upon Me to enter into any Treaty with those 
Indians about the Sale of their Right to the Lands they Occupy 
at present in this Province, it being necessary that the Affair should 
be referred to the Assembly and that the Acts by Virtue of 
which the Indians here now hold their Land should be repealed 
previous to their offering it for Sale. If upon their Return they 
Should represent to you that their Bretheren here are willing to 
relinquish their Land and to go back to Otsiningo, and you 
should thereupon think fit to impower M r . Ogden or some other 
person in their Behalf to come hither about the Middle of October 
next when our Assembly will be sitting and to make an Agree- 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

2 Johnson Papers, 5:544-45. 

3 Present day Binghamton, N. Y. 

4 Captain Amos Ogden, later made attorney for the Nanticokes. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 353 

merit about the Sale of their Land, You may be assured I will 
recommend it to the Assembly to give them a reasonable Compen- 
sation for their right to the Land — in Case they shall One and 
All be willing to relinquish, Should they sell To whom pray is 
the purchase Money to be paid or how here divided among them, 
will any besides those who actually reside in the Province at this 
time set up pretensions to it, or may it all be paid to them, I 
should be glad to know your Sentiments with regard to those 
particulars and what Measures You apprehend will be most Satis- 
factory to them — 

I am with great Regard 

Your most Obedient 
and very humble serv 1 . 

Hor°. Sharpe 5 
S R . William Johnson 


Annapolis 20 th . Aug st . 1 767 

L*. Gov r . Sharps Letter 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Copy 2 of a Letter from Lieu*. Roberts to Guy Johnson Esq r . 
(a Depy. Agent for Indian Affairs) dated at 

Michilimakinak the 20 th . Aug 1 . 1767. 

M r . Roberts 3 says it is a thing very certain and no Secret that 
Major Rogers 4 will go off in the Spring and not empty-handed. 

5 Governor Horatio Sharpe of Maryland, 1 753-1 769. 

6 In Sir William's hand. 

1 In William L. Clements Library; Shelburne Papers, 51 :356. Inclosed 
in Claus to Carleton, Oct. 1 , 1 767 and in Carleton's of Oct. 9, 1 767. 

2 A synopsis, rather than a copy. 

3 Lieutenant Benjamin Roberts, commissary at Michilimackinac. 

4 Major Robert Rogers, commandant at Michilimackinac. 

354 Sir William Johnson Papers 

The Traders there are very anxious for the Security of their 
Effects and persons, and it is imagined there will be Bloodshed in 
some of the Out Posts by some of Rogers's people trying to force 
away Goods. Representations of this Nature he says are so fre- 
quent and strong, that he has been obliged to beg the Assistance 
privately of Cap 1 . Spiesmaker 5 to stop Rogers in case he should 
attempt to make an Excursion, which the Cap*, has promised. 
Rogers has received Belts & Pipes in a private manner from 
several Nations, and some of his Emissaries have carried Belts to 
the North-West. — He has given the Indians that come to that 
post so much, that the Commissary can scarce keep them in good 
Humour. Rogers, upon having Notice of the Commissary being 
expected, had sent to stop a Nation of Cristinaux that were on 
their way there to attend his Council by his Summons. — He finds 
that a Quantity of Rum has been conveyed out of the Fort by 
midnight, and that there is to be a Canoe loaded with Rum to go 
to la Baye, which will pick up all the Skins, and perhaps get all 
the Traders scalped. 

In a postscript he says he has just received Information of 40 
Cags of Rum being lodged on an Island in the Way to La Baye, 
and he has sent a party to seize & confiscate them. Seven Canoes 
are stopped upon receiving this Intelligence, as the Traders know 
they will be murdered and plundered if Rum goes among the 

To this Letter M r . Roberts has annexed the Information he 
had from Potter, 6 which is the same in Substance with that he 
gave at Montreal ; and it mentions further that Rogers had already 
stationed some private Agents (Athington, Fute & others) whom 
he was to meet at some of the Outposts, and who had Orders to 
get whatever they could into their hands ; that he was to send out 
one Stuart before him to the Bay to favour his purposes there; 
and that he himself would take a Tour and glean all the Coast 
as he goes. 

5 Captain Lieutenant Frederick Christopher Spiesmacher. 

6 Nathaniel Potter. See his deposition, Doc. Rel. Col. Hist. N. Y., 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 355 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Copy of a letter from Mess s . Cadot and Henry traders to S r . 
W m . Johnson dated 

Michilimacinac 21 si . August 1767 — 

Sir — 

We take the freedom of writing to you by this opportunity, we 
wou'd have wrote to you before, but we imagined our letters were 
intercepted, as we never had the honour of your answer, but 
as we think it our duty to acquaint you ourselves of any Pro- 
ceedings which v/e think will be prejudicial to his Majesty's 
Service and as it is always our study to do our utmost endeavors 
for the good of the Service, we do hereby acquaint you that the 
Proceedings of the Commanding Officer at this Garrison will be 
detrimental to the trade in general, in his permitting Rum to go 
out of this Garrison at midnight in order to carry on a Contraband 
trade, contrary, I believe to your Orders, and his Majesty's 
Intentions, by the Consequences of which, both the lives, and 
Properties of his Majesty's trading Subjects will be endangered. 
M r . Roberts 2 takes every step he can to prevent this illegal Com- 
merce, wherein we think every trader is obliged to him. but if we 
are Judges of ill usage, it is our opinion, and the opinion of every 
one else, that he is cruelly used in the Execution of his office, 
which office, if not supported by you, whilst these illegal Proceed- 
ings are carrying on, we must be obliged to leave the Country. — 
Major Rogers 3 employed us last Year, and told us it was by your 
Order. — he likewise gave us an Order to bring in all the nations 
of Indians we cou'd, and to hinder a war between the nations, 
which Order we strictly obeyed, and stopped the Chippaweighs 
from going to war against the Sioux these two Years, which ex- 
pences he promised shou'd be paid us, — and brought down to 
this Garrison last July seventy Canoes of Indians. — We ex- 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 Lieutenant Benjamin Roberts, commissary at Michilimackinac. 

3 Major Robert Rogers, commandant at Michilimackinac. 

356 Sir William Johnson Papers 

pended of our own Effects the last Year (as he never gave us any 
of his) to the amount of the ace 1 , inclosed to you by M r . Roberts, 
which account the Major refused to Certify, because he said his 
own accounts were so high he cou'd not certify any more, lest his 
own account shou'd be protested. We beg then you will take the 
matter into Consideration, and if approved of by you, we would be 
glad if the money cou'd be paid here by M r . Roberts. We winter 
at S l . Marys, and Lake Superior, and are always ready punctually 
to obey any Directions we shall be honored with from you, or such 
other Persons as you employ, and are — S r . w th . Respect &c — 

To S R . W M . Johnson Bar*. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Extracts of a letter from Lieu'. Benjamin Roberts Commissary 
of Indian Affairs at Michillimacinac to Guy Johnson Esquire 
Depy. agent for the Middle District dated 

[Michilimacinac], 22 d . August 1767. — 

S R — 

The 21 st . of August I received Information of Rum being on 
the main land opposite the Fort. I applied to the commanding 
Officer for assistance to seize the Rum. the same Evening the 
Rum was landed on the Wharf opposite the Fort Gate. Com- 
mandant 2 ordered the Dep>\ Commisy. of Provisions to take 
charge of the Rum. I begged it might be put into the Kings Store 
of which I kept one Key, the traders another. Cap*. Rogers 
refused, saying I had no business with the Rum, — that he had 
seized it, and wou'd dispose of it as he pleased. I told him I 
looked upon myself as the proper seizing Officer, as I had sent 
M r . Hansen 3 to act as my Deputy, and was liable to any Prose- 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 Major Robert Rogers, referred to as Captain Rogers below. 

3 Captain John R. Hansen. 

From an old print. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 357 

cution from the Claimant, if I did wrong. I begged therefore I 
might have another lock for the Store, the Store the Rum was 
ordered into, — that I might also have one Key. this he refused, 
saying I was very impertinent for meddling with it. 

The night before this Seizure a man was confined for trying 
to carry out Rum after Taptoo, and was released by the Com- 
mandant, and it was passed out of the Land Gate. I can prove the 
identity of the Keggs. some of them were suspected to belong to 
Sally Montour, or the Dep?. Corns?. — the men that were con- 
cerned in carrying out the Rum, were in Cap*. Rogers' Service, 
and immediately after my procuring the Party to go off, ran 
away with the only good boat belonging to the Place; but I 
luckily procured a Canoe which got to the Place before them, 
they are yet not returned. It is clear to every one to whom the 
Rum belongs. — 

I am Yours &c 

B : Roberts 


A.L.S. 1 
Michillimackinac pe 4th of Sept. 1767. 

[ ] 

I do myself the honour to enclose you the state of this 
Country which I have wrote since my arrival at this Garrison and 
hope it will meet with your approbation. 

And as I have always ever since that I have been in his 
Majesty's service given you every intelligence that I thought could 
tend to your Honour and Advantage, and did all the last war send 
my weak endeavours to support the Great Character that you by 
your own Vallour and Assiduity so Justly gained. 

1 Formerly in the collection of the late David Williams of Rogers Rock, 
N. Y. Sold at auction by his heirs, the document's present location is 
unknown. It has not been possible to check this transcript with the original, 
but because of its great importance it is printed as transcribed. 

358 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I hope sir that you will be pleased when I am injured to not 
reflect upon me for representing my greaviences to you which I do 
by Inclosing the affidavits of some persons that was present when 
Mr. Roberts 2 the Commissary of Indian affairs was pleased to 
give me very abusive language, and the reason of my not sending 
him down the country was wholly on your account, I hope you 
will be pleased to remove him from this Garrison, which I dont 
in the least doubt you will be pleased to do after perusing these 

I beg Sir that you'l consider me as a person that has always 
done my duty while in the service, and pray for your Recommen- 
dations home for some preferment. 

I am Sir with the greatest respect 

and Esteem your most obedient and 
most Devoted Humble Servant 

Rob't Rogers. 

P. S. Mrs. Rogers presents her respects. I beg you'l interest your- 
self in gitting my accounts passed. I have new accounts to send 
you of this country but cannot complete them this fall. 

2 Benjamin Roberts, commissary at Michilimackinac. 


A.L.S. 1 

London Sept 12. 1767 

Dear Sir — 

The above is a coppy of my last 2 which I heartily wish may be 
safely delivered to you, since that time the King has referred your 
case to the Attorney General with orders to draw a grant to be 
passed here to you for the Land, but I cannot get it passed as the 
Grants to the half pay officers are, as his Majesty and his Ministers 

1 In Henry E. Huntington Library. 

2 July 22, 1 767. The present letter is written just below the copy. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 359 

do not choose to give away the fees of the Governor and other 
officers, and say they do not think it becomes you to ask it. I 
desire you will inform me by the very next packet whether you 
would have me take out this grant and pay the fees. 

I propose to make an application for your pay when the 
Ministry come to Town about November, and as you acted under 
the Kings and not a Governors Commission hope to succeed ; how 
I shall find them disposed time must shew but I think no one that 
will be appointed Chancellor, will be less willing than the late M r . 
Townesend 3 was to support Indian expences. You may rest 
assured I shal do every thing in my power for your service and 
that with my best thanks for your care and trouble in calling the 
Indians together to allow us to run our line with Maryland I 

Dear Sir 

Your affectionate Friend and most 
obedient humble servant 

Tho Penn 


London SepuV. 12 th . 1767 

M r . Penns Letter — 


Contemporary) Copy 1 

Nen> York Septem'. 14 lh . 1767. 
Dear Sir, 

I have lately recieved dispatches from M r . Stuart, 2 wherein he 
acquaints me of a conference he has lately had with the 

3 Charles Townshend ( 1 725-1 767), chancellor of the exchequer. 

4 In Sir William's hand. 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 John Stuart, southern superintendent of Indians. See Stuart to Gage, 
July 21, 1767. Ante PP . 337-38. 

360 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Cherokees, upper and lower Creeks, together with the Traders, 
who trade to those Nations at Hard labour and Augusta: The 
Traders consented to lower the price of Goods, and a Tariff was 
settled to mutual Satisfaction. 

The Cherokees insist that M r . Boyd was killed by the Northern 
Indians, and to prove that those Indians do kill White People 
and Cherokees indiscriminately, when they come to War against 
the latter, they have sent the Head Piece & scalp which I send 
herewith, It is supposed taken from an Ouatanon Indian. I 
inclose You an Extract from Usteneka's or Juds Friends speech 3 
on the Subject, that those Indians may be spoke to upon the 

The Cherokees will by no means comply with the Terms of 
Peace first proposed by the Northern Indians, and declare they 
will first use their last efforts, and make a desperate stroke. They 
had not known that they were softened in their demands in Your 
last Congress. I send you some Blue Beads from the Cherokees, 
to be shewn to the Northern Indians, and inclose you an Extract 
of M r . Stuart's Letter, and Prince of Chote's Speech 3 relative 
thereto. They Postpone sending their Deputies to you, till they 
recieve an Answer to their Belt. 

I Am with great Regard. 
Dear Sir, 

Sir William Johnson Bart. 


Copy./ To 
Sir William Johnson 

Johnson Hall, 
New York Septem r 1 4 lh . 1 767. 

3 Ante pp. 338-39. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 361 


A.L.S. 1 

Michilimackinak 25 Sep r . 1767 

Exg e . £ 1 00 — in N Yk Cury. 

At Twenty one days Sight, please to pay this my Second of 
Exchange (my first not paid) unto Jehu Hay Esq r . or order, the 
Sum of One hundred Pounds New York Currency for Vallue 
received & place it to Account as P advice from 


Your most obed 1 . humb: Serv*. 

B. Roberts Co. I. A. &c 

Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 , 
at Johnson Hall 

1 In Newberry Library, Chicago, Van Schaack Papers. 


Contemporary, Copy 1 

[Johnson Hall, Sept. 6-26, 1767] 

Septem r . the 6 th . — On this day a number of Tuscaroras who 
lately came from Carolina addressed Sir W m . as follows — 
Father — 

We are come here to visit you for the first time — We are the 
People that you was so good to assist in bringing from Carolina 
to the Six Nation Country, where we think we shall live much 
happier than we did there, and we are come to return you our 
Sincere thanks for your goodness to us, and all our People, and 
assure you of Sincerity and attachment to you — 

A Bunch of Strings. — 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

362 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Father — 

We are very poor having brought nothing from whence we 
came, and beg of you to pity us, and our People, and to give us 
some Hatchets, Hoes, Powder, and Lead, w th . a little Vermillion 
for our young People, and to order our Guns to be mended, for 
which we shall be for ever thankful. 

A large Belt. — 

Sir W m . bid them welcome, told them he was glad to find that 
they were pleased with their present Habitations, strongly recom- 
mended Industry, and Sobriety to them, as well as a punctual 
Observance of such Engagements as they had already, & may 
hereafter enter into with their Brethren the English, — also 
warned them against paying any regard to idle Stories, or propa- 
gating such, as it woud be a means of destroying that Harmony 
subsisting between them and Us, on w ch . their happiness so much 


A Bunch of Wampum. 

Sir W m . then told them he was sorry to see them so poor, and 
in hopes they wou'd behave well, and make a proper use of it 
that he wou'd give them some Amunition, Axes, Hoes, &c, and 
order their Arms to be mended so as to enable them to assist their 
Families by Hunting Planting &c — Gave them Money to buy 
Vermillion, and Provisions to carry them home. — 

A Belt 

Septem 8 th . — On this day two Nanticokes from Maryland 
arrived here w lh . a letter from Cap 1 . Amos Ogden 2 acquainting 
Sir W m . that the Nanticokes, and Snow Hill Indians had em- 
ployed him to see Justice done them regarding their Land they 
possessed in that Government, which by an Act of that Province 
are forfeited on their abandoning it — that he applied to the 
Governor on that head, who Advised him, and them to wait the 
Meeting of the Assembly in October, and see what they wou'd 
do in the affair. — M r . Ogden desired also to know Sir W ms . 
Opinion. — they also brought him in writing the answer of the 

2 Attorney for the Nanticoke Indians. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 363 

Indians in that Government to the Deputies who went from hence 
to invite them, by which it appeard they were unwilling to come 
unless the Six Nations insured them as good Living as they now 
had &c — 

1 th . — Sir W m . wrote to Cap ! . Ogden not to press them to 
remove unless they were to be no Sufferers by it, and that he 
must be careful of incurring as little expence as possible on the 
Occasion — then gave the two Messengers a Present with some 
money to defray their expences, and parted — 

Eod die Abraham Chief of the Mohawks came here and told 
Sir W m . in Confidence that by some late acc ls . from Kanadiora in 
writing sent to Conajohare by a Seneca w th . two scalps, there was 
great reason to apprehend a Quarrel soon between the Indians to 
the Westward, the Ohio Indians &c, and the White People, for 
which reason, he Kanadiora, and Party were determined to re- 
main where they then were until Spring, when, if they found the 
War did not go on, they wou'd return to their Nation — He says 
in his letter that the White People call the Indians blacl? dogs, and 
wou'd use them as such, and that the Indians call the White 
People Hogs, and woud shew them that they can kill them as 
such whenever they have a mind to begin, and added that the 
sooner they began, the better ; — with a great deal more too 
tedious to mention. — 

1 3 th . — A Deputation from the Conajohares arrived here to con- 
dole the Death of Sir W m ' s . grandchild 3 in great Form, and said 
they intended doing it sooner had he not been from home, which 
Ceremony being performed, Sir W m . returned the Compliment in 
the proper manner. — After this they confirmed what Abraham 
the Mohawk Chief had related a few days before — gave them 
some Provisions Presents, Money &c and discharged them w*. 
thanks to their Castle. — 

3 large Strings of Wampum. — 

3 Probably Julia, daughter of Polly Johnson and Guy Johnson. See 
Johnson Papers, 5:647 and 709. 

364 Sir William Johnson Papers 

1 4 th . — Two Chippaweigh Prisoners were brought here by 
Corn 3 . Vanslyke, 4 and two Constables in order to be forwarded to 
Detroit; they were so weak, and Stiff that they were not able to 
proceed 'till the 20 th . at which time they sett off charged with 
letters for the Officers at the Post as also the Commissaries as far 
as Detroit, at same time Sir W m . clothed them, and sent a Present 
by Vanslyke for Wassong chief of that Nation, with a Belt of 
Wampum, and speech recommending to him strongly to keep in 
mind the several Admonitions which he gave to his nation, and all 
the rest in that Confederacy at Detroit, Niagara and Oswego, 
desiring them to hold fast the Covenant Chain, as by that means 
they wou'd become, and continue a happy People — also 
cautioned him, and them against the idle wicked Talks of ill 
dispos'd insignificant People with whom the Woods abounded, 
who tho' incapable of Serving, or giving them any Intelligence, 
were able to cause uneasiness in the minds of those who were 
foolish, and unsettled, & thereby hurt the whole Confederacy — 
desired they might Credit nothing but what they heard from him, 
or his Officers, and that they wou'd always report to him any thing 
necessary for his Information by which means they both might 
be made acquainted with every thing material, or necessary for 
conducting themselves, and affairs uniformly — Lastly desired 
that he, and all the Chiefs woud always recommend to their 
Young People a strict Observance of the sev 1 . Treaties, and 
engagements they had so solemnly entered into with the English, 
as they on their parts v/ere determined to do the same. — 

A large White Belt — 
Eod die three Onondagas arrived here with the news of their 
Chief Warrior Karraghiagios death which they were directed by 
their Sachims to acquaint Sir W m . of immediately with a Belt of 
Wampum, by which they made it known also to the Oneidas, 
Tuscaroras, and both Mohawk Castles. — they also sent to be 
delivered to Sir W m . the Colours belonging to the deceased, 
desiring that he wou'd keep them & at the same time requesting 
he wou'd not think of appointing, or naming any other Person in 

4 Cornelius A. Van Slyck. 

Indian A fairs, 1766-68 365 

his stead, as they looked upon it that there was none among them 
worthy of his title, or Name, — Diaquanda likewise sent Sir 
W m . his Flag, and Meddal, as he cou'd not think of remaining 
longer in his Country having met with so many Losses lately — 
Sir W m . with three long Strings of Wampum performed the 
Ceremony usual on the Occasion, then levelled the Grave with a 
black Stroud — then told them that he wou'd at another time con- 
sider what to do with the Flaggs, the Meddal — sent two Strings 
of Wampum by them desiring the Bunt Speaker Diaquanda, 
TaTvasfyughta, Sienquaraghta, and a few more Chiefs to meet him 
at Ganughsharaga Creek in six days from this date where he in- 
tended to hold a Congress — 

26 th . — S r . William Johnson with sev 1 . Gent n . set out for the Six 
Nation Country to meet the Indians — sent off Cap 1 . Tice 5 before 
w lh . dispatches. — 


Guy-park October I st . 1767 — 
Dear Sir — 

Your Letter to Sir William Johnson of August last came here 
during his absence at the Springs in N. England; since his return 
his time has been so occupied that he could not Answer it fully, 
and is now gone to Onondaga on some Indian affairs, from 
whence he will return in about ten days ; — 

He has therefore desired me to acknowledge the receipt of 
your favor, and to acquaint you that it shall be fully answered at 
his return. In the mean time I can inform you, that the Proprietors 
(Klock excepted) executed a proper Instrument of Release to the 
Indians, and I believe it is amongst S r . William's papers, but 
Klock refuses to sign it, and tells the Indians that the whole 
Transaction is of no effect & only calculated to deceive them. 

5 Captain Gilbert Tice. 

1 In Massachusetts Historical Society. 

366 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I have been for 12 weeks past confined by a broken Leg, 
from which I am not yet sufficiently recovered to lay aside 
Crutches, otherwise I should have accompanied Sir William, as 
we are likely to have some trouble from the almost general dis- 
content discovered amongst the Indians. — I beg you will offer my 
best Compliments to M 1S . Kempe, and be assured that I am with 
real Esteem, Dear Sir, 

Your most obedient humble Serv'. 

G Johnson 
J T Kempe Esqr. — 


R October 1767 

Letter from Guy Johnson Esq r . 

A.L.S. 1 

New york Oct r . 4 ih . 1767. 
Dear Sir, 

I have had the Pleasure to receive your's of the 22 d . Ul mo . ; 2 
and am in no doubt that you will Settle the Affair of the Murther 
of M r . Sinclair's 3 Servant to the best Advantage for His 
Majesty's Interest. 

You mention the Discontents of the Indians to proceed thro' 
the Want of Settling the Boundary Line and the Neglect of 
Settling Many other Points of the Plan, as well as redressing 
Grievances. I don't know what the affair of the Boundary Line 
exactly is, further than recollecting, that you acquainted me the 
Indians had agreed to a Boundary Line with the Provinces of 
Maryland and Pensylvania. Where the Obstruction lyes towards 

1 In University of Pittsburgh Library, Darlington Manuscripts. 

2 Printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y., 2:866-68. 

3 Captain Patt Sinclair (St. Clair), whose servant's murder was reported 
in Johnson to Gage, July 11,1 767, Doc. Hist. N. Y., 2 :858. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 367 

the compleating of this Business I can't positively Say, as I have 
not heared. I suppose Lord Shelburne means the Virginians 
Seated on the Branches of the Monongahela, by Saying that I 
would co'operate with you, and give my Assisstance in removing 
the Southern Encroachments. 

You will no doubt have received Advices from the Detroit as 
well as other Places, not only of the Machinations amongst the 
Several Nations, but also that Some Indians, Said to be the 
Chippewas of the Bay of Saquinam, had fallen upon the Crews 
of two Boats going down the ohio. This News is confirmed by a 
Trader just arrived at Fort Pitt from the Ilinois, whose Declara- 
tion I send you inclosed. M r . Croghan will have this Intelligence 
at Fort-Pitt, and act accordingly. 

I have Maturely considered every Intelligence in general that 
has been transmitted Me concerning the Indians for these two 
years past, and have never heared the least complaint about their 
Trade; Some Discontent shewn by a few perhaps, that the 
Traders were not permitted as usual to go into their Country. 
Every Precaution and Care has been taken to prevent any 
Impositions or Frauds being practiced by the Traders, and Most 
People have agreed in general, that they have bought their Goods 
Much cheaper than they had done for many year's past. As I 
have mentioned, I am unacquainted with their Grievance about 
the Boundarys. As for their Lands, I know of none but the 
Encroachments of the Virginians, and the Affair of the 
Kayadorosseras Patent Some of themselves first invited the 
Virginians there, and when Cap 1 . Murray 4 went to remove them, 
He could get none but a few of the Mingoes to accompany him. 
The Shawneses and the Delawares refused, Saying it was none of 
their Business, that the Lands belonged to the Senecas, and the 
Mingoes a Tribe of that Nation, might See into it. The Insults 
they have received, by having so many of their People killed and 
wounded without any Satisfaction obtained, are certainly too 
visible. Of this Matter, and the Affair of Kayadorosseras, so 

4 Captain William Murray, commandant at Fort Pitt. 

368 Sir William Johnson Papers 

often before represented, I write to Lord Shelburne and shall set 
those Matters before him in the strongest Light; and shew the 
Impossibility to bring the Murtherers upon the Frontiers to Punish- 
ment by the ordinary Course of Justice; or to break the Iniquitous 
Patent of Kayadorosseras, or restrict the Limits thereof to just 
Boundarys, by the common Course of Law. The Chief People of 
the Province, as I understand, are concerned in this, or other 
Patents in the Like Predicament, and an attack upon one May 
hereafter Affect the rest. I comprehend the Matter in this Light, 
And that Whether you apply to Council, Assembly, Bench or 
Bar, you find them all in general equaly interested. If I am wrong 
in this you will acquaint Me, but I have conceived these to have 
been your Reasons for not prosecuting the Patentees, in a common 
Course of Law. 

I am with great Regard, 

Dear Sir, 

Your Most obedient 
humble Servant, 

Tho s . Gage 
Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 . 



Camp at Ganughsaraga Creel? in Gneida Laf^e 

[Get. 5-/7, 1767] 

Monday Octb r . 5 th ., The Cheifs of the Several Nations being 
Mett they came to my Tent in a Body. Bid me heartily welcome 
to their Country, thanked y s . great Spirit above for Sending me 
safe thro y e . Lake, Rivers & ca . — Then pulled out my Belt of 
invitation & returned it, letting me know they had complied there- 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indians Records, Vol. 9; in Sir William's 
hand. A contemporary copy of these proceedings is in Indian Records, Vol. 
7. Where the manuscript is mutilated or illegible, words from the copy are 
supplied in brackets. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 369 

with notwithstanding their present disagreable Scituation on 
Ace', of their late great loss. — They then returned the compli- 
ment paid them by me lately when they Sent 3 Deputys to ac- 
quaint me with their loss, & thanked me verry kindly for y e . 
early notice I had taken of it. — I then told them I was extremely 
glad to meet so many of their Sachims & Cheifs at this place, & 
that if my time would admit of it, I should have gladly gone to 
their Village. That as it was now Evening I would defer Saying 
anything more to them till the next Day. — Ordered them Pipes, 
Tobacco, Some Rum to refresh them after their Journey, & So 
parted. — 

Tuesday 6 th ., I sent an Express for to call the Cheifs of 
Ganughsarage, & to buy some Corn for y e . use of the Ind s . ab l . 
7 a Clock The Bunt Cheif of Ondaga with the Speaker came to 
my Tent, & begged a private conferrence with me, at w h . they 
largely expatiated on y e . great loss of Karaghiagigo their Prin- 
cipal Cheif, Sett forth the unsettled state of their Nation on y*. 
Ace'., & the Division occasioned thereby amongst themselves, 
Begged I would speak to Deiaquande 2 who was at the head of 
the opposition, and try to bring him to act with the rest as usual 
or else that Council Fire must extinguish, &ca. — 

I told them it was [rvas] well done to give me the Early notice 
of their unhappy difference, and that I would take such measures 
as I did not doubt would bring my freind Deiaquande to a right 
way of thinking, [as] he having for many years promised to follow 
my Advice in all matters of moment, after w h . I should call them 
[together] and speak to the Whole at once. — for w* 1 . they were 
verry thank[ful] and after breakfasting, parted. — I sent for 
Deiaquande Onog/jran[owen] & Sayenquaraghta three of the 
Cheifs to come to my Tent, where I settled all Matters with them, 
& made them agree to Join & Act with y e . rest in all their Affairs 
for the future. In the Evening the Express returned & told me 
Saqrua[rizera] was not yet returned from Oneida, but that the 
others would [attend] the next day they brought Some horses 

2 A chief warrior of the Onondaga Nation. 

370 Sir William Johnson Papers 

loaded w th . [provisions for] y e . use of the Indians met here, [which 
was charged very high.] 

Wednesday 7 th ., [at 12 o' the clock] The Ind s . being all as- 
sembled I went to [their encampment] where they had a place pre- 
pared for me & my Company. After being Seated some time, My 
Speaker T a^awarunti an Oneida Began by [first] gathering y e . 
bones of the deceased Warrior & putting them in the earth, this 
was done by giving a large Belt of Black Wampum 

A Belt — 
2 d . Then covered the Body with 2 Black Strowds — 
3 d . Levelled the Grave with another Black Strowd — 
4 th . Rekindled the Council Fire of y e . Confederacy with such 
wood as would last as long as the world. — 

A Belt — 
5 th . Recommended it strongly to them to avoid all Disputes or 
differences amongst themselves, & live in the Strictest freindship 
with their Bretheren, & that y e . Sachims & Cheif tains Should act 
together in all Matters of Moment — 

6 th . I reinstated Deiaquande their Chief Warrior by giving him a 
Flag & Meddal in presence of all the rest & therewith a Charge 
to act agreable to my former Admonitions, & his promises so 
often & Solemnly repeated. — All which, He (in presence of the 
whole Assembly) assured me he would do to the Utmost of his 
Ability, & that as long as he lived. — 

A Flag & Meddal — 
After the Ceremony was over, I desired to know w l . news they 
had heard from the Southward, & Westeren Confederacy, & The 
Speaker of Ondaga (by the desire of y e . rest) Said that they had 
heard Several disagreable Acc ts . for some time, Which gave them 
Some concern, imagining it might end in a troublesome War 
which they were hopefull would not have happened in their time, 
but that now they plainly [fore] saw the Clouds gathering around 
'em very fast, He then proceeded & told me Several verry disagre- 
able peices of News w h . as I have them by letters from different 
hands thought it [wou'd be] too tedious to enter here, they con- 
cluded, by saying that they were greatly Surprised at hearing 

Indian Afiairs, 1766-68 371 

nothing from England in consequence of what [ ] He threw 

up his Medda). & ca . and gave a parting as a Sachim & Chieftain 
for some time, on Ace 1 , of y e . many losses he met with, lately by 
the Death of his Mother, Children, & Nephew Karaghiagigo, 
whose loss I here condoled and w h . is much lamented by all the 
Nations [who were in Six days time to Assemble at Onondaga in 
order to Condole the same, — that at Sir W ms . remonstrance, and 
advice he was again reinstated, — that he cou'd not help ex- 
pressing his uneasiness that nothing was done in their affairs in 
consequence of what was transacted two Years ago in a general 
Council at S r . W ms . House, and of the several Complaints made 
and Grievances represented] 3 by them before, & since, for w h . 
reasons, & y e . hostile behaviour of our People these 2 years past, 
they, and all y e . Nations were apprehensive that we were not so 
Sincere as I always represented. In short, ]ing I said 

everry thing I could to reconcile them, & remove their Doubts but 
plainly found [that] (to my concern) their doubts remain, & their 
great reliance on me (owing to y e . delays & trifling at Home) 
much lessened. I told them I expected some favourable Acc ls . 
(relative to y e . Department) verry Soon by my Son, w h . they 
should be imediately made acquainted with 

Then let them know that I had brought with me some presents 
w h . I should deliver them the next Day. for w h . they returned 

Thursday 8 th ., I had Several private meetings with the Sachims, 
& Cheif Warriors Seperately, of the different Nations by w h . 
means, & granting them several Requests & favours I [removed] 
somewhat of their uneasinesses. — ab f . 2PM delivered them a 
Present of Cloathing & Amuniticn, & some provision w h . I was 
oblidged to Send 20 Miles for, to an Ind n . Village, & have it 
brought on horse back. After w h . Many of them Set off for their 
own Country s, those who remained Until I set of, were verry 
[troublesome] & Mercenary. — 

3 Text in brackets from the contemporary copy, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 
Note references to Sir William in third person. 

372 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Friday 9 th ., All who remained Came in the Morning to my 
Tent, & waited to See me Set [of the Lake] being then verry 
rough. — 

Saturday 1 7 th . Ins 1 , arrived at Johnson Hall Where I rec d . 
letters from Canada concerning Major Rojers 4 [wicked] Inten- 
tions, pritty fully set forth by Potters 5 deposition, 6 I also reed 
Sundry letters from London by My Son' who arrived Some days 
before me, others from y e . Genr 1 . w lh . a Scalp, Head peice & 
Belt of beads [Reeds] from the Cherokees desireing thereby to 
know something of the Six Nations Intentions & expectations. — 
I took the best Steps I could think of concerning Rojers, & Sent 
the Cherokee Belt by Sa];enquaraghla an Ondaga Cheif to deliver 
it to his Nation, Desiring their Answer as Soon as possible, that I 
might loose no time in acquainting [the Cherokees] with their Reso- 
lutions. — Tafyefyadon [Takadori] the Bunts Son [w th . his Party] 
came here, and rec d . a handsome present for them for their 

Tatvassfyuchta with his party of Warriors came here y e . 3 d . 
Octb r . Staid 5 Days, they rec d . Arms & some Cloathing [also a 
black Belt of Wampum to replace his Son who died.] 


Copy 1 

Fort Pitt October 1 8th 1767. 

On my way from Philadelphia up here I met with M r . 
Maisonville 2 a Frenchman, which your Honour see with me two 

4 Major Robert Rogers, former commandant at Michilimackinac. 

5 Nathaniel Potter, who had been employed by Rogers. 
« See Doc. Rel. to Col Hist. N. Y., 7:990-92. 

7 John Johnson. 

1 Printed in Illinois Historical Collections, 16:88-91; in Johnson 
Papers, 5 : 736-38, in badly mutilated form. 

2 Alexander Maisonville. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 373 

Years ago. He lives on the Ouabache and informs me that the the 
five Tribes of Indians which Reside on that River seem very much 
dissatisfied that a place of Trade is not fixed in their Country, for 
them, as well as at Fort Chartres, & Detroit, & a Man, appointed 
to see Justice done them in Trade as well as the other Nations 
Round them; & looks upon it as slighting them above any other 
Nations. M r . Maisonville says there is Numbers of French 
Traders among those Tribes who follow them to their Hunting 
Ground both from Cannada, Detroit, & the Illinois, who poison 
the minds of the Indians against the English, for their own In- 
terest, to sell their Goods, & does much hurt. But says, he is 
certain that if a Mart was fixed for a Trade, & English Traders 
to settle there, they would carry the Trade which at present he 
says is carried chiefly to New Orleans: our neglect of those 
People he say's has disgusted them much. 

M r . Maisonville pass'd by Detroit & see the party from 
Saginaw Bay which plundered Baynton, Wharton, & Morgans 
Boats on the Ohio. He says they did not bring much of the Goods, 
nor had they any Scalps. Most of the Party were Relations of 
the Two Indians sent down from Detroit for the Murder of 
Cap 1 . S l . Clairs 3 Man, & 'tis supposed to be done in revenge for 
sending those Two Men down the Country. 

As M r . Maisonville Passed by Sandusky he met with four 
Indian Runners from the Western Nations with several Belts of 
Wampum going to the Shawanese, & Dellaweres, to Let them 
know that the Great meeting of Indians intended to be held in the 
Shawanese Country was not to take place till next March; and 
since I came here the Shawanese have Confirm'd this Account. 

I have had Several Meetings of the Indians I met here, & 
examined them particularly what the design of the great Council 
was or which Nation or Confederacy desired it. They all say 
that they are unacquainted with the Business to be settled at it, 
& says the Chepwa's sent the Belts to all the Nations this way, 

3 Captain Patt. Sinclair. 

374 Sir William Johnson Papers 

& on the Ouabache, & say they heard that the Senecas desired 
the Chepwa's to call the several Nations together. 

Some Shawanese I met here inform me that their Nation is 
affraid a War against us is intended; as they have Received 
Belts last Summer from the Senecas, complaining of the ill treat- 
ment they met with from the English in passing to & from War 
against the Southern Indians, on the frontiers of Virginia where 
they have had several of their Warriors kill'd & Wounded. At 
the same time they acknowledge that they had offered to give up 
all the Lands on this side the Ohio to the King, for a Considera- 
tion But said the King had never given it to them, & that now the 
White People was settleing their Country. 

On one very large Belt the Senicas said to the Dellaweres, 
& Shawanese, Brethren those Lands are Yours, as well as ours, 
God gave them to us Live upon & before the White People shall 
settle them for nothing, we will sprinkle the Leaves with their 
Blood, or Die every Man of us in the attempt. 

I have not been able to gain any further Intelligence worth relat- 
ing, but am sorry to find the Indians in so Sullen a Temper, as they 
at present appear. I wish that Boundary had never been Men- 
ticn'd to them or that His Majesty had before now, Ordered it 
Confirmed. Indians cannot bear disappointments, or delays where 
they expect to get any thing. And nothing now, will in my opinion 
prevent a War but taking a Cession from them, & Paying them 
for their Lands. Notwithstanding all the trouble that has been 
taken to remove the People settled on Redstone Creek, & Cheat 
River, I am well assured there are double the Number of Inhabi- 
tants in those two settlements that ever was before: And I hear 
the Indians have stopped the Surveyers 4 a little beyond Cheat 
River, from extending the Line between Pennsylvania & Mary- 
Land, how true this report may be I can not say, as I have not 
heard from any of the Gentlemen on the Line. This Report was 
brought from Redstone Creek Yesterday. 

4 Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 375 

The Traders that went from this last Winter to Trade in the 
Indian Country's unknown to Cap*. Murray 5 are still amongst 
them, & tho' Cap*. Murray reported them to Governor Penn I 
don't find that One of their Bonds are put in Suit against them. 

I hear that one Thomas Mitchell a Trader has been killed 
lately at one of the Shawanese Villages but has not yet learned 
the particulars: I look upon it of dangerous Consequence at 
present to have any Traders Scattered thro' the Indian Country 
for if the Indians are, or should be determined to make War on 
the Setlers at Redstone Creek & Cheat River, or any Other part 
of the frontiers; the Goods which the Traders carry into the 
Country will be a temptation to the Indians, to Murder & Plunder 
all the Traders, & so enable them to carry on a War against us. 
Confineing the Trade to the different Posts would Certainly be a 
means of making the Indian Nations Dependant on us & prevent 
many Irregularity's, in particular the Seal of spirituous Liquors 
which the Indians Complain much off, but how this can be done or 
whether it would be for the Good of His Majesty's Service I 
refer to Your Honour. 

I will set out for Detroit in two days, & will pass by some of 
the Shawanese, & Dellawere Villages, where I hope to find out 
more of the Indians Sentiments, & will send M r . M c .Kee & 
Montour to others of their Villages in Order if Possible to find 
out the Real cause of their discontent, by my return here. 

I am with Great respect your Honours Most Obedient and 
Most Humble Servant 

Geo: Croghan 

To the Honourable SlR WlLLIAM JOHNSON Baronet 

His Majestys Sole Agent & Superindant for Indian Affairs in the 

Northern District of North America &c, &c, &c, Johnson-Hall 


Fort Pitt OcuV, 18 th . 1767 

5 Captain William Murray, commandant at Fort Pitt. 

376 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A.L.S. 1 

Nerv york Nov. 9 th . 1767. 
Dear Sir, 

I have received yours of the 22 d . [Ins 1 .] Oct r . 2 on my Return 
from Philadelphia. The Indians being divided about the Manner 
of carrying on the Trade amongst them will make it impossible to 
do it to the Satisfaction of the whole, and it is not easy to say 
what is best to be done. 

