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Full text of "Papers presented at the ... Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing, .."

r~ 3, 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1965 CLINIC 
I ON LIBRARY APPLICATIONS 
OF DATA PROCESSING 



Graduate School of Library Science 
University of Illinois 








PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1965 CLINIC ON LIBRARY 
APPLICATIONS OF DATA PROCESSING 



Held at the Illini Union on the 

Urbana Campus of the University 

of Illinois, April 25-28, 1965 



Edited by 
FRANCES B. JENKINS 



Distributed by 

The Illini Union Bookstore 

Champaign, Illinois 



Copyright 1966 by 
The Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois 



FOREWORD 



The University of Illinois Graduate School of Library Science 
in cooperation with the Division of University Extension sponsors an 
annual Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing. This 
volume presents the papers given at the third of these clinics which 
was held in the Illini Union Building, on the University of Illinois 
campus, on April 25-28, 1965. 

As Herbert Goldhor pointed out in the preface to the proceed- 
ings of the first of these clinics, in helping to meet the challenging 
problem posed by a mounting volume of publication combined with the 
increasing demand for factual information: 

"the Library School's role in this area is seen as half-way be- 
tween the theoretical work being done by those at the frontier 
and the needs of the practitioners in the field. It would be un- 
fortunate if there were no one doing the difficult and necessary 
exploration of new ideas and of possible solutions; it would be 
equally unfortunate if there were no one next in line to inter- 
pret this work and to pass on its results to those who will have 
to apply them in practice. The enthusiastic response of those 
who came to this Clinic would bear out the correctness of the 
position.* 

The attendance at the third Clinic continues to reflect the grow- 
ing number of doers in library automation. Approximately sixty 
colleges, universities, public, state, and special libraries were rep- 
resented by one to four librarians at this Clinic. These libraries are 
either already using a computer or are planning to use one in the 
near future. 

As in other Clinics, representative types of libraries were 
selected which were thought to have automated sufficiently to make 
their experiences of value to other libraries. An appropriate person 
from each of the selected libraries was invited to present a report 
of the library's activities in this area. In addition to the papers 
recording the experiences of individual libraries there are three 
general papers, one by C. Dake Gull on the present state of the art, 
one by Arthur Brody on the application in a library-oriented industry, 
and one by William Greiner on library applications of UNIVAC 
equipment. 



iii 



Responsibility for planning the Clinic rested with a committee 
of the Graduate School of Library Science faculty composed of Direc- 
tor Herbert Goldhor, chairman, Professor Holland E. Stevens, and 
Professor Frances B. Jenkins. This committee had the able assis- 
tance of Mr. Hugh Davison, Clinic Supervisor, Division of University 
Extension, and Mrs. Bonnie G. Noble, Graduate School of Library 
Science. The progress and conduct of the Clinic was the work of 
many hands. First a word of thanks from the committee to the other 
members of the faculty of the Graduate School of Library Science 
with special thanks to Mrs. Barbara Donagon and Mrs. Nancy Works 
for the preparation of these papers for publication; and a word of grat- 
itude to the staffs of the Division of Extension and the mini Union for 
their cooperation. But most of all a word of appreciation to the 
speakers and registrants, those librarians who are making library 
automation a reality in their institutions, without whose eager and 
enthusiastic participation the clinic could not have been a success. 

Frances B. Jenkins, 
Editor 



iv 



OTHER VOLUMES IN THIS SERIES 



Proceedings of the 1963 Clinic on Library Applications of Data Pro- 
cessing. Pp. 176. 

Proceedings of the 1964 Clinic on Library Applications of Data Pro- 
cessing. Pp. 117. 

Order from the Illini Union Bookstore, 715 S. Wright St., Champaign, 
m. 61803. $2.00 in paper covers, $3.00 in cloth covers. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Page 
FOREWORD iii 

THE PRESENT STATE OF LIBRARY AUTOMATION 

C. Dake Gull 1 

THE DATA PROCESSING PROGRAM IN OPERATION AT THE 
SUFFOLK COOPERATIVE LIBRARY SYSTEM, PATCHOGUE, 
NEW YORK 

Walter W. Curley 15 

870 DOCUMENT WRITING SYSTEM OF IBM CORPORATION 
IN THE LIBRARY SECTION, LOS ANGELES CITY SCHOOLS 

Mary Seely Dodendorf 43 

BRO-DART INDUSTRIES' EXPERIENCE WITH ELECTRONIC 
DATA PROCESSING 

Arthur Brody 65 

HOW TO DESIGN DATA PROCESSING INPUT RECORDS FOR 
OPTIMUM RESULTS 

John P. Kennedy 79 

FLORIDA ATLANTIC UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 

Edward Heiliger 92 

THE ONULP BIBLIOGRAPHIC CONTROL SYSTEM. AN 
EVALUATION 

Ritvars Bregzis 112 

COMPUTER INDEXING OF THE PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS IN 
THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 

George R. Perreault 141 

LIBRARY APPLICATIONS OF DATA PROCESSING 
EQUIPMENT AT ABBOTT LABORATORIES 

Walter A. Southern 156 

DATA PROCESSING EQUIPMENT AND THE LIBRARY 

William E. Greiner 175 

LIBRARY APPLICATIONS OF DATA PROCESSING: 
A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1963-64 

James Krikelas 193 



THE PRESENT STATE OF LIBRARY AUTOMATION 
A Study in Reluctant Leadership 



C. Dake Gull 



This discussion will cover a rapid survey of the various un- 
dertakings in library automation during 1964-65, a brief sketch of 
how automation reached our national libraries, and the uses to which 
it has been put, including this author's views concerning the role 
these libraries must play in the future of automation in all libraries, 
and some actions worth considering to insure that national libraries 
fulfill their central and crucial role in the nationwide system as well 
as in the process of automating libraries. 

Library automation in April 1965 affects only a very small part 
of the activities of libraries in the United States, for attempts to 
automate have been undertaken in only a very small number of librar- 
ies in comparison to the total, and only for a limited number of op- 
erations in those libraries. In spite of this circumstance, the amount 
of activity directed towards library automation is already so large 
that accurate information is not available on how many libraries 
have operative programs, and even less information is available on 
how many libraries may be considering the automation or mechani- 
zation of some of their operations. There is not even an organized 
and continuing effort to gather information about library automation 
and to publish it for the profession. 

These conclusions, consequently, are based almost entirely 
upon secondary sources because it was not possible to visit most of 
the operations which will be described and summarized. The neces- 
sity of relying upon written descriptions and conversations and the 
failure to visit most of the installations should lead to suspicion that 
there are inaccuracies and misinterpretations in this presentation. 
Time and careful studies will uncover them. One lesson learned 
thoroughly from efforts to introduce automation and to provide ob- 
jective, balanced, and satisfactory consulting and engineering ser- 
vices to libraries is that the reality of mechanization and automation 



C. Dake Gull is Professor in the Division of Library Science, Indiana 
University, Bloomington, Indiana. 



in a library, as a direct experience, is likely to be quite different 
from the impressions gained from conversations and written de- 
scriptions. In spite of this, and in addition to the warnings about the 
unreliabilities on which the conclusions may be founded, an attempt 
will be made to present what the author believes to be a reasonable 
selection and interpretation of the library automation which exists 
at the present time. The author is very much indebted to many 
librarians for the up-to-date information they have sent, because the 
accounts in our literature are too often out-of-date on publication. 

There are a few doers who are making library automation a 
reality in their libraries. A larger number of librarians are de- 
signing and planning, and an even larger number are interested or 
are watchfully waiting to see what other libraries, especially our 
national libraries, will do. It is fortunate that so many of the doers 
in library automation have prepared papers for this Clinic. 

The summaries the author has seen and has roughed out him- 
self show that information retrieval (IR) is the least common of 
library automation activities. Information retrieval is more common 
in documentation centers than in libraries, a distinction which ac- 
curately reflects their greater needs for IR. 

The operating examples of library automation are found in 
acquisitions and order work; cataloging, in the production of book 
catalogs and card catalogs; serials work, in most of its aspects^ and 
circulation records work. The introduction of automation for ac- 
quisitions and order work improves those procedures internally and 
offers better financial control. The ready availability of new catalogs 
in book form, as yet of less than 100,000 titles, in cumulated series 
or in new editions, serves our library users better than before, 
because of their currency and easy distribution in published forms. 
The use of automation for circulation and serials records has im- 
proved service to library users, in an area where there is much work 
to do. Daily circulation lists organized in two parts, one by book 
call numbers and the other by borrowers' identification numbers, 
and lists of reserved or otherwise displaced books are invaluable 
aids, especially when they are in multiple copies and can also be 
used for immediate inventory control. Weekly lists of newly-arrived 
serials, showing all the pertinent facts about individual issues, are 
a great help in serving users, especially when supported by updated 
holdings lists of all serial titles. 

The following equipment is currently being used: 

1. Most of the standard units of punched card equipment. 

2. Paper tape typewriters as peripheral computer components, 
or as independent units for catalog card production. 

3. A very representative sample, as to models and manufac- 
turers, of small, medium, and large electronic digital computers. 



4. Magnetic tape units these are much more common than 
random access units for storage, recall, and memory operations. 

5. A small number of terminals connected to computers; even 
fewer at remote locations. 

6. Computer line printers in all capitals are in the majority; 
a few upper-lower case computer printers chains are used; 
computer -driven composers for photo -off set work are coming 
in. 

Operations research and engineering personnel are being used 
at Purdue University, Johns Hopkins University, and Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology to help solve their library problems. This 
shift to reliance on professional persons other than librarians and 
computer manufacturers is very significant. 

One of the very interesting applications is the effort under way 
at the Medical Libraries at Harvard, Yale, and Columbia Univer- 
sities, as described by Frederick G. Kilgour, Librarian of the Yale 
Medical Library. * The objective of these three libraries in their 
computerization project is eventually the rapid and complete retrieval 
of bibliographic information. However, they are starting with the 
catalog, entering information for books in their collections published 
in 1960 or later, and to this monographic record they hope to be able 
to add the MEDLAR'S indexing which cares for the indexing of 
journals supplying upwards of 75 percent of the recorded use in their 
libraries. They intend to have each library connected to the com- 
puter by telephone lines and to be able to ask through remote infor- 
mation terminals for references on various subjects, with specific 
limitations on the questions. Hopefully, the references will be 
supplied to the inquirer almost immediately. The effective speed of 
response will be limited only by the ability of the terminals to print 
out references. 

They are starting with preparation of catalog cards by machine 
operations now and will go to information retrieval later ; use is 
being made of the medical subject headings used by the National 
Library of Medicine. The depth of their subject cataloging has al- 
ready increased from approximately 1.5 subject headings per title 
to 10.4. The production of catalog cards is designed around the IBM 
1401 computer, because this is a very common computer at the 
present time. The four major computer programs are used to allow 
the production of punch cards to be placed in the IBM 870 Document 
Writer to produce catalog cards from continuous forms. All of the 
different entry cards are prepared for the libraries in this way, in- 
cluding their contributions to the National Union Catalog. When the 
machinery is operating perfectly, the cataloging completed one day 
is punched the next day and the mechanized catalog cards are pro- 
duced for filing the following day. 



Once a month at Yale the accessions list is added to the Bulle- 
tin of the Yale Medical Library. This process has been reduced 
from one week of staff time to an hour of time in the computer center, 
of which only a very small fraction is computer time. The average 
production cost is now in the vicinity of $20 a month, and the saving 
in the human cost has been far greater, for staff members disliked 
the re -editing required. The accession list is now approximately 
50 percent larger than it was formerly and costs less to prepare. 

The project directors have endeavored to ascertain the cost of 
producing cards, and it appears at the present time that mechanized 
catalog card production does not cost more and probably costs less 
than other conventional card production techniques. When an addi- 
tional use is made, as in the case of accession lists, the costs drop 
far below those for conventional procedures. The project is only at 
a beginning stage. They intend to produce the cards on a computer 
using upper and lower case characters, and this change will ma- 
terially speed the card production to approximately one card every 
two seconds. 

The National Agricultural Library (NAL) has been actively 
surveying its needs for automation in recent years, and a report on 
its efforts, Project ABLE, is to be published very soon. The NAL 
has already made a modest start. The August 1964 issue (and sub- 
sequent issues) of the Bibliography of Agriculture contains an author 
index produced with the aid of a special typewriter font (capitals and 
numerals), a Farrington optical scanner located in New Orleans, and 
IBM 7074 and 1401 computers in Washington. Input errors made in 
typing the authors in random order can be lined out or indicated by 
this symbol: I-. The optical scanner is used to produce magnetic 
tape records, the alphabetic sorting is done on the IBM 7074, and the 
printing is done on the IBM 1401. 

The NAL has already advanced towards the preparation of the 
subject index for the Bibliography of Agriculture, and its computer 
production is planned for publication in the January 1966 issue. Con- 
currently, the NAL is preparing for the retrieval use of the subject 
index. 

The NAL has also started, with Vol. 1, No. 1, March 19, 1965, 
the biweekly Pesticides Documentation Bulletin. The first issue, 
computer produced, contains 1,289 entries, an author index, and a 
permuted keyword-out-of-context (KWOC) subject index, in which 
each index term is in the left margin as well as in the body of the 
title. On the same date, the NAL invited potential bidders to submit 
proposals for a computer based systems design and programming 
for a Pesticides Information Center. 

The Library of Congress (LC) has responded to the need for 
automation within the last year by establishing the position of In- 
formation Systems Specialist, to which Samuel S. Snyder has been 



appointed. He has had much experience with computers. His staff 
includes Barbara Evans Markuson, his assistant; Donald M. Ricker- 
son, electronics engineer, and Henriette D. Avram, an experienced 
programmer. 

Their plans are under way. They are beginning a systems 
analysis of the LC and are gathering data using six of LC's latest 
interns. They are working on the machine readable record problem 
as related to catalog cards, the subject heading authority list, National 
Union Catalog entries, and a possible subscription service corre- 
sponding to current catalog card sales. Samuel Snyder hopes that 
his office can become an information exchange on library automation 
and that some internal memoranda can be published later in a pro- 
fessional journal, but he wrote that he could not release the amount 
of money requested for the 1966 fiscal year budget. 

The preceding survey shows that none of the libraries which 
have adopted mechanization or automation to any extent has attempted 
seriously to consider a whole library as a total information system 
which is to be integrated so far as possible in its concepts, design, 
provision of equipment, and daily operations. That kind of integra- 
tion is certainly in the minds of the top staff members at the National 
Library of Medicine, the National Agricultural Library, and the 
Library of Congress, but as yet only as intellectual aspirations. The 
King Report2 and the Proceedings of the Airlie Conference, 3 re- 
markable reports in themselves, provide us with an adequate real- 
ization that an integrated, electronic library system is a monumental 
undertaking which should not be embarked on lightly, but one for 
which there is every prospect of eventual success. 

The foregoing examples in various libraries show diversity 
in operations, equipment, programming languages, philosophic ap- 
proaches to the problem, and methods of implementation. The amount 
of compatibility from one system to another is unfortunately low. In 
this lack of compatibility, a repetition of the divisive events in 
library history can be seen. Unless there is a change, it is reason- 
able to predict that librarianship and library users will continue to 
suffer from the failure to standardize, cooperate, and centralize. 
Evidently, the spirit of independence, of seeing one's own problems 
and solving them one's own way, still prevails to the detriment of 
librarianship as a whole. This condition demonstrates that there are 
too few librarians in this country who are willing to rise to the op- 
portunity of leadership presented now and to work for the benefit 
of libraries, librarianship, and library users. Many librarians pre- 
fer to work on their own restricted problems and solutions. It is 
this prevailing situation which led to the adoption of the subtitle, 
*A Study in Reluctant Leadership," for this paper. 

For twenty years it has been clear to a number of librarians, 
most of whom are still active in this work, that first mechanization, 



6 

next computers, and more recently the restricted field of informa- 
tion systems engineering, offer the only real hope that libraries will 
be able to cope with the ever-growing problems of acquiring, analyz- 
ing, controlling, manipulating, and distributing information. In re- 
retrospect, that period seems much too long for what has been 
accomplished. 

The first stimulus to action came from outside the library 
profession. The Office of Naval Research at the close of World War 
II saw the need to do something with the mass of research and 
development reports which were left over from the war effort. The 
Office placed a contract with the Library of Congress to undertake 
research and development for the better handling of this material, 
and turned over the mass of reports. That backlog and the growing 
bulk of material produced by our enormous defense program side- 
tracked the research and development aspects, and the problems 
became almost wholly operations at LC, rather than research, as can 
be seen in the name changes which occurred. The Science and 
Technology Project at the Library of Congress became the Navy 
Research Section; in turn it became the Reference Center of the 
Armed Services Technical Information Agency (ASTIA) when that 
agency was established under the order of the Secretary of Defense 
in 1951. 

In 1952, ASTIA placed a contract with Documentation Inc., a 
new commercial research and development organization, seeking an 
improved method of analyzing the content of the report literature 
which would be amenable to manual and mechanical or electronic 
operation. The result was the Uniterm System of Coordinate Index- 
ing. There are a number of manual and electronic installations now 
using this system, attesting to the success in meeting the operational 
requirements of the contract. Controversy arose immediately over 
fragmenting index terms in this manner; the controversy was once 
violent and is perhaps only quiescent now. There were other research 
and development efforts during the early 1950's, as well as ever 
widening study by people concerned with the problems. 

Another federal government agency embarked upon some con- 
tracts which eventually led to a markedly different development at 
the Battelle Memorial Institute and subsequently in the newly estab- 
lished Center for Documentation and Communication Research within 
the School of Library Science at Western Reserve University. The 
result of these efforts was the even more controversial telegraphic 
abstracting style of subject analysis based on some traditional ideas 
of classification and a new concept of semantic factoring. Telegraphic 
abstracting proved to be one of the most complicated methods ever 
developed for the control of information. It was based on some firm 
belief, and weakly supported by experimentation, and is used today 
for only one sizable effort, the control of metallurgical information 



by the American Society for Metals. One cautious report suggests 
to me that the development has turned out to be metallurgy's greatest 
obstacle in the past decade. 

The relative measure of success of these methods, coordinate 
indexing (extremely simple) and telegraphic abstracting (extremely 
complex) remains unresolved at this time. The simplest and the 
most complex methods are both being implemented with computers 
at the present time. Perhaps the most useful conclusion is that 
computer is larger than either of the systems, and we are fortunate 
that this is so, because we have the opportunity to develop other 
useful methods within the extremes. 

During the period that the Library of Congress administered 
part of ASTIA, it participated in the developments which were leading 
toward automation in libraries. However, the ever growing require- 
ments of the Library of Congress for space and other considerations 
led eventually to the removal in February 1958 of ASTIA activities to 
Arlington Hall across the Potomac in Virginia, where ASTIA installed 
a computer in 1960 for its operations. This change removed the 
Library of Congress from the mainstream of developments leading 
toward the adoption of computers. Computers were adopted earliest 
and most willingly by documentation and information centers. 

Within a year the Librarian of Congress, L. Quincy Mumford, 
let it be known that small surveys about the possibility of automation 
for the Library of Congress would be welcome and that the Library 
of Congress would consider unsolicited proposals for work. Richard 
S. Angell, Chief of the Subject Cataloging Division, was chosen as the 
official contact and soon demonstrated that he was the LC's most 
knowledgeable member in this area. 

This act of leadership produced mixed results. Three com- 
panies, General Electric, International Business Machines, and 
Thompson- Ramo-Wooldridge, made brief surveys and in October 
1959 presented proposals for initial work, thus preparing their per- 
sonnel for later work elsewhere. This preparation was the principal 
benefit. 

The proposals made clear to the top administrators at the LC 
that automation would eventually be feasible and successful, that an 
integrated electronic library system would be complex and difficult 
to achieve as well as costly ($20,000,000 over a twenty year period 
as a minimum), that the catalog records could be computerized to 
provide a new level of bibliographic apparatus, that the Card Division 
operations were particularly suitable for early automation, that 
inquiry stations should be developed, and that LC needs exceeded the 
capabilities of the existing equipment in some areas. The proposals 
made clear that the LC would have to undertake its pioneering effort 
to solve its problems with the aid of a branch of engineering which 
was also still in its initial pioneering stages. 



8 

Modest sums were quoted by the companies for the initial 
studies, about 1 percent of the Library's annual expenditures. This 
figure is a low percentage for innovation in contrast to figures of 
3 to 5 percent for this country's leading innovating corporations and 
10 percent for research and development in the Federal Government. 

The proposals were politely and gratefully accepted, but no 
funds were obtained from the Congress and no contracts were let. 
Because of their proprietary nature, the survey proposals were never 
published, and the information given to the library profession was 
limited to a brief account in the Library of Congress Information 
Bulletin. 4 

The unfortunate result of the proposals was to paralyze the 
spirit of innovation at the Library of Congress just when encourage- 
ment and action were required. Libraries are still paying the penalty 
and probably will continue to pay for years to come, because of in- 
ordinate delays in attacking the problems of our national bibliographic 
apparatus. 

In contrast, the history of the National Library of Medicine in 
1958-1965 provides a remarkable demonstration that the spirit of 
innovation, decisive administrative action, thorough homework, 
an outside contractor, and available technology can be combined to 
accomplish a great deal towards automating a library. 

The Library of Congress chose a reasonable but regrettably 
inadequate course of action in 1960-61. The course was to seek 
high level advice without other action. Even the offical contact was 
changed and became Henry J. Dubester, Chief of the General Refer- 
ence and Bibliography Division. He soon became LS's other expert 
in library automation; he was later to leave the Library for the 
National Science Foundation in 1964. 

Again the result was delay. The blue ribbon study committee 
produced sound advice, but it took too long to publish the King Report 
(January 1964)2 and the Proceedings of the Airlie Conference (Oc- 
tober 1964) ;3 and no implementation of automation has been accom- 
plished as yet at LC. 

No one should argue against the desirability of securing full 
and competent advice for the automation of the Library of Congress. 
The point is that LC could have obtained action as well as advice 
during the past five years. While a Congress accustomed to large 
appropriations for research and development in all areas of federal 
activity is unlikely to reject a request for R&D funds for its own 
Library, it is unlikely to appropriate funds without being asked by the 
Librarian or without being urged to appropriate funds by the library 
profession. We can assume very reasonably that if LC had asked 
for funds five years ago, at least some significant operations would 
be computerized at LC now. 



In support of this study, a summary of the accomplishments of 
the NLM for this same period should be noted. With a grant from the 
Council on Library Resources in the period 1958-1960, Seymour 
Taine and Frank B. Rogers, then Director of the NLM, studied the 
problems of compiling, indexing, and publishing Index Medic us, and 
converted its production from a manual card shingling operation to 
a paper-tape typewriter, punched card, automatic camera production 
method. They also defined what they wanted to accomplish in a very 
complete fashion, formulated a public request for proposals, secured 
twenty-six proposals, selected a contractor the General Electric 
Company secured the financing of a $3.4 million effort from the U.S. 
Public Health Service, monitored the contractor's work, and con- 
verted Index Medicus to computer production in January 1964. In the 
same period, they also expanded the coverage of indexed journals, 
more than tripled the depth of indexing, revised the list of subject 
headings, reduced the productions time of Index Medicus, and secured 
by a development contract the most sophisticated computer-driven 
photo-composer yet in use. They also kept their secondary objectives 
always in mind, some of which are being worked on now. 

The present Director, Martin M. Cummings, summarized the 
accomplishments of MEDLARS up to March, 1965, as follows: Since 
January 1, 1964, with MEDLARS, they have: 

1. Organized and composed 15 monthly issues of Index Medicus 
(10,476 pages) , and the 1964 annual volume of Cumulated Index 
Medicus (5,698 pages). 

2. Produced 300 demand retrieval searches for experimental 
systems testing. 

3. Produced more than 1,000 demand bibliographies for 
physicians and scientists. 

4. Produced the following recurring published bibliographies: 

Cerebrovascular Bibliography (semi-annual) 

Index of Rheumatology (bi-weekly) 

Index to Dental Literature (quarterly, cumulative). 

5. Produced magnetic tapes for use by others and in other 
locations; tapes are being made available in IBM as well as 
Honeywell format to increase compatibility for nationwide use. 5 

NLM is now engaged in a computer programming to accomodate 
monographic entries. Scott Adams, Deputy Director, has also written: 

". . . there are two major strategic considerations underlying 
NLM planning: 

1. NLM intends to share with the medical library community 
the power to search for and repackage citations in response to 
interdisciplinary needs we have developed through MEDLARS. 



10 

2. NLM intends to establish, through Federal grants and con- 
tracts, a medical library technical assistance program, to 
strengthen the medical library network so that its resources 
and services . . . (will become more nearly equal) to the com- 
plexity and volume of new interdisciplinary needs, and to the 
power of retrieval provided by MEDLARS. "6 

While library automation in its present state is only poorly 
advanced and is still in its pioneering stages, this development has 
brought forward again a number of the problems which are central 
to librarianship in this country. In the activities which are presently 
being carried on, there exists a diversity of philosophies, methods, 
techniques, and systems, and a variety of equipment already in use. 
Examples of individual leadership in individual libraries are evident. 
We recognize that the status of our national bibliographies is still 
central to the problems; witness the efforts of Verner Clapp to 
develop the report by Larry Buckland.^ But there still remains a 
lack of standards for this bibliography and for other library prac- 
tices. There is a considerable degree of incompatibility among the 
new systems being introduced within libraries. There is a very 
large lack of understanding of the capabilities and potentialities of 
electronic information systems within the library profession. The 
major lacks which have been brought to the surface by the arrival of 
library automation are our lack of national leadership in librarian- 
ship and the lack of a plan for automation. 

The present situation must be translated into needs for some 
kind of equipment and for increased finances to accomplish the work 
that must be done. The engineers claim that equipment can be built 
for almost any requirement if the requirement can be adequately 
defined. It is known that increased finances can be obtained for 
worthy causes if they are presented carefully and persuasively. 

Most of the conditions described immediately above prevailed 
at the time Herbert Putnam became Librarian of Congress in 1899. 
He overcame many of the problems of his period by a series of 
actions within the Library of Congress, by his effective relations 
with the Congress, and by his leadership for the profession in this 
country. He was not faced with problems of the same quantity as 
we are facing today, and his library was relatively more the national 
library than the Library of Congress is today. In the sixty-five 
years which have elapsed, the Agricultural and Medical libraries of 
the Federal Government have grown tremendously and have both 
achieved legal status as National Libraries, while it has been im- 
possible for the Librarians of Congress to achieve the same formal 
elevation for the Library of Congress. Herbert Putnam did not face 
the technology and its capabilities which we face today, but he did 
face the absence of national leadership and the lack of a plan, just 
as we face these today. 



11 

If the profession were at this time in the situation of having a 
newly appointed Librarian of Congress, it might be reasonable for it 
to decide to let the newly appointed Librarian endeavor to provide 
national leadership and work towards a national plan for automating 
the libraries in this country; but this situation does not prevail. The 
Librarian of Congress, L. Quincy Mumford, has been in office since 
1954, and his administration has been marked by the steady growth 
of the library, a corresponding but less rapid growth in its financial 
support, and a very cautious approach to changes of all kinds. All 
of the circumstances that have been considered suggest that Mr. 
Mumford truly needs our help at this time, and even more, help from 
outside the library profession. 

What are some steps which could be considered to offer the 
type of help necessary to provide national leadership and to develop 
a plan for library automation ? 

A Federal Library Committee has been appointed recently, 
with Mr. Mumford as chairman, and has held its first meeting. The 
establishment of this committee is clearly a step in the right direc- 
tion, but the question must be asked as to whether this committee 
can properly be concerned with the problems of library automation, 
nationwide and for the library profession, as it should be. The 
cautious record of the chairman and the restricted phraseology of 
the name of the committee suggest that too much hope for the solu- 
tion of library problems should not be placed in the creation and 
future activities of this committee. 

The American Library Association (ALA) is the most broadly 
based of the library professional societies and the largest in its 
membership. It has demonstrated a continuing interest in the 
Library of Congress, in all its national activities over the past eighty 
odd years. The history of those years also shows that the American 
Library Association has had relatively little effect upon the develop- 
ment of the Library of Congress and upon the development of our 
national library system in general. Only in recent years has the 
ALA started a program of lobbying before the Congress, and this 
program is now beginning to show results. 

This author inquired by correspondence of the chairmen of 
several committees in the ALA who are concerned with the automa- 
tion of libraries in several aspects, trying to learn whether ALA is 
presently exerting leadership in this area, and if not, how it should 
go about developing leadership. From the replies I conclude that 
ALA has no effective leadership in this area, and these committee 
chairmen offer no concrete suggestions that will get ALA started in 
this direction. Consequently, there do not appear to be any particu- 
larly optimistic reasons for belief that the ALA is the direction to 
which the profession should turn for assistance in this matter. 



12 

One solution, sometimes used in this country to establish 
national leadership and to develop a plan, is the establishment of an 
independent non-profit corporation, designed to accomplish the ob- 
jectives of the incorporators. Perhaps a title such as "Americans 
for the National Libraries of the United States" would be a suitable 
name for this type of organization. The creation of an instrument 
of this kind is so familiar that it seems unnecessary to describe it 
further except to say that its objectives should be to determine re- 
quirements, obtain financial support, influence the Congress, and 
persuade or lead librarians toward library automation. 

The choice of the plural for "the National Libraries" is deliber- 
ate here. We can no longer afford to allow the historical accident 
that there are three national libraries, one in the legislative branch 
and two in the executive branch of our Federal Government, to hold 
up further progress toward a national library system making full use 
of library automation. 

There are several organizations already in existance in our 
society which might be able to serve the purposes we have in mind. 
These are non-profit corporations concerned with one or more of the 
intellectual disciplines and the application of those disciplines to the 
general welfare of the population. These organizations include the 
National Academy of Sciences National Research Council, the newly 
created National Academy of Engineering, the Social Science Research 
Council, and the American Council of Learned Societies, for example. 
With slightly differing charters, these organizations are in position 
to work together for advisory committees to debate the requirements, 
determine the needs for funds, lay out the requirements for national 
leadership, and bring information to the attention of the Congress. 
They are also capable of receiving funds for the purposes of con- 
ducting surveys and developing plans. All of the organizations named 
as examples have been and are being used for this purpose. 

The problems of library automation are of such magnitude and 
so pervasive in their national effect that the possibility of the estab- 
lishment of a Federal Commission for the National Libraries ought 
to be considered. Federal commissions have been most effective in 
many areas in accomplishing the objectives of informing the Con- 
gress, developing plans, and changing the direction of events in this 
country. Such a body can be an ad hoc or permanent group, em- 
powered by statute, resolution, or executive order to investigate a 
problem in the public interest. It can secure information basic to the 
framing of new legislation. It informs public opinion on matters 
under inquiry; it can gain public support for new legislation. 

A federal commission can be a legislative body or an admin- 
istrative committee; it may hold oral hearings in Washington or 
throughout the country. It can be empowered to compel testimony. 
The body can be directed to report at any time and to make a final 



13 

report at a stated date. Majority and minority reports are always 
possible to reflect differences of opinion. There need be no limits 
to the subjects under investigation. Expenses of the federal com- 
mission can be met by special appropriation or from the contingent 
funds of the House and Senate. 

George B. Galloway, at one time a member of the Legislative 
Reference Service of the Library of Congress, has written that the 
results of federal commissions have justified their use.8 They have 
secured exposure of officials and set cautionary examples for others. 
With their aid inefficient officals may be removed or forced to resign. 
He also observes that the Congress may transfer neglected duties to 
another department or create a new agency. 

James W. Fesler has expressed the hope that the establishment 
of a federal commission is not a concession to heavy pressure for 
action while at the same time its appointment postpones a decision.^ 
One of the real advantages in the establishment of a Federal Com- 
mission for the National Libraries is that its membership would be 
composed of a minority of librarians and a majority of members of 
other occupations in this country. The problems are so great here 
that we need some unusually competent people drawn from the ranks 
of politicians, financiers, industrialists, scientists, and executives, 
as well as representatives from the academic world to take care of 
the humanities and the arts. 



REFERENCES 



1. Kilgour, Frederick G. "Development of Computerization of 
Card Catalogs in Medical and Scientific Libraries." In Herbert 
Goldhor, ed. Proceedings of the 1964 Clinic on Library Applications 
of Data Processing. Urbana, University of Illinois Graduate School 
of Library Science, 1965, pp. 25-35. 

2. King, Gilbert W. Automation and the Library of Congress. 
Washington, Library of Congress, 1963. 

3. Markuson, Barbara Evans, ed. Libraries and Automation 
(Proceedings of the Conference on Libraries and Automation held 
at Airlie Foundation, Warrenton, Virginia, May 26-30, 1963, under 
the sponsorship of the Library of Congress, National Science Foun- 
dation, and Council on Library Resources, Inc.) . Washington, 
Library of Congress, 1964. 

4. U.S. Library of Congress. Information Bulletin, 23:33-36, 
January 27, 1964. 



14 

6. Adams, Scott. "The Scientific Revolution and the Research 
Library," Library Resources and Technical Services, 9:140, Spring 
1965. 

7. Buckland, Lawrence F. The Recording of Library of Con- 
gress Bibliographical Data in Machine Form. (A report prepared 
for the Council on Library Resources, Inc.,) . Rev. ed. Washington, 
Council on Library Resources, 1965. 

8. Galloway, George B. 'Investigations, Governmental," 
Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences. New York, The Macmillan 
Company, 1937, VoL 4, pp. 251-259. 

9. Fesler, James W. "Commission." In A Dictionary of the 
Social Sciences. Ed. Julius Gould and William L. Kolb. New York, 
Free Press of Glencoe, 1964, pp. 105-106. 



THE DATA PROCESSING PROGRAM IN OPERATION AT THE 

SUFFOLK COOPERATIVE LIBRARY SYSTEM 

PATCHOGUE, NEW YORK 



Walter W. Curley 



February 10, 1963 will always be remembered by the staff of 
the Suffolk Cooperative Library System as the day the button was 
pushed. Prior to that time, all of the reasons why mechanized data 
processing might be applicable had been carefully explored; all were 
aware that a manual operation might keep the system alive and would 
have the added advantage that, if it failed, the disaster would make 
less of a noise from one end of the state to the other. However, the 
reasons for mechanization were so compelling that the exciting step 
was taken. 

The creation of the Suffolk Cooperative Library System, the 
second to the last one to be authorized in New York, had been 
achieved only after many years of effort, and came hard to many of 
the conservative but conscientious people who were running the 
libraries of Suffolk County. In February 1963, only twenty-four of 
the forty-five public libraries in the County were members, and 
perhaps some non-members were waiting on the sidelines to watch 
the System fail: ( l) because the libraries would be forced to develop 
rapidly in order to cope with the demands of the fastest growing 
county in the United States and (2) because it would be necessary to 
keep operations confined to 5,000 square feet of space for at least 
several years. Because the System could be spared the problems of 
switching from an on-going manual operation and because it would 
be necessary to show speed and accuracy while keeping operating 
costs at a minimum, it soon became evident that the best procedure 
would be to start mechanizing. 

When the word got out that the System was going to travel this 
rather revolutionary road, there was no trouble making contact with 
representatives of the various companies which make and lease or 



Walter W. Curley is Director, Suffolk Cooperative Library System, 
Patchoque, New York. 

15 



16 

sell the kind of machinery which would be needed. What was being 
sought was the best possible equipment which the System could afford 
to: 

1. Handle the entire book ordering procedure. 

2. Make labels for the spines, cards, and pockets of books to be 
processed. 

3. Allow plenty of down time from these operations for the 
introduction of circulation control for the bookmobile and for 
any member libraries desiring the service. 

4. Provide further down time for inauguration of tighter con- 
trols on existing operations, and for the introduction of new 
services now still in the early planning stage. 

5. Produce good catalog cards in quantity. 

6. Produce catalog cards in a satisfactory manner. 

7. Prepare accounts receivable and payable, as well as monthly 
statements. 

8. Provide vendor's invoices mechanically coping with the 
problems of discount. 

For various mechanical, financial, and personal reasons, the 
following bank of equipment was leased under the following arrange- 
ment with IBM: one 026 Printing Card Punch; one 082 S50 Sorter, 
one 085 Collator, one 403 S50 Accounting Machine with Multiplying 
device, one 514 Reproducing Punch with Mark Sense. For the pres- 
ent, it was decided to produce catalog cards from a combination of 
Ekatalith and the A. B. Dick Offset process printing cards, 4 up from 
masters. 

Although the establishment of procedures for the equipment had 
been taking every waking moment of the staff for the previous 
several months, it was noticed that no matter how fool-proof a pro- 
cedure was thought to be, someone could always find a flaw in it 
during those endless brainstorming sessions designed for this very 
purpose. 

When the equipment eventually was installed and the Boards 
were finally wired as desired, a whistle was blown, pictures were 
taken, a large sigh of relief was breathed, and promptly it all proved 
to be premature! Some of the staff will always remember the happy 
day when the data processing supervisor fed a large batch of cards 
for the wrong member libraries into the IBM 403 during the billing 
operation with the happy result that everybody was mad for at least 
two weeks afterwards, as books arrived at some libraries without 
bills, and, worse yet, bills arrived at other libraries for books they 
had not ordered ! Lesson number one to be learned is that the human 
element is always present and should not be underestimated even 
in a mechanized operation. About all the machines can do in such a 
case is insure bigger and better mistakes ! And then there was the 



17 

glorious week when order cards were fed into the machine by the 
hundreds without noticing that they had not been properly coded for 
the member libraries ordering the books in question. Some of the 
staff worked into the very late hours for several nights after that 
repositioning the code number for suitable mechanical handling. And 
here was learned Lesson number two: No procedure is workable 
until it has worked. After reading countless articles in library 
journals, and listening to countless speeches at library conferences 
about what the machines can do without a word of actual experience 
or proof to back up the rosy speculation of the writer or speaker, it 
seems that there is no other field of library science in which theory 
is so easily substituted for practice. 

Being able to start slowly, the System had the invaluable op- 
portunity of erasing "bugs" while they were in a controllable stage. 
At the start, fifteen of the member libraries ordered books from 
the System; then others were added. Today the System orders and 
processes books for all but two of the forty member libraries. 

Over the past two years, changes in procedures have been 
made from time to time to correct problems which, in the beginning, 
seemed almost insurmountable. For example, producing clean 
catalog cards, cutting edges, storing catalog cards, and making re- 
finements in data processing procedures. 

At the time that the bank of IBM equipment was installed, it 
was known that Remington Rand was soon to come out with the Univac 
1004. IBM had no comparable piece of equipment which would give 
the speed and capacity of the Univac 1004, but the company was aware 
that in this highly competitive area, they would soon have to provide 
a "poor man's computer." Thus, the IBM 403 was installed with the 
realization that its capacity would do very well for a time but that 
eventually it would need to be replaced either with the Univac 1004 
or with a similar IBM computer if that company should market one 
in time. In 1964, it was determined that the IBM 403 was too slow, 
the IBM 407 was fast enough but lacked the storage memory that 
the staff believed was needed, and that the IBM 1400 series was a 
very substantial leap to make from the IBM 403. The Univac 1004 
uniquely fitted into the gap; for it was about as fast as the more 
sophisticated IBM equipment, had storage, and fitted the System's 
pocketbook at $1,150 per month. 

The Suffolk System's approach to data processing has been 
conditioned by the following considerations. In a cooperative sys- 
tem which contains tiny little libraries as well as fairly large ones, 
it is healthy to remember that a System Director has, in addition to 
a nine member Board of Trustees, as many bosses as there are 
member libraries. It seemed obvious then that the data processing 
program would have to please the extremely varied needs of many 
people. Providing them with sufficiently detailed information on 



18 

time and frequently enough would have been a formidable task if 
handled manually. Also, a high rate of inaccuracy might have been 
expected if more staff had been crowded into the cramped 
quarters and pushed hard to produce or else. So mechanization 
seemed most likely to insure the ability to please the "customers" 
in a highly sensitive area. 

Taking the long view of things, concern arose when it was noted 
that the vast majority of centralized processing programs with which 
the staff was acquainted depended on consolidated book ordering as 
the primary basis for service. In a manual operation, this is almost 
compulsory. It is believed that a few years of this will have an 
alarming and debilitating effect on the book collections of the librar- 
ies involved. In an area like Suffolk County where broad subject 
coverage is essential, this procedure would not serve the purpose. 
Furthermore, book selection should be regarded as one of the most 
important and professional services which the member library 
director performs at the local level. To subjugate this "sacred 
trust" to the convenience of a centralized processing program seems 
very much like the tail wagging the dog. With Suffolk's mechanized 
program, member libraries have been able to order whatever books 
they want, whenever they want them. In fact, the more variety the 
better, because it is improving the scope and probably the quality of 
the book resources of the System. The System has received a lot 
of abuse because it does not and will not consolidate book orders. 
Fellow librarians have said that the System will come to it "as sure 
as God makes little green apples"; a major jobber said that unless 
we did come to it like other systems, they would have to cut the 
discount. To the first group, it can be reported that the machines 
could not care less whether twenty copies of a book are ordered over 
a four -week span, or twenty all at once; to the jobber the following 
necessary reply was made: "Alright for you, or Suffolk will take its 
trade elsewhere!" This was done not so long ago, and the change 
has been an improvement all around. Incidentally, the new jobber 
had seen the handwriting on the wall and had mechanized, allowing 
his operation to dovetail with the System's in a mutually satisfactory 
way. It is our belief that if the quality of service to the library 
patron must suffer as a result of the trend toward centralization of 
services, then a long hard look should be taken at the real reasons 
why such centralization seemed necessary in the first place. 

In working with the equipment, it was discovered that pro- 
cedures which were developed for them should not hew exactly to 
the traditional operations which are usually handled manually. Those 
libraries which must make a switch-over from a manual to a 
mechanized operation would have to be especially careful here. Many 
of the steps in manual ordering, processing, circulation control, etc. 



19 

are not necessary or even advisable if machinery is going to do the 
job. Also, procedures which are established for the machinery 
should make use of the equipment's particular capacities. Other- 
wise, it is interesting to note that machine production of a parallel 
manual operation will be more expensive than the manual operation. 