The general Boundary between the Provinces and the Indians 
Lands which was promised the Indians at the Peace is a Matter 
that I was not so fully informed of till the Receipt of your Letter. 
This Measure if carried into Execution, might doubtless preserve 
Tranquility for some time; but it appears to me to be only a 
Temporary Expedient, for the People upon the Frontiers are not 
to be kept in by any Bounds. If the Governments are too feeble to 
enforce obedience to Laws Proclamations &c a . at present, they 
can't obtain more strength by being extended, and the new Lands 
would of Course be very soon disposed of to People of Interest, 
and perhaps in large Patents; so that Lands being still dear, the 
People would have the same Temptation as they have now, to 
emigrate beyond the Boundary, and the same Complaints made by 
the Indians as are now Made. The Governors I suppose for some 
Reasons or other are aff raid to desire Assisstance from Me ; They 
allow Things to be as represented ; and Set forth their inability to 
enforce obedience, which they own Nothing but a Military 
Force can effect; but unfortunately their Militia is as bad as the 
rest, and can't be depended upon. This is all the Answer I can 
obtain, and no Notice is taken of my Offers to assisst with the 
King's Troops. Unless the Hands of Government are strength- 
ened, I conceive, the more the Provinces are extended the weaker 
they would be, and that in less than three years, The People 
would go beyond the Limits, tho' they are fixed at the Ohio. 
M r . Croghan's Letter which I inclose will inform you, that 

1 In Harvard University Library. 

2 Printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y., 2:881-83. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 377 

the Settlers at Cheat River and Redstone Creek instead of going 
away, have Multiplied ; and I have my Suspicions that they have 
been encouraged to do so. And was this Affair of not fixing the 
Boundary, the only thing of which the Indians Complain, had 
they no just Cause to complain of ill Treatment upon the Frontiers 
and of the Murthers of their People, I must confess to you, that I 
should very much Suspect, that they had been excited to Murmur 
and complain that the Boundary was not fixed. I find there are 
large Additions expected to many Provinces, and fine Lands to be 
given to the Rulers and their adherents. If the King should at 
length purchase the immense Tract proposed, I would advise a 
new Province to be made of it, at least of such parts as would 
serve to form a Barrier between the present Provinces, and the 
Lands of the Indians, and the same made a Military Govern- 
ment ; as the only Expedient of having either Laws or Rules and 
Regulations duely observed, or the King's orders obeyed. 

The Method you propose of sending Estimates of the Salarys 
of your officers I think will answer very well; and if you will 
send them every Six Months, separating these Accounts from all 
Contingencies, I think it will be more regular. And in the mean 
time your officers should not draw for their Salarys till they 
become due; at least they should be informed, if they draw 
previous thereto, that their Draughts should not be made payable, 
till the time that their Pay shall be due. Which Method I con- 
ceive will prevent Confusion in their Sallarys, and you will avoid 
the Inconveniences you have undergone. 

M r . Leake 3 shall be spoke to about the Provisions; He 
imagined that it would be cheaper to purchase them upon the 
spot, than to take them from Albany and pay the Transportation 
from thence to your House. 

It is not Necessary to say more about Major Rogers than to 
tell you Potter's affidavit, 4 M r . Roberts's 5 Letter &c a . have been 

3 Robert Leake, commissary general. 

4 Nathaniel Potter. Affidavit printed in Doc. Rel. to Col Hist. N. Y., 

5 Benjamin Roberts. 

378 Sir IVMiam Johnson Papers 

transmitted to me, and that I have taken every Precaution in my 
Power to prevent his ill Designs having any Effect, by Sending a 
Warrant to apprehend him. It went Express to Fort-Pitt before 
my Departure for Philadelphia, in hopes of overtaking M r . 
Croghan, if not the Commander was desired to Apply to M c .Kee 6 
to procure a trusty Indian to carry the Dispatches to Detroit. If 
Rogers goes off before the Arrival of my warrant, it can't be 
helped. Your Letter of 22 d . Oct r . requires no farther Answer on 
this Strange Subject. I find by a Letter from Brigd r . Carleton that 
he has advanced Potter Money to transport him to England, 
where he means no doubt to enhance his own Merit in this Affair 
at the Expence of Rogers, and to impose upon the Ministers by 
some plausible History to his own advantage. 

I am with great Regard, 
Dear Sir, 

Your Most obedient, 
humble Servant, 

Tho s . Gage 
SR. W M . Johnson Bar 1 . 


November 9th 1 767 

From Gen 1 . Gage 


Contemporary Copy 1 

New York Novenr. 9 th . 1767. 
Dear Sir, 

Your Letter of the 30 th . Ult . 2 with the Acco ts . inclosed have 
been recieved, and I shall Order a Warrant to be made out 

6 Alexander McKee, assistant deputy agent of Indian affairs at Fort Pitt. 

7 In Sir William's hand. 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Doc. Hist. N. Y., 8:885. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 379 

immediately. I have already mentioned in another Letter that I 
agreed with you in Opinion about the manner of paying Your 
Officer's Sallary's. You have no doubt fixed the Number of 
Interpreters Smith &ca you think necessary and proper for each 
District, you will be so good to do this, and not suffer any of the 
Officers under you, to fix their own Staff at Pleasure. Major 
Gorham 3 seems to have a very large one for Nova Scotia, equal 
to what was usualy allowed before his Appointment for all the 
Indian Expences in that Province. 

I imagine it will be thought necessary to have His Majesty's 
Approbation, before a General Congress is held, and there seems 
some Points to be transacted with the Indians, on which nothing 
can be said till Answers are recieved from the Ministry. In the 
mean time, as the Senecas are thought to be the Nation at the 
Bottom of the present Commotions, much may be done to pacify 
them and gain them over, at least to postpone their intended Con- 
gress for some time longer. M r . Croghan's Letter will acquaint 
you, that Time is already gained accidentaly in this Affair, for 
several Nations have acquainted the Shawnese and Delawares 
that they must deferr the Meeting till Spring. 

It is the Government only that can determine about the 
General Boundary, and perhaps about the iniquitous Patents of 
Kayadorosseras, and of the lower Mohawk Flatts. And as for 
getting Satisfaction for any insults recieved, unless they interfere 
more strongly with the Provinces, none can be had, and perhaps 
very little afterwards, for I dont find the Provincial Legislatures 
very ready to Assist in putting an effectual stop to insults or en- 
croachments. I judge only from the Answers I get, for I must 
believe that the Governors would do all in their Power, but that 
they are not properly supported by the other Branches of their 
Legislatures. And it is not improbable, I might say very Sus- 
picious, that some Men of Interest Abet these Encroachments. 

3 Major Joseph Gorham of the Rangers, commissioned deputy agent for 
Indians Affairs in Nova Scotia, Sept. 24, 1 766, ante pp. 1 96-98. 

380 Sir William Johnson Papers 

When Indians have any thing at heart they complain of every 
Triffle, as much as of the main Object of their Disgust. If the 
Encroachments on the Waters of the Monongahela is the main 
object, on the removal of which depends Peace or War, it will 
be proper to put it home to the Governments concerned, in which 
I will join you in as plain Terms as I can write. I understand the 
Spring will be the proper time to remove the Settlers, and then 
prevent their Sowing. I concluded from Captain Murray's 4 Report 
that they were removed, for he Settled that matter with them and 
destroyed many of their Habitations. But I heared at Phila- 
delphia that they were returned, and many from the Province of 
Pensilvania gone to join them. Those Lands I understand are 
claimed by Pensilvania and Virginia, or I should use less Cere- 
mony with them. In short after taking all the pains we can, if the 
Indians do break out, and should confine their Hostilities to those 
spots only, tho' the killing of People must be shocking to 
Humanity. I could not Answer giving any Assistance, or to begin 
any Hostilities against the Indians till the whole Affair should be 
laid before the King, and that I should recieve His Majesty's 
Orders thereupon. 

I Am with great Regard 
Dear Sir, 

Sir W m . Johnson Bart. 


Sir William Johnson Bart. 

Johnson Hall 
New York Novem'. 9 lh . 1 767. 

4 Captain William Murray, commandant at Fort Pitt. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-6S 381 


Johnson Hall Novb'. 17 lh .l 767 
My Dear Banyar — 

Yours of the 1 7 th . Ult°. 2 was but yesterday delivered to me by 
M r . Palmer, who also brought me the Lease & Release for the 6 
Lots in Sacondaga Patent. I should have been glad that you had 
acknowledged it before you sent it up. — 

I thank You for your kind congratulations, & Intentions, and 
hope this will find you perfectly recovered of your indisposition. 

M r . Palmer 3 left me this Morning, in order to go up the 
Country as far as one Youngs, to bespeak prov s . & such other 
necessarys as may be requisite for the Undertaking in the Spring, 
it being too late in the Season to do any thing in it at present, & 
You may be assured I shall at that time, give him all the Assist- 
ance in my power, or at any time when concerned for You. — I 
am much oblidged to you for y e . notice You give me of y r . inten- 
tion to dispose of all Major Clarkes Lands. I am at a loss to know 
where little Sacondaga is, & will be glad to learn from You w*. 
Number of Lots he has there the quantity of Land, and the 
lowest price you will take for it, also for his Share in Northampton 
Patent. The latter I would gladly buy if reasonable, as I have a 
Share therin, and the former I may get a Chap for, As I have not 
the money to advance for it, were it ever so Advantagious to me. 
nor indeed for the other a[t] present. — 

I wish you all the Happiness, and am 

My Dear Banyar 
Your Sincere & Affec". freind 

W Johnson 
Goldsbrow Banyar Esq r . — 

My kind respects to M rs . Banyar — 

1 In New York Historical Society, Banyar Papers. 

2 Not found. 

3 Thomas Palmer. 

382 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Nov. 1 7. 1 767 

Sir Will. Johnson 

A.L.S. 1 

W™.bwghNov\23 d . 1767 

I enclose to you under Cover with this, the Copy of a Talk 
from Some northern Indians in your District, sent me down by 
Colonel Cressap 2 near Fort Cumberland in the Colony of Mary- 
land. That Gentleman, has on other Occasions as well as the 
present very improperly as well as officiously interfered in matters 
that dont at all concern him: as his Majesty has very judiciously 
committed the management of the Indians Affairs into your hands, 
I have wrote my Sentiments fully to Colonel Cressap on this head. 
If you should think it necessary or useful that the Indians should 
see me, I shall with the greatest readyness comply with every 
thing You shall desire to cultivate and confirm the Friendship 
subsisting between his Majestys white Subjects and themselves. 
Of this I beg the favor of you to assure them, and that We have 
not the least Inclination or wish to let go the Chain : And if you 
think it necessary I should tell them this in a Talk under my hand, 
on your acquainting me of the expediency of such a measure, I 
will immediately send one as you shall desire. It appears also to 
me that it would be proper to inform the Indians that any applica- 
tion to Colonel Cressap or any other person but your self, will not 
have the Regard paid to it as if it came from you But in this you 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

2 Colonel Thomas Cresap. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 383 

will act according to your own Discretion, being a much better 
Judge of these matters than I can be. 

I am w th . great Regard 


Y r . most Obed 1 . 
Fran: Fauquier 
To S R . W M . Johnson Bar*. 


Williamsburgh Novo'. 23 d . 1 767 

L l . Gov r . Fauquiers letter 
w th . an Enclosure — 


New York Novo'. 28K 1767. 

I am just now favor'd with your letter of the 14 th . Ins 1 . 2 & 
am very sorry to inform you that our Expedition to the Jerseys has 
not been attended with the Success I could wish, nor has my 
family receiv'd the Benefit from it I expected. — It is a matter 
of no small concern to me that our Indian Affairs have so un- 
promising an Aspect, & I should be very happy to have it in my 
power to contribute in any Shape towards their Settlement, but 
as yet I have not had a line from the E. of Shelburne in answer 
to what I wrote to his Lordship immediately on my return from 
your House, but shall write on the same Subject again by the first 
Pacquet & beg to be furnish'd with some answers to make on my 
return in Spring, as I am persuaded that the Indians will expect 

3 In Sir William's hand. 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

2 Johnson Papers, 5:790-91. 

384 Sir William Johnson Papers 

something satisfactory from me by that time: The only letter 
I have receiv'd from the E. of Shelburne in which Indian Affairs 
were mention'd, was dated Sep 1 . 13, 1 766. & seem'd to me to be a 
circular letter sent to the respective Governors, telling them of His 
Majesty's displeasure on hearing from different Quarters that 
Incroachments had been made on the Indian Lands, & Violencies 
committed on them, directing at the same time that care should be 
taken to prevent persons from settling on their lands or injuring 
their Persons ; This letter I answer'd in Nov r . 1 766. & fully 
explaind how far this Province was concern'd in the complaint 
made ; Since that time I have receiv'd nothing farther on that head 
although in dayly expectation of it. — 

I am afraid that a letter I wrote to you concerning the Militia 
never came to your hand, in which I mention'd that it was at the 
Desire of the Council that S r . John 3 was propos'd to command the 
Reg f . of Horse to be raisd, & that it would give me great pleasure 
to see him invested with that Command ; As this proposal met with 
your approbation I inform'd you that there was not the least 
objection rais'd to your different recommendations of the officers, 
& only waited for the particular Districts to be describ'd in order 
to shew the respective Colonels how far their authority was to 
extend, as it must be set forth in Their Commissions. This new 
plan of the Regiments has been much approvd of by every one 
who has heard of it, & I am persuaded that we shall see the 
advantage of it in case of any Rupture with the Indians. — 

I shall agreable to your recommendation of Mr. Fry 4 give him 
a License to practise as an Attorney, but as he has not been 
regularly bred to the Profession he must first be Licens'd for the 
inferior Courts, till he has made some progress in the practical 
part, which I apprehend is the thing he desird ; I mention this only 
on Ace 1 , of Form & not from any Objection rais'd by me, for his 

3 Sir John Johnson. For Sir Henry's reorganization of the militia, see 
Johnson to Colden, Doc. Hist. N. Y., 2:957-59. 

4 Hendrick Frey, Jr. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 385 

being patroniz'd by you is a sufficient recommendation of him to 
me. I am With the greatest Regard & Esteem 


Your Most Obedient 
& humble Servant 

H. Moore 5 

I shall take it as a particular favor if you will make some inquiry 
concerning Coll Vaughan's 6 Land & let me know what has been 
done in regard to it, for as yet I have had no Ace 1 , of it, nor indeed 
of any of the Purchases Made last year. 


NYork Novb r . 28 th . 1 767 

Sir Harry Moores Letter 


A. D. 1 

[Johnson Hall, Nov. 4-13, 1767] 

[The Conojohares] Arrived y e . 4 th . Novb r . and Joined the 
Ondagaes in welcoming My Son 2 Home &ca. After the Cere- 
mony was over he gave them an Entertainment & Dance, — and 
2 Cags of liquor to Drink in their Castles on their return with 
their Cheifs &ca. — 

Novb r . 6 th . — I Sent a large String of Wampum by Tarvas- 
fyughta an Ondaga to let the Six Nations know that I intended 
a General Meeting with them Some time in y e . Spring, and Should 

5 Sir Henry Moore, colonial governor of New York, 1 764-1 769. 

6 Lieutenant Colonel John Vaughan. For Sir William's answers see 
Johnson Calendar, p. 385 ; these letters to Sir H. Moore were destroyed. 

7 In Sir William's hand. 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 9. A contemporary copy 
in Indian Records, Vol. 7, has minor variants, mentioning Sir William in 
the third person. Where the manuscript is illegible words from the copy are 
supplied in brackets. 

2 Sir John Johnson, who returned from his visit to England in October. 

386 Sir William Johnson Papers 

by my next Message let them know y e . time & place. — I also ex- 
plained to them the Prince of Chotes 3 Speech made to M r . 
Stuart Superlntd'. — 

They Seemed much Surprised at not hearing of something final 
ab f . y e . Boundary Line, & other greiviances so often complained 
of, — To all w h ., I gave them the most plausable answers in my 
power, w h . altho it gave some Satisfaction, did not remove their 
Doubts of our Sincerity. 

Then delivered them a present of Blankets paint powder, Ball, 
flints, Some other Necessarys, & parted y e . 6 th . Ins*. 

Novb r . 6 th . M r . Goddard 4 a Trader, and Joseph Rheaum 5 a 
French Interpreter, Arrived here, & brought me Sundry letters & 
Acc ts . of Ind n . Expences incurred by Major Rojers orders w h . 
S d . Rheaum had, also an Extraordinary Corns 11 , for Inviting the 
Westeren Nations to him at Michilimacinac. I discharged them 
with a promise of my endeavours to See them paid, & desired M r . 
Goddard to Send me his Journal, & opinion of the Disposition of 
the Sevr 1 . Nat s . he had been amongst. 

D°. Die. also the 7 th . & 8 th . Sevr 1 . Partys of Senecas, & 
Cayugaes Arrived here, \by whom I] Who confirmed the Ace*, 
of Bad Belts being Sent amongst the Six, & other Nations. I gave 
them all Some Amunition, a little Cloathing, Axes &ca. — 

Do. 10 th . Onoghsoakta a Seneca Cheif w th . Several More of 
his Nation arrived here, also a free Negro [Mullato] named the 
Sun Fish [who had lived 15 Years among them, the former in 
private told S r . W m . that Shabear Jean Ceaur 6 on his way to 
Detroit] Told Casterax Cheif of Chenussia in private Conversa- 
tion, that He Shou'd not pay any regard to what he Shabear said 
to the Ind s . in presence of the English at Niagra, 7 being only 
intended to blindfold them, that He now assured Him Casterax 

3 See Stuart to Gage, July 21,1 767, ante pp. 337-38. 

4 James Stanley Goddard. 

5 Joseph Reaume (Rheaume). 

6 Daniel Joncaire, Sieur de Chabert and Clausonne (1716-1771). 

7 See "Journal of Ind n . Transactions at Niagara in the Year 1 767," 
Doc. Hist. N. Y., 2:868-80. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 387 

that the French were determined to regain this Country, & would 
probably be in this [Country] next Spring in order to concert some 
measures with their friends there, — Shabear further told him 
that He was now going to Detroit, & had orders from the French 
King to tell the Same to all y e . Ottawaes &ca He might see, He 
then told Casterex of his poverty, & that he had not a foot of 
Land to live upon, and reminded him of a promise made by the 
Senecas formerly of giving him that Land at the Entrance of 
Lake Erie, to w h . Casterax Answered, that he thought that place 
was too near the English, with whom they might soon have a 
difference, but that from the great love the Senecas had for him, 
they wou'd give him a place called Kanawagon near to the Ohio 
where there is a Settlement of sev 1 . Renegadoe Familys, for w h . 
He Shabear thanked him. this Intelligence My Informant had 
from Gastax's Son in Law. — 

Then Onaghsoakta Delivered me a Belt w ,h . the Figure of 
Three Men worked upon, Which his Castle of Kanadasegey 
Desired him to deliver me, requesting thereby in the most press?. 
Manner that I would allow them a Smith in their Castle, to repair 
their Arms, & working Utensils, w h . were now all out of order, 
& that Niagra & Oswego were too far for them to go with such 
things to be mended, adding that as they heard of my Son's 8 
Arrival, they did not doubt but that he had brought over some 
good News for them, & the rest of the Nations. — 

A Belt. — 
Then took the Sun Fish (a Free Mullatto who lives at 
Kanaghiyiadirhe) 9 into my Office, where, upon asking him 
Several Questions concerning the Reports now going about 
among st . y e . Indians, & offering him a reward if he would tell me 
ingeniously w l . he knew. He Gave me the following Ace*. Viz 1 , 
that ab l . 2 Years ago he was on his Hunt towards Ohio, where 
he was told by a Delaware Cheif, that Some of y e . Westeren 

8 Sir John Johnson. 

9 Karaghiyadirha on Guy Johnson's map of the country of the Six 
Nations. Supposed to be the present Belvidere, Allegany County, New 

388 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Nations had Sent a Belt to y e . Shawanese & Delawares recom- 
mending it to them, and the rest of y e . Ind s . in them parts to be 
unanimous, & that they would Join them heartily in removing y e . 
English out of their Country, the Belt w h . was sent for y l . pur- 
pose was broad from y e . end of y e . Fingers to the bend of y e . 
Elbow, and a Fathom in length, all black — that y e . method 
they proposed was to have a great Council w th . y e . English at Fort 
Pitt, and then cut off the Garrison, destroy the Fort &c Then push 
along thro y e . Several Nations, (who, if they wou'd not Join them 
they were to cut off) 'till they come here destroying All the 
Settlements in these parts as far as Albany & even that, then all 
y e . upper Posts would fall of Course, as they would then cut off 
their Communication. — My Informant is of opinion that this is 
y e . Belt now going amongst them, & that something prevented 
them putting their Design in execution hitherto. — He says the 
Ind s . are an unsettled, Jealous, Discontented revengefull People, 
that the losses they Sustained to the Southward this time past 
Adds greatly to their desire of revenge, as well as our Encroach- 
ments, All w h ., the French amongst them, & at Mississippi are 
constantly reminding them off, & Stirring them up to take Satisfac- 
tion, promising them All necessary Assistance &c. — 

Novb r . 12 th ., In Ans r . to y e . Senecas Belt by OnoghsoaJ?ta, I 
told him, that, as I proposed a General Meeting with the Six 
Nations & others next Spring, I would then let them know my 
resolution thereon. w h . would depend entirely on their peacable 
and freindly behaviour. & that I expected they would (at said 
meeting) bring with them, & deliver to me all the English 
Prisoners still remaining amongst them, so contrary to their most 
Solemn Engagements, & repeated promises at y e . last Springs 
Treaty of Peace concluded with them. — 

A Belt. — 

A Party of Cayugaes, some of Ottrawanes, & Tagaaias 
People arrived here, begged for amunition, their Arms, & Axes 
mended &ca. w h . granted, they went away well contented. — 

Novb r . 13. I gave to the Sun Fish, Copy of the Prince 
of Chotes Speech w h . accompanied the Cherokee Belt lately sent 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 389 

to the Six Nations, that He might explain it to Addongot & 
Squissahawe the Two Cheifs of His Castle, least it might be 
delivered to them wrong. He promised to deliver it faithfully to 
them, and everry thing else I gave him in charge, and also to bring 
me whatever news of Moment was Stirring amongst the Indians, 
for wh. I gave him a handsome present, I gave him also a few 
lines to Cap*. MacLeod, 10 by way of a Passport & 4 Strings of 
black Wampum to deliver to his Brother Addongat, whose 
Sister has one Peggy May Pole, alias Croce still Pris r . from 
whom He is to get her, & Set her at Liberty, all these things he 
promised sincerely. — I gave him Sever 1 , good things & dis- 
charged him. — 

Contemporary Copy 1 

[Johnson Hall, Nov. 28-30, 1767] 

28 th . Karaghiagiga s brother with some other Indians arrived 
here & addressed S r . W m . as follows. — 
Brother — 

I am come to return you my hearty thanks for condoling the 
death of my brother in so friendly a manner, which greatly eases 
my mind, and also to assure you of my regard and attachment 
to you, being very sensible there was none living, my brother had 
so great an Esteem for, as for you. — you may depend upon me, 
and command my Services at all times. — 

3 Strings — 

Brother — 

As my Nephew is a promising young Lad, I beg leave to recom- 
mend him to succeed my brother, and hope it will be agreeable 
to you. — 

A White Belt. 

10 Captain Normand MacLeod. 
1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records No. 7. 

390 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Brother — 

Here is the Gorget which belonged to your Friend. his 
Medal, and Colours were sent you before. if you approved of 
my Recommendation, you will give them to his only Son, my 
Nephew, which will afford me much Pleasure, and I flatter 
my self he will prove deserving of them. — 

A Silver Gorget formerly given by S r . W m . — 

Sir W m . in answer bid him welcome here, & told him he was 
much pleased that what he had done gave him so much Satisfac- 
tion, and after thanking him for his Professions of Friendship, & 
offers of Service, assured him that so long as he continued of that 
disposition, he wou'd always regard him, and reward any Services 

he might do for him. — 

3 Strings of Wampum. 

Then let him know that nothwithstanding the message which 
was sent him by the Chiefs of his Nation at the time of his 
brother's death, he had no Objection to his Recommendation, but 
that an affair of that kind shou'd be transacted at a general Meet- 
ing, so that all the Nations might be privy to and see that it was 

done by him. — 

A Belt. 

Lastly told him he wou'd keep the Gorget &c until such meet- 
ing took Place, when his Nephew shou'd be appointed. — then 
gave him a Present, & ended. 

Nov r . 30 th . A distant Chippaweigh, a Mohawk named Joseph, 
and two Cognawageys who since the Year 1 764 resided among 
the distant Nations, arrived here — 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 391 

A.L.S. 1 

Princeton Dec r . I st . 1767. 

Expecting to go to England soon, have been oblidgd to borrow 
some Money from M r . Wallace, 2 have given him an Order on 
You for the Ballance due me shall be oblidgd if You would send 
an Order on M r . Mortier 3 for it, I told M r . Wallace I beleive 
You would do it — 

Be pleased to make my Compliments to Cap 1 . Johnston, 4 and 
tell him I have been laid up with the Gout, or should have wrote 
to him, I spoke to M r . Wallace who will do what I desird, I 
likewise sent the Gittar Strings, have made free to enclose a Letter 
for doctor Constaple 5 & am 

S r . Y r . Most Ob*. Serv*. 

W M . Howard 
S R . W M . Johnston Barn 1 . 

indorsed: 7 

Princetown Decb r . 1 st . 1 767 

Cap 1 . Howards Letter 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

2 Hugh Wallace. 

3 Abraham Mortier. 

4 Guy Johnson. 

5 Dr. John Constable. 

6 Captain William Howard of the 1 7th regiment. 

7 In Sir William's hand. 

392 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Contemporary Copy 1 

London Dec. 12, 1767. 

Dear Sir — 

I can truely assure that I have been an importunate Solicitor, 
both on account of your own grant, and that of the Indian 
Boundary. I was with Lord Shelburne & Lord Clare about them 
last week, and came to Town on Thursday, expecting the orders 
about the Boundary, would have been dispatched by this packet, 
but after a long conference I had with the first, I find it will not go 
'till the next ; I had just received a Letter from M r . Croghan and 
from M r . Allen, 2 pressing the necessity of it very strongly & very 
speedily, which I gave Lord Shelburne copies of, to lay before the 
Council, and I really believe it will be done by next packet. 

Lord Shelburne desired I would express his regard for you, and 
his desire to carry into execution what you recommend, he also 
gave all the assistance he could, with regard to your Land, and 
we hope to get a Grant under the Great Seal here, or an 
acknowledgment of a Beaver Skin, or some such reservation, 
which will supersede all fees at New York, of this I shall write 
to you further by the next packet. 

I have to desire, you will use your best endeavours with the 
Indians, to grant us the Land, as high as they can be brought to 
agree to, between the West branch of Sasquehannah & the River 
Delaware, to prevent all possibility of the people from Con- 
necticut, giving us any more trouble there, and that they will 
covenant when they incline to sell the rest, that they will sell it 
only to us, as they have always done. I hope to write you fully 
by next packet. In the mean time I am with much regard 

Dear Sir 

Your most obedient and most 
humble Servant 


Sir William Johnson 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Penn Letter Books. 

2 William Allen, chief justice of Pennsylvania. 

Indian A fairs, 1766-68 393 

Cop}) 1 

[Dec. 12. 1767] 

[Most people] believe that those you [desjire will carry the 
point: there are some that are very faint-hearted, knowing your 
Interest to be too great for their [strength]. 

1 Extract made by Carl Becker, concerning candidates for office favored 
by Sir William, and printed in American Historical Review, (Jan. 1901) 
6:268. Unaccountably this letter is not listed in Johnson Calendar, but 
the location in the manuscript volume is correct. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

[Johnson Hall, Dec. 2-30, 1767] 

Decem r . 2 d . — Sir W m . sent a Message with Karraghiagigo's 
brother insisting on the Six nations giving him their ultimate 
answer with regard to the Cherokee's Request, at the same time 
letting him know his Surprize at their delay hitherto, which gave 
him reason to think it was owing to the Sachim's neglect & back- 
wardness, as he had heard several Warriors declare their Will- 
ingness to agree to the Proposals of the Cherokees. — 

A large Bunch of Wampum. — 
23 d . — Received a Letter from General Gage acquainting him 
of the Cherokee Deputies arrival at New York with an Inter- 
preter, and of their Intentions of setting off for Johnson Hall in a 
couple of days in order to bring about a Peace between them and 
the Six Nations, — whereupon preperations were made for their 
Reception & accomodation, and a notice sent to the Mohawks of 
their Coming. &c 2 — 

Tuesday December 29 th . — Attafyullakulla alias the little 
Carpenter, Oucanostotah, alias, the great Warrior, Corrinah, 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7-8. 

2 From this point the record is in Indian Records, Vol. 8. 

394 Sir William Johnson Papers 

alias the Raven King, chiefs of the Cherokees, with six more of 
that Nation, and M r . Watts Interpreter Arrived at Johnson Hall 
in three Sledges for which Sir William paid Twenty two pounds 
Sixteen Shillings and sixpence. — 

On their Arrival, Sir William directed them to be brought to 
the Council Chamber where he received them, & several Letters 
sent by them — viz*, from General Gage, M r . Steuart 3 Super- 
Intendant, Ensign Keough, 4 commanding at Fort Prince George 5 
in their Country &c a . and after drinking their Healths ordered 
them dinner. — 

Wednesday December 30 th . — Abraham chief of the lower 
Mohawks with six more of their Nation came on Sir William's 
Message of yesterday, desireing their attendance, when the 
Cherokee Deputies spoke Cap 1 . Solomon with others of his Tribe 
from Stockbridge, who came likewise upon business, as well as 
some Cogwawageys & a Chippawae were also desired to be 
present — 

At three post Meridiem, Sir William sent for M r . Watts the 
Interpreter, & desired he would let the Cherokees know, that he 
was ready to hear what they had to say. The Interpreter returned 
and acquainted Sir William that they were ready to speak to him 
as soon as he pleased. — 

[ ] 

Room attended by the above mentioned Indians — 

Present — Sir William Johnson 

Lieut*. Roberts 6 Commissi, of Ind n . affairs 
Lieut*. Hamilton 7 of the 1 6 Regim*. 
Stephan Delancy Esq r ., & other Gent n . 
John Watts Interpreter — 
Hugh Crawford 8 — 

3 John Stuart, southern superintendent of Indians. 

4 Ensign Mathew Keough of the 60th regiment. 

5 In South Carolina at a considerable distance from the inhabited country. 

6 Lieutenant Benjamin Roberts, just returned from Michilimackinac. 

7 Lieutenant Andrew Hamilton of the 1 6th regiment. 

8 An Indian trader. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 395 

Being all seated, the Cherokee Chiefs got a Calumet filled 
with Tobacco & lighted, which they first held for Sir WilK to 
smoak out of, and then went round the Gentlemen, & Mohocks 
after which they themselves smoaked out of it — Then Oucon- 
nastotah the great Chief arose, and with a Bunch of white 
Wampum in his hand stood Opposite to Sir William, and spoke 
as f ollowes — 
Brother — 

We rejoice that we are now before you, & that we see you in 
health — we have desired this day a long time, but from the ac- 
counts we had, we were affraid to come by Land — we came now 
by water to New York, from the white Council House, w ch . is at 
Chotte, 9 and here is our Emperor's Belt to you, to shew you that 
we are fully empowered by him & all our people to come and 
treat about Peace, & crave your assistance. 

A Belt — 
Brother — 

We know your Fame, and all our Nations are accquainted 
with your goodness & friendship for Indians — We beg that you, 
who are the chief of all the Indians, will shew us your regard, 
who are come so far to [ ]e 

seriously, and sincerely desirous of [ ] and 

as our understanding is as nothing when compared with yours, 
we beg you will send these Indians to meet us here for that 
purpose in your presence as our whole reliance is on you, we beg 
you will call | | and act in such a manner as to you 

seems best, with which we Shall be perfectly Satisfied. — He 
was glad to see that [they] arrived in health — 

Sir William then told them that he had been above a year 
endeavouring to persuade the Six Nations [ ] to peace with 

them, that he had in consequence o[ ] the 

Southward (acquainting him that Deputys of their Nation would 
come here) taken great pains to prevent [ ] parties from 

going against them, which they agreed to; finding none came, 

9 Chotte, Chota, Choeta, or Echota, a Cherokee town. 

396 Sir William Johnson Papers 

they looked upon it as an Imposi[ ] greatly incensed, 

and went against them in greater [ ] That on the receipt 

of another Letter last year from Lieu[tenant Governor] Fauquier, 
he did again lay these matters before the [Six] Nations & pre- 
vailed on them to promise that they would [agree] to terms of 
accomodation, whensoever Deputys would arrive from the South- 
ward to Sollicit it, and added, that finfding they] were at length 
arrived for the purposes of Peace, he w[ ] proof of his 

Britannick Majesty's esteem for them, & [ ] own desire 

to bring the War to a period, send for the Chiefs [of] the Six 
Nations, and others necessary upon that Occasion, [ ] 

nothwithstanding the severity of the Season, and the difficulty 
and expence that would attend the bringing them so far from 
hom[e at] that time of the year, he would use all his interest and 
in[fluence] for that purpose, and would take good care of them 
untill [ ] arrival. — 

Contemporary Copy 1 

Return of the Amount of Merchandize brought to Fort Pitt in 
the year 1 767. — 

Merchandize of all Sorts including 6,500 Gallons of 
Rum £26157.. 12.. 1 — 

The above is the account of Rum given in by the Licenced 
Traders, but I have reason to believe that double that Quantity 
is brought here by them exclusive of large Quantities brought up 
by Sutlers and others, — during the last year also has passed this 
Post to the amount of £ 40,000 — or upwards to Fort Chartres 
for the Support of the Trade in that Country. — 

Alexander M c .Kee 
Commissary of Indian Affairs 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 


Return of Peltry sent from Fort Pitt in the year 1767. 

Pounds of 


Cats & Foxes 


Total 10,587 













Fall Skins 

Summer Skins 





82 — 

ALEXAND R M c Kee Commissy. Ind n . Affairs 


Sir William Johnson Papers 

Return of the Amount of Merchandize brought to Detroit from 
the 1 4 th . to the 1 th . Novem r . 1 767 for the IncK Trade 

Merchandize of all Sorts including 24,105 Gallons of 
Rum £25,951 . . 1 . . 10 

N.B. Some of the Above Merchandize arriv'd here after the 
Return that is sent down was closed w ch . will make this am 1 , some- 
thing more. — 

JEHU Hay, Commissi Ind n . Affairs 

Return of Peltry sent from Detroit in the year 1 767. — 





Tygers — 

Rats — 

Skins — 

Sent from 






Deduct what 





came from 










Number of 

Fishers — 

Ottars — 

Skins — 

Red Skins 

From Detroit 




1 4,342 

Deduct from 













Indian Affairs, 1766-68 


Pounds of 





From Detroit 





Deduct from 













Pounds of 







From Detroit 





Deduct from 














Sir William Johnson Papers 



Packs of 


Pounds of 

From Detroit 
Deduct from 





1 4,200 









No. of 

From Detroit 
Deduct from 







1 ,788 — 

JEHU Hay, Commissi of Ind n . Affairs. — 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 401 


A.L.S. 1 

Johnson Hall, J amy. 2 d . 1768 — 

By last Post I had the favour of your letter of the 1 5 th . Ult°. 2 
cheifly regarding the alarming State of Ind n . Affairs occasioned by 
the intrusions and other Hostile Acts of Persons on the Frontiers, 
which has had such an effect upon the Minds of the Indians, as 
gives me the Strongest reason to apprehend a General Rupture 
unless there is something done for their Relief. — Your inten- 
tions therefore to endeavour to procure some Salutary Law for 
that purpose give me much Satisfaction, as all other methods have 
it seems hitherto proved ineffectual, which has rendered all my 
Assurances to the Indians of little weight, and greatly weakened 
any confidence they reposed on the British faith, by giving them 
Suspicions that we had neither Authority to procure, or inclina- 
tion to afford them Releif. I therefore heartily wish that the 
Legislature of your Province may from a Just Sense of the im- 
portance of the Affair take such measures as will at once convince 
the Indians of our Justice and pacific Sentiments for them, and 
you may be assured, Sir, of my doing everry thing in the interim 
for convincing them of your good intentions, and for reconciling 
them to the necessary delay you mention. 

There are doubtless amongst the Scattered Tribes living in the 
back parts of that Country Several Idle Ind ns . Who may from 
Motives of private Interest, be persuaded to give some encourage- 
ment to the Settlers, but these are private Acts of persons who 
would not presume to avow them to the Confederacy, Whose 
Sole Right it is, and whose resentment may have a most fatal 
tendency, if to their natural Jealousy of Us, is Joyned their 
Suspicion that we Suffer or countenance such Settlements with a 
design to hemm them in, & deprive them of their Libertys, an 

1 Manuscript in Archives of Pennsylvania; also printed in Pennsylvania 
Colonial Records, 9:412-14. 

2 Johnson Papers, 6:4-6. 

402 Sir William Johnson Papers 

opinion into which they are verry easily led, & until it is 
thoroughly removed, our Frontiers & Trade must at the best be 
on a verry precarious footing. — 

The Boundary Line would no Doubt have been of great Serv- 
ice at this time, but I have heard nothing farther on that Head 
from His Majesty's Ministers. If our People would confine them- 
selves within the limits of such a line, I know that for a good 
consideration to the Indians, I could obtain a Valuable Cession 
of Territory, & the Indians have been told that it is intended. — 

I am sorry to find that the Indians Who attended the Surveyors 
in running the Division Line 3 would not consent to proceed 
farther than You mention. Their Stopping where they did, I, in 
some measure attribute to their apprehensions of farther Insults in 
Travelling to, and from the Cherokee Country, of which they 
have often complained, as well as to the present uneasiness Sub- 
sisting amongst 'em for the causes aforementioned, & ca . — I hope 
that a more favourable time may be found for compleating the 
whole, to which the good Usage they received from the Commis- 
sioners will greatly contribute. — 

Mr. Crawford 4 informs me that he found the Travelling at this 
Season so verry expensive as oblidged him to lay out the 40 
Dollars ordered for the Widow of Jacob which I was Sorry to 
hear, because such expressions of kindness would give them a 
favourable impression & facilitate that or any other business here- 
after. I therefore think it verry necessary at this time to advance 
that Sum as intended, which I shall take the liberty to add to 
another Small Acc f . against the Province, which, (altho of a long 
Standing) I make no doubt You will order the payment of — 

I am with the greatest Truth & 
Respect. Sir 

Your most Obedient 5 
and Humble Servant. 
W. Johnson 

3 The Mason and Dixon line between Pennsylvania and Maryland. See 
John Penn to Johnson, Jan. 21,1 768. 

4 Hugh Crawford, a trader. 

5 Manuscript cut off at this point. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 403 


A.L.S. 1 

Albany January 4 th . 1768 

M r . Mortier gave me a Bundle of Money said to Contain a 
thousand pounds to be delivered to you, as M r . Phisster Is going 
to Johnson hall I Embrace so good an oppertunity to send It you 
hope you will receive It safe. I passed my receipt to M r . Mortier 
for It you will be pleased to send me yours 

I am 

Your most Obedient 
Humble Servant 

Ph : Schuyler 
The Honorable 
Sir William Johnston Baronet 



The Honorable Sir William Johnston Baronet 
Johnston Hall 


Albany Janr?. 4 th . 1 768 

Co 1 . Phillip Schuylers letter 
^ L*. Pfister 

Ans rd . 

1 In collection of Mrs. Henry M. Sage, Menands, N. Y. 

2 In Sir William's hand. 

404 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Schenectady 5 th . January 1768 

By desire of Lieu'. Roberts 2 we have sent you 4 lb. best green 
Tea the Acco 1 . is inclosed likewise M r . Roberts df*. on you 
<P £342..17..2NY:C: which we transmit for Acceptance 
All differences being now accomodated & cleared up have only 
to return you our gratefull acknowledgements for your freindly 
interposition by proposing a method for reconsiliation we immagine 
derogatory to neither of our characters which together with the 
good opinion of our friends & those with whome we are desirous 
to keep on a Good footing with is our highest Ambition & sincerest 
wish, for the particulars & nature of the misunderstanding betwixt 
M r . Roberts & us, we must referr you to those Gentlemen who had 
the trouble of adjusting them, not doubting their candor, & im- 
partiality in relating as upon examination they appeared to them 
with lasting respect we have the honor to be 

Sir Your mo &c &c &c 

Phyn & Ellice 

To the Hon ble . S R . W JOHNSON Bar'. 

1 In Buffalo Historical Society, Phyn & Ellice letter books. 

2 "Indian Commissary under Sir W. Johnson see acct annexed to letter 
of 10th Feb. 1 770 to Col. John Bradstreet" — penciled note on MS. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 405 


L.S. 1 

London Jan. 7, 1768 
Dear Sir 

This Packet caries you his Majesty's Orders to settle the 
boundary with the Indians ; and I rely on you, to use your utmost 
endeavours, to make a Boundary for the present as advantageous 
to us as possible : I hope you will get soon [some] of the Land in 
the Fork of Sasquehannah surrendered to us, tho not so far as 
Tohicken, the place M r . Croghan gave me reason to believe they 
had agreed to ; and also between the East branch of Sasquehannah 
and Delaware which he said was a line from Tohicken to 
Popatunck, as laid down on Lewes Evans's Map. 2 

The Secretary of State in his Letter, directs both you and 
General Gage, to consult the Governors of the several Provinces 
on the Line, that it may be established as much to their Satisfac- 
tion as you can get the Indians to consent to: I have therefore 
wrote to our Lieutenant Governor, to send a proper person to 
confer with you, as to that part of the Line through Pennsilvania ; 
and I hope, as we so readily gave up for the present, the agree- 
ment the Indians had made with us, to sell us the Land to the 
Westward of the Allegang Mountains, that they will consent to a 
boundary, by which more Land will be given to us, than upon the 
latest account we have received, it is proposed they should do; 
this I am confident you will attempt, and I rely upon your 
friendly assistance with great satisfaction. 

M r . Wilmot 3 is not yet come to Town since the Holy days, and 
'till he does, I cannot give you any intelligence of your Grant, 
now before the Attorney and Solicitor General who are also in 
the Country, as soon as he comes up, I shall write to you. 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania. This is marked "Duplicate," 
and on the same sheet is the subsequent letter of February 1 3, 1 768, 
post pp. 427-28, with Sir William's indorsement. 

2 See L. H. Gipson, Lewis Evans, (Philadelphia, 1939). 

3 Henry Wilmot. 

406 Sir William Johnson Papers 

My Lord Shelburne told me, he was determined to send you 
orders for runing this Line, before he delivered up the office for 
American affairs to Lord Hillsborough, who is made Secretary 
of State for America: an office that has been talked of being 
erected for many years, and which is indeed necessary. Lord 
Shelburne still continues Southern Secretary of State, 

I desire you will make my compliments to your Son, 4 and 
believe me to be with greate regard 

Dear Sir 

Your most humble and most 
obedient Servant 

Tho Penn 


Johnson Hall J amy. 8 lh . 1768 
Dear Sir 

I have had the favour of your letters of the 16 th . & 20 th . 2 Ult°., 
the former concerning the Cherokees (who arrived here some days 
ago) & the Money advanced to y e . Interpreter, for which Cap*. 
Maturin 3 shall have Credit agreeable to your directions, but thro 
the dearness of Travelling at this Season the Money fell Short, 
however they found means to get up here in Sleds, for which I 
paid £22. .19. . — 

I have Sent thro the Six Nations & ca . advertising them of the 
Arrival of these Deputys, and desireing their Attendance, but I 
fear it will be a verry Tedious & Expensive business. — 

4 Sir John Johnson. 

1 In William L. Clements Library. A small mutilated portion of this 
letter, under date of January 5, 1768, was printed in Johnson Papers 

2 In Doc. Hist. N. Y., 2:891-92. 

3 Captain Gabriel Maturin. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 407 

The other day I received a letter from L l . Governour Perm, 4 
Acquainting me with the Heads of your Letter, as mentioned in 
your favour of the 20 th . Ult°., and of his intentions to endeavour to 
obtain a Law for preventing these instrusions, & Strengthening the 
powers of Government, and I hope that Governour Faquiere 5 
will take the same Steps, tho I have some reason to doubt their 
Success, because I apprehend from the encreasing Number of 
these Intruders that there are persons of some consequence Who 
if they would not patronize, would be unwilling to dis- 
countenance them, at least to use any force, without which they 
cannot be dispossessed, as my last Accounts Inform me that they 
are encreased to above 500 Familys and these the most lawless 
persons of the Frontiers. I shall write in the like manner to Gov r . 
Faquiere, as I did to Gov r . Penn, and I find that the much 
greater part of these Intrusions are made by persons from 
Virginia. — 

I am most sincerely & Respectfully 

Your most Obedient 

& verry Humble Servant 

W Johnson 
His Excellency 

Genr l . Gage — 

indorsed : 

S r . W m . Johnson 
Jan'J\ 8 th . 1 768 — 
received Jan r >\ 16 th . 
Answered — 

4 John Penn, lieutenant governor of Pennsylvania. See Johnson Papers, 

5 Francis Fauquier, lieutenant governor of Virginia, 1 758-68. 

408 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Cop}) 1 

[Albany, Jan. 8 J '768] 

If there is any such intention, 2 should be very glad to know it. 
You may depend on the Interest of Cuylers family, of Hanson's, 
and many more who would be glad to know it. Whatever In- 
terest or connection I have you may command in that or any- 
thing else. 

1 Extract made by Carl Becker and printed in American Historical 
Review (Jan. 1901), 6:268. Original letter destroyed by fire. Accord- 
ing to Johnson Calendar, p. 384, the letter dealt with "articles sent in care 
of Lieut. Pfister pork to be furnished by Mr. Campbell of Schonectady, 
cattle expected from New England and a report that Sir John will be set up 
for a seat in the Assembly." 

2 That Sir John would be a candidate for assembly. 


A.D.S. 1 

Conajohare Jan r y. 13 th . 1768 — 

Received of L l . Pfister 2 a Bundle of Money Containing a 
thousand Pounds York Curr c y., w h . was Sent by Phillip Schyler 
Esq r . — 

W M . Johnson 

1 New York State Historical Association, Cooperstown. 

2 Lieutenant Francis Pfister of the 60th regiment. 

Indian Affairs, 1 766-68 409 


Copy 1 

[Montreal, Jan. 15, 1768] 

Orders and Regulations re- Objections to the different Arti- 
specting the Indian Trade and cles of Regulations concerning 
Duty of Comissaries through- the Indian Trade, humbly sub- 
out the Department in Conse- mitted to the Consideration of 
quence of His Majesty's Order the Honb le . Guy Carleton Esq r . 
signified by His Secretary of L*. Gov. of the Province of 
State — Quebec. 

By the Merchants and 

That every Person desirous of 1 st . Article — 

trading with the Indians, shall What is contained in this 

first obtain a proper Pass from Article has allways been a 

the Governor of the Colony Custom and cannot but tend to 

from whence he came, and shall the Preservation of good 

enter into a Recognizance to order — 
abide by the Regulations which 
now are or hereafter shall be 
thought necessary. 

That the Traders shall on 2 d . 

their arrival at each Post lay A Trader may very easily 

before the Corny, their Pass to- shew his Permit but to oblige a 

1 In Canadian Archives, Colonial Office Records (transcripts), Canada 
Q5 Pt. 1 , Correspondence between Gov. Carleton & the English Ministry, 
pp. 391-97. Inclosed in Carleton to Johnson, March 16, 1768, Johnson 
Papers, 6:156-58. Another copy of these orders and regulations, with- 
out the observations and objections of the Quebec merchants, is contained 
in Indian Records, Vol. 15, Canadian Archives. The manuscript states 
that the regulations were "transmitted to Brigadier Genl. Carleton by Capt n . 
Claus, by Sir William Johnson's Order as mentioned in the postcript of his 
Letter to the General of 1st. May 1 767" (letter not found). The copy is 
dated "Quebec 9th. 8bre. 1 767. / By the Lt. Governours Command / 
Signed H. T. Cramahe." 


Sir William Johnson Papers 

gether with an exact Invoice of 
all their Goods and that they do 
not by any means break Bulk 
without the Comissary's Knowl- 
edge and Permission nor refuse 
him a State of their Traffic & 
Peltry when he shall demand it. 

That no Trader presume to pass 
any Post the Residence of a 
Comissary without first shewing 
the Comissary his Pass specify- 
ing the Place he is to Trade 
and if no particular Post be 
therein mentioned that then the 
Comm r y. shall give such Trader 
a Permitt to go to the next Post 
where a Comm r >\ resides and 
such Trader shall go immedi- 
ately to said Post without 
breaking Bulk by the Way, and 
When there shall produce his 
Pass and Invoice as before di- 
rected to the Comissary who 
shall immediately report to the 
Corny, who gave the Permit the 
Day of such Traders Arrival 
and whether his Goods agree 
with the Invoice and that no 
Trader having passed a Post be 
admitted to trade at another 
without a Permit from the 
Com r J\ he so passed 

That every Trader do take 
Care to be always provided 

free Citizen to give an entire 
Knowledge of his Trade and of 
his Transactions to a Comissary 
often partial and interested is 
to rob him entirely of the Ad- 
vantages of a British Subject, 
to which all the Subjects in this 
Province have a Right to De- 
mand — 


This Article cannot by any 
Means subsist, because it would 
entirely destroy the Fur Trade, 
or lay it under Obligations 
equally burthensome and impos- 
sible, they are often obliged to 
trade upon the Road or Loose 
a part by damaging their Canoe, 
or otherwise, almost on every 
Voyage — 

The Effects of a Trader at 
his Arrival in the Post are not 
agreable to the Obligation he 
has given at his Departure from 
the Government where he re- 

4 th . 
It is not permitted more to 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 


with and constantly make Use 
of just Weights and Measures 
as any Errors therein in Trade 
with the Indians will for the 
future be considered as willfull. 
That the Trade with the 
Indians throughout the Depart 5 , 
be confined entirely to the 
Posts, and that nothing but the 
most absolute Necessity from 
the peculiar Situation of the 
Indians North of Lake Huron 
shall justify any Permission 
given to Traders from Michilli- 
makinac to go amongst the 
Tribes — and any Trader so 
going out shall be answerable 
for all Consequences and not 
expect the Protection or Re- 
dress of Government — 

That no Trader presume to 
beat or abuse any Indian or to 
send any Belts of Wampum or 
Messages to any Nations or In- 
dividuals whatsoever or to hold 

cheat a Savage than a Chris- 
tian, this is the Common Law 
of Nature and Known in every 

It is absolutely necessary 
that the Trade with the Indians 
should be free to all, the re- 
straining of it to Posts that are 
Garrisoned will entirely destroy 
it, the same Reasons which are 
made use of to have a Permis- 
sion from Michillimakinac to go 
to the North of Lake Huron, 
hold equally good to the South 
of Lake Ontario Lake Erie and 
Lake Michigan, Miamis the 
Ouabach and others at a 
greater Distance from Fort De- 
troit than the Saulteurs from 
Michipicotton Le Point &c on 
Lake Superior, and every Per- 
son who has acquired a Pass 
from the Governor of the 
Province where he resides 
ought to have the Liberty to go 
where he pleases without being 
Molested, excepting for Rea- 
sons, where the Service de- 
mands it. 


When a Savage insults a 
Trader he's punished and often 
becomes his Friend, The 
Savages subsist only by their 


Sir William Johnson Papers 

Meetings with them on any Oc- 
casion, or use any unfair Prac- 
tices to draw in the Indians to 
trade with him or them or force 
away their Peltry under Pre- 
tence of their being in Debt as 
all Traders who voluntarily 
Credit the Indians must abide 
by the Consequences — 

That a Tariff be established 
by the Comissary early every 
Spring on the most equitable 
Terms for both Traders and 
Indians that all Traders abide 
thereby, that the Tariff be 
carried on at each Post by day- 
light in the most public Manner, 
and that the Traders avoid tak- 
ing Pledges particularly Arms 
and Medals — 

That the Traders do strictly 
observe and follow the Regu- 
lations on pain of having their 
Bonds put in Suit and of being 
otherwise dealt with for neglect- 
ing the Order of Government. 

That the Comissaries cause 
frequent* Enquiry to be made 
whether any Person be trading 
in the Rivers, Bays & ca . or 
along any of the Lakes, and if 
any such there are that he apply 
to the Commanding Off r . for 

Credit and if they have not 
Credit given them it breeds Dis- 
satisfaction and War amongst 
them, which would cause their 
Destruction and The Ruin of 
the Trade unless you assist them 
to recover their Credit as has 
been the Custom and often are 
forced to give them — 


When Merchandise is plenty 
they will be sold under the 
Tariff when they are scarce, the 
Merchant ought to be permitted 
honestly to profit of the Advant- 
age of that scarcity, this is the 
Custom of every Country and 
ought to be equally so among 
the Indian Nations — 

8 th . 

If a Trader violates the Law- 
full Order of the Superior 
Officer, He ought to be tried in 
his own Government. He can- 
not be treated as Rebell if he is 
not Guilty of the Crime of high 

9 th . 

This Article cannot subsist 
for the Reason given in the 
fifth Article — 

Indian Affairs, J 766-68 413 

Assistance to bring such Trader 
away and that the Comissaries 
do constantly acquaint the Com- 
manding Officers of any ma- 
terial Occurrence or how many 
Traders have passed the Post 
and whom. 

That the Comissaries do 
Correspond constantly with 
each other Communicating 
every Thing necessary, the 
better to enable them to detect 
Frauds and Abuses and to 
transact the Affairs Committed 
to their Charge agreable to His 
Majesty's Intentions — 

That the Comissaries care- 
fully inspect into the Conduct 
of the Interpreters who are em- 
ployed solely for the Uses of 
the Depart 1 ., that they likewise 
see that the Smiths are diligent 
and work faithfully for the 
Indians without Fee or Re- 

That the Com rles . do for the 
future regularly Correspond 
with and Report the Depy. 
Agents of the District in which 
they are, viz', those of Fort 
Pitt, Illinois, Detroit, with 
George Croghan Esq r . Dep?. 
of the Western District, those 
of the Province of Quebec 
(when appointed) with Dan 1 . 
Claus Esq r . Depy. Agent, those 

414 Sir William Johnson Papers 

of Michillimakinac, Niagara 
and Ontario, with Guy John- 
ston Esq r . Depy. Agent for the 
middle District and those of 
Nova Scotia when appointed 
with Jos h . Goreham Esq r . Dep>\ 
Agent which Agents are to Re- 
port to the Super*. — 
Lastly that these Orders and 
Regulations be posted up at all 
Garrisons throughout the De- 
partment where Com res . reside 
that none may plead Ignorance 
thereof — (Copy) 


Sir W m . Johnson's Regulations 
for the Indian Trade, and 
the Observations of the 
Quebec Merchants thereon. 

March 1768 — 
In Gov. Carleton's (N°. 29.) 
of 2^ March 1 768. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

New York January 16 lh . 1768. 
Dear Sir, 

I have recieved Your Letters of the 24 th . 26 th . Dec r . 2 and 8 th . 
of January. 3 The Opinion you give of the general Causes of the 
Discontent of the Savages, which originate from our growing 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 In Doc. Hist. N. Y., 2:893-96. 

3 Ante pp. 406-07. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 415 

power, and their Jealousy of our designs against them, I know no 
Remedy against, but by doing them all the Justice we can. If we 
can remove the Settlers from their Encroachments, it will be a 
Manifestation of Our Earnest desire to do them Justice, and they 
have seen a Person executed in New Jersey for the Murther of an 
Indian, which must in Some Measure shew them we do what we 
can to give them satisfaction for the Murther's of their People, 
which tho' only one example, is more than they have given us for 
the many white People they have killed at different times. 

If the Indians and Patentees of Kayadorosseras come to a 
serious Agreement to Mutual Satisfaction, I should think it no 
difficult matter to get an Act of Assembly to validate the Releases 
and make them sufficient to bar all future Pretentions. 

M r . Croghan will acquaint you of his Proceedings at the 
Detroit and Fort Pitt &ca, and of the Circumstances of the 
Murther of the People upon the Ohio by the Indians of Saguinam. 

Its to be hoped that Lieu'. Governor Fauquiere will grant the 
Meeting desired by the Shawanese and Delawares, and give them 
all the Satisfaction in his power. 

I shall grant a Temporary Warrant immediately on M r . 
Mortier 4 for the £500, which you desire to recieve, which will 
be Accounted for hereafter. 

The sooner M r . Roberts 5 returns it will be certainly best, 
there are Affidavits and a Multiplicity of Papers on both Sides. 

The Cherokees are with you at an unlucky season of the Year, 
but if we can't make Peace for ourselves, I don't see how we are 
to succeed for them. 

It seems determined by the last Packet to erect Governments 
in the Interior Country, I suppose at the Detroit and the Ilinois, 
where else I can't guess, unless at Fort Pitt. In what shape this 
is to be done or what steps are to be taken previous thereto, I can- 
not yet inform you, tho' much should be done before attempts of 
this Nature are made. 

4 Abraham Mortier, deputy paymaster general. 

5 Lieutenant Benjamin Roberts, commissary at Michillimackinac. 

416 Sir William Johnson Papers 

There are fifteen Barrels of Pork and 25 of Flour lying at 
Albany for Your use, and Ordered to be delivered whenever You 
should send for them. 

I Am with great Regard, 
Dear Sir, 
Sir W m . Johnson Bart. 

indorsed : 

Sir William Johnson Bart. 

Johnson Hall 
New York January 1 6 th . 1 768. 


Johnson Hall 18 th . J amy. 1768 

Sir — 

I am much oblidged to You for y e . trouble you were so good to 
take in forwarding to me the Cash which M r . Mortier Sent by 
You. I received it Safe by LA Pfister, 2 to whom I gave a Receipt. 
— It will afford me pleasure to render You Service at any time. 


I am Sir 
[W. Johnson] 
Phillip Schyler Esq r . 


Sir W m . Johnson 
Jan'. 18*. 1768 

1 In Harvard University Library. Sparks Collection. Signature has been 
cut from this MS. 

2 Lieutenant Francis Pfister of the 60th regiment. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 417 




[January 19, 1768] 


By Order of the House we inclose you Copies of, a Letter 
from his Excellency General Gage, a Message from the Governor 
to the Assembly and their Answer and the Examination of George 
Croghan Esq r . Deputy Superintendant, under Sir William John- 
son for the Western District, taken before the House ; By which 
you will Perceive, The present Critical and alarming Situation of 
Indian Affairs, and that there is a prospect of an immediate 
Rupture with the Natives unless Measures are adopted to prevent 
it. By the Answer, you will observe, That the Representatives of 
the People are exerting themselves in every manner, That they 
can conceive, will tend to this salutary End. They have formed a 
Bill now before the Governor, making the offence of Continuing 
after notice, on the Indian unpurchased Lands, felony of Death, 
without Benefit of Clergy, and warmly addressed the Governor, 
To exert himself, in bringing the Authors of the late horrid & 
cruel massacre of the Indians, at Conestogo & Lancaster (which 
we find, is one of the Causes of the Indian Discontent) to condign 
Punishment. What will be the Effect of this Law, should the Bill 
be passed, or what Part, The Government will act on the Occa- 
sion, Time alone can discover. 

But as the House is of opinion, founded on M r . Croghan's 
Examination, That there is another Cause of Indian Jealousy and 
Dissatisfaction, without the speedy removal of which, no Durable 
and permanent Peace, can be Established between the Natives 
and his Majestys Colonies. They have ordered us to represent it 
to you, in the strongest Terms. For altho' the Power of redress 
does not Lye with them, yet They esteem it their Duty, in a 
matter of so much Concern to the safety and Peace of his 

1 Printed in Illinois Historical Collections, 16:156-58. Original in 
Johnson manuscripts was destroyed by fire. 

418 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Majestys Subjects, To contribute, as much as is in their Power, 
towards so important a Service. 

The Cause, we mean is the non establishment of a Boundry, 
negotiated, about three Years ago, by his Majestys Orders to Sir 
William Johnson, between these Colonies and the Indian 
Country. 2 The Delay of the Confirmation of this Boundry, The 
Natives have warmly complained of, and That altho' they have 
received no Consideration, for the Lands agreed to be ceded to 
the Crown, on our Side of the Boundary yet That its Subjects, 
are daily settling and occupying those very Lands, and a number 
of the Indian Warriors have been lately murdered, by the frontier 
People, chiefly those of Virginia, in their Passage to or from War, 
against the Cherokees. What has been the Cause of this Delay, 
The House are not apprized — But it is their clear opinion, That 
nothing less, than the final Confirmation of this Boundary, can lay 
the foundation of a solid & lasting Peace, with the Indians. As, 
they fear, no Laws however Penal, will prevent a Set of Lawless 
Men who infest the Frontiers of the Colonies, from entering and 
settling on these Lands, and when intoxicated with Liquor, from 
killing the Natives, who may fall in their Way. But shou'd this 
Boundary be established, these frequent Causes of Indian Dis- 
satisfaction, would be removed, at least for Many Years, as the 
Distance between our Frontiers and the Indian Country, wou'd 
be considerable and their Right of Passage to War, near the In- 
habited Parts of the Province, Taken away. Under this View of 
Indian Affairs, The House have directed us, earnestly to desire, 
That you wou'd use your Interest with his Majestys Ministry, To 
obtain, as soon as possible, The Accomplishment and final ratifi- 
cation of this Boundary, so necessary to the future safety of the 
Colonies — and to prevent the immense Expence, which otherwise 
must unavoidable Arise to Great Brittain. 

Copy. 3 Signed by all the Committee. 

2 Doc. Rel. Col Hist. N. Y., 7:718-41. 

3 From this point to the end, including indorsement, in another hand. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 419 

directed To Benjamin Franklin and Richard Jackson Esquires 
Agents for the Province of Pennsylvania at the Court of Great 


Letter from the Committee of Correspondence to the 
Agents in London. 

Read in the House and agreed to January 19 th . 1 768 
Sent away ^ Packet Jan?. 22 d . 1 768 


Copy 1 
Philadelphia, 21 st January, 1768. 


A few days ago I was favour'd with your Letter of the 2d 
Instant. 2 It gives me great Pleasure to know that you approve of 
the Conduct of the Proprietary Commissioners towards the 
Deputies of the Six Nations that attended the Surveyors in running 
the Line between this Province and Maryland, and of the Satis- 
faction made the Indians for their Services; and I am much 
obliged to you for your Goodness in advancing the 40 Dollars for 
the Deceased Indian, Jacob's Wife, which I shall transmit to you 
very soon, together with the Ballance you mention to be due to 
you in the Accompt sent me. 

It is with the deepest Concern that I must now acquaint you, 
that on Wednesday last I received, by William Blyth, who then 
came to this City from his House at Middle Creek, on the West 
side of Susquehanna, the disagreeable and Melancholy Intelli- 
gence of a very Barbarous and unprovoked Murder committed 
on four Indian Men, three Indian Women, two Girls and a Child, 
at that Creek, by one Frederick Stump, a German, on the 1 0th & 

1 Printed in Pennsylvania Colonial Records, 9:424-25. 
^ Ante pp. 401-02. 

420 Sir William Johnson Papers 

1 1 th days of this Month, the particulars of which are contained 
in the inclosed Copy of the said Blyth's Deposition. 

I am under the greatest apprehensions that this unhappy affair 
will, at this Juncture, when the Indians are so much discontented 
by the Injuries already done them, be productive of the most 
Calamitous Consequences; But nothing on the part of this Gov- 
ernment shall be wanting to remove all the Causes of their Com- 
plaints, and to give them the utmost Satisfaction in the late 
Instance of Barbarity committed on their People. I have caused 
the Chief Justices Warrants to be dispatched to all the Sheriffs 
and other Officers of the Frontier Counties, commanding the most 
diligent search to be made for the Perpetrator of the Murders, and 
for apprehending and bringing him to Condign Punishment. I 
have, also, written Letters to all the Magistrates of Cumberland, 
Lancaster, and Berks Counties, in the strongest Terms, requiring 
them to exert themselves, in the most Active manner, upon this 
occasion, by giving their best assistance to the Sheriffs and other 
Officers in the immediate Execution of the Warrants sent them, 
and taking all other measures for the speedy apprehending the 
attrocious Villain, and bringing him to Justice; and to induce the 
People the more willingly to engage in the undertaking with the 
Sheriffs, I have signified to the Magistrates that I will give a 
Reward of Two Hundred Pounds to the Person or Persons who 
shall apprehend and secure him, and in a little time I shall issue a 
Proclamation for the same purpose, which I have delayed for a 
while, till the more private Measures I have concerted are carried 
into Execution, and lest the setting up Proclamations and making 
them public immediately, might be a means of alarming him and 
putting him on absconding or making his Escape before the 
Officers of Justice could have an opportunity of taking him. 

In order to prevent as much as possible the fatal Consequences 
that may be likely to attend this very unfortunate Affair, I must 
beg you will be pleased to take the most early occasion to com- 
municate it to the Six Nations in as favourable a point of light as 
the Nature of the Case will admit of, and to acquaint them with 
the Measures I am using to give the Indians satisfaction in bring- 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 421 

ing the murderer to Exemplary Punishment. I am in hopes, from 
the Representation you give them of this matter, they will dis- 
tinguish between the Acts of private Individuals and those of 
Government, and be convinced that tho' it is not in the Power of 
the Wisest Laws to restrain vicious Men from committing Acts of 
Violence and Wickedness, yet this Government Possesses the 
most sincere and steady Intentions to redress their Injuries at all 
times, and to preserve public Faith with them to the utmost of its 

The Assembly, who are now sitting, have sent me a Bill for 
Removing the Settlers, and preventing others from Settling on 
any Lands in this Province, not purchased from the Indians, which 
inflicts the Penalty of Death on all that shall be found settled 
on those Lands after a regular and Legal notice of 30 Days has 
been given to them to remove. I have this Day returned the Bill 
to the House, and have agreed to pass it with a necessary Amend- 
ment, which they can have no objection to, and I am in great 
hopes this Law will effectually answer the good purpose 
designed by it. 

I am, with great Regard, Sir, 

Your most obedient humble Servant, 

John Penn. 
To Sir William Johnson, Bar 1 . 


Copy 1 

Johnson Hall J any. 22, 1768 

By the reduction of Canada a Door was opened to many 
Numerous Nations with whom before we had scarcely any Inter- 
course these Indians had received the worst of Characters of the 

1 From the notes of C. H. Mcllwain. All except the first paragraph was 
printed in C. H. Mcllwain's edition of Peter Wraxall's An Abridgement 
of the Indian Affairs, p. xxiv. The draft of the letter was destroyed by fire. 

422 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Whole British Nation from the French whose interest amongst 
them was much greater than ours from the different System they 
pursued to acquire it. 

The Lower order of people settled about the frontiers im- 
agining I presume that they had nothing to apprehend since the 
removal of our European Enemys, began by Overreaching and 
defrauding the Indians, they proceed to personal Insults and 
Murders in time of peace, under pretence of Retaliation for In- 
juries sustained during the heat of a furious War, — Many unjust 
practices were made use of in different Quarters to deprive them 
of their properties, and a Number of persons in defiance of 
Justice & policy, & Contrary to the Express Orders of Govern- 
ment established themselves on the Ind n . Lands within & about the 
Frontiers of Pennsilvania & cet and altho' many Steps were taken 
for their removal they have hitherto proved ineffectual. — In the 
Mean time the Indians irritated at the Murders committed on the 
frontiers, at the Insults their parties repeatedly met with, the 111 
treatment of the Tuscaroras who were called to Joyn them from 
Carolina, & the barbarity Exercised on the Unhappy Conestoga 
Indians, as well as the Unjustifiable Settlements formed within 
their country without the Least colour of right, unless the Seduc- 
tion of a few Drunken Delawares whose Nation have no preten- 
sions thereto can be admitted as such, began to consider amongst 
themselves what was best to be done, and from an Apprehension 
that such Conduct would not have been permitted by us who are 
Governd by Laws, unless we intended to put in practice a plan for 
Surrounding and Destroying them of which they have been long 
Suspicious, and which they are still taught to believe by many 
interested French amongst them. They resolved to commit Acts 
of hostility & by beginning a War against us to Check those 
Settlements of which they became apprehensive. 

Indian Atfairs, 1766-68 423 

A.L.S. 1 

Johnson Hall Janry. 22 d - 1768 
Dear Sir — 

I have had the favour of your letter of the 8 th . Ins 1 . 2 together 
with another which I have by some means mislaid, but shall 
certainly find it before next opertunity. — As to the Affair of 
the Arms taken by Co 1 . Bradstreet for the use of the Indians in 
1 764 Application has been before made to me but I apprehended 
it was most fitting they should pass, 'thro his Acc ts ., however as 
you will admit it in mine, I shall include them in the next, when I 
am advised what price to set upon them, which (until I enquire 
about,) I am realy at a loss about. — 

M r . Croghan who is the Bearer of this having waited upon You 
at New York, I need not to particularize the Issue of his pro- 
ceedings to the Westward, but observe on the Whole of his report 
to me, and the concurring Acc ts . daily received that the Ind s . 
only wait until the Spring to concert Measures, & that therefore 
a General Congress with y e . Several Confederacys appears highly 
necessary to be called as Early in the Spring as possible. — 

There are some Acc ts . brought to me by M r . Croghan, which 
not being properly vouched I have not accepted them, Many of 
the Acc ts . I received are greatly augmented by expences regarding 
the Troops, Such as Escorts, partys hired to hunt for y e . Garrison 
Expresses & ca ., which I conceive might as well be Settled by the 
Q r . Master Genr 1 ., these Articles particularly encrease the Com- 
missarys Acc ts . at Fort Pitt. This is Submitted to your considera- 
tion. — 

M r . Croghan tells me that a Voucher of Cap*. Murrays 3 for 
£ 45 1 . . 4 . . — of the Ace*, which he is now to deliver to You 
remains in your Secretarys Office, but could not be found at his 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Not found. 

3 Captain William Murray. 

424 Sir William Johnson Papers 

coming away, if such Voucher appears I can admit of the 
Amount. — 

I promised the Hurons of Detroit to apply to You for the Bell 
which is at Niagra & which they say was first intended for the use 
of their Church, Major Bayard 4 was likewise spoke to about it, & 
said He would mention it to You. They have Several times Since 
applied so pressingly for it, that I think it will be best to gratify 
them with it at the next Meeting, it being made no use of at 
Niagra. — 

From perusing the proceedings in M r . Hays 5 case I find that 
he has been verry unjustly accused by y e . Persons who complained 
of him, and I think it verry hard that He can obtain no Satisfac- 
tion for the freedom taken with his Character, but on this or any 
other Subject the Multiplicity of business I am now engaged in 
will not permit me to enlarge. — 

I am with the most 

perfect Esteem & Regard 
Dear Sir 

Your most Obedient 

& verry Humble Servant 

W. Johnson 

His Excellency 

General Gage — 

indorsed : 

Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 . 
JanT. 22<*. 1 768. 
received Jan r >\ 30 th . — 
Inclosing an Acc f . from 
Fort Pitt — 

Answered — 

4 Major Robert Bayard of the 60th regiment. 

5 Lieutenant Jehu Hay. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 425 


PMk Fefcy. 7* 1768. 

yesterday I gott hear & brought home with Me A Sevare fitt 
of the Rumitiseum. I wrote your Honour from New york that one 
Stump & his Servant had Made Some Indians Drunk & Murdred 
them Ten in Number Men Women & Children they ware Taken 
by A Smart young Felow one Cap*, paterson who had fermerly 
been in the province Servece and Deliverd to the Sherriff in 
Carlisle who had then Received the Cheef Justuses Warrent to 
aperehend those Murdress and bring them to Phill. for Examina- 
tion the Justusis of y e . paice of y e . County wold Nott Sufer y e . 
Sherriff to Obay the Warrent butt Commeted them to y e . County 
Prison from whence in [trvof Six Days they Ware Risquead by 
A Number of pople from the Fronteers in y e . Midle of y e . Day 
this has Caused high Disputes between the Governer & ASembly 
& Revived y e . old Dispute About the Murder of the Conistoga 
Indians the ASembly Charging the Governer with A Neglect 
& want of Duty on the Executive part of Goverment whare 
itt will End Lord knows the ASembly Say they will Grant A 
Sume of Mony to be putt Into y r . honours hands for Condoleing 
with the Six Nations and Ohio Indians (& I Blive they will) 
As Soon as this hapens I will Inform you of itt I have Nott 
been Able to See the Governer as yett Butt will Soon 

I am Very Sorrey fer those Disputes As there Cartianly 
Should Nott be A Day Lost In Doing Somthing with the Ohio 
Indians and those on Susquehanna the Repated Murders on 
those Fronteers and y e . Want of power in y e . Goverment to 
bring y e . Murdreres to punishment Must bring on hostilitys unless 
Some Attonment Can be Made the Indians by Condoleing & 
presents Very Early this Spring. 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Cadwalader Collection. 

2 Words italicized and in brackets crossed out in manuscript. 

426 Sir William Johnson Papers 

plese to present My Complem ts . to Sir John and all the Gentle- 
men & Ladys & Blive Me with Greatt Respect y r . honours Most 

Obeident & Most 

Hum ble . Servant 

Geo: Croghan 

To the Hon ble . 

Sir William Johnson Barr 1 . 

indorsed: 3 

7*. Feb. 1 768 


Letter to S r . W m . Johnson B l 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Schenectady 8 Feb r y. 1768 

I am fav d . w f . your Letter enclosing M r . Roberts Df'. accepted 
in the manner we always meant 

Your being so much crowded w*. Company & some urgent 
Business w h . called M r . Ellice & me home a Friday night I 

hope will excuse our not waiting upon you that morning at the 

I take the liberty to inclose you a list of those Indian Goods we 
have now by us should any of them be suitable we will esteem any 
part of your order a Singular favour — those articles which you 
may require & not to be had from M r . Campbell or us should it 
be agreable we will lay in for you at Albany in the best Terms 
in our power 

I come now to inform you when we was in New York we was 
lucky enough to Effect a Settlement with our friend J. D 2 & at 

3 Letter and signature in hand of Croghan ; indorsement in another hand. 

1 In Buffalo Historical Society, Phyn & Ellice letter books. 

2 John Duncan. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 All 

that time procured Tolerable good Security but as none of the 
money he owes us will come in befor next Summer we shall be 
somthing straitned to make up the remainder of our English Re- 
mittances we therefor shall be Glad to know for our Governement 
what part of the anexed Bils you immagine will be paid next Ap 1 . 
as we can purchase Sev 1 . Bills now to be paid at that time. I hope 
you will pardon my giving you so much trouble & forgive my free- 
dom in writing you on this Subject as it will be much Service to 
our affairs to know in a few Posts 

I have &c 

Lieu'. Roberts fav r . Edward Pollard 88 . . 6 . . 1 

Mons r . Decorne 3 . . .Hugh Boyle 50. . — . . — 

ColR Croghan on yourself for Interprs sallrey ..167.. 8 . . 6 

if right John Duncans order D°. Transmitted G 

Johnson 124. . 18. . 6 

M r . Buyrne D°. D°. rec d from And w McFarline 69. . — . . — 

L. Roberts D°. D° 171.. 8. . 7 

£671.. 1.. 8 
To Sir William Johnson Bar 1 . &c. 


L.5. 1 

London Feby. 13, 1768 — 
Dear Sir — 

Upon further consideration upon the present boundary of the 
purchase we made in 1 754 Some of the land to the north of the 
west branch of Sasquehanah was included in that purchase and 
which neither you nor the Indians can wish to take again from 
us, therefore I must again press you to use your utmost endeavours 

3 Jean Baptiste de Couagne. 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

428 Sir William Johnson Papers 

to get the boundary established in some other manner than has 
been proposed to the Lords of Trade and if the Indians will not 
agree to make the River Ohio to the Source of it the boundary 
yet that the Forks of Sasquehannah may be included, and some 
Land between that River and Delaware, tho it cannot be as high 
as Tohickon & Popatunk but as the Ohio near those two places is 
the most natural division I hope you can easily bring them to 
agree to it. 

M r . Wilmot 2 has been so much in attendance upon his Wife 
who has been dangerously ill in the Country, that he could not 
attend your Grant but as she is better, I hope very soon to give 
you a good account of it. I am with great regard 

Dear Sir 

Your most humble and most 
obedient Servant 

Tho Penn 

indorsed: 3 

London Febry. 13 fh . 1768 

M r . Penns Letter — 

2 Henry Wilmot. 

3 In Sir William's hand. 


Johnson Hall Fefry. 18 th . 1768 
DR. Sir — 

Your favour of the 31 st . Ult°. 2 arrived here whilst I laboured 
under an Attack of my old Disorder, which prevented me from 
answering it until now, Two, or Three Days before I rec d . a 

1 In William L. Clements Library. Draft in mutilated form printed in 
Johnson Papers, 6:114-16. 

2 Johnson Papers, 6:85-87. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 429 

letter from LA Gov r . Penn w th . an Acc { . of his proceedings in 
Indian Affairs together with the particulars of the barbarous 
Murder committed by Frederick Stump as mentioned in your 
letter, which I consider as one of the most dangerous Accidents 
that could have happened at this Period, and I much fear that 
the Lawless Gentry on the Frontiers will render it worse by 
screening the Murderer or contributing to his Escape. — The 
Effects of this Additional Act of cruelty may better be fore- 
seen than prevented. 

The Indians of Susquahana have already wrote to me upon it, 
in consequence of Belts sent thro the Six Nations with the News, 
And they say that Several of their People the Tuscaroras (one of 
whom made his Escape) who were Hunting in that Country are 
withheld from returning by the White People, least the News 
should be too Soon propagated, in Consequence of which they are 
vastly uneas)', and desired a Pass to fetch them away, which I 
granted them a few days ago, This detention of these Indians, as 
it will doubtless be misinterpretted by the Confederacy will 
encrease their resentment, & the Indians Justly remark in their 
Letter, "that altho y e . Affair may be smoothed over in Council, 
their Minds cannot be healed in the present disposition they are." 
— I wish the Establishment of the Governments you Mention 
may not make things much worse, as I have reason to fear they 
will, I have often observed that nothing of that kind could be 
undertaken, with due regard to policy untill all prejudices were 
removed, a Firm tranquility established, & the Indians previously 
consulted thereon. The verry report of the intended Colony on 
Ohio advertised by L l . Webb* was made a considerable cause 
of the late Indian War, & the Indians have already heard of these 
intended Governments under the most unfavourable Circum- 
stances. — 

L'. Roberts 4 being (on Ace 1 , of the Expences Attends, his 
long Journey) in much want of Cash writes to me, that he may if 

3 Lieutenant Thomas Webb. 

4 Lieutenant Benjamin Roberts, commissary at Michilimackinac. 

430 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I apply for it receive the am 1 , of the Expences incurred since 
sending in my last, being £310. . 3 . .11 Cur c y. on my allowing 
M r . Mortier 5 to deduct so much out of my next Warr 1 ., I shall be 
glad that that is Settled for him, as I believe he has much Occa- 
sion for it. — As for the Disbursements at Fort Pitt they are verry 
considerable, yet I have Vouchers for the Whole except for the 
first Article £451 . .4. . mentioned to have been incurred by 
order of Cap 1 . Murray, 6 the Voucher for which was Said to be 
in your Secretarys Office, if so, I can have no Objection to its 
being paid, but should in that case be glad to have the Voucher. 
The Amount of Drafts on me from Major Rojers 7 at present 
in my hands, is £ 4852 . . 1 2 . . 2 York Cur c y. On this Head I 
have a Petition from the Traders & ca . requesting my Interest with 
You that the same might be paid, as they apprehended that 
Rojers (from what he told them) had full powers to take up 
Cash or Goods, and what they advanced was Judged by them 
to be for the Good of the Service, I shall beg the favour of your 
Answer thereon. — 

I am with all imaginable Esteem 
& Regard, 

Dear Sir 
Your most Obedient 
His Excellency & most Humble Servant 

General Gage — W Johnson 


S r . W m . Johnson 

1 8 th . Feb'?. 1 768. 

received 1 st . March 
answered — 

5 Abraham Mortier, deputy paymaster general. 

6 Captain William Murray. 

7 Major Robert Rogers, former commandant at Michilimackinac. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 431 


Copy 1 

Johnson Hall, 1 8th Feb'ry, 1768. 

When I received your last favor with the disagreeable news of 
the Barbarous murder committed by Fred'k Stump 2 within your 
government, I was very much indisposed with an attack of a 
Disorder which has visited me often of late years, from which I 
am now somewhat recovered. 

That bloody transaction gives me no small uneasiness as it 
has happened at the most unfortunate period, when the Indians 
had no occasion for a fresh instance of cruelty to inflame their 
resentment, insomuch that I fear all my endeavors to protract 
their designs, and prevent their Associations will prove ineffectual. 
I heartily wish you may be able to apprehend the murderer, and 
am very glad to hear of the measures you are taking for the relief 
of the Indian Grievances the necessity for which appears daily 
more obvious. 

Since the receipt of your letter I find that the Six Nations have 
received Belts and Messages setting it forth in the worst Light, on 
which occasion I have received a letter from the Indians at 
Onoghquagey, informing me of it, and that several Tuscaroras 
who were hunting not far from the place where the Murder was 
committed, have been detained by the white people, to prevent 
the news from spreading amongst the Indians. This gives the Six 
Nations much additional concern, and one of the Tuscaroras has 
desired a pass to go and fetch them away, I am therefore of 
opinion that they should be dismissed civilly without delay, and as 
I expect the Six Nations daily to treat about peace with the 
Cherokee Deputys, I shall on their arrival represent the affair in 

1 Printed in Pennsylvania Archives, First Series, 4:290. Draft in 
mutilated form was printed in Johnson Papers, 6:117-18, incorrectly 
labeled "To Thomas Penn." 

2 See Colonial Records Vol. IX, 424-490 for various documents re- 
specting this affair. — Note in Pennsylvania Archives. 

432 Sir William Johnson Papers 

the most favorable point of Light, and to the utmost of my power 
endeavor to make them easy, but I really can have little hopes 
from its happening at a period when their discontent appears at 
the highest pitch, and as the Indians in their letter justly observe, 
'That should the affair be smoothed over in Council, their minds 
cannot be healed in their disposition." 
I am with the most perfect esteem sir, 

Your most obedient, and 

very humble servant, 

W. Johnson 

The Hon'ble LlEUT. G0V R . PENN. 