Another interesting thing learned in working with the data 
processing equipment was that those button-eyed monsters tend to 
intimidate people. Often in programming the operation, the staff 
would find themselves enveloped in the most complicated maze of 
extraneous procedure because there was the impression that the 
"407 (or the 1004) could not do that but could do this!" After a few 
rounds of such nonsense, it became clear that man should be the 
master of the machine! It was also realized that a data processing 
supervisor is trained to know his machines, but he does not know 
library procedures and could not be expected to grasp the need to 
produce certain results with a minimum of programming. Once this 
was understood, operations began in a new direction. The program- 
ming was done primarily in the administrative office, and once the 
data processing supervisor knew what had to be achieved, he found 
a way to make the machines achieve it. 

The final decision which has guided the System has been a 
resolution, widely announced and often repeated to the clientele, that 
the System intends to make haste slowly, to expand services only 
after it has been proved that the machinery can handle it. Each 
phase of the program has begun with a few member libraries and 
expanded to others as soon as the "bugs" were removed. No 
promises have been made except to try to stay out of trouble. There 
has not yet been a move into the final phase of the cataloging pro- 
gram, that of cataloging older non-fiction. Hopefully that will begin 
at the end of the year. For now, the member libraries and the pay- 
ing non-member libraries which also utilize the service are very 
understanding and expect full cataloging and processing only for 
juvenile books, adult fiction, and adult non-fiction of the current 
and past two years. Operations continue in 5,000 square feet of 
space with a staff of forty-five. It is desirable that full processing 
and cataloging of all books ordered not be undertaken until a move 
is made into the new building, hopefully at the end of 1965. 



Review of Current Procedures 



A look at the actual procedures which have been developed for 
the combination IBM- Remington Rand installation will give a clearer 
picture of current operations of the Suffolk Cooperative Library 
System. (See Appendix l) 



20 

The book ordering, processing, and billing program is as 
follows: 

The System's "customers" are supplied with a quantity of four- 
part, tab-set order forms. The top or original copy is made of card 
stock, and the three duplicate copies of vari- colored paper. For 
each book to be ordered, one form is filled out at the member library. 
The card-stock original comes to the System office bearing author, 
title, publisher, the source in which the title can be verified, and the 
library's code number. Where necessary, special information about 
edition, library binding, etc., is also included. If the library desires 
some limitation of the usual full cataloging and processing of all 
books except older adult non-fiction, this limitation (for example 
*DO NOT CATALOG") is stamped across the face of the order card. 
Member libraries have been supplied with special stamps for this 
purpose. 

Once received at the System office, the order cards are sent 
to the data processing department where the key punch operator 
punches up pertinent information about author, title, vendor, library 
code number, and date of order. Incidentally, the key punch operator 
handles the order card for this particular book for this particular 
library only once, and the key punch procedure is set up so that the 
operator works mechanically, (it was learned the hard way that key 
punch operators are trained to work in a particular way and should 
not be expected to sort, separate, or handle in different ways order 
cards contained in any one batch.) This information which the key 
punch operator punches into a blank beige data card is reproduced 
back into the original order card. This is done quickly and mechan- 
ically by the IBM Reproducer. For each book ordered, the System 
has two documents (or cards) with which to work. 

Twice a week, all of the accumulated order cards are placed 
in the Univac 1004 where orders to designated vendors are then 
printed out on sheets. The names and addresses of the vendors are 
contained on a tape file which is played into the Univac 1004 as the 
order cards are run through. The orders are then mailed to the 
vendors, and the original order cards are then sent to the Catalog 
Department where they remain for five days, during which time the 
Catalog Department is expected to make full use of them for the 
first and last time, if possible. 

Here the order card is checked against the authority file. If 
the item has been cataloged before, all is well. A batch number is 
placed on the order card which will tell the processing line where 
a set of catalog cards for the book may be quickly found. ( These 
card sets had been overrun in limited quantity the first time the 
Catalog Department had handled this particular edition of this par- 
ticular title.) If the Catalog Department has not cataloged the book 



21 

before, they will endeavor to do so during this five-day period of 
grace. K they fail to do so, back go the cards at the appointed time, 
and the Catalog Department can expect to receive the cards and the 
books when they arrive from the jobber. At that point, it becomes 
a top priority item in the Catalog Department, which cannot survive 
any kind of log jam because of the existing space problem. To date, 
they have stayed alive because they are a really top-notch cataloging 
staff! 

Order cards are placed in a tub file, arranged by order number. 
To simplify matters, the order number is actually the date on which 
the order is placed with the vendor. Within order number the cards 
are usually filed by author. However experimentation is now in 
process with one order arranged by title, and another filed by pub- 
lisher, and then by title within publisher. At this point, it is believed 
that speed and accuracy are best served by filing by title within order 
numbers. 

When the books arrive from the vendors, normally in seven or 
eight days, clerks hand pull order cards for books listed on the 
vendor's invoice, and sense-mark into the cards the list price and 
discount for each. These order cards are then sent along to the Data 
Processing Department along with the invoice. Here they are mark- 
sensed by the IBM Reproducer, and the list price and discount are 
punched into the card. The order cards are then placed in the Univac 
1004 where a balance sheet is prepared for each order. The 1004 
will now figure the discount against the list price, arrive at the net 
price for each item, and will total the sum of the net prices, giving 
the total net price for the bill owed to each vendor. 

This net price on the balance sheet is compared against the 
vendor's invoice. If the bill is correct, it is approved and placed 
in a file for payment two months hence. Because of the "breaks" in 
discount for each item, it is ever possible that a small adjustment 
will be necessary. As is known, vendors deal in whole pennies and 
will take for themselves one-third, one-half, or one-quarter of a 
cent on items where there is less than an even break. When the 
adjustment is insignificant, as it usually is, the System absorbs the 
loss. After such an adjustment has been made in the bill, if neces- 
sary, it is then approved for payment. 

There are rare occasions when the adjustment figure is con- 
siderably out of line. In these cases, it is necessary to backtrack 
through the invoice and through the order cards eventually to dis- 
cover where the error has occurred. Mark- sensing has proved to 
be extremely accurate and to have cut operating time greatly. Any 
other corrections which may be needed have been indicated by the 
Order Department clerks previously mentioned and are made at this 
time by the Data Processing Department. 



22 

At this point, all of the order cards for books received from 
the various vendors are sorted alphabetically by author, placed in 
the Univac 1004 which now reproduces an additional deck of cards 
which are then interfiled into the Financial File. This file includes 
cards for all books which have actually been received from the 
vendors and have been approved for payment but for which the Sys- 
tem has not as yet billed the libraries. This Financial File (or 
deck) also serves as an inventory, just about, of the books which are 
somewhere in process within the office. To some extent, it also can 
serve as an Accounts Receivable file. 

The order cards are next sorted by jobber and by title within 
jobber, and both the order cards and the source documents are re- 
turned to the Order Department. The order cards are inserted into 
the books which they represent. If there are any books listed on 
the invoice which have not been received in this shipment from the 
vendor, a debit memo is made out and forwarded to the Data Process- 
ing Department. For each book which has been received, the Order 
Department's check- in clerk will look at the order card to see 
whether the book is to be cataloged or just processed. A batch 
number written on the card indicates that the book goes straight to 
the Processing line. 

As the Processing Department also handles final placement of 
books on the shelves designated for each 'customer library," all 
books actually go there if cataloging is not indicated. It may be 
recalled that libraries sometimes request that a book not be pro- 
cessed or cataloged; they stamp this message on the order card when 
they send it into the System office. 

The System, now in its second year of processing, is process- 
ing more than 150,000 volumes per year. The Catalog Department is 
handling about 25,000 titles a year. Thus, it should be noted that for 
every book which goes to the Catalog Department, more than five 
go dire Jtly to the processing line without stopping at the Catalog 
Department. 

Books which are sent to the Cataloging Department are, as 
previously mentioned, top priority items because of the space prob- 
lem, as much as for any other reason. Once they arrive there, 
however, each is cataloged as quickly as possible and is assigned 
the batch number for catalog cards which are now to be made in the 
Machine Room. A Dewey Decimal classification number will also 
be assigned, of course, if the item is non-fiction and will be mark- 
sensed into the card. The cards for these "just-cataloged" books 
will now be run through the IBM Reproducer, and the sense-marked 
information will be punched into the card later allowing the cards 
to be used for the production of the labels which are to be placed on 
the spine of the book and on the book card and pocket . 



Now, let us follow the books which are in the Processing De- 
partment, arriving there either directly from the Order Department 
or from the Catalog Department. On the day before the books are to 
go down the processing line, one card is pulled from each book. 
(Remember, there are two in the book.) The cards are kept in the 
same sequence as are the books which are sitting on the Awaiting 
Processing shelves. These cards are sent to the Data Processing 
Department early the next morning, where labels are quickly re- 
produced by the Univac 1004. When the cards and labels come back 
from the Data Processing Department, the books go down the Pro- 
cessing line, where labels are placed on the spine and on the book 
card and pocket; the book pocket is affixed to the inside of the book's 
back cover, and a plastic cover is placed on the dust jacket, if there 
is a dust jacket. It should be mentioned that the label for the spine 
of the book will give the Dewey Decimal classification number, if 
there is one, plus the author's first two initials. The Univac 1004 
automatically picks out the initials to be printed out. For Biography, 
the labels must be hand processed. For Fiction, the label for the 
spine shows only the first two letters of the author's last name. It 
is possible if the library indicates a wish for it, to provide any two 
symbols which may be needed. The labels for the book cards and 
pockets list author, title, and call number. 

Just prior to placing the processed books on the shelves to 
await delivery, catalog card sets are pulled from the batches which 
had been prepared the first time the Catalog Department handled 
the titles in question. Each set is placed in a plastic container and 
inserted in the pocket of the appropriate book. 

The fully processed volumes, plus any others not to be pro- 
cessed, now have been arranged on shelves by library. Each day 
order cards are pulled from the books awaiting delivery on the 
following day. (Daily delivery is maintained to most member 
libraries.) For each library, there is a name, address, and accounts 
receivable file. The order cards which have just been pulled are 
sent to the Data Processing room where they are placed in the 
Univac 1004, and invoices are run off for each library about to re- 
ceive a shipment of books. At the same time, a packing slip is made, 
and the accounts receivable file is updated for each of the libraries 
involved. 

Remember that financial deck which was quickly reproduced 
some time ago to serve as a record of books received from the 
vendor but not yet billed to the libraries ? It is imperative, of 
course, that the System receives payment for each book which has 
been purchased for member libraries. The ideal arrangement is to 
have, at year's end, a payment received for each book ordered. 
Again using the Univac 1004, the order cards for books just billed 
are played to the receiving libraries against this financial deck. 



24 

This purges the financial deck of all cards for items just billed. In 
effect, a balance for these items has been achieved, and the trans- 
action is completed. 

The order cards have now served their major purpose. At 
this point, they are sorted by author and placed in a file which is 
sent, every two weeks, to the Reference Department which uses the 
cards to update the Union Catalog. In the near future, they will also 
be used to update the authority file which will be a finding list as 
well. 

The books awaiting delivery are now checked against the pack- 
ing slip, and both packing slip and books are placed in canvas library 
delivery bags, formerly known as "coal bags," and off they go on the 
next day's delivery run. Early in the System's history, the driver 
one day noted that the bags contained unequal numbers of books , and 
to ease his aching back, he reshuffled books from one bag to another 
until he had achieved a nice balance. The phones had to be taken off 
the hooks for a day or two after that. The human element again! It 
does turn up! 

Bills for delivered books go out the day after delivery. Each 
shipment is invoiced. It is quite possible for any one library to 
receive six, seven, or eight shipments a month plus as many bills. 
It is our opinion that it is extremely important to handle it this way 
rather than to accumulate bills. For one thing, when mistakes do 
occur, it is far better to clear them up quickly than to try to do so 
weeks after. Besides, the member libraries much prefer this modus 
operandi because it keeps them absolutely up-to-date in their busi- 
ness relationship with the System. A nice bonus is that under this 
arrangement the System is paid much more promptly than if bills 
were rendered only once a month. 

And that describes the System's ordering and billing procedure. 
It sounds complicated, but it works smoothly. Of course, there must 
be many ways in which the procedures could be streamlined further. 
Constant changes, which it is hoped are improvements, are made. 
The System counts on further constructive ideas from those who can 
view it with the perceptive eye of complete objectivity. If the in- 
tention had been to develop such a procedure for manual implementa- 
tion, the System would certainly have courted disaster. But the 
beauty of a mechanized operation is that the equipment can produce 
records, duplicate decks, check and cross-check information, in less 
time than it takes to describe exactly what is happening. 



The Latest Development Magnetic Tape 



In the fall of 1964, it was decided to expand the Data Processing 
Department to include magnetic tape. With this additional equipment, 



25 

it was felt that catalog cards would be produced directly out of storage 
by utilizing the Univac 1004. Also, magnetic tape would make it pos- 
sible to improve existing operations by taking advantage of the vastly 
increased storage of information which would become available. It 
should now be possible, for example, to conduct bibliographic searches 
of the authority file which will be placed on tape. Two Univac 1004 
magnetic tape units have been purchased and arrived last month. 

The primary reason for moving into tape was the urgency of the 
need to produce those catalog cards directly on the Univac 1004. As 
matters have stood up to this time, sets of catalog cards have been 
stock-piled, using more and more of the 5,000 square feet of office 
space. Also the production of the cards takes most of the running 
time of the offset equipment and its operator who could be performing 
other valuable services for the member libraries. A large amount 
of time is lost to the Processing Department staff, because of the 
necessity of searching out these catalog card sets from their storage 
place in the System office. The idea of producing catalog cards from 
the Univac 1004 as they are needed and in the same sequence in which 
the books are to flow down the processing line has great appeal. A 
special drum has been prepared by the Univac manufacturers which 
will allow printings in both upper and lower case, an improvement 
which will warm the hearts of the many traditionalists in the library 
profession who have disliked catalog cards on which the print is all 
one size. This drum is also to be used by another System, and will 
become a standard item for purchase. 

The card stock for the Univac -produced catalog cards will be 
pin-feed, die cut, fan fold, continuous form and will be fed through 
the Univac 1004 at the rate of 600 lines a minute. The machine will 
read a main entry (key punched) authority card, print a determined 
number of author cards, plus one card for each of the tracings. 
These, of course, will be printed in sequence and will come from the 
machine in collated sets, thereby eliminating the the need to overrun 
and stockpile catalog card sets. 

At the present time, under a special grant from the state of 
New York, a key punch operator has been hired who is hard at work 
placing the authority file on tape. It will take about a year for the 
task to be completed. In about three months, current cataloging 
information will begin to be placed on tape as well. Since close to 
125 titles a day must be cataloged, it seems essential that the input 
operation be streamlined as much as possible. Cataloging staff can- 
not be spared to block out catalog card information for the key punch 
operator. Neither can a key punch operator be expected to be expert 
in dealing with transfer of information in a suitable manner from 
catalog cards to tape. The answer to this apparent dilemma seems 
to lie in making the Univac 1004 mainly responsible for the format. 



26 

The procedure being carried out by the key punch operator is 
as follows: 

1. A code number, which happens to be the batch number for 
location of catalog cards, is punched into the author section of 
the catalog card. This is automatically repeated on every card 
in the set. This batch number indicates the sequence in which 
the title in question was cataloged. There are incidentally 
sixty-seven spaces in each card which may be used for key 
punching. 

2. Cards for title entry are punched, and the entire title is 
punched in. If more than one card is required (this will be the 
case for all but short titles) , the key punch operator runs off 
the end of the card. Then she starts a second card for title re- 
punching the word that is not completed on the preceding card. 
The machine (Univac 1004) will automatically read out any 
word not completed at the end of a card simply by reading 
column seventy-nine and automatically rejecting any word 
which spills over into that column. 

3. Collation will have a separate card for each section. 

4. -8. will be reserved for notes each beginning with a dif- 
ferent number. 

9. Tracings will be numbered "nine" with a sub number for 
each library to establish location. There will be a separate 
card for each tracing. 

The Univac 1004 will automatically figure identations, spacing, 
etc., because it is all built into the program. Cards will be printed 
out in complete sets printed at the rate of 600 lines a minute with no 
collation problem. 

The big problem has been input. Normally, it will take three 
minutes to type a main entry which can be used for filming. Then of 
course there is the overtyping of headings on the masters in addition. 
It is believed that an operator should be able to punch an authority 
card with tracings in five or six minutes, and this should make it 
economically feasible. 

The board already has been programmed. This operation will 
begin in a limited way in May and by year's end if it is successful, 
it should be a full blown effort. The authority file should be almost 
completely on tape by that time. 

One drawback encountered with the System's machine is that it 
has only four special characters: the apostrophe, period, comma, 
and hyphen. This is necessary because the drum, even though it is a 
special drum, is limited to sixty-one characters. This means cer- 
tain types of punctuation will be eliminated for the present. The 
System chose upper and lower case over complete punctuation 
principally because it could not sell the idea of catalog cards in all 



27 

upper case. However, the key punch operator will punch into the card 
all punctuation, and it will be so recorded on tape. The Univac 1004 
will read out (reject) the punctuation it cannot print, but as the equip- 
ment becomes larger and more sophisticated, it will be possible to 
print cards with all punctuation desired. As far as upper and lower 
case is concerned, the key punch operator will be expected to strike 
a key as a typist now does to signify capital otherwise, the print out 
will be in lower case. A standard key punch machine will be used for 
this purpose. 

Other benefits occur when the machine tape drive units are 
asked to search the tracings for the subject approach. The equipment 
will print out this information listing, for example, all of the items 
listed under Marketing- Statistics. Plans are to make this a finding 
listing as well, by playing the order cards into the authority file, 
searching by batch number, and listing location of library purchasing 
the title. Hence a subject listing will be created which gives the 
location of a book in a library. 

Another use of the authority file on tape will be to feed order 
cards, not coordinated, (about 3,000 plus a week are received) into 
the file to determine if the title has been previously cataloged. If it 
has, there will be a print out giving batch number, if the author and 
title correspond. The estimate is that this may reduce the manual 
searching by 30 to 40 percent. 

Plans are also being made to print a book catalog of fiction 
from the authority file. For the present, fiction is not in the Union 
Catalog, and this inhibits effective interlibrary loan of fiction ma- 
terial. This catalog can be automatically kept up-to-date by feeding 
order cards into the storage unit once the books have been processed. 

The tapes also can be used for printing out overdue notices for 
member libraries by utilizing registration files on storage. This will 
be added slowly and has a low priority at the moment. 

Tape will be used immediately to store information concerning 
the accounts receivable. The financial deck (receivables) will be 
filed by a number (described under ordering) . Formerly this was done 
without tape by sorting alphabetically on the sorter, and this took 
hours every week. As vendor's bills are approved they are added to 
the deck; as member libraries are billed subtractions are made 
from the deck. All bills in and out are also recorded by customer 
on tape. At month's end, a "print out" will provide a statement 
indicating "ins" and "outs" with a net figure owed the System. 

There are many other possible applications for magnetic tape, 
but at the present, attention is being focused on those already men- 
tioned. There is a gamble in what is being attempted, but to stand 
still in such an operation is not possible. 

In reference to the capacity and speed of the equipment, the 
Univac 1004 with two magnetic tape drive units will be able to ac- 
complish the following: 



28 



1. Automatically print out the entire master authority file once 
on tape in thirty minutes /20, 000 titles, three across, three lines 
per title. 

2. Allow for 25,000 titles representing approximately 250,000 
punched cards to be contained on one reel of Univac 1004 
magnetic tape. 

3. Provide print out at the rate of about 600 lines, or 34,000 
characters, per minute. 

4. The Univac 1004-in Model A has 31 two address program 
steps. The System is externally programmed. That is, boards 
are wired much as the IBM 403 was wired for the System's 
other operations. Memory is 961 characters of core storage 
and is addressable, variable word length. Memory cycle line 
is 6.5 micro-seconds. Tape, of course, adds to the memory 
just outlined. 

5. Produce rewind speed at less than three minutes per 2,400 
foot reel. 

6. Permit tape to be read at 42.7 inches per second. 



Miscellaneous 



At the present time, book catalogs are being prepared and used 
for specialized services. The bookmobile, for example, has a book 
catalog as does a System sponsored reading center, and shortly many 
of the reference tools in the two Central Libraries will also be in- 
cluded in a special book catalog. At the moment, the catalog is 
produced from order cards for books that have been processed for 
the respective departments. It is an unsophisticated listing giving 
the last name of author, title, publisher, date published, and Dewey 
number. It is, in short, a quick finding list. 

With the authority file on tape, it should be possible to have a 
book catalog which will provide full main entry catalog card listings. 
This will mean better book catalogs produced inexpensively, and 
they should be able to be updated with a minimum of expense. 

The card files now maintained for the book catalog not only 
provide a bare minimum of information but take considerable effort 
to keep current. Strangely enough, it is the two least sophisticated 
pieces of equipment the sorter and the keypunch that are the 
weakest links in the production chain. This is true for this as well 
as most of the other programs of the System. 

Circulation control is now being offered to four member 
libraries and the bookmobile program. The four member libraries 
and the bookmobile circulate 750,000 volumes a year. Adding the 
fifth library will boost circulation to approximately 900,000 volumes. 



29 

The other member libraries circulate about three million additional 
volumes and will be added a few a year as they indicate interest. 
There are basically two plans with some variations now in use: 

1. A filming charge-out procedure utilizes a pre-numbered 
punched stub transaction card. When a book is circulated the 
stub is taken from a consecutively numbered deck and filmed 
with the borrower's card and the book card. The stub (which 
is end printed) is placed in the pocket, and when the book is 
returned the stub is pulled. Each day all stubs returned are 
sent to the System office. The stubs are reproduced into con- 
ventional sized data processing cards (on the reproducer) and 
filed numerically after having been sorted. One day each week, 
cards for books charged out six weeks earlier (four weeks 
loan and two weeks for a margin) are fed into the Univac 1004. 
The machine reads the cards printing out only missing numbers, 
and these are sent to the library to be checked against the films 
for overdues. 

2. Another procedure is a borrower participation plan calling 
for patrons to fill in author, title, and borrower's number on 
unnumbered data processing cards. These are brought to the 
charging desk by the patron, and a pre-numbered stub (end 
printed and punched) is placed in the book pocket. A sequential 
numbering stamp keyed in to the number on the stub is used to 
stamp the transaction number on the patron's slip. This slip 

is placed face down as in many transaction systems, and the 
day's circulation is sent to the System the following day. There 
the cards are end punched and printed using the reproducer 
and matching the cards against a pre-numbered deck. These 
cards are checked to see that the stamp and the end printing 
are similar and then sorted and filed in the books outstanding 
deck for that library. When the book is returned by the patron, 
the stub is removed from the book and sent along with other 
stubs to the System office. The stubs are reproduced into 
regular sized data processing cards by the reproducer. They 
are then sorted and routed through the collator to purge their 
numbered counterpart. At the end of a specified period of 
time, which varies by library, the remaining cards are overdue 
and are sent to the library involved for overdue notices. 

This is a very simple operation. There are other ways to 
operate these procedures. One entails transmitting information over 
a telephone to a slave keypunch or to a computer. The Suffolk Co- 
operative Library System has chosen the simple and the inexpensive. 
Next the tape drive units will eliminate the need for sorting, collating, 
etc. in circulation procedures. It is expected that tape may be utilized 
to streamline this operation and enable the System to enlist more 
libraries into the program. 



30 

A Union List of Serials has just been produced for the holdings 
of member libraries. The program will now call for updating the 
publication annually, but the bulk of the work is now over. 

Labels for mailing and a myriad of special purposes are, of 
course, easily produced by the Univac 1004. This is a fringe benefit 
and probably the most easily established program. 

Soon the System expects to add an additional core unit and a 
translator to the Univac 1004. There are many reasons for this, but 
one which should pay off is that the eight channel tape produced by a 
teletype machine may be used to mechanize the Interlibrary Loan 
procedure. Daily the System now copes with about 100 requests for 
books by member libraries. It is expected that this will double with- 
in eighteen months. Utilizing the teletype enables materials not in 
the County to be located. At present, of course, records are main- 
tained manually and record statistics the same way. Plans for 1965 
call for mechanizing this program by typing all requests on the tele- 
type machine feeding the eight channel tape through the Univac 1004 
into the magnetic tape. This way overdues, statistics, and other 
record keeping can be a responsibility of Univac. 

Summing up, the System's data processing operation costs 
personnel-wise $17,500 annually for a tab machine operator, two 
keypunch operators, and one part-time machine operator. The equip- 
ment costs about $18,000 a year not including the outright purchase 
of the two tape drive units for $32,000. The program is growing, 
soon better than 200,000 volumes for three Systems and many school 
libraries will be processed. Accounts now exceed 100. Taking into 
account the control annually of the flow of about $1,500,000 and the 
provision of services previously described, it can be said with cer- 
tainty that without data processing equipment this System would be 
out of business. It is also equally certain that without an entire 
System concept, the equipment would not have produced adequately. 

Many of the procedures described in this paper are about to be 
phased out with the coming of more sophisticated equipment. Changes 
will be taking place for the foreseeable future. Sample forms and 
printouts presently in use appear in Appendix n. 

Man is limited by his intelligence; thereby he limits the 
equipment. The System attempts never to box itself in and hence 
has retained IBM peripheral equipment with the operation of the 
Univac 1004. Eight columns allows the necessary flexibility. There 
are many other instances where flexibility now, allowing for de- 
cisions to be made later, based on knowledge learned and earned 
has paid off. It is hoped that the potential of the equipment can con- 
tinue to be challenged, because by so doing, new service possibilities 
for the Suffolk Cooperative Library System are opened. 



31 



Appendix I 



ORDERING PROCEDURE 



ORDER DEFT. 



REPRO- \ PUNCH INFORMATION INTO 
SOURCE DOCUMENT 




DATA PROCESSING DEPT. 



J PRE 'CATALOG ING 



32 



B A PRE "CATALOG ING 



SORTER \ BY AUTHOR BY TITLE 




DATA PROCESSING DCPT. 



CATALOGING DEFT. 



DATA PROCESSING DEPT. 



ORDER CPT. 



C 1 INVOICE BALANCING AND INVEHTQg 



33 



ORDER CPT. 



VENDOR'S 
INVOICE 




PULL RELATED ORDER 

NARK PRICE AND DISC 
ON THIS CARD 




/ 




OUNT /"^ 

f ORDER CARDS 










DATA PROCESSING DEFT. 



ORDER DEFT. 



DATA PROCESSING DEFT. 



BOOK OCCK-IN 



34 







BOOK CHECK- IN 



SORT \ BY JOBBER BY TITLE 




INVOICING. ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE. 
INVENTORY UPDATING. UNION CATALOG. 



35 







INVOICING. ACCOUMTS RECEIVABLE. INVENTORY UPDATING. UNION CATALOG 




36 



f r J BOOK LABELS 



PUNCHES DEVIEY DECIMAL NO. 
FROM MARK SENSED CARD 




PROCESSING DEFT. 

LABELS AND JACKETS 

Af F IXED 
CATALOG CARDS 

INSERTED 



37 



Appendix II 



SUFFOLK COOPERATIVE LIBRARY SYSTEM 
PATCHOGUE, NEW YORK 



SAMPLE FORMS AND PRINTOUTS 



BOOK ORDER FORMS 




CARBON INTERLEAVED BOOK ORDER CARD SETS 



u 



1OOK TITLE 



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1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 



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mmmimmmmimiimmmti 



41 4444444444444 



iimimm 

I 1 I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I 1 



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III III III III I Mil III 

iimmimm 



1 1 1 1 1 ii in M 



mmmmmtimmmmmimm 
1 41 i|i 1 1 1 m in in in i in in m m m in 

if J 1 ! 7 1 1 1 1 j|l 1 1 7 1 1 1 1 1 M T 1 1 1 T 1 1 ? 1 

I I II I I I I ! I II I II I I I 

mmmmmmmm 



C1=>CI=JC13 



C 1 =C 1 =>C I =lc 1 3d 3 C 1 3c 1 = 



MARK SENSE ORDER CARD 



38 



VENDOR PURCHASE ORDER 





* THE Sumu 


COOPERATIVE LIUARY SYSTEM 




VDOX5R-S COPT ', 









CAMPBELL-HALL INC 21*1 


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JEFFERSON t HAMILTON 
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IICA 




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CONTINUOUS FORM BOOK LABELS 



39 






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HI 




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25 


OVERWEIGHT SOCIETY 


25 


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40 



MEMBER LIBRARY INVOICE 



' THE SUFFOLK COOPERATIVE LIBRARY SYSTEM 


* 


sold ,0 NORTHPORT PUBLIC LIB [74] |o| lt| 49j |1| 


* 


119 MAIN STREET 


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41 
















THE SUFFOLK COQFEMTI 'tajjtrji 


-. ^ -W~ - : -' ' : -''-^ ~ ' 


s 





15 tfEST AVENUE. PATCHOSUE. N. 


Tt 


" 





NANUET PUBLIC LIBRARY PA8E IT i ~ 


''' = 


_j> 





175 SO MIOOLETOWN RD 









NANUET MY IIT* ift^g"T7 


DATE C3/31/65 







"- ' :--.: 




1 


DATE 


DESCRIPTION . CHAMK 


C_REBITS BALANCE 





02/28/65 


PREVIOUS BALANCE 795.W 


79S.29 





03/01/65 


CREDIT MEMO 


16.35 618. 94 




03/04/65 


BOOKS 92.11 


7(1.05 





03/05/65 


BOOKS :.'.:- 


866.39 




03/09/65 


BOOKS 8S. 62 


975.01 





03/10/65 


BOOKS M'Tt . 


1040.73 




0* 03/12/65 


BOOKS 116.20 


1178.93 





03/16/65 


BOOKS 69.03 


1247.96 




03/16/65 


PAYMENTS 


705.11 542.85 





03/16/65 


CHARSE BACK ON LIBRA I*fi7_ 


544.42 




03/19/65 


BOOKS 63.04 


627.46 





03/23/65 


BOOKS 79.6.9. 


707.35 




03/26/65 


BOOKS 37.64 


744.99 





03/29/65 


SUPPLIES fi14 . 


750.15 




03/29/65 


DEBIT MEMO 14.60 


764.75 





03/31/65 




BOOKS ?4.4U 


799.19 







BALANCE DUE 


799.19 





42 



ANALYSIS OF BOOK PROCESSING Tl 






TOTAL 


21 DAYS 


3l DAYS OVER 31 * 


AMITYVILLE FREE LIBRARY 


5 


X 


3 


60S 


2 to* 


AMAGANSETT FREE LIBRARY 


12 


X 


11 


92* 


18* 


BAYPORT PUBLIC LIBRARY 


11 


* 


11 


100* 


^ 


BAY SHORE PUBLIC LIB 


5 


I 





0* 


1 20* 


BRENTWOOD PUBLIC LIBRARY 


17 


X 


15 


88* 


2 12* 


BRID6EHAMPTON PUB LIB 


8 


X 


7 


88* 


1 13* 


DEER PARK PUBLIC LIBRARY 


62 





61 


9S 


1 2* 


FLOYD MEMORIAL LIBRARY 


It 


X 


11 


79* 


3 21* 


HALF HOLLOW HILLS LIB 


26 


X 


IS 


58* 


11 t2X 


HAMPTON BAYS PUBLIC LIB 


1 


X 


3 


75* 


1 2SX 


NORTHPORT PUBLIC LIB 


te 


X 


M 


71X 


It 29X 


THE PATCHOGUE LIBRARY 


it 


t 29* 


12 


86X 


2 ItK 


RIVERHEAD FREE LIBRARY 


17 





12 


71X 


5 29X 


SACHEM PUBLIC LIBRARY 


is 





12 


80* 


3 20* 


SOUTHOLD FREE LIBRARY 


20 





20 


100X 


X 


NEW CITY FREE LIBRARY 


15 


* 


15 


100* 


X 


NEWBURGH FREE LIBRARY 


12 


X 


9 


75* 


3 2SX 


PEARL RIVER FREE LIB 


10 


X 


10 


100* 


X 


FINKELSTEIN MEMORIAL LIB 


36 


7 19X 


26 


72K 


10 28X 





351 


11 3X 


291 


83* 


60 17X 





870 DOCUMENT WRITING SYSTEM 

OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION 
IN THE LIBRARY SECTION, LOS ANGELES CITY SCHOOLS 

Mary Seely Dodendorf 

The Los Angeles Unified School and Junior College Districts 
are constantly growing. The present area of the city of Los Angeles 
encompasses 458 square miles; the Los Angeles Unified School Dis- 
trict, 710 square miles; and the Junior College District, 840 square 
miles. Although there is little change in area from year to year, 
there is considerable increase in the number of schools needed to 
keep pace with the rapid population growth within the area. For the 
purposes of this paper, discussion will be limited to services to the 
District high schools during two recent periods: the fiscal period at 
the beginning of use of the IBM 870 Document Writing System and the 
most recent year for which statistics are available. 

Increase in past 
1953-54 1960-61 1963-64 ten years 

(1953-54 to 1963-64) 

Schools 
Number 

*K-14 484 578 589 105 

7-12 83 114 122 39 

Active enrollment March 31, 1960 March 31, 1963 

*K-14 439,821 639,281 714,368 

7-12 129,576 198,568 230,333 

"Includes Adult Education (High School) in K-14 only. 

The Catalog Department of the Los Angeles City Schools has the 
responsibility of providing cataloging services for the school libraries 
so that the librarians may have more time for their major responsi- 
bility which is working with students and teachers. Since needs of 
catalog users vary with grade levels, there are corresponding vari- 
ations in the methods and results within the department. When the 



Mary Seely Dodendorf is Librarian-in-charge of the Catalog Depart- 
ment, Library Section, Los Angeles City Schools. 

43 



44 

administrative decisions have been made as to services to be ren- 
dered, the success with which they are carried out is dependent upon 
the provision of adequate qualified personnel, quarters, equipment, 
and supplies. 

The aim of the Department is to provide useful, appropriate, 
simple catalogs with pertinent cross references, and to provide them 
quickly. The catalog format must be that best suited to the students. 
Its arrangement should enable students to develop a skill in using the 
catalog which will give them confidence in using various types of 
public, college, and university libraries everywhere. The conventional 
card catalog is still currently preferable to other forms for District 
use. The collections are neither uniform nor static, and they are not 
subject to interlibrary loans. 

The school librarians are free to order any titles which are 
needed in their individual schools and equally free to withdraw a title 
which is no longer useful in the collection. They are helped in their 
selection of books by lists of current titles which have been reviewed 
and evaluated by committees of librarians and teachers within the 
school system. These lists have been annotated, with maturity and 
interest levels suggested. The titles are recommended as ones which 
will be generally useful in the schools. The school needs vary as 
population varies in a system which is geographically as large as 
that of Los Angeles. This desirable freedom to select titles when 
and as they are needed does present some complications for the 
central office processes. Titles which appear on the recommended 
lists are generally ordered in quantity, and such orders are placed 
by machine data processing methods by the Evaluation and Order 
Department. The cataloging of these titles is done from review 
copies which have been used in the evaluation process and which 
occasionally vary in edition from the books actually received. The 
same title that appeared on the list may, and frequently does, appear 
as a single copy ordered for the first time for an individual school 
before that title appears on the list, as well as on orders placed 
months, or even years, later. 

Books ordered by the schools fall into three categories for 
cataloging purposes. Titles which are new to a school require sets 
of catalog cards. Titles which a school orders as duplicates, of 
course, need no catalog cards and are not routed to the Catalog De- 
partment. The third category is the title which is not new to the 
school but for which cards have been requested to replace withdrawn 
sets. In addition to the books which are received in the Order De- 
partment and routed via the Catalog Department, there are books 
presented as gifts to the school libraries; and for these the schools 
may, and do, request sets of catalog cards. Two extensive "replace- 
ment" lists annually result in the placement of orders for titles, 



45 

some of which may be new to several schools. All of this results 
in considerable overlapping of titles handled at various times for 
cataloging purposes. 

When the Catalog Department was established in 1927 there 
were fifty-five junior and senior high schools. The policy regarding 
acceptance of central cataloging and classification was permissive 
and although accepted quickly by most schools, had not been accepted 
in all until 1950. By this time there were seventy-four secondary 
schools. (Elementary cataloging did not become a part of the Catalog 
Department until 1947.) 

( High school only) 1960-61 1963-64 

Central Catalog Department staff 

Librarians 2 *3 + 1 = 4 

Library clerks 1 2 + 2 = 4 

Clerk typists 5 4 

Duplicating machine operator 1/2 time 1/2 time 

Duplicating equipment A. B. Dick 350 Offset Duplicator 

A.B. Dick 350 Offset Duplicator IBM 870 Document Writing System 

Standard Register Burster 

New titles and editions cataloged 2,150 5,451 

Sets of cards sent to schools 45,553 98,157 

Shelf cards only 

(Arrearages of sets) 10,152 

(For "special" schools) 458 1,496 

Library staff in schools one in each high school with clerical help 
ranging from 2 to 8 hours per day. 

* Although there were again only two librarians cataloging for the 
high schools in 1964-65, the overall increase continued because the 
one librarian and two clerks assigned to the IBM 870 System were 
working with only high schools records. 

The Catalog Department has provided sets of catalog and shelf list 
cards for secondary schools but no preparation of books for shelving 
except for ten "special" high schools. 

The initial reason for working with the 870 Document Writing 
System of IBM was to clear the arrearages which were continuing to 
build up in the Catalog Department. There were several related 
causes for these arrearages. An increased number of books resulted 
from increased book budgets. Basic collections of books for the 
library had to be cataloged for each new school established by the 
District. Each of these collections received approximately two 



46 

thousand titles during each of its first two years, and frequently four 
new schools were opened during a year. It is easier to purchase 
"service" than to add and reclassify staff. The staff was not sufficient 
in quantity and job classification to handle the amount of work by the 
methods then in use. Turnover of the already small staff as civil 
service personnel moved into advanced positions outside the Depart- 
ment put extra burdens on both professional and clerical persons. 
The budget framework provided a handicap, for there is little "season- 
able" employment. "Relief clerks helped, but inexperience and lack 
of space handicapped them. 

By the end of 1960-61, approximately 6,600 volumes ordered 
during the past two years remained for clerical handling. An addi- 
tional 2,450 volumes awaiting the first sorting included an undeter- 
mined number of new titles to be cataloged. Unfilled requests 
received from the schools for sets of catalog cards amounted to 7, 000. 
The total number of sets of cards to be produced was probably in the 
neighborhood of 10,000 for "single" orders. During 1960-61, 45,553 
volumes had been sent with complete sets of cards to schools. An 
additional 10,152 volumes had been sent with only shelf list cards, 
and the corresponding 10,152 sets of catalog cards to be sent in- 
creased arrearages. 

While all these arrearages were accumulating, students were 
reading in a District publication that one of the most important aids 
in the use of the library is the card catalog as an index to the book 
collection. "You will feel independent and at home in the library when 
you know how to use this aid. Through the catalog you gain informa- 
tion about the book collection." But the cards for books which the 
student knew were in the library were not in the catalog. This was 
not a good situation, for the student was likely to lose confidence in 
a library tool and perhaps in the library itself. 

Arrearages are not new. As they began to mount for the sec- 
ondary schools, the "multiple" copies, which resulted from combining 
the orders for several schools, received first priority because of the 
physical bulk for which there was no storage space. It was possible, 
generally, to prepare cards for these titles in advance of the receipt 
of the books so that the complete sets of cards could be sent with the 
books. "Singles" (titles ordered by schools individually) took second 
place and remained on the shelves until the "multiples" were cleared. 
In order to clear the "singles" and because of the manual typing in- 
volved in preparation of cards, these books were sent to the schools 
with only shelf list cards marked to show that catalog cards would be 
sent later. The shelf list cards provided sufficient information so 
that books could be processed for shelving and student use. This 
device, of course, merely transferred the arrearages in the Catalog 
Department from books to cards. The duplicating machine operator 
was producing neither the quantity nor the quality of cards needed, 
and this served to increase arrearages. 



47 

Previously the catalog cards of the H. W. Wilson Company had 
been used in preference to typing our own cards; the annotations 
were particularly appreciated. The cards were used without over- 
printed classifications and headings because, although subjects might 
lend themselves to change, the problems of classification changes 
would be impractical to adjust in schools where the librarian had no 
professional help. With regret this service had to be stopped when 
the packaging became unwieldy and cumbersome for our procedures 
as the number of collections grew. 

Arrearages had been attacked at another point for several 
years. In order to reduce the number of analytic cards prepared, 
inquiries were sent to the schools in a form which the librarians 
could check and return to the Catalog Department and which could be 
returned to the school with the analytic cards. These forms could 
then be used as a tracing record for the cards in the specific catalog. 
Whether or not it saved work for the school librarian, it did not pre- 
vent arrearages. 

A partial moratorium on sending reference cards to the schools 
was another attempt to find sufficient time to reduce arrearages. 
Subject references were discontinued except in the case of new sub- 
jects. The searching and recording involved in knowing which school 
needed references was too time consuming. (Remember that collec- 
tions in the schools are not uniform.) References were continued for 
personal names. It was hoped that the school needing the reference 
already had it or would order a title needing it when the moratorium 
was lifted. "Requests" for catalog cards for books received at the 
schools from sources other than the Library Section were discouraged 
and were given bottom priority. Schools were encouraged to classify 
these books in accord with books already in the school library. They 
were directed to prepare their own temporary catalog records for 
such titles. 

Preparation of catalogs and shelf lists for basic collections for 
new schools is very time consuming and delays regular, normal, day 
to day work. Commercial photographic reproduction of the catalog 
was not found successful a few years ago and required considerable 
preparation time. It was a forward step, but the best forward step 
for new schools was taken when the Department turned to a local 
commercial service for cataloging and processing for new elementary 
and secondary schools. Of course, the central Catalog Department 
does the original cataloging. It provides unit card copy so that the 
completed cards and books are compatible with those supplied from 
the central department. Because consultation is easy with this local 
company, they can be depended upon to recognize edition changes 
which require further attention. The IBM 870 installation saves con- 
siderable preparation time by producing the catalog copy in a form 
that requires little revision time and one that the company can use as 
its original document. 