L.5. 1 

Philadelphia, 18 lh . February 1768. 

I have the pleasure to inform you that the Assembly have con- 
curred with me in a Law for raising a Sum of Money, part of 
which is to be laid out in Presents to the Indians by way of 
Condolance, as well for such of their Brethren as were lately 
killed by Frederick Stump on Middle Creek as for all others who 
have heretofore been murdered in this Province by our People; 
hoping, by this Means,* effectually to remove the Uneasiness 
and Discontent, which may arise or remain in their Minds on that 
Account; and to regain their Friendship. The Persons appointed 
by Law to dispose of the Money, in Conjunction with myself, 
have appropriated the Sum of One Thousand Pounds for this 

But as the Application and Distribution of the intended 
Presents cannot be made with so much Propriety, or Judgment, by 
any Person as yourself; and as no time should be lost in a matter 

1 In New York Public Library. Printed in Pennsylvania Colonial 
Records, 9:468-69. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 433 

of so much Importance, We have agreed that the Presents should 
be made at a General Treaty, which I am informed you are soon 
to hold with the Indians. I am therefore under the Necessity of 
requesting the Favour of You to dispose of the above Sum at the 
ensuing Treaty, in the Name and on the Behalf of this Govern- 
ment, in Presents, to such particular Indians and Tribes of 
Indians, as you shall judge will be most proper and likely to 
answer the good Ends we propose. The Money shall be im- 
mediately paid to such Person, or remitted to you in such a 
Manner, as you shall please to direct. — 

The Assembly are of Opinion that it would be expedient and 
necessary that Commissioners, appointed by me, should be sent 
to attend the Treaty, if the Time between this and the holding the 
Treaty would admit of it. — I would therefore request the Favour 
of You to inform me, by the return of the Bearer whom I send 
Express to You on this Occasion, whether such a Measure is 
practicable. — 

As several of the Inhabitants of this Province have been 
murdered by the Indians, since the General Peace established 
with them in 1 764 ; You will no doubt think it advisable, at the 
same time that you condole with them on the Loss of their 
People, to remind them of the Injuries done to us; and that we 
have received no Satisfaction from them on these Accounts. — 
For which purpose, I herewith send you a List 2 of the Names of 
the Persons belonging to this Province who have been killed by 
the Indians. — I also inclose you the Names of the Indians 
killed by Frederick Stump, and the Tribes they belong to. 

I beg leave further to observe to you, that the whole Sum ap- 
propriated by the Law to be expended in Presents to the Indians 
for reconciling them to this Province, is £2500. — But as we are 
of Opinion that there is more Reason to apprehend a Rupture 
with the Western Indians, than those of the Six Nation or 
Northern Tribes, we have thought it advisable to allot the greatest 

2 Two lists which follow this letter are printed in Pennsylvania Colonial 
Records, 9:469-70. 

434 Sir William Johnson Papers 

part of that Sum to be applied in Presents to the former, which 
it may be most convenient to distribute among them at Fort Pitt. 
But as we have the greatest Confidence in your Judgment & 
Knowledge in Indian Affairs, we submit this Matter to your 
Discretion ; and if You shall judge it most expedient and necessary 
to lay out £200. or £300. more than the £1000, above 
mentioned to be presented to the Indians, with whom you are about 
to hold Conferences, I have Liberty from the Commissioners to 
empower you to expend that additional Sum, and to do every 
thing else in this Business, on the part of the Province, which 
you may think most conducive to its true Interest and Safety. — 
I shall not endeavour to apologize for troubling you on this 
Occasion, as your Readiness at all times to serve this Province 
renders any thing of that kind unnecessary. 

I am with great Regard 

Your most obedient 
humble Servant 

John Penn 
Sir William Johnson, Bar 1 . 

NB. 3 it is not a bribe or present be it ever so considerable, that 
can in such case remove their uneasiness or quiet their Minds, un- 
less the future conduct of the Frontier People be such, as may 
convince them of their detestation of w f . is passed, & tally w lh . y e . 
Governments present declarations or something like this. — 

3 This note refers to the point marked by asterisk above. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 435 

A.L.S. 1 
Philadelphia Feby. 18. 1768 — 


The House of Assembly were extremely obliged by your 
Favor, of the 22 d . Ult°. 2 — Which, as it contained Matters of 
the greatest Importance to the Colonies, I thought it my Duty, to 
Lose no Time in communicating [it] to them. Before the Receipt 
of this Letter, their Deliberations on Indian Affairs rested in 
Uncertainty, as the Province for Some Time past, has not in- 
termeddled in those Transactions. But the Causes of the present 
Dissatisfaction of the Indians so fully and judiciously pointed out 
by you, enabled them to proceed immediately and Chearfully in 
their Design of removing, as far as in their Power, every Founda- 
tion of their Discontent against this Province. And I have now 
the Pleasure to inform you, That they have adopted the Measure, 
intimated in your Letter, of making proper Presents of Condol- 
ance, for the Indians murdered, within & on, the Frontiers of this 
Government, since the Peace, and other Gifts to regain the 
Friendship of the Natives. The Sum they have granted for these 
Purposes, is £ 2500 — This Currency, placed in the Hands of 
the Governor and three Commissioners. This Sum is intended to 
be Subject to your Draughts on them, whenever you shall be 
pleased to draw them. I beg Leave, however to add for your olvn 
Information, that as there have been Several Indians murdered in 
the Province, as well of the Western as Northern Tribes, and 
good Policy Seems to dictate the necessity of satisfying all, and 
forming a Division of their Councils at this Crisis, The House 
imagined, if the Grant was nearly equally divided and disposed of 
at the Different Treaties shortly to be held by you and M r . 
Croghan, it woud answer very valuable Purposes. I drop this 
Information of y e . Sentiments of the House in perfect Confidence, 
as I conclude it will be agreable to you, to know them. 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

2 Ante pp. 421-22. 

436 Sir William Johnson Papers 

The Sitting of Assembly not being ended, it prevents my 
enlarging at present — As soon as the December Packet arrives, 
I expect to Receive some Account of our Illinois Affair, and 
other Publick Matters from Dcct r . Franklin 3 or M r . Jackson, 4 
when I propose to do myself the Pleasure of Communicating 
whatever I may receive worthy of your Attention. In the mean 
Time, I beg Leave to assure you, That I am with 

great Truth & Regard 
your most Obedient 
& very humble Serv f . 

Jos. Galloway 5 

The Honble S R . W M . JOHNSON Baronet 


Since I wrote the above, it is agreed between the Governor & 
myself, if you shoud concur in Opinion w th . us, That about the 
Sum of £ 1 000 will be sufficient for the Northern Indians, as the 
Province seems more connected with, and has more to fear from 
the Western Than the Northern. 


Philadelphia Feb'?. 1 8 th . 1 768 

M 1 '. Galloway Speaker 
of the Assemblys Letter 

3 Benjamin Franklin. 

4 Richard Jackson, colonial agent for Pennsylvania, 1 763-69, and 
correspondent of Franklin. 

5 Member of the Pennsylvania assembly almost continuously from 1 75 7 
until the Revolution, and its speaker from 1 766 till 1 774. 

6 In Sir William's hand. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 437 


Copy 1 

Johnson Hall February 24, 1768. 

I am very glad to hear you are recovered of your fit of illness, 
and hope you will take better care of your health for the time to 
come, as it is the most valuable thing upon earth to all people ; for 
without it, riches, titles, and every thing else are nothing. 

I am obliged to you for the offer of your interest at the ensuing 
election, and can only say, that I have, for certain reasons which 
I think are very sufficient, promised my vote and interest to Mr. 
Minerdtson," and shall be glad if my friends are of the same 
mind, as I think friends and neighbors should always go hand 
in hand, and then their interest will be more respectable, and 
carry more weight. Nay, I think the people of this river ought 
in good policy to stand by one another, and then they will become 
so formidable in a little time as to carry any point they may want. 
Whereas, if they are divided in interest, sentiments, and friend- 
ship, they may forever remain the dupes of Albany and Sche- 
nectada politicians, who have only their own interest in view. I 
really had no thoughts of going down at this troublesome busy 
time, but that I hear some unfair means are made use of to carry 
the election at any rate. I have nothing farther to add at present, 
than my best wishes for your health, and that I am your sincere 
friend and humble servant. 

W. Johnson 
Capt. Jeles Fonda. 

P.S. — The woman you mention, did not deliver me the stock- 
ings nor ribband, but wears them herself. — This is not your 
fault; it is hers. 

1 Printed in The Reflector and Schenectady Democrat, Nov. 30, 1 838. 

2 Jacobus Mynderse (Mynderson) who was elected to the assembly from 
Schenectady. See letter of Isaac Vrooman et al, Johnson Papers, 6 : 1 30- 

438 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Michillima*. 24 th . Feby. 1768. 

In my last from this, I informed you that Major Rogers 2 was 
confined for Treason by general's Orders. he at that time 
seemed to submit to his Fate, saying he had it in his power to 
satisfy the world of his Innocence, and Loyalty to his King. — 
As subtil & deep as Hell itself has this Traitor been, and happy 
are we here, who have found out his treacherous Designs, as you 
will see by his behaviour since his Confinement. — About the 
1 th . of December two Indians came to this Fort, he seeing them 
coming near his room rushed to the Door and opened it. the 
Indians hastily passed the Sentry, and both took him by the hand, 
which we took care to prevent for the future. — He then for some 
time sent for the Soldiers Wives, and to gloss his designs gave 
out that it was to keep M rs . Rogers Company whom they all 
loved, — at last the Searjants &c to keep him Company, and to 
make merry with him, which obliged Cap*. Spiesmacker 3 Com- 
mandant to give orders that none belonging to the Troops shou'd 
enter the Doors of his Confinement. This order offended him 
much, he sent for me in a great Passion, — said he was ill used, 
as he was a Prisoner cou'd but complain to the General, — that 
Cap 1 . Spiesmacker might repent it, for that as he was innocent, 
he wou'd be at liberty some time, or other, and then was de- 
termined to pursue those who had used him so ill, to the utmost 
Limits of the Earth, or to the last verge of life, swearing he had 
never invited the Serjeants, or Soldiers to visit him. — I answered 
him that I thought him a very bad man for threatning those who 
had used him so tenderly, — that I knew it for a truth that he had 
invited both the men and women to sit and drink with him, — that 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 Major Robert Rogers, former commandant at Michilimackinac. 

3 Captain Frederick Christopher Spiesmacher of the 60th regiment, com- 
mandant of Michilimackinac. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 439 

I believed his designs evil in so doing, — but shou'd take Care of 
him. — he then desired that David Fullerton Soldier might wait 
on him during his stay here. I told him I believed he cou'd not 
have him, and that I shou'd let the Commandant know his 
threatenings. — 

The Serjeants, and others being sent for, they were all sworn, 
and declared the above to be truth, the Commandant then ordered 
that no Person whatever shou'd enter his door without an Order in 
Writing except those on Duty, and the Commissioned Officers. — 

About the last of January a Canadian, an Inhabitant of this 
place came privately to Captain Spiesmakacer, and told him he 
had a Secret of the greatest Consequence to communicate to him ; 
— that it was now time to discover it, but wanted his Honour in 
Pledge, as he thought his life might be in danger from the 
Soldiers, and others if he was known to be the Discoverer. his 
request being granted, he then informed him that Major Rogers 
had sent him several Messages by his former Servant David 
Fullerton Soldier in the 2 d . Battalion 60 th . Regim*. to do what he 
cou'd to Save his life, — that the Major was in the French 
Interest, and wou'd make his fortune if he would befriend him, 
that the Informant hear'd him (Fullerton) with patience, and told 
him he woud See the Major soon, but wanted to know how many 
Friends he had in the Garrison to assist him in his Designs in 
getting his liberty, and what his designs were. David Fullerton 
answered that he was his friend, and all the soldiers in the Garri- 
son except three or four, one man of the Artillery & Lieu 1 . 
Christies Serv 1 . 

The night after he (the Canadian, by name Ans) 4 went to 
the Major, who wanted to know if he was his friend; being 
answered in the affirmative, the Major then begged him to get 
Savages in his Interest to decoy the Commandant, and Lieu 1 . 
Christie out of the Fort to ride in a Careole, or otherwise to take 
them Prisoners, — Ensign Johnston 5 being at the Mission was 

4 Joseph Louis Ainse. 

5 Ensign Robert Johnson (Johnston) of the 60th regiment. 

440 Sir William Johnson Papers 

easy to get at, after these being thrown to the mercy of the 
Savages; the rest he woud undertake himself, being assured the 
Serjeants woud deliver him the Keys of the Fort, that then he 
wou'd have it in his power to make a fortune before he Joined 
the French on the Mississippi, and not go barehanded, — that as 
soon as the Fort was in his hands, (the Savages being in his in- 
terest) he wou'd then have Powder, and Cannon plenty to take 
Detroit, & after that the Illenois, — that his life or death was in 
his Hands : — for some letters have been intercepted from Cap*. 
Hopkins, 6 whom he intended shou'd come with a few men and 
as soon as he arrived, wou'd deliver this Fort into his hands. — 
The Informant answered him (Rogers) that he did not know but 
that he wou'd assist him, he then begged him to keep his mind to 
himself. — 

The next Meeting (being sent for) the Major repeated to him 
again as before at the last meeting, & to go a hunting by the 
Commandant's leave often, in order the better to cloak his 
Designs to get the Savages, (Naming several Chiefs of different 
nations who he was certain were his friends) to make sure of the 
Commandant, and Lieu 1 . Christie, and also M r . Frobisher 7 Mer- 
chant from Montreal, — that then every thing wou'd be well, — 
for the French had two Battalions waiting for him, and that after 
his present Designs were put into Execution they would have 
Fortune plenty to help them off, that he had sent sixty Keggs of 
Liquor among the Indians last spring, and expected a good re- 
turn, — besides a large quantity of it he had in the Fort — That 
in a little time after he wou'd return, and fall upon New England, 
also Carolina, it being one of the richest Provinces on the Con- 
tinent, — and with elevated Spirits told them that their Names 
wou'd be conspicuous through the whole world, — for in about 

6 Captain Joseph Hopkins, from Maryland, formerly of the 1 8th regi- 
ment, who after service in the West Indies joined the French. See his 
letter of April 9, 1 766, in Doc. Rel. Col. Hist. TV. Y., 7:993-94, urging 
Rogers to join the French. This letter was also given in Indian Records, 
Vol. 7. 

7 Benjamin Frobisher. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 441 

four Years he did believe there wou'd be but few English in the 
Country, — for that a great many of the French and Illenois 
Indians with many English from the Provinces wou'd join them. 
— Rogers also told him that he designed the Cutting off this 
Garrison last Spring, but could not do it at that time, nor now 
attempt any thing without his (this Informants) assistance, — 
begged him to consider his present Situation, to keep Secret, and 
to befriend him. — Next meeting with David Fullerton he told 
him to take great Care for fear of a Discovery ; for if it was but 
suspected, he was determined to fly among the Indians, — but all 
depended on him for his assistance, — that if the Major's first 
Scheme failed, he had fallen upon another to make his escape, — 
that he had one who was to sett him up a Ladder against the 
Picket, and to throw over Snow shoes & Mokesons, that he wou'd 
take the life of any man, or Sentry that shou'd oppose him, — 
that they then woud goe to S'. Joseph's. — 

The Informant being told by the Commandant that I was the 
only Person he cou'd advise with, he agreed to it, and I being 
sent for, and made acquainted with the whole, my advice being 
asked, and solemn Secrecy promised, it was agreed to let David 
Fullerton to do duty still, and to admit a fourth Person into the 
Secret, M r . Frobisher, whom I esteem a man of strict Honour, 
and who understands the French language, in which the Plot was 
forming. we considered our approaching danger, and to find 
out all these concerned. And that there might be no doubt to get 
a clear Proof of such Treachery, it was thought advisable that 
the Informant shou'd gett David Fullerton to his house, and that 
Cap 1 . Spiesmacker, and M r . Frobisher shou'd be conceal'd in or 
about the room, who shoud see, and hear the whole Conversa- 
tion. In the mean time I gave my honour in pledge that Rogers 
shou'd not break from his confinement 'till all was brought to 
light. — I could not at this time trust the Troops, even those on 
Duty. — the want of Sleep, and other nourishment for six days, 
and nights so fatigued me that I have scarce recovered yet. — 

However to my Joy, about the fifth, or sixth of February ended 
my Doubts & fears for the safety of the Garrison. the above 

442 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Gentlemen acquainted me that all was truth, and without any 
doubt, they having discovered the whole Plot, and wou'd give 
their Oaths accordingly. — We then advised Cap*. Spiesmacker to 
give the Informant liberty to visit Major Rogers immediately in 
order still to get stronger Proofs of his Villainy, — that he shou'd 
even sign it with his own hand. Accordingly the Informant had a 
Pass for that purpose. — We desired him to acquaint the Major 
that thefhe] might depend on his Friendship, and at the same time 
to know from him what he was to do for him for so great an under- 
taking, as he wou'd not only be banished from the English settle- 
ments for the future, but also from his Friends, and was certain he 
cou'd not get liberty to visit him any more in his Confinement. — 
he (the Informant) did as we advised, and the same Evening 
returned with a Prommissary note which he saw wrote, and signed 
with his, (Rogers) his own hand, and delivered with these Words 
"I depend on your Friendship" Wrote as follows viz 1 . 

At Michillimackinac 4 Febv. 1768 — 
I Promise to pay M r . Joseph Ans annually an Hundred 
Pounds Sterling for five Years successively to carry me to M r . 
Hopkins as Witness my hand. — 

Rob t . Rogers — 

The whole being thus settled, and the different Oaths taken 
signed, and sealed, I undertook though very unwell to keep every 
thing quiet, and strictly to guard against any accident 'till day light 
next morning, and that David Fullerton being on guard shou'd 
not be confined till that time, and then to be brought to the com- 
manding Officer's Room in order to learn the Disposition of the 
two Companies of the 60 th . Regiment, & men of Artillery, whom 
we imagined to be in the Interest of the Traitors. — David Fuller- 
ton was accordingly privately brought to the Command 18 , room, 
and burst into tears, begged for his life, cursing Rogers and his 
Spouse, and confessed his treacherous Designs, as taken down on 
his Oath by Cap*. Spiesmacker in my Presence, and Serjeant 
M c Murray. — Rogers and he are now in Irons, and men to guard 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 443 

them in their different apartments day and night 'till the Vessel 
arrives. — 

As David Fullerton has had a good character both in the 78 lh . 
Regiment, and this, and as I verily believe it was through 
simplicity he has been brought in, I beg you wou'd make interest 
for him with the General that his life, if possible, may be saved, 
as he sincerely regrets his Villainy. — 

I am Sir, with greatest respect &c — 

John Christie Lieu*. 60 lh . Regim*. 
To Sir W m . Johnson. 

Contemporary Copy 1 
Michilimakinac February the 24 th . 1768 



I did myself the Honor to write to you by L*. Roberts, 2 since 
which time I had the Misfortune to loose a part of my Hand, and 
readily obtained Leave to go to Detroit for the Benefit of my 
Wound a few days after my Arrival here, an Express arrived 
from General Gage, to confine Captain Rodgers 3 for High 
Treason, I went a Volunteer with this Express the 21. of Nov r . 
and arrived at Michilimac c . in thirteen Days after. — Rodgers 
was accordingly arrested, he seemed to bear up with a good deal 
of Resolution, and affirmed to the utmost his Innocence, but even 
at this Time he was forming the most horrid Plot, with an Intent 
to put it in Execution on the Arrival of two Indians. — I at this 
Time had gone to the Mission, a place about 30. Mile from the 

1 In William L. Clements Library, inclosed in Johnson to Gage, Nov. 
1 8, 1 768, the copy is in Guy Johnson's hand inclosed by Sir William. 
Another contemporary copy is in the Canadian Archives, Indian Records, 
Vol. 7. 

2 Lieutenant Benjamin Roberts, commissary at Michilimackinac. 

3 Robert Rogers, former commandant at Michilimackinac. 

444 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Fort, his Intention was to have had me killed there Cap*. 
Spiesmaker 4 & L l . Christie 5 taken Pris rs . and sent to the Indian 
Country, he had actually got over some Soldiers and French 
Inhabitants, the Fort was to be delivered up to the Indians, the 
Soldiers that would not join his party to go in Conjunction with 
the Indians to the Attack of Detroit where to be put to Death ; this 
Fort he intended to plunder to satisfy the Soldiers & Savages he 
had with him, then to proceed to France by the Missisipy. — 

There is a Report, that Hopkins 6 is now at the Ilinois, which 
I believe may have some Foundation. The Particulars of this dark 
Plot are many, the Proofs positive, he even acknowledges some 
part of it, but I am assured Cap'. Spiesmaker will be particular, in 
giving you Information of every Circumstance, I believe I shall 
have the Conducting of him to Detroit, I have good Information 
the Ind ns . will make an Attempt to set him at Liberty, but if they 
ever set him at Liberty alive when he's in my charge, I hope to 
be hanged in his place, he is now in Irons with a Soldier a 
principal Confederate, alltho formerly a good Man, I luckily was 
the Means of this Plots being discovered by meer Accident, I un- 
expectedly came from the Mission to the Fort desired Captain 
Spiesmaker to confine young Cardin a Frenchman on Suspicion 
of Treason, but as I had no other proof than my own Conjectures 
Cap 1 . Spiesmaker would not comply. 

I however persisted & declared on the first Notice of any bad 
Designs whatsoever, I would myself put that Man to Death, by 
this its thought I had by some channel got acquainted with the 
Plot, and a full Discovery was immediately made to Cap 1 . 
Spiesmaker. — 

I hope Rodgers will meet with a just Punishment for his 
treacherous Crimes, if the Law acquits him it will be a bad 
Precedent for those upper Parts; but he never will be acquitted 

4 Captain Frederick Christopher Spiesmacher of the 60th regiment, who 
succeeded Rogers as commandant at Michilimackinac. 

5 Lieutenant John Christie of the 60th regiment. 

6 Joseph Hopkins. For his antecedents see Doc. Rel. Col. Hist. N. Y., 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 445 

by those he has attempted so cowardly to destroy, honourable 
Satisfaction, which he dont deserve, must take place. — 

I am 

Your most Obedient 
humble Servant 
Sir W m . Johnson Rob t . Johnson 7 

indorsed: 8 

Feb'?. 24 th . 1768 — 
From Ens n . Rob'. Johnston 
to Sir W Johnson concerning 
Major Rojers — 

Copy — 



Killingworth in Connecticut 24 th . Feby. 1768 

Yesterday I was honour'd with Your kind and Oblidging 
Letter to D r . Johnson, 2 dated 23 Dec r . 3 which You was so good 
as to permit him to communicate to me, and would embrace the 
earliest Oppertunity to return You my most humble & hearty 
thanks for Your Condescention & readiness to serve me in my 
request signified in Letter to Him which he was so kind as to 
transmit to You. 

The true Spirit of Benevolence, which breaths through every 
paragraph of Your Letter, gives me the most sensible pleasure and 

7 Ensign Robert Johnston (Johnson) of the 60th regiment. 

8 In Sir William's hand. 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

2 The Rev. Dr. Samuel Johnson. 

3 Johnson Papers, 6:30-32. 

446 Sir William Johnson Papers 

A Chearfull readiness to promote the Happiness, or releive 
the distresses of humane nature, is a Godlike Virtue, which adds a 
Lusture to the Greatest, and cannot fail to afford a rational and 
manly pleasure and solid Satisfaction, to a mind disposd to pro- 
mote the one or releive the other. 

I have long been attempting some method to Obtain from the 
Natives, the Knowledge of the Vertues of American plants, 
which they have acquired by experience, through successive Ages, 
Could I discover any plant a Specifick or a Certain and Effectual 
remedy in any one disease Incident to the humane body, I should 
highly prize the discovery. 

All Medical Knowledge owes its Origin to experimettal 
Philosophy. The Specifick Qualities of any Medicine being fully 
known, may be rendred Salutary in other diseases under the same 
state of the Solids and fluids 

In this the Europeans have Advantages superior to the 
American Natives, by the help of Letters, the experiments of 
former ages, being handed down to posterity, enables them to 
reason by Analogy, from the known principles of Natural & ex- 
perimental Philosophy, by this means, Europeans have discovered 
many vertues in the peruvian Bark, 4 of which the peruvians were 
wholly Ignorant, and like advantage may arise in Other Instances 
from future discoveries. 

I Observe You mention Two Species of plants made use of in 
the Cure of the Venereal disease, D r . Haller likewise mentions it, 
and adds that which is Usd in the most Obstinate Cases, must be 
Us'd with Caution, that if given in too large a Dose is poysenous, 
Must therefore request the Favour, that You would take the 
trouble to be particular, as to the Quantities to be made use off, 
of each Species for a proper dose for a Man. 

Should be glad likewise to Know in what disorders of the 
Bowels the Natives make Use of this root, which will throw 
greater light on its Specifick Qualities. 

4 Cinchona tree bark, the source of quinine. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 447 

As I purpose after proper tryals to transmit The Account 
home, (in which I shall be carefull to Acquaint them, to whose 
influence any discoveries of this kind ought to be Ascrib'd) shall 
esteem my self under the highest Obligations, to have such a 
Quantity procured at the Opening of the Spring, while the roots 
retain their highest Virtues, as may be sufficient for proper tryals. 
here, and allso to transmit to the Society of the College of Phisi- 
cians at Home. 

I have likewise for a Long time been Using Endeavours to 
Discover some medicine, which perhaps the Natives may be 
acquainted with, which by taking the decoction Internally, will 
infalliably expel the poyson of our American Viper the Rattle- 

The venemous saliva of the Rattlesnake, when mix'd with the 
Animal fluids, brings on a Sudden Dissolution of the Blood, and 
produces Heemorrhages, purple or Livid spots, which the Ignor- 
ant impute to a resemblance of the Skin of the Snake, from a Sort 
of Sympathetick influence, but in reality is nothing more, than the 
red Globules of the Blood, broken & disolv'd by the Animal 
poyson, discharg'd from the containing Vessels, and lodg'd under 
the Skin, Just in the Same Manner, as like Symtoms are producd 
in Spotted, Malignant, and pestilential fevers, which make such 
Havock of the Humane Species, by this you will readily perceive, 
I do not want this Medicine, for the Cure of the bite of that 
Serpent, which rarely happens here, but for the cure of pulvid 
spotted or Malignant fevers, which are accompanied with Simular 
Symptoms, arising from a Broken disolv'd texture of the Blood; 
I mention this only to shew of how much Importance a discovery 
of this kind would be to mankind, if my reasonings upon this Sub- 
ject are Just; Indeed I beleive it would be of the greatest Service 
even in the plague, of any medicine yet discovered to the world. 
That Herb which will preserve the Blood from dessolution by the 
Bite of the Rattlesnake, will most probably preserve it from 
undergoing the Same fate by the plague, which makes much 
slower progress than the poyson of the Rattlesnake. 

448 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Topical or external Applications I look upon rather as magic 
Charms, (the Viper Stone so much Fam'd may perhaps have 
some magnetic Quality, to Extract the poison by the wound,) 
Such things only as enters the Blood & Cures by sheathing & 
Obtunding the Aerid particles of the Animal poison, untill it is 
again discharg'd by some of the excretions of the body, will 
Answer the end propos'd in Such Fevers. 

You will pardon the Wandrings of my pen, when on a Topick 
I have so long been engag'd in, which if it can be discovered, 
would be of Infinite Service to Mankind. 

Notwithstanding I have been Thirty Years in the practice and 
have been Honour'd with a Medical Corrispondence with some 
Phisicians of the first Rank in Europe, I should think my time 
Well spent to pass a Month under the Tuition of an experienc'd 
Native — if I could be Introduc'd to them, & reiye on an honest 
& open Discovery of the Vertue of American plants, for the 
Removal of Diseases Incident to them, in Common with us. — I 
am under the Strongest & Highest Sense of Gratitude 

S r . Your Most Oblidged 
& Most Hum ,e . Serv*. 

Benj n . Gale 5 
To the Hon". S R . W M . Johnson 

Please to order Those Roots Y r . Hon r . Purpose to Fav r . me with 
to the Care of D r . Tho s . Bridgen Atwood In N York 

Benjamin Gale, physician. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 449 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Michillimacinac, Feby. [25 th ] 1768. 
Sir — 

My last from the 1 1 th . December 2 I hope has reached your 
hands. in it I had the honour to acquaint you that the Com- 
mander in chief appointed me Command*. & ordered me to confine 
Major Rogers 3 for High Treason, which accordingly was done. 
— Since his Confinement he has done his Endeavours to gain the 
affection of the Soldiers in order to gain his liberty to head them 
with the Indians, his Friends, in order to take Detroit & Illenois, 
and go with the Plunder to Mississippi, and join Cap 1 . Hopkins 4 
who had wrote for him. — a certain Canadian 5 he had trusted 
with his Designs informed me upon Oath of the whole. — Lieu 1 . 
Christie, 6 & another Gentleman being in the secret with me, we 
advised the Informer to go to the Major and assure him of his 
Friendship, and to get a Recompence for his undertaking, he 
did so, and returned with a Promissary Note signed by Roger's 
hand to pay him one Hundred Pounds annually for five Years to 
carry him to the late Cap 1 . Hopkins, upon condition he shou'd get 
the Savages to his interest to take me, Lieu 1 . Christie, and Ensign 
Johnston 7 Prisoners, & have us at their mercy ; for he was certain 
the Soldiers were his Friends, except a few, and those he meant 
that should oppose his des.gns, shcu'd be masccrr.d. — His own 
servant, 8 or orderly man a Soldier in the 60 th . Regim 1 . being a 
chief Conspirator also with him, has begged for his life, and 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. Exact date fixed by 
reference in his letter of May 6, 1 768, post pp. 491-92. 

2 Not found. 

3 Major Robert Rogers, former commandant of Michilimackinac. 

4 Captain Joseph Hopkins. See Hopkins to Rogers, April 9, 1 766, 
printed in Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:993-94. 

5 Joseph Louis Ainse (Ans). 

6 Lieutenant John Christie of the 60th regiment. 

7 Ensign Robert Johnson of the 60th regiment. 

8 David Fullerton, soldier in the 2nd battalion, 60th regiment. 

450 Sir William Johnson Papers 

confessed his Treason. — however they are both in Irons, and 
men to guard them till the vessel arrives, w cl \ God send soon. I 
believe he has spirited up the Savages against us, w ch . I hope will 
not have any effect. 

On the 8 th . of July arrived two Indians that wintered between 
the Falls of S l . Mary & here. in the evening they were drunk, 
and told the Interpreter that last Fall they had a Council there, 
and that it was resolved there that all the English shou'd be killed, 
and that Pondiac was gone to the Illenois last Summer, and had 
told the chief great Swan & Dennie to lift up their Tomahawks, 
and not lay them down till they came back from their French 
Father. — 

The 1 4 th . Ins 1 , arrived here two Chippaweighs from the River 
Sabel, one a great Rascal, and I believe both Spies — In the 
evening the Interpreter gave them Rum in order to find out if they 
had any news. he reported to me the day after that they roared, 
and cryed for the Major, and that they wou'd see him, and that 
they wou'd have him in the Spring; and one of them told the 
Interpreter that when he did know what was past, he wou'd cry ; 
the other Indian not so drunk pushed him — not to speak more. 

— a little after one of them asked him (the Interp 1 ".) if I walked 
often out of the Fort. the Interpreter answered, no, — he has a 
great deal of business in the Fort. — the Interpreter has in- 
formed me that he was last Year at New Orleans, that one 
Monsieur Carrie a rich Merchant there had offered him one 
Canoe load of Rum, or Brandy, and a Piaster <P day to carry 
it to the Pous, or Powtawatamie Nation, to give it to them in 
order to engage the Ind ns . of that nation to war against the 
English, which he had refused. — and further that the French 
at New Orleans had encouraged the Indians to make war with 
them, — but they wou'd not have it known it came from them 

— As it is customary every Year to hear bad news, and it is not 
right to believe all, for all that, I think it my Duty to report 
every thing I hear, to you. — M r . Joseph Ans 9 is the Informant 

9 Joseph Louis Ainse. 

Indian Affairs, / 766-68 451 

to me of the Major's bad designs, to encourage him, I have ap- 
pointed him Interpreter, which I hope you will approve of, and 
wish you will take into consideration to reward him accordingly. 

The bearer of this to Detroit, Monsieur Filie, of good Family 
in Canada, has approved himself a good Subject, willing to do all 
he coud for the interest of Britain, as may be wittnessed by his 
Services to Cap 1 . Howard, and on sev 1 . Occasions. Rogers sent 
him last Fall with M r . Roberts to Detroit, and has done sev 1 . 
Services — & no thanks for it — is a great sufferer. — 

I have wrote to Cap 1 . Turnbull 10 to send the Vessell so soon 
as the Lake is open, to get the Traitor from this, and our enemies 
within, and then we will have nothing to fear from without. — I 
am very happy that Lieu 1 . Christie was appointed to this Place, 
and much obliged to him not only for his good advices, but for his 
care, and diligence for the public good. — I am also much obliged 
to M r . Frobisiere 1 * for his assistance in finding out the Plot — 
I am w th . great Esteem &c 

F: Spiesmacker 12 — 
Cap 1 . L f . 60 th . Regim*. Command 1 . 
To Sir W m . Johnson Bar*. 

Contemporary Copy 1 

[January I -February 29, 1768] 

[Janu]ary 1 st . 

Sir William dispatched an Interpreter, & an Indian with a Belt 
of invitation to the Six Nations, directing them [to] have them 
here, (if possible) by the 10 th . of February, and recommending, 
to let all the nations know that amongst other things it was ex- 

10 Captain George Turnbull of the 60th regiment, commandant at Detroit. 

11 Benjamin Frobisher. 

12 Captain Frederick Christopher Spiesmacher of the 60th regiment, 
named commandant at Michilimackinac to succeed Rogers. 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 8. 

452 Sir William Johnson Papers 

pected they would now make peace with the Cherokees, and that 
they would come well disposed [for] that purpose. 

f Sir William received a Letter from the Interpreter, 
then at Onondaga, accquainting him that he had got a number of 
the Senecas with him, that as soon as the Cayugas arrived [ ], 

he would Set off with them, & the Onondagas, & take [the] 
Oneidas & Tuscaroras by the hand also — The Old Sachems and 
Chiefs requested, that they might be allowed Sleds to carry them 
from the upper Settlements, as they would be quite fatigued by the 
time they got there, and also, that they would [be] allowed a plenty 
of Provisions along the road hither — 

] 2 Capt n . Butler was sent to the German Flats in order to 
purchase Provisions & procure Sleds for them — 

] 2 3 d . — A Runner from the Caghnawage Sachems 
arrived, and accquainted Sir William, that a number of their 
people were on their way hither, and would reach this place in 
four days, provided they were assisted with Sleds and Provi- 
sions. — 

Two Messengers arrived from the Six Nations, with 
advice their Chiefs [ ] and in great want of 

] 3 untill the whole body was assembled, and then come 
together — They w lh . three Strings of Wampum requested Sir 
William not to be impatient at their delaying so long — That he 
would point out their encampm ts ., and lastly that the Cherokees 
might not be introduced to them 'till they were all assembled, and 
some other matters first settled with him — 

Feb?. 29 th . — Sir William sent the Messengers back to the main 
body, and desired them to accquaint the Sachems and Chiefs, that 
he was glad to hear of their safe arrival at Stoneraby, and that as 
Provisions were scarce there, they would make the best of their 
way hither, where he had Provisions prepared for them, and also 
that their desire regarding the Cherokees Should be complied 
with — 

2 Marginal dates missing where manuscript is mutilated. 

3 Last line of page of manuscript missing. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 453 


Cop}) 1 

Johnson Hall Febry 29*, 1768. 

I have had the favour of your letter of the 18th Ins 1 ., 2 inform- 
ing me of the sum raised by y r . Assembly, for presents of Con- 
dolence with the Indians, of which I have been likewise advised by 
letter from Mr. Galloway, I think this a very seasonable step, and 
am much oblidged to you for the opinion you express in my 
favour for the application of it, in which you may rest assured 
that I shall be solely guided by my regard for the Interests and 
Security of the Province; at the same time I must observe, from 
the present disposition of the Indians, that no Present or Gratifi- 
cation will avail unless the Conduct of the Frontier Inhabitants 
should change, or that by a vigorous exertion of sound Laws they 
be restrained from Murders, Encroachments & Outrages in future, 
which I have some reason to hope will be the case from those 
lately enacted. 

The presence of Commissioners from Pensilvania would be 
very agreeable to me upon this Occasion, but many of the Indians 
being already arrived, & the whole expected within 2 or 3 Days 
at the farthest, it will be impossible to have them here in sufficient 

It happens Luckily at this period that so great and general a 
Congress is to be held, as it will enable me to assure so many 
Nations of the detestation y r . Government manifests for such acts 
of cruelty, & of their further intentions to punish the guilty authors, 
at the same time I shall take care to enlarge in a proper manner 
on the Injuries you have received, however I should remark, 
that the crew of y e . Boat on the Ohio were not murdered by any 

1 Printed in Pennsylvania Archives, First Series, 4:293-95. Draft in 
mutilated form was printed in Johnson Papers, 6:125-26. 

2 Ante pp. 432-34. 

454 Sir William Johnson Papers 

of the Six Nation Confederacy ; But my regard for the Welfare 
of the Province, and my desire to apply its money in the manner 
which will best promote the Ends for which it was granted, induces 
me to observe, that altho Tribes & Emigrants in its Neighbourhood 
may at first View appear to be the most material to be reconciled, 
the case is certainly otherwise, for these Indians are not only de- 
pendant upon, but much inferior in Numbers, power, & Interest to 
the Six Nations, amongst whom the Senecas alone are above 1 000 
fighting men, whose Interests with all the Confederacys are 
Notorious, who have been represented as the Authors of the late 
Indian War, and without whose concurrence the rest will not 
attempt any publick Acts; these People, and indeed y e . whole 
Confederacy, have been greatly Irritated against us for some 
time past, which from the Acco ts . I have received from y e . 
Indians, who already come to this place is much increased, par- 
ticularly by the Murder of the White Mingo & his Family, and 
therefore in their present disposition, & from a thorough knowledge 
of their power & influence, I am of opinion that too much cannot 
be done towards preventing the effects of their resentment, until 
we can more effectually convince them of the purity of our In- 
tentions by our future Justice & good treatment for these reasons, & 
from my desire more effectually to serve the Province, I cannot 
think that less than £ 1 300 y rs . money will make much impres- 
sion, & that judiciously given, and therefore I have given directions 
for a present to that amount, which I shall deliver to such Per- 
sons, & in such manner as will best conduce to the proposed Ends, 
by shewing the Indians that the Province is Innocent of Acts 
perpetrated by Individuals, of which you are desirous to give 
them strong proofs. The shortness of the time would not admit of 
my drawing for the money for the purchase of the Presents, but I 
shall do it by the next opertunity, & instruct Mr. Croghan in 
what he is to do & say to those in your Quarter, to whom the 
remainder of the sum may be given in like manner. 

I shall not neglect acquainting you with y e . Issue of my pro- 
ceedings on this occasion, in which I shall omit no opertunity of 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 455 

testifying my regard for the Interests of your Government, & con- 
vincing you how much 

I am, Sir, 

Your most sincere Wellwisher, 
& very Humble Servant, 

W. Johnson 
The Hon'ble L T . Gov* Penn 


Received 8th March, 1 768, by T. Apty Express. 


Df. 1 

[Johnson Hall March K, 1768] 

I 1 

] since my last to [ ] Congress being 

now ended, I Judge [ ] you a few lines on that Subject, 

tho' the | | trouble which they give previous to their 

] and the necessary pacquets which must be prepared 
] delay will not permit me to be particular. — 
The Northern Indians have at Length given peace to the 
Cherokees \ ] occupied Some days of the Congress, the re- 

mainder was spent [in] publick and private Conferences and in 
condoling with them [and] reconciling them to the Late Murders 
&ca committed in [Pennsylvania, [which] My public Transac- 
tions & private discourses [wit]h their Chiefs have at Length 
produced as good an effect as [ I h]ad any reason to hope for, and 
I believe that they will take [no] rash Steps in Consequence 
thereof provided care is taken [for — future] to remove any re- 
maining Grievances and prevent | mis]take for the time 
to come, otherwise their engagements cannot [be dependjed on. 
As the Spirit of resentment will take fire with the | 

1 In handwriting of Guy Johnson. 

456 Sir William Johnson Papers 

spark it receives hereafter from the discontent they discovered 
to the late Act of Cruelty. Such deeds 'tho' they 
may ]ver, being seldom forgotten by persons of their 

] position who at bottom apprehend the Worst things 
] with some difficulty (considering my present [ 
sent an Extract to L l . Gov r . Penn, of the [ | Trans- 

actions relative to the affairs [ ] him for £ 1 300 

— the [ ] in the best manner 

[ f 


Contemporary Copy 1 

[Johnson Hall March 1-3, 1768] 

March 1 st . The Chiefs of the Mohawks arrived here on Sir 
William's call, with whom he settled the ceremony of condolence 
in the properest manner to be performed when all the nations sh d . 
be assembled. 

1 f . The Sachems and Chiefs of the Onondagas & the Senecas 
arrived, and Say'd that the Cayugaes, Oneidas, Tuscaroras, and 
Tuteloes would be here next day. — in the evening, Bunt, the 
Speaker, and several chiefs sat with Sir William 4 or five hours, 
which time he employed to the best advantage, sounding them 
&ca — 

2 d . All the Sachems, Chieftains, and Warriors of Onandaga and 
Senecas came to pay their respects to Sir William, and to let him 
know that the badness of the roads, and the many points they had 
to discuss, and settle amongst themselves, prevented their coming 
sooner — That they were now assembled, and would be ready to 
begin upon business, as soon as the Cayugaes, Oneidas, Tus- 
caroras and Tutelas were arrived, who were hourly expected. — 
Sir William told them he had expected their arrival for some 
time, and being now made acquainted w ,h . the cause of their 

2 Lines burned off. 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 8. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 457 

tardiness, bid them heartily wellcome, and Ordered Provisions, 
Tobaco & Pipes &c for them — They then requested to have 
their Arms, Axes, & other Implements mended, which Sir 
William agreed to, and gave them charge to behave themselves 
well, and not to commit any violence on the cattle of the Inhabi- 
tants, or any thing belonging to them, which their Chiefs promised 
to prevent — also acquainted them of his having forbid the 
Sale of Liquors during the congress, and his reasons for so 
doing, which they all approved of and particularly, as the Chero- 
kees were here to desire peace. 

Then the Speaker returned Sir William several strings of 
Wampum sent with Messages to them concerning the Cherokees, 
and withdrew. 

I The same day the remainder of the Coghnawageys Sanughsa- 
dageys &c arrived at three o' the Clock — 
Being all seated in the Council room, a Tiadaroo chief of the 
Wolf Tribe stood up, and in the name of the seven nations in 
Canada, expressed his satisfaction on finding Sir William well, 
having heard he had lately a fit of sickness returned thanks to the 
great spirit above for his recovery, and their safe arrival hither, 
and the pleasure of seeing him, on whom all their eyes were 
fixed. — 

Sir William thanked them for their good will towards him, 
congratulated them on their safe arrival, & heartily wellcom'd 
them here where he accquainted them that the six Nations were 
Assembled on his Summons — Then Attakullakulla came in, & 
seeing Taghtaghquisera Chief of the Cognawageys, with whom he 
formerly lived, as his adopted Brother, embraced him in the 
presence of the whole Assembly, and was greatly rejoiced to see 
him — The other expressed the like Joy on this Occasion, and 
was kindly invited by Attakullakulla to take up his Quarters w th . 
him — Sir William then Ordered them all, Pipes, Tobaco, paint, 
Drams, and Sent them to their Quarters. — 

The same day part of the Cayugaes and Oneidas arrived, and 
said that that the remainder with the Tuscarores, Tuteloes, and 
Conajoharees would be here the day following — 

458 Sir William Johnson Papers 

At Six P.M : a Messenger was sent to let S r . William know, 
that they were all arrived, but it being late, they deferred paying 
their respects as usual untill the next morning. — Monsieur 
Perthuis and Saquinet arrived here from Canada 

Thursday March 3 d . At 10 A.M. The Sachems, Chieftains & 
Warriors of the Cayugaes, Oneidas, Tuscaroras, Tuteloes, & 
Nanticokes came into the Council room ; and Thomas King being 
speaker first returned the great Spirit thanks for allowing them this 
opportunity of seeing, and shaking hands with their brother — 
then appologiz'd for their keeping him so long waiting for them, 
and assigned as reasons the badness of the roads, and depth of 
Snow, which made it impracticable for their Sachems to travel, 
but above all the consideration of the weighty affairs which he 
recommended to them, and which took up a long time to agree to 

— That on their way hither, they received the Shocking news of 
a Number of their People being killed by the Whites near to 
Chinaghsa in Pennsylvania Government, which had very near 
Occassioned them to return home, but that the Steadiness of some 
of their Sachems had prevented it. — 

Sir William thanked them for what they had said, and after 
admitting the reasons they assigned for their not coming sooner, 
wellcomed them to Johnson Hall, and told them that he expected 
they were then come with resolutions to do what was expected at 
that meeting, and that they would chearfully manifest their accord 
to peace with his Majestys freinds, and Allies, the Cherokees, 
who had long waited their Arrival. — They then according to 
custom requested to have their Arms, and other Implements re- 
paired, which Sir William Ordered to a Smith for that purpose 

— Then having called for Pipes, Tobacco and Rum, drank their 
Healths, & ordered them Provisions, after which they retired to 
their encampment. — 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 459 


Johnson Hall 5 ih . March 1768 
Dear Sir — 

I wrote You a few lines in a great hurry by return of your 
Express, who brought me y r . favour of the 22 d . Ult°. 2 with the 
enclosure from M r . Croghan, and also a Letter from Lord Shel- 
burne, acknowledging y e . receipt of my last with some remarks, 
and Amendments proposed for my Department, which have been 
honoured with his Majestys Approbation, and his Lordship as- 
sures me that I shall receive by next pacquet Instructions for 
Settling the Boundary, to which End he directs me to give the 
Indians Notice, that they may be in readiness in the Spring. — 
The Nature of this Boundary he has not explained to me, that 
which was formerly desired & mentioned to me by the Ministry, 
was, that Measures Should be taken with the consent & Con- 
currence of the Indians to Ascertain a fixed Boundary for the 
Lands to be reserved to them, and where no Settlement what- 
ever Should be allowed, on this I sounded the Indians who 
Agreed to it, & they were promised a verry handsome Return 
for what they should give up to the Provinces, In this light the 
Matter has been hitherto understood, Should it appear other- 
wise from his Lordships letter to You, I must beg to be favoured 
with the particulars least on calling them together, they may meet 
with an Unexpected Disapointment. — 

Amongst the Several Reports concerning Slump, 3 one is, that 
the Persons who rescued him have since enabled him to make his 
Escape, perhaps out of that Government, these lawless Men will 
I beleive grow so hardened, that at last nothing but Military Force 
will do with them. — That Province has Voted £2500 for 
condoling with the Indians for the Several Murders committed 

1 In William L. Clements Library: draft in mutilated form was printed 
in Johnson Papers, 6:137-38. 

2 Johnson Papers, 6:119-20. 

3 Frederick Stump. 

460 Sir William Johnson Papers 

therein, part of which I am to give them in a present here on behalf 
of Pensilvania. — 

The Six Nations are at length arrived, Amt§. (with the Cheifs 
from Canada) to 700 & upwards, & Yesterday I opened the 
Congress, went thro all the Ceremonies of Condolence for their 
Several losses, this Day I propound the peace, and introduce the 
Cherokees, to whose request I apprehend I shall be able to bring 
them to agree. Yesterday they were so Sullen that when agreable 
to Custom I took the Axe out of their Heads they omitted 
performing the Same on our parts when they came to answer me, 
a Circumstance which altho trifling in Appearance is neverthe- 
less well known to indicate discontent & Dissatisfaction by those 
acquainted with their ways. However, this Day in consequence of 
a private Meeting I had with their Cheifs to whom I spoke on 
that occasion they assembled & performed that Ceremony which 
the Day before they had neglected. — 

I have forwarded your Pacquet for Ontario by one Express, & 
that for Niagra by another both trusty hands, at this Season one 
Express would not undertake it, as Osswego is Several Days 
Journey out of the way, as they are now oblidged to travel slow 
on Ace 1 , of y e . Deep Snow, & high Water. 

I am with all imaginable Esteem 
Dear Sir 
Your most Obedient 
& Verry Humble Servant 
His Excellency W. JOHNSON 

Genr l . Gage — 

indorsed : 

S r . W m . Johnson 

5*. March 1 768. 
received March 18 th . 
Answered — 

Indian A fairs, 1766-68 461 


L.5. 1 

Johnson Hall March 5 th . 1768. 
Dear Sir 

When I wrote to you the 29 th . ult°. 2 I was in hopes by this 
time to have had it in my power to have wrote You more fully but 
the Indians have been coming in so fast ever Since, that I have 
Scarcely Leisure to write these few Lines and inclose your Instruc- 
tions for Meeting the Indians at Fort Pitt. There are already here 
above 700, including 1 7 Chiefs from Canada, and Yesterday I 
Opened the Congress, from which I have reason to Expect that 
the Peace will be well Settled with the Cherokees and the Indians 
sent home in a much better temper than they came out. 

I have heard from and Answered Lieut. Gov r . Penn and M r . 
Galloway, and Shewn them that £ 1 300, is the least can be given 
the Indians here in behalf of the Province, which Sum would 
have made but a Small figure had they not been called down on 
other business. Those Indians who are Inferior to and dependant 
on the Six Nations, would not undertake any publick Act without 
the Privity and consent of the Majority particularly of the 
Senecas, who are not a little enraged at the Loss of the White 
Mingo. The remainder you can Lay out to the best advantage 
with M r . Wharton as you desire he having Goods at Fort Pitt, 
Agreeable to my Letter to the Governor and Speaker that you 
shou'd dispose of the £ 1 200, as a present for the Tribes in that 
Quarter on which Subject I wou'd write you, as you will find in 
your Instructions so that in fact no more can be said to th[ose] 3 
Gentlemen who ought to be at Liberty to send Commis[ 
with you or not. 

I would have you by all means to be particular in the Cere- 
monys with the Indians upon this occasion, to acquaint them with 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Cadwalader Collection; draft 
in mutilated form printed in Johnson Papers, 6: 1 36-37. 

2 Johnson Papers, 6:122-23. 

3 Brackets indicate missing portion of manuscript. 

462 Sir William Johnson Papers 

what is doing here thereon, to represent to them any Murder or 
Outrages they have been Guilty of, and recommend a Good 
Treatment of the Cherokees, who will return their way, when 
you shall hear further from me. 

I have a Letter from Lord Shelburne with an Account of the 
Receipt of my Last and Expressing his Majesties intire approba- 
tion of the proposals with regard to Indian Affairs I last trans- 
mitted and Assureing me y l . I shall receive Orders concerning 
the Boundary Line by next Pacquet. 

The Traders Petition which you transmitted with those before 
in my hands, I shall Answer as Soon as my present hurry is 
over — 

4 I wish You a pleasant time of [ 
and am, Sir 

Your Sincere Freind 

& verry Humble Servant 

W. Johnson 
George Croghan Esq r . 

P. All the Males of my Family are here attending y e . Congress 
& Desire to be kindly remembered to you — 


D.S. 1 

[Johnson Hall March 5* 1768] 

Instructions for George Croghan Esq r . Deputy Agent for Indian 
Affairs — 

The Late Barbarous Murder committed by an Inhabitant of 
Pensilvania on the bodies of Ten Indians within that Province, 
happening at a period when the several Nations were already 
but too much exasperated against us renders it particularly neces- 
sary that you should Meet the Tribes on that Frontier at Fort Pitt, 

4 From this point, closing and postscript, in Sir William's hand. 
1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Cadwalader Collection. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 463 

in order to Condole with them and endeavour to remove their 
Resentment on that and former Occasions whilst I do the Like at 
the General Congress now to be held at this place with the Princi- 
pal Nations. — 

The House of Assembly of Pensilvania having Voted £2500 
for these purposes of which £ 1 300 is Judged necessary to be 
given this way, the remaining £ 1 200, you will Lay out in the best 
manner possible so as to purchase a good and proper Assortment 
of Goods for the present, to be delivered them in the most Publick 
Manner on the part of that Province after having performed The 
Ceremonys usual on those Occasions and reconciled them to the 
late Act of Cruelty. 

After the first Ceremonys you will take the Hatchet, out of 
their Heads and bury it deep under a large Pine Tree so as it 
shall be no more found, with regard to which and the other Cere- 
monys no part whereof Should be omitted, You will be guided by 
your own knowledge of their Customs in Similar cases. — 

You will then Acquaint them of the concern felt by that 
Government for the late Murders, and that they will omit nothing 
towards apprehending the Guilty Authors in order to their 
Suffering death for the Same, That they hope that the Indians 
will consider it as the Rash Act of an Individual Against the 
inclination and without the knowledge or Connivance of the 
Publick, and that as a Proof of their Regard they are providing 
by Wholesome Laws for the preventing of all Acts of Cruelty 
and Injustice for the future, and on these Subjects you will enlarge 
as much as the nature of the Case appears to require, and you will 
at the Same time take notice in the best manner you can of the 
Murders with which some of their People have been charged and 
of the necessity and Reasonableness there is for their Making us 
Satisfaction, the better to Intitle them to receive the Like from us 
on the same Occasions. 

You will then inform them that the like measures are taking 
here with the Six Nations, Coghnarvagas, and other Chiefs from 
Canada, ammounting to about 700, who are now Satisfied that 
it was the Act of an Individual who when apprehended will Suffer 

464 Sir William Johnson Papers 

death for it, which is all the Satisfaction could be obtained had he 
killed as many English. 

You are likewise to inform them by my direction That a Peace 
is at Length effected and made between the Six Nations 
Coghnawagas &c, and the Cherokees, who came here to demand 
it of them, to which I expect they the Shawanese &c. will Agree, 
and to that end the Cherofyees, are to go from hence to the Shaw- 
anese, & Delaware, Towns, in their way home, and where I ex- 
pect that they as our Brothers, and under his Majesties protection 
will meet with good Treatment, and be enabled to return to their 
Nation with the News of their Admission into the great Chain of 
friendship which binds us all together in the strictest tyes of 
Friendship, a Friendship which I hope they will all Consider as 
Sacred and Indissolluble. — 

The Relations and Friends of those lately killed as well as of 
those who formerly Suffered in that Province, should receive 
particular favor on this occasion, this you will therefore be carefull 
about as their discontent would affect the rest beyond their own 

When these points are Settled and that you have done what 
you can to remove that Spirit of Resentment which has appeared 
so much of late, by Assuring them that any Suspicions they enter- 
tain of us are without Just Grounds and that every measure is 
taking for the Security of their Persons and property. You should 
endeavour to find out the true Origin of the intended Meetings 
amongst the Indians and endeavour to prevent their taking place. 

Lastly you are without delay to transmit to me Copys of your 
whole proceedings with such Informations and discoveries as may 
have come to your knowledge. — 

Given under my Hand at Johnson 
Hall March 5*. 1 768 — 

W Johnson 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 465 

Contemporary Copy 1 

New York March I5 ib . 1768 — 

Dear Sir, 

I have been favored with your Letters of the 18 th . 2 & 28 th . 3 
Febx. and 5 th . of March. 4 It's Said, but by what Authority I cant 
tell Except the Agent of this Province who writes it, that the 
Appointment of the New Governments is for the present laid 
aside — 

The Money You desire will be paid Lieut. Roberts, 5 and 
Managed in the Manner You point out to Me. Captain Maturin 6 
had the Voucher for the Sum Paid at Fort Pitt, & has transmitted 
the Same to You, by the Hands of M r . Croghan. — 

With respect to the reasons given by the Traders for discharg- 
ing Major Roger's 7 Draughts, I can't admit them to be Valid; No 
Man will give Money or Goods for Bills unless he thinks, or is 
made to believe, that the Person who draws them is Empowered 
so to do ; And the Same reason may be given for Paying the Bills 
drawn by Every Commander of Commissary at any of the Posts, 
who Shall be wicked enough to defraud the Government, and 
Such an Example would Encourage all the Traders to Advance 
them, as to an Unlimited Credit. — 

Your Letter of 28 th . February only Acknowledge's the Receipt 
of the Letters Sent You by Express from hence — 

I now come to your Letter of the 5 th . of March, and that You 
may be Exactly informed of what Lord Shelburne wrote to Me 
concerning the Boundary, I transmit You an Extract from His 
Letter relating thereto. His Lordship Says, The Running of a 
Boundary Line between the Several Provinces which have not 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Ante pp. 428-30. 

3 Not found. 

4 Ante pp. 459-60. 

5 Lieutenant Benjamin Roberts, commissary at Michilimackinac. 

6 Captain Gabriel Maturin. 

7 Major Robert Rogers, former commandant at Michilimackinac. 

466 Sir William Johnson Papers 

yet Compleated it and the Indian Hunting Grounds. From hence 
I have concluded that those Provinces who have not yet done it, 
Should do it in the Same Manner as those who have Compleated 
it. Georgia, South and North Carolina, are the only Provinces 
who have yet fixed their Boundarys, but I have not heared of any 
Gratuity given by the Crown to the Indians for any Tracts they 
may have Yielded at the Settling of Said Boundarys. Nor do I 
Imagine that the Crown Means any more Should be done in this 
respect, when the other Provinces who have hitherto Neglected 
it shall fix their Several Boundarys. But that Certain Limits 
should be fixed by Mutual Agreement. I understand that the 
Indians allow the Province of Pensylvania to Extend Some 
Miles West of the Ohio; But the Lands between the further- 
most Settlements, and the Ohio being yet Unpurchased, they 
are not to be Settled till they are Purchased. Now if all the 
Lands Still Unpurchased, within the Limits Allowed by the 
Indians to belong to Pensylvania, are to be purchased, The Quere 
is, who is to Pay for them at the Settling of the Boundary? If 
the Crown Admits M r . Penn's Claim, it is not reasonable to 
Suppose She will make the Purchase, and Make M r . Penn a 
present of the Lands. And M r . Penn as far as I have heared, but 
it's only Hearsay, Never designed more than to purchase those 
Lands by Degrees, as fast as he should find means of Settling 
them. And as for the other Provinces, it was much in the same 
way. Particular's Petitioned to purchase Lands of the Indians, 
tho' within the Allowed Limits of the Provinces. Private People 
always became the Purchasers, I know no Instance Except at 
first Settling of a Province, where the Crown has purchased any 
Large Tracts. And I always conceived the intent of the General 
Boundary was, that the Indians were to fix the Point to which 
they Allowed the Jurisdiction of Each Province to Extend, 
beyond which, they would not Suffer any purchases to be made, 
but reserve all beyond it to themselves and Posterity. That the 
Unpurchased Lands within the Limits were to remain Unsettled 
as their Property till they Should be purchased and to be Sold by 
them as People Should purchase them. — 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 467 

I only give You the Ideas I had formed of the Intention in 
drawing these Boundary Lines. If You have received Accounts 
more clear and Explicit, whereby the Crown intended to purchase 
at once all the Unpurchased Lands belonging to the Indians, to 
the Points that Shall be Agreed upon, as the Limits of the Several 
Provinces, You must certainly be right in your Conjectures on this 

I have heared nothing Since my last worth Communicating. 
There are Letters lately arrived at Philadelphia from Fort Pitt, 
but I hear of Nothing Material from thence. — 

I am, with great Regard, 
Dear Sir 
Sir Will m . Johnson Bar*. 



To Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 , 

Johnson hall 
New York 15*. March 1768 


Copy 1 

Johnson Hall, March 1 6th, 1768. 

Since my last Return of your Express I have had the Congress 2 
with the several Nations, and the most troublesome I ever held, 

1 Printed in Pennsylvania Colonial Records, 9:495-96. Date, March 
1 6, and text are given as printed, varying slightly from the draft. Draft 
in mutilated form was printed in Johnson Papers, 6:154-56, dated March 
1 5, 1 768; see also Johnson Calendar, p. 390. 

2 The draft of the minutes of this Congress which Johnson inclosed with 
his letter is in the Pennsylvania State Library, and is printed in the 
Pennsylvania Colonial Records, 9:496-506; also printed in Doc. Rel. to 
Col. Hist. N. Y., 8:38-53. 

468 Sir William Johnson Papers 

yet I have the pleasure to acquaint you, that the Pains I took 
amongst the principal Indians in private, has produced a much 
more favourable Disposition in them than before, which is as 
much as I could possibly expect. To remove their discontent 
totally, when we consider the Nature and Number of their 
Grievances, was more than could possibly be done; nor can it 
be expected, till they experience the Change in us. I inclose you 
that part of the proceedings which relates to the Affair in your 
Province, the rest, containing the Proceedings on behalf of the 
Cherokees, &c a ., having no connection with it. 

The disagreeable News of the late Murder reached the six 
Nations on their way hither, as well as that the Murderer had 
been rescued, which had the like to have occasioned them to return 
back. On their Arrival, their discontent was but too visible, and 
that Affair was considered by them as an Introduction to some- 
thing worse, which their natural Jealously had long caused them 
to suspect, but the Pains I took with their Chiefs in Private, and 
the many Arguments I made use of fully to explain the Acts 
lately passed by the Province, and the Steps which were every- 
where taking for the future prevention of Murders and encroach- 
ments, together with the Light in which I placed the Present 
ordered by your Government, produced as good an Effect as I 
had Reason to hope for, and brought them, in the End, to a more 
favourable way of thinking, in which I am hopeful they may be 
continued, if they find these Laws operating in their behalf. The 
Number of Indians who attended on this occasion was 760, besides 
which, 70 more arrived during the Congress, some of whom were 
related to the deceased. These I took particular notice of, and, as 
I laid out the Sum intended, in such Presents as would best agree 
with their wants, it has proved very agreeable to them. 

I now take the liberty to draw on you, in favour of Mr. James 
Plyn, 3 Merchant at Schenectady, or Order for thirteen hundred 
Pounds, Pennsylvania Currency; and suppose that Mr. Croghan 

3 James Phyn. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 469 

is, by this time, enabled to proceed to Fort Pitt, agreeable to the 
Instructions 4 I have sent him, to treat with the Indians in that 
Quarter, so as to put a Period to that disagreeable Business, which 
I have endeavoured, to the best of my Power and Influence, to 
conclude in the best manner for the Peace of the Province. 

I am so hurried at this time, in sending off part of the Cherokee 
Delegates by land, with a large Body of the Six Nations to escort 
them Home, by the way of Fort Pitt, that I have only time to 
assure you of my readiness always to serve you and the Family. 

As I am, Sir 

Your most Obedient and very humble Servant 

W. Johnson 

P.S. A Gentleman from Connecticut, who dined with me Yester- 
day, told me that that Government was determined to send home 
a Agent in the Spring to Sollicit the Susquehanna Affair. 


Johnson Hall March 16*. 1768 
Dear Sir — 

The 5 th . Ins 1 . 2 I had the pleasure of writing to You, & 
informing You of the Arrival of the Indians with whom I have 
now Just concluded Matters. I shall as soon as I get rid of them 
all enclose You the principal parts of their proceedings, from 
which You will see that they have been severely discontented, and 
I heartily wish that they may be thoroughly satisfied. — 

4 Ante pp. 462-64. 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Ante pp. 459-60. 

470 Sir William Johnson Papers 

What I had formerly said to them, as well my private Con- 
gresses after their last Arrival has induced them to agree to a 
Peace with the Cherokees, and they have Subscribed to an 
Instrument on Parchment to be deposited with me as a Testimony 
thereof, after having gone thro' all their own Forms (w h . are 
many) on that Occasion. — The Number of the Indians present 
was 760, besides which, Several more have come here Since, 
amongst whom were some of the Relations of those lately 
Murdered in Pensilvania, the news of which reached the Six 
Nations on their way to this place, and had verry nigh occasioned 
them to return Home, w h . would have been a verry unhappy 
Affair. On this Occasion I condoled with them in the fullest & 
most solemn Manner first on behalf of the Public in General & 
afterwards on that of Pensilvania in particular, and having in- 
formed them of the Laws they had passed in that Province for 
removing Encroachments, and of the other Steps which were 
taking for their Redress, I at last brought them to be better 
reconciled to it, tho I apprehend they are not fully satisfied in 
their Minds, and that they expect the Last Murder will be an 
Introduction to what their old Jealousy has Suggested, especially 
as they had heard of the Rescue of the Murderers. — 

My private Conferrences with y e . principal Men of Each 
Nation, Joined to those I held in public have however given a 
check to their Measures for y e . present their future behaviour will 
solely depend upon the Redress of Greiviances, removing En- 
croachments and putting a Stop to Murders & ca ., if this is done, I 
can answer for their being a more reasonable People. 

Of the Names sent to me (by L f . Gov r . Pen) of Persons 
murdered in & about Pensilvania & ca . since the Peace in 1 764, 
there appears not to have been one Killed by any of the Six 
Nations, neither were they concerned in the Murder of the 1 On 
Ohio. Notwithstanding which I took Care to set these Murders 
forth in a Strong light to them. — 

I have been so hurried, and am still So pestered with their 
many demands, Discourses &ca previous to their departure, as 
well as with fitting out the Cherokees & a large body of the Six 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 471 

Nations who Accompany them Home, that I have only time at 
present to add, that, I am 

Dear Sir 
Your most Obedient 

& verry Humble Servant 

W Johnson 

His Excellency 
General Gage — 

P S I send this by M r . Watts Interpreter, 3 who behaved verry 
well all the time, & took great pains to keep y e . Cherokees in 
proper Order — who have been here 79 Days. — I rec d . the 
enclosed Acc ts . Yesterday by Express from Mess rs . Baynton 
Wharton & Morgan, who have Drafts on Me for the Amount of 
both. I have all the Vouchers by me Certified by L f . Co 1 . Reed. 4 
So that, (if approved of by You) I have wrote them Gentlemen 
by return of their Express that I would recommend to You the 
payment of the whole — either to them or their Order, w h . I 
believe they are in great want of — 

W. Johnson 

indorsed : 

Sir W m . Johnson 
March 16*. 1768. 
received March 30 th . — 
Inclosing two Acc ts . of — 
Commissi. Cole stationed in the 
Illinois Country, viz 1 , from 24 th . 
Sep 1 . 1 766 to 25*. March 1 767. 
And from 24*. March to 25*. Sep 1 . 
1 767. — 

Answered — 

3 Mr. Watts, the Cherokee interpreter, is mentioned by Gage, Johnson 
Papers, 6:453. 

4 Lieutenant Colonel John Reid of the 42d regiment. 

472 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Johnson Hall March 16*. 1768 — 
Dear Sir — 

Aitafyullakulla, Alias Little Carpenter (who with Some of his 
People, Conducted by Some of the Six Nations is now Setting of 
for his Country, by the way of Fort Pitt) will deliver You this, 
Should he [ | You there, w h . I doubt. In case he should, I 

would have them well used, and Supplied with some Amunition 
& provision if wanted, — I must say, I never See the Six Nations 
so hearty in any thing, as in this Peace, and so were the 
Caghnawageys &ca. The Cherokees tell me that their Nation & 
the Shawanese are upon verry good terms, if so there remains but 
the Delawares in y*. Quarter for them to make peace with, w h . 
may be easily Accomplished after what has been done here. — 

The Interpreter Watts with Auconnastota the Raven King, 
& one More goes by Water to Charlestown, & Set off to Morrow. 
— I have my own trouble with them all, nay I never see them so 
craving as at this Treaty. Should any of the Hurons be at y r . 
Treaty You will doubtless let them also know w l . has been done 
here, & I expect they will come in to it. — I am so Hurried 
Setting off this party, that I have only time to wish y[ j all 

Success, & to assure You, I am with great truth 

Dear Sir 

George Croghan Esq r . — 

My Compliments to M r . M c .Kee — 

Y rs . Sincerely 

W Johnson 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Cadwalader Collection. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 473 

Contemporary Copy 1 

Philad. March 18, 1768 

Dear Sir 

Two Days ago, I was favoured With y r . Letter of the 5th 
of this Month, inclosing Me y r . Instruct 5 , to proceed to Fort Pitt; 
And as from late Letters I have rec d . from both Thomas McKee 
& his Son No Time Ought to be lost before I arrive there. I shall 
therefore this Day leave this Place. — 

Upon receiving y r . Instructions, I waited On Gov r . Penn & the 
Provincial Commissions & strongly urged the Propriety of Send- 
ing Up Commis rs . to represent the Province at the Treaty : — But 
I am informed, by the Speaker, That the Gentlemen Who were 
named by the General Assembly for this Service, met yesterday, 
And chose rather to submit the Whole affair to Myself. — 

In the conducting this Conference, your Honour may be as- 
sured, That I shall in Every respect, pay the strictest attention to 
y r . Instructions And use my Utmost Address for the Good of his 
Majestys [general] 2 Intrest, as well as placing the Conduct of this 
Province, in the most advantageous Light. 

I have not the least Doubt, But as so many Indians have met 
you And the Congress was opened — You will be able to settle 
every Thing entirely to y r . Satisfaction And especially as so many 
Chiefs [had met you] were arrived from Canada; Who I am sure, 
will upon y r . Advice, back the Mohocks in carrying Every Thing, 
for the Good of the Service, thro' the Six Nations. I shall Make it 
a Point with the Shawanese & Delawares to grant a Safe Passage 
[i/jem] and give a good Treatment to the Cherokees, thro' their 
Country. — 

It gives me great Pleasure, that you have rec d . an Answer 
from Lord Shelburne to the Representations you made last Fall 
On Indian Affairs & That They have met with his Majestys 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Cadwalader Collection. Printed 
in part, in mutilated form, in Johnson Papers, 6: 1 61-62. 

2 Words italicized and in brackets are crossed out in the manuscript. 

474 Sir William Johnson Papers 

entire Approbation. — I hope the Orders for the Boundary, will 
be So explicit, as that you will be able to settle it upon the Most 
permanent Footing. That so, Peace may be {thoroughly] fully 
restored to the Provinces and the Natives [be generally] Satis- 
fied. — 

As soon as I arrive at Fort Pitt, I shall inform your Hon r . of 
the Temper of the Indians in that Quarter [</iere] and So soon as 
I have finished the Business committed to my Care there, I shall 
immedy. Set off for Johnson Hall, In Order to attend you for the 
Summer ; I having Settled all my affairs in this Province & rented 
My Place, Near this City, — As I promised You when We 

I cannot close this Letter, Without informing you, that yester- 
day the Royal Regiment of Ireland celebrated their Saints Day 
— at Peg Mullers. — They paraded thro' the Streets & fired at 
the Coffee House &c. — And then dined at Pegs — Where 
there was no Want of good Beeff & Claret, [And be assured] 
& Where I assure you y r . Honor & the Six Nations, Were not 
forgot, [by us] ; — To Day the Whole Choir dine With at the 
Center & from There I shall take my Departure for Fort Pitt, 
With, I fear a very aching Head. 

Please to present My Comp ls . to Sir John, Captain Clause, 
Captain Guy Johnson & the Ladies And believe to be, With 
great Respect & Truth y r . Honor's — 

Most Ob 1 , hble S vt . 

To GC 

Sir William Johnson 


Painted from a miniature by Daniel Huntington, 1905. Courtesy of the 
Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 475 


Dear Sir 

I had the honor of yours 8 Ins'. 2 with an order for the Amo 1 . 
of Major Goreham's acco 1 . £ 1 1 4 . . 1 . . 7% Curr>\ & also the 
Amo 1 . of the Marble Slabb £16 which is paid, & for w ch . I 
thank you. Major Goreham expect you will soon send me a 
further Bill for his Sallary — We have not a syllable of news 
of any kind here, the Feb>\ Mail & the London ships are hourly 

I am pleased that American affairs seem to be getting into some 
regularity, & that we are to have so good a Man as Lord Hills- 
borough to superintend us. 

Y r . late Negotiations with the Indians have terminated happily 
for the Provinces, and must do you great Honor — 

I am extreamly sorry to hear of y r . ill state of Health, & wish 
the Salt water may relieve you, & I am glad to hear you propose 
that remedy, as it gives us the pleasure of seeing you here. The 
best place for you will be on Long Island near the Narrows — I 
am always with much Esteem 

Dear Sir 

Your most obed'. hum Serv f . 

Hugh Wallace 
Sir Will Johnson Bar*. 
Johnson Hall 

1 In possession of Mrs. Harrie F. Reed, Haverford, Pa. 

2 See Johnson Papers, 6:187-88. 

476 Sir William Johnson Papers 


/H. .JL_/.^J. 

Guy Park April 23 d . 1768 

Dear Sir — 

When Your favour of the 4 fh . Ins*. 2 arrived I was verry unwell, 
and incapable of Answering it, but having Just recovered Strength 
enough to proceed on my Journey, I was this Day met at this 
place by y r . Express with Your favours of the 18 th . Ins 1 . 3 & the 
Enclosures. — 

Lord Shelburne has enclosed me a Copy of the Letter from the 
Lords of Trade, which is a recital of the Several Reports trans- 
mitted to them at different times, with regard to the limits therein 
described they are pretty exact, except their beginning at Owegy* 
which on a perusal of my letters to their Lordships they will find 
was not so easily agreed to, there being much opposition made to 
it by some of the Nations, on Acc f . of their Tribes living within 
them Limits, Nevertheless I hope to obtain their general agree- 
ment to it at the final Settlement of these Matters. — 

The only method I know of for carrying this Plan into Execu- 
tion will be to assemble all y e . Indians concerned in which Number 
besides the Six Nations & the Seneca's of Ohio, the Shatoanese 
& Delaivares tho their Dependants Should be considered, as Some 
of the Lands actually belonged to them formerly, and as their 
Vicinity to Pensilvania & Virginia makes their perfect Agreement 
necessary. At the Same time, I think the Governments concerned 
(w h . are those You have mentioned Maryland having no concern 
in it) Should be apprized of this Generall Congress, & Consulted 
on such points as may effect them, & may if they please Send 
Commissioners to be present to ratify it under the Seals of their 

1 In William L. Clements Library; draft in mutilated form was printed 
in Johnson Papers, 6:205-07. 

2 Johnson Papers, 6:176-77. 

3 Ibid. 6:200-01. 

4 See Map of the Boundary Line Proposed by Lords of Trade, in 
Johnson Papers, 5 :286. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 477 

respective Provinces, 'Tho I think it best for me to Conclude the 
affair on behalf of the Crown for the whole, & afterwards when 
Indians are appointed to see the Line run, Each Province can 
Send Commissioners to be present & ratify it on their parts, by this 
means Provincial disputes and difficulties about each Provinces 
Share will be avoided, & afterwards that due regard may be paid 
to the Limits so Agreed upon, the Legislature of each Province 
may enact Laws describing such Limits, making it felony to any 
who Should transgress by encroaching beyond them. I cannot See 
any thing farther to be done by the Colonies, as all the rest is I 
presume to be transacted by the Superintendant. 

You will doubtless write upon these Heads to y e . Governm ls . 
concerned, as I purpose to do, I have already received a letter 
from M r . Blair 5 (who at present holds the Administration of 
Virginia) relative thereto, which I have Answered, and desired a 
Map or Survey of that Frontier as I shall require of the rest, it 
being extremely necessary at the Settlement of the Affair with the 
Indians. — That Province is desireous to have its Line terminate 
at y e . S. W. Corner of Pensilvania which will be agreed to, as to 
determining the parts to be assigned to this, or that Province I 
am entirely of your opinion that it would be verry difficult to bring 
it to a Conclusion. However if the Virginia Line terminates where 
I have mentioned, it may be adjusted with the Others, they taking 
the parts which fall within their respective Claims. — The 
Provinces can be soon Consulted, but it will take at least three 
Months to Assemble all the Indians necessary, by which time I 
am in hopes I shall be returned, & able to attend it, if not, my 
Deputy here will conduct the Affair, as he will likewise transact 
all other business during my Absence. — 

At present I cannot think of any thing farther on that head 
necessary except as to the place of Meeting & the Sum which may 
be requisite, as to the former, it will certainly be cheapest to meet 
them in this Province, for the Latter, it must be a considerable 

5 John Blair (1687-1771) was acting governor of Virginia after the 
death of Governor Fauquier, March 3, 1 768. 

478 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Sum, as it will be an Important Transaction, but it is difficult at 
present to Say how much. — 

I am happy to find that you approve so Much of the Transac- 
tions at the late Congress, and am fully of your Opinion that it 
will be impossible to make Regulations for the Indian Trade 
agreable to the Wishes or Interests of everry Trader. The General 
Interests of the Whole, & the Security of Peace on the Frontiers is 
what alone should be pursued. — My Deputy has Directions to 
address You on these Heads, and is acquainted with all the 
Affairs of the Department. — 

M r . Coles 6 Ace 1 , is great indeed, & Since I find by one of his 
Letters that there is no prospect of his retrenching I think it best to 
withdraw him. As to what may be given as reasons for admitting 
them, Unless the Securing the Numerous Tribes in that Quarter 
to our Interest, preventing them from withdrawing, and receiving 
& entering into Treatys with so many Nations who were before 
Strangers to Us, or something like that may be considered as Such, 
And the Government may be advised that such Expences will 
abate for the future. — 

I am advised to go by way of New England for the benifit of 
Exercise in Travelling by Land, & so to some of the Isleands 
near New London in order to enjoy y e . benifit of the Air as well 
as some Ease & Retirement. It would be a real pleasure to me 
could I wait upon You, but in case I am deprived of an opertunity, 
The Affairs of the Department here, are placed in such a manner 
in the hands of Co 1 . Johnson, 7 that, I persuade myself nothing 
will be neglected, and You will be pleased in answer to this, or on 
any other Subject to Signify Your thoughts & Directions to 

Be Assured Dear Sir, that I am always with the most Cordial 

Your most Obedient, 

Much Oblidged, 
& faithfull Humble Servant 
W Johnson 

6 Edward Cole, commissary for Illinois. 

7 Guy Johnson. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 479 

His Excellency 
General Gage — 

P S. Magra is gone for Canada I wish he had left this Conti- 
nent entirely. — A principal cause of my going the Rout I men- 
tion is to avoid too much Company w h . in my present verry low 
State would exhaust my Spirits. — 


Sir W m . Johnson Bar 1 . 
April 23< 1 768. 
received April 30 lh . — 
Answered — 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Detroit 25 th . April 1768. — 
Sir — 

This minute an Express arrived from Michillimacinac by which 
we are informed that Major Roger's villainous designs are con- 
firmed, he has attempted, or at least layd a Scheme to make his 
escape and has given a note of hand to a Frenchman one Joseph 
Louis Aince 2 to pay him 100£ <}$ ann for five Years to take him 
to meet Cap 1 . Hopkins 3 to the Mississippi, he laid Another 
scheme to get Cap f . Spiesmaker, 4 and Lieu*. Christie 5 out of the 
Fort, who were to be deliv d . to some Indians he named, that he 
was sure were in his Interest, and then he was to make himself 
master of the Garrison, having much the greatest part of the 
Soldiery in his Interest 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 Joseph Louis Ainse (Ans). 

3 Captain Joseph Hopkins, in the French service. 

4 Captain Frederick Christopher Spiesmacher of the 60th regiment, com- 
mandant at Michilimackinac. 

5 Lieutenant John Christie of the 60th regiment. 

480 Sir William Johnson Papers 

The above Frenchman is the person who gave the first Informa- 
tion & Cap*. Spiesmacker has appointed him Interpreter for the 
present & says he hopes he will be rewarded — As there are two 
letters from thence I believe you will have a more particular 
account of it than I can give you. 

I have sent a Belt to Pondiac to induce him to come here, but 
if he has had any knowledge of this affair probably it will not 
have the desired Effect. — In a former letter I think I have 
mentioned to you that when Rogers passed this Post he desired 
M r . Labute 6 to tell Pondiac he wou'd be glad to see him at 
Michillimackinac the next Spring. — The Chippaweighs have 
been in great fear of the Six nations. but I believe that Jealousy 
is now beginning to Subside. — I am w th . Respect &c Yours — 

Jehu Hay 7 

Contemporary Copy 1 

[Schenectady, April 26, 1768] 

Proceedings at a Meeting with the Mohiccons held at 
Sckenectady April 26 th . 1 768 — by Col°. Johnson 

Present — Gy. Johson Esq r . Depy. Ag*. for Ind n . Affairs 
M'. Campbell 2 
M r . J. B. Van Epps Interpreter 

The old chief, namely Kaysoakamake spoke as follows — 
Father — 

We are happy in seeing you hearty, and well this day and I am 
glad to find my self able to speak chearfully to you, & to remind 
you of the old agreement entered into with our Forefathers, which 

6 Pierre Labute. 

7 Lieutenant Jehu Hay of the 60th regiment, commissary at Detroit. 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 8. 