48 

Prior to the installation of the IBM 870 System, there were a 
number of production problems. The production of single sets of 
cards by manual typing, even on an electric typewriter, was slow 
and subject to error so that it was necessary to proofread each card. 
The same conditions were true for manually typed offset masters. 
The Department was, and still is, using an A.B. Dick 350 Offset 
Duplicator to reproduce cards which are needed in quantities of six 
or more. This break-off figure was selected because it is a practical 
point in relation to book orders rather than for an economic advan- 
tage. The offset masters are used only once because of lack of 
storage space. There is no place to stock extra cards, no basis of 
judging what titles would be needed in the future, and no assurance 
that the same edition would be needed again. When another school 
ordered the same title at a later time, it was necessary to retype 
the offset masters or the cards and to revise the finished product. 
All of this required considerable revision as well as typing time. 

The IBM 870 Document Writing System was originally developed 
for the addition of individual headings for form letters and used tape 
and cards to activate two typewriters. 

The Department is not attempting anything dramatic no new 
or different kind of task but a quicker, easier, and more economical 
way of doing repetitive tasks. Relatively speaking, the IBM 870 is a 
very simple, unsophisticated piece of machinery a couple of type- 
writers and a key punch an electro -magnetic device with very little 
logical ability. Setting up the program required a great deal of at- 
tention to detail, and the more detail that was necessary the more 
difficult the setting up became. Although when it was finished the 
result was an unsophisticated machine, it has proved to be a valuable 
one. 

There was disappointment that carbon ribbon attachments have 
not been possible for the typewriters in the installation, but the an- 
ticipated breakage of such ribbons with consequent machine slow- 
down as well as the conversion cost stopped us at that time. Because 
carbon ribbons would not be used, it was necessary to experiment 
with fabric offset ribbons which would be compatible with the offset 
duplicating equipment and its supplies as well as suitable for direct 
typing on catalog cards to be handled by students. The representatives 
of the A.B. Dick Company, whose duplicating equipment the District 
uses, were not only very cooperative during the experimental period 
but have continued to insure fresh ribbons at all times. One's eyes 
cannot tell when the safe period is past and the carbon necessary for 
duplicating purposes is no longer being deposited on the paper 
master. Experimentation has shown that during the first eleven hours 
of typing time of a fresh ribbon (A.B. Dick Offset Nylon Ribbon, 
Part No. 4-2510, direct image, IBM, 9/16 n ) carbon is deposited on 
the master in sufficient quantity for good reproduction on the 



49 

duplicating machine. Consequently master stock is used for eleven 
hours and then the ribbons are read onto card stock. 

Problems concerning paper stock arose, and decisions had to 
be made prior to the IBM 870 installation. The tufted edge which is 
common on continuous stock was not wanted. After searching, a die 
cut stock of Standard Register which leaves a smooth edge at the top 
and bottom of the card and is broken only by three notches was found. 

Another card stock problem which may be unique is the change 
in color tone when there is a change in vendor. Natural manila color 
is used for all of the cards with a color stripe. A blue stripe on the 
Master Catalog Card and a green one on the School Catalog Record 
Card are used. Since each title has both of these master cards stand- 
ing together in the file, it was disconcerting when one vendor not only 
produced a turquoise (almost green) line in place of the blue but 
"corrected" the order with another turquoise. Perhaps there was an 
unrecognized color blindness involved. 

Filing took on a new look as the colored edges appeared in the 
file. The School Catalog Record Card, which has a green line, neces- 
sarily uses a shortened author-title combination because it is limited 
to the length of a single line. This necessitated changing the arrange- 
ment of cards in this file. The master file is now arranged by sur- 
name and first initial. Emphasis has been added to the reference 
cards for names by the use of a distinctive colored stock (red) in 
preference to the use of a name reference for each title of an author 
with a variant form of name. Added entry authorities are entered on 
cards with a brown stripe, and temporary records are on solid yellow 
stock. 

The first year with the IBM Document Writing System was ex- 
citing and at times frustrating. In October 1961, the librarian who 
was to supervise the operation was sent to IBM school for an inten- 
sive week's orientation course in IBM methods. From then until 
August 1962, working closely with IBM programmers, she prepared 
samples and diagrams for programming purposes. By February 
1962, when the control unit and three typewriters were delivered, it 
was thought that the programming was well along. The permanent 
typewriters were not received until May, and by that time the librarian 
had made adjustments to several new programs as previous ones 
were scrapped. Major programming changes continued until August 
1962 when production finally began. 

It has been said that this installation is unique essentially one 
of a kind. The equipment consists of one 836 control unit and three 
866 typewriters. The sum of these is one IBM 870 Document Writing 
System. (No, this is not the New Mathematics!) Only cards are used- 
no tape to control the typewriters which have elite ( 12 to the inch) 
type so that full advantage can be taken of the usable space on the con- 
ventional (7-l/2cm x!2-l/2cm) catalog card. One typewriter is used 
exclusively for shelf lists for which a special printed form is used. 



50 

No detail that was desired was impossible, or even very dif- 
ficult; but the accumulation of details that varied from previous 870 
installations for form letters made many problems some of them 
not yet satisfactorily solved. The solution of problems has been a 
trial and error procedure. When luck was on our side, two problems 
might be solved at a time. When it was not, one or the other problem 
had to be resolved. It was the application that was unusual, not the 
trial and error procedure. The first hurdle was one of semantics as 
IBM systems engineers learned library terminology and needs, and 
librarians learned to express those needs in layman's and machine 
language. Changes in IBM personnel assigned to the project during 
this period intensified this problem. Since school libraries are 
learning centers preparing young people to use other libraries, a 
responsibility was felt to maintain conventional catalog forms while 
readying ourselves to change those forms in school libraries as 
forms change in university and public libraries. The conventional 
card catalog is still the preferable form for District use. 

There was a need to produce these conventional catalog cards 
by typing on either card stock or offset masters for later reproduc- 
tion on card stock. There were a number of variables. There were 
to be no fixed fields as in conventional key punching. Line spacing 
was not constant. Vertical spacing had to be figured for each title 
to assure proper placement of the typing on the continuous stock. 
Since our right margin is not a set field but is irregular, an auto- 
matic line finder and carriage return was not practical. Special 
codes were developed to direct the typewriters by means of the 
punched cards. 

An insufficient number of impulses available in the control 
unit has been a stone wall which has not yet been fully scaled. Im- 
pulses are necessary to direct the typewriters to move in unison or 
individually as well as to activate the keys for individual lower case 
letters and numbers. Controls to activate impulses were needed for 
turning on each typewriter or any combination of them and for start- 
ing the carriage at the correct indention with either upper or lower 
case. These controls were coded into set fields (first two columns 
of the card) , but intermediary controls must also be coded to provide 
for carriage return, tabulation, a single upper case character, or to 
end a "mode." The need for both upper and lower case decreased 
the number of impulses available for directing typewriter keys. 

Cards have been divided into "modes" for punching purposes. 
These "modes" (see Fig. 2) are used for materials typed by all or 
by only one or two typewriters. A "mode" might consist of the 
author, title through imprint and, generally, collation; or it might 
consist of tracings or other information. 

The high school catalogers prepare the original documents. 
These master catalog records (see Figs. 1,4) are on IBM cards 
which are lined to indicate the area of a catalog card that the 



51 











. 


riwa"i 




HI 1 i M&2IE_^IA!^_A5 










1 


817 Downs, Robert Bingham, ed. 
D Bear went over the mountain, tall tales 


in 




Pi 




! 


_j of American animals . Macmillan, 196^. 










; 


358p. illus. 


z 












3 












1 












t 












I 













Z 








1 




1 










3 Humor I Title 


Z 








s 


O. 


1 








J 




2 








I 


, 


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LL 





Figure 1 
Master Catalog Card as Prepared by Cataloger 





ij>tiiitiiHB'mni--ra-an'iiii)i:i!)4 ! tsi>x- * 








R&Ji 

7i n pwn 


J 


T~I (11 MASTER CMAL06 CARD 










! 


8lT Downs, Robert Bingham, ed. 
D Bear went over the mountain, tall tales 


Hii 




i 




i 


of American animals. Macmillan, 1964. 


n/j 




' !/. 




i 


358p. illuB. 


!// 




?;/ 








"/* 




Id 








i;^ 




r ;/< 




^ 




23 




; 




X 


lb 


33 




/'< 








z i 








i 


1 Animals . Stories S Folklore .U.S. 


ij 




| 






3 Humor I Title 


2_j 












I ! 












z i 








? 




i ; 












z; 




_L 





Figure 2 

Master Catalog Card Including Vertical Spacing Code 
and Punched Set Number 



,. 




Figure 3 
School Catalog Record Card Including Set Number and Bubbled Holdings 



52 







! 

! 


M " III MASTER CATALOG CARD 


L-LL 


979 A Dawson: California (2 of 2) 
Anals: Petroleum. California p. 175-181 


ill 




jjjj 


Spaniards in California p. 75-117 






| 




U.S. History. War with Mexico, 18U5-1848 4- 


2;,, 






i 


P.129-1M 


j; 






1 


Water supply. California p.182-19 1 * 


i . 




' ^ 


i 

i 




EJ 




~' 




';, 




: ' 






71 T - \ * \ 1 MASTER CATALOG CARD 










1 979 .k Davson: California (l of 2) 
i Analytics 
I California. Description and travel 4- 
i p. 195-202 
California. Gold discoveries p.lU5-l!>2 


Pii 


|iij 







2; 




3 i 






i 
I 


1 California. Missions p.51-lo6 
i Conmunication. California p. 158-166 
Explorers p.25- 1 *^ 
Indians of North America. California 
P. 3-22 
* Overland Journeys to the Pacific 
p. 118- 128 

H / N 


j/5 


h- -5 


ig 




' 


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Is 




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T 






1 979 A Davson, Grace (Strlckler) 1 ' 
- D California, the story of our southwest 
corner. Macmillan, 1939. 
212p. illus., map. 

1 

i 

1 California. History 
Analytic tracing filed in shelf list 

4 / N 


iiii 




< :- 




2 1// 


5' / 


3 |y^. 




>!/ 


(S CITY SCMOOU-Chv 


i :, - 


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*-> O 


2; 

i ; 






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Figure 4 

Master Catalog Card with Analytic Tracing for 
Shelf List Including Vertical Spacing Codes 

offset duplicator will reproduce. This permits the key punch 
operator to recognize instantly when codes must be punched into 
the cards for typewriter operation. In addition to the original 
documents, the catalogers prepare any needed "format" cards 
(see Figs. 5,6). These cards are expendable documents used to 
display card formats which are not clearly shown on the original 
documents; e.g., a shortened form for shelf list, an unusual or dif- 
ficult added entry form or, an extension card. 

When the Master Catalog Card reaches the Document Writing 
System process, it is reviewed, and coded information is recorded 



53 



1 



MASTER CATALOG CARD 



Harris, Leon A 

Fine art of political wit. 
196*. 



Dutton, 



MASTER CATALOG CARD 



808.7 Harris, Leon A 

H Fine art of political wit, being a live- 
ly guide to the artistic invective, elegant 
epithet, and polished Impromptus as well as 
the gallant and graceful wordly wit of 
various British & American politicians ... 
Dutton, 1964. 
288p . illus . 

1 Great Britain. Politics and government 
2 Huaor 3 U.S. Politics and government 

I Title 



o 



CO HOT rrrx at fans i 



Figure 5 

Master Catalog Card and Format Card 
For Shortened Shelf List 




921 



GASKELL, ELIZABETH CLEGHOKN (SIEVEHSON) 

LIFE OF CHARLOTTE BBONfE 
Lane, Margaret 
Bronte . . 



MASTER CA1AL06 CARD 



921 Lane, Margaret 

B Bronte story, a reconsideration of Mrs. 

Gaskell's Life of Charlotte Bronte. 

Duell, 1953- 
368p. illus. 



1 Bronte, Charlotte 2 Bronte family 
3 Gaskell, Elizabeth Cleghorn (Stevenson) 
Life of Charlotte Bronte I Title 



O 



oo nor rrff Krotto Di/rrro LINE - 



Figure 6 

Master Catalog Card and Format Card 
for Heading in Unusual Arrangement 



54 

in the boxes printed in the space remaining on the master card (see 
Figs. 2,4) . This information indicates the number of lines necessary 
after the last typing on one card to the starting position on the next 
card. This information is then translated into codes so that direc- 
tives will be punched resulting in maximum efficiency of operation 
in turning on typewriters singly or in tandem. Operators who do the 
coding must understand tracings in order to recognize the number 
and kinds of catalog cards required for each title because the aligning 
and sequencing of the punched cards is determined from these codes. 
The coding is revised before punching begins. 



TPLrSJJwr"CRIC<"NIH.!s. 




IBM 870 DOCUMENT WRITING SYSTEM CAHD 



-- 



Figure 7 
Punched Set of 870 Document Writing System Cards 



55 



Shelf list 



817 Downs, Robert Bingham, ed. 
D Bear vent over the mountain, tall tale* 
of American animals. Macmillan, 196U. 
illus. 




Title 



Bear went over the mountain 
617 Downs, Robert Bingham, ed. 
D Bear went over the mountain, tall tales 
of American animals Macmillan, 

Viftrw HI TUB. 



Subjects 



HUMOR 

817 Downs, Robert Bingham, ed. 
D Bear went over the mountain, tall tales 
of American animals. Macmillan, 
358t>. illus. 



FOLKLORE. U.S. 
817 Downs, Robert Bingham, ed. 

Bear went over the niountain, tall tales 
of American animals* Macmillan, 196^. 



ANIMALS. STORIES 

817 Downs, Robert Bingham, ed. 
D Bear went over the mountain, tall tales 
of American animals. Macmillan, 1964. 



Author 



617 Downs, Robert Bingham, ed. 

D Bear went over the mountain, tall tales 

of American animals. Macmillan, 
358p. illus. 



1 Animals. Stories 2 Folklore. U.S. 
5 Humor I Title 



Figure 8 
Set of Catalog Cards Read by 870 Document Writing System 



56 

A "set" number is assigned in consecutive order to each Master 
Catalog Card. This number is punched into the Master Catalog Card 
(see Fig. 2), the School Catalog Record Card (see Fig. 3) which was 
forwarded with the Master Catalog Card, and each of the punched 
cards (see Fig. 7) . (The alphabetically filed master records serve 
as an index to the numerically filed punched cards.) The punched 
cards include also a sequential numbering for cards making up each 
set (see Fig. 7) . Each set is easily distinguished within the file 
because all cards have upper left corner cuts except the first one 
which has a right corner cut. 

Two permanently wired boards are used, one for punching and 
one for reading. The reading operation, of course, fascinates visitors 
as the punched cards are fed into the Document Writing System, and 
the coded information is interpreted to produce the typed cards. 
During the reading process, an operator reads from the Master 
Catalog Card as the copy is being typed, (it has been found practical 
to read on Thursdays.) When the day's reading has been completed 
and the ink has dried, the stock is fed into the burster, a Standard 
Register Selec-tronic Tab Card Burster. After the stock has been 
burst (from each typewriter separately), the cards are assembled 
into sets for each title and forwarded with the Master Catalog Card 
and the School Catalog Record Card. A library clerk compares the 
catalog cards and the book, notes on the School Catalog Record Card 
that cards have been sent to the school, and then the book is shipped 
to the school. The School Catalog Record Card is returned to the 
master file where the filing revisor matches the set number of the 
Master Catalog Card and School Catalog Record Card to assure 
accurate filing. 

The District is fortunate to have a cataloger who had had key 
punch training before joining the staff. This cataloger recognized 
what the IBM programmers confirmed that efficiency lies in giving 
one of the library clerks key punch training rather than in attempting 
to provide library background to a key punch operator. Civil service 
personnel advance from the beginning positions all too rapidly, and 
the Personnel Commission is understandably reluctant to establish 
"one-of-a-kind" positions. The operators must understand the con- 
stitution of a set of cards so that the school librarian and there is 
only one in a school need give only a minimal amount of time to 
helping the school clerk who is not always full time in the library 
and who is vulnerable for advancement or assignment changes. 

Service calls for machine malfunction have been minor irri- 
tations rather than problems. It was anticipated that the machines 
would be inactive 10 per cent of the time some months that has 
been true, other months not. The present over-all period of non- 
productivity is less than 10 per cent, but the Cataloging Department 



57 

is conveniently located only a few blocks from the service department 
of IBM. 

The greatest disadvantage of the IBM 870 Document Writing Sys- 
tem is the insufficient number of impulses to direct the typewriters to 
produce all the characters that the standard office typewriter does. 
The coding that is necessary to produce the appropriate results on the 
print-out of catalog cards would be difficult for the average key punch 
operator, but key punch operators are not hired for this installation. 
Functional limitations of the equipment are frustrating. Because of the 
demands upon the equipment, increased capacity is needed. 

The insufficient number of impulses available in the control 
unit is an educational handicap. Unless they appear on dead keys, 
diacritical marks, which are a part of the spelling of many words in 
foreign languages, cannot be used. Since the cards are produced for 
teaching- learning situations as well as for finding purposes, this is 
a serious drawback, especially since there is an increase in the study 
of foreign languages in the schools. It should be mechanically pos- 
sible to use manual wiring with a distinctive color directive card, 
and it can be presumed that the same procedure could be followed here 
that is used for square brackets if all available impulses were not 
already in use. Square brackets are used somewhat sparingly because 
the only means of producing them is to manually change the wiring 
on the reading board. A signal is given to the operator by a punched 
card of distinctive color when this change is necessary. 

A major disadvantage is that the machine is an independent 
unit which can take advantage of the information punched into order 
cards for only a few central office records. Order records are 
abbreviated and coded so that they are not directly transferable for 
punching catalog cards. The by-products of the punched order cards 
which have been applicable to the IBM 870 include the punching of 
the School Catalog Record Card for titles new to the Master Order 
file. When the entry needed for ordering is not the same as that 
needed for cataloging purposes, incompatibility results, and there 
is no useful by-product. Additional by-products of order records 
provide some expendable working records for Catalog Department 
use. 

The ability of the System both to input and output has delaying 
tactics in that it cannot do both at the same time. Currently 50 per 
cent of its time is now used for output. As output increases so does 
input. The obvious answer is longer hours or another "inputter," 
but floor space is limited, and even such a small machine taxes it 
too heavily. Until, or unless, space for additional equipment is 
available, it appears advisable to use machine typing in conjunction 
with manually typed cards for analytics. It would be preferable 
to have the document writer do the complete typing for the sets since 
that would save revision as well as typing time, even though all 



58 

cards, including those machine typed, get a least a once over lightly 
check. 

Some related problems involve the continuous stock as it feeds 
through the typewriters. Any irregularity in stock causes wastage. 
If stock is not carefully joined at the junction point, there will be 
wastage not only of the defective stock but of all cards read for that 
title. If the stock is too stiff, it may not hold against the platen and 
may be printed in incorrect alignment. The chip between cards, if 
not precisely cut, may break and catch so that vertical movement is 
hampered. 

The single line information on the School Catalog Record Card 
has necessitated new filing directives. Because of line length we are 
limited to a single initial of an author's given name. This results in 
interfiling the titles of several authors in the Master Catalog file. 
In order to keep corporate entries within bounds, abbreviations have 
been used, but even so the title is very limited. The Cataloging De- 
partment depends upon the set number for accuracy in filing. 

The greatest advantage of the IBM 870 Document Writing Sys- 
tem is that it is now possible for the Department to provide better 
service to libraries on a more current basis. There is no longer a 
backlog of work for high schools. No longer is there an accumula- 
tion of records for cards to be sent later after the books and shelf 
lists have been received in the schools. The book can now be sent 
with complete sets of cards, including the extensive analytics needed 
for collected biographies and some literary works. Cards can be 
sent for all editions instead of for only a single edition of a title so 
that the catalogs represent current holdings. The reduction in re- 
vision time is another major advantage, relieving the staff of con- 
siderable tedious work. The advantage of individualized collections 
in the schools results in some sporadic orders for specific titles. 
These repetitive titles presented problems of retyping and revision 
in the past which have been reduced by the System, but the "reading" 
of these "re-runs" requires more and more time. The System has 
also negated the need for space consuming storage of "extra" cards 
in the hope of avoiding the retyping of offset masters or individual 
sets of cards. 

It is no longer necessary to remove the Master Catalog record 
for a previously cataloged title from the file to produce a set of 
catalog cards. The School Catalog Record Card is removed without 
substituting a temporary record. (Since every title has both a 
Master Catalog Card and a School Catalog Record Card, if the School 
Catalog Record Card is not in file it is in process and not immediately 
available.) A green card l/4 n higher than the data processing card 
is prepared, giving set number, first word of entry, and number of 
sets needed to be used as a temporary record in the numerical file of 
punched cards. 



59 

It is difficult to discuss costs, for cost studies so often do not 
agree in the factors involved. Los Angeles costs may have little 
relation to those in another school system. The figures that have been 
used are not definitive. Some are carefully evaluated estimates, and 
they are not comparable to figures for other installations. Overhead 
costs have not been included. These figures do, however, show com- 
parative costs for 1960-61 and 1963-64 for items included for the 
Library Catalog Department of the Los Angeles City Schools. 

Major cost factors for the years under discussion were as 
follows: 

1960-61 1963-64 

Professional salaries $19,692.00 $45,852.00 (incl. $9,864 

for IBM 870) 

Clerical salaries 21,846.00 39,468.00 (incl. 10,530 

for IBM 870) 

Card stock 1,400.00 5,400.00 

Offset stock 300.00 300.00 
Catalog Master 

record stock 25.00 11.00 

Machine rental 3,660.00 

Typewriters 350.00 350.00 
Burster 

(prorated 5 years) 485.00 
Offset Duplicator 

(5 years) 280.00 150.00 [repairs] 

Filing cases 300.00 900.00 

Total $44,193.00 $96,576.00 

Book budget 
(incl. "dup") $412,069.00 $604,125.00 

Sets of cards prepared 45,553 98,157 



On the basis of these figures, the over-all cost of producing a 
set of catalog cards, including cataloging and classification costs for 
new titles, was $0.97 in 1960-61 and $0.983 in 1963-64. These figures 
are, of course, in no way indicative of actual cataloging costs which 
are several times that per title. No allowance has been made for 
staff time spent on the ever present "related duties as assigned" 
that raise costs beyond those of direct production. General salary 
increases for the continuing 1960-61 staff positions alone account 
for $0.0913 of the $0.983 cost of a set of cards in 1963-64. A saving 
should be evident in 1964-65 because the parallel files, essential 



60 

during the change-over period, are no longer necessary, meaning 
that the work routines have been shortened. But the important factor, 
so long as costs remain within reasonable limits, is that more work 
can be accomplished, backlogs cleared, and more service to the 
schools given rather than that a unit cost saving can be effected with 
the System. 

There is a need to advance thoughtfully in schools; for school 
librarians have the responsibility of providing catalog services in a 
format which students will meet in public, university, and special 
libraries as well as in their school libraries. Neither must school 
libraries lag behind the developments being made in other libraries. 
It is quite possible that as these developments occur school libraries 
may change mightily. Computerized methods may better serve the 
library needs of the future. At present books are being moved with 
appropriate catalog records more rapidly than in the past. This is 
a service of the greatest importance to students. The Catalog De- 
partment has been more concerned about accomplishing a job than 
it has been about costs, although the costs are very important. With 
the IBM 870 System the Department has accomplished more without 
increasing the total staff although there have been changes in job 
responsibilities and internal department assignment which are not 
shown in the positions chart above. 

The IBM 870 Document Writing System is serving the Library 
Section of the Los Angeles City Schools well at this time. 



Appendix 
PUNCH ROUTINE CHART 



When the cataloging has been completed, the general procedure 
is as follows: 

1. Master Catalog Card (MCC) which becomes the "original 
document" for punching is prepared by the Cataloger (Library 
Coordinator) . 

Information is typed in appropriate format within the 
dotted lines which defines the area from which our offset 
duplicator will reproduce. 

2. Need for format cards is determined. 

By- pass Step 3 if format cards are not needed. 

3. Additional format cards, when needed, are prepared by the 
Cataloger: 



61 

Shortened shelf list cards 
Extension cards 
Tracing cards 
Heading cards 

Long headings of more than one line 

Unusual arrangements, e.g., author-title analytical 

cards. 

4. Master Catalog Card (MCC) and/or format cards are as- 
sembled with School Catalog Record Card (SCRC) and for- 
warded for IBM 870 processing. 

SCRC is a holdings record on which schools having the 
title are noted. 

5. Vertical spacing is figured and coded into the appropriate 
spaces on the MCC and format cards. 

6. Next consecutive "set number" is punched into delineated 
area at upper right of MCC and SCRC. 

7. Cards are punched with appropriate coding to assure the 
correct catalog form on card stock in the reading process. 

Same set number is punched into each Document Writing 
System (DWS) card punched for that title. 

Each DWS card is additionally numbered from first to 
last for the set. Card 1, which has the upper right corner 
cut, records the total number of cards in the set. All 
other DWS cards in the set have the upper left corner cut. 

8. Punched cards are sight revised. 

Format cards are destroyed. 

9. Number of sets per title required is entered on the DWS 
card, and cards are ready for reading routine. 



62 



READ ROUTINE 



CONTINUOUS OFFSET 
MASTER STOCK 



1 . Document Writing System cards 
sorted, grouped and stacked in 
hopper 

2. Paper stock selected - card or 
offset master 

3. DWS cards read by System 

4. Stock burst 

Cord stock by-passes Step 5 

5. Cards reproduced from offset 
masters and masters destroyed 

6. Cards gathered into sets and 
assembled with books 



CONTINUOUS CATALjOG 
CARD STOCK 




63 
READ ROUTINE CHART 

When an appropriate number of cards (newly punched or with- 
drawn from prepunched file) is ready for reading: 

1. Punched Document Writing System cards are sorted, 
grouped, and stacked in the hopper according to the number of 
sets needed for each title. 

2. Decision is made of stock to be used card stock for five or 
fewer copies of a title; offset master stock for six or more 
copies. 

Continuous stock is fed into typewriters. 

3. Document Writing System cards are read by the System. 

DWS cards are returned to file. 

4. Stock which has been read is burst. 

Card stock by-passes step 5. 

5. Cards are reproduced from offset masters. 

Offset masters are destroyed. 

6. Cards are gathered into sets and assembled with books. 



64 



PUNCH ROUTINE 




1 . Master Catalog Card (MCC) 

prepared as "original document" 

2. Need for format cards determined 

By-pass Step 3 if format cards 
not needed 

3. Format cards prepared 

4. MCC, format cards and School 
Catalog Cards (SCRC) assembled 
for punching 

5. Vertical spacing coded and 
recorded 

6. "Set no." punched into MCC 
and SCRC 

7. Document Writing System cards 
punched 

"Set no." and sequence no. 
within set punched 



Punched cards sight revised 
Format cards destroyed 

9. Number of sets to be read 
entered on DWS card 



BRO-DART INDUSTRIES' EXPERIENCE WITH 
ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING 



Arthur Brody 



The primary objective of Bro-Dart Industries is to serve 
libraries. As a result of committing the management and creative 
and financial resources to this objective, Bro-Dart has become the 
one company directly involved in practically every area of service 
to all types of libraries public libraries, school libraries (from 
elementary through university), and special libraries. 

Therefore, because of the similarity of functions and problems 
and because Bro-Dart is continuously trying to improve its opera- 
tions as well as to supply and anticipate the needs of its customers, 
the experience of the company with electronic data processing (EDP) 
the successes and the failures, the progress of the system to date, 
the equipment being used, and future plans will be described in this 
report. 

A service organization such as Bro-Dart must be able to make 
intelligent decisions as to how time and resources should be directed, 
and, therefore, statistics must be developed by products and type of 
service showing the total activity, requirements, and trends in the 
library field generally. At the same time, the needs of an individual 
library must be known and understood. Because Bro-Dart must 
handle numbers and documents accurately and quickly, it cannot be 
forgotten that each library reflects the personality of its administra- 
tion and the special needs and nature of its patrons. 

Ten years ago the company had fewer products and was not 
then engaged in the extensive program of book services it offers 
today. Reports and statistical analysis were taken from hand posted 
information summarized manually, but as new products and services 
were introduced, the manual maintenance of information became 
more difficult and inadequate. Comparative slowness and an increase 
in human error in analyzing a much higher volume of documents 



Arthur Brody is President of Bro-Dart Industries, Inc., of Newark, 
New Jersey. 



65 



66 

caused the company to investigate the use of electronic data process- 
ing. After a careful study, it was concluded that electronic data 
processing was too costly for the operations of the company at that 
time, but it was believed that it would ultimately be used. Because 
the study caused a close examination of existing procedures, many 
ways were uncovered to cut paper work costs and to get more useful 
information without installing new equipment. Anticipating the future 
use of data processing, it was decided to endeavor to gear all sys- 
tems and procedures as if the installation were already made, a 
decision that proved rewarding. For instance, although it may have 
seemed elaborate at the time, a system for numbering all library 
accounts was devised. This was a first step in coding information. 
Each number assigned not only indicated the library's own serial 
number but showed the state in which the library is located, the sales 
representative serving that library, the type of library, and its parcel 
post zone. All of this information is important in the day-to-day 
servicing of library customers. A numbering system of the various 
products of the company was devised, keeping in mind the kind of 
reports which Bro-Dart would ultimately want to receive, as well as 
the limitations and possibilities of data card sorting equipment. Both 
of these numbering systems have stood the test of time remarkably 
well. 

During 1956 it was finally decided that the company's volume 
had reached a point where electronic data processing was econom- 
ically feasible. A local service bureau was first used for punching 
and tabulating sales analysis information from source documents the 
company submitted. The key punching by the service bureau was not 
as accurate as desired, and, therefore, after a couple of months, the 
company installed its own key punch followed later by the rental of 
a sorter, a reproducer, and a tabulator after a close and continuous 
analysis of the service bureau's charges. The IBM Department re- 
mained small for its first few years. Payroll was added to its work. 
Then came accounts receivable. At first, the work done by the data 
processing equipment was paralleled manually. It soon became 
clear that the machine could do a better job in this area, and so the 
conversion was completed. General ledgers, accounts payable, and 
a cost system followed in 1961 and 1962, some upgrading in type and 
speed of equipment being required. The installation of an EDP sys- 
tem into the Supply Division was carried out as it should be. A 
careful feasibility study was made, a definite plan of installation was 
evolved, and additional procedures were installed on an evolutionary 
basis. No existing system was abandoned until the system was 
proved on the EDP equipment. Although it took seven years, it was 
accomplished with minimal costs and heartaches. 

If at all possible an EDP installation should be made in care- 
fully planned steps, and no existing systems and procedures should 



67 

be abandoned until such time as the new ones can be proven. This 
author has never observed an installation where everything immedi- 
ately started to work, no matter how carefully it was planned. One 
would think that Bro-Dart having been so successful in its first in- 
stallation, it would have taken the same approach in other operations, 
but, unfortunately, this was not the case. 

In 1960, Alanar Book Processing Center, the first contract 
cataloging and processing center and a Bro-Dart subsidiary, was 
just beginning to stretch in anticipation of its very rapid growth of 
the past few years. All manufacturers of data processing equipment 
presented ideas for the use of such equipment in handling all or part 
of Alanar's operations. But upon close examination, it was quickly 
learned that library variants multiplied by thousands of libraries 
were far too extensive for existing equipment at any cost which could 
be considered by a responsible library service organization. Most 
people concerned with data processing have had to learn the hard 
way that the range and variety of materials used by the library is 
extremely great. There are thousands of sources for books alone. 
The publishing status of the books and variations in editions and 
bindings add to the number of units. This is only the beginning, for 
the number of possible combinations in processing books for a large 
number of libraries is enormous. Any small grouping of libraries 
wishing to adopt more or less complete uniformity of cataloging and 
processing procedures, especially through limiting the vintage of 
books to be processed, can use data processing equipment to a con- 
siderable extent. 

Alanar's involvement is much broader in that Alanar has acted 
to provide professional and clerical manpower for all types of 
libraries performing work in accordance with the requirements of 
those libraries. Recent developments both in low cost custom 
cataloging through highly sophisticated use of equipment and the kit 
approach to some areas of cataloging and processing will be de- 
scribed later. 

Although serious thought of using data processing equipment 
for Alanar was set aside in 1960, by 1961 a possible new use in the 
books area had arisen. In that year the company entered the book 
distribution field. The deciding factor was interest by the Library 
of Congress in establishing a program for the supply of LC cards 
with books. New facilities at Williamsport, Pennsylvania, were 
established in the summer of 1961, and by the winter of 1961-62 the 
books with cards program had become a reality. In the beginning, 
the new company, Bro-Dart Books, had only one customer for its 
wholesale business that customer being Alanar. But even at that 
time Alanar was doing acquisitions, cataloging, and processing for 
several hundred libraries. 



General experience with data processing in the book distribut- 
ing industry had not been marked with success. On the contrary, 
there had been many instances where its use had proved disastrous. 
But in setting up a completely new operation, possible use of data 
processing equipment offered many attractions. Looking to the future, 
complete involvement appeared inevitable, and authorities in the field 
seem agreed that a thorough grounding in tab card operations is a 
great help in getting ready for a computer. Having decided upon the 
desirability of installing a tab card system, a program was under- 
taken to gear an entire organization for a substantial degree of auto- 
mation. Unlike the company's tab card system in Newark, New 
Jersey, used primarily for accounting and administrative purposes, 
the new installation was to serve primarily as a production tool. 

Many and long sessions were held with representatives of IBM 
to develop a tab card system which would provide both the opera- 
tional and informational controls desired. In broad outline, the sys- 
tem adopted was as follows: 

1. A tab card was key punched for the total number of copies 
of each title to be purchased for stock and/or to meet specific 
customer orders for titles not stocked or for those ordered in 
excess of the existing stock balance. Information punched into 
these cards included author, title, publisher, price, edition, 
and binding. 

2. If perchance the title was not in stock, the original key 
punched cards were duplicated to create a customer's back 
order file and were further duplicated to tabulate purchase 
orders placed with the various publishers and were then held 
as an open record of books on order. 

3. As books were received from publishers, invoices were 
compared with purchase orders and necessary invoice number 
and date, together with discount received, were key punched 
into the tab card previously used to create the purchase order. 
Such updated cards became an open file of books received. 

4. A copy of the receipted card, modified to indicate a quantity 
of one only, was then prepared and inserted into each copy of a 
title. Such cards contained all the information required to 
invoice books shipped to a library customer. 

5. Through the merging and tabulation of cards showing quan- 
tities of a title on order, received, and shipped to which was 
added the cumulative totals of books ordered and shipped a 
valuable progress report could be prepared as a guide to ac- 
quisitions and as an inventory record. 

6. The original order card was used to pick the back order 
book and then used to collate out the back order cards. 



69 

In order to bring together all information relating to a title 
and to combine it into a single entry, the use of a distinctive number 
was recommended. Because it was intended to stock the cards with 
books, using the LC number for this purpose seemed to have merit. 
But it was soon apparent that: ( l) cards for many titles were un- 
available and, therefore, numbers were not available; (2) the same 
LC card set might be supplied for the same title against a number 
of imprints because the publisher might not have been careful to send 
their own edition to the Library of Congress; (3) it was discovered 
that occasionally the same LC number had been inadvertently as- 
signed to two different titles. In short, the LC number would not 
positively identify the exact title, author, edition, and binding. Al- 
though an effort was made to assign temporary numbers in the ab- 
sence of a proper LC number, the problems were acute; and the 
number program was abandoned. The result was full reliance on 
titles, editions, and bindings the slightest variations in which 
created unbelievable difficulties in carrying out the original aims 
of the system. It does not take much to knock a machine system 
into a cocked hat, and the frustrations faced were at once instructive, 
tragic, and costly. 

The most severe blow of all was the complete miscalculation 
by the machine experts concerning the ability of the recommended 
equipment to do the job. The basic equipment in use centered about 
an IBM 407 printer and a 604 calculator, plus, of course, key punches, 
sorters, etc. The inability of this equipment to handle the required 
volume of records led to the abandonment of the acquisition and 
inventory report and the customer back order file. Great reliance 
had been placed on this aspect of the system, and new ways and 
means had to be devised under great pressure to bridge the gap. 
Many of the solutions to individual problems gave rise to other com- 
plications, and the number of different systems being tried and 
modified led to very complex problems. The unhappiest situation 
was a sacrifice in service to company customers. Although Bro-Dart 
had, and has, great faith in the future of electronic data processing, 
it went swiftly from optimism to despair. 

The biggest weakness in the early months of involvement with 
the data processing system in books operations was that it was un- 
dertaken without the protection of an existing workable system which 
would have run in parallel until the "bugs" were worked out. As 
mentioned before, such a parallel system had been available in the 
company's earlier conversion of its supply operation records and, 
unquestionably, was responsible for the ease with which the con- 
version was made. Bro-Dart will never again start up any operation 
or convert any system and procedure to EDP without having first a 
system to fall back on, particularly during the early stages of the 
installation. 



70 

Growth of book distribution caused a considerable increase in 
the tab card equipment required to handle the input of more than 
forty key punching and verifying units, working on both day and night 
shifts. As the cost of the card operation approached the cost of a 
computer, the next step was obvious. An order was placed for an 
IBM 1440 computer, which would do everything being done by the 
tabulating card system and also provide for that area of inventory 
and book order control which had been lost in the early stages of the 
tab card program. The IBM 1440 series had been announced at a 
cost which was lower than that of the company's existing card han- 
dling equipment. 

Experience already gained in data processing had begun to in- 
dicate directions to be followed in computer operation. The less had 
been learned well. There are headaches in launching any large scale 
data processing program. It was decided to provide for parallel 
operations of the existing tab card system and any new computer sys- 
tem for as long as it might take to ensure success of the changeover. 

A separate department was established and staffed to prepare 
for the programming job ahead. But first it was given the task of 
reviewing all of the company's book operations and presenting in- 
dependent recommendations as to the make and computer configura- 
tion best suited to the needs of Bro -Dart, bear ing in mind the 
company's rapid rate of growth. The result of this review was a 
determination that a computer such as the IBM 1401 or the Honeywell 
200 was required and not the IBM 1440. These preliminary investi- 
gations took approximately four months, and, in February 1964, the 
previous order for the IBM 1440 was cancelled and replaced with an 
IBM 1401 magnetic tape oriented data processing system with a 
high speed printer. The superior servicing facilities then provided 
by IBM in the area of the company's operations were an influencing 
factor in the final decision. 

The next logical step in planning for computer installation was 
the organizing of a Programming Systems Group whose major task 
was analyzing the various aspects to be brought under computer 
control, devising the total systems concept, and defining the specific 
programming jobs. It cannot be overemphasized that a good, com- 
prehensive, and useful systems concept must be delineated, dis- 
cussed, and approved before any major programming effort is 
undertaken. 

In addition to four full time programmers, more than 1,000 
hours of top management time and 10,000 hours of other executive 
and supervisory time outside the IBM department were devoted to 
preparing for computer installation and operation. Partial opera- 
tions were planned under three main headings: 



71 

1. Inventory control, invoicing, acquisitions, back ordering, 
and general book handling, etc. 

2. General accounting, which had long been handled by data 
processing equipment at the company executive offices at 
Newark, New Jersey. 

3. Other library services (e.g., preparation of indexes to book 
catalogs, preparation and up-dating of lists, and simplified 
ordering and interchange of data where library customers are 
using data processing equipment) . 

The IBM 1401 computer was installed in December, 1964. Ap- 
proximately sixty basic programs are being used for daily operational 
control, representing some 4,000 hours of programming time. The 
programs cover order input, book picking, back order control and 
acquisitions reports, purchase orders, receiving, invoicing, customer 
reports, and shipping. Some of the programs are highly sophisticated 
to provide for the great variety of ordering patterns at the disposal 
of Bro-Dart and Alanar customers. A few of the hundreds of possible 
variations are cited to suggest the degree of sophistication required 
in programming. 

A series of orders may require separate billings by individual 
purchase order and /or line item number a frequent requirement. 
Cataloging and processing may be separate on the same invoice, on 
a separate invoice, or combined with the book price. Another al- 
ternative has been developed by Bro-Dart to effect a substantial 
reduction in paper work, namely, the "Intend to Buy" system. Under 
this system, the company assembles books against a tentative order 
or listing, submitting what is an invoice in everything but name, on 
the basis of which the purchasing office issues a confirming order- 
eliminating partial shipment, open items, etc. The computer must 
not only recognize and conform to such specifications, but it must 
keep a record of purchases to make sure that customers' budgets are 
not exceeded where these have been advised. 

Special services offered in the way of LC card supply, book 
jacket covers, hard binding or paperbacks, prebinding, etc., must 
be identified and many variations in edition and binding preference 
must also be accommodated. A detailed specification must be set 
up for each library to cover its usual requirements, yet with pro- 
vision for the library to override general specifications on an in- 
dividual title basis. 

The computer must also maintain a complete inventory record 
of stock books on hand, as well as those that are on order, whether 
or not more LC cards are available for that given title. It also must 
maintain a complete back order file by customer so that as soon as 
a book that was out of stock is received, it can be shipped to the 



72 

proper customer. It, of course, must also carry out the usual ac- 
counting functions relating to accounts receivable, accounts payable, 
payroll, costs, etc. 

The biggest task which faced Bro-Dart apart from program- 
ming, was to input all of the original records. What has been done, 
in effect, is to assemble in machineable form essential information 
on titles now in print. At this date the record covers about 140,000 
titles with about 25 per cent to go. The problems of input are many, 
and the decisions are important. There is virtually no limit to the 
amount of information which it is physically possible to enter on a 
computer record. But should you decide, as Bro-Dart did, that you 
are going to use a fixed length record of each entry, a single record 
twice as long as any other record will double the length of tape re- 
quired for the whole and correspondingly increase the cost every 
time the tape is passed through the equipment. 

Bro-Dart determined the point at which the record length would 
accommodate about 95 per cent of all titles in full and then edited the 
balance within this limit. It so happens that the 5 per cent of ex- 
tremely long titles includes many which have limited activity. 

The title takes more space than any other single item, but the 
same considerations apply to author, prices, discounts, and dates. 
Those who have had experience in fitting the information into the 80 
columns of a single tab card know how quickly those 80 places are 
used up. Most entries require a number of cards; and one of the 
advantages of the computer is that once you have entered the original 
information, a longer single record can be maintained even though 
only parts of it are used at any one time. 