2 Daniel Campbell of Schenectady. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 481 

we are now come to renew, and to let you know, that we still 
observe it faithfully. And we request that if any of our People as 
far as the High-Lands should misbehave, our Sachems may be 
told of it, as they will do you Justice. — 
Father — 

On your first arrival amongst us, we entered into a Covenant 
Chain with you, and took you into the Bonds of friendship, which 
we fastned to a Tree. We now come to grease that Chain least it 
should contract rust, and we assure you, — that we shall allways 
be ready to attend, or Serve you should you have any Occasion 
for us, and that we would be glad to hear, early any news from 
you, or if any bad reports stirring in the country, that we might be 
made acquainted with them. And our principal reason for coming 
to see you at this time is to be informed if any thing ill has 
happened, and to offer our Services, — and we assure you, that 
we are very happy to See you so well and hearty, and that the 
day is so fair, and bright — 

A Belt of 7 Rows — 

We are now in tears, we have lost every thing. — The Patroon 
has got all our Lands, and we have nothing for them, and being 
old & helpless, I have undertaken this Journey in hopes that these 
things may be considered, and that my Father will assist me, and 
likewise that I may get some consideration for these Lands — and 
we beg we may have some provisions and a little Clothing to cover 
us — 

Gave three Strings — 

To which Coll. Johnson gave the following answer — 

Children — 

I am Sorry to hear of your Losses, and Complaints as to the 
Lands you mention. — I Shall make some enquirys into these 
matters for your relief — in the mean time I recommend it to you, 
to apply yourselves to Industry, by which your Young men can 
very well subsist. It is not in my power to consider all your 
wants, — nevertheless, as a Testimony of my regard for your 
fidelity I Shall order a Blanket, some Provisions, Rum, and 

482 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Amunition to enable you to kill Game on the road, and I heartily 
wish that your conduct may allways entitle you to this Notice, and 
that by your prudence, Industry, and Quiet, you may continue 
in the esteem of the English. — 

Then took Leave & departed — 


Philad". April 29th. 1768 

The Stocking Weaver disapointed Me, otherwise I should 
before Now have forwarded the Dozen of large Cotton, Which 
I got made for you; — However I have this Day sent Them, by 
the Land Stage to New York, to the Care of Doctor Levine 2 (as 
He has little to do and will be fond to have an Oppertunity of 
showing his attention to your Interest) With Orders to Him, to 
forward Them by the first Albany Sloop, to the particular Care of 
M r . Cartright Innkeeper — ; Your Honor will therefore be 
pleased to give the Necessary Directions, for getting Them from 
Thence. They are packed in a small Bag directed to you, That 
They might not be injured, in the Transportation. 

I flatter myself, They will please you, as They are as fine as 
the pattern Stocking & much larger. We have no News from M r . 
Croghan — except That He got Safe to Pittsburgh, Notwith- 
standing the Resolutions of the Black Boys 3 to the Contrary. 

I am with great Respect & Esteem Sir 

Y r . much Obliged & faithfull Serv 1 . 

Sam l . Wharton 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Gratz Collection. 

2 Dr. John Levine of New York. 

3 The Paxton Boys of Pennsylvania. 



From the woodcut of a miniature painted in England, in possession of the 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

Indian A fairs, 1766-68 483 


To Charged PM 4.. 16 

to S'. W m . 

The Honourable Sir William Johnson 

Superintendent of Indian Affairs &c 

a at 

<P post Johnson Hall — 





Phil-. Api. 29*. 1 768 

From M r . Wharton 



[Michilimackinac, April I768] 1 

The Honourable Sir William Johnson Bar 1 . 
To William Johnston D r . 
To Smith s . work for the Indians 

June 12 th . 

1 767 To mending a Gun £ 3. .6. 

To mending three Hoes 3 . . 6 . 

To Laying a wood Ax 2 . 

19 th . To mending a Gun 4. 

26 th . To one Steele 1 . . 6 

July 20 th . To mending a Gun 1 . .6 

25 th . To mending a kettle 3 . 

4 In Sir William's hand. 

1 Date from Johnson Calendar, p. 393. 

484 Sir William Johnson Papers 

To mending a Gun . .9. 

27* D° 1..6. 

To mending a Gun Lock 1 . .6. 

Sep r . 9 th . To mending two Axes 2 . . 6 . 

To mending a Gun 4 . . 6 . 

D° 5. 

D° D° 8. 

D° D°. . . .D° 4. 

D° D°. ..D°. ..Do 1..6. 

Oct r . 5 th . To mending a trap 4. .6. 

To one Ax for an Indian 4 . . 6 . 

To mending a trap 1 . .6. 

To Laying an Ax 2 . 

To one New Ax 6. 

D° 6. 

To one Steele 1 . .6. 

To one Beaver Spear 1 . . 6 . 

To mending a Gun Lock 1 . . 6 . 

Nov 1 ". To one New Ax 5 . 

To mending two Axes 3 . . 9 . 

To mending two kettles 1 . . 6 . 

To mending a Gun 3 . 

Dec r . To mending a Gun Lock 1 . .6. 

D° 1..6. 

D° D° 1..6. 

]ry 1 768 To mending two Gun Locks ... 4 . . 6 . 

To mending a Gun 3 . . 6 . 

To work Done to a pipe Axe. . 7. 

To mending a Gun 2 . . 6 . 

D° 6.. 

D° D° 3.. 6. 

To mending two Axes 2 . . 

[to one] Steele 1 . .6. 

[ ] 1..6. 


Indian A fairs, 1766-68 485 

Brought over from the Other Side 

£6. .7. .0 


1 768 To mending a Gun 6 

To mending a Gun Lock 5 

D° 8 

D° D° 5 

D° D° 2. .6 

To mending a Gun 3 . . 6 

D° 5. 

D° D° 3 

D° D° D° 7 

Gun Lock mended 6 

To Gun Mended 4 

To mending a Barrell 2 . .6. 

To mending a Gun 12 

To Brass mounting for a Rifle 

Gun 1 • • 

To mending a Gun Lock 3 

Do 5 

D° D° 3 

D° D° 4 

To mending a Gun 2 

D° 8 

Lock mended 4 . . 6 . 

Gun mended 6 

Lock mended 5 

D° 3 

D° 1..6. 

Rifle mended 5 

Lock mended 2 . . 6 

D° 5.. 6 

mending a Gun 7 

D° 8 

486 Sir William Johnson Papers 

D° D° 5 

mending a Gun Lock 4 . . 6 . . 

D° 4 

D° D° 2. .6.. 

To two trap Springs for Ciuguas 8 
To mending a pipe Ax for mo- 
hawk Indian 4 

April To mending a Gun 1 

D°. 2[ ] 

To mending a Large Brass kettle 

To mending an Ax 

To mending a Gun 

Totall [ ] 


W m . Johnston Smith 
His Ace', of Work for y e . 
Ind s . to April 1 768. 
£16. .11. .3 

2 In Sir William's hand. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

New York May 2*. 1768 
Dear Sir, 

I inclose you some Extracts from a Letter, which I recieved 
some Days ago from Captain Turnbull 2 Commanding at the 
Detroit; by which you will see that two Traders have been 
Murdered by the Indians of S'. Joseph, and suspected to have 
been perpetrated at the Instigation of the French who have 
Seated themselves at S l . Josephs and the Miamies, particularly 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Captain George Turnbull of the 60th regiment, commandant at Detroit. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 487 

of one Chevalier 3 who has been at S f . Josephs for sometime, by 
whose Authority or by whose leave Goods have been sent to him, 
or others residing at the above Villages to trade with the Savages, 
I have not been informed. 

You will see the Necessity of falling upon some Measures to 

root out the French Settlers from amongst the Indians, and to 

demand Satisfaction for the Murders which have been committed 

upon the two Traders above mentioned, as well as upon the Ten 

Men killed in the Autumn upon the Ohio, which Actions have 

been committed by Nations who have no just cause of complaint 

against us, or indeed who pretend to any as far as I have been 

informed. If these Murders are passed over without Notice, 

there will be no end to them, every Petty Tribe will Murder our 

Traders at Pleasure, and we may as well at once give up our 

Trade. I see no better Method, than to follow the example set 

us by the French in Affairs of this kind, whenever one Nation 

killed their People they had others ready and willing to Assist 

to Chastise them. The Commissarys placed in the several Forts, 

should know the Jealousy's and Enmity's which always Subsist 

between the several Nations and have Dexterity enough to work 

them to our Advantage. The Pouteatmies of S l . Josephs and the 

Chippewas of the Bay of Saguinam are the Indians accused of 

the Murders now complained of, a most rascaly set, tho' I find 

others have shewn a readiness to join in any Mischief. I have 

wrote to the Commander of the Detroit on these heads, and 

should be glad you would send proper directions thereon to the 

Commissary's. I have desired that this Monsieur Chevalier may 

be sent for, and all the proofs got against him which can be 

obtained. And that particular care may be taken to prevent any 

Goods going to him for the purpose of Trade, or any others 

Settled in the Indian Villages 

I Am with great Regard. 
Dear Sir, 

3 Louis Chevallier. 

488 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Sir W m . Johnson Bart. 

Johnson Hall. 


Sir William Johnson 

Johnson Hall. 
New York May 2 d . 1 768 


Guy Park May 4*. 1768 — 

I have had the honor of receiving Your Excellencys Letter of 
the 25 th . Ult°. 2 addressed to Sir Wm. Johnson who left this place 
the 23 d . and was seemingly much better when I parted him near 

Agreable to his Instructions I have wrote to Fort Pitt directing 
a Belt and Message to be sent to the Indians of Ohio, and the 
Shawanese and Delawares, and shall send the like to the Six 
Nations in a few days; as these last are so much nearer I Judged 
it best to postpone the Message to them for a Short time, least 
Some should come down before the whole could Assemble & 
thereby create an Unnecessary Expense. — The time proposed 
by Sir William for the Congress is about the 20 th . of July next, 
and proper persons are directed to Conduct the Indians in a Body, 
as they consume much provisions on the road when in Straggling 
partys. — 

On the Article of provisions I am directed to apply to your 
Excellency that you may please to give such orders as you shall 
Judge best for a necessary supply, but I am really at a Loss to 
Say the Exact Quantity wanting, for altho' the Chiefs only of 
the Several Nations are Summoned, I am certain that a Consider- 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Johnson Papers, 6:208-09. 

Indian A fairs, 1766-68 489 

able Number of others who might be dispensed with will attend 
upon all Such Occasions, and on this proposed I have reason to 
think they will far exceed a thousand persons. If their Number is 
not greater and that the Congress lasts but a Week, 50 Barrels 
of Pork, and a proportion of Flour, will be found to be little 
enough for them, but as I have rated their Numbers and the time 
of their Stay a good deal Short of what I apprehend they will 
prove, Your Excellency will doubtless give such Orders thereon 
as shall be most fitting, and also for provisions when they come to 
the settlements, as Kings Provisions can be sent to the German- 
flatts at less charge than they can be supplied by the Inhabitants. 

I have wrote to Sir Henry Moore, 3 and Lieut Gov r . Penn 4 
that they may communicate such points as regard their Provinces 
seperately, agreable to the Orders Sir Wm. received; desiring to 
be furnished with such surveys, &ca as may be necessary the 
better to facilitate the obtaining a Competent Cession of Lands 
and I must beg to be honored with your Excellencys directions 
respecting any other matters which you shall Judge necessary to 
be done previous to the Congress. — 

Lieut Roberts 5 is before this time at Montreal on his way to 
Michilimackinac, but I shall agreable to your Excellency's of the 
25 th . ult°. Write to him to appear against Maj r . Rogers, and 
also to collect all other Evidence tending to prove the Charge 
against him, and I shall be glad to be informed where he is to 
be tryed that M r . Roberts may be made acquainted with it. — I 
apprehend it will be difficult to obtain sufficient Evidence to prove 
such a Charge, perhaps the Testimony of the late M r . Potter 7 
before the Chief Justice of Quebec Government may operate in 
some degree towards it. — 

The two Letters to Sir Wm. from Michilimackinac contain 
only a short account of the manner in which Major Rogers was 

3 Governor of New York, 1 765-69. 

4 John Penn, lieutenant governor of Pennsylvania. 

5 Lieutenant Benjamin Roberts, commissary at Michilimackinac. 

6 Major Robert Rogers. 

7 Nathaniel Potter. 

490 Sir William Johnson Papers 

secured with the Information they had received of the discontent 
of some Indians on that occasion, which is not surprising when we 
consider the favors they received from him. 

Sir Wm. purposed to call the Western Nations together as 
soon as possible ; the Expence attending it was all that prevented 
him. — several of the Chiefs from thence were to have been 
down this Year and I am of opinion that a proper Message to 
them now will be regarded, and that as the Affair of the Bound- 
ary, and the presents Expected on that occasion will engage All 
the politicks of the Six Nations, Senecas of Ohio, Shawanese &ca, 
the latter of whom have great influence over most of the Western 
Indians, there will hardly be any thing done to disturb the publick 
Tranquillity at Least whilst that is in Agitation. However I shall 
Give the Commissaries in that Quarter the best Instruction I can 
for their Government at this time. — 

I forwarded some Letters for Head Quarters brought by return 
of Sir W ms . Express from Niagara, and since his departure a few 
Indians have been here complaining about Lands — Whatever 
Intelligence I shall receive farther relative to any discontent to the 
Westward I shall imediately communicate, and I hope to dis- 
charge my Duty during Sir Wms absence to your Excellencys 
satisfaction, by doing every thing as far as my Experience shall 
Suggest for the Service, and requesting the honor of your Com- 
mands on any of the foregoing heads I beg Leave to Subscribe 
myself. With the highest respect, 

Your Excellency's most Obliged, 

and most Obedient humble Servant, 

G Johnson 
His Excell c y. Major Gen l . Gage 


Guy Johnson Esq r . 
Guy Park May 4 th . 1 768 
Received the 15 th . 
Answered — 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 491 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Michilli™. 6 ih . May 1768. — 
Sir — 

By an Express the 25 th . of February 2 last I acquainted you 
with the different transactions which happened here during the 
Winter, as did also Lieu 1 . Christie. 3 I hope these letters have 
reached you ere this time. Since that date I have got different 
informations from Indians of different nations, the whole intend- 
ing a War against us this Summer, and threatening to release 
Major Rogers from his Confinement. — About the 18 th . ins 1 , the 
Ottawa Nation from the Grand Riviere* and Abrecros 5 headed 
by La Force, 6 and a Chief of the Grand Riviere arrived here 
without Arms. The Chiefs in Council acquainted me that several 
nations had got giddy headed, but that they were determined to 
hold a fast Friendship for us, begged of us to be continually on 
our Guard for fear of a Surprize from others. — Two days after 
the Chippaweighs arrived w th . Arms headed by La Grand Sabre, 
MongamiJ^, and Bonnais seemingly much discontented by throw- 
ing their English Colours into the Lake, and by inviting the 
Ottawas to feast with them & to join with them in forcing their 
Father Rogers 7 from his Confinement. — the Ottawas absolutely 
refused, and went peaceably to their Village — I invited the 
Chippaweighs to Council in the Fort, and spoke to them with 
what Eloquence I was master of. they seemed to be sincerely 
sorry for their behaviour, and have begged of me to restore them 
the English Colours again, since which time they have been very 
peaceable and quiet in Camp. — These Disturbances have made 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 7. 

2 Ante pp. 449-51. 

3 From John Christie, Feb. 24, 1 768, ante pp. 438-43. 

4 The Ottawa River. 

5 Arbre Croche, immediately north of Little Traverse Bay, on the 
northwest corner of the peninsula of Michigan. 

6 An Ottawa Chief. 

7 Major Robert Rogers. 

492 Sir William Johnson Papers 

a small additional Expence, which cou'd not be prevented. — 
Rogers has been the cause, and blest be God, this Garrison is 
quit of him. — Yesterday I sent him on board, and his accomplice 
Fullerton, 8 and dispatch the Vessel to morrow for Detroit. — 
Inclosed You have the different Affidavits which I thought my 
Duty to enquire into, and report to you concerning the liquor 
sent out by Major Rogers which was seized by M r . Roberts 9 to 
which Papers I refer you on that subject, and hope for your 
Directions what to do w th . s d . Liquor. 

Beazly 10 who has been reported to you to be in Confinement 
here this winter, being a man of such bad Character, and so much 
attached to the Indians, I thought proper to send him also to 
Detroit with a desire that he may be sent from this Indian 
Country — Be assured that I will make it my study to be at a 
small expence concerning Indians, — nothwithstanding it will be 
a difficult task for me as Major Rogers by his villainous views 
has formerly been so liberal to them. — I am with great Respect 
&c Yours — 

F: Spiesmacker. 

N:B: Since I wrote the foregoing I have rec d . an account by 
Express from the Ottawa Chief La Force that they have dis- 
covered in the Woods the Tracks of a vast number of Indians, 
— with War Canoes ; and as they had reason for some time past 
to think the Six Nations might visit them at their village. Since that 
is not the case it is verily believed some French &c with the Illenois 
& S e . Joseph Ind s . are lurking about in order to do us what mis- 
chief they can. We are constantly on our guard. — 

8 David Fullerton. 

9 Lieutenant Benjamin Roberts, commissary at Michilimackinac. 

10 See John Christie to Johnson, Oct. 28, 1 767, Johnson Papers, 5:765, 
where the name is written "Bazlie." 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 493 

Contemporary Copy 1 

New York May >8 A . 1768. 

I have recieved your Letter of the 23 d . of April, 2 from Guy 
Park, where you recieved the Express with Your Letters by the 
last Packet with the January Mail. 

Sir Henry Moore has seen Lord Shelburne's Letter to Me, 
with the Report of the Board of Trade to His Lordship on the 
Subject of the Boundary Line to be run, to divide the Limits of 
the Provinces from the Indian hunting Grounds. And is of 
opinion that the Province of New York is not concerned in it. 
The Line as described in the Report is to begin at Owegy ; No 
mention is made about the Western Boundarys of New York 
Province, or hinted that it extends to Owegy. 3 And I believe 
there is no doubt that the whole Line from Owegy, to some Miles 
below Fort Pitt will fall within the Province of Pensylvania; 
And if Maryland has nothing to claim, within the Tract to be 
ceded by the Indians on the Settlement of the Limits, it appears 
that the whole tract will be divided between Pensylvania and 

All Nations who have Pretensions should certainly be con- 
sulted, and treated with on this Occasion, which may prevent 
disputes with any of the Nations in time to come. 

Tho' there may be differences between the Provinces, about 
their respective Limits, with each other, yet with respect to the 
Indians, the Line is so bounded by Rivers, that there seems noth- 
ing left to Dispute with them, unless it may be in the Line to be 
drawn from the West Branch of Susquehanna to Kittaning, unless 
some Natural Marks shall be found to describe that part of the 
Boundary in such manner as not to Admit of Doubt or Chicane. 
Disputes may arise about it hereafter. Whether the Provinces will 
enact such Laws as you mention to make it Felony for any 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Ante pp. 476-79. 

3 Owego. 

494 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Persons to enroach beyond the Boundary Line, is doubtfull, par- 
ticularly with respect to Virginia; Pensylvania has already done 
something of the kind, and may do it again, but if they do not put 
the Laws in force, they had better make none ; And all the good 
I can foresee from the present Boundary is, that it will Stop the 
Clamors of the Indians for a short time. The Crown will be put 
to an immense Expence, which the Provinces should bare, the 
Wound is only skinned over, and not probed to the Bottom. If 
means are not fallen upon to protect the Indians in their Persons 
and Property's, it matters little where the Boundarys are fixed. 
The frontier People have now transgressed them, have neither 
been effectualy removed or punished for their Encroachments. And 
when the proposed Limits shall be fixed, I despair not of living 
long enough to hear that they have transgressed them also. 

The Provinces concerned I imagine will not hesitate to send 
Commissarys to attend the running of the Line and to ratify the 
agreement, in such manner as shall be required. As to the Line 
of Virginia terminating at the S.W Corner of Pensylvania, I 
Apprehend that to be a matter between the two Provinces, the 
Indian Boundary is to run down the Ohio as far as the great 
Kanahwa, and the Country between that River and the Sea, I 
understand is to be ceded by them, to the English in general; It 
matters not to them, to which Province it is to be distributed. 

It would be proper to make some Conjecture of the Sum that 
will be wanted to finish those Transactions, before it is im- 
mediately demanded, as the Contractors should have Notice to 
prepare for such a Demand; And it may be worthy Considera- 
tion, whether the Indians should be paid at once or in different 
Payments. We must expect .a great deal of debauchery amongst 
them as long as the Money lasts, and little hunting. And I fear 
that we shall find it difficult to restrain the Traders from going 
amongst them, who will be tempted to risk every thing as long as 
the Indians have a Penny left to spend. 

I Am with great Regard. 
Dear Sir, 

Sir W m . Johnson Bart. &ca. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 495 



Sir William Johnson, Bart. 
Johnson Hall. 
New York May 8 th . 1 768. 


Copy 1 

Philad". May 8 th . 1768 


One of Us expected to have been in New York immediately 
after the receipt of your last Favor, In Respect to M r . Cole's two 
accounts, — But He was taken very ill and has Ever since been 
confined to his Chamber; Wherefore we wrote to M r . Maturin, 2 
The General's Secretary, to know Whether his Excellency the 
General would be pleased to give us a warrant for the amount of 
Them, as we were in extreme Want of money, Just now, we have 
been favored with an answer from M r . Maturin, Wherein He is 
pleased to inform us — "I have upon Receipt of your Letter 
addressed the General upon the Subject and He seems inclinable 
to grant a warrant to Sir William Johnson for the Amount of 
those Disbursements, You must Therefore settle with Sir William 
Johnson the availing yourselves of the warrant, when granted; 
For as the money is made payable to Sir William Or his assigns 
Only, The authority for receiving it, must come from Him." 3 

Your Honor knows Our Situation. We shall not Therefore 
trouble you with a Repetion of Our very urgent Demand for 
money — But Only beg, as a most singular Favor, — That you 

1 Printed in Illinois Historical Collections, 16:278-79; original, in 
mutilated form, was printed in Johnson Papers, 6:2 1 5-1 6. 

2 Gabriel Maturin. 

3 Letter printed in Illinois Historical Collections, 16:278. 

496 Sir William Johnson Papers 

will be pleased, if practicable, by the Return of the Post, To be 
so kind, as to send us your Order for receiving the amount of the 
General's Warrant And That you will transmit your Letter and 
Order to us, Under Cover to Robert Leake Esquire Commissary 
General of Provissions, There to be left, until called for, as One 
of us shall the last of this week, proceed to New York to receive 
the money. 

We have no news as yet from M r . Croghan. 

We are with the highest Respect & Esteem Sir Y r . most 
Obedient And much Obliged Servants 

Baynton Wharton & Morgan 

The Honorable Sir William Johnson Bart. 


Philad*. May 8 th . 1 768 

From Mess rs . Baynton & Wharton &c 

concerning cash &c 

Ans rd . 23 d . Ins 1 . 


Df. S. 1 

Nen> York 9 lh . May 1768 


George Klock 2 having pleaded Not Guilty to the Information 
Exhibited ag l . him for Barratry [by] upon your [directions] 
Application — I propose to bring it to a Trial at the next Circuit 
[in June] for Albany County — It [wo d .] will be necessary that 
the Officers of the Crown [she] be furnished with the Names of 
the Witnesses to support the Inform and the Substance of their 

1 In New York Historical Society. 

2 George (Ury) Klock. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 497 

Evidence for which we must depend upon you & [wch purpose 
you will be pleased to Instruct [give] some person acquainted rvith 
the Offence as we are Strangers to furnish me with what is neces- 
sary] — and [/ will send up shall take Care to send him Sub- 
poenas & Tickets in order to be served for the Witnesses]^ Care 
will be taken to [furnish] forward the Subpenas and Tickets when 
we are favourd with the necessary Instructions. 

As the Charge of the Crown Business has devolved upon me 
in the Absence of the Attorney General you will be pleased to 
write to me on this Subject, 

I have the Honour to be with grate Respect 


Your most Obedient & 
most humble Serv 1 
Sir William Johnson Baronet Ja s . Duane 


Duane 9 th . May 1 768 

Letter to Sir W m . Johnson from 
M r . Duane 



Contemporary Copy 1 

[Guy Park, May 9, 1768] 

Keewahal al Arie a Mohiccon with 21 of his People arrived 
at Guy-Park, and addressed ColK Johnson 2 as followes — 

3 Words italicized and in brackets are crossed out in the manuscript. 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 8. 

2 Guy Johnson. 

498 Sir William Johnson Papers 


We are very glad to See you well at this time ; we have longed 
very much to see you, on account of a Dream which we have 
had — Father, I lately had a dream concerning my Father Sir 
William Johnson, which gave me uneasiness, I therefore im- 
mediately prepared to come, and See him, with these my People, 
but found the way all dark, and could not find him, I therefore 
now come to you, who has the care of us in his Absence — 

Gave three Strings 
Father — 

With these three Strings we congratulate you on your good 
State of Health, and we remove every bad thing from your 
Heart, — We likewise clear your sight, & Open your Ears, that 
you may See, and hear us distinctly, and I begg that if I should 
say any thing out of the way, you will attribute it to my Age & 
the forgetfullness attending it. 

Father — 

Being disappointed of Seeing Sir William, M r . Van Epps 3 
directed us to you, before whom we are now assemb d . 

3 Strings 

We have been long in your Alliance, — we saw you first come 
to this river, and entered into alliance with you, which we have 
ever since observed; we hope that you will allways do the same, 
and we now assure you that our Bodies are purged of every bad 
thing, and that all nations Shall witness our good behaviour, — - 
We have cleared the Sky, that the Sun may shine bright upon us 
both. In old times, we had wiser men amongst us than now, — 
most of our People being young, are less acquainted with the old 
customs, and forms, in which, if we should fail you will excuse us. 
— we were formerly well clothed, we now come poor, & naked 
before you, but we cannot help it. — our Women also are in the 
same plight, their Nails are of their fingers to the Bone, by en- 

3 John Baptist Van Eps, interpreter. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 499 

deavoring to raise Bread for their Familys. — Father, We used 
to be well treated for our fidelity, — we hope that you will not 
forget us now, as we are poor — there are still Beasts, and Birds 
left, but we have not Guns to shoot them. — we often take up 
a Stick, and present it wishing it would kill Game for our Sub- 
sistance — We are ashamed, Father, to appear before you so 
bare. — We hope that you will consider us, — that you will let 
us have a Gun to shoot with, and something to cover us, and that 
you will chear our Hearts with Liquor. — We have not as 
formerly a Skin to give with our words; we hope you will 
furnish us with the means of getting Skins. — We thank You 
from our Hearts for the favorable reception we have met with 
from you, and we beg that you will consider us. — 

A Belt of 7 Rows 

Colonel Johnson answered them as follows — 

Children — 

I am glad to see you all in health at my House. — I have 
attended to all you have said, and shall give you as favorable an 
answer, as is in my power. — 

Children — 

I am pleased, that you have not forgot your old Customs, that 
you have cleared my sight, and opened my Ears; I now do the 
same that you may See, and hear me 

3 Strings 
Children — 

It is well done of you to remember the old Coven ts . entered 
into with our Forefathers, and that you have purged your Bodies 
of all Evil. — I now tell you that the English remember the 
agreements likewise, and that their Bodies are purged of every 
thing that is bad, and will keep the Sky clear over your heads, — 
and as they are wise, and have the use of Letters, they will be 
indulgent to any mistakes, you may make thro' the want of 
Learning. — Your necessities I am sorry to hear of, particularly, 
as it is not at present in my power to relieve you in them all, as 

500 Sir William Johnson Papers 

there are no Arms, or Clothing here. — What I can do now to 
relieve you, I will with a willing heart, and Shall order you some 
Provisions, and Amunition for such arms as you have, and a little 
Liquor. — This is all I can do now — When your fath r . Sir 
William returns, he may perhaps consider your necessities farther, 
in the mean time be sober, and industrious & friendly to the 
English, and you will not fail of meeting with such countenance, 
and protection as it is convenient to afford you. — 

A Belt — 

Contemporary Copy 1 

New York 16* Max, 1768. 


I have had the Pleasure to recieve yours of the 4 th . Instant, 2 
in Answer to mine to Sir William Johnson of the 25 th . Ult mo . 3 
The Messages you have sent to the Six Nations, Shawnese, 
Delawares &ca. together with M r . Croghan's Conferences at Fort 
Pitt with the latter, and Seneca's of the Ohio, will no doubt render 
them for a time more tractable, and the Ensuing Congress to settle 
the Boundarys will make them forget their Grievances as long as 
the Money or Presents they are to recieve shall last. It is neces- 
sary to proceed to other matters as soon as we can, of which I shall 
write hereafter to Sir William, but it seems to me very proper to 
do something which shall put a stop to the Murder's on the Lakes. 
I hear that the Ottawa's as well as the Miamis are disturbed on 
Account of the Murder of Hombach, 4 by the Pouteatamies of 
S l . Joseph, and full of Resentment that Blood should be shed in 
their Village. The Indian Commissary's should improve this Dis- 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Ante pp. 488-90. 

3 Johnson Papers, 6:208-09. 

4 Henry Hambach (Hambough) who was captured at St. Joseph's in 
1 763 and held a prisoner. See Johnson Papers, 10:715, 914. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 501 

position, and demand the fullfilling of their Promises to protect all 
the Traders sent to their Village. There is a strong Suspicion that 
the Vagabond Canadian Settlers amongst the Indians have been 
guilty of exciting the Savages to Mischief to keep all the Trade 
in their hands; for the Pouteatamies went out with a Resolution 
to kill all the English Traders they should find, Wintering 
amongst the different Nations. It may be a difficult Business, but 
we must on the first Conference that Sir William shall have with 
those Indians make a Point of it, that they shall remove all those 
Vagabonds, as the only means to preserve Peace and Tranquility 
in their Country. 

The Commissary General has been spoke to concerning the 
Provisions that will be wanted at the Ensuing Congress, and will 
take care to have it ready. I think it very proper that the 
Provinces concerned should have Commissioners present at the 
Congress, of which Sir William has wrote, and I mean to write 
immediately, to the respective Governors, as well to do every thing 
that shall be Judged Necessary on the part of the Provinces, as 
to certifie the delivery of the Sum that shall be agreed upon to 
the Indians ; which they also shou'd give Receipts for, in the most 
Publick and formal Manner, to prevent all Chicane, doubt or 
pretence hereafter, that they have not recieved to the last farthing 
what shall be stipulated in the Agreement, for the Cession of their 
Lands, on the final Settlement of the Boundary. In the Letter by 
last Packet to Sir William from Lord Hillsborough, 5 I presume 
that he is provided with a Map 6 wherein this Boundary, together 
with those already concluded with the Southern Indians is marked. 
By this Map and the Description given of the Boundary in the 
Letter from the Board of Trade and Plantations to Lord Shel- 
burne, 7 the Line begins at Orvegy, which I conclude in Pennsyl- 
vania, no mention is made how far the Western Boundary's of 
New York is to extend towards Owegy, and this Province does 

5 March 12, 1768. Doc. Rel. Col. Hist. N. Y., 8:35-36. 

6 Printed in Johnson Papers, 5 :286. 

" March 7, 1768. Doc. Rel. Col. Hist, N. Y., 8:19-34. 

502 Sir William Johnson Papers 

not appear to be concerned ; The Line from the West Branch of 
Susquehanna to Kittaning is also drawn upon the Map. Bound- 
ary's by Water seem wanting there, but other Natural Bound- 
ary's may be discovered perhaps, on running the Line. 

I have wrote likewise as well as you to M r . Roberts 8 about 
his Appearance at Major Roger's Trial, and desired he would 
leave Missilimakinak with Captain Spiesmacher, 9 and the rest 
of the Officers of that Garrison. If Sir William Judges it right to 
employ any other Person during M r . Robert's Absence to trans- 
act the Business of the Post, he will of course do it. 

I Am, 


Copy./. To 

Guy Johnson Esq r . 
Johnson Hall, 
New York 16 th . May 1768. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

[Guy Park, May 12-17, 1768] 

May 1 2 th . — Warrnughsisfra a Seneca chief, and his wife 

arrived beging some assistance, their House being burned 

1 3 th . — At a Meeting with the Mohocks, Colonel Johnson 2 

addressed them as followes — 

Brethern — 

I give you all a hearty wellcome to this place. — the occasion 
of my calling you together, was to accquaint you of his Majesty's 

8 Lieutenant Benjamin Roberts. 

9 Captain Fred. Christopher Spiesmacher, who succeeded Major Robert 
Rogers as commandant at Michilimackinac. 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 8. 

2 Colonel Guy Johnson. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 503 

gracious intention to have the Boundary Line with you im- 
mediately settled, to which end it will be necessary, that not only 
the Six Nations, but all their dependants to the Southward sh d . 
be present, least they Should plead Ignorance thereof, and from 
their vicinity to the Settlements, become troublesome; for this 
reason, I have allready sent a Message to them, as they live so far 
from hence, and I now Judge it a proper time to apprise the Six 
Nations therewith, that they may be ready to accompany their 
Nephews in one body to this place on their Arrival, so as to be 
here about the 20 th . of July next. — I have likewise to inform you, 
that the King has been pleased to appoint a particular Nobleman 
to attend the American Affairs, who will lay all Sir Williams 
representations before him whenever they come to hand. — It 
only remains for me to tell you, that as I am to send a Belt to the 
Six Nations by the hands of a white man to call them here within 
ten days, you will consider of two fit persons of your nation to 
accompany him, and also to point out to me any thing further, 
which may occurr to you, as necessary upon that Occasion, which 
I shall pay proper regard to. — for altho' I have been long 
accquainted with your affairs, I would willingly avoid erring in 
point of form, on this occasion. — 

The Mohock Speaker gave thanks for what had been said, 
and desired to withdraw to consider an answer — Having with- 
drawn for about half an hour, he returned, and addressed Colonel 
Johnson — 

Brother — 

We thank you for the attention which you have shewn to our 
Affairs, and are glad to hear the good news you have communi- 
cated to us, which we hope will put an end to the frauds practised 
upon our People, and be a means of continuing Peace. — We 
have attended to, and considered all you have said, with which 
we are well pleased — The Steps you have taken in calling our 
Nephews, and giving them the earliest Notice of the Affair 
intended, are so exactly correspondant with our own Sentiments, 
that we cannot Say anything in addition thereto; the Words you 

504 Sir William Johnson Papers 

have Spoken, Shewing you to be as well accquainted with our 
Forms, as we know you to be with our affairs, and Interests. — 
We Shall therefore immediately comply with your desire, and, 
on the arrival of those who are absent, Shall consult together who 
are the fittest of our People to send thro' the Nations, after which 
we shall wait upon You in a few days with the result of our 
deliberations, that you may See the persons we have chosen, 
and give them Such instructions as you shall Judge most proper — 
1 3 th . — Had a little discourse w*. Warioughssa — 
1 5 th . — - Was visited by a Seneca chief who had been long in- 
disposed, had lost his Hunting, and could not attend the late 
Meeting — Gave him & Warrughissa orders for a little Clothing, 
& Some Cash &c — 

Was visited by sev 1 . other Ind ns . — 
1 7 th . — The Senecas after much difficulty took Leave and re- 
turned home — 

Contemporary Copy 1 

[Guy Park] May 19*. , / 768 

At a Meeting with the Mohocks — 

Present — Sir John Johnson Kn l . 

Guy Johnson Esq r . — Dep>\ Ag'. — 
Mess rs . Adams 2 & Tice 3 — 
John Butler Esq r . Interpreter 
Abraham Speaker — 
Brother — 

At our last meeting, 4 we told you that the Sunday following we 
Should all assemble, to consult on whom we Should send as a 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 8. 

2 Robert Adems. 

3 Captain Gilbert Tice. 

4 May I 3, 1 768, ante pp. 502-04. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 505 

Messenger, agreeable to your desire, thro' the nations, which hav- 
ing settled, we apprehended that the late Loss 5 might have pre- 
vented you from being able to attend to us, 'till we heard from M r . 
Butler, that this day you would be ready. — We are therefore, 
now come before you, who has the care of us, and the manage- 
ment of our affairs, and as we look upon you now in the same 
place with Sir William Johnson, we are ready to give you an 
answer, and observe your directions. — 
Brother — 

We now Speak to you as to Sir William, & according to our 
antient Customs, considering that you must be in Grief for the 
late Loss, we with this String wipe your eyes, that you may see 
Clearly, and we open your ears, and remove all concern from 
your Heart, gathering together the Bones of the deceased, & bury- 
ing them that they no more Offend your Sight. — 

Gave three Strings 
Brother — 

1 9 th . — Having thus far complied w ,h . antient customs, we now 
with this Belt Level the Grave of the deceased, so that it shall no 
more be seen, but that we may proceed to business as usual. — 

A Belt of 7 Rows 

To which Col. Johnson answered — 

Brothers — 

I return you many thanks for your condolance, and am glad to 
see you preserve in Memory the antient Customs, — but being out 
of Wampum, and less experienced in these matters, I must refer 
you to Sir William who will answer you fully on his return. — 

Then Abraham proceeded — 
Brother — 

We are prepared to answer you on the subject of our last 
meeting, and we are to accquaint you that we have made choice 
of 6 and 6 together with this Boy 

5 This death, apparently in the Johnson household, has not been 

6 Blank in the manuscript. 

506 Sir William Johnson Papers 

(pointing to 6 to accompany them, least they 

Should be sick by the way ; these persons are ready to attend your 
time & do what [you] shall think necessary 
To which Colonel Johnson answered — 

Brothers — 

I am heartily glad to find that you have made choice of two 
such proper persons to go on a business of so much importance, 
and I also approve of your sending the boy, who may be of 
Service, Should they fall sick, or meet with any of those accidents, 
to which those are liable, who make long Journeys. — I have sent 
for the white man, who is to accompany them, but he is not as 
yet arrived, — so soon as he comes, I shall give you notice that 
the men you have chosen may attend, and hear what I have to 
say to him, and them, that no mistakes may be made — 

They then appologised for two of the Tribes not attending the 
Funeral, having several People sick — after which Colonel John- 
son told them — 

Brothers — 

Since our last Meeting, another Pacquet is arrived from the 
Secretary of State who assures, that by the power given to the 
Super-Intendant, such regulations will Shortly be made, as will 
prove most effectual for preventing the Ills you have complained 
of. — This I Judged it necessary to inform you of, as I knew it 
must be agreeable, and as I would conceal no news from you. — 
I have likewise the pleasure to accquaint you, that I have heard 
yesterday of Sir William's being much better — Brothers, I have 
only at present to add, that I am persuaded you will give the men 
you send, proper advice previous to their Journey, that no mistakes 
may be made — 

To which Abraham ans wd . — 

Brother — 

We shall assuredly do what you desire, and we thank you for 
the agreeable news you have communicated to us ; — We now 
think it necessary to remind you, that we have been thinking that 

6 Blank in the manuscript. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 507 

our Brothers, and Nephews at Onoghquagey, and others, who live 
on the road, had best to be called to the Congress. — This we tell 
you, as you have been so good as to desire our advice. — but we 
Submit this matter entirely to you — 
To which CoK Johnson answered — 

Brothers — 

It was my intention from the beginning that your Brothers, and 
Nephews, who live out of the road, should be called, and I 
thought it unnecessary to mention them, when I named the Six 
Nations to whom many of them are Brothers, and the rest 
Nephews, as the Shawanese & Delawares are, who are likewise 
called, I therefore entirely agree to it, and only add, that as busi- 
ness is best carried on, when none but fit men go about it, there 
is no Occasion for the attendance of any, but Chiefs, and 
Warriors — 


Guy Park May 20 ih . 1768. 


Since the Letter of the 4 th . Inst 2 which I had the honor to 
address to your Excellency, Your Letters of the second 3 and 
third 4 instant arrived here, the former with Extracts from that 
Wrote by Capt. Turnbull 5 concerning the Murder of the Two 
Traders, of which I have likewise received an Account from Com- 
missary Hay, G as also of the Murder of James Hill Clark 1 by one 
Meyet a French Man, at the House of Mini Chesne s in the pres- 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Ante pp. 488-90. 

3 Ante pp. 486-88. 

4 Johnson Papers, 6:21 1-13. 

5 Johnson Papers, 6:121-22. 

6 Lieutenant Jehu Hay. 

7 A trader. 

8 An interpreter at Detroit. 

508 Sir William Johnson Papers 

ence of several Canadians, and from the Depositions taken thereon 
it appears that Chesne suffered the Offenders to get off, and 
Clarks goods to be cut up and divided. — 

M r . Hay farther reports that one Beau Soliel at S*. Josephs 
who acts as he gives out as Commandant there, by Appointment 
from Major Rogers, Informs that the Chiefs of that place deny 
their knowledge of the murder of M r . Hambach, 9 and say it was 
committed by some who have left their Village & disregard their 
Admonitions; all which I take to be an idle, stale Excuse. M r . 
Hay adds that an Ottawa Chief conversing with him about 
Major Rogers said "he was a good father but that M r . Roberts 10 
begrudged them every thing altho the property of the King." — 
That Major Rogers's last Words to him were to Come in with 
his people so soon as the Ice was gone, having something of great 
importance to communicate, after which he would set out to Wait 
on your Exce!l c J\, and that the Indians give out they have received 
Belts from the Spaniards to kill all the English who may be found 
trading in their Country. M r . Hay farther says, that the Indians 
who killed Rogers 11 came to the House of L. Chevallier, 12 and 
in the presence of sev 1 . Frenchmen, desired that the Command*, 
and Commissary sho d . be informed that their intentions were bad, 
& that they would go against Detroit, or Fort Pitt so soon as the 
Snow was gone Assisted by the Shawanese ; — That they had 
killed Rogers to shew that they would suffer no Englishman 
amongst them, and that the only terms on which they made peace, 
were, that no Englishman should be sent amongst them. — M r . 
Hay also gives an account of the Murder of a Huron (whose 
brother was killed by a Soldier in 1 764) by a french Man at 
the Detroit, and that on the late Accidents he assembled the 
Traders who agreed to send French men to protect their effects 
in the Indian Country & to put their Rum into a general store, 
giving bonds to each other that none should give beyond a Glass 

9 Frederick Hambach. 

10 Commissary Benjamin Roberts. 

11 A trader. 

12 Louis Chevallier. See Johnson Papers, 6:121. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 509 

5p diem to an Indian, but he seemed to doubt the continuance 
of this Resolution. — 

From these reports, as well as in Obedience to your Excellencys 
Letter I have wrote fully both to the Comissy*. & to M r . 
Croghan and I wish it may have a proper effect The French 
who live in the Indian Country are without doubt at the bottom 
of all this: But their Influence over & Connection with the 
Indians will make it a Work of much difficulty to remove them, 
which I apprehend the Indians will hardly consent to, and Should 
force be found necessary, it may be productive of a Quarrel, — 
One means of Withdrawing them will be the prohibition of Goods 
to them. Yet, so long as other Traders are suffered to go into the 
Indian Country, they will get Supplies, Our Traders often 
finding it their advantage to sell to those who are on such terms 
with the Indians that they can afford to give high prices for goods, 
which they dispose of to them at a proportional Advance without 
giving them discontent, whereof proof has been often given to 
Sir William Johnson, — The practices of these French gives 
Occasion to the Quebec Merchants to desire an Unlimitted indul- 
gence throughout the Indian Country. Ailedging that the Trade 
will otherwise be drawn down the Misisipi and in all probability 
it originated with the French who were sensible that when in 
Conjunction with our Traders they had once obtained this 
Liberty, they would render it of no use to any but themselves 
through the Artifices of their Agents, — The Traders may now 
see the danger of being in a Country Exposed to the artifices of 
French, and the fury of Indians, and I hope they will become 
sensible of the Necessity of some Restrictions, when found to 
operate In their favor, and to the disadvantage of these Dis- 
turbers. Lieut Roberts being called down I have wrote M r . Hay 
concerning Michilimackinac, as it will be without a Commissary, 
and since My Last two Letters are arrived from the Earl of 
Hillsborough the one to Notify his Appointment, 13 the other 14 on 

13 See Doc. Rel Col. Hist. N. Y., 8:7. 

1 4 March 12, 1768. Ibid., 8:35-36. 

510 Sir William Johnson Papers 

the Subject of the Boundary and Signifying the intentions of 
Government to regulate Speedily many of the Affairs of the De- 
partment, with a Map delineating the Line required. — The 
Opinion that N York is not concerned in it arises I apprehend 
from a Mistake made concerning Orvegy. — When Sir William 
sounded the Indians on this Subject Three years ago being not 
Authorized at that time to Settle it, he did not come to any 
Agreement with them concerning the continuation of the Bound- 
ary North east of that place, Nevertheless it was always under- 
stood & Expected to be continued between the Six Nations and 
the Claims of this Province, the Settlements of which are already 
far advanced into the Country of the Oneidas, who with the rest 
of the Confederacy are very particularly interested herein, but 
as the Boundary from Owegy happened not to be pointed out, the 
Board of Trade did not advert (I presume) to it, or were not 
acquainted with its necessity. I am fully persuaded that unless 
the boundary is strictly adhered to, and all Transgressors punished, 
what is now proposed will rather make things worse, as it is not 
the Enacting Laws, or making regulations but the Vigorous 
Execution of them, alone, that can convince the Indians of our 
Inclination to do them Justice, or remove those prejudices they 
have so long conceived against us. — The Executive powers of 
Government must be more than Ordinarily exerted, from the 
Licentious habits acquired by the frontier Inhabitants, otherwise 
little can be Expected. — I persuade myself that Sir William 
Johnson is of the same sentiments. — I expect to have his 
thoughts in a few days concerning the Expence of the intended 
Congress, if not, I shall make as near a calculation as I possibly 
can, which I shall transmit to your Excellency, tho' I despair of 
being able to Ascertain it with any degree of Exactness. 
I have the honor to be, with the highest repect, 

Sir, Your Excellency's 
most Obedient 
and most humble Servant. 

G Johnson 
His Excel! ?. General Gage 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 511 


M r . Guy Johnson 
Depy. Ind n . Agent 
Guy Park 20 th . May 1 768. 
received 28 th . May 
Answered — 


Burlington May 23 d . 1768 
Sir — 

It is not without great Concern that I reflect on my having 
suffered so long a Time to elapse without writing to you. I have 
been imperceptibly led into this Omission from a continued Ex- 
pectation of being soon enabled to inform you of something 
decisive respecting the Subject which first occasion'd me the Favor 
of your Correspondence. But tho' I have from time to time been 
disappointed in this, yet, whenever I receiv'd any Intelligence 
concerning that Matter, I have immediately communicated it 
either to Col. Croghan or M r . S. Wharton, who I knew kept up 
a regular Correspondence with you, that thro' them it might come 
to your Knowledge. This, upon the whole, I thought rather more 
eligible than to give you the Trouble of frequent Letters which 
could contain nothing determinate or satisfactory. My Friend M r . 
Wharton, however, having just call'd on me in his Way to 
Johnson-Hall, I cannot omit so good an Opportunity of offering 
my Apologies to you for my seeming Neglect, and of sending you 
Extracts of such Letters from my Father 2 as relate to the propos'd 
Settlement at the Ilinois, the Boundary, & other Matters respect- 
ing your Department. 

You will see, Sir, by these Extracts, that there was great 
Probability of having the Ilinois Scheme take place while Lord 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

2 Benjamin Franklin. 

512 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Shelburne continued at the Head of the American Department, 
but that since Lord H's 3 Appointment contrary Sentiments are 
likely to prevail. By several other Letters which I have seen it 
appears that he is not only averse to any new Settlements in the 
Indian Country, but for abandoning all the Posts we already have 
there, and even for abolishing the Superintendencies. I can scarcely 
think that this Plan will be finally approv'd by the Administra- 
tion, yet there is no answering how far a new Minister may be 
induc'd to deviate from the Measures adopted by his Predecessors 
in office. I have wrote my Sentiments fully against it to my 
Father. It indeed appears evident to me, that if there is not a 
Colony establish'd at the Ilinois, it will be in the Power of the 
Spaniards at any Time to cut off the Garrison there, & to 
engross all the Trade with the numerous Indian Nations which 
inhabit that Country. And if the Garrisons at our several Posts 
are withdrawn, the Spaniards or Indians will get Possession of 
them before the Colonies can come to any Agreement about Sup- 
porting them, and, having got such strong Holds in the Back 
Country, will be the sooner induc'd to go to War with us in 
future. Besides the Posts propos'd to be abandoned are not in 
any Colony at present, & those Colonies who have no Concern 
in the Indian Trade will refuse to contribute any thing towards 
the Expence of garrisoning them, & even those who have will 
differ about their Proportions. — In fact, the Trade carried on 
with the Indians being chiefly with British Manufactures, makes it 
to the full as much, if not more, a British than an American Con- 
cern. And it must appear a strange Solecism in Politics that at 
the very Time when they are obliging the Americans to pay 
Duties for the better protecting & securing the Colonies, the 
Troops should be drawn from the Places where only they are of 
any real Service. Equally impolitic does it appear, to abolish the 
Superintendencies, & to leave their Business to be transacted by 
so many unconnected Colonies, & of such different Sentiments 
and Dispositions with regard to Indian Affairs. But I need not 

3 The Earl of Hillsborough. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 513 

enlarge on Matters in which you are much more conversant than 
I can pretend to be; nor shall I take up more of your Time at 
present than to assure you that I am, with the greatest Regard & 


Your most obedient 
humble Servant 
W M . Franklin 4 
To the Hon ble . Sir W M . JOHNSON, Bar*. 


Burlington May 23 d . 1768 

Governor Franklands Letter 
w ,h . Sundry Enclosures 
^ M r . Wharton 6 


A.L.S. 1 

New London Maj 24 th . 1768 
Dear Sir — 

Since my Arrival here, I have had a most pressing and moving 
letter from Mess rs . Baynton Wharton & ca . (to whom, M r . Cole 2 
at the Ilinois gave a Draft upon me for the Amount of the two 
Half Years Acc ts . to September last, which I laid before You, 
they amount to upwards of Ten thousand Pounds) begging in the 
most urgent manner that I would pay the Draft. 1 have therefore 
to request that (in case you are determined to allow the Ace 1 ., as 
it is now vouched by y e . Commanding Officer) You would please 

4 William Franklin, the last colonial governor of New Jersey. 

5 In Sir William's hand. 

6 Samuel Wharton. 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Edward Cole, commissary at Illinois. 

514 Sir William Johnson Papers 

to grant me a Warrant, or Warrants for both, that I may be 
enabled to discharge said drafts, & get rid of such importunity. 
— I have wrote them Gentlemen this Day desireing they would 
not after this Advance such Quantitys of Goods to M r . Cole, As 
no such Acc ts . would be allowed of for the time to come, I dare 
say they will be verry cautious in giving him Credit for the 
future. — 

L f . Guy Johnson (with whom I have left Directions to transact 
public business in my Absence) has Sent me two letters from L d . 
Hillsborough, the One dated the 23 d . Janr?. 3 the other the 1 2 th . 
March, 4 the former, is to notify his Appointment to that Office 
usually dispatched by the Secretary of State for the Southeren 
Department, and the latter acknowledges the Receipt of my 
Several late letters to Lord Shelbume, of whose last letter, he 
Sends me a Duplicate, "least the first Should have miscarried, it 
being of great importance that You Should receive the Kings 
Commands signified to You in that letter by his Lordship, which 
You will not fail to carry into Execution" then enlarges a good 
deal on y e . Advantages He thinks must derive from such a Bound- 
ary Line, as is deliniated on a Map which he has sent me, and 
adds that he hopes soon to be enabled to signify his Majestys 
pleasure w th . regard to the conduct of the Indian Trade in Gen- 
eral, the Unjustifiable Occupancy of their Lands, and the par- 
ticular Dutys of my Office in such a manner as to give entire 
Satisfaction to the Indians in all points & ca . — I have long & often 
wished that some effectual method might be fallen upon to remove 
these Doubts & Difficulties, occasioned by the want of some 
power, and precise Instructions, which frequently embarrass me, 
& impede the Service, but hitherto in vain, so that I am heartily 
tired of the employment. — 

Having received little or no benifit from y e . Air here, I pur- 
pose Setting of in a Day or two for Block Isleand, where I shall 
have more of the Sea Air, I intend spending about three Weeks 

3 Earl of Hillsborough to the Governors in North America, Jan. 23, 
1 768, Doc. Rel. Col. Hist. N. Y., 8:7. 

4 Doc. Rel. Col. Hist. N. Y., 8:35-36. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 515 

there, & in my return try the Springs 5 w h . border upon the Govern- 
ment of New York. — 

I am with the most perfect Esteem, 
Dear Sir 
Your most Obedient 
His Excellency & Affectionate Humble Servant 

General Gage — W Johnson 


S r . W m . Johnson 

New London 24 th . May 1 768. 

received May 29 th . — 


Contemporary Copy 1 

[Guy Park, May 24-27, 1768] 

At a Meeting with the Mohocks before Guy Johnson Esq r . D : 

Present — Sir John Johnson Kn f . — 

Lieu 1 . Carroll 2 16 th . Regim*. 
M r . Denniston 3 — 
M r . Adams 4 — 
Colonel Johnson addressed the Indians as follows — 
Brothers — 

I am glad to See you all here this day, and am now to Inform 
you, that the Messenger of whom I spoke at the kst Meeting, is 

5 Lebanon Springs, N. Y., discovered by a British officer in 1 766, and 
visited by Sir William in August 1 767, Johnson Papers, 5 :631 , and Doc. 
Hist. N. Y., 2:862-63. William L. Stone related in his Life and Times of 
Sir William Johnson, 2:289-91, of Sir William's visit to Saratoga Springs 
in 1 767. From the letters cited it is clear that both visits were to Lebanon 
Springs which he described as on the New England border. 

1 Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 8. 

2 Lieutenant Frederick Carrol of the 1 6th regiment. 

3 Daniel Denniston. 

4 Robert Adems. 

516 Sir William Johnson Papers 

now here, ready to receive my instructions for going thro' the 
six Nations, together with the persons you have agreed upon; and 
as I have prepared his instructions, I shall explain them for your 
satisfaction, and Guidance in this business. — 

Here explained the Instructions — 
Brothers — 

I have only to add on this Subject, that I persuade my self, 
you will give necessary instructions to your Messengers for their 
Sober conduct, and Government on the way, and for their corres- 
ponding, and Co-operating with M r . Spencer 5 in all matters 
necessary for the effectual execution of this important business, 
who will act the like part with regard to them, & be in readiness 
to set out any day this week w cl \ y u . Shall chuse — 

To which Abraham answered — 

I Leave the Point entirely to your self with regard to setting 
out — I Should be glad to know whether the Onoghquagoes 
should not be called, and also the Indians of Canada, as we ap- 
prehend that they will be necessary. — We likewise desire to be 
informed, whether M r . Croghan be on his way hither as was re- 
ported, because, we fear that if he is, he may miss your Letters 
for calling the Shawanese together — 

26 th . — M r . Remson 6 having come up a few days before, and 
produced full Powers from the Patentees of Kayadarosseras for 
an Accomodation with the Indians, Assembled them this day to 
lay the affair before them. — 
27 th . Met the Mohocks again concerning Kayadaroseras — 

5 Thomas Spencer. 

6 Peter Remsen. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 517 

Contemporary Copy 1 

New York May 29*. 1768. 


Your Letter of the 20 th . Instant 2 has been duely recieved, and 
by the same Opportunity I recieved Letters from the Detroit of 
the same import as those you have recieved from M r . Hay. 

There is the greatest reason to Suspect that the French are 
Endeavoring to engross the Trade, and that the Indians have 
acted thro' their Instigation, in the Murders they have committed, 
and the Resolutions we are told they have taken, to suffer no 
Englishman to trade with them. And in this they have rather been 
Assisted by the English Traders, who having no Consideration 
but that of a present gain, have thro' fear of exposing their own 
Persons, or hopes of obtaining greater influence with the Indians, 
continualy employed French Commissarys or Agents, whom they 
have trusted with Goods for them to Sell at an Advanced price in 
the Indian Villages. The Commanders of the Posts as well as the 
Indian Commissary's have seen this, confessed the Impropriety 
of it, and yet these things have been done, tho' contrary to the 
Regulation's made, of fixing the Trade at the Posts only. I 
Apprehend that the Applications made by the Indians to have 
the Traders in their Villages have been so frequent and so strong, 
that they have not judged it right to refuse them. 

I have sent Orders to Captain Turnbull 3 to make it Publickly 
known amongst the Indians and French, that no Traders what- 
ever will be suffered in any Nation where the English have not an 
equal Liberty to trade, and the same protection that the French 
have, and where this is not strictly complied with, no Goods on 
any Account must be suffered to be sent from any Post. I shall 
write also to desire, that the Indians on the Miamis may be in- 
formed that we expect Satisfaction from them for the Trader's 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Ante pp. 507-11. 

3 Captain George Turnbull, of the 60th regiment, at Detroit. 

518 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Murdered in their Village, and who were under their Protection. 
And that M r . Chevalier 4 and Beau Soleil if they can be drawn 
away from S l . Joseph's may not be suffered to return, or any 
Goods sent amongst those Savages, till they give satisfaction for 
the Murders which their Nation have Committed. These Methods 
as you observe will be the best to bring the Indians to Terms; 
And I agree perfectly with you to prohibit absolutely any Traders 
or other French residing in the Indian Towns, having any Goods 
consigned or entrusted to them ; which may bring many of them in. 
And tho' we may not be able to root them out entirely, the doing 
this, and insisting on their Removal, on any future formal Congress 
with the Indians, may in great measure effect it, and leave but few 
French amongst them, I understand that you have wrote much to 
the above purport to M r . Hay, 5 who should act in Conjunction in 
all these matters with the Commissary of Missilimakinak, as 
should the Commanders of those two Forts, or the one will undo 
what the other does. The Murders Committed by the Chippewas 
of the Saguinam last fall upon the Ohio, on the Crews of the 
two Boats, should not either be overlooked, but Satisfaction de- 
manded. As for Major Rogers his Designs appear more Sus- 
picious, but if we get him fairly out of the Country, I Apprehend 
he will be of no further Consequence. 

I Am with great Regard 

Guy Johnson Esq r . 

As M r . Croghan has left Fort Pitt, intending to go to Sir 
William's House across the Country; I inclose you a Letter for 
him. Also some Letters for Niagara &c which last You will 
please to forward by the first safe Conveyance that Offers to 
Niagara or Ontario. 

4 Louis Chevallier. 

5 Jehu Hay. 

6 See Jehu Hay to George Croghan, October 15, 1 767, Johnson Papers, 
5 : 728-31 , for an account of these murders. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 519 


Copy./ To 

Guy Johnson Esq 1- . 
Johnson Hall 
New York May 29 th . 1 768. 

A.L.S. 1 

Guy Park May 30 th . 1768. 

I have been honored with your Excellencys Letter of the 1 6 th . 
inst. 2 since dispatching my last of the 20th. ? and I am very 
happy to find that the steps I have taken are correspondent with 
your Excellencys sentiments to give a Check to the conduct of the 
Indians about the Lakes 'till some more effectual provision can 
be made. — 

It is Sir Williams intentions that the proceedings at the proposed 
Treaty concerning the Boundary shall be conducted in the most 
publick manner, and proper Acquittances taken for the Sum to be 
paid to the Indians to remove any doubts or disputes on that score 
for the future. — 

As Sir Henry Moore 4 writes me that he will be here in a few 
days, I shall take the opportunity of giving him my reasons for 
the continuation of the Boundary Line from Oivegy, Northerly, 
agreable to what I observed in general thereon in my last to your 
Excellency. — The bounds of this Province from all I ever could 
find are but doubtfully expressed to the N West, that Country 
being very imperfectly known at the time of the Grant to the Duke 
of York (afterwards King James the Second). — The Delaware 
is I believe, its boundary with Pennsylvania, as far as the head of 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Ante pp. 500-02. 

3 Ante pp. 507-1 I. 

4 Governor of New York, 1 765-1 769. 

520 Sir William Johnson Papers 

the Mohock branch, 5 And there are Grants from this Province 
Extending down the Susquehanna to Tuanendadon 6 about 20 
miles below Cherry Valley; but whatever difficulty may arise 
between Pennsylvania and N York concerning their respective 
Claims, it need not I apprehend tend to prevent the Continuation 
of the boundary Line, this Way, for the satisfaction of the Six 
Nations and the obtaining a Cession of Territory to the Crown. 
— Lord Hillsborough has transmitted a Map which Answers 
the description given by your Excellency, and is carried no farther 
than Owegy, which must be attributed to the reasons given in my 
last Letter. — Owegy is far within the Claims of Pennsylvania, 
but part of their Claim has been fully released to the Indians some 
years ago by an Instrument from the Proprietors; 7 and I appre- 
hend from the settlements which the Indians have on the Susque- 
hanna, and the reluctance shewn by many of them in 1 765, 
when Owegy was proposed, that it will be difficult to get them to 
admit the Line so far up the River; as to that from the west 
branch of susquehanna to Kittaning it may be adjusted by Natural 
boundarys which will give more permanency to the Transac- 
tion. 8 — 

I have not, as yet heard from Sir William concerning the sum 
necessary upon this occasion, which will depend much upon the 
Number of Indians, and the extent of the Cession ; but I recollect 
that on M r . Croghan's return from England he said that the board 
of Trade Judged £ 1 0,000 Ster necessary for that purpose ; and I 
humbly apprehend that when we consider the extent of the Cession 
proposed, and private presents to Chiefs which is an invariable 
practice on all such occasions, the whole Expence will not fall 
much short of that Sum, neither will it be ill bestowed at the 

5 West Branch of the Delaware. See Guy Johnson's map of 1 768 
showing the line of the treaty, Johnson Papers, 6:450. 

6 Tionondadon, a branch of the Susquehanna near Otsego Lake, present- 
day Schenevus Creek. 

7 At the Easton Treaty, October, 1 758. 

8 See Guy Johnson's Map of the line finally drawn at Fort Stanwix, 
Johnson Papers, 6:450. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 521 

rate Lands have been sold for several Years past; as from its 
situation &ca it may in a very few Years produce a Revenue of 
£2000 str. <p Ann, If Granted to the subject on the Quit rent 
now payable in this Province. — 

I have this Moment received the Pacquet herewith inclosed 
from Niagara &ca which I now forward ; with it I received Letters 
from Michilimackinac of the 24 t}l . feby, 9 giving an account of a 
most Traiterous plot concerted between Major Rogers & some of 
the Garrison, the whole of which has been fortunately discovered 
when Just at the point of Execution. — From the circumstances 
transmitted me there now appears very little difficulty in Criminat- 
ing the Wicked Author, and I am only apprehensive that he may 
have found means to Escape before the Vessell could arrive ; but 
as your Excellency will have all the particulars in the pacquet 
herewith sent, I need not to add any thing farther on that 
subject. — 

There is nothing Material since my last concerning Indian 
Affairs, but Several Onondagas, Senecas, &ca have been here 
whose Chief errand was to obtain News concerning Sir Williams 
health of which they had received very unfavorable Accounts. — 

I have the honor to be, with the greatest respect, 


Your Excellencys 
Most Obedient, and 
His Excellency most humble Servant 

Major General Gage G Johnson 

indorsed : 

Guy Johnson Esq r . 
Guy Park May 30 th . 1 768. 
Received June 5 th . 
Answered — 

9 See letters of John Christie and Robert Johnston, of this date, and of 
Frederick Christopher Spiesmacher of February 25, ante pp. 438-45, 
449-5 1 . It is significant that these letters to Sir William arrived while he 
was absent on account of his health. 

522 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

New York 5 th . June J 768 

I have received yours of the 30 th . Ultimo. 2 If the Indians 
continue to shew the reluctance they did in 1 765 to carry the line 
as high up as Owegy, on Account of the vicinity of some of their 
Settlements to that Place, it might not be prudent to insist upon 
it, as it will not be easy to reconcile them, so entirely to it, as to 
prevent their ill humour appearing on every triffling Accident that 
shall happen; And if we get so very near their Settlements, we 
may expect to hear of frequent complaints of them, and of the 
Settlers against each other. It is to be wished that the Board of 
Trade had considered the Western Boundarys of this Province, 
which it may be right to have Settled with the Indians, to prevent 
disputes. I Apprehend it may be a long time before the Crown 
will receive any quitt Rents for these Lands, and the largest share 
will fall to a Proprietary Government. The Tract to be ceded is 
certainly a large one, but Lands so far back are at present of little 

I have recieved Letters from Missilimakinak, which contain 
Accounts of Major Roger's Conduct of the same import as what 
you have recieved from those parts, he was watched very 
narrowly, and put in Irons. 

Captain Brown 3 has sent me a Copy of a Letter sent him to 
Niagara from Monsieur Chabert 4 who resides at the Detroit ; You 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Ante pp. 519-21. 

3 Captain John Brown of the 60th regiment. See Gage to Brown, June 
6, 1 768, Johnson Papers, 6:250. 

4 Daniel Joncaire, Sieur de Chabert and Clausonne. A former French 
officer and trader known for his intrigue. In 1 767 he had been granted per- 
mission to trade, and had promised to use his influence to quiet the Indians 
in Canada, but Sir William then reported on his duplicity. See letter to 
Shelburne, Dec. 3, 1767. Doc. Rel. Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:999-1000. See 
also Doc. Hist. N. Y., 2:887. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 523 

will be so good to shew it to Sir William Johnson when he returns 
home, who will be the best Judge of the Propriety of Monsieur 
Chabert's Advice. A Belt from the Six Nations might possibly 
have the same effect as the Embassy proposed by Monsieur 
Chabert of whose sincerity in promoting peace, Sir William I 
believe will have no great Opinion. The Belts which have been 
carried about far and near to raise the Indians against us as I 
understand Originated amongst the Six Nations, at least amongst 
the Senaca's, who make the largest part of the Confederacy. And 
spread Westward by means of the Shawanese and Delawares. 
I am with great Regard, 


Guy Johnson Esq r . 


Copy./ To 
Guy Johnson Esq r . 
Johnson Hall 
New York 5 lh . June 1 768 
^'. Post 

li. .jL/.w3. 

Guy pari? June 6th 1768. 
Dear Croghan — 

Young Groot your Waggoner brought me late last Night A 
pacquet containing a Letter from the General, also One for you, 
& one from Sir William. As I thought the Gen ls . Letter to you 
Might contain something [of] 2 necessary for my imediate knowl- 
edge I opened, and now return it. — As to the Directions to the 

1 In Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Cadwalader Collection. 

2 Words italicized and in brackets are crossed out in original. 

524 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Commissarys, I wrote you my thoughts upon it in those Letters 
which were sent you long since. — I wrote also to M r . Hay 3 
Recommending it to him to take more than Ordinary care at this 
period to discover the Views or schemes of the Indians, and to 
Circumvent them, also to endeavor all in his power to prepare the 
Indians to bring away, or part With the french Amongst them, 
with many other particulars as Contained in the Letters. — As 
you know the Nature of all these Affairs your directions to the 
Commissarys &c [will] can be easily made to Correspond with 
Mine & that in such a manner, as to Shew both the French & 
Indians that no Trade can be Expected, or Goods sent into the 
Indian Country Whilst the Conduct of the Indians (by them I 
beleive Excited,) Continues as it has done for some time past. — 
I shall Write Sir William by Next post & have only to add 
that I am with great Truth 

D r . Croghan 

your friend & Servant 

G Johnson 
G Croghan Esq r . 

I inclose a few Lines for Sir John. Compliments to M r . M c .Kee. 
— & pray think about sending off forthwith to the Shawanese & 
Ohios &c. 

M r . Yates tells me he gave you the Map. I hope you'll send it by 
L f . Prevost, & also write me how you desire to Act in endeavoring 
to obtain an Addition to your late Survey &c. 



G Croghan Esq 1- . 

3 Lieutenant Jehu Hay. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 525 


Guy Park June 16 J768 


At the receipt of your Excellencys Letter of the 29 th . ult°. 2 
I was so occupied with the several affairs to be transacted in the 
presence of Sir Henry Moore, then Just arrived that I was under 
the necessity of deferring my Answer. — Yesterday his Ex- 
cellency proceeded for New- York and last night I was honored 
with your Letter of the 5 th . Instant. — 3 

The Letter for M r . Croghan I imediately sent after him, he 
having set off that day for N York, but had no safe opportunity 
for forwarding those to the posts 'tho I hourly expect one. — 

The Subject of your Excellencys letter of the 29 th . regarding 
the Trade and the Machinations of the French, and your orders 
thereon would have proved the best remedy that could now be 
applied to remove these abuses which endanger the public safety, 
But from a pacquet from Lord Hillsborough which I received Two 
days ago I find that a new System is established ; on which I have 
no occasion to enlarge as you have doubtless received Letters on 
the same subject. — I only take the Liberty of observing that the 
reform of the Indian Department by putting the Trade entirely 
under the direction of the Colonies seems to have been Suggested 
by some Traders Supported by their Friends, as will appear from 
sev 1 . passages of the Report made by the Board of Trade, 4 — It 
may be deemed presumption in me to offer any thoughts hereon, 
but to your Excellency I cannot help Observing, That the principle 
upon which that part of the Report seems founded. That the 
Colonies will manage better and be more cautious in preventing 
frauds in Trade at this day than formerly, when under greater 
Apprehensions from the Indians, does not seem to promise all that 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Ante pp. 517-19. 

3 Ante pp. 522-23. 

4 See Representations of the Lords of Trade on the State of Indian 
Affairs, Doc. Rel. Col. Hist. N. Y\, 8: 1 9-31 . 

526 Sir William Johnson Papers 

their Lordships Expect from it, it will nevertheless be a present 
saving of Expence to the Crown, and of disputes to the Super- 
Intendant ; But these are remarks for which I must humbly entreat 
your Excelleneys indulgence, conscious that they would come 
with much more propriety from Sir Wm Johnson. — For the 
same reason I must be silent with regard to the rest of the report, 
more especially as he may be Expected home within a few Weeks 
when he will doubtless lay before you whatever he thinks neces- 
sary thereon. — 

Your Excelleneys Observation in your favor of the 5 th . inst 
that no point should be insisted on, to which the Indians Express 
a reluctance appears very strong to me, and it is I am persuaded 
Sir Williams Opinion for unless they are thoroughly satisfied with 
every part of the Cession, disputes, & dissatisfaction must follow, 
for Indians may by over persuasion be Led to give their Assent at 
some times to what they in secret disapprove of, the consequences 
of which are always bad, And as there are strong reasons for Sus- 
pecting that a Spirit of discontent Subsists amongst several Nations 
which Some are ready to Manifest by Acts, We should cautiously 
avoid furnishing them with any Arguments against us, drawn from 
our Conduct in Matters so peculiarly affecting, and interesting to 
them. — 

I find that the Proprietaries of Pennsylvania are desirous of 
Extending the boundary beyond that prescribed, so as to Compre- 
hend the Land between the Forks of Susquehanna, by a direct 
Line from the head of the West branch towards Owegy and 
indeed it seems best, provided the Indians will agree to it, for the 
rest of the Province stretching along the Susquehanna, & Almost 
surrounding the Tract within the Forks, encroachments will be 
made upon it, by the White people who will not chuse to leave so 
Valuable a piece of Ground unoccupied in the midst of them. — 
Sir William writes me 5 that he thinks the boundary line with N 
York the most Essential, as here the dispute must begin, & on 
perusing the Transactions of 1765. I find that the Line was then 

5 Letter not found. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 527 

proposed but that the Indians declared it difficult to determine on 
accot of the Many Tribes residing on Susquehanna, So that Sir 
William who was then only endeavouring to obtain their general 
sentiments declined proceeding to particulars which now ought 
certainly to be settled. — 

I shall at Sir Williams return lay Mons r . Chaberts Letter 
before him agreable to your Excellencys Orders, and I apprehend 
he will Join you in opinion about sending a belt rather than an 
Embassy, on the former the Indians will make fewer mistakes. I 
can hardly think that M r . Chabert has taken so much pains to 
Convince the Indians that the King of France considers them as 
Rascals, & Traitors and would Exterminate them if he could, 
this is sufficient to render all he has said doubtfull in some measure. 
The Rout which M r . Croghan took from Fort Pitt occasioned him 
to miss my Letters, however the Shawanese &ca are now sent to, 
but they can't be here before September, — I had sent a proper 
Man to Conduct the Six Nations down on the arrival of the rest, 
and he is to transmit me any intelligence of importance from the 
Senecas Country, being furnished with proper Instructions for his 
Government there. 

I have only at present to request that your Excellency will 
honor me with your Commands touching any of these matters 
which I shall endeavor to execute in the best manner I can for the 
purposes intended. — I have the honor to be 

with the most sincere respect, Sir, 
Your Excellencys, 

Most Obliged 

and most Obedient 

Humble Servant 

t t- i- ii i t i 1 1 G Johnson 

His tixceJlency the rionble 

Major General Gage 

The Affair of Kayadarosseras which it was thought wo d . have 
been now settled here, came to nothing. — The Indians would 
not recede from a Certain Line to which the Agent of the Pro- 
prietors w d . not agree 'till he had consulted them. 

528 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Guy Johnson Esq r . 
Guy Park June 16 th . 1768 
Received June 26 th . 
Answered — 


Copy 1 

Annapolis the 27 June 1768. 

The General Assembly having met here the 24 th . of last Month 
I communicated to them the two Letters you were pleased to 
favour me with the 1 st . of May 1 767 2 & the 25 th . of March last 3 
together with a Petition Subscribed by the Indians called Nanti- 
cokes desiring that an Act might pass impowering them to sell the 
Lands which were heretofore appropriated by the Legislature in 
this Province to the use of that Tribe. In Consequence of my 
recommending this Affair to their immediate Consideration the 
Lower House of Assembly appointed a Committee to examine 
into the nature of those Indians Claim & on their making a Report 
presented to me the inclosed Address, however on my sending 
them a Message & on some of the Persons who had a Right to 
enter on part of the Land in case the Indians should relinquish 
it interesting themselves in the Business the Members agreed to 
accept an Offer M r . Ogden 4 had thought fit to make on behalf of 
the Indians & a Bill was accordingly framed for granting him 
the Sum he required, which was a few Days afterwards pass't 
into a Law & I herewith send you a Copy of it, the Assembly 

1 Printed in Archives of Maryland, (Correspondence of Governor 
Sharpe, III) 14:511-12. Original letter, in mutilated form, printed in 
Johnson Papers, 6:263-64. 

-Johnson Papers, 5:544-45. 

3 Ibid. 6:172-73. 

4 Amos Ogden, attorney for the Nanticoke Indians. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 529 

agreed likewise to defray the Expence which had been occasioned 
by M r . Ogden's & the Indians coming down last year from 
Otsiningo 5 to treat with those that lived in this Province. I in- 
tended to have wrote to you by M r . Ogden but he was so im- 
patient to get away immediately after the Act pass't & he had 
received the Dollars that I had not leisure at that time, but I 
presume he has eer this advised you of his proceedings & informed 
you in what manner the Business that brought him hither was 
concluded. I am &c. 

To Sir William Johnson 

5 Near Binghamton, N. Y. 


Contemporary Copy 1 

[Johnson Hall, June 8-28, 1768] 

June 8 th . — At a Congress held by Guy Johnson Esq r . Dep>\ 

Agent for Indian Affairs, at Johnson-Hall — 


His Excels. Sir Henry Moore Bar 1 . Gover r . of N. York 

Colonel Schuyler 2 

Co 1 . — Claus 3 

M r . Duer 4 

Major Glen 5 

Cap 1 . Duncan 6 

M r . Vroman 7 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 8. 

2 Colonel Philip John Schuyler. 

3 Colonel Daniel Claus. 

4 William Duer, 1 747-1 799; see DAB. 

5 Major Jacob Glen. 

6 Captain John Duncan. 

7 Adam Vrooman. 

530 Sir William Johnson Papers 

M r . Remson 8 | ag ts . from the Proprie". 

M r . M c . Crea 


of Kayadorosseras 

M r . Butler 10 — Interpreter — 

The Chiefs and Warriors of the Mohocks. — 

Abraham Speaker — On being asked whether they were all 
Assembled, answered in the Affirmative, 

His Excellency addressed them as follows — 
Brothers — 

You may remember, that when I was last here, among the many 
Complaints then laid before me, the Patent of Kayadarosseras 
was particularly pointed out; and I then made you a Promise to 
enquire fully into it, and to do you all the Justice in my power. 
— with this intention I am now come here ; and as it would be 
most agreeable to the Crown, that this matter Should be amicably 
adjusted, if possible, between the Proprietors of that Patent, & 
the Indians, two Gentlemen, here present, are ready to enter on 
a negotiation with you for settling that dispute, being furnished 
with powers from the Patentees for that purpose. — If this Pro- 
posal is agreeable to you, they will, on receiving your answer 
proceed to business, and lay before you, the nature, and extent 
of their claim derived under that Patent — 

To which Abraham, after repeating what had been Said to 
them, answered — 

Brother — 

As we have duely considered this Subject, it will not take up 
much time for us to answer you upon it. — We formerly assured 
you, and we now do the Same, that after the most diligent enquiry 
amongst our oldest Chiefs, we cannot find that it was Sold to the 
Patentees ; but nevertheless from all that has been Said to us, and 
as the Gentlemen are here present for that purpose, We Shall be 

8 Peter Remsen. 

9 John McCrea. 
10 John Butler. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 531 

glad that they first produce to us the Indian Deed, on which this 
Claim is founded — 

M r . Remson being asked for Such Deed, Said that he had not 
brought it with him, but at last produced a Copy of one dated the 
26 th . of August 1 702 — Signed by Joseph Dehanochrakas and 
Hendrick Tioyonmenhoseawea, witnessed by Lawrence Clase, 
and Margaret Livingston, from the Office of Records at Albany, 
to David Schyler, and Robert Livingston Jun r . for a certain piece 
of Land Situate &c a . on the West side of "Hudson's river above 
Scaratoga bounds, beginning opposite to the Creek called Tionee- 
endogake, and so running along said side of the river above the 
Second Carrying place, to a small Island, in s d . river, and West- 
ward into the woods, as far as their Property belongs together 
with all Creeks &c a . — Consideration, divers Goods" — 

The Indians, on inspection, said that one of the Subscribers 
was a Tuscarora, and denied the two Subscribers, as Chiefs of the 
Village saying that in so extensive a Grant, they did not appre- 
hend that if it was a fair transaction, it would be subscribed to only 
by two Indians. — His Excellency then repeated his question, 
whether, under these circumstances, they would proceed to the 
Settlement of the Affair, or not. — They answered, — that they 
were a good deal surprised to find Gentlemen come to Settle such 
an affair, without the necessary Papers, & that they thought it 
unaccountable. — Then, a Copy of another Deed was presented 
to them, bearing date at Albany, the 6 th . of October 1 704 — 
Signed by Joseph Hendrik, Gideon, & Amos, Hillifie, Van 
Olinda, Interp. Hend. Jansen. — John s . Rosiboome, Tob s . 
Cuyler, John s . Mynseel, Justices to Samson Shelton Broughton 
for a Tract "Called, or by the name of Kayaderosseras, adjoin- 
ing to the North bounds of Schenectady Patent, together with the 
vacancy that lies between u place down along 

the river, about one Mile, more, or less, on the East Side thereof, 
to the West Bounds of Saratoga Patent, on the North Side 
thereof, to the river of Albany and on the West side thereof, to 

11 Blank in the manuscript. 

532 Sir William Johnson Papers 

the Native Indians & Proprietors thereof, for their improvement; 
the north Bounds running along Said river of Albany" &c a . — 
consideration — £30. .York Curr**. — 

To this Second Deed they paid no regard, — observed, that 
they were ready to hear, what was to be proposed to them, as the 
foundation of which, it was necessary, some Indian Deed Should 
be produced, which they said had not yet been done — 

His Excellency then Observed, that such old transactions were 
liable to many inaccuracies, — that the Gentlemen were now 
come up to Settle it amicably, and he would be glad that they 
would consider it by tomorrow morning — Then Col Johnson 
addressed them 


The validity of the Indian Purchase, does not appear to me to 
be the dispute at this time, You have been made accquainted 
with these matters, and had Some of the Deeds produced to you 
long since by Sir William Johnson, at whose request you 
promised to attend to the Patentees proposals, which promise you 
have likewise since confirmed to me, when I met you on this 
Subject. — I desire you will therefore take the same into con- 
sideration, without delay — 

To which Abraham made answer — 


We are glad to find, that the Patentees are so heartily disposed 
to accomodate the dispute in an amicable way, and we Shall be 
ready tomorrow to hear their Proposals upon that Subject. — 

Adjourned 'till tomorrow — 
June 9 th . — At a Congress — Pursuant to adjournment — Pres- 
ent as before — 

Performed the ceremony of Condolance for the death of 
12 wife to Cornelius w ,h . 3 strings of Wampum 
Then Laid before them a Map of Kayadarosseras, and ex- 
plained the nature, and extent of the Patentees Claim, after which 

12 Blank in the manuscript. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 533 

desired they would come to Some speedy restitution, — whether 
they would admit of it in its full Extent, and accept of a con- 
sideration, or make a division thereof, and, if so, in what manner — 
Then Abraham after repeating the former proceeds, before 
Sir William Johnson Said 

Brother — 

The Patent of Kayadarosseras has caused great uneasiness 
amongst us, from the first time that we discovered that there was 
such a Grant, — We have repeatedly complained of it, and were 
in hopes that Sir William would have obtained redress for us from 
his Majesty 'ere now, as, after the most diligent enquiry amongst 
our eldest People, we have never been able to hear that such 
Tract had been sold by us, and therefore we resolved to die, 
rather than part with it — The Proposal made formerly by the 
Patentees, was, that they Should have the one half of their Claim, 
and we are now glad to See them so ready to accomodate matters 
amicably, as we would not like to be bullied out of it, the conse- 
quence of which might be bad ; — for altho' we may be thought 
at present an inconsiderable People, we are the head of a con- 
federacy that has powerfull Alliances. — Having weighed these 
matters, and in consideration of all that Sir William has Said, to 
persuade us to an amicable Settlement, we agree to fall upon such 
a one, — and as we have now before us, his Excellency, the Gov- 
ernor, on behalf of the white People, and the Officer of the 
Department of Indian Affairs, we rely upon them, to see that the 
transaction be honestly, and securely conducted — 

Then M r . Remson proposed to them the releasing of their whole 
Claim, and the accepting of a handsome consideration in con- 
sequence thereof. — 

To which Abraham answered 

We are Surprised to find a new Proposal made that we Should 
release the whole after the former which was a part, — We are 
determined never to agree to Such a Proposal, neither Should we 
ever have inclined to give up the half (as considering it to be our 

534 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Just property) but from the many persuasive arguments of Sir 
William Johnson to us. 