As already mentioned, the amount of input must be related to 
the size and, hence, cost of maintaining records. It must also, of 
course, be related to the many uses of output. If you shorten a little 
for reasons of operating economy, can you accept the abbreviated 
title when it is printed on the list or form you have called for ? 

Errors occur through the slightest programming weakness and 
although all programs are tested before use, only trial under full 
operating conditions can demonstrate that they are completely sound. 
The simplest weakness in a complex computer program can drive 
you out of your mind, but can be solved with patience and fortitude. 
The errors which remain are human errors. You may wonder how 
something can be key punched and verified by machine and still be 
incorrect. It cannot happen, but it does. Every effort must be made 
to minimize input errors, for a pure system is a joy. However, we 
live in a real world, and this means one in which mistakes occur. 
Errors can and must be corrected. The trick is to watch for and 
recognize the side effects. The computer may some day learn to 
think, but there are times when its discretion is very poor. 



73 

In reference to input problems, Bro-Dart was not happy with 
existing data collecting systems and has been involved in the develop- 
ment of an interesting new unit which it calls the "korn-punch." It 
is believed that this piece of equipment for data collecting may be of 
great value for book-charging systems. 

As mentioned before, Bro-Dart's attempt to use the LC number 
as an address was not successful. Hundreds of hours were therefore 
spent developing a code to serve the company's purpose properly 
because although many long sessions have been held throughout the 
library field to consider the practicability of a universal computer 
number, little progress has been made. Many of the problems will 
be apparent to anyone giving the matter thought. In the absence of 
such a universal number, it was decided to use a computer assigned 
number fitting the following pattern. The number, alpha numeric, 
consists of a maximum of ten positions. The first three or four are 
letters taken from an established publisher code which will be de- 
scribed later. Here is a typical example: CRN CO 22L. CRN in- 
dicates that the title is published by Crown. The next two letters are 
the first two letters of the title and are used for purposes of rough 
alphabetical sorting by title ( corresponding to the way in which the 
stocks and files are maintained) . The next three positions are for a 
number ( three digits are rarely required) . This number is always 
distinctive for a title of that publisher having the first two letters 
of the title shown. The last position is a letter which indicates the 
type of binding (L for library, P for paper, T for trade, etc.) . The 
composition of this number holds considerable importance and, as 
mentioned before, was most carefully considered. It was chosen in 
preference to a straight numeric code on the basis of its use in many 
areas of operations and because after careful testing, it was de- 
termined that Bro-Dart personnel made fewer errors when using an 
alpha numeric code than when using a straight numeric code. 

The publisher code developed by Bro-Dart has done an excel- 
lent job for the company and for many others. The code has a maxi- 
mum of four digits all letters. A publisher such as McGraw Hill 
is represented by the three letters MCG. The code is designed to use 
meaningful and easily recognized letters whenever possible, particu- 
larly for those publishers most frequently used. The letters MCG 
indicate that books bearing the McGraw Hill imprint are also obtained 
from McGraw Hill. Another code, MCGW (this time four letters) is 
for the Webster Publishing Company. The fact that the first three 
letters are the code for McGraw Hill indicates that Webster books 
are obtained through McGraw Hill, and the computer prepares its 
purchase orders accordingly. RAN is Random House, RANG Bernard 
Geis, RANK Knopf, RANP Pantheon. All of these are ordered from 
Random House. Both the company's book stocks and acquisitions 



74 

procedures make use of this coding means of dealing with publishing 
families. The Bro-Dart publisher code now covers over 2,500 pub- 
lishers, and the list has been made available to many customers at 
their request. 

It is possible to continue almost indefinitely describing the 
various additional systems, procedures, and unique programs 
Bro-Dart has been forced to devise just for the book distribution 
operation. Some of these are unquestionably of interest for a library 
installation, but others, of course, are not. If any librarian wishes 
to visit Bro-Dart and explore the computer operations in detail, he 
will, of course, be welcome. Although the computer has now been 
in operation for five months, some systems continue to be run on the 
data card equipment in parallel with the computer; and although this 
is according to plan and pieces are falling in place nicely, the com- 
pany is running about sixty days behind schedule as far as the com- 
plete computer takeover is concerned. 

However, certain uses of the equipment are now being made 
and obtaining certain results which were not anticipated for many 
months to come, for example: book catalogs. When interest was 
first shown by Bro-Dart customers in book catalogs, a survey was 
made to develop that product which appeared to offer both maximum 
utility and economy. Most book catalogs produced previously fell 
under a few broad classifications: 

A straight photographic reproduction (usually reduced) 
of actual catalog cards. An advantage of this system is that 
it preserves the full depth of the original cataloging. Dis- 
advantages include the need to disturb the catalog period- 
ically for rephotographing, with the added expense involved, 
the space involved in reproducing the total number of cards 
in the catalog for each title, and the very considerable cost 
of paper and printing for multiple entries of the same title 
which must be printed over and over again. 

Another approach has been actually to set in type some 
or all of the information that appears on the catalog cards. 
The purpose of this is twofold: first, to obtain the look of a 
printed book, and secondly to utilize high speed listing equip- 
ment such as the List-o-matic camera. This system has all 
of the disadvantages mentioned above plus higher costs. 

Other approaches have used computers or data card 
systems some using abbreviated entries, and although this 
produces a very economical catalog, it lacks depth of cata- 
loging. Others have key punched from the catalog card 
everything on it and frequently additional information. Al- 
though such a catalog does have tremendous depth, its cost 
is enormous, and its physical size becomes unwieldy. 



75 

Bro-Dart has the facilities to produce book catalogs by both 
reproduction and computer methods. A new type of book catalog has 
been developed by the company and is a blend of the two systems. It 
offers flexibility and economy, which will be apparent from a descrip- 
tion of the end product. Bro-Dart calls it a Register - Index Catalog. 
This type of catalog consists of a basic register in which there is a 
single photographic reproduction of the full entry for each title in 
the collection. The location of the entry on a specific number or 
lettered spot on a number page provides a permanent and distinctive 
index reference to such entry, the combined number of pages, and 
location. Once cross index cards are set up to carry this distinctive 
number for an entry in the register, it can be found without ever 
being reproduced again. 

Once the register has been established (including provision of 
additional copies to cover anticipated increase in use) , it is only 
necessary to prepare new sheets to include additional titles added to 
the library's holdings. Such sheets serve the double purpose of 
keeping all those interested in touch with new additions to the collec- 
tion and updating the register on a continuing basis. The computer 
index is the ever changing key to the library's holdings. Each entry 
in the index (whether by subject, title, or author) gives the name of 
author and title, the call number by which the book can be located on 
the shelf, and the distinctive number which locates the fully cataloged 
entry in the register. Since the year of publication is significant in 
determining whether a particular book is likely to be helpful, this 
information is also taken from the full catalog information when 
available and included for each index entry. Inclusion of the year of 
publication further reduces the need for referring to the full catalog 
information. Each index entry can also be coded as designated by 
the library to indicate in which campus library or libraries a title 
is to be found. If this were to be done for every title, it follows that 
it would be possible to separate all or part of the catalog index by 
individual library if there ever arose a reason to do so. 

To demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of such a catalog, 
Bro-Dart has, to date, produced three of them, one for a junior 
college district, another for a co-operative public library system, 
and still another for a government research library. All of the users 
have agreed that the catalog has been most satisfactory. Additional 
contracts have been accepted, but the number has been limited during 
the period of computer takeover. However, the success of the book 
catalog and other rapidly expanding activities caused Bro-Dart to 
place an order for an IBM 360 computer for installation in 1966. 

The computer undoubtedly can do a number of jobs in the 
technical processing field. In light of the extensive catalog card 
stocks which the company maintains both headed and unheaded and 
with extensive facilities for reproduction, it is probable that 



76 

Bro-Dart's interest in computer preparation of catalog cards will 
be of a minor nature. But as mentioned earlier, libraries prepared 
to accept certain limitations in scope and some variations in the 
physical form of their processing (e.g., the use of labels) can now 
make use of data processing. In the role of a manpower service 
organization, however, Bro-Dart follows a wide range of specifica- 
tions to meet the requirements of the individual library which uses 
company services when, as, and if it chooses. Apart from giving 
opinions where invited to do so, the only way in which Bro-Dart 
may influence the course taken by its library customers is by the 
higher charges which go hand- in- hand with exceptional specifications. 

Bro-Dart has recently developed techniques which will make it 
possible in time to offer much lower processing costs, where the 
simple label kit technique is acceptable, and yet preserve for the 
library a high degree of flexibility over the complete area of available 
in- print publications. 

Nothing is less expensive than the printing press when large 
numbers of items are to be imprinted with the same information. 
Bro-Dart began two years ago to build a program to lower the cost 
of a limited range of titles at the elementary level to libraries serving 
schools and children. This program has matured as the cataloging 
and processing kits are now being made available. A national library 
mailing has just been completed of a book kit catalog listing 10,500 
titles for which kits will be available for cataloging and processing 
books going into libraries for the new school year beginning in 
September. The cost to the library for books ordered from Bro-Dart 
under this program, with kits applied either by the company or by the 
library, will be the lowest ever, and yet a high standard is maintained. 
The book and kit catalog referred to is a product of the computer. 
The author and title listings include Bro-Dart's computer number for 
each title. Where clerical help is hard pressed, a library can order 
the books desired by simply listing the computer numbers or marking 
them in a copy of the catalog itself. 

As many library customers are in or entering the data process- 
ing field, there is an increased need to find ways in which further 
efficiencies can be gained by having the machines talk to one another. 
There are undoubtedly areas in which this is possible and, while the 
machines converse, Bro-Dart staff members may have more time to 
talk to librarians, who are the source of many of the company's ideas. 

A problem which has been widely discussed in using computer 
prepared indexes is the difficulty of following established library 
filing rules. This problem causes less trouble in book catalogs for 
relatively small libraries where filing similar to that used in a tele- 
phone directory can be tolerated. But in large libraries, the problem 
assumes greater dimension. In order to determine how best to deal 
with this important problem, a professional team is now making a 



77 

study under sponsorship of the Bro-Dart Foundation, a non-profit 
organization established by Bro-Dart Industries to support selected 
projects of wide interest to the library field. 

Incidentally, the first project sponsored by the Bro-Dart 
Foundation was the selection of a school oriented book collection of 
approximately 5,000 titles plus audio-visual materials. This work 
was undertaken by an independent professional committee under the 
chairmanship of Professor Mary Gaver of Rutgers University Grad- 
uate School of Library Science. The first phase of this list was 
published in March, and the total collection will be available shortly. 
At the request of many specialists in the elementary library field, 
the book catalog format previously mentioned has been used for this 
new library tool. 

It is said that when one of the first data processing units was 
made available for public inspection, a request was made by a news- 
man that the equipment be instructed to add two and two. Many 
minutes and many chuckles later the equipment responded with the 
right answer. Adding two and two on a computer is about as silly as 
driving a carpet tack with a sledge hammer. Yet the foolishness of 
matching sledge hammer and tack is neither as great nor as frequent 
as the wasteful use of data processing equipment. During research 
into Bro-Dart' s own equipment needs and procedures, IBM and others 
gave the names of many firms handling large numbers of items, such 
as wholesale hardware supply houses, supermarket chains, etc. It 
was astonishing to learn the number of large and costly installations 
which were being used but a small fraction of the time. There were 
two apparent reasons: ( l) Management felt it important to get into 
the act in this day of computers but were either not prepared or 
shied away from giving the management time and support essential 
to a successful program or ( 2) The operation did not require as 
sophisticated a piece of equipment. 

Many library visitors, who come from all over the country to 
see the company's book operations at Williamsport, have discussed 
their data processing plans. Many have access to equipment avail- 
able on university campuses or with associated agencies of local 
and state governments. Windfalls are always welcome, and, if a 
move to data processing is in your future, availability of adequate 
equipment at low cost or no cost is a big help. However, just as you 
judge the fitness of a book for your library's shelves without first 
thinking about who is going to pay for it, it is well to make sure that 
any uses of data processing equipment be efficient in relation to the 
normal cost of such equipment. In time, even a prorated share of an 
excessively expensive piece of equipment could be a drain on your 
budget. 

A number of tabulating and computer installations have drawn 
wide attention among those in the library field interested in the use 



78 

of such equipment. Much of the work done at these installations, and 
a high percentage of the cost involved, must be considered as neces- 
sary research and development. And, as is often the case of pioneer- 
ing work in any field, first results must be most carefully examined 
to be sure that, at their stage of development, they represent the 
degree of effectiveness and efficiency which would commend their use 
to libraries wishing to incorporate such systems as part of their 
day-to-day operations. 

There is little which cannot be achieved if ample resources are 
available, but, for the long pull, results must justify cost. There is 
an apparent initial economy in following the pattern of work done by 
others; but in any comparatively new development, the risk of buying 
someone else's mistakes (however understandable they maybe) must 
be considered. 

Most librarians have devoted their life's work to service by the 
library. The author's field has been service to the library. Bro-Dart 
is presently in the midst of a substantial speed-up toward new and 
greater goals in library service. To the extent that librarians can 
find help in knowing more about what the company is doing, it is 
theirs for the asking. 



HOW TO DESIGN DATA PROCESSING INPUT RECORDS 
FOR OPTIMUM RESULTS 



John P. Kennedy 



Card Design 



Inefficiencies in machine processing resulting from poor card 
design can be measured in milliseconds or microseconds per record. 
Even when dealing with large files, this will usually add up to no more 
than a few minutes per run. If the run is repeated frequently, how- 
ever, a few minutes or a few dollars difference per run may be sig- 
nificant. For a large library processing its circulation file daily, 
inefficiency resulting from poor card design and requiring a few 
extra milliseconds for processing each record could cost the library 
hundreds of dollars over the course of a year. 

Usually a more serious consequence of mistakes in card design 
than increased processing time is increased time in coding and punch- 
ing the data. Small differences in card layout can result in differences 
of several seconds per record in coding and punching. While clerical 
time is less expensive than computer time, the cost of a few extra 
seconds in coding the source document or punching the record will 
usually be more expensive than a few milliseconds of computer time. 
The most serious consequence of poor card design may be an increase 
in the number of errors made in preparing the input. Any change in 
source document or card layout which will result in fewer errors in 
the input data will probably prove to be economical even though it may 
increase processing time. The acceptable tolerance level for errors 
varies from one application to another, but in many library opera- 
tions, errors eventually result in problems that require a considerable 
amount of professional time to solve. In cases in which the most con- 
venient layout for coding and key punching is not the best layout for 
processing efficiency, priority should almost be given to the concen- 
ience of the persons producing the records rather than to the machine. 
The limitations and capabilities of the clerks recording and punching 
the data are more important considerations in card design than the 

John P. Kennedy is Research Associate jointly with the Statistical 
Service Unit and the University Library, University of Illinois. 

79 



80 

limitations and capabilities of the computer which will process data. 

The most important consideration for the keypuncher is that 
she not have to skip from place to place on the source document in 
order to pick out items in the order in which they are to be punched. 
Source document and card layout should be planned so that items to 
be punched stand out for easy location and occur in sequence from 
top to bottom and left to right. It should be realized that any coding 
which must be done during keypunching will slow down the punching 
and will probably decrease accuracy. Right justification of fields 
should be avoided in punching. Right justification of numeric fields 
often makes processing more efficient, but it decreases punching 
speed and is one of the most common sources of errors in punching. 
In using unit record equipment right justification is often essential, 
but in computer input it is more efficient to let the computer take 
care of justification than to require the punch operator to do it. An- 
other technique for facilitating the punching of long numeric fields 
and reducing the frequency of punching errors is to break the fields 
into shorter elements. It is difficult to keep long unbroken numbers 
in mind, and transposition errors are common in recording them. 
The practice of dividing long numbers into shorter elements is 
familiar in the telephone number and the Social Security number. 
It is especially advantageous if the elements can be meaningful. For 
example, in an accession number the first digits may represent the 
year of accession, or in an order number, part of the number may 
represent the fund on which an item is ordered. 

Works on forms design are available which detail other factors 
which can improve the efficiency and accuracy of recording informa- 
tion on forms of various types. 1 These may be especially helpful in 
designing dual purpose cards which are used for the original re- 
cording of data which will be keypunched into it. The additional 
factors which must be considered in designing cards for computer 
input (because of the nature of the machines) are not difficult to 
comprehend and require little technical knowledge of the computer. 
The one essential requirement is that the computer be able to dis- 
tinguish different types of information. This is accomplished most 
often by the positions or fields into which different items are punched 
in the card and by codes which may be used to identify items and 
card types. Good card design requires the determination of the size 
and sequence of the fields for essential items of information so that 
keypunching and processing can be accomplished most efficiently. 

There are four questions that must be answered in planning 
the card layout. These are: 

1. What items of information must be punched ? 

2. How should each item be punched ? 

3. How large a field will be required for each item ? 

4. What sequence of fields will be most convenient ? 



81 



The factors that will be relevant in answering each of these four 
questions follow. 

What items of information must be punched ? It is easiest to 
answer this question by beginning with the final products or outputs 
of the system. These will almost always be printed documents. In 
order to design the input records, it must first be determined what 
the desired output is; then proceed to list the items of information 
required for these outputs. In addition to items that actually appear 
on the final printed reports, these items must be analyzed to deter- 
mine what additional data that does not appear may be needed for 
production. At this point it is advisable to include any information 
which may be useful even though it is not being recorded under ex- 
isting routines. If it is likely that information will be needed in 
future operations, it is usually more economical to include it with 
the original input. Examples of information items which have not 
traditionally been recorded by libraries but are being considered 
for computer input at the Library of Congress are the language and 
color of books. The University of Toronto Library is including the 
thickness of books in its records for the Ontario New Universities 
even though thickness does not appear in the printed catalogs which 
are the main current output of the system. 



INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION 
T-QIL/ Form X24-6214.I 

IBM CARD DESIGN AID Printed in U.S.A. 
TYPE OF CARD: CARD NAME: SOURCE DOCUMENT: 


Intonation Available Ind 


Card! 


Sequence 


Method 
of 


R-Refeience 
C-C Unification 

Q-Ouantitative 


Card Field Sia 


Final Design 


Interpretation 


Trial 


Final 


Field 


Sequence 


Field 


Site 


Sequence 


















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































TOTALS * 

















Figure 1 
IBM Card Design Aid 



82 

Equipment and forms suppliers can provide various aids for 
card design. Figure 1 is a Card Design Aid supplied by IBM. It is 
convenient to use in recording the required data for card design. The 
first column of the form may be used to record the information items 
which are thought to be potentially useful. 

Now one should eliminate as many of the listed items as pos- 
sible. Often items which are ordinarily recorded are found to be 
redundant or useless. For example, some libraries have found it 
unnecessary to record both call number and author and title for cir- 
culation records. In a manual system the author and title provide a 
useful check. If the call number on a charge is illegible or incorrect , 
the author and title can be used to identify the book. With a mechan- 
ized system, this may not be needed. 

After having eliminated any items that really are not needed, 
the remaining items should be examined if it is necessary for them 
to be punched. If processing is done regularly each day it is probably 
unnecessary to punch the date; the computer can add the date auto- 
matically to each record processed. The decimal point in Dewey 
classification numbers is another element that can be supplied auto- 
matically. There is no need to punch the point and carry it as an 
extra position in every record when the computer can easily supply 
it in printed output. Some information may be available through 
table look-ups. If particular departments or locations control specific 
funds, then it is unnecessary to punch both. The fund can be punched 
and a table used to determine which department or location the item 
goes to. Some information may be available in other files. If there 
is a vendor name and address file, then it will probably be necessary 
to identify a vendor only by a code in punching order and financial 
records. If there is a borrower name and address file; then only 
the borrower's identification number need be punched in circulation 
records. Finally, some information items may be calculated by the 
computer. If a library's loan periods are determined by borrower 
status and type of material, then it may be unnecessary to punch a 
due date for charged items since this can be calculated by the 
computer. 

In the initial proposal for the conversion of one library's shelf 
list to magnetic tape, a three card set for each copy was called for. 
The first card would have been an author card, the second a title 
card, and the third would have given imprint, location, and order 
information. After review, the use of master cards for author and 
title with detail cards for each copy of the title was decided upon. 
The cards layouts are shown in Figure 2. Since this library has 
large numbers of copies of many of its titles, this simple change 
from three card sets to the use of master and detail cards resulted 
in important savings in punching and processing time. Examination 
of the data items included on the detail cards suggests that some 



83 



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Multiple Card Layouts for Shelf List Data 



84 

unnecessary punching may still have been done. Several of the items 
on the detail card will be constant for all copies purchased at one 
time. It would be possible to punch the constant items, the inclusive 
copy numbers, and the inclusive serial or accession numbers for all 
copies purchased at one time. The necessity of including both copy 
number and serial number and both edition data and publication date 
might also be questioned. 

The items which remain after such examination provide the 
answer to the first question, what items of information must be 
punched ? The next question to be considered is how these items 
should be punched. Every alternative to keypunching should be 
considered for each item. 

One possibility is that some items may be prepunched. Cards 
may be purchased with transaction numbers, order numbers, or 
accession numbers prepunched. In an acquisitions system, sets of 
cards may be punched by the computer when a book is initially 
ordered. Then by merely adding the appropriate status code, the 
cards can be used to update the processing file to reflect the current 
status of the book as reports are received or actions taken in pro- 
cessing it. In several serials systems now in operation, input cards 
for reporting the arrival of expected serial pieces are completely 
prepunched by the computer. 

A second possibility is the automatic punching of items by gang 
punching, reproducing, or duplicating on a keypunch. If none of these 
methods for automatically punching the data are appropriate, then it 
may be wise to consider possible alternatives to the use of punched 
cards for input. Several libraries have decided on the use of optical 
scanning equipment for conversion of data from shelf list records. 
Both the University of Maryland and Southern Illinois University used 
optical mark readers in preparing book cards from their shelf lists. 
Johns Hopkins University, in converting more data from their shelf 
list, found it economical to have a service agency retype the records 
in a font which is readable by an optical scanner. Another alternative 
to the use of punched cards which should be considered is the use of 
punched paper tape. Whether or not this is a practical alternative 
will often be determined by the availability of equipment. 

If it is decided that punched cards will be the best form for 
input, a final alternative to keypunching for some items may be mark 
sensing. Mark sensing may be advantageous in circumstances where 
a few short items of information are to be recorded at various sta- 
tions in the library. The University of Missouri Library has found 
mark sensing useful in recording data for catalog statistics and for 
transfer and withdrawal statistics. In this type of use, the errors 
which are likely to occur in using mark sensing are not critical. At 
the Suffolk Cooperative Library System, mark sensing is used for 
adding price, discount, and classification number to previously 



85 

punched order cards. Errors would be critical in this application, 
but the director reports that in their circumstances mark sensing 
has been extremely accurate. 2 

The main alternatives to keypunching have been considered, 
and a decision should be reached as to the best method for punching 
each required item. The punching method selected for each item can 
be recorded on the Card Design Aid. The third question to be an- 
swered is how large a field is required for each item ? 

At this point it is advisable to determine whether other cards 
already in use include some of the same items of information. If so, 
the size of the field required is already determined. The card 
columns used for an item in other cards and the size of the field can 
be recorded on the Card Design Aid. It is also advisable to consider 
whether there are standardized layouts in use in the library or in 
other libraries or organizations which might be appropriate. A 
layout suggested by H. P. Luhn which is useful in many library ap- 
plications is shown in Figure 3.3 This is the format required for 
use in IBM's Keyword -In- Context (KWIC) and Selective Dissemina- 
tion of Information (SDl) systems. It has been adopted with modifi- 
cations for use in some procedures at the Pennsylvania State 
University Library, the University of California at Santa Cruz 
Library, the University of Illinois Library, and in the Urban Docu- 
mentation and Retrieval Project. If it is likely that a library will 
wish to use either the KWIC or SDI system, then it should probably 
adopt a modification of this layout for those records which will be 
used in the KWIC or SDI system. 

In addition to the advantages of standardization, the 60 column 
field for variable information has another merit. It makes it con- 
venient to use two 60 character columns for printed output. This 
output format is efficient in that it utilizes most of the 132 print 
positions available on most printers. It also makes it possible to 
print the two columns, with a 4 print position separation on 8-1/2" 
X 11" paper, by reducing to about 58 or 60 per cent of original size. 
A number of libraries are photographically reducing printed output 
to this size for economy in reproduction. Reduction to only 58 or 
60 per cent seems to be significantly easier to use and more pleasing 
to users than reduction to 50 per cent. 

If the size of fields is not determined by the use of a standard- 
ized format or by the size allowed on other cards, then it will be 
necessary to determine the appropriate size. The field should be 
large enough to record the maximum number of characters that may 
be required for recording the item, unless the item can be shortened 
without loss of essential information. For some items such as date, 
order number, or borrower number, it is easy to establish the exact 
number of characters required. For other items, such as number 
of copies or price, practical maximums can easily be set. For such 



86 






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87 

items as entry and title, there are no logical maximums, and it is 
difficult to determine practical maximums. The best approach is to 
analyze a sample of the items. After such an analysis, one can de- 
cide at what point it will be acceptable to truncate the longer items 
or what size will accommodate a large enough percentage of the 
records that the remainder may be handled as exceptions. 

Needs and practices vary so much from library to library it 
is impossible to suggest appropriate sizes for field such as call 
number, author and title. Among the card layouts of which the author 
has copies, there is a range in the number of columns allowed for 
call numbers from 16 to 51, with a fairly even distribution between 
the extremes. 

The use of overly long fields in order to be certain to accom- 
modate any item which may be encountered will increase the com- 
puter time for each pass. In effect, most of the computer time may 
be spent in processing blanks. In addition, available core capacity 
may be used inefficiently and tape handling time increased. In pre- 
paring a list of current periodical holdings at the University of 
Illinois, it was found that 90 per cent of the entries were less than 
80 characters and 98 per cent were less than 120 characters. A 
title field of 256 characters would have been required, however, to 
accommodate the longest entry. The use of fixed length fields large 
enough for the maximum size of every item will often increase the 
size of records by several times and will increase computer time 
correspondingly. 

If it has been decided that truncation of items is unacceptable 
and that it will not be efficient to deal with oversize items as ex- 
ceptions, it may be advantageous to use variable length records. 
Input of variable length items is usually handled by using fixed fields 
on the cards but allowing for a variable number of cards. Cards 
then usually contain only one item or part of an item apart from 
reference data to identify the card. The type of item on each card 
is indicated by card numbers and codes for card type. It is also 
possible to identify variable length items by the use of flags or codes 
and by their sequence. 

The use of variable length records decreases the size of the 
records and the file and therefore decreases the input and output 
time in each pass of that file. On the other hand, it means increased 
steps in processing and therefore makes programming more difficult 
and usually increases processing time. H. N. Laden and T. R. Gil- 
dersleeve, in a recent book on system design, give a good discussion 
of the factors that should determine the choice of fixed length or 
variable length records. ^ Maximum efficiency is achieved by a good 
balance of input-output time and processing time. If the run is input- 
output limited, the use of variable length records will likely improve 
overall time since it will decrease input-output time and increase 



88 

processing time. If the run is computer limited, the use of fixed 
length records will be preferable. The exact way of balancing de- 
pends on machine characteristics such as buffering capabilities and 
timing, but the following conditions suggest the use of variable length 
records: 

1. The amount of variability in record size is extensive. 

2. Among the variable items, the frequency of short items is 
relatively great. 

3. The file contains a large volume of records and will be 
processed frequently. 

4. The activity of the file is low. 

You will notice that these characteristics are frequently found 
with the files used in library procedures in which full bibliographic 
descriptions are required. In such procedures, the use of variable 
length records will often be advantageous. If the advantages do not 
seem clear, however, it is probably best to use fixed length records. 
The difficulties in programming and problems in sorting for files of 
variable length records may be more serious than anticipated. Even 
if variable length records are utilized, it will probably be necessary 
to establish maximum sizes for the items. 

After the size of each item has been determined and recorded, 
the total number of columns required can be summed. In some ap- 
plications it is highly desirable that only one card be used for each 
unit record. For example, in a serials checking system there would 
be many problems and opportunities for error if an issue could be 
represented by more than one arrival card. In such applications, if 
the sum of the field sizes exceeds 80, it will probably be necessary 
to decrease the size of some fields. The simplest and most common 
method is further to truncate fields such as the field for an abbrevi- 
ated title. In some cases it may be possible to shorten several fields 
by providing a common overflow field. 

Occasionally it is possible to shorten fields without loss of in- 
formation by more coding of data. An item such as a date may be 
represented in as few as four positions, as opposed to the thirteen 
or more which we usually use in writing it, yet still appear in con- 
ventional form in printed outputs. In most cases where an item is 
limited to a small number of possibilities, coding may be utilized. 
If the number of possibilities is less than 10, single numeric charac- 
ters may be used. If it exceeds 10 but not 12, as for months of the 
year, numeric and zone punches may be utilized. Use of alphabetic 
and special characters permits a greater number of possibilities. 
Through the use of multi- punching, hundreds or even thousands of 
possibilities can be coded in two columns. In some cases, it is pos- 
sible to overpunch control codes in columns used for numeric data 
or to combine in a single column the coding for two variables with 



89 

only a few possible conditions. Such heavy coding should be avoided 
in most circumstances, however, since coding of the data is slower, 
the probability of error in coding and punching becomes greater, and 
computer editing for accuracy becomes difficult or impossible. Some 
additional techniques that may be used for reducing the number of 
columns required in special circumstances are suggested in the IBM 
manual, Form and Card Design. ^ 

After determining the size of the field required for each item, 
the final question to be answered is what order of items will be most 
convenient ? If the format of the source document is fixed, the se- 
quence of items on the source document is the most important factor 
in determining the sequence for the card. If the source document 
has not been designed or is to be redesigned, several factors may be 
considered in determining the best sequence for items on the source 
document and card. If other cards used by the library include some 
of the same items of information, the same card columns should 
usually be used for these items. This may facilitate programming 
by making it possible to copy parts of file descriptions or subroutines 
from existing programs. Keypunching may be facilitated since the 
operator becomes familiar with a single location in which an item is 
punched, and fewer different program cards may be required. An- 
other factor that may be considered is the desired output format. It 
is better to arrange items so that a minimum of reformatting is re- 
quired in order to produce the desired output. In many library ap- 
plications, one card is used for the input of one complete line of 
information in the same format that it will be listed in computer 
printed catalogs or processing lists. This usually insures a minimum 
of programming effort and computer time. 

The nature of the information may also influence the order of 
items. The Card Design Aid shown in Figure 1 provides a column 
for the classification of items as Reference, Classification, or 
Quantitative. Reference items, such as order number or transaction 
number, identify the other data on the card. Classification items 
such as call number, borrower number, account number, and status 
codes, are used to group records for reports. Quantitative data in- 
cludes items such as quantities and prices. Conventionally, cards are 
arranged with reference data to the left and quantitative data to the 
right. This classification is not very useful in most library applica- 
tions, but the practice of placing fixed length reference type items 
to the left is helpful. To most of us, it seems natural to place the 
fields for items such as call number, author and title to the left, and 
reference items such as identification numbers, card types, and 
card numbers to the right. If, however, reference items which are 
usually of fixed length and must always be punched are placed at the 
left of the card and items which may vary in length or may be left 
blank are placed to the right, punching is expedited. After punching 



90 

the required data, the operator can touch the reject button and then 
find her place on the next document while the card is being ejected 
and the next card registered. Location of fields to be automatically 
duplicated at the left or right end of the card also adds to the time 
available to the operator for finding her place on the next document. 

Finally, the sequence of items should be planned with con- 
sideration for machine limitations and capabilities. In the use of 
equipment which reads input serially such as the IBM 357 units which 
are used in several library circulation systems, any blank columns 
should be at the right of the card so that machine time is not wasted 
in reading blank columns. If several items are to be used in one 
sorting operation, it is desirable that these items be in adjacent 
fields with the major element to the left and the minor element to 
the right. In some cases, the order of items may determine whether 
it will be possible to chain instructions and thereby save a little 
processing time. 

The location of items on dual use cards presents several ad- 
ditional factors for consideration. In planning the layout for dual 
cards, it is important to consider the visibility of items to be punched. 
Information on the card may be partially concealed by the punch 
housing unit or by the pressure arm of the keypunch. It may also 
be necessary to position essential written information so that it will 
not be obliterated by the punches. The use of dual cards has ad- 
vantages in many applications. The card may include information 
such as signatures which cannot be punched or which it is unnecessary 
to punch. For example, in a circulation procedure, a tabulating card 
form might be completed by the borrower. It would be necessary to 
punch only a few items into the card for machine processing, but 
the complete record including signature and address would be avail- 
able for overdue procedures. The use of dual cards often eliminates 
the need for typing the card to a source document through reference 
items and the necessity of maintaining two files. 

With the determination of the sequences of items on the card, 
all of the information needed for the final layout is at hand. A num- 
ber of card layout forms are available for use in recording the lay- 
out and for ordering custom printed cards. IBM supplies a multiple 
card layout form for sets of cards, a general purpose card layout 
form, a dual card layout form, and a number of other layout forms 
for more unusual types of cards. Figure 2 shows a multiple card 
layout form, and Figure 3 shows a general purpose card layout form. 
These forms include a number of guides and scales useful in drafting 
the layout. Instructions for the use of these forms are included in 
the manual, Form and Card Design. 



91 
REFERENCES 



1. Marien, Ray. Marien on Forms Control. Englewood Cliffs, 
N.J., Prentice- Hall, 1962. Sadauskas, Wallace B. Manual of Business 
Forms. New York, Office Publications, 1961. 

2. Curley, Walter W. "The Data Processing Program in Op- 
eration at the Suffolk Cooperative Library System, Patchogue, New 
York," see this volume. 

3. Luhn, Hans Peter. General Rules for Creating Machinable 
Records for Libraries and Special Reference Files. (Form No. 
225-1487). Yorktown Heights, N.Y., IBM Corp., Advanced Systems 
Development Division, 1960. 

4. Laden, H. N., and Gildersleeve, T. R. System Design for 
Computer Applications. New York, Wiley, 1963, pp. 92-97. 

5. International Business Machines Corporation. Data Pro- 
cessing Techniques: Form and Card Design. (Form C20-8078). 
White Plains, N.Y., IBM Corp. Technical Publications Department, 
1961, p. 8. 



FLORIDA ATLANTIC UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 



Edward Heiliger 



Florida Atlantic University is a new upper -division and grad- 
uate state university on the southeast coast of Florida, at Boca Raton. 
It occupies a former government air field of some 1200 acres. The 
first phase buildings were occupied last summer, the second phase 
buildings are under construction, and the third phase are in the final 
planning stage. The first phase library occupies three floors of a 
five story building, the second phase will occupy the whole five floors, 
and the third phase (first addition) will double the five floor space. 
The Computer Center, with its IBM 1460 computer, is in the library 
building during Phase I only. The IBM 360 system has a delivery 
date of July 1966, the occupancy date for Phase II. The University 
now has 1187 students. This number is to grow to 10,000 by 1970. 
Colleges of Social Science, Science, Business Administration, 
Humanities, Education, and Engineering form the university 
organization. 

The first year of work on the implementation of the computer 
based system began in July of 1964 in an old Air Force firehouse on 
the campus, with a staff of six professionals, eight clerks, and no 
collection. As of today, approximately $500,000 has been spent for 
books and journals, the professional staff has been increased to 
fourteen, 23,000 titles have been cataloged and Library of Congress 
(LC) cataloging information for these put on computer tape. Authority 
files have been put on tape. A similar number of titles, bought in 
block purchases, has been IBM listed (with author, title, and fixed 
location number print-out) and is awaiting cataloging. 

The first problem that had to be solved in the implementation 
of the computer based system was to teach the computer to print out 
the catalog in an order approximating that of the ALA Filing Rules. 
This was resolved by developing a coding system for the use of the 
catalogers, instituting new keypunching techniques, and doing some 
special computer programming. 



Edward Heiliger is Director of Library and Information Retrieval 
Services of Florida Atlantic University in Boca Raton, Florida. 

92 



93 

The second problem was to enable the computer to print out in 
both upper and lower case, with all of the diacritical marks for the 
western languages. A special computer chain was developed by us 
and made to order by IBM. The Yale-Harvard-Columbia medical 
libraries project and a group of colleges in Toronto took the same 
chain, with modifications to suit their special needs. It was agreed to 
agree on the first 88 characters so that any library wishing to use such 
a chain and paper tape input from a standard keyboard, could do so. 

A third problem was to create authority files on tape, enabling 
the computer to print out authority lists and to provide the catalog 
print-out with the necessary cross references. This problem has 
been solved except for subject cross references. These have been 
coded and punched, however, and are only waiting for programming. 
The second edition of the catalog, coming out this summer, will have 
them. "See also" references are often blind. The first edition of the 
author catalog, which came out in September 1964, had 20,000 entries 
for 14,000 titles. Not all authors require an author authority entry. 
Only those where variant forms are a problem are included. Many 
of these are corporate authors. The title authority file is much 
smaller and is mostly for series titles. 

The coding system for cataloging input has been adequately 
described in two articles by Jean Perreault.l Decisions have recently 
been made to eliminate all of the collation coding area except that 
part concerned with personal and corporate authors. This does not 
affect cataloging content but does limit the search capability for 
information retrieval. Arguments favoring this abandonment went 
like this: "Why should we go to the work of preparing input which 
would enable us to list all of the books in the collection published in 
France in 1909, on the subject of mo Husks, when a quick examination 
of the subject catalog under mollusks would enable us to spot the 
items published in France in 1909, very easily?" If the use of the 
collation code provided more information than the cataloging copy 
itself, then, of course, this reasoning would not be valid. 

Important changes in computer programming and key punching 
have just been made (March 25, 1965) which provide proper syllabifi- 
cation for word breaks at the ends of lines and starts series entries 
at the margins at all times. Proofreading is simplified. Formerly, we 
were unable to read proof on the tracings beyond the 40-character 
point. We are now able to read proof on the whole tracing. It is now 
easier to make changes in cataloging. There is less rigidity, inas- 
much as each area can be expanded further. There is less need for 
frequent consultation between catalogers and key punchers, since the 
problem of limited areas never has to be solved by asking the cata- 
loger for deletions. LC forms of entry will be usable without ques- 
tion, since none will be too long to be accommodated in Area 10. 
Area 31 will accommodate considerably more information, e.g., 



94 

"dashed" supplements, or as may be desirable in some future cases, 
statements of holdings. Uniformity of format between main and 
added entries will be achieved. The computer will not be required 
to shift information from one line to the next. The above has been 
accomplished by: 

1. Pre -formatting for printing at 40 characters per line. 

2. An additional 9 columns (41-49) may be used to account 
for spillage due to punching multi-column or non-printing 
characters. No text must appear beyond column 49. 

3. Each new trace begins on a new card. 

4. Columns 67-68 contain the two digit area number. 

5. Column 69 contains the sequence number of each specific 
trace (0-9), hence a maximum of ten traces are allowed for 
each area. 

6. Column 70 contains the card number (0-9), hence a maxi- 
mum of 10 cards per trace. Example: For a particular item, 
three subject tracings are needed. The first contains 60 char- 
acters, the second contains 100 characters, and the third con- 
tains 35 characters. 



FLORIDA ATLANTIC UNIVERSITY LIBRARY CATALOG INPUT RECORD. 

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Figure 1 



95 



IN AUTHOR CATALOG: 



ALLEN, George Herman Michael Trevor 
Allen, 1st Baron. 1876-1952. 

An index of biographical materials 
relating to scientists of the United 
Kingdom, from the founding of the Royal 
Society to 1900. To which is appended 
the essay of Lord Brooke on the achieve- 
ments of British science. London, Rout- 
ledge, 1910. 647 p. 

Reference books to guide us in a 
troubled world, no. 12. 

Supplement, 1900 to 1950, by George 
Fielding. New York, Putnam, 1957. 312 p. 
QLU.M 



BROOKE, William Clarence Scribblerus 
Brooke, 3d earl. 1852- 1927. 

The achievements of British science. 
ALLEN, George Herman Michael Trevor 
Allen, 1st Baron. 1876-1952. 

An index of biographical materials 
relating to scientists of the United 
Kingdom, from the founding of the Royal 
Society to 1900. To which is appended 
the essay of Lord Brooke on the achieve- 
ments of British science. London, Rout- 
ledge, 1910. 647 p. 

Reference books to guide us in a 
troubled world, no. 12. 

Supplement, 1900 to 1950, by George 
Fielding. New York, Putnam, 1957. 312 p. 
QLU.M 



FIELDING, George, 1901- 
ALLEN, George Herman Michael Trevor 
Allen, 1st Baron r 1876-1952. 

An index of biographical materials 
relating to scientists of the United 
Kingdom, from the founding of the Royal 
Society to 1900. To which is appended 
the essay of Lord Brooke on the achieve- 
ments of British science. London, Rout- 
ledge, 1910. 647 p. 

Reference books to guide us In a 
troubled world, no. 12. 

Supplement, 1900 to 1950, by George 
Fielding. New York, Putnam, 1957. 312 p. 



These entries appear in the author catalog as a result of the coded com- 
puter input appearing in the form of the preceding example. 



Figure 2 



96 

IN TITLE CATALOG* 



An index of biographical materials 
relating to scientists of the United 
Kingdom, 

ALLEN, George, Herman Michael Trevor 
Allen, 1st Baron. 1876-1952. 

An index of biographical materials 
relating to scientists of the United 
Kingdom, from the founding of the Royal 
Society to 1900. To which is appended 
the essay of Lord Brooke on the achieve- 
ments of British science. London, Rout- 
ledge, 1910. 647 p. 

Reference books to guide us in a 
troubled world, no. 12. 

Supplement, 1900 to 1950, by George 
Fielding. New York, Putnam, 1957. 312 p. 
QUl.M 



The achievements of British science. 
ALLEN, George Herman Michael Trevor 
Allen, 1st Baron. 1876-1952. 

An index of biographical materials 
relating to scientists of the United 
Kingdom, from the founding of the Royal 
Society to 1900. To which is appended 
the essay of Lord Brooke on the achieve- 
ments of British science. London, Rout- 
ledge, 1910. 647 p. 