Colonel Johnson then Said 

Brothers — 

I am directed by my Instructions to endeavor to Obtain the 
most advantageous terms possible for the Patentees, and therefore, 
I cannot but Observe, that the half will be far Short of it, — - 1 
must desire you will reconsider the matter, and in consideration 
of all that has been said to you, I expect you will agree to a Line 
more favorable for the Patentees — 

The Indians answered — 

Brother — 

We have attended to what you have said to us, & are obliged 
in answer to assure you, that it is our determined resolution, never 
to agree to any other proposal, than that of the half of that 
Tract, which we could not even admit of but thro' the repeated 
sollicitations of Sir William Johnson — 

Then his Excellency the Governor asked M r . Remson, what 
was supposed to be the contents of the Patent; who replied that 
M'. Bleecker 13 of Albany Said it was 250,000 Acres. — His 
Excellency then asked if the parties would be contented with that 
Quantity. — M r . Remson declined it, — His Excellency then 
expressed his Surprise by observing, that they had come up with 
a defective draft, and without one Original Indian deed &c a . to 
prove their Claim against the Indians, and told them, that, if this 
meeting was not attended with the desired Success, he then appre- 
hended, upon the report he Should make of it to his Majesty, that 
measures wou'd be taken in England to vacate the Patent, and 
grant it away to other People. — Then M r . Yates 14 who had 
formerly traversed the Creek, was desired to give an account of 
it, and accordingly laid down on M r . Remson's Map, the Courses 
he had traversed on a N. 58 E. Course 26 M s . to the head of the 

13 John R. Bleecker. 

14 Christopher Yates, surveyor. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 535 

most Northerly Branch, & on a N. 73 E. Course 18 M s to the 
head of the other branch — 

The Ind ns . being then desirous to confer together, withdrew 
for a little time, — the Governor desired Col Johnson, to take 
that opportunity of proposing to them, to run from the head of 
Kayadarosseras to the Falls at Fort Miller, 15 which Colonel 
Johnson said, he had done before, but to no purpose, — he accord- 
ingly again proposed it, but the Indians declined it, saying they 
would rather take from the Patentees any where else, than there, 
as they had Settled sev 1 . families thereabouts, which might occa- 
sion future contention ; Colonel Johnson reported this answer to his 
Excellency, and the Indians returned to the Council room, when 
Abraham stood up and spoke as follows — 

Brother — 

We are happy in being now before the Governor, and the 
officer directing our affairs. — We withdrew to consider farther 
on the matter, and are now ready to communicate our final reso- 
lutions. We therefore desire that you will inform us, whether 
those men who are come up to transact business with us, are men 
of probity, and ability to secure us in what is released — His 
Excellency answered them, that if the Powers were executed by 
the whole claiming under the Patent, as he apprehended, that 
then they might safely treat with them — Colonel Johnson signi- 
fied his sentiments in like manner — 

Then Abraham said 

Brother — 

We now conclude that we may safely treat about this matter, 
and we call upon the Spirit above as Witness of the same, who 
will doubtless punish those, who infringe the agreement now to be 
entred into. — Then looked over the Map, and fixed the Line 
Tinghtanoonda to the head of the nearest branch of 
Kayadarosseras, and thence by a direct Line, to the Falls above 


15 Fort Miller at the portage between Fort Edward and Saratoga, 
the Little Carrying Place. 

536 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Fort-Edward, and this they declared to be the utmost they would 
ever yeild, and, that they did it for Peace sake, and at the re- 
peated Solicitations made them for that purpose — 

To this M r . Remson refused his assent, but again requested, 
that it might be brought to the most Northerly head, and thence 
to the Falls above Fort-Edward, for which Cession he would give 
one Thousand Dollars, and have proper Instruments executed. — ■ 
This the Indians still refused, but said to shew their love for 
Peace that they would give the Patentees the preference, of such 
Lands as they should retain for themselves. — M r . Remson said 
that he could not take upon him to agree to such a Line, but that 
he would goe down, and lay the same before the Patentees, and 
accordingly went away, — after which the Congress was ad- 
journed till next day. — 

June 1 th . — At a Congress — June the 1 th . — Present as 

His Excellency the Governor desired that the Mohawks might 
be asked, whether, if they had settled with M r . Remson, the Line 
they proposed, they would have been satisfied with the 1000 
Dollars which was Offered them — 

Abraham answered 

Brother — 

When we for Peace sake agreed to the Line, w ch . we resolved 
to be the only one we would admit of, we Submitted to his Ex- 
cellency, and to the Officer, who has the direction of our affairs, 
to settle the consideration, persuaded, that they would consider, 
that we had never received any Purchase money, and that they 
would propose what was reasonable — 

His Excellency then Said — 

Brothers — 

I am heartily Sorry that this affair has not been settled to your 
satisfaction. I had it much at heart, and was desirous to have every 
thing Settled at this Meeting, that I might have made a report of 
it on my return to New-York — 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 537 

Abraham answered — 

We were readily disposed to Settle the affair according to the 
Line we mentioned — the fault seems to lye on the Gentlemen 
from New York, who went away so abruptly, without an agree- 
ment. We now desire, that all Proceedings in this affair, and all 
surveys and pretensions may be stopped, untill we hear further 
about it, to which end, we shall wait a reasonable time; Should 
we not, we shall desire that the King may be made accquainted 
w th . it, and do us Justice — 

To which his Excellency answered — 

Brothers — 

You may be assured that no Surveys will be made, or any 
other Steps taken, but what shall be thought necessary to the 
settling this dispute. I think it necessary to inform you, that the 
Map produced yesterday, was very defective, and the heads of 
the Creeks laid down with so little certainty, that no dependance 
could be had on them. — I would therefore propose, that an 
actual Survey Should me [be] made from Hudsons river, to the 
mouth of the Creek, thence up that Creek, and its branches, to de- 
termine the true situation of the heads, and from thence to the 
mouth of Tinghtanoonda Creek — The Survey of the whole to 
be returned by the Surveyor on Oath, some of your own People 
may attend, to the end that they may be convinced, that nothing 
but their benefit is intended by what is now proposed — 

To which M r . M c .Crea agreeing on behalf of his Employer — 
Abraham answered 

Brother — 

We much approve of what you have proposed, & readily agree 
to send some of our people to attend the Survey, as the surest 
means of coming to a certainty — 

It was then mentioned by themselves, and approved of that 
M r . Yeats 10 should survey it, and that he should deliver in the 

1 6 Christopher Yates, surveyor. 

538 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Survey upon Oath, and that three of their people viz 1 . Aaron 

17 Should attend it, when Colonel Johnson gave 
them notice — 

Then Sale was made of one thousand Acres at Schohare, to 
Vroman, 18 in the presence of his Excellency — 

Then, Purchases before applied for by M r . Glen, 19 Wether- 
head 20 and their Associates, were recommended to them, to which 
they refused their consent, adding, that they had signified the 
same sentiments to some of the Gentlemen yesterday 

Then Abraham Stood up and Said — 

Brother — 

We have allways had a certain Boundary between us, and the 
French Country. This was never conquered; but since the reduc- 
tion of Canada, we have observed several Surveyors running 
Lines about Lake George, and the river, which we hear are 
patented, — and this, we request, may be stopped — 

His Excellency answered — 

Brothers — 

This Province considers all the Land West of this river, as your 
sole property, in which no Grants will be made, 'till legal 
Sales are first made by you. — The Patent of Queensborough was 
granted before I came to the Administration, and some Grants 
have been made since, near Lake George, & Lake Champlain 
in consequence of his Majesties proclamation, to half pay officers, 
and disbanded Soldiers, which were never considered as within 
your rights — You may be assured, that no Grants will [be] 
made within your just claims, and to the Westward of Hudson's 

river — 

Adjourned 'till P:M,— 

17 Blank in the manuscript, no other names given. 

18 Adam Vrooman. Calendar of Land Papers, p. 459. 

19 Henry Glen. 

20 John Weatherhead. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 539 

P:M — The Conajoharees arrived, and being assembled ad- 
dressed Sir Henry Moore as follows — 

Brother — 

We the Conajoharees bid you hearty wellcome to this place, 
agreeable to our antient custom, & are very glad to See you — 

A String 

To which his Excellency answered — thanking them for their 
polite Wellcome, and assuring them that he was very glad to see 
them, at that time, returned the String — then went thro' the 
rest of the ceremony usual with Strings, and Belts, and addressed 
them as follows — 

Brothers — 

The occasion of my calling you together now, is, that I have 
heard you have entered into agreements with some persons for the 
Sale of Lands, and that the same might be concluded in my 
presence; being willing to save you the trouble of a Journey to 
New-York for that purpose — I likewise desire to know whether 
your disputes with George Klock, are still depending, and whether 
he has executed the deed of release which you shewd me, when 
I was last here, and was the Subject of one of your Complaints — 

Then Cayenquizagoe stood up with the Deed in his hand, and 

Brother — 

When your Excellency was last here we unanimously requested, 
that George Klock might be obliged to sign the Deed, as the rest 
had done, and, you then was so kind as to give us a favorable 
answer, — He has not yet executed it, and we now request that 
he may, if possible, be compelled to sign it, before we proceed 
to any business — 

His Excellency then called Klock, and desired him to attend 
to what the Indians then said, and added, — "y° u to ^ me a few 
days agoe, that when the Indians should be assembled, I should 
find that they were so far from desiring you to execute the release, 

540 Sir William Johnson Papers 

that on the contrary you would be requested to keep it in your 
own hands — It is very plain, that you have attempted to Impose 
on me, by an Assertion, which is now contradicted by them, and I 
desire therefore that you will now declare, whether you will sub- 
scribe to the release, or not. — 

To this Klock hesitated, alledged that they had given him the 
Land, — that it had cost him £45. — that they took out his 
Sons to Survey it — that the Chiefs got 50 21 of Corn, that it 
would ruin him, for that he had sold it, & hoped that his Ex- 
cellency would not ruin him, and desired to have some Evidences 
he had brought, examined — 

His Excellency answered, that the only Question he had to 
ask at this Juncture, was whether he would sign the Release, or 
not; and that if he still persisted in his refusal, he should direct 
the proper Officer to proceed against him, and compell him to 
do it by a due course of Law. — Klock still refused, and said 
that the Act of Assembly had rendered it unnecessary — The 
Indians accused him of falsehoods, of breeding disturbances, and 
after denying his assertions, insisted on his signing it, before they 
proceeded to any other business. — M r . Duncan had declared 
that his own party had stopped the Survey of it, and had broke 
his Chain. — and M r . Butler said, that two days after the pre- 
tended Sale to Klock, the Conajoharee Indians complained to 
him, that Klock had been breeding disturbance, and had been 
seducing their young men. — Klock was again called upon to 
sign the release, which he still declined, and made use of every 
rude expression to the Speaker of the Indians, after which he 
desired to withdraw a few minutes, to consider whether he should 
sign it, or not — after being long out, he returned, and said he 
could not sign it till he could consult his Lawyers, and that M r . 
Philip Livingston told him at New- York in the presence of his 
brother William Livingston, that he Should not Sign it, because 
his (P: Liv s .) signing it was nothing, as Klock had the Deed 
— for the truth of this he appealed to M r . Duncan, who denied 

21 The name of the measure is omitted in the manuscript. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 541 

the knowledge of it, — being again desired by his Excellency 
to Sign it, he refused, and was dismissed, after which his Ex- 
cellency accquainted the Indians with what he had said, and told 
them, that a prosecution was now on foot against him, and that, 
he (the Governor) would use his utmost endeavors to compell 
him to execute the Release, and do them ali possible Justice ; — 
that as it was late, he advised them to goe, and settle with the 
Land Purchasers, so as to be prepared the next morning to 
execute the Sales intended — 

The Indians then thanked his Excellency for what he had 
promised, and said that, after taking some refreshm 1 . they would 
return, and settle the Land affairs with the Gent n . as was recom- 
mended to them — 
June 14 th . — At a Meeting with the Mohocks June 14 ,h . — 

Present as before — 

Abraham Speaker — Said — 

Brothers — 

We are very thankfull for your coming so far, for the reasons 
you have mentioned, and as business is now over, we embrace 
the Opportunity of speaking to you, and the officer who repre- 
sents Sir William Johnson, on the Subject of our grievances — 

We have now to put you in mind of the claim made by Albany 
to our Flat Lands. — we daily hear of their insisting on their 
Claim, which if they persist in we must be certainly ruined, and 
obliged to apply to our confederacy for Lands to subsist on — We 
have not only heard of this, but we also find, that within these 
ten, or twelve days past some persons have Surveyed these Lands 
privately, and have marked the Trees, as has been Observed, both 
by ourselves, and by several white people, whose Opinion we 
asked about it. — we therefore rely upon you for relief — 

His Excellency answered — 

Bretheren — 

You should not give credit to any idle Stories, you may have 
heard from any of your Neighbours, as you may remember, that, 
when I was last here, the Mayor of Albany disavowed the claim 

542 Sir William Johnson Papers 

— As to the survey you speak of, it need not give y u . the least 
concern, as transactions so privately carried on, can never deprive 
you of your property. — I shall make it my business to enquire 
into this matter, and take every step in my power to prevent any 
Injustice being done to you, and recommend it to you only to 
depend on what you hear from Sir William Johnson, or myself. 

At this the Mohocks expressed much satisfaction and took their 
leave — 

Same day met the Onoghquageys, who after going thro' the 
ceremony of condolence, complained to his Excellency, that the 
Patent of Hardenbergh unjustly comprehended all their Land to 
the Mohock Branch of Delaware, that the Popaghtunk branch 
was their Boundary with the river Indians, and that they ex- 
pected redress, having never Sold it. — 

His Excellency gave them a very gracious answ r . whereupon 
they proceeded to execute a Deed to Harper, 22 and his As- 
sociates 23 for 250,000 Acres, on the west side of the Mohock 
Branch of Delaware — Then Spoke on a String of Wampum on 
behalf of a Woman at Scohare, who wanted to buy a piece of 
Land from them sufficient for a Farm. — To which his Excels. 
answ d ., that, as the Parties were not present, all he could do, was, 
to witness some short Deed, which they might keep in their hands, 
'till the consideration was paid, — but observed, that the trans- 
action would be very uncertain — so that the affair was dropped 
for that time — 

His Excellency then Performed the Ceremony of condolence 
on the part of the English, after w ch . they took Leave — 
June 26 th . — The Mohocks came to deliver the News brought 
by their Messenger — but M r . Butler not being able to ac- 
company them, they appointed to meet the 28 th . — 
28 th . — Tacarioga came to Guy Park being attack'd with a 
bleeding at the nose, — I then sent for his family and the Doctor 
who relieved him 

22 John Harper of Cherry Valley. 

23 See Calendar of Land Papers, p. 459. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 543 

At a Congress with the Mohocks June 28 th . at Guy Park — 
Present — Colonel Johnson 

Lieu*. Col. Butler — Interpreter — 

After shaking hands &c Abraham said he came to accquaint 
me of the return of their Messenger from the Six Nations, and to 
communicate the intelligence, and discoveries they had made by 
the way, but first desired that Col. Johnson would let them know 
what Spencer, had wrote upon that Subject, The necessary parts 
of which being explained to them, Abraham desired the Mes- 
sengers to tell the News — 

A.L.S. 1 

Cm> Park fob 5 ih . 1768. — 


Your Excellencys Letter of the 20 th . ult°. 2 addressed to Sir 
William came to my hands too late for acknowledging the receipt 
of it <j$ last post. — I have inclosed it to him that no time may be 
lost in procuring the papers necessary for the Trial, which are not 
all in my Custody — 

Since I had the honor of writing last to your Excellency which 
was on the 1 6 th . ult°. 3 the Indians who accompanied the Messenger 
to the Six Nations concerning the Boundary are returned, and 
have delivered me sundry particulars of Intelligence they gained 
by the way. I have likewise a Letter thereon from the White Man 
who is to wait the arrival of the Shawanese &ca at Chenussio 
the Heads of all which are That Belts from the French and 
Spaniards have passed from the Misisipi thro' the hands of the 
southern Indians to the Shawanese who have forwarded them by 
the Susquehanna to the Six Nations, the purport of which is to 
excite them to take Arms, for that the French and Spaniards as- 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Johnson Papers, 6:259-60. 

3 Ante pp. 525-28. 

544 Sir William Johnson Papers 

sure them they are resolved to have another Trial with the English, 
and will commence hostilities at farthest next Spring. It is farther 
said that Mons r . Chabert* has likewise spoke to the same effect to 
the Western Indians in private, and indeed the several Accounts 
are so correspondent the one with the other, as not to admit of a 
doubt that such belts have been Sent tho' probably not from the 
Authority Mentioned. Yet as I know the effects of such belts on 
the Minds of Indians (many of whom are already ill disposed) 
Whether by Authority of a Foreign Court, or Invention of a 
French Trader to be the same. I am taking all the pains I can to 
trace this Belt from its rise to where it has Stopped in order to get 
it out of the hands of the Indians, and deliver them one of a 
different nature, agreable to their own Customs and usages. — It 
is farther said that the Shawanese are Much out of humour, and 
that all the Nations are making up their private disputes with all 
possible Expedition. — 

A few days past I received a Letter from M r . Hay 5 who 
among other things, says, that Young Cuillerie Q who your Ex- 
cellency may recollect escaped from Confinement on a Charge 
of Murder has been very busy in spreading the most dangerous 
reports amongst the Indians on the Wabache, and that Baptiste 
Campeau, La Motte, Bartholomie, & Capucin, 7 are doing the 
same at the Miamis ; — he adds that Michicawiss a Chief of the 
Chipeweighs with Four of his people were come to Detroit to pro- 
ceed to Sir Wm. on business from their whole Nation. that a 
Visit from one of his influence might prove of great service at this 
time but that the Traders for the Sake of his packs endeavoured 
to deterr him from proceeding by reporting that the Smallpox 
raged down the Country which had prevented A man whom M r . 

4 Daniel Joncaire, Sieur de Chabert and Clausonne. 

5 Jehu Hay. 

6 For the affair of Young Cuellerie, accused of murdering Mrs. Fisher's 
child, see Johnson Papers, 5:644, 653, 670, 672, 688. 

7 French Canadian traders. The last three were mentioned by Guy 
Carleton, March 27, 1 767, as among the Indians without passports. 
Johnson Papers, 5:523. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 545 

Hay hired from accompanying him ; however the Indian at length 
set out, and I have just now received the disagreable News that 
on his arrival at Niagara the Boats (by some Instigation) refused 
to Carry him down, saying that the Smallpox had overspread 
all the Country below, on which he went back greatly dis- 
appointed, so Villainous a procedure demands an enquiry, & has 
induced me to be at some pains to detect the Authors who I hear 
are gone to Schenectady, so soon as they are discovered I shall 
hope for your Excellencys Assistance in directing them to be 
brought to some punishment for their behavior, and I shall Write 
forthwith to Detroit that the Affair may be properly Explained to 
the Indians. — 

Sir William is returned from the Neighbourhood of N London 
to the Springs s where he spent some time last year; his stay there 
will be but a few Weeks; In the meantime I shall be glad to be 
honored with your Excellency's Sentiments, and directions on any 
Matter occurring, and also whether some of the provisions now 
coming up had not best be Sent directly from Schenectady to the 
German flatts agreable to my former Letter, as the Indians can- 
not be Supplied there so Cheap, or So Well on their Way to the 
General Congress. 

I have the honor to be, with profound respect, 

Sir, Your Excellencys, most Obedient 
and most humble Servant 

G Johnson 
His Excellcy Gen l . Gage 


Guy Johnson Esq r . 
July 5, 1768. 
received 1 7 th . July 

8 Lebanon Springs, N. Y. 

546 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

New York July I UK 1768. 

Your favour of the 16 th . Ultimo 2 requiring no particular 
Answer, I have deferred Acknowledging the Receipt of it till 
now. As for the New Regulations concerning the Management 
of the Indian Trade, I have much the same Opinion of that 
matter as yourself, And Am pretty certain Sir William will not 
differ from us in Sentiment about it. 

Your will recieve a Letter from M r . Blair president of the 
Council of Virginia on the Subject of the Boundary. 3 By his 
Letter to me I understand, that he imagines, Sir William is to 
settle Limits between the Provinces, which I believe is a matter 
not to be done by any Persons on this Side the Atlantick, and 
must be referred home for further Orders. If Sir William can fix 
a general Boundary between the Provinces and Indians to the 
Satisfaction of the latter, so as to prevent disputes with them, he 
will do a good work, And the Provinces must settle the rest 
between themselves if they can, or referr their Disputes to the 
Decision of the King and Council. 

M r . Blair says that two Commissioners have been chose by the 
Council, if they will undertake it, and they think to send them 
this Month to Shamokin 4 at a venture to attend the Congress. You 
will find out these Commissioners, that they may be acquainted 
when and where the Congress is held. If I hear of them, I shall 
likewise do it, when I am informed of Sir William's final Deter- 
mination in these Respects. 

I Am with great Regard . 


Guy Johnson Esq r . ° cca 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Ante pp. 525-28. 

3 This letter of John Blair's has not been found. See reference to it in 
Sir William's letter to Gage, July 20, 1 768, post pp. 552-56. 

4 Sunbury, Pa. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 547 


Copy/ To 

Guy Johnson Esq 1 ". 

Johnson Hall 
New York 1 1 * July 1 768. 5 


Copy 1 

New York July 15,1768 
Dear Sir. 

I thank you for your letter of the 27 th . of June 2 & I hope 
you will receive such answers from the Scioto Indians, to the 
messages delivered by Thomas King, as will ensure tranquillity. I 
have late letters from the lakes, everything is quiet at Niagara. 
At MissiK there is news of quarrels among many nations. I send 
you an extract of my letter on those subjects. 

The French at the Ilinois & at Post Vincent complain of your 
setting the Cherokees & Chickisaws to molest them, & that the 
death of Pondiac committed by a Pevin of the Ilinois & beleived 
to have been excited by the English to that action had drawn 
many of the Ottawas and other northern towards their Country 
to revenge his death. These circumstances they say occasion much 
fear among the Inhabitants who pray for redress. 

They are turning the Tables upon us by way of answering our 
complaints against their own intrigues. 

I am with great regard 
Dear Sir, 
Your most obedient humble Serv*. 

Tho s . Gage 
Sir William Johnson Bar 1 . 

5 Received July 20, I 768. according to Sir William to Gage, of that 

1 In Library of Congress, Force transcripts. 

2 Not found. 

548 Sir William Johnson Papers 


Contemporary Copy 1 

[Guy Park July 10-16 , / 768] 

At a Congress held at Guy Park July the 10 th . with Michi- 
coniss a Chief of the Chipeweighs and some of his People — 
Present — Colonel Guy Johnson — Dep?. Agent 
Lieu'. Col. Butler 2 
M'. Tice 3 & 
Pero Interpreter — 
Colonel Johnson addressed them 

Brother — 

I am very glad to see you and your People safe arriv'd at this 
place after all your difficulties, and the length of your Journey, 
and I now take you by the Hand, and heartily welcome you here 
on the part of Sir William Johnson, who on his return home will 
speak more fully to you. — At present I have to assure you of 
his regard, and the good will of his majesty towards your people. 
I persuade my self that you come here with the like disposition 
towards the English, and that your people are all of the same 
Sentiments, and will continue to act such a part, as will be most 
agreeable to their inclinations, and their Interests — and I am 
glad to find that your regard for your Father Sir William, & your 
desire to see him, prevailed over all the Stories which I understand 
were framed to deter you from prosecuting your Journey — 

To which the Chief answered — 

Brother — 

I am very glad to See you this day, and to see the Sun Shine 
so bright at this our meeting — I remember to have seen you 
during the war at Niagara, I hope I shall soon see my father Sir 
William, being his adopted Child, and fast friend, — and I can 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 8. 

2 Colonel John Butler. 

3 Captain Gilbert Tice. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 549 

tell y u . that my people are well disposed, and ready to Shew 
their regards for the English, but towards the Missisipi, the People 
are very bad, and now meditating mischief — You will hear all 
these things, and the important business on which I am come, on 
Sir William's arrival, when I shall lay every thing before him, 
and I hope that he will be here soon, having so long a Journey to 
take on my return, that I fear I cannot reach home before the 
winter sets in Should I be long delayed here — 
Colonel Johnson answered — 

Brother — 

I have attended to, and am well pleased with what you have 
said, as you will doubtless be with the reception, & information 
you will receive from Sir William — I expect that he will be 
here in a fortnight, and I shall notify your arrival here by a 
letter to him by Colonel Butler, on whose return, which will be in 
four days, I shall have a certain account of Sir William's return, 
which I shall immediately accquaint you with, and in the mean 
time, orders are given, that you shall meet with good treatment at 
his house, where I hope you will soon see him — 

The Chief expressed a desire of going to Sir William, from 
which, however, he was dissuaded — Gave him a feast, plenty of 
Madaira &c a . — 

July 1 1 lh . — The Chipeweighs returned to the Hall, and on the 
13 th . came down to Guy-park, danced all night, and took leave 
the day following — 

1 4 th . — Sir William arrived at Guy-Park, on his way from New 
England, and on the 15 th . arrived at Johnson-Hall — 
1 6 th . — A number of the Onondagas, Conajoharees, & Mohocks 
arrived here, and going thro' the ceremony of Condolance in full, 
& which was also performed in return by Sir William, they pro- 
ceeded on the business, which occasioned their coming here — 
viz 1 . First to acquaint Sir William, that several Belts of Wampum 
had been lately dispersed amongst the Indian Nations from the 
French, and Spaniards, assuring them of their determined resolu- 
tions, to attempt the recovery of their Country from the English, 

550 Sir William Johnson Papers 

who, they alledged, had snatched it from them by mere accident, 
and exhorting them to hold themselves in readiness, to act in con- 
junction with them next Spring, — and, that, in order to dis- 
tinguish between their Children, and others, they had given a 
number of white Flags, which on the arrival of the French, and 
Spaniards, they were to display, and not before — That one of 
these Belts was Lodged at Osteningo — 

Secondly — That they wanted to know something of the busi- 
ness of the intended meeting, that they might come prepared, 

— And lastly to accquaint Sir William, that they understood, 
that the Shawanese, and Delawares were not determined to 
attend the Treaty — 

The same day Sir William returned them thanks for com- 
municating to him the reports they had heard, & thereupon, had 
assured them, that they were propagated only by a few illdisposed 
Renegadoes, who had fled amongst the Several Nations for 
Shelter least the English shoul'd pursue them for the recovery of 
debts & incense the English ag l . them. — He hoped their nation 
had too much sense to pay any regard to such ridiculous false- 
hoods, — and desired that they would undeceive all such of their 
neighbours, and Countrymen, as had been imposed on by such 
villains — Sir William then gave them some information of what 
was to be transacted at the general Congress, and told them, that 
he hoped, their good Offices would not be wanting to bring about 
the Settlement of a proper Line between the Indians, and the 
English — He then accquainted them, and desired that they 
would make it known to the rest of the Indians, that he intended 
to hold the Congress at Fort Stanwix, and that, as soon as they 
could be assembled — Sir William then gave them a Present 

— some Provisions to carry home. — some Liquor to drink by 
the way, and at their respective villages, — they then departed — 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 551 


L.S. 1 

Fort George July I8 ih . 1768 

I have lately had another application from the Patentees of the 
Kanyaderosseras Land, who have delegated two Persons from 
hence with Power to treat again with the Indians concerning the 
settlement of the dispute between them; They expect that the 
Survey which I order'd to be made will be compleated by the time 
these Deputies arrive at Albany, by which means the contending 
Parties will be able to fix their lines with more certainty [and] 
of course to enter into an Agreement which [might] be lasting. 

They desire that I would recommend [this majtter strongly 
to you and hope [you will give all] the Assistance in your 
Power [on the Occasion, and I am the more readily inclined to 
comply with this request on account] of what has been mentioned 
in the Secretary of] State's letter to me, for (after [the disappoint- 
ment] I have so lately met with) , I sh[all ] to send home a 
satisfactory Accou[ | proceeding which I am sorry to 
s[ay ] my power at present, 

While I was at Your Ho[use I] ask'd for the Indian Records, 
but wa[s told that] they were lock'd up, which I th[ought a] little 
extraordinary as there were no [other] motives for this last ex- 
cursion of mi[ne but to] transact Business with the Indians : [What] 
I desir'd to see was the Result of (a Meeting) which was held 
upon this very di[spute some] years ago, and beg the favor of you 
[to let me] have an Attested Copy of that [Transaction]. 

1 Printed in mutilated form in Johnson Papers, 6:276-77. Original 
manuscript is damaged by fire, but words in brackets have been supplied 
by two copies; the first two paragraphs were quoted in Indian Records, 
Vol. 8 — Indian Conference dated July 28, 1768, post pp. 565-67; the 
third and fourth paragraphs were copied by C. H. Mcllwain, and printed 
in his edition of Peter Wraxall's An Abridgment of the Indian Affairs 
(Cambridge, 1915) pp. xciii-xciv. 

552 Sir William Johnson Papers 

The Meeting [was held at Albany] at the time M r . Living[ston 
was Secretary for] Indian Affairs, wh[ose Son (Alderman Living- 
ston] of this City) t[hen acted as his Deputy.] 

[Your presejnce here is thought absolutely [necessjary, and I 
shall be very glad to assure you personally, that I am with great 
truth and Esteem 

Sir — 

Your most Obedient and 
humble Servant — 

H: Moore. 


Sir H. Moore's Letter 
w th . an Enclosure — 

A.L.S. 1 

Johnson Hall July 20*. 1768 

Dear Sir 

I arrived here the 15 th . Ins*, after almost Three Months 
Absence, and whether owing to the Change of Air, or Exercise, 
I find myself somewhat improved in health. — 

I often wished to have had it in my power to have seen You at 
York, but the Plan I had laid down, & the rest & retirement which 
I so much wanted would not admit me that pleasure, & induced 
me to take the Springs 2 in my way back, to try their effect on my 
Legs, which I do not find much better. — M r . Johnson 3 has com- 
municated your Correspondence during my Absence, and I 
am verry glad to find that what has been done proves agreable to 

1 In William L. Clements Library. 

2 Lebanon Springs, N. Y. 

3 Guy Johnson. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 553 

Your favour of the 1 1 th . Ins t . 4 to him came to Hands this Day, 
as did also One from M r . Blair 5 concerning the Boundary. — I 
think I have only to do with the general Line between the English, 
& Indians, and that all Matters of a Provincial Nature must be 
settled in the Manner You have observed. — A Mistake has been 
made by which the Line is not proposed by the Board of Trade 
to the Northward of Owegy. This, as far as I can see has been 
occasioned by 'its not having been Settled at the Congress in 
1765 (as I find M r . Johnson has observed to You) the Indians 
did not meet me at that time for that particular purpose, I only 
took that opertunity of finding out how they were generally dis- 
posed, that I might Govern myself accordingly whensoever I re- 
ceived final Orders for fixing the Line, but unless the Line is con- 
tinued Northerly from Owegy, So as to form a Boundary Between 
the Six Nations & New York, the Indians will not be secure, & 
the affair of the Boundary will be defeated in its principal Object, 
this must be so obvious that an Explanation is unnecessary, Sir 
H. Moore (as I am Informed) did not think it was requisite 
with regard to New York, and if it was Settled, was of opinion 
that it should not restrict this Province in purchasing, but I appre- 
hend he will alter this Opinion, as it is contrary to the Intention of 
the Boundary. — 

I have received letters from the Secretary of State with a 
Reform of the Indian Department, which M r . Johnson I find has 
Mentioned to You, on which there is Subject for much Enlarge- 
ment, It places the Management of y e . Indian Trade in the Hands 
of the Colonies with a View to a Saving, [& after admitting] and 
after admitting that they were Guilty of Notorious Errors at a 
time when the Colonies had reason to, & did actually fear them, 
It Supposes that at this period when their opinion is so much 
changed into a dangerous Security, that they will take more pains, 
& be at more expence than before. — This was always a trouble- 
some part of my Duty, but the Present Change has Originated 

4 Ante pp. 546-47. 

5 John Blair, president of the Council of Virginia. 

554 Sir William Johnson Papers 

with the Merchants Who have represented the Hardships of Re- 
strictions & ca . The Government before the last War do not appear 
to have given a great deal of Attention to Indian Affairs, & are 
now tired of the Expence incurred by the Establishment for 
Trade, but the Necissity of a System under One Person has 
Existed ever since our Connections with them were enlarged & 
particularly since the Reduction of Canada. The Moderate Ex- 
pence of former times was owing to y e . narrow Limits of our 
Connection with Indians, & the verry inconsiderable Opinion they 
had of the Colonies, who were then no Objects of Jealousy, but 
the French were verry much so. — In proportion as they became 
better acquainted with us & their Assistance courted, they rose in 
their Expectations, & as Soon As our power & encrease became 
visible to them all they all became Jealous of Us, & from that time 
required An Officer to Manage them, After the reduction of 
Canada the Connections we then formed with so many powerfull 
Nations prejudiced against Us, rendered the Department more 
necessary than before. — I cannot help observing that besides 
the limitting the Expences in the present Reform, The extent, & 
business of the two Departments does not appear to have been 
duely weighed, The Northern District was always considered to 
exceed the other verry much, as it realy does, and whilst the 
Secretary of State writes me to retrench all the Establishments 
& ca . regarding the Indian Trade, I do not see any provision made 
for my Deputys Sallaries, who had their Offices without a View to 
the Trade & Antecedent to it & who are so necessary to the 
Department that it cannot be carried on without them, neither is 
there any mention made of Smiths or Interpreters & the £3000 
<P Annum is a Sum too Small for Presents & Incidental Ex- 
pences to pay them out of it. An Addition of £ 1 000 ^ An m . 
might as the Affair of Trade is placed in other Hands, have in 
some measure Answered, & defrayed the Sallaries of the Officers 
necessary, & this might be taken with the greatest reason & 
propriety from the Southeren Districts Allowance. I shall be much 
oblidged if you will represent what You think best hereon to the 
Secretary of State, that Something may be done, for if I am to 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 555 

continue in Office, or do any Service I would pay the People out 
of my own Sallary rather than want those Assistances that are 
absolutely & indispensably necessary, & I hope to hear from You 
on those Subjects, & to know whether I should not remove the 
Commissarys forthwith. — 

I enclose You an Ace 1 , of Pay & Disbursements which could 
not come down in time to be inserted in my last & beg the favour 
of You to order payment for it. — 

I have made out a list of Such Goods we will be necessary to 
give the Indians for their Cession, I have been to the full as 
Moderate as I could in the Calculation, & I now send M r . 
Adems G (who is a verry good Judge of such Articles) to purchase 
them, and have given him an Order on M r . Mortier 7 for to re- 
ceive y e . Amount of them, as Soon as Your Warrant is Issued, 
there will also be wanting for other Articles here, & private 
presents to the Cheifs about £2000, in Dollars, w h . I have 
directed M r . Adems to bring up with him. It is impossible to de- 
termine the exact amount of the Expence necessary, but as I have 
calculated it, I cannot think that less than Ten thousand Pounds 
Sterling will answer, & that I fancy will be thought a verry 
cheap purchase for such a Tract of Country. — 

The White People about Conajohare (or Fort Hendrick) are 
daily taking away the Materials of the Block Houses there, and 
the Indians applyed to me 2 days ago requesting liberty to remove 
what is left of them in order to build them a Church. I hope you 
will have no Objection to it, Indeed, I told them when I had that 
Fort built that whenever the Garrison was withdrawn, & that we 
had no occasion for it, they might apply it to their own use. — 

The Chippawae Cheif with his party (who M r . Johnson wrote 
You could not get a passage from Niagra) is however since come 
here, & has business of importance, which he will speak upon to 
Morrow. There are likewise above 100 Indians from y e . upper 
Nations, on all which Subjects I hope to write You Soon. — 

6 Robert Adems. 

7 Abraham Mortier, deputy paymaster general. 

556 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I shall send the papers you require to the Judge Advocate In 
Canada as Soon as I possibly can. — 

I am most respectfully 
Dear Sir 

Your Most Obedient 

& verry Humble Servant 

W Johnson 

His Excellency GENERAL GAGE 

P S. I send by M r . Adems Croghans Ace'., & Maisonvills, 8 vA, 
I would be glad to have after You peruse them. 


Sir W m . Johnson — 

20*. July 1 768. — 
received 2 d . August — 
Inclosing An Ace 1 , of the 
Pay of the Department to 25 th . 
March 1 768. With Several 
Disbursements. — 
answered — 


Contemporary Copy 1 

Johnson Hall July 20 lh . 1768 

The Crown D r . 

To Goerge Croghan Esq r . Deputy 
Agent Salary from the 24 th . 
Sepf. 1767 to the 25 th . March 

£171.. 8. .6% 

8 Alexander Maisonville. 

1 In William L. Clements Library, Gage Papers; inclosed in Gage's 
warrant to Mortier, New York, August 1 6, 1 768. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 


To Joseph Gorham Esq r . Dept?. 
Agent Account of Disbursements 
from 24 th . Sepf. 1767, to 25 th . 
March 1768 

To Edward Cole Comiss r y. Acco 1 . 
of his Pay, Interpr trs . Smith and 
Disbursements from 24 th . Sepf. 

1767 to 25*. March 1768 

To Alexander McKee Comiss r y. 

Acco 1 . of his Pay, Interpreters, 
Smith and Disbursements from 
24 th . Sepf. 1 767 to 25 th . March 


To Jehu Hay Comiss r y. Ace', of his 
Pay, Interpf s . Smith and Dis- 
bursements from the 24 th . Sepf. 

1767 to 25*. March 1768 

To Norman MacLeod Comiss 1 ?. 

Acco'. of Disbursements from the 
24 th . Sepf. 1 767 to 25 th . March 


To Thomas M c Kees Pay from d°. 

to d° 

To Henry Montour d°. from d°. to 

To George Croghan Esq r . Deputy 
Agent, as <P Account will Ap- 


174.. 5.. 9 4 /- 

1969.. 4..11 2 / 7 

1263. .18. .11 

882.. 19.. 4 ( 

206.. 10.. 9 4 /7 

51.. 8 

42. .17 


. 6 
. 1 

2236.. 1..10 

£6998..15..10Vt 2 

(Signed) W JOHNSON 

2 Gage's warrant converts this sum in New York currency to 
£4082. .12. . 63/ 4 Sterling. 

558 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Contemporary Copy 1 

[Johnson Hall, July 22-27, 1768] 
At a Congress at Johnson Hall with the Chipeweighs — July 

Present — Sir William Johnson Bar*. — Super-Intend'. 
George Croghan _ _ , 

n j , y Esq rs . Dy. Ag ts . 

Liuy Johnson 

M'. A. M'Kee 2 

Pero — Interpreter 
Then went thro' the Ceremony of smoaking the Pipe according 
to the custom of the Western Nations 

Then Wachicouess arose, and shook hands, after which he laid 
down a Beaver Blanket, & then said 

Father — 

I now open your Ears, that you may hear, and understand what 
I have to say. — I have had an ardent desire to see you for a 
long time past, and I now meet y u . to tell you what I am charged 
with from the Chiefs of all our people — 

Father — 

You desired us, at Niagara, to conceal nothing from you, but 
to report any news of consequence. — We now come to tell you, 
that things are growing bad to the Westward, and that some of 
the Ground there, gets wet, and out of order, — This, I am now 
come to accquaint you of, and to know what you will say, in re- 
gard to it, to our People — 

Gave a Beaver Blanket 

Then laid down anoth r . & Said — 

Father — 

When I last saw you, you united my heart with yours. — mine 

1 In Canadian Archives, Indian Records, Vol. 8. 

2 Alexander McKee. 

Indian Affairs, 1766-68 559 

still remains entirely devoted to you, & in consequence thereof I 
now offer you our Service, as your Son; and to assure you that 
we are ready to do whatever you desire, I now acquaint you 
that there are bad Birds who have come to our towns singing bad 
songs, but that we would not listen to them. — They come to us 
every Spring, but we have thrown them over our shoulders. — We 
now desire to know your mind concerning these bad Birds — & 
perhaps you know where they come from. — We think they come 
from the Se