Reference books to guide us in a 
troubled world, no. 12. 

Supplement, 1900 to 1950, by George 
Fielding. New York, Putnam, 1957. 312 p. 
Q141.M 



Identical entry under: 

Biographical materials relating to 
scientists of the United Kingdom. 

These entries appear in the title catalog as a result of the coded com- 
puter input appearing in the form of the preceding example. 



Figure 3 



97 

IN SUBJECT CATALOG: 

Scientists, British Biog. 

ALLEN, George Herman Michael Trevor 
Allen, 1st Baron r 1876-1952. 

An index of biographical materials 
relating to scientists of the United 
Kingdom, from the founding of the Royal 
Society to 1900. To which is appended 
the essay of Lord Brooke on the achieve- 
ments of British science. London, Rout- 
ledge, 1910. 647 p. 

Reference books to guide us in a 
troubled world, no. 12. 

Supplement, 1900 to 1950, by George 
Fielding. New York, Putnam, 1947. 312 p. 
QU1.M 



Identical entry under: 
Science Gt. Brit. Hist c 



These entries appear in the subject catalog as a result of the coded com- 
puter input appearing in the form of the preceding example. 

Figure 4 

Area 70 is formatted as follows: 

Card Column: 1 through 40 67-70 71-80 

Text of first card, First Trace 7000 Access No. 

Text of second card, " " 7001 " 

Text of first card, second trace 7010 " " 

Text of second card, second trace 7011 " " 

Text of third card, second trace 7012 " " 

Text of first card, third trace 7021 " " 

All former formatting rules remain valid. Maximum number 
of cards per entry is thirty-two. 

It was decided to bring out author, title, and subject catalogs 
separately. There was some discussion of having a title index to 
the author catalog, and this is still being discussed. The first author 
catalog, with 14,000 titles and 20,000 entries, was slightly smaller 
than either the title catalog or the subject catalog. Its 463 three- 
column pages average about 30 titles per page. The computer took 
four hours to print it out and another ten hours to do the edit and 
sort (filing) work. The latter (edit and sort time) is a one time 



98 



16- 1943 ne CANIIIY, PHI lip Jon, me- JglBl e COBNCLL, 



loo.-Ub I9t>0 

AY*. Crn.t, 190- 



BM71.M 

fi- 
nd [16] 



169 p. 

(TH f.r. 
DT779.7.R26 



I, Herlene -.-r.j, ^ S1 -J Bo, ion, little, Bro.n [1963] 427 p. 

JK4B2S 1963. H2 
HAkkA, Cenev. II 



le, A4 reading He CLOSKCY. Allen Lyle, 1922- fd. XU2J7.C35-J 1V&9 

d] B.rC.n. . He- PROGRESS In boron en. .[.try. v. 1. 

Ken York, PI. e. linn, 196- . For He CRCC. J L 



COLLUUCM, Ce 



(1963) He COLLUH, John I., 53. 



Bo. ton, Hougnton Hifflli, [1961] 166 

236 p. , Jo 

16- Jsil P292.rl2 Met 



Figure 5 

Page from the February, 1965, Cumulative Supplement 
to the Author Catalog of the Florida 
Atlantic University Library 



99 

expense. About 6600 titles were prepared for computer input before 
the arrival of the computer on July 1, 1964. This material was never 
proofread, but work is beginning on this for the second edition. Since 
July 1, there has been daily proofreading. The first supplement to 
the catalog, which included 3,518 titles, came off the computer on 
November 3, 1964. The second (cumulative) supplement, with 7,829 
titles, left the Computer Center on February 6, 1965. There will be 
a third in May, 1965. After the production of the second edition this 
summer, monthly supplements are planned. The second edition 
promises to be twice the size of the first edition. 

The computer copy for the catalog is sent to the Duplicating 
Service of the University where it is photo-reduced to 58 per cent of 
the original size by a photo-direct process using the Addressograph- 
Multigraph 705. This by-passes the negative and produces a film- 
based plate from which the offset machine produces 150 copies. 
Three plates are produced every two minutes, enough to feed three 
presses. A thermobind unit called Perfectbind binds and applies the 
paper cover. 

Copies of the catalog are to be found at twenty catalog stations 
throughout the Library. There is no card catalog nor any catalog 
center. Each cataloger has a copy of the catalog, as does each ref- 
erence desk. There are copies in each faculty department. Some 
professors have their own copies. Catalogs are also sent to the 
libraries of the other state university campuses, to the nearby junior 
college libraries, to the local public library, and to the Library of 
Congress. No copies have been sold, but some have been loaned or 
given. The Library has been approached with a proposal for mer- 
chandising both its catalogs and its tapes. Suggestions are also being 
considered that Florida Atlantic University Library might contract 
with other libraries to provide their catalogs. 

Faculty members find the nearby catalogs useful in book selec- 
tion, checking the catalog before sending in an order, and sometimes 
choosing an alternate title that the Library already has. They also 
use it for counselling students, for preparing reserve lists, and for 
planning research papers. All seem to like the book form and the 
convenience. Students are equally pleased. They can consult a cata- 
log wherever they may be in the Library, they can xerox a page or 
pages of the catalog for research purposes or for bibliographies or 
they can borrow a copy. They like the book form approach. 

Until such time as the Library can go on line to the IBM 360 
system, a weekly "official catalog" print-out will be needed. This 
will have a full tracing. Author added entries will be included. New 
author and title authority entries will appear too. This will keep the 
author and title authority files up to date. The official catalog print- 
outs will be cumulative weekly for a month, monthly for a quarter, 
and quarterly for a year. One computer print-out with its carbon 
copies will be adequate for cataloging and reference uses. 



100 



Supplement 2/1/65 



Florida Atlantic University Library 
Author Catalog 



MAYNAHD, Sir John, 1B65- 1943 
KUNOVALUV, Serge, $d. 

Russo-Polish relations; an historical 
survey. 

London, Cresset Press, 194b. 90 p. 
DK418.3.R9K6 194Sa 

NAYO, Henry Bctram, 1911- 

Introduction to Marxist theory* 
New York, Oxford Univ. Pr. , 1960. 

334 p. 

First issued as Democracy and Marxism. 

HXB6.H36 1960 

MAYK, Ernst, 1904- 

Animal species and evolution. 

Cambridge, Belknap Press of Harvard 
University Press, 1963. 797 p. 
(IH371.H3J 

HAZIA, Daniel, 1912- ed. 

General physiology of cell specializa- 
tion [by] ** [and] Albert Tyler. 

New York, McGraw-Hill [c!963] 434 p. 
QH573.M3 

MAZLISH, Bruce, 1923- 
BHUNOWSKI, Jacob, 1908- 

The Western intellectual tradition, 
from Leonardo to Hegel [by] ** [and] 
Bruce Mazllsh. 

New York, Harper [c!960] 52J p. 
M7VI.B7& 



OUK, Anatole Gregory, 1900- 
inland between East and West. 
rinceton, N.J., Van Nostrand 
. 



MAZOUK, 

Fi 

P 
2*0 p 



[19561 



He CAKTHY, Philip John, 1918- joint 

altar 

STEPHAN, Frederick Franklin, 1903- 

Sampllng opinions; an analysis of sur- 

vey procedure, by ** and Philip P. Mc- 

Carthy. 

New York, Wiley [1*58] 4J>1 p. 

HM263.S84 

Me CARTY, Henry R. 

The cooperative approach to audio- 
visual programs. Prepared by and 
Horace C. Hartsell. 

[Washington, 1959 ] 80 p. 
LB1043.M23 

Me CAHY, James L., ed. 

Psychology of personality; six modern 
approaches. 

New York, Logos Press, 1956. 383 p. 
BF69B.N2214 



Me CLELLAN, Aubrey L. 



ira author 



PIMENTEL, George C. 

The hydrogen bond [by] ** [and] 
Aubrey L. McClellan. 

San Francisco, Freeman [c!960] 475 p. 
Q0471.P3 

Me CLELLAN, Aubrey Lester, 1923- 

Tables of experimental dipole moments. 
San Francisco, Freeman [1963] 713 p. 

QDS71.M27 

Me CLELLAN, Grant S. ed. 
South Africa. 
New York, H.W. Wilson Co., 1962. 

ICO x 



Figure 6 
Sample Print -Out, Two of Three Columns 



The dependence of the Library upon the Computer Center and 
the Duplicating Center should be emphasized. At present, the Com- 
puter Center is administratively under the Registrar, which has 
resulted in a tendency to give programming priority to the Regis- 
trar's work. The first draft of the University's constitution gives 
independent status to the Computer Center, and this should create a 
more equitable situation. Two of the programmers on the Computer 
Center staff spend considerable time on library programming. One 
devotes himself to cataloging programming and the other to serials, 
acquisitions, and circulation programming. Although many on the 
library staff can do simple programming, the programming has been 
left completely to the Computer Center staff. The Director of the 
Library is a member of the faculty's Computer Committee which 
has made important decisions, such as the one to order the IBM 360 
system. Hopefully this will become an advisory committee to the 
Computer Center; it has been so indicated in the draft constitution. 



101 

The Computer Center, in catalog production work, takes about 
one week to turn out the copy needed by the Duplicating Center. The 
latter then takes about two weeks to provide the first 100 copies, 
which serves the Library and faculty needs. The remaining fifty 
copies take an additional two weeks. The welfare of the Duplicating 
Center and of the Computer Center are of direct concern to the 
Library and the library staff works closely with both. 

The IBM 357 Data Collection System is used for preparing com- 
puter input for the circulation records that are maintained on com- 
puter tape. This equipment takes the book's ID card and the reader's 
ID card and produces two identical transaction cards. One of these 
enters the charge on the computer record, and one erases the charge 
when the book is returned. The computer record is updated each 
day, and each day the computer prints out from the circulation tapes 
the following: a listing of all books in circulation arranged by call 
number, giving the ID number of the borrower, the date due, and 
indication of faculty, staff, graduate, or undergraduate status; a list- 
ing of all books in circulation by borrower's ID number (his Social 
Security Number), including the same data as above; a listing of 
overdues in both orders; and a listing of hold requests. There is a 
weekly print-out of books on reserve and a reference shelf list. A 
meeting was held with the Computer Center staff on the matter of 
statistics. The Library indicated a variety of statistics that would 
be needed, and the programmers said that these needs could be 
satisfied and that the Library would be supplied with statistics needed 
on demand. To date, the Library has been so supplied. 

A number of problems has arisen in connection with the circu- 
lation system. The book cards are punched with the call number and 
certain controls. The control punches are gang punched in the Com- 
puter Center. The call number punches are made in the Circulation 
Department of the Library. In one batch of gang punching, an error 
was made and not caught. This resulted in some 800 faculty cards 
being placed in new books. The computer refuses to accept transaction 
cards made from these cards. Fortunately, a visual check of the trans- 
action card shows this up. Shelf reading also helps. Another problem 
has been the need to punch cards for material that does not have a 
book card. This includes uncataloged government documents, maga- 
zines, and vertical file materials. This was solved by releasing the 
key punch on one of the IBM 357 stations to punch cards at the time 
of charging. At present, one station handles the 1100 student load, 
and the Library reserves the other for special charges. When the 
load becomes heavier, the second station can be converted to key 
punching at will. For uncataloged government documents, the Docu- 
ments Office classification number is used. For other materials, a 
straight alphabetical approach is used. 

When Florida Atlantic University Library lends to another 
library, it creates a borrower's badge for this library and checks the 



102 

materials through the IBM 357 system in the same way as for any 
borrower. The borrowing library is given an identification number 
established by the University Library. When the University Library 
borrows from another library, a manual file system is used. 









** Swis. 



?*'-* 

-**- 

^aa-i 

t?r 






Figure 7 

Daily Circulation List, Call Number Arrangement 
(ID Sequence is also Printed Out) 



Material that is overdue is recognized by the computer, and 
the item and the borrower are placed on the overdue print-out list. 
The computer prints gummed labels, one name and address label 
and as many others as are needed to print all the call numbers for 
overdue materials for the person whose name appears on the name 
label. These labels are placed on pre-message, 4- cent post cards 
which become the overdue notice. When overdue material is returned, 
the return card will clear the circulation list and the overdue list. 
Faculty charges do not become overdue. All books are due two weeks 
from Tuesday, so that overdue work can be batched. 

Borrowers may place holds on material that is in circulation. 
The borrower's ID number and the call number of the needed ma- 
terial are entered on a transmittal sheet from which IBM cards are 
key punched as input to the computer. The computer holds the data 
and prints out a list of hold requests. When the particular materials 



103 

are returned to the circulation desk, and the return cards for them 
are sent to the Data Processing Center, the computer recognizes, 
upon making the match, that the material has a hold placed on it. A 
list of materials to be held is then printed. At the present time, 
because circulation is not too great, the processing shelves in cir- 
culation can be checked against the hold print-out, and books listed 
on the print- out can be retrieved before they are shelved. When 
circulation becomes larger, the plan is to create a list of holds on 
magnetic tape. Just before shelving, probably two to three times a 
day, the return cards will be matched against the hold tape. The 
result of the match is a "materials to be held" list which includes 
just those materials, out of the many waiting to be shelved, that are 
to be held. The staff member can then go to the processing shelves 
and retrieve just those items that are to be held and shelve the rest- 
probably less than 1 per cent of the total awaiting shelving. 

Serials are now being checked in by pulling computer-produced 
cards from a tub file. The computer record from which these cards 
are produced is created by using the old serials coding form for pro- 
viding computer input for each journal. This coding form has been 
changed slightly and is now undergoing a major revision. The cur- 
rent form is described in detail by Ted Srygley.2 

The first part of the new form is shown in this article. Pro- 
gramming has been completed for the use of the new form, and an 
early delivery date has been promised for the new Current Serials 
List. Both full title and short title have been coded in for all journals. 
It was first thought that the short title would serve for the Current 
Serials List, but users have experienced such difficulties with the 
abbreviations that it was decided to use the full title for all serials 
lists being used by the public. The first Current Serials Lists will 
use the short title, but subsequent lists will use the full title. Serials 
title entries will be the same as those set for the catalog. Program- 
ming is being done for claiming letters. Human recognition will be 
used for deciding for which items claiming will be done. A manual 
run through the cards left in the tub file will determine which cards 
to send to the computer for the claiming routine. There are too 
many imponderables to rely on the computer for determining which 
items should be claimed. The Library's holding list is unsatisfactory 
and is being reprogrammed. The end result will approximate the 
form of the UCSD list, with perhaps some effort at space saving. 

It should be emphasized that serials records must be corrected 
before they can be successfully computerized. After the information 
about the journals being received had been put on computer tape, the 
computer was asked for a check- in card for each issue of each 
journal to be received during the next six months. In answer, it 
gave only about half the information requested, because it had been 



104 

given either incomplete or incorrect information. This was cor- 
rected, and now there are adequate check- in files and correct serials 
records on tape. 

Subject print-out of serials can be easily arranged and provides 
a useful approach to the serials collection. One such was printed out 
last year and the Library is asking for another shortly. Faculty 
members (new ones particularly) frequently ask what journals the 
Library has in a certain field. In adding serials titles, such a listing 
is useful. 

Acquisitions procedures are in a *go" state, but waiting for the 
completion of Business Office programming. The transmittal sheet 
and processing information list elements include: author, title, 
edition, date of publication, series, place of publication, volume num- 
bers, price, notifications code, number of copies, fund number, call 
number, date of order, status, process number 

L I B R A RV SERIALS 
3- IS-t>S 





(coil. -<>) 

CARD FORMATS 00 - 46 MEW t>o 
SO - CMAMOC 

99 BEUtTE 




tAHO k 
COLS' r 




1 , 




'111! ....^ 




eo 




se.i*u 




t 

8 
8 

150 


FUIL TlTtS 


, 

^-.v-f 

. r 


a 
< 


C 





2.0.O 




- E 




iff 

ijt J 


f L 


190 




il 


J6O 


>j'j r t ^ 

vtKioon. CITY IT.Tt n C.UUTK.Y NO. 


'"I: 



Figure 8 

Partial Coding Form for Entering Serials Information 

on Computer Tape. Additional Form Includes 

Financial and Binding Information 



105 



TLV ACTIVE TITLES. 

1CATION PUBLISHED LATtST ISSUE RtCEIVED 



USUALLY REC*O. 2 MOS.CAALV 



Figure 9 
Weekly Serials List. Must Type Required List for Serials 



(accession type number instead of present LUHN number), purchase 
order number, pagination, and vendor. The book request form 
(transmittal sheet) goes to acquisitions for approval of purchase 
where the bibliographical data is verified and the request form cor- 
rected. Upon approval, the transmitted data is key punched and sent 
to the computer. 

The computer will then print out on order the following: pur- 
chase order, the Processing Information List, a Drop List for items 
already in the Library, and cards for the Acquisitions Department and 
the Cataloging Department for their use in providing data for the up- 
dating of the Processing Information List. This list will include all 
items that have been ordered but are not yet in the catalog, including 
unprocessed gifts. It will indicate the whereabouts of each item in 
the work process and will be printed out on a daily basis. 



106 



o*ooo**ooo 



sss*sse oo ooo oooot t/ 

SSH9MMM OO *OS3 OOOO2 2/ 



i 3 00 09*0 

00 0-fcS 



Figure 10 
Master Tape Record List for Serials 



The Library's organization is arranged to suit the needs of the 
new system. In this area, as in others, the Library is changing as 
the system develops. Data Processing, Liaison Services, and In- 
formation Retrieval Services are the three main divisions. Data 
Processing includes technical services plus circulation; Information 
Retrieval Services include reference work and planning for the uses 
of the IBM 360 system; Liaison Services concern daily contact with 
the faculty on faculty needs in courses and research. The latter 
division now has only one person, who spends his time consulting 
with faculty members and reporting back to the Library staff. This 
has proved to be highly effective. Faculty needs are determined 
ahead, fruitful suggestions are made to faculty, faculty gripes get a 
hearing, and the professor gets a feedback on student reactions. The 
Head of Liaison Services also serves on the faculty Curriculum 
Committee, and provides that committee with library information 
needed in planning for new courses. 

There is the possiblity of making all three division head posi- 
tions research positions, with these and the department heads being 



107 




Chief of Chief of 
Cataloging Acquisitions 


Chief of 
Circulation 










r 


1 Assistant 
Acquisitions Librarian 


1 Social Sc 
Reference 





Assistant 
Cataloger 



Head of 
Informal 
Retrieval 


on 
Service 







Chief of General 
Reference Service 



Science 
Reference 



Humanities 
Reference 



Assistant 
Cataloger 



Figure 11 
Florida Atlantic University Organization Chart, March 1965 



responsible to the Director. The Data Processing Head would then 
conduct the user study of the system and maintain liaison with the 
Computer Center, the Information Retrieval Head would plan the uses 
of the IBM 360 system, and the Liaison Services Head would accept 
responsibility for development of the SDI (Selective Dissemination 
of Information) system and gathering of faculty reading interest 
profiles for the computer, as well as carrying on his liaison work 
with the faculty. 

As planned, the SDI system will treat only of book materials 
and will match the reading interest profiles with LC subject headings 
assigned to the books. The system will be designed for the University 
situation, but full advantage will be taken of the IBM experience with 
its successful internal SDI system. 

The use study is badly needed to help give direction to the 
development of the system. User reaction to the book catalog, for 
instance, can help determine those features of the catalog which 
should be preserved and those which should be changed. Readers 
must be trained in the use of the new machinery and the products of 
the new machinery. This library is concerned with the best ways 
to do this. It is interested in the relative use of the author, title, 
and subject catalogs. Which is most important? Do supplements to 
each need to be produced with the same frequency? Do subject 
headings in the computer-produced catalog do the same job that they 



108 

do in a card catalog ? Is the filing order better or worse because of 
concessions to the computer ? In the matter of the Processing In- 
formation List, the Library is interested in who the users of this list 
will be and what information they will seek from it. Will two forms 
of the PIL be necessary, one for public use and one for staff use ? 

The completion of Business Office programming on March 31, 
1965, will begin the completion of the system, and user studies can 
begin this summer. The catalog will then have passed through one 
edition and its supplements, and one generation of users will have 
had an opportunity to test its use. 

We decided at Navy Pier that information retrieval was not our 
dish of tea. We also decided that bibliographic searching was strictly 
a manual job. With the advent of the IBM 360 system, we are re- 
considering information retrieval. We suspect that the costs per 
search will be much lower. Also, the on-line approach feasibility 
makes this possibility more attractive. The potential use of the IBM 
360 system is concerned with non-reference library applications, too. 
The present research for reference uses revolves around ways and 
means of instructing the computer in how to conduct bibliographic 
searches in the computer catalog record. It is hoped that by creating 
a device which will enable the computer to establish a hierarchical 
system for the LC classification and subject heading list, a better 
kind of literature search will be made possible. On-line applications 
for non-reference uses present interesting possibilities. For in- 
stance, when we are on-line to the computer, a circulation transaction 
can be halted by the computer if the borrower has any books out 
overdue. This could eliminate the fine system. The hold requests 
could also be handled more efficiently. In serials, updating of the 
computer record could be done immediately as the journal is checked 
in. In acquisitions, bibliographic checking could be done immediately. 
An experiment is now in progress on bibliographic checking, using 
the present equipment. The titles indexed in the 1963 Essay and 
General Literature Index were checked against this library's cata- 
log by a clerk. The staff is now programming to conduct a search 
of the same titles on the catalog tapes by the computer. In both 
cases, both author and title approaches are being used to see if one 
is better than the other. The cataloging use of the on-line approach 
and read-out facility of the IBM 360 system may do such things as 
eliminate the print- out of the "official catalog" of the authority lists 
and of the shelf list. Catalog corrections may be made on this basis 
also. 

The Computer Center is staffed with capable programming and 
systems people. The IBM 1460 computer and the IBM 1403 printer 
equipped with the special print chain is servicing the Library, the 
Registrar, the Business Office, and some courses in the College of 
Business Administration. Because we are waiting for the IBM 360 



109 

system for research-type computer use, some use of the equipment 
by the science faculty has also been made that should have been done 
on a larger computer. The result was much more programming and 
computer time than the type of problems justified. Recently, however, 
an arrangement with the University of Miami was made to use their 
IBM 7090 at the same rates as are charged to their own students and 
faculty. It should be repeated that the Computer Center should be 
administratively free of any one area so that it can be just in allotting 
time. With all library records on computer tape, the Computer Center 
becomes extremely important to the Library. Its staff must under- 
stand library problems, particularly the reasons for needing certain 
print-outs on a regularly scheduled basis. In turn, the Library must 
have staff that understands computer problems. Working together, 
great things can be achieved. 

The following is a list of the computer produced control docu- 
ments either in use or to be produced by the end of this school year: 
(Those with an asterisk are not yet being delivered. Those without 
an asterisk are now being received. The only exception is the SDI 
notices, which will be delayed until the next school year.) 

Catalog (irregular) 

Catalog Supplement (every three months this year, monthly 

thereafter) 

Cataloging proof sheets (daily) 

Authority Lists (author, title, and subject) irregular 

Circulation Lists (daily) 

1. Listing by call number 

2. Listing by borrowers' ID numbers 

3. Overdue listing by call number 

4. Overdue listing by ID number 

5. Listing of hold requests 

Reserves (weekly listing of all books on reserve, arranged by 

call number) 

Reference shelf list (weekly listing, arranged by call number) 

Circulation statistical listing (every three months) 

Overdues label listing (weekly), for overdues mailing. (All 

books are due two weeks from Tuesday.) 

Current serials listing (twice weekly) 

Serials listing by subject ( irregular) 

Serials title listing ( monthly) , until Current Serials Listing 

comes out 

Serials listing of changes and deletions (monthly) 

Serials check-in listings 

1. Cards for check- in, computer produced, (one for each 
issue of each journal) 



110 

2. Serials master record (status of data for check-in), 
monthly 

Serials holdings list (irregular) 
*Serials claiming letters 
Serials orders lists (annual) 
*Serials and bookbinding lists (irregular) 
Serials and book orders (irregular, frequent) 
* Processing Information List 

1. Complete data form (daily) for internal use 

2. Brief data form (daily) for public service use 

*Budget control listing (daily) 

*Invoice, voucher, receiving, and inspection print-outs for 
Business Office use. 
*SDI notices to faculty (irregular) 
*Shelf list ( irregular) 
*Official catalog (weekly) 

The systems approach in library computerization extends be- 
yond the Library. It soon became apparent that both the Registrar 
and the Business Office should be in an even larger system of which 
the Library would be only a part. The Registrar is now completely 
computerized; and the Library made use of this fact to encourage 
use of the Social Security Number as an ID number, to justify an ID 
card suited to library needs, to provide a broader base for statistical 
analysis, and to print out student addresses for overdue notices. 
The Business Office programming is just being finished and is being 
done with full knowledge of library needs. Overdue fines will be 
handled by the Business Office, including sending notices and col- 
lecting overdues. Budget listings, invoices, vouchers receiving, and 
inspection print-outs will be of mutual interest to the Library and 
the Business Office. 

Beyond the system within the University, we are thinking more 
and more of the system extending to the other state university 
libraries, the other state university business offices, and to the state 
financial center. The other university libraries now want to take 
advantage of what Florida Atlantic University Library has learned 
and have approved appointment of an Inter -university Library Com- 
mittee to discuss ways and means of doing this. The committee will 
be composed of technical processes librarians, who will be most 
concerned. There has been discussion of using the telephone com- 
pany's "Tel-Pak" system for transmission of computer data, for 
facsimile transmission (using Xerox's Scanner- Printer) , for voice 
transmission, and for typewriter hook-ups. This may be meaningful 
if other campuses decide to go in the same direction. It will be very 



Ill 

helpful if the new state university campuses in Pensacola and Orlando 
adopt Florida Atlantic University Library's system. Members of 
its staff are the official consultants for the library planning for those 
campuses, and they are intent on extending our system. It is obvious 
that such an extension can save money for all concerned. This 
library is training librarians from other libraries in the use of the 
system and is making information about all aspects of the system 
available to everyone. 



REFERENCES 



1. Perreault, Jean M. "The Computerized Book Catalog at 
Florida Atlantic University," College and Research Libraries, 
25:185-197. May, 1964; and "Computerized Cataloging: The Com- 
puterized Catalog at Florida Atlantic University," Library Resources 
& Technical Services, 9:20-34. Winter, 1965. 

2. Srygley, Ted F. "Serials Record Instructions for a Com- 
puterized Serial System," Library Resources & Technical Services, 
8:248-256, Summer 1964. 

3. University of California, San Diego, Library. Final Report 
Serials Computer Project. ... La Jolla, California, 1964, Appendix 
5B. 






THE ONULP BIBLIOGRAPHIC CONTROL SYSTEM 
An Evaluation 



Ritvars Bregzis 



The Ontario New Universities Library Project 



The Ontario New Universities Library Project (ONULP) was 
established in October 1963 to compile basic college library collec- 
tions for five new academic institutions in the Province of Ontario. 
The Project, which terminates in June 1967, is scheduled to select, 
acquire, and process approximately 17,500 titles consisting of 30,000 
volumes of in print materials for each of the five institutions: Scar- 
borough College, Erindale College (both are new liberal arts colleges 
of the University of Toronto) , Brock University, Guelph University, 
and Trent University. The progress of the selection and acquisition 
program to date indicates that the total number of titles acquired by 
the target date will be approximately 25,000, and each institution 
will receive approximately 40,000 volumes. 

The Project, which is administered by the University of 
Toronto Library, is also responsible for providing the participating 
institutions with a functioning bibliographic record covering the 
materials processed by the Project. The University of Toronto 
Library's experience with the maintenance of subsidiary catalogs 
located outside of the Central Library was sufficiently persuasive 
to indicate that the maintenance of card form catalogs in five dif- 
ferent locations would not be successful. Further complications 
were to be expected because of additional materials to be acquired 
by the individual institutions themselves: out of print materials, 
serials, and materials in subject areas which do not fall within the 
immediately planned acquisition by the Project. Records of these 



Ritvars Bregzis is Assistant Librarian (Technical Services) of the 
University of Toronto Library. 

112 



113 

materials had to be compatible with those of the materials received 
from the Project. At this point automated compilation of catalogs in 
book form appeared to be a suitable method. 

Moreover, automation appeared to offer a potential for other 
library functions in the two new colleges at Scarborough and Erindale. 
This coincided with a vital interest in automated library operations 
in the Central Library system of the University of Toronto for which 
a large building program, involving the division of the central collec- 
tion and a corresponding rearrangement of its bibliographic records, 
is being planned. In this complex picture, the ONULP presented an 
opportunity to explore the suitability of automated bibliographic con- 
trol for some vital library operations. 

The design of the ONULP bibliographic control system there- 
fore evolved into a project of more general scope than just the com- 
pilation of catalogs for five almost identical collections of 25,000 
titles each. Three basic requirements emerged clearly: compatibility 
with similar work in other institutions, flexibility in accommodating 
the entire spectrum of bibliographic data, and exactitude in the 
identification of all significant data elements. Within the limitations 
of reasonable economy as well as the principal objectives of the 
Project, its participants, and the University of Toronto Library, the 
ONULP system attempts to meet these three basic requirements. 



II 
The Structure of the Master Record 



The ONULP bibliographic control system is based on a Master 
Record which contains bibliographic data in a systematically or- 
ganized format. Since all important categories and elements of 
bibliographic data in the Master Record are independently and directly 
addressable, the entire information in the Master Record constitutes 
a store of building blocks which can be arranged in any desired 
combination and pattern thus facilitating a number of bibliographic 
services: shelf list records, catalogs of various formats and scope, 
specialized reading lists, records required for circulation control, 
bibliographic information service to the teaching staff, a variety of 
statistical data, and so on. 

The Master Record consists of a Title Record tape file which 
contains complete bibliographic information about the individual 
titles recorded, the Name Authority tape file which contains all 
names used as entries in the Title Record having alternative forms, 
and the Subject Authority tape file which contains all subject terms 
used in the Title Record along with the required references to these 
terms. 



114 

The Title Record is organized into bibliographic data cata- 
gories, and these are further sub-organized into data elements where 
applicable (see Appendix I) . Most of the bibliographic data categories 
and elements are of variable length. The total length of the entire 
title record has a maximum of 1500 characters. There are no re- 
strictions on the length of the individual data categories, as long as 
the total length of all used categories combined does not exceed 1500 
characters. For example, the category "title" can be of any length, 
provided that its length together with the sum of all remaining used 
categories does not exceed 1500 characters. In practice this 1500 
character limitation can affect only records of titles which are longer 
than four full catalog cards. The statistical incidence of such record 
length is practically negligible. 

The Name Authority and the Subject Authority files are similarly 
structured. The authorized form of the name or the subject con- 
stitutes a category and so does the group of alternative forms of the 
name or subject. The linkage ("see" or "see also" reference) is in- 
dicated in the coding of the alternative term. The maximum length 
of each name or subject record is 1700 characters. Within this max- 
imum length of the record each of the individual categories (autho- 
rized term or reference term) can be up to 600 characters long. 

For the compilation of the Master Record a specially designed 
data sheet is used which reflects in its design the structure of the 
Master Record as well as a close likeness to the accustomed bibli- 
ographic forms. For each line of the data sheet, one Hollerith card 
is keypunched (see Appendix II) . All data are entered in the Master 
Record in the form of character codes designed to provide output in 
upper and lower case characters modified by diacritical marks where 
required (see Appendix III) . For this purpose an IBM 026 keypunch 
with a modified A- 2 keyboard is used. All keypunched information 
is periodically converted to magnetic tape on an 8 K IBM 1401 which 
has been modified to accept and handle the array of 100 characters. 

The organization and maintenance of the Master Record tape 
file is performed on an IBM 7094 model II. The bibliographical data 
are stored on the Master Record tape in call number sequence. All 
uses of this bibliographic information derive from the Master Record 
which stores data in a format that is largely compatible with any 
other structurally systematic format of bibliographic data identifying 
all significant data components with a sufficient degree of flexibility. 
Fundamental to the compatibility of the data format of the ONULP 
Master Record system is the concept of individually addressable units 
of bibliographic information which are systematically controlled and 
are independent of conventional bibliographic (i.e., catalog) require- 
ments. The latter can be derived from a standard system; a stan- 
dard system cannot be derived from a specifically oriented fusion of 
bibliographic information units. The principal function of the Master 



115 

Record is not to store catalog data; its function has a far wider scope. 
The Master Record stores bibliographic data for any bibliographic 
requirement, catalog production being just one of them. For this 
reason the Master Record contains more data than necessary for the 
compilation of catalogs. 



Ill 
The Catalog Compilation System 



The catalog compilation system produces one of several im- 
portant services which can be derived from the Master Record of 
bibliographic data. This system compiles three forms of catalogs: 
a classified list of all bibliographic units (titles) which is produced 
in card form to serve as the official shelf list; and author-title 
catalog which includes titles of bibliographic units and names re- 
sponsible for the contents of these bibliographic units; and a subject 
catalog which includes all topical and name subjects that constitute 
the subject matter of the bibliographic units. 

In its first major operation the system selects from the Master 
Record data necessary for the compilation of the required catalogs 
and creates three data files: the shelf list record file, author-title 
catalog file, and subject catalog file. Data in each of these three files 
are formatted to meet the requirements of shelf list records, author- 
title entry records, or subject entry records (see Appendix IV) . 
Author-title and Subject files then are sorted in alphabetical sequence 
on the first fifty characters of the entry within each entry record.* 
This operation concludes the compilation of the catalogs containing 
all primary approaches (entries) and those secondary approaches 
which have been generated from the data contained in each title rec- 
ord. However, alternative approaches (references) still remain to 
be included in the catalog files. For this purpose, during the second 
major operation of the system the title record tape is matched against 
the required authority tape, and references to all entries or terms 
found on both tapes are selected and added to the title record tape 
(see Appendix V) . Another sorting operation, this time conducted on 
a computer compiled sort field, interfiles all references in their 
alphabetical positions and completes the detailed alphabetical sub- 
arrangement of all entry records. 



*"Entry" refers only to the name (personal or corporate) , title, 
or subject term under which a work is entered. "Entry record" refers 
to the whole record of a work displayed in a catalog. 



116 

In the design of the ONULP system filing arrangement, em- 
phasis was placed on the development of a formula that would accom- 
modate filing without manual aid which otherwise would have to be 
provided in the form of specific instructions at the input stage. It is 
believed that in the file arrangement the principally determining 
factors are those which derive from the relative relationships be- 
tween entry records rather than from the characteristics inherent 
in the entry record. It is also accepted that it is unnecessary to 
simulate all exceptional sequence patterns employed in manually 
maintained files since many of these exceptional sequence patterns 
have been established to overcome difficulties which are not present 
in a mechanical file arrangement. 

Since the objective of the ONULP filing arrangement is to seek 
a filing pattern that would facilitate finding bibliographic data in a 
book form catalog, it is expected that subsequent adjustments of the 
initially designed pattern will have to be made based on practical 
observations of the inadequacies of the initial filing pattern. In de- 
signing the ONULP filing system, economy of operation was one of 
the factors considered important. The time required for the alpha- 
betic sort procedures of the ONULP program now constitutes approx- 
imately 15 per cent of the total IBM 7094 computer time which is 
required for the compilation of the entire catalog from a relatively 
short master file. It was felt that the accommodation of filing pro- 
cedures to serve conventional convenience rather than the essential 
requirements would not represent an economic use of computer time. 
Moreover, it was difficult to accommodate all important requirements 
with the same degree of convenience. Thus, for example, it was ac- 
cepted that initially it is more important to organize the units of 
corporate entry systematically than to arrange names and titles 
beginning with these names in the customary accepted order. It is 
evident that the initially established filing arrangement will have to 
be refined, and that experience will have to indicate the direction 
and the priority of the required improvements. 

The fourth and final processing operation is the construction 
of the catalog page format (see Appendix VI) . During this operation, 
the information that constitutes the entry records is set up in line 
format as required for the specified column width. In addition, the 
total page format is calculated, and the listing tape is arranged 
sequentially across the entire width of the page so that the n-th line 
in the first column on the page is followed by the n-th line of the 
second column which in turn is followed by the n-th line of the third 
column. These three lines from three different entry records across 
the page constitute a print line which then can be reproduced on the 
IBM 1403 model II printer. 

The listing of the output tape in page format concludes the 
catalog page compilation process. The individual pages are printed 



117 



on 15" X 22" plain white tabulating paper and are photographically 
reduced to 60 per cent of their original size. Offset master is used 
for the reproduction of the required number of copies. 



IV 
Cost Analysis 



One of the principles underlying the development of the ONULP 
bibliographic control system is that immediate economic considera- 
tions are subordinated to the objectives of the system. The ONULP 
system is a practical research project, and its research objective is 
to develop a bibliographic control system that can meet the entire 
range of bibliographic requirements, from catalog production to co- 
ordinated bibliographic data exchange. It is believed that only after 
these objectives have been attained is a search for the most economic 
method of attaining these objectives really possible. 

Functionally and economically the ONULP processing work con- 
sists of three major operations: cataloging, data processing, and 
physical preparation of the processed materials. Since the process 
of cataloging evaluation of bibliographic information and arriving 
at cataloging decisions is beyond the present range of automated 
information processing methods, this work is performed by conven- 
tional methods. Verification of the required bibliographic data or of 
the physical units on hand (searching) , and the interpretation of this 
bibliographic information (cataloging) constitutes 32 per cent of the 
total staff salary cost of the Project. (Here it must be added that 
only a small part of all materials requires original cataloging; most 
of the materials acquired for the Project are found cataloged and 
recorded in the University of Toronto Library's Official Catalogue) 
Physical preparation of the processed materials takes 16 per cent 
while data processing operations account for 46.5 per cent of the total 
cost of the Project. 

This cost analysis is concerned only with the data processing 
operations. Under the Project conditions bibliographic searching, 
cataloging, and physical preparation are practically unaffected by the 
automated bibliographic control system as compared with conventional 
catalog compilation methods. This distinction permits comparison of 
the economy of the automated catalog compilation system with that of 
the manual compilation of customary card catalogs. Both methods 
cover the production of the catalog from the point where the evaluated 
bibliographic information leaves the cataloger to the display of this 
information for public use (see Appendix VII) . 



118 

The cost of the computer compiled catalog in 150 copies is 
more than double that of the manually compiled card catalog in one 
copy. It is interesting to note that in the present ONULP work ar- 
rangement the largest single factor under both methods is the staff 
salary account, 58 per cent and 65.6 per cent respectively. Under 
normal operating conditions, the data sheet being filled in by the 
cataloger and the data processing operation being carried out with 
substantially reduced professional supervision, the staff salary ex- 
penditure would be reduced by approximately 50 per cent. The actual 
staff time value, nevertheless, would not fall below the staff time 
value required for customary catalog compilation methods. It is 
interesting to note that reduction of staff participation is not indicated 
in a conversion from manual to automated methods. 

The other major expenditure account covers rental of data 
processing machinery. This is a cost factor which is unique with the 
automated method. It is difficult to measure the relation of the value 
of this account to the staff salary expenditure since computer rental 
costs vary very greatly depending on the institution and the status of 
the work. However, the cost of this account is substantially lower 
than the cost of staff time. 

The third major expenditure account is for reproductive print- 
ing. This cost is four times higher for the book form catalog than 
for unit cards. It should be noted that this comparison is made on a 
first-year basis. The reproductive printing cost of the book form 
catalog would progressively increase from year to year. 

The principal economy of the automated book form catalog ap- 
pears to be in the available multiplicity of copies of the catalog. 
Since the compilation of the required information for the catalog rep- 
resents a fixed cost not dependent on the number of copies produced, 
and since the reproduction of the first copy takes approximately 
65-90 per cent of the total cost of the reproductive printing depending 
on the number of copies printed, it appears that the book form cata- 
log becomes an economically attractive method if distribution in 
large numbers is required. 

On a one- copy basis the automated ONULP catalog costs twice 
the amount of an equivalent customary card catalog. However, since 
at least six copies of the catalog are required for the five participants 
and the Project, a minimum 250 per cent economy has been obtained. 
In fact, the present distribution of the catalog is twenty copies for 
each institution, and there is indication that more copies will be re- 
quired. Along with this wide distribution of the bibliographic in- 
formation, effective control and convenient maintenance have also 
been attained. 



119 
V 



Observations 



The most significant conclusion which can be drawn from the 
experience of the design, programming, and initial operation of the 
ONULP bibliographic data control system is that it is the structure of 
the data format in the Master Record which has permitted^ a variety 
of gradually emerging output requirements to be implemented without 
any modification of the originally established data format. The unit 
concept of categories and elements of the individual bibliographic 
record permits an unlimited variety of combinations of these cate- 
gories and elements to be exploited for programmed construction 
of data patterns. 

This flexibility appears particularly important in view of the 
future objectives of bibliographic data processing. The present ex- 
perience with the ONULP system indicates possibilities in developing 
automated bibliographic data transmission for various forms of 
bibliographic co-operation. Centralized or co-operative catalog in- 
formation exchange and accessibility of union records on a regional 
or wider basis are the most obvious immediate benefits. Preliminary 
calculations indicate that such services would be relatively economi- 
cal in terms of their attainment. 

Bibliographic data transmission and co-ordinated utilization, 
however, would require a compatible data format which would be 
sufficiently standardized to ensure a certain minimum of scope, def- 
inition, and level of detail of bibliographic data to every participant. 
Although the ONULP data format is designed with these objectives 
in mind, it is not set up to meet such requirements with its present 
degree of specificity. Since the ONULP system is a research project 
as well as a practical application of limited objectives, the ONULP 
data format incorporates only the amount of detail which was found 
necessary to test the principle of compatible data format and to meet 
the limited requirements of the Project. Experience with the ONULP 
system is already being used in the development of a more specific 
system for the University of Toronto Library with a view to regional 
bibliographic control requirements. 

The ONULP system has been rich in lessons pertaining to in- 
formation systems development. This work has involved members of 
the University of Toronto Library staff as well as members of the 
University's Institute of Computer Science, which has been the prin- 
cipal advisor, and staff members of the IBM Toronto division which 
carried out the practical machine system design. 

Regular design meetings were held in which four regular mem- 
bers participated: the information retrieval specialist of the Institute 



120 

of Computer Science, the IBM systems engineer, the head of the 
ONULP processing division, and the Assistant Librarian (Technical 
Services) of the University of Toronto Library. Many aspects of the 
design bearing relationship to the uses of the products of the planned 
system, or which were recognized to be of potential interest to the 
University of Toronto Library, were referred to the Chief Librarian 
and to the Senior Staff of the University Library representing the 
interests of the participants of ONULP. In addition, individual staff 
members of the University Library were consulted as required and 
several surveys conducted by members of the Catalogue Department 
staff. In retrospect, it can be observed that an approximate total of 
225 man-hours was invested by two librarians and two IBM staff 
members in the design meetings alone; and that it would have been 
desirable, if time had permitted, to enlarge the participation of the 
library staff. 

The principal observation to be made pertaining to the design 
of the operational system is that the implementation of the system 
was several times more complex than originally estimated. There 
were two reasons for this severe underestimation of the task: lack 
of any significant experience with complex conceptual data process- 
ing on the part of the machine system designers, combined with lack 
of accurate and detailed knowledge of the theory and the precise 
structure and functions of the elements of bibliographic data on the 
part of the library personnel. The various theoretical and practical 
problems which arose during the design stage of the ONULP system 
point out most dramatically how little the bibliographic information 
profession (i.e., librarians) knows about the information in its 
custody! Extensive, most important, and urgent research and edu- 
cational work is required if our profession is expected to take sig- 
nificant advantage of the presently available tremendous power of 
information processing devices. 

The programming phase of the system emphasized this problem 
in detail and most convincingly. Again and again it appeared that the 
specificity and logic of the external (not to mention the internal) or- 
ganization of bibliographic data carefully described by the librarian 
stops very much short of the level of specificity of the structural 
detail of bibliographic elements required in the programming of the 
system. Some of this lack of communication facility between the 
librarian and the programmer is due to a tendency to take the obvious 
for granted. The explicit absence or the manifest generality of in- 
formation causes the programmer to ask the librarian for more 
information or for more detailed information. The "obviously" im- 
plied information, however, creates results which frequently require 
considerable time and ingenuity to diagnose and correct. 

A rather simple but significant example can be noted in pro- 
gramming the disregarding of the initial article in filing title entries 



121 

which are automatically generated by the computer program. The 
programmer was given an explanation of the structure of the entry 
system and a review of the various forms the title entry may take. 
As it turned out, this review was not detailed enough. In terms of 
the system, apart from the title main entry, the title added entry, and 
series title added entry, there may also be an alternative or con- 
structed title added entry, analytical title main entry and analytical 
title added entry. It took some time to discover that in the printed 
catalog those title added entries, for which the initial article had not 
been disregarded in filing, were actually alternative title added en- 
tries. For the librarian, it had been "understood and obvious." The 
programmer, however, naturally took the instructions literally. 

This raises the question of whether for certain kinds of pro- 
gramming the programmer does not have to be a librarian. I believe 
not, because fundamentally the problem is not one of communication 
between the librarian and the programmer. It is the lack of knowledge 
of the systematic and specific organization of information and the 
lack of a logical and standardized form for recording of this in- 
formation available to the librarian. In the cited case, a librarian 
programmer would not have fared much better because he himself 
likely would not have been able to analyze and express in logical 
and sufficiently detailed form the "obvious" differentiation between 
the various types of title added entries. Numerous similar incidents 
bear out the need for much more exact, accurate, and specific def- 
inition of the bibliographic problem rather than increased involvement 
by the librarian in the actual preparation of the detailed working 
drawings of the information processing work at which the draftsman 
will be always more efficient than the architect. 

The ONULP program is written in Cobol for the IBM 7094 
computer, the programming work having been done on contract by 
the IBM Toronto Data Centre. The choice of the programming lan- 
guage represents a compromise between the resulting processing 
time and cost on one hand and the ease of writing, change, and adap- 
tation of the program on the other. For processing economy con- 
siderations, the choice should have been a lower order language 
requiring a minimum of compiler instructions for translating it into 
machine code language. Cobol was selected for three principal 
considerations. 

First, the consideration of convertibility of the program for 
use on other computers was an important one. The Project involved 
compiling bibliographic data and catalogs for five individual insti- 
tutions some of which have already expressed interest in continuing 
and developing further the automated method of bibliographic control. 
It could not be expected that all of these institutions would have 
access to the computer configuration employed for the ONULP sys- 
tem. With a non- compatible language, practically the whole pro- 
gramming effort would have to be repeated by each of the interested 



122 

institutions. It is estimated that conversion of the present ONULP 
Cobol program would require only a fraction of the total programming 
effort in order to convert it for use on similar installations. Thus it 
is estimated that the conversion to IBM 7040 would require only ap- 
proximately 15 per cent of the programming effort that was required 
to write the program of the ONULP system. 

Convenience and ease of programming was another considera- 
tion. It was expected that numerous subsequent modifications in detail 
of the ONULP system would be required, and that these would have to 
be implemented by programmers on the library staff, perhaps with 
limited technical background and experience in complex machine- 
oriented methods. A high order language with maximum similarity 
to customary forms of expression was therefore considered a valid 
choice for the benefit of both the ONULP and the participating insti- 
tions individually. 

The third consideration behind the choice of Cobol was an early 
observation that the nature of bibliographic information combined with 
the requirements of the design of the ONULP system resulted in a 
degree of complexity of information structure which would require 
an extreme analytical consistency from the programmer if a lower 
order language would be chosen. Thus it appeared that, for instance, 
Fortran would be impractical. 

The very specific and demanding nature of bibliographic data 
soon revealed the unexpected complexity of the programming and 
machine processing time requirements. The ONULP Cobol program 
is lengthy in terms of processing time. Masses of machine instruc- 
tions have to be generated for the already copious Cobol instructions 
that constitute the program. This characterizes Cobol in general. 
In addition, the application of Cobol to bibliographic data (i.e., con- 
ceptual or word information as compared to conventional business 
information) showed a decrease of the actual IBM 7094 processing 
rate below the speed of tape moment. Since the initial calculations 
had been based on tape speed which normally is the limiting speed 
factor for IBM 7094 operation, the ONULP processing time was found 
to be considerably higher than estimated. The IBM 7094 processing 
power is really put to use by the ONULP system. The severity of the 
test was also indicated by the fact that during the one year of pro- 
gramming work, several Cobol compiler errors were detected. 

A good part of the processing complexity is accountable to the 
programming language. However, a considerable factor is the mas- 
siveness of bibliographic data and the character-by-character mode of 
operation upon this mass of data under very complex patterns of data 
transformation. Present experience appears to indicate that process- 
ing information in word form poses problems to the machinery and to 
the methods of automated data processing which until recently were 
developed primarily for quantitative data processing. The promise 



123 

of the latent potential of information processing methods requires 
the testing of these methods under the full load of automated informa- 
tion transformation and communication requirements. The ONULP 
system has attempted to face this problem squarely without com- 
promise. With the question and answer console as the next immediate 
step in automated bibliographic control, it is obvious that the pro- 
cessor and the processing methods will be required to handle the full 
complexity of bibliographic data without any appreciable human as- 
sistance. It is possible that computers employing associative mem- 
ories controlled by list processing techniques can offer some solutions 
to the time economy problem which is so significantly underscored 
by the ONULP Cobol programme. The digital memory techniques 
seem to indicate a dilemma between the processing time economy 
and the human oriented form of communication. 

The operation of the bibliographic data processing system in 
place of the conventional card catalogue production system has been 
successful. The preparation of information for keypunching the input 
record is simple, and only a few days are required to acquaint the 
catalogers and other staff with the method of recording information 
on the data sheet. The data lay-out on the keypunched Hollerith card 
is equally explicit, permitting relatively easy sight verification of the 
keypunched information. Sight verification, however, is a tedious 
process and is due to be replaced by machine verification. The ex- 
ceptionally low rate of input errors has been the result of competent 
staff and a simple input procedure requiring only a minimum of in- 
structions to be remembered or consulted for the preparation of 
input. 

As most of the ONULP materials are copies of the University 
of Toronto Library holdings, very little cataloging is involved, and 
data sheets are prepared by library assistants from the Official 
Catalogue copy. For processing of materials for a collection that is 
currently being cataloged, the data sheet would be prepared by the 
cataloger in lieu of his manuscript copy. This would eliminate the 
data sheet preparation as a separate step (see Appendix VII) . When 
in addition the professional administration of the data processing 
operation is reduced to normal operating requirements, the total 
salary cost of the preparation of the input record for automated 
processing equals approximately the preparation of cards for a card 
catalog. The cost of data processing equipment rental and repro- 
ductive printing is approximately equivalent to that of data processing 
staff time cost, and it is over and above the direct cost of the card 
catalog. However, the total cost appears modest when viewed in 
terms of multiple book form catalogs. 

A few profitable observations can be made about the format 
and serviceability of the computer-printed book form catalog. The 
availability of upper and lower case characters and most of the 



124 

diacritical marks necessary for the display of bibliographic informa- 
tion in most languages which can be expressed in Latin characters 
contributes substantially to the accuracy, necessary differentiation, 
and style of bibliographic information display. However, it is realized 
that the 120 character print chain which produces this result is only 
a temporary compromise between what is presently available and 
what is necessary. Apart from at least three type fonts for the Latin 
alphabet, the research library uses require also the Cyrillic, Arabic, 
and Greek alphabets which can be used intermixed with Latin alphabet 
text. Particularly essential is the Cyrillic alphabet since every 15th 
to 20th new title acquired by large research institutions is in a lan- 
guage using the Cyrillic alphabet. 

The readability of the page in the book catalog also depends 
largely on the added emphasis that is attached to selected informa- 
tion of key importance. Various display techniques can help to en- 
hance readability. However, the positioning and grouping techniques 
would be helped considerably by additional variation in character size 
and density. Additional type fonts are called for. The requirement 
for a variety of type fonts and alphabets indicates perhaps that a 
technique other than impact printing has to provide the solution. 

The problem of the printing method is further complicated by 
limitations of printing speed. Six hundred or eleven hundred lines 
per minute printing speeds become insufficient for printing the large 
quantities of bibliographic data which are required for a catalog of a 
medium to large research library where constant cumulation and 
reprinting of data becomes a very voluminous chore of the data 
processing system. Until the techniques and the required philosophi- 
cal and logical bases for bibliographic data processing and trans- 
mission are developed to the point where on-line consoles can take 
over the major part of the present catalog display functions, printing 
of catalogs will remain one of the principal problems. 

It should also be remembered that the variety of characters 
available for information display has to be paid for by a sacrifice of 
printing speed. The 120 character chain has only two sets of 100 
characters instead of the customary five sets of 48 characters on the 
standard chain. t 



tThere are 120 character positions on the chain, but only 100 
positions are used for the following groups of characters: 26 alpha- 
betical characters in lower case, 26 alphabetical characters in upper 
case, 10 numerical characters, and 38 special characters. The cost 
of this print chain to the University of Toronto Library was $2,007. 
The modifications of the IBM 1401 necessary to accommodate this 
chain cost $2, 832 in additional rental annually. Other minor modifica- 
tions were required for the IBM 026 in order to facilitate the prep- 
aration of input suitable for the printing with the 120 character chain. 



125 

Since the rotation speed of the chain cannot be increased, the 
printing speed is reduced to two-fifths of the maximum 600 lines per 
minute. Diacritical marks are imprinted by overprint while line 
space movement is suppressed. The presence of even one diacritical 
mark in a print line cuts the printing time therefore for each such 
line approximately in half. Depending on the quantity and distribution 
of diacritical symbols, the effective printing speed on a 600 lines per 
minute printer ranges approximately between 110 and 225 lines per 
minute, or 200 to 400 lines per minute on a 110 lines per minute 
printer. It is readily seen that it does not require a particularly 
large catalog to be periodically cumulated in order to reach a satura- 
tion point in printing economy. 

The computer produced master page is only the beginning of the 
printing process. The offset press takes over the reproduction of 
copies. The cumulation of the ONULP author-title and subject cata- 
logs during the second year of operation covering 10,000 titles will 
amount to a total of 4,400 pages to be printed. For 150 copies of the 
catalog, this represents approximately $10,000 offset printing cost. 
It has, however, to be borne in mind that the offset printing of the 
first copy costs approximately $7,500; the number of copies produced 
therefore adds very little to the printing cost, and the catalog dis- 
tribution can be liberal. 

A thumbnail estimate, however, can readily show that periodic 
cumulated reprinting of the entire catalog of a medium size research 
library would keep a university press busy almost on an around-the- 
year basis. For these cost reasons as well as reasons of cumulation 
effect on consultation ease and reasons of up-to-dateness, it ap- 
pears that the computer produced book form catalog in itself cannot 
be the ideal solution to the bibliographic data display problem in large 
research libraries, although on a short term basis and for limited 
data quantities, the cumulated book form catalog has many features 
to recommend it. 

For the medium size and large research library, it appears 
that direct access to digitally stored bibliographic data can be eco- 
nomically competitive with computer printout catalogs, as well as 
giving instantaneous and direct answer to the bibliographic request. 
The concept of the library catalogs of the 1970's therefore may well 
be a combination of printed catalogs for the consolidated portions of 
the collection and keyboard-and-screen terminals capable of display- 
ing the bibliographic information entered into the system before this 
instant. 

The serviceability of the information displayed in the catalog 
can be further improved by an optimized page layout, variation in 
the degree of density, cumulation pattern, and system of alphabetic 
arrangement (filing) . Cumulation pattern and alphabetical arrange- 
ment are particularly important. The cumulation pattern chosen for 
the ONULP catalog production was determined from the correlation of 



126 

the printing cost and the convenience of consultation of the catalog. 
Appendix VIII shows the effect of the various cumulation patterns. 

The system of alphabetical arrangement involves the com- 
bination of the requirements for convenient consultation of the file 
and the economy of the sequencing operation. There appears to be 
a choice of three basic systems which can implement the alphabetical 
arrangement. In the first place the filing arrangement can be manual- 
ly aided by inserting in each bibliographic record symbols which 
place this record in a relative position with other records in an 
anticipated context. Although the easiest to operate on a limited 
scale and accurate in a correctly anticipated context, this method 
cannot function effectively in a context which initially cannot be cor- 
rectly assessed. Moreover, on a large scale this method tends to 
constrict the versatility of the potentially required file arrangements; 
it also tends to interfere with retrieval techniques designed to bring 
out key words and key phrases from entries and titles. 

Another method of file arrangement is to establish an ideal 
total file of all potential entries which then can be coded sequentially. 
The entries which are to be included in the file are similarly coded 
and their relative position established by matching of the two files. 
This concept assumes a large enough pattern which would always have 
gaps between any two actual entries. Given the ideal pattern and 
only records with alphabetic patterns defined at the input stage, such 
a system could be a convenient one to operate. However, the practi- 
cal limitations are set by the indefinite variety of potential informa- 
tion, extremely dense unforseeable clustering of information, and, 
most important, by the entry records automatically generated and 
therefore lacking any other identification (i.e. a relation code) than 
their inherent character value. 

The third method is based on an entirely programmed and 
manually unaided sequencing by the values inherent in the characters 
constituting this information, in combination with the coded charac- 
teristics of the fundamental bibliographic unit. For reasons dis- 
cussed above the ONULP system chose the third method. The 
inadequacies seen in the produced catalogs indicate that subsequent 
adjustments will be needed before a general and largely automated 
filing method is developed. 

One of the most important and potentially far reaching obser- 
vations derived from the design and initial operation of the ONULP 
system is the inability of the customary bibliographic systems to 
provide a sufficiently systematic basis for a significant utilization 
of the power of the data processing machinery and techniques. Both 
the customary system of entry and, in particularly, the system of 
subject terminology cannot facilitate effective retrieval of biblio- 
graphic information on the basis of authorship and subject value. 
The corporate and other formal entries which the ONULP system 



127 

has accepted with the customary cataloging rules cannot facilitate 
approaches to the significant elements embedded in these entries. 
Similarly the Library of Congress subject headings which are used 
for the organization of the ONULP subject catalog are not suited for an 
an analytical or integrated approach to subject information. The ca- 
pacity of the data processing system in this case is largely invalidated 
by the ineffectiveness of the subject heading system to integrate and 
analyze concept terminology automatically. Instead of a powerful 
analytical tool, this subject catalog can be only an alphabetically or- 
ganized array of fragmented information. 

Along with the urgent need for an agreement on a compatible 
data format which can facilitate effective communication of biblio- 
graphic information, a quest for a theory of systematic organization 
of concept terminology is essential if automation of bibliographic 
information processing is to yield the tremendous potential of which 
it is capable. 

In conclusion, it can be noted that the ONULP bibliographic con- 
trol system was designed to meet a limited practical requirement 
and at the same time to explore problems of more general application. 
Many of these problems cannot be answered without a considerable 
practical exploration. Several others require fundamental research 
in the theoretical bases of bibliographic information. These had to 
be compensated by expedients of compromise nature. 

The design and implementation of the system was a complex 
team work requiring co-operation between librarians and data pro- 
cessing experts. Numerous factors have contributed to the success 
of this work. However, although the success largely depends on the 
characteristics and capacity of the equipment, on tested methods of 
information processing, and on the expert judgment and decisions of 
systems engineers, the librarian cannot evade the final responsibility. 
Like an architect who alone has to know intimately and who can con- 
trol the whole range of expert engineering functions and drafting 
techniques, the librarian alone is in the position to know what the 
general design has to incorporate and what attainment constitutes a 
fair price for the engineering of the desired effect. In order to carry 
this responsibility, the librarian like the architect has to know in 
detail what constitutes good design; he has to know what constitutes 
the engineering work and what effect he can expect for a given in- 
vestment in methods and materials. And like the architect he does 
not have to be the engineer and even less the draftsman. 



128 

Appendix I 



ONULP 
Data Categories and Elements 

The Title Record | 



1. Call number of the title. This category is further sub- 
divided in the following elements: 

a. main class 

b. sub-class 

c. class number 

d. first Cutter number 

e. second Cutter number 

f. date. 

2. Form of publication. 

3. Brief edition statement. 

4. Edition code. 

5. Number of volumes. 

6. Size. This category consists of two elements: 

a. height of the book 

b. thickness of the book. 

7. Origin of the publication. This category is further sub- 
divided in four elements: 

a. country of origin 

b. city of origin 

c. language of the publication 

d. date of the publication. 

8. Any special aspect other than those enumerated. 

9. Paging and illustration statement. The two elements of this 
category can be separated if desired. 

10. Principal author (main entry). 

11. Conventional title. 

12. Title. 

13. Full length edition statement when different from 3, above. 

14. Imprint. 

15. Series note. 

16. Other notes (except Contents). 

17. Secondary bibliographic approaches ( Tracings) . This 
category is subdivided in five elements as follows: 



129 

a. subject term. This element is further subdivided in the 
following forms: 

i. name as subject term 
ii. topical subject term 
iii. descriptor term 

b. added entry (other than title and series) 

c. title added entry 

d. alternative title added entry 

e. series added entry 

Up to ten approaches of each group can be assigned to one title 
record. 

18. Contents note. This category can be used in a systematic 
organization mode indicating the numbers or volumes of the 
contents. If so identified, the individual parts of contents 
function as analytical approaches to the larger work. 

19. Copy and location. This category consists of two elements: 

a. copy number of the title 

b. location of the copy. 



Appendix II 

ONULP 
Input Card 



444444444 

5555555555555555555555555555555 5TT5T"5"5T"5 555555555555555555555 5T5V5 j 'j 5 5 5!5 55555555 



130 



Appendix III 

ONULP 
Table of Special Character Card Codes 



LOWER case characters 


UPPER case characters 


Card Code 


Character 


Card Code combination 


Character 


, 


1 








to 








(zero) 






follow key -board < 


a 


058 - A 


A (capital) 




to 


to 


to 




z 


058 - Z 


Z (captial) 


12 - 3-8 


. (period) 


058 - 6 


N 


0-3-8 


, 






11 - 5-8 


: 


058 - 7 


b (musical flat) 


11 - 6-8 


9 


058 - 8 


I ^cript L") 


12-0 


? 






11 - 7-8 


' (apostrophe) 






12 - 4-8 


( 


058-11-7-8 


* (quotes) 


12 - 5-8 


) 


058 - 11 - 


& (ampersand) 


12 - 6-8 


c 


Diacritical marks 


12 - 7-8 


: 


058- 1 VVV* 


case) 


0-1 


/ 


058 - 2 





12 


+ 


058 - 3 


' 


11 


- (hyphen) 


058 - 4 


~ 


3-8 




058 - 5 


- (umlaut) 


0-7-8 


% 


058 - 5-8 


o (angstrom) 


11 - 4-8 


* 


058 - 6-8 


~ (tilde) 


0-6-8 


4 (musical sharp) 


058 - 12 


J (cedilla) 


0-4-8 


= 


058 - 0-1 


/ 




_/ 


Diacritical marks A 


- 2-8 


T 


(Lower 


case) | 


6-8 


< 


11 - 3-8 


(underscore) 


5-6 


> 






4-8 


@ 







Note that diacritical marks are keypunched before the character they 
modify; e.g., c 058-6-8 followed by c 



131 



Appendix IV 

ONULP 
Catalog Entry Record Formats 



JA83. A6 1951 
Allen, John Jilliam, 1665- 

slxteenth century. London, Methuen 

xxii, 527 p. 

"The Bibliographical notes, pages 
517-523, have been revised and brought 
up to date by Mr. J.W. Cough." 

1. Political science - History 2. 

State , The I. Title 



BR3C 



ERIN 



GLPH 



SCAR 



THEM 



1. Author-Title Catalog listing 
-* main entry record 



JL195. C6 
The alignment of political groups in 

Canada, 1641-1867 
Cornell, Paul G. 

The alignment of political groups In 
Canada, 1841-1867 1962 x, 119 p. 



BROC 



ERIN 



GLPH 



SCAR 



TREN 



All 



: Quint! 
jthor 



PQSS01. L8 A19 1962 
Joaquln, 1873-1944, jt. 



Alvarez Qulntero, Serafln, 1871-1933 
El ijenio alegre 1962 525 p. 

BRDC ERIN GLPH SCAR TREN 

PQ1356. A63 1962 
Allen, Louis, ed. 

Beaumarchals, Pierre Augustln Caron de, 
17J2-1799 

Le barbler de Seville 1962 111, 90 
P- 

E77. 075 1960 

Philadelphia. Transactions, ne 
ser., v. 47, pt. 2 
Driver, Harold Edson, 1907- 

Indlans 1960 165-456 p. 

BROC ERIN GLPH SCAR TREH 



title added entry record 



name added entry record 
(joint author) 



name added entry record 
(editor) 



series added entry record 



132 



Alberta - Politics and government 

JL500. A9 17 
Irving, Johr Allan, 1903- 

Alberta. 1360 i, 369 p. 

BRDC ERIN GLPH SCAR TREN 



2. Subject Catalog listing 
subject entry records 



JL500. A3 3 1362 



KIV, 258 a. 

BRDC ERIN GLPH SCAR TREY 

JL500. A3 M36 



"il lory, Janes Rutsel 1 

in :anada. 1954 xii, 204 a. 
BRDC ERIN GLPH SCAR 



3. Shelf list record cards 



Thomas, L.C. 

The Libe 
xii, 230 o. 



JL500. A3 T5 
>erta 1353 



BR3C ERIN GLPH SCAR TRE( 



PM6086. G4J card 1 

Genest , Erai le 

Dictionnaire des citations ; 
dictionnaire des phrases, vers et mots 
celebres employes dans le langage 
courant avec precision de 1'origine. 
Paris, F. Nathan r !962] 

423 p. 

Cover title: Dictionnaire des 
citations francaises. 

SEE NEXT CARD 



PM6088. G43 card 2 

1. Quotations , French 2. Quotations 

I. Titls II. Title: Dictionnaire 
des citations francaisss 

GLPH 1 



133 



New Titles 
Changes 



Appendix V 

ONULP 
Processing Chart 

The Master Record 



f Names 
References 
History notes 



sort by call number 




Subjects 
References 
Scope notes 



card to tape conversion 



file maintenance 



134 



Catalog Compilation 



entry record construction 




135 



Catalog Listing Tapes 



.Shelfi-ltst. 
_ 3*5 _ 
_oards_ 



Subject 
Authority 
list page 




136 



Appendix VI 

ONULP 
Page Format 



PQ1B94. M66 
Hoore, VIII Grsyburn 


thought 


Th t d r u.i """' " 5 "" "" 








PQ1842. H3S 
Hall, H. Colon 


HT609 C4 1961 


gPS14. CS4 




1961 .11, 244 p. 


Uutllnei of blochl>try 1963 .111, 
391 p. 


Currl., P.tfr 




QP601. N35 1964 




""Jl'o!""' *'lf It , f 








OD7. PS 


Barber, Will lap Henry 
VoMlr: Ondlde. ' " 1 62 p. 








s,,, , ,h , ,h "T 1 -" 7 


CK3515. H4 1962 
Stylei of ddr99 


Falrlle, Hilton 
64 p. 






BROC ERIN GLPH SCAR TREN 


HC106. R35 


P92355. 384 
no. 7) 


64 f. 

PQ2246. 3 F3 
r.lrl l, nl lion 


BJ41. "3 


no. 7 
4162. SBS 19S3 


BROC ERIN GLPH SCAR TREK 


2BO p. 


192 p. ( M.ntor book) 
Till. 


Hggl, Donald R. 
BROC ERIN GLPH SCAR TREK 


rc, 1950. 
v. In 1 


PR3S62. 58 
1962. 


68 p. 


""ir'^r.'po^.-ri-Mjc., 


D419. C4 1961 


Piul Cl*<ll. 1957 111 p. 


PNSll. 53 


d. ] 1961 372 f. 


IfeMfkl 

Murloch, Irlj 


211 p. 


D375. 1)7 SB 1962 


, 114, [2] p. 


The study of n 


!B-lo81 1. Title 



a 

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137 







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f 


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CQ 


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CM O 






S 


t> 


CM CO 








1 1 1 1 1 1 




o 










a 












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o 




^^^ 


^ ^ 










03 


CM 


-- *. ^^ 




13 




0) 


CQ 


s^ s^ 








r- ( 


r-H J2 


CO lO 










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^ : 


GO O 




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<^ <** 




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1O 


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bD 


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bJ9 


1 1 


l . 

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o g 

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CQ 53 


^ , x^^i 


>x 


^1 




H 




o o o m o 


m in 


1 




rt 



3 <u 


o in t* t* co 

co co oo T~i TJ< 


t- CM 

m IH 


II 




a 


^ & 




i-i 


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f 

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a 


o 
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M 


O5 O5 

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1 

fl ctf 
g 
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Pn 




o 
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a 


ONULP 
actual ope 


m o m 
c- m co 

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^N 










o m o o o m o 


m in 






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c^ 


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138 





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the actual operation 


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140 



Appendix 



Cumulation Effect & Printing Cost 



Not cumulated 



Third- yearly - 
to date 




Quarterly - to date N^ 



Third-yearly - current 
Quarterly - current 



("Bi-monthly & semi-annually - current 
1 Quarterly & semi-annually - current 



() Bi-monthly - to date 

" ~" O ' Monthly - to date 



10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 

Total number of cumulation units to be printed during the year 



COMPUTER INDEXING OF THE PRESIDENTIAL PAPERS 
IN THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 



George R. Perreault 



Preface 



"The index to the Abraham Lincoln Papers is a direct result 
of Public Law 84-147, dated August 16, 1957, the object of which is 
to inspire informed patriotism, to provide greater security for the 
original manuscripts, and to make the Lincoln and other Presidential 
Papers more accessible and useful to scholars and other interested 
persons. The law authorizes and directs the Librarian of Congress 
to arrange, microfilm, and index the papers of the 23 Presidents whose 
manuscripts are in the library. An appropriation to carry out the 
provisions of the law was approved on July 31, 1958, and operations 
began on August 25." 

The above paragraph was taken from the index to the Abraham 
Lincoln Papers and best describes the purpose and goal of the Pres- 
idential Papers Program. This paper explains how the index was 
prepared on unit record equipment, the problems encountered, and the 
solution or partial solution of those problems with the use of a small 
scale computer. 



Solution with Unit Record Equipment 



Merely microfilming the manuscripts of the various presidents 
would not increase their usefulness unless there was some tool that 
could be used to locate the manuscripts on film. The responsible 
staff members at the Library of Congress decided in 1958 that this 
tool would be an index by writer or recipient of the manuscript and 
in addition would contain the following information: 



George R. Perreault is in the Data Processing Office, Administrative 
Department, Library of Congress. 

141 



142 

1. date of document 

2. series number 

3. number of pages 

4. additional pertinent information. 

With the number of entries varying from 1,089 in the Taylor 
index to about 530,000 in the Taft index, it was a natural decision to 
use unit record equipment then available in the Library of Congress 
to assist in the tremendous alphabetic sorting task. At that time the 
Library had IBM model 407 tabulators, model 83 sorters, model 85 
collators, and model 519 reproducers. Five years later it converted 
to a small scale computer operation. 

Librarians soon learned that the punched card has the inherent 
disadvantage of containing only eighty columns of information with 
very rigid fields of information within these 80 characters. These 
restrictions caused no problems for items with fixed lengths such as 
president number, date of document, or case file number, but prob- 
lems were anticipated with only 36 of the 80 columns remaining for 
the name of the writer and recipient of the manuscript. Rather than 
attempting to use a rigid limitation of 19 columns for the writer and 
17 columns for the recipient, it was felt that one variable length field 
of 36 columns would offer greater flexibility for indexing. The name 
of the writer or recipient would be terminated by the words "TO," 
*FR" (From) or "VS" (VERSUS). Figure 1 shows the card format. 
This successfully allowed the indexer to use more columns for the 
writer or recipient on the merits of each individual entry. As an 
example, the following entry would be impossible to place in two rigid 
fields of 18 and 17 columns: "Birmingham Peace Jubilee to WMK." 
The name of the writer here requires 24 columns. 

The use of one variable length field solved one problem but 
created another. How could the mechanical sorter tell where one 
field ended and the other one started ? It just could not. Sorting the 
entire field would place all B FR" entries before all *TO" entries for 
the same writer or recipient rather than chronologically within each 
writer or recipient. It therefore became necessary to select an 
arbitrary number of columns (one that would not extend up to the TO, 
FR, or VS in the majority of entries) to sort mechanically, followed 
by a hand sort for all conditions that were not properly alphabetized. 



Filing Problems 



In addition to the limitations of the mechanical sorter to handle 
a variable length field, there were many filing rules that could not be 
performed because they varied from character for character sorting 



143 

and the collating sequence of the sorter. One may think he sorts 
character for character until he uses a mechanical sorter. In the 
"Date of Document" field, for instance, the following entries were 
used. The list indicates the desired sequence: 

Description Entry 

1. Cross Reference See Also 

2. Month, year, and day 1912 MY 12 

3. Month and year 1912 MY 

4. Compound Month 1912 MY-JE 

5. Year Only 1912 

6. Compound year 1912-1913 

7. Estimated Date ND*1912-1913 

8. No date ND 

Character for character sorting would place them in the follow- 
ing sequence: 

1. Year Only 1912 

2. Year and month 1912 MY 

3. Year, month, and day 1912 MY 12 

4. Compound month 1912 MY-JE 

5. Compound year 1912-1913 

6. No date ND 

7. Estimated Date ND*1912-1913 

8. Cross reference SEE ALSO 

All of these deviations from character for character sorting in 
the "Date of Document* field had to be hand filed, but greater prob- 
lems arose in the writer or recipient portion of the card. Typical 
examples of further deviations would be names with a prefix such as 
Mclntyre, McCooley, O'Bryan, O'Leary, and words that should be 
ignored, such as "MRS" and ETAL." 



Sorting and Hand Filing with Unit Record Equipment 



To hand file the cards properly, it was first necessary to list 
the cards on the IBM 407 tabulator. The listing was then checked for 
discrepancies. The card representing the discrepancy had to be 
found in the card deck and then hand filed in its proper sequence. 
The card decks were then listed again to verify that all hand filing 
was done properly. 



144 

File Maintenance with Unit Record Equipment 



The editing for spelling, consistency in indexing, etc., was also 
done at this time. To change an entry, it was necessary for the 
editors to locate the card representing the entry on the list, write 
the change on the card, and submit the card for keypunching. When 
the cards were returned, they had to be compared for accuracy of 
punching, then hand filed in their proper sequence. 

Certainly many bibliographic projects on unit record equipment 
must follow a close parallel to the foregoing system. The main 
problems are hand filing and file maintenance, the latter meaning the 
ability to make additions, deletions, and changes. 



Solution with a Computer 



On January 17, 1964, a small scale IBM computer was put into 
operation at the Library of Congress. It consisted of 8,000 positions 
of memory, 4 magnetic tape units, a 1403 printer, and 1402 card 
read punch. Although its main purpose was to serve the Library's 
business and fiscal needs, we felt certain that it could be used to 
great advantage in solving some of the problems in preparing the 
indexes to the Presidential Papers. It would have been ideal if an 
entirely new system could have been developed at this time, but un- 
fortunately a great deal of work had been done on the indexes to vari- 
ous presidents long before the computer arrived. 

The computer system decided on has four main phases. Each 
phase on the accompanying flow chart is on a separate page. The 
following narrative description is written in this sequence and carries 
the step number of the flow chart to allow a cross reference between 
narrative and flow chart. 



Phase 1 Create Index on Magnetic Tape (see Appendix) 



Strangely enough, the problem of sorting a variable length 
field led to the system technique that was used to solve some of the 
hand filing rules. A sorting operation on a computer is much like 
that of a mechanical sorter in that it will only sort character for 
character, and the length of the field to be sorted must be clearly 
defined. 

( l) It was evident that to solve the problem of a variable 
length field it would be necessary to establish a fixed length field on 



145 

tape. This was done by searching the "Writer or Recipient" portion 
of the card as it was being transferred to tape for "TO," "FR," or 
"VS." When this limitation was found, that portion up to but not in- 
cluding "TO," "FR," or "VS," was placed in a fixed length field of 
44 characters that we called the "Sort Key." All unused portions of 
the sort key were filled with blanks. The "Date of Document" field 
was also searched, and appropriate substitutions of values (see 
below) were made that would give the desired arrangement according 
to the collating sequence of the IBM 1401 computer which is special 
character first, followed by letters, followed by numbers. This sub- 
stitution of the date field was placed in the rightmost portion of the 
sort key leaving 36 positions for the writer or recipient. Each entry 
on tape would now contain the card image and the 44 character sort 
key establishing a 124 character fixed length tape record. Figure 2 
is an actual "tape print out* of a few tape records. 

Listed below are the substitutions made in the "Date of Docu- 
ment" field. These substitutions can also be seen in Figure 2 by 
comparing the entry to the date portion of the sort key: 

Entry in "Date of Document" Field Substitution in Sort Key 

SEE 00000001 

SEE ALSO 00000002 

1916 MY 6 19160506 

1916 MY 19160588 

1916MY-JE 19160599 

1916 19168888 

1916-17 19169988 

ND*1916-1917 19169999 

ND 99999999 

It was at this point in the process that it was discovered some 
of the hand filing rules could be solved by manipulating the sort key 
in much the same manner as the "Date of Document" field had been, 
either by removing words and characters or by substituting values 
that would produce the desired sequence. For instance, it was a 
relatively simple matter to substitute "MAC" for all "MC" entries, 
because "MC" should be sorted as "MAC." Names like O'Leary and 
O' Bryan should sort as if there were no apostrophe. The apostrophe 
was removed, and all characters to the right of the apostrophe were 
shifted one position to the left. 

An entry such as "Walen Mrs J A* was a little more complex 
but, nevertheless, was handled without too much difficulty. These 
entries should be filed as the last entries for Walen J A and chrono- 
logically within themselves. Removing "MRS" from the sort key 
would make the entry sort with "Walen J A" and by placing a "9" in 



146 

the rightmost position of the sort key would give the entry a greater 
value than any other entry for "Walen J A" thereby forcing it to fall 
after all "Walen J A* entries. Figure 2 line 9 is a good illustration 
of this type of data manipulation. 

The original computer program also successfully filed all 
numbers from 1 to 100 as if they were spelled out. This was accom- 
plished by finding a number in the entry and locating its spelled out 
equivalent in a table located in memory. The word was then sub- 
stituted for the number in the sort key which, of course, would force 
the entry to sort as if it were spelled out. It was later decided that 
this filing rule would not be followed. In its place we may substitute 
spelled out words for key abbreviations. These key abbreviations 
will vary from index to index so the computer program would be 
developed with the flexibility to change the abbreviations used for 
each index. The number of abbreviations that can be handled would 
normally be determined by the core storage capacity of the com- 
puter, but a technique could be developed that would provide for 
thousands of abbreviations. 

Although these are the only filing rules that were programmed, 
there are many others that could have been easily incorporated but 
were not required in the indexes to the Presidential Papers. 

On the surface these few filing exceptions sound trifling, but 
in the Benjamin Harrison index (about 77,000 entries) we were 
amazed to find that 47-1/2 man days of hand filing and 21 days of 
machine sorting were eliminated and that the sorting of the "Date of 
Document" column was so flawless it is no longer edited. The con- 
tribution of computer application to this program increases in direct 
proportion to the size of the index and therefore will be of crucial 
importance in preparing some 400,000 index entries for the Wilson 
Papers and 530,000 for the Taft Papers. The Presidential Papers 
Section has estimated that 8 months of mechanical sorting and 1-1/2 
man years of hand filing will be saved in preparing the index to the 
Taft Papers through this system. 

( 2) With the index now on tape, the tape file is ready to be 
sorted by the sort key. Because the manipulated date is part of the 
sort key, this places the file in sequence chronologically within each 
writer or recipient. The file is now ready for a preliminary listing 
to be used for editing. 

(3) As the index is being listed, the computer program assigns 
accession number or sequence number to each entry thereby creating 
a unique identification. (See Figure 3). The entry plus this acces- 
sion number is printed and written on another tape at this time, but 
the sort key used in the sort is dropped as it is no longer needed in 
the process. The new tape index now contains only 88 characters 80 
for the card image and 8 for the accession number. 



147 
Phase 2 Edit and Change Report ( see Appendix) 



(4) To make a change, the editor records on the change form 
(see Figure 4) the accession number and only the changing informa- 
tion, (in a unit record process it would have been necessary to re- 
cord the entire entry.) To change the sequence of an entry, the editor 
records the "from accession number" and the "to accession number" 
that will place the entry in its proper sequence. After the changes 
have been keypunched, the cards are ready for an edit and change 
report. (See Figure 5) . 

The cards are now read by the computer and matched against 
the tape index on accession number. The entry which is printed 
before the change and after the change is then reviewed by the 
editors to verify that all changes were made correctly. If a dis- 
crepancy does exist, further changes are submitted, and the above 
procedure is repeated until there are no errors. 



Phase 3 Update Index (see Appendix) 

( 5) The change cards are now ready to update the tape index. 
All entries on the tape index that are to be changed are deleted, and 
the remainder of the file is written onto another reel of tape at the 
same time the corrected entry is written on an alternate tape. The 
net result is a reel of tape representing the index less all changes 
and a reel of tape containing only changes. 



Phase 4 Final Report (see Appendix) 



( 6) The change tape is now sorted by accession number and 
is ready to merge in the main file. If the changes had been included 
with the main tape, the entire file would have to have been sorted to 
place the changes in their proper sequence within the index. 

(7) The main file and changes are merged at the same time 
the listing for photo offset is made. (See Figure 6). This computer 
program also has the ability to run only selected pages of the index 
in the event a page or pages are damaged. 



148 

Conclusion 



This paper describes the solution of a fairly extensive but rel- 
atively simple editing and filing problem by computer. It was not 
necessary to attempt to develop a program that would accommodate 
all filing rules, nor is it certain that such a program is possible for 
a highly complex dictionary catalog. However, after a limited ex- 
amination of the 180 pages of the "Filing Rules for the Dictionary 
Catalogs of the Library of Congress," which is presumably as com- 
plex and detailed as any codes the Library might attempt to com- 
puterize, the problem may be somewhat less difficult than had been 
anticipated. 

In reading through the Filing Rules to note all the filing excep- 
tions, it soon became obvious that the task would be endless. How- 
ever, a pattern in these exceptions quickly became apparent. While 
a printed manual of this type must necessarily describe each ex- 
ception separately in detail, many of the exceptions were actually 
similar to one another (some identical) when expressed in computer 
logic. Moreover, many filing exceptions in the printed code would 
turn out not to be exceptions in character for character sorting on the 
computer. 

Below are just a few examples of the many areas in which there 
are similar or identical exceptions: 

1. commas after surnames 

2. commas after forenames 

3. Bible entries-New Testament before Old Testament 

4. corporate entries 

5. the rules for person, place, thing, title. 

Actually, all the rules for exceptions in the above areas are 
identical in nature, with only one exception. The computer cannot 
differentiate between such things as name entries ( Lincoln, Abraham) 
and place entries ( Lincoln, Nebraska) . These entries could however 
be identified by the cataloger as the entry was being prepared for 
computer input by coding "A" for person, "B" for place, "C" for 
thing, and "D" for title. Placing this code in its proper location 
in the sort key would force the entries to sort A, B, C, D or person, 
place, thing, title. 

For a successful operation, a joint effort by the library and 
data processing personnel will be required. In this partnership the 
cataloger will have to understand thoroughly computer sorting to 
supply the codes properly. 

A project before us now is the author and title index to the 
Catalog of Copyright Entries which is somewhat more complicated 
than the indexes to Presidential Papers. Efforts here will necessarily 



149 

be slanted to the filing rules used in this index rather than to a gen- 
eralized program. However, greater depth in filing is planned, and 
it is confidently believed that the majority of the filing rules used in 
this index can be accommodated. Problems in foreign languages, ab- 
breviations, and in filing numbers as if they were spelled out can be 
anticipated. The easiest solution to the latter two (abbreviations and 
numbers) would be to use a variable length record that could be large 
enough to spell out all words and write out all numbers. 

A limitation of computer sorting that should not affect the out- 
come is the number of characters that can be sorted. Although there 
are no statistics on truncating names, experience indicates that a 50 
character sort key would properly sort most entries. This means that 
abbreviations or numbers could be used beyond the first 50 characters 
without affecting the result of the sort. The maximum number of 
characters the IBM 1401 computer can sort is 99, but it is desirable 
from a data processing point of view to keep the sort key to a 
minimum. 

The computer file maintenance procedure obviously is superior 
to a unit record process. It permits the editors to work entirely 
from a listing whereas the unit record procedure; required the editors 
to locate physically the card on the listing, make the change, and 
then re-file the card. The development of the change report allowed 
the editors to restrict their reviews to changes only rather than re- 
viewing another complete listing after the changes had been made. 

There are no statistics developed to indicate how much time is 
saved with this updating procedure; and although it is not as dramatic 
as the sorting technique, it will eventually save countless hours to 
editors dealing with hundreds to thousands of entries, particularly 
after the editors become better acquainted with the process. 



150 



Appendix I 



PHASE 1-CREATE INDEX ON MAGNETIC TAPE 



NEW INDEX WITH 
ACCESSION NUMBER. 
THIS NUMBER SERVES AS 
A UNIQUE IDENTIFICATION 
FOR EACH ENTRY AMD ALSO 
REPRESENTS THE SEQUENCE 



THE SORT KEY OF 44 
CHARACTERS IS NOT INCLUDED 
IN THIS RECORD. EACH RECORD 
IS NOW 88 CHARACTERS LONG. 








SEARCH WRITER OR RECIPENT, DATE 
OF DOCUMENT, AND GENERATE A SORT KEY 
AS PART OF THE TAPE RECORD. 



INDEX IN" SHELF LIST ARRANGEMENT. 
EACH RECORD IS 124 CHARACTERS LONG. 
SEE FIGURE 2. 







SORT INDEX BY SORT KEY. 



ABOVE SORT PLACES INDEX IN 
SEQUENCE BY DATE OF DOCUMENT WITHIN 
WRITER OR RECIPENT. 







PRELIMINARY INDEX IS REVIEWED 
BY EDITORS. CHANGES ARE RECORDED 
ON THE FORM SHOWN IN FIGURE 4. 



151 



PHASE 2-EDIT AND CHANGE REPORT 




TO PHASE 3 







MATCH CHANGES AGAINST INDEX ON 
ACCESSION NUMBER. PREPARE REPORT 
SHOWING ENTRY BEFORE AND AFTER 
CHANGE IS MADE. IF ERRORS ARE 
FOUND IN THE CHANGE REPORT, CHANGES 
FOR THESE ERRORS ARE MADE AND STEP 
4 IS REPEATED. NOTE CHANGES ARE 
NOT ACTUALLY MADE AT THIS TIME. 
SEt PHASE 3-UPDATE. 



PHASE 3-UPDATE INDEX 




> 'MATCH CHANGE CARDS AGAINST INDEX 

ON ACCESSION NUMBER. WRITE INDKX BUT 
DO NOT INCLUDE CHANGES. WRITE A 
CHANGE TAPE THAT INCLUDES ALL CHANGES. 



TO PHASE 



152 



PHASE 4-FINAL REPORT 




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RYAN MRS L M TO MRS J ft UALOH 

fill 


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ADDITIONAL INFORMATION 

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Figure 1. Card Format 



153 



< SORT KEY GENERATED BY COMPUTE 




^ 


-J 




"- CARD IMAGE 


WRITER OR RECIPIENT 


DATE 


WRITER OR RECIPIENT 


DATE 


MABE D E 


19120916 


27 MABE D E FR WW 


1912 SE 16 ' 


MACCOCLEY J 


191209 6 


27 MCCOOLEY J FR WW 


1912 SE 6 


MACDOUGALL R V 


19120916 


27 MACDOUGALL R V FR WW 


1912 SE 16 


MACINTYRE J 


19120916 


27 MCINTYRE J FR WW 


1912 SE 16 


MADISON C W 


19120916 


27 MADISON C W FR WW 


1912 SE 16 


'MADISON C W 


19121099 


27 MADISON C W 


1912 OC-OE 


OBEAR A C 


19120916 


27 OBEAR A C FR WW 


1912 SE 16 


OBRYAN G S 


19120916 


27 O'BRYAN G S FR WW 


1912 SE 16 


'OBRYAN G S *> 


1912011', 


27 O'BRYAN MRS G S TO WW 


1912 JA 14 


OLEARY J 


19120916 


27 O'LEARY J FR WW 


1912 SE 16 


OMEN W A 


19120916 


27 OWEN W A FR WW 


1912 SE 16 


PARSONS B C 


00000001 


27 PARSONS B C 


SEE 


SCOTT 


OC000001 


27 SCOTT C R 


SEE 


WALEN 


18901231 


27 WALEN J A TO WW 


1890 DE 31 


MALEN 


18S01288 


27 WALEN J A TO WW 


1890 DE 


WALEN 


18908888 


27 WALEN J A TO WW 


1890 


WALEN 


18909988 


27 WALEN J A TO WW 


1890-91 


WALEN 


9999S99S 


27 WALEN J A TO WW 


NO 


WALEN 


99S9S999 


27 WALEN J A TO WW 


ND1890 


WALEN 9 


19120916 


27 WALEN MRS J A FR MRS L M RYAN 


1912 SE 16 



Figure 2 
Sample Magnetic Tape Records 



03612960 


22 MCVEIGH H R TO DSL 


1888 AP 20 

IftRA AP 1 


2 

4 




03812720 


22 MACVEIGH J FR DSL 


1886 OC 11 


1 




03812880 


22 MACVEIGH JAMES TO'GC 


1886 SE 23 

Lflia NO ?n 


8WITH CIRCULAR 
7VJ7 




03813040 


22 MCVEIGH N TU GC 


1888 MY 28 


2 

J 




03813200 


22MCVEY CHARLtS S TO GC 


1885 OC 3 

IflHC, NO 19 


3 

4 




03813360 


22 MCVICKER J H TO DSL 


1887 SE 27 

1BB& SI 12 


1TELEGRAM 

4 




03813520 


22 MCWHIRTER A J TO GC 


1887 MR 1 


3 




03813680 

03013760 


22 MCWHOOD E JR FK CLP 
??MC-uiit LAttS c P rn QSJ 


1885 SE 17 
IDA? ND in 


2 

7 




03813840 
Oi8l3920 


22 MCWILLIAMS J FR DSL 
22 MCWILLIAMS J TO DSL 


1885 AP 24 


2 




03814000 
03814080 


22 MACWILL1AMS WILLIAM TO GC 
22 MACY E J TQGC 


1885 St 10 ' 
18H7 JL 4 


3 

4 




03814160 
03814240 


22 MACY MRS L S FK DSL 
22 MACY S J TO GC 


1887 JL 21 
1888 MY 21 


2 
2 




03814320 
03814400 


22 MACY MRS S J TOGC 
22 MCZANE A TO f MHAKTON 


1904 JA 14 
1887 Ft 19 


2 

4 




03814480 
O3814560 


22 MADDEN D TO GC 
22 MADDEN G H TO J BLACK 


1895 NO 25 


9 




03814640 
O3B14720 


22 MADDEN H A TO GC 
22 MADDEN H A FR DSL 


1889 JA 25 
18H9 JA 29 


3 




03814800 
03814880 


22 MADDEN J TO GC 
22 MADDEN T E T AL TOoGC 


1887 JE 7 


2 




03814960 

03815040 


22 MAOUIN L L FOF F CLEVELAND 
22 MADDGCKS H F FR DSL 


1892 NO 15 


3 




03815120 
03815200 


22 MAODOX L TO GC 
22 MADDUX H C FK DSL 


1880 OC 21 
18B6 JL 26 


3WITH CLIPPING 

2 


. 


03815280 
03815360 


22 MADDUX S W TO DSL 
22 MADDUX - T W TO GC 


1888 JE 11 
1892 NO 9 


2 
1TELEGRAM 




03815440 
03815520 


22 MADOUXS S W TO GC 
22 MADIGAN A H TO GC 


1868 JE 7 
1886 DE 11 


1 
1TELFGRAM-V30 




03815600 
03815680 


22 MADIGAN J TU GC 
22 MAOIGAK W T TO DSL 


1887 MR 1 
1886 DE 4 


1TELEGRAM-V30 

4 




03815760 
03815840 


22 MADIGAN W T TO DSL 
22 MADISON A Z FR OLP 


1888 AG 21 
1885 AP 30 


3 

1 




03815920 

03816000 


22 MAOISON A Z TO GC 
22 MADISON COFFEE POT CO TO GC 


1888 OC 29 , 
1886 DE 8 i 


4 
JWITH ADVERTISEMENT 





Figure 3 
Preliminary Listing with Accession Number 



154 





[ 


Accession 

o 
MM , 


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o 
TO j 


5 


WRITER OR RECIPIENT 


DATS 


of 


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1 1 


















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RON , 


Accession 

o 

TO j 




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rd CHABCB OCBB 
- 1 Add 
2 Delete 






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Fig. 4 Change Sheet 



HtfSIOfNTHL >>tS tOlT MMMII HOM CASE H 







CHANGE N.UHSES, NO. 
.. <DOS 01071970 M 


DOCUMENT iiUiJ PUS 


EFEOEHCE 




YES 




NO 


. CHANGE 

r*M 

KHUCC 


0*2720 
0(2720 





LLKMSON J FH H IEL 1*7 


NO 2 II tf 17 M, 10 


NO 










OM770 

095600 
095600 


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ST C J TO'JHl 1*1 


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J* 2* 1 1 DUN61ISON 1110 m 23 


NO 


IES j e toji 1*1 


J 24 1 1 DUN6LISON 1130 M> 2> 


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Figure 5 
Edit and Change Report 



155 



i MACAULAV GRAHAM CATHERINE PR GW 
1 MACAULAY GRAHAM CATHERINE TOGW 
1 MACAULAY GRAHAM CATHERINE FR GW 
1 MACAULAY GRAHAM CATHERINE TOGW 
MACAULAY GRAHAM CATHERINE TO*GW 
MACAULAY GRAHAM CATHERINE FR GW 
MACAULAY GRAHAM CATHERINE FR GW 
MACAULAY ZACHARY TO*W W GRENVILLE 
MACAULEY AULEY TOGW 
MACAULEY AULEY FR'TOBIAS LEAR 
MACAY SPRUCE 
MCCABE ALEXANDER TO GW 
MCCABE HENRY TO GW 
MCCALL GEORGE TO*GW 

MCCALLISTER ARCHIBALD TO PA COUNCIL 
MCCALLISTER ARCHIBALD FR GW 
MCCALLMONT JAMES TO GW 
MCCALLMONT JAMES TO GW 
MCCALLUM KENNETH TO* JAMES GORDON 
MCCALMAND JEAN FRJOHN MCALISTER 
MCCALVEY WILLIAM ET AL TOI PUTNAM 
MCCARMICK GEORGE TO GW 
MCCARMICK GEORGE FR GW 

MCCARNY FRANCIS-BRITISH STRENGTH 
1 MAC CAR THY EUGENE 

1 MCCARTHY MARTAIGUE JEAN BAPTISTE DE 
1 MCCARTY DANIEL TO GW 
1 MCCARTY DANIEL TOGW 
MCCARTY DANIEL FR GW 
MCCARTY DANIEL TO GW 
MCCARTY DANIEL TO GW 
MCCARTY DANIEL TO GW 
MCCARTY DENNIS FR GW 
MCCARTY DENNIS TOGW 
MCCARTY DENNIS FR*GEORGE MERCER 
MCCARTY DENNIS TOGW 
MCCARTY DENNIS FR GW 
MCCARTY DENNIS TOGW 
MCCARTY DENNIS TO GW 

MCCARTY DENIS 
MCCARTY PATRICK TOGW 

MCCASKEY BRITISH SHIPS 6 TROOPS 

MCCASKEY ALEXANDER TO*GW 
MCCASKEY ALEXANDER TO*GW 
1 MCCASKEY ALEXANDER TO GW 
1 MCCASKEY ALEXANDER TO GW 
1 MCCLANACHAN ALEXANDER FR GW 
I MCCLANACHAN ALEXANDER FR GW 
1 MCCLANACHAN ALEXANDER FR GW 



1787 NO 16 


2 


2 V14-P199 1 


1789 OC 30 


4 


] 


1790 JA 9 


2 


4 V17-P289 ] 


1790 JE 


4 


8 1 


1791 MR 1 


4 


4 I 


1791 FE 10 


2 


1 V17-P164 1 


1791 JL 19 


2 


1 V17-P181 1 


1794 NO 28 


4 


6 MEMORIAL ] 


1791 SE 6 


4 


4 1 


1791 NO 14 


2 


2 V18-P22 2 


SEE 




SALISBURY NC 1791 MY 30 


1786 JE 26 


4 


4 1 


1775 MR 31 


4 


2 1 


1783 JL 21 


4 


4 1 


1779 MY 4 


4 


2 EXTR-VERSO-GALBRETH MYS 3 


1782 JA 1 


4 


2 CERTIFICATE OF SERVICE 1 


1791 OC 8 


7 


3 V19-P8 ] 


1792 FE 25 


7 


6 V19-P9 1 


1782 MY 8 


4 


2 HAZEN MY 27 ] 


1782 FE 22 


6C 


1 V2-P36 2 


1777 FE 7 


4 


2 1 


1786 OC 31 


4 


4 TWO SAME DATE 1 


1786 NO 27 


2 


3 V13-P247 1 


1778 SE 29 


4 


2 DEPOSITION 1 


SEE 




JONES JOHN PAUL 1785 AP 13 


SEE 




MACARTY-MARTEIGUE J B DE 


1769 DE 6 


4 


3 1 


1784 FE 22 


4 


2 SPRAGUE TRANSCRIPT 


1784 FE 22 


2 


1 V11-P130 


1797 NO 2 


4 


3 


1797 NO 6 


4 


2 


1798 SE 19 


4 


4 


1755 NO 22 


2 


2 V1-P288 


1755 DE 30 


5 


1 V8-P18 RECEIPT 


1756 JA 30 


2 


1 V3-P52 


1756 MY 3 


5 


1 V8-P23 RECEIPT 


1756 MY 10 


2 


1 V3-P171 


1756 JE 2 


5 


1 V8-P29 RECEIPT 


1756 NO 25 


5 


1 V8-P40 RECEIPT 


SEE 




MCCARTY DENNIS 


1797 AP 26 


4 


3 


1780 JE 1 


4 


2 INTELLIGENCE REPORT 


1789 JL 4 


7 


2 V19-P16 


1789 JL 8 


7 


2 V19-P17 


1793 AG 19 


7 


5 V19-P18 WITH RECOM 


1793 AG 20 


7 


2 V19-P20 


1777 AP 30 


3B 


1 V3-P111 


1778 MR 26 


38 


2 V5-P184 


1778 MR 26 


4 


2 



Figure 6 
Used for Photo -off set 



LIBRARY APPLICATIONS OF DATA PROCESSING EQUIPMENT 
AT ABBOTT LABORATORIES 



Walter A. Southern 



I. Introduction 



The Science Information Services (SIS) of Abbott Laboratories 
is a medium-sized industrial research information service. Its 
primary function is to serve Abbott's one-thousand man research 
staff; but being a company-wide service, all North Chicago divisions 
and, to a lesser extent, Abbott's international offices, avail them- 
selves of SIS services. 

The SIS has a staff of five librarians, nine information scien- 
tests, and fourteen clerical assistants. It is a collection of 32,000 
volumes with 2,000 volumes being added annually; it receives more 
than 1,000 different journals, and it has an annual circulation of 
135,000 items. Since Abbott is a member of a strongly research- 
oriented industry and because the SIS promotes its services exten- 
sively, the SIS is a very active and heavily-used department. 

The SIS first made use of data processing equipment in its 
operations in 1951 when its journal circulation slips and charge rec- 
ords were produced on punched card equipment. Since then various 
recurring lists such as our list of current journals and our internal 
dictionaries have been added. In 1959 an automated information 
retrieval system for the current literature was begun. An IBM 101 
Electronic Statistical Machine located in the department is used for 
our retrieval operations. In addition, the department has an IBM 870 
Document Writing System. 

Many of our data processing operations are handled for us by 
our corporate Data Processing Department. Close rapport has al- 
ways been maintained with this department for professional guidance 
in developing our own automated procedures and to make use of their 



Walter A. Southern is Head, Science Information Services, Abbott 
Laboratories, North Chicago, Illinois. 

156 



157 

equipment. Abbott's Data Processing Department has a card IBM 
1401 computer, a Burroughs 220 computer, a Burroughs 280 com- 
puter, and accessory equipment. 

Conveniently accessible to the SIS, in Abbott's scientific divi- 
sions, are IBM 402 and 407 accounting machines, an 007 collator, a 
514 reproducing punch, a 548 interpreter and a 1620 computer with 
discpack. 

This report reviews SIS' past experiences in the use of data 
processing equipment for library procedures. In these operations 
there are three distinct areas where automation is, or will be, used: 
information retrieval, serials procedures, and acquisition-cataloging 
procedures. 

At the present time, SIS is mid-way in a study of all procedures 
which lend themselves to automation. This study is complicated by 
the fact that the company is presently planning for a new large-scale 
company-wide computer system. The computer needs of the SIS are 
being considered in this corporate study. Since the final decision as 
to which computer will be obtained has not been made, the final plans 
for operations must be delayed until this decision has been made. In 
the present study, however, the feasibility of developing computer 
programs on an interim basis which will make use of present com- 
puter equipment is also being considered. Such a plan may mean 
that the procedures will have to be redesigned for the new computer, 
but hopefully it is expected that it will mean only a minor reprogram- 
ming job. Eventually input-output consoles should be in our library 
on-line with our new computer for information collection and inquiry. 



II. Information Retrieval 



The SIS has had an automated information retrieval system in 
operation since 1959. The system now contains 35,000 literature 
references on Abbott products and other drugs pertinent to Abbott 
operations. With a five-year coverage of the literature in the sys- 
tem, information searches are now very productive. Approximately 
200 searches per year are now being run. 

The search system is currently based on the use of an IBM 101. 
In designing the system of mechanized searching, a method making 
use of random numbers in preference to direct coding was selected. 
A random number system was selected for several reasons: (l) 
Only one punched card per article is needed which keeps the size of 
the search deck to a minimum. (2) An open-end dictionary is pos- 
sible which allows us to add new index terms in any subject area as 
needed. (3) Machine time required to search the punched card deck 



158 

is kept to a minimum, and (4) It is possible to correlate all index 
terms with an individual article as desired. From the Fischer- Yates 
tables, SIS has had generated and tested for randomness some 10,000 
random numbers. The search field for the random number coding 
makes use of a 10 X 40 field on the punched card (columns 1-40 and 
rows 0-9) . Twelve-digit random numbers are used for the index 
terms. Thus, random number 063-123-269-304 which represents 
penicillin V is punched as follows: digit 3 in column 6, digit 3 in 
column 12, digit 9 in column 26, and digit 4 in column 30 (see Figure 
2) . Mathematical computations have shown that it is safe to super- 
impose 50 index terms per article in our 10 X 40 search field. Be- 
yond 50 superimposed index terms, false relationships show up 
excessively in searching. The maximum number of terms ever 
allowed is 70. In addition, rows 11-12 of columns 1-40 are used for 
supplementary direct coding. Terms coded here are either role in- 
dicators or frequently used terms, e.g. clinical report, LD5Q, intra- 
venous drug administration. Other coding for an article consists of 
the year of the article (columns 73-74) , the corresponding abstract 
number (columns 75-79), and the machine control punches (column 
80). (See Figure 3). 

SIS information scientists abstract and code the current litera- 
ture. Strictly controlled chemical and biological dictionaries are 
used in assigning index terms. For each index term which is in the 
dictionaries, two punched cards are prepared. The first is used in 
preparing the printed dictionaries. (See Figure 4). The index term 
is punched alphabetically in columns 16-80 and the corresponding 
random number is punched in columns 1-12. Machine controls are 
punched in columns 13-15. These cards are filed alphabetically and 
used whenever a new edition of our dictionaries is prepared on the 
IBM 1403. The second punched card is a tub index term card. The 
index term's random number is punched as it appears in the search 
field in columns 1-40. The term's subject serial number is punched 
in columns 41-45, and the term itself is alphabetically punched in 
columns 46-72. These tub cards are gang punched on an IBM 519 
Document Originating Machine in quantities of either 25 or 50, de- 
pending upon the frequency with which the term is used. The index 
term is interpreted onto the top of the card by an IBM 557 Alphabetic 
Interpreter. This gives a visual quality control check so the term 
is properly filed. Green card stock is used for original tub index 
term cards. These cards are then used as recorder cards when the 
supply runs low. 

The tub cards are filed horizontally in two tubs 10' 5" x 2' 5" 
maintained in the SIS. Each tub accommodates 2,400 index terms 
which are filed behind guide cards which are 1-1/2" longer than the 
tub cards. The index terms are typed on the guide cards for easy 
identification when pulling tub cards. 



159 

In processing an article for machine indexing, a Documentation 
Assistant assembles from the tubs those index term cards which have 
been assigned to the article. A card punched with the date of the 
article is also pulled as are other punched cards which correspond 
to the abstract number assigned to that article. Other machine con- 
trol cards are assembled into the decklet. These decklets are then 
sent to the Data Processing Department where all the random num- 
bers corresponding to the indexing numbers are accumulated through 
all the other cards, including the master search card (a top quality, 
edge coated card) and the duplicate search card. An IBM 519 is used 
to accumulate this information. The two search decks are then re- 
turned to the SIS. 

The remaining punched cards for each decklet are kept together 
by abstract number and put into dead storage. The system was 
planned so that it can be converted easily to searching on a computer. 
In the accumulating procedure, the serial numbers corresponding to 
the index terms are not accumulated. It is the serial numbers which 
will be transferred to tape, along with abstract numbers. Searching 
will then be done by serial numbers rather than random numbers. 

Studies show that it is faster and less expensive to pull and 
accumulate tub index term cards than to key punch all the random 
numbers. One disadvantage is the amount of space needed for the 
tubs. Should this operation ever be expanded beyond two tubs, an 
additional disadvantage would appear: the distance a Documentation 
Clerk must walk to pull cards from more than two tubs. 

Requests for machine searches are programmed by information 
scientists. The formulation of the search question must be carefully 
done in order that search terms be correctly selected and arranged. 
A maximum of four searches can be run at one time. Once the search 
is programmed, the Documentation Clerk runs the search on the IBM 
101. The appropriate random numbers, direct punches, and/or date 
are wired on a panel board. Once the proper abstract numbers have 
been selected, they are put through the IBM 870, and a printed list of 
pertinent abstract numbers is produced. The corresponding abstracts 
are then pulled from the abstract card files and a check made to see 
that the abstracts are pertinent to the search request. The final 
answer to the requester is provided by a packet of the pertinent ab- 
stracts. All the procedures connected with punched card preparation 
and the machine searches are well handled by Documentation 
Assistants. 

For machine searching, a permanently wired panel is used 
which will accept a question containing up to four index terms: ABCD. 
A typical search would be: The use of ristocetin (A) in combination 
with penicillin V (B) in the treatment of bacterial endocarditis (C) 
in children (D). The search panel has been wired to search all pos- 
sible combinations of the ABCD terms. If this search, for example, 



160 

did not provide an answer containing all index terms ABCD, it is 
quite possible the inquirer would be interested in the articles con- 
taining index terms ABC, ACD, or AD. This search procedure is 
very useful for generic-specific searches for a question such as: 
Has hydrochlorothiazide been used in the treatment of diabetes mel- 
litus ? Here again, the programming must be emphasized. The in- 
formation scientists must fully understand these coding principles 
for best results. This request would be programmed: hydrochloro- 
thiazide (A), thiazide derivatives (B), clinical reports (C), and 
diabetes mellitus (D). If no ABCD cards were produced, it is likely 
that the requester would be interested in clinical reports on the use 
of other thiazide derivatives in the treatment of diabetes (BCD), or 
he might be interested in BD cards which would be experimental 
reports on the uses of these drugs in experimental animals. 

In systems using random numbers, false relationships of two 
types are inherent. The first is that the components of several 
punched random numbers may form the random number of an index 
term not in the article. And the more index terms assigned to the 
article, the more likely false relationships will develop. For this 
reason, too, it is always more desirable to search on four terms for 
desired information rather than one term since this cuts down on 
false relationships. The second type of false relationship is the well- 
known blind Venetian- Venetian blind example. The terms you are 
searching for are in the article, but not in the relationship you de- 
sire. Both types of false relationships must be sorted out before the 
answer is supplied to the requester. 

A search of the 35,000 articles in the system now requires 
four minutes for panel wiring and 78 minutes for the IBM 101 run. 
Additional time is required to pull the pertinent abstracts for the 
abstract file. 

As SIS' store of abstracts grows and as more and more machine 
searches are being made, it is inevitable that the present system 
must be transferred to a computer. These plans are presently being 
made and, as noted earlier, the present system was designed for 
easy transfer to the computer. A program is being prepared so that 
the serial numbers (corresponding to index terms) and abstract 
numbers on the decklets now in dead storage will be transferred to a 
tape. It has not yet been decided whether an inverted file or serial 
file will be used. 

Computer searching will make it possible to eliminate all false 
relationships caused by superimposing index terms; it will not, of 
course, eliminate the Venetian blind type[ syntax] of false relation- 
ship. Computer searching will also make it possible to run searches 
faster and more conveniently. In addition, it will be possible to 
multiplex fifty searches. As a result, SIS expects to run many more 
searches and not be concerned with the time factor of running 



161 

searches as it now is with the IBM 101. A further goal is to prepare 
a second tape with abstract numbers and complete bibliographic 
citations for each. It will then be possible to produce printed bibliog- 
raphies and also to make available a selective dissemination of in- 
formation (SDl) program which would be a much-used service by 
SIS clients. 

The present use of the IBM 101 gives the convenience of run- 
ning searches whenever needed. With computer searches, one hour 
per week will probably be assigned for this purpose. The convenience 
of searching will be lost, but the benefits to be gained will outweigh 
the inconvenience. 



III. Serials 



The procedures for the control of current journals present the 
greatest challenge in SIS operations because of the importance of 
current journals in the research operations and because of the heavy 
use of current journals by the scientific staff. It is quite natural 
then that our first use of automated library procedures was for the 
preparation of journal circulation lists. This automated procedure 
for journal circulation lists which was begun in 1951 is still in use 
today. Circulation slips and duplicate charge cards include the 
following information: name of journal, copy number, serial number, 
and employees' names and department numbers [ See Figure l] . 
Punched cards are used for the input. When the system was started, 
the IBM 407 accounting machine was used for producing the lists, 
but today the IBM 1403 printer is used. In addition to the circulation 
lists and charge cards, lists of journals routinely received by in- 
dividuals are also produced on an annual basis. These lists are used 
for annual reviews of current reading, both by the individuals and 
by their department managers. Other by-products are printed scrolls 
of all circulation lists which are used for many reference purposes, 
printed guides for the storage of circulation lists, and statistical 
data. On an annual basis, SIS receives a report on the number of 
individuals receiving journals routinely, the number of journals re- 
ceived by each department, and the total number of journals routinely 
circulated (98,357 journals in 1964) . These data are of special 
interest at this time as SIS is planning additional research facilities 
away from the present location; they will be useful in planning 
library facilities for this area. 

The next step is for computer control of all journal procedures. 
This will include: purchase orders for new journals, annual renewal 
of journals, checking in of current journals, journal claims, overdue 
notices for journals out of circulation, a union list of journal holdings, 
plus all procedures covered by the present automated system. 



162 



A computer program for all SIS journal procedures has been 
developed by Mr. Donald H. Kraft, Industry Marketing Representative 
for IBM in Chicago. The program has been developed for the IBM 
1620 computer, but the basic principles are applicable to any com- 
puter system. The flow charts for this program follow. The flow 
charts of a second program, using punched card equipment instead 
of a computer were prepared for SIS by Mr. L. R. Chapman, Sales 
Representative of IBM's Evanston Office. 

A Generalized Library Serials Check- in & Routing Procedure Using 



Using Data Processing Equipment 



MONTHLY 




The Call Card calls from disk 
storage the computer program 
which generates the monthly 
Expected Serials File. This 
file consists of a punched IBM 
card for each copy of each 
serial expected the following 
month. The card is punched 
with journal name, volume 
number, month, copy number, 
destination library, bindery 
code, class number. 

Renewal and bindery notices 
are written when needed. 



Trigger 

Routing 

Slips 



Daily Check- in Procedure 

As the serials arrive, a clerk 
pulls from the Expected Serials 
File the corresponding IBM 
cards. These cards will trig- 
ger the printing of routing 
slips. 



163 



Daily Preparation of Routing Slips 




Routing 
Slips 





A 


> 


X 






The Expected Serials 
Cards are fed into the 
computer. The disk file 
contains the routing 
lists, which are stored 
magnetically on its disk 
surfaces. The computer 
then prints the paper 
routing slips correspond- 
ing to the Expected 
Serials Cards. The rout- 
ing slips contain serial 
name, number, issue, 
copy, and date, as well 
as a numbered list of the 
recipients. 



Mail 



The serials clerk staples 
the routing slips to the 
appropriate serials. 



164 




Mail to next 
name on rout 
ing slip 



After a reader has finished the 
serial, he returns it to the library. 
The serials clerk key punches an 
IBM return card with the journal 
identification and the line number of 
the last name scratched off the list. 
The return card can contain informa- 
tion for more than one transaction. 



The return card is read into the 
computer, which searches the disk 
file for the appropriate routing rec- 
ord. The computer then posts to- 
day's date beside the next name on 
the disk record, indicating the date 
the serial was sent to him. Over- 
due notices are printed for those 
serials not returned within the loan 
period. The return cards are 
destroyed. 



165 



Weekly Printout of Current Routings 



Call Card 



Routing 

Informa- 
tion 



Computer 



Routing 

Inform a 
tion 



Each week, a program is initiated 
by a call card to print "CURRENT 
ROUTING INFORMATION." The 
computer prints the journal 
name, identification number, 
date, volume, number, copy as 
well as the names of the next 
two persons on the routing list. 
This list is consulted by the 
serials librarian to answer 
queries relating to the where- 
abouts of particular journals. 

A sample is shown. 



CURRENT ROUTING INFORMATION 
WEEK OF 12/18/64 

THE LIBRARY JOURNAL, 7825, 10/64. VOL. 34, NO. 4, COPY 1 
JOHN JONES DEPT. 72 

BILL SMITH DEPT. 90 



166 




Information relating to additions, de- 
letions and address changes to the 
routing lists are punched into IBM 
cards. These cards are fed into the 
computer which makes the necessary 
changes to the lists stored magnetically 
on the disk surfaces. 



Monthly Claims Reporting 



Expected 
Serials File 



Serials Librarian 




Cards remaining in the Expected Serials 
File at the end of the month are examined 
by the serials librarian. Those cards rep- 
resenting claims are read into a printer or 
computer, and claims reports are written. 



Claim 



167 



Serials Holdings List 




Periodically, the computer can print a 
Serials Holdings List from informa- 
tion stored magnetically on the disk 
file. This list can be prepared in 
multiple carbon copies or directly on 
reproduction mats by the computer. 



A Keyword -in- Context (KWIC) Index 
can also be prepared by the computer, 
thereby indexing the holdings list by 
each significant title word 



IV. Acquisition-Cataloging 



Up to the present time none of the acquisition- cataloging pro- 
cedures have been automated. But in our study we believe that a 
total systems approach will be established for them. Whether or not 
the procedures will be developed on an interim basis for the Bur- 
roughs 220-280 system has not been decided. 

The following procedures will be included in the automation of 
the acquisition- cataloging operations: 

1. Purchase orders. 

2. Outstanding order file. 

3. Claims. 

4. Book catalogs (and possible catalog cards until the complete 
collection is automated) . 

5. Book charge cards, book pocket labels, and book spine 
markings. 

6. Book overdue notices. 

7. New book announcement lists. 

8. Printed lists of books on specific subjects. 

9. Various statistical reports. 

The automated procedures being considered for the acquisition- 
cataloging procedures follow closely those developed by Mr. R. E. 
Durkin for the IBM libraries at Kingston and Poughkeepsie. Flow 



168 

charts, diagrams, and examples of their operations follow. This 
progran, called the Program Library Tape, is in the process of being 
documented by IBM, and the descriptive brochure should shortly be 
available. 



Program Library Tape 

A. Basic Equipment needed: 

1. 1401 computer with 4,000 positions of core storage 

2. 4 tape drives 

3. 1402 punched card reader 

4. 1403 printer. 

B. Hourly Costs: 



The estimated hourly charges are in the area of $45 - $50. 
C. Program Features: 

1. AUDIT - Checks, and in some cases, corrects all key- 

punched input; prints a proof-reading copy of 
the input; and transfers information from 
punched card records to magnetic tape. 

2. PRINT - A printing program to prepare reports of 

listings in any of variable page formats. 

3. INDEX - A permuted title indexing program. 

4. TWOUP - A second printing program which prints data 

on two column page format. 

5. THREE In combination, they print 3x5 cards. 
(&) FIVEP - 

6. FOURD - Allows further refinements in producing 3X5 

cards. 

7. SUPVS - The basic function of SUPVS is to control the 

loading and unloading of the other programs. 



V. Centralized Information Retrieval Systems 



It has been evident for many years that no company can by it- 
self adequately index, abstract, and disseminate all current and past 
literature pertinent to its operations. This is especially true in the 
pharmaceutical industry with its extensive interdisciplinary research. 
As a result, many new centralized retrieval systems are now in 
operation. And we must not overlook the many proposals for inter- 
national cooperation in medical documentation services, some of 



169 

which will certainly materialize. On an industry basis, the American 
Petroleum Institute and the American Society for Metals have already 
established computerized information retrieval systems. Other 
established automated information retrieval systems are now avail- 
able in the chemical-pharmaceutical areas. 

Because of these developments, the best laid plans of a pharma- 
ceutical information service for developing its own retrieval stystem 
are going to be influenced perhaps even drastically reduced as 
these new centralized services develop. More likely, however, it 
will be that the individual company will tailor-make these informa- 
tion services to meet its own information needs. 

In the Abbott SIS the following automated centralized informa- 
tion retrieval systems will be influencing the development of its own 
retrieval systems: 

1. Steroid Index of Patents 

The U.S. Patent Office for several years now has been issuing 
a punched card index of all new steroid compounds reported in the 
literature and in U.S. patents. An electronic sorter is needed to use 
this service. No plans have been announced to transfer this operation 
to computer usage. But it is not inconceivable that this will be done 
since the file is now becoming unmanageable. 

2. Information for Industry Uniterm Index to U.S. Chemical Patents 

This service has been in operation for ten years. The basic 
service is a manual, book- type, Uniterm index of all United States 
chemical patents. A computer tape index became available two years 
ago; thus both manual and computer retrieval methods are available. 
An improved computer search system which would incorporate all 
minor terms (terms used less than ten times in any one year) is 
being planned. If this should become available, it would greatly en- 
hance the value of this service for pharmaceutical firms. 

3. RINGDOC 

This indexing- abstracting service of the pharmaceutical litera- 
ture was started in July 1964 by Derwent Publications in London. It 
is perhaps the most advanced centralized information retrieval sys- 
tem now available. It provides 40,000 abstracts each year along with 
manual, punched card, and computer tape indexes. The present tape 
index contains only alphabetical index terms and bibliographic cita- 
tions. But in October 1965, it is planned to add a detailed chemical 
coding system. 

4. Chemical Titles 

In January 1965, the American Chemical Society made available 
computer tape indexes for all entries in their publication, CHEMICAL 



170 

TITLES. The tape format and search programs are designed for an 
IBM 1401/1410 computer system. The tapes will enable users to 
make their own searches and enable us to provide a selective dis- 
semination service. (This new service also provides for the alterna- 
tive of having searches made in the offices of Chemical Abstracts in 
Columbus for those companies not having computer services.) 

5. FARMDOC 

For the past three years, an abstract-index service of pharma- 
ceutical patents from the major countries of the world has been 
available from Derwent Publications in London. Both manual and 
punched card indexes are supplied. As this store of patents grows, 
it is likely that the punched card index will also be supplied on com- 
puter tape. This service has become so successful that the supplier 
is planning to extend his patent coverage into the areas of food and 
agriculture. 

These five examples of centralized information retrieval ser- 
vices have been noted to illustrate how national information suppliers 
will be influencing the operations of company information services 
in the future. More and more, the company information service 
must be planning for reprogramming and "packaging" computer tape 
indexes for their own use, making use of computer service centers, 
and justifying the costs of national services in relation to company 
needs. 



171 



ILLINOIS UNIV.ORG.AB. 



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Figure 1 

Computer Produced Journal Circulation Lists 
and Charge Records 



172 



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Search Card. The Term "Phenoxymethyl Penicillin" 
is Superimposed on Other Index Terms 



173 



-RANDOM NUMBER DICTIONARY TERM -.- SEO NO 

157 194 271 330 C GIG. ACETYLCHOLI NE-LIKE, AUTONOKIC AGENT, DIRECT- A 11694 
157 194 271 330 D ACTING /3/ II i A 11694 



-062 135 214 230 ACETYLCHOLINESTRASE -INHIBITOR /!/ A-IZO2A. 

062 135 214 230 B i ACE T VLC H3L I STE *ft SE INHIB., ENZYME INHIB., NICOTINE- A 12024 
062 135 214 230 C LIKE, CHOLINE*3IC, MUSCARI NE-L IKE , AUTONOMIC A 12024 

062 135 214 230 D AGENT *$ ENZYME INHIB., ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE INHIB. S A 12024 

062 135 214 230 E I SEE SPECIFIC AUTONOMIC ACTIONS II $$ GANGLIONIC A 12024 
062 135 214 230 F BLOCKING, AUT3N3MIC AGENT t* SPASMOGENIC /MUSCLE SKEL./ A 12024 

-062. .135 214 230 G II_t . 4-1.2024- 



EXOPHAGUS OIS. /539/ Ibl 



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053 067 171 177 B BACTEftlA /9/ 



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012 042 058 165 'ACIDITY /4/ A-13640 

012 042 058 165 B PH, PROPERTIES, CHEM. , PROPERTIES, PHYS., /4/ /SEE A 13640 
012 042 OSS 165 C ALKALINITY, II, NEUTRALITY lit A 13640 



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292 311 339 349 ACIDOSIS /788.'6/ Ibl 



Figure 4 

Biological Dictionary. A Computer Produced Dictionary Used 
in Connection with Abbott Abstracts 



GENERAL REFERENCES 

Griffin, H. L. EDP Procedures in Technical Library Opera- 
tions. IDO- 16881. Phillips Petroleum Co., Atomic Energy Div., 
Idaho Operations Office, AEC, 1963. 

IBM DSD Technical Information Center. Selected Papers on an 
Integrated System for Disseminating, Storing, and Retrieving In- 
formation. TR 00. 1103. Poughkeepsie, New York, IBM Development 
Laboratory, Data Systems Division, 1964. 

IBM Data Processing Division. Index Preparation and Library 
Processing at Monsanto Chemical Company's Research Center. 
White Plains, New York, IBM Data Processing Division, 1964. 

Nicolaus, John J. The Automated Approach to Technical 
Information Retrieval; Library Applications. Washington, D.C., 



174 



Department of the Navy, Bureau of Ships, (For sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, U.S.GPO) 1964. 

Southern, Walter A. "Mechanized Processing and Retrieval of 
Bio-Medical Information," Methods of Information in Medicine, 
1:16-22, January 1962. 



I 



DATA PROCESSING EQUIPMENT AND THE LIBRARY 
A Review of Available Tools and Their Potential Application 



William E. Greiner 



As it is preferable to discuss data processing equipment in 
general, using UNIVAC equipment as typical examples of the tools 
that are presently available; this paper will be concerned with four 
main topics: 

I. THE TOOLS OF THE TRADE 
II. POTENTIAL AREAS OF APPLICATION 
HI. MATCHING THE TOOLS TO THE JOB 
IV. RECENT TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS. 

It is hoped that the following comparisons will prove helpful to 
librarians. 

I. THE TOOLS OF THE TRADE 

Data processing equipment, on the basis of general character- 
istics, falls into three general classes or types: 

A. Punched Card Equipment 

B. High Speed Card Processing Equipment 

C. Electronic Data Processing Equipment (Computers). 

A. Punched Card Equipment 

For purposes of this discussion, punched card equipment is 
defined as equipment whose input is limited to the punched card, 
and whose output is limited to a printer and/or a punched card. 

There are two types of punched card installations: 

1. Complete, "free-standing," installations. 

2. Peripheral installations, operated in conjunction with 
electronic data processing equipment. 



William E. Greiner is Manager of the Educational and Library Mar- 
keting UNIVAC Division of Sperry Rand Corporation. 

175 



176 



The complete, "free-standing," installation is just what the 
name implies. It is a complete, independent, operating installa- 
tion consisting of a number of basic punched card units, capable 
of creating and processing data in punched card form, and pro- 
ducing usable output. 

In most instances the major mission of the peripheral in- 
stallation is to create input data for an electronic data processing 
(computer) installation, where the actual processing and output 
is performed by more sophisticated equipment. 

There are two manufacturers of punched card equipment in 
the United States, IBM and UNIVAC, which market equipment 
originated by their predecessor company, Remington Rand. The 
physical specifications of the IBM and UNIVAC punched cards are 
identical. However, the columnar format and punching code of the 
two cards are entirely different. Reference to Figure 1 will illus- 
trate that the IBM Card contains 80 vertical columns, each con- 
taining 12 punching positions; whereas, the UNIVAC card contains 
90 columns, each column containing 6 punching positions. 

Generally speaking, the punched card equipment line supplied 
by both IBM and UNIVAC is almost identical. It includes the 
following units: 

(1) Key Punches and Verifiers. To create the punched card 
and verify the accuracy of the punching. 

(2) Reproducing Punches. To transfer punched data from a 
deck of punched cards to a deck of unpunched or partially 
punched cards. Or to create a deck of identical punched cards 
from a single punched card (gang punching) . 

(3) Interpreters. To decode and print on the face of the 
punched card the English language equivalent of the punched 
code. 

(4) Sorters and Collators. To sort and/or merge decks of 
punched cards into desired sequences. 

(5) Calculators. To read, calculate, and punched desired 
results in punched cards. 

(6) Printers. To produce usable printed reports from data 
contained in punched cards. 

(7) Summary Punches. To simultaneously punch cards con- 
taining data included in reports produced by the printer. 

Certain pieces of UNIVAC Punched Card Equipment have 
unique features and characteristics which might justify brief 
comment at this time. 

(1) UNIVAC Key Punches. All punching is withheld until all 
key depressions for a given card are completed. With the 



177 

depression of a single "trip" key, all holes are punched 
simultaneously. This is in contrast to the "instantaneous" 
IBM punching principle where the hole or holes are punched 
as keys are depressed. This punch die -punching technique 
permits an operator to correct any detected errors prior to 
the actual punching of the card. 

( 2) UNIVAC Optical Scanning Punch. The UNIVAC Optical 
Scan Card can record up to 40 columns of marked data as 
compared with IBM's 27 columns. The UNIVAC card can be 
marked with any soft pencil, ball point, or standard pen. Sen- 
sitivity control is variable. The Optical Scanning Punch can be 
programmed to store constants, generate characters, and make 
logical decisions (see Figure 2) . 

(3) UNIVAC Collating Reproducer. This machine combines 
the functions of a collator and a reproducer. Each function is 
separately operable and permits simultaneous reproducing and 
collating when desired. 

Notwithstanding the speed, capacity, and flexibility of punched 
card equipment and the economy of its operation when properly 
applied, this type of equipment has certain basic limitations when 
compared with other more sophisticated types of data processing 
equipment. These limitations include the following: 

1 l) Limited Card Column Capacity. In certain instances 80 
or 90 columns are not sufficient to record the data from a 
single transaction. 

( 2) Limited Memory and Programming Capacity. The memory 
and programming capacity of the punched card printer and 
calculator is inadequate for many sophisticated programs. 

(3) Inadequate Speed. The transaction volume of some opera- 
tions requires more card read, punch, calculating, and printing 
speeds. 

(4) Non- integrated Operation. A punched card system is a 
series of separate, off-line, independent operations which can- 
not be integrated into a single automatic operation. 

(5) Bulky Storage. Punched cards are bulky and costly to 
store in comparison with magnetic tape. 

B. High Speed Card Processing Equipment 

The unique characteristics of this type of equipment permit it 
to "bridge the gap" between standard punched card equipment 
and electronic data processing equipment. Input is limited to 
punched cards and output to high speed printers and punched cards. 

The UNIVAC 1004 Card Processor is a fine example of the 
high speed card processor, (see Figure 3) . Listed below are 
some of the outstanding features of the UNIVAC 1004. 



178 

(1) Faster input, output, and printing speeds: 

Card Read - 400-600 CPM 
Card Punch - 200 CPM 

Print - 400-600 LPM. 

( 2) Calculation at electronic speeds: 

Compute - 400-600 CPM. J 

( 3) Internal memory: 

Core Memory 1000-2000 Characters 
Simultaneous read - calculate - print - punch. 

(4) More programming power: 

62 Program Steps 

Each step performs up to 9 different operations. 

(5) Concurrent operations: 

Simultaneous read - calculate - print - punch. 

(6) Communications capabilities: 

Can be linked to other types of data processing equip- 
ment via standard communications facilities. 

(7) Field expandable: 

Additional modules of core memory, program steps, 
and magnetic tape may be field installed. 

( 8) Input flexibility: 

Can process 80 and /or 90 column cards. 

(9) Economical cost: 

See Figure 3. 

TheUNIVAC 1004 Card Processor is the only operable high 
speed card processing system on the market at the present time. 
Other manufacturers have recently announced new systems which 
may fall in this category. 

C. Electronic Data Processing Equipment (Computers) 

Electronic computers are classified on a number of different ^ 
bases. The most common of these classifications is as follows: 1 

(l) Special Purpose vs. General Purpose 

The characteristics of these two types of computers are 
obvious. Typical special purpose devices would include 
computers designed for missile guidance, processing 



ft 



179 

control, numerical control, etc. General purpose com- 
puters, by their characteristics, are multi-use systems 
which can be applied to any business or general scientific 
area. 

( 2) Digital vs. Analog 

Digital computers accept input and produce output in digital 
form. Analog computers measure values and produce out- 
put in various forms other than by digital representation. 
An electric meter is a typical example of an analog device. 
It measures the flow of current and represents consump- 
tion on a readable dial. 

Obviously, for library applications, the discussion will be 
limited to general purpose digital computers. 

(3) Batch Processing vs. Random Access 

Batch processing computers usually process data in some 
consistent sequence or arrangement. Data is usually 
stored in memory in a given sequence, and input is pre- 
sorted in the same sequence. Random access computers, 
in contrast, permit the processing of data on a random or 
nonsequential basis. 

(4) Externally vs. Internally Programmed 

Externally programmed processors or computers are 
programmed by means of a wired plugboard. Programs 
for internally programmed computers are recorded on 
punched cards, paper tape, or magnetic tape and then 
stored in internal memory. 

All punched card equipment is externally programmed. 
Likewise the UNIVAC 1004 Card Processor also utilizes 
this programming technique. Although the UNIVAC 1004 
has up to 2000 characters of internal core memory, the 
program is actually wired on a plugboard. This frees the 
internal memory for actual working storage. Most modern 
electronic computers are programmed internally. 

1. Basic Components of all Digital Computers 

Generally speaking, all digital computers, regardless of type, 
characteristics, speed, capacity, or cost, contain the same basis 
components, namely: input devices, main processor, auxiliary 
mass memory, and output devices, (see Figure 4). 

a. Input devices: Every computer configuration must include one 
or more devices which permit data to be entered into the system. 



180 



The more sophisticated the system, the greater will be the variety 
of input devices. The larger the system, the greater will be the 
quantity of each particular device. The most common input devices 
are the following: 

1 l) Console typewriter 

(2) Punched cards 

( 3) Magnetic tape 

(4) Paper tape 

(5) Communication devices. 

b. Main Processor: Most main processors contain three sub- 
components, namely: internal memory unit, program control 
unit, and arithmetic unit. 

1 l) Internal memory unit: 

The internal memory is usually either magnetic core, 
drum, or thin film. The amount of internal memory may 
vary from 4000 characters up. 

( 2) Program control unit: 

This unit reads and interprets the program which has 
been stored in memory, and conditions the computer so 
that it will automatically complete the program. 

(3) Arithmetic unit: 

This unit performs all the arithmetic computations that 
are required to complete a program. Computations are 
limited to basic arithmetic functions: add, substract, 
multiply, and divide. 

c. Auxiliary Mass Memory: Most large scale digital computers 
include auxiliary mass memory devices as optional features. 
This mass memory is usually housed in separate cabinets but is 
always under the control of the main processor. This memory 
may be in the form of magnetic drums or discs, or in some in- 
stances, magnetic tape. Mass memory capacity may extend into 
millions of characters. Access time is usually relatively slow in 
comparison with internal memory. 

d. Output Devices: Every computing system must include one or 
more devices to accept, transmit, or produce the output from a 
computer operation. Here again, the larger and the more sophisti- 
cated the system, the greater will be the variety and number of 
output devices. The most common of these devices are: 

(1) Console typewriter 

( 2) Punched cards 



181 

(3) Paper tape 

(4) Magnetic tape 

( 5) High speed printer 

( 6) Special visual display devices 

(7) Communication devices. 

It is obvious, therefore, that the characteristics, the size, 
and the price of general purpose digital computers may vary wide- 
ly, depending upon the particular combination, variety, quantity, 
and capacity of the individual components included in the system. 

2. Types of General Purpose Digital Computers 

Figure 5 is a tabulation of the basic characteristics of gen- 
eral purpose digital computing systems presently marketed by 
UNIVAC. These systems are classified into three general cate- 
gories based on these characteristics: 

a. Business Data Processing Computers Batch Processing 

b. Real Time Computers Random Access 

c. Scientific Computers. 

The general characteristics of each of these three types of 
computing systems follow. 

a. Business Data Processing Computers Batch Processing 

Generally speaking, the average business data processing 
job requires the processing of large masses of input data, rel- 
atively simple calculations, and a large volume of output. For 
example, large payroll, billing, accounts payable, sales analyses, 
. and inventory applications involve the processing of large volumes 
of individual transactions. However, the required arithmetic 
calculations are very simple; i.e., hourly rate times hours worked, 
unit cost times quantity, gross value times a discount factor, etc. 
As output, the business data processing computer system must 
produce large numbers of paychecks, vouchers, invoices, etc. 
Consequently, fast output is required. 

In order to meet these demands, the business data processing 
computer usually has the following characteristics: 

1 l) Fast input speed 

( 2) Relatively slow computing speed 

(3) Relatively small internal memory 

(4) Little or no mass memory 

( 5) Fast output speed. 

It is usually practical and customary to process business 
data on a batch basis, so there is relatively little demand for 
random access capability. 



182 

b. Real Time Computers Random Access 

The unique characteristics of the real time, random access, 
computer permit immediate, random access of memory when 
required. The real time computer is used in situations where the 
time requirements are particularly stringent. In most real time 
situations, time will not permit the batching and pre-sequencing 
of input data. In most instances, input is processed in random 
sequence, memory is instantaneously searched, and the output is 
delivered in seconds or fractions of seconds. To meet these re- 
quirements, most real time, random access computers have the 
following general characteristics: 

1 l) Fast input speed 

( 2) Fast access and fast computing speed 

( 3) Moderately large internal memory 

(4) Large mass memory 

( 5) Fast communication devices 

(6) Fast output speed. 

One of the most common uses of the real time, random 
access computer is in the general area known as information 
retrieval. The information retrieval concept requires the ability 
to interrogate the mass memory of the computer at will, usually 
on a random access basis. The required information must be 
delivered in the desired form almost instantaneously, and this 
accounts for the term "real time." 

The interrogation of the computer is, in many instances, 
accomplished by the use of special communication devices. These 
special devices may be located at remote points, and they are 
linked to the computer via teletype or telephone lines. The inquiry 
units may be special typewriters, paper tape units, or special 
purpose devices. The inquiry devices may actually be other 
"satellite" computers or processors, located at remote points. 
For example, Figure 5 indicates that the UNIVAC 1004 and 1050 
systems are capable of functioning as communication input and 
output devices to larger UNIVAC systems if required. Their use 
as communication devices in no way interferes with their utility 
as "free-standing" systems. 

In most instances, these special inquiry units are also capa- 
ble of receiving and recording the information which was requested. 
Hence, they are actually dual purpose input-output devices. 

In order that the real time computer may efficiently fulfill 
its mission in an information retrieval operation, it must be capa- 
ble of instantaneously searching mass memory on a random ac- 
cess basis, performing required computations at high speeds and 
then transmitting the required output data to the remote output 
devices. 



183 
c. Scientific Computers 

The scientific computer must be capable of accepting a 
modest amount of input data and then performing complex arith- 
metic computations at high speeds. The ultimate output, in most 
instances, is modest in volume. Since scientific programs are 
generally quite complex, they require large memory capacity for 
program and working storage. The characteristics of most 
scientific computers are as follows: 

1 l) Fast input 

( 2) Extremely fast computing speeds 

(3) Extremely large internal memory 

(4) Modest mass memory 

(5) Moderately fast output speed. 

Since very few library applications fall into the pure scien- 
tific category, for the purposes of this discussion we can dismiss 
the scientific computer from any further consideration. 

I. THE TOOLS OF THE TRADE-SUMMARY AND REVIEW 

Before moving on to a discussion of where and how data 
processing equipment can be used in the library system, the fore- 
going comments on the characteristics of the various tools that 
are available can be summarized as follows. 

A. Punched Card Equipment 

After reviewing the functions of the various component units 
of a punched card system, it was observed that within the limits 
of the transaction volume to be processed, punched card equipment 
could be economically used by many library systems. The basic 
limitations of punched card equipment as compared with more 
powerful and sophisticated data processing systems have been 
outlined. 

B. High Speed Card Processors 

It has been determined that the high speed card processor 
"bridged the gap" between the punched card and the electronic 
computer systems. It had greater input and output speed than 
punched card equipment and had a reasonable amount of internal 
memory. It had more powerful programming capabilities and 
could calculate at electronic speeds. Furthermore, it could con- 
currently read, calculate, print, and punch data, and in most in- 
stances, was quite comparable in cost to punched card equipment. 

C. Electronic Data Processing Equipment (Computers) 

Eliminated from consideration were the special purpose and 
the analog computer, and it was agreed that for library purposes 



184 

only the general purpose digital computer should be considered. 

It was observed that general purpose digital computers, by virtue 

of their basic specifications, fall into three classes; namely, the 

business data processing computer, the real time computer, and 

the scientific computer. It was also concluded that there were 

very few pure scientific applications in the library field; hence, 

there was no need for further consideration of the scientific com- ^ 

puter. In summary, by process of elimination, it appears that ^ 

further discussion of the available tools of the trade should be 

limited to four classes of equipment: 

1. Punched card equipment 

2. High speed card processors 

3. Business data processing computers (Batch processing) 

4. Real time computers (Random access) . 

H. POTENTIAL AREAS OF APPLICATION 

To facilitate discussion of the potential areas of library 
application of these four types of equipment, see Figure 6 which 
lists many of the commonly accepted applications in this area. 
These applications are broken into five general categories: 

A. Financial accounting 

B. Book processing 

C. Circulation control 

D. Information retrieval 

E. Research and statistics 

This schedule indicates the areas of application and the capa- 
bilities of the various types of equipment to handle them. Generally 
speaking, the major factor in the determination of the proper 
equipment to be selected and used will be the size of the system 
and the transaction volume to be processed. 

In the areas of financial accounting, circulation control, and 
research and statistics, all four types of equipment are capable 
of producing desirable end results. Quite naturally, the business 
data processing computer can do a more complete job than can 
the punched card system; but here again, the matter of economics 
must be considered. 

A. Financial Accounting 

None of these applications is a newcomer to data processing. | 
There is not an application listed in this category that is not 
presently being handled by hundreds of government, commercial, 
industrial, and financial users. You will not open new horizons or 
chart new courses if and when you add these applications to your 
equipment, regardless of type. Any manufacturer of data process- 
ing equipment can supply proven, workable procedures and 



185 

programs for any of these applications. They are the orthodox 
*bread and butter" applications that have supported punched card 
and computer installations for years past. They are all proven, 
economical applications; and, as previously stated, your equipment 
selection will be determined by your volume. 

B. Book Processing 

This area of application is, of course, unique to the library 
field. Generally speaking, punched card equipment cannot accept- 
ably produce catalog cards or catalogs because of its inability to 
print upper and lower case characters. Upper and lower case 
characters are available on the UNIVAC 1004 Card Processor and 
all other UNIVAC high speed printers. Consequently, acceptable 
catalog cards and catalogs can be produced on any of this equip- 
ment. While it is possible to produce continuous form book labels 
on punched card equipment, here again the availability of upper 
and lower case characters permits the production of a more ac- 
ceptable label. 

C. Circulation Control 

Several libraries have for years been effectively handling 
borrower registration, book charging and returns, overdue notices, 
and fine accounting on standard punched card equipment. The 
punched card has proven to be an excellent "turn around document" 
for this use. For the large library system, the ultimate, most 
sophisticated approach to this application is to store the entire 
borrower and book inventory file in mass memory, and automat- 
ically determine due dates, prepare overdue notices, compute 
fines, etc. 

D. Information Retrieval 

Applications in this area can only be processed on large 
scale systems with mass storage and real time capabilities. The 
assumption would be that the entire book inventory would be stored 
in mass memory. One or more input devices could then be used 
to interrogate the memory to produce the output required. Re- 
quests would refer to information regarding a single title, or if 
required, extensive listings could be printed out containing com- 
plete data in any category. 

E. Research and Statistics 

Generally speaking, research and statistics are usually de- 
veloped as a free by-product of other applications. For example, 
circulation statistics would be developed from the same documents 
or data used in the book charging and return operation. Likewise, 
analyses of title and subject usage would originate from the source. 



186 

Vendor analysis would be produced from data already developed 
in the accounts payable application. 

m. MATCHING THE TOOLS TO THE JOB 

The ratio of the number of library data processing installa- 
tions to total library systems in the United States indicates that 
libraries in general are not utilizing modern data processing 
techniques to the degree that is found in governmental, industrial, 
and commercial organizations. In my estimation, this is the re- 
sult of several factors and conditions: 

A. Too few libraries and library administrators have sufficient 
knowledge of the capabilities of data processing equipment to 
visualize the potential economies of their use. 

B. Generally speaking, librarians are ultra- conservative about 
accepting modern data processing techniques. This is obvious 
when one observes the hundreds of library systems which are 
still preparing payrolls, vouchers, purchase orders, etc., by ob- 
solete methods which have been discarded long since by other 
organizations. 

C. The library system, being a quasi-public service organiza- 
tion, finds it difficult to obtain the necessary operating capital 
funds to finance a modern data processing system. 

IV. RECENT TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS 

Fortunately, some recent technological developments should 
make it easier for the librarian to justify the investment in modern 
data processing equipment. Here are a few of them. 

A. The "Intermediate" Equipment 

This equipment, of the high speed processor class, permits 
the library system to start small and build. It gives the inex- 
perienced librarian an opportunity to develop an understanding of 
basic data processing techniques on equipment that is simple in 
concept but efficient in its operation. 

B. The Inexpensive Remote Input Device 

The development of these devices permits the larger library 
system to install a central computer facility and interrogate it 
with a series of inexpensive inquiry devices which can be installed 
at remote points. 

C. The "Time Sharing" Concept 

In the near future, every manufacturer will offer computer 
"time sharing" services. This would permit a library to install 
a modest "free-standing" system on its own premises to handle 



187 

its routine housekeeping operations. This same system could then 
be linked by communication lines to a large, real time, mass 
memory computer installed in a manufacturer's service center. 

In conclusion, modern data processing equipment, systems, 
and techniques have much to offer the librarian and the library 
system. Efficient, economical tools are "on the shelf." Many of 
the major applications have already been developed and pro- 
grammed. Finally, the equipment manufacturers are ready, 
willing, and hopefully, able to supply any assistance that may be 
required. 



188 



Figure 1 
THE STANDARD PUNCHED CARD 

CARD FORMAT AND PUNCHING CODES 



yfMt MOST PUKX I 0I.C O^ Al_l_ ACCOUNT INO OOCUMCNTI 

t 

000 M X0>014XK0U0I<U0M0XI|I<M1<I<U1<I40M N 00 N X V00 N X X X < 
kkkk0i.0i.kkk k k00k kkkkk0kkk0kk V>00k000k0k k00k0 
00* ** 100101 10111111011111 10010101 1011 1001 * 100 

ABC oe *** Ji KL.RN o*a* STOW wx** 13343 
I 

H N M H00M N ><0X k M ><000X XU0u0l<0X0HkN I.00H * * N M I 
4 >.00k0ki.k0<<00k0k00kk<.0kfc0k0i.i>kkkkkkkk0kkkl 

;.***%**************** *****i 

The UNIVAC Punched Card: Data appears in this card as round holes in 45 
vertical columns, divided horizontally into two fields, for a total of 90 columns. 
Numbers are represented by a one or two hole code, letters by a two or three 
hole code. 

M 

4BU- 

I"" fiimun "" p...*-. 

Illllllll III 1 If 

IM|Illllill|lltill4ll!l!li|illItIII|llliItt|illiilttlllllllltllil!liliIllit 

ii|iiiiiiii>|>Hii!iinij|iiiiiiii|iiiiiii|iiiiiiiiiiiii||||iiiininiiii 

44444441 44444444 44|4444< 4 {^4444414444444414444444144444444444444444411114444444 
llfRlllflllllllllllllllllllllllllllllltlllllllltllfllll 

Illlllllllllllllllllllllllllllll , 
itiitii|iiitiiiiiiiii|ii|iiiiiiiiifii|iiimii|ifitfii|iiiftfiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiii 

IIIIIIIIIIIII|IIIIIIII|IIIIIII|IIIIIIII||||II||||IIII4II 

;t!2!!!!!!!!!!!!!||!!!!!!!!!!!!!!l!!!!!!!!l!!!!!!!l!!!!!!!!!! !!!!l!!!!! '- !!! ' 

C~ 



The IBM Punched Card: Data appears in this card in the form of rectangular 
holes in 80 vertical columns. Numbers are represented by one hole, letters 
by two hole code. 



189 



Figure 2 
UNIVAC OPTICAL SCAN AND IBM MARK SENSE CARDS 



S A09 6 SM I TH W K 

f u**t BUMM I mtotn M^ 




UNIVAC Optical Scan Card: Marks may be made with any pencil, ball point, 
or regular pen. Each card will record up to 40 columns of marked informa- 
tion. The marks are converted to standard holes by the UNIVAC Optical Scan- 
ning Punch. 




IBM Mark Sense Card: Marks may be made with any soft lead pencil. Each 
card will record up to 27 columns of marked information. The marks are 
converted to standard holes by the IBM Mark Sense Reproducer. 



190 



Figure 3 

COMPARATIVE SPEEDS, CAPACITIES, AND COSTS 
UNIVAC 1004 CARD PROCESSOR VS PUNCHED CARD EQUIPMENT 



COMPARISON OF SPEEDS AND CAPACITIES 



Operation 



UNIVAC 1004 

High Speed 
Card Processor 



Standard 

Punched Card 

Equipment 



Card Read 

Card Summary Punch 

Memory Capacity 

Computing Speeds 

Printing 

Magnetic Tape-Read & Write 

Paper Tape-Read & Write 

Concurrent Read-Compute-Print-Punch 



400-600 CPM 

200 CPM 
2000 Characters 
400-600 CPM 
400-600 LPM 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 



150 CPM 
100 CPM 
150 Characters 
150 CPM 
150 LPM 

No 

No 

No 



COMPARISON OF COSTS-TYPICAL EQUIPMENT & CONFIGURATIONS 



Equipment 



IBM 407 Printer 

IBM 514 Summary Punch 

IBM 604 Calculator 

Total Monthly Rental 



$900 
125 
600 

$1,625 



150 CPM Read-Print 
100 CPM Punch 
100 CPM Calculate 



UNIVAC 1004 Card Processor 

UNIVAC 1004 Card Punch 
Total Monthly Rental 



$1,150 

300 
$1,450 



400 CPM-Read, 

Calculate, Print 
200 CPM Punch 



Figure 4 
BASIC COMPONENTS 

GENERAL PURPOSE DIGITAL COMPUTERS 



191 







AUXILIARY MASS MEMORY 

Discs - Drums - Tapes 
Special Devices 






1 J> 
^ 


INPUT DEVICES 




MAIN PROCESSOR 


Typewriter 




Internal Memory 


Punched Cards 




Core - Drum - Thin Film 


Paper Tape 




Program Control 


Magnetic Tape 
Communication 




External - Internal 
Arithmetic Unit 


Devices 




Add - Subtract 
Multiply - Divide 



OUTPUT DEVICES 



Typewriter 
Punched Cards 
Paper Tape 
Magnetic Tape 
H. S. Printer 

Communication 
Devices 



Figure 5 
UNIVAC DATA PROCESSING EQUIPMENT 

COMPARATIVE SPEEDS, CAPACITIES AND OTHER CHARACTERISTICS 





BUSINESS DATA PROCESSING EQUIPMENT 
(Batch Proceaalng) 


REAL TIME COMPUTERS 
(Random Access) 


SCIENTiriC 

COMPUTER 




Punched Card 
Equipment 


1004 11 


Processor 


1050 IV 
Computer 


UNIVAC III 
Computer 


418 

Computer 


490 

Computer 


1108 

Computer 




















Card Read- Card* per Minute 


150 


600 


600 


900 


700 


600 


600 


900 


Paper Tape Read - Characters per Second 




400 


400 


1000 


500 


too 


400 


400 


Maximum Capacity vorde 


150 


2M 




65H 


33M 


65M 


33M 


131K 


Word Site - >lta 


1 


1 


1 


1 


6 


ie 


30 


36 


Total Bits - (appro..) 


150 


2M 


2M 


65M 


198M 


1170M 


990H 


4716M 


Auxiliary Mas. Heory - Dru-a 


















Capacity per Drum - Million characters 






132 


132 


132 


132 


132 


132 


Haxlaui Number of Unite per Controller 






8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


Average Acceaa Time - Milllaeconda 






92 


92 


92 


92 


92 


92 


Add Tle - Hlcroieconda 


400 


91 


91 


35 


> 


, 


5 


3/4 


tamjatm 


100 


7 


7 


2 

300 


300 


2 

200 


5 

150 


3/4 
300 


High Speed Printer - Line* per Minute 
Communications Eauipent 


150 


110 
600 


110 
600 


110 
133H 
922 


110 
133M 
922 


110 
120M 
600 


110 
12SH 
922 


110 
120M 
922 


Via Data Line Terminal to: 




1004 


1004 


1004 


1004 


1004 


1004 


1004 






1050 


1050 






1050 


1050 


1050 






U III 


U III 










418 






418 


418 
















490 


490 
















1108 


not 













192 



Figure 6 
ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING EQUIPMENT 

PARTIAL LIST OF REPRESENTATIVE LIBRARY APPLICATIONS 



Punched 

Card 

Equipment 



Bullnei 
ta Proce 

Compute 



Revenue Accounting 

Inventories: supplles-equipattnt -visual aide 

InventorleSrBooks: ovned nd svailsble 

location-shelf llit> 

Budgetary Accounting: fund accounting 
Purchasing: requisitions-purchase orderi 
Accounts Pytble: vendor relttr,cei-voucher rtglitt 
Billing: accounts rtcelvbU-<tcnti-trtl balancing 
Payroll: paychocks-registors- labor costs-parsonntl 

ooh Processing Applications 
Catalog Cards 

Catalogs: union catalogs-book catalogs 
Serial Lists: -union lists 
Book Labels 

rculatlon Control 

took Chirglng: (lie elntenanee-book returns 
. Overdue Notices 
rine Accounting 
Inter-Llbrary Loans 

Subject LUtlngi 
. Author and Title Listings 
. Book Location Lists: departmental, etc. 

Aged Title Lists 

etearch snd Statistics 
. Circulation Statistics 

Tltl- and Subject Usage 

Borrower Analysis 

Vendor Analysis 

Reference Analysis 



thar Apjllcatlons 



LIBRARY APPLICATIONS OF DATA PROCESSING: 
A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1963-64* 



Compiled by James Krikelas 



The scope of this bibliography has been limited to actual ap- 
plications of data processing machines for the mechanization of 
library routines. General survey articles have been included only if 
they deal, wholly or in part, with operational or pre-operational 
programs. Published material dealing with information retrieval, 
such as reports of the programs at Western Reserve University and 
the National Library of Medicine, has been excluded. 

The increasing interest of librarians and information special- 
ists in convening and discussing their problems in relation to auto- 
mation has produced a number of significant meetings during the 
past two years. In addition to the annual proceedings of the Clinic 
held at the University of Illinois, the published reports of the Arlie 
Foundation Conference* and the 1964 ALA Pre-Conference Institute 
at the University of Missouri^ may be of special interest. 



*Articles published in 1963 that appear in the McCormick bibli- 
ography (cited below) do not appear in this list; one item (no. 13) 
published in 1962 has been added. 

McCormick, Edward Mack. "Bibliography of Mechanized 
Library Processes." In Herbert Goldhor, ed., Proceedings of 
the 1963 Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing. 
Champaign, 111., Distributed by the Illini Union Bookstore, 1964, 
pp. 157-176. 

iMarkuson, Barbara Evans, ed. Libraries and Automation. 
Proceedings of the Conference on Libraries and Automation held at 
Arlie Foundation, Warrenton, Virginia, May 20-30, 1963 under Spon- 
sorship of the Library of Congress, National Science Foundation, and 
the Council on Library Resources, Inc. Washington, Library of Con- 
gress, 1964. 

2 "Introduction to Data Processing," Library Resources &_ 
Technical Services, 9:5-103, Winter 1965. (These are revised ver- 
sions of the papers presented at the ALA Pre-Conference Institute.) 

193 



194 

Catalogs 



1. Bromberg, Erik, Dubinski, G. A., and Remington, Bonn. 
"Preparation of a Book Catalog," Special Libraries, 55:611-614, 
November 1964. 

2. Cline, Catherine. "Procedures for Developing Timberland's 
Book Catalog." PNLA Quarterly, 28:127-132, January 1964. 

3. Fasana, Paul J. "Automating Cataloging Functions in Con- 
ventional Libraries," Library Resources & Technical Services, 
7:350-365, Fall 1963. " 

4. Henderson, John D. "The Book Catalog of the Los Angeles 
County Public Library." In Herbert Goldhor, ed., Proceedings of the 
1963 Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing. Champaign, 
Illinois, Distributed by the lUini Union Bookstore, 1964, pp. 18-33. 

5. Highum, Clayton D. "Cataloging for Document Retrieval at 
Florida Atlantic University," College and Research Libraries, 25: 
197-199, May 1964. 

6. Moreland, George B. "Montgomery County Book Catalog," 
Library Resources & Technical Services, 8:379-389, Fall 1964. 

7. Perreault, Jean M. "The Computerized Book Catalog at 
Florida Atlantic University," College and Research Libraries, 25: 
185-197, May 1964. 

8. Richmond, Phyllis A. "Book Catalogs as Supplements to 
Card Catalogs," Library Resources & Technical Services, 8:359-365, 
Fall 1964. 

9. Weinstein, Edward A., and Spry, Joan. "Boeing SLIP: 
Computer Produced and Maintained Printed Book Catalogs," Ameri- 
can Documentation, 15:185-190, July 1964. 

10. White, Herbert S. "Use of Mechanized Equipment in the 
Production of Library Records for Manual Handling or Computer 
Manipulation," Sci-Tech News, 18:23-26, Summer 1964. 

11. Wilkinson, W. A. "A Machine-Produced Book Catalog: 
Why, How and What Next?", Special Libraries, 54:137-143, March 
1963. 

12. Wilson, C. W. J. "Use of the Friden Flexowriter in the 
Library of the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell," 
Journal of Documentation, 20:16-24, March 16-24. 



195 
Circulation 



13. Chosen, Lawrence I., and Kodroff, Bernard. "Automation 
of a Document Library," Bulletin of the Special Libraries Council 
of Philadelphia and Vicinity, 28:25+, February 1962. 

14. Gibson, R. W., and Randall, G. E. "Circulation Control by 
Computer," Special Libraries, 54:333-338, July-Aug. 1963. 

15. Havlik, Robert J. "Automatic Journal Routing Letter," 
Special Libraries, 54:175-176, March 1963. 

16. Haznedari, I., and Voos, H. "Automated Circulation at a 
Government R and D Installation," Special Libraries, 55:77-81, Feb. 
1964. 

17. Jordan, M. P. "The Electrowriters in the Vancouver Public 
Library," Canadian Library, 19:419, May 1963. 

18. Pizer, Irwin H., Anderson, Isabelle T., and Brodman, 
Estelle. "Mechanization of Library Procedures in the Medium-sized 
Medical Library: II. Circulation Records," Bulletin of the Medical 
Library Association, 52:370-385, April 1964. 

19. Southern, Walter A. "Information Services at Abbott Lab- 
oratories," JUinois_ Libraries_, 45:493-498, Nov. 1963. 

20. Weyhrauch, Ernest E. "Automation in the Reserved Books 
Room," Library Journal, 89:2294-2296, June 1964. 



Serials 



21. Brown, Jack E. and Wolters, Peter. "Mechanized Listing 
of Serials at the National Research Library," Canadian Library, 
19:420-426, May 1963. 

22. California. University. San Diego. Final Report: Serials 
Computer Project. La Jolla, Calif., University Library and Com- 
puter Center, University of California, San Diego, 1964. 

23. Pizer, Irwin H., Franz, Donald R., and Brodman, Estelle. 
"Mechanization of Library Procedures in the Medium-sized Medical 
Library: I. The Serial Record," Bulletin of the Medical Library 
Association, 51:313-338, July 1963. 

24. Srygley, Ted F. "Serials Record Instruction for a Com- 
puterized Serial System," Library Resources & Technical Services, 
8:248-256, Summer 1964. 



196 

25. Vdovin, George. "The Serials Computer Project, University 
of California, San Diego." ^n_Wesley Simonton, ed., Information Re- 
trieval Today. Minneapolis, Center for Continuation Study, University 
of Minnesota, 1963, pp. 109-118. 



Other or Combined Processes 



26. Bauer, Charles K. "Practical Application of Automation 

in a Scientific Information Center A Case Study." In_ Harold S. Sharp, 
ed., Readings in Information Retrieval. New York, The Scarecrow 
Press, Inc., 1964, pp. 569-61 IT" 

27. Bauer, C. K. "Practical Applications of Automation in a 
Science Information Center A Case Study," Special Libraries, 55: 
137-142, March 1964. 

28. Burns, Lorin R. "Automation in the Public Libraries of 
Lake County, Indiana." In Herbert Goldhor, ed., Proceedings of the 
1963 Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing. Champaign, 
Illinois, Distributed by the Hlini Union Bookstore, 1964, pp. 9-17. 

29. Croxton, Frederich E. "Alpha, et al," Sci-Tech News, 
18:79-82, Fall 1964. 

30. Croxton, Frederich E. Automation Progress at RSIC: The 
Status of Alpha L Redstone Arsenal, Ala., U.S. Army Missile Com- 
mand, 1963. 

31. Culbertson, Don S. "Data Processing for Technical Pro- 
cedures at the University of Illinois Library." Jn Wesley Simonton, 
ed., Information Retrieval Today. Minneapolis, Center for Con- 
tinuation Study, University of Minnesota, 1963, pp. 99-107. 

32. Felter, Jacqueline W. "Initiating a Mechanized Union 
Catalog for Medical Libraries in Metropolitan New York," Special 
Libraries, 55:621-624, Nov. 1964. 

33. Griffin, Hillis L. "Electronic Data Processing Applica- 
tions to Technical Processing and Circulation Activities in a Tech- 
nical Library." In_ Herbert Goldhor, ed., op. cit., pp. 96-108. 

34. Griffin, Hillis L. EDP Procedures in Technical Library A 
Operations. Washington, Office of Technical Services, U.S. Depart- 
ment of Commerce, 1963. 

35. Griffin, Marjorie. "IBM Advanced Systems Development 
Library in Transition." Jn_ Herbert Goldhor, ed., op. cit., pp. 79-95. 

36. Hinkle, Elizabeth. "Computers and Books at the Manned 
Spacecraft Center Library, "SLA Texas Chapter Bulletin, 15:11-13, 1964. 



197 

37. Lipetz, Ben-Ami. "Labor Costs, Conversion Costs, and 
Compatibility in Document Control Systems," American Documenta- 
tion, 14:117-122, April 1963. 

38. Mehler, John S. University of Alaska Library Book Budget 
Accounting Program. College, Alaska, University of Alaska Library, 
1963. (Multilith) 

39. Minder, Thomas, and Lazorick, Gerald. "Automation of the 
Pennsylvania State University Acquisitions Department." In Automa- 
tion and Scientific Communications, Part 3_. Washington, American 
Documentation Institute, 1963, pp. 455-459. 

40. Nicolaus, John J. The Automated Approach to Technical 
Information Retrieval; Library Applications. Washington, Bureau 
of Ships, Department of the Navy, 1964. 

41. Parker, Ralph H. "Development of Automatic Systems at 
the University of Missouri Library." In_ Herbert Goldhor, ed., op. 
cit., pp. 43-55. 

42. Randall, G. E., and Bristol, Roger P. "PIL (Processing 
Information List) or a Computer-Controlled Processing Record," 
Special Libraries, 55:82-86, Feb. 1964. 

43. Sievers, P. T., and Fasana, P. J. Automated Routines in 
Technical Services. Washington, Office of Technical Services, De- 
partment of Commerce, 1964. 

44. Van Wazer, John R., Logue, Paul, and Wilkinson, William 
A. "Information Retrieval at the New Monsanto Information Center," 
Journal of Chemical Documentation, 3:174-177, July 1963. 

45. Vertanes, Charles A. "Automating the School Library: 

An Advance Report," Wilson Library Bulletin, 37:864-867, June 1963. 



Surveys 



46. Becker, Joseph. "Automatic Preparation of Book Catalogs,' 
ALA Bulletin, 58:714-718, Sept. 1964. 

47. Becker, Joseph. "Automating the Serial Record," ALA 
Bulletin, 58:557-560, June 1964. 

48. Becker, Joseph. "Circulation and the Computer," ALA 
Bulletin, 58:1007-1010, Dec. 1964. 

49. Melin, John S. Libraries and Data Processing Where Do 
We Stand? (University of Illinois Library School Occasional Papers, 
No. 72) Urbana, University of Illinois Graduate School of Library 
Science, 1964. 



198 

50. Stein, Theodore. "Automation & Library Systems,* Library 
Journal, 89:2723-2734, July 1964. 



Cost Surveys 



51. Cox, James R. "The Costs of Data Processing in Univer- 
sity Libraries In Circulation Activities," College and Research 
Libraries, 24:492-495, Nov. 1963. 

52. Culbertson, Don S. "The Costs of Data Processing in Uni- 
versity Libraries In Book Acquisition and Cataloging," College and 
Research Libraries, 24:487-489, Nov. 1963. 

53. Griffin, Hillis L. "Estimating Data Processing Costs in 
Libraries," College and Research Libraries, 25:400-403+, Sept. 1964. 

54. Hays, R. M., and Shoffner, R. M. The Economics of Book 
Catalog Production. Sherman Oaks, Calif., Advanced Information 
Systems Division, Hughes Dynamics, 1964. 

55. Spiro, Herbert T., and Kotin, Allen D. "A Cost Analysis 
of An Automated System for the Library of Congress." In Automa- 
tion and the Library of Congress. Washington, Library of Congress, 
1963, pp. 27-88. 

56. Voight, Melvin J. "The Costs of Data Processing in Uni- 
versity Libraries In Serials Handling," College and Research 
Libraries, 24:489-491, Nov. 1963. 



Experimental or Pilot Studies 



57. Courtright, Benjamin. "The Library as an Inventory Sys- 
tem." In Progress Report on an Operations Research and Systems 
Engineering Study of a University Library. Baltimore, Md., Johns 
Hopkins University, 1963, pp. 123-144. 

58. Gore, Willis C. "A Study of Circulation Control Using 
Electronic Data Processing Equipment." In, ibid, pp. 109-122. 



Author Index 



Anderson, I. T. 



18 



Bauer, C. K 26,27 

Becker, J 46,47,48 

Bomberg, E 1 

Bristol, R. P 42 

Brodman, E 18,23 

Brown, J. E 21 

Burns, L. R 28 

Chasen, L. 1 13 

Cline, C 2 

Courtright, B 57 

Cox, J. R 51 

Croxton, F. E 29,30 

Culbertson, D. S 31,52 

Dubinski, G. A 1 

Fasana, P. J 3,43 

Felter, J. W 32 

Franz, D. R 23 

Gibson, R. W 14 

Gore, W. C 58 

Griffin, H. L 33,34,53 

Griffin, M 35 

Havlik, R. J 15 

Hays, R. M 54 

Haznedari, 1 16 

Henderson, J. D 4 

Highum, C. D 5 

Hinkle, E 36 

Jordan, M. P 17 

Kodroff, B 13 

Kotin, A. D 55 

Lazorick, G 39 

Lipetz, B 37 

Logue, P 44 



Mehler, J. S 38 

Melin, J. S 49 

Minder, T 39 

Moreland, G. B 6 

Nicolaus, J. J 40 

Parker, R. H 41 

Perreault, J. M 7 

Pizer, I. H 18,23 

Randall, G. E 14,42 

Remington, D 1 

Richmond, P. A 8 

Shoffner, R. M 54 

Sievers, P. T 43 

Southern, W. A 19 

Spiro, H. T 55 

Spry, J 9 

Srygley, T. F 24 

Stein, T 50 

University of California 

San Diego 22 

Van Wazer, J. R 44 

Vdovin, G 25 

Vertanes, C. A 45 

Voight, M. J 56 

Voos, H 16 

Weinstein, E. A 9 

Weyhrauch, E. E 20 

White, H. S 10 

Wilkinson, W. A 11,44 

Wilson, C. W. J 12 

Wolters, P 21 



199 



Library Index 

Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory Research Library ( 3J (43; 
Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, England ( 12) 

Boeing Scientific Research Laboratories Library ( 9) 
Brentwood Public Schools, Long Island, N.Y. (45) 
Brooklyn College Library (20) 

Florida Atlantic University (5) (7) (24) 

General Electric Missile and Space Vehicle Department ( 13) 

IBM Advanced Systems Development and Research Library (35) 
IBM Kingston Library ( 10) 
Itek Corp. (37) 

Johns Hopkins University (57) (58) 

Lake County (Ind.) Public Libraries (28) 

Lockheed -Georgia Scientific and Technical Information Center (26) (27) 

Los Angeles County Public Library (4) 

Medical Library Center of New York ( 32) 

Monsanto Chemical Comp. Information Center, St. Louis (ll) (44) 

Montgomery County (Md.) Department of Public Libraries (6) 

NASA Manned Spacecraft Center Library (36) 

National Reactor Testing Station Technical Library, Idaho Falls, 

Idaho (33) (34) 
National Research Council Library (21) 

Pennsylvania State University Library (39) 

Picatinny Arsenal (Dover, N.J.) Technical Information Section (16) 

Redstone Arsenal (Ala.) Scientific Information Center (29) (30) 

Timberland (Washington State Library) Library Demonstration (2) 
Tonawanda (N.Y.) Laboratories, Linde Comp. (15) ^ 

U.S. Department of Navy, Bureau of Ships Library (40) 

U.S. Department of Interior (Portland, Ore.) Library (l) 

U.S. Library of Congress (55) 

University of Alaska Library (38) 

University of California, San Diego Library (22) (25) 

University of Illinois, Chicago Library (31) 

200 



201 

University of Missouri Library (41) 
University of Rochester Library (8) 

Vancouver Public Library (17) 

Washington University (St. Louis) School of Medicine Library (18) (23) 
(Thomas J.) Watson Research Center Library (14) (42) 



f 



I 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS-URBANA 



30112082902039